Florida land use cover and forms classification system

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Florida land use cover and forms classification system handbook
Physical Description:
91 p. : maps (some col.) ; 30 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation. -- Surveying and Mapping Office. -- Thematic Mapping Section
Publisher:
Florida Dept. of Transportation, Surveying and Mapping Office, Thematic Mapping Section
Place of Publication:
<Tallahassee, Fla.>
Publication Date:
Edition:
3rd ed.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Land use -- Classification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape assessment -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 89-91).
General Note:
"January 1999."
General Note:
"000163" -- Cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1631
notis - AME1663
alephbibnum - 002436507
oclc - 45559841
Classification:
lcc - HD211.F6 F562 1999
System ID:
UF00000195:00001

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Section I
        Page 4
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    Section II
        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 48
        Page 49
    Appendices
        Page 50
        Page 51
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    Copyright
        Page 82
Full Text








FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS

CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM







FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORETIO
STATE TOPOGRAPHIC BUREAU
THDEATIC MAPPING SBCTICN















Procedure No. 550-010-001-a












SEPTEMBER, 1985
Second Edition

Reprinted by the ECFRPC (May 4, 1989)










TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .................................................. 1

OBJECTIVE ................................................ 3

SECTION I

THE THEMATIC MAPPING SECTION............................. 4

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER
AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM.......................... 5

SCOPE AND USE OF THE SYSTEM.............................. 7

CLASS DEFINITIONS

100 URBAN AND BUILT-UP.............................. 9


AGRICULTURE............

RANGELAND..............

UPLAND FOREST..........

WATER..................

WETLANDS ...............

BARREN LAND............

TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNI


CATION


AND


UTILITIES....


900 SPECIAL CLASSIFICATIONS......


SECTION II

DESCRIPTIONS AND

DESCRIPTIONS AND

DESCRIPTIONS AND
FEATURES MAPPING


DEFINITIONS

DEFINITIONS

DEFINITIONS
............


GEOLOGIC FEATURES.......

SOILS CLASSIFICATION....

DRAINAGE
.........................


CC








APPENDICES

A LAND USE AND COVER CLASSIFICATIONS LISTING OF
LEVELS I - IV.................................

B EXAMPLES OF LAND USE AND VEGETATION INVENTORY

C EXAMPLES OF GEOLOGICAL FEATURES, SOILS AND
DRAINAGE MAPS.................................

D COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF MAJOR PLANT SPE

E ENGLISH TO METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSIONS..........

F BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES...................


MAPS.


CIES.









INTRODUCTION


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to improve land resources data coordination within the various state
agencies by reducing duplication of effort and increasing the value of
data for serving multiple purposes.


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However, after the publication of the original classification
system, requests for specific identification became more demanding,
especially in land cover. In response, land use and vegetation
categories were adopted from suggestions furnished primarily by D.O.T.
environmentalists, reflecting various user needs and interests, and
incorporated into Levels III and IV. Therefore, in subsequent
revisions of the system categorization, Level III was revised to meet
the needs of the Department of Transportation and other state agencies
requesting department land use and land cover maps. The resulting
classification scheme was not a fixed system but remained a system
which was flexible to specific user requirements. (An in-depth
discussion of the level structure and guidelines for
sub-categorization may be found in the U.S. Geological Survey paper,
authored by James R. Anderson et al in 1976, entitled:
A Land-Use/Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote
Sensing Data, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 964).

Accompanying this report is a section on mapping physio- graphic
features previously not associated with land use inventory. Soil,
drainage and geological features affect land use in many respects and,
therefore, must be considered by planners in making decisions
regarding land use in an area.

This new edition of the classification system includes indepth
definitions of classes falling in Levels I, II and, where needed, III.
Also included is a complete hierarchical listing of all classes in
Levels I through IV. Users familiar with the past edition will note
that Levels III and IV have been greatly expanded. In many instances
the text was reformated and expanded in order to appeal to a wider
audience and new sections were added relating the objective and
capabilities of the Thematic Mapping Section to potential users of our
products and services.

While this classification scheme is a direct result of requests
from data users and expanded capabilities, the elements of the scheme
do not represent every user need since there are limitations in every
system. Yet, the structure of the system remains flexible enough to
meet new classification requirements as they arise. It is felt that
this type of information has proven useful and will continue to be an
effective part of the inventory system.








OBJECTIVE


This manual was written to serve as a companion document to land
use maps compiled by the Florida Department of Transportation Thematic
Mapping Section of the State Topographic Bureau. Its primary purpose
is to clarify, in some detail, the land use/cover/forms annotations
assigned to the various polygons which make up a land use map. It is
hoped that through reading and understanding this manual the users of
the products and services provided by the Thematic Mapping Section
will come to understand and appreciate the logic, techniques and
philosophies employed by image analysts during map compilation.

However, by no means was it intended that this manual serve as a
guide to image interpretation. Such an objective is beyond the scope
of this publication. We would like the reader to be aware that many
texts of this nature have been published which cover not only a broad
variety of land uses and cover types but also many which address
specialized uses and resources (see Appendix F).

Additionally, it is hoped that this effort will serve as a model
for other state agencies to follow in their activities in land use
mapping. When this practice is adopted, exchange and adaptation of
land use data will be greatly facilitated, particularly when handled
in a form comparable with computer- based geographic information
systems.










Second Edition, September, 1985








SECTION I
THE THEMATIC MAPPING SECTION

Before expanding upon the Land Use, Cover and Forms
Classification System, it may prove beneficial to the reader if the
purpose and objective of the Thematic Mapping Section of Florida's
Department of Transportation Topographic Bureau is briefly described.
The section is divided into three subsections: Remote Sensing,
Florida Landsat Data Analysis System and County Mapping.

The primary task of the Remote Sensing subsection is to reduce
the large volume of data captured by aerial photographs into a
meaningful, easily understood format. This is accomplished by
delineating homogeneous polygons on the imagery which correspond with
identifiable land features, covers and uses. The majority of
interpretation is facilitated by medium-scale (1:24,000) panchromatic
black and white aerial photography. However, the Thematic Mapping
section has received an increasing number of project requests which
require the use of either natural color or false color infrared,
large-scale imagery for special pupose studies. The type and scale of
imagery employed are dependent upon the level of interpretation being
executed. The Remote Sensing subsection employs both Remote Sensing
Technicians and Analysts, many of which are specialists in a
particular natural resource field in addition to image interpretation.

The Florida Landsat Data Analysis System subsection processes
both Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite
images gathered by the Landsat program. Image analysis is facilitated
by the image processing software whose major function, among others,
is to extract land classifications from the data. While not as
detailed nor quite analogous to aerial photograph interpretation, the
Landsat Data Analysis System provides useful information for county
and state wide mapping projects. Both the Remote Sensing and the
Florida Landsat Data Analysis System subsections break out homogeneous
land uses and covers which correspond to the classes defined in this
document.

After the images have been reduced to a number of homogeneous
polygons which exhibit a meaningful correlation with recognizable
ground features, the data extracted from images is entered into a
Geographic Information System facility. The Geographic Information
System is a computer based mapping facility which enables the Thematic
Mapping Section to record both image and nonimage geographic
information in a digital format. The System supports a large number
of registered mapping levels or planes, each of which may be assigned
a specific map feature (i.e., vegetative, topographic, demographic,
etc. data). Once the polygons and their descriptive information have
been entered, the data may be retrieved in the form of a map (along
with nongraphic data reports) in either the conventional paper form or
as a video terminal display. This type of facility differs from the
common map drafting facility in that the map product may be directly
linked and correlated with a land use/cover data base. This allows
one to conduct quantitative analysis with the "map", something which
could not have been easily accomplished in the past.









The last subsection, County Mapping, is involved with the
compilation and updating of Florida's county road maps. This
subsection differs from the previous two subsections' objective in
that it concerns itself only with the State's road transportation
system and gross geographic features. It is similar to the Remote
Sensing subsection in that it employs aerial photography (generally
medium-scale, black and white) and computer graphics to produce a map.

The Thematic Mapping Section's primary function is to reduce and
store volumous image data in a managable form which may be used by a
wide variety of users. The Section has the capability to tailor its
services to meet the needs of a wide variety clients. However, it is
primarily an image interpretation facility and participates in field
data retrieval only on a limited basis although it has the capacity to
manage land use data gathered from a wide variety of outside sources.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND
FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


This land use, vegetation cover and land form classification
system is arranged in hierarchical levels with each level containing
land information of increasing specifity. The various categories and
subcategories listed and defined herein reflect the types of data and
information which can be extracted from aerial photography of various
types panchromaticc, natural color or false-color infrared) and scales
(large, medium and small) and from the current generation of airborne
and satellite multispectral imaging systems. Color, shade, shape,
size, texture, shadows, context and, in the case of non-photographic
imagery, multispectral and multitemporal characteristics are some of
the features used to implement land use/cover classification. In some
cases, it may be necessary to substantiate the image analysis with
supporting, nonimage data to insure the accuracy of the final map
product or to incorporate additional information in the
image-attribute data base.

LEVEL I

This class of data is very general in nature. It can be obtained
from remote sensing satellite imagery with supplemental information.
Level I would normally be used for very large areas, statewide or
larger, mapped typically at a scale of 1:1,000,000 or 1:500,000. At
these scales, one inch equals 16 miles (one centimeter per ten
kilometers) and one inch equals eight miles (one centimeter per five
kilometers), respectively.








LEVEL II

This class of data is more specific than Level I. Level II data
is normally obtained from high altitude imagery (40,000 to 60,000
feet) supplemented by satellite imagery and other materials, such as
topographic maps. Mapping typically might be at a scale of 1:100,000
or one inch equals 8,333 feet (one centimeter per one kilometer).

LEVEL III

This class of data is usually obtained from medium altitude
photography flown between 10,000 and 40,000 feet. The mapping scale
typically is 1:24,000 or one inch equals 2,000 feet (one centimeter
per 0.24 kilometer).

LEVEL IV

This more specific class of data is obtained from low altitude
photography flown below 10,000 feet. In comparison with the above
mentioned levels, Level IV typically might be mapped at a scale of
1:6,000 or one inch equals 500 feet (one centimeter per 0.06
kilometer).

It is important for the reader to realize that as the scale of
the imagery increases, not only will the image analyst be able to make
more specific assignments of ground features to particular land
use/cover classes, but the increased scale will allow for the break
out of smaller features. At Levels III and IV, relatively small
ground areas form a significant portion of an image. For certain
classes of ground cover this may present difficulties. For example,
on 1":500' images groups of three or four oak trees are easily
delineated. While in and of themselves they do not form a forest,
that particular polygon will still be assigned to the Upland Forest
class. An even more extreme case is the delineation of just a few
hundred square feet of herbaceous ground cover. While such an area
clearly cannot support cattle, it is still assigned to the Rangeland
classification. While this shortcoming of the classification system
does not cause any real conceptual problems, we feel that the reader
should be advised of these facts.










SCOPE AND USE OF THE SYSTEM


The Florida Land Use, Cover and Land Form Classification System
was an important step toward the development of a geographic data
based information system. It serves to reduce a large amount of
primary data (such as remote sensing imagery or field survey records)
to a more understandable, smaller amount of secondary data (such as a
land use map). The system also provides a useful structure of land
concepts of properties. Yet, it does not collect or analyze
information or offer conclusions.

The definitions which follow will provide understanding of what
is included in each category at Levels I, II, III and, in some cases
Level IV. All Level IV classes are listed in Appendix A. The
definitions are largely based on U.S.G.S. publications referenced in
this report. In most cases the scientific names of plant species
mentioned in this manual will not appear in the text. Rather, a
listing of the common names of major plant species used herein and
their corresponding genus and species names will be listed in Appendix
D. Appendix A is a complete, hierarchical listing of all land use and
cover classes, Levels I - IV, currently employed by the Thematic
Mapping Section.


































CLASS DEFINITIONS










100 URBAN AND BUILT-UP


Urban and built-up land consists of areas of intensive use with
much of the land occupied by man-made structures. Included in this
category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along
highways and such areas as those occupied by mills, shopping centers,
industrial and commercial complexes and institutions that may, in some
instances, be isolated from urban areas. This definition is for
topographic and descriptive purposes and differs from the AASHTO
(American Association of State Highway Officials) definition.

As urban expansion progresses, small blocks of land of less
intensive or nonconforming use may become isolated in the midst of
built-up regions. Such occurances will generally be incorporated into
this land use category. However, agricultural, forest or water areas
fringing upon urban and built-up areas will not be included in the
Urban and Built-Up class except where they are an integral component
of low-density urban development.

The Urban and Built-Up category takes precedence over other
categories when the criteria for more than one land use/cover class
are met. For example, residential areas that have sufficient tree
canopy cover to satisfy the Upland Forest (class 420) criteria will
still be classified as Residential in the Urban or Built-Up category.
Lastly, any land use classification that is confirmed as abandoned or
not in use will be preceded, in the numerical identifier, by a zero
"O"; i.e., 0175.

110 - 130 Residential

Residential land uses range from high-density urban housing
developments to low-density rural areas characterized by a relatively
small number of homes per acre. The variation extends from the
multi-family apartment complexes generally located in larger urban
centers to those single-family houses sometimes having lot sizes of
more than one acre.

Areas of low intensity residential land use (generally less
than one dwelling unit per five acres), such as farmsteads, will be
incorporated in other categories to which they relate. However, rural
residential and recreational type subdivisions will be included in the
Residential category since this land is almost entirely committed to
residential use even though it may include forest or range types.

In most instances the boundary will be clear when new housing
developments abut clearly defined agricultural areas. Conversely, the
residential boundary may be vague and difficult to discern when
residential development is sporadic and occurs in smaller isolated
units developed over an extended period of time in areas with mixed or
less intensive land uses. A careful evaluation of density and overall
relationship of these areas to the total urban complex must be made.










Other land use categories may embrace areas that meet the
Residential category requirement. Often such residential sections are
an integral component of the category with which they are associated
and should be included within that category. For example, in the
Institutional category residential units may be found on military
bases in the form of barracks, apartments, dormitories or homes and on
college and university campuses in the form -of apartments and
dormitories in close proximity to instructional buildings.
Agricultural field operations and resort facilities commonly provide
temporary lodging for their employees and these areas should be
classified under Agriculture and Commercial and Services respectively.

110 Residential, Low Density units per acre>

111 Fixed Single Family Units

112 Mobile Home Units

113 Mixed Units *Note

119 Low Density Under Construction

120 Residential, Medium Density units per acre>

121 Fixed Single Family Units

122 Mobile Home Units

123 Mixed Units *Note

129 Medium Density Under Construction

130 Residential, High Density


Fixed Single Family Units units per acre>

Mobile Home Units per acre>

Multiple Dwelling Units, Low Rise less>

Multiple Dwelling Units, High Rise or more>

Mixed Units *Note

High Density Under Construction






140 Commercial and Services


Commercial areas are predominantly associated with the
distribution of products and services. This category is composed of a
large number of individual types of commercial land uses which often
occur in complex mixtures.

The Commercial and Services category includes all secondary
structures associated with an enterprise in addition to the main
building and integral areas assigned to support the base unit.
Included are sheds, warehouses, office buildings, driveways, parking
lots and landscaped areas.

Other types of commercial areas include shopping centers and
commercial strip developments. These areas have distinctive patterns
which are readily identifiable on aerial photographs. Frequently,
individual houses and other classes of urban land use may be found
within commercial areas. Such uses normally are not delineated unless
they can be plotted into polygons of at least one acre size at Level
III. Otherwise, the Mixed category should be used.

Lastly, a commercial use which cannot be easily identified on
aerial photography is the commercial resort. These businesses cater
to vacationing patrons and often contain associated recreational
facilities such as swimming pools and ball courts.

141 Retail Sales and Services

The area of Retail Sales and Services is primarily devoted to
the sale of products and services. This category is comprised of
elements of central business districts, shopping centers and office
buildings including associated structures, driveways and parking lots
and all other facilities.

142 Wholesale Sales and Services associated with industrial use>

This category is reserved for those land uses associated with
the storage and wholesale distribution of products and materials. The
primary structures associated with this category are identified by
their characteristic size, shape and adjacent features. Normally,
these structures are large capacity and of boxlike shape designed to
hold large quantities of products. Included in this category are open
storage areas that may be interpreted on imagery as being used for
wholesale sales and services.








143 Professional Services


Typical examples of this land use category include law
offices, consulting firms, architectural firms, medical offices and
dental offices. This category is unique in that it often occurs in
former residential areas whose structures have been renovated for
these and other professional service uses. Increased parking
facilities and other physical evidence, in addition to supporting
nonphotographic data, are used to identify this class.

144 Cultural and Entertainment

This category includes both indoor and open air theaters
(such as motion picture theaters and those for live theatrical
performances) and museums. Recreational facilities such as skating
rinks and tennis courts are not included in this category.

145 Tourist Services

This category includes all primary and secondary facilities
that can be identified as supporting over-night tourist/travel
lodging.

146 Oil and Gas Storage with industrial use or manufacturing>

This category identifies storage facilities used in the
retail and wholesale sales of these specific products. The Port
Everglades facility in Fort Lauderdale would be a typical example.

147 Mixed Commercial and Services

148 Cemeteries

149 Commercial and Services Under Construction

150 Industrial

The Industrial category embraces those land uses where
manufacturing, assembly or processing of materials and products are
accomplished. Industrial areas include a wide array of industry types
ranging from light manufacturing and industrial parks to heavy
manufacturing plants. Also included are those facilities for
administration and research, assembly, storage and warehousing,
shipping and associated parking lots and grounds.

Typical examples of industrial types found in Florida are
pulp and lumber mills, oil refineries with tank farms, chemical plants
and brickmaking plants. Stockpiles of raw materials, large power
sources and solid waste product disposal areas are visible industrial
features and are easily identified on conventional aerial photography.









151 Food Processing


Citrus processing plants, sugar refineries and seafood
packaging plants are typical examples of this category.

152 Timber Processing

Plywood mills, pulp and woodchip plants and saw mills are the
prime components in this category.

153 Mineral Processing

Refining of basic earth materials such as kaolin, phosphates
and heavy metals (i.e., Titanium and Zircon concentrates) is
accomplished in Florida and the facilities for processing these
materials are located near the mining operations.

154 Oil and Gas Processing

This category includes the production of jet fuel, asphalt
and liquid gases as well as the classic petroleum product, gasoline.
Also included in this category are the facilities for processing and
recycling used petroleum products.

155 Other Light Industrial

Steel fabrication, small boat manufacturing, electronic
manufacturing and assembly plants are typical examples of light
industrial enterprises.

156 Other Heavy Industrial

Major ship repair, ship building and large lumber mills can
be placed in this category. In some instances mineral extraction can
also be assigned here if the facility is processing a final and
finished product.

159 Industrial Under Construction

160 Extractive

Extractive areas encompass both surface and subsurface mining
operations. Included are sand, gravel and clay pits, phosphate mines,
limestone quarries plus oil and gas wells. Industrial complexes where
the extracted material is refined, packaged or further processed, are
also included in this category. The recognizable impacts of these
activities on the landscape will vary from the unmistakable giant pit
mines covering vast acrages to oil wells which cover only a few square
feet. Obviously, consistent identification of all these diverse
extractive uses with their varied degrees of photographic expression
can be difficult from remote sensing data alone.








Flooded pits and quarries, which may be part of a mining
operation, will be included in this category. The presence of water
bodies does not necessarily imply inactive or unused extractive areas;
ponds or lakes are often an integral part of an extractive operation.

Abandoned or inactive mining operations are a part of the
extractive category until natural revegetation occurs. Areas of
tailings and abandoned pits and quarries may remain recognizable for a
long time. These areas may be barren for decades after deposition.
During the interval from discontinued use until revegetation occurs,
the parcel will be retained in the Extractive category.

161 Strip Mines

The mining method used in this category is easily identified
by its land scarring, either in the pit form or in long trenches, with
tailings along the trenching operation.

162 Sand and Gravel Pits

The category of sand and gravel pits will be relatively small
in area size when compared to the category of strip mining operations.
These pits are used primarily to support construction activities.

163 Rock Quarries

This category identifies the excavation of building materials
and can be found, in part, in the St. Augustine, Brooksville and Ft.
Myers areas. Equipment used in this category is a major identifying
feature.

164 Oil and Gas Fields

These are petroleum products sources and are found in the
Sunnyland and Jay areas. No processing facilities are found near
these fields. The primary distinguishing feature will be the well
head pads, flow control facilities and storage tank facilities.

165 Reclaimed Land

In Florida, this category primarily identifies phosphate
mining sites that have been or are being restored to approximate a
natural state or converted into recreational facilities.

166 Holding Ponds

Man-made ponds and lakes often form an integral part of the
extractive process and may be found in the immediate vicinity of
mining operations.







170 Institutional


Educational, religious, health and military facilities are
typical components of this category. Included within a particular
institutional unit are all buildings, grounds and parking lots that
compose the facility. Those areas not specifically related to the
purposes of the institution should be excluded. For example,
agriculture areas not specifically associated with correctional,
educational or religious institutions are placed in the appropriate
Agricultural categories.

Educational institutions encompass all levels of public and
private schools, colleges, universities, training centers, etc.. The
entire areas enclosing buildings, campus open space, dormitories,
recreational facilities and parking lots are included into this
category when they are identifiable.

Military facilities are characterized by a wide variety of
features including training camps, missile sites, etc..
Administration, storage, repair, security and other functional
military buildings plus the practice ranges, storage areas, equipment
storage lots and buffer zones compose the institutional military
facilities. Auxiliary land uses, particularly residential, commercial
and other supporting uses located on a military base, are included in
the Institutional category.

171 Educational Facilities

This category includes all supporting facilities including
parking lots, stadiums and all buildings and any other features that
can be related to the facility.

172 Religious

All buildings that can be related to this category are
included. Many religious facilities support schools and day care
centers which reside within their property.

173 Military

All buildings and grounds that compose the facility are
included in this category along with auxiliary land uses -
particularly residential services and other supporting land uses.

174 Medical and Health Care

All buildings and grounds that compose Medical facilities are
included.

175 Governmental

All buildings and facilities which are identifiable as
nonmilitary governmental are included in this class. In many cases
supplemental data is employed to identify this category.








Correctional

Normally, these are confined facilities enclosed within


multiple fence structures.


All structures and grounds known to be


associated with this category are included.


correctional


facilities


is accomplished


Identification of
through either the


interpretation process or as the result of supporting supplemental
data.

177 Other Institutional

This category is reserved for facilities which are unique in
structure and location. In many cases, supplemental data is required
for their correct identification; e.g., Elks Club, Masonic Lodge,
V.F.W., etc..

178 Commercial Child Care

This category includes all privately owned and operated child


day care facilities
institutions.


not associated with religious or other


Institutional Under Construction

Recreational


Recreational areas are those areas whose physical structure
indicates that active user-oriented recreation is or could be occurring


within the given physical area.


This category would include golf


courses, parks, swimming beaches and shores, marinas, fairgrounds,
etc. (Note: Swimming beaches are identifiable by such features as
bath houses, picnic areas, service stands and large parking lots
adjacent to the beach areas). In order to make this recreational
determination, supplemental information may often be required.

181 Swimming Beach

182 Golf Courses

183 Race Tracks

184 Marinas and Fish Camps

185 Parks and Zoos

186 Community Recreational Facilities

187 Stadiums schools, colleges or universities.>

188 Historical Sites

189 Other Recreational skeet ranges, etc.>







190 Open Land


This category includes undeveloped land within urban areas
and inactive land with street patterns but without structures. Open
Land normally does not exhibit any structures or any indication of
intended use. Often, urban inactive land may be in a transitional
state and ultimately will be developed into one of the typical urban
land uses. Although at the time of the inventory, the intended use
may be impossible to determine from aerial photo interpretation alone.

191 Undeveloped Land within urban areas

192 Inactive Land with street pattern but without
structures.

193 Urban Land in transition without positive indicators
of intended activity.

194 Other Open Land




*Note Mixed


This category is used where no single use predominates. When
more than one-third intermixture of another use or uses occurs, the
specific classification is changed to Mixed. But, where the sum of
the intermixture is less than one-third, it is mapped as the dominant
land use.

Mixed category includes developments along transportation routes
and in cities, towns and built-up areas where separate land uses
cannot be individually mapped. Residential, commercial, industrial
and occasionally other land uses will be included.

An analogous set of criteria is used to define Mixed Land Cover
types in the following categories. In each case, an intermixture of
more than one-third by plant species or species groups warrants the
assignment of the given area into a Mixed class. Specific cases will
be addressed in detail as they arise.






200 AGRICULTURE


In a broad sense, agricultural lands may be defined as those
lands which are cultivated to produce food crops and livestock. The
sub-categories of Agriculture are as follows: Cropland, Pastureland,
Orchards, Groves (except Citrus), Vineyards, Nursuries, Ornamental
Horticulture Areas, Citrus Groves, Confined Feeding Operations,
Specialty Farms and Other Agriculture.

210 Cropland and Pastureland

This includes agricultural land which is managed for the
production of row or field crops and improved, unimproved and woodland
pastures.

Cropland and Pastureland include:

1. Cropland harvested or land from which crops are
harvested other than tree and bush crops and
horticultural crops

2. Lands on which crops and pasture grasses are grown
in rotation with one another.

3. Pastureland used more or less permanently for
livestock grazing.

Numerous variables must be recognized in identifying crop and
pasture uses of land in different parts of Florida. Field size and
shape are highly variable depending upon topographic conditions as
well as soil types, size of farms, kind of crops and pastures, capital
investments, labor availability and other conditions.

In Florida, supplemental irrigation of cropland and
pastureland by use of overhead rotary sprinklers can be detected from
photography where distinctive circular patterns are created. Drainage
or water control on land used for cropland and pastureland sometimes
creates a recognizable pattern that may be helpful in identifying this
type of land use from photography.

The duration of crop growth in the field may be rather
limited. A false impression of non-agricultural use in a field may
result if the conditions of temporary inactivity are not recognized.
However, this can be substantiated by field checking areas which are
in question.

Pastures may be drained and/or irrigated lands. Where the
management objective is to establish or maintain stands of grasses,
such as bahia, pangola or burmuda grass, either alone or or in
mixtures with white clover or other legumes, land is categorized as
pastureland regardless of treatments. Much of the







"permanent" pastures occur on land which usually is not tilled or used
as cropland. Topographically rough land, stream floodplains, wooded
areas and wetlands often may be used for pasture more or less
permanently.

211 Improved Pastures

This category in most cases is composed of land which has
been cleared, tilled, reseeded with specific grass types and
periodically improved with brush control and fertilizer application.
Water ponds, troughs, feed bunkers and, in some cases, cow trails are
evident.

212 Unimproved Pastures

This category includes cleared land with major stands of
trees and brush where native grasses have been allowed to develop.
Normally, this land will not be managed with brush control and/or
fertilizer application.

213 Woodland Pastures

This is an area where forest lands are used as pasture.
Strong evidence of cattle activity, such as trails to feed bunkers,
salt licks and watering areas is required. In some cases, detection
of cattle in the area will be the clue used to identify this category.
When supplemental data is available, this will be used along with
verification during field checks.

214 Row Crops

Corn, tomatoes, potatoes and beans are typical row crops
found in Florida. Rows remain well defined even after crops have been
harvested.

215 Field Crops

Wheat, oats, hay and grasses are the primary types identified
as field crops. Some problems may occur in identification of field
crops and field checks are necessary in many cases, especially when
crop growth is in the early stages.

If specific crop type can be determined from aerial
photography, Level IV classification will be used; e.g., 2141 -
Cabbage.

220 Tree Crops

Orchards and groves generally occur in areas possessing a
specific combination of soil qualities and climatological factors.
Water bodies, which moderate the effects of short duration temperature
fluctuations, often are in close proximity to this type of
agriculture. Site selection for air drainage on sloping land may also
be important.







Citrus Groves

Fruit Orchards which is typical for this category>

Other Groves


If specific crop type can be determined


from aerial


photography, Level IV classification will be used; e.g., 2231 - Pecan
Grove.

230 Feeding Operations

Feeding operations are specialized, livestock production
enterprises which include beef cattle feedlots, dairy operations with


confined feeding, large poultry farms and swine feedlots.


These


operations have large animal populations restricted to relatively
small areas. This resriction results in a concentration of waste


material that is an environmental concern.


The attendant waste


disposal problems justify a separate category for these relatively
small areas. Some operations are located near urban areas to take
advantage of proximity to transportation facilities and processing
plants.

231 Cattle Feeding Operations

232 Poultry Feeding Operations

233 Swine Feeding Operations

240 Nurseries and Vineyards


This category is composed of nurseries,


floricultural areas


and seed-and-sod areas used perennially and generally not rotated with
other uses.

241 Tree Nurseries

Areas in this category are not associated with the timber
industry; trees primarily are ornamentals.

242 Sod Farms

This category is unique, requiring the crop to be in harvest
stages for detection. Supplemental data can be used for the
identification of this specific category.


Ornamentals


This category is defined as plants or shrubs grown for
decorative effects.







244 Vineyards


This category is defined as land devoted to cultivating grape
vines.

245 Floriculture

This category is defined as the cultivation of flowers and
decorative flowering plants.

246 Timber Nursery


industry.


Areas in this category are associated with the timber
Tree seedlings (primarily pine) are grown for forestation


of timber sites.


Specialty Farms


Specialty farms include a variety of special or unique
farming activities such as thoroughbred horse farms, dog kennels and
aquaculture.

251 Horse Farms

This category defines farms which breed and train horses for
sport uses in racing, riding and harness racing.


Dairies


This is a commercial establishment which processes and
distributes milk and dairy products.


Kennels


In this category, specific uses of dogs are not defined.
most cases it will require ground "truthing" by visiting each site.


Aquaculture


The definition of this category is the culture of marine or


aquatic plant
conditions for


and animal species under either natural or artificial
human and domestic animal consumption.


Other

Other Open Lands


This category includes those agricultural


intended usage


cannot be determined.


lands whose


Fallow Crop Land

Harvested agricultural land not currently in crop production.






300 RANGELAND


Historically, rangeland has been defined as land where the
potential natural vegetation is predominantly grasses, grasslike
plants, forbs or shrubs and is capable of being grazed. Management
practices may include brush control, regulation of grazing intensity
and season of use. If revegetated to improve the forage cover, it is
managed like native vegetation. Generally, this land is not
fertilized, cultivated or irrigated.

The definition of Rangeland used in the CONSERVATION NEEDS
INVENTORY by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior is used
in this classification scheme and describes the natural potential
(climax) plant cover as being composed of principally native grasses,
forbs and shrubs valuable for forage. This category includes
Grassland, Shrub and Brushland and Mixed Rangeland. In some cases, it
is necessary to deviate from this definition of rangeland. When
large-scale imagery is employed in a land use/cover inventory, small
areas of herbaceous or shrubland become evident and significant.
Although these small areas can not support cattle, they are never the
less included in this category. However, such areas may be used
extensively as wildlife forage areas.,

310 Herbaceous

This category includes prairie grasses which occur on the
upland margins of the wetland zone and may be periodically inundated
by water. Generally, it is the marginal area between marsh and upland
forested areas. These grasslands are generally treeless but in wet
areas would have many types of soils resulting in a variety of
vegetation types dominated by grasses, sedges, rushes and other herbs
while dryer grass areas would be dominated by wire grasses with some
saw palmetto present.

320 Shrub and Brushland

This category includes saw palmettos, gallberry, wax myrtle,
coastal scrub and other shrubs and brush. Generally, saw palmetto is
the most prevalent plant cover intermixed with a wide variety of other
woody scrub plant species as well as various types of short herbs and
grasses. Coastal scrub vegetation would include pioneer herbs and
shrubs composed of such typical plants as sea purslane, sea grapes and
sea oats without any one of these types being dominant.

321 Palmetto Prairies

These are areas in which saw palmetto is the most dominant
vegetation. Common associates of saw palmetto in this cover type are
fetterbush, tar flower, gallberry, wire grass and brown grasses. This
cover type is usually found on seldomly flooded dry sand areas. These
treeless areas are often similar to the pine flatwoods but without the
presence of pines trees.








322 Coastal Scrub


This scrub category represents a conglomeration of species
found in the coastal zone. A few of the more common components are
saw palmetto, sand live oak, myrtle oak, yaupon, railroad vine, bay
bean, sea oats, sea purslane, sea grape, spanish bayonet and prickly
pear. This cover type is generally found in dune and white sand
areas.

329 Other Shrubs and Brush

This category includes other shrubs and brush cover types not
previously mentioned.

330 Mixed Rangeland

When more than one-third intermixture of either grassland or
shrub-brushland range species occurs, the specific classification is
changed to Mixed Rangeland. Where the the intermixture is less than
one-third, it is classified as the dominant type of Rangeland, whether
Grassland or Shrub and Brushland categories.







400 UPLAND FORESTS


This category of land cover is reserved for those upland areas
which support a tree canopy closure of 10 percent or more. The Upland
Forests include both the xeric (dry site) and mesic (moderately moist
site) forest communities. Wetland, or hydric, forest communities fall
under the broad wetland category. Also included in the Upland Forest
category are areas in which timber harvesting has occurred but which
exhibit no evidence of being developed for other intended uses
(clear-cuts in an area in which rotation forest management is
practiced is a prime example of such a case).

Florida's forests serve as a vital resource from not only a
commercial view point, but also from an aesthetic and recreational
view point. In Florida, slightly less than 50 percent of the land
base (17 million acres) is identified by the United States Forest
Service as forest land. Approximately 40 percent is commercial timber
land. A very significant portion of this land is allocated to pine
plantation monoculture. Based on the 1980 Forest Service inventory,
there are approximately six and one-half million acres of pure natural
and planted longleaf and slash pine stands in Florida. There are also
many stands of pure hardwood species groups occurring in Florida.
However, the majority of forest lands occur as mixed communities of
tree species and species groups. For purposes of classification, a
given forest stand is assigned to a particular species or species
group only if 66 percent or more of the total canopy can be assigned
as such. Otherwise, the mixed categories (434 and 438) are used.
Note here that the classification of forests is based upon the species
composition of the tree canopy as viewed and interpreted from aerial
imagery.

410 Upland Coniferous Forests

Any natural forest stand whose canopy is at least 66 percent
dominated by coniferous species is classified as a Coniferous Forest.
However, pine plantation monocultures will fall under the Tree
Plantation category (the 440 class). The similar morphology of the
pine species occurring in Florida makes them difficult to distinguish
from one another on aerial photographs.

411 Pine Flatwoods

These forests are quite common throughout much of northern
and central Florida. Originally, longleaf pines were common on drier
sites while slash pines, which are less fire-resistant, were confined
to moist sites; wildfire being the contributing factor in this
distribution. However, fire control and artificial reforestation have
extended the range of slash pine into former longleaf sites. The pine
flatwoods class is dominated by either slash pine, longleaf pine or
both. The common







flatwoods understory species include saw palmetto, wax myrtle,
gallberry and a wide variety of herbs and brush.

412 Longleaf Pine - Xeric Oak

This forest type is dominated by longleaf pine trees and can
be distinguished from longleaf dominated Pine Flatwoods by the
presence of a mid-story canopy of blue-jack oak, turkey oak, sand post
oak and other dry-site tolerant oaks and hardwoods. This forest
community is characteristic of the deep, infertile sand-soils of the
sandhill provinces. The often poor and irregular stocking of this
pine community, revealing its oak mid-story, is a distinguishing
feature.

413 Sand Pine

This pine community grows on deep, infertile deposits of
marine sands and clays. There are two varieties of sand pines, both
occurring in Florida. The Ocala variety of north-central Florida grows
in densely-stocked, pure, even-aged stands. The Choctawhatchee
variety of western panhandle Florida commonly occurs in uneven-aged
stands invading oak communities. A root disease complex gives many
sand pine stands a disheavled appearance. Its dark crown coloration
distinguishes it from other southern pines.

414 Pine - Mesic Oak

On moister sites, slash, longleaf and loblolly pine grow in
strong association with a wide variety of mesic oaks and other
hardwood species. Southern red oak, water oak, chestnut oak and
laural oak in addition to hickories, sweetgum and dogwood commonly
grow along side these pine species under mesic conditions. Gallberry,
wax myrtle and saw palmetto are among the common understory species.

419 Other Pines

This category is reserved for other forest communities
dominated by upland conifers not previously mentioned.

420 Upland Hardwood Forests

This classification of upland forest lands has a crown canopy
with at least a 66 percent dominance by hardwood tree species. This
class, like the Upland Conifer class, is reserved for naturally
generated stands. Hardwood plantations, where they occur, fall under
the 440 class.

421 Xeric Oak

This forest community is similar to and occupies the same
sites as the Longleaf Pine - Xeric Oak community except that the
pines, if present, are not the dominant species. In many cases,
longleaf pine may have been present in significant numbers prior to
harvesting but were never regenerated. Species common to this class
include bluejack oak, turkey oak and sand post oak.








422 Brazilian Pepper


This exotic, pestulent tree specie is found on peninsular
Florida from the Tampa Bay area southward. Commonly found on
disturbed sites, this native of Brazil is also an aggressive invader
of Florida's plant communities. Communities of these small,
shrub-like trees are often established along borrow-pits, levees,
dikes and in old disturbed fields.

423 Oak - Pine - Hickory

This a mixed forest community in which no single species is
consistently dominant. However, this is a predominantly hardwood
forest type in which various southern pines are major associate
species. Major component species of this community may include
southern red oak, post oak, chestnut oak, black oak, live oak,
loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, slash pine, mockernut hickory and
pignut hickory in addition to numerous minor associate species.
Composition will vary throughout Florida.

424 Melaleuca

This exotic tree specie occurs in almost pure stands. It is
an aggressive competitor, invading and often taking over a site,
forming a dense, impenetrable stand. Melaleuca generally is an
indicator of a disturbed site.

425 Temperate Hardwood

This forest cover type is often referred to as either low or
temperate hammock. Common components of this community may include,
depending upon the location, a wide variety of oaks, red bay,
sweetbay, magnolia, sweetgum, sugarberry, hickories, cabbage palm,
hollies and cedar. Various pines are minor associates.

426 Tropical Hardwoods

This forest cover type is also referred to as tropical
hammock. The common components of this community typically include
some combination of gumbo limbo, mastic, stoppers, wild lime,
strangler fig, lancewood, poison wood, sea grape, marlberry and wild
tamarind.

427 Live Oak

Often referred to as upland temperate hammock, this forest
community is one in which live oak is either pure or predominant. The
principle associates of this cover type include sweetgum, magnolia,
holly and laurel oak. This community is common along the upper banks
of Florida's lakes and streams.







428 Cabbage Palm


This forest community is pure or predominantly cabbage palm
and is found on sandy type soils. Associates include a wide variety
of large and small hardwoods. In south Florida, cabbage palm may be
strongly associated with slash and/or longleaf pine.

429 Wax Myrtle - Willow

These tree species are common on upland sites both separately
and in association with one another. On moist sites willow will
predominate while on drier sites wax myrtle will be the favored
species. Note that willow is also found extensively in hydric
communities and, where this is the case, the appropriate wetlands
classification should be used. On upland sites, the 429 class is used
where myrtle and/or willow are pure or predominant. This will usually
be on disturbed sites and on the fringes of other forest communities.

430 Upland Hardwood Forests Continued

431 Beech - Magnolia

Beech is the indicator species of this forest type although
it may not be the most abundant. Southern magnolia and a great
variety of other moist site hardwoods occur in this forest community
with common associates including sweetgum, blackgum, yellow poplar,
southern red oak, white oak, white ash and hickories.

432 Sand Live Oak

Sand live oak predominates in this cover type. Associates
are cabbage palm, southern red cedar and southern magnolia with
smaller quantities of chapman oak, myrtle oak, red maple, red bay and
holly. This cover type is generally found on old coastal dune and
white sand areas.

433 Western Everglades Hardwoods

Large expances of the western everglades support communities
of a great variety of hardwoods which must withstand periodic water
inundation. Although these sites are excessively moist, the behavior
of their water tables preclude their classification as wetlands. This
is born out by their species composition. Common species include red
maple, bays, willow, sweet bay magnolia, a variety of oaks and
scattered cypress. This category of forest cover may be considered as
a wetland-upland transitional community.

434 Hardwood - Conifer Mixed

This class is reserved for those forested areas in which
neither upland conifers nor hardwoods achieve a 66 percent crown
canopy dominance.








Dead


Trees


Standing dead
called snags, occur
experienced a change
disturbance. Snags
birds.


trees (either conifer or
in areas which have
in the water table
are an important habitat


hardwood), sometimes
been burned or have
or some other site
for some cavity nesting


Australian Pine


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Mixed Hardwoods


This is a hardwood community in which no single species or
species group appears to achieve a 66 percent dominance of the canopy.
This class of hardwoods includes any combination of large and small
hardwood tree species none of which can be identified as dominating
the canopy.


Other Hardwoods


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mentioned.


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4411


Sand


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I








Christmas Tree Plantations


Cedars and a variety of pines are grown in Florida for the
Christmas tree trade. They are characterized by relatively wide, even
spacing with trees of uniform size with shapely crown structures.

442 Hardwood Plantations

These are hardwood forests generated by planting seedling
stock or seeds. These would also appear to be uniform and a row
pattern would be evident. Melaleuca and eucalyptus plantations are
found in south Florida.

4421 Eucalyptus Plantations

443 Forest Regeneration Areas

These are areas in which it is clearly evident that harvested
stands will be reforested through one of the various silvicultural
practices prescribed in Florida's forests rather than being allocated
for another land use or abandonment. This will be the case for those
regions of Florida which are heavily dependent upon the timber
industry (i.e., the Taylor, Jefferson and Wakulla county area). Signs
to look for are windows (lines of piled up slash and debris) and
,other evidence of site preparation.

444 Experimental Tree Plots

Experimental tree plots include areas devoted to testing the
growth response of different tree species to various experimental
silvicultural prescriptions or for assessing the characteristics of
trees through forest genetics trials.

445 Seed Plantations

These are low density areas of large trees whose sole purpose
is to produce seeds for seedling production in forest regeneration.
These areas are usually near work stations or seedling nurseries. The
understory of these plantations are kept mowed and park-like. Trees
are in neat rows.


4412







500 WATER


The delineation of water areas depends upon the scale and
resolution characteristics of the remote sensor imagery used for
interpretation. One definition of water bodies, provided by the
Bureau of Census, includes all areas within the land mass of the
United States that are predominantly or persistently water covered
provided that, if linear, they are at least 1/8 mile (660 feet or 200
meters) wide ox, if extended, cover at least 40 acres (16 hectars).
When defining water bodies at Level III, linear water bodies less than
1/8 mile wide and extensive water bodies less than 40 acres in size
are classified. In some instances, water bodies of one acre will be
identified and plotted. Those portions of the water body having
emergent vegetation or observable submerged vegetation are placed in
the Wetlands category (600).

510 Streams and Waterways

This category includes rivers, creeks, canals and other
linear water bodies. Where the water course is interrupted by a
control structure, the impounded water area will be placed in the
Reservoirs category (530).

The boundary between streams and lakes, reservoirs or the
ocean is the straight line across the mouth of the stream unless the
mouth is more than one mile (1.85 kilometers) wide. In that case, the
rule given under Bays and Estuaries (540) is followed.

520 Lakes

The Lakes category includes extensive inland water bodies,
excluding reservoirs. Islands within lakes that are too small to
delineate will be included in the water area. The delineation of a
lake will be based on the size of the water body at the time the
remote sensor data was acquired.

521 Lakes larger than 500 acres (202 hectares).

522 Lakes larger than 100 acres (40 hectares) but less than
500 acres.

523 Lakes larger than 10 acres (4 hectares) but less than
100 acres.

524 Lakes less than 10 acres (4 hectares) which are
dominant features.








530 Reservoirs


Reservoirs are artificial impoundments of water. They are
used for irrigation, flood control, municipal and rural water
supplies, recreation and hydro-electric power generation. Dams,
levees, other water control structures or the excavation itself
usually will be evident to aid in the identification.

531 Reservoirs larger than 500 acres (202 hectares).

532 Reservoirs larger than 100 acres (40 hectares) but
less than 500 acres.

533 Reservoirs larger than 10 acres (4 hectares) but
less than 100 acres.

534 Reservoirs less than 10 acres (4 hectares) which
are dominant features.

540 Bays and Estuaries

Bays and estuaries are inlets or arms of the sea that extend
into the land and, as such, are properly classified in this system
only when they are included within the land mass of Florida. In order
that this land mass be commensurate with the area the United States
government uses in compiling census statistics, the convention
employed by the Bureau of Census in setting the outer limits of the
United States has been followed. Where bays and estuaries are between
one and ten nautical miles (1.85 and 18.5 kilometers) in width, the
outer limit of the United States will be a straight line connecting
the headlands except where the indentation of the embayment is so
shallow that the water area would be less than the area of a
semicircle drawn with this straight line as the diameter. In that
event, the coastline itself would form the outer limit of the United
States.

Embayments less than one nautical mile in width are classed
as Streams and Canals (510). Embayments or portions of embayments
more than 10 nautical miles in width are not considered included
within the limits of the United States.

541 Embayments opening directly into the Gulf of Mexico or
the Atlantic Ocean.

542 Embayments not opening directly into the Gulf of
Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean.








550 Major Springs


The natural phenomena known as springs can easily be
identified as points of origin of a water source welling from the
ground. In many instances, major springs, such as Silver Springs and
Homosassa Springs, can readily be identified by the associated
recreational-commercial enterprises in the adjacent areas.

560 Slough Waters

Sloughs are channels of slow moving water in the coastal
marshland. The term also refers to "backwater sloughs", those narrow,
often stagnent bodies of water found near inland rivers.







600 WETLANDS


Wetlands are those areas where the water table is at, near or
above the land surface for a significant portion of most years. The
hydrologic regime is such that aquatic or hydrophytic vegetation
usually is established, although alluvial and tidal flats may be
nonvegetated. Wetlands are frequently associated with topographic low
lying areas. Examples of wetlands include marshes, mudflats, emergent
vegetation areas and swamps. Shallow water areas with submerged
aquatic vegetation are usually, but not always, classed as water and
not included in the Wetland category.

Extensive parts of some river floodplains qualify as Wetlands.
These do not include agriculture land where seasonal wetness or
short-term flooding may provide an important component of the total
annual soil moisture necessary for crop production. But uncultivated
wetlands yielding products such as wood or which are grazed by
livestock are retained in the Wetlands category.

Wetlands drained for any purpose belong to other land use
categories whether they be Agriculture, Rangeland, Forested Uplands or
Urban and Built-Up. When the drainage is discontinued and such use
ceases, classification reverts to Wetlands after characteristic
vegetation is reestablished. Wetlands managed for wildlife purposes
may show short-term changes in vegetation type and wetness condition
as different management practices are prescribed but they are properly
classified as Wetlands.

The user of this manual should be aware of the fact that the
above definition of a wetland is tailored to the limitations imposed
upon image analysis which must classify wetlands according to evidence
recorded by remotely sensed images. In absence of direct contact,
imposing a more definitive definition of wetlands proves to be
infeasible. The official definition of a wetland as adopted by the
state of Florida is discussed in detail under Florida Session Law
84-79 (HB 1187). Strict adherence to this definition using remotely
sensed images, however, cannot be acheived.

610 Wetland Hardwood Forests

Wetland Hardwood Forests are those wetland areas which meet
the crown closure requirements for forestland as outlined under the
Upland Forest Classification (400) . To
be included in the Wetland Hardwood Forest category, the stand must be
66 percent or more dominated by wetland hardwood species, either salt
or freshwater.









611 Bay Swamps


This category is composed of dominant trees such as loblolly
bay, sweetbay, red bay, swamp bay, slash pine and loblolly pine.
Large gallberry, fetterbush, wax myrtle and titi are included in the
understory vegetation.

612 Mangrove. Swamps

This coastal hardwood community is composed of red and/or
black mangrove which is pure or predominant. The major associates
include white mangrove, buttonwood, cabbage palm and sea grape.

613 Gum Swamps

This forest community is composed of swamp tupelo (blackgum)
or water tupelo (tupelogum) which is pure or predominant. Associate
species may include bald cypress and a great variety of wet site
tolerent hardwood species widely variant in composition.

614 Titi Swamps

This community is composed of often extremely dense stands of
black titi and cyrilla which are either the pure or predominant
species. Major associated species include bays, cypress, tupelos and
a great variety of wetland hardwoods.

615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland)

This community, often referred to as bottomland or stream
hardwoods, is usually found on but not restricted to river, creek and
lake flood plain or overflow areas. It is a conglomeration of a wide
variety of predominantly hardwood species of which some of the more
common components include red maple, river birch, water oak, sweetgum,
willows, tupelos, water hickory, bays, water ash and buttonbush.
Associated species include cypress, slash pine, loblolly pine and
shortleaf pine.

616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs

These communities are associated with depressions and
drainage areas that are not associated with streams or lakes. One or
a combination of the following species will generally be predominant:
pond cypress, swamp tupelo, water tupelo, titi or willows.

617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods

This category is reserved for those wetland hardwood
communities which are composed of a large variety of hardwood species
tolerant of hydric conditions yet exhibit an ill defined mixture of
species.










620 Wetland Coniferous Forests


Wetland coniferous forests are wetlands which meet the crown
closure requirements for coniferous forests (see 400 and 410) and are
the result of natural generation. These communities are commonly
found in the interior wetlands in such places as river flood plains,
bogs, bayheads and sloughs.


621


Cypress


This community is composed of pond cypress or bald cypress
which is either pure or predominant. In the case of pond cypress,
common associates are swamp tupelo, slash pine and black titi. In the
case of bald cypress, common associates are water tupelo, swamp
cottonwood, red maple, american elm, pumpkin ash, carolina ash,
overcup oak, and water hickory. Bald cypress may be associated with
laurel oak, sweetgum and sweetbay on less moist sites. Note that some
authorities do not distinguish between the two varieties of cypress.

622 Pond Pine

This category is composed of pond pine which is either pure
or predominant. Its major associate is titi. Minor associates
include sweetbay , loblolly bay, red bay, and swamp tupelo.

623 Atlantic White Cedar

In this community, Atlantic White Cedar is the indicator
species although it may not always be the most abundant. Its common
associates include slash pine, cypress, swamp tupelo, sweetbay, red
bay, loblolly bay, black titi and red maple.


Cypress - Pine - Cabbage Palm


This community
combinations in which
not strictly a wetlands
upland and hydric sites.


includes cypress, pine and/or cabbage palm in
neither species achieves dominance. Although
community, it forms a transition between moist


Wetland Forested Mixed


This category includes mixed wetlands
which neither hardwoods or conifers achieve a
the crown canopy composition.


forest communities in
66 percent dominance of


Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands


Vegetated, non-forested wetlands
seasonably flooded basins and meadows. These
confined to relatively level, low-lying areas.
include areas which have a tree cover which


include marshes and
communities are usually
This category does not


630


640


620


Wetland Coniferous Forests









meet the crown closure threshold for the forested categories. When
the forest crown cover is less than the threshold for wetland forest
or is non-woody, it will be included in this category. Sawgrass and
cattail are the predominant species in freshwater marshes while
spartina and needlerush are the predominant species in the saltwater
marsh communities.


Freshwater Marshes


The communities included in this category are characterized
by having one or more of the following species predominate:


Sawgrass - Cladium jamaicensis
Cattail - Typha domingenis
Typha latifolia
Typha angustifolia
Arrowhead - Sagittaria sp.
Maidencane - Panicum hemitomon
Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cordgrass - Spartina baker
Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum
Bulrush - Scirpus americanus
Scirpus validus
Scirpus robustus
Needlerush - Juncus effusus
Common Reed - Phragmites communis
Phragmites australis
Arrowroot - Thaia dealbata
Thalia geniculata


If the community is 66 percent or more domin


by cover,
employed.

6411

6412


one of the


following level


Lated by a single species
IV classifications will be


Sawgrass

Cattail


6413 Spike rush

6414 Maidencane

6415 Dog fennel and low marsh grasses

6416 Arrowroot

Saltwater Marshes


The communities included in this category will be
predominated by one or more of the following species:









Cordgrasses



Needlerush
Seashore Saltgrass
Saltwort
Glassworts
Fringerush
Salt Dropseed
Seaside Daisy
Salt Jointgrass


- Spartina alterniflora
Spartina cynosuroides
Spartina patens
Spartina spartinae
Juncus roemerianus
- Distichlis spicata
- Batis maritima
- Salicornia sp.
- Finbristylis castanea
- Sporobolus virginicus
- Borrichia frutescens
- Paspalum vaginatum


If the community is 66 percent or more dominated by a single species
by cover, one of the following level IV classifications will be
employed.


643


6421 Cordgrass

6422 Needlerush

Wet Prairies


This classification is composed of dominantly grassy
vegetation on wet soils and is usually distinguished from marshes by
having less water and shorter herbage. These communities will be
predominated by one or more of the following species:


Sawgrass
Maidencane
Cordgrasses

Spike Rushes
Beach Rushes
St. Johns Wort
Spiderlily
Swamplily
Yellow-eyed Grass
Whitetop Sedge


- Cladium jamaicensis
- Panicum hemitomon
- Spartina bakeri
- Spartina patens
- Eleocharis sp.
- Rhynchospora sp.
- Hypericum sp.
- Hymenocallis palmeri
- Crinum americanum
- Xeric ambigua
- Dichromena colorata


Emergent Aquatic Vegetation


This category of wetland plant species includes
vegetation and vegetation which is found either
completely above the surface of water.


6441

6442

6443


both floating
partially or


Water Lettuce - Pistia stratiotes

Spatterdock - Nuphar sp.

Water Hyacinth - Eichhornia sp.










6444 Duck Weed - Lemna sp.

6445 Water Lily - Nymphaeacea

645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation

This category of wetland vegetation is composed of those
aquatic species or communities found growing completely below the
surface of the water.

6451 Hydrilla - Hydrilla verticillata

650 Non-Vegetated

Non-vegetated wetlands are those hydric surfaces on which
vegetation is found lacking due to the erosional effects of wind and
water transporting the surface material so rapidly that the
establishment of plant communities is hindered or the fluctuation of
the water surface level is such that vegetation cannot become
established. Additionally, submerged or saturated materials often
develop toxic conditions of extreme acidity. Tidal flats, shorelines
and intermittent ponds are the main components of this category.

651 Tidal Flats

This category is composed of that portion of the shore
environment protected from wave action, as in the case of estuaries,
comprised primarily of muds transported by tidal channels. An
important characteristic of the tidal flat environment is its
alternating tidal cycle of submergence and exposure to the atmosphere.

652 Shorelines

This category is normally defined as the interface between
the land mass and a water body. Shorelines are formed primarily by
physical or biological agents resulting in environments such as coral
reefs and barrier beaches. The shore is defined as the zone extending
from the low tide mark to the farthest point inland to which wave
action transports beach materials.

653 Intermittent Ponds

This category of wetland is defined as a waterbody which
exists for only a portion of the year. It may be referred to as a
seasonal waterbody. Its existence relies upon water received directly
from precipitation, runoff or spring flow.

654 Oyster Bars









700 BARREN LAND


Barren land has very little or no vegetation and limited
potential to support vegetative communities. In general, it is an
area of bare soil or rock. Vegetation, when present, is very sparce
and scrubby. However, caution should be exercised since barren land
may temporarily exist due to human activity. Generally, such land is
incorporated in another land use/cover category. For example, vast
areas of agricultural land is temporarily void of vegetation cover due
to tillage practices and areas of extractive and industrial land use
have dump sites for tailings and waste materials. Barren land
categories include Beaches exhibiting little or no evidence of human
encroachment, Sand Other than Beaches, Exposed Rock and Disturbed
Lands.

710 Beaches Other Than Swimming Beaches

Beaches are constantly affected by wave and tidal action.
The fine clays and silts are washed away leaving sand. However, in
protected bay and marsh areas, fine soil particles from surface
drainage may settle out. The beach areas also are subject to water
and wind erosion. Differing beach dimensions are due to factors such
as tides, soil material size, water level and wave energy all of which
vary. When a stable surface is observed inland, as another land use
occurs and the erosion effects of water and wind decrease, the beach
category is terminated.

720 Sand Other Than Beaches

Sand other than beaches is usually in reference to dune
sands. These are of aeolian origin and composed of sand grains
downwind from a natural source of sand. Dune sizes vary greatly with
diameters ranging from a few feet to more than several hundred feet.
Their heights also vary and their shapes display considerable variety.
When the dunes are the major feature, shore and strand lines, coastal
plains, river flood plains and deltas are secondary. This category is
not restricted to dune sands as bare sands exist in other forms.

730 Exposed Rock

Exposed rock areas consist of exposed bedrock and other
accumulations of rock materials lacking vegetative cover. Exposed
bedrock, when weathered, may be lacking vegetation due to the fine
soil materials being removed by the actions of wind and water.

731 Exposed Rock with Marsh Grasses








740 Disturbed Lands


Disturbed lands are those areas which have been changed due
primarily to human activities other than mining. In Florida, these
areas may be rather extensive and often appear outside of urban areas.

741 Rural land in transition without positive indicators
- of intended activity.

742 Borrow Areas

743 Spoil Areas

744 Fill Areas

745 Burned Areas

This category includes those barren lands which are a result
of fire due to either natural ignition or through purposeful or
neglegent human activity.








800 TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION AND UTILITIES


810 Transportation

Transportation facilities are used for the movement of people
and goods; therefore, they are major influences on land and many land
use boundaries are outlined by them.

Highways are easily identifiable on medium altitude
photography. Highways include areas used for interchanges, limited
access right-of-ways and service facilities. The center median,
pavement and sizable buffer zone should be included even if exact
boundaries cannot be detected.

The transportation category encompasses rail-oriented
facilities including stations, round-houses, repair and switching
yards and related areas. Airport facilities include runways,
intervening land, terminals, service buildings, navigational aids,
fuel storage, parking lots and a limited buffer zone and fall within
the Transportation category.

Transportation areas also embrace ports, docks, shipyards,
dry docks, locks and water course control structures designed for
transportation purposes. The docks and ports include buildings,
piers, parking lots and adjacent water utilized by ships in the
loading and unloading of cargo or passengers. Locks, in addition to
the actual structure, include the control buildings, power supply
buildings, docks and surrounding supporting land use (i.e. parking
lots and green areas).

811 Airports

812 Railroads

813 Bus and Truck Terminals

814 Roads and Highways

815 Port Facilities

816 Canals and Locks

817 Oil, Water or Gas Long Distance Transmission Lines

818 Auto Parking Facilities other land use>

819 Transportation Facilities Under Construction

820 Communications

Airwave communications, radar and television antennas with
associated structures are typical major types of communication
facilities that will be identified in this category. When stations
are associated with a commercial or governmental facility, they will








be included in either of those specific categories when located within
their bounds and will not be listed as a separate element (i.e., not
listed as 820).

821 Transmission Towers in this category>

822 Communication Facilities stations, telephone exchanges, antenna farms, etc.>

829 Communication Facilities Under Construction

830 Utilities

Utilities usually include power generating facilities and
water treatment plants including their related facilities such as
transmission lines for electric generation plants and aeration fields
for sewage treatment sites. Small facilities or those associated with
an industrial, commercial or extractive land use are included within
these larger respective categories.

831 Electrical Power Facilities

This category includes hydropower, thermal, nuclear, gas
turbine plants, transformer yards, sub-stations, etc..

832 Electrical Power Transmission Lines

833 Water Supply Plants

This category includes treatment plants, settling basins,
water storage towers and well fields.

834 Sewage Treatment

This category is composed of all related facilities such as
aeration fields, digesters, etc..

835 Solid Waste Disposal

This category is composed of controlled and managed solid
waste fields, non-permitted solid waste disposal sites, etc..

839 Utilities Under Construction








SPECIAL CLASSIFICATIONS


This category


addressed


for a specific


cover which require


is used primarily


user requirement


identification


specific


topics to


of those land uses and land


at level III or IV. For


example:


Vegetative


Sea Grass

9111 Sea Grass, Sparse - Medium

9112 Sea Grass, Dense

9113 Sea Grass, Patchy









SECTION II


DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS
OF GEOLOGIC FEATURES


The geologic studies undertaken by the Department of
Transportation are intended to aid those involved in the development
of plans for the improvement of transportation facilities and in the
study of hydrologic conditions, depicting those areas considered
geologically unstable with respect to sinkhole development. Since
nearly two-thirds of Florida is subject to some degree of sinkhole
activity, a cautious concern should accompany the construction of any
transportation facility. In these studies, former as well as existing
sinkholes are noted in the study area from viewing past and recent
photography to avoid construction over presently stable sinkholes
which may have become filled by natural and/or human activities.
Features such as springs also are shown and evaluated with their
regard to their influence.

The greatest value of such studies is considered to be depiction
of those areas where it is felt, based on our analysis, there exists a
high likelihood of future sinkhole activity. This determination
begins with the delineation of marked geologic features referred to as
fracture traces ( less than one mile in length) or lineaments (greater
than one mile in length). For simplicity, the term lineaments is
considered to include fracture traces.

These linear features are the surface expression of subsurface
geologic phenomena such as fracture zones, bedding planes, joints,
faults, variation in rock types and texture and variation in primary
porosity. Lineaments are expressed on the surface as aligned surface
sags and depressions, gaps in ridges, soil tonal changes revealing
variations in soil moisture, aligned springs, seeps and perched
surface ponds, alignments in vegetation, vegetation type and height
changes, straight stream and valley segments, abrupt changes in valley
alignment and gully development.

Ground water plays a significant role in the development of
sinkholes. As in the case of any other liquid, water chooses to
travel along the path of least resistance. For ground water, this
path is generally along crevices formed in the limestone and expressed
as lineaments. Much of this water, having filtrated though the
organic soil covered surface, contains substantial quantities of
carbonic acid. This acidified water, although dilute, exists in large
enough quantities to cause Jfurther chemical as well as physical
deterioration of the limestone through which it passes. Therefore,
along each of the lineaments shown from the aerial photography,
significant amounts of









subsurface erosion are occurring. The areas of most concern are where
several lineaments intersect. It is felt that in these locations the
underlying limestone is undergoing the greatest amount of
deterioration and are the most susceptible to sinkhole collapse.

Although the aforementioned geologic indicators suggest sinkhole
activity will occur, it may take the activities of man to trigger the
final mechanism for collapse. In a general state of equilibrium, the
surface layer forming the roof of a subsurface cavity may be of
sufficient strength to withstand collapse or the ground water
contained within. the cavity may supply the upward pressure necessary
to equalize the downward pressure of the surface.

Human activities alter this equilibrium in several ways. The
over pumping of ground water 'causes a dewatering and a subsequent
decrease in the upward pressure previously supplied by ground water.
A localized' increase in ground water recharge, as from urban runoff
into a recharge basin, may cause increased physical and chemical
deterioration of the subsurface and further collapse. Construction
activities create an increase in weight on the thin surface layer over
a subsurface cavity. This increased weight might be greater than the
surface is capable of enduring resulting in a collapse. These are but
a few of the ways in which man might aggrevate a delicate, natural
equilibrium.

Not only should these areas of lineament intersection be avoided
due to the possible resultant damage to any facilities constructed
over or near them, they also should be viewed as the possible means by
which contaminated forms of urban runoff may enter directly into the
underground water supply.

The findings of these geologic studies provide some knowledge of
the subsurface conditions in an area but are not intended to be the
sole factor in determining the limitations on any activities such as
construction. They should be used primarily as an indicator of
specific areas worthy of subsequent detailed engineering and
hydrologic study.

Urbanization masks many of the lineaments and recent sinkholes.
Therefore, photography dated prior to many of these activities is used
when available.








DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS
OF SOILS CLASSIFICATION


Soils investigations are directed at identifying the existing
soils conditions of an area. The primary concern is delineation of
those soils considered unsuitable for construction purposes.

The materials classification used in the soils investigations is
based primarily on the AASHTO and Unified Soil Classifications. Some
modification and simplification of the classifications have been
undertaken to better suit the needs of those persons for whom the
soils studies are being conducted.

Distinctions of various soil types recognized under the
classification are made by observation of surface soil parameters such
as soil tones resulting from moisture and organic content, vegetation
and the reflectance characteristics of the soil.

The clean sand (R) classification is composed of fine to medium
grained, poorly graded (mixed size), well to very well drained sands
containing no organic materials. This material occurs most commonly
along the many miles of Florida's coastline. Many of the ancient
marine terraces and existing beach ridges are also quite often
composed of such material.

A sand (S) classification has been designed to include fairly
clean (small amounts of primarily inorganic substances with some
organics, fine to medium grained, poorly to well drained sands. This
category by far is the most common soil in Florida, being found
throughout the state. These two classifications, Clean Sand (R) and
Sand (S) generally are good with respect to construction activities.
However, these same soils are somewhat limited in their ability to
nuture agricultural growth (citrus, vegetables, etc.).

An impure sand or organic sand (T) classification refers to fine
to medium grained, poor to fairly well drained sands. Appreciable
amounts of organic material are found intermixed in this type of soil.
The most common occurance of this type is in heavily vegetated areas
of the state. Along the edge of many lakes and streams a thin layer
of this soil may be found.

In the past, there has been no attempt to distinguish between the
various types of clays which may be encountered in Florida. Both
inorganic and organic clays are considered in this clay (C)
classification. Dependent upon the amount of sand associated with
clays, this soil type may be of value as a construction material.









A silty sand (F) classification has been established to include
the poorly graded sand and silt mixtures found in many areas of
Florida. This soil is for the most part fairly well drained but is
quite easily eroded. Wind-blown and flood deposits quite often
consist of this material.

Organic deposits are distinguished between peat and muck. Peat
deposits, (P) classification, consist of more than 50 percent organic
material, either slightly or non-decayed. Humus, grass, leaves and
branches may comprise the organic portion of such material. Many of
the original plant parts are identifiable and these soils possess
drainage qualities. Muck (M) classification, as referred to here,
consists of a mixture of sand, clay and organic materials.
Approximately 20 to 50 percent of the soil is of an organic nature.
Mucks show a greater amount of plasticity and decomposition than peat.
The original plant parts composing this material cannot be identified
due to the advanced stage of decomposition. Found extensively in
certain areas of the state, both of these organic soils are very
compressible and have undesirable construction characteristics.
However, for agricultural purposes, these soils are in great demand.
The features identifying these soils are color, odor, sponginess and
fibrous texture.

Areas where the soils have been altered by man to the degree
where they cannot readily be identified are classified as Disturbed or
Mixed Soils (H). Areas to which this classification has been applied
are airport sites, commercial and residential development sites and
occasionally areas being used intensively for agriculture.

Throughout the state, there are many areas where rock outcrops
occur, primarily in the form of limestone (LS). Where appropriate, a
limestone or dolomite (DM) classification will be identified.

Any special denotation required to depict fully the existing
conditions of an area will be added to the soils map legend when
appropriate. Materials such as muck, peats and clays, due to their
physical and chemical characteristics, are generally unsuitable as
materials on which to build structures of considerable significance.
These materials, although often undesirable from an engineering
standpoint, frequently possess a great potential for agriculture. The
various classifications of sand, (R), (S) and (T), based on the grain
composition and associated drainage characteristics, generally are
considered best from a construction viewpoint because of good natural
drainage and both physical and chemical stability. Subsurface soils
will be indicated by superposition. This information is gained from
soil samples and a working knowledge of the pedologic conditions of
the area. Various combinations of soils also may be indicated when
appropriate.










Due to the rapid urbanization occurring in many areas of Florida,
much of the natural surface cover has been altered making accurate
interpretations difficult. To overcome this problem, photography
dated prior to significant urban as well as agricultural development
is obtained.

Soils investigations give the requestor of the information a
basic knowledge of the soils conditions existing in the study area.
From the information presented, a more detailed engineering study of
the soils may be warrented.





DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS
OF DRAINAGE FEATURES MAPPING


Drainage studies are designed to show simply and directly the
predominant drainage features found in a given study area. Most of
the drainage features are obvious due to the presence of flowing or
standing water. The occurance of wetlands vegetation or soils
conductive to poor drainage conditions are natural indicators of
drainage features.

Four classifications have been established to indicate the types
of drainage: (1) Channelized Flow, (2) Unchannelized Flow, (3)
Intermittent Pond and (4) Waterbody. Channelized flow is the linear
movement of water in a defined pattern within either a natural or
man-made channel. Roadway drainage generally is considered in this
class. The unchannelized flow classification is applied to that type
of drainage which would occur under conditions of excessive rainfall
and/or is not confined to a well-defined channel. An example of such
a condition would be sheetflow descending a hill. A river-swamp
condition also might be classified as unchannelized flow. The
waterbodies classification refers to those water systems which are
non-flowing and contain some water throughout the year. An
intermittent waterbody is an area which might be slightly depressed
topographically and is felt to have potential for retention of some
water even if only following periods of excessive rainfall. The only
evidence of the existence of an intermittent waterbody may be the
wetland vegetation or soil materials often associated with areas
subject to periodic inundation. An example of such a waterbody would
be a watertable lake subject to appreciable fluctuations as watertable
(upper surface of the zone of saturation for underground water)
conditions vary. Retention basins, which might contain water only
after periods of excessive runoff, are another type of intermittent
waterbody.

When possible, the direction of flow will be indicated on the
drainage maps either from actual observation on the aerial photography
or from U.S.G.S. topographic quadrangle maps. The most recent
photography available is used during these studies in order to show
effectively any recent alterations in drainage conditions due to
changes in land use.

Such studies are intended to aid in the planning and development
of engineering and scientific projects by presenting an overview of
the drainage conditions to be expected. Notation of any conditions
which have potential of being detrimental, particularly to man-made
facilities, is included. Fluvial systems which might be altered
severely by construction activities will be noted when environmental
and/or hydrologic conditions warren.
























APPENDICES









APPENDIX A


LAND USE AND COVER CLASSIFICATIONS LISTING
OF LEVELS I - IV


This classification listing (Levels I-IV) reflects the detailed
identification possible in depicting the land use, land cover and land
forms. With the employment of color or false color infrared aerial
photography, a higher degree of accuracy, precision and detail can be
can be realized. The recommended scale is 1:12,000 to 1:10,000 or
larger for both the aerial photography and the graphics product (i.e.,
the maps). Once again, the listing presented herein is not a fixed
categorization but rather an open end system which may be expanded as
the need arises.









HIERARCHICAL LISTING OF
LAND USE AND COVER CLASSIFICATIONS


LEVELS


100 URBAN AND


- IV


BUILT-UP


110 Residential


Low Density




than


two dwelling


units


acre>


111 Fixed Single Family


Units


1111
1112


Single
Two or


Story Units


More


Stories


Units


112 Mobile Home Units


1121
1122
1123


Single
Double
Mixed


Wide
Wide
Widths


Units
Units
Units


113 Mixed Units




and mobile


home units>


119 Low Density Under Construction


120 Residential,


units


Medium Density

acre>


121 Fixed Single Family Units


1211
1212


Single
Two or


Story


Units


More Stories


Units


122 Mobile
1221


1222


Home


Units


Single Wide


Double


Wide


Units
Units


1223 Mixed


Widths


Units


123 Mixed Units




and mobile


home units>


129 Medium Density Under Construction


130 Residential,


131 Fixed


units


1312

132 Mobile


High


Density


ingle Family Units


acre>


Single
Two or

Home U




Story Units
More Stories


nits


Units




acre>


1321


Single


Wide


Units


Ur�a.~ ?11a









133 Multiple Dwelling Units, Low Rise less>
1331 Duplex Units
1332 Triplex Units
1333 Quadruplex Units
1334 Apartment Units
1335 Townhouse Units
1336 Patio Houses

134 Multiple Dwelling Units, High Rise or more>
1341 Apartment Units
1342 Townhouse Units
1343 Condominium Units
1344 Mixed Units

135 Mixed Units

139 High Density Under Construction

140 Commercial and Services

141 Retail Sales and Services
1411 Shopping Centers (Plazas, Malls)
1412 Service Stations
1413 Banking Facilities
1414 Convenience Stores
1415 Restaurants
1416 Builder's Supply
1417 Petroleum (Fuels)
1418 Mixed

142 Wholesale Sales and Services associated with industrial use>
1421 Warehouses
1422 Mini-Warehouses
1423 Junk Yards
1424 Farmers Markets
1425 Other

143 Professional Services

144 Cultural and Entertainment
1441 Theaters
1442 Museums
1443 Open Air Theaters
1444 Amphitheaters
1445 Amusement Parks
1446 Art Gallerys
1447 Librarys
1448 Other










145 Tourist Services
1451 Hotels
1452 Motels
1453 Travel Trailer Parks
1454 Campgrounds - Define
1455 Other

146 Oil and Gas Storage with industrial use or manufacturing>
1461 Crude Oil
1462 High Octane Fuels
1463 Liquified Gases
1464 Petroleum Fuels
1465 Motor Lubricants

147 Mixed Commercial and Services

148 Cemeteries

149 Commercial and Services Under Construction

150 Industrial

151 Food Processing
1511 Citrus
1512 Sugar
1513 Seafood
1514 Meat Packaging Facilities
1515 Poultry and Eggs
1516 Grains and Legumes

152 Timber Processing
1521 Sawmills
1522 Plywood and Veneer Mills
1523 Pulp and Paper Mills
1524 Pole Peeler and Treatment Plants
1525 Wood Distilation
1526 Log Home Prefabrication
1527 Woodyards

153 Mineral Processing
1531 Clays
1532 Phosphate
1533 Limerock
1534 Magnesia
1535 Heavy minerals

154 Oil and Gas Processing
1541 Gasoline
1542 Jet Fuel
1543 Fuel Oil
1544 Liquified Gases
1545 Asphalt










155 Other Light Industrial
1551 Boat Building and Repair
1552 Electronics Industry
1553 Furniture Manufacturers
1554 Aircraft Building and Repair
1555 Container Manufacturers (Cans, bottles, etc.)
1556 Mobile Home Manufacturers

156 Other Heavy Industrial
1561 Ship Building and Repair
1562 Pre-stressed Concrete Plants
1563 Metal Fabrication Plants
1564 Cement Plants

159 Industrial Under Construction

160 Extractive

161 Strip Mines
1611 Clays
1612 Peat
1613 Heavy Minerals

162 Sand and Gravel Pits

163 Rock Quarries
1631 Limerock
1632 Dolomite
1633 Phosphates
1634 Heavy Minerals

164 Oil and Gas Fields
1641 Crude Oil
1642 Natural Gas

165 Reclaimed Land

166 Holding Ponds

170 Institutional

171 Educational Facilities
1711 Universities or Colleges
1712 Vocational Schools
1713 High Schools
1714 Middle Schools
1715 Elementary Schools

172 Religious
1721 Parochial Schools
1722 Churchs/Synagogues Only











173 Military
1731 Air Force Installations
1732 Army Installations
1733 Navy Installations
1734 Marines Installations
1735 Coast Guard Installations
1736 National Guard Installations


174 Medical and Health Care
1741 Hospitals
1742 Nursing Homes and/or
1743 Clinics


Convalescent Centers


175 Governmental
1751 City Halls
1752 Courthouses
1753 Police Stations
1754 Fire Stations
1755 Office Buildings
1756 Maintenance Yards
1757 Post Offices
1758 Other

176 Correctional
1761 State Prisons
1762 Federal Prisons
1763 Juvenile Centers
1764 Road Prisons
1765 Municipal Prisons

177 Other Institutional

178 Commercial Child Care

179 Institutional Under Construction

180 Recreational

181 Swimming Beach

182 Golf Courses

183 Race Tracks
1831 Automobile Tracks
1832 Horse Tracks
1833 Dog Tracks

184 Marinas and Fish Camps
1841 Marinas (Basins)
1842 Fish Camps

185 Parks and Zoos
1851 City Parks
1852 Zoos









186 Community Recreational Facilities
1861 Baseball
1862 Basketball
1863 Football/Soccer
1864 Tennis

187 Stadiums schools, colleges or universities>

188 Historical Sites
1881 Prehistoric
1882 Historic

189 Other Recreational
1891 Riding Stables
1892 Go-Cart Tracks
1893 Skeet Ranges
1894 Rifle and/or Pistol Ranges
1895 Golf Driving Ranges
1896 Other


190 Open Land

191 Undeveloped Land within urban areas

192 Inactive Land with street pattern but without
structures.

193 Urban Land in transition without positive indicators
of intended activity.

194 Other Open Land

200 AGRICULTURE


210 Cropland and Pastureland

Z11 Improved Pastures

212 Unimproved Pastures

213 Woodland Pastures

214 Row Crops
2141 Corn
2142 Tomatoes
2143 Potatoes
2144 Beans
2145 Peanuts
2146 Soybeans
2147 Strawberries
2148 Tobacco










215 Field Crops
2151 Wheat
2152 Oats
2153 Hay
2154 Watermellons
2155 Grasses,
2156 Sugar cane

220 Tree Crops

221 Citrus Groves
2211 Oranges
2212 Grapefruits
2213 Tangerines

222 Fruit Orchards
2221 Peaches
2222 Mangos
2223 Avocados

223 Other Groves
2231 Pecans

230 Feeding Operations

231 Cattle Feeding Operations

232 Poultry Feeding Operations

233 Swine Feeding Operations

240 Nurseries and Vineyards

241 Tree Nurseries
2411 Pot Nurseries
2412 Field Nurseries

242 Sod Farms

243 Ornamentals

244 Vineyards

245 Floriculture

246 Timber Nurseries

250 Specialty Farms

251 Horse Farms

252 Dairies

253 Kennels









254 Aquaculture


259 Other

260 Other Open Lands

261 Fallow Crop Land

300 RANGELAND

310 Herbaceous

320 Shrub and Brushland

Level IV classification further subdivides Level
III classifications on the basis of ground cover
classes (other than grasses).

3201 Class 1 - less than 25% ground cover
(excluding grasses)
3202 Class 2 - 26 - 50% ground cover
3203 Class 3 - 51 - 75% ground cover
3204 Class 4 - greater than 75% ground cover

321 Palmetto Prairies

322 Coastal Scrub

329 Other Shrubs and Brush

330 Mixed Rangeland

400 UPLAND FORESTS

Level IV classification further subdivides Level
III classifications on the basis of tree crown
closure classes.

4001 Class 1 - 10 - 30% crown closure
4002 Class 2 - 31 - 50% crown closure
4003 Class 3 - 51 - 70% crown closure
4004 Class 4 - greater than 70% crown closure

410 Upland Coniferous Forests

411 Pine Flatwoods

412 Longleaf Pine - Xeric Oak

413 Sand Pine

414 Pine - Mesic Oak

419 Other Pines








420 Upland Hardwood Forests


421 Xeric Oak

422 Brazilian Pepper

423 Oak - Pine - Hickory

424 Melaleuca

425 Temperate Hardwoods

426 Tropical Hardwoods

427 Live Oak

428 Cabbage Palm

429 Wax Myrtle - Willow

430 Upland Hardwood Forests Continued

431 Beech - Magnolia

432 Sand Live Oak

433 Western Everglades Hardwoods

434 Hardwood - Conifer Mixed

435 Dead Trees

437 Australian Pine

438 Mixed Hardwoods

439 Other Hardwoods

440 Tree Plantations

441 Coniferous Plantations
4411 Sand Pine Plantations
4412 Christmas Tree Plantations

442 Hardwood Plantations
4421 Eucalyptus Plantations

443 Forest Regeneration Areas

444 Experimental Tree Plots

445 Seed Plantations









500 WATER

510 Streams and Waterways

520 Lakes

521 Lakes larger than 500 acres (202 hectares).

522 Lakes larger than 100 acres (40 hectares) but less
than 500 acres.

523 Lakes larger than 10 acres (4 hectares) but less than
100 acres.

524 Lakes less than 10 acres (4 hectares) which are
dominant features.

530 Reservoirs

531 Reservoirs larger than 500 acres (202 hectares).

532 Reservoirs larger than 100 acres (40 hectares) but
less than 500 acres.

533 Reservoirs larger than 10 acres (4 hectares) but
less than 100 acres.

534 Reservoirs less than 10 acres (4 hectares) which
are dominant features.

540 Bays and Estuaries

541 Embayments opening directly into the Gulf of Mexico
or the Atlantic Ocean.

542 Embayments not opening directly into the Gulf of
Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean.

550 Major Springs

560 Slough Waters

600 Wetlands

610 Wetland Hardwood Forests

Level IV classification further subdivides Level
III classifications on the basis of tree crown
closure classes.

6101 Class 1 - 10 - 30% crown closure
6102 Class 2 - 31 - 50% crown closure
6103 Class 3 - 51 - 70% crown closure
6104 Class 4 - greater than 70% crown closure









611 Bay Swamps


612 Mangrove Swamps

613 Gum Swamps

614 Titi Swamps

615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland)

616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs

617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods

620 Wetland Coniferous Forests

Level IV classification further subdivides Level
III classifications on the basis of tree crown
closure classes.


6201 Class 1 -
6202 Class 2 -
6203 Class 3 -
6204 Class 4 -


10 - 30% crown closure
31 - 50% crown closure
51 - 70% crown closure
greater than 70% crown closure


621 Cypress

622 Pond Pine

623 Atlantic White Cedar

624 Cypress - Pine - Cabbage Palm

630 Wetland Forested Mixed

640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands

641 Freshwater Marshes
6411 Sawgrass
6412 Cattail
6413 Spike Rush
6414 Maidencane


6415 Dog fennel
6416 Arrowroot

642 Saltwater Marshes
6421 Cordgrass


and low marsh grasses


6422 Needlerush

643 Wet Prairies

644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
6441 Water Lettuce
6442 Spatterdock
6443 Water Hyacinth









6444 Duckweed
6445 Water Lily

645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation
6451 Hydrilla

650 Non-Vegetated

651 Tidal Flats

652 Shorelines

653 Intermittent Ponds

654 Oyster Bars

700 BARREN LAND

710 Beaches Other Than Swimming Beaches

720 Sand Other Than Beaches

730 Exposed Rock

731 Exposed Rock with Marsh Grasses

740 Disturbed Land

741 Rural land in transition without positive indicators
of intended activity.

742 Borrow Areas

743 Spoil Areas

744 Fill Areas

745 Burned Areas

800 TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION AND UTILITIES


810 Transportation

811 Airports
8111 Commercial
8112 General aviation
8113 Private
8119 Abandoned

812 Railroads
8121 Holding and Transhipment Yards
8122 Repair Facilities
8123 Associated Buildings







813 Bus and Truck Terminals
8131 Bus (Commercial)
8132 Bus (Government, schools, city service)
8133 Truck Terminals

814 Roads and Highways
8141 Limited Access (Interstate system)
8142 Divided Highways (Federal-State)
8143 Two-Lane Highways (State)
8144 County Maintained
8145 Graded and Drained
8146 Primative/Trails

815 Port Facilities
8151 Wharves
8152 Piers
8153 Terminals (Cargo)
8154 Terminals (Passenger)
8155 Repair Facilties
8156 Shipyards (Building-Fabrication)
8157 Ship Chandlers
8158 Port Administration and Port Services
8159 Facilities Under Construction

816 Canals and Locks
8161 Locks
8162 Power Supply Buildings

817 Oil, Water or Gas Long Distance Transmission Lines
8171 Pipe Lines
8172 Pump Stations

818 Auto Parking Facilities other land use>

819 Transportation Facilities Under Construction
8191 Highways
8192 Railroads
8193 Airports
8194 Port Facilities
8195 Pipe Lines

820 Communications

821 Transmission Towers
8211 Microwave
8212 Radio/Television
8213 Antenna Farms
8214 Navigational Systems (i.e., Loran, ILS)








822 Communication Facilities
8221 Telephone
8222 Radio
8223 Television

829 Communication Facilities Under Construction

830 Utilities

831 Electrical Power Facilities
8311 Thermal
8312 Gas Turbine
8313 Nuclear
8314 Hydro
8315 Sub-Stations

832 Electrical Power Transmission Lines
8321 Trunk
8322 Feeder

833 Water Supply Plants
8331 Treatment Plants
8332 Settling Plants
8333 Water Tanks
8334 Well Fields
8335 Pumping Stations


834 Sewage
8341
8342
8343


Treatment
Treatment Plants
Lift Stations
Aeration Fields


835 Solid Waste Disposal

839 Utilities Under Construction


0 09 SPECIAL


8NOITACIFISSALC


910 Vegetation


911 Sea Grass
9111 Sea Grass,
9112 Sea Grass,
9113 Sea Grass,


Sparce - Medium
Dense
Patchy


90 SPEC IAL DECLASSIFICATION










APPENDIX B

EXAMPLES OF LAND USE AND VEGETATION INVENTORY MAPS


66-68











LAND USE & VEGETATION INVENTORY


10>
IsN :s .4 10 , 13
AtI 'X I A.










,.9 1-. A,1.0At 222 cs ,, .



1. 4,-


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so 4 0





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00~~~~3 .1 04 0so013 440










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004 04 20
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411


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conf lant1 A1110A


SCALE 1.24.000


, o , < tO oo 4+ Mm so r oo
1ewr - -.1 -0=I ---r - C


STATE OF FLORIDA
TALLAtHSSEE IA .CIPAL AIRPORT
98


I


rl


i


P LU


44]







APPENDIX C


EXAMPLES OF GEOLOGIC FEATURES, SOILS
AND DRAINAGE MAPS


69-72













GEOLOGICAL FEATURES MAP


0
o


0 o 0
. 0

*0


0o


o 0


- . o


0 0


/71/
0� /
/..
o / ,-0-
.'*'-


SCALE *.24.000



S. e- e ien -


STATE OF FLORIDA
TMLMMAAuSSU ICIPAL AWIN


0


- ~3O9


o0 0o\
-^**












DRAINAGE MAP


- ----


SCALE 1.24.000





InM M a 1--Wn


STATE OF FLORIDA
TALLAHASSEE MAICIPAL AIRPORT
I1S












SOILS MAP


SCALE 1.24.000




tol m e ,maru


STATE OF FLORIDA
TALLAHASSEE MUNICIPAL AIPORT
SIts


I 0 CE NO
- ~ -'-*







iiSit. VSNPI.iIU' sir,, i.i...tii,.








APPENDIX D

COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF
MAJOR PLANT SPECIES

Species marked with an asterisk (*) are introduced species.

CONIFEROPHYTA (GYMNOSPERMS)

CONIFERALES


Pinaceae
Pinus palustris
Pinus echinata
Pinus taeda
Pinus elliottii var. elliottii
Pinus serotina
Pinus glabra
Pinus clausa var. clausa
Pinus clausa var. immuginata

Taxodiaceae
Taxodium distichum var. distichum
Taxodium distichum var. nutans

Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Juniperus silicicola


Longleaf pine
Shortleaf pine
Loblolly pine
Slash pine
Pond pine
Spruce pine
Ocala sand pine
Choctawhatchee sand pine


Baldcypress
Pondcypress


Atlantic white cedar
Southern red cedar


ANTHOPHYTA (ANGIOSPERMS)

MONOCOTS (LILIOPSIDA)


Arecaceae (Palmae)
Sabal palmetto
Serona repens

Salicaceae
Populus deltoides
Salix nigra
Salix longipes

Myricaceae
Myrica cerifera

Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra
Carya glabra
Carya illinoensis
Carya tomentosa
Carya aquatic


Cabbage palmetto
Saw palmetto


Eastern cottonwood
Black willow
Coastalplain willow


Wax myrtle


Black walnut
Pignut hickory
Pecan hickory
Mockernut hickory
Water hickory









Betulaceae
Betula nigra
Carpinus caroliniana
Ostrya virginiana

Fagaceae
Fagus grandifolia
Castanea pumila var. ashei
Quercus alba
Quercus chapmanii
Quercus durandii
Quercus falcata
Quercus incana
Quercus laevis
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus michauxii
Quercus stellata var. margaretta
Quercus virginiana var. virginiana
Quercus virginiana var. geminata

Ulmaceae
Celtis laevigata
Ulmus alata
Ulmus americana var. floridana

Moraceae
Morus rubra

Magnoliaceae
Liriodendron tulipifera
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia virginiana

Lauraceae
Cinnamomum camphora*
Persea americana*
Persea borbonia var. borbonia
Persea borbonia var. pubescens

Hamamelidaceae
Liquidambar styracifua

Platanaceae
Platanus occidentalis

Rosaceae
Crataegus sp.
Prunus angustifolia
Prunus caroliniana
Prunus serotina

Fabaceae
Cercis canadensis
Robinia pseudoacacia
Albizia julibrissin*


River birch
Blue beech
Hophornbean


American beech
Ashe chinkapin
White oak
Chapman oak
Bluff oak
Southern red oak
Bluejack oak
Turkey oak
Laurel oak
Swamp chestnut oak
Sand post oak
Live oak
Sand live oak


Sugarberry
Winged elm
Florida elm


Red mulberry


Yellow poplar
Evergreen magnolia
Sweetbay magnolia


Camphor tree
Avocado
Redbay
Swampbay


Sweetgum


Sycamore


Hawthorn
Chickasaw plum
Carolina laurelcherry
Black cherry


Redbud
Black locust
Mimosa tree







Euphorbiaceae
Aleurites fordii*
Sapium sebiferum*


Anacardiaceae
Schinus terebinthifolius*


Tung-oil tree
Chinese tallow tree


Brazillian pepper


Cyrillaceae
Cyrilla racemiflora

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex ambigua
Ilex cassine
Ilex glabra
Ilex coriacea
Ilex myrtifolia
Ilex opaca
Ilex vomitoria

Aceraceae
Acer barbatum
Acer negundo
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharinum

Hippocastanaceae
Aesculus pavia


Tiliaceae
Tilia caroliniana

Nyssaceae
Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora
Nyssa aquatic


Theaceae
Gordonia lasianthus

Cornaceae
Cornus florida
Cornus stricta

Ericaceae
Vaccinium arboreum
Lyonia ferruginea
Lyonia lucida

Ebenaceae
Diospyros virginiana

Oleaceae
Chionanthus virginicus
Fraxinus americana
Fraxinus caroliniana


Swamp titi


Carolina holly
Dahoon holly
Gallberry
Giant gallberry
Myrtle leaved holly
American holly
Yaupon


Florida sugar maple
Boxelder
Red maple
Silver maple


Red buckeye


Carolina basswood


Swamp tupelo
Water tupelo


Loblolly bay


Flowering dogwood
Swamp dogwood


Tree sparkleberry
Stagger-bush
Fetter-bush


Persimmon


Fringetree
White ash
Carolina (Pop) ash










Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum scabrellum
Viburnum obovatum
Viburnum nudum
Viburnum rufidulum

Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus sp.*
Melaleuca quinquenervia*

Rhizophoraceae
Rhizophora mangle

Combretaceae
Conocarpus erecta
Laguncularia racemosa

Verbenaceae
Avicennia nitida

Burseraceae
Bursera simaruba

Myrsinaceae
Ardisia escallonioies

Myrtaceae
Eugenia sp.

Rutaceae
Zanthorylum fagara


Polygonaceae
Coccoloba uvifera


Viburnum
Walter viburnum
Possum-haw viburnum
Rusty black-haw


Eucalyptus
Melaleuca


Mangrove


Button-mangrove
White-mangrove


Black-mangrove


Gumbo-limbo


Marlberry


Stoppers


Wild lime


Seagrape









APPENDIX E

ENGLISH TO METRIC CONVERSIONS


Linear


1 centimeter (cm)

1 meter (m)

1 meter


1 kilometer (km)


1 kilometer

1 mile

1 inch

1 foot


1 square meter

1 square kilometer

1 hectare


= 10 millimeters (mmn)

= 10 centimeters

= 3.2808 feet (ft)
= 39.37 inches (in)

= 1000 meters

= 0.62137 miles

= 5280 .feet

= 25.400 millimeters

= 304.80 millimeters


= 10.76 square feet

= 247.1 acres

= 2.471 acres


Area










APPENDIX F

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES


Throughout this manual appear exerpts, citations and references
from the sources listed below. Rather than footnoting or citing each
of the above, a complete reference listing is given below. Also
included are a number of source materials not used in the production
of this manual but which may be of interest and utility of users of
this manual.

LAND USE


Anderson, J. R., E. F. Hardy, and J. T. Roach.
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR USE WITH REMOTE SENSOR DATA.
U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671, 1971.


A LAND-USE


Anderson, J. R., E. F. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. Witmer.
LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR USE WITH REMOTE SENSING DATA
(REVISED). Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 1976.


Bureau of Comprehensive Planning, Division of State
Department of Administration. THE FLORIDA LAND USE
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM, A TECHNICAL REPORT. State of
Department of Administration. Second Printing, 1976.


Planning,
AND COVER
Florida,


LAND COVER


Society of American Foresters.
1976.


FOREST COVER TYPES OF NORTH AMERICA.


Craighead, J. H.. THE TREES OF SOUTH FLORIDA.
Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 1971.

Davis J. H.. THE NATURAL FEATURES
ESPECIALLY THE VEGETATION, AND THE EVERGLADES.
Department of Conservation, Geological Survey.
No. 25. 1943.


University of Miami


OF SOUTHERN
State of
Geological


Fowells, H. A.. SILVICS OF FOREST TREES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 271. 1965.


Harrar, E. W., and J. G. Harrar.
Publications; N. Y.. 1962.


GUIDE TO SOUTHERN TREES.


Kurz, H.. FLORIDA DUNES AND SCRUB, VEGETATION AND GEOLOGY. State of
Florida, Department of Conservation, Geological Survey. Geological
Bulletin No. 23. 1942


Kurz, H., and R. K. Godfrey. TREES OF NORTHERN FLORIDA.
of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida. 1962.


University


FLORIDA,
Florida,
Bulletin


USDA


Dover








Kurz,


, and


K. Wagner.


TIDAL MARSHES OF THE GULF


COASTS OF NORTHERN FLORIDA AND CHARLESTON


Florida State University Studies


SOUTH
1957.


AND ATLANTIC


CAROLINA


160,


Tarver,
AQUATIC
Research


J. A.


AND WETLAND
and Control


Rodgers


PLANTS OF FLORIDA.


Florida


Mahler,
Bureau


Department


Aquatic


Natural


Lazor.
Plant


Resources


1979.


Teal


Little


, Brown and


. Teal.
Company


LIFE AND DEATH


, Boston.


OF A SALT MARSH.


278,


1969.


USDA


Forest


Service.


SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS FOR THE MAJOR FOREST


TYPES OF THE


UNITED STATES


Agriculture Handbook 445


1979


PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES


Lattman,


TECHNIQUES


AND LINEAMENTS ON AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS


OF MAPPING GEOLOGIC FEATURES


568-576


, Photogr


TRACES
metric


Engineering


1958.


Newton,
PROBLEMS


J. G.


IN ALABAMA


EARLY DETECTION AND CORRECTION OF
, WITH PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF REMOTE


SINKHOLE


SENSING APPLICATIONS
76, Research Project


United States


930-070.


Geologic


Survey


HPR Report


1976.


PHOTO


INTERPRETATION


American
American


Society
Society


Photogrammetry.


Photogrammetry


Falls


MANUAL OF REMOTE


Church,


Virginia


SENSING


Vols


1983.


Avery


, T. E.


INTERPRETATION OF


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.


Burgess


Publishing Comp


Minneapolis


Minn.


1968.


Avery,


T. E.


Forest Service


FORESTER


GUIDE TO AERIAL PHOTO


, Agriculture Handbook 308.


INTERPRETATION.


USDA


1978


Estes,
PHOTOGRAPHIC


A PERSPECTIVE


INTERPRETATION


Symposium on Remote
1977.


Sensing of


ON THE


(Procedings of
the Environment


STATE OF THE ART OF


the llth International


Volume


April


Paine, D. P..
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY


John


AND IMAGE


and Sons


INTERPRETATION FOR


.. 1981.


Wolf,
Comp.


ELEMENTS OF


PHOTOGRAMMETRY.


McGraw-Hill


Book


.. 1974.
























ZONING MAP


* * �** I .44.. 4


-S -
S MCI! Saw. eCU.
nalt men ~a
7L OWTISMI tTh1 p
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DIGITIZATION PERMISSION

� [year of pubhcation] Florida Department of Transportation [source
text]

The Florida Department of Transportation has made this publication
available to the University of Flonda, on behalf of the IMLS grant Linking
Flonda's Natural Heritage, for purposes of digitization and Internet
distribution The handbook may not be copied for resale Pnrinted copies
may be obtained from the Flonda Department of Transportation
(http //www dot state fl us/)

Under the Statutes of Flonda (FS 257 05, 257 105, and 377 075), the Flonda
Department of Transportation (Tallahassee, FL), as a division of state
government makes its documents public ( e , purlIshed) and extends to the
state's official agencies and hbranes, including the University of Flonda's
Smathers Library, limited nghts of reproduction

Contact the Flonda Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, Flonda, for
additional information and permissions