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Group Title: University of Florida publication. Biological science series, v. 3, no. 1
Title: A contribution to the herpetology of Florida by Archie Fairly Carr, Jr
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000213/00001
 Material Information
Title: A contribution to the herpetology of Florida by Archie Fairly Carr, Jr
Series Title: University of Florida publication. Biological science series, v. 3, no. 1
Alternate Title: Herpetology of Florida
Physical Description: 118 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Carr, Archie Fairly, 1909-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1940
 Subjects
Subject: Reptiles -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 108-114.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1978. -- 25 cm.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00000213
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0822
notis - AAB7545
alephbibnum - 000014336
oclc - 06462341

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Full Text


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PUBLICATION


JANUARY, 1940
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE SERIES


A CONTRIBUTION

TO THE


HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA





BY

ARCHIE FAIRLY CARR, JR.


Published by the University of Florida under the auspices of the
Committee on University Publications


VoL lin


No. 1



















The Technical Publications of the University of Florida, of
which there are several series, are offered through the University
Library in exchange for the publications of learned societies and
institutions, universities and libraries, and are for sale.

BIOLOGICAL SERIES
Each volume of this series consists of one or more numbers
appearing at irregular intervals, and beginning with Volume II, each
whole volume consists of 400 to 500 pages. Volumes I and II
are complete, each with a single number; this publication constitutes
No. 1 of Volume III.
Vol. I, No. 1, A CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF FLOR-
IDA ODONATA, by C. F. Byers. Out of print.
Vol. II, No. 1, A MONOGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE GENUS
CEUTHOPHILUS, by T. H. Hubbell. Price $3.75 plus 25c postage.
Vol. III, No. 1, A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF
FLORIDA, by A. F. Carr, Jr. Prices,$ plus postage.

The Committee on University Publications.























CONTENTS


PAGE


INTRODUCTION ...


DERIVATION OF THE FAUNA


HABITAT DISTRIBUTION


ANNOTATED LIST


BIBLIOGRAPHY .


INDEX








A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA
By ARCHIE FAIRLY CARR, JR.
Since the days of the earliest explorations the herpetulogical fauna of Florida
has evoked spirited comment. Hardly a mosquito-bitten Spaniard writing home for
supplies or a French sea-captain recording in his log the adventures of a shore-party
but mentions "vipers" or "crocodiles," or the shocking noise the frogs made, or the
Indian who tried to feed him snake. Colonizing Florida was such a strenuous matter,
however, that zoological observation was considerably tainted with emotion, and only
those forms of life which hit people, or which people could eat, elicited any enthu-
siasm in the early reports. And since the colonizing is mercifully not quite complete,
current reports, too, retain enough of the old emotional taint to warm the soul of
any decent herpetologist. The women-folk still tremble in the cabins when the
satyriac bull-'gator bellows on Middle Prong; and I know a man in the Scrub'who
will show you, without a trace of guile, the skin of a twenty-foot rattlesnake that
he got from the boy who killed it and dragged its rattles off behind his horse. Every
herpetologist knows that Bipes occurs only in Lower California, but what were the
"two-legged snakes" that the PWA dug out of the sand-hills at Cassia? And did
Sam Johnson, the colored well-driller, dream that he pumped up the "blind, white
lizard?"' More prosaic times have not hushed the legend of the Great Boa of
Lostmans River, nor persuaded the Seminoles that the Cape Sable indigo-snakes will
not eat their pickaninnies. The Dragon of Estero Island is history," and I, for one,
widl never cease to search the mangroves for the "sea-cohry."
Probably the first published illustration of a North American reptile is the
alligator drawn from life by Jacob Le Moyne in his "Indorum Floridam provinciam
inhabitantium eicones" (1591). Le Moyne discloses that the Florida "crocodiles"
grow longer than those in the Nile. The specimen figured is at least thirty feet long
if we are to regard the gang of savages engaged in thrusting a pine trunk down the
creature's throat as other than a race o'f pigmies. Le Moyne also depicts a culinary
scene which includes the grilling, whole and unskinned, of a large snake of indeter-
minate species.
The earliest reliable observations on the reptiles and amphibians of Florida are
those of William Bartram (1791), the Quaker naturalist of Pennsylvania. Al-
though primarily interested in plants, Bartram was fascinated by the diversity of the
southeastern fauna, and commented with pertinence on all that he saw. His discus-
sion of the Florida frogs, lizards, snakes, and turtles includes much accurate infor-
mation on habits and habitats, and in most cases leaves little doubt as to the identity
of the forms described. The list of species discussed by him (northeastern Florida)

Certainly not snakes or lizards with extruded hemipenes (the perennial source of such myths),
for these were described as "light-colored snakes with front feet like a mole," and one of the two
men who independently saw them drove O. C. Van Hyning ten miles to try to find the remains
of one he had killed.
2Probably not; I have recently described (1939) a neotenous blind salamander (Haideotriton
oallacei) from an artesian well in South Georgia.
3See account in Tampa Tribune, September 20, 1935, p. 6.








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1


can be identified with considerable certainty as Bifo terrestris, Hyla c. cinerea, I.
squirella, H. gratiosa, Acris gryllus, Pseudacris ocularis, Rana catesbeiana, R. spheno-
cephala, Alligator mnisissippiensis, Ophisaurus ventralis, Eumeces (laticeps?), Alnwlis
carolinensis, Elaphe guttata, E. y. quadrivittata, Opheodrys aestivus, Pituophis mug-
itus, Crotalus adamanteus, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Terrapene
(bauri?), Pseudemys sp., Gopherus polyphemus and Amyda ferox.
From the beginning of the Seminole War in 1836 until the appearance of
Cope's paper in 1888 a number of popular but more or less inaccurate accounts of
the snakes were presented by the authors of stories of Everglades explorations and
of hunting and fishing in South Florida.
In 1888 Cope's "On the Snakes of Florida" appeared, later to be incorporated
in his "Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes" (1898). The most important work of
this period was that of Einar Loennberg (1894), who spent several months collect-
ing in the peninsula, and published an annotated list of the sixty-six species that he
observed.
In 1910 Brimley's "Records of Some Reptiles and Amphibians from the South-
eastern United States" was published. This paper included records of sixty-four
species from Florida, several of them not mentioned by Cope or Loennberg.
Wright and Bishop (1915) gave a list of twenty-one snakes collected at Gaines-
ville by James Bell.
In a series of short papers (1914a,b,c and 1915a,b) Deckert discussed the habits
of eighteen frogs from the Jacksonville area, and in 1918 listed forty-six reptiles
from the same region.
Barbour (1920) recorded and gave ecological data for fifteen reptiles and am-
phibians from southeastern Florida. Other South Florida records were published
hy Deckert (1921, 1922), Conant (1931, and Desola (1935). Van Hyning
(1933) listed eighty-eight species from Alachua County, and Beck (1938) recorded
twenty-nine reptiles from Payne's Prairie, Alachua County.
Many of the most detailed accounts of the reptiles and amphibians of Florida
are scattered among monographic revisions that treat of various groups represented
in the Florida fauna, short papers in which many of our species have been described,
and published notes giving the first Florida records of various species. Most of
these publications are included in the bibliography of the present paper, although no
attempt has been made to list all purely taxonomic references.
In a paper now nearly ready for press Netting and Goin have treated the Florida
Amphibia from the standpoint of taxonomy and geographic variation. It is their
intention to augment this valuable work in the near future with a similar analysis of
the reptiles of the state.
One hundred and sixty-two species and subspecies of amphibians and reptiles are
herein listed as occurring in Florida. The studies on which this paper is based have
included six years of field work throughout the state, the collecting of some fourteen
thousand specimens with detailed ecological data, and the examination of some
twenty-five thousand additional specimens in the collections of various institutions.
The following abbreviations are used in this paper to indicate the collections in which
certain specimens are to be found. DBUF-Department of Biology, University of






CARR--A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Florida; FSM-Florida State Museum, Gainesville; MCZ-Museum of Compara-
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; USNM-United States National Museum, Wash-
ington, D. C.
Acknowledgments
I wish to express my gratitude to Professor J. Speed Rogers of the Department
of Biology, University of Florida, for his advice and many valuable suggestions
during the course of the study, for his assistance in securing financial aid for carry-
ing out the work, and for his criticism of the manuscript. For further advice and
criticism of the manuscript and for their constant interest in the problem, I am
indebted to Mrs. Helen T. Gaige of the Museum of Zoilogy, University of Michi-
gan, and to Professor T. H. Hubbell of the Department of Biology, University
of Florida.
I am grateful to Dr. Thomas Barbour, Museum of Comparative ZoGlogy, for
much good advice and for assistance in ways too numerous to list.
Extensive work in South Florida was made possible through the grant of a fel-
lowship at the Bass Biological Laboratory, Englewood, Florida, for which I am
deeply indebted to Mr. John F. Bass, Jr.
I also wish to thank the following persons who have been of assistance: Mr.
O. C. Van Hyning of Eustis, Florida, for his generosity in placing at my disposal
the large amount of data which he has accumulated during many years' work on
the herpetology of the state; Dr. Leonard Stejneger and Dr. Doris Cochran of the
United States National Museum, Mr. Arthur Loveridge, and Mr. Benjamin Shreve
of the Museum of Comparative Zo6logy, Dr. Henry W. Fowler of the Philadel-
phia Academy of Natural Sciences, Mr. T. Van Hyning of the Florida State Museum,
Mr. C. S. Brimley of Raleigh, North Carolina, and Mr. Stewart Springer of Engle-
wood, Florida, for their kindness in permitting me to examine the Florida collec-
tions in their care; Mrs. Helen T. Gaige and Dr. Norman Hartweg of the Museum
of Zoalogy, University of Michigan, and Mr. M. Graham Netting of the Carnegie
Museum, for lists of Florida specimens in their respective institutions and for the
loan of material; Mr. Stewart Springer of Englewood, Florida, and Mr. E. Ross
Allen of Silver Springs, Florida, for the gift and loan of numerous specimens; Mr.
Malcolm V. Parker of Memphis, Tennessee, and Mr. Robert C. MacClanahan of
Washington, D. C., for lists of Florida specimens collected by them; and Mr. Cole-
man Goin of the Department of Biology, University of Florida, for assistance in
gathering data and records, and for compiling the key to the snakes included here.
Finally, I am grateful to the host of individuals, now or at one time connected
with the Department of Biology, University of Florida, who have given generously
of assistance and companionship on countless collecting trips.

DERIVATION OF THE FAUNA
The reptile and amphibian fauna of Florida comprises 162 species and subspecies,
belonging to 74 genera. The most conspicuous element is that which has invaded
the state from the adjacent Southeastern Coastal Plain, and which consists of north-
ern and western forms and Coastal Plain endemics. In addition the Florida herpe-
tological fauna includes twenty-four Floridian or austroriparian races of more






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1


northern species, eleven endemics, seven West Indian species, and six more or less
cosmopolitan forms (the marine turtles and Hemidactylus).
The most extensive invasion of Florida by the northern element is encountered
in that portion of the Panhandle which is drained by the Apalachicola River. The
marked concentration in this area may be attributed to two chief causes. In the first
place, the Apalachicola is the only Florida river which penetrates the continent as
far as the Fall Line. Its two tributaries-the Flint, arising in the Piedmont of
North Georgia, and the Chattahoochee, whose headwaters drain part of the red hill
section of Alabama-have served as highways for the traversal of the broad coastal
pine-barrens by a number of species which under other conditions could probably
never have extended their ranges south to Florida. Moreover, a short distance below
the junction of the two rivers to form the Apalachicola, the red clay hills of Jackson
and Gadsden counties and the deeply dissected terrain of western Liberty County
afford a peculiar and disjunct series of environments which are strikingly favorable
for the accommodation of northern immigrants. The ravines cut into the bluffs
along the east shore of the Apalachicola River, and in the clay hill section arc often
deeply shaded, humid, and perpetually cool, with numerous small springs that give rise
to clear cold brooks which flow over rocks or gravel.
Many northern plants and animals reach their southernmost limits of distribution
in these ravines. Beech, trillium, blood-root and other species common in northern
forests form a considerable element in the vegetation, and confirm the northern
aspect of the physiography. Numerous insects whose aquatic immature stages are
characteristic of mountain streams occur in the ravine bottoms-many of them in
flourishing abundance. Rogers (1933) lists more than a dozen craneflies which
have not been taken elsewhere south of the Piedmont. The commonest crayfish
species, Cambarus latimanus, is also a characteristic Appalachian form.
The Apalachicola ravines are noted for the amount of endemism which they
exhibit. In addition to several interesting endemic plants (notably Tumion taxi-
folium or stinking cedar, and Taxus floridana or Florida yew), a number of arthro-
pods are apparently confined to the ravines. Most of these, like Tumion, are prob-
ably relict from Tertiary times; to this relict group probably belong the following:
the opilionid Siro americanus Davis, belonging to a suborder unknown elsewhere in the
New World except from Oregon; the camel-crickets Ceuthophilus umbrosus Hubbell
and C. rogersi Hubbell; the peculiar wingless grouse-locust Tettigidea empedonepia
Hubbell, of Central American affinities; and the rare katydid Hubbellia marginifera
(Walker), which, according to Dr. B. P. Uvarov of the British Museum, has for
its only relatives three genera found respectively in Europe, the Near East, and
Madeira.
Although the Apalachicola River and its swamps and flood-plain have apparently
been the principal highway for the ingress of continental forms, a smaller component
of the northern element has moved in along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and still
another has entered through the western portion of the Panhandle.
It is of interest to note that in the Okefinokee Region of eastern Florida and in
the Pensacola area several continental species reach the extremes of their ranges,






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA 5

while the same areas are of little importance as terminal points in the distribution of
Florida endemics.
Twenty-one species of northern reptiles and amphibians have their Florida
ranges confined to the area north of the southern boundary of Alachua County.
These are listed below. The species limited to the Apalachicola drainage or to the
adjacent clay hills are designated by an asterisk.
Necturus sp.*, Amphiuma tridactylum*, Ambystoma cingulatum, A. opacum*,
A. texanum, Eurycea b. cirrigera, E. 1. guttolineata*, Sceloporus u. floridanus,
Opheodrys vernalis, Natrix septemvittata*, N. e. erythrogaster, Storeria dekayi, S. occi-
pitomaculata, Haldea v. valeriae, Haldea striatla, Agkistrodon m. mokasen*, Cro-
talus h. atricaudatus, Macrochelys temminckii, Chrysemys p. picta, Chrysemys p.
dorsalis*, Graptemys p. kohnii.

THE WEST INDIAN ELEMENT
The Antillean fauna is represented in Florida by a small group of species, all
but one of which are confined to extreme southern Florida or to the Keys. The
Florida distribution of these forms is as follows: Hyla septentrionalis-Lower Keys
(possibly Lignum Vitae Key); Eleutherodactylus ricordii-South Florida, Gaines-
ville, and the Hillsborough-Polk County area (the latter two centers are discontinuous
and are probably due to recent accidental dispersal); Crocodylus acutus-tropical
Florida; Gonatodes fuscus-Key West; Sphaerodactylus cinereus-Lower Keys and
Key Largo; Sphaerodactylus notatus-tropical Florida. The probably recently in-
troduced Bahamian lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus virescens, is confined to the Miami
area.
In view of the strikingly West Indian character of the flora of South Florida,
the paucity of tropical reptiles and amphibians is rather surprising, even considering
the much greater adaptability of plants to passive and accidental dispersal. Simpson
(1932) states that of approximately 1500 plants constituting the flora of South Flor-
ida (south of 260 N. Lat.) about 1000 are tropical species.
It is possible that the crocodile may be Florida's only indigenous neotropical or
Antillean species. The genus has inhabited Florida since Tertiary time; the present
species, however, is Central American, having reached Florida by way of the
Antilles, or by circumnavigating the Gulf in times of milder climates. Of the
six other species only S. notatus shows strong indications of natural introduction. Its
relatively general distribution on the Keys and in the tip of the peninsula, and its
ecological tolerance and habit of nosing about in wave-washed wrack-piles may
indicate and account for its dispersal by hurricane and Gulf Stream. H. septentrio-
nalis, E. ricordli, G. fuscus and S. cinereus have all the earmarks of banana, tobacco-
bale or lumber stowaways. However, inquiries among the most patriarchal "conchs"
I have been able to locate have convinced me that all three species lived in Key West
long before they were ever discovered by herpetologists.
The hypothesis of a Tertiary land-bridge connecting Florida and the Antilles,
advanced by some biogeographers and rejected by Schuchert (1935), receives no sup-
port from herpetological evidence.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1


ENDEMISM
The derivation of the endemic components of the land biota of Florida can be
understood only in terms of the geological history of the state. This history, in its
bearing upon the biography of Florida, has been reviewed by Professor T. H. Hubbell
and Mr. Sidney A. Stubbs, and I am indebted to these gentlemen for permission to
refer to their conclusions in the following discussion. The salient events, in so far
as they bear upon the problem of endemism in Florida, are as follows:
1. The persistence of land in central Florida, in the form of large islands or a
group of keys, at least since the beginning of the Pleistocene, and probably since
Pliocene times.
2. The bridging of the gap to the mainland on one or more occasions (perhaps
first in the Pliocene), followed by renewed insular isolation.
3. Final establishment of peninsular conditions during the Pleistocene.
4. More or less extensive marginal submergences in late Pleistocene, reducing
much of the eastern margin of the peninsula to a coastal archipelago.
5. Persistence of a salt-water barrier between Florida and the West Indies at
least since pre-Cenozoic times, and certainly throughout the period of derivation of
the modern biota of the state.
The reptiles and amphibians endemic to Florida are Pseudemys nelsoni, Scelopo-
rus wood, Eumeces egregious, E. onocrepis, Neoseps reynoldsi, Rhineura floridana,
Elaphe rosacea, Stilosoma extenuatum, Storeria victa and Liodytes alleni. By a
slightly less rigid definition of endemism, Pseudobranchus striatus and Seminatrix
pygaea might perhaps be added to the list. Of these, Pseudobranchus, Neoseps,
Rhineura, Stilosoma, Seminatrix and Liodytes are monotypic genera.
From the standpoint of probable origin, these endemics seem to fall into two
general groups-(1) those derived in situ, from living or extinct or subsequently
modified ancestral stocks, either by isolation on a Pliocene island or islands, (or as I
believe less likely, on Pleistocene islands), or else by ecesic isolation; and (2) those
which represent the remnant of a once widespread pre-Pleistocene stock. My rather
hesitant allocation of the species is as follows:
Group 1. (Arising through isolation)-Pseudemys nelsoni, Eumeces onocrepis,
Elaphe rosacea, Stilosoma extenuatum, Storeria victa, Seminatrix pygaea, Sceloporus
woodi.
Group 2. (Relict forms)-Pseudobranchus striatus, Eumeces egregious, Rhineura
floridana, Liodytes alleni.
From all I can gather, the geological evidence as to the duration and even the
existence of Tertiary islands in Florida is none too conclusive, and certain geologists
even maintain that complete submergence of the peninsula occurred well along in the
Pleistocene.
Biogeographical evidence, on the other hand, strongly indicates the existence of
Tertiary land in Florida, and the persistence of such islands through a very long
period of time-almost certainly from the Pliocene, and possibly from late Miocene.
If fairly large islands have been in existence for such prolonged periods we may
expect to find that certain organisms representing the old island biota, which have






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


narrow limits of ecologic tolerance or poor powers of dispersal, have clung fairly
closely to the outlines of the ancient island or group of keys on the surface of the
peninsula, while the hardier or less specialized or more vagile forms have become
more widely disseminated.
Striking confirmation of these expectations is afforded by a recent remarkable paper
by E. P. St. John (1936), on the distribution of ferns in Florida. After several
years' assiduous fern-collecting in central Florida, St. John began to notice that a
number of small and very delicate endemic species were confined to a limited area in
the northwestern part of the peninsula. Discussing his findings with Professor
Schuchert, the noted paleogeographer, he learned that the boundaries of the phyto-
geographic region to which these rare ferns are confined correspond closely to those
of the eastern part of the so-called "Ocala Island"-the part of the peninsula exposed
in the Oligocene. Moreover, he found that "a considerable number of tropical
species are represented in the United States only by their presence in this region, which
is not tropical," and that "nearly one-half of the species of tropical ferns that are
found in this central Florida region and in the West Indies are not found in the
southern Florida region which lies directly between and where the climate and flora
are tropical." The rarest and most delicate of the species are known from few and
widely scattered stations, where they occur in protected sites such as natural wells and
the mouths of limestone caves. They show every indication of being relict species,
and are almost certainly survivors from a once large and luxuriant flora of tropical
origin. The characteristics and distribution of these ferns constitute strong evidence
for their great antiquity in Florida, dating to a time before the cooler climates of
the Pleistocene.
Unaware of the evidence of complete submergence in the Miocene, St. John
attempted to explain the occurrence of the fern relicts by supposing that the Oligocene
"Ocala Island" had persisted to the present. Hubbell and Stubbs call attention to
the fact that it is only necessary to modify this hypothesis slightly to bring it into
accord with more recent interpretations of the history of Florida. During the
Caloosahatchee epoch of the Pliocene the warm waters of the Gulf Stream flowed
across the submerged Florida Plateau, as evidenced by the tropical character of the
marine fossils. The Pliocene island or islands of this epoch must have had a tropical
climate, and a rich fern flora introduced by wind-blown spores from the West Indies.
With cooling of the climate during the Pleistocene the tropical species died out
everywhere except in such protected situations as they occupy today. The present
coincidence of their distribution with the outlines of the old "Ocala Island" may
probably be explained by the fact that caverns, sinks and similar refuges were most
numerous in this area, where soft and porous limestones are exposed at the surface.
Although the endemic reptiles and amphibians show no such circumstantial pecu-
liarities as those exhibited by the ferns (and by other plant groups and many insects),
there do occur certain distributional phenomena which seem difficult to explain as other
than the result of insulation.
Most of the central Florida reptile endemics are burrowing forms, and are found
only in high pine and rosemary scrub, where the soil is deep, loose sand. Further,
rosemary scrub is quite obviously the first timber-stage in the succession following






8 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

cessation of activity in coastal dunes, and is apparently always replaced by high pine.
Thus the present optimum habitats of those forms which are most evidently the rem-
nant of a former island fauna, and which seem the most capable of surviving advances
of the sea which may have inundated all land except the high, dry hills and dunes,
are habitats which very likely existed on those very prominences.
I am convinced that temperature plays little part in modifying the distribution
in Florida of these forms. Any animal able to tolerate the astonishing extremes
and diurnal fluctuations of temperature which obtain in the scrub would very likely
occupy all of Florida if temperature were the limiting factor.
The arguments that the soil type alone may be responsible for the existence of the
mid-peninsular endemics-that they are the residual fragments of a formerly extensive
burrowing fauna-may he met by pointing out that no one of them inhabits all the
deep-sand areas within the state; the combined ranges of Neoseps, Stilosoma and
Eumeces onocrepis do not include more than two-thirds of the available areas of
Norfolk, St. Lucie and Lakewood soils. (The same evidence makes it seem very
unlikely that they were produced by ecesic isolation from old or modern peninsular
stocks). Moreover, Sceloporus woodi is not a burrower, and yet is completely con-
fined to the earliest stages in the dune succession-rosemary scrub or treeless dunes.
Its distribution is discontinuous, there being three principal colonies (besides numerous
small ones) occupying the following patches of xeric sand: a narrow East Coast strip;
a middle peninsular area (the Ocala National Forest and outlying scrubs-all prob-
ably fossil dune terrain); and the Collier County scrubs on the lower West Coast.
The closest relative of woodi in Florida, and perhaps anywhere, is undulatus, which
abounds in high pine but does not enter the scrub. I have walked miles along the
transition zone between the two associations, and have seen dozens of undulatus on
the pine side and dozens of woodi on the scrub side, all within fifty feet of the
transition zone, and I have never seen a single individual on the wrong side. It is
conceivable that the relationship here is one of violent competition of some kind.
The fact that woodi is restricted to what is undoubtedly the most rigorous habitat in
Florida might lead one to conclude that it has its back against the wall, though this
of course does not necessarily follow, since it is very abundant. Possibly the environ-
ment provides something that woodi requires and that undulatus cannot tolerate. It
is perhaps significant that in other parts of the state there are other patches of rose-
mary scrub which undulatus approaches but does not enter, and in which wood
does not occur at all. Whatever the relationship between the two at present, I am
inclined to regard woodi as an island dune derivative of some old Sceloporus that
may or may not have been undulatus, but which probably was the forbear of both.

SPECIATION

Augmenting the northern, tropical, and endemic elements discussed above, are
a relatively large number of Florida subspecies-more or less well-defined geo-
graphic races of more northern stocks. Of the seventy-seven reptile and amphibian
species shared by the peninsula and the Coastal Plain, seventeen undergo speciation
in Florida, a few of these forming intra-state rassenkreise of three or four races.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Thus there are at least twenty-six instances of intergradation between races within the
state, as follows:
Eurycea q. quadridigitata remifer, Desmognathus f. fuscus auriculatus,
Scaphiopus h. holbrookii albus, Pseudacris n. nigrita verrucosa, Farancia a.
abacura reinwardtii, Heterdon c. contortrix-brownii, Elaphe q. quadrivittata-
deckerti, Lampropeltis g. getulus-floridana-brooksi, Natrix s. fasciata-pictiventris
-clarkii-compressicauda, Natrix c. cyclopion-floridana, Tantilla c. coronata-
wagneri, Micrurus f. fulvius-barbouri, Kinosternon b. baurii-palmarum, Kinoster-
non s. subrubrum hippocrepis steindachneri, Chelydra s. serpentina osceola,
Terrapene c. major-bauri-triunguis, Malaclemmys p. pileata-macrospilota, Pseu-
demys f. floridana-peninsularis--suwanniensis-mobiliensis, Pseudemys s. scripta-
troostii.
I am certain that further study of the fauna will lengthen this list, both through
the recognition of other peninsular races and the discovery of intergrades between
forms now considered distinct.
There are two well-marked and relatively narrow zones in which intergradation
between the north-south subspecies occurs-the northern tier of peninsular counties,
and a band across the state at the southern border of the Everglades. The former
region is the gateway to the peninsula, and its narrow breadth constricts the front
along which intercourse between peninsular and northern stocks can take place. Its
east-west axis lies approximately along the 560 F. minimum average isotherm, and it is
here that the minimum average isotherms are closest together, due to the tempering
effect of the high water-land ratio and to increased insolation. Midpoints in the
gradients connecting at least seven pairs of races lie in this region (20 miles north
and south of 300 N. Lat.). It would seem then, either that whatever influences are
responsible for the differentiation of the peninsular forms must begin to operate here,
or else that this transition zone constitutes a valve which tends to retard the absorption,
by the parent stocks, of mutations arising in the peninsular populations.
On and south of the broken ridge of oulitic limestone which represents the west-
ward extension of the Eastern Rock Rim, and which bounds the Everglades on the
south, there are five named races and several peculiar variant populations, all char-
acterized by reduction of dark pigment. In addition to the recognized subspecies,
more or less constant loss of pigment occurs in Agkistrodon piscivorus, Opheodrys
aestivus, Microhyla carolinensis, and Coluber c. constrictor. From the nature of the
predominant variation shown by this group it might be inferred that they are reacting
to a marked increase in insolation, made more effective as a selective agent by lack
of shade in the limestone flatwoods and coastal prairies. But how, then, account for
the recurrence of the feature in the coral snake, a nocturnal creature whose diurnal
emergences are only in the densely wooded hammocks, where crepuscular conditions
prevail at noon? And why should the racers be light on the Rim and in the Cape
savannas, and typically pigmented at Key West, an eccentricity almost exactly
duplicated by Kinosternon baurii?
Whatever the nature of the selective factors (if any are involved) there if little
doubt that the populations are at least partially isolated. The vast expanse of the
Everglades shows seasonal variation from terrestrial to almost completely aquatic






10 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

conditions during the course of a normal year, and probably constitutes a fairly
effective barrier for most of the southern forms.
Although speciation through ecesic isolation is doubtless a less frequent phenom-
enon than geographic variation, it is, in my opinion, demonstrated in Florida by the
rassenkreise of two aquatic species whose distribution is very similar. In Pseudemys
floridana there are northern and southern inland races (floridana and peninsularis),
and northern and southern Gulf Coastal races (mobiliensis and suwanniensis). The
north-south differentiation is very likely the result of the configuration of the penin-
sula, but the complete replacing of peninsularis by suwanniensis, and of floridana by
mobiliensis, in the rivers and estuaries of the Gulf drainage north of Tampa shows
no correlation with geography. Both peninsularis and suwanniensis occur in Citrus
County, the former being found only in the lakes and ditches and the latter only in
the rivers, and this relationship apparently holds in all the Gulf counties from here
to Pensacola. South of Citrus County peninsularis gradually replaces suwanniensis,
the genetic gradient being expressed in a series of nodes corresponding to the number
of master streams. In Lake Panasoffkee, which empties into the headwaters of
the Withlacoochee River, and in Santa Fe Lake, one of the sources of the Santa
Fe River, the two forms meet and intergrade.
In the Natrix sipedon group we find virtually the same situation. Here again a
Panhandle and a northern Gulf Coastal race (fasciata and clarkii) intergrade with
each other and with a peninsular and a southern Gulf Coastal race (pictiventris and
compressicauda).
In both these cases the application of the criteria for determining the nature of
intermediates, as proposed by Dunn (1937), appears to indicate intergradation between
populations undergoing speciation rather than hybridization between geographically
convergent stocks.

THE FAUNAS OF KEY WEST AND THE OUTER KEYS
The herpetological fauna of Key West, the terminal point in the continuous
portion of the archipelago of keys which extends southwestward from the southern
tip of the peninsula, consists of some thirty-two forms. Of these, nineteen are
continental or Floridian species or subspecies which, by one means or another, have
reached the island to mingle with the West Indian element discussed above. What
the fauna of Key West was before the advent of shipping and railroad and highway
connections is a matter of conjecture. In all probability the majority of the species
have been introduced by human agency. It is of interest to note, however, that this
group is largely composed of the same forms which make up the faunae of the
coastal islands of the peninsula. It thus seems reasonable to suppose that they must
possess certain peculiar qualifications for fortuitous dispersal and for tolerating the
severities of insular life. Since Key West represents an important terminus in the
southward distribution of the fauna, the continental reptiles and amphibians known
from the island are listed here (marine turtles omitted):
Scaphiopus h. albus, Hyla squirella, Microhyla carolinensis, Alligator mississip-
piensis, Anolis carolinensis, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, Leiolopisma unicolor,
Eumeces egregious, E. inexpectatus, Opheodrys aestivus, Coluber c. constrictor, Elaphe






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


guttata, Cemophora coccinea, Natrix s. compressicauda, A gkistrodon piscivorus, Cro-
talus adamanteus, Kinosternon b. baurii and Malaclemmys pileata macrospilota.
Of these, H. squirella, Microhyla, Anolis, Cnemidophorus, Leiolopisma, Eumeces
egregious, E. inexpectatus, Elaphe guttata and Cemophora all exhibit thigmotacty to
some extent, and are often found in, on or under logs and timbers. Among the re-
maining forms, the alligator, N. s. compressicauda, Agkistrodon, C. adamanteus and
Malaclemmys are all strong swimmers and all show a marked tolerance of salt water.
As might be expected, the meagre fauna of the Outer Keys (the chain of scattered
islands extending from Key West to Dry Tortugas) has been recruited almost en-
tirely from the ranks of these supposed inadvertent stowaways and venturesome
swimmers. Natrix s. compressicauda is apparently the only North American reptile
or amphibian that has established itself in the West Indies; it has been found on the
north-central coast of Cuba.
There follows a list of the forms known from the keys of the Tortugas-Mar-
quesas group:4
Sphaerodactylus notatus.-Garden Key, Tortugas, FSM 76,333 (3 specimens).
Anolis carolinensis.-Marquesas, FSM 76,332 (2 specimens); Southwest Key
(Marquesas), FSM 76,331; Woman Key, FSM 76,326; Boca Grande Key, FSM
76,327.
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus.-Boca Grande, FSM 76,327.
Leiolopisma unicolor.-Marquesas, FSM 76,329 (3 specimens).
Eumeces egregius.-Tortugas, MCZ 978.
Eumeces inexpectatus.-Tortugas, MCZ 977; Boca Grande, FSM 76,330.
Coluber c. constrictor.-Tortugas, MCZ 220.
Elaphe guttata.-Marquesas, DBUF 1,917.
Natrix s. compressicauda.-Marquesas, DBUF 1,918.
Crotalus adamanteus.-Tortugas, MCZ 650.
Malacylemmys p. macrospilota.-Marquesas, MCZ 1,848-49, and three specimens
in FSM.

HABITAT DISTRIBUTION

The attempt to determine and present a general classification of reptile and
amphibian habitats in Florida is made difficult by the lack of strong contrasts in
physiographic and climatic features. Although great diversity in soils, drainage
and vegetation in the various sections of the state becomes increasingly apparent with
continued field-work, the transitions from one complex of the less obvious environ-
mental factors to another are frequent and varied, and are markedly affected by
seasonal changes in water table and drainage. Consequently, the actual differences
and resemblances between the topographic and vegetational complexes are not always
apparent in the physiognomy of these situations, and field observations on the ecologic

'All material from these Keys recorded below as in the Florida State Museum and the
Department of Biology of the University of Florida, was collected during the summer of 1938
by Jack Russell and Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Van Hyning.






12 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

dispersal of a given reptile or amphibian species are apt to exhibit confusing incon-
sistencies.
To facilitate analysis and description of the ecologic distribution of the herpe-
tological fauna some twenty-four major ecologic situations have been recognized,
and described in terms of vegetation, soil, topography, and drainage. Plant names
used throughout are those given in the latest edition of Small's "Flora of the South-
eastern United States." Under each of these habitats the fauna is listed, the forms
being grouped as characteristic, frequent, or occasional inhabitants.
The species found in a given situation only in immature stages, or at breeding
time, are indicated by parentheses.

TERRESTRIAL SITUATIONS
PINE FLATWOODS
The flatwoods may be divided into several fairly distinct types, most of which
intergrade or interdigitate at points of topographic or edaphic change. In the inland
flatwoods the slash-pine (Pinus palustris) is typically the dominant tree, although the
long-leaf (Pinus australis) often mingles with the slash-pine where the soil is well
drained. Occasionally long-leaf pine occurs in pure stands over large areas of level
country. In extreme southern Florida, and along both coasts, palustris and australis
are replaced by the Cuban pine (P. caribaea). In the coastal strips the size of the trees
and the nature of the substratum are essentially the same as in the interior flatwoods.
In the limestone ridges in the Everglades and on Big Pine Key, however, the trees
are widely spaced and scraggly, and the irregularly eroded rock outcrops support little
undergrowth. From the standpoint of faunal distribution there appears to be little
basis for distinguishing between coastal and inland flatwoods. The significant types
are as follows:
Wire-grass Flatwoods.-The dominant tree may he long-leaf, slash- or Cuban
pine; the substratum is chiefly composed of wire-grasses, of which Aristida stricta is
one of the most abundant. The soil is sandy and generally poor; it is underlain by
a clay subsoil of variable permeability. In low areas the soil may be almost perma-
nently wet and crayfish burrows are numerous. Shallow ponds, grown over with
cypress or maiden-cane and ringed by a marginal growth of pond pine (Pinus sero-
tina) or black gum (Nyssa biflora) are frequent. Where regular burning occurs the
fauna is very meager, but fire-free areas are usually well populated.
Fauna
Characteristic: Bufo quercicus, Pseudacris n. nigrita, Pseudacris n. verrucosa, Pseu-
dacris ocularis, Pseudacris ornata, Hyla femoralis.
Frequent: Bufo terrestris, Hyla squirella, Microhyla carolinensis, Sceloporus u.
undulatus, Ophisaurus ventralis, Eumeces inexpectatus, Coluber c. constrictor, Sistrurus
m. barbouri, Terrapene c. major.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Siren intermedia, Acris gryllus, Hyla gratiosa,
Hyla c. cinerea, Rana sphenocephala, Anolis carolinensis, Leiolopisma unicolor, Diado-
phis p. punctatus, Heterodon c. contortrix, Heterodon simus, Coluber f. flagellum,






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Elaphe guttata, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Rhadinaea flavilata, Lampropeltis g. getulus,
Lampropeltis g. floridana, Cemophora coccinea, Haldea striatula, Micrurus f. fulvius,
Agkistrodon m. mokasen, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus h. atricaudatus, Terrapene
c. bauri, Gopherus polyphemus.
Palmetto Flatwoods.-The most important difference between this and the pre-
ceding lies in the nature of the substratum. The characteristic shrubs are saw-pal-
metto (Serenoa repens) and gall-berry (Ilex glabra). The hard-pan is usually well-
developed, close to the surface, and exceedingly impermeable; consequently the
ground water is not available to the surface soil, and in times of prolonged drought
such flatwoods are very arid. In wet weather, however, rainwater and runoff from
higher areas may remain on the ground for long periods. Neither the gopher-tor-
toise nor the pocket-gopher (Geomys floridanus) are found in typical palmetto flat-
woods.

Fauna

Characteristic: Bufo quercicus, Crotalus adamanteus.
Frequent: Pseudacris n. nigrita, Pseudacris n. verrucosa, Pseudacris ornata, Hyla
femoralis, Hyla squirella, Microhyla carolinensis, Anolis carolinensis, Sceloporus u.
undulatus, Coluber c. constrictor, Drymarchon c. couperi, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Ter-
rapene c. bauri.
Occasional: Triturus louisianensis, Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Acris gryllus, Pseu-
dacris ocularis, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla gratiosa, Rana sphenocephala, Ophisaurus ven-
tralis, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, Leiolopisma unicolor, Eumeces inexpectatus, Dia-
dophis p. punctatus, Heterodon c. contortrix, Opheodrys aestivus, Coluber f. flagellum,
Elaphe guttata, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g.
floridana, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Tantilla c. wagneri, Micru-
rus f. fulvius, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Terrapene c. major.

Limestone Flatwoods.-This unique association is developed on the Miami Oilite
which extends southward from Delray in Palm Beach County to Homestead in Dade
County, whence it continues westward as a series of insular ridges that form the
southern boundary of the Everglades for about two-thirds the distance across the tip
of the peninsula. Soil is scarce or practically lacking over most of the region; the
oolitic limestone is very porous and is pitted and honeycombed with solution holes of
various sizes. The dominant tree is Pinus caribaea; the ground vegetation is com-
posed of a number of xerophytic shrubs and herbs, most conspicuous among which are
wire-grasses (Aristida Chapmania and A. stricta, saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens),
silver palm (Coccothrinax argentea), and coontie (Zamia floridana).

Fauna

Characteristic: Bufo quercicus, Coluber c. constrictor, Crotalus adamanteus, Ter-
rapene c. bauri.
Frequent: Bufo terrestris, Pseudacris n. verrucosa, Hyla squirella, Eleutherodac-






14 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

tylus ricordii, Microhyla carolinensis, Ophisaurus ventralis, Cnemidophorus sexlinea-
tus, Eumeces inexpectatus, Coluber f. flagellum, Lampropeltis g. brocksi.
Occasional: Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Pseudacris ocularis, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla
femoralis, Rana sphenocephala, Anolis carolinensis, Leiolopisma unicolor, Diadophis
p. punctatus, Heterodon c. contortrix, Heterodon c. brown, Opheodrys aestious,
Elaphe guttata, Drymarchon c. couperi, Lampropeltis e. elapsoides, Lampropeltis g.
floridana, Storeria victa, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Gopherus
polyphemus.

UPLAND FORESTS AND HAMMOCK LANDS
Rosemary Scrub.-Scrub is found in patches all over Florida, but covers extensive
areas nowhere except along the lower East Coast and in the central Lake Region.
It is essentially an old dune association; the soil is almost pure, white (St. Lucie) or
yellow (Lakewood) sand, in some places forty or more feet deep. Regardless of
the color of the deeper parts, the thin bleached surface layer is usually gleaming
white. The only tree of any size is the sand pine (Pinus clausa). The undergrowth
consists mostly of xcric woody shrubs or dwarf trees, including twin oak (Quercus
geminata), a myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia), rosemary (Ceratiola ericoldes), saw-pal-
metto (Serenoa repens), and several ericaceous species. In recently burned areas the
shrubs form dense, thicket-like tangles, but where the pines are mature and closely
spaced the lower levels of the forest are more open. In such park-like groves, locally
known as "strands," the glaring white sand is partially concealed by several species
of lichens ("Reindeer moss"), and rosemary often grows in scattered clumps. Rain-
water sinks almost immediately into the loose sand. In dry weather the evaporation
rate is very high, and temperature fluctuates rapidly and reaches considerable extremes.
On several occasions at sunrise I have noted temperatures lower by ten degrees or
more in the Marion County scrub than in the cut-over pine hills six or eight miles away.
Deer, wildcats, skunks, and foxes are fairly common, while the grasshoppers Schisto-
cerca ceratiola, Melanoplus forcipatus, M. indicifer and M. tequestae, the spider Ly-
cosa ceratiola, the Florida jay Aphelocoma caerulescens, and the lizard Sceloporus
woodi, seem to be entirely confined to the scrub.

Fauna
Characteristic: Sceloporus woodi, Eumeces inexpectatus, Eumeces onocrepis.
Frequent: Rana capitol, Anolis carolinensis, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, Coluber
c. constrictor, Coluber f. flagellum, Crotalus adamanteus, Gopherus polyphemus.
Occasional: Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Bufo quercicus, Bufo terrestris, Acris gryl-
lus, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla squirella, Hyla femoralis, Hyla gratiosa, Rana spheno-
cephala, Microhyla carolinensis, Ophisaurus ventralis, Neoseps reynoldsi, Rhineura
floridana, Opheodrys aestivus, Elaphe guttata, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Drymarchon c.
couperi, Pituophis mugitus, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Stilo-
soma extenuatum, Micrurus f. fulvius.
High-pine.-Once widely distributed throughout Florida, the high-pine has
mostly been destroyed by lumbering and agricultural activities. The principal tree






CARR--A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


in this association, Pinus australis, is a highly valued timber tree, and the soil of the
pine hills, though sandy and rather dry, is much more suitable for cultivation than
the flatwoods soils. The topography is rolling and the water-table is generally very
low. The chief lower-level plants are blue-jack oak (Q. cinerea), turkey oak
(Q. laevis), twin oak (Q. geminata), myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia), saw-palmetto
(Serenoa repens), and wire-grass (Aristida stricta. Cut-over hills usually support
an extensive second-growth of blue-jack or turkey oak. Burning is frequent, and
since young long-leaf pines are very intolerant of fire, reseeding is not common.
Pocket-gopher and gopher-tortoise burrows are usually abundant.

Fauna
Characteristic: Hyla femoralis, Hyla gratiosa, Rana capitol, Eumeces onocrepis,
Neoseps reynoldsi, Drymarchon c. couperi, Pituophis mugitus, Stilosoma extenuatum,
Gopherus polyphemus.
Frequent: Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Bufo querclcus, Bufo terrestris, Hyla squi-
rella, Sceloporus u. undulatus, Ophisaurus ventralis, Eumeces inexpectatus, Rhineura
floridana, Heterodon c. contortrix, Coluber c. constrictor, Coluber f. flagellum,
Lampropeltis e. elapsoides, Tantilla c. wagneri, Crotalus adamanteus.
Occasional: Pseudacris n. verrucosa, Pseudacris ocularis, Pseudacris ornata, Hyla
c. cinerea, Microhyla carolinensis, Anolis carolinensis, Leiolopisma unicolor, Eumeces
egregious, Heterodon simus, Opheodrys aestivus, Elaphe guttata, Elaphe q. quadri-
vittata, Rhadinaea flavilata, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana,
Cemophora coccinea, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Micrurus f. fulvius, Terrapene c. major,
Terrapene c. bauri.

Hammocks
In Florida the word hammock is applied to any hardwood forest. The prevalence
of coniferous woods-pinelands and cypress swamps-lends significance to a term
which distinguishes between these common types and the hardwoods. Hammock
soil in general is the most fertile in the state; humidity is higher than in high pine
and less fluctuating than in flatwoods; a well-developed humus layer usually covers
the soil. Most of the many hammock types intergrade with one another and with
the other associations. In addition to whatever special food relationships may influ-
ence the character of the hammock faunas, it seems probable that the most important
ecologic factors are the presence of leaf-mold, and the usually lower and more
constant evaporation rate. Since almost no reptile or amphibian seems to be restricted
to any single type of hammock, it is only necessary to distinguish between the three
following major types.
Low Hammock.--This is a loose term applied to woods growing on low, damp,
wet, or flooded ground, and includes conditions intermediate between mesophytic
hammock and cypress swamp. The trees may be nearly all of one or two species-
as in the cabbage palm-red bay hammocks of the peninsula and the gum swamps of
North Florida-or a variable association including sweet-gum (Liquidambar styraci-
flua), hackberry (Celtis mississippiensis), red maple (Acer rubrum), several species of






16 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

ash, and numerous other trees. At one extreme low hammock merges with marsh or
cypress swamp, and at the other with mesophytic hammock.
Fauna
Characteristic: Plethodon glutinosus, Pseudacris feriarum.
Frequent: Bufo terrestris, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla squirella, Hyla v. versicolor,
Eumeces laticeps, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Cemophora coccinea, Thamnophis sackenii.
Occasional: Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis, Ambystoma tal-
poideum, Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Eurycea q. remifer, Eurycea guttolineata, Des-
mognathus f. fuscus, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Acris
gryllus, Pseudacris ocularis, Rana catesbelana, Rana heckscheri, Rana sphenocephala,
Microhyla carolinensis, Sceloporus u. undulatus, Leiolopisma unicolor, Diadophis p.
punctatus, Opheodrys aestivus, Coluber c. constrictor, Elaphe guttata, Elaphe o. con-
finis, Drymarchon c. couperi, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana,
Storeria dekayi, Thamnophis sirtalis, Micrurus f. fulvius, Crotalus adamanteus, Ter-
rapene c. major, Terrapene c. bauri.

Mesophytic Hammock.-A typical and widespread type is the magnolia-holly-blue
beech-ironwood forest with fairly rich moist soil, thick humus layer, and little under-
growth in the well-shaded lower levels. This is considered the climax growth for
much of Florida from the lake region northward. South of the central portion of
the peninsula the association is modified by gradual incursion of tropical trees; there
is also extensive variation and shifting in dominants between the eastern and western
extremes of the Panhandle. In regions of topographic and hydrographic change,
mesophytic hammock merges suddenly or gradually with high pine, low hammock,
and even with flatwoods. In addition to the trees named above (Magnolia grandi-
flora, Ilex opaca, Carpinus caroliniana, Ostrya virginiana), greater or less admixture
of the following is commonly seen; spruce-pine (Pinus glabra), laurel oak (Quercus
laurifolia), red bay (Tamala borbonia), winged elm (Ulmus alata), dogwood (Cy-
noxylon floridum), sugar maple (Acer floridanum), basswood (Tilia glabra), loblolly
pine (P. taeda), mulberry (Morus rubra), etc. Pure mesophytic hammock supports
a surprisingly meager fauna in view of the apparently favorable physical conditions
which obtain.
Fauna
Characteristic: Plethodon glutinosus, Hyla crucifer, Hyla v. versicolor, Leiolo-
pisma unicolor, Eumeces laticeps, Opheodrys aestivus, Storeria occipitomaculata.
Frequent: Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louislanensis, Bufo terrestris, Anolis
carolinensis, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Lampropeltis e. elapsoides, Micrurus f. fulvius,
Terrapene c. major, Terrapene c. bauri.
Occasional: Desmognathus f. fuscus, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Scaphiopus h.
holbrookii, Acris gryllus, Pseudacris ocularis, Hyla avivoca, Hyla c. cincrea, Hyla
gratiosa, Hyla squirella, Eleutherodactylus ricordii, Rana clamitans, Rana spheno-
cephala, Microhyla carolinensis, Sccloporus u. undulatus, Rhineura floridana, Diado-
phis p. punctatus, Coluber c. constrictor, Elaphe guttata, Lampropeltis g. getulus,
Lampropeltis g. floridana, Cemophora coccinea, Haldea v. valeriae, Thamnophis s.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


sackenii, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Tantilla c. wagneri, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Cro-
talus adamanteus.
Upland Hammock.-This again is a generic grouping of little botanical or pedo-
logical significance. The topography is rolling or hilly, drainage is good, and the soil
usually, but not always, calcareous. The lower strata of the forest are generally
open except in situations where succession toward more mesophytic conditions is taking
place. The category embraces the following associations: high live-oak or live-oak-
cabbage palmetto hammock, the red-oak or red-oak-hickory-sweet-gum hammock of
the northern part of the peninsula, and the various modifications of the red-oak-beech-
slippery elm forests of the red hills in the Panhandle. Though not highly charac-
teristic, the fauna shows certain departures from those of the other hammock types.

Fauna
Characteristic: Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Bufo terrestris, Hyla squirella, Sceloporus
u. undulatus, Leiolopisma unicolor, Coluber c. constrictor, Elaphe o. confines, Tantilla
c. wagneri.
Frequent: Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis, Ambystoma talpoideum,
Hyla gratiosa, Microhyla carolinensis, Anolis carolinensis, Micrurus f. fulvius, Ter-
rapene c. major.
Occasional: Bufo quercicus, Acris gryllus, Pseudacris n. nigrita, Pseudacris n.
verrucosa, Pseudacris ornata, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla crucifer, Hyla femoralis, Rana
capitol, Rana sphenocephala, Ophisaurus ventralis, Eumeces onocrepis, Eumeces inex-
pectatus, Rhineura floridana, Diadophis p. punctatus, Heterodon c. contortrix, Hetero-
don simus, Opheodrys aestivus, Coluber f. flagellum, Elaphe guttata, Elaphe q. quad-
rivittata, Drymarchon c. couperi, Lampropeltis e. elapsoides, Lampropeltis g. getulus,
Lampropeltis g. floridana, Cemophora coccinea, Storeria occipitomaculata, Haldea v.
valeriae, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Cro-
talus adamanteus, Terrapene c. bauri, Gopherus polyphemus.
Tropical Hammock.-A mesophytic forest of hardwoods, mostly West Indian
in species, appears to be the climax association for the Florida Keys and the peninsula
south of Palm Beach County on the East Coast, Hendry County in the interior, and
Lee County on the West Coast. Hammocks of this type occur in potholes or in old
detritus-filled depressions in the limestone flatwoods; as insular elevations in the
Everglades; along the banks of many creeks and rivers; and intermittently in the
prairie land and buttonwood forests back of the mangrove swamps in the Cape Sable
region and along the shores of Florida Bay. Fire, hurricanes, and cultural opera-
tions bring about extensive modification, both in the successional sequences and in the
character and distribution of the climax growth. The finest tropical hammock that
I have seen is that covering most of the interior of Lignum Vitae Key, a small high
island in Florida Bay off the lower end of Lower Matacumbe Key. Here many of
the larger trees attain diameters of twenty and thirty inches; the soil is covered by
a deep humus layer, and the dense shade prevents the development of the tangled
undergrowth characteristic of many of the Key hammocks. The dominant trees are
as follows: Jamaica dogwood (Ichthyomethia piscipula), poisonwood (Metopium tox-






18 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

iferum), lignum vitae (Guaiacum sanctum), pigeon plum (Coccolobis laurifolia),
mastic (Sideroxylon foetidissimum), and mahogany (Swietenia Mahagoni). In the
freshwater succession the Glade and Cape hammocks merge gradually, through live-
oak-cabbage palmetto hammock or gumbolimbo-poisonwood savanna, with saw-grass
marsh; in the saltwater succession, through buttonwood hammock or prairie land,
with mangrove swamp.
Fauna
Characteristic: Sphaerodactylus notatus, Anolis carolinensis, Leiolopisma unicolor,
Opheodrys aestivus, Elaphe q. deckerti, Micrurus f. barbouri.
Frequent: Bufo terrestris, Hyla squirella, Eleutherodactylus ricordii, Eumeces
inexpectatus, Coluber c. constrictor, Drymarchon c. couperi, Crotalus adamanteus.
Occasional: Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, Scaphiopus h. albus, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla
septentrionalis, Heterodon c. brown, Diadophis p. punctatus, Elaphe guttata, Lam-
propeltis e. elapsoides, Lampropeltis g. brooks, Cemophora coccinea, Thamnophis s.
sirtalis, Micrurus f. fulvius, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Kinosternon b. palmarum, Terra-
pene c. bauri.

AQUATIC SITUATIONS
PONDS
Fluctuating Ponds.-Shallow, muck-bottomed drainage basins which may persist
as ponds throughout an abnormally wet year, but which become almost or wholly dry
during a normal dry season. True hydrophytic vegetation is absent, or restricted to
a few quick-growing or very hardy annuals. When the water disappears the per-
manent fauna either burrows into the muck bottom or migrates overland to escape
dessication.
Fauna
Characteristic: Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis, (Ambystoma tal-
poideum), (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii).
Frequent: Siren lacertina, (Bufo terrestris), Acris gryllus, (Pseudacris n. verru-
cosa), Pseudacris ocularis, (Pseudacris ornata), (Hyla squirella), Rana sphenocephala,
(Microhyla carolinensis), Farancia a. abacura, Natrix s. pictiventris, Seminatrix
pygaea, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Kinosternon b. baurii, Deirochelys reticularia.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, (Ambystoma tigrinum), Eurycea q. quadridigi-
tata, Eurycea q. remifer, (Bufo quercicus), (Pseudacris n. nigrita), (Rana capitol ,
Rana catesbeiana, Rana clamitans, Rana grylio, Alligator mississippiensis, Lampro-
peltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Natrix s. fasciata, Storeria victa, Liodytes
alleni, Micrurus f. fulvius, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Kinosternon s. steindachneri,
Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys
nelsoni, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Pseudemys s. script,
Amyda ferox.
Sink-hole Ponds.-Small, usually circular depressions produced by solution and
collapse in underlying limestone. The depth ranges from ten to fifty feet, or rarely






CARR--A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


more; the average for the majority of sink-holes in the northern part of the peninsula
is probably about fifteen feet. A marginal zone of rooted floating plants usually
extends out to a depth of six or seven feet; emergent and submerged vegetation is
scarce. The surfaces of some ponds become covered completely with duckweed
(Lemna spp.), or with duckweed, mud-mary (Bruneria), and mud-midget (Wol-
fiella).
Fauna
Characteristic: Kinosternon b. baurii, Pseudemys s. script.
Frequent: (Bufo terrestris), Acris gryllus, (Hyla gratiosa), Rana sphenocephala,
Alligator mississippiensis, Farancia a. abacura, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix s. pictiventris,
Thamnophis s. sackenii, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys nelsoni,
Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Deirochelys reticularia, Amyda
ferox.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis,
(Ambystoma talpoideum), Eurycea q. quadridigtata, Eurycea b. cirrigera, Desmog-
nathus f. auriculatus, Siren lacertina, Pseudobranchus striatus, Pseudacris ocularis,
(Hyla c. cinerea), (Hyla crucifer), (Hyla squirella), (Rana capitol Rana cates-
beiana, Rana clamitans, (Microhyla carolinensis), Abastor erythrogrammus, Natrix c.
floridana, Seminatrix pygaea, Storeria victa, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Kinosternon s.
subrubrum, Kinosternon s. steindachneri.
Flatwoods Ponds.-Local depressions in wire-grass and palmetto flatwoods.
There is usually a broad, more or less bare zone of fluctuation bordered by a narrow
ring of semi-aquatic trees or by a dense saw-palmetto "ledge." The vegetation of
the basin may be wholly composed of pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens), of cypress
and black gum (Nyssa biflora), or of a mixture of emergent herbs and grasses-
maiden-cane (Panicum hemitomon), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata), arrowhead
(Sagittaria lancifolia), and various rushes (Juncus spp.).
Fauna
Characteristic; Siren intermedia, (Bufo quercicus), Acris gryllus, (Pseudacris n.
nigrita), (Pseudacris n. verrucosa), Pseudacris ocularis, (Pseudacris ornata), (Hyla
femoralis), Deirochelys reticularia.
Frequent: Amphiuma means, Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis,
Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Eurycea q. remifer, (Hyla gratiosa), (Rana capitol Rana
catesbeiana, Rana grylio, Rana sphenocephala, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Natrix s.
fasciata, Natrix s. pictiventris, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Kinosternon s. steindachneri,
Chelydra s. osceola.
Occasional: (Ambystoma talpoideum), Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Pseudo-
branchus striatus, Siren lacertina, (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii), (Bufo terrestris),
(Hyla c. cinerea), (Hyla squirella), (Microhyla carolinensis), Alligator mississip-
piensis, Natrix c. floridana, Seminatrix pygaea, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Sternotherus
odoratus, Kinosternon b. baurii, Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Chelydra s. serpentina,
Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Pseudemys s.
script, Amyda ferox.






20 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Chara Ponds.-A peculiar variation of the flatwoods pond habitat is seen in the
broad, shallow, irregularly-shaped depressions of the West Coast fatwoods. In many
of these almost the only plant is a species of Chara which grows in tremendous abund-
ance, and despite radical changes in water-level often fills the entire pond basin.
Though not a common type, the Chara ponds are worthy of mention because of the
huge turtle populations they sometimes support.
Fauna
Characteristic: Triturus louisianensis, Pseudeys f floridanaudemyd forn, emys f.
peninsularis, Deirochelys reticularia, Amyda ferox.
Frequent: Pseudobranchus striatus, Acris gryllus, Rana gryllo, Rana sphenoce-
phala, Alligator mississippiensis, Farancia a. abacura, Natrix s. pictiventris, Seminatrix
pygaea, Liodytes alleni, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Kinosternon s. steindachncri, Chely-
dra s. serpentine, Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys s. script.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Siren lacertina, Pseu-
dacris ocularis, (HIyla c. cinerea), (Hyla femoralis), (Hyla gratiosa), (Hyla squirella),
(Rana capitol Rana catesbeiana, (Microhyla carolinensis), Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix
c. floridana, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternon b. baurii,
Kinosternon s. subrubrum.
Hammock Ponds.-A rather characteristic type of pond is found in hammocks
and in cleared hammock land, fed by springs, seepage areas or runoff from the sur-
rounding woodlands. The depth is seldom more than five or six feet, usually less,
and emergent vegetation is frequently well developed, the commonest species being
cat-tail (Typha latifolia), water oleander (Decodon verticillatus), buttonbush (Ce-
phalanthus occidentalis), willow (Salix niger), and black gum (Nyssa biflora). The
water is usually permanent, and seasonal fluctuation is much less marked than in the
flatwoods ponds. Floating and submerged hydrophytes are commonly found, espe-
cially duckweed (Lemna spp.), liverworts (Riccia spp.), bladderworts (Utricularia
spp.), and coon-tail (Ceratophyllum spp.). Such ponds are common to upland,
mesophytic and low hammock, and in addition to the aquatic fauna which they sup-
port, there is generally at their margins a concentration of the forms inhabiting the
adjacent hammock.
Fauna
Characteristic: Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis, (Ambystoma tal-
poideum), Eurycea q. quadridigiata, (Hyla crucifer), (Hyla gratiosa), (Hyla v.
versicolor), Agkistrodon piscivorus, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola.
Frequent: Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Siren lacertina, Pseudobranchus striatus,
(Bufo terrestris), Acris gryllus, Hyla c. cinerea, Rana catesbeiana, Rana clamitans,
Rana grylio, Rana sphenocephala, (Microhyla carolinensis), Alligator mississippiensis,
Natrix s. pictiventris, Seminatrix pygaea, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Kinosternon b.
baurii.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Ambystoma tigrinum, Eurycea q. remifer, Eury-
cea b. cirrigera, Scaphiopus h. holbrookii, (Pseudacris n. verrucosa), Pseudacris ocu-
laris, (Pseudacris ornata), (Hyla squirella), Rana heckscheri, Farancia a. abacura,






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Lampropeltis g. getulus, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix c. florldana, Storeria victa, Liodytes
alleni, Micrurus f. fulvius, Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Kinos-
ternon s. subrubrum, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. penin-
sularis, Pseudemys s. script, Deirochelys reticularia, Amyda ferox.

LAKES
In the youthful drainage system of Florida, developed as it is upon a karst
topography of relatively slight elevation, lakes are a conspicuous element. From the
standpoint of geological origin several types of Florida lakes may be distinguished.
Solution lakes are common in the limestone regions of central and western Florida
and are produced by the formation and confluence of a number of sinkholes. Such
lakes often develop along the courses of old stream beds. Consequent lakes are prob-
ably not rare in central and south Florida; the occurrence of several species of fish
with marine affinities in certain isolated lakes in the interior lends support to the
view that these lakes may be relict depressions. Oxbow lakes are present in the
floodplains of most of the master streams. In the Everglades and in the mangrove
swamps of the Cape Sable region there occur broad, shallow, brackish or freshwater
lakes of uncertain history; these may be partly consequent and partly of solution
origin, or to some extent may have originated through differential landbuilding.
On the basis of the character of the shoreline, Professor J. Speed Rogers has
suggested a distinction between swamp-shore, hammock-shore, and sand-shore lakes.
From the standpoint of the herpetological fauna I can see no grounds for a consistent
division of the lakes into types. Chiefly because of their larger size, it is much more
difficult to propose a satisfactory classification for lakes than for ponds. Some of the
lakes appear to be composite in origin, and their present basins to have been formed by
subsequent solution about an old consequent basin. Moreover most of the larger lakes
show all degrees of succession toward terrestrial conditions in some part of their
basins. Thus the fauna of a given lake is very apt to include all the aquatic forms
of the surrounding region.

Fauna
Characteristic: Hyla c. cinerea, (Rana capitol Rana grylio, Natrix s. fasciata,
Natrix s. pictiventris, Natrix c. cyclopion, Natrix c. floridana, Natrix taxispilota,
Agkistrodon piscivorus, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Amyda
ferox.
Frequent: Siren lacertina, Rana catesbeiana, Rana sphenocephala, Alligator
mississppiensis, Farancia a. abacura, Seminatrix pygaea, Liodytes alleni, Thamnophis
s. sackenii, Kinosternon b. baurii, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Chelydra s. serpentina,
Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys s. script, Deirochelys reticularia.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Triturus v. symmetrica, Triturus louisianensis,
(Ambystoma talpoideum), Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Eurycea b. cirrigera, (Pseudo-
triton m. flavissimus), Desmognathus f. fuscus, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Siren
intermedia, Pseudobranchus striatus, Bufo terrestris, Acris gryllus, (Pseudacris n.
verrucosa), Pseudacris ocularis, (Pseudacris ornata), (Hyla avivoca), (Hyla cruci-
fer), (Hyla femoralis), (Hyla gratiosa), (Hyla squirella), (Hyla v. versicolor),






22 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Rana clamitans, Rana heckscheri, (Microhyla carolinensis), Crocodylus acutus, Lam-
propeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Natrix rigida, Storeria victa, Micrurus
f. fulvius, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Sternotherus minor, Kinosternon s. subrubrum,
Clemmys guttata (one record).
MARSHES AND SWAMPS
Freshwater Marshes.-Marsh formation in Florida is very rapid. The filling-up
of the lake basins is not contingent upon the accumulation of organic debris on the
bottom alone, but is accelerated to a great degree by growth of matted floating vege-
tation at the surface. Tangles of bonnet roots (Nymphaea macrophyllum) bound
together by the long adventitious root-systems of pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata),
maiden-cane (Panicum hemitomon), and other hydrophytes form massive rafts or
floating mats on which numerous aquatic and semi-aquatic herbs, shrubs, and even
trees quickly become established. Saw-grass (Cladium effusum), whose buoyant
root-mass is capable of supporting the weight of the plant, is also effective in the
building of floating islands. Several types of marshes may be distinguished--chiefly
on the basis of the dominant plants. In many areas, notably in the Everglades and
in the extensive marshes around the headwaters of the St. Johns River, the vegetation
consists almost entirely of saw-grass. "Prairies" of bonnets, water-lilies (Castalia
odorata), and water-hyacinths (Piaropus crassipes), are common, especially in central
Florida. In the central lake region there are numerous marshes of maiden-cane,
water oleander (Decodon verticillatus), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata), and
arrowhead (Sagittaria lancifolia). The nature of the fauna of a given marsh is
probably determined more largely by the degree of fluctuation in water-level than
by any other factor.
Fauna
Characteristic: Siren lacertina, Pseudobranchus striatus, Acris gryllus, (Pseu-
dacris n. verrucosa), Pseudacris ocularis, Rana grylio, Rana sphenocephala, Farancia
a. abacura, Lanmpropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Natrix s. fasciata,
Natrix s. fictiventris, Natrix c. floridana, Seminatrix pygaea, Liodytes alleni, Thamno-
phis s. sackenii, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Pseudemys nelsoni.
Frequent: Amphiuma means, Triturus louisianensis, (Pseudacris ornata), Hyla
c. cinerea, (Hyla squirella), (Rana capitol Alligator mississippiensis, Lampropeltis
g. brooks, Storeria victa, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Micrurus f. fulvius, Agkistrodon
piscivorus, Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Chelydra s. serpentina,
Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys s. scripta,
Deirochelys reticularia, Amyda ferox.
Occasional: (Hyla crucifer), (Hyla femoralis), Rana catesbeiana, (Microhyla
carolinensis), Crocodylus acutus, Anolis carolinensis, Drymarchon c. couperi, Natrix
s. clarkii, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Kinosternon b. baurii, Kinosternon b. palmarum,
Terrapene c. bauri.
Salt Marsh.-This association forms a coastal margin of varying width in most
of the upper half of the state; it is most extensive along the estuaries of northeastern
Florida. On the flats that lie between high- and low-water marks, the grasses






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Spartina alternifolia and Distichlis spicata are the dominant and often the only plants.
Where the sandy or muddy soil is inundated only by spring-tides or during storms,
the aquatic grasses are replaced by rushes (Juncus Rhomerianus), saltwort (Batis
maritima), saltbush (Baccharis spp.), and the samphires (Salicornia Bigelovii and S.
perennis). Where salt marsh merges with flatwoods or live oak-cabbage palmetto
hammock the transition is usually abrupt, but the lowering of salinity as the rivers
and estuaries are ascended is made manifest by the gradual replacement of the typical
salt-marsh grasses by Spartina cynosuroides, Juncus spp., and finally by cat-tail, saw-
grass and the characteristic freshwater plants. The salt marshes of the northern
Florida coasts are represented in the southern part of the peninsula by mangrove
swamps; the slight differences in the faunas of the two associations are probably due
more to geographic than to ecologic factors.

Fauna
Characteristic: Natrix s. clarkii, Malaclemmys c. centrata, Malaclemmys p.
pileata, Malaclemmys p. macrospilota.
Frequent: Alligator mississippiensis, Natrix s. compressicauda, Pseudemys f.
suwanniensis, Pseudemys f. mobiliensis.
Occasional: Rana sphenocephala, Crocodylus acutus, Anolis carolinensis, Coluber
c. constrictor, Drymarchon c. couperi, Lampropeltis g. floridana, Natrix s. fasciata,
Natrix s. pictiventris, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Crotalus adaman-
teus, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys alabamensis.
Fluvial Swamps.-The vegetation of a river swamp may be almost wholly com-
posed of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum); but in northern Florida it is usually an
association of several species dominated by cypress, tupelo-gum (Nyssa aquatica), or
ogeechee lime (Nyssa Ogeche). The water level, although variable, is generally
higher and more constant than in non-alluvial swamps, low hammocks and marshes,
and conditions that are essentially aquatic prevail during most of the year. The
most abundant fauna occurs in those swamps in which fluctuations of water level are
least radical.

Fauna
Characteristic: Pseudacris feriarum, Hyla avivoca, Rana clamitans, Rana heck-
scheri, Natrix taxispilota.
Frequent: Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Hyla crucifer,
Hyla v. versicolor, Rana catesbeiana, Rana grylio, Alligator mississippiensis, Anolis
carolinensis, Natrix s. pictiventris, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix c. floridana, Agkistrodon
piscivorus, Sternotherus minor.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Amphiuma tridactylum, Triturus v. symmetrica,
Triturus louisianensis, Ambystoma opacum, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea q. rem-
ifer, Eurycea b. cirrigera, Eurycea guttolineata, Siren lacertina, Pseudobranchus stri-
atus, Acris gryllus, Pseudacris ocularis, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla squirella, Rana spheno-
cephala, Eumeces laticeps, Abastor erythrogrammus, Farancia a. abacura, Opheodrys
aestivus, Coluber c. constrictor, Elaphe q. quadrinitata, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lam-






24 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

propeltis g. floridana, Natrix rigida, Natrix septemvittata, Seminatrix pygaea, Liodytes
alleni, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Kinosternon b. baurii, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra
s. osceola, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis,
Pseudemys s. script, Amyda ferox.
Bayheads.-Dense, tangled, thicket-like swamps in wet, non-alluvial soil or
around the headwaters of the smaller creeks. The vegetation consists chiefly of
small trees and shrubs. In the peninsula, sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana), black
gum (Nyssa biflora), wax myrtle (Cerothamnus ceriferus), red maple (Acer rub-
rum), dahoon holly (Ilex cassine), and loblolly bay (Gordonia Lasianthus) are usu-
ally the dominant species. In the titi swamps of the Panhandle the following forms
are common: titi (Cliftonia monophylla and Cyrilla parvifolia), he-huckleberry
(Cyrilla racemiflora), wax myrtle (Cerothamnus inodorus), Virginia willow (Itea
virginica), and ivy (Leucothoe axillaris). The soil is usually acid, and sphagnum
beds are often present. Prolific growth of smilax, grape, and Virginia creeper, and
the interlocking limbs of the crowded trees, exclude light to a great extent and render
some of these swamps almost impenetrable.
Fauna
Characteristic: Amphiuma means, Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Eurycea q. remifer,
Rana clamitans, Anolis carolinensis, Liodytes alleni.
Frequent: Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Siren intermedia, Hyla crucifer, Micro-
hyla carolinensis, Farancia a. abacura, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampropeltis g. flori-
dana, Thamnophis s. sackenii.
Occasional: Ambystoma talpoideum, Pseudobranchus striatus, Bufo terrestris,
Acris gryllus, Pseudacris n. verrucosa, Pseudacris ocularis, Hyla c. cinerea, Hyla
squirella, Hyla v. versicolor, Rana catesbeiana, Rana grylio, Rana sphenocephala,
Leiolopisma unicolor, Opheodrys aestivus, Elaphe q. quadrivittata, Drymarchon c.
couperi, Natrix s. pictiventris, Seminatrix pygaea, Thamnophis s. sirtalis, Agkistrodon
piscivorus, Sistrurus m. barbouri, Crotalus h. atricaudatus, Kinosternon b. baurii,
Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Terrapene c. major, Terra-
pene c. bauri.
Mangrove Swamps.-Much of coastal South Florida and the Keys is covered
with mangrove swamp-a common association in the marine-littoral of most tropical
and subtropical regions. The dominant tree is the red mangrove (Rhizophora
mangle), which grows in dense stands from well below low-water mark to some-
what above reach of the highest tides. The transition from swamp to hammock or
dune conditions is marked by admixture of black mangrove (Avicennia nitida), but-
tonwood (Conocarpus erecta), cocoa-plum (Chrysobalanus icaco), saltwort (Batis
maritime), sea-grape (Coccolobus uvifera), and saltbrush (Baccharis spp.). Along
many of the streams and at the edge of the Everglades the mangrove swamps appear
to be retreating before the advance of saw-grass marsh. On the East Coast the
mangrove swamps terminate in northern St. Lucie county and on the south end of
Merritt's Island, Broward county; on the Gulf coast they extend to the Suwannee
River delta.





CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA 25

Fauna
Characteristic: Natrix s. compressicauda.
Frequent: Alligator mississippiensis, Anolis carolinensis, Elaphe q. deckerti,
Natrix s. clarkii, Malaclemmys p. macrospilota.
Occasional: Hyla c. cinerea, Crocodylus acutus, Opheodrys aestivus, Drymarchon
c. couperi, Natrix s. pictiventris, Malaclemmys c. centrata, Pseudemys nelsoni, Caretta
caretta, Caretta kempli, Amyda ferox.

STREAMS
Larger Streams.-Nearly all the larger streams of Florida derive their water
from sources within the political boundaries of the state-in part from peat-filled
swamps, lakes and marshes, and in part from numerous large springs. The tribu-
taries of the Apalachicola River penetrate the Piedmont of Georgia and Alabama,
but this is the only Florida stream which is of any importance in the Coastal Plain
drainage, and the only one which bears any great quantity of silt. The weak coffee-
color, characteristic of the water of most Florida streams, is due to the presence of
organic acids collected in swamps and bayheads. Where the water is very acid,
submerged and floating vegetation is usually not abundant and the fauna is generally
poor. Optimum conditions apparently exist in those rivers which run over ledges of
exposed limestone, or which receive most of their water from calcareous springs.
Fauna
Characteristic: Natrix taxispilota, Sternotherus minor, Macrochelys temminckii,
Pseudemys f. suwanniensis, Pseudemys f. mobiliensis.
Frequent: Rana catesheiana, Alligator mississippiensis, Natrix s. fesciata, Natrix
s. pictiventris, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola,
Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Amyda ferox.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Amphiuma tridactylum, Siren lacertina, Acris
gryllus, Rana heckscheri, Rana grylio, Rana clamitans, Rana sphenocephlla, Croco-
dylus acutus, Abastor erythrogrammus, Farancia a. abacura, Natrix c. floridana,
Nairix rigida, Natrix septcmvittata, Liodytes alleni, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Sterno-
therus odoratus, Pseudemys alabamensis, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys s. scripta,
Malaclemmys c. centrata, Malaclemmys p. macrospilota, Malaclemmys p. pileata,
Caretta caretta.
Spring Runs.-Calcareous streams fed by one or more large springs. Along the
West Coast such runs constitute the master streams in the drainage systems of several
extensive areas. The water is basic to circum-neutral, depending upon the amount of
swamp water introduced by tributaries. The bottom is rocky or sandy, and sub-
merged vegetation (Vallisneria, Philotria, Sagittaria, Ludwigia, Ludwigiantha)
often grows in broad, deep beds which are populated by snails, crayfish, and the larvae
and nymphs of many insects.
Fauna
Characteristic: Amphiuma tridactylum, HIyla c. cinerea, A bastor erythrogrammus,
Sternotherus minor, Sternotherus odoratus, Pseudemys f. suwanniensis.






26 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Frequent: Rana clamitans, Rana heckscheri, Rana gryllo, Alligator mississippi-
ensis, Natrix s. pictiventris, Natrix taxispilota, Thamnophis s. sackenii, Chelydra s.
serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola, Pseudemys f. peninsularis.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Acris gryllus, Rana
catesbeiana, Rana sphenocephala, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix c. floridana, Seminatrix
pygaea, Liodytes alleni, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Kinosternon s, steindachneri, Macro-
chelys temminckii, Pseudemys alabamensis, Pseudemys f. fliridana, Pseudemys s.
script, Deirochelys reticularia, Amyda ferox.

Small Streams.-The small streams of Florida are difficult to classify with con-
sistency. The extremes of physiognomy are perhaps exhibited by the sluggish, de-
tritus-filled, highly acid swamp streams and the clear, swift brooks of certain of the
Apalachicola Ravines, whose beds are often strewn with gravel and small boulders
and which have much the facies of mountain trout-streams. Flatwoods streams are
typically shallow creeks or brooks with acid water and sand bottoms; where the flow
of water is permanent, thickets and bayheads usually line the banks, but where seasonal
fluctuation is marked the vegetation may consist solely of semi-aquatic herbs and
grasses. Hammock streams usually flow over beds of bare sand or gravel and have
little aquatic vegetation beyond an occasional patch of Ludwigia, Ludwigiantha, or
Sphagnum. The pH varies from quite basic to circum-neutral or slightly acid.
Many of the tiny rills and rheocrene springs are bordered by hogs and seepage areas
which support lush growths of lizard's-tail (Saururus cernuus), jack-in-the-pulpit
(Arisaema acuminatum), begonia (Begonia semperflorens), and the ferns, Lorinseria
areolata and Dryopterus floridanum. These rank beds of mesophytic herbs appear to
be the optimum (and in my experience, the only) habitat of Pseudotriton montanus
)lavissimus. The aquatic herpetofauna, however, offers little grounds for distin-
guishing between the several types of small streams.

Fauna
Characteristic: Eurycea b. cirrigera, Pseudotriton m. flavissimus, Pseudotriton r.
vioscai, Desmognathus f. fuscus, Desmognathus f. auriculatus, Rana clamitans,
Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Kinosternon b. baurii.
Frequent: Rana catesbeiana, Rana heckscheri, Rana sphenocephala.
Occasional: Amphiuma means, Eurycea q. quadridigitata, Siren lacertina, Pseudo-
branchus striatus, Acris gryllus, Pseudacris ocularis, Rana grylio, Alligator mississip-
piensis, Farancia a. abacura, Natrix s. pictiventris, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix taxispilota,
Natrix septemvittata, Liodytes alleni, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Sternotherus minor,
Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra
s. osceola, Terrapene c. major, Terrapene c. bauri, Pseudemys nelsoni, Pseudemys f.
floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Pseudemys s. script, Deirochelys reticularia,
Amyda ferox.
Sloughs, Canals, and Drainage Ditches.-These include some of the most fertile
and prolific aquatic habitats in Florida. The water is acid to basic, and various
species of submerged, floating, and emergent hydrophytes often grow in the greatest
profusion. There is usually an abundance of fish, especially cyprinodonts, and inver-






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


tebrates are numerous. Long reaches may be covered with the water-hyacinth (Piaro-
pus crassipes), and often the water is choked with Ceratophyllum, Cabomba, Myrio-
phyllum, Utricularia, Potamogeton, or Proserpinaca. The herpetofauna includes a
number of fairly characteristic species which are sometimes individually very numer-
ous.
Fauna
Characteristic: Amphiuma means, Siren lacertina, Acris gryllus, Rana grylio,
Rana sphenocephala, Farancia a. abacura, Seminatrix pygaea, Liodytes alleni, Tham-
nophis s. sackenii, Kinosternon s. steindachneri, Pseudemys nelsoni, Deirochelys
reticularia.
Frequent: Triturus louisianensis, (Pseudacris n. verrucosa), Pseudacris ocularis,
(Pseudacris ornata), Hyla c. cinerea, (Hyla squirella), Rana catesbeiana, (Microhyla
carolinensis), Natrix s. pictiventris, Natrix c. floridana, Storeria victa, Pseudemys
f. floridana, Pseudemys f. peninsularis, Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternon b. baurii,
Kinosternon b. palmarum, Amyda ferox.
Occasional: Triturus v. symmetrica, (Ambystoma talpoideum), Eurycea q. quad-
ridigitata, Eurycea q. remifer, Desmognathus f. aurlculatus, Siren intermedia, (Sca-
ph;opus h. holbrookii), (Scaphiopus h. albus), (Bufo quercicus), (Bufo terrestris),
(Hyla crucifer), (Hyla femoralis), (Hyla gratiosa), (Hyla v. versicolor), (Rana
capito), Rana heckscheri, Alligator mississippiensis, Lampropeltis g. getulus, Lampro-
peltis g. floridana, Natrix s. fasciata, Natrix taxispilota, Natrix rigida, Agkistrodon pis-
civorus, Kinosternon s. subrubrum, Chelydra s. serpentina, Chelydra s. osceola, Pseu-
demys s. scrifta.






28 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

KEYS TO THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF FLORIDA
While the keys here given have been made as simple as possible, the use of a
certain number of technical terms was unavoidable. The following glossary explains
the meanings of the technical terms employed.

GLOSSARY
Alveolar surface.-The elevated masticating surface just behind the cutting
edges of the jaws in the mouth of a turtle.
Anal plate.-The single (entire) or obliquely split (divided) scale lying just
in front of the anus.
Anterior temporal.-A tier of elongated scales (sometimes a single scale) lying
behind the postoculars and between the parietals and the upper labials.
Bridge.-In a turtle, the part of the shell joining the carapace and plastron.
Carapace.-The upper part of a turtle's shell.
Costal grooves.-Vertical grooves in the sides of a salamander's body indicating
position of ribs.
Costal plates.-The series of large plates on the carapace of a turtle between
the vertebrals and the marginals.
Dorso-lateral ridges.-The glandular folds along the sides of the back in some
frogs.
Internasal.-A pair of scales (sometimes a single scale) on top of the head
just behind the rostral.
Loreal.-A small scale on the side of the head lying between the nasal and
the preoculars.
Lower labials.-A row of scales bordering the lower jaw on either side, those
of the two sides being separated from each other in front by the mental scale.
Marginals.-The scales bordering the carapace in turtles.
Maxillary.-Pertaining to the upper jaw.
Nares.-The nostrils, outer (opening on the surface of the snout), and inner
(opening into the mouth cavity).
Nasals.-The scale, or pair of scales, surrounding the nostril.
Naso-labial groove.-A vertical groove from nostril to lip on the snout of
some salamanders.
Parotoid gland.-A glandular elevation behind the ear in certain amphibians.
Parietals.-The two large posterior plates on top of the head.
Posterior temporals.-A tier of elongate plates (sometimes a single plate) lying
between the parietals and upper labials and behind the anterior temporals.
Postocular.-The small scale or scales bordering the eye posteriorly.
Prefrontal.-A pair of plates (four in Pituophis) on the top of the head just
in front of the single frontal plate.
Preocular.-The small scale or scales bordering the eye anteriorly.
Rostral.-A plate of varying shape covering the tip of the snout.
Supralabials.-The row of scales bordering the upper jaw on either side,
those of the two sides separated by the terminal rostral plate.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Supramarginals (upper marginals).-The upper surface of the marginal plates
of the carapace of a turtle.
Supraocular.-The plate lying immediately above the eye, between it and the
frontal plate.
Symphisis.-The point of junction between the two parts of the upper or lower
jaws at the tip of the snout or chin.
Tubercle.-A wart-like protuberance or an elevated horny outgrowth.
Upper labials.-See Supralabials.
Ventrals.-The enlarged scales on the lower surface of the body between the
head and the anal plate.
Vertebrals.-The median longitudinal series of plates on the carapace of a turtle.

KEY TO THE ORDERS AND SUBORDERS
1. Skin without scales, moist or warty .... AMPHIBIA. ...... .2
1'. Skin covered with scales or bony plates. .REPTILIA. ............ 3
2 (1). Body elongate; tail persisting throughout life..... Salamanders, Order
CAUDATA ......................................... p. 29
2'. Body of adult short and tail-less, the larval tail disappearing at metamor-
phosis. . .Frogs and Toads, Order SALIENTIA. .......... p. 31
3 (1'). Body covered with scales, not encased in rigid armor ........... ..4
3'. Body encased in a bony capsule..... Turtles and Tortoises, Order
TESTUDINATA .............. .......... . ......... p. 39
4 (3). Anal opening a longitudinal slit .... Crocodiles and Alligators, Order
LORICATA. ................. .................. ... 5
4'. Anal opening a transverse slit.....Lizards and Snakes, Order SQUA-
MATA ....... ... .... .... ... ............. 6
5 (4). Snout broad; fourth tooth in lower jaw not exposed when mouth is closed
Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator) . ....... ..... . p. 69
5'. Snout pointed; fourth tooth in lower jaw exposed when mouth is closed
Crocodilus acutus (Crocodile). ............ . .. ...p. 68
6 (4'). Bones of lower jaw rigidly joined in front; tympanum evident . Liz-
ards, Suborder SAURIA ........... ..... ........p. 33
6'. Bones of lower jaw united in front by a flexible ligament .. .Snakes,
Suborder SERPENTES ................... ............. p. 35

SALAMANDERS, ORDER CAUDATA
1. Two pairs of legs present. ................ ..................2
1'. One pair of legs present. .... ... ......... ......... .. 21
2 (1). Adult with gills and gill-clefts ..... Necturus sp. (Mud-puppy). p. 43
2'. Adult without gills................... ............... ...3
3 (2'). Adult with gill-clefts; body eel-like; legs rudimentary ............. 4
3'. Adult without gill-clefts; body not eel-like...... . ......... 5
4 (3). Foot with two toes ..... Amphiuma means (Congo eel) ........ .p. 43
4'. Foot with three toes . .Amphiuma tridactylum (Three-toed Congo
eel) ........ ......... .......................... p. 44






30 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

5 (3'). No naso-labial groove; parasphenoid teeth lacking ... ... ....... 6
5'. Naso-labial groove and parasphenoid teeth present .. . ...... .13
6 (5). Costal grooves present; vomerine teeth in transverse series .... ......7
6'. Costal grooves lacking; vomerine teeth in longitudinal series ........12
7 (6). Costal grooves 14 .................... ...... .. . ...... 8
7'. Costal grooves 10 to 12 ... ............... ......... 9
8 (7). Back with obscure light blotches and specks, or plain . .Ambystoma
texanum (Small-mouthed salamander) ................... p. 46
8'. Back with narrow, light cross-bars. . Ambystoma cingulatum (Ringed
salamander) ............. ........ . .......... p. 46
9 (7'). Costal grooves 12; body with large, irregular yellow blotches . . m-
bystoma tigrinum (Tiger salamander) .................... .p. 47
9'. Costal grooves 10 or 11; body without large, irregular yellow blotches.. 10
10 (9'). Costal grooves 10; body short and squat, with gray or dark brown ground-
color and small gray dots.....Ambystoma talpoideum (Mole sala-
mander) ............. .................... ...... p. 46
10'. Costal grooves 11; back with spots or broad, light cross-bars. ...... 11
11 (10'). Back with broad, light cross-bars; lower surface black, unmarked ....
Ambystoma opacum (Marbled salamander) ................ p. 46
11'. Back with a row of light spots along either side; lower surface lighter
than upper ... .Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted salamander). p. 47
12 (6'). Side with a more or less continuous longitudinal red line edged with
black ... Triturus viridescens symmetrica (Striped newt) ... p. 45
12'. Side without lines ..... Triturus louisianensis (Louisiana newt) . .p. 45
13 (5'). Tongue attached at its anterior margin . .. .......... 14
13'. Tongue free at its anterior margin, attached by a central stalk ..... 16
14 (13). No light line from eye to corner of mouth; color usually blue-black with
white spots on back .. .Plethodon glutinosus (Slimy salaman-
der) ............. .................. ... ........p. 47
14'. A light line extending from eye to corner of mouth ..... ..... .15
15 (14'). A more or less regular row of light spots along side ..... Desmognathus
fuscus auriculatus (Southeastern dusky salamander). ....... p. 51
15'. No row of light spots on side .. Desmognathus fuscus fuscus (Dusky
salamander) .... ............ ..... ........ p. 50
16 (13'). Vomerine teeth continuous with parasphenoid teeth; color reddish. . 17
16'. Vomerizk teeth not continuous with parasphenoid teeth; color not red-
dish ............ ............. ........... 18
17 (16). Black spots few, scattered, and circular . Pseudotriton montanus
flavissimus (Southeastern dotted salamander) .. .. .........p. 49
17'. Black spots many, irregular, and close together, some of them usually
confluent Pscudotriton rubber vioscna (Viosca's red salaman-
der) ......... .............. .......... p. 50
18 (16'). Hind foot with five toes .. . ... ..... 19
18'. Hind foot with four toes .... .. ...... 20






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


19 (18). No black mid-dorsal stripe ..... Eurycea bislineata cirrigera (Southeastern
striped salamander) ........... .... ............ p. 49
19'. A black mid-dorsal stripe ..... Eurycea 1. guttolineata (Southern long-
tailed salamander) ................ ......... ...... p. 49
20 (18'). Ground-color light, yellowish-brown; a dark dorso-lateral stripe; three
to four teeth in vomerine series .... Eurycea quadridigitata quadridigi-
tata (Dwarf salamander) .. ............. p. 48
20'. Ground-color dark; sides with small white dots; eight teeth in vomerine
series. .. Eurycea quadridigitata remifer (Florida dwarf salaman-
der) ... .. ... ......... ................... .p. 48
21 (1'). Foot with three toes; body longitudinally striped..... Pseudobranchus
striatus (Striped mud-eel) ......... ................... p. 52
21'. Foot with four toes; body without longitudinal stripes .. ......... 22
22 (21'). Costal grooves 31 to 35 .... Siren intermedia (LeConte's mud-eel) p. 51
22'. Costal grooves 36 to 39.... Siren lacertina (Mud-eel) ........ p. 51

FROGS AND TOADS-ORDER SALIENTIA
1. Parotoid glands conspicuous, elevated ..... TOADS ................ 2
1'. Parotoid glands lacking ... FROGS ................... .. ..... 5
2 (1). Pupil of eye vertical; parotoids rounded ................... ... 3
2'. Pupil of eye round; parotoids ellipsoidal ................... .... 4
3 (2). Ground-color gray, olive, or brownish..... Scaphiopus holbrookii hol-
brooki (Spadefoot) ................... ... .... .... . .53
3'. Ground-color very pale, often nearly white..... Scaphiopus holbrookii
albus (Key West spadefoot) ........................ . p. 53
4 (2'). Parotoids with the long axis parallel to the long axis of the body; cranial
crests conspicuous ..... Bufo terrestris (Carolina toad) ........ p. 54
4'. Parotoids with the long axis oblique; cranial crests inconspicuous ....
Bufo quercicus (Oak toad) .............................. p. 54
5 (1'). Toes terminating in expanded adhesive disks . .............. .. 6
5'. Toes without expanded adhesive disks ................... .... .20
6 (5). Vomerine teeth in long transverse series behind nares ..... Eleutherodac-
tylus ricordii (Ricord's frog) ........................... p. 63
6'. Vomerine teeth in rounded patches .......................... 7
7 (6'). Disks on fingers and toes large and conspicuous; length of adult more than
18 mm ....................... ....................... 8
7'. Disks on fingers and toes small and inconspicuous, or length of adult less
than 18 mm. .......... ...............................15
8 (7). Fingers more or less webbed .......................... .. 9
8'. Fingers entirely free of web .... .. .............. ... 12
9 (8). Skin with rather large-warts ................................. 10
9'. Skin smooth, glandular, or pustulate; not warty. ............. 11
10 (9). Warts very close and numerous..... Hyla versicolor versicolor (Com-
mon tree-frog) ................ ... .. ..... . p. 61






32 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

10'. Warts few and scattered.....Hyla septentrionalis (Giant tree-
frog) .................. .......... ........... ...... p. 62
11 (9'). Tympanum small, its breadth divisible two and one-half times or more
into breadth of eye; dorsal pattern not of rounded spots.. Hyla
avivoca (Bird-voiced tree-frog) ................. .... p. 58
11'. Tympanum nearly or quite as large as eye; dorsal pattern of many large
rounded spots ... Hyla gratiosa (Bell-frog) ............. p. 60
12 (8'). Light line along upper jaw and usually along sides; back usually plain
or spotted ................... ...... ..... ....... .13
12'. No light line along upper jaw; back with blotches, bars or heavy lines 14
13 (12). Light line along sides (if present) broad and with definite borders; no
transverse bar between eyes.... Hyla cinerea cinerea (Green tree-
frog). .. ..... .. ... .. .... .............p. 58
13'. Light line along sides wavy and without definite borders; a transverse
bar between eyes.... Hyla squirella (Southern tree-frog). . .p. 61
14 (12'). Blotches on back irregular; hind surface of thigh with yellow markings
(white in preserved specimens) Hyla femoralis (Pine-woods tree-
frog) ........ .............. ..... ..... ........ p. 60
14'. Dorsal blotches forming an oblique cross; hind surface of thigh without
yellow or white markings. .... Hyla crucifer (Spring peeper). .p. 59
15 (7'). 'Toes fully webbed; tympanum indistinct; hind surface of thigh with
longitudinal bands ..... .cris gryllus (Cricket frog) .....p. 55
15'. Toes slightly webbed; hind surface of thigh without bands; tympanum
distinct. .. .........................................16
16 (15'). Muzzle rounded in profile; length of adult 21 mm. or more. .. .17
16'. Muzzle truncate in profile; length of adult 12 to 18 mm .... .Pseudacris
ocularis (Little grass frog). .. ....... .. ...... .. ...p. 57
17 (16). Skin rough and warty above. ...... .... .............. .. 18
17'. Skin smooth above .... Pseudacris ornata (Ornate winter-frog) p. 57
18 (17). Back with dark spots usually arranged in three irregular rows; no trian-
gular or transverse mark between eyes; ground-color above usually dark
grayish-brown to black. ................ ......... 19
18'. Back usually with three longitudinal stripes; a dark triangle or transverse
mark between eyes; ground-color of back often pinkish Pseud-
acris feriarum (Baird's swamp-frog) ........ ........ ...p. 56
19 (18). Maxillary stripe unbroken ..... Pseudacris nigrita nigrita (Black winter-
frog) ............. . .. ...... .. ......... ....... . p. 55
19'. Maxillary stripe broken to form a series of irregular dots and bars, or
lacking ..... Pseudacris nigrita verrucosa (Florida winter-frog) p. 56
20 (5'). Upper jaw toothless; tympanum hidden. ... Microhyla carolinensis
(Narrow-mouthed toad) ........ ................... p. 68
20'. Upper jaw with teeth; tympanum distinct ......... ........21
21 (20'). Dorsolateral ridges present. ................... ............. 22
21'. Dorsolateral ridges lacking ............... ....... . 24
22 (21). Back with large spots ............................... ... 23






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


22'. Back without large spots. .... Rana clamitans (Green frog) ... p. 65
23 (22). Head long and narrow; lateral folds narrow and extending to hip ....
Rana sphenocephala (Leopard frog) .................... .p. 67
23'. Head short and wide; lateral folds wide and not extending to hip.....
Rana capitol (Gopher frog) ............................. p. 63
24 (21'). Hind surface of thigh with longitudinal bar; web extending to ends of
toes .... Rana grylio (Southern bull-frog) ................ p. 66
24'. Hind surface of thigh mottled; web not extending to ends of toes. ... 25
25 (24'). Chin light, with irregular dark blotches; lower jaw light.....Rana
catesbeiana (Common bull-frog).. ................... ...p. 64
25'. Chin and edge of lower jaw slate-colored or smoky, with irregular white
blotches. Rana heckscheri (River-swamp frog) .........p. 66
LIZARDS-SUBORDER SAURIA
1. Limbs present .......... ....................... ...... 2
1'. Limbs lacking ................ ... ... ..... ...........20
2 (1). Toes dilated; scales minute, usually granular; body without six longitu-
dinal stripes ...................................... ...... 3
2'. Toes tapering, not dilated; scales large and easily discernible, or if fine
and granular, then body with six longitudinal stripes, or eyes without
lids ...... ....... ............ ....... 7
3 (2). Eyes without lids ................... . ...... .4
3'. Eyes with lids .................... ......... ...... ..... ...6
4 (3). Back without warts; pupil of eye round, or nearly so............... 5
4'. Back with wart-like tubercles; pupil of eye vertical. . Hemidactylus
turcicus (Warty gecko).... . ........................ .p. 70
5 (4). Dorsal scales keeled, about 7 from tip of snout to line drawn between
centers of eyes. ... Sphaerodactylus notatus (Reef gecko) .... p. 70
5'. Dorsal scales very small, 18 to 25 from tip of snout to line drawn
between centers of eyes; young with conspicuous red and white cross-
bands .. .Sphaerodactylus cinereus (Ashy gecko) . . .p. 71
6 (3'). Tail round, not keeled above .. ..Anolis carolinensis (Carolina
anole) ............... .. ..........................p.71
6'. Tail laterally compressed, keeled above.... .Anolis stejnegeri (Stej-
neger's anole) .... ... ....... ................. .p. 72
7 (2'). Scales on back tiny, granular ... ... ........................ 8
7'. Scales on back rough, or smooth and lustrous, not tiny and granular . .9
8 (7). Eyes without lids; body without longitudinal stripes ... Gonatodes
fuscus (Yellow-headed gecko) ............... ........p. 70
8'. Eyes with lids; body with six longitudinal stripes..... Cnemidophorus
sexlineatus (Six-lined race-runner) ........ .... ........ p. 74
9 (7'). Scales on back rough, keeled, and overlapping imbricatee) .......... 10
9'. Scales on back smooth and keel-less, not evidently imbricate ......... 14
10 (9). Body greatly flattened, its breadth greater than length of tail; head with
large heavy spines .. .Phrynosoma cornutum (Common horned-
toad) .............................................. p. 73






34 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. I

10'. Body not strikingly flattened, its breadth much less than length of normal
tail; spines on head not large and heavy. ... ........... .11
11 (10'). Tail laterally compressed and keeled above. .. Leiocephalus carinatus
virescens (Keeled lizard) ........ ................ .p. 72
11'. Tail rounded, or flattened above, not keeled .. .... ....... .12
12 (11'). The row of large scales above eye bordered by one row of small scales
on inner side and by two or three rows of small scales on outer side;
dorsal scales more than 35 from back of head to base of tail ...... 13
12'. The row of large scales above eye bordered by one row of small scales
on inner side and by one row of small scales on outer side; dorsal scales
33 or fewer from back of head to base of tail ....Sceloporus undu-
latus floridanus (Gulf coast pine-lizard) ................ p. 72
13 (12). Distance from base of fifth toe to tip of stretched fourth toe about equal
to distance from nostril to base of fore limb; lateral stripe usually
very conspicuous and usually brown; back often plain (occasionally
cross-striped); little or no black pigment present..... Sceloporus woodi
(Scrub pine-lizard) ................... ................ p. 73
13'. Distance from base of fifth toe to tip of stretched fourth toe much less
than distance from nostril to base of fore limb; back rarely plain,
usually with conspicuous undulating cross-bars; much black pigment
usually present ....Sceloporus undulatus undulatus (Eastern pine-
lizard) ....... ............ ....... .......... p. 72
14 (9'). Limbs not rudimentary; toes five ................... .. 15
14'. Limbs rudimentary; toes one or two. ....Ncoseps reynoldsi (Sand
skink) .................. ....... ................ p. 77
15 (14). Anterior margin of ear toothed; palate with teeth; lower eyelid scaled,
not transparent ... .. ......... ...... .... ....... 16
15'. Anterior margin of ear smooth; palate without teeth; lower eyelid partly
transparent. . Leiolopisma unicolor (Ground skink) .... ... p. 74
16 (15). Head with three supra-ocular scales......... ..... .... .... 17
16'. Head with four supra-ocular scales ... .......... 18
17 (16). Back with two narrow dorsolateral and two lateral lines reaching tail;
each dorsolateral line traversing median portion of second scale row
and separated from its fellow by two whole and two half rows of
scales; median dorsal row of scales much larger than adjoining rows
. Eumeces egregious (Baird's red-tailed skink) ...... p. 75
17'. Lines on back usually present anteriorly, but usually not reaching tail;
dorsolateral lines usually broader, lying on parts of two scale rows, and
if continuous posteriorly, occupying middle of third scale row, each
separated from its fellow by four whole and two half rows of scales;
median dorsal scales only slightly larger than adjoining rows
Eumeces onocrepis (Cope's red-tailed skink) ....... .. .p. 75
18 (16'). Median row of scales beneath tail distinctly wider than adjacent rows;
lines on head usually continuous with median line. . ..19






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


18'. Median row of scales beneath tail not wider than adjacent rows; head
lines usually not continuous with median line.....Eumeces inexpec-
tatus (T aylor's skink) ..................... .........p. 76
19 (18). Eye over fifth upper labial; 26 to 30 (usually 28) scale rows around
the body. .. Eumeces fasciatus (Blue-tailed skink) ....... .. p. 76
19'. Eye over sixth labial; 30 to 32 scale rows around the body ..... Eumeces
laticeps (Broad-headed skink) ........................... p. 76
20 (1'). Side with a conspicuous longitudinal fold; snake-like ..... Osphisaurus
ventralis (G lass-snake) ................................ p. 73
20'. Side without fold; worm-like .. .Rhineura floridana (Worm liz-
ard) ...................... .............. ...... p.77

SNAKES-SUBORDER SERPENTES5

1. No pit between eye and nostril. . ..... .... ...... 2
1'. A pit present between the eye and nostril ... 58
2 (1). Some of dorsal scales keeled. ........... 3
2'. None of dorsal scales keeled . . ....... .. 34
3 (2). Anal plate divided ............ ................ 4
3'. Anal plate single or entire... ... .. ........ 31
4 (3). Rostral turned up in front and keeled ........ .. ........ ..5
4'. Rostral not turned up in front and not keeled .............. 7
5 (4). Prefrontals in contact, at least posteriorly . ........ .......6
5'. Prefrontals separated by several small scales.... Heterodon simus
(Southern hog-nosed snake) ...... . ....... .. p. 79
6 (5). Internasals separated by a small scale .... Heterodon contortrix contor-
trix (Common hog-nosed snake) ........ .. ..... ...... p. 79
6'. Internasals in contact ..Heterodon contortrix brown (Brown's hog-
nosed snake) ................. ............... . p. 79
7 (4'). Loreal absent. ... ................. ......... 8
7'. Loreal present .... ....... ....... 10
8 (7). Scales in 15 rows at middle of body. ...... ...... 9
8'. Scales in 17 rows at middle of body.....Storeria dekayi (DeKay's
snake) ............ ..... p. 90
9 (8). Upper labials usually six; no rows of spots on belly.. .. Storeria occi-
pitomaculata (Red-bellied snake).. ..... ....... p. 91
9'. Upper labials seven; two rows of spots on belly . Storeria victa (Hay's
snake) . ......... ............ ... .. p. 90
10 (7'). A single internasal ...... ......... 11
10'. Two internasals. . ........... . 13
11 (10) (32') (45). A single postocular; five upper labials. .. Haldea striatula
(Ground snake) . ..... .. .. .......p. 92
Il'. Two postoculars; more than five upper labials .................. 12


"The following key to the snakes was prepared by Coleman J. Goin.






36 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

12 (11'). Anterior light bars not abruptly terminated dorsally; light bars on neck
separated medially by about three or four scale rows.....Farancia
abacura abacura (Horn-snake) . ................... .p. 78
12'. Anterior light bars abruptly terminated dorsally; light bars on neck sep-
arated medially by about eight or nine scale rows ..... Farancia abacura
reinwardtii (Schlegel's horn-snake) .................. p. 78
13 (10'). Preoculars absent ... ............................. . 14
13'. One or more preoculars present. ............................. 15
14 (13) (44'). Upper labials seven. . Abastor erythrogrammus (Rainbow
snake) ............................. .. .........p. 78
14'. Upper labials five .Haldea striatula (Ground snake) .. . .p. 92
15 (13'). M ore than 17 scale rows. .................. ................ 16
15'. Scales in 17 or fewer rows at middle of body ..... Opheodrys aestivus
(Rough green snake) ................... ...............p. 80
16 (15). Scales strongly keeled; usually three postoculars, or if only two, then less
than 25 scale rows ..................................... 17
16'. Scales weakly keeled; two postoculars and 25 to 33 scale rows ...... .26
17 (16). Scales in 19 or fewer rows ....... ................. ... . 18
17'. Scales in more than 19 rows. ............................ 19
18 (17). No ventrolateral light stripes present . .Natrix rigida (Rigid queen-
snake) ............................................. p. 89
18'. Ventral and ventrolateral light stripes present. . Natrix septemvittata
(Q ueen-snake) ..................................... p. 90
19 (17'). Scales in 21 rows. ................ ................ .20
19'. Scales in more than 21 rows................................ 21
20 (19). Dorsal surface spotted or unicolorous. .. Natrix sipedon compressicauda
(Salt w ater-snake) ................................. p. 88
20'. Dorsal stripes present, at least anteriorly ... Natrix sipedon clarkii
(Clark's water-snake) ...... .......... ..... p. 87
21 (19'). Scales in 23 to 25 rows............... ............... .... 22
21'. Scales in 27 to 33 rows (rarely 25) ......................... 24
22 (21). Body usually not unicolorous above in adults; fewer than 140 ventrals. 23
22'. Body unicolorous above in adults; more than 140 ventrals. .. .Natrix
erythrogaster erythrogaster (Red-bellied water-snake).. .......p. 89
23 (22). About 24 dorsal blotches on body; more than 128 ventrals .... Natrix
sipedon fasciata (Southeastern banded water-snake) ........... p. 87
23'. About 27 dorsal blotches on body; 128 or fewer ventrals . Natrix
sipedon pictiventris (Florida banded water-snake) ........... .p. 87
24 (21'). A single anterior temporal. ................................ 25
24'. Two anterior temporals. ... Natrix taxispilota (Brown water-snake) p. 89
25 (24). Lateral bars on body 41 to 49.....Natrix cyclopion cyclopion (Green
water-snake) ................... ................... .. p. 88
25'. Lateral bars on body 50 to 57..... Natrix cyclopion floridana (Florida
green water-snake) ................................. p. 88






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


26 (16'). A pair of bands from neck traversing parietal scales to meet on frontal
scale .................... ................ ........... 27
26'. No pair of bands from neck meeting on frontal ................ 28
27 (26). Ventral surface yellowish, checkered with black markings ... Elaphe
guttata (Corn snake) .. ................ ............ p. 81
27'. Ventral surface pinkish, not checkered with black..... Elaphe rosacea
(Red rat-snake) .................................... p.83
28 (26'). W ith a pattern of longitudinal stripes. ......................... 29
28'. Unicolorous, or with a pattern of dorsal blotches ................ 30
29 (28) (30). Venter yellow without bright orange spots. .. Elaphe quadrivittata
quadrivittata (Chicken-snake) ........ ................ ... 82
29'. Venter with distinct orange spots, chin and throat bright yellow or orange
..... Elaphe quadrivittata deckerti (Deckert's chicken-snake) . p. 82
30 (28'). Postocular dark line, when present, narrow and interrupted; caudals of
male 89 to 97, of female 69 to 95 ...........................29
30'. Postocular dark line broad and not interrupted; caudals of male 73 to 87,
of female 63 to 77.... Elaphe obsoleta confines (Blotched rat-
snake) .... ................ ....... .... ........... p. 82
31 (3'). Rostral not penetrating between internasals; fewer than 33 scale rows.. 32
31'. Rostral penetrating between internasals; 33 scale rows ..... Pituophis
mugitus (Florida pine-snake) .................. ....... ..p. 84
32 (31). Upper labials more than five ....................... .. .. 33
32'. Upper labials five........... .. ........................ 11
33 (32). Lateral stripe on fourth row of scales above ventrals. .... Thamnophis
sauritus sackenii (Southeastern ribbon-snake) .... ......... p. 92
33'. Lateral stripe not present on fourth row of scales anteriorly ..... Tham-
nophis sirtalis sirtalis (Eastern garter-snake) .......... . .p. 93
34 (2'). Anal plate entire ...................................... 35
34'. Anal plate divided ........................................ 43
35 (34). Same number of scale rows at middle as at posterior end of body. ..36
35'. More scale rows in middle of body than at posterior end ......... 38
36 (35). Scales in 19 rows. ................... ........... .......... 37
36'. Scales in 17 rows..... Drymarchon corals couperi (Indigo snake) p. 83
37 (36). Loreal present; parietal not in contact with upper labials. . Cemophora
coccinea (Scarlet snake) ................................ p. 86
37'. Loreal absent; parietal in contact with upper labials. . Stilosoma exten-
uatum (Short-tailed snake) ................... ..........p. 86
38 (35'). No red in pattern and no black-bordered brown or gray blotches on the
back ...............................................39
38'. Pattern with red or with dark-bordered brown or gray blotches on the
back ................. ..................... .........41
39 (38). Ground-color black with yellow, cream, or white cross-bands........ 40
39'. Cross-bands not distinctly discernible.... Lampropeltis getulus brooks
(Yellow king-snake) .................. .............. p. 85







38 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

40 (39). Fewer than 50 cross-bands; usually 21 scale rows..... Lampropeltis
getulus getulus (Eastern king-snake) ... ...... ........ p. 85
40'. More than 50 cross-bands; usually 23 scale rows ..... Lampropeltis
getulus floridana (Florida king-snake) ..... ............ .p. 86
41 (38'). More than 19 scale rows at middle of body ... .......... 42
41'. Not more than 19 scale rows at middle of body; red areas of back con-
tinuing onto belly .. Lampropeltis elapsoides elapsoides (Scarlet
king-snake) .............. .... .. ............ p. 84
42 (41). Dorsal blotches extending no lower than sixth row of scales .... Lam-
propeltis rhombomaculata (Brown king-snake) .......... p. 85
42'. Dorsal blotches extending to fifth or a lower row of scales. .. Lampro-
peltis triangulum triangulum (Milk snake) .... . p. 84
43 (34'). Scalesin 19to 23 rows. ..... ............ ....... 44
43'. Scales in fewer than 19 rows ... ............... .. .. .. 46
44 (43). A single internasal .............. ............ ..... 45
44'. T wo internasals ...... ................... ...... ... . 14
45 (44). Preocular absent ..... ......... ........ ....... 11
45'. Preocular present.. Liodytes alleni (Allen's mud-snake) ..... p. 92
46 (43'). Loreal present ... ......... ....... . 47
46'. Loreal absent .. . .... ........... ... ..... . .55
47 (46). Two or three preoculars present ..................... ... 48
47'. Preocular absent or only one present ................... ...... 51
48 (47). Two or more anterior temporals; lower preoculars very small..... 49
48'. A single anterior temporal; lower preocular moderate in size. ..... 50
49 (48). Scales in 15 rows at posterior end of body .. Coluber constrictor con-
strictor (Eastern black-snake) .. .. .p. 80
49'. Scales in 11 to 13 rows at posterior end of body .Coluber flagellum
flagellum (Coach-whip) ............ . p. 81
50 (48')(52). Nasal plate divided; usually a ring around neck; color not grass-
green above . Diadophis punctatus punctatus (Southeastern ring-
necked snake).. ............... .. ..... ...... p. 78
50'. Nasal plate not divided; no ring around neck; color grass-green above
.... Opheodrys vernalis (Smooth green snake) . 80
51 (47'). A single preocular present. ... ..... .. .. 52
51'. Preocular absent ........ ... ......... 54
52 (51). Fewer than 17 scale rows ........... .. ........ .....50
52'. Scales in 17 rows . .. . ........ .. .... . .. ... .. 53
53 (52'). Upper labials seven; more than 60 caudals; a dark line from rostral
through eye to last upper labial. .Rhadinaea flavilata (Yellow-
lipped snake) ........... .. .. ... p. 84
53'. Upper labials usually eight; caudals fewer than 60; no line through eye
Seminatrix pygaea (Red-bellied mud-snake) .. . p. 90
54 (51'). Scales in 15 rows; six upper labials present Haldea valeriae valeriae
(Eastern gray snake) . .. .......... p.91






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


54'. Scales in 13 rows; five upper labials present ..... Carphophis amoena
amoena (Eastern worm-snake) ................... .p. 77
55 (46'). Fewer than 190 ventral plates; coloration not in rings, no red mark-
ings.. .................. ............ ... ..... .. 56
55'. More than 200 ventral plates; coloration in rings of red, black and
yellow ................. .............................57
56 (55). Ventrals in male 131 to 141, in female 139 to 148; light band on back
of head well-defined..... Tantilla coronata coronata (Crowned
snake) ............. ............................... p93
56'. Ventrals in male 119 to 129, in female 123 to 145; light band on back
of head obliterated ..... Tantilla coronata wagneri (Florida crowned
snake) ............................................. p. 93
57 (55'). With black dots in the red bands on back ..... Micrurus fulvits fulvius
(Coral snake) ....... ..... ............... .... . . p. 94
57'. Without black dots in the red bands on back ..... Micrurus fulvius bar-
houri (Barbour's coral snake) .......... ... . . . .p. 94
58 (1'). No rattle or button on end of tail ............................ 59
58'. A rattle or button on end of tail ...................... ..... ...60
59 (58). Supralabials touching eye... gkistrodon piscivorus (Cottonmouth
m occasion) ...... . ... ..... ....... ........... p. 94
59'. Supralabials separated from eye by small scales . Agkistrodon mokasen
mokasen (Southeastern copperhead) ..... ............. p. 95
60 (58'). Top of head covered with small scales except for two large plates over
eyes ............. ......... .. ....... 61
60'. Top of head covered with about seven large plates. .. Sistrurus miliarius
barbouri (Southeastern ground-rattler) ............. ..... .p. 95
61 (60). With a chestnut-brown dorsal stripe and many brown dorsal blotches ....
Crotalus horridus atricaudatus (Canebrake rattlesnake) ........ p. 96
61'. Dorsal pattern consisting of diamond-shaped light-colored blotches ...
Crotalus adamanteus (Diamond-back rattlesnake) ... . . p. 95

TURTLES-ORDER TESTUDINATA
1. Limbs not developed as paddles; wrist and ankle joints movable .. ..2
1'. Limbs developed as paddles; wrist and ankle joints not movable ... .29
2 (1). Shell covered with horny plates .............................. .3
2'. Shell covered with a leathery skin ..... Amyda ferox (Southeastern soft-
shelled turtle) . . ............ ... .. .. ..... p. 107
3 (2). Tail less than half the length of shell; plastron more extensive, not cross-
shaped ........ ................. ... ....... ...... 4
3'. Tail more than half the length of shell; plastron very small, narrow and
cross-shaped .......... . . ......... . 10
4 (3). Pectoral plates of plastron not in contact with marginals ......... .5
4'. Pectoral plates in contact with marginals. ............. .. .12
5 (4). Suture between pectoral plates very short, the plates nearly triangular. .6
5'. Suture between pectoral plates not short, the plates oblong. ..... ... .9






40 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

6 (5). Carapace with three longitudinal light stripes; sides of head usually with
one or more longitudinal stripes ........... .... ... ..7
6'. Carapace without stripes; head not striped ................... ... 8
7 (6). Horny plates of carapace thick, opaque, not showing sutures between bony
plates beneath ... Kinosternon baurii baurii (Striped musk-tur-
tle) ............ ............ ..... .. ..... ..... p. 97
7'. Horny plates of carapace thin, translucent, showing sutures between bony
plates beneath .... Kinosternon baurii palmarum (Paradise Key musk-
turtle) ......... .. ... ......... ..... ....... . p.98
8 (6'). Bridge not narrow, its breadth usually half the length of fore lobe of
plastron or more .... Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum (Common
musk-turtle) ................... .. ............... ... p. 98
8'. Bridge narrow, its breadth usually contained 2.5 to 3 times in length of
fore lobe of plastron..... Kinosternon subrubrum steindachneri (Flor-
ida musk-turtle) .......... ....... .... ........... p. 99
9 (5'). Head with longitudinal light stripes. . Sternotherus odoratus (Stink-
jim) ................................. ............p. 97
9'. Head speckled, mottled or plain, not striped..... Sternotherus minor
(Loggerhead musk-turtle) ........ .............. p. 96
10 (3'). Eyes lateral, the orbits not discernible in dorsal aspect; a row of supra-
marginal scales above the marginals along each side. .... Macrochelys
temminckii (Alligator-turtle) ..... ... ...... .. ... p. 99
10'. Eyes dorsolateral, the orbits discernible in dorsal aspect; no supramar-
ginals ...... .... . .................. .. . ..........
11 (10'). Width of third vertebral plate less than one-third the length of the five
vertebrals; knobs of dorsal keels located well behind center of plates;
lateral caudal tubercles much less conspicuous than median tubercles
.. Chelydra s. serpentina (Eastern snapping-turtle) ........ p. 99
11'. Width of third vertebral plate one-third the length of the five vertebrals
or more; knobs of dorsal keels located nearer center of plates; lateral
caudal tubercles not much less conspicuous than median tubercles.....
Chelydra serpentina osceola (Florida snapping-turtle) ........ .p. 99
12 (4'). Plastron in two movable pieces, joined to the carapace by a flexible
suture ................................................13
12'. Plastron in a single piece, not movable, joined to the carapace by a bony
bridge ..... .. .... .. . ..... ................. 14
13 (12). Hind foot usually with three toes; highest point of carapace usually
behind middle; sides of head usually with longitudinal yellow stripes
... .Terrapene carolina bauri (Florida box-turtle) .........p. 100
13'. Hind foot usually with four toes; highest point of carapace usually at
middle; sides of head usually plain or irregularly spotted ... Terra-
pene carolina major (Gulf Coast box-turtle) ............... .p. 101
14 (12'). Fore limbs not club-like nor greatly thickened, usually smaller than hind
lim bs; m arginal plates 25 ............................... 15






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


14'. Fore limbs club-like, greatly thickened, larger than hind limbs; marginal
plates 24 ... Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher) .... ...... .p. 105
15 (14). Neck extremely long; distance from tip of snout to shoulder (when neck
is extended) about equal to length of plastron; hind surface of thigh
usually with conspicuous vertical stripes. . Deirochelys reticularia
(Chicken-turtle) ...................... ......... p. 105
15'. Neck not strikingly long; distance from tip of snout to shoulder about
equal to half the length of plastron...... ................... 16
16 (15'). Alveolar surface of upper jaw smooth or undulating, without a ridge or
regular row of tubercles extending longitudinally .............. 17
16'. Alveolar surface of upper jaw with a ridge or a regular row of tubercles
extending parallel to its edges. ........... .. . ......... 21
17 (16). Carapace smooth, with numerous small light spots scattered irregularly
over its surface ..... Clemmys guttata (Spotted turtle) ....... p. 100
17'. Carapace keeled, plain or with few regularly placed large spots . 18
18 (17'). Head and neck with longitudinal light lines; a light crescentic mark
behind eye ..... Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii (Gulf Coast
saw-back) .............. ............... ..... . p. 103
18'. Head and neck plain, spotted, or mottled........... .... .19
19 (18'). Some or all of plates of carapace with light (usually yellowish) central
areas. . Malaclemmys pileata macrospilota (Florida diamond-back
terrapin) ...... ..................... .......... p. 102
19'. Plates of carapace without light centers. .......... ............. .20
20 (19'). Color usually blackish or dark brown; vertebral keel usually tuberculate
S. . Malaclemmys pileata pileata (Gulf Coast diamond-back terra-
pin) ........................... .............. p. 102
20'. Ground-color usually grayish; vertebral keel low or nearly lacking, not
tuberculate .... Malaclemmys centrata centrata (Atlantic diamond-
back terrapin).......... . ...... .. . ......... p. 101
21 (16'). Hind margin of carapace smooth; carapace very low and smooth 22
21'. Hind margin of carapace serrate. .............. ...... . 23
22 (21). Carapace usually dark brownish or black; vertebral plates nearly in
same transverse line as costals; plastron usually without extensive dusky
figure ..... Chrysemys picta picta (Eastern painted turtle) .. p. 100
22'. Carapace usually olive or grayish; vertebral plates alternating with costals;
plastron usually with an extensive dusky figure. ...Chrysemys picta
dorsalis (Mississippi Valley painted turtle) ..... .........p. 100
23 (21'). Symphisis of upper jaw angular in anterior aspect, often notched, but
without cusps at sides of notch; side of head usually with conspicuous
yellow patch behind eye..... Pseudemys script script (Pond terra-
pin) ................ .. ........... .. ... ......... p. 105
23'. Symphisis of upper jaw not angular in anterior aspect, or upper jaw with
a median notch bordered by cusps. ................... . 24
24 (23'). Upper jaw normally smooth or slightly serrate at symphisis, not notched 25
24'. Upper jaw with a median notch bordered by a cusp on either side..... 28






42 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

25 (24). Plastron ornamented with a dusky figure ................... .. 26
25'. Plastron not marked. ...................................... 27
26 (25). Ground-color of head, limbs, and carapace black; stripes and reticulations
light greenish-yellow; two or three lines on outer surface of fore limb;
outer surface of hind limb not striped; five lines between eyes.....
Pseudemys floridana suwanniensis ("Suwannee chicken") ..... p. 104
26'. Ground-color of carapace, limbs, and head light to dark brown; stripes
and reticulations yellow, orange-yellow, or reddish; four or more
lines on outer surface of fore limb; outer surface of hind limb striped;
usually seven or more lines between eyes ..... Pseudemys floridana
mobiliensis (Mobile terrapin) ................ ....... p. 104
27 (25'). Side of top of head with two lines converging behind eye, to continue
anteriorly as a single line; blotches on lower marginals solid, smudge-
like; plastron (in life) greenish-white or light greenish-yellow ..
Pseudemys floridana peninsularis (Florida cooter) ........... p. 103
27'. Lines not converging on side of top of head; marginal blotches usually
with light centers; plastron (in life) yellow or orange-yellow ...
Pseudemys floridana floridana (Atlantic Coast cooter) ........p. 104
28 (24'). Stripes on sides and top of head (in area between lower edges of tympana)
usually four to six; upper marginals with one or two vertical or longi-
tudinal light bars; ground-color of carapace and soft parts sooty black
..... Pseudemys nelsoni (Nelson's terrapin) ...............p. 103
28'. Stripes on side and top of head usually 13 to 17; upper marginals with
concentric figures; ground-color of carapace and soft parts brownish
..... Pseudemys alabamensis (Alabama terrapin) ...........p. 103
29 (1'). Shell covered with horny plates .................. .... .. .30
29'. Shell covered with a leathery skin..... Dermochelys coriacea (Trunk-
back) ............... ................. ........... p. 107
30 (29). Top of head normally with seven smaller plates surrounding the larger
median plate; costal plates four on each side..... ........ .. 31
30'. Top of head with 13 or more small plates surrounding the large median
plate; costal plates five on each side........... .. .... . 32
31 (30). Check with 7 to 10 plates; plates of the carapace imbricated.... Eret-
mochelys imbricata (Hawk-bill) .... . .... ...... p. 106
31'. Cheek with 15 to 20 plates; plates of the carapace not imbricated ....
Chelonia mydas (Green turtle) ...................... . p. 106
32 (30'). Masticating surface of the jaws with ridges under the horny covering;
feet with three claws . Caretta kempii (Bastard loggerhead) p. 107
32'. Masticating surface of the jaws without ridges; feet with two claws ..
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead) ......... p. 106






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


ANNOTATED LIST OF THE AMPHIBIA AND REPTILIA OF FLORIDA
One hundred and sixty-two species and subspecies of reptiles and amphibians are
here recognized as occurring in Florida. About ninety-nine percent of the forms
listed are represented by Florida specimens now in the collections of various institu-
tions. The remaining names are included on the basis of well authenticated records
published by reliable herpetologists.
In the annotations, I have made no attempt to present all the published informa-
tion pertaining to a given form in Florida; the notes are for the most part observa-
tions on habits or life histories taken from my own journals. A single literature
reference for each form is given for the convenience of the uninitiated reader who
may be interested in securing additional information.
Most of the records used in defining Florida ranges are based upon specimens
personally examined; a few represent critically selected records from reliable sources
in the literature and my own observations in the field.
The nomenclature and taxonomic sequence employed are essentially those of
Stejneger and Barbour (1939), in a few instances modified in accordance with evi-
dence furnished by Florida material.

AMPHIBIA

ORDER CA UDA TA-SALAMANDERS

Necturus sp.
MUD-PUPPY
One Florida specimen, collected by O. C. Van Hyning in Thomas Millpond,
eight miles south of Marianna, Jackson County, May 22, 1933, and now in Mr.
Van Hyning's private collection.

Amphiuma means Garden
CONGO EEL
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state except, apparently, in the
Apalachicola River and tributaries. Known from the following counties: Escam-
bia, Columbia, Alachua, St. Johns, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Hernando, Volusia,
Brcvard, Indian River, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Drainage ditches, bayhead streams, and sphagnum bogs.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal. More active than Siren and a more energetic pre-
dator. The adults are ill-natured and bite readily with painful effect. One which
I found January 19, 1935, under two feet of sphagnum and mud, was apparently
hibernating. Often occupies the same habitats as Liodytes alleni, in which the cray-
fish Cambarus fallax is almost invariably found. O. P. Hay, in Cope (1889) men-
tions the "voice" of Amphiuma; I have heard several individuals emit feeble peeps.
Feeding.-The young feed on Amphipoda, Palaemonetes, and aquatic insects and
their larvae. Apparently any animal that can be captured and swallowed is eaten






44 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

by the adults, though soft crayfish, salamanders, and small frogs seem to be taken
most frequently. I believe the foraging range is unusually extensive for a sala-
mander; I have watched them swim and crawl long distances along ditches, even
emerging occasionally to crawl about on the mud. Often found in crayfish burrows.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 216.


Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier
THREE-TOED CONGO EEL
Florida Range.-Jackson County and possibly Liberty and Gadsden counties.
Habitat.-Spring runs, spring-fed brooks, and calcareous swamps.
Abundance.-Locally common.
Habits.-Apparently nocturnal; partly fossorial.
Feeding,-J. D. Kilby found them foraging on the bottom of a small stream
near Quincy; he caught three on hook-and-line with bacon bait at night. Common
in holes and crevices in the steep rocky banks of Blue Spring Creek, Jackson County,
just below the dam; here we found them feeding on crayfish (Cambarus spiculifer)
after dark; the heads of at least a dozen individuals protruded from holes among
roots and between rocks where they undoubtedly awaited the crayfish feeding on the
sandy bottom. Occasionally one would partially emerge and vibrate its head slowly
back and forth; a soft crayfish lowered on a hook was seized savagely, the Amphiuma
retreating instantly into its den; a forty-pound test line was broken twice in the
attempt to dislodge two of the larger individuals. The feeding behavior reminded
me very much of the activities of some moray eels that I watched one night in a
rocky ditch on the Lower Keys. An enraged forty-inch tridactylum is unpleasant
to handle.
NOTE.-It has long been evident to me that the characters used to separate A.
means and A. tridactylum show considerable overlapping in northern Florida. In a
recent study in which much of the material available in collections was examined,
Goin (1938) has found what appear to be intergrades from Florida, Louisiana and
Mississippi. Although no Florida specimen of tridactylum was found in Goin's
investigation, I am convinced that it does occur here-in the Apalachicola drainage in
Jackson County, at least. Unfortunately, six specimens, collected by John Kilby
and myself, from this area (from which Goin had no material), escaped through a
hole in the sack in which we were carrying them before they could be preserved.
These specimens, identified in the field as tridactylum, differed strikingly in appear-
ance, habits, and disposition from means from peninsular Florida; and as I recall,
the toes were rather consistently three in number. Since several other northern and
Mississippi Valley forms have invaded the state in the Apalachicola Basin, it is not
surprising to find that the population of Amphiuma in that area has its closest affinities
with tridactylum rather than with the populations of means occupying adjacent areas
to the cast and west of it.
Although I have here followed the check-list in naming these forms, I believe
that Goin's suggestion that they are races of one species will eventually be accepted.
Reference.-Goin (1933), p. 127.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Triturus viridescens symmetrica (Harlan)
STRIPED NEWT
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Leon, Duval, Alachua, St. Johns, Hernando, Orange and Seminole.
Habitat.-Eft: High and mesophytic hammocks in light, porous soil. Larvae
and adult: Ponds and the more permanent drainage ditches.
Abundance.-Somewhat less common than T. louisianensis.
Habits.-The land form is apparently little affected by lack of moisture; I have
scratched them out of dry, powdery piles of beetle frass; several were taken along a
railroad embankment under cross-ties.
Breeding.-H. K. Wallace and I seined fifty-two individuals out of a fluctuating
pond near Gainesville, the night of February 14, 1933. The females were all gravid
and the eggs apparently ripe; fertilization had not taken place, however. Wesley
Clanton and I collected several in a small woods pond near Chuluota, Seminole
County, January 19, 1935.
Reference.-Schmidt (1924), p. 67.

Triturus louisianensis Wolterstorff
LOUISIANA NEWT
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Jackson, Liberty, Leon, Bradford, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Semi-
nole, Pasco, Pinellas, Indian River, Sarasota, Charlotte, Collier, Monroe and Dade.
Habitat.-Eft: Under loose bark and in sandy loam in high and mesophytic
hammocks. Larvae and adult: Ponds and drainage ditches; preferably, hut not
necessarily, those in which submerged vegetation (Ceratophyllum, Chara, Utricularia)
is abundant.
Abundance.-Common; at times locally very abundant.
Habits.-On the night of October 26, 1935, we found hundreds of them walk-
ing about on the mud and matted Chara in one end of a pond in Levy County; the
pond was in the process of drying up and the newts appeared to be abandoning it.
Some were found two hundred yards from the water's edge.
Breeding.-February 14, 1933; females with ripe, unfertilized eggs in a pond
near Gainesville.
NoTE.-Although this form is very close to T. viridescens, I have never seen
any evidence of intcrgrading between the two. In north-central Florida, where the
ranges overlap, the two forms show very nearly the same ecological distribution,
occasionally breeding in the same ponds at the same time, but also often breeding
separately. Unless intermediates are found it seems advisable to retain the binomial
for louisianensis.
Reference.-Wolterstorff (1914), p. 383.
4






46 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Ambystoma cingulatum Cope
RINGED SALAMANDER
Six Florida specimens: two from Jacksonville, collected by R. F. Deckert, No-
vember 2, 1912, (USNM 49,431-2), and four from Pensacola, collected by Colonel
Deas (MCZ 204 and 229). The Jacksonville specimens are uniform black in color,
showing no trace of the light transverse dorsal bars described by Cope (1889) and
present in the Pensacola examples.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 100 (as Chondrotus cingulatus).


Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst)
MARBLED SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Jackson County.
Habitat.-Swamps and bottom land; under logs.
Abundance.-Rare and locally distributed.
Habits.-O. C. Van Hyning collected several under logs in the bed of the
Chipola River, Jackson County, when the water was low.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 54 (as Amblystoma opacum).


Ambystoma talpoideum (Holbrook)
MOLE SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Jackson, Leon, Alachua and
Lake counties.
Habitat.-High and mesophytic hammocks in sandy loam.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-Fossorial; rarely seen except during breeding season. I have found
several in extensive tunnel systems under logs; it seems doubtful that the salamanders
construct these tunnels, however, since I have twice found them occupied by short-
tailed shrews (Cryptotis floridanus). One was dug up in sandy soil near Rocky
Point, Alachua County, a quarter of a mile from water. They are surprisingly
resistant to dessication.
Breeding.-Usually not seen around ponds except during late winter and early
spring. On February 14, 1933, H. K. Wallace and I collected six males and four
females in a shallow pond near Gainesville. They were placed in a small aquarium
and some or all of the females laid eggs during the night.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 52 (as Amblystoma talpoideum).


Ambystoma texanum (Matthes)
SMALL-MOUTHED SALAMANDER
One Florida specimen, collected at Pensacola by Sidney Resmonds, February 25,
1929; DBUF 344.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 104 (as Chondrotus texanus).






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Ambystoma tigrinum (Green)
TIGER SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Madison, Union, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Sumter, Citrus and Hernando.
Habitat.-High and mesophytic hammock in sandy loam.
Abundance.-Rare; I have seen only five Florida specimens.
Habits.-Either extremely rare throughout its Florida range or almost entirely
fossorial. One was found in a long burrow under a log on the edge of Payne's
Prairie in a dry oak hammock; three other specimens have been ploughed up by
farmers. G. Van Hyning and Ross Allen found large larvae in a pond on the Ocala
golf course in November, 1933. I kept one of these for over three months in an
aquarium; it ate earthworms and Palaemonetes readily and eventually died, appar-
ently from gluttony, without showing any evidence of imminent transformation.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 68 (as Amhlystoma tigrinum).


Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw)
SPOTTED SALAMANDER
One Florida specimen, from Candler, Marion County, in the collection of the
Museum of Zoblogy, University of Michigan.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 56 (as Amblystoma punctatum).


Plethodon glutinosus (Green)
SLIMY SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Jackson, Gadsden, Leon, Clay, Alachua, Marion,
Hillsborough and Pinellas.
Habitat.-Mesophytic hammock; humid woods generally in well-drained soil;
in and under rotting logs.
Abundance.-Frequently found, but nowhere in great numbers.
Habits.-Nocturnal; terrestrial-probably less dependent upon the proximity of
water than any other Florida salamander. Active and agile in eluding capture. In
Torreya Ravine, Liberty County, I found that nearly every recumbent log in the
proper stage of decay was tunneled with the burrows of this creature; the tunnels
were about 2-inch in diameter and in some instances four or five feet long. One
Plethodon, which I flushed near a log, dashed madly over the leaf mold, mounted
and ran along the log for several feet, and disappeared in the mouth of one of these
tunnels. Several times at night I have observed them on the rocky, moss-covered
walls of sink-holes around Gainesville. C. J. Goin collected seven specimens in
the oak hammock around Salt Springs, Marion County; he informs me that although
the weather was warm, the salamanders made almost no effort to escape, and that
the slimy exudation, usually so copious, was scarcely noticeable.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 136.






48 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1
,
Eurycea quadridigitata quadridigitata (Holbrook)
DWARF SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Jackson, Liberty, Leon, Baker, Alachua, Dixie, Levy, Lake and Seminole.
Habitat.-Sphagnum beds; bayheads, swamp streams and hammock ponds; under
logs and loose bark.
Abundance.-Not rare; often numerous in sphagnum beds during the spring
months.
Iabits.-Occasionally abundant in water under logs at the water's edge and around
the edges of sphagnum pools from January to April. In the summer and fall the
adults are often found some distance from water. Twice I have seen them walking
about in the open at night-apparently foraging. Lbnnberg's statement (1894)
that they live in "localities similar to those which are frequented by Leiolopisma
laterale" is misleading in that E. quadridigitata has a much more restricted habitat
than Leiolopisma.
Feeding.-Amphipods were taken from the stomachs of several larvae; beetle
larvae appear to be the commonest food of the adult; spiders, adult beetles, and earth-
worms are also taken frequently.
Breeding.-My observations on oviposition are at variance with those previously
published. Brimley (1923) found the eggs of this species at Raleigh, N. C. (Dec.
23, 1922). He writes, "The eggs were scattered about among the. leaves in the
winter. .mostly singly, but occasionally in groups of from three to six They
did not, however, adhere to each other in any way nor did they adhere to the
leaves any more than other similarly wet and gelatinous substances would naturally
do." I found three sets of eggs in a pond near Gainesville, January 15, 1935; each
clutch was composed of about twenty eggs cemented firmly to the under side of a log
lying in shallow water, and arranged in a single layer as in E. b. cirrlgera. Young
larvae are found regularly in Alachua County, in March and April.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 331.

Eurycea quadridigitata remifer (Cope)
FLORIDA DWARF SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-The coastal strip east of the St. Johns River. Known from
Duval, Volusia, Brevard and Indian River counties.
Habitat.-Sphagnum beds; bayheads, swamp streams, and hammock ponds; under
logs and loose bark.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-Probably those of E. q. quadridigitata. Several were found in water
in a sphagnum bog in Brevard County, January 19, 1935.
NOTE.-This seems to me at best a very poorly differentiated race. The darker
ground color, a diagnostic character of remifer, is regularly duplicated by a meta-
chromatic phase shown by quadridigitata, and the long vomerine tooth series is shared
extensively by quadridigitata from adjacent portions of the peninsula. If this East
Coastal race is valid it appears logical to consider it a relict, developed on the archi-







CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


pelago which lay along the East Coast during the Pleistocene. It is difficult for
me to regard the St. Johns River (the northern and western limit of the range that
has been attributed to the race) as a barrier between remifer and the typical form. I
should prefer to assume that remifer is in the process of being absorbed by (or of
absorbing) quadridigitata rather than being differentiated through isolation with the
St. Johns as a barrier.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 336 (as E. q. remifera).


Eurycea bislineata cirrigera (Green)
SOUTHEASTERN STRIPED SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties: Es-
cambia, Okaloosa, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon and Dixie.
Habitat.-Rheocrene springs and calcareous swamp streams; under rocks and
logs.
Abundance.-Common in Torreya Ravine, Liberty County.
Habits.-Active at night, and often found walking about on the damp leaf-mold
on dark days; I saw several at dusk emerging from small burrows in the clay of the
ravine walls.
Breeding.-November 17, 1933, Liberty and Jackson counties; females gravid;
males with swollen cirri; I found a mass of fifty eggs cemented in one layer to the
under surface of a stone in running water [cf. oviposition of E. b. hislineata, Wilder
in Dunn (1926)].
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 307.


Eurycea longicauda guttolineata (Holbrook)
SOUTHERN LONG-TAILED SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-The eastern portion of the Panhandle. Known from Jackson,
Gadsden, Liberty and Leon counties.
Habitat.-Low hammock and gum swamps; under logs and in crevices among
rocks.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-Nocturnal, ranging farther from water than most of our salamanders.
I saw two at night, high up on the limestone sides of a sink-hole near Marianna,
Jackson County. Active and extremely difficult to catch.
Reference.--Dunn (1926), p. 327.


Pseudotriton montanus flavissimus (Hallowell)
SOUTHEASTERN DOTTED SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Santa Rosa, Jackson, Alachua,
and possibly Seminole counties.
Habitat.-Helocrene springs, seepage areas, and small, sand-bottom hammock
streams.






50 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Abundance.-Generally rare; I saw it for the first time in April, 1936, after
watching for it for five years; during April and the following May eight specimens
were collected from three localities near Gainesville.
Habits.-Most of my specimens were taken in mucky seepage areas just at the
point of contact between the leaf-mold and the white sand beneath, and usually among
begonia roots. A tiny larva (22 mm.) was found in the sandy bottom of a rill
draining a seepage area; another large one, with only a trace of gills, was taken with
the adults. A large female was disgorged by a gartersnake (T. s. sirtalis); the snake
was emerging from a begonia patch when collected.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 291.

Pseudotriton ruber vioscai Bishop
VIOSCA'S RED SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-The Apalachicola drainage. Known from Jackson, Gadsden
and Liberty counties.
Habitat.-Springs and spring-fed brooks; leaf-mold or under logs near water.
Abundance.-Not common.
Itabits.-Secretive; very aquatic; never found far from springs. Apparently
confined to the Panhandle ravines. I took several larvae in a little spring near the
head of Torreya Ravine, Liberty County, April 11, 1935; some of these were very
young and a few were almost ready to emerge.
Feeding.-In ten stomachs there were found, in order of frequency: dytiscid
larvae, haliplid larvae, plant remains, dytiscid beetles, pebbles, dipterous larvae, hell-
grammites (Corydalis larvae).
NOTE.-This form is certainly different from northern ruber. Goin (Copeia,
in press) points out its agreement with Bishop's race.
Reference.-Goin (1939).

Desmognathus fuscus fuscus (Rafinesque)
DUSKY SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-The eastern portion of the Panhandle. Known from Jackson,
Gadsden, Liberty and Leon counties.
Habitat.-Helocrene springs and spring-fed brooks; in or under logs and under
rocks in or near the stream beds.
Abundance.-Locally very common.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal, but active in the dark ravine-bottoms in Liberty
County during the day. More energetic, resourceful and pugnacious than D. f.
auriculatus; also less lucifugous and thigmotactic. They traverse relatively large
areas in foraging. I caught a large female which was attempting to swallow a strug-
gling immature of the same species with fair promise of success. They show fight
when irritated-a trait that I have observed but rarely in D. f. auriculatus.
NOTE.-In Leon County D. f. fuscus is found in the ravines and D. f. auriculatus
along the lower streams. I have never seen an intergrade here. However, I have
little doubt that the range of northern fuscus is confluent with that of the Apalachicola






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


fuscus along the Flint and Apalachicola River floodplains. It also seems probable that
a detailed comparison of Florida and Piedmont specimens may show racial differences.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 81.

Desmognathus fuscus auriculatus (Holbrook)
SOUTHEASTERN DUSKY SALAMANDER
Florida Range.-Northern and North-Central Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Okaloosa, Jackson, Liberty, Leon, Jefferson, Taylor, Baker, Clay,
Dixie, Levy, Alachua, Putnam, Volusia, Marion, Lake and Seminole.
Habitat.-Mesophytic and low hammock in seepage areas; under logs in or near
swamp and hammock streams.
Abundance.-Common; locally very numerous.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal. Rarely found far from water. In a small, steep-
walled ravine in Gainesville, I saw several peering out of or emerging from small,
circular openings in the bank four or five feet above the stream; from their size and
structure the dens appeared to have been built by the salamanders themselves. April
12, 1936: I sifted several dozen 30-35 mm. larvae from sand in the bottom of a
tiny hammock stream behind the University of Florida campus; some of these had
burrowed three or four inches deep.
Feeding.-I have found the following food items taken regularly (listed in their
order of frequency): aquatic coleopterous larvae, lumbriculid worms, Coleoptera,
tabanid larvae, lycosid spiders, tipulid larvae.
Reference.-Dunn (1926), p. 97.

Siren intermedia LeConte
LECONTE'S MUD-EEL
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Escambia, Union and
Alachua counties.
Habitat.-All my Florida specimens have come from flatwoods ponds and drain-
age ditches.
Abundance.-Less common than lacertina.
Habits.-I found one beneath a log in shallow water at the edge of a cypress pond;
Horton Hobbs took one under a similarly located log in a short tunnel constructed
by a crayfish.
Feeding.-Of twelve stomachs of young examples examined, six contained only
plankton (Cladocera, copepods, and rotifers); in the remaining six were found plank-
ton, amphipods, cranefly larvae and pupae, and lumbriculid worms.
Reference.-Noble and Marshall (1932).

Siren lacertina Linnaeus
MUD-EEL
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Duval, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Or-
ange, Pinellas, Indian River, Charlotte, Lee, Palm Beach and Dade.






52 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Habitat.-Tangles of emergent and floating vegetation in bonnet (Nymphaea)
marshes, drainage ditches, and shallow ponds and lakes.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Nocturnal; generally mild in temperament-even a three-foot adult
rarely attempts to bite. The voice is rather well developed. One year about five
acres of an arm of Payne's Prairie went completely dry; the deep peat bottom deposit,
after a week's exposure to the sun, hardened on the surface and imprisoned several
dozen Sirens in small spherical chambers beneath the crust. Each of the chambers com-
municated with the surface of the crust through a vertical tunnel whose diameter
was less than that of the confined mud-eel's body, and which thus offered the animal
no means of egress. On approaching some of these holes we were astonished to
hear plaintive yelps issuing from them; several of the creatures continued to emit
these mournful cries after we had dug them out. The sounds reminded me of the
call of Hyla c. cinerea heard from a distance. Sometimes the young may be found
in abundance among water-hyacinth roots. Both young and adults frequently jump
clear of the surface of the water when pursued by a predator or alarmed by a wader
in shallow water.
Feeding.-Crayfish are a favorite food with the adults, though it is probable that
they eat any animal which does not require too much skill to capture. I watched
three half-grown individuals feeding on fresh-water shrimp (Palaemoneies) at night
in a bonnet marsh in Lake County. The shrimp were present in large numbers; the
Sirens crawled slowly along the bottom, snapping rather ineffectually each time their
snouts came in contact with a shrimp. About one snap in ten was successful.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 226.


Pseudobranchus striatus (LeConte)
STRIPED MUD-EEL
Florida Range.-Generally distributed except in the western portion of the Pan-
handle. Known from the following counties: Leon, Alachua, Lake, Orange, St.
Lucie, Sarasota, Charlotte and Dade.
Habitat.-Marshes; hyacinth beds in shallow water; ponds and canals in sub-
merged vegetation.
Abundance.-Locally common.
Habits.-Pseudobranchus may be collected most successfully by rolling up mats
of water-hyacinths in shallow ponds and around the edges of marshes; two or three
dozen specimens may often be secured in an afternoon in this manner. The "voice"
of this species is proportionally as well developed and as frequently heard as that of
S. lacertina; individuals which are picked up or whose tails are squeezed with forceps
often yelp faintly. They have been found hibernating in deep mud.
Feeding.-In twenty-five stomachs, only amphipods and chironomid larvae
were found.
Breeding.-I have found the eggs throughout the spring months attached singly
to the filamentous leaves of Cabomba and Ceratophyllum and to water-hyacinth roots.
Reference.-Cope (1889), p. 230.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


ORDER SALIENTIA-FROGS AND TOADS

Scaphiopus holbrookii holbrookii (Harlan)
SPADEFOOT
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Suwannee, Duval, St. Johns, Alachua, Marion, Lake,
Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard, Charlotte, Lee and Dade.
Habitat.-High hammock; pine and cutover hills; dry flatwoods; mixed and
mesophytic hammock where there is no great accumulation of humus.
Abundance.-Fairly common; on the night of January 12, 1932, I collected
over a hundred in an oak hammock near Gainesville.
Habits.-On winter nights they emerge from their holes about eight-thirty or
nine o'clock; even in an area thickly populated with spadefoots it is very unusual to
find one in the open before eight p. m. By nine, many may be seen peering from
the mouths of their burrows or seated a few inches from them; these individuals,
when frightened, almost always back hurriedly into the openings to escape. As the
night progresses the toads wander farther away from their holes; at such times,
danger is met by crouching or by attempting to conceal themselves in emergency
excavations. If a strange burrow is at hand, refuge is often taken in it. Frequently
I have seen large individuals trying to force their hind quarters into burrows much
too small for them. I once saw two full-grown females struggling frantically to
enter a hole not a third the diameter of their bodies, while the half-grown owner
of the burrow made futile attempts to squeeze between the pair.
Feeding.-Stomach contents of 100 specimens taken in live-oak and mesophytic
hammock near Gainesville, January 12, 1932 (the figures represent percentages of
total bulk of contents): Gastropoda, 2.3; Myriapoda, 25.6; Lepidoptera, 11.6;
Orthoptera, 27.9; Arachnida, 9.3; Coleoptera, 18.6; vegetable, 2.3; unidentified
and sand, 2.3.
Breeding.-From the summer months to middle October, usually in temporary
water during heavy storms. From my journal, September 1, 2, and 3, 1935; Pinel-
las County: "Gray rainy weather and hurricane winds on 2nd. Streets of Tarpon
Springs flooded and Scaphiopus everywhere. In lower sections of town, where back-
yards and vacant lots are under water, the toads float about among the chickens and
ducks; their snarling croaks amount to a deep, incessant roar which the citizens
complain keeps them awake at night and drives them crazy by day. Several species
of gulls have come inland and dive among the spadefoots, occasionally carrying one
away."
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 42.

Scaphiopus holbrookii albus (Garman)
KEY WEST SPADEFOOT
Florida Range.-Key West.
Habitat.-Distributed throughout Key West; commonest in vacant lots, espe-
cially on the south end of the island.






54 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Abundance.-Fairly common.
Breeding.-August 15, 1933, during a violent rainstorm.
NoTEs.-Spadefoots taken from sparsely vegetated areas of sterile white sand (St.
Lucie Sand) in northern and central Florida are often, if not usually, just as light
in color as any that I have seen in Key West. Some of these (from an old-dune
region southeast of Gainesville) which I placed in a cage on dark soil almost imme-
diately assumed the olive and brownish coloration of typical holbrookii. Garman
(1884) claims that albus is smaller than holbrookii; I have not found this to be true.
Wright (1933), who considers albus a "doubtful sub-species," states that its interor-
bital distance is narrower than that of the typical form. The habits of the two
seem to me to be identical, and I can detect no differences in the voices.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 43.


Bufo quercicus Holbrook
OAK TOAD
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Liberty, Baker, Duval, Alachua, Dixie, Marion, Lake,
Orange, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard, Manatee,
Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Palm Beach, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-All types of pine flatwoods, high pine, and less typically high hammock
and rosemary scrub.
Abundance.-Very common, though rather inconspicuous except during the breed-
ing season.
Habits.-Chiefly diurnal in habit except when breeding. They may be found
hopping about in the day time throughout the year, but I never saw one at night
except during the summer breeding migrations. They apparently move about more
than terrestris, and are common in dry pine hills where permanent bodies of water
are several miles apart. In cold weather I have found them in rotten oak logs and
under pine bark.
Breeding.-April 1 to September 5. Violent summer thunder showers bring
them out in tremendous numbers. From my journal, July 14, 1935: "Driving
across Lake, Sumter, Citrus, and Hernando counties. Mid-day; raining pretty
steadily for past week; B. quercicus calling everywhere. Apparently it takes more
rain to bring them out in full force than any other of our frogs except Scaphiopus.
Today I believe it would be possible to cross Central Florida by car and at no time
be in a situation where the calls of quercicus were not audible."
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 72.


Bufo terrestris Bonnaterre
CAROLINA TOAD
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Walton, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Suwannee,
Nassau, Duval, Alachua, Dixie, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard,






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Indian River, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Palm
Beach, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; perhaps most abundant in open, high and mixed
hammock.
A.bundance.-Very common.
Habits.-Nocturnal, hiding during the day under logs, beneath loose bark, in rock
piles, etc. Wherever there is an abnormal or unusual congregation of insects an
assemblage of toads also may generally be found. Thus they gather around exposed
lights, manure piles, and the margins of lakes and ponds in which mayflies and
chironomids are emerging. They occur regularly in ruderal situations, especially
in newly ploughed ground and in flower beds, greenhouses, and truck gardens.
Breeding.-March 25 to September 5, characteristically in temporary pools and
flooded meadows.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 74.

Acris gryllus (LeConte)
CRICKET FROG
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Jackson, Leon, Baker, Duval, Alachua, Levy, Marion,
Putnam, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Hillsborough, Polk, Brevard, Manatee, Sarasota,
Charlotte, St. Lucie, Lee, Hendry, Glades, Palm Beach and Dade.
Habitat.-Almost any aquatic situation; commonest in marshes and ditches with
shallow margins choked with hydrophytes.
Abundance.-Very common.
Habits.-Somewhat similar to R. sphenocephala in habits and behavior. They
are alert, agile and difficult to catch when alarmed. They seem to be most abundant
in ponds covered over with the leaves of penny-wort, frogbit and Utricularia, or with
mats of filamentous algae; here the light-bodied frogs rest or hop about on the
floating vegetation, and individuals sing sporadically throughout the day and night
in warm weather. I have found cricket frogs several times in an orange grove on
a hill two or three hundred yards from the nearest lake.
Feeding.-I have watched them feeding on mayflies, emerging midges, and
chironomids. They show singularly little judgment in the selection of their prey,
often attacking damselflies and other insects almost large enough to fly away with
them, and much too big to be swallowed.
Breeding.-They may breed during any month of the year. The eggs are laid in
very shallow water, often among semiaquatic or terrestrial vegetation which has been
temporarily inundated.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 80.

Pseudacris nigrita nigrita (LeConte)
BLACK WINTER-FROG
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Liberty, Leon and Alachua
counties.







56 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, NO. 1

Habitat.-Pine flatwoods; high and mixed hammock.
Abundance.-Not common; very rarely seen except at the breeding sites.
Habits.-During late winter and early spring nigrita is occasionally seen in the
open in the daytime along grassy pond margins or among damp leaves in woods near
water, and may be found in such places as late as the first of May. Little is known
of their habits during the rest of the year. Specimens kept in captivity have almost
invariably burrowed deep into the soil in the bottoms of their cages after a few days
of confinement. I have uncovered three or four individuals in pulling up grass
and weeds on the bank of a small pond near Gainesville. It seems possible that the
species leads an almost wholly subterranean existence.
Feeding.-I have watched great numbers of recently emerged young and several
adults catching grasshopper nymphs in short grass at the edges of ponds. The feeding
behavior is very similar to that of Acris.
Breeding.-January 16 to April 2, in temporary flatwoods ponds and ditches and
in the shallow margins of cypress ponds. January and February choruses occur
almost always in company with those of P. ornata. The young emerge in April and
May. They often remain for several weeks about the ponds from which they
emerged.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 86.


Pseudacris nigrita verrucosa (Cope)
FLORIDA WINTER-FROG
Florida Range.-Peninsular Florida. Known from the following counties:
Alachua, Duval, Volusia, Marion, Putnam, Sumter, Lake, Hernando, Pinellas, Polk,
St. Lucie, Charlotte, Lee, Collier, Broward and Dade.
Ilabitat.-Flatwoods; prairie lands of the south-central peninsula.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-Apparently similar to those of nigrita.
Breeding.-February to August 15, in cypress ponds, flooded meadows, drainage
ditches in the muck land around Lake Okeechobee, and in "pot-holes" and ditches in
the South Florida limestone. The call is similar to that of nigrita, but the individual
crepitations come much faster-perhaps twice as fast-and to some extent suggest
the song of feriarum.
Reference.-Brady and Harper (1935).


Pseudacris feriarum (Baird)
BAIRD'S SWAMP-FROG
Florida Range.-Liberty County. The authenticity of a specimen in the Museum
of Comparative Zo6logy (No. 2371) labelled "Hillsborough County" appears to
me very doubtful.
Habitat.-Low hammock; river and creek floodplains and swamps.
Abundance.-Apparently common locally; four of us took thirty in about an
hour in the Apalachicola floodplain in Liberty County (April 12, 1935).







CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Breeding.-I heard the voice of this frog for the first time on the afternoon
of April 11, 1935, in a flooded swamp along Sweetwater Creek, Liberty County;
six or eight males were calling sporadically at three p. m., when a light rain was
falling. I returned to the swamp after dark and found a small but enthusiastic
chorus. The singing males were all resting on tussocks or partially submerged logs
or roots; two females were swimming about among floating debris. About noon
the next day we found them hopping on leaf mold in a low hammock several miles
down the river.
NOTE.-C. F. Walker believes that the Florida form may show racial differences
from northern feriarum.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 90 (as P. nigrita feriarum).

Pseudacris ocularis (Holbrook)
LITTLE GRASS-FROG
Florida Range.-Generally distributed except in the western portion of the
Panhandle. Known from the following counties: Jackson, Leon, Baker, Duval,
Alachua, Marion, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Brevard, Indian
River, Sarasota, Charlotte, St. Lucie, Manatee, Lee, Collier and Dade.
Iabitat.-Low, wet flatwoods among round-leafed grasses; on Juncus or other
emergent hydrophytes in flatwoods and hammock ponds; low hammocks along inter-
mittent streams; sphagnum bogs, and marshes.
Abundance.-Not rare; locally very common.
Habits.-From my journal, November 9, 1935: Osceola National Forest, Baker
County: . no fire since 1930 a different picture from that presented by most
Florida flatwoods. The young slash-pines have grown in dense stands to 3-12 feet;
the wire-grass (apparently a different species from that common in Central Florida)
forms thick mats; and because of the resulting shade and humidity P. ocularis and
young H. femoralis and H. squirella are abundant all through the woods. P. ocularis
especially is unusually numerous; its favorite habitat is obviously the narrow-leaved
grasses in humid places. The little frogs are very agile and Hyla-like in the way
they hop from one long blade to another; they might be called 'herborial'."
Breeding.-They breed during every month of the year in shallow grassy ponds
and ditches; the eggs hatch in three and one-half to four days.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 98.

Pseudacris ornata (Holbrook)
ORNATE WINTER-FROG
Florida Range.-Northern Florida except in the western portion of the Pan-
handle. Known from the following counties: Jackson, Leon, Alachua, St. Johns,
Duval, Marion and Lake.
Habitat.-Pine flatwoods; mixed hammock; ruderal situations.
Abundance.-Rare; somewhat less common than P. nigrita.
Habits.-Probably fossorial; Deckert (1915) found them in sweet potato hills;
captive specimens nearly always burrow; I have seen several among grass roots near






58 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

ponds. They are very rarely encountered from middle spring to fall. There is
apparently no published record of the extensive metachrosis displayed by ornata. The
usual coloration is reddish-brown with darker post-ocular and lateral bars; on mud
the color is often uniform dingy black, the markings sometimes being entirely oblit-
erated. Individuals which I have taken on bare white sand in an open field have
all been light cream to silvery white; some of these, when transferred to a grassy
spot under a tree, began immediately to change color, iridescent purple blotches
appearing on the sides and soon suffusing the whole dorsum; within three minutes
the ground-color of each individual had become chestnut or grayish-brown. I have
seen several bright green examples.
Feeding.-The newly emerged young feed extensively on orthopterous nymphs,
which often abound in the grass around the breeding ponds. Captive adults eat insects
and small worms readily.
Breeding.-Nov. 3 to March 2, in cypress ponds, flatwoods ditches and flooded
meadows. Commonly found in chorus with nigrita. The tadpole is reddish-brown
and 23-25 mm. in length; the body is slender and the tail long and acuminate, with
a dark lateral stripe and scattered black dots on the shallow, transparent fins. The
young emerge in April and May, with a body-length of 11-13 mm.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 100.


Hyla avivoca Viosca
BIRD-VOICED TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-The Apalachicola drainage. Known from Jackson and Lib-
erty counties.
Habitat.-Tupelo, titi, and cypress swamps.
Abundance.-Not rare, but infrequently seen because of the nature of the habitat.
Habits.-Wright's comparison (1933) of the call to that of the pileated wood-
pecker seems as good as any. The males call from bushes in or near the water and
from cypress, tupelo and black-gum boles. Viosca (1931) considers avivoca most
nearly related to Hyla v. versicolor, and I am inclined to agree with him. In view
of this relationship it is interesting to note the marked community of habitat selection
in the two frogs in Florida.
Breeding.-April 11 to July 12. (Wright gives June to mid-August). I
located a small chorus in Sweetwater Creek Swamp, Liberty County, April 19, 1935,
where H. crucifer, H. v. versicolor, Pseudacris feriarum, and Rana clamitans were
also calling. I have never seen a female.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 108.


Hyla cinerea cinerea (Schneider)
GREEN TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-Distributed over the entire state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison,
Duval, Alachua, Levy, Putnam, Marion, Sumter, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Brevard,






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Pinellas, Indian River, St. Lucie, Charlotte, Glades, Hendry, Palm Beach, Lee,
Collier, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Swamp-borders, seepage areas, and stream and lake margins; on broad-
leaved or succulent plants in humid places; on emergent or floating aquatic vegetation;
in the axils of royal and coco-palm leaves.
Abundance.-Generally common.
Habits.-I have frequently found them hibernating under the loose bark of
slash-pine and sweet-gum. They spend a great deal of time asleep on the stems
and leaves of Typha, Decodon, Cephalanthus, and willow, and far out from shore
on pickerel-weed and water-hyacinths. At Miami, Cape Sable, and Key West I
found them avoiding the high evaporation rate by gathering about the moist bases of
the petioles of palms.
Feeding.-J. D. Kilby has made an extensive study of the feeding habits of this
species in Alachua County (Ms. 1936). I have watched them stalk insects on the
screen of a lighted porch; the frog's extremely long hind legs render the stealthy
approach to the prey a somewhat ridiculous spectacle.
Breedinz.-March 8 to the middle of August. The choruses may be tremendous.
I have heard an unbroken chorus extending along six or seven miles of river
front. The males sing on stems a foot or two above the water. The breeding-
song and rain-song are quite similar. The solitary tadpole of cinerea is often found
among drifting water-hyacinths far from shore. I have frequently seen emerging
individuals on hyacinths and lily-pads in six to twelve feet of water.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 112.


Hyla crucifer Wied
SPRING PEEPER

Florida Range.-Northern Florida except in the western portion of the Pan-
handle. Known from the following counties: Jackson, Liberty, Baker, Alachua,
Citrus and Lake.
Habitat.-Mesophytic and low hammock, swamp borders, the more open bay-
heads, and tangles along the smaller streams.
Abundance.-Moderately common during breeding season; difficult to collect in
numbers during summer and fall.
Habits.-They hibernate and aestivate under logs and bark and in knot-holes. In
Alachua County they occupy essentially the same habitats as the much rarer H. v.
versicolor.
Feeding.-I have seen them feeding on swarms of emerging chironomids in a
woods pond. Where cattle range in hammock land groups often gather around the
fresh dung and feed on coprophagous insects.
Breeding.-January 1 to March 24. Apparently the season is much earlier in
Florida than farther north, where it is April 1 to June 15 according to Wright
(1933). The males sing in buttonbush, briars, willow, Decodon, etc., at the water's
edge in small ponds, ditches and flooded meadows. I have found them breeding





60 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

when the temperature was 350 F. P. ornata is the only other Florida frog which
breeds during such cold weather.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 116.

Hyla femoralis Latreille
PINE-WOODS TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-Generally distributed except in the extreme southern and extreme
western portions of the state. Known from the following counties: Liberty, Leon,
Jefferson, Suwannee, Duval, Alachua, St. Johns, Marion, Lake, Orange, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Polk, Brevard, Charlotte, Palm Beach and Broward.
Habitat.-High pine, high hammock, and all types of flatwoods, occasionally (at
least) climbing to the tops of the tallest long-leaf pines.
Abundance.-Moderately common in summer; not seen often at other seasons.
Harper (1932) estimates four per acre in the vicinity of the Okefinokee Swamp
(Georgia).
Habits.-I have found them hibernating in rotten pine logs; one was disinterred
at a depth of two feet in nearly dry sand, Charlotte County, December 16, 1934.
In the virgin long-leaf along Blackwater Creek in Lake County the rain-song may
sometimes be heard from the crowns of hundred-foot trees.
Feeding.-I have seen them perched with H. crucifer on new cow-dung waiting
for insects. At the Bass Biological Laboratory, Englewood, Florida, they often
come to lighted windows at night, where I watched one cat three large moths and
a cranefly.
Breeding.-(Lake County) April 2 to August 15. In surface ponds, inundated
meadows, flatwoods cypress ponds, and grassy ditches. The liebeslied is rendered
on the twigs of bushes in or near the water; the singing males are difficult to locate.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 120.

Hyla gratiosa LeConte
BELL-FROG
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida except in the western portion of
the Panhandle. Known from the following counties: Leon, Duval, Alachua, St.
Johns, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Osceola, Brevard, Indian River and
St. Lucie.
Habitat.-High pine, high hammock, and dry flatwoods, in the upper branches
of long-leaf and slash pine and of live-oak.
Abundance.-Uncommon, locally and generally.
Habits.-Wright (1933) describes the rain-song; this odd call may be heard
rarely from the treetops in high pine. On April 11, 1933, H. K. Wallace and I
dug two adults and a yearling out of slightly moist sand more than four feet deep
in an Indian mound, in cutover pineland in Lake County. On November 24, 1933,
I found another in the same mound at about the same depth. This winter-burrowing
may be of significance in explaining the fact that gratiosa is almost never seen except
during warm weather.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Breeding.-Choruses of more than twenty or twenty-five males are not often
seen.6 They call from deep water in small permanent ponds, from March 3 to
August 14. In Gainesville the first choruses have always gathered in the power-
plant water aerator, where the water is abnormally warm; here I have also seen
them feeding on insects at the lighted entrance.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 122.

Hyla squirella Latreille
SOUTHERN TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Gadsden, Suwannee, Duval, Alachua, St. Johns, Marion, Lake,
Volusia, Polk, Osceola, Brevard, Manatee, Charlotte, Indian River, Lee, Collier,
Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Shows little discrimination in major habitat selection. It exhibits some
preference for the more open wooded areas such as high pine and mixed hammock
and for edificarian situations.
Abundance.-The commonest Florida Hyla.
Habits.-In warm weather the rain-song is often heard from crannies about
buildings and from the lower branches of trees; I was once sorely puzzled at hearing
one call inside an iron vent-pipe. They are gregarious hihernators, thirty or forty
sometimes congregating under a loose slab of bark. They also appear to seek com-
pany in aestivating; several are found in the same hollow tree or in the axil of the
same royal or coco-palm petiole when numerous available and apparently identical
retreats are unoccupied.
Feeding.-Often present in enormous numbers along lake-shores when chirono-
mids are emerging; they also collect around lamp posts and lighted windows at night.
I once saw nine young in a circle around a pile of newly deposited cow-dung, await-
ing and devouring the midges attracted thereto.
Breeding.-I have records from April 2 to August 20. Full choruses come
with July electric storms. The males usually sing in water from half an inch to
an inch deep at the edges of temporary pools and ditches or of temporarily inundated
portions of pond margins. The choruses are large. Wright (1933) says that the
call is not very loud; it has little carrying power, but at close range a large chorus
assaults the ear-drums mercilessly.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 128.

Hyla versicolor versicolor (LeConte)
COMMON TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties:
Jackson, Liberty, Leon, Jefferson, Baker, Dixie, Alachua and Marion.
Habitat.-Mesophytic and low hammock; titi, tupelo, and cypress swamps.
Abundance.-Relatively rare except in the Apalachicola drainage. In Alachua
County I have collected only four specimens out of breeding season.
6Goin (1938) describes a much larger chorus (130 males).
5






62 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, NO. 1

Habits.-Closely associated in habitat with H. crucifer and H. avivoca. There
is a colony of versicolor in a birch swamp (a unique association for the peninsula)
on the Dixie County side of the Suwannee River near the mouth of Manatee Springs
Run, where Eurycea b. cirrigera also occurs. This swamp has hitherto been regarded
as the southernmost locality for both these forms; but Allen (1939) has recently
recorded versicolor from near Silver Springs, Marion County.
Breeding.-April 11 to August. Choruses usually small, but sporadically very
large. Secluded pools in deep woods are usually selected as breeding sites. Except
when in full chorus these frogs are excessively shy and elusive, the male usually refus-
ing to sing when disturbed by a light or a slight noise. The species is noticeably
more shy in Florida than in North Carolina.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 130.


Hyla septentrionalis Boulenger
GIANT TREE-FROG
Florida Range.-Key West.
Habitat.-Old cisterns and damp out-buildings; in the axils of palm and Cala-
dium leaves; banana trees; Barbour (1931) records it from drain pipes.
Abundance.-Locally common; I have seen twenty-five or thirty clinging to the
walls of a single cistern in Key West.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal, but often calling and foraging during the day in
the dilapidated cisterns which abounded on the island before New Deal "improve-
ments." During humid weather they may be found in trees and shrubs some dis-
tance from water. I have discussed septentrionalis with some of Key West's most
venerable citizens and have found none who can recall a time when the blatant
choruses of the "bull-frogs" were not to be heard after summer rains.
Feeding.-They often congregate around street lights at night; I have watched
them feeding on cockroaches and on lepidopterous larvae; they are batracophagous
and cannibalistic in captivity. A. G. Elbon, in Barbour (1931), says, "I have found
them feeding almost altogether on the smaller frogs."
Breeding.-June 14 to September 16 (this period corresponds suspiciously with
the academic summer-vacation season; however I looked for them in vain during the
week of December 18-23, 1932). The eggs are laid in temporary drainage ditches,
in the flooded basements of wrecked buildings, and in cisterns. The young emerge
at 15.5-16.5 mm. Before the tail is absorbed the back becomes granular and warty
as in the adult; the immature differs strikingly from the adult in the possession
of a dorso-lateral white stripe extending from the hind margin of the orbit to the
groin. E. Lowe Pierce and I found all stages, from newly hatched larvae to breed-
ing adults, in an old cistern, June 16, 1934. We found a tremendous number
(300-400) of recently emerged individuals perched on the twigs of a small thorny
bush in a vacant lot, the night of June 14, 1934. There is great size disparity in
the breeding males; individuals that I have measured varied between 40 and 73 mm.
and I feel certain that these figures do not include the actual extremes. The choruses
are unique in their heterogeneity of pitch and timbre. The call is a rasping snarl






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


somewhat comparable to that of Scaphiopus holbrookii. The pitch of non-musical
sound is difficult to determine, but I would judge that the individual notes vary
through at least one octave.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 126.


Eleutherodactylus ricordii (Dumiril and Bibron)
RECORD'S FROG
Florida Range.-South Florida north to Clearwater and Melbourne; Gainesville.
Known from the following counties: Alachua, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Brevard,
Lee, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Humid places in all the major habitats in its range; "leafmold in
hammocks" and "rockpiles in pine flatwoods" (Deckert, 1921); "under debris" (Van
Hyning, 1933); "fern boxes and trash piles" (Carr, 1934). I found several under
fallen logs in a mahogany and buttonwood hammock at Cape Sable. Numerous in
holes in the limestone banks of the drainage ditches around Florida City (Dade
County). They wander widely at night.
Abundance.-The commonest frog on Key West; locally numerous in Gaines-
ville.
Habits.-Nocturnal; somewhat fossorial. Gainesville is probably a discontinuous
center of distribution in the range. Some years ago they were to he found in only
a few situations near the University; today they have spread throughout the city and
are invading the surrounding woodlands, apparently following the courses of the
small hammock streams. After rains they often hop about on lawns, and I have
started them singing at dusk by spraying fern beds with a hose. In Homestead
(Dade Co.) I commonly found them in the same habitats occupied by Microhyla
carolininsis.
Breeding.-April 3 (Alachua Co.) to December 9 (Dade Co.). The eggs are
laid in the diurnal habitat of the adult.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 140.


Rana capito LeConte
GOPHER FROG
Florida Range.-Northeastern and Central Florida. Known from the follow-
ing counties: Baker, Duval, Alachua, Dixie, Marion, Lake, Volusia, Seminole,
Orange, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie, Charlotte and Lee.
Habitat.-High pine, turkey oak ridges, and rosemary scrub.
Abundance.-Fairly common, but secretive and ungregarious; sometimes breed-
ing in very large numbers in isolated ponds.
Habits.-Nocturnal, but occasionally seen seated at the mouths of burrows on
dark days. Although they occupy the holes of Gopherus polyphemus extensively,
they are by no means confined to such retreats. Wright (1933) mentions finding
them in small burrows which he took to be those of a rat. J. D. Kilby took one in
the bottom of the burrow of a Peromyscus polionotus; I have twice found them in






64 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. I

the burrows of the same mouse, and have also seen them frequently in stump holes
and in the bottom of post holes, whence escape was apparently impossible. I caught
one yearling in the mouth of a crayfish burrow at the edge of a cypress pond. They
range some distance from their retreats in foraging at night, although Wright (I. c.)
believes they spend much time resting on "a little clear place-a short distance from
the hole." I once saw one seated on a fallen pine log; looking about I located a
gopher-hole some thirty feet from the frog; when I advanced and kicked one end
of the log the frog hopped about wildly for a moment, then headed directly for the
gopher hole and disappeared down it. Since there was no other burrow in the imme-
diate vicinity, and since the hole was not visible from the frog's original position, it
seems to me justifiable to interpret this behavior as the result of homing instinct.
Several observers have noticed the tendency of capito to crouch at the approach of an
intruder. I found one which had been stepped on and killed by dogs running a fox.
Feeding.-Voracious and batrachophagous in captivity. Barbour (1920) found
them eating Bufo quercicus. From stomachs I have taken several species of beetles
(Elateridae, Buprestidae, Tenebrionidae), Hemiptera (Pentatomidae), and numer-
ous grasshoppers (Acrididae).
Breeding.-March 13 to November 3 in grassy ponds. They must travel some
distance to congregate at widely separated ponds, since I have found them a mile
from water.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 148 (as R. aesopus).


Rana catesbeiana Shaw
COMMON BULL-FROG
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Gadsden, Liberty, Baker, Duval, Alachua, Levy,
Marion, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Pasco, Hillsborough and Polk.
Habitat.-Widely distributed, but most highly concentrated in woods ponds with
emergent bushy vegetation (Salix, Cephalanthus, Decodon); lakes, ponds, and
streams in which heavy cover grows to the water's edge; pools along the courses of
intermittent swamp streams.
Abundance.-Fairly common, but less so than grylio.
Habits.-Since the two frogs occupy, to some extent, the same habitat it is inter-
esting to compare catesbeiana and grylio with respect to certain habits and behaviors.
The former is much the less aquatic of the two; except when breeding it is usually
found sitting at the water's edge in any nook or alcove that the marginal vegetation
affords. R. grylio, on the other hand, appears to spend most of its life floating
about on the surface of the water, preferably among such floating and emergent
plants as Nymphaea, Castalia, maidencane, hyacinths, etc. When on land (and
grylio is rarely found on land except during or after heavy rains) both frogs may
be relatively easily caught at night with the aid of a light; if alarmed, catesbeiana
attempts to elude capture by a series of short jumps into the thickest brush available
on shore, while gryllo almost invariably dashes for the water. If in the water, how-
ever, a grylio that has not previously been bothered by frog-hunters will not be dis-





CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


turbed by the clumsiest stalk, while the slightest wavering of the light or abnormal
ripple on the water causes catesbeiana to dive. Occasionally both frogs are found
breeding, and about equally represented, in the same pond. At such times I have
found that I could catch twenty-five or thirty grylio to a single catesbeiana. I once
placed a very large female cateshelana in a box containing a halfgrown ribbon snake
(Thamnophis sauritus sackenii) sixteen inches in length and with body diameter about
equal to that of a lead pencil. After a brief time the frog set up a screaming which
could be heard all over the premises; on investigating I found that the snake had
fixed its tiny jaws on the enormous calf of the frog, whose first toe the little creature
could hardly hope to swallow. The frog continued to cry and to shake its leg in
the air violently, until finally the snake was thrown out of the box.
Feeding.-I took four watersnakes (Natrix sipedon subsp.), slightly shorter, but
larger in diameter than the snake described above, from the stomach of a large
catesbeiana; I have also found them feeding on crayfish, Desmognathus f. auriculatus,
Ambystoma talpoideum, Hyla c. cinerea, H. gratiosa (five in one stomach), various
poeciliid and cyprinodontid minnows, dytiscid beetles, and dragonflies and their larvae.
I once watched a dozen or so yearling catesbeiana catching Fundulus chrysotus in the
muddy remnant of a dried-up pond.
Breeding.-March 15 to October 8, in humid, warm weather. The earlier
record is from Alachua County and the later from Lake County.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 164.


Rana clamitans Latreille
GREEN FROG
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Liberty, Leon, Jefferson, Suwannee, Baker, Duval,
Alachua, Marion, Lake and Volusia.
Habitat.-Bayheads and titi swamps; wet low hammocks, streams in mesophytic
hammock; cypress swamps.
Abundance.-Not common; I once estimated thirty males calling in a ten-acre
bayhcad; choruses this large are not often heard.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal, but sometimes heard calling during the day in heavy
cover or in cloudy weather. Though retiring in habits, they are quite tame and
easily caught, never fleeing with alarmed cries as many members of the genus do.
They show cavernicolous tendencies; they may often be found in holes in cypress and
gum stumps, and in cracks and fissures in the rocky walls of sink-holes. I have seen
several on the tops of cypress stumps-one ten feet above the ground.
Feeding.-Terrestrial gastropods are eaten regularly; the following additional
items have been found in stomachs: coleopterous larvae (Photuris), Orthoptera (Ani-
somorpha buprestoides and unidentified remains), lycosid spiders, millipedes, centi-
pedes and craneflies (larvae and adults).
Breeding.-April 11 to August 15 in swamp and bayhead pools. The calling
males are generally somewhat concealed.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 166.







66 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Rana heckscheri Wright
RIVER-SWAMP FROG
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties: Leon,
Suwannee, Baker, Nassau, Alachua, Columbia and Marion.
Habitat.-Fluvial swamps; wet low hammock in the flood-plains of rivers and
along the larger creeks.
Abundance.-Fairly common in optimum habitats; I once took twenty adults
together with eighteen catesheiana in a swamp near the Santa Fe River (Columbia
County).
Habits.-Nocturnal; terrestrial. Where heckscheri and catesbeiana occupy the
same major habitat they are found in essentially the same minor habitats, and appar-
ently have very similar habits. Three or four individuals of each species are often
found seated about residual pools along the course of an intermittent swamp stream
near Gainesville. The two show marked difference in their reactions to the presence
of an intruder, heckscheri being much more phlegmatic in temperament; it is not
alarmed easily and shows little shrewdness in eluding capture. When caught, it hangs
limp in the hand, never resorting to the vigorous kicks and contortions characteristic
of grylio and catesbeiana.
Breeding.-I have never found a pair in amplexus. Intermittent croaks may be
heard during the first warm rains in April (Alachua County), and spasmodically
throughout the summer. The number of tadpoles produced in a given breeding site
is astounding. Wright (1933) remarks on their abundance at Callahan. In Alachua
County they transform consistently in April and May. H. K. Wallace and I found
them emerging in tremendous numbers in a backwater of the Santa Fe River, May 1,
1933; we probably could have collected a thousand with little difficulty. The dis-
parity in relative abundance between the adults and the young of this species indicates
an extremely low survival potential.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 170.


Rana grylio Stejneger
SOUTHERN BULL-FROG
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Baker, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Lake, Seminole, Orange,
Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie,
Charlotte, Lee, Palm Beach, Broward, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Bonnet and water-lily ponds and prairies; in emergent vegetation
(Panicum hemitomon, Pontederia cordata, Sagittaria lancifolia) along lake margins;
among water-hyacinths in lakes and streams; cypress swamps.
Abundance.-The commonest Florida Rana except sphenocephala.
Habits.-Almost wholly aquatic; nocturnal, but occasionally fairly active on dark
days. Various observers have commented on the extreme shyness of this frog (Stej-
neger 1901, Deckert 1914, 1921, Barbour 1920, Wright 1933, et al.), but my
observations do not confirm these impressions. On land it is unwary to the point






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


of stupidity, while in the water I have caught as many as fifteen or twenty consecu-
tively without allowing one to escape. The fact that it must be hunted in most cases
in water two to four feet deep has no doubt contributed to its reputation for wildness.
It is true that if regularly annoyed by intruders grylio soon learns to avoid capture.
Two or three consecutive visits to a given situation are usually sufficient to cause the
frogs to dive instantly when the light is turned on them. A population that has been
disturbed by repeated collecting during one season is noticeably wilder at the begin-
ning of the next than a population not previously molested. R. grylio is more buoyant
in the water than catesbeiana; it usually floats with its head and shoulders well above
the surface. I think that the difference in the degree of submergence of the tym-
panum may account fur the fact that catesbeiana is much more difficult to approach.
Feeding.-Feeds extensively on crayfish; I once "shined" the eyes of a crayfish
which was digging a vertical burrow in the bank of a grassy ditch; as I watched, a
grylio swam and hopped through the shallow water over to the burrow, thrust his head
and shoulders into its mouth and dragged the crayfish out by one of its claws. I saw
another catch a large sailfin (Mollienesia latipinna) in shallow water on the edge of
a pond. For many years grylio has been used extensively for dissection in the ele-
mentary zoology course at the University of Florida. It has been my observation
that crayfish have been present in about forty percent of all the stomachs that have
contained food. Most of the larger aquatic insects have been found, as well as fish
and the smaller frogs.
Breeding.-March 4 to mid-September. They call every month of the year.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 168.


Rana sphenocephala (Cope)
LEOPARD FROG
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Baker, Nassau,
Duval, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Brevard, Pinellas, Hills-
borough, Polk, Sarasota, Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Dade
and Monroe.
Habitat.-The most widely distributed ecologically of all the Florida Ranidae.
The grassy banks of canals and roadfills, marshy meadows, and low ground at the
margins of lakes and ponds may be considered optimum habitats.
Ahbundance.-Very common. Exceedingly abundant locally.
Habits.-Terrestrial. Mostly nocturnal, but not wholly so. When alarmed
they usually make six or eight very long leaps, pivoting at each landing. Among
thick palmettos I have seen them cover some distance in their precipitous retreats with-
out ever touching the ground, each jump beginning and ending on one of the broad
leaves. Rarely one dives into the water when cornered, usually, however reappearing
at the water's edge and continuing the retreat on land.
Feeding.-They are energetic foragers, ranging several hundred yards from
their low-ground habitats in search of food. Kilby (Ms. 1936) found them to be
very indiscriminate feeders. Apparently any moving object which can be swallowed






68 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

is taken. Several times they have seized the end of my finger when I have touched
it to the tip of the snout of an individual blinded by my flashlight. O. C. Van
Hyning photographed one in the process of swallowing a Seminole Red Bat (Lasiurus
seminola).
Breeding.-They may breed every month of the year. The eggs are usually laid
in masses of vegetation (algae, Websteria, Persicaria, Hypericum, etc.) at the water's
edge or in the shallower portions of ponds and ditches.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 186.

Microhyla carolinensis (Holbrook)
NARROW-MOUTHED TOAD
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Liberty, Leon, Nassau, Duval, Jefferson, Taylor,
Union, St. Johns, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osce-
ola, Brevard, Indian River, Charlotte, Lee, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Little affected by major habitat boundaries; under rocks, logs, and
piles of debris; usually, but not always, in moist soil.
Abundance.-Solitary and secretive, but common in all parts of its Florida range.
The breeding choruses are sometimes very large.
Habits.-Lucifugous; I have never seen one in the open in the daytime. Despite
its rotund belly and short legs Microhyla is nimble and active when frightened. I
have seen several dive into the mouths of crayfish burrows when the logs under which
they were hiding were overturned; in loose leaf-mold they rapidly burrow out of
sight. In Key West they occur in old lumber and trash piles with the geckos and
skinks.
Breeding.-April 1 to September 3. They breed during or after heavy rains
in puddles or the inundated margins of ponds and ditches. The singing males
usually conceal themselves in grass or trash at the water's edge. On July 14, 1935,
I saw a small chorus in a rain puddle in bare white sand on the banks of Weekiwachee
Spring Run; here the males had all wriggled their bodies into the wet sand and were
calling with only the snouts protruding; this puddle could not possibly have lasted
more than a few hours after the cessation of the rain.
Reference.-Wright (1933), p. 194 (as Gastrophryne carolinensis).


REPTILIA

ORDER LORICATA-CROCODILES AND ALLIGATORS

Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier)
CROCODILE
Florida Range.-The lower East Coast, the southern tip of the peninsula and
the Keys. Known from the following counties: Volusia (near Lake Harney; May-
nard in Barbour, 1923), Palm Beach, Collier, Dade and Monroe.







CARR--A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Habitat.-Fresh and salt water; lakes and rivers in the Everglades; mangrove-
bordered streams and estuaries; drainage canals on the Keys.
Abundance.-Apparently much less common than in the past. Among several
dozen skins in a 'gator-hunter's camp at West Lake, there were two crocodile hides;
according to the hunters the relative proportions of crocodiles and alligators used to
be much more nearly equal.
Habits.-More secretive than the alligator, and more tolerant of salt water.
Crocodiles are occasionally seen in the open sea in Florida Bay and off Key West.
Breeding.-The eggs which I examined were about 47 by 75 mm.-slightly
larger than the average alligator egg, more broadly elliptical, and with the surface
more deeply pitted. During May, 1934, there were fifteen or twenty young and an
adult in a drainage ditch on Lower Matecumbe Key. According to Willoughby
(1913) the eggs are laid in holes in sand.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 173.


Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin)
ALLIGATOR

Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Liberty, Leon, Nassau, Duval, Baker, St. Johns, Dixie, Levy,
Union, Alachua, Marion, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Pinellas, Hillsborough,
Polk, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Palm Beach, Collier,
Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Almost any aquatic situation, ranging into brackish and even salt
water; probably most characteristic of lower swamp-bordered streams.
Abundance.-Locally common, but increasingly infrequent; large individuals
are seldom seen. I believe that, in most of Florida, alligators are at present not much
more numerous than in certain parts of the coastal regions of Georgia and the Gulf
States.
NOTE.-It is a well-known fact that alligators have decreased markedly in abund-
ance in Florida during the past century. Early records indicate that they were once
phenomenally numerous. Bartram (1791) says "the alligators were present in
such incredible numbers, and so close together from shore to shore (at a point in the
St. Johns River), that it would have been easy to have walked across on their heads
had the animals been harmless." It is also evident that the depletion of the popula-
tion has somehow modified the temperament of the creatures. Bartram describes a
harrowing encounter with three 'gators which attacked his boat when he was fishing.
Most of the older writers attribute the greatest ferocity and intrepidity to the animals.
Le Moyne (1591) claims that they constituted a constant menace to the lives and
property of the Indians; he writes, ". . the Indians hunt the crocodile [alligator],
an animal which so harasses them that they are obliged to keep guard by night and
by day, as if against their most redoubtable enemies."
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 168.






70 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. II, No. 1

ORDER SQUAMATA

SUBORDER SAURIA-LIZARDS

Gonatodes fuscus (Hallowell)
YELLOW-HEADED GECKO
Florida Range.-"Trumbo", on the western side of Key West.
I have in press a note bringing attention to the discovery of this gecko in Key West
by Roy S. Humbert of Philadelphia. A thriving colony was found April 23, 1939,
on the dredged-up land occupied by the old railroad docks on the western side of
Key West; this is the area known as Trumbo by "Key Westers." The lizard is ap-
parently diurnal there, and its habitat chiefly edificarian; all Mr. Humbert's specimens
were found on the platforms and in the old buildings.
Referenc.--Boulenger (1885).


Hemidactylus turcicus Linnaeus
WARTY GECKO
Florida Range.-Key West and Miami.
Habitat.-Edificarian situations: out-buildings and lumber piles; around lighted
windows at night.
Abundance.-Not common; I once looked for them a week and collected only
two specimens-on the same night and the same window screen.
Hlabits.-Apparently entirely nocturnal; the only ones I ever saw during the day
were concealed in crevices about houses and underboards. Marked metachrosis,
ranging from pale white to almost solid black, is regularly exhibited.
Feeding.-The hunting behavior is similar to that of Anolis carolinensis. Any
insect that can be stalked, captured, and swallowed appears to be acceptable. Captive
specimens have lived for long periods on ants and termites.
Breeding.-Two eggs which I dug out of dry dust under a board in an abandoned
stable (June 16, 1934) dessicated before they hatched.
Reference.-Boulenger (1885), p. 126.


Sphaerodactylus notatus Baird
REEF GECKO
Florida Range.-Extreme southern Florida and the Keys. Known from Collier,
Dade and Monroe counties.
Habitat.-Rock and trash piles; old boarded cisterns; tropical hammock.
Abundance.-Locally very common; twenty or thirty may often be seen on the
walls of a single cistern.
Habits.-Crepuscular; I found them numerous and very active in the fine hard-
wood hammock on Lignum Vitae Key at noon. Occasionally they may be found
under rocks and driftwood along the key beaches.







CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA 71

Breeding.-The eggs are laid from June to August, singly or by twos or threes
in rock piles and under boards; they are oval, and average 6 by 4.5 mm. The young
are 23-25 mm. long and like the adult in pattern and coloration.
Reference.-Barbour (1921), p. 256.


Sphaerodactylus cinereus Wagler
ASHY GECKO

Florida Range.-The Keys. Known from Dade and Monroe counties.
Habitat.-Piles of lumber and debris and old boarded cisterns.
Abundance.-Not common; much less numerous than notatus.
Habits.-Closely similar to those of notatus, though perhaps more confirmedly
nocturnal. I have seen them active only at night.
Breeding.-The eggs are laid in August in rock piles and trash heaps; they are
slightly larger than those of notatus but show no other superficial differences. The
young are very different from the adult, the body being marked with red transverse
bands. The immature form at one time held specific rank (S. elegans MacLeay);
Barbour (1921) suggested its true status. Strangely enough, although I have ex-
amined between sixty and seventy young and adults of this species, I have never come
across a specimen which appeared to be intermediate between the young and adult
color phases.
Reference.-Barbour (1921), p. 233.


Anolis carolinensis Voight
CAROLINA ANOLE

Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Gadsden, Leon, Columbia, Nassau, Duval, Alachua,
Levy, Putnam, St. Johns, Marion, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Pinel-
las, Hillsborough, Polk, Osccola, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, DeSoto, Lee, Palm
Beach, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; most numerous in trees and shrubs around bodies
of water where insects are emerging.
Abundance.-Common.
Habits.-The most arboreal Florida lizard; I have watched the males fighting
among the limbs of sweet-gums fifty or sixty feet above the ground; in pursuing the
females they often leap two feet or more from one limb to another. They take to
water readily; if alarmed while on a bush over a pond they sometimes jump into the
water and swim away. On the night of April 24, 1934, I counted eleven of them
asleep on several water-oleander bushes in the middle of a little pond; all these
individuals were pale silvery-white in color.
Breeding.-Mating takes place in north Florida in April and May; the eggs are
laid in June and July in trash piles and in rather dry decaying wood. On June 17,
1934, in Key West, Pierce and I found twelve eggs (probably the complements of






72 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

several individuals) in a rock pile. The eggs were laid singly throughout the pile;
they all hatched within the ensuing week.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 233.

Anolis stejnegeri Barbour
STEJNEGER'S ANOLE
Florida Range.-Key West.
Habitat.-Trees, shrubs, and the walls of buildings in Key West; particularly
the trunks of coco-palms in the Navy Yard.
Abundance.-Locally common; more numerous in the Navy Yard than caro-
linensis.
NOTE.-In view of the great abundance of these lizards on the northwest end
of Key West, it seems rather strange that they have not become more generally dis-
tributed throughout the island.
Reference.-Barbour (1931a), p. 88.


Leiocephalus carinatus virescens (Stejneger)
KEELED LIZARD
I know little of this introduced Bahamian form beyond Barbour's remarks (1936)
concerning its occurrences in the Miami area. Frank N. Young recently saw two
specimens in a pet shop in Miami; these specimens, one of which laid an egg after
its capture, were said by the proprietor of the shop to have been taken in Miami.
Reference.-Stejneger (1900), p. 471 (as L. virescens).


Sceloporus undulatus floridanus (Baird)
GULF COAST PINE-LIZARD
One Florida specimen (the type), collected near Pensacola by Dr. Jeffries;
USNM 2,874. Pensacola apparently marks the extreme eastern limit of the range
of this lizard.
Reference.-Burt (1936), p. 538.


Sceloporus undulatus undulatus (Latreille)
EASTERN PINE-LIZARD
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Taylor, Baker, Nassau, Dixie,
Levy, Alachua, Marion, Lake and Orange.
Habitat.-High pine and upland hammock; on fallen tree trunks, especially
those of pine.
Abundance.-Very common.
Feeding.-Beetles and their larvae are the chief food, although captive specimens
eat nearly any insects that they are offered. Snails were found in three stomachs.






CARR--A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Breeding.-The nine to thirteen eggs are laid in April and May under old logs
and in beetle frass; they are 11.2-11.7 mm. by 6.5-7.1 mm.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 368.


Sceloporus woodi (Stejneger)
SCRUB PINE-LIZARD
Florida Range.-Central and southern Florida. Known from the following
counties: Marion, Putnam, Lake, Polk, Brevard, Indian River, Lee, Palm Beach,
Collier, Broward and Dade.
Habitat.-Rosemary scrub, in the more open "strands"; closely associated with
the rosemary bushes.
Abundance.-Locally very common-perhaps more so than undulatus is in its
optimum habitats.
Habits.-This is a more cursorial species than undulatus; in attempting to avoid
capture it rarely dodges about on a log, but more often races across the sand like a
Cnemidophorus. When cornered it frequently ascends standing trees to a height of
twenty or more feet.
Reference.-Stejneger (1918).


Phrynosoma cornutum (Harlan)
COMMON HORNED-TOAD
Although I have never taken this form in Florida there seems to be some evidence
that it may have become established in the state. In addition to the published records
(DeSola [1934] and Goff [1935]) I have been shown two specimens said to have
been taken in an orange grove in Winter Park. George Van Hyning informs me
that some time ago he was given a specimen caught on Santa Rosa Island, Escambia
County. Another was taken at Palatka on June 5, 1939, by Agnes Knowles. Until
actual colonies, or at least evidence of the lizard's breeding in the state, are encoun-
tered, the occurrence of individuals in such widely separated areas cannot be taken as
conclusive proof of the establishment of the species.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p 432.


Ophisaurus ventralis (Linnaeus)
GLASS-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Madison, Duval, St. Johns, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Volusia,
Orange, Brevard, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Indian River, Manatee, Charlotte,
Collier, Palm Beach, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-High pine, upland hammock, and dry flatwoods; old fields grown over
with broom-sedge and Natal grass (Tricholaena rosea.
Abundance.-Fairly common.






74 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1


Habits.-Partly fossorial, but often seen sunning themselves on boards and con-
crete pavement. Quite shy and easily alarmed. Old males are sometimes very
pugnacious, biting viciously when handled.
Feeding.-The food appears to consist chiefly of insects, small snakes, and lizards.
Captive specimens are cannibalistic.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 494.


Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (Linni)
SIX-LINED RACE-RUNNER
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Jackson, Liberty, Madison, Nassau, Duval, Alachua,
Marion, Putnam, Volusia, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard, Indian River, Manatee, Charlotte,
Hendry, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-High pine, rosemary scrub, and dry flatwoods; ruderal situations and
road shoulders; sandy coastal areas and dry, sparsely vegetated islands and keys.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Although preeminently cursorial, and an inhabitant of bare, arid ground,
this species is not entirely restricted to xeric situations; I have seen several individuals
ploughed up in deep, damp muck, and others hiding in cavities in wet sand under
logs on lake beaches. They hibernate under six or eight inches of sandy soil; two
specimens have been found in gopher holes.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 593.


Leiolopisma unicolor (Harlan)
GROUND SKINK
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Liberty, Leon, Baker, Duval, Alachua, Levy, Marion,
Putnam, Volusia, Hernando, Lake, Seminole, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola,
Brevard, Manatee, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade
and Monroe.
Habitat.-Hammocks; among dead leaves.
Abundance.-Very common.
Habits.-Very active in hunting the leaf-mold insects. Frank Young found
one swimming across a small hammock stream; I have seen individuals, unable to
find cover on the banks of brooks, jump into the water and swim so rapidly as to
appear to be running across the surface; one of these, finding itself unable to scale
the opposite bank, dived to the bottom in four or five inches of water and thrust its
head under a stick. I have found Leiolopisma tails in the stomachs of four specimens,
each of which had recently lost its tail. Dr. E. H. Taylor, whom I informed of
this odd circumstance, with the idea of learning whether or not skinks are known to
eat their own tails, believes that the ingested tails were most likely those of other
individuals. However, in each case the stub remaining on the animal plus the portion
in the stomach constituted a tail of the proper faces and dimensions. Since one of






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


the specimens was a female, it seems illogical to attribute the mutilation to pre-court-
ship fighting. Moreover, George Van Hyning and I once watched a captive Eumeces
laticeps regard its tail for a moment, wriggle it tentatively, seize it in its jaws, break
off the terminal inch-and-a-half, and swallow it avidly. The inference of autophagy
in Leiolopisma does not appear to me at all unfounded.
Breeding.-The eggs are laid in late spring in decaying wood; they are usually
three in number and are 8.0-9.2 mm. by 3.5-4.1 mm.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 622 (as L. laterale).

Eumeces egregius (Baird)
BAIRD'S RED-TAILED SKINK
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Leon, Duval, Clay, Alachua, Lake, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-High pine; live-oak hammock; piles of rocks, debris, and wave-washed
wrack on the Florida Keys.
Abundance.-Locally common on the Keys; rare elsewhere.
Habits.-Partly fossorial, but often seen running about. On the Upper Keys I
found them numerous among the rocks a few feet above the water on the railroad
embankments.
Breeding.-In the oviduct of a specimen from Leon County, May 6, 1937, there
were six well-developed eggs, measuring 7-8 mm. by 4.5-5 mm.
NoTE.-Although Taylor (1935) used the trinomial for this form and for
onocrepis, he pointed out that there was no real indication of intergrading in his
material, and suggested that further study might show that the two forms merit
specific rank. I have examined several specimens not available when Taylor's
monograph was in preparation and still have found no intermediates. In view of
the fact that the range of onocrepis is embraced completely in that of egregius and
since the two show slight differences in habits but no marked divergence in habitat
preference, it seems to me the more advisable course to restore their original specific
status.
Reference.-Taylor (1935), p. 490.

Eumeces onocrepis (Cope]
COPE'S RED-TAILED SKINK
Florida Range.-The peninsula. Known from the following counties: Lake,
Volusia, Pasco, Hernando, Orange, Brevard, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Palm
Beach, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Rosemary scrub, high pine, and live-oak hammock; in dry sandy soil or
under logs.
Abundance.-Not common; apparently nowhere as abundant as egregius is on the
Keys.
Habits.-Chiefly fossorial; sometimes ploughed up in sand a foot or more deep.
Less active than egregius.
Reference.-Taylor (1935), p. 497. (as E. egregius onocrepis).






76 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Eumeces laticeps Schneider
BROAD-HEADED SKINK
Florida Range.-Northern and North-Central Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Escambia, Jackson, Franklin, Liberty, Leon, Columbia, Baker,
Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion and Volusia.
Habitat.-Hammocks, ideally in mesophytic associations; on trees (preferably
hollow) and under loose bark.
Abundance.-Common.
Habits.-Arboreal; strong, agile climbers, but they rarely leave the trunk and
larger limbs of a tree. Hibernation ordinarily takes place under the bark of rotten
but still-standing trees, usually pines.
Feeding.-Wood-cutting insects constitute a large part of the food; the lizards
nose about decaying logs, thrusting their snouts into crevices and under loose pieces
of bark in search of wire-worms, Passalus larvae, etc. See also note under Leiolo-
pisma unicolor.
Breeding.-Mating occurs in April and May; at this time the males fight on
sight, and may be heard at long distances chasing one another up and down tree-
trunks and over dry leaves. On May 1, 1936, I caught a male and a female which
were courting; they were placed in a cage, and on the next day resumed the courtship.
After a short chase around the cage the male seized the female by the right shoulder,
bending and rotating his tail under the left side of hers. The rapid copulatory
vibrations produced a rasping sound audible forty feet away. The eggs were laid
June 3, in a clutch in rotten wood in a corner of the cage; they were 14.5-16 mm.
by 9.5-10.5 mm. The incubating medium was allowed to dry out and they dessi-
cated two weeks after the deposition.
Reference.-Taylor (1935), p. 212.

Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus)
BLUE-TAILED SKINK
I have never seen a Florida specimen of fasciatus. Taylor (1935) records nine
specimens from Florida. In a recent paper (1939) Goin shows that the authenticity
of these specimens is doubtful.
Reference.-Taylor (1935), p. 188.

Eumeces inexpectatus Taylor
TAYLOR'S SKINK
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state except in the western portion
of the Panhandle. Known from the following counties: Liberty, Leon, Madison,
Nassau, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Volusia, Lake, Orange, Brevard, Pinellas, Hills-
borough, Polk, Osceola, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Dade
and Monroe.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; found most frequently in high pine, rosemary
scrub, and on the coastal islands and keys; apparently rarely enters mesophytic ham-
mock.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Abundance.-Generally less numerous than laticeps; locally abundant on Snake
Island, Levy County, and on certain of the Upper Keys.
Habits.-Less arboreal than laticeps and a swifter runner on bare ground. Often
found under logs and boards in dry sand. I once saw two individuals on a fallen
pine log a few feet above the water in the middle of a flatwoods pond; I caught one
of these, but the other jumped from the log into the water and apparently went to
the bottom. I waited ten minutes or so, but it never reappeared.
Reference.-Taylor (1935), p. 224.

Neoseps reynoldsi Stejneger
SAND SKINK
Florida Range.-Central Florida. Known from Alachua, Lake and Polk
counties.
Habitat.-Rosemary scrub and high pine; under logs and in loose dry soil.
Abundance.-Rare.
Habits.-Completely fossorial; in dry sand it burrows rapidly with a swimming
motion. 0. C. Van Hyning received several from a crew engaged in sifting sand
at the Eustis (Lake County) airport; he informs me that some of these were found
at a depth of two feet.
Reference.-Stejneger (1910).

Rhineura floridana (Baird)
WORM LIZARD
Florida Range.-Northeastern and Central Florida. Known from the follow-
ing counties: Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Volusia, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, Manatee
and Highlands.
Habitat.-Upland and mesophytic hammock; high pine; usually in dry soil.
Abundance.-Fairly common, but extremely secretive.
Habits.-Completely fossorial; its behavior in penetrating and progressing in the
soil is very similar to that of the earthworm, except that Rhineura leaves a tunnel in
its wake. The calloused and dirt-covered dorsal surface of the tail is often used
by captive specimens to close the mouth of the burrow, but individuals which I have
uncovered beneath logs and leaf-mold have retreated tail-first down their tunnels. I
recently deprived a mockingbird of a large specimen which it was attempting to eat,
and twice have seen butcher-birds capture them.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 686.

SUBORDER SERPENTES-SNAKES

Carphophis amoena amoena (Say)
EASTERN WORM-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Known only from Volusia and Pinellas counties.
Habitat.-Pine flatwoods; mesophytic hammock?
Abundance.-Very rare.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 739 (as Carphophiops amoenus).
6






78 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Abastor erythrogrammus (Daudin)
RAINBOW SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern and North-Central Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Escambia, Jackson, Columbia, Alachua and Marion.
Habitat.-Spring runs; calcareous streams; E. Ross Allen collected one in a
sink-hole pond near Ocala.
Abundance.-Rare.
Habits.-Somewhat fossorial; aquatic. I saw a snake which I believe was this
species on the bottom of a spring fifteen feet deep.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 738.

Farancia abacura abacura (Holbrook)
HORN-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state except in the extreme western
portion of the Panhandle. Known from the following counties: Jackson, Leon,
Duval, Alachua, Lake, Seminole, Hillsborough, Brevard, Indian River, Charlotte,
Palm Beach and Dade.
Habitat.-Marshes; alluvial swamps; drainage ditches.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Nocturnal; aquatic and partly fossorial, but often wanders about on dry
land after rains.
Feeding.-I have found them eating Siren lacertina and Pseudobranchus. The
stomachs of fifty specimens taken in winter were empty.
Breeding.-The eggs are laid in April, May and June in moist sand or under
heaps of dead water-hyacinths and other vegetable debris. The young may occa-
sionally be found in great numbers among the roots of water-hyacinths growing in
shallow water.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 741.

Farancia abacura reinwardtii (Schlegel)
SCHLEGEL'S HORN-SNAKE
I am unacquainted with this race, which apparently barely reaches extreme western
Florida. Its habits and habitat preferences are very likely those of the typical form.
Reference.-Smith (1938).

Diadophis punctatus punctatus (Linnaeus)
SOUTHEASTERN RING-NECKED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Liberty, Leon, Duval, Alachua, Marion, Sumter, Lake, Her-
nando, Orange, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Osceola, Brevard, Manatee, Highlands,
Charlotte, Lee, Collier, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; usually found near water; under logs and in rela-
tively dry sphagnum beds.







CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-This species is one of the few Florida snakes which are gregarious
hibernators. Three or four are frequently found coiled together under a log or
in sphagnum; a short rotten pine stick (not more than an inch in diameter) which
I picked up to put on a fire, contained six Diadophis. I have found several in the
water among water-hyacinth roots with Farancia and Pseudobranchus.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 751.


Heterodon contortrix contortrix (Linnaeus)
COMMON HOG-NOSED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Widely distributed. Known from the following counties:
Escambia, Gadsden, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard,
Glades, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-High pine and upland hammock; ruderal situations; frequently seen
in greenhouses and ferneries.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Although most active by day, this species is often seen at dusk along
lake and pond margins where toads are breeding; in fact I believe it is generally
most numerous in those situations where toads are most abundant. I once watched
a contortrix eat five adult Bufo terrestris.
NOTE.-This form is replaced in South Florida by brown. In the region where
the ranges meet, specimens may be found in which the azygous plate is rudimentary
and barely discernible; in a series from Central Florida I found every condition of
the scale, from non-existent to normal in size and shape. I have also examined speci-
mens with an intermediate number of transverse dorsal bars. There seems little doubt
that these two forms are races of one species.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 761 (as H. platyrhinus).


Heterodon contortrix brown (Stejneger)
BROWN'S HOG-NOSED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Eastern Dade County.
Habitat.-Palmetto and limestone flatwoods; hot-houses and truck-fields; occa-
sionally ploughed up in muck land.
dbundance.-Fairly common locally.
Habits.-Probably those of contortrix; they are partial to toads as an article of
diet.
Reference.-Stejneger (1903), p. 103 (as H. browni.


Heterodon simus (Linnaeus)
SOUTHERN HOG-NOSED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Gadsden, Alachua, Marion and Pinellas.







80 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Habitat.-Upland hammocks; dry floodplains of rivers; wiregrass flatwoods;
fields and groves.
Abundance.-In most of its Florida range, less common than contortrix.
Habits.-Often ploughed up in winter, and occasionally in summer. It is diffi-
cult to account for the fossorial tendencies of these snakes, since the chief and almost
the only item of diet is the common toad.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 770.


Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan)
SMOOTH GREEN SNAKE
Cope's Florida records of this species are in error. A specimen, which has appar-
ently been lost, was collected by R. C. MacClanahan in Escambia County near
Pensacola.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 782 (as Liopeltis vernalis).


Opheodrys aestivus (Linnaeus)
ROUGH GREEN SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Madison, Nassau, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Volusia,
Lake, Orange, Pinellas, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, Glades, Broward, Dade and
Monroe.
Habitat.-Hammocks; high pine and flatwoods; in bushes and trees.
Abundance.-Not common; most abundant on the Upper Keys.
Habits.-Diurnal. Although essentially arboreal, the rough green snake is fre-
quently found in broad stretches of almost treeless savannah such as Kissimmee
Prairie and the Myakka Flats.
NOTE.-In all living specimens which I have seen from tropical Florida and
the Keys, the ventral surface was entirely unpigmented, while in North and Central
Florida examples it is invariably light cream-yellow.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 784 (as Cyclophis aestivus).


Coluber constrictor constrictor (Linnaeus)
EASTERN BLACK-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Nassau, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Osceola, Brevard, Pinellas,
Polk, Hillsborough, Charlotte, Lee, Collier, Broward, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Very extensively distributed; probably most abundant in open upland
hammock or in old fields; limestone flatwoods.
Abundance.-Very common.
Habits.-Frequently seen near waters; I found one eating a leopard frog in
shallow water at the edge of a pond. The Florida racers are much less given to
tree-climbing than those in more northern regions; in Georgia and North Carolina






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


they frequently ascend trees to escape capture, or glide about among the limbs in
hedgerows while foraging, but Florida individuals almost never exhibit this tendency.
NoTE.-Specimens from the Eastern Rock Rim, the Upper Keys, and the Cape
Sable savannahs are much lighter in color than North Florida examples, the belly
lacking pigment completely, and the dorsal surface usually having the coloration of
C. c. flaviventris.' Specimens from the Lower Keys have white bellies, but dorsally
are just as dark as northern racers, while two from Tortugas are darker above and
below than any other racers that I have ever seen.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 791 (as Zamenis constrictor).

Coluber flagellum flagellum (Shaw)
COACH-WHIP
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Pinellas, Brevard,
Manatee, Charlotte, Palm Beach, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-High pine, rosemary scrub, and dry flatwoods.
Abundance.-Not rare, but much less common than the racers.
Habits.-Apparently entirely diurnal. Often found in gopher holes, in which
they frequently take refuge if pursued. Although alert and very active creatures,
coach-whips are frequently killed by ground-fires in the flatwoods, more often appar-
ently than any other snake; I once found seven dead after a fire which burned ten
or twelve acres of flatwoods in Collier County.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 799 (as Zamenis f. flagellum).

Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus)
CORN SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Volusia, Lake, Orange,
Brevard, Indian River, Manatee, Charlotte, Palm Beach, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Upland and tropical hammocks, high pine and dry flatwoods; fields
and edificarian situations.
Abundance.-Not common; it has decreased noticeably in abundance during the
past few years.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal and somewhat arboreal; often seen in barns and
chicken-coops and even in houses. It occurs fairly commonly in hardwood ham-
mocks in tropical Florida-usually in (or under loose bark on) Jamaica-dogwood
trees.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 833 (as Coluber guttatus).

Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say)
PILOT BLACK-SNAKE
One specimen in the collection of the Museum of ZoGlogy, University of Michi-
gan, is labeled Gainesville. I have been unable to locate USNM 14,831, recorded
7Conant (1930) mentions this peculiarity.






82 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

from Brevard County by Cope (1898). Both these records seem to me highly
questionable.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 844 (as Coluber o. obsoletus).

Elaphe obsoleta confinis (Baird and Girard)
BLOTCHED RAT-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern and North-Central Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Escambia, Leon, Jefferson, Baker, Levy and Marion.
Habitat.-Fields and open woods generally; dry flood-plains of rivers.
Abundance.-Fairly common locally.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 829 (as Coluber confinis).

Elaphe quadrivittata quadrivittata (Holbrook)
CHICKEN-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Florida generally except in the Panhandle and in the southern
tip of the peninsula. Known from the following counties: Madison, Duval, Alachua,
Putnam, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Brevard, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Osceola,
Okeechobee, Glades, Charlotte and Lee.
Habitat.-Very widely distributed; most numerous in upland hammock and about
rat-infested buildings.
Abundance.-Generally common.
Habits.-Quite arboreal; expert climbers. They scale limbless pine and oak
trunks with ease; one which I kept in the laboratory slowly climbed from floor to
ceiling in the angle at the corner of the room with no support other than the rough
surface of the plaster. In a cave in Citrus County, inhabited by thousands of bats, I
have found several hanging from stalactites and in crevices in the ceiling, and one
coiled in shallow water at the edge of a subterranean stream. I saw one pursuing
a rat along a rafter in a garage; John Kilby and I found another eating a Hyla c.
cinerea, while clinging to a streamer of moss twenty-five feet above the ground in a
cypress tree.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 838 (as Coluber quadrivittatus).

Elaphe quadrivittata deckerti Brady
DECKERT'S CHICKEN-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Southern Florida and the Keys. Known from Okeechobee,
Collier, Dade and Monroe counties.
Habitat.-Widely distributed in tropical Florida; most abundant in hardwood
hammocks and in old buildings.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Similar to those of quadrivittata. I have seen two in mangroves over
salt water; they frequent Jamaica-dogwood trees with surprising regularity.
NOTE.-The only constant characters distinguishing this form from quadrivittata
are the slightly darker and more reddish ground-color, the tendency toward lessening






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


and diffusion of pigment in the longitudinal stripes, and an orange- or lemon-yellow
bloom, which, anteriorly at least, is striking in living examples, but which may disap-
pear entirely in preservative. Scutellation, size and pattern (persistence of the juve-
nile dorsal saddles) are not consistently diagnostic of the race. In view of these facts,
it seems necessary to extend the range of deckerti somewhat farther north to embrace
the whole region in which the peculiarly colored individuals occur. I have examined
specimens from localities covering most of Florida south of the lower end of Lake
Okeechobee, and Wesley Clanton and I collected a fairly typical specimen on the
northeast of the lake. We saw six in two days at Cape Sable.
Reference.-Brady (1932).


Elaphe rosacea (Cope)
RED RAT-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The Lower Keys.
Habitat.-Hardwood hammocks; buildings.
Abundance.-Rare.
Habits.-These snakes, along with E. guttata, while not common, are considered
great pests by bird-fanciers in Key West. I have talked with several individuals there
who distinguished between the two.
NOTE.-In my opinion, the affinities of rosacea may possibly lie with quadrivittata
rather than with guttata. It seems quite likely that with the accumulation of more
material, deckerti may prove to occupy a position intermediate between quadrivittata
and rosacea.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 837 (as Coluber rosaceus).


Drymarchon corais couperi (Holbrook)
INDIGO SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Okaloosa, Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Lake, Hernando, Orange, Brevard,
Pinellas, Osceola, Charlotte, Okeechobee, Lee, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-High pine in North and Central Florida; dry glades, tropical hammock,
and muckland fields in South Florida; flatwoods.
Abundance.-Locally common.
Habits.-A consistent occupant of gopher-holes in the hills of the peninsula.
Below Lake Okeechobee, where it is most abundant, it is often ploughed up in damp
soil in truck-fields. It attains tremendous size in the hammocks between Cape Sable
and Paradise Keys; I saw a skin eleven feet in length. I have been informed (by
J. B. Tower of Homestead, and by an Indian in a camp in Collier County) that the
Seminoles do not inhabit the Cape Sable country for fear their babies will be eaten
by the Indigo snakes.
Feeding.-A large specimen from Citrus County disgorged a five-foot coach-
whip snake.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 859 (as Composoma c. couperi).







84 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Pituophis mugitus Barbour
FLORIDA PINE-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, St. Lucie and Palm
Beach.
Habitat.-High pine.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-A spectacular fighter; bird-dogs cannot resist pointing and baying these
intrepid snakes, the rasping hisses of which when at bay may be heard at distances of
a hundred yards or more. I once observed a fight between a pine snake and two full
grown coons; the snake defended itself against the attacks of the coons for fully an
hour, and after ripping most of the skin from both of its opponents' noses it crawled
away unmolested.
Feeding.-Young rabbits have been found in two stomachs; captive specimens*
take eggs and live sparrows readily.
Reference.-Barbour (1921a).


Rhadinaea flavilata (Cope)
YELLOW-LIPPED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Alachua, Marion, Orange, Brevard and Indian River.
Habitat.-Flatwoods and upland hammock; under logs and loose bark.
Abundance.-Generally rare; apparently locally common in Marion County.
E. Ross Allen of Silver Springs recently showed me forty-five live specimens brought
in during the-preceding month by his collectors. Two adult males were found
under a board in an old saw-mill in Gainesville.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 759.


Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum (Cope)
MILK-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Known only from Marion and Orange counties.
Habitat.-High pine and upland hammock.
Abundance.-Very rare.
Reference.-Blanchard (1921), p. 188.


Lampropeltis elapsoides elapsoides (Holbrook)
SCARLET KING-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Okaloosa, Franklin, Nassau, Duval, Alachua, Levy, St. Johns, Marion,
Volusia, Lake, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard, Indian River, Charlotte, Palm Beach, Dade
and Monroe.







CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Habitat.-High pine; upland and mesophytic hammock; under logs and loose
bark-especially that of pine.
Abundance.-Not common.
Habits.-Very secretive; somewhat fossorial, and partly, if not completely noc-
turnal; occasionally ploughed up in loose soil.
Feeding.-Two stomachs have contained Leiolopisma unicolor.
Reference.-Blanchard (1921), p. 206.


Lampropeltis rhombomaculata (Holbrook)
BROWN KING-SNAKE
Two Florida specimens: Carnegie Museum, 1,952, from "St. Johns River," and
a specimen in the collection of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan,
from Leesburg, Lake County.
Reference.-Blanchard (1921), p. 128.


Lampropeltis getulus getulus (Linnaeus)
EASTERN KING-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties:
Escambia, Leon, Nassau, Duval, Baker, Alachua, St. Johns, Levy, Marion, Lake,
Seminole and Orange.
Habitat.-Generally distributed; usually in the vicinity of pond, lake and marsh
margins; upland hammock.
Abundance.-Fairly common; I once collected eight along the road-fill across
Payne's Prairie, Alachua County.
Habits.-King-snakes have definite aquatic tendencies. I watched a very large
individual swim more than a hundred yards from the shore of a lake out to a little
island; several have been collected in water in the middle of Payne's Prairie. In
Lake County they are found most frequently in the thickets between lakes and culti-
vated grove land.
Feeding.-I found one eating an adult cottonmouth in water a foot deep in a
flatwoods pond in Lake County, and another eating a coral snake on the shore of
Lake Virginia in Winter Park. While hunting frogs at night in a little pond in
Eustis, I saw a very young king-snake consuming an eight-inch Siren lacertina in
shallow water.
Reference.-Blanchard (1921), p. 49.


Lampropeltis getulus brooks Barbour
YELLOW KING-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Extreme southern Florida. Known from Collier, Dade and
Monroe counties.
Habitat.-Tropical hammock, limestone flatwoods, and glade land; fields and
edificarian situations.






86 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Abundance.-Apparently about equal in abundance to L. g. getulus.
Habits.-Probably those of getulus.
Feeding.-I saw a very large individual chasing rats in a shed in J. B. Tower's
fruit grove near Homestead.
Reference.-Barbour (1919).


Lampropeltis getulus floridana Blanchard
FLORIDA KING-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Central and southern Florida except in the extreme southern
tip of the peninsula. Known from the following counties: Alachua, Marion, Put-
nam, Seminole, Lake, Charlotte, Osceola, Brevard, Lee, Collier, Okeechobee,
Hendry, Palm Beach, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Generally similar to that of getulus; numerous around cypress ponds
in savannah lands and prairies.
Abundance.-Fairly common; perhaps locally somewhat more abundant than
getulus.
Reference.-Blanchard (1921), p. 62.


Stilosoma extenuatum Brown
SHORT-TAILED SNAKE
Florida Range.-The central portion of the peninsula. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Pinellas and Polk.
Habltat.-High pine, upland hammock, and rosemary scrub.
Abundance.-Rare.
Habits.-A burrower, but occasionally seen foraging above ground. Specimens
have been dug out of sphagnum beds.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 924.

Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach)
SCARLET SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Jackson, Duval, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Orange, Sumter, Pinel-
las, Brevard, Lee, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Generally distributed; usually found in fairly moist soil-occasionally
in muck.
Abundance.-Not common, but slightly more so than L. e. elapsoides.
Habits.-Fossorial, but often wanders about on the surface of the ground at night.
Breeding.-Sumter County, June 2, 1936; a female with eight mature eggs in
the oviduct.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 928.






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Natrix sipedon fasciata (Linnaeus)
SOUTHEASTERN BANDED WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties:
Escambia, Leon, Madison, Duval, Alachua, and Marion.
Habitat.-Nearly any aquatic situation.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
NOTE.-Van Hyning (1931) reports finding typical fasciata in litters of picti-
ventris; I have found this a frequent occurrence at Gainesville and in West Florida.
It appears to me likely that all Florida specimens of fasciata are merely variants of
this nature, and that genetically pure fasciata does not reach the state.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 966 (as Natrix f. fasciata).


Natrix sipedon pictiventris (Cope)
FLORIDA BANDED WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state except in the western portion
of the Panhandle. Known from the following counties: Gadsden, Leon, Franklin,
Duval, Alachua, Levy, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Brevard,
Indian River, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Charlotte, Glades, Hendry, Palm Beach, Lee,
Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Nearly any aquatic situation; more numerous in small marshes and
bodies of water than in the larger lakes and rivers.
Abundance.-Very common.
Feeding.-The greater part of the diet consists of frogs; young R. catesbeiana
are a staple. There is usually a concentration of pictiventris in places where Hyla
gratiosa is breeding; the small frogs float about in deep water while calling, and
make easy prey for the snakes, which rarely find it necessary to swim to shore to
swallow their victims.
Breeding.-Mating takes place from March 11 to May 14; the young are born
from May to August and often remain with the mother for some time after birth.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 969 (as N. fasciata pictiventris).


Natrix sipedon clarkii (Baird and Girard)
CLARK'S WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The northern Gulf Coast. Known from Citrus, Levy and
Escambia counties.
Habitat.-Salt marsh and mangrove swamp; coastal island beaches.
Abundance.-Fairly common in the Pensacola area; rare elsewhere in Florida.
NoTE.-Viosca (1924) records intermediates between fasciata and clarkii from
southern Louisiana, and in a recent paper William Clay (1938) suggests that clarkii
should be regarded as a subspecies of sipedon. All the specimens that I have exam-
ined from the Gulf Coastal strip between Cedar Keys and Tampa are obvious inter-
grades between clarkii and compressicauda, and of the forty-four unborn young of a






88 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

pictiventris-clarkii intergrade from Gulfport, forty-one are pictiventris, and three
have the anterior half of the body striped longitudinally as in clarkii, with the trans-
verse bands of pictiventris posteriorly. The rassenkreise is completed by extensive
intergrading between compressicauda and pictiventris along the southern Gulf Coast;
Mr. Clay has examined intermediate specimens, and I have seen seven from Charlotte
and Sarasota counties which exhibited various stages of intergradation.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 987 (as N. clarkii).

Natrix sipedon compressicauda (Kennicott)
SALT WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Central and southern coasts of the peninsula and the Keys.
Known from the following counties: Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Sara-
sota, Charlotte, Lee, Collier, Monroe, Dade, Brevard and Volusia.
Habitat.-Salt marsh and mangrove swamp; bays, estuaries, salt- and brackish-
water canals and ditches; sea-beaches.
Abundance.-Locally common; Wesley Clanton and I collected six specimens
in a rocky canal on No Name Key, Dec. 23, 1932.
Habits.-Chiefly nocturnal, concealing themselves under rocks and logs during
the day; they are most active and may be found most readily on spring-tides at night.
Feeding.-Various cyprinodont fishes have been taken from stomachs. While
casting in the surf a hundred yards off the beach at Naples (Collier County; June
18, 1936) at 10:00 p. m., I felt something brush against my back; striking a match,
I discovered a small compressicauda which was riding the waves and attempting to
swallow a Mojarra (Eucinostomus sp.).
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 978 (as N. compressicauda).


Natrix cyclopion cyclopion (Dumeril and Bibron)
GREEN WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The Panhandle. Known from Escambia and Leon counties.
Habitat.-Lakes, marshes, and rivers.
Abundance.-Not common; I found two in a small lake near Tallahassee.
Reference.-Goff (1936).


Natrix cyclopion floridana Goff
FLORIDA GREEN WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northeastern and peninsular Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Leon, Alachua, Marion, Lake, Indian River, Martin, Hendry, Palm
Beach, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Shores of the larger lakes; marshes.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Very numerous on the fill across Payne's Prairie at night during the
first warm spring rains. While hunting frogs at night on the northeast shore of






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Lake Okeechobee (December 20, 1932) I counted thirteen of these snakes in the
maiden-cane along a hundred yards or so of the beach. They are frequently found
in groups of a half-dozen or more lying in the sun on rafts of maiden-cane roots in
Lake Harris and Lake Griffin (Lake County).
Reference.-Goff (1936).

Natrix erythrogaster erythrogaster (Forster)
RED-BELLIED WATER-SNAKE
Found as a rarity in northern Florida. Apparently a fluvial form. George
Van Hyning presented me with two live specimens, collected by him May 22, 1938,
in the Suwannee River near Fannin Springs, Gilchrist County (DBUF 1,919).
This pair, a male and a female, were kept alive for a month and fed on frogs and
fish; during this time the male kept up a nearly continuous courtship, lying for hours
at a time across or intertwined with the female. Copulation apparently never
took place, however, and no eggs or young were found in the oviduct of the female.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 975 (as N. fasciata erythrogaster).

Natrix taxispilota (Holbrook)
BROWN WATER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern and Central Florida. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Liberty, Alachua, Dixie, Marion, Lake, Hillsborough and Lee.
Habitat.-Rivers, creeks, and alluvial swamps; lakes.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-The most arboreal of the Florida watersnakes; I have seen them in
trees twenty-five feet above the water. They are quite shy, extremely active, and
probably the swiftest swimmers of all our snakes.
Feeding.-They feed on fish more regularly than any other Florida snake; where
fish are concentrated in holes, during times of low water, the brown watersnakes
stuff themselves until they can scarcely move. In Lake Enola (Umatilla, Lake
County) I found a dead five-foot taxispilota with a very large shell-cracker (Eupo-
motis microlophus) wedged tightly in its mouth; the dorsal spines of the fish had
penetrated the snake's jaw muscles, protruding half an inch from the side of its head.
Breeding.-Frank Young and I discovered a pair in copula on a willow limb
fifteen feet above the water on the Santa Fe River (Alachua County) March 20,
1937; lying on top of the mated pair, intimately intertwined with them, and appar-
ently sound asleep, was a large male N. s. pictiventris.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 959.

Natrix rigida (Say)
RIGID QUEEN-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from the following counties:
Escambia, Alachua, Marion and Putnam.
Habitat.-Alluvial swamps.







90 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Abundance.-Very rare.
Habits.-Apparently somewhat fossorial; a specimen was recently ploughed up
on the edge of a swamp near Gainesville.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 989.

Natrix septemvittata (Say)
QUEEN-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The Apalachicola drainage. Known from Jackson and Lib-
erty counties.
Habitat.-Alluvial swamps.
Abundance.-Very rare.
Habits.-O. C. Van Hyning dug one out of a spring near Marianna, Jackson
County.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 993 (as N. leberis).

Seminatrix pygaea (Cope)
RED-BELLIED MUD-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The peninsula. Known from the following counties: Clay,
Alachua, Marion, Lake, Orange, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Brevard, Palm Beach,
Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Bayheads and water-hyacinth marshes; sphagnum bogs; ponds and
sloughs.
Abundance.-Fairly common locally.
Habits.-Partly fossorial; I have dug them up in winter under two feet of
sphagnum and mud. They may sometimes be collected in numbers by rolling up
masses of water-hyacinths growing in shallow water. I saw two individuals at night
crawling slowly about on the bottom of a small, clear pond in Alachua County; they
appeared to be foraging.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 998.

Storeria dekayi (Holbrook)
DE KAY'S SNAKE
Florida Range.-The Panhandle. Known from Escambia and Liberty counties.
Habitat.-Low hammock and floodplains; under logs.
Abundance.--Rare.
Habits.-While looking for salamanders along the east shore of the Apalachicola
River (Liberty County), I found a dekayi under a log lying partly in the water.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1000.

Storeria victa Hay
HAY'S SNAKE
Florida Range.-The peninsula. Known from the following counties: Duval,
Alachua, Marion, Seminole, Indian River and Dade.






CAn--A CoNwrBUTInoN TO THE HiapTroLoor oP FLOIDA


Habitat.-Near ponds, sloughs, and marshes; under logs (usually near the water's
edge) and among floating water-hyacinths; upland hammock.
Abundance.-Fairly common locally.
Habits.-Rarely found far from water; frequently collected at the edge of
Payne's Prairie among water-hyacinth roots, and under logs along canals in the
Everglades.
Breeding.-A female collected May 5, 1936 (Alachua County), bore eleven
young June 6, 1936. The young snakes were 107-109 mm. in length; the colora-
tion was similar to that of the adult, but much darker, the dorsal ground-color, the
dark neck band, and the top of the head being nearly black, and the ventral surface
dark gray; the light neck band was almost white and much more distinct than in
adult specimens; all have fifteen scale-rows.
NoTE.-Variation in specimens of victa which I have examined has embraced all
the characters of dekayi except the two additional scale-rows of the latter. In all
probability litters of young from the region between Lake City, Florida, and Valdosta,
Georgia, will be found to include individuals with both fifteen and seventeen scale-
rows. I have seen no specimens from this area, where the ranges of the two forms
apparently meet.
Refrence.--Hay (1892), p. 199.


Storeria occipitomaculata (Holbrook)
RED-BELLIED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Escambia, Jefferson, Alachua
and Marion counties.
Habitat.-Upland and mesophytic hammock; under bark and logs and in leaf-
mold.
Abundance.-Not common; I have seen five living specimens.
Habits.-Fossorial, apparently burrowing chiefly in leaf-mold; I have found two
in piles of debris at the bases of magnolia trees.
Breeding.-A female, collected at Gainesville, April 17, 1937, had eight large
but incompletely developed embryos in the oviduct.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1003.


Haldea valerlae valriae Baird and Girard
EASTERN GRAY SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northern Florida. Known from Escambia, Leon and Alachua
counties.
Habitar.-Upland hammock; in leaf-mold and under logs.
Abundane,--Rare; I have seen two living specimens.
Habits.-Fossorial; a specimen was raked up with leaves in a yard on the out-
skirts of Gainesville.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1006 (as Virginia valteia).






92 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Haldea striatula (Linnaeus)
GROUND SNAKE
Florida Range.-Northeastern Florida. Known from Baker and Duval
counties.
Habit.-Upland and mesophytic hammock; flatwoods.
Abundance.-Very rare.
Habits.-Fossorial; one specimen was ploughed up in the Osceola National Forest,
Baker County.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1009.


Liodytes alleni (Garman)
ALLEN'S MUD-SNAKE
Florida Range.-The peninsula. Known from the following counties: Clay,
Alachua, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Charlotte, Okeechobee, Palm Beach and Dade.
Habitat.-Marshes and bayheads; sloughs and sphagnum bogs; among water-
hyacinth roots in shallow water.
Abundance.-Fairly common locally; half a dozen or more are often taken in
an afternoon from masses of water-hyacinths along the shore of Payne's Prairie.
Habits.-Probably the most aquatic Florida snake; I believe many of them remain
permanently in the water. While wading along a little bayhead ditch in Lake
County I saw an alleni withdraw its head quickly into the mass of Utricularia which
choked the stream; locating the hole through which the head had protruded, I felt
around and found a well-defined tunnel in the tightly packed vegetation, connecting
with another tunnel in the mucky bank a foot beneath the surface. Forcing my hand
nearly the length of my arm along this second tunnel, I found the snake coiled in a
a little cavity at the end. Six other specimens were taken on the same afternoon
under almost identical conditions. They are frequently found deep in sphagnum
bogs in winter.
Feeding.-In over a hundred stomachs I found only crayfish (Cambarus fallax).
0. C. Van Hyning informs me that he has also examined a large number of stomachs
in which crayfish were the only food.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1013.

Thamnophis sauritus sackenii (Kennicott)
SOUTHEASTERN RIBBON-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Jefferson, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Volusia, Lake,
Seminole, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Osceola, Brevard, Sarasota, Charlotte, DeSoto,
Glades, Palm Beach, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Marsh-borders and wet meadows; lake, pond, and stream shores.
Abundance.-Common.
Habits.-Semi-aquatic and semi-arboreal; willow thickets in inundated meadows
are a favorite habitat; they are almost as graceful and agile climbers as Opheodrys





CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


aestivus, and are frequently found with the latter in trees and bushes along lake-
margins.
Feeding.-I have found them feeding only on frogs; they seem particularly
fond of Pseudacris ocularis, and occur in maximum abundance among Juncus and
narrow-leafed grasses around ponds and drainage ditches-the most characteristic
habitat of ocularis.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1019 (as Eutenia sackenii).

Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linnaeus)
EASTERN GARTER-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Jefferson, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Osceola, Brevard, Indian River, Charlotte, Highlands, Lee, Collier
and Dade.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; usually near water.
Abundance.-Locally common.
Habits.-They are occasionally collected at Payne's Prairie by "rolling up" water-
hyacinths. Numerous along the Tamiami Trail under rocks at the edge of the canal.
Feeding.-The garter-snake is the only species besides Heterodon that I have
found eating toads regularly. Rana sphenocephala appears to be the staple food item.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1064 (as Eutenia sirtalis).

Tantilla coronata coronata (Baird and Girard)
CROWNED SNAKE
The region of intergradation between this race and T. c. wagneri must lie north
of Alachua County, since I have seen but one Florida specimen (from Gainesville)
which I would refer to coronata. However, I have examined only two specimens
from the Panhandle. Ecological differences between the two races are probably slight.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1114.


Tantilla coronata wagnerl (Jan)
FLORIDA CROWNED SNAKE
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Gadsden, Alachua, Marion, Hernando, Lake, Orange, Seminole,
Pinellas, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Charlotte and Dade.
Habitat.-Shows little habitat preference; perhaps most numerous in upland
hammock.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Almost exclusively fossorial; a very efficient burrower, even in fairly
heavy or tightly-packed soil. They may be collected most effectively by turning over
rocks in open woods, where they are found much more frequently than under logs.
Reference.-Blanchard (1938).






94 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. 1

Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Linnaeus)
CORAL-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Widely distributed in the state. Known from the following
counties: Bay, Gulf, Columbia, Duval, Clay, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Volusia,
Citrus, Lake, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard, Manatee, Highlands, Okeechobee,
Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Palm Beach and Dade.
Habitat.-Upland and mesophytic hammock; high pine.
Abundance.-Fairly common locally.
Habits.-Partly fossorial; we frequently find them in leaf-mold and in decaying
logs. As I was walking through a hammock in Lake County, a large coral snake
struck me savagely on the leg; when I hastily jumped away the creature lashed its
body back and forth in a series of quick, lateral jerks, and in an incredibly short time
had disappeared beneath the leaf-mold and sand. Another individual imbedded its
fangs in the edge of the sole of Yancey Fuller's shoe as he was leaving a boat on
the shore of Lake Enola (Lake County): I have seen several in and near water;
on the night of October 13, 1934, George Van Hyning and I found one on a mat
of floating vegetation in the middle of a shallow pond near Gainesville.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1120.

Micrurus fulvius barbouri Schmidt
BARBOUR'S CORAL-SNAKE
Florida Range.-Known only from the vicinity of Royal Palm Park, Dade
County.
Habitat.-Tropical hammock; glade land.
Abundance.-Fairly common in some of the Everglades hammocks.
Habits.-Apparently those of fulvius. Occasionally ploughed up on muckland
farms.
Reference.-Schmidt (1928), p. 64.

Agkistrodon piscivorus (Lacpide)
COTTONMOUTH MOCCASIN
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Liberty, Leon, Baker, Nassau, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Volusia,
Lake, Pinellas, Polk, 'Brevard, Manatee, Glades, Palm Beach, Collier, Dade and
Monroe.
Habitat.-Aquatic situations; most abundant in ponds, lakes, and streams with
wooded shores; high islands off the Gulf Coast.
Abundance.-Fairly common; locally very abundant.
Habits.-They occur in astonishing numbers in the shore-bay hammock on Snake
Island, where there is no fresh water of any kind.
Feeding.-The food includes frogs, fish, birds, eggs, lizards, and snakes; frogs
are found in stomachs most frequently.
NoTE.-Specimens from the rocky canals in the southern end of the Everglades
are frequently light brownish-yellow in color.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1133 (as Ancistrodon fiscivorus).






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION ro THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


Agkistrodon mokasen mokasen (Beauvois)
SOUTHEASTERN COPPERHEAD
In regard to the occurrence in Florida of the copperhead, Stejneger (1893) refers
to "specimens from Gainesville sent to the National Museum by Judge J. Bell." It
was presumably on the basis of these specimens, whose real origin is quite doubtful,
that the range of this snake has been extended to Florida in past editions of the check
list. Recently (1938) E. Ross Allen has recorded a specimen found by him at Chat-
tahoochee, Gadsden County. Herman Kurz, Department of Botany, Florida State
College for Women, has recently told me of two specimens observed by him in
Liberty County.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1135 (as Ancistrodron contortrix).

Sistrurus miliarius barbouri Gloyd
SOUTHEASTERN GROUND-RATTLER
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Duval, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Pinellas, Polk, Brevard,
Charlotte, Glades, Palm Beach, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-All types of flatwoods; nearly any kind of terrain where lakes and
marshes are frequent.
Abundance.-Fairly common; locally numerous.
Habits.-Usually found near water. When the Everglades are flooded pigmy
rattlers may often be seen in small trees, and lying coiled on cabbage palm leaves
eight or ten feet high. I have taken several under logs on the shore of Lake Yale,
Lake County. Near Levy Lake, Alachua County, I saw a cow step on a small ground
rattler, mashing its tail into the mud; the snake struck the cow on the fetlock three
or four times before she moved her hoof; after two or three minutes she turned and
regarded the bitten foot in evident amazement, shook it in the air a couple of times and
ran off bawling; three days later I saw the cow again; she showed no ill effects from
the experience.
Reference.--Gloyd (1935).

Crotalus adamanteus Beauvois
DIAMOND-BACK RATTLESNAKE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Baker, Duval, St. Johns, Alachua, Marion, Putnam, Volusia,
Lake, Seminole, Orange, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Brevard, Sarasota,
Charlotte, DeSoto, Hendry, Palm Beach, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Widely distributed; most abundant in palmetto flatwoods.
Abundance.-Locally common.
Habits.--Chiefly nocturnal; very shy and secretive throughout most of its Flor-
ida range. Although the diamond-back undoubtedly constitutes a menace to the
unobservant rambler in dry pine woods, its temperament is somewhat maligned by
popular report. There seems to be great individual variation in disposition; on a
very few occasions I have heard diamond-backs rattle in apparent rage at my presence






96 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BIOLOGICAL SERIES, VOL. III, No. I

when they were concealed in palmettos twenty or thirty feet away. Much more
often, however, they permit one to approach within two or three feet before becoming
agitated. I have stepped directly over two which showed no signs of resentment, and
I once had the unsettling experience of placing my foot squarely upon a six-foot
individual coiled neatly at the mouth of a gopher hole in thick broom-sedge, mashing
its head into the sand. Apparently the only annoyance which this indignity caused
the snake accrued from the mouth-full of sand which it got, for it never sounded
its rattle and made no attempt to strike, but merely gaped and twisted its jaws.
Although partial to xeric situations, diamond-backs are frequently seen swimming;
Clench (1925) found one in Charlotte Harbor; Leonard Giovannoli and I took one
in the middle of the Myakka River, and two West Coast fishermen have reported
taking them in mackerel nets several miles out in the Gulf. Rattlesnakes are espe-
cially abundant in the territory northwest of Lake Okeechobee; on December 30,
1936, I saw four adults within two blocks on the outskirts of Arcadia (DeSoto
County).
Feeding.-Rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and mice (Peromyscus spp.) are frequently
eaten; from the stomach of a five-foot specimen from Citrus County I took an adult
marsh-rabbit, and Dr. Thomas Barbour tells me of having taken a king-rail from the
stomach of each of two specimens collected at Jupiter.
Reference.-Cope (1898), p. 1161.

Crotalus horridus atricaudatus Latreille
CANEBRAKE RATTLESNAKE
Florida Range.-Northeastern Florida. Known from Baker, Union and
Alachua counties.
Habitat.-Wiregrass flatwoods.
Abundance.-Rare.
Habits.-I found a specimen between two big bayheads in flatwoods in Union
County; two specimens in the collection of A. H. Antoni of Olustee were taken in
wet flatwoods in the Osceola National Forest (Baker County).
Reference.-Gloyd (1935).

ORDER TESTUDINATA-TORTOISES AND TURTLES

Sternotherus minor (Agassiz)
LOGGERHEAD MUSK-TURTLE
Florida Range.-Northern and North-Central Florida. Known from the fol-
lowing counties: Jackson, Columbia, Alachua, Dixie, Levy, Putnam, Marion and
Lake.
Habitat.-Spring runs; rivers and the larger creeks, and lakes draining into such
streams.
Abundance.-Locally very common.
Habits.-Most numerous in large calcareous springs, where they may be seen at
night wandering around on the bottom, especially about piles of debris. Often found






CARR-A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HERPETOLOGY OF FLORIDA


on bushes and snags at surprising heights above the water; when they bask in the sun
they usually choose the highest perch available, and exhibit striking patience and deter-
mination in attaining it. I saw one balanced precariously on the apex of a tall,
smooth cypress knee, six feet above the water. Old individuals, and especially old
males, are very ill-tempered.
Feeding.-They are chiefly scavengers and eat nearly anything; I have seen them
feeding on dead crayfish, dead fish, earthworms, bread, tomato peelings, and water-
melon rind. They may be caught readily on hook and line.
Breeding.-The eggs are laid in April and May in sand, leaf-mold or rotten
wood. The young are very similar in appearance to the adult, except that the plastron
is light pink in color.
Reference.-Agassiz (1857), p. 424 (as Goniochelys minor).

Sternotherus odoratus (Latreille)
STINK-JIM
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state. Known from the following
counties: Escambia, Leon, Wakulla, Nassau, Alachua, Marion, Hernando, Lake,
Seminole, Orange, Polk, Glades, Lee, Collier and Dade.
Habitat.-Nearly any aquatic situation; most numerous in rivers, creeks, and
spring runs.
Abundance.-Fairly common.
Habits.-Very aquatic; rarely seen on land or lying on logs; I have watched
them foraging on the bottom of springs twenty feet deep. They are never found
in numbers, if at all, where minor is abundant, although the habitat preference of
the two species is apparently the same.
Feeding.-I have caught them on hooks baited with worms, cut fish, and dough;
captive individuals are omnivorous.
Reference.-Boulenger (1889), p. 37 (as Cinosternum odoratum).

Kinosternon baurii baurii Garman
STRIPED MUSK-TURTLE
Florida Range.-Distributed throughout the state except in the Panhandle.
Known from the following counties: Leon, Alachua, Putnam, Marion, Lake, Her-
nando, Sumter, Orange, Brevard, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Brevard,
Indian River, Palm Beach, Collier, Dade and Monroe.
Habitat.-Lakes, ponds, and small streams; canals and ditches.
Abundance.-Common.
Habits.-The most terrestrial of the Florida Kinosternidae; they are frequently
found foraging on shore or in wet meadows, and occasionally wander long distances
from water.
Feeding.-Omnivorous scavengers; they are particularly fond of cow dung. I
once found three in a small garbage-pile left by campers on the shore of Lake Yale
(Lake County). They are easily caught on hooks baited with worms or dough.
Breeding.-The eggs are laid from April to June in holes in the sand and in piles
of dead water-hyacinths. On May 2, 1936, I saw two males fighting over a female




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