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Title: Ecological and distributional notes on the freshwater fish of southern Florida
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Biological Sciences


ECOLOGICAL AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES ON
THE FRESHWATER FISH OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


JAMES A. KUSHLAN AND THOMAS E. LODGE
Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124


ABSTRACT: The freshwater fish fauna is composed of 108 species in 34 families. Only 29% of the
fauna belong to obligatory freshwater families. The Cyprino dontidae and Poeciliidae represent 19% of
the native fauna. Eleven exotic species are established. The distribution and habitat of each species are
described.

DESPITE recent interest in the wetlands of southern Florida, the freshwater
fish fauna of the region is superficially known and poorly documented. The only
published list of freshwater fish known to occur in this region (Kilby and Caldwell,
1955) is derived primarily from limited field collections in and near Everglades
National Park. Studies of ecology and life history of southern Florida fish have
been limited almost entirely to commercially important species and, with few
exceptions such as Hunt (1953), Gunter and Hall (1963a, 1965), and Kushlan
(1972a), published studies on the freshwater fish communities of southern Florida
are almost nonexistent.
Ecological work has been hampered by the paucity of published distributional
information. In addition, it is difficult for workers to judge the significance of new
results because the pertinent literature is widely scattered. Information on
southern Florida fish fauna is included in previous state lists starting with Ever-
mann and Kendall (1900) and including the important works of Carr and Coin
(1955) and Briggs (1958). The latter papers were based primarily on northern
Florida specimens and reflected the paucity of information available on southern
Florida fish.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing published information on
the freshwater fishes of southern Florida with the addition of recent data
collected by the authors. We have emphasized the gross distribution of each
species and have added information on habitat preferences wherever possible.
Detailed information on reproduction and other aspects of biology are too little
known in most species for inclusion. The paper includes those native species of
fish which have been collected in freshwater in Lake Okeechobee, the
Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie Rivers, south to the southern tip of the peninsula.
This region encompasses the vast freshwater swamps and marshes of the
Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp (Fig. 1). The list also includes introduced
species which have established populations in the region. Davis (1943) and
Craighead (1971) described this region and the ecological communities found
within it.







KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


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Fig. Map of southern Fl orida.









FAUhNA--The freshwater fish fauna of southern Florida is composed of 108

cipally freshwater" and "principally marine" species. Each species 1s assigned to
species which occur in freshwater in Florida (Carr, 1937; Gunter, 1942; HubbsT
0.- R.." I PARK P-d- K I,


MILES 7 MANGROVE







Fig. 1. Map of southern Florida.


FAUNA-The freshwater fish fauna of southern Florida is composed of 108
species listed in Table 1. The list is divided into two broad categories of "prin-
cipally freshwater" and "principally marine" species. Each species is assigned to
one of these categories based upon present information on whether or not the
species carries out its life cycle in freshwater which we define as having a salinity
of less than 0.30% (Gunter and Hall, 1963b). Distinguishing between the two
categories becomes somewhat difficult because of the large number of marine
species which occur in freshwater in Florida (Carr, 1937; Gunter, 1942; Hubbs
and Alien, 1943; Herald and Stickland, 1949; Carr and Goin, 1955; Tagatz, 1968).
Over half the species listed in Table 1 are marine. Possible reasons for this
phenomenon have been discussed by Odum (1953), Hulet et al. (1967), Martin
(1972) and others. Some species classified as principally marine, such as the


No. 2, 1974]







112 FLORIDA SCIENTIST [Vol. 37

catadromous American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the tarpon (Megalops atlan-
tica), move far into the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp. Other marine species
move inland only short distances from the coast and are generally found in canals
and rivers. Some families have both principally marine and principally freshwater
members.

TABLE 1. List of the freshwater fishes of southern Florida.


Lepisosteus osseus
Lepisosteus platyrhincus
Amia calva
Dorosoma cepedianum
Dorosoma petenense
Esox americanus
Esox niger
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Notropis chalybaeus
Notropis emiliae
Notropis maculatus
Notropis petersoni
Erimyzon sucetta
Ictalurus catus
Ictalurus natalis
Ictalurus nebulosus
Ictalurus punctatus
Noturus gyrinus



Carcharhinus leucas
Dasyatus sabina
Elops saurus
Megalops atlantica
Anguilla rostrata
Brevoortia smith
Brevoortia tyrannus
Anchoa hepsetus
Anchoa mitchilli
Arius felis
Bagre marinus
Strongylura marina
Strongylura notata
Strongylura timucu
Adinia xenica
Floridichthys carpio
Fundulus grandis
Fundulus similis
Lucania parva


Principally Freshwater Species

Noturus leptacanthus
Clarius batrachus'
Hypostomus sp.'
Aphredoderus sayanus
Cyprinodon variegatus
Fundulus chrysotus
Fundulus cingulatus
Fundulus confluentus
Fundulus seminolis
Jordanella floridae
Lucania goodei
Belonesox belizanus'
Gambusia affinis
Heterandria formosa
Poecilia latipinna
Xiphophorus helleri'
Xiphophorus variatus'


Principally Marine Species

Menidia beryllina
Centropomus ensiferus
Centropomus parallelus
Centropomus pectinatus
Centropomus undecimalis
Caranx hippos
Oligoplites saurus
Lutjanus griseus
Diapterus olisthostomus
Diapterus plumieri
Eucinostomus argenteus
Eucinostomus gula
Archosargus probatocephalus
Lagodon rhomboides
Cynoscion arenarius
Cynoscion regalis
Leiostomus xanthurus
Micropogon undulatus
Pogonias cromis


Labidesthes sicculus
Elassoma evergladei
Enneacanthus glorious
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis marginatus
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis punctatus
Micropterus salmoides
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Etheostoma fusiforme
Astronotus ocellatus'
Cichlasoma bimaculatum'
Cichlasoma octofasciatum'
Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum'
Hemichromis bimaculatus'
Tilapia mossambica'


Sciaenops ocellata
Mugil cephalus
Mugil curema
Mugil trichodon
Dormitator maculatus
Eleotris pisonis
Gobiomorus dormitor
Gobioides broussonneti
Gobionellus boleosoma
Gobionellus gracillimus
Gobionellus hastatus
Gobiosoma bosci
Gobiosoma robustum
Lophogobius cyprinoides
Microgobius gulosus
Citharichthys spilopterus
Achirus lineatus
Trinectes maculatus


'introduced species

An analysis of the freshwater fish fauna by families is presented in Table 2.
Two of the 36 families listed are considered to be hypothetical because
representatives have not been collected in freshwater in southern Florida







No. 2, 1974]


KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


although they are expected to occur there. Three other families are represented
only by introduced species. Each family is classified in Table 2 as belonging to the
primary, secondary or peripheral division of fishes. These groupings, based upon
the system of Myers (1938) and later authors, classify families as to their
physiological adaptation to marine environments and therefore reflect their
ability to invade new areas by marine routes.

TABLE 2. Families and number of species of freshwater fish in southern Florida.

Number of Number of Number of
Number of principally principally established Number of
Salinity verified freshwater marine exotic hypothetical
Family' class2 species species species species species'

Carcharhinidae Per 1 0 1 0 0
[Pristidae] Per 0 2*
Dasyatidae Per 1 0 1 0 0
Lepisosteidae Prim 2 2 0 0 0
Amiidae Prim 1 1 0 0 0
Elopidae Per 2 0 2 0 0
Anguillidae Per 1 0 1 0 0
Clupeidae Per 4 2 2 0 0
Engraulidae Per 2 0 2 0 0
Esocidae Prim 2 2 0 0 0
Cyprinidae Prim 5 5 0 0 0
Catostomidae Prim 1 1 0 0 0
Ictaluridae Prim 6 6 0 0 0
Clariidae Sec 1 0 0 1 0
Ariidae Per 2 0 2 0 0
Loricariidae Prim 1 0 0 1 0
Aphredoderidae Prim 1 1 0 0 0
Belonidae Per 3 0 3 0 0
Cyprinodontidae Sec 12 7 5 0 1.
Poeciliidae Sec 6 3 0 3 1"
Atherinidae Per 2 1 1 0 0
[Syngnathidae] Per 0 1"
Centropomidae Per 4 0 4 0 0
Centrarchidae Prim 9 9 0 0 0
Percidae Prim 1 1 0 0 0
Carangidae Per 2 0 2 0 1'
Lutjanidae Per 1 0 1 0 1'
Gerreidae Per 4 0 4 0 1
Sparidae Per 2 0 2 0 1"
Sciaenidae Per 6 0 6 0 1'
Cichlidae Sec 6 0 0 6 2
Mugilidae Per 3 0 3 0 0
Eleotridae Per 3 0 3 0 0
Gobiidae Per 8 0 8 0 2'
Bothidae Per 1 0 1 0 0
Soleidae Per 2 0 2 0 0

'Brackets indicate family is based entirely on species of hypothetical occurrence.
'Classified as primary (Prim), secondary (Sec), or peripheral (Per) freshwater families. Peripheral families include
those elsewhere classified as vicarious, complementary, and diadromous. Classification use follows Myers (1938) and
Miller (1966) except for Lepisosteidae which is usually considered to be a secondary family and Clariidae which is
usually considered to be a primary family. These follow the suggestion of C. R. Robins (personal communication).
'Hypothetical status is due to either (*) euryhaline species of unproven occurrence in freshwater in southern
Florida or (s) freshwater species whose current breeding status is unknown.

Native Fauna: There are 97 species of native freshwater fishes in southern
Florida. It is of biogeographic interest that only 9 of the 31 native families found
in southern Florida belong to the primary (i.e., obligatory freshwater) division and
represent only 29% of the entire native fauna. The affinities of these families are







decidedly temperate North American, all having ranges extending at least as far
north as the Great Lakes region. Species of primary families occurring in southern
Florida are derived from the coastal plain fauna of southeastern North America.
Most of the primary families, especially the Catostomidae, Percidae and
Cyprinidae experience a reduction in the number of species from north to south in
Florida (see Briggs, 1958) despite the existence of continuous freshwater avenues
for colonization. It seems most probable that the weak invasion of southern
Florida by these families is due to a lack of proper habitat. The catostomids,
percids and cyprinids are primarily fish of fast-flowing streams, a habitat missing
from central and southern Florida. Species of these families that do occur in
southern Florida are those which occupy slow-moving marsh and swamp habitats
throughout their range. Two other families of primary freshwater fish, the Ic-
taluridae and Centrarchidae, are well-represented in southern Florida. While
southern Florida ictalurids are found commonly in shallow habitats, the cen-
trarchids are primarily fishes of stable habitats and are presently found in greatest
abundance in canals, the most permanent of present-day habitats.
The native southern Florida freshwater fish fauna has two additional
biogeographic components corresponding to the peripheral and secondary
divisions. Only two native families are members of the secondary division. The
Cyprinodontidae with 12 species makes the largest contribution of any family to
the fauna. This family and the closely related Poeciliidae, together represent 19%
of the total native fauna and one-quarter of the native species considered to be
principally freshwater fish. These species, in addition, form the dominant com-
ponent of the small fish fauna of the freshwater ecosystems of southern Florida.
Although both of these families are derived from the neotropics, they have
undoubtedly entered southern Florida from the north by both freshwater and
marine routes.
Peripheral families comprise 20 of 41 native families and include the two
hypothetical families of southern Florida fish. It is notable that peripheral families
account for 56 of the 97 species of native fish verified to occur in southern Florida
and that 3 of these are considered to be principally freshwater species.
Exotic Fauna: Eleven species of introduced fish are known to be established in
freshwater in southern Florida. These comprise the families Clariidae,
Loricariidae, Poeciliidae and Cichlidae (Table 2). This fauna has been recently
reviewed by Lachner, Robins and Courtenay (1970) and Courtenay and Robins
(1973).
Six of the species of exotic fish currently established in southern Florida are
members of the tropical secondary freshwater family Cichlidae, a highly diver-
sified group considered to be in many ways the ecological counterpart of the
centrarchids. Members of this family are generally well adapted for survival in the
Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp due to their ability to withstand drought,
their highly developed system of parental care and their general aggressiveness.
The Centrarchidae on the other hand comprise a primary freshwater family
which reaches the extreme of its range in southern Florida in habitats
characterized by seasonal drought to which the family is poorly adapted (Kushlan,


[Vol. 37


FLORIDA SCIENTIST






KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


1974). It is anticipated that the spread of cichlids will be at the expense of the
native centrarchids. The range expansion of Cichlasoma bimaculatum, already
widespread throughout southern Florida, was aided by its tolerance of brackish
water and its use of the extensive canal system of the interior. The future of both
the exotic and native fish fauna of southern Florida should be a matter of concern.
FUTURE STUDY-It is hoped that this paper will serve to stimulate interest in
and further research on the freshwater fish of southern Florida. The paucity of
published information which compelled us to begin this work was even more
apparent in its compilation. We have noted however some especially glaring gaps
in current knowledge.
Due to the existence of canals, the correlation between the present distribu-
tion of fish and their historical distribution is not exact. It is anticipated that older
collections might shed some light on this problem. This paper does not include
data from any of the extensive collections of southern Florida fish which exist in
various locations. The study of these collections might reveal interesting patterns
of changing distribution.
Apparently biogeographic differences exist between the eastern and western
parts of southern Florida, the one composed of the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades
basin, the other composed of the Big Cypress Swamp, sandy flatwoods and
Caloosahatchee river drainage. These patterns cannot be resolved without ex-
tensive sampling in and near the Big Cypress Swamp, where few data presently
exist.
The extent of the penetration of marine fish into freshwater, especially in
canals and rivers, deserves additional study. In this respect the Gobeiidae and the
Eleotridae present particularly interesting problems. Of all the families included
in this paper we have been most hesitant and tentative in our accounts of the
gobies. Study of the ecology, distribution and life history of species in both these
families is much desired.
Finally we might take note that intensive ecological studies of southern
Florida fish have only recently begun. Much additional work is necessary. The
area presents abundant opportunity for significant and rewarding study.


SPECIES ACCOUNTS
The species accounts that follow describe the range and habitat of 108 verified
and 14 hypothetical species of freshwater fish. Nomenclature and sequence
follows Bailey et al. (1970) wherever possible. Names of introduced fishes follow
Courtenay and Robins (1973). All information not credited to other sources are
observations or generalizations attributable to the authors. It should be noted that
the primary state work, Carr and Coin (1955) credits a number of species to
southern Florida which apparently do not occur there. These species-which have
been excluded from the present paper include the following: Atlantic sharpnose
shark, Rhizoprinodon terraenovae (Richardson); hickory shad, Alosa mediocris
(Mitchill); skipjack herring, Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque); Alewife, Alosa
pseudoharengus (Wilson); mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus);


No. 2, 1974]






116 FLORIDA SCIENTIST [Vol. 37

mountain mullet, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft); and frillfin goby,
Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes).

Order SQUALIFORMES, Family CARCHARHINIDAE
Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes). The bull shark is a euryhaline species (Briggs,
1958) credited to the Florida freshwater fauna by Carr and Coin (1955) who stated that no
specimens were recorded. Large rivers such as the Caloosahatchee, St. Lucie and the
numerous smaller rivers of the southwest coast such as the Shark, Broad and North Rivers
of Everglades National Park provide suitable habitat. Odum (1971) found juveniles in
freshwater in North River in 1967.
Order RAJIFORMES, Family PRISTIDAE
Pristis pectinata Latham-hypothetical. The small tooth sawfish is a euryhaline species
present along the southwest coast and may ascend the coastal rivers into freshwater.
Pristis perotteti Muller and Henle-hypothetical. The status of the largetooth sawfish is
similar to that of the smalltooth sawfish.
Family DASYATIDAE
Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur). The Atlantic stingray ascends both the St. Lucie (Gunter
and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965) to freshwater.
Order SEMIONOTIFORMES, Family LEPISOSTEIDAE
Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus). Although Carr and Goin (1955) and Briggs (1958)
considered the longnose gar to range throughout the state, the species apparently occurs in
southern Florida only in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). The subspecies is L. o. osseus
(Linnaeus).
Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay. The Florida gar is found in all habitats throughout
the freshwater swamps and marshes of southern Florida. It is abundant in marsh-lined
canals (Hunt, 1953, 1960), ponds, cypress sloughs, mangrove streams and other deep-water
habitats. It is not common in canals in developed areas or along agricultural canals in
southeast Dade County (Belshe, 1961). It occurs in cypress swamps and sawgrass marshes
near canals during high water levels and apparently penetrates into the interior
Everglades during prolonged high water. It moves into mangroves during the rainy season
(Tabb and Manning, 1961; Odum, 1971).
Order AMIIFORMES, Family AMIIDAE
Amia calva Linnaeus. The bowfin (often called mudfish) is found throughout southern
Florida. It is probably most common during high water in shallow communities but
becomes abundant in ponds and canals during low water where it is well adapted for
survival during drought.
Order ELOPIFORMES, Family ELOPIDAE
Elops saurus Linnaeus. The ladyfish occurs in freshwater in southern Florida in
mangrove swamps (Tabb and Manning, 1961), in canals connected to salt water and in the
St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It
is pelagic in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971).
Megalops atlantica Valenciennes. The tarpon is widespread in freshwater in southern
Florida (Carr and Coin, 1955) as both juveniles (Wade, 1962) and adults. It occurs in
airboat trails in the southern Everglades, in Taylor Slough during high water, and in canals
in the conservation areas, the Big Cypress Swamp, and along both coasts. Large in-
dividuals are dependent upon such deep water habitats for dispersal as is shown by the fact
that tarpons appeared in Deep Lake after the construction of a canal joining the lake to
Barron River Canal (B. P. Hunt, personal communication).
Order ANGUILLIFORMES, Family ANGUILLIDAE
Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur). The American eel is a catadromous species found in most
deeper water areas of southern Florida with connections to the ocean. These include
mangrove streams, Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and many canals, including shallow
ones, as far inland as the Big Cypress Swamp and Everglades.







KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


Order CLUPEIFORMES, Family CLUPEIDAE
Brevoortia smith Hildebrand. The yellowfin menhaden occurs in freshwater in
Everglades National Park (C. R. Robins, personal communication) and in the St. Lucie
River, where the presence of young is dependent upon low salinity (Gunter and Hall,
1963a).
Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe). The Atlantic menhaden occurs in freshwater in the
Everglades National Park (C. R. Robins, personal communication) and in the St. Lucie
River where it spawns (Gunter and Hall, 1963a).
Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur). The gizzard shad occurs in lakes and canals in
southern Florida. It occurs in the St. Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and is plentiful
in and around Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). It is scarcer farther south but ranges through
the conservation areas and into Everglades National Park (Phillips, 1971).
Dorosoma petenense (Gunter). The threadfin shad is abundant in Lake Okeechobee and
nearby canals (Ager, 1971) and occurs in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and
Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It is apparently less common south of Lake
Okeechobee but occurs in canals as far south as Everglades National Park (Phillips, 1971).
The subspecies is D. p. vanhyningi (Weed).
Family ENGRAULIDAE
Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus). The striped anchovy apparently occurs in freshwater
along both coasts (Carr and Coin, 1955) and has been recorded from southern Florida by
Ogilvie (1969). However Gunter and Hall (1963a) stated that their record from a salinity of
1.0% in the St. Lucie River is the lowest salinity from which the species has been reported,
and Odum (1971) noted it only occasionally strays into North River. The subspecies is A. h.
hepsetus (Linnaeus).
Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes). The widespread and abundant bay anchovy invades
freshwater rivers along both coasts (Carr and Goin, 1955) including the St. Lucie (Gunter
and Hall, 1963a), Caloosahatchee (Gunter and Hall, 1965), and North Rivers (Odum, 1971).
An unidentified species of Anchoa was taken in Lake Okeechobee (Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission, 1956). The subspecies is A. m. diaphana Hildebrand.
Order SALMONIFORMES, Family ESOCIDAE
Esox americanus Gmelin. The redfin pickerel occurs in marginal areas of Lake
Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and has been found in Conservation Area 3 (Dineen, 1972). It is
primarily a fish of shallow marshes. The subspecies is E. a. americanus Gmelin.
Esox niger Lesueur. The chain pickerel occurs in vegetated areas of Lake Okeechobee
(Ager, 1971), through the Everglades, and into Everglades National Park. Dineen (1968)
stated that this species was established in Conservation Area 2 but not Area 3. However, it
occurs commonly in Tamiami Canal south of Area 3. It is primarily a fish of canals and
deep-water marshes and may have extended its range southward with the construction of
the canal system.
Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES, Family CYPRINIDAE
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill). The golden shiner is widely distributed
throughout southern Florida from Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) to the limits of fresh-
water in the Everglades. It is especially common in ponds, sloughs and canals where it
achieves its largest size. Juveniles have been collected in open dwarf cypress swamp and
open marsh prairie in the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades. The subspecies is N. c.
bosci (Valenciennes).
Notropis chalybaeus (Cope). The ironcolor shiner occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971) westward to Fort Myers (W. R. Courtenay, Jr., personal communication).
Notropis emiliae (Hay). The pugnose minnow is found in Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971; Gilbert and Bailey, 1972). The subspecies is N. e. peninsularis Gilbert and Bailey
(1972).
Notropis maculatus (Hay). The taillight shiner has been recorded throughout much of
southern Florida. It occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971), in the St. Lucie (Gunter and
Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Raney et al., 1953; Gunter and Hall, 1965), and in


No. 2, 1974]







FLORIDA SCIENTIST


several locations in the Big Cypress Swamp. It was collected in Shark River Slough several
miles south of Tamiami Canal but has not yet been found further south. It seems to prefer
slow-moving canals (W. R. Courtenay, Jr., personal communication).
Notropis petersoni Fowler. The coastal shiner seems to occur throughout much of
southern Florida. It occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and the Caloosahatchee
River (Raney et al., 1953; Gunter and Hall, 1965), but Gunter and Hall (1963a) did not
report it from the St. Lucie River. It is the most abundant shiner (Notropis) in the southern
Everglades although varying in abundance in different years. It has been collected as far
south as the freshwater streams of lower Shark River Slough. It also has been collected in
the Big Cypress Swamp near Copeland (C. R. Robins, personal communication) and
Monroe.


Family CATOSTOMIDAE
Erimyzon sucetta (Lacepede). The lake chubsucker is abundant and widespread
throughout southern Florida from Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) south throughout the
Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp. It has been collected in the streams of the lower
Everglades and in freshwater in mangrove swamps. It usually occurs in vegetated areas
and is common in canals and ponds. Juveniles have been collected widely in sawgrass
marsh, marsh prairie, cypress sloughs and ponds. The subspecies is E. s. sucetta (Lacepede).
Order SILURIFORMEs, Family ICTALURIDAE
Ictalurus catus (Linnaeus). The white catfish has been recorded from Lake
Okeechobee where it is abundant in open water (Ager, 1971) and from the St. Lucie
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965) where it
occurs only in low salinity.
Ictalurus natalis (Lesueur). The yellow bullhead ranges from Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971), throughout the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp, and into mangrove swamps
during periods of heavy rainfall. It is most abundant in close proximity to submerged
vegetation in canals and ponds but has been collected in dwarf cypress swamp, marsh
prairie and sawgrass marsh. The population has been referred to as I. n. erebennus Jordan
(Hubbs and Allen, 1943).
Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur). The brown bullhead occurs throughout southern
Florida being abundant in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and common in the Big Cypress
Swamp. It occurs in low salinity in the St. Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a). It
apparently occurs in more open, muddy bottomed situations than does I. natalis and so is
found in shallow ponds and sloughs as well as in the deeper water of canals and lakes. It
seems generally less abundant than I. natalis. The subspecies is I. n. marmoratus
(Holbrook).
Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). The channel catfish occurs in open water in Lake
Okeechobee (Ware, 1966; Ager, 1971) and in low salinities in the St. Lucie (Gunter and
Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It ranges south through
the conservation areas to Tamiami Canal (Hunt, 1953) and into Everglades National Park
(Phillips, 1971) inhabiting deep canals almost exclusively.
Noturus gyrinus (Mitchill). The tadpole madtom ranges from Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971) throughout southern Florida to Taylor Slough, lower Shark River Slough of the
Everglades, and into the mangrove swamps of the southern coast (Tabb and Manning,
1961).
Noturus leptacanthus Jordan. The speckled madtom has been recorded from the
Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and Hall, 1965).
Family CLARIIDAE
Clarius batrachus (Linnaeus). The walking catfish was established near West Palm
Beach in 1968 (Idyll, 1969). It now ranges from Ft. Lauderdale north to Lake Okeechobee
and West Palm Beach with disjunct populations around Miami (Lachner, Robins and
Courtenay, 1970).


[Vol. 37






KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


Family ARIIDAE
Ariusfelis (Linnaeus). The sea catfish occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie (Gunter and
Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965) and in canals further
south. It is abundant in freshwater throughout North River (Odum, 1971).
Bagre marinus (Mitchill). The gafftopsail catfish occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965).
Family LORICARIIDAE
Hypostomus sp. A mailed catfish identified as Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus) has
been reported from a borrow pit in west Miami by Rivas (1965). However, due to
taxonomic uncertainty, identification of southern Florida specimens is not presently
possible (C. R. Robins, personal communication). Mailed catfish have been taken from the
Snapper Creek Canal system (Lachner, Robins, and Courtenay, 1970) and canals near
Conservation Area 3 (C. R. Robins, personal communication).
Order PERCOPSIFORMES, Family APHREDODERIDAE
SAphredoderus sayanus (Gilliams). The pirate perch has been recorded to range to Lake
Okeechobee (Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 1956). Although Briggs
(1958) and Carr and Coin (1955) stated that it ranges throughout southern Florida, the only
specimen known from the area was near Florida City in 1930 (Kilby and Caldwell, 1955).
In view of the lack of additional specimens, we assume that location data of the 1930
specimen is probably erroneous.
Order ATHERINIFORMES, Family BELONIDAE
Strongylura marina (Walbaum). The atlantic needlefish is found in many southern
Florida canals even into the Everglades. It is common throughout open areas and bullrush
marshes of Lake Okeechobee and has reproduced there (Ager, 1971).
Strongylura notata (Poey). The redfin needlefish has been recorded from freshwater in
the St. Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a, b).
Strongylura timucu (Walbaum). The timucu has been found in canals in southeast
Dade County (Belshe, 1961) and in freshwater near the northern Ten Thousand Islands
area (T. Schmidt, personal communication).
Family CYPRINODONTIDAE
Adinia xenica (Jordan and Gilbert). The diamond killifish ranges along the Gulf Coast
to the southern tip of the peninsula primarily in brackish water (Carr and Goin, 1955; Tabb
and Manning, 1961). It has been collected in freshwater in North River (Odum, 1971), and
it extends in some years into the freshwater of the southern Florida Everglades nearly as far
north as Tamiami Canal.
Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede. The sheepshead minnow occurs in brackish and
freshwater from Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and the Caloosahatchee River (Raney et
al., 1953) south to the mangroves and rivers of southern coast (Tabb and Manning, 1961;
Odum, 1971). In some years it becomes very abundant in some localities in the Everglades
and Big Cypress Swamp while in other years it is uncommon. This also appears to be the
case in North River (Odum, 1971). Scattered individuals can be found in most open
habitats. In the southern Everglades and Big Cypress the species is usually encountered
near rocky culverts. It becomes more abundant and more regularly present in the southern
Everglades near the mangrove coast. The subspecies is C. v. variegatus Lacepede.
Floridichthys carpio (Gunter). The goldspotted killifish is a euryhaline species occur-
ring along both coasts (Briggs, 1958) in southern Florida. It has been recorded from
freshwater in the North River (Odum, 1971). The subspecies is F. c. carpio (Gunter).
Fundulus chrysotus (Gunter). The golden topminnow ranges throughout southern
Florida. It occurs in shallow spikerush marshes of Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and in all
habitats southward to the limits of freshwater in lower Shark River Slough. It seems
primarily a fish of relatively deeper water being common in ponds and along canal
margins.
Fundulus cingulatus Valenciennes. The banded topminnow is apparently not common


No. 2, 1974]








in southern Florida but extends to at least Ft. Myers on the west coast according to Brown
(1957) who also recorded it from the Tamiami Canal.
Fundulus confluentus Goode and Bean. The marsh killifish is a euryhaline species that
ranges as far south as Key West (Miller, 1955). It occurs in freshwater in the
Caloosahatchee River (Raney et al., 1953), in the Everglades, Big Cypress Swamp
(Kushlan, 1973), and rivers and mangroves of the southern coast (Tabb and Manning, 1961;
Odum, 1971). The subspecies is F. c. confluentus Goode and Bean.
Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard. The gulf killifish is a euryhaline and primarily
brackish water species ranging along the Gulf (Miller, 1955) and Atlantic coasts (Briggs,
1958; Harrington and Harrington, 1961) and into the keys (Rivas, 1948). It occurs in
freshwater in coastal canals, the Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and Hall, 1965) and
mangroves (Tabb and Manning, 1961). The subspecies is F. g. grandis Baird and Girard.
Fundulus seminolis Girard. The seminole killifish occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971), the Caloosahatchee River (Raney et al., 1953; Gunter and Hall, 1965) and the
Everglades to lower Shark River Slough. In the Big Cypress Swamp its been collected in
the Fahkahatchee Strand.
Fundulus similis (Baird and Girard). The longnose killifish is a primarily brackish water
species found along both coasts to Key West (Briggs, 1958). It ascends streams and canals
into slightly brackish and freshwater (Tabb and Manning, 1961; Phillips, 1971; Carr and
Goin, 1955).
Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean. The flagfish occurs throughout southern Florida.
It is common in shallow marginal areas in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and along canals.
It occurs in marsh prairies and sawgrass marshes in the Everglades and especially in dwarf
cypress in the Big Cypress Swamp. It becomes abundant in ponds during low water level
(Kushlan, 1972a). It is primarily a bottom fish, common in dense, submerged vegetation
and is also found in brackish water (Tabb and Manning, 1961).
Lucania goodei Jordan. The bluefin killifish is common throughout southern Florida
into pools of the mangrove swamp where it occurs only during pulses of freshwater (Tabb
and Manning, 1961; Odum, 1971). It is abundant in highly vegetated areas and especially
along canal margins but is widespread in all habitats of the Big Cypress Swamp and
Everglades. It occurs in the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971).
Lucania parva (Baird). The rainwater killifish is a primarily brackish water species
ranging to the Florida Keys (Hubbs and Miller, 1965). It occurs in freshwater in the
Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and Hall, 1965), in mangrove swamps, rivers and canals
along the coast (Carr and Goin, 1955; Raney et al., 1953; Belshe, 1961; Odum, 1971).
Rivulus marmoratus Poey-hypothetical. The rivulus is a brackish water species
(Harrington and Rivas, 1958) which was found in canals in southeast Dade County by
Belshe (1961), but the salinity was not reported.
Family POECILIIDAE
Belonesox belizanus Kner. The introduced pike killifish is abundant in canals in
southeastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961; Lachner, Robins and Courtenay, 1970).
Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). The mosquitofish ranges throughout fresh and
brackish water in southern Florida where it is the most ubiquitous species of fish (Kushlan,
1972a). It is found in habitats ranging from salt marshes (Harrington and Harrington, 1961)
to Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). It is usually the most abundant fish in canals, cypress
sloughs, ponds, and dwarf cypress swamps. The subspecies is called the eastern mosqui-
tofish, G. a. holbrooki Girard.
Gambusia rhizophorae Rivas-hypothetical. The mangrove gambusia is characteris-
tically found in estuarine situations in association with mangrove swamps. Rivas (1969)
however, stated that the original specimens were obtained near Paradise Key (Everglades
National Park) which is surrounded by freshwater. We have no other records of its
occurrence in freshwater. It is possible that the location data on the Paradise Key
specimens was in error as it is doubtful that the species occurs even rarely in freshwater (C.
R. Robins, personal communication).


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FLORIDA SCIENTIST






KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


Heterandria formosa Agassiz. The least killifish is found in freshwater throughout
southern Florida. It is abundant in the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971), in
canals (Hunt, 1953), in the Big Cypress Swamp and in marsh prairies and sawgrass marshes
of the Everglades where it is often one of the most abundant species. It also occurs in
freshwater in mangrove swamps (Tabb and Manning, 1961) but rarely if ever moves into
brackish water. It is usually associated with thick emergent and submerged vegetation
where it remains close to submerged stems.
Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur). The sailfin molly is a euryhaline species occurring in
freshwater throughout southern Florida. In freshwater habitats, it is probably most abun-
dant and reaches its greatest size in canals but it occurs in most habitats including Lake
Okeechobee (Ager, 1971).
Xiphophorus helleri Heckel. The green swordtail is established in canals in Palm Beach
County (W. R. Courtenay, personal communication).
Xiphophorus variatus (Meek). The variable platyfish is established in canals in Palm
Beach County (W. R. Courtenay, personal communication).
Family ATHERINIDAE
Labidesthes sicculus (Cope). The brook silverside occurs in freshwater throughout
southern Florida from Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and the Caloosahatchee River
(Raney et al., 1953) to the southern Everglades. It is common in open canals, clearwater
ponds and deeper cypress sloughs. The subspecies is L. s. vanhyningi (Bean and Reid).
Menidia beryllina (Cope). The tidewater silverside is a euryhaline species which occurs
in freshwater in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter
and Hall, 1965), and in west coast mangroves (Raney et al., 1953) and canals. It is probably
the most abundant fish in the North River (Odum, 1971) and other southern rivers from
which it penetrates the southern Everglades. It also occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971).
Order GASTEROSTEIFORMES, Family SYNGNATHIDAE
Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann and Kendall)-hypothetical. The gulf pipefish enters
freshwater in north Florida (Carr and Coin, 1955; Tagatz, 1968) and is a permanent
resident in freshwater elsewhere (Whatley, 1969). Although it occurs in estuaries in
southern Florida (Gunter and Hall, 1963a, 1965), we find no documented records for
freshwater.
Order PERCIFORMES, Family CENTROPOMIDAE
Centropomus ensiferus Poey. The swordspine snook is known from the freshwater
canals of southeastern Dade County (Rivas, 1962).
Centropomus parallelus Poey. The fat snook has been reported from Lake Okeechobee
and canals of Dade County (Rivas, 1962).
Centropomus pectinatus Poey. The tarpon snook is known from the Caloosahatchee
River and Dade County canals (Rivas, 1962).
Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch). The snook occurs in freshwater as both adult and
juveniles. Ranging throughout southern Florida (Marshall, 1958), it occurs in freshwater
canals in the Big Cypress Swamp, Conservation Area 3 (Dineen, 1972), Everglades Na-
tional Park, and Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971; Rivas, 1962). Movement of snook between
fresh and salt water has been shown by Volpe (1959). It enters the southern Everglades via
air boat trails. Young occur in canals and freshwater ponds in mangroves (Tabb and
Manning, 1961).
Family CENTRARCHIDAE
Elassoma evergladei Jordan. The everglades pigmy sunfish ranges throughout southern
Florida including Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971), the northern Everglades of Conserva-
tion Areas 2 and 3 (Clugston, 1966; Dineen, 1972), the southern Everglades and the Big
Cypress Swamp (Kushlan, 1972a and unpubl. data). It is primarily a bottom fish commonly
associated with submerged plants and fallen litter, especially in cypress sloughs. However,
it is also found abundantly in stands of water hyacinth.


No. 2, 1974]








Enneacanthus glorious (Holbrook). The blue spotted sunfish occurs throughout the
Everglades (Clugston, 1966; Dineen, 1972) and Big Cypress Swamp (Kushlan, 1972a and
unpubl. data), in the eelgrass and pondweed communities of Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971) and in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter
and Hall, 1965). It also occurs in canals but is apparently becoming rarer in that habitat
along the urbanized east coast.
Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier). The warmouth is widespread and abundant throughout all
of southern Florida. It is very abundant in canals (Hunt, 1953) and ponds (Kushlan, 1972a)
and occurs in the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). It is the hardiest of the
southern Florida centrarchids (Kushlan, 1974) and is one of the first invaders into
excavated pits and canals (Ogilvie, 1969).
Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque. The bluegill is probably the most common sunfish in
southern Florida. It is very abundant in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and in canals but
has been found in all other freshwater habitats as well. The subspecies is L. m. purpures-
cens Cope.
Lepomis marginatus (Holbrook). The dollar sunfish occurs in Lake Okeechobee (Ager,
1971), the St. Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a), and the northern Everglades of the
Conservation Areas (Clugston, 1966; Dineen, 1972) as far south as Tamiami Canal (Martin,
1963). However the southern extent of its range in the Everglades is not clear as it has not
been reported from Everglades National Park (Phillips, 1971). It was collected on the east
coast in Little River Canal in northeastern Dade County. It is apparently widely dis-
tributed in the Big Cypress Swamp, having been collected in Lake Trafford, Corkscrew
(Martin, 1963), Deep Lake, Fahkahatchee Slough, and north of Tamiami Canal near
Monroe. However it has not been collected in six years of intensive sampling at an alligator
pond near Pinecrest (Kushlan, 1972a and unpubl. data). It occurs primarily in ponds, lakes,
ahd canals.
Lepomis microlophus (Gunther). The reader sunfish (also called shellcracker) ranges
throughout southern Florida (Briggs, 1958) but seems to occur especially in such deeper-
water habitats as ponds, lakes, canals, and cypress sloughs. The subspecies is L. m.
microlophus (Gunther).
Lepomis punctatus (Valenciennes). The spotted sunfish (also called stumpknocker)
ranges throughout southern Florida including Lake Okeechobee, where it occupies the
littoral zone (Ager, 1971). It is found abundantly in canals, sloughs and ponds, but it ranges
into dwarf cypress swamps. It is generally the most common sunfish in cypress sloughs and
sawgrass marshes. The subspecies is L. p. punctatus (Valenciennes).
Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). The largemouth bass ranges throughout southern
Florida. It is found throughout Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and reaches its maximum
abundance in canals during low water. It is also found in most other habitats including
dwarf cypress and marsh prairie. The subspecies is M. s. floridanus (Lesueur) (Briggs,
1958).
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur). The black crappie (also called speckled perch)
ranges throughout southern Florida to the southern Everglades (Phillips, 1971). It is
pelagic in Lake Okeechobee in winter moving into the littoral zone to breed (Ager, 1971).
Further south it is primarily a fish of canals and is seldom found far from canal edge
marshes. It is possible that this species may have extended its range into extreme southern
Florida within historic times.
Family PERCIDAE
Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard). The swamp darter is a common bottom-dwelling fish in
Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). It seems to be widespread in southern Florida and has been
found in the Big Cypress Swamp, Conservation Area 3 (Dineen, 1972) and canals near
Miami International Airport (C. R. Robins, personal communication).
Family CARANGIDAE
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus). The crevalle jack is abundant throughout the Everglades


FLORIDA SCIENTIST


[Vol. 37






KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


estuary region (Tabb and Manning, 1961) and was commonly collected by Odum (1971)
throughout North River.
Caranx latus Agassiz-hypothetical. The horse-eye jack has been found in freshwater
(Briggs, 1958), and Belshe (1961) found it in canals in southeast Dade County but the
salinity was not reported.
Oligoplites saurus (Bloch and Schneider). The leatherjacket is a marine fish recorded
from freshwater in the St. Lucie River by Gunter and Hall (1963a, b). The subspecies is O.
s. saurus (Bloch and Schneider).

Family LUTJANIDAE
Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus). The gray snapper occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie
River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a), coastal streams, and in canals in southeastern Dade
County (Belshe, 1961) and near Naples (Gunter, 1942).
Lutianus apodus (Walbaum)-hypothetical. The schoolmaster is a euryhaline species
(Briggs, 1958) recorded from freshwater in Florida by Carr and Coin (1955). Whether it
occurs in freshwater in southern Florida is not known.

Family GERREIDAE
Diapterus olisthostomus (Goode and Bean). The irish pompano enters freshwater along
the canals of southern Florida and has been recorded from the St. Lucie River (Gunter and
Hall, 1963a, b).
Diapterus plumieri (Cuvier). The striped mojarra is a species favoring brackish to
freshwater (Waldinger, 1968) and is commonly found in freshwater in southern Florida. It
occurs in the mangroves of the southern coast (Tabb and Manning, 1961), North River
(Odum, 1971) and coastal canals.
Eucinostomus argenteus Baird and Girard. The spotfin mojarra, although favoring high
salinities along the southwest coast (Waldinger, 1968), has been collected in freshwater in
the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a, b), Caloosahatchee (Gunter and Hall, 1965) and
North Rivers (Odum, 1971).
Eucinostomus gula (Quoy and Gaimard). The silver jenny is one of the most abundant
species in the Everglades estuaries (Roessler, 1968; Odum, 1971) and has been collected in
the southern Everglades in lower Shark River Slough. It also occurs in freshwater in the
Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and Hall, 1963b, 1965).
Gerres cinereus (Walbaum)-hypothetical. The yellowfin mojarra was found in canals
in southeastern Dade County by Belshe (1961), the salinity of which was not reported.

Family SPARIDAE
Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum). The sheephead was reported to be widely
distributed in freshwater in southern Florida by A. F. Carr (Gunter, 1942) and was found in
freshwater in the North River by Odum (1971).
Diplodus holbrooki (Bean)-hypothetical. The spottail pinfish is a euryhaline species
(Briggs, 1958) stated to enter freshwater streams along both coasts by Carr and Goin
(1955). We know of no southern Florida records.
Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus). The pinfish is a euryhaline species (Briggs, 1958)
which enters freshwater streams along both coasts (Carr and Goin, 1965). Odum (1971)
found only stray individuals near the mouth of the North River.

Family SCIAENIDAE
Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg. The sand seatrout is recorded from freshwater in the
Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and Hall, 1963b, 1965).
Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier)-hypothetical. The spotted seatrout occurs in fresh-
water streams along both coasts (Carr and Goin, 1955; Tagatz, 1968), but we have found no
records from freshwater in southern Florida.
Cynoscion regalis (Bloch and Schneider). The weakfish has been collected in the St.
Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a, b).


No. 2, 1974]








Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepede. The spot occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It has also
been found in canals in southeastern Dade County by Belshe (1961) but salinity was not
reported.
Micropogon undulatus (Linnaeus). The Atlantic croaker ascends freshwater streams
along both coasts (Carr and Goin, 1955) and has been found in freshwater in the St. Lucie
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965).
Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus). The black drum is known to ascend freshwater streams in
Florida (Carr and Goin, 1955) and has been found in freshwater near the northern Ten
Thousand Islands (T. Schmidt, personal communication).
Sciaenops ocellata (Linnaeus). The red drum (also called redfish) occurs in freshwater
in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall,
1965).
Family CICHLIDAE
Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz). The oscar is well established in canals in Dade (Rivas,
1965) and Broward counties.
Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider-hypothetical. The peacock cichlid was in-
troduced in 1964 (Moe, 1964) but the population was apparently destroyed by a cold
winter (Courtenay and Robins, 1973).
Cichlasoma bimaculatum Linnaeus. The black acara is well established in coastal
canals in Palm Beach (Ogilvie, 1969) and Broward (Rivas, 1965) to southeastern Dade
Counties. It has extended westward into the Everglades (Dineen, 1972) and Big Cypress
Swamp (Kushlan, 1972b). (This is the species called Aequidens portalegrensis (Hansel) by
Bailey et al. (1970) (W. R. Courtenay, personal communication).)
Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regen). The jack dempsey is established in southern
Florida canals (Ogilvie, 1969).
Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Gunther). The convict cichlid is established in borrow pits
in North Dade County (Rivas, 1965).
Cichlasoma meeki (Brind)-hypothetical. The firemouth was reported in a Northwest
Miami rockpit (Rivas, 1965) but present information on reproduction is lacking (Lachner,
Robins and Courtenay, 1970).
Hemichromis bimaculatus Gill. The jewelfish is established in several locations in Dade
County (Bailey et al., 1970) including canals in Hialeah and near Miami International
Airport (Rivas, 1965).
Tilapia mossambica (Peters). The mozambique mouthbrooder is established in a
tributary canal of the Miami Canal near Miami (W. R. Courtenay, personal communica-
tion).
Family MUGILIDAE
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus. The striped mullet is a euryhaline fish abundant in Lake
Okeechobee (Ager, 1971). It is found in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and
Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It is often common in freshwater canals of
southern Florida and has been found in the Everglades, the Big Cypress Swamp, and in
freshwater mangrove swamps (Tabb and Manning, 1961).
Mugil curema Valenciennes. The white mullet occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie
River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a). It was found in canals in Dade County by Belshe (1961) but
the salinity was not reported.
Mugil trichodon Poey. The fantail mullet is a euryhaline species which occurs in
freshwater canals in southern Florida (Carr and Goin, 1955).
Family ELEOTRIDAE
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch). The fat sleeper occurs in freshwater in southern
mangrove swamps (Tabb and Manning, 1961) and probably in coastal canals of south-
eastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961).
Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin). The spinycheek sleeper is a euryhaline species collected in


[Vol. 37


FLORIDA SCIENTIST






KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


freshwater near Palm Beach (C. R. Robins, personal communication) and was recorded
from southeastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961).
Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede. The bigmouth sleeper is a euryhaline species found in
the canals of southeastern Florida (Carr and Coin, 1955; B. P. Hunt, personal com-
munication).
Family GOBIIDAE
Evorthodus lyrics (Girard)-hypothetical. The lyre goby was found in canals in
southeastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961) but salinity was not reported.
Gobioides broussonneti Lacepede. The violet goby has been reported from the St.
Lucie River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a, b).
Gobionellus boleosoma (Jordan and Gilbert). The darter goby has been found in
freshwater in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter
and Hall, 1965).
Gobionellus gracillimus Ginsburg. The slim goby has been reported from the St. Lucie
River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a) although its identification may be uncertain (Gunter and
Hall, 1963b).
Gobionellus shufeldti (Jordan and Eigenmann)-hypothetical. The freshwater goby has
been found in the Fahka Union Canal but in brackish water (T. Schmidt, personal
communication).
Gobionellus hastatus Girard. The sharptail goby was found in the St. Lucie River
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a) and in canals in southeastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961), but
salinity was not reported.
Gobiosoma bosci (Lacepede). The naked goby is a brackish water species which has
been found in Lake Okeechobee (Ogilvie, 1969) and the Caloosahatchee River (Gunter and
Hall, 1969). It has also been recorded from canals in southeast Dade County (Belshe, 1961),
but salinity was not reported.
Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg. The code goby occurs in freshwater in north Florida
(Tagatz, 1968) and in canals of undetermined salinity in southeast Dade County. It is the
most abundant goby in the Everglades estuary (Tabb and Manning, 1961) and North River
(Odum, 1971) where it occurs in fresh water.
Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas). The crested goby is a euryhaline species which was
recorded from freshwater in Lee County (Carr and Goin, 1955) and was found in canals in
southeastern Dade County (Belshe, 1961), but salinity was not reported. It also occurs
abundantly in North River (Odum, 1971).
Microgobius gulosus (Girard). The clown goby is a primarily brackish water species
found in such habitats throughout southern Florida (Raney et al., 1953; Tabb and Man-
ning, 1961; Belshe, 1961). It also occurs commonly in freshwater having been found in the
Caloosahatchee (Gunter and Hall, 1963b, 1965) and North Rivers (Odum, 1971), in east
and west coast canals, and in Lake Okeechobee where it breeds (Ager, 1971).
Order PLEURONECTIFORMES, Family BOTHIDAE
Citharichthys spilopterus Gunter. The bay whiff occurs in freshwater in the St. Lucie
River (Gunter and Hall, 1963a).
Family SOLEIDAE
Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus). The lined sole has been recorded from the St. Lucie
(Gunter and Hall, 1963a, b) and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1963b, 1965) and
from streams in the southern Everglades.
Trinectes maculatus (Bloch and Schneider). The hogchoker is a euryhaline species
recorded in Lake Okeechobee (Ager, 1971) and in the St. Lucie (Gunter and Hall, 1963a)
and Caloosahatchee Rivers (Gunter and Hall, 1965). It occurs in canals and in streams of
the southern Everglades. The subspecies is T. m. fasciatus (Lacepede).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-We thank B. P. Hunt, O. T. Owre, G. Davis, T. Schmidt
and especially C. R. Robins for critically reading the manuscript and W. R.
Courtenay, Jr. and J. W. Dineen for discussing particular problems with us. We


No. 2, 1974]








are especially grateful to Drs. Courtenay, Hunt and Robins and to T. Schmidt for
supplying unpublished information which greatly enhanced the completeness of
the paper. We note such contributions in the text and hope that readers will give
due credit for this information. We would also like to thank Marilyn S. Kushlan
who typed the manuscript in each of its successive editions and also prepared the
figure.

LITERATURE CITED

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6:110-130.


[Vol. 37


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KUSHLAN AND LODGE-FRESHWATER FISH


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Florida Sci. 37(2):110-128. 1974.


REVIEW
DAWES, CLINTON J. Marine Algae of the West Coast of Florida. i-xvi; 1-201; 2
maps; 82 figs. 6 x 9 inches. Univ. Miami Press. Coral Gables. Publication date:
October 31, 1974. $15.00. ISBN 0-87024-258-X.
From time to time a book is released which is potentially of considerable interest to
Academy members. By taking advantage of the location of Tampa Bay at the northern and
southern distributional limits of certain algal species, Dr. Dawes has given us such a book
in the form of a handy manual based upon coastal habitats from Cedar Key to Cape
Romano. However, the discussion of marine habitats and coastal plant communities are
applicable beyond these limits. They contribute an extra dimension to the book of value to
the "interested layman, as well as ... high school and college students" to whom the book
is addressed.
The user will find the keys well laid out with most dichotomies parallel and well
drawn. However, some lapses can be found, for example: Anacystis dimidiata in the key
has cells 8-50 pm but the text says 10-16 pm and thus it overlaps nearly the whole range of
A. aeruginosa with which it is contrasted; a similar problem arises between Calothrix
crustacea and C. pilosa; and "Plants partially embedded in soft mud, branching irregular"
for Vaucheria is contrasted to "Erect branches bearing distichous, radial, or second
ramuli" with no reference to habitat for Bryopsis.
The Linda Baumhardt illustrations stand out as most pleasing to the eye and they
create a good visual image of the plant. The photographs of the bluegreen algae are less
uniformly successful, e.g., fig. 17, and some line drawings would enhance the effectiveness
of the treatment. Perhaps the 74 species illustrated are the most common of the 296 species
treated in the text, but there is no indication of the reason for selection of the species
figured.
The bibliography includes a broad coverage of algal literature applicable to Florida as
well as publications on marine spermatophytes and ecology. Numerous M. A. and Ph. D.
theses (some "in preparation"!) are cited as well as an extensive unpublished manuscript
and an oral presentation to the Florida Academy in 1965. Citation of any but completed
Ph. D. theses presents severe problems to other investigators. Even Ph. D. theses available
through University Microfilms are not considered formally published although copies can
be obtained if ordered by the microfilm number which was not given. We encourage the
author to issue a supplement in a year or so citing places of publication for these
manuscripts and theses as well as to list the microfilm catalog numbers for the Ph. D.
dissertations.
All in all, the minor problems noted above do not diminish the immediate usefulness
and value of the book. It should see wide usage in Florida and around the Gulf coast. I
know of no better introduction to the study of Florida seaweeds.-HARvEY A. MILLER.
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Technological University, Orlando.


FLORIDA SCIENTIST


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