Vertebrates of Florida

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Vertebrates of Florida
Series Title:
Vertebrates of Florida
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Book
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Stevenson, Henry M.

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University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
    Copyright
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    List of Illustrations
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Foreword
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Preface
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Acknowledgement
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
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Full Text





Vertebrates of Florida













Vertebrate


of


Florida
Identification and Distribution



Henry M. Stevenson






A Florida State University Book
University Presses of Florida
Gainesville

















Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Stevenson, Henry Miller, 1914-
Vertebrates of Florida.

"A Florida State University Book."
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Vertebrates-Florida-Identification.
2. Zoology-Florida. I. Title.
QL169.S75 596'.09'759 75-37723
ISBN 0-8130-0437-3





Copyright 1976 by the Board of Regents
of the State of Florida

Printed in Florida


59.o9369

58^-




















List of Illustrations
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments


Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Keys to Vertebrate Classes,
Orders, Families, and Species
Chapter 3. Species Accounts
Chapter 4. Collecting and Preserving
Vertebrates


Glossary
Bibliography
Index


Contents


vi
xi
xiii
xvii

3

9
155

535

549
561
579















List of Illustrations



Plates

Plate I. Fishes ....................................... 12-13
Plate II. Fishes ............... ...................... 24-25
Plate III. Fishes ....................................... 34-35
Plate IV. Amphibians ............................... 44-45
Plate V. Reptiles ..................... .............. 60-61
Plate VI. Reptiles ..................................... 68-69
Plate VII. Birds ....................................... 78-79
Plate VIII. Birds ....................................... 86-87
Plate IX. Birds ......................................... 96-97
Plate X. Mammals ................................... 138-139
Plate XI. Mammals ................................... 146-147

Figures

Figure 1. External morphology of a fish
(Centrarchus macropterus) ......................... 31
Figure 2. External morphology of a tadpole
(Rana areolata aesopus) ...... .... ... ............ 52
Figure 3. Mouthparts of a tadpole
(Rana heckscheri) ................................. 53
Figure 4. Plates on the carapace and plastron
of a turtle (Chrysemys picta) ........................ 63
Figure 5. Specialized scales on the head of a lizard
(Eumeces laticeps) ................................. 71
Figure 6. Specialized scales on the head of a snake
(Lampropeltis calligaster) .......................... 74


vi / LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS







Figure 7. External features of a bird .......................... 77
Figure 8. Semizygodactyl (right) foot of an Osprey
(Pandion haliaetus) .................. ............. 83
Figure 9. Bones of a typical mammalian skull .................. 135
Figure 10. Portion of a baleen plate
(Family Balaenopteridae) ......................... 136
Figure 11. Preparing a bird skin-Opening cut ................ 540
Figure 12. Cut at base of tail ............................ 541
Figure 13. Cut in skin of neck .............. ......... ....... 542
Figure 14. Cut at base of skull ................................ 543
Figure 15. Completed skin ready for drying ..................... 545


Maps

Map 1. Florida counties ....................... Front endpaper
Map 2. Florida natural features and principal
cities ................................... Back endpaper
Map 3. Distribution of the Florida Gar
(Lepisosteus platyrhincus) ........................... 160
Map 4. Distribution of the Bandfin Shiner
(Notropis zonistius) ................................. 168
Map 5. Distribution of the Dusky Shiner
(Notropis cummingsae) .............................. 170
Map 6. Distribution of the Iron-colored Shiner
(Notropis chalybaeus) ............................... 171
Map 7. Distribution of the'Weed Shiner
(Notropis texanus) .................................. 172
Map 8. Distribution of the Coastal Shiner
(Notropis petersoni) ................................. 173
Map 9. Distribution of the Snail Bullhead
(Ictalurus brunneus) ............................... 178
Map 10. Distribution of the Black Madtom
(Noturusfunebris) .................................. 181
Map 11. Distribution of the Diamond Killifish
(Adinia xenica) ..................................... 185
Map 12. Distribution of the Gulf Killifish
(Fundulus grandis) .................................. 186
Map 13. Distribution of the Seminole Killifish
(Fundulus seminolis) ................................ 187
Map 14. Distribution of the Southern Starhead Minnow
(Fundulus lineolatus) ................................ 190
Map 15. Distribution of the Lake Eustis Minnow
(Cyprinodon hubbsi) .............................. 191
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vii







Map 16. Distribution of the Gold-spotted Killifish
(Floridichthys carpio carpio) ....................... 192
Map 17. Distribution of the Flagfish
(Jordanellafloridae) .............................. 193
Map 18. Distribution of the Least Killifish
(Heterandriaformosa) ............................ 195
Map 19. Distribution of the Okefenokee Pygmy Sunfish
(Elassoma okefenokee) ............................. 200
Map 20. Distribution of the Suwannee Bass
(Micropterus notius) ............................... 201
Map 21. Distribution of the Mud Sunfish
(Acantharchus pomotis) ........................... 207
Map 22. Distribution of the Naked Sand Darter
(Ammocrypta beani) .............................. 210
Map 23. Distribution of the Choctawhatchee Darter
(Etheostoma davisoni) ............................. 211
Map 24. Distribution of the Brown Darter
(Etheostoma edwini) .............................. 213
Map 25. Distribution of the One-toed Amphiuma
(Amphiuma pholeter) ............................. 230
Map 26. Distribution of the Southern Dusky Salamander
(Desmognathus auriculatus) ......................... 236
Map 27. Distribution of the Seal Salamander
(Desmognathus monticola) ....................... 237
Map 28. Distribution of the River Frog
(Rana heckscheri) ................................ 245
Map 29. Distribution of the Florida Softshell
(Trionyxferox) ...................................... 258
Map 30. Distribution of the Mediterranean Gecko
(Hemidactylus turcicus) ........................... 262
Map 31. Distribution of the Ocellated Gecko
(Sphaerodactylus argus) ........................... 263
Map 32. Distribution of the Island Glass Lizard
(Ophisaurus compressus) .......................... 265
Map 33. Distribution of the Queen Snake
(Regina septemvittata) ............................. 272
Map 34. Distribution of the Black Swamp Snake
(Seminatrix pygaea) ................................. 275
Map 35. Distribution of the Ring-necked Snake
(Diadophis punctatus) .............................. 279
Map 36. Distribution of the Prairie Kingsnake
(Lampropeltis calligaster) .......................... 283
Map 37. Distribution of the Scarlet Snake
(Cemophora coccinea) ............................ 285
viii / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA








Map 38. Distribution of the Southern Hog-nosed Snake
(Heterodon simus) ................................. 287
Map 39. Distribution of the Scarlet Ibis
(Eudocimus ruber) ................................ 309
Map 40. Distribution of the Turkey
(Meleagris gallopavo) ................... .......... 337
Map 41. Breeding range of the White-crowned Pigeon
(Columba leucocephala) ........................... 373

(Crotophaga ani) ................................. 379
Map 43. Breeding range of the Chuck-will's-widow
(Caprimulgus carolinensis) ........................ .. 383
Map 44. Breeding range of the Antillean Nighthawk
(Chordeiles gundlachii) ............................ 385
Map 45. Breeding range of the Common Flicker
(Colaptes auratus) ................................. 389
Map 46. Distribution of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker
(Dendrocopos borealis) ............................ 392
Map 47. Breeding range of the Gray Kingbird
(Tyrannus dominicensis) ........................... 394
Map 48. Breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher
(Empidonax virescens) ............................ 397
Map 49. Distribution of the Scrub Jay
(Aphelocoma coerulescens) ........................ 405
Map 50. Distribution of the Fish Crow
(Corvus ossifragus) ................... .......... .. 406
Map 51. Distribution of the Carolina Chickadee
(Parus carolinensis) .................................. 407
S Map 52. Distribution of the Brown-headed Nuthatch
(Sitta pusilla) .......... ..................... 409
Map 53. Breeding range of the House Wren
(Troglodytes aedon) ................................. 411
Map 54. Breeding range of the Black-whiskered Vireo
(Vireo altiloquus) .................................. 426
Map 55. Breeding range of the Swainson's Warbler
(Limnothlypis swainsoni) .......................... 429
Map 56. Breeding range of the Worm-eating Warbler
(Helrnitheros vermivora) ........................... 430
Map 57. Distribution of the Blue-gray Tanager
(Thraupis virens) .................................. 456
Map 58. Distribution of: 1. The Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza
maritima); 2. The Dusky Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza
nigrescens); 3. The Cape Sable Sparrow (Ammospiza
mirabilis) .......................................... 469
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS / ix







Map 59. Distribution of the Southeastern Myotis
(Myotis austroriparius) .............................. 487
Map 60. Distribution of the Yellow Bat
(Lasiurus intermedius) ............................... 491
Map 61. Distribution of the Nine-banded Armadillo
(Dasypus novemcinctus) ........................... 494
Map 62. Distribution of the Marsh Rabbit
(Sylvilagus palustris) ............ ................. 495
Map 63. Distribution of the Eastern Chipmunk
(Tam ias striatus) ..................................... 497
Map 64. Distribution of the Red-bellied Squirrel
(Sciurus aureogaster) .............................. 498
Map 65. Distribution of the Rice Rat
(Oryzomys palustris) ................................ 502
Map 66. Distribution of the Eastern Harvest Mouse
(Reithrodontomys humulis) ........................ 503
Map 67. Distribution of the Pine Vole
(Microtus pinetorum) .............................. 507
Map 68. Distribution of the Manatee
(Trichechus manatus latirostris) ...................... 518


X / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


















Foreword


by WILLIAM B. ROBERTSON, JR.

As if in compensation for its somewhat uninspiring landscape, Florida
possesses a remarkable wealth of animals. The great extent of the state,
almost 500 miles in both its north-south and east-west dimensions, in-
cludes a diverse array of environments from the temperate, vaguely
Appalachian, river valleys of the panhandle to the tropical, Antillean,
Florida Keys. The variety of native animal life reflects this diversity of
living conditions. It also reflects an eventful geologic past when the
peninsula was flooded by shallow seas with islands where animals
unique to Florida evolved, and where animals that died out elsewhere
were able to survive. Unhappily, a growing part of the state's present
faunal diversity results from man's uncontrolled itch to improve on na-
ture by importing nonnative animals. In all, Homo sapiens now shares
Florida with wild populations of some 880 other species of vertebrate
animals-freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Dr. Stevenson's book gives, for the first time within one set of covers,
the means to identify specimens of all the land and freshwater verte-
brates known to occur in Florida and the salient facts about their distri-
bution in the state. It fills the long-standing need for a single reference,
up-to-date and authoritative, on the Florida animals of most interest and
concern to man. The book is timely in a day when we are beginning to
understand that any loss of diversity in the natural world around us
cheapens our own lives. Sound information on the identity and distribu-
tion of Florida vertebrates is basic to any effort to conserve them.
It is to be hoped that this book will find use in Florida schools, and
also among the state's conservation-minded citizens and amateur
naturalists, many of whom made important contributions to its contents.
Everglades National Park, 1975.
FOREWORD / xi












































































































I


















Preface


There is presently no publication dealing exclusively with all the ver-
tebrates of Florida and the means of identifying them. Vertebrates of the
United States (Blair et al., 1957) necessarily gave extremely brief treat-
ment of each species and omitted some Florida species, some of which
are also not in the 1968 edition. The large number of species involved in
that work also compounded the difficulties of writing workable keys for
certain groups. Carr and Goin (1955), in their Guide to the Reptiles,
Amphibians, and Fresh-water Fishes of Florida, provided a means of
identifying the great majority of cold-blooded vertebrates (except most
marine fishes) then known to Florida, but many additional species have
been reported since. A Key to Florida Birds (Stevenson, 1960a) featured
keys and descriptions for the identification of all birds except a few of
accidental occurrence, but this faunal list has also increased in the inter-
vening years. There seems to be no comprehensive treatment (or key)
for the mammals of Florida. Thus the present work has been prepared in
the belief that a need exists for a single source by which the identity of
any specimen of Florida vertebrate may be established.
LIMITATIONS As in the case of its predecessors cited above, this work
has omitted marine fishes. Their inclusion would not only have length-
ened the work, increased the difficulty of writing and using the keys, and
decreased the reliability of the information, but would have introduced
an insoluble problem of establishing and using a constant boundary for
the state. Potentially, at least, a similar problem may seem to exist for
marine birds and mammals, but nearly all of those included have
reached the coast occasionally. Only those species believed to have
occurred or likely to recur within the present century are included.
Although the descriptions of species should prove helpful in identifying
both live and preserved specimens, this work is not intended to be a field
guide.
PREFACE / Xiii






GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE Several species have been included in the
keys (though not in the species accounts) that have not been recorded in
Florida. In each case the range extends so close to the state line, or is so
poorly known, that occurrence in Florida is deemed likely. The inclu-
sion of these extralimital species should make this book more useful in
surrounding states. In fact, with the exceptions of salamanders and
freshwater fishes, the great majority of species known to occur in both
states bordering Florida are included in this book on the basis of Florida
records.
VALIDATION OF RECORDS The verification of Florida occurrences of
nearly all vertebrates except some birds and cetaceans is based on col-
lected specimens showing locality data. It may seem strange that any
other evidence would suffice for birds, but there are practical reasons for
these few exceptions. Largely because of public sentiment, most species
of birds are protected against collecting without a scientific permit, and
several are justifiably protected against collecting under any circum-
stances. The small percentage of ornithologists who have collecting
permits still may not collect on wildlife refuges or in state parks (without
special permission) or on private lands (without the owner's permission).
Partially compensating for this disadvantage in corroborating records is
the fact that experienced field workers, under favorable conditions, can
correctly identify all but a few species of Florida birds. There still re-
mains a question as to whether the occurrence of any avian species in a
state should rest on any evidence less than a collected specimen or
recognizable photograph. Surely if any exceptions are made, the circum-
stantial evidence in those cases should be overwhelming. As a rule,
those vertebrates suspected of Florida occurrence, but not convincingly
shown to have occurred here (or introduced but only doubtfully estab-
lished) will be found in a special Hypothetical List at the end of each
section.
DEFINITION OF "FRESHWATER FISHES" Another vexing decision has
been that of what species to include as "freshwater" fishes. Ideally,
perhaps, the criterion should be a certain maximum concentration of
dissolved salts at the site of capture. Unfortunately, however, we do not
always have such data, and the matter has been resolved by following
most of the designations of "freshwater" or "euryhaline" given by
Briggs' (1958) list and the inclusion of fishes collected in the St. Johns
River above Jacksonville (Tagatz, 1967).
NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION In many instances the correct
name to be used for a species, or the higher taxon into which it is
placed, is subject to individual opinion. In works of this kind it is desira-
ble to follow a consensus as represented by committees of specialists,
and this has been done in most cases in which it was possible. Thus, the
names of fishes follow those of the American Fisheries Society (1960),


xiv / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA






and those of birds the American Ornithologists' Union (1957), except in
a few cases indicated by footnotes in the text. A more recent revision of
most of the major taxa of bony fishes (Greenwood et al., 1966) is also
adopted. The names of amphibians and reptiles are those used by the
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (1963 et seq.) in
their publications to date. For mammals it has been necessary to follow
the works of individuals, and Hall and Kelson (1959) provided that stan-
dard. In the case of the remaining amphibians and reptiles (and occa-
sionally of recently revised taxa in other groups), I have had to rely on
my own judgment, modified by the advice of specialists in the respective
fields. In such instances, of course, the responsibility for the names used
is mine, not theirs. A more trivial deviation from certain of the above
sources has been the hyphenation of compound modifiers in order to
insure more uniform treatment of common names for all groups. In other
works these names are hyphenated for birds and mammals (for exam-
ple, Long-nosed Shrew) but not for lower vertebrates (for example,
Shortnose Sturgeon).
Few states can boast as large a list of vertebrates as Florida, even
when marine fishes are omitted. This text enumerates 880 species, fully
accredited when the book was first organized, including 19 addenda
following the mammal section of Chapter Three. These 880 species are
divided as follows: freshwater fishes, 208; amphibians, 53; reptiles, 98;
birds, 428; mammals, 93. Carr and Goin (1955) listed 333 "species" of
cold-blooded vertebrates as against 349 listed here, but their count must
have included subspecies as well. They claimed 57 species of amphi-
bians for Florida, but only 42 of these forms treated in their book were
full species, the rest being subspecies. Complete lists of vertebrates
probably do not exist in most states, but such states as Texas and
California have more species of birds than Florida, and probably more
of all vertebrates combined.
As our knowledge of avian relationships improves it is often necessary
to revise our classifications. While the manuscript of this work was
being prepared for the printers, the Committee on Classification and
Nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union published a
supplement to the 1957 edition of the A.O.U. Check-list of North
American Birds (Auk 90:411-419). Most of the changes involving species
of Florida occurrence have since been made in my text, but there was
inadequate time for the extensive changes that would have resulted from
the lumping or splitting of species (except for the few such changes I had
previously adopted). Accordingly, the other changes of this kind are
listed here.
The Great White Heron (Ardea occidentalis) becomes a subspecies of
the Great Blue Heron (A. herodias); it will be known as A. h.
occidentalis.


PREFACE / XV







The Snow Goose (Chen hyperborea) and the Blue Goose (Chen
caerulescens) are considered color phases of a single species now to be
known as the Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens).
The species previously known as Traill's Flycatcher (Empidonax
traillii) is believed to comprise two species: the Alder Flycatcher (E.
alnorum) and the Willow Flycatcher (E. traillii).
Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii) is merged with the Baltimore
Oriole (I. galbula) under the new name of Northern Oriole.
The Ipswich Sparrow (Passerculus princeps) is regarded as a sub-
species of the Savannah Sparrow (P. sandwichensis).
The Dusky Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza nigrescens) and the Cape
Sable Sparrow (A. mirabilis) are considered subspecies of the wide-
spread Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima). They become, respectively, A.
m. nigrescens and A. m. mirabilis.
As both species of the former Empidonax traillii have occurred in
Florida, the number of species of birds recorded in the state is reduced
to 423 by these changes and the total number of vertebrate species to
875.

April, 1974




A later revision of the North American Check-list appeared in the
fall of 1976 (Auk, 93:875-879), necessitating the following changes in
the generic and specific names of Florida birds:
Butorides virescens becomes Butorides striatus.
The Fulvous and Black-bellied Tree Ducks become, respectively,
the Fulvous and Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks.
Ictinia misisippiensis becomes Ictinia mississippiensis.
Thalasseus and Hydroprogne are merged in the genus Sterna, the
new names being Sterna maxima, S. sandvicensis, and S. caspia.
Speotyto cunicularia becomesAthene cunicularia.
Centurus carolinus becomes Melanerpes carolinus.
Dendrocopos is merged in the genus Picoides. The new names are
Picoides villosus, P. pubescens, and P. borealis.
Telmatodytes palustris becomes Cistothorus palustris.
Cassidix major becomes Quiscalus major.
Tangavius aeneus becomes Molothrus aeneus.
Spinus is merged in the genus Carduelis. The new names are
Carduelis pinus and C. tristis.

December, 1976


xvi / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA

















Acknowledgments


No work of this kind can be entirely original, but if the author is to be
more than a compiler he must expect to participate in the research on
which the publication is based. To that end I have personally examined
representative museum specimens of more than 90 percent of the species
included here. As a result, some of the characters used in keys and
descriptions are believed to be original in this work. Most of those that
are not original were, nevertheless, carefully checked against the speci-
mens available to me. My indebtedness, however, to those who have
published previous works on these species is both obvious and enor-
mous.
In a few instances keys prepared by graduate students at Florida State
University were generously contributed, and these have not been
modified to the point that I could claim credit for them. The key to the
Cyprinidae was prepared by Ray Birdsong, that for larval anurans by
Sheryl Fanning, and for the Scolopacidae by Horace Loftin.
Specimens critical to the study were provided through gift, loan, or
exchange by such institutions as the American Museum of Natural His-
tory, Carnegie Museum, Florida State Museum (Gainesville), Miami
Seaquarium, National Museum of Canada, Philadelphia Academy of
Natural Science, United States National Museum, and museums at the
following institutions: Auburn University, University of Illinois,
Louisiana State University, University of Michigan, and the University
of Oklahoma. In some cases, individuals at these museums identified or
confirmed the identification of important specimens.
Various individuals also either provided or helped prepare critical
specimens:
Ronald Altig Richard M. Blaney
J.R. Bailey Irene Boliek


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS






Roland Brandon
Edwin C. Brown
P. Fairly Chandler
Frank L. Chapman
Ralph Chermok
Clare Cichowski
Allan D. Cruickshank
William E. Duellman
Harold Dundee
George W. Folkerts
O. Earle Frye
Bryan P. Glass
Roy C. Hallman
Frances Hames
Glenn Ivey
H.P. Langridge
Frederick H. Lesser


D. Bruce Means
Burt L. Monroe, Jr.
Russell E. Mumford
John C. Ogden
Mary Ann Olson
Storrs L. Olson
Dennis R. Paulson
Al Pflueger
Allan R. Phillips
Warren M. Pulich
Albert Schwartz
Dorothy E. Snyder
Ernest H. Stevenson
James M. Stevenson
Shirley Whitt
Lovett E. Williams, Jr.


In a number of instances records of birds outside their normal range
were documented by photographs. For the privilege of examining these
I am indebted to:


William J. Bolte
E.B. Chamberlain
Dorothy Dodd
John B. Edscorn
Myron Elliott
Harold H. Gaither
Samuel A. Grimes
Roy C. Hallman
Lyle S. Hubbard
Curtis L. Kingsbery
Howard P. Langridge


Davies Lazen
James C. McDaniel
Milton G. Nelson
John C. Ogden
Mary Ann Olson
William B. Robertson, Jr.
Alexander Sprunt, IV
Paul Sykes
Marvin L. Wass
Karl Zerbe


My greatest indebtedness, by far, I owe to those specialists who pa-
tiently read sections of the manuscript and made numerous, highly valu-
able comments. The fish sections were read by Ralph W. Yerger, the
amphibian and reptile sections by Albert Schwartz, the bird sections by
William B. Robertson, Jr., and John C. Ogden, and the mammal sec-
tions by James N. Layne and David K. Caldwell (marine species). The
section on the preparation of bird skins, from an earlier work of mine,
was then examined by Herbert L. Stoddard, Sr. Dr. Yerger has been
especially helpful in making available the large fish collection at Florida
State University and in providing miscellaneous information about fishes
over a period of several years. Oscar T. Owre read the entire manu-
script and made numerous valuable suggestions.
xviii / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA








Various other specialists provided critical information of a more lim-
ited nature in their respective fields.


FISHES
Glenn H. Clemmer
Walter Courtenay
Michael S. Dahlberg
Carter Gilbert
Robert Hastings
Vernon Ogilvie
Dennis R. Paulson
William F. Smith-Vaniz
Camm Swift
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES
Ronald Altig
Richard M. Blaney
Steve Christman
John W. Crenshaw, Jr.


Herndon G. Dowling
Hobart Landreth
D. Bruce Means
Robert Mount
Lewis Ober
Fred Shanholtzer
BIRDS
Allan D. Cruickshank
Charles H. Rogers
Louis A. Stimson
MAMMALS
W. Wilson Baker
Richard Laval
Joseph C. Moore
Albert Schwartz


For their skilled contributions in preparing the photographs I ac-
knowledge my gratitude to James Capone, Christopher Combs, Rhodes
Holliman, and Charlotte Maxwell; also to Miss Maxwell for Figure 7.
(Other drawings are my own.)
The publication of this manuscript would not have been possible but
for generous financial contributions by Mrs. Bradley Fisk and John Fos-
ter. Some of my field work was supported by grants from the U.S.
Public Health Service and Florida State University where I was a
member of the Biological Sciences faculty over the two decades during
which this work was prepared. Finally, but to no less degree, I am
grateful to my wife, other members of my family, my students, and other
friends who have helped provide time for this work or have encouraged
it in various other ways.

Henry M. Stevenson
Tall Timbers Research Station
Route 1, Box 160
Tallahassee, FL 32303


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS / Xix














Vertebrates of Florida

















*1














Chapter One


Introduction






IDENTIFICATION OF VERTEBRATES
All species included in this book are members of a subphylum
(Craniata, or Vertebrata) of the Phylum Chordata. It is obvious that
other animals, such as insects, worms, and mollusks, cannot be
identified in it. The classical, and easy, definition of a vertebrate as an
animal with a vertebral column consisting of consecutive pieces of bone
("backbone") or cartilage is not very helpful unless dissection is practi-
cal. In lieu of this evidence, certain external features are either individu-
ally or collectively diagnostic. The most important of these are: (1) a
postanal tail; (2) usually two pairs of appendages (rarely one pair or
none), fins in fishes or limbs bearing digits (usually 5) in most other
vertebrates; (3) a body covering of scales, feathers, or hair (all species
exceptional as to both criteria 2 and 3 show one or more pairs of gill
slits). Even by the use of these criteria it is conceivable, though quite
unlikely, that a nonvertebrate animal could be erroneously considered a
vertebrate and tested in this key, though without success. Given, how-
ever, a genuine vertebrate, the investigator must begin with couplet 1 in
the Key to Classes (page 9). By looking for paired appendages and
examining the gross structure of the mouth, he should decide whether to
continue to couplet 2 in the same key, or proceed to the CLASS
AGNATHA. In either case he would continue to select the more fitting of
two alternative descriptions until he arrived at the name of the family, at
which point a Roman numeral would refer him to the location of the key
to the species in that family. Finally, when the specimen had been keyed
to a species, an Arabic numeral would send him to the descriptive ac-
count of that species. Both this account and that of the family will serve
INTRODUCTION / 3






as a check on the accuracy of the keying process. Not only should the
description of the species agree with that of the animal in question, but
the collection data, if known, should agree with the known range of the
species. A natural tendency among those unfamiliar with keys is to
agree too readily with the first part of a couplet without even reading
the second part (or all of the first part)-a practice certain to result in
many erroneous identifications and wasted time.
In some instances the characteristics used in keying out taxa, espe-
cially families, are applicable only to their Florida representatives. In
those cases it follows that a specimen from another part of the world
could not be keyed even to its proper family. This limitation applies
chiefly to taxa represented in Florida by only one or two species (for
example, Pycnonotidae).

USE OF SKULLS IN KEYING MAMMALS
Of all vertebrate zoologists, mammalogists alone commonly preserve
separately both the skull and the museum skin of the individual speci-
men. In the great majority of cases, therefore, both of these evidences of
the animal's identity are available. This fact may be deemed both a
blessing and a curse by the deviser or the user of the key, as it may
appear to complicate identification unnecessarily. The truth is that a
positive identification by the average person will prove very difficult in
many cases when only the skin or the skull is available. By using both,
the probability of a correct identification is greatly increased.
The use of these two lines of evidence in other keys familiar to me
follows either of two courses. Either there are separate keys for skins
and skulls; or a single key is constructed, utilizing both skins and skulls
only in the places where that procedure seems most necessary. Unlike
other keys, then, the present one endeavors to utilize characters of both
the skull and external morphology throughout, except in two instances
in which no consistent differences could be found. It is thus possible to
use the same key with skull only, skin only, or with both. As explained
previously, the chances of success are enhanced if both skin and skull
are available, but it seems likely that the great majority of species can be
identified from only one line of evidence.

TERMINOLOGY
The guiding philosophy in the preparation of this work has been to
avoid the use of technical terms whenever feasible, but many are neces-
sary for the sake of precision and conciseness. Those least familiar to
the layman will be found in the Glossary (pp. 549) and the remainder in
a standard dictionary.
4 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







MEASUREMENTS AND COUNTS


There are many cases in which an animal cannot be keyed correctly
without the use of special equipment. With small animals (sometimes
larger ones) some magnification is necessary. In many cases a hand lens
will suffice, but in others a binocular microscope is essential. Measure-
ments and counts often require such magnification, and measuring often
requires additionally an inexpensive compass bearing a sharp-pointed
pencil. In some cases dividers or calipers are almost a necessity. Even
slight inaccuracies in measuring or counting may lead to wrong
identifications. All the measurements and counts used frequently in this
book are straight-line measurements unless indicated otherwise.
FISHES Depth-maximum depth of body, dorsal to ventral, exclu-
sive of fins; total length-most anterior part of head to tip of longest
rays in caudal fin; standard length-tip of upper jaw to hidden base of
caudal fin rays; length of dorsal and analfins (the same as "length of fin
base" of other authors)-distance along base of fin, from origin to inser-
tion; length of head-tip of upper jaw to most posterior edge of oper-
culum; length ofsnout-tip of upper jaw to anterior edge of orbit; length
of caudal peduncle-oblique distance from insertion of anal fin to hidden
middle base of caudal rays; dorsal and analfin-ray counts-in this work
the count includes all soft rays, even rudimentary ones, except in the
Cyprinidae; in cyprinids, only the branched rays and the one long
unbranched ray are counted; spines, whether true spines or those con-
sisting of fused, hardened rays, are not included in the count; lateral-line
scale count-number of scales along lateral line (or, if no lateral line,
scales at that level) from edge of operculum to hidden base of caudal
rays; also referred to as "number of lateral scales" or of "oblique scale
rows"; count of horizontal scale rows-the number of horizontal scale
rows on one side (sometimes specified as those above or below lateral
line), counting obliquely upward from the origin of the anal fin.
AMPHIBIANS Snout-vent length-tip of snout to anterior edge of
vent (all adult anuran lengths are snout-to-vent); body length
(tadpoles)-tip of snout to base of tail on lateral axis; tail
length-posterior edge of vent to tip of tail (except begin at tail base,
lateral axis, in tadpoles); costal-groove count-number of costal grooves
between front and hind limbs, including one each for armpit and groin
(extend count to vent in Sirenidae); costal grooves between appressed
limbs-press forelimb and hind limb on same side against body and
toward one another and count costal grooves between tips of longest
digits.
REPTILES Snout-vent length-see above paragraph; tail length-see
above paragraph; count of dorsal scale rows-count at center of body,
going diagonally around body, but omitting enlarged ventral scales;
INTRODUCTION / 5






these rows are numbered from the middorsal row downward in lizards,
but from the lowermost row upward in snakes; count of ventral
plates-begin with first scale under head that is wider than long and end
with last scale before anal plate; count of subcaudal plates-begin with
first scale behind anal plate and count pairs as single scales (if in 2 rows),
continuing to last scale.
BIRDS Total length '-tip of upper mandible to tip of longest rectrix;
wing length-anterior edge of folded wing (wrist joint) to tip of longest
primary; tail length-base of central rectrices to tip of longest rectrix;
tarsal length-back of heel joint to lower end of last unmodified tarsal
scale, anterior side; hind-toe length-dorsal side, from junction with
tarsus, usually including hind claw; culmen length-length of exposed
culmen (some workers measure from junction of culmen with skull; bill
length from nostril is also used); toe numbering-begin with hind toe
(hallux), continuing from medial to lateral; primary numbering-in this
work the primaries are numbered from the outermost one inward.
MAMMALS Total length-tip of nose to tip of fleshy part of tail, with
specimen lying on its back; tail length-base of tail to its fleshy tip
(holding tail perpendicular to body in fresh specimens); hind-foot
length-from back of heel to tip of longest claw; ear length-from
deepest part of basal notch to fleshy tip of ear; skull length-from tip of
nasal bones to most posterior part of cranium; basilar length of
skull-from anterior edge of foramen magnum to anterior edge of hard
palate at base of first ipper incisors; tooth counts-even vestigial teeth
are included; magnification may be necessary.

SPECIES ACCOUNTS
As these accounts are intended largely as a check on the correctness
of the identification made by keying, the descriptions are not intended to
be detailed, although descriptions of "difficult" species are longer. For
most species the most important criteria for identification are italicized.
Unless of a brownish or blackish color, the color of the unfeathered
parts ("soft parts") of birds as it appeared in life is indicated; these parts
include the bill, cere, lores and eyelids (in some cases), iris, and feet
(tarsus and toes). It should be emphasized that these often change color

1. Size is a much more important criterion in birds than in other vertebrates, as
there is generally little variation within a species. Even juvenals are almost as
large as adults. Probably the most reliable index of size in museum skins is total
length. Although total length will vary with tail length, wing length is equally
variable. Some preparators tend to minimize the importance of total length and
fail to provide this information on the label. In such cases the total length of the
museum skin may be assumed to be within 10 percent of the original in most
species and within 20 percent in long-necked birds.
6 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







in museum skins. The distribution of each species is also given in gen-
eral terms, including that of each subspecies known to occur in Florida.
Unless a species of bird, bat, or cetacean is present throughout the year
in Florida, the season of occurrence is also given in general terms. If
notable changes in distribution have occurred since the appearance of
certain general works from 1954 to 1959 (see the Bibliography of this
work), these changes are documented by bibliographic references or the
location and catalog numbers of museum specimens. For the latter the
following symbols have been used: CM, Carnegie Museum; FSU,
Florida State University; RMB, Richard M. Blaney, private collection;
TT, Tall Timbers Research Station; UF, University of Florida (Florida
State Museum); UM, University of Miami; USF, University of South
Florida; NMNS, National Museum of Natural Science.
Relative abundance is indicated for certain birds not frequently occur-
ring in the state. Those considered "accidental" are out of their normal
range and have occurred only a few times. "Casual" visitors may occur
about once every five to ten years, and a "rare" species as frequently as
a few times each year.
The range limits of 68 species are shown on Maps 3-68. The criteria
most often employed in selecting these species were: (1) range virtually
confined to Florida or to the Southeast; (2) distribution not well known,
or misrepresented in some previous publications; (3) recent changes in
known range; (4) recent changes in taxonomic status, such as the lump-
ing of two or more nominal species (for example, Yellow-shafted, Red-
shafted, and Gilded Flickers). It should be emphasized that the estab-
lishment of range limits does not imply that a species occurs in all areas
within, even in suitable habitat. Perhaps a few species do so, but the
great majority are locally distributed, at least to some extent.


INTRODUCTION / 7

















Chapter Two


Key to Vertebrate Classes,

Orders, Families, and Species





KEY To VERTEBRATE CLASSES
1. Mouth provided with jaws, or surrounded by black, horny mandibles,
or tail longer and deeper than body; one or 2 pairs of append-
ages (fins or limbs) usually present ........................ 2
Mouth without jaws, permanently open and rounded; tail not longer
and deeper than body; paired appendages lacking ..............
.... ................................... AGNATHA, p. 10
2. Paired appendages (if present) finlike, with long, slender, closely
paralleled skeletal elements; also median, unpaired fins of similar
structure; gill openings present ............................ 3
Paired appendages (if present) limblike, with a single bone in the
first segment of each; median fins (if present) without skeletal
support; gill openings usually absent ..................... 4
3. Gill openings (at least 5) exposed; mouth ventral and crescent-
shaped .......................... CHONDRICHTHYES, p. 10
Gill openings covered by a usually hardened flap, the operculum;
mouth usually terminal, sometimes superior or inferior .........
........................ OSTEICHTHYES, p. 11
4. Epidermal derivatives (claws, scales, feathers, hair) entirely lacking;
limbs not paddlelike ...................... AMPHIBIA, p. 42
Skin covered, at least in part, with scales (plates), feathers, or hair,
and digits provided with claws, nails, or hoofs; or forelimbs paddle-
like and hind limbs lacking ............................. 5
KEY TO VERTEBRATE CLASSES / 9






5. Skin entirely covered with scales or enlarged plates; hair or feathers
never present; limbs sometimes lacking ....... REPTILIA, p. 57
With feathers or hair inserted on some parts of head or body; scales
usually localized, if present; at least one pair of limbs present ....
....................... ............ ...................... 6
6. Head and body covered with feathers; scales usually present on hind
limbs; teeth lacking .......................... AVES, p. 77
Partly (usually almost entirely) covered with hair; scales rarely
present, but widespread in one group; teeth, usually present ......
..................................... MAMMALIA, p. 134

CLASS AGNATHA
ORDER PETROMYZONTIFORMES: I. FAMILY PETROMYZONTIDAE, Lampreys.'
1. Dorsal fins not united; body mottled; length up to 90 cm ..........
.................. Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), sp.l
Dorsal fin continuous, though sometimes notched; body unicolored;
length under 15 cm ................ ......................
........ Southern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon gagei),2 sp.2

CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES-ORDERS AND FAMILIES
1. Dorsoventrally flattened (or triangular in cross section), with eyes
dorsal and gill openings ventral; anal fin lacking .............
......................................... RAJIFORMES, 2
Body terete; gill openings lateral; anal fin present ................
......................... SQUALIFORMES: CARCHARHINIDAE, II
2. With an extended, flattened rostrum and laterally protruding teeth;
body triangular in cross section ................ PRISTIDAE, III
Without a saw-shaped snout; body flattened ...... DASYATIDAE, IV

ORDER SQUALIFORMES: II. FAMILY CARCHARHINIDAE, Requiem Sharks.
1. With well-defined labial grooves extending forward from the corners
of the mouth (Plate I-1); distance between nostrils scarcely, if
any, greater than that from either nostril to tip of snout ........
Atlantic Sharp-nosed Shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), sp.3
Without well-defined labial grooves at corners of mouth; distance
between nostrils at least 30% greater-than that from either nostril
to tip of snout .......... Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas), sp.4

1. The families and orders in the following sections of this book are consecu-
tively numbered, families with Roman numerals and species with Arabic
numerals (preceded by "sp.").
2. The occurrence of the Least Brook Lamprey, Lampetra aepyptera, in the
Yellow River drainage of Alabama, may also be expected in Florida (Smith-
Vaniz, 1968).


10 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







ORDER RAJIFORMES: III. FAMILY PRISTIDAE, Sawfishes.
1. With more than 22 pairs of teeth ............................
............... Small-toothed Sawfish (Pristis pectinatus), sp.5
With fewer than 22 pairs of teeth ............................
................ Large-toothed Sawfish (Pristis perotteti), sp.6

ORDER RAJIFORMES: IV. FAMILY DASYATIDAE, Sting Rays.
1. Contour of body rhomboidal; width at least 20% greater than
distance from tip of snout to posterior tip of pectoral fin ......
.................. Southern Sting Ray (Dasyatis sabina), sp.8
Posterior contour of body almost semicircular; width about equal to
length (not exceeding it by more than 10%) ..................
................ Atlantic Sting Ray (Dasyatis americana), sp.7

CLASS OSTEICHTHYES-ORDERS AND FAMILIES
1. Tail heterocercal (never square or notched); gular plate or snout
present (Plate 1-2) ..................................... 2
Tail not heterocercal, or snout and gular plate absent .......... 4
2. Caudal fin with prominent, pointed lobes, especially dorsally; mouth
inferior; body partly covered with rows of plates ..............
...................... ACIPENSERIFORMES: ACIPENSERIDAE, V
Caudal fin asymmetrical and rounded; body covered with scales
....... .. . .. .. ...... .. .. ... 3
3. Well-developed snout present; gular plate lacking ................
...................... LEPISOSTEIFORMES: LEPISOSTEIDAE, VI
Mouth essentially unmodified; gular plate present ..............
................................. AMIIFORMES: AMIIDAE, VII
4. Body elongate and covered with plates; elongate snout present; anal
fin lacking ........ GASTEROSTEIFORMES: SYNGNATHIDAE, XXVII
Body usually not covered with enlarged plates; snout usually absent;
anal fin present, though sometimes conjoined with caudal ...... 5
5. Body elongate and with no apparent scales; dorsal, caudal, and anal
fins continuous; pelvic fins wanting ...... ANGUILLIFORMES, 6
Body not remarkably elongate, usually covered with scales; dorsal,
caudal, and anal fins separate; pelvic fins present ............ 7
6. Lower jaw protruding beyond upper; scales embedded in skin ......
.......................................... ANGUILLIDAE, X
Lower jaw shorter than upper; scales lacking ....................
........................................ OPHICHTHIDAE, XI
7. Extremely compressed, with one side of body unpigmented and both
eyes on the other side ................ PLEURONECTIFORMES, 8
Body not unusually compressed and both sides equally pigmented;
eyes normally arranged ................................ 10


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 11











/ \


1. Labial grooves
Rhizoprionodon


2. Gular plate (G), isthmus (I),
branchiostegal rays (B), and gill
membrane (M) of Elops saurus


,4



* '1
p~m.


-~7


4. Protactile premaxillary of the
Gerreidae


3. Lateral line of Centropomus
undecimalis

12 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


PLATE I









First gill arch of
Lepomis macrochirus


Yi_


4


6.
Hybopsis aestivalis, .:
showing
maxillary barbels
and
inferior mouth










o-i/



7. Superior mouth of Fundulus
grandis




FISHES


8. Angular lower
Carpiodes velifer


lip of


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 13


, Z


.-"- 9







8. Eyes on right side of body .................... SOLEIDAE, XLIII
Eyes on left side of body ............................... 9
9. Standard length fully 3 times width of disk, excluding fins; pectoral
fins lacking ......................... CYNOGLOSSIDAE, XLIV
Standard length much less than 3 times width of disk; one or 2
pectoral fins present ...................... BOTHIDAE, XLII
10. Front of head depressed and provided with barbels, usually long;
body naked or covered with bony plates except on abdomen; strong
spines in pectoral fins .................... SILURIFORMES, 23
Front of head not strongly depressed; barbels short or lacking; body
usually scaly; pectoral fins without spines ................. 11
11. First dorsal fin modified as a suckerlike organ; more than 30 rays in
anal fin ................. PERCIFORMES: ECHENEIDAE, XXXII
First dorsal fin not markedly modified; anal fin with fewer than 30
rays .............................................. 12
12. Body long and slender (standard length at least 10 times body depth);
jaws produced into a long, compressed beak; lateral line ventral ..
......................ATHERINIFORMES: BELONIDAE, XXIII
Body usually not extremely long and slender; beak (if present) not
deeper than wide; lateral line (if present) usually on upper half
of body ........................................... 13
13. Mouth of normal size and shape; 2 dorsal fins present; standard length
at least 6 times body depth; dorsal edge of pectoral fin more than
halfway up side of body; one spine and at least 16 rays in anal
fin ................. ATHERINIFORMES: ATHERINIDAE, XXVI
Not with the above combination of characteristics (if one spine in
anal, then less than 16 rays) .......................... 14
14. Lateral line not in evidence; only one dorsal fin present; mouth small
and superior (Plate I-7); spines lacking; dorsal edge of pectoral fin
less than half way up side of body; caudal fin not forked or
notched ...................... ATHERINIFORMES (part), 15
Not with the above combination of characteristics (lateral line usually
present and spines often present; caudal fin usually forked or
notched) ................. ................. ..... 16
15. Anal fin rounded; third anal ray branched; length of upper jaw (from
crease) less than width of gape ...... CYPRINODONTIDAE, XXIV
Anal fin of males slender and its rays long; third anal ray not branched,
or length of upper jaw greater than width of gape ..............
.......................... .. POECILIIDAE, XXV
16. Entire head naked or granular, or spines absent ............. 17
Head at least partly covered with scales; spines present, but sometimes
slender and weak ....... :.......................... 27
17. Gill membranes free from isthmus; at least 4 branchiostegal rays
present (Plate I-2) ................................. 18


14 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







Gill membranes united with isthmus; fewer than 4 branchiostegal
rays ................................. CYPRINIFORMES, 26
18. Gular plate present (Plate I-2) ............... ELOPIFORMES, 19
Gular plate absent ..................................... 20
19. Last ray of dorsal fin not elongate; scales smaller than eye .........
..................................... .. E LOPIDAE, V III
Last ray of dorsal fin greatly elongate; scales larger than eye .......
........................... M EGALOPIDAE, IX
20. Ventral contour rounded in cross section; dorsal fin on posterior half
of body ............................. SALMONIFORMES, 21
Ventral contour angular (ridged) in cross section; dorsal fin about
middle of body ......................... CLUPEIFORMES, 22
21. Large (length of adults exceeding 15 cm); snout flattened like a duck's
bill; caudal fin forked ...................... ESOCIDAE, XIV
Small (length of adults about 8 cm); snout blunt; caudal fin rounded
............................ UMBRIDAE, XV
22. Mouth inferior; angle of jaws extending posterior to position of eyes;
ventral scales not serrate ................. ENGRAULIDAE, XIII
Mouth terminal or superior (rarely somewhat inferior); angle of jaws
not extending behind level of eye; ventral scales serrate .........
................................. CLUPEIDAE, X II
23. Body covered with bony plates; mouth ventral, with lips disklike
......................... .LORICARIIDAE, XX
Body naked; mouth usually terminal or nearly so; lips not disk-
like ...................................... ........ 24
24. Dorsal and anal fins very long (more than 50% of total length) and
without spines ........................... CLARIIDAE, XIX
Bases of dorsal and anal fins short, the dorsal with a strong spine
25
25. Nostrils without barbels; total of 4 or 6 barbels present; primarily
marine .................................. ARIIDAE, XXI
Posterior nostrils provided with 2 barbels; total of 8 barbels; fresh-
water fishes .......................... ICTALURIDAE, XVIII
26. Mouth ventral, with thickened, fleshy lips; more than 10 dorsal rays;
barbels and spines lacking .............. CATOSTOMIDAE, XVII
Mouth usually terminal, the lips not greatly thickened; not more
than 10 dorsal rays unless dorsal spine or barbels present .......
...................................... CYPRINIDAE, X V I
27. Anus far forward (between bases of pelvic fins, or anterior to them);
7 rays in pelvic fin ....................................
.................. PERCOPSIFORMES: APHREDODERIDAE, XXII
Anus normally located; not more than 6 rays in pelvic fin ..........
....................................... PERCIFORMES, 28


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 15






28. Pectoral fins at least midway up sides of body; caudal fin deeply
forked .................................. MUGILIDAE, XL
Pectoral fins closer to ventral than to dorsal midline, or caudal fin
not forked ........................................ 29
29. Dorsal spines slender and flexible; gill membranes joined to isthmus
................ ....................... GOBIIDAE, XLI
Dorsal spines stiff; gill membranes usually free from isthmus.... 30
30. Front teeth shaped like human incisors and often protruding .......
..................................... SPARIDAE, XXXVII
Front teeth not incisorlike ............... ... ........... 31
31. Scales minute; 2 dorsal fins; anal and second dorsal fins very long
(about 35-40% of standard length); peduncle very slender; with
2 free anal spines .................... CARANGIDAE, XXXIII
Not with the above combination of characteristics ........... 32
32. Lateral line extending without interruption to end of caudal fin .....
(Plate I-3) .................. .................... 33
Lateral line absent or not extending far onto caudal fin ....... 34
33. Bases of dorsal and anal fins covered with a scaly sheath; lower jaw
protruding; one or more spines on operculum .................
.................................CENTROPOMIDAE, XXVIII
No scaly sheath covering bases of dorsal and anal fins; lower jaw
usually not protruding; no spines on operculum ................
............................... .. SCIAENIDAE, XXXVIII
34. Dorsal fin single .................................... 35
With 2 separate dorsal fins ............................. 39
35. Lateral line interrupted and displaced near soft dorsal fin; only one
pair of nostrils ........................ CICHLIDAE, XXXIX
Lateral line absent or continuous; 2 pairs of nostrils ......... 36
36. Premaxillary protractile outward and downward from sheath in skull
for distance equal to or exceeding diameter of eye (Plate I-4);
first dorsal spine less than 20% length of second ...............
.................... ............... GERREIDAE, XXXV
Premaxillary not more than normally protractile; first dorsal spine
more than 20% of second ............................ 37
37. With at least one enlarged, fanglike front tooth on each side of the
upper jaw ........................... LUTJANIDAE, XXXIV
Front teeth of upper jaw all of about equal size ............. 38
38. Second anal spine much thicker than third ....................
.............................. .. POMADASYIDAE, XXXVI
Second anal spine not thicket than the third ....................
......................... ..... CENTRARCHIDAE, XXX
39. With 3 strongly graduated anal spines .... PERCICHTHYIDAE, XXIX
With less than 3 anal spines .................. PERCIDAE, XXXI


16 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA






ORDER ACIPENSERIFORMES: V. FAMILY ACIPENSERIDAE, Sturgeons.
1. Anterior edge of anal fin directly below that of dorsal fin ..........
.......... Short-nosed Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), sp.10
Anterior edge of anal fin well behind that of dorsal fin ............
............. Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus), sp.9

ORDER LEPISOSTEIFORMES: VI. FAMILY LEPISOSTEIDAE, Gars.
1. Length of snout (measured to angle of jaws) less than that of rest of
head (angle of jaws to back edge of operculum) ...............
................... Alligator Gar (Lepisosteus spatula), sp.ll
Length of snout greater than that of remainder of head ........ 2
2. Snout length more than twice length of remainder of head .........
................. Long-nosed Gar (Lepisosteus osseus), sp.14
Snout length not more than twice length of rest of head ........ 3
3. Isthm us, at least, scaled ....................................
................ Florida Gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus), sp.13
Breast and isthmus not scaled ............................
................... Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), sp.12

ORDER AMIIFORMES: VII. FAMILY AMIIDAE, Bowfins. One species ......
................................ Bowfin (Amia calva), sp.15

ORDER ELOPIFORMES: VIII. FAMILY ELOPIDAE, Ladyfishes. One species
in Florida ....................... Ladyfish (Elops saurus), sp.16

ORDER ELOPIFORMES: IX. FAMILY MEGALOPIDAE, Tarpons. One species
in Florida ................... Tarpon (Megalops atlantica), sp.17

ORDER ANGUILLIFORMES: X. FAMILY ANGUILLIDAE, Freshwater Eels.
One species in Florida ...... American Eel (Anguilla rostrata), sp.18

ORDER ANGUILLIFORMES: XI. FAMILY OPHICHTHIDAE, Snake Eels. One
species in Florida fresh water .................................
................. Speckled Worm Eel (Myrophis punctatus), sp.19

ORDER CLUPEIFORMES: XII. FAMILY CLUPEIDAE, Herrings and Shad.
1. Posterior ray of dorsal fin greatly elongate ................... 2
Posterior ray of dorsal fin not elongate ...................... 3
2. With 29 to 35 rays in anal fin; mouth almost ventral .............
........ ........ Gizzard Shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), sp.29
With 17 to 25 rays in anal fin; mouth terminal ..................
................. Threadfin Shad (Dorosoma petenense), sp.30


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 17






3. Visible portion of scales rounded or angular on posterior margin
and its width almost equal to its depth ...................... 7
Visible portion of most scales vertically arranged, its depth more
than twice its width ................................... 4
4. Origin of dorsal fin more anterior than that of pelvics; most scales
with smooth edges; maximum length about 15 cm ............
................ Scaled Sardine (Harengula pensacolae), sp.28
Origin of dorsal fin more posterior than that of pelvics; scales with
irregular edges; maximum length of adults much more than 15 cm
5
. .... ... ... . . .... . .,. ... . . .. .......... .. .5
5. With fewer than 58 oblique scale rows along one side of body .....
......................................................... 6
With more than 58 oblique scale rows per side ................
.................... Yellowfin Shad (Brevoortia smithi, sp.27
6. Appressed pectoral fin usually reaching to within 2 scale rows of
pelvic base; maximum depth of body near operculum; Gulf of
Mexico ...... Large-scaled Menhaden (Brevoortia patronss, sp.26
Appressed pectoral fin falling at least 3 scales short of pelvic base;
maximum body depth near tip of pectoral fin; Atlantic Coast
.............. Atlantic Menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), sp.25
7. Peritoneum dark ..... Blue-backed Herring (Alosa aestivalis), sp.22
Peritoneum not dark ....................................... 8
8. Teeth present at tip of upper jaw ................. ...........
................. Skipjack Herring (Alosa chrysochloris), sp.20
Teeth entirely lacking ...................................... 9
9. Lower jaw protruding beyond upper, producing a superior mouth
...................... Hickory Shad (Alosa mediocris), sp.21
Upper and lower jaws almost equally protruding .............. 10
10. With about 60 gill rakers on lower arm of first gill arch (see Plate
I-5 for a gill arch); one or more dark spots in a longitudinal row
behind operculum ..... American Shad (Alosa sapidissima), sp.23
With about 40 gill rakers on lower arm of first gill arch; only one
dark spot behind operculum, sometimes followed by a continuous
dark streak .......... Alabama Shad (Alosa alabamae), sp.24

ORDER CLUPEIFORMES: XIII. FAMILY ENGRAULIDAE, Anchovies.
1. With 25 or more rays in anal fin; silvery stripe indistinct and its
width less than diameter of eye .............................
...................... Bay Anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), sp.32
With less than 25 rays in anal fin; silvery stripe conspicuous and its
width at least as great as diameter of eye ....................
................... Striped Anchovy (Anchoa hepsetus), sp.31

ORDER SALMONIFORMES: XIV. FAMILY ESOCIDAE, Pickerels.

18 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA






1. Branchiostegal rays 11 to 14 (see Plate 1-2 for branchiostegals);
scales along lateral line about 105; usually marked with vertical,
irregular dark bars ..... Redfin Pickerel (Esox americanus), sp.33
Branchiostegals 14 to 16; scales along lateral line about 125; adults
with chainlike or reticulate markings (but young with vertical
bars) .................. Chain Pickerel (Esox niger), sp.34

ORDER SALMONIFORMES: XV. FAMILY UMBRIDAE, Mud Minnows. One
species in Florida ...... Eastern Mud Minnow (Umbra pygmaea), sp.35

ORDER CYPRINIFORMES: XVI. FAMILY CYPRINIDAE, Minnows and Carps.'

1. Dorsal and anal fins with a strong serrated spine; dorsal fin with
more than 15 rays ............ Carp (Cyprinus carpio), sp.58
Dorsal and anal fins without spines; dorsal fin with less than 15
rays ............................................... 2
2. One or more pairs of maxillary barbels present (often small or
obsolete), or scales becoming noticeably smaller anteriad ..... 3
No maxillary barbels present; scales of uniform size over body .... 6
3. Lateral line with 40 or more scales and deeply decurved; basicaudal
spot usually triangular, with apex pointing anteriad; barbels often
hidden in groove above angle of jaw; scales smaller anteriad ....
................ Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), sp.56
Lateral line with less than 40 scales and not deeply decurved;
basicaudal spot not triangular; barbel at angle of jaw; scales of
uniform size over body .................................. 4
4. Two pairs of maxillary barbels present (Plate 1-6); eyes dorsolateral
................. Speckled Chub (Hybopsis aestivalis), sp. 55
One pair of maxillary barbels present, though sometimes obscure;
eyes lateral .......................................... 5
5. Lateral stripe broad and dark; a light U-shaped (or V-shaped)
mark on snout (yellowish in life) and a light rectangular mark
on top of head between the eyes; more than 17 scales (usually
about 22) along the dorsum from origin of dorsal fin to posterior
margin of head; mouth subterminal; maxillary barbels small and
often obscure ........ Red-eyed Chub (Hybopsis harperi, sp.54
Lateral stripe narrow and light; no conspicuous light markings on head;
less than 17 scales (usually about 13) along the dorsum from
origin of dorsal fin to posterior margin of head; mouth inferior;
maxillary barbels usually conspicuous ......................
................... Big-eyed Chub (Hybopsis amblops), sp.53
1. Modified from a key prepared by Ray Birdsong. In addition to the species
included here, the Goldfish (Carassius auratus) is occasionally released from
captivity and may persist in a wild state for short periods.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 19






6. Lower lateral and underside of head divided internally into large
cuboidal chambers which are externally visible ................
.............. Silver-jawed Minnow (Ericymba buccata), sp.52
No large cuboidal chambers in head ....................... 7
7. Anal fin with 13 or more rays; lateral line markedly decurved .....
.............. Golden Shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), sp.36
Anal fin with less than 13 rays; lateral line usually not decurved
.... ... ...................... ... ......... ...,.... 8
8. Mouth small and oblique (almost vertical), extending half, or less
than half, the distance to the eye; dorsal fin typically with 9 rays;
scales below lateral line strongly outlined in black ..............
............. Pug-nosed Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae), sp.57
Mouth not small, extending to, or almost to, the eye; dorsal fin
typically with 8 rays ................................... 9
9. Anal fin with 10 to 12 rays ............................... 10
Anal fin with 7 or 8 rays (rarely 9) ...................... 14
10. Dorsum finely scaled (22 or more scales between origin of dorsal
fin and posterior margin of head) ........................
............... Blacktip Shiner (Notropis atrapiculus), sp.37
Dorsum coarsely scaled (less than 22 scales between origin of dorsal
fin and posterior margin of head) ........................ 11
11. Lateral stripe narrow and light, absent or almost absent anteriad;
typically with more than 37 scales in lateral line ..............
.................... Bandfin Shiner (Notropis zonistius), sp.38
Lateral stripe broad and dark, extending to or onto the head;
typically with fewer than 37 scales in lateral line ........... 12
12. Body along base of anal fin darkly pigmented ................
.................. Dusky Shiner (Notropis cummingsae), sp.44
Body along base of anal fin not darkly pigmented ............ 13
13. Predorsal streak dark and conspicuous; dorsal fin membranes typically
with much dark pigment, concentrated on membranes between
first 3 rays in young specimens .............................
................. Sailfin Shiner (Notropis hypselopterus), sp.42
Predorsal streak faint or absent; dorsal fin membranes with little or
no dark pigment, usually concentrated along margins of rays if
present ............ Flagfin Shiner (Notropis signipinnis), sp.43
14. Lateral line complete ...................................... 15
Lateral line incomplete .................................... 21
15. Anal fin typically with 7 rays .............................. 16
Anal fin typically with 8 rays (occasionally 9) ................ 18
16. Mouth inferior; lateral stripe and basicaudal spot obscure or absent
.............. Long-nosed Shiner (Notropis longirostris), sp.50
Mouth terminal or subterminal; lateral stripe and basicaudal spot
conspicuous ......................................... 17


20 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







17. Scales in first one or 2 rows below anterior portion of lateral line
outlined in dark pigment; pigmentation in anal fin concentrated
along last 3 or 4 rays; a dark spot on dorsum at origin of dorsal
fin .................. Weed Shiner (Notropis texanus), sp.46
Scales in first one to 2 rows below anterior lateral line not outlined
in dark pigment; pigmentation in anal fin not concentrated along
last 3-4 rays, but scattered along margins of all rays; no spot on
dorsum at origin of dorsal fin ................................
.................... Coastal Shiner (Notropis petersoni), sp.47
18. Basicaudal spot large and dark (more than half diameter of orbit
................ Black-tailed Shiner (Notropis venustus), sp.41
Basicaudal spot less than half diameter of orbit and often light or
obsolete ......................................... . 19
19. Lateral stripe of silvery pigment, continuing onto head; (intestine
long and convoluted into many coils) ......................
................. Cypress Minnow (Hybognathus hayi), sp.51
Lateral stripe of dark pigment, becoming faint anteriorly; (intestine
essentially straight) ...................................... 20
20. Anterior lateral-line pores outlined above and below in dark pigment;
a decurved, crescent-shaped row of melanophores extending from
anterior orbit of eye to premaxillary; dorsal fin pigmentation re-
stricted to membrane around first dorsal ray in young specimens;
light pigmentation scattered throughout dorsal membranes in
mature specimens .......................................
.............. Blue-striped Shiner (Notropis callitaenia), sp.39
Anterior lateral-line pores not outlined above and below in dark
pigment; no crescent-shaped row of melanophores between orbit
and premaxillary; dorsal fin pigmentation restricted to membranes
between first 3 dorsal rays in young specimens; mature specimens
with pigment concentrated in a dark, horizontal slash through
the dorsal fin ......... Ohoopee Shiner (Notropis leedsi), sp.40
21. No dark pigment in mouth; basicaudal spot round, and its diameter
much greater than width of lateral stripe ......................
................. Tail-light Shiner (Notropis maculatus), sp.49
Much dark pigment in mouth (concentrated on oral valves); basi-
caudal spot not round and little, if any, wider than lateral stripe
............ ......................................... 22
22. Basicaudal spot smaller than diameter of orbit of eye; scale rows
below lateral stripe without pigmentation; males without blue in
life; fins unmodified ......................................
.............. Iron-colored Shiner (Notropis chalybaeus), sp.45
Basicaudal spot at least as wide as diameter of orbit; scale rows
below lateral stripe with dark pigment (heavily pigmented in
males, but only outlined in females); mature males (in life) with

KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 21







a strikingly blue nose and enlarged, darkly pigmented dorsal and
anal fins ........... Blue-nosed Shiner (Notropis welaka), sp.48

ORDER CYPRINIFORMES: XVII. FAMILY CATOSTOMIDAE, Suckers.
1. Base of dorsal fin very long (at least one-third of standard length),
and the anterior rays more than twice as long as the posterior
....................... .... ..... .... ....... . 2
Dorsal fin of normal proportions (not more than 20% of standard
length) and the length of its rays diminishing gradually pos-
teriad ............................................. 3
2. Lower lip angular, with a nipple or point at its center (Plate I-8);
angle of jaws posterior to nostril ..........................
................ Highfin Carpsucker (Carpiodes velifer), sp.60
Lower lip curved and without a nipple at center; angle of jaws
directly below nostril ..... Quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), sp.59
3. With longitudinal rows of black spots on sides, sometimes faint;
lateral line incomplete ... .................................
................ Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops), sp.63
No longitudinal rows of black spots, though sometimes a single,
interrupted stripe; lateral line complete or absent ............ 4
4. Lateral line present ........................................ 5
Lateral line absent ......................... ............... 7
5. Maximum depth more than 25% of standard length; width of lower
lip at least as great as diameter of eye ................... ....
............ River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum), sp.198H
Depth not more than 25% of standard length; width of lower lip
less than diameter of eye ................................ 6
6. Lower lobe of caudal fin evenly colored ........................
........................? Redhorse (Moxostoma sp.),1 sp.61
Lower lobe of caudal fin with contrasting black and white ........
........ Black-tailed Redhorse (Moxostoma poecilurum), sp.62
7. First ray of dorsal fin at least 20% longer than base of dorsal,
producing a concave or straight posterior margin of fin (Plate
II-1) .......... Sharpfin Chubsucker (Erimyzon tenuis), sp.64
First ray of dorsal fin about same length as dorsal base (not more
than 10% longer); dorsal fin rounded posteriad ............ 8
8. Oblique scale rows along side not more than 38; depth of body at
pectoral base less than that at pelvic base ...................
.................. Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta), sp.65
More than 38 oblique scale rows along side; depth of body at
pectoral base at least as great as at pelvic base (except in very

1. Moxostoma duquesnei of some authors.


22 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







small specimens) ....................................
................ Creek Chubsucker (Erimyzon oblongus), sp.66

ORDER SILURIFORMES: XVIII. FAMILY ICTALURIDAE, Freshwater Catfishes.1
1. Adipose fin free (posterior end not fused to back or connected to
caudal fin) .......................................... 2
Adipose fin adnate (fused to back and caudal fin, or separated from
caudal fin by a slight or incomplete notch; Plate II-2) ........ 7
2. Tail forked ........................................... 3
Tail emarginate or rounded, but never truly forked ............ 4
3. Width of gape greater than length of snout; bony ridge from head to
origin of dorsal fin not quite complete; lobes of tail rounded; no
distinct dark spots on body; anal rays usually 21 to 24 ..........
....................... White Catfish (Ictalurus catus), sp.72
Width of gape equal to or less than length of snout; bony ridge
unbroken from head to origin of dorsal fin; lobes of caudal fin
usually pointed, with upper lobe longer than lower; few to many
dark spots usually present on body; anal rays 20 to 30 ..........
.................. Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), sp.71
4. Chin barbels at least partly white, lacking melanophores; body
uniform; anal rays 25 or more; length of eye about 10% (in
large specimens) to 12% that of head .......................
.................... Yellow Bullhead (Ictalurus natalis), sp.70
Chin barbels dark, or at least sprinkled with melanophores; body
mottled or spotted; anal rays 24 or fewer; length of eye about
12% (large specimens) or more that of head ............... 5
5. Upper and lower jaws about equal in length; color pattern of irregular
dark mottling on light background ..........................
.................. Brown Bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), sp.69
Upper jaw projecting beyond lower; body speckled or uniform ..... 6
6. Fine serrations on pectoral spines; anal rays usually 16 to 20 (to 22
in St. Johns River); pectoral fins without narrow black margins;
olive green in life ..... Snail Bullhead (Ictalurus brunneus),2 sp.67
Strong serrations on pectoral spines; anal rays usually 20 to 24;
pectoral (and other) fins with a narrow black margin, and body
dark with rounded light spots ............................
.............. Spotted Bullhead (Ictalurus serracanthus), sp.68
7. Median fins heavily speckled; width of head about 20% of standard
length ........ Speckled Madtom (Noturus leptacanthus), sp.74
Median fins uniformly brown or black; width of head more than
20% of standard length .................................. 8
1. The anal ray counts in this section of the Key include all rudiments.
2. Formerly considered ide itical with the Flat Bullhead, Ictalurus platy-
cephalus, which species is no, thought not to occur in Florida.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 23











.11

..- 4


1. Dorsal fin of
Erimyzon tenuis


.4'.
~, .e4


1'
-rtZ~ ".~4~- F1~~--1


2. Adnate adipose fin ofNoturus


K.. :. I .a..-.

,, "',' '." -.,' ,
**-^ *_ - ,,'_ --


3.
Enlarged humeral
scale of Cyprinodon


PLATE II


24 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


r -


-' -~ Li ^ -
















o


Mandibular pores of
Fundulus grandis
(ventral aspect)


3~~
Y


5.
Ragged scale edges of
Membras martinica


--i


----- M


6.
Supramaxilla (S) and
maxilla (M) of
Lepomis gulosus


FISHES


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 25






8. Upper jaw protruding beyond lower; with more than 18 anal rays
.................. Black Madtom (Noturus funebris), sp.75
Upper and lower jaws of about equal length; anal rays 14 to 16 .....
.................. Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), sp.73

ORDER SILURIFORMES: XIX. FAMILY CLARIIDAE, Clariid Catfishes. One
species in Florida ........ Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus), sp.76

ORDER SILURIFORMES: XX. FAMILY LORICARIIDAE, Armored Catfishes.
One species in Florida ..... Armored Catfish (Hypostomus sp.), sp.860

ORDER SILURIFORMES: XXI. FAMILY ARIIDAE, Sea Catfishes.
1. With long filaments on dorsal and pectoral fins and only 2 barbels on
lower jaw .......... Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus), sp.77
No long filaments on fins, but with 4 barbels on lower jaw ........
............................. Sea Catfish (Arius felis), sp.78

ORDER PERCOPSIFORMES: XXII. FAMILY APHREDODERIDAE, Pirate Perches.
One species in Florida .........................................
..................... Pirate Perch (Aphredoderus sayanus), sp.79

ORDER ATHERINIFORMES: XXIII. FAMILY BELONIDAE, Needlefishes.
1. Peduncle keeled laterally and not deeper than wide ..............
............... Atlantic Needlefish (Strongylura marina), sp.80
Peduncle compressed and without a lateral keel ..................
.......................... Timucu (Strongylura timucu), sp.81

ORDER ATHERINIFORMES: XXIV. FAMILY CYPRINODONTIDAE, Killifishes.
1. Standard length less than 3 times body depth .................. 2
Standard length at least 3 times body depth ................... 5
2. Humeral scale greatly enlarged, its depth about twice that of
surrounding scales (Plate 11-3); caudal fin square-tipped, its central
rays not longer than adjacent ones ..........................
........... Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), sp.98
No enlarged humeral scale; caudal fin somewhat rounded, its central
rays slightly longer than adjacent ones ...................... 3
3. Base of dorsal fin at least 25% of standard length; black spots present
on sides (and on dorsal fin of males) ........................
......................... Flagfish (Jordanella floridae), sp.101
Base of dorsal fin less than 25% of standard length; without
conspicuous black spots .................................. 4
4. Dorsal fin extending farther anterior than pelvics; body marked
with conspicuous vertical bars ............................
..................... Diamond Killifish (Adinia xenica), sp.85


26 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







Dorsal and pelvic fins extending equally far forward; conspicuous
vertical bars lacking .......................................
........... Gold-spotted Killifish (Floridichthys carpio), sp.100
5. Humeral scale almost twice depth of nearby scales (Plate II-3) .....
............ Lake Eustis Minnow (Cyprinodon hubbsi), sp.99
Scales in humeral region of uniform size ...................... 6
6. With an isolated, rounded black spot on peduncle; dorsal rays fewer
than 8, or lateral scale count less than 30 and dorsal rays 8 .....
............... Pygmy Killifish (Leptolucania ommata), sp.84
No rounded black spot on peduncle unless connected to a longi-
tudinal stripe; dorsal rays at least 10 if lateral scale count is less
than 30 ............................................ 7
7. Eye relatively small, its length less than that of snout; length of head
at least 4 times that of eye (or slightly less if total length under
50 mm) ............................................ 8
Length of head less than 4 times that of eye (often more if total
length more than 100 mm) ............................ 9
8. Snout long, and its profile flattened or concave; length of eye not
more than 50% that of snout in adults; lateral scale count about
33 .............. Long-nosed Killifish (Fundulus similis), sp.90
Profile of snout flattened or convex; length of eye usually more than
50% that of snout in adults; lateral scale count about 36 .......
.................. Striped Killifish (Fundulus majalis), sp.91
9. With a broad, continuous, dark stripe on each side ........... 10
Black stripes usually lacking or numerous; if single, then inter-
rupted ........................................... 11
10. Central caudal rays not longer than adjacent ones; often with blue
on fins in life; origin of dorsal fin anterior to that of anal fin .....
.................... Bluefin Killifish (Lucania goodei), sp.83
Caudal fin rounded, with central rays longest; no blue in fins in life;
origin of dorsal fin posterior to that of anal ...................
........ Black-spotted Topminnow (Fundulus olivaceus), sp.97
11. Scales along side of body 50 or more; about 17 rays in dorsal fin
................ Seminole Killifish (Fundulus seminolis), sp.89
Lateral scale count less than 40; less than 15 rays in dorsal fin .....
........ ............................................ 12
12. With one or 2 longitudinal rows of spots along sides;' lateral scale
count usually less than 33 ....... .........................
............ Salt-marsh Topminnow (Fundulus jenkinsi), sp.86
Several, or no, longitudinal streaks or rows of spots along sides;
lateral scale count usually more than 33 .................. 13

1. Some specimens from Pensacola presently referred to F. jenkinsi have no
conspicuous markings of any kind.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 27






13. With a dark area around or below the eye and several longitudinal
streaks or rows of spots on body (rarely absent; also, vertical bars
may be present); caudal fin long and rounded, its length at least
twice depth of peduncle ........................... ....... 14
No prominently darkened area around eye; no longitudinal streaks
or rows of spots; caudal fin not more than slightly rounded, and
its length less than twice depth of peduncle ................ 15
14. Body depth at least 20% of standard length; dark area extending
below eye for distance almost equal to diameter of eye; longi-
tudinal streaks often broken into rows of spots; scales along side
of body 34 to 36 .........................................
.......... Northern Starhead Minnow (Fundulus notti), sp.95
Body depth less than 20% of standard length; dark area extending
scarcely, if at all, below orbit; longitudinal streaks typically un-
broken; scales along sides 32 to 34 ........................
....... Southern Starhead Minnow (Fundulus lineolatus), sp.96
15. Less than 30 scales along side of body; without conspicuous mark-
ings (except males in life); maximum length less than 50 mm
................ Rainwater Killifish (Lucania parva), sp.82
More than 30 scales along side of body; usually with dark vertical
bars or other conspicuous markings; maximum length 50 mm or
more ............................................. 16
16. With 10 or 11 rays in dorsal fin and usually more than 34 oblique
scale rows; maximum length more than 65 mm .............. 17
With 7 to 9 dorsal rays and usually less than 34 oblique rows of
scales; maximum length about 65 mm .................... 19
17. With a discrete black spot on dorsal fin (female) or some of the
dark vertical bars joining one another on sides of body (males);
usually with longitudinal rows of black spots on dorsum; no light
spots; maximum length about 100 mm ........................
................. Marsh Killifish (Fundulus confluentus), sp.92
No discrete black spot on dorsal or rows of black spots anterior to
it; dark vertical bars not joining unless dorsally; large specimens
usually with light spots; maximum length about 150 mm ..... 18
18. With 4 pairs of mandibular pores and at least 18 predorsal scales
.................. Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) sp.87
With 5 pairs of mandibular pores (Plate II-4) and less than 18
predorsal scales ....... Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis), sp.88
19. Origin of dorsal fin posterior to that of anal fin; usually less than
12 dark vertical bars (none in females); golden flecks on body
in life ........ Golden Topminnow (Fundulus chrysotus), sp.94
Origin of dorsal fin directly above that of anal; usually more than 12
dark vertical bars (though faint anteriad); without gold flecks in
life ......... Banded Topminnow (Fundulus cingulatus), sp.93


28 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA






ORDER ATHERINIFORMES: XXV. FAMILY POECILIIDAE, Live-bearers.'

1. Length of upper jaw (from crease at its base, dorsally) greater than
width of gape; a single dark spot at base of caudal rays .........
.................. Pike Killifish (Belonesox belizanus), sp.106
Length of upper jaw from crease less than width of gape; no discrete,
enlarged dark spot on bases of ,caudal rays .................. 2
2. With a single dark spot in the dorsal fin (also in anal of females),
but caudal fin clear ......................................
................. Least Killifish (Heterandria formosa), sp.104
With numerous black flecks in dorsal and caudal fins ........... 3
3. Anterior portion of back heavily pigmented; dorsal rays 14 to 16
.................... Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna), sp.105
Anterior portion of back only medium dark; dorsal rays 7 to 9 ..... 4
4. With longitudinal rows of black flecks on body; 28 to 30 oblique
scale rows ..............................................
...... Mangrove Mosquitofish (Gambusia rhizophorae), sp.103
Sides of body unspotted; 30 to 32 oblique scale rows ..........
.......... Common Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), sp.102

ORDER ATHERINIFORMES: XXVI. FAMILY ATHERINIDAE, Silversides.
1. With more than 70 scales along sides and more than 20 rays in anal
fin; standard length more than 6 times depth ................
............... Brook Silverside (Labidesthes sicculus), sp.109
With less than 50 scales along sides and less than 20 rays in anal
fin; standard length about 5 or 6 times depth ............. 2
2. Edges of scales scalloped or ragged (Plate II-5) ..............
................ Rough Silverside (Membras martinica), sp.108
Edges of scales smooth ......................................
.............. Tidewater Silverside (Menidia beryllina), sp.107

ORDER GASTEROSTEIFORMES: XXVII. FAMILY SYNGNATHIDAE, Pipefishes
and Seahorses.
1. Vent and dorsal fin closer to tip of snout than to caudal fin ......
................... Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), sp.ll0
Vent and dorsal fin closer to caudal fin than to tip of snout .......
.............. Opossum Pipefish (Oostethus lineatus), sp.111

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXVIII. FAMILY CENTROPOMIDAE, Snooks.
1. Pelvic fin, when appressed, reaching beyond vent .............. 2


1. For species recently established in Florida see the Addenda following the
mammal section of Chapter Three.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 29






Appressed pelvic fin falling short of vent in adults or barely reaching
it in young ........................................
.......... Common Snook (Centropomus undecimalis), sp.112
2. Lateral-line scales 80 or more; gill rakers less than 14; anal rays
usually 6 ........ Little Snook (Centropomus parallelus), sp.114
Lateral-line scales 70 or fewer; gill rakers 15 or more; anal rays 7
............. Tarpon Snook (Centropomus pectinatus), sp.113

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXIX. FAMILY PERCICHTHYIDAE, Temperate Basses.
1. Second anal spine not more than one-fifth of head length and less
than half length of longest anal ray .........................
..................... Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), sp.115
Second anal spine about one-third of head length and at least half
length of longest anal ray .................................
..................... White Bass (Morone chrysops), sp.116

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXX. FAMILY CENTRARCHIDAE, Sunfishes.
1. Lateral line absent; length not exceeding 50 mm .............. 2
Lateral line present; adults more than 50 mm long ............ 4
2. Dorsal spines 5; with a dark spot on body near tip of pectoral fin;
males not blue in life; with 7 or more dark vertical bars .........
............ Banded Pygmy Sunfish (Elassoma zonatum), sp.117
Dorsal spines 3 or 4; no dark spot on side; males with blue in life;
with 5 or fewer dark vertical bars (sometimes none) near posterior
end ....................... ...................... 3
3. Top of head without scales; tip of mouth light, contrasting with sides
of mouth; pattern blotched anteriad; caudal fin unspotted (although
light or dark) .......................................
......Okefenokee Pygmy Sunfish (Elassoma okefenokee), sp.118
Top of head scaled; mouth evenly colored; anterior half of body with
little or no contrast; caudal fin spotted, although sometimes only
fain tly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....... Everglades Pygmy Sunfish (Elassoma evergladei), sp.119
4. With 5 or more spines in anal fin ......................... 5
Anal spines only 3 ...................................... 9
5. Caudal fin rounded ....................................
................ Mud Sunfish (Acantharchus pomotis), sp.137
Caudal fin notched (Fig. 1) .............................. 6
6. With 11 or more dorsal spines ............ ............... 7
With not more than 8 dorsal spines ........................ 8
7. Anal fin at least 80% as long as dorsal; striped or with longitudinal
rows of spots .......... Flier (Centrarchus macropterus), sp.140
30 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







Anal fin much shorter than dorsal; young irregularly blotched, but
pattern becoming obscurely dark with age ....................
................... Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris), sp.136

Dorsal fin

Spines Rays

Lateral line

Operculum '\l I -





Premaxilla
Maxilla




PrlJ! I

Fig. 1. External morphology of a fish (Centrarchus macropterus)


8. Dorsal spines 5 or 6; distance from first dorsal spine to rim of orbits
greater than length of dorsal base; with dark vertical bars on
sides .............. White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis), sp.139
Dorsal spines usually 7 or 8; distance from first dorsal spine to rim
of orbit about same as length of dorsal base; \n th horizontal rows
of dark spots on sides .................................
............. Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), sp.138
9. Caudal fin rounded; dark vertical bar below eye ............. 10
Caudal fin notched; no dark vertical bar below eye ........... 12
10. Middle dorsal spines noticeably longer than posterior ones; anterior
part of dorsal fin dark ...................................
....... Black-banded Sunfish (Enneacanthus chaetodon), sp.135
Middle and posterior dorsal spines of about equal length; front of
dorsal fin not darker than remainder .................... 11
11. Not more than 18 scale rows around caudal peduncle; with light
spots on sides (blue in life); dark vertical bars lacking, or indis-
tinct and not more than 5 in number; spinous portion of pelvic
fins very dark .........................................
......... Blue-spotted Sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriouss, sp.134
KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 31







With 19 or more scale rows around caudal peduncle; sides marked
with vertical dark bars (usually more than 5); with golden spots
on sides in life; spinous portion of pelvics only medium dark
............. Banded Sunfish (Enneacanthus obesus), sp.133
12. Standard length more than 3 times body depth .............. 13
Standard length less than 3 times body depth .............. 16
13. Longest dorsal spine at least twice length of shortest posterior dorsal
spine; membranes of soft dorsal and anal fins not scaled ........
............ Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides), sp.123
Longest dorsal spine less than twice length of shortest posterior
dorsal spine; membranes of soft dorsal and anal fins scaly ..... 14
14. With 75 or more scales along lateral line; confined (in Florida) to
Apalachicola River system .......... .....................
................ Red-eyed Bass (Micropterus coosae), sp.122
Not more than 70 scales along lateral line .................... 15
15. Pattern typically very dark, even ventrally underpartss of adults blue
in life); no longitudinal rows of spots; depth of peduncle about
13% of standard length; about 59 to 63 scales in lateral line;
largely confined to the Suwannee River System ................
................ Suwannee Bass (Micropterus notius), sp.120
Underparts light, sometimes silvery; longitudinal rows of spots often
present; depth of peduncle about 11% of standard length; 62 to
70 scales in lateral line; from north Florida northwestward .....
.............. Spotted Bass (Micropterus punctulatus), sp.121
16. Angle of jaws directly below front of eye; length of supramaxilla
greater than width of maxilla (Plate 11-6) ....................
....................... Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus),' sp.124
Angle of jaws somewhat anterior to eye; length of supramaxilla
(when present) less than width of maxilla ................. 17
17. Mouth large, with posterior end of maxilla directly below front part
of eye; often with a dark spot in soft dorsal fin ................
.................. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), sp.125
Mouth smaller, posterior end of maxilla rarely extending to (and
never below) the eye; most species without a dark spot in soft
dorsal ................... ................................. 18
18. Pectoral fin long and pointed, with rays 3 to 6 much longer than
others and, when appressed, almost reaching to origin of first dorsal
fin (length of pectoral usually at least 30% of standard length;
if not, then with a dark spot in soft dorsal fin) ............. 19
Pectoral fin shorter and more rounded, with rays 3 to 6 not the
longest and usually not reaching near origin of first dorsal fin

1. A hybrid population between this species and the Bluegill has been found
in Jackson County (Birdsong and Yerger, 1967).


32 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA







when appressed (length of pectoral usually less than 30% of
standard length; usually no dark spot in soft dorsal) ........ 20
19. Dark opercular spot extending backward as a flap and with a light
margin (orange red in life; Plate III-1); gill rakers much shorter
than longest gill filaments; no dark spot in soft dorsal; usually 22
lateral scale rows ........................................
............. Red-eared Sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), sp.127
Dark opercular spot not extending appreciably backward and with-
out a light margin; gill rakers about as long as longest gill filaments;
usually with a dark spot on soft dorsal; usually 24 lateral scale
rows ................ Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), sp.132
20. With blackish pigment spots on body, sometimes reddish in life (not
merely dusky scales with light margins), or eye longer than snout
.....................o.........................o...... 21
Without blackish spots on body (or reddish spots in life); eye not
longer than snout ..................................... 22
21. Opercular spot entirely dark; body usually heavily spotted with
black .......... Spotted Sunfish (Lepomis punctatus), sp.126
Opercular spot with a light margin; body moderately spotted if at
all (spots reddish in life) ............. ....................
............. Orange-spotted Sunfish (Lepomis humilis), sp.131
22. Length of pectoral fin less than 25% of standard length; 12 rays
in pectoral fin; body depth usually more than 50% of standard
length ........... Dollar Sunfish (Lepomis marginatus), sp.129
Length of pectoral fin at least 25% of standard length; usually more
than 12 rays in pectoral fin; body depth usually less than 50%
of standard length ..................................... 23
23. Opercular flap usually stiff and dark to posterior edge; eye slightly
shorter than snout ......................................
.............. Red-breasted Sunfish (Lepomis auritus), sp.128
Opercular flap soft and with a light margin; eye about same length
as snout ...... Long-eared Sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), sp.130


ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXI. FAMILY PERCIDAE, Perches and Darters.
1. Caudal fin deeply forked (depth of fork at least half length of
shortest caudal rays); northwest Florida only .............. 2
Caudal fin notched, square, or rounded ................... 3
2. Color pattern of dark vertical bars; pelvic fins almost in contact ....
.................... Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens), sp.141
Color pattern blotched; distance between pelvic fins equal to width
of pelvic base ....... Sauger (Stizostedion canadense), sp.142


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 33
















1. Light margin of opercular spot in Lepomis microlophus





1. Light margin of opercular spot in Lepomis microlophus


a(,


2. Sharply angled profile of Etheostoma stigmaeum


PLATE III


34 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA











-ac-- -


r


- I--.- .


- 'r ,


3. Serrate preopercle of Diapterus


t~xw:i


N.%
'-'A
ryqy


/~~I



/
I .


4. Asymmetric pelvic fins of Citharichthys
(ventro-lateral view)


FISHES


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 35







3. Very pale, the body virtually devoid of pigment; standard length 7
times body depth; body largely naked ......................
............ Naked Sand Darter (Ammocrypta beani),1 sp.146
Body scaly and pigmented, its length usually less than 7 times its
depth ............................................ 4
4. Midline of belly naked or with one or 2 enlarged scales between
pelvic fins, and the posterior portion often with a single row of
enlarged scales; space between pelvic fins almost equal to pelvic
base; lateral line complete; anal and soft dorsal fins of about equal
area; caudal fin notched ............................... 5
Midline of belly without enlarged scales (sometimes naked); pelvic
fins almost in contact; lateral line usually incomplete; area of anal
fin somewhat less than that of soft dorsal; caudal fin usually not
notched .............................................. 7
5. Snout decidedly longer than diameter of eye; pattern of discontinuous
vertical bars of alternating length ...........................
..... .... ............ Logperch (Percina caprodes), sp.143
Snout length scarcely, if at all, greater than diameter of eye; blotches
on sides confluent ...................................... 6
6. Distance between eyes equal to diameter of eye ..................
........... Black-banded Darter (Percina nigrofasciata), sp.144
Distance between eyes less than diameter of eye .................
................ Star-gazing Darter (Percina uranidea), sp.145
7. With only one anal spine (but first soft ray sometimes unbranched);
9 anal rays; lateral line complete ...........................
.................. Johnny Darter (Etheostoma nigrum), sp.149
With 2 anal spines; usually less than 9 anal rays; lateral line incom-
plete in most species .................................. 8
8. Lateral line almost wanting (up to 7 pored scales) ..............
............... Cypress Darter (Etheostoma proeliare), sp.156
Lateral line extending at least to first dorsal fin ................ 9
9. Profile of head angling (or curving) abruptly downward at about
45 degrees anterior to eyes (Plate III-2) .................. 10
Profile of head curved normally downward, or sloping at an angle
of much less than 45 degrees ........................... 13
10. Premaxillary protractile, being separated from snout by a groove;
with W-shaped markings often present on sides ............ 11
Premaxillary not protractile, but usually connected to snout by a
ridge, the frenum; color pattern various ................... 12


1. A. asprella was collected in the Escambia River in 1974 (Hal Beecher,
personal communication).


36 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA






11. With a pattern of about 10 dark lateral blotches, tending to form
vertical bars (males), or a long, free genital papilla present
(females) ...............................................
.......... Choctawhatchee Darter (Etheostoma davisoni), sp.148
With a pattern of smaller, scattered dark spots, some tending to form
M's or W's; genital papilla of female inconspicuous and not
extending as a free tube ...................................
............ Speckled Darter (Etheostoma stigmaeum), sp.147
12. Pectoral, pelvic, and anal fins clear; anal rays 8 to 10; with 7 or 8
discrete, sometimes M-shaped, dark blotches on sides ..........
.................... Orange-sided Darter (Etheostoma sp.)'
Pectoral, pelvic, and anal fins speckled; anal rays 7 to 8; lateral
blotches connected to dorsal blotches; extreme west Florida only
............... Harlequin Darter (Etheostoma histrio), sp.150
13. Breast completely scaled; lateral line light colored and conspicuous,
at least anteriad ........................................ 14
Breast naked, at least anteriad; lateral line usually not whitish or
conspicuous ......................................... 15
14. With about 10 dark vertical bars; lateral line nearly straight, yellow-
ish in life ...............................................
.......... Gold-striped Darter (Etheostoma parvipinne), sp.152
With dark blotches of irregular size and distribution; lateral line
arched, not yellowish in life .... ..........................
................ Swamp Darter (Etheostoma fusiforme), sp.155
15. Lateral line virtually complete, with not more than 4 unpored scales;
with a marked depression at back of head ................. 16
Lateral line incomplete (7 to 14 unpored scales); no depression at
back of head ...... Brown Darter (Etheostoma edwini), sp.153
16. Very dark, except midventrally; confined to Choctawhatchee Bay
drainage ..... Okaloosa Darter (Etheostoma okaloosae), sp.154
With small, rounded spots tending to form longitudinal rows on a
light background; Apalachicola River westward ...............
................... Gulf Darter (Etheostoma swaini), sp.151

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXII. FAMILY ECHENEIDAE, Remoras. One
species in Florida fresh water ........ .....................
.................... Sharksucker (Echeneis naucrates), sp.157

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXIII. FAMILY CARANGIDAE, Jacks and Pompanos.
One species in Florida fresh water ........................
..................... Common Jack (Caranx hippos), sp.158

1. Undescribed species.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 37





ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXIV. FAMILY LUTJANIDAE, Snappers.
1. Body depth less than 40% of standard length; more than 47 scales
along lateral line; profile of snout usually convex .............
.................... Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus), sp.159
Body depth more than 40% of standard length; less than 47 scales
along lateral line; profile of snout concave or straight ..........
.................... Schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus), sp.160

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXV. FAMILY GERREIDAE, Mojarras.
1. Second anal spine obviously thickened; longest dorsal spines about
twice length of its longest rays; maximum length 200 mm or
more .............................................. 2
Second anal spine not appreciably thickened; longest dorsal spines
and rays about equally long; maximum length about 125 mm
............ Spotfin Mojarra (Eucinostomus argenteus), sp.161
2. Preopercle serrate ventrally (Plate III-3); second anal spine greatly
thickened and projecting far beyond second and subsequent anal
rays ......... Irish Pompano (Diapterus olisthostomus), sp.163
Preoperele not serrate; second anal spine only moderately thickened
and not projecting far beyond anal rays ....................
.................. Yellowfin Mojarra (Gerres cinereus), sp.162

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXVI. FAMILY POMADASYIDAE, Grunts.
1. Anal fin short, with 6 or 7 soft rays; dorsal fin decidedly notched, its
spines thickened ........................................
.................... Burro Grunt (Pomadasys crocro), sp.164
Anal fin long, with 11 to 13 rays; dorsal fin low, only slightly
notched ............ Pigfish (Orthopristis chrysopterus), sp.165

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXVII. FAMILY SPARIDAE, Porgies.
1. With a pattern of strongly contrasting, black vertical bars; not more
than 50 scales along lateral line ..........................
.......... Sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus),l sp.167
Black vertical bars, if present, not strongly contrasting with ground
color; more than 50 scales in lateral line ................... 2
2. With a large black spot on peduncle and none above base of pec-
toral fin; scales along lateral line less than 60 ..............
.............. Spot-tailed Pinfish (Diplodus holbrooki), sp.168
With a dark spot above base of pectoral fin, but no well-defined
spot on penduncle; more than 60 scales along sides............
....................... Pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), sp.166
1. This widely accepted form of the common name, like that of the Sheeps-
head Minnow, is improperly spelled.


38 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXVIII. FAMILY SCIAENIDAE, Drums.
1. Snout pointed, with lower jaw protruding slightly beyond upper;
rounded black spots on body and fins ......................
.............. Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), sp.170
Snout blunt, with upper jaw protruding slightly beyond lower; mostly
without rounded black spots on body ...................... 2
2. With barbels on chin ...................................... 3
No barbels on chin ....................................... 4
3. Standard length more than 3 times body depth; more than 25 rays
in soft dorsal fin; color pattern mottled or speckled ............
............ Atlantic Croaker (Micropogon undulatus), sp.174
Standard length less than 3 times body depth; less than 25 rays in
soft dorsal; about 5 dark vertical bars in young .............
...................... Black Drum (Pogonias cromis), sp.173
4. Central rays of caudal fin shorter than adjacent ones; about 15
oblique bars on sides (yellowish in life) and a dark spot behind
operculum; no teeth in lower jaw ..........................
........................ Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), sp.172
Central rays of caudal fin longer than adjacent ones; ground color
reddish or silvery in life, without oblique yellowish bars; teeth
present in both jaws ..................................... 5
5. Ground color reddish (in life), with one or more black spots at or
near base of caudal fin ....................................
...................... Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellata), sp.171
Ground color silvery, without black spots .......................
.................... Silver Perch (Bairdiella chrysura), sp.169

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XXXIX. FAMILY CICHLIDAE, Cichlids.1
1. Soft dorsal and anal fin scaleless, or scaly only at the base; rays in
soft dorsal, 7-12; in anal, 7-11 ............. ............ 2
Soft dorsal and anal fins covered with small scales; 19-21 rays in
soft dorsal and 15 or 16 in anal fin .......................
......................... Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), sp.176
2. With a large, dark blotch at mid-body on each side and another at
base of caudal fin .......................................
........ Two-spotted Cichlid (Cichlasoma bimaculatum), sp.175
No large blotches as described above, but often one each on soft
dorsal or operculum .....................................
......... Black-chinned Tilapia (Tilapia melanotheron), sp. 177

1. Other species of the Cichlidae, more recently established in Florida, are
listed in the Addenda following the mammal section of Chapter Three.


KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 39





ORDER PERCIFORMES: XL. FAMILY MUGILIDAE, Mullets.
1. With adipose tissue partly covering eye (adults); no dark spot at
base of pectoral fin (immatures) .......................... 2
No visible adipose tissue around eye; dark spot at base of pectoral
fin ......... Mountain Mullet (Agonostomus monticola), sp.181
2. Soft dorsal and anal fins sparsely scaled; about 40 oblique scale rows
along side; sides striped in adults ............................
....................... Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus), sp.178
Soft dorsal and anal fins fully scaled; less than 40 oblique scale
rows; never striped ......... ............................ 3
3. Anal fin with 8 rays (and 3 spines); less than 35 oblique scale rows
along side ........ Fan-tailed Mullet (Mugil trichodon), sp.180
Anal fin with 9 rays; usually more than 35 oblique scale rows along
side; St. Johns River drainage (and salt water) ................
........................ White Mullet (Mugil curema), sp.179

ORDER PERCIFORMES: XLI. FAMILY GOBIIDAE, Gobies and Sleepers.
1. Pelvic fins united to form suctorial disk .................... 4
Pelvic fins separate ............................ ........ 2
2. Scales relatively large, with less than 40 along lateral line; width of
head at eyes less than its depth ............................
.................. Fat Sleeper (Dormitator maculatus), sp.184
Scales relatively small, with 50 or more along lateral line; width of
head at eyes at least as great as its depth ................... 3
3. Gill openings extending anterior to position of eyes ..............
............ Big-mouth Sleeper (Gobiomorus dormitor), sp.183
Gill openings not extending anterior to position of eyes ..........
............ Spiny-cheeked Sleeper (Eleotris pisonis),' sp.182
4. Dorsal fins united to each other and to the caudal fin ............
.............. Violet Goby (Gobioides broussonneti), sp.198H
Dorsal fins separate from one another and from caudal fin ...... 5
5. Body naked ............ ................................... 6
Body mostly scaly ............................................ 7
6. Visible portion of longest ventral (pelvic) rays at least twice as long
as distance from their tips to base of anal fin; general coloration
light in preservative (irregular, light vertical bars on darker back-
ground in life); usually fewer than 13 dorsal and 11 anal rays .....
................. Robust Goby (Gobiosoma robustum), sp.191
Visible portion of longest ventral rays less than twice as long as
distance between them and anal base; general coloration dark in

1. Formerly known as Eleotris amblyopsis. The record of Eleotris picta in the
St. Johns River (Tagatz, 1968) is probably in error (Gilbert, personal com-
munication).
40 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





preservative; usually with regular, light vertical bars; usually at
least 13 dorsal and 11 anal rays ...........................
.................... Naked Goby (Gobiosoma bosci), sp.192
7. Heavy-bodied, very dark, with a blunt snout, thick lips, and a fleshy
crest on head; fins large, almost hiding midline of body; mouth
oblique ...... Crested Goby (Lophogobius cyprinoides), sp.190
Various in form and color, but with no crest on head, and mouth not
markedly oblique ....................................... 8
8. With 60 or more oblique scale rows along side; snout length almost
50% of head length ..... River Goby (Awaous tajasica), sp.188
With less than 50 oblique scale rows along side; snout about 30%
of head length ........................................ 9
9. Pectoral fins with a dorsal fringe of free rays; length up to 150 mm
................ Frillfin Goby (Bathygobius soporator), sp.185
Pectoral fins without free rays; length under 100 mm .......... 10
10. Soft dorsal fin long, with 15 or more rays; median fins often edged
with blackish ...... Clown Goby (Microgobius gulosus), sp.189
Soft dorsal fin with not more than 13 rays; median fins not edged
with blackish ....................................... 11
11. With a dark spot about base of pectoral fin, but no horizontal dark
bar on cheek; usually 11 rays in soft dorsal fin and 12 in anal;
30 to 33 oblique scale rows .............................
................ Darter Goby (Gobionellus boleosoma), sp.186
With no dark humeral spot, but a dusky horizontal bar on cheek;
usually 12 rays in soft dorsal and 13 in anal fin; 34 to 36 oblique
scale rows ..... Freshwater Goby (Gobionellus shufeldti), sp.187

ORDER PLEURONECTIFORMES: XLII. FAMILY BOTHIDAE, Lefteye Flounders.
1. Pelvic fins asymmetrically placed and their bases unequal in length
(Plate III-4); lateral line sloping downward above pectoral fin, but
not arched ....... Bay Whiff (Citharichthys spilopterus), sp.193
Pelvic fins symmetrical and their bases equally long; lateral line
strongly arched over pectoral fin ........................ 2
2. Dark spots on body (if present) indefinite in number and not
forming a triangle; distance between eyes about equal to diameter
of eye; 85 or more scales in lateral line .....................
.......... Southern Flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma), sp.195
Dark spots on body often 3 and arranged as a triangle; distance
between eyes decidedly less than diameter of eye (but approaching
it more closely in large specimens); less than 85 scales in lateral
line .......... Gulf Flounder (Paralichthys albigutta), sp.194
ORDER PLEURONECTIFORMES: XLIII. FAMILY SOLEIDAE, Soles.
1. Right pectoral fin present; no dark crossbars ..........:.........
................ ....... Lined Sole (Achirus lineatus), sp.196
KEYS TO CLASS OSTEICHTHYES / 41





Both pectoral fins lacking; usually with several dark crossbars .....
.................... Hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus), sp.197

ORDER PLEURONECTIFORMES: XLIV. FAMILY CYNOGLOSSIDAE, Tongue-
fishes. One species in fresh water in Florida ..................
........ Black-cheeked Tonguefish (Symphurus plagiusa), sp.198

CLASS AMPHIBIA-ORDERS AND FAMILIES
1. Postanal tail present; forelimbs present; hind limbs (if present)
2-segmented and not more than 50% longer than forelimbs .....
............................................... CAUDATA, 2
Postanal tail absent in adults (present in larvae, which have no limbs
or hind limbs only); hind limbs of adults and subadults (tailed)
consisting of 3 segments (plus toes) and at least twice as long
as forelimbs ................................ SALIENTIA, 7
2. Only the forelimbs present .................... SIRENIDAE, XLV
W ith 2 pairs of lim bs ................................... 3
3. Eyes much reduced and without lids; skin fully pigmented; limbs
often reduced in length .................................. 4
Eyes of normal size and with a distinct upper lid, or skin devoid of
pigment; limbs of normal length ......................... 5
4. External gills present; length of hind limbs about equal to maximum
depth of tail ............................. PROTEIDAE, XLVI
External gills lacking in adult; limbs vestigial ....................
................................... AMPHIUMIDAE, XLVIII
5. Costal grooves lacking or indistinct ...... SALAMANDRIDAE, XLVII
Costal grooves well developed ............................. 6
6. Nasolabial grooves present, though sometimes indistinct (Plate IV-1);
parasphenoid teeth present (Plate IV-2) ...................
..................................... PLETHODONTIDAE, L
Nasolabial grooves and parasphenoid teeth absent ...............
............................... AMBYSTOMATIDAE, XLIX
7. Postanal tail present; forelimbs lacking or concealed' ............
.... Tadpoles, p. 52
Postanal tail lacking; forelimbs well developed ................ 8
8. Parotoid glands present .................................... 9
Parotoid glands lacking ..................................... 10
9. Outline of parotoid glands rounded; cranial crests lacking ........
............................................ PELOBATIDAE, LI
Outline of parotoid glands elliptical; cranial crests often present (Plate
IV-3) ..................................... BUFONIDAE, LII


1. Tadpoles collected during metamorphosis usually cannot be keyed.


42 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA




10. Tympanum lacking; toes not webbed; a fold of skin across head be-
hind eyes; thigh not striped ............ MICROHYLIDAE, LVI
Tympanum present (often not visible in 2 species in which the thigh
is alternately striped with light and dark); hind toes usually
webbed; no fold of skin across back of head .............. 11
11. Tips of toes expanded into adhesive disks, or maximum length less
than 40 mm and webbing reduced ........................ 12
Toes without expanded disks; length of adults much more than
40 mm; webs on hind feet well developed ........ RANIDAE, LV
12. Skin granular ventrally; pads under toe joints low and rounded ....
... ..................................... HYLIDAE, LIV
Skin smooth ventrally; subarticular pads elongate, pointing toward tips
of toes (Plate IV-4) ................ LEPTODACTYLIDAE, LIII

ORDER CAUDATA: XLV. FAMILY SIRENIDAE, Sirens.
1. Total length less than 25 cm; stripes on body; 3 toes per foot ....
............. .Dwarf Siren (Pseudobranchus striatus), sp.201
Total length of adults over 25 cm; no stripes on body; 4 toes per
foot ................................................... 2
2. Total length up to 100 cm (specimens less than 50 cm long usually
have dorsal fin continuous with caudal); costal grooves usually more
than 34; light markings on body usually conspicuous ........
...................... Greater Siren (Siren lacertina), sp.199
Total length not over 50 cm (large specimens lack a dorsal fin);
costal grooves usually not more than 34; light markings on body
absent or inconspicuous .... ..............................
.................... Lesser Siren (Siren intermedia), sp.200

ORDER CAUDATA: XLVI. FAMILY PROTEIDAE, Mud Puppies and Water-
dogs.1
1. With many rounded black spots on a medium dark background ....
................ Gulf Coast Waterdog (Necturus beyeri), sp.202
With few or no black spots on a very dark background ..........
................ Dwarf Waterdog (Necturus punctatus), sp.203

ORDER CAUDATA: XLVII. FAMILY SALAMANDRIDAE, Newts.
1. Usually with light stripe (red in life) down each side of back,
bordered with black ......................................
............ Striped Newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus), sp.205
With no light (or red) stripe down each side of back ............
.......... Spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), sp.204


1. Conant now refers all Florida specimens to N. alabamensis.


KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 43









\


Nasolabial grooves of
Eurycea longicauda


2.
Vomerine (V) and
parasphenoid (P)
teeth of
Eurycea longicauda


,Kr.i


S ., ,,-.---- _v



I 1]
.














3.
Elliptical parotoid glands (P)
and cranial crests (C) of
Bufo woodhousei


PLATE IV


44 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


,














4.
Subarticular pads of
Eleutherodactylus


-V"


J~7\


5. Pinnately grooved tongue of
Ambystoma cingulatum


6.
Relative length of fingers in
Rana grylio


AMPHIBIANS


KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 45





ORDER CAUDATA: XLVIII. FAMILY AMPHIUMIDAE, Amphiumas.
1. Only one toe per foot; total length not exceeding 30 cm; underparts
almost as dark as upperparts; appressed forelimb not extending
over ear opening ........................................
............ One-toed Amphiuma (Amphiuma pholeter), sp.207
Two-toed; total length of adults up to 1 m; underparts much
lighter than upperparts; appressed forelimb extending over ear
opening ...... Two-toed Amphiuma (Amphiuma means), sp.206

ORDER CAUDATA: XLIX. FAMILY AMBYSTOMATIDAE, Mole Salamanders.
1. Interorbital distance greater than length of snout; usually only 10
costal grooves; usually medium gray above with small dark spots
.......... Mole Salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum), sp.209
Interorbital distance not greater than (about same as) snout length;
back usually with contrasting light and dark markings; 11 or more
costal grooves .......................................... 2
2. Grooves on upper surface of tongue pinnately arranged (Plate IV-5);
markings on back forming a reticulate pattern ................
........ Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum), sp.208
Grooves on tongue absent or not pinnately .arranged (either median
groove or oblique grooves lacking); no network of light lines on
back ............................................... 3
3. Usually with 11 costal grooves; with several transverse light blotches
on upper surface (rarely lacking, or regularly in immatures) ....
........... Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum), sp.210
Usually with 12 or more costal grooves; light markings rounded and
scattered ............ .............................. 4
4. Adults with light markings (yellowish in life) of irregular size, shape,
and distribution, some extending to lower sides; immatures medium
gray with small light spots along sides of body, often in a row ....
.............. Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), sp.211
Adults with rounded light spots of similar size arranged essentially
in 2 dorsolateral rows on a dark background; no Florida records
........ Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), sp.250H

ORDER CAUDATA: L. FAMILY PLETHODONTIDAE, Lungless Salamanders.
1. Pale and unpigmented; legs extremely slender; external gills present
...... Georgia Blind Salamander (Haideotriton wallacei), sp.214
Normally colored; legs well developed; external gills absent in
adults ................................................ 2
2. With a constriction at base of tail ..............................
...... Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum), sp.213
No constriction at base of tail ................................ 3


46 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





3. With at least 20 costal grooves (13 between appressed limbs); legs
extremely short; unrecorded in Florida .....................
...... Red Hills Salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti), sp.250H
Less than 20 costal grooves (less than 12 between appressed limbs);
legs of normal length .................................... 4
4. Head usually angling abruptly downward; with a conspicuous swell-
ing on each side at back of head; usually a light line from eye to
angle of jaws; interorbital distance equal to distance from eye to
nostril; no dark middorsal stripe ......................... 5
Head scarcely angling downward, if at all; no large swelling behind
angle of jaws; usually no light line from eye to angle of jaws;
interorbital distance greater than eye-nostril distance, or with a
black stripe down dorsal midline1 ........................ 7
5. Distal one-fourth of tail slender, its depth not greater than thickness
of forelimb and less than that of hind limb; often with a dark,
wavy line on each side of back .............................
..... Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus), sp.220
Distal fourth of tail compressed and bladelike,, its maximum depth
exceeding thickness of forelimb and sometimes that of hind limb;
no dark, wavy line on each side of back .................... 6
6. Ground color usually blackish above and dark gray below, with
numerous light flecks often in a row on lower side; widespread in
north Florida ...........................................
Southern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus auriculatus), sp.221
Ground color mainly grayish above and whitish below, with scattered
dark flecks on dorsum; extreme northwest corner of Florida
.......... Seal Salamander (Desmognathus monticola), sp.222
7. With 17 or 18 costal grooves (6 or 7 between appressed limbs);
with reddish mottling below and usually a middorsal red stripe,
often with wavy margins; unrecorded in Florida ................
............. Zigzag Salamander (Plethodon dorsalis), sp.250H
Usually fewer than 17 costal grooves; if reddish present, not in
form of a dorsal stripe .................................. 8
8. Upperparts longitudinally striped; underparts uniformly light, with-
out conspicuous dark spots .............................. 9
Upperparts not striped, or underparts more or less dark-spotted
.......................................... .............. 10
9. Costal grooves usually 16; only 4 toes on hind foot (rarely 5) .....
........ Dwarf Salamander (Manculus quadridigitatus), sp.219

1. The Many-lined Salamander (Stereochilus marginatus), discovered in Flor-
ida in January, 1974 (S. Christman, personal communication), probably will
not key beyond this point.


KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 47





Costal grooves 13 or 14; 5 toes on hind foot ....................
.......... Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata), sp.218
10. Ground color blackish, with irregular, rounded white spots .......
............. Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus), sp.212
Ground color reddish or yellowish, at least ventrally (light in
preservative) ........................................ 11
11. Tail more than 50% of total length; with 3 dark stripes down
back; 14 costal grooves .... ..............................
......... Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda), sp.217
Tail less than 50% of total length; pattern of dark spots on reddish
or yellowish background; 15 or more costal grooves ........ 12
12. Length of eye almost equal to snout length; no light line from eye to
nostril ...... Mud Salamander (Pseudotriton montanus), sp.216
Length of eye less than snout length; an indistinct, irregular light
line from eye to nostril ....................................
................ Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber), sp.215

ORDER SALIENTIA: LI. FAMILY PELOBATIDAE, Spadefoot Toads. One species
in Florida ....... Eastern Spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrooki), sp.223

ORDER SALIENTIA: LII. FAMILY BUFONIDAE, Toads.
1. Length up to 150 mm or more; greatest width of parotoid gland
anteriad and much greater than distance between orbits ........
......................... Giant Toad (Bufo marinus), sp.227
Length usually less than 100 mm; greatest width of parotoid gland
near its center and about equal to distance between orbits ..... 2
2. Greatest diameter of tympanum scarcely half that of eye; parotoid
glands diverging sharply posteriad; maximum length about 30
mm .................. Oak Toad (Bufo quercicus), sp.226
Greatest diameter of tympanum more than half that of eye; parotoid
glands nearly or quite parallel; length of adults more than 30
mm ............................................... 3
3. Postorbital ridge connected to parotoid gland only by a spur, or not
at all; warts irregular in size and distribution ..................
............ .. .... .Southern Toad (Bufo terrestris), sp.224
Postorbital ridge in direct contact with parotoid gland (Plate IV-3);
a few large warts in each pigment spot ......................
............... Woodhouse's Toad (Bufo woodhousei), sp.225

ORDER SALIENTIA: LIII. FAMILY LEPTODACTYLIDAE, Tropical Frogs.
One species in Florida .........................................
...... Greenhouse Frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris), sp.228


48 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





ORDER SALIENTIA: LIV. FAMILY HYLIDAE, Tree Frogs.
1. Disks on fingers more than half diameter of tympanum; distance from
angle of jaws to tip of snout less than width of head at angle of
jaws; hind toes noticeably webbed (web extending about halfway
out on second, third, and fifth toes); no dark longitudinal stripe
on back of thigh ....................................... 2
Disks on fingers not more than half diameter of tympanum, or
tympanum not in evidence; length of mouth at least as great as its
width; webbing of hind toes vestigial, or with a dark longitudinal
stripe on back of thigh ................................. 10
2. Skin fused to top of skull; disks on fingers about as wide as tym-
panum; maximum length of adults 100 mm or more ............
............... Cuban Tree Frog (Hyla septentrionalis), sp.236
Skin movable against top of skull, not fused; disks on fingers not as
wide as tympanum; maximum length of adults not more than 80
mm ............................ .... ................. 3
3. Rear surface of thigh marked with light areas (orange, yellow, or
greenish in life), often of rounded outline, on dark background;
dark mask across eye usually present ..................... 4
Never with the above combination of markings (dark mask absent
in species more than 45 mm long) ...................... 7
4. With a conspicuous light line from eye to groin and no dark blotches
dorsally ..... Pine Barrens Tree Frog (Hyla andersoni), sp.870
No prominent light line laterally; dark blotches present dorsally ..... 5
5. Without a light spot under the eye; usually 2 or more separate dark
blotches on back; not warty above; several spots on thigh smaller
than tympanum; maximum length about 35 mm ...............
.............. Pine-woods Tree Frog (Hyla femoralis), sp.230
Usually with a light spot under each eye; dark dorsal blotches usually
conjoined along midline; most spots on thigh large as tympanum;
rather warty above; maximum length 50 to 55 mm .......... 6
6. Light areas on thigh and groin orange yellow in life; ground color
light gray dorsally; light area below eye diagonally arranged and
its width dorsally about half length of eye ....................
........ Southern Gray Tree Frog (Hyla chrysoscelis), sp.233
Light areas on thigh and groin greenish in life; dorsal ground color
dark or medium gray; light area below eye trapezoidal, but portion
near eye almost as wide as length of eye .....................
................ Bird-voiced Tree Frog (Hyla avivoca), sp.234
7. With a discrete light line along margin of upper jaw, but no dark X
on back; maximum length usually more than 40 mm (2 of 3
species) ........................................... 8


KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 49





No definite light line along edge of upper jaw, but with a dark X on
back; maximum length less than 40 mm .....................
....................... Spring Peeper (Hyla crucifer), sp.229
8. Light line of upper jaw continuing straight, distinct, and unbroken
along body to near groin ..................................
.................. Green Tree Frog (Hyla cinerea), sp.235
Light line never continuing to near groin as described above ..... 9
9. Back marked with numerous large, dark, oval spots and often with
light flecks (golden in life; either marking may become obscure in
preservative); width of head at angle of jaws at least 40% of
snout-vent length; maximum length about 70 to 80 mm ........
................... Barking Tree Frog (Hyla gratiosa), sp.231
Color pattern not as described above (black dorsal markings, when
present, fewer and smaller); width of head at angle of jaws less
than 40% of snout-vent length; maximum length 35 to 40 mm
.................. Squirrel Tree Frog (Hyla squirella), sp.232
10. With a longitudinal dark bar on rear of thigh and light vertical bars
on upper jaw; no dark mask over eye; hind toes provided with
webs and digital disks ................................... 11
No dark longitudinal bar on thigh or light vertical bars on upper
jaw; black mask (sometimes interrupted) running across eye; webs
and disks on hind toes usually reduced ................. 12
11. With discrete light and dark stripes on rear of thigh; back and anal
region not markedly warty; snout pointed (distance between
nostrils less than that from nostril to tip of snout) ..............
................. Southern Cricket Frog (Acris gryllus), sp.241
Dark thigh stripe with ragged edges, and the light stripe often
indefinite; back and anal region warty; snout rounded (distance
between nostrils about equal to that from nostril to tip of snout)
.............. Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans), sp.242
12. Webbing and disks of hind toes moderately developed; tibia more
than 50% of snout-vent length; maximum length less than 18
mm .......... Little Grass Frog (Limnaoedus ocularis), sp.237
Webbing and disks vestigial; tibia not more than 50% of snout-vent
length; maximum length more than 20 mm ............... 13
13. Usually with 2 or 3 oval, black, light-bordered spots on each side
of body; 2 dark stripes down back faint or not in evidence; inter-
orbital distance less than length of eye .......................
............. Ornate Chorus Frog (Pseudacris ornata), sp.240
With 3 or more dark stripes or rows of spots arranged longitudinally
on back, but no enlarged spots on sides of body; interorbital dis-
tance about equal to length of eye ...................... 14
14. Distance from armpit to snout greater than that from armpit to
groin; snout-vent length usually less than 30 mm; usually no dark
50 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA




blotch between eyes; ground color usually light gray; warty .....
............ Southern Chorus Frog (Pseudacris nigrita), sp.239
Distance from armpit to snout about equal to that from armpit to
groin; snout-vent length often more than 30 mm; usually a dark
blotch between eyes; ground color brownish; not very warty .....
............ Upland Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata), sp.238

ORDER SALIENTIA: LV. FAMILY RANIDAE, True Frogs.
1. With conspicuous dorsolateral ridges on body ................ 2
Dorsolateral ridges vestigial or lacking ......................... 5
2. Dorsolateral ridges complete; with elongate pigment spots arranged
in longitudinal rows on back ............................. 3
Dorsolateral ridges not extending to level of groin; color pattern
not as described above .................................. 4
3. Greatest distance between adjacent pigment spots in one longitudinal
dorsal row less than width of any large spot; usually a single pig-
ment spot between nostrils; pigment spots in young green (in life),
and orange present on back of thighs in adults; no Florida records
.................... Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris), sp.250H
Greatest distance between adjacent pigment spots greater than width
of a large spot; pigment spots not green in life, and no orange on
back of thigh; no pigment spot between nostrils ...............
...................... Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens), sp.248
4. Upperparts unspotted and not warty, though sometimes granular
(north of Florida dark spots smaller than the eye may be present)
....................... Bronze Frog (Rana clamitans), sp.247
Upperparts with dark spots (some about diameter of eye), or with
warts .................. Gopher Frog (Rana areolata), sp.249
5. Upperparts marked with 4 light stripes (2 dorsal, 2 lateral); less
than 75 mm long; Okefenokee Swamp .......................
.................... Carpenter Frog (Rana virgatipes), sp.246
Upperparts sometimes with 2 dorsal stripes, but never with 2 addi-
tional lateral stripes; adults 100 mm or more in maximum length
... .... .... ................................. 6
6. With conspicuous white spots at edges of mouth; much blackish
ventrally ............ River Frog (Rana heckscheri), sp.244
No white spots at edges of mouth; dark pigment of underparts
grayish and restricted .................................... 7
7. First finger at least as long as second; fourth toe longer than fifth by
about length of first toe; webs not extending to tips of hind toes;
back of thigh usually mottled; no light lines on back ...........
......................... Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), sp.243
First finger slightly shorter than second (Plate IV-6); fourth toe
longer than fifth by less than length of first toe; webs extending to
KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 51





tips of hind toes; hind surface of thigh usually with alternating
dark and light stripes; with 2 faint, light dorsolateral stripes .....
.......................... Pig Frog (Rana grylio), sp.245
ORDER SALIENTIA: LVI. FAMILY MICROHYLIDAE, Narrow-mouthed Toads.
One species in Florida ........ ...................... .......
Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis), sp.250
KEY TO LARVAL ANURANS1
1. Labial teeth, horny beak, and papillae lacking; spiracle in midline
near anus; blackish in color and dorsoventrally flattened; eyes
lateral; white markings on belly, and a longitudinal white line on
tail musculature ................... Gastrophryne carolinensis
Horny beak and papillae present; labial teeth usually present; spiracle
sinistral; eyes lateral or dorsal (see Figs. 2 and 3) ........... 2

Spiracle
Dorsal fin
Tail musculature









Anal tube
Ventral fin
Fig. 2. External morphology of a tadpole (Rana areolata aesopus)

2. Labial tooth rows numerous (7 to 12), some incomplete and lateral
to horny beak; papillae completely encircling oral disk except for a
small space above first upper tooth row ......................
..................................... Scaphiopus holbrooki
Labial teeth arranged in rows above and below horny beak (1 to 3
above, 2 to 4 below; rarely lacking); papillae always lacking for
some distance on upper labium, and often absent under lower
tooth rows .................... ......................... 3
3. Anal tube opening in midline of ventral tail crest (appearing
symmetrical); papillae not extending along entire lower lip;
dorsum and venter dark; eyes dorsal, not visible from below ..... 4


1. Modified from a key prepared by Sheryl Fanning.
52 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





Anal tube opening to right side of ventral crest (appearing asym-
metrical); papillae extending across lower labium, or eyes lateral;
part of venter usually lighter than dorsum .................. 7
4. Upper edge of tail musculature with series of light areas that have
dark pigment between ....................... Bufo quercicus
Upper portion of tail musculature uniformly dark (macroscopi-
cally) .............................................. 5
5. One row of papillae (sometimes incomplete) on sides of labium;
spiracle on lateral axis; eyes nearer middorsal line than lateral
outline; length of horny beak greater than that of third lower
tooth row ............................... Bufo woodhousei
Two or more complete rows of papillae on sides of labium; spiracle
below lateral axis; eyes at least as close to lateral outline as to
middorsal line; length of horny beak not greater than that of
third lower tooth row ...................................... 6




Horny lips (mandibles)

Papillae

Labial ;:,,
tooth rows







Fig. 3. Mouthparts of a tadpole (Rana heckscheri)


6. Internasal distance about 10-15% of body length; gap in second
upper tooth row about half as long as horizontal portion of upper
horny beak ................................... Bufo marinus
Internasal distance about 20-25% of body length; gap in second
upper tooth row about equal to length of horizontal portion of
upper horny beak .......................... Bufo terrestris
7. Eyes lateral in position, usually reaching lateral outline from dorsal
aspect; lateral papillae not indented; tooth rows normally
developed ........................................... 8
KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 53





Eyes dorsal in position, not reaching lateral outline from dorsal
aspect; papillae emarginate; tooth rows sometimes lacking or in-
complete ........................................ 23
8. Tooth-row formula typically 2/2 .......................... 9
Tooth-row formula typically 2/3 or 2/4 .................... 11
9. Dorsal edge of tail musculature with an irregularly margined light
area (from dorsal aspect); appressed lips in form of a triangle,
with apex pointed upward; tip of tail not black; dorsal half of tail
musculature darker than ventral half ............. Hyla crucifer
Dorsal edge of tail musculature with solid black stripe or a series of
dark spots; appressed lips not in form of triangle; tip of tail often
jet black; tail musculature mostly of uniform color; belly with pink
iridescence in life ....................................... 10
10. Spiracle short, not projecting as a free tube; dark pigment on dorsal
tail musculature in form of squares or bars; greatest depth of tail
about equal to that of body ................... Acris crepitans
Spiracle in form of a long projecting tube; dark pigment on base of
dorsal tail musculature tending to run together, not forming dis-
tinct squares; greatest depth of tail at least 10% greater than that
of body ....................................... Acris gryllus
11. Tooth-row formula 2/4 .................... Hyla septentrionalis
Tooth-row formula 2/3 ................................ 12
12. Body blackish with prominent light stripes in front of the eyes and
light areas behind the eyes; tail musculature dark dorsally with
several broad, light saddle marks (all light areas coppery in life);
fins appearing clear macroscopically ............. Hyla avivoca
Not with the above combination of colors .................... 13
13. Third lower tooth row not longer than horny beak and not much
more than half length of first lower tooth row; lower labial corner
with less than 3 rows of papillae ....................... 14
Third lower tooth row at least as long as horny beak and at least
three-fourths length of first lower tooth row; lower labial corner
with 3 or 4 rows of papillae ........... ................. 21
14. Papillae absent below part of third lower tooth row ..............
............................. Hyla crucifer
Papillae (sometimes small) extending completely across lower
labium ........................................... 15
15. Maximum body length about 9 mm, limb buds appearing at about
5 mm and reaching length of 3 mm at body length of about 8 mm;
tail musculature with longitudinal brown stripe bordered above
and below by a light stripe; pigment in fins concentrated near
edges ................................... Limnaoedus ocularis
Maximum body length more than 9 mm, limb buds appearing at 7
mm or more, not reaching 3 mm in length before body length is
about 10 mm; tail not as described above .................. 16
54 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





16. Eye usually closer to spiracular opening than to tip of snout; ventral
half of tail musculature not lighter than dorsal half (except rarely
near base of tail) ....................................... 17
Eye equidistant between spiracular opening and tip of snout; ventral
half of tail musculature lighter than dorsal half for most of its
length ........................................... 19
17. Pigmented part of lower beak wider (deeper) than its unpigmented
part; black saddle spot showing through skin between eyes; deep
globose body with wide tail fins; depth at eyes about half of greatest
depth of tail, including crest .................... Hyla gratiosa
Pigmented part of lower beak not wider than its unpigmented part;
interorbital area uniformly dark; body more slender; depth at eyes
much more than half greatest depth of tail, including fins ..... 18
18. Pigment not concentrated dorsally (though sometimes laterally) on
musculature near base of tail; eye decidedly closer to spiracular
opening than to tip of snout; maximum body length about 20
mm ........................................ Hyla cinerea
Pigment concentrated dorsally on tail musculature near its base; eye
almost equidistant between spiracular opening and tip of snout;
maximum body length about 15 mm ........... Hyla andersoni
19. Length of tail about 3 times its depth at deepest point; 2 or more
rows of papillae below third lower tooth row; third lower tooth
row usually less than half length of first lower tooth row; ventral
half of tail musculature largely devoid of pigment anteriad..... 20
Length of tail less than 3 times its depth at deepest point; one row
of papillae below third lower tooth row; third lower tooth row at
least half length of first lower row; ventral half of tail muscula-
ture with some flecks of pigment scattered throughout ..........
........................................ Pseudacris ornata
20. With some pigment spots in dorsal fin at least half diameter of eye;
dark pigment of dorsal tail musculature gradually merging with
the lighter ventral part ..................... Pseudacris nigrita
Pigment spots in dorsal fin minute; dark pigment of dorsal tail mus-
culature abruptly contrasting with white ventrally .............
....................................... Pseudacris triseriata
21. Third lower tooth row almost as long as second (at least 90%);
tail fins heavily spotted except clear near musculature ..........
.............. .. ......................... Hyla femoralis
Third lower tooth row not more than 80% as long as second; tail
fins usually not as described above .................... 22
22. Pigment often concentrated at margin of tail fins; tail musculature
evenly pigmented; usually with reddish in tail in life ............
...................................... Hyla chrysoscelis
KEYS TO CLASS AMPHIBIA / 55





Pigment evenly distributed in tail fins, not concentrated at margin;
tail musculature often bicolored; no reddish in tail in life ......
............................ Hyla squirella
23. Dorsal edge of tail musculature a prominent, contrasting black stripe;
edge of tail crests also contrastingly black in specimens of more
than 35 mm total length; entire tail otherwise clear ............
................................ Rana heckscheri
Tail not as described above (not strongly bicolored) .......... 24
24. Pigmented portion of lower beak wide (almost or quite as deep as
its unpigmented portion), or abdominal wall thin, dark, and
transparent at body lengths up to 20 or 25 mm ............ 25
Pigmented portion of lower beak narrow (not more than half depth
of the unpigmented portion); abdominal wall thicker and opaque
at body lengths of more than 15 mm ................... 27
25. No concentration of dark pigment at dorsal base of tail musculature;
anal tube large, its length almost twice width of spiracle in speci-
mens over 20 mm body length and greater than twice in smaller
specimens; nearly all of lower beak pigmented in large specimens;
hind limb buds appear at body length of about 25 mm, reaching
length of 2 to 5 mm at body length of 28 mm (see Fig. 2) ....
................................... R ana areolatal
Usually with a concentration of dark pigment at dorsal base of tail
musculature; length of anal tube much less than twice width of
spiracle in large specimens or barely twice in smaller specimens;
pigmented part of lower beak scarcely, if at all, deeper than its
unpigmented portion; hind limb buds appear at body length of 11
to 21 mm, reaching length of more than 5 mm at body length of
28 mm or less ......................................... 26
26. Median space in second upper tooth row at least twice length of
either lateral part; no light stripes on back; spots on tail smaller
than diameter of eye; pigmented part of lower beak not deeper
than that of upper beak; no Florida records ...... Rana palustris
Median space in second upper tooth row less than twice length of
either lateral part; often with 2 faint dorsolateral stripes; some
dark spots on tail near size of eye; pigmented part of lower beak
deeper than that of upper beak; widespread ....... Rana pipiens
27. Dorsal fin with a longitudinal row of black spots .............. 28
Pigment in tail fins often sparse, never forming a longitudinal row
of spots ............. ............................. 29
28. Tooth-row formula 1/2 or 2/2, the second upper row (if present)
vestigial (each lateral part about 10% of first upper row); streak
in dorsal crest conspicuous and contrasting with surrounding clear

1. Many specimens cannot be distinguished from Rana pipiens.


56 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





area; tail fin edged with dark pigment, continuous or interrupted;
streak in tail musculature continuing to tip of tail; at least 2 rows
of papillae below lowermost tooth row ......... Rana virgatipes
Tooth-row formula 2/3, each lateral part of the second upper row
more than 10% length of first upper row; streak on dorsal fin faint
and not in bold contrast with the surrounding area; dark pigment
scattered throughout remainder of tail fin, not concentrated at
margins; dark streak in tail musculature not continuing to tip of
tail; only one row of papillae below most of lowermost tooth row
.Rana grylio
..................... ........................Rana grylic
29. Tail crest clear (sometimes with small, sharply defined, scattered,
dark dots); basal fourth of tail crests often more opaque than
remainder; body light yellow green in life (pale in preservative),
sometimes with small dark dots; hind limb buds appearing at
about 20 mm body length, not reaching a length of 20 mm until
about 30 mm body length ................ Rana catesbeiana
Tail more heavily pigmented; tail crests not opaque basally; upper
parts of body usually dark in life; hind limb buds appearing at
about 15 mm body length; maximum body length about 25 mm
............................................ Rana clamitans

CLASS REPTILIA-ORDERS AND FAMILIES
1. Eyes, ear openings, and limbs lacking; tail less than twice length of
head ......... ........... .... ........... ....... .
SQUAMATA (SUBORDER AMPHISBAENIA): AMPHISBAENIDAE1 LXIX
Eyes always present, ear openings and limbs usually so; tail usually
at least twice length of head ............................. 2
2. Body covered with a bony or leathery shell, the upper part (carapace)
being connected to the lower part (plastron) by a relatively narrow
bridge; no true teeth present (see Fig. 4) ......... CHELONIA, 3
Body covered with scales or epidermal plates, but never with a two-
part shell; teeth present .................................. 9
3. Limbs paddlelike, with toes and claws scarcely in evidence, if at
all ..................................... ................. 4
Limbs less modified; toes in evidence and at least 3 on each foot
provided with claws ..................................... 5
4. With an external body covering of ridged, leathery skin (but scales
present in young); claws lacking ...... DERMOCHELYIDAE, LVII
Shell covered with epidermal (horny) plates; one or more claws
present ............................ CHELONIIDAE, LXII

1. Any specimen of the Family Typhlopidae probably could not be keyed past
here. One specimen of Typhlops lumbricalis has been collected in Florida
(Myers, 1958), but there is little likelihood of an established population here.


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 57





5. Body covering a leathery skin; underlying shell flexible; snout long
and tubular .......................... TRIONYCHIDAE, LXIII
Shell hard and bony, covered with horny plates; no well-developed
snout present ......................................... 6
6. Carapace rough; plastron greatly reduced and cross-shaped; tail
more than half length of carapace ........ CHELYDRIDAE, LVIII
Carapace essentially smooth; plastron oval and of normal size; tail
less than half length of carapace ......................... 7
7. Plastral plates 10 or 11; pectorals not in contact with marginals
..................................... KINOSTERNIDAE, LIX
Plastral plates 12; pectorals in contact with marginals (or separated
only by skin) ................................... ...... 8
8. Forelimb at wrist almost as wide as at foot and with laterally
flattened claws; toes not webbed; plastron not hinged ..........
............. .............. ... ..... TESTUDINIDAE, LXI
Foot much wider than wrist joint and claws slender; toes with some
webbing, or plastron hinged .................. EMYDIDAE, LX
9. Anal slit longitudinal; toes webbed ..........................
........................ CROCODILIA: CROCODYLIDAE, LXXIII
Anal slit transverse; toes (if present) not webbed ................
........................................... SQUAMATA, 10
10. Ear openings or limbs present ........ SUBORDER LACERTILIA,1 11
Ear openings and limbs invariably lacking ....................
............. ................... SUBORDER SERPENTES,1 15
11. Without limbs ............................ ANGUIDAE, LXVI
Two pairs of limbs present ............................... 12
12. Eyelids absent .......................... GEKKONIDAE, LXV
Eyelids present ........................................ 13
13. Scales small (all of nearly equal size except on head), smooth, and
rounded .............................. SCINCIDAE, LXVIII
Scales keeled or granular, not usually rounded, and those on ventral
side often larger than dorsal scales ...................... 14
14. With light lines (sometimes incomplete) on back; ventral scales in
8 to 10 longitudinal rows ................... TEEIDAE, LXVII
Without light lines dorsally; ventral scales not in obvious rows .....
................................. IGUANIDAE, LXIV
15. With a pit located between eye and nostril; head wide and triangular;
some of subcaudals in one row ........... CROTALIDAE, LXXII
No pit between eye and nostril; head usually scarcely wider than
neck; subcaudals in 2' rows .............................. 16
16. Pattern of red, yellow, and black rings, with red and yellow in con-
tact; some subcaudals in 2 rows ............ ELAPIDAE, LXXI

1. The Lacertilia, Serpentes, and Amphisbaenia are given full ordinal rank
in the ASIH Catalogue.
58 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





Pattern never of red, yellow, and black rings with red and yellow in
contact; subcaudals in one row ............ COLUBRIDAE, LXX

ORDER CHELONIA: LVII. FAMILY DERMOCHELYIDAE, Leatherbacks. One
species in Florida ...... Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), sp.251

ORDER CHELONIA: LVIII. FAMILY CHELYDRIDAE, Snapping Turtles.
1. With 2 rows of marginal plates; eyes not clearly visible from dorsal
aspect; with many small, rounded scales under tail ............
...... Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macroclemys temmincki), sp.253
Only one row of marginals; eyes clearly visible from above; with 2
rows of enlarged scales under tail ............................
........ Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina), sp.252

ORDER CHELONIA: LIX. FAMILY KINOSTERNIDAE, Mud and Musk Turtles.
1. Pectoral plates quadrangular (length of medial suture almost equal
to that of lateral edge); plastron almost immovable .......... 2
Pectoral plate almost triangular (lateral edge 3 times length of medial
suture; Plate V-l); plastron movable at pectoral-abdominal
junction .......................................... 3
2. Barbels confined to chin (Plate V-2); head light (or medium dark)
with blackish spots .......................................
......... Loggerhead Musk Turtle (Sternotherus minor), sp.255
Barbels (when present) on skin of throat as well as on chin; head
conspicuously striped in young, becoming dark and obsolescent
in old age ........... Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus), sp.254
3. Carapace with 3 prominent light stripes ........................
.............. Striped Mud Turtle (Kinosternon bauri), sp.256
Carapace uniformly dark ...................................
........ Common Mud Turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum), sp.257

ORDER CHELONIA: LX. FAMILY EMYDIDAE, Terrapins.
1. Plastron hinged; webbing between front toes vestigial or absent
.................... Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina), sp.259
Plastron not hinged; some webbing between front toes .......... 2
2. Plates of carapace with rounded light centers and (in young) with
concentric ridges; second to fourth vertebrals with centrally located,
rounded knobs; width of head greater than anteroposterior width
of second costal ........................................
........ Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), sp.260
Plates of carapace without rounded light centers or concentric ridges;
second to fourth vertebrals without rounded knobs at their centers;
width of head not greater than that of second costal .......... 3
KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 59










>2
I-


tA-


1. Triangular pectoral plates
of Kinosternon bauri


2.
Location of barbels in
Sternotherus minor


Jr


j..$: 4N giy


3.
C-shaped marking on
second costal plate
of Chrysemys concinna


PLATE V


60 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


-t


4S

'43


. U














4.
Paramedian stripe (P)
and arrow of
Chrysemys nelsoni







.^^ f^.."-.







5. Fleshy ridges in nostrils of
Trionyx spiniferus


6.
Second finger of Hemidactylus,
showing medially divided
transverse lamellae


REPTILES


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 61





3. With rounded light spots on carapace and head; carapace smooth;
plastron mostly blackish .... ..............................
.................... Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata), sp.258
Without rounded light spots on carapace and head; carapace usually
with ridges or striations; plastron scarcely more than 50% blackish,
if at all ............................................ 4
4. Posterior edges of first 3 vertebral plates with high projections;
highest point of carapace anterior to middle of body; posterior
marginals with pointed projections ........................ 5
Posterior edges of vertebral plates not raised; highest point of cara-
pace not anterior to middle of body; posterior marginals without
marked V-shaped projections ........................... 8
5. Light blotch behind eye (yellowish or greenish in life) as wide as,
or wider than, the orbit; posterior marginals single-toothed
(second tooth, if present, much smaller); restricted in Florida to
Panhandle ........................................... 6
Light markings behind eye not as wide as orbit; posterior marginals
double-toothed in young; not known to occur in Florida ...... 7
6. With U-shaped light markings on anterior costals; plastron uniformly
dull; a curved light marking on chin .......................
.......... Barbour's Map Turtle (Malaclemys barbouri), sp.261
With a reticulate pattern of light lines on carapace (often indistinct);
plastron yellow with darker pigment along seams; a light longi-
tudinal bar on chin ......................................
........... Alabama Map Turtle (Malaclemys pulchra), sp.262
7. Second and third dorsal spines much enlarged, rounded, and darkened
terminally; dark pigment on plastron largely restricted to seams
.... .Black-knobbed Map Turtle (Malaclemys nigrinoda), sp.348H
Second and third dorsal spines pointed and not greatly enlarged;
dark pigment covering about half of plastron ..................
......... Mississippi Map Turtle (Malaclemys kohni), sp.348H
8. With prominent light and dark vertical stripes on posterior surface
of body and thighs; neck and head length combined about equal
to length of plastron; pattern of light reticulations on carapace
(yellowish in life) .......................................
.............. Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia), sp.269
No light and dark vertical bars on thighs (except C. scripta); neck
not unusually long; light pattern on carapace not reticulate ..... 9
9. Carapace smooth and often with a median light line; posterior mar-
ginals entire; costals and vertebrals arranged in transverse rows
(Fla. subsp.) ........ Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta), sp.263
Carapace keeled, wrinkled, more or less serrate posteriad, and
without a light median line; costals and vertebrals in offset
positions ......................................... . 10


62 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





Marginals

A


Costals
/1


Vertebral .


Nuchal










Pectorals

Gulars




Humerals


Abdominals

7 Femorals


Anals


Fig. 4. Plates on the carapace and plastron of a turtle (Chrysemys picta)


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 63




10. Cutting edge of upper jaw running essentially straight for more than
half its length and with a distinct notch anteriad; with broad,
yellow, vertical bars on costals and a large yellow or red patch
behind eye (may be absent in old age) ....................
............ Yellow-bellied Turtle (Chrysemys scripta),1 sp.264
Cutting edge of upper jaw more curved and distinct median notch
sometimes lacking; vertical bars on costals (if present) usually
faint or narrow; pattern of narrow yellow or red stripes on sides of
head (less than diameter of eye) ....................... 11
11. Notch at tip of upper jaw rounded and not bordered by cusps; both
jaws smooth or only weakly serrate; no arrow-shaped marking
between eyes ......................................... 12
Notch at tip of upper jaw deep and narrow, bordered on each side
by a cusp; lower jaw noticeably serrate; an arrow-shaped
marking between eyes pointing toward tip of snout .......... 13
12. With a light C-shaped marking on the posteromedial portion of the
second costal scute (Plate V-3); plastron with dark markings
.................. River Cooter (Chrysemys concinna), sp.265
Without a light C-shaped marking on the second costal scale; plastron
unmarked ....... Florida Cooter (Chrysemys floridana), sp.266
13. Paramedian stripe terminating behind eye (unless shell length under
100 mm; Plate V-4) ................................ ...
........ Florida Red-bellied Turtle (Chrysemys nelsoni),2 sp.267
Paramedian stripe continuing anterior to eye ....................
.... Alabama Red-bellied Turtle (Chrysemys alabamensis),2 sp.268
ORDER CHELONIA: LXI. FAMILY TESTUDINIDAE, Land Tortoises. One
species in Florida ...........................................
................ Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), sp.270

ORDER CHELONIA: LXII. FAMILY CHELONIIDAE, Sea Turtles.
1. With only 4 costal plates on each side ....................... 2
With more than 4 pairs of costal plates ...................... 3
2. With 2 pairs of prefrontal scales; lower jaw weakly serrate if at
all ................ Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), sp.272
Only one pair of prefrontals; lower jaw strongly serrate in adults
...................... Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas), sp.271

1. The turtles in this genus are taxonomically difficult, each species virtually
matching the characteristics of the others in its variations. The species as-
signments (from Conant) should perhaps be regarded as tentative. For use of
Chrysemys and Malaclemys see McDowell, 1964.
2. These two turtles probably should be regarded as conspecific; immatures
can be distinguished only with difficulty, if at all, and sympatry has not been
amply demonstrated.
64 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA




3. With 4 enlarged inframarginals (plus smaller ones) ..............
................ Atlantic Ridley (Lepidochelys kempi), sp.274
With only 3 enlarged inframarginals ...........................
........................ Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), sp.273
ORDER CHELONIA: LXIII. FAMILY TRIONYCHIDAE, Softshell Turtles.
1. With a fleshy ridge projecting into each nostril from the medial
side (Plate V-5); tubercles present toward anterior edge of cara-
pace (poorly developed in young) ...................... 2
No ridges in nostrils or tubercles on carapace ..............
................. Smooth Softshell (Trionyx muticus), sp.275
2. Ground color of carapace dark; tubercles flattened and hemispherical
.................... Florida Softshell (Trionyx ferox), sp.277
Ground color of carapace light; tubercles cone-shaped or spiny
.................... Spiny Softshell (Trionyx spinifer), sp.276
ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER LACERTILIA: LXIV. FAMILY IGUANIDAE,
Iguanas and allies.1
1. Dorsoventrally flattened and with spines on back of head and sides
of body; tail (measured from vent) scarcely, if any, longer than
width of body ..........................................
........ Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), sp.285
Body roughly terete, its width less than twice its depth; spines
lacking; tail much longer than width of body ............... 2
2. All dorsal scales pointed and of normal size; toes not widened near
tips .......................................... ...... 6
Most dorsal scales not pointed and those along midline (usually
others also) minute; toes laterally expanded near tip ........ 3
3. Most body scales keeled ................................... 4
Most body scales flat, conical, or granular .................... 5
4. Tail terete ............ Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis), sp.279
Tail laterally compressed, with a strong dorsal keel ..............
........................ Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei), sp.281
5. Most scales flattened and rectangular; a prominent white (or light)
slash on body above shoulder; total length of adults exceeding
300 mm ............. Knight Anole (Anolis equestris), sp.280
Dorsal scales conical to granular; no white markings on body; total
length less than 150 mm .................................
............... Bahaman Bark Anole (Anolis distichus), sp.278
6. Tail approximately terete ................................... 7
Tail markedly compressed and with a strong dorsal keel ..........
.......... Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus), sp.282
7. With a pair of distinct, brown dorsolateral stripes ................
............ Florida Scrub Lizard (Sceloporus woodi), sp.284
1. Conant's latest field guide also accredits Anolis cybotes to the Miami area.
KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 65





Dorsolateral stripes, if present, blackish and not clearly delimited
.......... Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), sp.283

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER LACERTILIA: LXV. FAMILY GEKKONIDAE,
Geckos.
1. Transverse lamellae (under toes) divided medially (Plate V-6) ..... 2
Most transverse lamellae not divided medially ................. 3
2. Back warty; ground color very light, with scattered dark markings
......... Mediterranean Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus), sp.288
Back not warty; ground color grayish with scattered light spots
............ Indo-Pacific Gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti), sp.289
3. Toes not expanded; tip of tail (unless regenerated) light .........
........ Yellow-headed Gecko (Gonatodes albogularis), sp.286
Toes expanded near tip; tip of tail not lighter than other portions
.......................................... ........ .. 4
4. Total length up to 350 mm; tail with dark bands ................
...................... Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko), sp.287
Total length less than 100 mm; tail not dark-banded .......... 5
5. Dorsal scales of normal size (about 2 per mm in adults); maximum
width of head greater than length of snout from back of eye .....
................ Reef Gecko (Sphaerodactylus notatus), sp.290
Dorsal scales minute (about 4 per mm in adults); maximum width
of head not greater than length of snout from back of eye .... 6
6. Scales of back granular and not keeled; color pattern medium light,
with dark stripes on neck (young with dark crossbars and red
tail) .......... Ashy Gecko (Sphaerodactylus cinereus), sp.292
Scales of back flattened, though sometimes keeled; ground color
dark, with numerous light spots ...........................
.............. Ocellated Gecko (Sphaerodactylus argus), sp.291

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER LACERTILIA: LXVI. FAMILY ANGUIDAE,
Glass Lizards and allies.
1. Frontonasal scale (or larger one if 2 are present) less than twice
area of each prefrontal (Plate VI-1); 1% rows of scales above
lateral fold devoid of pigment from cloaca about halfway to head
.......... Island Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus compressus), sp.294
Only one frontonasal, its area about twice that of each prefrontal;
less than 1% rows of unpigmented scales posteriad above lateral
fold .................................................... 2
2. Light dorsal spots or stripes involving the centers of the scales, except
when forming crossbars; one or 2 dark stripes (or rows of spots)
below lateral fold ........................................
......... Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus attenuatus), sp.295


66 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





Light dorsal spots or stripes involving only the edges of the scales;
no light bars across back; little or no pigmentation below lateral
fold ...... Eastern Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus ventralis), sp.293

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER LACERTILIA: LXVII. FAMILY TEEIDAE,
Whiptail Lizards.
1. With 6 light dorsal stripes and 5 or 6 pairs of enlarged sublabials;
not more than 110 granular (dorsal and lateral) scale rows; total
length less than 300 mm; statewide ........................
..... Six-lined Racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus), sp.297
Back not striped; only 3 pairs of enlarged sublabials; 130 or more
granular scale rows; up to 500 mm long; known only from Miami
.......... Colombian Ground Lizard (Ameiva ameiva), sp.296

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER LACERTILIA: LXVIII. FAMILY SCINCIDAE,
Skinks.
1. Limbs vestigial, the forelimbs almost wanting ....................
...................... Sand Skink (Neoseps reynoldsi), sp.304
Limbs normally developed .................................. 2
2. Lower eyelid with a transparent disk (Plate VI-2); without longi-
tudinal light stripes; maximum snout-vent length less than 2 inches
.................. Ground Skink (Scincella lateralis), sp.298
No transparent area on lower lid; longitudinal light stripes usually
present ............................................. 3
3. Median row of subcaudal scales not noticeably wider than adjacent
row s ...... ............................................
.....Southeastern Five-lined Skink (Eumeces inexpectatus), sp.301
Median row of subcaudals decidedly wider than adjacent rows ..... 4
4. No postnasal scales (but 2 loreals); with less than 30 rows of scales
at mid-body; maximum snout-vent length less than 75 mm ...... 5
One postnasal and 2 loreals present; often at least 30 scale rows at
mid-body; maximum snout-vent length of adults more than 75
m m .......................... ............ ..... 6
5. Only one postmental plate; ground color of tail usually dark; 24 to
28 scale rows at mid-body ..............................
.................... Coal Skink (Eumeces anthracinus), sp.302
With 2 postmentals (Plate VI-3); tail orange, reddish, or bluish in
life (usually light in preservative); only 22 scale rows at mid-body
................. Red-tailed Skink (Eumeces egregius), sp.303
6. White stripe on side of head involving scales above ear opening;
auriculars rounded and not projecting over ear opening; light
dorsolateral stripe (when present) on fourth and fifth scale rows;
usually with one or no enlarged postlabial plate (Fig. 5) .......
.............. Broad-headed Skink (Eumeces laticeps), sp.300


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 67






















1. Two frontonasals of Ophisaurus compressus


2. Transparent window in lower eyelid of
Scincella lateralis




PLATE VI


68 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA














3 -





3. Two postmental scales of
Eumeces egregius









I-


t,






4. Divided anal plate of
Natrix erythrogaster


REPTILES


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 69




White stripe on side of head not involving scales above ear opening;
some auriculars spinose and projecting over ear opening;
light dorsolateral stripe (when present) on third and fourth scale
rows; usually with 2 enlarged postlabial scales (much larger than
body scales) ....................................
......... Northern Five-lined Skink (Eumeces fasciatus), sp.299

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER AMPHISBAENIA: LXIX. FAMILY AMPHIS-
BAENIDAE, Ringed Lizards. One species in Florida .................
................... Worm Lizard (Rhineura floridana), sp.305

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER SERPENTES: LXX. FAMILY COLUBRIDAE,
Colubrid Snakes.
1. Scales at least weakly keeled along middorsal line at middle of body
.......... .......... . ............ ....... ...... ..... 2
Dorsal scales smooth, at least at mid-body .................... 22
2. Dorsal color uniformly medium gray or grayish tan, somewhat lighter
below; head scarcely wider than neck; preocular lacking; loreal
horizontally elongate; maximum length about 300 mm ..........
................ Rough Earth Snake (Virginia striatula), sp.319
Dorsal color pattern not uniform unless in sharp contrast with ventral
color; head noticeably wider than neck; preocular usually present
and vertically elongate; loreal usually not horizontally elongate,
sometimes lacking; maximum length of most species more than
300 mm ............................................ 3
3. Anal plate single ........................................ 4
Anal plate divided obliquely (Plate VI-4) .................... 7
4. Depth of rostral plate greater than its width; tail less than 20%
of total length ..........................................
................. Pine Snake (Pituophis melanoleucus), sp.331
Vertical dimension of rostral less than the horizontal dimension;
tail more than 20% of total length ...................... 5
5. With 23 or more dorsal scale rows; upperparts plain or with large
dark blotches ........................................ 18
With only 19 dorsal scale rows; upperparts striped or with small
dark blotches ......................................... 6
6. Tail more than 27% of total length; more than 85 pairs of caudal
plates ..... Eastern Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis sauritus), sp.318
Tail less than 27% of total length; less than 85 pairs of caudal
plates ...... Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), sp.317
7. Rostral plate turned up and pointed .......................... 8
Rostral plate neither turned up nor pointed ................... 9
8. Prefrontal scales at least partly in contact; under side of tail often
lighter than belly ........................................
..... Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platyrhinos), sp.338
70 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





Supra
Frontal

Prefrontals
Frontonasal




Supranasal /

Rostral -


oculars
Interparietal



n


Parietal

Upper secondary temporal

_ .~ Nuchals


Frontoparietals


Posterior loreal Superciliaries Secondary temporals
Anterior loreal Primary temporal
Postnasal
Nasal
Rostral-
Upper labials


Mental,


Postmental
Chin shields


* *1*


1 4
Air :


Lower labials


Fig. 5. Specialized scales on the head of a lizard (Eumeces laticeps)


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 71


>-nSg





Prefrontal scales separated by smaller scales; under side of tail not
lighter than belly .......................................
......... Southern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon simus), sp.339
9. Dorsal scales only weakly keeled; tail usually not more than 20%
of total length ................ ......................... 10
Dorsal scales strongly keeled; tail usually more than 20% of total
length ........................................... 12
10. Only 19 scale rows at mid-body ...........................
................ Striped Swamp Snake (Regina alleni), sp.308
At least 25 dorsal scale rows .............................. 11
11. With a broad, V-shaped light band on top of head, terminating
between the eyes; adult with coppery or pinkish blotches in life;
with 2 dark stripes (sometimes broken) under tail of young ....
........................ Corn Snake (Elaphe guttata), sp.329
Head not as described above, though sometimes with a narrow
dark line running through the eye and crossing the head anterior
to the eyes; never with pinkish or coppery marks in life; no dark
stripes under tail .......... Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta), sp.330
12. Grass green above (often bluish in preservative) and light below;
tail about 35 to 40% of total length .........................
............ Rough Green Snake (Opheodrys aestivus), sp.327
Never bright green; tail less than 35% of total length ......... 13
13. Posterior nasal large, reaching preoculars .................... 14
Nasal separated from preocular by a loreal scale .............. 16
14. With 17 dorsal scale rows and one preocular ...................
...................... Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi), sp.315
With 15 dorsal scale rows and usually 2 preoculars ........... 15
15. With less than 127 ventral scales, their lateral edges of the same
color as sides of body (remainder of ventrals reddish in life, pale
in preservative) ........................................
......... Red-bellied Snake (Storeria occipitomaculata), sp.316
With 127 or more ventrals that are uniformly whitish, unless with
black spots at lateral edges of some ..........................
...................... Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi), sp.315
16. Dark dorsal markings arranged in a chainlike fashion; papillae present
on chin of male; not in Florida unless extreme northwestern corner
..... Diamond-backed Water Snake (Natrix rhombifera), sp.348H
No chainlike markings on back; no papillae present on chin ..... 17
17. With more than 26 scale rows ........................... 18
With 21 to 25 scale rows .................................. 19
With 19 scale rows ...................................... 20
18. Scales on sides of body smooth to weakly keeled; suboculars present;
no large dark blotches dorsally .............................
............... Green Water Snake (Natrix cyclopion), sp.309


72 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





All scales on sides of body strongly keeled; suboculars absent; upper-
parts with large dark blotches ............................
.............. Brown Water Snake (Natrix taxispilota), sp.311
19. Underparts uniformly pale (reddish to yellowish in life); upperparts
uniformly medium dark, except for blackish blotches in young;
more than 140 ventral plates ..............................
........ Red-bellied Water Snake (Natrix erythrogaster), sp.310
Underparts usually varied, rarely uniform in color; upperparts
blotched, banded, or striped; less than 140 ventral plates ..... 21
20. With a light stripe (yellowish in life) on the first and (usually)
second scale row; 4 dark stripes on ventral plates; first dorsal
scale row keeled ...........................................
................. Queen Snake (Regina septemvittata), sp.307
No light stripes on dorsal scales, but 3 on ventral plates, alternating
with 2 dark stripes (or rows of spots); first dorsal scale row
smooth ........... Glossy Water Snake (Regina rigida), sp.306
21. Top of head not blackish; no dark stripe from eye to angle of jaws;
body with many dark crossbars, some toward posterior end being
broken and the 2 parts offset ................................
.............. Common Water Snake (Natrix sipedon), sp.313
Top of head and band from eye to angle of jaws dark or black; cross-
bars, when present, not broken but continuous (body may be
striped or essentially unicolored) ............................
................ Banded Water Snake (Natrix fasciata), sp.312
22. With 19 or more scale rows ............................. 23
With fewer than 19 scale rows ............................ 31
23. Anal plate entire ......................................... 24
Anal plate with an oblique division (Plate VI-4) ............. 28
24. With 21 to 23 rows of dorsal scales at mid-body; length up to 1 ni
or more .......................................... 25
With only 19 rows of dorsal scales; maximum length less than 1 m
...................... ...... . .................... 26
25. Dorsal color pattern of black (or dark brown) contrasting with
white, the pattern ringed, blotched, or speckled; or pale and almost
devoid of pattern in south Florida .........................
........... Common Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getulus), sp.333
Without white and with little black except ventrally; brown or gray
predominant (not pale); confined to northwest Florida .........
........... Prairie Kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster), sp.332
26. Loreal, and sometimes preocular, absent; tail less than 10% of total
length ....... Short-tailed Snake (Stilosoma extenuatum), sp.335
Loreal and preoculars present (see Fig. 6); tail more than 10% of
total length ......................................... 27


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 73





Frontal


Internasal









Prefrontal Pre




Loreal
Interasal
Nasals

Rostral


ietals




N


S2~ -c


Temporals


Upper labials --' .




Lower labials





Mental



Rostral *


Chin shields


Fig. 6. Specialized scales on the head of a snake
(Lampropeltis calligaster)


74 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





27. With narrow black rings alternating with narrow and wide light rings
(the 2 latter yellowish and red in life); if rings not complete, then
some black present ventrally .................................
.......... Scarlet Kingsnake (Lampropeltis triangulum), sp.334
Pattern of transverse blotches or of rings (black, yellowish, and red
in life); if rings, then interrupted ventrally so that no black is
present there ...... Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea), sp.336
28. Preoculars lacking, the loreal reaching the eye; with some red on
body in life ........................................ 30
With one or more preoculars separating the loreal from the eye;
ground color sometimes coppery, but never red ............ 29
29. Scale rows more than 19 at mid-body ....................... 11
Only 19 scale rows at mid-body ..............................
................. Striped Swamp Snake (Regina alleni), sp.308
30. With a pattern of red bands, interrupted dorsally by black; only one
internasal ............. Mud Snake (Farancia abacura), sp.324
With longitudinal red stripes and 2 internasals ..................
............ Rainbow Snake (Farancia erytrogramma), sp.323
31. Preoculars lacking, the loreal reaching the eye; small gray to tan
snakes, somewhat lighter below ......................... 38
One or more preoculars separating the loreal (if present) from the
eye; color pattern not uniformly gray or tan dorsally unless in
strong contrast with ventral color ........................ 32
32. Anal plate single ...... Indigo Snake (Drymarchon corais), sp.328
Anal plate divided (Plate VI-4) ........................... 33
33. Blackish above, reddish ventrally; total length less than 50 cm .....
........... Black Swamp Snake (Seminatrix pygaea), sp.314
Not blackish above and reddish below; sizes various .......... 34
34. Loreal absent; total length less than 38 cm .....................
.................. Crowned Snake (Tantilla coronata),l sp.337
Loreal present; length variable ............................ 35
35. With 15 rows of scales at mid-body; underparts yellowish and con-
tinuing dorsally as a ring around the neck (sometimes incomplete)
............ Ring-necked Snake (Diadophis punctatus), sp.322
With 17 rows of scales at mid-body; color pattern not as described
above ........................................... 36
36. Rostral flattened; a contrasting dark line through eye; total length
under 50 cm ............................................
............. Yellow-lipped Snake (Rhadinaea flavilata), sp.321


1. Telford (1966) has divided these snakes into 3 species (Tantilla coronata,
T. relicta, and T. oolitica) on bases that are not fully convincing.


KEYS TO CLASS REPTILIA / 75





Rostral angular at midline; no contrasting dark line through eye;
total length of adults more than 50 cm .................... 37
37. With 15 scale rows just anterior to vent; upperparts of adults un-
varying in color; ground color of young bluish ................
..........................Racer (Coluber constrictor), sp.325
With 11 to 13 scale rows just anterior to vent; anterior parts of
adults darker than remainder; ground color of young light brown
.................. Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum), sp.326
38. Head slightly wider than neck; nasal plate divided; with 15 scale
rows .......... Smooth Earth Snake (Virginia valeriae), sp.320
Head not wider than neck; nasal plate not divided; only 13 scale
rows; no Florida record .................................
.................. Worm Snake (Carphophis amoena), sp.348H

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER SERPENTES: LXXI. FAMILY ELAPIDAE,
Coral Snakes. One species in Florida ..........................
............... Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius), sp.340

ORDER SQUAMATA: SUBORDER SERPENTES: LXXII. FAMILY CROTALIDAE,
Pit Vipers.
1. With a rattle on end of tail ............................... 2
No rattle on tail ......................................... 4
2. With 9 enlarged plates on top of head, the width of each at least
as great as that of orbit ...................................
............... Pigmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), sp.343
Most scales on top of head smaller than orbit ................. 3
3. Upperparts with a brown median band and brown transverse bars;
scales in 25 rows or fewer; north Florida only, where generally
rare ........ Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus),1 sp.344
Upperparts with dark (light-bordered) diamond-shaped markings
(rarely lacking); scales in 29 rows; statewide .................
Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), sp.345
4. With suboculars separating upper labials from eye; loreal present;
northwest Florida only ..................................
................ Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), sp.341
With at least one upper labial entering the orbit; loreal absent;
common and widespread ................................
................ Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), sp.342

ORDER CROCODILIA: LXXIII. FAMILY CROCODYLIDAE, Crocodilians.
1. With a curved, bony ridge in front of the eyes; light bands on tail
wider than dark bands .....................................
................. Spectacled Caiman (Caiman sclerops), sp.348
1. The Florida race, C. h. atricaudatus, is called the Canebrake Rattlesnake.
76 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA





No curved, bony ridge anterior to eyes; light bands on tail not wider
than dark ones, or tail not banded ......................... 2
2. Fourth tooth of lower jaw exposed in adults; width of head at eyes
usually less than 80% of distance from front of eye to tip of snout;
nostrils inconspicuous, crescentic slits in a single rounded disk ..
.............. American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), sp.346
Fourth tooth of lower jaw not exposed when mouth is shut; width
of head at eyes more than 80% of snout length; nostrils con-
spicuous, each in a separate disc ...........................
......... American Alligator (Alligator mississipiensis), sp.347


CLASS AVES-ORDERS AND FAMILIES

1. Adapted for life in or around water (toes webbed or lobed, or lower
tibia bare); or bill straight, at least 60 mm long, less than 15 mm
deep at base, and the 3 outermost primaries less than half width
of other primaries ....................................... 2
Not adapted for aquatic life (toes neither webbed nor lobed; tibia
feathered to within 10 mm of ankle joint); not with above com-
bination of bill and wing characters .................... 31


Culmen Middle coverts Rectrices

Superciliary line Secondaries
/Rump


Upper tail coverts
Lower mandible Lower tail coverts
Rictal bristles/ Primaries
Chin
Throat Abdomen
Breast Shank (tibia)
Primary coverts Tarsus
Flank
Hallux


Fig. 7. External features of a bird


2. Front toes (or all 4) fully webbed, though webs sometimes much
incised ............................................. 3
Webs lacking or vestigial (extending less than halfway along toes to
the claws) ........................................ . 19
KEYS TO CLASS AVES / 77



















1.
Totipalmate foot of
Phalacrocorax auritus


2. Single nostril tube of
Oceanodroma castro


3.
Upper mandible and cere of
Stercorarius parasiticus


PLATE VII


78 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA


(:




















4. Pectinate claw on middle toe
of Ardea herodias














- IL*Sd34S&S4


5.
Lobed toes of
Lobipes lobatus











6.
Shape of bill in Charadriidae
(Pluvialis squatarola)


BIRDS


KEYS TO CLASS AVES / 79





3. Totipalmate (all 4 toes included in web; Plate VII-1) ............
..................................... PELECANIFORMES, 14
Hind toe not included in web (or hind toe lacking) ............ 4
4. Tomium serrate or lamellate; tip of upper mandible usually provided
with a nail; bill often wider than deep .................. 13
Tomium neither serrate nor lamellate, and depth of bill at least as
great as its width; nail usually lacking .................... 5
5. Bill hooked; nostrils opening through 1 or 2 tubes ..............
....... .... ...................... PROCELLARIIFORMES, 6
Bill not as described above (if hooked, then without nostril tubes)
.......... ......... .................... ...... .... 8
6. With 2 parallel nostril tubes; total length more than 230 mm ..... 7
Nostril tube single externally (Plate VII-2); length less than 230 mm
.................................. HYDROBATIDAE, LXXVIII
7. Hallux entirely lacking; total length more than 70 cm; part of culmen
separating nostril tubes ................ DIOMEDEIDAE, LXXVI
Vestigial hallux present; total length less than 70 cm; nostril tubes
connected medially ................ PROCELLARIIDAE, LXXVII
8. Tarsus greatly compressed; outer toe the longest one .............
............................ GAVIIFORMES: GAVIIDAE, LXXIV
Tarsus not unusually compressed; middle toe at least as long as
outer one ...................... CHARADRIIFORMES (part), 9
9. Feathering extending on culmen to position of nostrils; hallux lacking
........................................ ALCIDAE, CVIII
Feathering not reaching nostrils; hallux usually present ........ 10
10. Cere present; sheath of upper mandible in 3 parts (Plate VII-3)
..................................... STERCORARIIDAE, CV
Cere lacking; sheath of upper mandible in one part ............ 11
11. Bill decidedly compressed unless very short; not upturned ...... 12
Bill approximately round in cross section, very long and slender, and
more or less upcurved ........ RECURVIROSTRIDAE (part), CIII
12. Bill moderately compressed and the upper mandible at least as long
as the lower ................................ LARIDAE, CVI
Bill extremely compressed, with the lower mandible much longer than
the upper ........................... RYNCHOPIDAE, CVII
13. Legs very long; bill abruptly and strongly decurved ............
...... PHOENICOPTERIFORMES:1 PHOENICOPTERIDAE, LXXXVIII
Legs not relatively long; bill essentially straight, never abruptly de-
curved ................. ANSERIFORMES: ANATIDAE, LXXXIX
14. Webs incised; tail forked ................ FREGATIDAE, LXXXIV
Webs entire; tail rounded or pointed ......................... 15
15. Bill depressed; gular pouch immense ........ PELECANIDAE, LXXX
Bill not depressed; gular pouch small or lacking .............. 16

1. Included under CICONIIFORMES in A.O.U. Check-list.
80 / VERTEBRATES OF FLORIDA