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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Acknowledgments and miscellaneous...
 Glossary
 Key to families














Group Title: A key to the freshwater fishes of Florida.
Title: Key to the freshwater fishes of Florida
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Title: Key to the freshwater fishes of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Page 71
    Introduction
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Acknowledgments and miscellaneous remarks
        Page 74
    Glossary
        Page 75
    Key to families
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text


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72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

The family Ophiomyxidae with its single species, Ophiomyxa flac-
cida, has been taken only on flats or reefs.
The rare Ophiacanthidae are practically unknown to the area.
The Ophiotrichidae, except for two rare species, are very abundant.
One species, Ophiothrix Urstedii is ubiquitous and dominant in every
zone, and this one with two others completely dominate the reef zone.
The Ophiochitonidae, with one species rare and two abundant, is
well represented on the flats, while one of them, Ophionereis squamu-
losa dominates the Alcyonarian and channel zones.
While two species of the Ophiocomidae occur in all zones, except the
first, these forms are primarily flats animals and reach their true im-
portance in Zone II.
The Ophiodermatidae and the Ophiolepididae are almost exclu-
sively confined to the shallow water and hiding places of the flats,
Zone II.
Attention must also be called to the remarkable abundance of
Ophiothrix urstedii, which ranks third in Zone I, first in Zone II, third
in Zone III, second in Zone IV, and second in Zone V.
It is hoped that this paper will offer some indication of the work
that is being carried on in local waters. Space does not permit the
inclusion of tables and additional data bearing upon the ecology of
these and other groups of the area. Additional material brought to
light by this method of class study and research will be forthcoming
from time to time as the opportunity presents itself.

A KEY TO THE FRESH-WATER FISHES
OF FLORIDA
A. F. CARR, JR.
University of Florida
THE FRESHWATER fish fauna of Florida is one of the most interesting
in the United States. It is a fauna developed in a region of recent
geologic origin, low topographic relief, poor drainage, and unusual
geographic configuration, and consequently exhibits certain very pe-
culiar features. Some of the characteristic continental groups appar-
ently have not had time to establish themselves in the peninsula since
its elevation above the sea, while others have doubtless failed to find
suitable conditions in its low and swamp-bordered water courses.
Of the suckers and cyprinid minnows, which form a major element
in the fauna of eastern North America, few more than a dozen occur
in Florida, and several of these are confined to the extreme western
portion of the panhandle. The darters, likewise widespread and abun-




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


dant farther north, are represented in the peninsula by only three
species.
The scarcity of these common forage fishes in the state probably is
due in part to the recency of the establishment of migration routes.
Moreover, many of the forage fishes, and especially the darters, are
adapted particularly to life in swift highland streams, where food is
scarce and predators and competitors few. Such delicate fishes may
find conditions intolerable in the sluggish and fertile Florida streams.
Throughout the first several million years of its history Florida was
an island. Whatever fish fauna existed in its youthful drainage system
must have been derived principally from marine or marine littoral
forms. With the closing of the Suwannee Straits and the establishment
of a link with the great land mass to the north, a new region was
opened up for invasion by the continental fishes. The newcomers en-
countered a fish population composed chiefly of forms characteristic
of brackish coastal waters. Among these the cyprinodonts were doubt-
less the most numerous, both in species and individuals. Today
Florida's cyprinodont fauna is one of the most extensive in the world.
The vigorous and adaptable centrarchids apparently found the new
conditions highly favorable, for they have spread over the entire
state, and with the gars, comprise a predator list almost unrivaled in
the United States.
In certain Florida lakes there are found fish closely related to or
(nominally) identical with marine forms of the adjacent coasts. Most
of the lakes of the state have been formed by solution and collapse
of underlying limestone. Some of them, however, appear to be ancient
lagoons, or depressions consequent upon the elevated sea-bottom. In
Lake Eustis (Lake County), which is presumably of the latter type,
three of these marine relicts occur-a sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon
hubbsi; a glass minnow, Menidia beryllina atrimentis; and a needle
fish, Strongylura marina. Although there is a poorly developed and
extremely circuitous drainage connection between Lake Eustis and
the Atlantic, it seems improbable that migration takes place through
it.
In addition to anadromous species, which ascend the rivers to
spawn, there is a fairly large list of marine or brackish water fishes
which are found more or less regularly in freshwater. A pipefish and
a stingaree were recently collected in the St. Johns at Welaka, nearly
a hundred miles above the mouth of the river. Unsubstantiated verbal
reports record these forms from various other streams and springs in
the state. Flounders are fairly common in some of our large freshwater
springs. The snook is abundant in many of the canals and rivers of
southern Florida, and once in the Everglades, after a three day rain, I




74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

saw several three-foot tarpon cruising the drainage ditches in an old
tomato field.
The present key includes 102 species, and constitutes the first state
list of freshwater fishes since 1899, when Evermann and Kendall's
Check-List of the Fishes of Florida appeared. Most of the records
are based upon specimens in the collection of the Museum of ZoSlogy,
University of Michigan, and that of the Department of Biology, Uni-
versity of Florida. The few records taken from the literature are from
entirely reliable sources.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Although I accept sole responsibility for the present form of this key and for the
final selection of the criteria that have been used in distinguishing between the groups
and species, I must gratefully acknowledge the other workers whose studies have
made the key possible.
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Leonard Giovannoli of the Key West Aquarium,
formerly of the Department of Biology, University of Florida. Data which he obtained
thru extensive field work, and his unpublished key to the fishes of Alachua County
have been used extensively, with his permission, in the preparation of this paper.
I am deeply grateful to Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, Museum of Zology, University of
Slh.: hi a n, '..r much valuable advice, for his identifications of Florida material, and for
a list of Florida fishes compiled from his own data and collections.
For assistance in securing specimens I wish to thank the following: Mr. R. E.
Bellamy, Dodd College, Shreveport, La.; Dr. R. F. Bellamy, Florida State College for
Women, Tallahassee; Mr. John Kilby and Mr. George Van Hyning, Wakulla Resettle-
ment Project, Tallahassee; Mr. Herbert Braren, Ormond; and Miss Marjorie Harris,
Welaka Resettlement Project, Welaka.
Mr. Horton Hobbs, Department of Biology, University of Florida, is responsible for
the explanatory figure, and Mr. Frank Young, of the same department, has been of
great help in testing the mechanics of the key.

MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS
Directions for Using This Key.-Read the first half of couplet No. 1. If your fish
agrees with the description, proceed to the couplet to which the number in the right
margin directs you. However, if the first half of the first couplet does not seem applica-
ble, read the second half. One of the two sections should describe your specimen. Con-
tinue the process of selecting the most pertinent description in each of the couplets to
which you are directed until you encounter a name. If you have made the proper
choice in each case this will be the name of your fish.
Scales are counted along the lateral line from the upper end of the gill opening to the
last caudal vertebra. The crowded scales which often extend out onto the caudal fin
are not included.
In counting fin rays, consider only fully developed rays, ignoring the rudimentary
ones. Soft rays usually are forked, and appear to be jointed. Spiny rays are not always
stiff, but they never show joint-like transverse lines, and are never branched. Spines
are indicated by Roman numerals and soft rays by Arabic numerals. D. means dorsal
fin; A. means anal fin.




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


FIRST DORSAL FIN
LINC CC
-I CO


VENRAL i ... L


ND DORSAL FIN





.=~.




orT ,"'

* CAUDAL FI
IS


The depth of a fish is the greatest belly-to-back distance exclusive of fins. The head
length is the distance from the tip of the snout to the posterior edge of the opercular
flap. Where the flap is greatly extended, as in the case of some sunfish, the projection
is not included. Head 4; depth 3 indicates that the head is as long as the body, and
the depth, I the body length. Body length in this key is the standard length, which is
the distance from the tip of the snout to the last caudal vertebra.
The more obvious external features have been used as far as possible in separating
the forms. In many cases, however, it has been necessary to use more detailed and ob-
scure characters. In such instances the novice may have some difficulty in using the key.
In general an adult fish is much easier to identify than an immature one.
The common names used here are those held in best repute by the committee of
common and scientific names of the American Fisheries Society. Local vernacular
names, when included, are printed in parentheses.


GLOSSARY


ADIPOSE FIN
ADNATE
BARBEL
BRANCHIOSTEGALS

CAUDAL
CAUDAL PEDUNCLE

CONFLUENT
DORSAL
EMARGINATE
GILL RAKERS


A thick fin without rays.
Fused; grown together.
A fleshy filament or projection, usually about the head.
Bony rays that support the membranes on the lower side
of the head of a fish.
Pertaining to the tail; the caudal fin.
The region between the caudal fin and the dorsal and
anal fins.
Not separated; continuous.
Pertaining to the back.
Slightly notched.
The tooth-like projections along the inner edges of the
bony arches that support the gills.




76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES


HETEROCERCAL TAIL



HOMOCERCAL TAIL

ISTHMUS

LATERAL
LATERAL LINE

MAXILLARIES
OCELLATED

OPERCLE
OVIPAROUS

OVOVIVIPAROUS

PERITONEUM
PREOPERCLE
TERMINAL
TRUNCATE
VENTRAL


An unsymmetrical tail, whose upper lobe is often longer
than the lower. The backbone may extend out into the
upper lobe, or may merely curve upward before reaching
it as in the case of the Bowfin (Amia).
A symmetrical tail; the backbone ends at the base of the
fin and does not curve upward or enter the fin.
The ventral part of the throat and breast between the
gill-openings.
Pertaining to the sides.
A series of small pits or tubes forming a line along the
sides of most fish.
The outer bones of the upper jaw.
Having the appearance of an eye; rounded, and sur-
rounded by a ring of lighter color.
Posterior part of the bony covering of the gill-chamber.
Reproducing by means of eggs which hatch outside the
body.
Reproducing by means of large eggs which hatch within
the body of the female.
The shiny membrane which lines the body cavity.
Anterior part of the bony covering of the gill-chamber.
At the end.
Cut off square; not rounded or forked.
Pertaining to the under side of the body.


KEY TO FAMILIES
1 Mouth without jaws, a circular opening adapted for sucking ...............
........ ...................................... .. Petromyzonidae. p. 78
Mouth with articulated jaws ............. ...... ................2
2( 1) Body disk-like; tail whip-like and longer than body....... Dasyatidae. p. 78
Body not disk-like; tail not like a whip ................................. 3
3( 2) Tail heterocercal .. ................. .................... 4
Tail homocercal ....... . ................... ................ 6
4( 3) Tail forked, its upper lobe the longest ...................Acipenseridae. p. 78
Tail not forked, rounded .................. ................ ......
5( 4) Mouth extended into a bill; dorsal fin short............. Lepisosteidae. p. 78
Mouth normal, not bill-like; dorsal fin very long.............Amiidae. p. 78
6( 3) Both eyes on one side, or body very elongate and encased in a bony armor..26
Eyes normal, one on either side and body not encased in a bony armor; scaled or
naked ......... ...... .................. ... ............. 7
7( 6) Fins without spines, or with only one spine which is in the dorsal fin, or skin
naked.......................... ................. 8
Fins with spiny rays preceding the soft rays; skin with scales ............19




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


8( 7) Body covered with scales........................................... 9
Body scaleless ..................................... .............17
9( 8) Head without scales ...............................................10
Head more or less scaly .............................................14
10( 9) Gill membranes free from isthmus....... ....................... 11
Gill membranes united with isthmus. ...............................13
11(10) Lateral line wanting ............. ..... ............. ..... ..........12
Lateral line present .................................. Elopidae. p. 78
12(11) Mouth not extremely wide; maxillary reaching scarcely beyond eye .........
..................................... .................. Clupeidae. p. 79
Mouth very wide; maxillary extending much beyond eye... Engraulidae. p. 79
13(10) Rays of dorsal fin 10 or more .......................... Catastomidae. p. 79
Rays of dorsal fin fewer than 10 ........................ Cyprinidae. p. 80
14( 9) Mouth large and terminal; body strikingly elongate ..................... 15
Mouth small, more or less superior; body not strikingly elongate.......... 16
15(14) Mouth not extended into a long sharp beak; pectoral fins inserted low.......
..................................... ................. E socidae. p. 81
Mouth a very long, sharp beak; insertion of pectorals high on sides.........
....................................... ............. B elonidae. p. 81
16(14) Anal fin of male different from that of female; intestine long, with numerous
convolutions, or if not long and convoluted, then body and fins without bars,
stripes, large rounded spots, or gay colors, and when pregnant, with an irregular
black blotch on side before anal fin, and 8 to 13 very large eggs or embryos in
body cavity; ovoviviparous ............................. Poeciliidae. p. 83
Anal of male similar to that of female; intestine comparatively short and little
convoluted ................ ................... Cyprinodontidae. p. 81
17( 8) Body not snake-like.................................................18
Body long and snake-like; ventral fins lacking............. Anguillidae. p. 81
18(17) Barbels 8; posterior nostril with a barbel; no teeth in roof of mouth.........
..................................................... meiuridae. p. 80
Barbels 4 or 6; none present on posterior nostril; roof of mouth with teeth...
...... ................................................. Ariidae. p. 80
19( 7) Ventral fins abdominal ..............................................25
Ventral fins thoracic or jugular ................ ................... 20
20(19) Gill membranes free from isthmus ............... ....................21
Gill membranes united with isthmus ...................... Eleotridae. p. 86
21(20) Vent below preopercle in adult; ventrals without spines ...................
.................................................. .Aphredoderidae. p. 83
Vent normally located; ventrals with at least one spine .................. 22




78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

22(21) Dorsal fins two.......................................... 23
D. single or divided only by a notch ............................... 24
23(22) Anal spines III; size large .............................. Serranidae. p. 83
Anal spines I or II; small species only ...................... Percidae. p. 83
24(22) Lateral line present; dorsal spines VI to XIII ........... Centrarchidae. p. 84
Lateral line lacking; dorsal spines IV or V ............... Elassomidae. p. 85
25(19) Anal spine I; dorsal spines slender ....................... Atherinidae. p. 85
Anal spines II or III; dorsal spines stout .................. Mugilidae. p. 86
26( 6) Eyes normally placed; body very elongate, encased in bony armor..........
.................................................. Syngnathidae. p. 86
Eyes on one side of the head only; body not elongate; scales not bony.......
...................................................... Archiridae. p. 86

PETROMYZONIDAE
One species in our list: Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus-Sea Lamprey

DASYATIDAE
One species in our list: Amphotistius sabinus (LeSueur)-Stingaree

ACIPENSERIDAE
One species in our list: Acipenser brevirostris LeSueur-Shortnosed Sturgeon

KEY TO LEPISOSTEIDAE
1 Snout not twice as long as rest of head .............................2
Snout twice as long as rest of head or longer ............................
........................... Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus)-Long-nosed Gar
2( 1) Large teeth of upper jaw in a single row on either side; mouth opening longer
than rest of head .................... .................... ... ......
Large teeth of upper jaw in two rows on either side; mouth opening not as long
as rest of head........ Lepisosteus spatula Lacepede-American Alligator Gar
3( 2) Distance from front of orbit to edge of opercular membrane less than I length
of snout........... Lepisosteus platyrhincus De Kay-Florida Spotted Gar
Distance from front of orbit to edge of opercular membrane more than 3 length
of snout.............. Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell-Northern Spotted Gar

AMIIDAE
One species on our list: Amia calva Linnaeus-Bowfin (Mudfish)

KEY TO ELOPIDAE
1 D. with the last ray extended much beyond rest of fin ....................
............................... Tarpon atlanticus (Valenciennes)-Tarpofl
D. normal, its last ray not extended.... .Elops saurus Linnaeus-Tenpounder




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


KEY TO CLUPEIDAE
1 D. with its last rays extending much beyond rest of fin; stomach like a fowl's
gizzard. .................... ...................... ... .......... 7
Last rays of D. not extended; stomach not gizzard-like ................... 2
2( 1) Upper jaw not strongly notched at tip; cheeks longer than deep; no wing-like
scales at base of caudal fin ......................................... 3
Upper jaw notched at tip, the notch receiving the lower jaw; cheeks deeper than
long; a pair of wing-like scales at base of caudal ......................... 6
3( 2) Peritoneum pale .................... ..... ................ .......... 4
Peritoneum black..........Pomolobus aestivalis (Mitchill)-Summer Herring
4( 3) Head about 4 or more; depth about 3; A. 19 or more................... .5
Head about 34; depth about 3;; A. 18 ..................................
..................... Pomolobus chrysochloris Rafinesque-Skipjack Herring
5( 4) D. 16; A. 19; head about 41; gill rakers about 35 on lower limb of arch......
...........................Pomolobus pseudo-harengus (Wilson)-Alewife
D. 15; A. 21; head about 4; gill rakers about 23 on lower limb of arch.......
....................... .Pomolobus mediocris (Mitchill)-Hickory Herring
6( 2) Depth about 3; gill rakers about 60 on lower limb of arch ................
............................. Alosa sapidissima (Wilson)-American Shad
Depth about 3; gill rakers about 40 on lower limb of arch .................
....................Alosa alabamae Jordan and Evermann-Alabama Shad
7( 1) A. 22 to 26; scales 42 to 44 ..........................................
..................Signalosa petensis vanhyningi Weed-Florida Lesser Shad
A. 29 to 33; scales 52 to 56 ..........................................
...................Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur)-Northern Gizzard Shad

ENGRAULIDIDAE
One species in our list: Anchoviella mitchilli (Valenciennes)-Bay Anchovy

KEY TO CATASTOMIDAE
1 Lateral line lacking; mouth subinferior, slightly oblique; color pattern (if
present) consisting of longitudinal streaks, sometimes with narrow vertical
bars ........................................................2
Lateral line more or less developed in adult; mouth inferior, horizontal; color
pattern of adult consisting of longitudinal rows of black spots, one on each
scale; young pale, obscurely mottled ..................................
''..................... Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque)-Spotted Sucker
2(1) Scales 40 to 42; head about 4 to 41; A. of male not bilobed; fins more angular;
D. 11....................Erimyzon tenuis (Agassiz)-Alabama Chub-sucker
Scales 35 or 36; head about 3' to 3'; A. of male bilobed; fins rounded; D.
usually 12-sometimes 11. .............................................
............ Erimyzon sucetta sucetta (Lacepede)-Eastern Lake Chub-sucker




80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

KEY TO CYPRINIDAE
1 Rays of anal fewer than 14 ..................................... 2
Rays of anal more than 14 .........................................
.......... Notemigonus crysoleucas bosci Valenciennes-Florida Golden Shiner
2( 1) Rays of anal fewer than 11 ........................................... .3
Rays of anal 11.......... Notropis hypselopterus (Gunther) Big-finned Shiner
3( 2) Sides of head and lower jaw without conspicuous silvery or translucent cavities
................ ............ ................................... 4
Sides of head and lower jaw cavernous, with distinct silvery or translucent
mucus channels .............. Ericymba buccata Cope-Silver-jawed Minnow
4( 3) Mouth not very small, lateral cleft extending beyond anterior margin of eye..5
Mouth very small, scarcely any lateral cleft ............................
............................ Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay-Pug-nosed Minnow
5( 4) Scales fewer than 45 ................................................6
Scales more than 45.............................................. ...
..... Semotilus atromaculatus thoreauianus Jordan-Southeastern Creek Chub
6( 5) Lateral line extending all the way to caudal fin..........................7
Lateral line extending hardly half way to caudal fin.......................
............................... Notropis maculatus (Hay)-Spotted Shiner
7( 6) A. 8; 6 rows of scales above the lateral line .................. ...........8
A. 7; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line ..............................
............................... Notropis roseus (Jordan)-Coastal Shiner
8( 7) Scales about 33; head about 39; eye in head about 3......................
.......................... Notropis chalybaeus (Cope)-Iron-colored Shiner
Scales about 39; head about 41; eye in head about 3 .....................
........... Notropis eurystomas (Jordan)-Chattahoochee Blacktailed Shiner

KEY TO ARIIDAE
1 Lower jaw with two barbels; dorsal and pectoral spines terminating in long
filaments.................. Galeichthysfelis (Linnaeus)-Gaff-topsail Catfish
Lower jaw with 4 barbels; spines without filaments .......................
.......................... Bagre marines (Mitchill)-Northern Sea Catfish

KEY TO AMEIURIDAE
1 Tail deeply forked .................................. ...... .2
Tail rounded or slightly emarginate, not deeply forked.................. 3
2( 1) Sides with dark spots; an unbroken bony ridge from head to origin of D.; lobes
of tail pointed; head narrow.........................................
........Ictalurus lacustris punctatus (Rafinesque)-Southern Channel Catfish
Sides plain; bony ridge from head to D. not quite complete; lobes of tail
rounded; head broad............ Ictalurus cactus (Linnaeus)-White Catfish




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


3( 1) Adipose fin adnate to back posteriorly................ .............. 6
Adipose fin not adnate to back posteriorly ..............................4
4( 3) Color silvery, heavily mottled with black or dark brown; anal rays about 21
......Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus (Holbrook)-Marbled Brown Bullhead
Color above brownish to black, not mottled .............................5
5( 4) Lower sides and caudal peduncle with rounded light spots; rays of A. 16 to 18
.................. Ameiurus platycephalus (Girard)-Flat-headed Bullhead
Sides without rounded light spots; rays of A. 25 to 27...................
........................... Ameirus natalis (LeSueur)-Yellow Bullhead
6( 3) Color brown to black and nearly plain; pectoral spine more than 3 in snout to
D....................... Schilbeodes gyrinus (Mitchill)-Tadpole Madtom
Color yellowish, usually mottled, especially on D. and A. pectoral spine 3 in
head or less......... Schilbeodes leptacanthus (Jordan)-Gulf Coast Madtom

KEY TO ESOCIDAE
1 Scales 108 or less; length 12 inches or less; branchiostegals 11 to 13.......
............................Esox americanus Gmelin-Bulldog Pickerel
Scales about 125; length up to two feet; branchiostegals 14 to 16...........
..............................Esox niger LeSueur-Chain Pickerel (Jack)

BELONIDAE
One species on our list: Strongylura marina (Walbaum)-Northern Needlefish

ANGUILLIDAE
One species in our list: Anguilla bostoniensis (LeSueur)-American Eel

KEY TO CYPRINODONTIDAE
1 Teeth pointed.......... .......... .... .................2
Teeth notched, bicuspid or tricuspid............... ............17
2( 1) Teeth in a single series. .. ........ ............... ........... .3
Teeth in more than one series ........................................5
3( 2) Body short and deep; depth less than 4 in length........................
................... Rainwater Killifish-Lucania parva (Baird and Girard)
Body rather elongate; depth more than 4 in length......................4
4( 3) A black lateral stripe present from head to tail; no ocellated spot on side....
.......................... Chriopeops goodei (Jordan)-Red-finned Killifish
No lateral stripe present, at least not anteriorly; side or caudal peduncle or both
with an ocellated spot.... Leptolucania ommata (Jordan)-Ocellated Killifish
5( 2) Gill openings restricted above: opercle adnate to body from about root of
pectoral upward; body short and deep ................................
*..................Adinia xenica (Jordan and Gilbert)-Diamond K llitish
Gill openings not restricted above: opercle not adnate to body from root of
Pectoral upward; body oblong .................................... .. .6




82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

6( 5) Dorsal fin with 11 to 17 rays, inserted above or before anal ...............7
Dorsal fin with 7 to 11 rays, inserted well behind front of anal............12
7( 6) Scales in lateral line 33 ................................................
................. Fundulus similis (Baird and Girard)-Long-nosed Killifish
Scales in lateral line 35 or more .............. .....................8
8( 7) Scales more than 40. ............................. .... ...........9
Scales fewer than 40 ................ .............................10
9( 8) Scales about 45; dorsal with 10 rays ............................ ....
................... Fundulus confluentus Goode and Bean-Spotfin Killifish
Scales about 52; dorsal with 17 rays .............................. ..
............................ Fundulus seminolis Girard- Seminole Killifish
10( 8) Male with about 12 dark vertical bars and a black spot on dorsal fin; female
with black longitudinal bands and 1 or 2 dark vertical bars at base of caudal fin;
scales 36; depth 4; D. 12 ..... Fundulus majalis (Walbaum)-Striped Killifish
Male with scattered spots or silvery vertical bars, and sometimes a black spot
on D.; female nearly plain; young male with 9 or 10 silvery bars, young female
with 9 or 10 black bars; scales 35; head 33; depth 32; D. 11..............11
11(10) Longest dorsal ray about 1 in head; longest anal ray about 11 in head; base of
D. 2 in head; Atlantic coastal form .................................
.... Fundulus heteroclitus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)-Southern Common Killifish
Longest dorsal ray 2 to 21 in head; longest anal ray 1, to 21 in head; base of D.
2| in head; Gulf coastal form ........................................
........................ Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard-Gulf Killifish
12( 6) No distinct longitudinal bands or stripe-like rows of dots ................. 13
Sides with one or more dark longitudinal streaks ......................15
13(12) A. 11; scales about 32 .. .Fundulus chrysotus (Giinther)-Golden Topminnow
A. 8 or 9; scales 34 to 36..........................................14
14(13) Dark vertical bands about 15; depth about 4.............................
.................. Fundulus cingulatus (Valenciennes)-Banded Topminnow
Dark transverse bands about 12; depth about 4' .........................
Fundulus notti lineolatus (Agassiz)-Eastern Star-headed Topminnow (male)
15(12) Side with a single dark longitudinal band extending from head to tail........
.................... Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque)-Streaked Topminnow
Longitudinal streaks numerous and formed of black spots arranged in parallel
rows ................... .... .......................... .......16
16(15) In female, dark spots on scales confluent into about 6 longitudinal stripes which
may alternate with rows of fainter dots; longitudinal bands indistinct or lacking
in male, the vertical bands more distinct and about 12 in number...........
........ Fundulus notti lineolatus (Agassiz)-Eastern Star-headed Topminnow
Longitudinal rows of spots not confluent into lines, but forming series of dis-
connected dots .............. ......................................
........... Fundulus notti notti (Agassiz)-Southern Star-headed Topminnow




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


17( 1) D. 10 to 12 ....................................................... 18
D. 16 to 18 ................... Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean-Flagfish
18(17) Head about 3; A. 9...................................................
......... Floridicthys carpio carpio (Giinther)-Florida Gold-spotted Killifish
Head about 32; A. 10 or 11 ............... ......................19
19(18) Depth 31 to 4; interorbital 12 to 19 ....................................
................. Cyprinodon hubbsi Carr-Lake Eustis Sheepshead Killifish
Depth 21 to 3; interorbital 8 to 11 .................................
.... Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus Lac6pade-Southern Sheepshead Killifish

KEY TO POECILIIDAE
1 D. (and A. in female) with a large black spot ............................
............................ Heterandria formosa (Agassiz)-Least Killifish
D. without large spot ............................................. 2
2( 1) D. 6 to 10 ........................................................ 3
D. 15 or 16 ........................ Mollienisia latipinna LeSueur-Sailfin*
3( 2) Eye in head, 21 to 3; head 33; D. 7. ...............................
..........Gambusia affinis afinis (Baird and Girard)-Western Mosquito-fisht
Eye in head, 31, head 4; D. 8. .
Eye in head, 3, head 4; D. 8...................... .................
............... Gambusia affinis holbrookii (Girard)-Eastern Mosquito-fish

APHREDODERIDAE
One species in our list: Aphredoderus sayanus (Gilliams)-Pirate Perch

KEY TO SERRANIDAE
1 D. VIII-I, 10; A. III, 6; head 2j to 3; depth 4 to 4 ......................
.............. Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch)-Northern Robalo (Snook)
D. IX-I, 12; A. III, 2; head about 32; depth about 3 .....................
S..... ........................ Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum)-Striped Bass

KEY TO PERCIDAE
1 Scales fewer than 44............. ... ............................ 2
Scales more than 44........................... .................3
2( 1) Lateral line incomplete, tubes usually not reaching penultimate scale in longi-
tudinal series; depth more than 5 ......................................
.. ...................... Villora edwini Hubbs and Cannon-Brown Darter
Lateral line complete, at least as far as next to last scale; depth less than 5...
............... Poecilicthys jessiae swaini Jordan-Southern Swamp Darter


bl occasionally found in an abnormal phase, in which the entire body is heavily
ltched with black; the ground color may be silvery or greenish gold.
at The typical race has not been recorded from Florida, but intergrades between it
and the following form have been found at Pensacola.




84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

3( 1) Soft rays of A. 6 or 7; scales fewer than 57.............................4
Soft rays of A. 9 or 10; scales more than 57 ............................5
4( 3) Soft rays of A. 6; premaxillaries separated from the forehead in the middle by a
groove .................................. Doration davisonii Hay-Speck
Soft rays of A. 7; skin of middle of upper jaw continuous with that of forehead
..................... Hololepis barratti (Holbrook)-Florida Swamp Darter
5( 3) Anal spines II; dorsal spines XII ......................................
....................... Hadropterus nigrofasciatus Agassiz-Crawl-a-bottom
Anal spine I; dorsal spines VIII to X ............................ ...
...........................Ammocrypta beanii Jordan-Coastal Sand Darter

KEY TO CENTRARCHIDAE
1 Dorsal and anal fins nearly equal in length.............................2
A. distinctly shorter than D........ .............................3
2( 1) Dorsal spines XI to XIII....... Centrarchus macropterus (Lac6pede)-Flier
Dorsal spines VII to VIII.... Pomoxis sparoides (Lac6pede)-Black Crappie
3( 1) Tail rounded, not forked..............................................4
Tail forked, or lat least emarginate............... ....... ................6
4( 3) D. with IX spines, the median ones not elevated........................5
D. with X spines, some of the median ones elevated beyond rest of fin.......
.................... Mesogonistius chaetodon (Baird)-Black-banded Sunfish
5( 4) Opercular spot large, more than half the size of eye; sides with 5 to 8 distinct
vertical bars of black......... Enneacanthus obesus (Girard)-Banded Sunfish
Opercular spot small, less than half the size of eye; vertical bars narrow and
indistinct or lacking; male with iridescent blue or purple spots on body and
vertical fins....... Enneacanthus glorious (Holbrook)-Blue-spotted Sunfish
6( 3) D. not divided by a deep notch; depth 22 or less......................7
D. divided by a deep notch between soft and spinous portions; depth 3 or more
................... ................. ................. ....... .... 14
7( 6) Mouth large, maxillary reaching middle of eye; lingual teeth usually present. .8
Mouth small, maxillary not reaching middle of eye; lingual teeth usually
absent ............. ..... ..................... .. ..... ..... 9
8( 7) Anal spines 6 or 7....... Ambloplites ariommus Viosca-Southern Rock Bass
Anal spines 3.............. Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier)-Warmouth Bass
9( 7) D. without black blotch at base of last rays. ................... ....... 10
D. with a large, more or less diffuse black blotch at base of its posterior rays;
pectoral fins pointed; black of opercular spot reaching edge of flap, no pale or
colored margin in adult......... Helioperca macrochira (Rafinesque)-Bluegill
10( 9) Black opercular spot short and broad, not longitudinally elongate in adults;
usually no blue on sides of head ..................................... 11




KEY TO FRESH-WATER FISHES


Black spot on operculum more or less elongate longitudinally in adult; blue
streaks on head .............. ................... .............13
11(10) Pectoral fins rounded, shorter than head; usually with lateral rows of black or
red spots ........................... .............................. 12
Pectorals pointed, longer than head; not regularly spotted; sometimes with 9 or
10 irregular vertical bars; in fresh specimens a red or orange edge to posterior
and ventral part of dark opercular spot..................................
.......... Eupomotis microlophus (Giinther)-Stump-knocker (Shell-cracker)
12(11) Numerous longitudinal rows of small, dark spots usually present on sides, at
least ventrally; 7 rows of cheek scales ...................................
......... Sclerotis punctatus punctatus (Valenciennes)-Black-spotted Sunfish
Male with about 14 rows of red spots along sides; 4 rows of scales on cheeks;
belly orange with red spots ..........................................
.................Sderotis punctatus miniatus (Jordan)-Red-spotted Sunfish
13(10) Opercular spot with a pale or colored margin; cheek scales in about 4 or 5 rows;
ventrals reaching anal; scales on belly in front of ventrals not much smaller
than those of lower sides ............................................
....... Xenotis megalotis marginatus (Holbrook)-Florida Long-eared Sunfish
Opercular spot without pale or colored border, black to the edge in adults;
scales on belly in front of ventrals much smaller than those on lower sides;
cheek scales in about 7 to 9 rows; ventrals not reaching origin of anal........
........Lepomis auritus solis (Valenciennes)-Southern Red-breasted Sunfish
14( 6) Dorsal almost completely divided into two; maxillary in adult extending be-
yond eye; no scales on soft dorsal and anal............................
......................... Huro salmoides (Lacl6pde)-Large-mouthed Bass
Dorsal not nearly divided into two; maxillary not extending beyond eye; scales
on soft dorsal and anal............... ............ ....... ........15
15(14) Sides plain or with a dark longitudinal band; scales 59 to 66; soft rays of D. 11
or 12....................... Micropterus pseudaplites Hubbs-Spotted Bass
Sides plain or with vertical bars; scales 72 to 75; soft rays of dorsal 13 to 15..
........ Micropterus dolomieu Lac6pede-Small-mouthed Bass (Introduced)

KEY TO ELASSEMIDAE
S A round black spot on side; dorsal spines V; scales 38 to 45................
........................ Elassoma zonatum Jordan-Banded Pigmy Sunfish
No round black spot on side; dorsal spines III or IV; scales 27 to 30........
................... Elassoma evergladei Jordan-Everglades Pigmy Sunfish

KEY TO ATHERINIDAE
1 A. I, 16 or 17; scales about 39; length of upper jaw about equal to eye......
............ Menidia beryllina atrimentis Kendall-Freshwater Glass-minnow
A. I, 23; scales about 72; eye 1l in upper jaw ...........................
.... Labidesthes sicculus vanhyningi Bean and Reid-Florida Brook Silversides




86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

MUGILIDAE
One species in our list: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus-Striped Mullet

KEY TO ELEOTRIDAE
1 Depth 4 or more; soft rays of A. 8; scales more than 40 ...................2
Depth about 3; soft rays of A. 9 or 10; scales about 33 ....................
............................... Dormitator maculatus (Bloch)-Fat Sleeper
2( 1) Scales 40 to 46; depth about 4. ................................ ..
................... Eleotris amblyopsis (Cope)-Large-scaled Slender Sleeper
Scales about 62; depth 4* to 5........................................
..................... Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin)-Fine Scaled Slender Sleeper

SYNGNATHIDAE
One species in our list: Syrictes scovelli (Evermann and Kendall) Scovell's Pipefish

ARCHIRIDAE
One species in our list: Trinectes maculatus (Rafinesque)-Northern Round Sole


THE GULF-ISLAND COTTONMOUTHS

A. F. CARR, JR.
University of Florida
FoR SEVERAL years and from many quarters I have heard vague tales
of appalling numbers of snakes inhabiting the little Gulf islands in
the vicinity of Suwannee Sound. Visiting sportsmen have returned
with incredible stories of their numbers. The inhabitants of the little
coastal towns of the neighborhood, though at great variance in their
interpretations of the taxonomic status of the form, are all agreed that
the island brand of snake possesses a biotic potential more vigorous, a
venom more lethal, and a disposition more treacherous and vindictive
than any other North American reptile.
An attempt to formulate a coherent concept of the serpent or ser-
pents responsible for the harrowing reports met with little success.
The more conservative of the narrators identified the species as cop-
perhead; the more imaginative pronounced it sea cobra. Between
these extremes of nomenclature were proposed such picturesque
names as stump moccasin, stump-tail viper, salt-water rattler, and
mangrove rattler. I discussed the matter at some length with an old
fisherman who had lived many years on one of the islands. His ob-
servations had led him to conclude that there were four kinds of
snakes on the keys off the Suwannee Delta-all equally deadly. The
rarest of these he described as a rough-scaled tan snake with long




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