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..,t::ItlL fREDE.L.OHRER BiOlOGICAL STAliOHl.aoxIW WE PlACIO.flOlllDA33352 MARINEBIRDS OFTHESOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND GULF OF MEXICOPart IIANSERIFORMESBureau of LandManagement Fish and Wildlife ServiceU.S. Department oftheInterior

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TheBiological Services Progr&m wasestablished within theU.S.FishandWildlife Servicetosupplyscientificinformationandmethodologiesonkeyenvironmental issues thatimpactfishandwildliferesourcesandthefrsupporting ecosystems.Themissionoftheprogramisas follows: Tostrengthen the Fishand Wildlife Service initsrole as a primary sourceof onnational fishandwildlfferesources,particularlyin respect to environmental hr\,4ct assessment. Togather, analyze,andpresent infonmationthat will aid decisionmakers in the identifIcationandresolution ofproblems associated with major changesin landandwater use. Toprovidebetterecological informationandevaluation for Department of theInteriordevelopmentprograms,suchasthoserelatingto energy development. Information developedbythe Biological ServicesProgramis intended forusein the planningand decisionmaking process to prevent orminimizetheimpactof developmentonfishandwildlife.Researchactivitiesandtechnical assistance services arebasedon an analysis of the issues, a determination of the decisionmakers involvedandtheirinformation needs,andanevaluation of the stateof thearttoidentify information gaps andto determinepriorities.Thisis a strategythatwill ensurethatthe productsproducedanddisseminated are timelyanduseful. Projectshavebeeninitiatedin the following areas: coal extractionandconversion;powerplants; geothermal, mineralandoil shale develop ment; water resource analysis, including streamalterationsandwestern water allocation; coastal ecosystemsandOuter Continental Shelf development;andsystems inventory, including National Wetland Inventory, habitatclassificationandanalysis,andinformationtransfer.TheBiologica' ServicesProgramconsists of the Office of Biological Services inWashington,O.C.,whichis responsible for overall planning andmanagement;NationalTeams,whichprovide the Program'scentra'scientificandtechnical expertiseandarrange for contracting biological services studies withstates,universities,consulting firms,andothers;RegionalStaffs,whoproVidea link to problems atthe operating level;andstaffsatcertain FishandWildlife Service researchfacilities,whoconduct in-house research studies.

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FWS/OBS-82/20Julyr982MARINE BIRDS OFTHESOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESANDGULFOFMEXICOPARTIIANSERIFORMESby RogerB.Clapp,DeborahMorgan-Jacobs,andRichardC.Banks,MuseumSectionUnitedStatesFishandWildlifeServiceNationalMuseumofNaturalHistoryWashington,D.C. 20560ContractNo.14-16-0009-78-917'Project,OfficerJillParkerNationalCoastalEcosystemsTeamUnitedStatesFishandWildlifeServiceNASA-Slidell Computer Complex 1010 GauseBoulevardSlidell,Louisiana70458ThisprojectwassponsoredbytheBureauofLand ManagementPreparedforCoastalEcosystemsProjectOfficeofBiologicalServices Fi.sh andWildlifeServiceu.S.DepartmentoftheInteriorWashington,D.C. 20240

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.:It/(,.itfIIf ".:..... ... \(l,.JIt.,\&f "VI-.r:... ',. '.,. ........ '...' -,.. ..'.' .''''' .. ....... ..'.. J..v"'\. ....;..: ... \...-dir.... .. -.. LibraryofCongressCardNumber82-600553Thisreportshouldbecitedas: Clapp, R. B., D.Morgan-Jacobs,andR.C.Banks.1982.MarinebirdsofthesoutheasternUnitedStates and GulfofMexico.PartII:Anseriformes.U.S.FishandWildlifeService,OfficeofBiologicalServices,Washington,D.C. FWS/OBS-82/20. 492pp.

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PREFACEPartIIofthevolumesMarineBirdsoftheSoutheasternUniteoStatesahdGulfof Mexicot publishedbythe National-Coastal EcosystemsTeam, provides-a------synthesisandanalysisofinformationaboutmarinebirdsinthisarea.Accountsfor41speciesincludeinformationondistribution,abundancetandsusceptibilitytooilpollution.Moredetailedinformationondistributioninthesoutheastand a summaryoffoodhabitsandhabitatsutilizedarepresentedfor17species.Informationonbreedingecologyissummarizedfor12speciesthatwethinkaremostlikelytobeaffectedbyoilpollution.Selected.bibliographiesfolloweachspeciesaccountandincludeadditionalsourcesofinformation.Anysuggestionsorquestionsregardingthisreportshouldbedirectedto:InformationTransferSpecialistNationalCoastalEcosystemsTeamU.S.FishandWildlifeService'NASA-SlidellComputer Complex 1010 GauseBoulevardSlidell,Louisiana70458iii

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ABSTRACTInformationontheseasonaldistributionandabundanceof41speciesofwaterfowloftheorderAnseriformesthatoccurinthecoastalsoutheasternUnitedStateshasbeencompiledandmapped fromtheliterature.Inmanyinstancesthisprovidesthefirstsynthesisofknowledgeaboutaspeciesforthisregion.Forthespeciesweconsider importantincoastalareaswealsoprovideinformationonworld-widedistribution,habitat,food,andvariousaspectsoflifehistory.Thisinformationwasgatheredinanattempttoassessthepossibleeffectsofoffshoreoildevelopmentonpopulationsofmarinebirdsinthesoutheast.Thesusceptibilityofbirdstooildependsnotonlyontheirjuxtapositionintimeandspace,butalsooncurrentsandclimaticfactorsandonthestageofthelifeorannualcycleandthebehaviorofthespecies.Contaminationbyoilmayresultinmatting.ofthefeatherswithdeathfollowingfromchilling,starvation,andtheingestionofoilduringpreening.Amongthebirdscoveredbythisreport,theseaducksanddivingducksareconsideredthemostsusceptibletooilpollutioninthesoutheast.Mostoftheotherducks,geese,and swartscoveredinthereportarerelativelyinsusceptibletooilpollutionbecausetheyareseldomfoundinareas where oilingislikelytooccur.Oneoftheconclusionsreachedbythisreportisthatweknow very littleaboutthestatusandpopulationsofsomeoftheanatidsthatoccurinthesoutheast.Someofthesespecies(e.g.,thescoters)areamongthosethatmaybeexpectedtobemostdetrimentallyaffectedbydevelopment.ofoilresources.Ingeneral,mostspeciesthat are widelyhuntedarerelativelywellstudied,butmuchisunknownofthosethatarenotgamebirds.iv

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MAPSNumber Page 1WinterDistributionMapfortheWhistlingSwan48 2WinterDistributionMapfortheWhite-frontedGoose 643WinterDistributionMapfortheWhite-morphSnowGoose..724WinterDistribution Map fortheBlue-morphSnowGoose735WinterDistribution Map fortheCanada Goose956WinterDistribution Map fortheBrant 120 7WinterDistributionMapfortheWoodDuck.. 135 8WinterDistribution Map fortheAmerican Wigeon 1549WinterDistributionMapfortheGadwall 160 10WinterDistributionMapfortheGreen-wingedTeal16611WinterDistributionMapfortheMallard176 12WinterDistributionMapfortheMottledDuck 20413WinterDistributionMapfortheBlackDuck 213 14WinterDistributionMapfortheNorthernPintail230 15WinterDistributionMapfortheBlue-wingedTeal238 16WinterDistributionMapfortheCinnamonTeal24617WinterDistributionMapfortheNorthernShoveler25118WinterDistributionMapfortheCanvasback 258 19WinterDistributionMapfortheRedhead27420WinterDistributionMapfortheRing-neckedDuck 28521WinterDistributionMapfortheGreaterScaup29222WinterDistributionMapfortheLesserScaup 30323Winter Distribut!on MapfortheCommonEider 316 24WinterDistributionMapfortheOldsquaw340ix

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PREFACEABSTRACTMAPS........CONTENTSiiiivixTABLESABBREVIATIONSUSEDINTEXTPURPOSEOFREPORT.......xixii1STUDYAREA..............................1HabitatsClimatesMETHODS........,1 34ARRANGEMENTANDCONTENTOFSPECIESACCOUNTSSpeciesIncludedScientificandVernacular'NamesGeneralDistributionDistributionintheCoastalSoutheastern'UnitedStatesSynopsisofPresentDistributionand Abundance HabitatFood andFeedingBehavior .ImportantBiologicalParametersSusceptibilitytoOilPollution SpeciesBibliography OILPOLLUTIONANDMARINEBIRDSOFTHESOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATES7789101010 1111121213VariabilityinSpecies'Susceptibility to. OilPollution 14RegionalDifferencesinOilingandMortalityofBeachedBirds14 MajorBirdkillsFollowingOilSpillsintheSoutheasternU.S.17SourcesofVariationinMortalityfromOilPollution 18EffectsofOilonContaminatedBirdsandTheirEggs19PotentialHazardstoMarineBirdsfromOffshoreOilProduction20RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURERESEARCH.'.21ChoiceofSpeciesforFuture'Research.' ResearchNeeded onEffectsofOilonSoutheasternMarineBirds2124ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................v26

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ANSERIFORMESAnatidaeFulvousWhistlingDuck(Dendrocygnabicolor)accountbibliography28 28Black-belliedWhistlingDuck(Dendrocygnaautumnalis).account33bibliography33 Mute Swan (Cygnusolor).account38bibliography.39WhistlingSwan(Olorcolumbianus)...........accountbibliography4756White-frontedGoose(Anseralbifrons)account63bibliography.63............SnowGoose (Chencaerulescens)Ross'Goose (Chenrossii).......... ......accountbibliographyaccountbibliography717489 89 CanadaGoose(Brantacanadensis) account94bibliography.94BarnacleGoose(BrantaleucQPsis).accountbibliography 114 114Brant(Brantabernicla).'.account119bibliography.125WoodDuck(Aixsponsa)EurasianWigeon (Anaspenelope).'.accountbibliographyaccountbibliography 134 134 148 148 American Wigeon (Anasamericana)Gadwall (Anasstrepera)................accountbibliographyaccountbibliography 153 153 159 159 Green-wingedTeal(Anascrecca).Mallard(Anasplatyrhynchos).............viaccountbibliographyaccountbibliography 165167175178

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MottledDuck (Anasfulvigula).BlackDuck (Anasrubripes)NorthernPintail(Anasacuta).Blue-wingedTeal(Anasdiscors).accountbibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliography 202 208211219 229231237 237 CinnamonTeal(Anascyanoptera)account245bibliography.245NorthernShoveler(Anasclypeata).Canvasback(Aythyavalisineria).accountbibliographyaccountbibliography 250 252 256 264 Redhead(Aythyaamericana)account."..270bibliography.277Ring-neckedDuck(Aythyacollaris)account284bibliography.286GreaterScaup(Aythyamarila)."account290bibliography.297LesserScaup(Aythyaaffinis) .'.CommonEider(Somateriamollissima)KingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)accountbibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliography 301 310 315 319 331 332HarlequinDuck(Histrionicushistrionicus)account..."335bibliography.336 (Clangulahyemalis)BlackScoter(Melanittanigra)SurfScoter(Melanittaperspicillata)viiaccountbibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliography 338 347 353 363 368 374

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......White-wingedScoter(Melanittafusca)CommonGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula).Bufflehead(Bucephalaalbeola) HoodedMerganser(Lophodytescucullatus)...... account. bibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliographyaccountbibliography377383389397406 413 418 420Red-breastedMerganser(Mergusserrator)account423bibliography.433 account454bibliography.461CommonMerganser(Mergusmerganser).Ruddy Duck (Oxyurajamaicensis) Masked Duck (Oxyuradominica).....................accountbibliographyaccountbibliography438444 452 453LITERATURE CITED viii467

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NumberPage25WinterDistributionMapfortheBlaekSeoter354 26WinterDistributionMapfortheSurfSeoter370 27WinterDi stributionMapfortheWhite-wingedSeoter...378 28WinterDistributionMapfortheCommonGoldeneye..39229WinterDistributionMapfortheBufflehead ..408 30WinterDistributionMapfortheHoodedMerganser.. 41931WinterDistributionMapfortheRed-breastedMerganser424 32WinterDistributionMapfortheRuddy Duek .....458x

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TABLESNumber123456789Number andpercentageofbeachedbirdsexaminedandoiledComparison'ofregionalandseasonalvariationofbeachedbirdmortalityandincidenceofoilingintheeasternUnitedStates Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadMallards aftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBlackDucks foundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadGreaterScaupfoundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadCommonEidersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadOldsquawsfoundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBlackScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadSurfScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents 15 16 177 219 298 317 345361374 10 Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadWhite-wingedScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents38411Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadCommonGoldeneyesfoundaftermajoroilingincidents '396 12 Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBuffleheadfoundaftermajoroilingincidents414 13 Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadRed-breastedMergansersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents431 14 15 Numberofdeadbirdsand numberandpercentageofdeadCommonMergansersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents Numberofdeadbirdsand numberandpercentageofdeadRuddy Ducksfoundaftermajoroilingincidentsxi443462

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ABBREVIATIONSUSEDINTEXTMostoftheabbreviationsusedinthetextareinstandarduseandwillbeknowntothereader;a few maybelessfamilar.Thesearelistedbelowwithabriefindicationoftheirinterpretation. NtStE t W t (capitalizedwithoutperiod) NetS.tE.t W.(capitalizedwithperiod)acad.AOUBOUBLMcaCBCcf.colI.comp. Co.CSLPEBBAet.seq.haIBBAimm.inlitt.inprep.msnNatl.ParkNatl.Seashorenonad.NWROpecit.Par.pers.commapers.observ.photogr.prep.SDspec.sp./spp.St.Parksubad.subseq.unpubl.USFWSWAGBIWMAcompassdirectionsgeographicsitedesignation(e.g.tS.PadreIsland)acreadultAmericanOrnithologists'UnionBritishOrnithologists'UnionBureauofLand Management(circa)aboutChristmasBirdCount(confer)compare/seecollectedcompilerCountyCenterforShort-livedPhenomenaEasternBirdBandingAssociationandthefollowinghectareInlandBirdBandingAssociationinnnatureintheletters(of)inpreparationmanuscriptsamplesizeNationalParkNationalSeashorenonadultNationalWildlifeRefuge(operecitato)intheworkcitedParishpersonalcommunicationpersonalobservationphotographedpreparerStandardDeviationspecimenspecies(sing./plu.)StateParksubadultsubsequentunpublishedUnitedStatesFishandWildlifeServiceWaterfowlersAssociationofGreatBritainandIrelandWildlifeManagementAreaxii

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Units of measurementinthetextarepresentedastheywereinthesourcefrom whichtheywerederivedandarefollowedbyparentheticalconversiontothemetricorEnglishsystems,asappropriate.xiii

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PURPOSEOFREPORTThepurposeofthisreportistosummarizethestatusofwaterfowlinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesandexplorethepotentialeffectsonthesespeciesofthedevelopmentofpetroleumresourcesontheoutercontinentalshelf(OCS).Thisentailedareviewofavailableinformationinorderto:1)determinewhereand whenwaterfowloccurinmarineareastobedevelopedforoilandgasproduction;.2)ascertainwhichspecieswouldbemostatriskfromoilandthedevelopmentofoilresources;3)evaluatetheimportanceofpopulationsinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesinrelationtotheentiredistributionandabundanceofthespecies;4)summarizeinformationonthelifehistoryofspeciesmostlikelytobeadverselyaffectedbydevelopmentofoilresources.ThismaterialispresentedinaformthatenablestheBureauofLand Management(BLM)toidentifyaspectsofOCSdevelopmentthatmightthreatenpopulationsofmarinebirds.Itprovidesinformationthatwillaidmanagersinmakingdecisionsthatminimizedamagetothesepopulationsduringthedevelopmentofenergyresources.Acorollaryobjectiveistorecommendtopicsforfutureresearchinareasforwhichinformationisparticularlyscarce.STUDYAREAThestudyareaencompassesthecoastalandoffshorewatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStates,fromthenorthernborderofNorthCarolinatotheMexicanborder.Awidevarietyofcoastalhabitatsoccurswithinthisarea:sandybarrierislands;fresh,salt,andbrackishmarshes;openbeach;coastalbays;dredgespoilislands;mud-flats:andmangroveislands.Thedominanthabitatsofsectionsofthecoastlinewillbediscussedbelow.HABITATSNorthCarolinaisdominatedby aseriesoffringingbarrierbeachesbehindwhichlielargeestuarieswithextensiveareasofshallowwaterandsaltmarsh.Thesefringingislands(theOuterBanks)arefarther(30-50kmor20-30mi)fromthemainlandthanaresuchislandsalongotherareasoftheAtlanticcoast(Warinneretal.1976).ExtensivestandsofsaltmarshwithdeeptidalchannelsarefoundsouthofCapeLookout,NorthCarolina,throughSouthCarolinaandGeorgia.Almostthree-quartersofthesaltmarshacreagealongtheAtlanticseaboardisfoundinthesethreestates.ThelargestareasofsaltmarshontheAtlanticcoastareinGeorgia,whichhas193,000ha(477,000ac),NorthCarolina1

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(64,000haor158,000ac),and SouthCarolina haor435,000ac)(West1977) Barrierislandsarealsoveryimportantcoastalhabitatin these threestates.Thelandareasofthebarrierislandsforeachstateare120,000ac(48,000ha)inNorthCarolina,124,000 ac(50,200ha)inSouthCarolina,and 153,000ac(62,000ha)inGeorgia(Warner1976),foratotalofabout397,000-ac(160,000ha).Theareaof water behindtheseislandsbecomessmallertothesouth(Warinneretal.1976).Thesethreestates(NorthCarolina,South Carolina,andGeorgia)respectivelyhaveabout266mi(428km),199mi(320km),and98 (158km)ofopenbeachalongtheirbarrierislands.Inotherpartsofthestudyarea(e.g.,partsoftheFloridaGulfcoast),beachesarefewornonexistent(Woo1fenden andSchreiber1973).TheeastcoastofFloridaisdominatedby achainofbarrierislandsoccasionallybrokenbytidalpasses.Typically,theseislandsaresandyalongtheirouterperimeters.Largeareasofmarshandestuarineswamplielandwardoftheseislands(Warinnereta1.1976) andsaltmarshesgraduallygive way tomangroveswamp(Reimo1d1977).MuchoftheGulfcoastofFloridaisdominated bysaltmarshesand mangroveswamps(Warinereta1.1976).OpenbeachisextensivefromNaplesontheFloridapeninsulanorthalongthepanhandletoAlabama(Woo1fenden andSchreiber1973).InAlabama,tidalsaltmarsh,sandybeaches,andoffshoreislandsare common coastallandforms.Mississippi'sGulfcoastconsistsalmostentirelyofbarrierislandsthathavesaltmarshesintheircenters.TheshorelineofMississippiisextensivelydevelopedbutstillcontainsfresh,salt,andbrackishmarshes(Warinnereta1.1976).Only alimitedamountofsaltmarshisfoundbetweennorthernFloridaandMississippi.Mostmarshesaresmall,disjunct,andinalluvialpocketsprotectedbybayshores(West1977).Louisianahasmore marsh andestuarineareathananyoftheotherUnitedStatesexceptAlaska(Warinneretal.1976) andcontainsnearlyhalfthetotalacreageofsaltmarshinthecontiguousUnitedStates.Insomeplacesthemarshesextendinlandasmuchas40-50km(25-30 mi)(West1977).Thecoastlinealongthewesternthirdofthestateissandy,buttherestoftheareaisdominatedbybarrierislandsand marshthatarestronglyinfluencedbytheenormousamountsofmudandsiltdepositedbytheMississippiRiver(Warinnereta1.1976).TheLouisianacoastisoneofthemostproductiveareasformarinebirdsinthecontinentalUnitedStatesandsupportsenormouswinteringpopulationsofwaterfowl.ThecoastofTexas makesupalargeportionofthewesternshoreoftheGulfofMexico. Sandybeachesandoffshorebarrierislandsareabundant.Twosemi-landlockedlagoons,theUpper and Lower Laguna Madre, and alarge low salinityestuary,SabineLake,areareasofgreatimportancetowinteringwaterfowl.Anestimated 78% oftheworld'spopulationofRedhead duckswintersintheLaguna Madre, and 13% oftheworld'sshrimpharvestcomes from Texaswaters(Warinneretal.1976).AlimitedamountofsaltmarshispresentinTexasalongbayshoresenclosedbyoffshorebars(West1977).2

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CLIMATESTheclimaticregime,likethelandform,differswidelyfrom onepartofthestudyareatoanother.Thenortheasternportionisthe coldes(. The low estmidwintertemperaturesalongthecoastofNorthCarolinaareontheorderof20F(-7C)andtheaveragedailymaximumduringmidsummeralongtheextremesoutherncoastisonly86F(30C),some 6Flessthanisusuallyrecordedintheinterior.Julyisthewettestmonth andOctoberthedriest.Alongthecoast,snow andsleetuauallyfallonlyonce or twiceayearandareusuallyassociatedwithnortheasterlywinds.PrevailingwindsinNorthCarolinablow fromthesouthwestmostoftheyearand fromthenortheastinSeptember andOctober(Hardy1974).TheweatheralongthecoastofSouthCarolinaissimilartothatinNorthCarolinawithsomevariation.AverageannualtemperaturesalongtheSouthCarolinacoastareabout68F(20C),withanaveragedailymaximuminJulyof88F (31C) andaveragedailyminimumsinJanuaryfrom 35F(1.7C)inthenortheastto42F(6C)inthesoutheast.Marchisparticularlyrainyalongthecoast,andOctoberand Novemberarethedriestmonths.PrevailingwindsinSouthCarolinaarefromthesouthwestandsouthinspringand summer,predominantlyfromthenortheastinautumn,and fromthenortheastandsouthwestinwinter(Landers1974).TheclimateinGeorgiaischaracterizedbyshort mild wintersandwarmhumid summers. Thecoastalareabecomesprogressivelydrierand warmer fromnorthtosouth.Peakperiodsofprecipitationoccurinwinterandearlyspring;theaverageannualrainfallrangesfrom75in(190em)intheextremenortheasternpartofthestateto53in(135em)alongthelowereastcoast.Averagesummertemperaturesrangefrom 73F (23C)intheextremenorthto82F (28C)inpartsofsouthGeorgia;averagetemperatureforthethreewintermonthsrangesfrom 41F (5C)inthenorthto56F (13C)onthelowereastcoast.AreasinnorthernGeorgiahavefreezingtemperaturesduringthedayforalmostathirdoftheyearbutthelowercoastonlyhasabouttendaysoffreezingtemperaturesannually(carter1974).Floridahasawiderrangeofclimatethananyotherstateinthesoutheast.Theclimaterangesfromtemperatetosubtropicalinthenorth,totropicalintheFloridaKeys.Summersarewarm,humid,andlong,andwintersaremildandbrief.Rainfallisabundant,especiallyfromJunetoSeptember.Meanannualtemperaturesrangefromtheupper60's(F)innorthernFloridatothemid-70'sinthesouthandreachnearly78F (26C)atKeyWest.Rainfallvarieswidelyfromareatoareaand fromyeartoyear,with most areasusuallyreceivingbetween50-65in(127-165 em). ThedrierKeys haveanaverageannualrainfallofonlyabout40in(100 em).Onthesouthernpartofthepeninsula,prevailingwindsarefromthesoutheastandeast;elsewheretheyaremoreerraticbuttendtobefromthenorthinwinterand fromthesouthinsummer.Tropicalstormsfrequentlycausegreatdamage; fewyearspasswithoutahurricaneaffectingpartofthestate(Bradley1974).TheGulfhasamaritimetropicalclimatewithmeanwintertemperaturesofabout70F (21C) and mean summertemperaturesof84F(29C).Relativetosea-sonsinotherpartsofthestudyarea,bothsummer andwinterarehotand humid;humidityisgreatestduringspringandsummerandlowestduringlatefallandwinter(BLM1978a).Rainoccursfairlyevenlythroughouttheyearalongthe3

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easternandnorthernGulf,withapeakfromJunethroughAugust(BLM1978a).ThepeaktendstobelaterfarthereastandfallsinAugustandSeptember(BLM1978b).TheareabecomesprogressivelywetterfromthesouthwesttothenorthandcentralportionsofthenorthernGulf.Thedriestareaofthe coastextendsfromBrownsvillenorthtoaboutCorpusChristi;themosthumidareafromGalvestontotheSabineRiver(Chaneyetal.1978).Averageannualprecipitationrangesfromabout69em(27in)atBrownsvilleto137em(54in)atNewOrleans(BLM1978a)and170cm(67in)inMobile(BLM1978b).Tropicalstormsandhurricanesthatoftenravagecoastalhabitatsareregularduringlatesummer andfallandentertheGulflargelythroughtheYucatanChannelandStraitsofFlorida(BLM1978a).SoutheasterlywindspredominateoverthenorthernGulfduringthesummer.Easterliesaremorecommonduringthewinter,andprevailingwindsfromthewestandsouthwestarerareatanytimeofyear(BLM1978a).METHODSMostoftheinformationwasobtainedby astandardliteraturesearch.Additionalinformationonoilingofindividualspeciesofbirdsandtheirdistributionwasobtainedthroughexaminationofmuseumspecimensandinterviews,butthesewerenotmajorsources.Severalcomputerizedinformationretrievalsystemswereinvestigatedbutthedatadidnotmeetourneeds.Thesesourceswereparticularlyweakonthelocaldistributionofbirds,muchofwhichistobefoundinregionaljournalsnotcoveredbycomputerservices;thetemporalcoveragewasalsoinadequateforthisstudy.Visualsearchesofperiodicals"provedfarmoreproductivefromthestandpointofbothnumbersofcitationsandthoroughnessofthesearch",asBartonekand'Lensink(1978)pointedoutinareviewandbibliographyoftheliteratureofmarinebirdsofAlaska. We obtainedliteraturecitationsprimarilybyscanningtheliteratureandbyconsultingbibliographiesinrelevantpapers.Theprimarysourcesforthejournals,books,andpaperswerethelibrariesandreprintfilesoftheBirdDivisionsoftheSmithsonianInstitution,WashingtonD.C. andtheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,NewYork.OthermajorsourcesofinformationwerethelibraryoftheDepartmentoftheInterior,theLibraryofCongress,andtheBirdLibraryandreprintfilesofthePatuxentWildlifeResearchCenter,Laurel,Maryland.The WelderWildlifeFoundation,Sinton,Texas,andthelibraryofgovernmentpublicationsandreportsmaintainedbytheNationalCoastalEcosystems Team,Slidell,Louisiana,wereparticularlyrichsourcesofinformationotherwisedifficulttoobtain.Unpublishedreportsandpaperswereobtainedfrom:theFloridaAudubonSociety,VeroBeach;theFloridaFishandGameCommission,Gainesville;andEvergladesNationalPark,Homestead;andotherindividualslistedintheacknowledgments.Severaldozenvaluablebutunpublishedtheseswereobtainedfromseveraleducationalinstitutions.Searchesweremadeofseveralsecondarysourcesofliteraturecitations.Literaturereviewsectionsofmajorornithologicaljournals,particularlyThe Auk, TheIbis,andBird-Banding,wereespeciallyuseful,as was WildlifeReview.WealsomadeextensiveuseofCurrentContents,OilPollutionAbstracts,and4

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DissertationAbstracts.BiologicalAbstracts"EcologicalAbstracts,andtheZoologicalRecord werealsoconsultedbutwerelessefficientsourcesofinformation.AllstatebirdjournalsdealingwiththesoutheasternUnitedStates(seelistbelow)werescanned;thesejournals,alongwithAmericanBirds(Audu bonFieldNotesinearliervolumes),providedmuchoftheinformationonlocaldistributionineachstate. We placedconsiderableemphasisonrecentnessofinformationintheliteraturesearch.A fewjournals(e.g.,WilsonBulletin,Bird-Banding)wereexaminedforatleast30yearsintothepast,TheAukfrom 1930tothepresent.Manyothers,dependingonthedegreetowhichtheyyieldedusefulinformation,werescannedforonlya fewrecentyears. We coveredtheforeignliteratureasthoroughlyaspossible.Mostofthespeciestreatedinthisreporthavea widegeographicdistribution,andmuchofwhatisknownoftheirbreedingbiologyistobefoundonlyinforeignperiodicals.Thelinguisticlimitationsoftheauthors,aswellasthetemporalandfiscallimitationsinvolvedintheproductionofthisreport,precludedfulluseofthismaterial.Listedbelowaretheserialpublicationscoveredextensively. Where appropriate,thoseareasoftheworldthatthesejournalscovermostthoroughlyarelistedinparentheses.ActaOrnithologica(Poland,U.S.S.R.)Alauda(France,FrenchAfrica)AnimalBehaviorArdea(westernEurope)AtollResearchBulletinAuk(NorthAmerica,world)BehaviourBird-Banding(JournalofFieldOrnithology)(UnitedStates)BirdStudy(GreatBritain)BritishBirdsBulletinoftheKansasOrnithologicalSocietyBulletinoftheTexasOrnithologicalSocietyCaliforniaFishandGameCanadianJournalofZoology ChesapeakeScience(Estuaries)(U.S.Atlanticcoast)DanskFugle(Denmark)EcologyEkologiaPolska(Poland) ElHornero(Argentina)Fauna(Oslo)(Norway) ,FloridaNaturalistGerfaut(westernEurope,Africa)5AlabamaBirdsAmericanBirds(AudubonFieldNotes)(UnitedStates,Canada)AtlanticNaturalist(DelawaretoVirginia)AustralianBird' Watcher Biologia(Bratislava)(SeriaB)(Czechoslovakia)BiotropicaBlueJay(centralCanada)BulletinoftheBritishOrnithologists'Club(world)BulletinoftheOklahomaOrnithologicalSocietyCanadianField-NaturalistChat(NorthandSouthCarolina)Condor(NorthAmerica,neotropics)Corella(AustalianBird-Bander)DanskOrnithologiskForeningsTids-skrift(Denmark)Elepaio(Hawaii)Emu(Australia,NewGuinea)FloridaFieldNaturalistFloridaScientistIbis(OldWorld,Africa)

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Jack-PineWarbler(Michigan)JournalofAnimalEcologyJournalofAppliedEcologyJournalofWildlifeManagement (N. America)Larus(Yugoslavia,easternEurope)LOOiseauetlaRevueFrancaisedOOrnithologie(France,world)MarinePollutionBulletinMississippiKiteMurrelet (Pacific northwestmAlaska,westernCanada)Notornis(NewZealand, Pacific islands)Oikos(Denmark,Scandinavia)OrnisFennica(Finland,Balticarea)DerOrnithologischeBeobachter(Switzerland,middleEurope)Ostrich(SouthAfrica)ProceedingsoftheLouisianaAcademyof Science RevueSuissedeZoologie(Switzerland,centralEurope)Ring(Europe,world)RivistaItalianadiOrnithologia(Italy)ScottishBirdsSouthwesternNaturalist(southwesternU.S.)SuomenRiista(Finland,Balticarea)TexasJournalofScienceTransactionsoftheNorthAmericanWildlifeandNaturalResourcesConferenceDieVogelwarte(westernandcentralEurope)WilsonBulletin(NorthAmerica,world)'ZoologicheskyZhurnal(U.S.S.R.)JournalfurOrnithologie(Germany,world)JournalofEcologyKingbird(NewYork) Limosa(Netherlands)Loon(Minnesota)LouisianaOrnithologicalSocietyNewsMarylandBirdlifeMississippiOrnithologicalSocietyNewsletterNosOiseaux(France,westernEurope)Oriole(Georgia)OrnisScandinavica(Scandinavia,Finland)OrnithologischeMitteilungen(world)ProceedingsoftheAnnualConferenceSoutheasternAssociationofGameandFishCommissioners(southeasternU.S.)Ringing&Migration(GreatBritain,world)SouthAustralianOrnithologistSovietJournalofEcologySterna(Norway)Tori(Japan)VarVagelvarld(Sweden)VestnikZoologi(U.S.S.R.)WesternBirds(westernU.S.)WildfowlZeitschriftfurTierpsychologieThereprintfilesofseveralinstitutionswereaparticularlyfertilesourceforsomeundistributedmaterial.ThemostusefulofthesewerethefilesoftheNationalFishandWildlifeLaboratory,theBirdDivisionoftheNationalMuseumofNaturalHistory,theAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,andtheBirdLibraryoftheGabrielsonLaboratoryofPatuxentNationalWildlifeResearchCenter.Inall,about10,000citationsdealingdirectlywiththespeciestreatedareincludedinthethreepartsofthisreport.Perhapsanadditional1,000moregeneralarticlesarelistedintheLiteratureCitedsectionsattheendofthethreevolumes.6

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ARRANGEMENTANDCONTENTOFSPECIESACCOUNTSWaterfowlareamongthemoststudiedspeciesofbirds,andthetechnicalandpopularliteratureonthisgroupistremendousinvolume andscope.Threemajorworks(Johnsgard1975;Bellrose1976;Palmer1976a,1976b) onNorthAmericanwaterfowlwerepublishedinthepastdecade. Each oftheseworksprovidesinformationonlifehistory,distribution,statusofpopulations,andotheraspectsofwaterfowlbiology.Eachalsoapproachesthestudyofwaterfowlinadifferentway(Weller1977) andtosomeextentisbasedonadifferentsetofprimaryliterature,althoughthereisagreatdealofoverlap.Anothersource(Crampetal.1977) summarized whatisknownofwaterfowlinwaterfowlinEurope,theMiddleEast,andNorthAfrica.Manyofthespeciescoveredby Crampetal.alsooccurinNorthAmerica. We reliedheavilyontheseworksinthepreparationofthisreport,bothfortheirinformationalcontentandasaguidetotheprimaryliterature.However,wesupplementedthesesummarieswithliteraturethathasappearedsincetheirpublicationand.thatprovidessomekindsofinformationthatnoneoftheseworksfullyexplored.Theaccountsforthe41speciesincludedinthissectionofthereportvaryconsiderablyinlengthandindetail.Twenty-fourofthespeciescoveredareeitheruncommoninthesoutheasternstatesorarefoundthereprimarilyinfreshwater.Becausethesespecies,forreasonsofgeographicdistributionorhabitatselection,form averyinsignificantpartofthemarineavifaunaofthe eastandbecausetheirpopulationswouldnotbethreatenedbydevelopmentofenergyresourcesalongthecoast,theiraccountsaremuchabbreviated:wepresentonlyashortsynopsisofthestatusanddistributionofthespecies,withemphasisonthesoutheasternstates,and astatementaboutthepotentialeffectsofdevelopmentofpetroleumresourcesoffshore. We presentafullbibliographyforeachofthesespecies.SeventeenspeciesofwaterfowltreatedhereinareeitherimportantmembersofthefaunaofthesoutheasternUnitedStatesorarespecies(e.g.,Oldsquaw[Clangulahyemalis])knowntobehighlysusceptibletooilpollutionelsewhere.Forthesespecies,weprovidemoredetailedaccounts.SPECIESINCLUDEDNoneofthewaterfowltreatedherearetrulypelagicinthesenseofoccurringprimarilyfaroffshore.Mostofthespeciesforwhichweprovidefullaccountsarefoundprimarilyintheopenseaoronlargeembaymentswhilewinter. inginthesoutheasternstatesorpassingthroughonspringand.fallmigrations.Manyseaducksanddivingduckstendtocongregateintolargeraftswhenfeedingorresting,making themvulnerabletooilpollution.Otherspeciesincludedherefrequentinshoreareasorcoastalmarshesprimarily,wheretheirvulnerabilitytocontaminationmaybeindirect,bycontaminationoffoodresources.Otherspeciesoccuralmostsolelyonfreshwaterincoastalareasandarequiteunlikelytosufferanydirecteffectfromoilpollution.Thisreportincludesaccountsfor41ofthe53speciesofducks,geese,and swansthatweknowhavebeenreportedinthecoastalsoutheasternstates.7

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Speciesthathavebeenexcludedoccuronlyaccidentallyinthesoutheast.Recordsforeight(WestIndianWhistlingDuck [Dendrocygnaarboreal,Red-breastedGoose[Brantaruficollisl,RuddyShelduck[Tadornaferrugineal, Teal[Anasformosal,FalcatedTeal[Anasfalcatal,Garganey [A. querquedulal,MandarinDuck[Aixgalericulatal,Muscovy Duck[Cairinamoschatal)oftheelevenspeciesexcludedarelikelybasedonescapedcaptivebirds.Twootherspeciesthatwehavenotincludedstrayintothesoutheastonlyrarely,one fromthenorth(Barrow'sGolden-eye[Bucephalaislandical)andtheotherfromtheCaribbean(White-cheekedPintail[Anasbahamensisl).WehavealsoexcludedtheSmew(Mergusalbellus)because the-record fromLouisianaisbelievedtobeunsatisfactory(Palmer1976b).Theremainingspeciesexcluded,theTrumpeterSwan(Cygnusbuccinator),formerlywinteredalongtheTexas andLouisianacoastsbutisnolongerfoundthere(Palmer1976a).Nearlyhalfthespeciestreatedhereoccurprimarilyinfreshwaterhabitatsinthesoutheast.Mostoftherestoccurprimarilyinmarineandcoastalareasorarefoundwidelyonbothfreshandsaltwaterinthesoutheast.Someofthese,primarilyfreshwaterspecies(e.g.,Mallard[Anasplatyrhynchos),CommonPintail[Anasacutal),occurinthesoutheastinextremelylargenumbersduringwinterandothers(e.g.,Lesser Scaup [Aythyaaffinisl,Redhead [Aythyaamericanal)areofconsiderableeconomicimportancebecausetheyaremajorgamebirdspecies.Twospeciestreatedmorefully(BlackDuck [Anasrubripesland,Canvasback[Aythyavalisinerial)areonthemostrecentBlueList(Tate1981),alistthatattemptstoidentifyspeciesdeclininginallorpartoftheirrange'.TheBlackDuckisseriouslythreatenedbygeneticswampingbypopulationsofMallards(Anasplatyrhynchos)nowbreedingintheeasternUnitedStates(Tate1981),andtheCanvasbackisa muchhuntedspecieswhoseharvestisbeingcarefullyregulatedbytheFishandWildlifeService.'SCIENTIFICANDVERNACULARNAMESThespeciesaccountsareheadedbytheEnglishandscientificnamesofthespecies,followedbyvernacularnamesinotherlanguagesandalternativenamesinEnglish.TheprimaryEnglishnames andscientificnamesarebasedonthoseusedbytheAmericanOrnithologists'UnionCheck-list(AOU1957) anditssupplements(AOU1973,1976).Footnotesexplainrecentlyadoptedchangesinscientificnames.ThearrangementofspecieswithinthefamilyAnatidaefollowstherevisededitionofVolume IofPeters'Check-listofBirdsoftheWorld(Johnsgard1979).--------Theprimarysourceformostofthenon-Englishvernacularnames wastheNomina AviumEuropaearum(Jorgensen1958);othersourcesconsultedincludedDement'evand Gladkov(1952),Austinand Kuroda(1953),Edwards(19.72),and Crampetal.(1977).Theabbreviationsforthelanguagesandothergeographicalusagesappearinginthissectionareasfollows:DA: DU:EN:DanishDutchEnglish(OldWorld) IC: IT: JA:IcelandicItalianJapanese8PR:RU:SM:PortugueseRussianSouthAfrican

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FI:FinnishFR:FrenchGE:German NW: NorwegianNZ:NewZealandpo:PolishSP:SpanishSW:SwedishUS:UnitedStatesWith fewexceptions,theforeignlanguagecommonnamesarethoseinthewidestuseintheornithologicalliteratureofthecountriesindicated.Inseveralinstanceswehaveincludedtransliteratednames fromlanguagesinwhichRomancharactersarenotused(Japanese,Russian).ForJapanesenameswehavereliedonAustinand Kuroda(1953)andforRussiannameswehavesuppliedthenamesusedintranslationsofDement'evandGladkov(1952).Amajorreasonforprovidingthesealternativenamesistoassistfutureliteraturesearchesbasedonretrievalofcitationsbycomputer.InboththeOld andNewWorldliterature,speciestreatedinapaperaresometimesindicatedinthetitleonlybythevernacularnameswhichareoftenusedaskeywordsincomputerretrievalsystems.Inaddition,someoftheEnglishtranslationsofforeignlanguagenames(whicharethoseenteredoncomputers)implyadifferentspeciesthanthename wouldnormallysuggesttoareaderofEnglishorcannotbereadilyassociatedwithanEnglishname.Asaresult,searchesofcomputerliteraturesystemsbyscientificnamealonemayfailtoindicateimportantnotesorpapersthatdocumentrecentchangesindistribution.Wesupplyalternativescientificnameswidelyorrecentlyinuseasanotheraidtosearchesofliteraturecompiledoncomputers.ThecaspianTernappearsinrecentliteratureasSternacaspia,Sternatschegrava,Hydroprognetschegrava,andHydroprognecaspia,aswellaswithcaspiusasavariantofthespecificepithet.Onecomputersearchwemaderevealednolessthanfourdifferentlistsoftitleswheneachscientificname wasusedasakeyword.'Suchdifferencesintaxonomicusagemightwellcauseconfusionwhencomputer-basedretrievalofornithologicalinformationisattemptedforawidegeographicarea.Ontheotherhand,whenthetranslatedforeignnameisoneofwidespreaduseinEnglishspeakingcountrieswehavenotbotheredtolistit.Insomeinstanceswehavelistedmorethanonevernacularnameforaforeign.language;thisisparticularlytrueforSpanish,inwhichvernacularnames mayvaryconsiderablyfromareatoarea.The means by whichthisreportwas .producedprecludedahighlyaccuraterenderingofforeignwordswhichincorporatecharactersoraccentsnotavailableinourproductionprocess.Asaresult,therearelapsesinourorthography,particularlyforIcelandicandtheScandinaviantongues.GENERALDISTRIBUTIONThissectionisdividedintotwoparts,onegivingoccurrenceinNorthAmerica,theotheroccurrenceelsewhereintheworld.Mostofthisinformationwastakenfromstandarddistributionalworks,butwesupplementedthismaterialwherepossiblewithmorerecentliterature.Breedingandwinteringrangesareemphasizedinthissection,withlessinformationgivenonareasofoccurrenceduringmigration;materialrelatingtoNorthAmericaismoredetailedand morecompletethanforotherareasoftheworld.9

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DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESInthissectionwepresentmoredetailedremarkson distributton inthesoutheast.Weincorporatedasmuchrecent information through1979aswewereabletoobtain.Thissectionisbasedonthemostrecentstateornithologicalhandbooks andcheck-lists,andincludesinformationfrom ssearchthroughseasonalobservationspublishedinAmericanBirdsandstatejournals.Italsoincludesinformationfrom a numberofunpublishedmanuscriptsdealingwithdistributioninvarioussections of thesoutheast.Thissectionalsoincorporatesinformationonseasonaloccurrence,breedingstatusand numbers, andoccasionallybriefremarksonhabitats.Theemphasisisoncoastalareas,butinsomecasesremarksarealsomadeaboutstatuselsewhereinthestate.Availabledataforsomespeciesareunsatisfactory,incomplete,orextremelyIcanty.Thisisparticularlytruefortranlientswhose numbersareseldomrecorded.InformationisgiveninorderbystatefromNorthCarolinasouthandwesttoTexas;wedidnotliststatesinwhich aspecieshasnotbeenrecorded.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEThissectioninthespeciesaccountssummarizesinformationgivenintheprevioussections,oftenwithadditionaldataonpopulationlevelsinthecoastalsoutheasternUnitedStates.Someadditionalinformationontheworld-widestatusofthespeciesmaybeincluded,dependingonourpresentknowledgeofthespecies.Weshowdistributionofwaterfowlwinteringincoastalareasonaseriesofmaps. MostofthesemapsarebasedonBystrak(1974),whosereportwasbasedon ananalysisofNationalAudubonSocietyChristmasBirdCounts(CBC)foroneormoreoftheyearsfrom 1970to1972.Wechose45of58coastalChristmasBirdCountsinthestudyareaandcompiled5-yearmeansfor1973-1977.Insomeinstancesfewerthanfiveyearsofcountswereavailableandthemeanisforashorterperiod.Wepickedthelocalitiestoshowgeographicvariationinnumbersandtoemphasizewherethelargestconcentrationswerefound.Thesefiguresshouldnotbeconstruedasindicatingthetruesizeoflocalpopulations.TheChristmasBirdCountsvariedconsiderablyintheamountofestuarine,coastal,andmarinehabitatcovered,butwetriedtoallowforthisbychoosingcountsthatcontainedthemostmarinehabitat.WerealizethatthenumbersreportedinanygivenyearmaynotbeprecisebecauseofthelimitationsofChristmasBirdCounts.Weintendthesemapstoserveprimarilyasanindexofwherewinterconcentrationsarelikelytobefound andtoshowhowthisdistributionvariesthroughoutthesoutheast.HABITATThissectionusuallyconsistsofbriefremarksdealingwithnesting,feeding,andwinterhabitats.Asinothersectionsinthespeciesaccounts,theextentanddetailofinformationreporteddependsontherelativeimportanceofthespeciesinthesoutheast.10

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FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORHereagain,theamountofinformationgivenvariesdepending pn therelativeimportanceofthespeciesinthesoutheasternmarineavifaunaand ontheamountofinformationavailable.Inallcaseswegaveatleastabriefgeneralstatementonthetypesoffoodseatenandtheprimaryfeedingmethods.Insomeinstancesweincludedmoredetailedinformationonfoodhabits,brieflyabstractingrecentstudiesandindicatingproportionsofdifferentvarietiesoffoodseaten.Fora fewspeciesforwhichmuchrecentinformationisavailable,wesummarized foodhabitsbygeographicarea.Forspecieswhose foodhabitshavebeenwelldocumented,wepointedoutdifferencesinfoodhabitsofadultsandyoung,and commentedonseasonalvariationoffoodhabitsaswellasdifferenceinfoodseatenindifferenthabitats. We gavelittlespecificdataonfoodhabitsinsoutheasternwatersbecauselittleornothingisknownofthedietinthisarea.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSThissectionpresentsbasicinformationtoallowbiologiststoinfertheeffectsofdevelopingoilresourcesonpopulationsandtohelpchoosealternatecoursesofactionintheplanningofsuchdevelopments.Weincludethisinformationforonlythirteenofthespeciesdiscussedinthisreportbecausethesespeciesarethosemostlikelytobeaffectedbyoilinsoutheasternwaters.Muchoftheinformationisderivedfromstudiesconductedoutsidethesoutheastbecauseonlya fewspeciesofwaterfowlbreedinthesoutheast.Thedatainthissectionconsistofbriefsummariesoftheegg-layingperiod,meanclutchsize,incubationperiod,hatchingsuccess,fledgingsuccess,ageatfirstbreedingandatfledging,mortalityofeggsandyoung(includinginformationonrenesting),maximumnaturallongeVity,andweight.Dataonegglaying,incubationperiod,andageatfledgingallowonetoestimatewhenbirdsbreeding within thestudyareaaremostvulnerabletodisturbance.Informationonmortalityandrenestingdescribesfactorsthatlowerreproductivesuccessandsuggestthepotentialforrecoveryfollowinganestingfailure.Dataonclutchsizeandhatchingandfledgingsuccessallowanestimateofproductivity.Detailedlifetabledataareunavailableformostofthespeciescoveredinthesereports.Consequently,wehaveprovidedfiguresforknownmaximumnaturallongevitythatwillinsomeinstancesallowacrudecomparisonbetweenspeciesofthetotalreproductivepotential.Themaximumnaturallong'evityisgivenintermsof"estimatedminimumage"inyearsandmonthsfollowingKennard(1975),andmayliStinformationbasedonbandingintheUnitedStatesandCanada andintheOld World.Finally,weincludeinformationonweights,sincethisandpopulationdatagivenelsewhereinthereport will allowplannersto compare speciesintermsofbiomassaffectedastheresultofanygivenoil-relatedactivity.Thequalityandquantityofthisinformationvaryfromspeciestospeciesand fromtopictotopic.Manyofthewaterfowltreatedinthesecondvolumeofthisreportareamongthebest-studied wild birds.Forsuchspecieswemake noattempttogivealltheinformationavailable,butconfineourselvestobriefsummaries.Forotherspecies,particularlysomeoftheseaducks,informationissparseornonexistent. We haveindicatedthisineachaccount.11

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SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONInstancesofoilingforagivenspeciesaredocumentedto theextenttowhichaspeciesisknowntobeaffectedbyoil.Westressedrecordsfromsoutheasternwaters,butfewdataareavailablefromthisarea.Wereportthenumberkilledinmajoroilingincidentsandtheproportionthisrepresentedofthetotalnumberofallbirdskilledandidentifiedtospecies.Wemayhavemissedreportsofoilingforsomespecies.MuchoftheOld Worldliteraturereportsoiledbirdsonlybyspeciesgroups(e.g.,gulls,divers,ducks).SomeinformationmaybefoundinOld WorldregionalperiodicalsunavailableintheUnitedStatesandnotcoveredbycomputer-basedliteratureretrievalsystems.Thissectionrefersfrequentlytoanoil-vulnerabityindexforbirdsinthenortheasternPacificdevelopedby King andSanger(1979).Thatpublication,whilevaluable,wasused with cautionsinceitreferstoadifferentgeographicarea with adissimilarenvironmentandadifferent(butstronglyoverlapping)speciescomplex.WeincludedsomeofKingandSanger'sindexscoresinthissection,nottoindicatethedegreeofvulnerabilityinthesoutheast(althoughweoftenthinkitissimilar),butrathertoshowthedegreeofvulnerabilityinanotherpartoftherange.ThenortheasternPacificareaisimportanttoNorthAmericanpopulationsofa numberofspeciesofwaterfowlthatregularlyoccurinthesoutheast(e.g.,Redhead,Canvasback,LesserScaup)andthatareatriskfromoildevelopmentactivitiesinbothareas.Inaddition,weestimatedtheoverallpotentialeffectofoilpollutionandthedevelopmentofoilresourcesonthespeciesinthesoutheast,takingintoaccountthe known orsuspectedvulnerabilityofthespecies,itsabundanceinthesoutheast,anditsabundanceelsewhere.SPECIESBIBLIOGRAPHYAttheendofeachspeciesaccountisaspeciesbibliographythatcontainsreferencestothedistributionandbiologyofthespecies.Selectedreferencestothespeciestreatedarealsofoundinthespeciesbibliography which followsthetextineachaccount.Thespeciesbibliographyalsoincludesmanyothercitationsthatprovideadditionaldataonthetopicsbrieflycoveredinthetext,aswellasonvariousotheraspectsofthebiologyofthespecies.Allcitationsusedinthetextareincludedinthebibliographyattheendofthisreport.Thespeciesbibliographiesarenotexhaustive.InhisaccountoftheCanadaGoose,Palmer(1976a)indicatedhehadseenoverathousandpapersdealingwiththisspecies.Topreparecompleteornear-completebibliographiesformanyofthespeciesincludedinthisvolume wouldentailthepublicationofaseriesofbooksofmanythousandsofpages.Theemphasisinourspeciesbibliographiesisplacedontheecologyandbehaviorofthespecies.Moregeneralworksandsomedistributionalliterature,arefoundintheterminalsectionoftheLiteratureCited.Althoughsomematerialontaxonomy,parasitology,hybrids,identification,anddiseasemaybeincluded,wedidnotspecificallysearchforthismaterial.Wecoveredtheworldliteraturebecauselittleis known ofthebiologyofmanyofthewaterfowl while theyareinthecoastalsoutheastern12

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UnitedStatesandbecausemostofthewaterfowl,breedonlywellnorthoftheareaunderconsideration.Oursearchoftheliteraturealsostressedrecentnessofinformationandeachspeciesbibliographyshouldberelativelycompletethroughmid-1980.Someimportantreferencespublishedsubsequentlyareincludedbutthesemaynothavebeenusedinwritingtheaccount.ThevarietyofrecentpaperscoveredissomewhatgreaterthaninVolume Ibecauseweattemptedtoprovidea morecompletelistingofreferencesthathaveappearedsubsequenttorecenthandbooks.Wehavelistedimportantpapersdealingwiththebiologyofthespeciesgoingbacktotheearlypartofthecentury,buthavebeenmorecompletewithpaperswritteninEnglish.Weincludeolderreferencesthatarestillmajorsourcesofinformationonthespecies.Thespeciesbibliographiesarearrangedfrompresenttopastwithauthorslistedalphabeticallyundereachyear,ratherthaninthemoreconventionalalphabeticalandchronologicalarrangementusedintheLiteratureCited.Wedidsotomakeiteasierforthereadertofindthemostrecentinformationonanytopiccoveredbythebibliography.Wehavecheckedallreferencesusedinthetextaswellasalargeproportionoftheremainingreferences,butsomecitationsfromsecondarysourcesremainunverified.Weestimatethatthethreevolumesinthisserieswillcontainontheorderof10,000referencesintheterminalspeciesbibliographies,andourtemporalandfiscallimitationsweretoogreatforustoundertakecompleteverificationofallreferencesincluded.OILPOLLUTIONANDMARINEBIRDSOFTHESOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESWiththepossibleexceptionofmarineturtles,marinebirdsarethevertebratesmostseverelythreatenedbyoilpollutionandthedevelopmentofoilresources.The workofOld Worldbiologistspresentsclearevidenceofsevereandsubstantialdamagetoseveralpopulationsofmarinebirds.Specific,detailedinformationontheeffectsofoilingandoilspillsonwildbirdsandtheirpopulationsintheNewWorld,letalonethesoutheasternUnitedStates,isverylimited.Whetheranygivenspecieshaseverbeenoiledandwhateffectthismayhavehadisunknowninmanyinstances.SystematicgatheringofdataonthespeciescompositionoflargeseabirdkillsfollowingoilspillshasbeendoneinfrequentlyintheNewWorld andsystematicsurveysofbeachedbirdshaveonlyrecentlybegunintheUnitedStates.Furthermore,dataonoilingofmarinebirdsarescatteredthroughadiversebodyofliterature.Manydistributionalnotesreportingthefirstoccurrenceorfirstspecimenofaspeciesfrom ageographiclocalityparentheticallynotethatthespecimenwasoiled.Otherinformationisscatteredthroughregionaldistributionalworks,andyetmoredata,whichwedidnothavetimetoexplorefully,liesinthebandingandrecoveryfilesoftheBirdBandingLaboratoryoftheU.S.FishandWildlifeService.InDenmark,oilpollutionkillsthousandsofseabirdseachyear.Mostof13

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theseareducks,butmanyotherspeciesarealsoinvolved(Riisgard1979).OilhascausedmajorlossesinpopulationsofCommonEidersintheDanishWaddensea(Joensen1973),inbreedingpopulationsofCommonEidersandBlackSeatersinHolland(Swennen and Spaans1970),andinpopulationsofthe Atlan(ic Puffin(Fraterculaarctica)inFrance(Bourne1976).OilisalsoamajorcauseofdeathforJackassPenguins(Spheniscusdemersus)inSouthAfrica(Randalletal.1980).Otherlossesreportedincludethedeathofanestimated25-50%oftheCommonLoonswinteringinShetland,offScotland,followingtheESSOBERNICLAoilspillon.30December 1978 (Stowe and Morgan1979),andthelossofallMallards,EuropeanCoots(Fulicaatra), and Moorhens (CommonGallinule,GallinulachIoropus)followinganoilingoftheAmerRiverintheNetherlands;itwasestimatedthatapproximately 88% oftheGreylagGeese(Anseranser)andabout 71% oftheBewick'sSwans (Cygnuscolumbianusbewickii)wouldultimatelybelostaswell(Belterman1972).Stillotherexamplesofmajororsignificantreductionsinavianpopulationsduetooilpollutionaregiveninreviewsby Bourne(1968b,1976),Croxall(1975),Vermeer and Vermeer(1975),and Food andAgriculturalOrganizationoftheUnitedNations(1977).VARIABILITYINSPECIES'SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONSurveysofbeachedbirdsarebiasedindicatorsofwhatproportionofapopulationisaffectedbyoiling(Bourne1976).However,theproportionsofspeciesfoundoiledgivessomeideaofdifferencesinsusceptibilitybetweendifferentgroupsofbirdsandalsosuggeststhemagnitudeoftheoilpollutionproblemforagivenarea.Suchsurveysalsoprovidedataonseasonalvariationintheincidenceandextentofoilpollution.Table1givesthepercentageofbeachedbirdsthatwereoiledinfourdifferentareas.Speciessuchasloons,grebes,auks,andseaducksaremostaffected,whereasmoreaerialspeciessuchasgullsandternsareusuallyamongtheleastaffected.REGIONALDIFFERENCESINOILINGANDMORTALITYOFBEACHEDBIRDSAlthoughbeachedbirdsurveysintheeasternUnitedStateshavebeenconductedforonlyarelativelyshorttime,theextentofoilinginbirdsfounddeadalongthesouthernAtlanticcoastappearslowcomparedwithotherareasintheUnitedStatesandelsewhere.Only 4% of400birdsfounddeadalongthesouthAtlanticcoastfromJanuary1976throughAugust 1978 wereoiled.Incontrast,oilingoccurredin 82% of667birdsfoundalongthePolishBalticcoastfrom November 1974toAugust 1975(Gorskietal.1977),in 26% of162foundalongIrishcoastsfrom December 1977toMarch 1978(O'Keeffe1978),in 79% of3,431 found ontheinternationalbeachedbirdsurveysinNorthwestEuropeinJanuary-March1975(Lloyd1976),andin 18% of2,420foundalongtheCaliforniacoastin1975(Ainley1976).BirdmortalitypermileofbeachalsotendstobelessinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesthaninotherareas(Table2).Mortalityfiguresforaheavilypollutedarea,thePolishBalticcoast,(3.2birds/kmor5.2/mi;Gorskiet al. 1977)areconsiderablyhigherthanforanywhereinthesoutheast.Other14

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Table1.Numberandpercentageofbeachedbirdsexamined andoiled(a)South-Oregon-GreatAtlanticCoastWashingtonCaliforniaKindsofBirdsBritainUnitedStatesCoastCoastTotal % Total % Total % Total % foundoiledfoundoiledfoundoiledfoundoiledLoons(Divers)15294114 4 3 33 175 10 Grebes5459 14 64 14 36 798 5Albatross0 0 8 0Petrels(b)337 17 0 2 50O? Northern Fulmar (c)0 570 28 301 4 Shearwaters 14 0 0 62322Storm-petrels0 4 25 40 0Gannets182 50 617Cormorants218 45 6 0 0 6530.5BrownPelican17 0 38 0Wildfowl113776514 2692296 7Phalaropes0 119 3Jaegers10 0 80Kittiwake0 105213324Gulls2448 301310 16311197 2Terns37 0 0 Skimmer 1 0 Auks 6171800 104 94 284819(a)DataforGreatBritain,thesouthAtlanticcoastoftheUnitedStates,theOregon-Washingtoncoast,andtheCaliforniacoastarefromTable1inBourne(1976),Malcolm Simons(inlitt.),Table2inHarrington-Tweit (979), andTable3inAinley (l976),-reBpectively; theperiodscoveredare1968-1970, Decemb;r 1977-August1978,mid-winter1976,and1971-1975,respectively.Dataforthesoutheasterncoastthrough1 December 1977arebasedonsurveysfrom CapeHatteras,NorthCarolina,toCapeCanaveral,Florida,thereaftersouthtoJensenBeach,Florida.(b)AlthoughBourne(1976)didnotspecificallysostate,histerm'petrels'probablyindicatesallProcellariidae(petrels,shearwaters,fulmars,etc.),andmayhaveincludedHydrobatidae aswell.Histerm'gulls'probablyindicatesallLaridae(gulls terns).Forothermaterialsummarizedhere,'petrels'referstoPterodroma,'shearwaters'toPuffinus,'gulls'toLaru8,and'terns'toSterninae.(c)Harrington-Tweit(1979)pointedoutthatfulmarmortalityandatleasthalfthatofBlack-leggedKittiwakeswasnotduetooilbutthatmostwildfowlandalcidmortalitywasattributabletooil.15

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Table2.ComparisonofregionalandseasonalvariationofbeachedbirdmortalityandincidenceofoilingintheeasternUnitedStates(a).AtlanticCoastNofCapeHatterasAtlanticCoastSofCapeHatterasFloridaGulfCoastDatesSPRINGDeadbirds/mile % oiledDead birds/ mile % oiledDeadbirds/mile % oiledMar.-May Mar.-MayMar.-MaySUMMER1979 1978 19772.5051.466.8(b)5.51.580.9520.00.00.00.750.0 0.0Jun.-Aug.1979Jun.-Aug.1978Jun.-Aug.1977FALLSep.-Nov.1979Sep.-Nov.1978 Sep.-Nov.1977WINTERDec.-Feb.1978-79Dec.-Feb.1977-78Dec.-Feb.1976-774.406.376.810.981.050.242.192.709.331.20.0 0.913.40.00.02.36.55.50.381.000.14 1.43 1.490.60 1.84 2.87 1. 755.60.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 1.1 1.40.00.531.500.591.001.251.74 2.88 0.0 0.00.05.60.00.00.0(a)ThiscomparisonisbasedoninformationprovidedbytheAtlanticandGulfCoastBeachBirdSurveyProject.Thesedata,whileuseful,havesometimesbeenbasedonsurveysofsofewmilesofbeachthattheresultsobtainedmaynotbeadequatelycomparablefromregiontoregion.Dashesindicatethatwelackdata.(b)ThishighfigureistheresultofanoilspillintheChesapeake BayinFebruary1978.areasinnorthwesternEuropevaryconsiderablyinrecordedmortalityduringbeachedbirdsurveys,butmortalitiesareusuallygreaterthanthosefoundinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Lloyd(1976)reportedarangeof0.17/km(0.3/mi)inpartofFranceto4.06/km(6.5/mi)inWest Germanyduringthewinterof1975.ForGreatBritain,1968-70,theaveragewas1.3/km(2.1/mi)(Bourne1976).ReportedmortalityalongtheCaliforniacoastisalsogreater16

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thaninthesoutheast;surveysthereaveraged3.5birds/mi(2.2/km)from 1971to1975(Ainley1976).ThedisparityinbeachedbirdmortalityratesbetweenCaliforniaandEurope andthesoutheastmayresultpartlyfromdifierencesinprevailingwindsandcurrents.InpartsofNorthAmericawhereprevailingwindsblowoffshore,mostmortalityisfoundaroundenclosedinlets.OnislandsoffshoreinNorthAmericaandinnorthwestEurope,whereprevailingwindscarrydyingbirds(andoil)toshore,bothchronicoilpollutionandtherecordedmortalityofmarinebirdsisgreater(Bourne1976).MAJORBIRDKILLSFOLLOWINGOIL SPILLS INTHESOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESTherearefewrecordsoflargebirdkillsfollowingoilspillsinsoutheasternwaters,andtherecordsthatdoexistareusuallyinadequate.AtypicalexampleoccurredinlateDecember1968,when abargespilledcrudeoilalongthecoastofWakullaCounty,Florida.Thisresultedin"manyduckssnipeandotherbirdssocoveredwithoilthattheywereunabletofly.Smallerbirdswereunabletowalkintheheavyoil"(CenterforShort-LivedPhenomena1969).Wehavefoundonlya fewinstancesofmajoroilspillsinornearthestudyareaforwhichthereisevenfairinformationonthenumber andspeciesofbirdskilled.ThefirstoftheseoccurredinearlyFebruary1976inthelowerChesapeakeBay.About250,000gallons(950,0001)ofNo. 6fueloilenteredthebayfollowingthesinkingofabargenearthemouthofthePotomacRiver(Rolandetal.1977).Subsequentmovementoftheoilresultedinthewidespreadcontaminationofmarshesandbeaches.Rolandetal.(1977)estimatedthat20,000to50,000birdswerekilled.Perryetal.(1979)madeindividualestimatesforeachspeciesthatdiedduringthisspillaswellasforfivespillsthatoccurredintheDelawareRiverandforanotherlargespillthatoccurredintheChesapeakeBay. Theyestimatedthat15,715Oldsquaw,14,571HornedGrebes,and12,665Ruddy Ducksdiedasaresultofthesesevenspills.AthousandormoreeachofCanvasbacks,CommonGoldeneyes,andscaupwerealsokilled,aswellaslessernumbersof15otherspeciesofducks,geese,andswans.ThesefiguresindicatethataboutfivepercentoftheNorthAmericanRuddy Duckwinterpopulationmayhavebeenlosttothesespills.ThesecondmajormortalityfollowinganoilspillinthesoutheastwasinTampaBayontheFloridaGulfinmid-February1970(Sims1970).Some80-100tonsofBunkerCoilwerespilledfromtheGreektankerDELIANAPPOLONwhenitranagroundandruptureditshull(Wallace1970,Clark1973).Windsandtidesspreadtheoiltocovermorethan100sqmi (259sqkm)ofTampaBay. Sims(1970)estimatedthatasmanyas4,500birdswerehandledatcleaningandrehabilitationstationsfollowingthespill,andClark(1973)suggestedthattheremayhavebeenasmanyas9,000casualties.Sims(1970)indicatedthattheSt.PetersburgAudubonSocietyhandled"some 500CommonLoon,200 HornedGrebe,200Red-breastedMerganser,2500LesserScaupand100otherspeciesincludingseveralcormorant,twoMallard,aWhite-wingedScoter,severalheron,akingfisherandmanysmallshorebirds."17

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SOURCESOFVARIATIONINMORTALITYFROMOILPOLLUTIONAlargenumberoffactorsareinvolvedindeterminingthe ofdetrimentaleffectsofoilpollutiononmarinebirds.Birdsoiledincoldweatherandcoldwatershave a muchhigherfatalitythandothoseinwarmweatherandwarmwaters.Evenminimalamountsofoilmayleadquicklytodeathunderthestressofacoldenvironmentalregime(Levy1980),butbirdsin warmer areasmaysurvivethesamedegreeofoiling(R.Clapp,pers.observ.;C.Harrison,pers.comm.).Reportsfrom Europe(BourneandBibby1975,R1isgard1979)indicatethatmortalitytromoilingisgreaterduringthewintermonthsthanduringthesummer.Oilspilledincoldwaterremainsliquidlongerthaninwarmerwaterandislikelytocausemore damageasaresult.Itfirstforms a"chocolatemousse"water-in-oilemulsionandthenbecomestar-balls.Althoughthese forms ofoilmaypresentsomehazardtobirds(Bourne and Bibby1975),thehazardoffreshoilisapparentlymuchgreater.Bourne(1976)summarized someofthechangesindaily,annual,andlifecyclesofmarinebirdsthatmayincreasetheirvulnerabilitytooilpollution.Localcurrentsandwindsmaybringdriftingslicksintoraftsofbirdsroostingonthewater.Bourne andDevlin(1969)suggestedthatmostmortalityfromoilingoccurswhenroostingorfeedingbirdsaretrappedbydriftingslicks.Breedingpopulationsareparticularlysusceptibletooil.Thelossofone memberofapairmaymeancompletelossoftheirreproductivepotentialforthatyear.Dependingonthenumberofoffspringusuallyproduced,thiscouldmeanthateverybreedingbirdkilledbyoilrepresentsatheoreticallosstothepopulationoftwobirdsormore.Althoughthislossmayberecoupedinfuturegenerations,mostmarinebirdshaverelativelylowproductivityandtheirpopulationsmaytakemanyyearstorecoverfromonesevereoilingincident.Oilinthevicinityofbreedingcoloniesmayalsodiminishreproductivesuccessinotherways,bycausingadecreaseinthehatchingsuccessofcontaminatedeggs,and bydisturbancetothecolonyresultingfromattemptstocontrolpollution(Bourne1976).Bourne(1976)alsopointedoutthatmarinebirdsareparticularlysusceptibletodamage fromoilwhentheyaremolting. When birdslacktheirusualinsulation,smallerthanusualamountsofoilmayleadtodeathfromchilling,shock,andstarvation.Somewaterfowlperformamo1t-migrationinwhichlargenumbersgatheraway fromthebreedinggroundtorenewfeatherspriortocontinuingmigration.Somemoltinlatesummer,othersinthespringjustpriortotheirmigrationnorth.Birdsinsuchconcentrationsaremorelikelytodieinlargenumbersthanthoseofnormalmobility. Few observationsonthebehaviorofbirdsencounteringoilhavebeenreported.Informationavailableindicatesthatdifferencesinbehaviorbetweenspeciesmayincreaseordecreasetheirvulnerability.AccordingtotheInternationalCouncilforBirdProtection(1960),Long-tailedDucks (Oldsquaw)willchoose to landonoilslicks.Iftrue,thismayaccountforsomeoftheveryhighoil-relatedmortalitiesthathavebeenreportedforthisdivingduck.Ontheotherhand,Gui11emots(CommonMurres)divetoescapefloatingoilbut18

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suffertheriskofemergingintoitandthusbecomingseverelycontaminated(Bourne1968b).Otherspeciesmayactivelyavoidoil; Hainard (1959)reportedthatsomedivingducks(TuftedDuck(Aythyafuligula]and [!. ferina])avoidpatchesofoilfloatingdownariver.Other,moreaerialspeciessuchasgulls(Bourne1968b) andManxShearwaters(Puffinuspuffinus)(Casement1966)mayalsoactivelyavoidatleastthethicker,morenoticeableoilslicks.Someofthesebirdsevidentlyavoidoilwhen swimmingaswell;aHerringGull(Larusargentatus)and aBlack-leggedKittiwake(Rissatridactyla)thatswamintoapatchoffloatingoilimmediatelytookflight(Bourne1968b,Bourne andDevlin1969) The numberofbirdsthatdiefollowinganoilspillisalsorelatedtothetypeofpetroleumthatwasspilledandhowlongithasbeenintheenvironment.Crudeoilislesstoxicthanrefinedoils(dieseloil,No.2fueloil,Bunker"C")(Hay1979),andfreshoilcausesmore damagethanolder,moreweatheredo11s(Bourneand Bibby1975).Someoilsmaybeinnocuousenoughthatoiledbirdsarenotkilledandareevencapableofcleaningtheirplumage(Birkheadetal.1973,Phillips1974).The numberofdeathsfromoilingfollowingaspillisnotnecessarilyrelatedtotheamountofoilspilled;largespillsmayresultinrelativelyfewdeaths,whilesmallerspillsmaycauselargelosses,particularlywhensubstantialnumbersofbirdsareconcentratedinsmallareas(Croxall1975,Salomonsen1979).Inaddition,largecatastrophicoilspillsmaycausenogreaterlossofmarinebirdsthandoeschronicoilpollutionoftheenvironment(Nelson-Smith1973,Croxall1975,Holmes and Cronshaw1977).EFFECTSOFOILONCONTAMINATEDBIRDSANDTHEIREGGSTheprimaryeffectofoilonbirdsistocausealossofbuoyancyandinsulationwhenthefeathersbecomematted(Szaro1977).Thisincreasesthemetabolicdemandtomaintainbodyheatandincoldweatherquicklyresultsinchilling.Theincreasedphysicalefforttoremainafloatalsoincreasesthedemand onthebody'sresources,anddeathfromexhaustionandexposuremayensue(Bourne1976).McEwanandKoelink(1973)reportedthatheatlossofexperimentallyoiledMallardsandscaupwas1.7and 2timesgreater,respectively,thannormal.Ingestionofoilasthecontaminatedbirdtriestopreenitsfeatherswillusuallycausefurtherharm. ApioneerstudybyHartungand Hunt (1966) showedthatingestion of oilbyMallardsandBlackDuckscouldbefollowedbynervousdisorders,enlargementoftheadrenalcortex,lipidpneumonia,diarrhea,andgastrointestinalirritation.AconsiderablenumberofexperimentalstudiesconductedonmarinebirdsintheUnitedStateswerereviewedrecentlyatlengthbyAlbers(1977),Holmes and Cronshaw(1977),Szaro(1977),Eastin and Hoffman(1978),Ohlendorfeta1.(1978),andStickelandDieter(1979).Someofthefindingsthatinvolvebothprimaryandsecondaryeffectsofoilingarebrieflysummarizedasfollows:(1)Physiologicaleffectsthatresultfromingestionofoilincludedehydration,enteritis,fattychangesintheliver,renaltubularnephrosis,andreductionintheratesofsodiumandwatertransferacross19

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intestinalmucosa(variousauthorsinOhlendorfetal.1978);(2)Alowmortality(underunstressedconditions)was foundinadultMallardsfedsmallamountsofoil;ducklingsweremoreadverselyaffected(StickelandDieter1979);(3)Mallardhenslaidhalfasmanyeggsasusualwhenfeddietscontaining2.5%SouthLouisianacrudeoil(Eastinand Hoffman1978,StickelandDieter1979);(4)Ducklingsfed 5% SouthLouisianacrudeoilgrewmorepoorlythancontrols,didnotdevelopnormalflightfeathers,andexhibited liver hypertrophyandsplenicatrophy(Eastinand Hoffman1978).Oil,eveninminisculeamounts,willseverelyreducethehatchingsuccessofduck,heron,gull,andterneggs(Eastinand Hoffman1978,StickelandDieter1979).Aslittleas5microlitersofoilreducedhatchingofMallardeggs,by26%(forPrudhoeBaycrudeoil)to90%(forSouthLouisianacrudeoil;StickelandDieter1979).Toxicityoftheseandotheroilsisgreaterfornewereggsthanforthosefurtheralonginincubation,andolder,weatheredoilsarelesstoxicthanfreshones.Experimentaloilingoftheplumageofincubatinggulls causes significanteggmortalitywhentheoiledfeatherscomeincontactwiththeeggs.Oilingofeggsalsoresultsinasignificantnumberofdeformedchicks:deformedbills,incompletelyossifiedwingorfootbones,abnormallysmallliverlobes,andstuntingwerethemostcommonabnormalitiesfoundintheseexperimentalstudies(StickelandDieter1979).POTENTIALHAZARDSTOMARINEBIRDSFROMOFFSHOREOILPRODUCTIONAbouttwo-thirdsoftheoilincoastalwatersisderivedfromrunoffandeffluentfromterrestrialsources.Tankeroperationsaccountforabout26timesasmuchoilinmarinewatersoftheUnitedStatesasdooffshoreoperations(Ohlendorfetal.1978),butmayaccountforadisproportionatelylargeshareofavianmortalitytooil.Ohlendorfetal.(1978)suggestedthat,forthemarineenvironment,itmaybesafertoproduceoiloffshorethantoimportit.Itseemslikely,however,thatonshorehabitatchangeandlossresultingfromthedevelopmentoffacilitiesrelatedtooffshoreoilproductionwill,inthelongrun,havea moreadverseeffectonthewaterbirdsofthesoutheasternUnitedStatesthanwilloilproductionitself.LongleyandJackson(1980)reviewedthisproblemforbrackishmarshareas.They summarizedactivitiesrelatedtooilproductionandtheireffectsontheenvironmentandsuggestedameliorativemeasuresthatmaybetaken.Effectsincludedirectlossofvegetationandanimals(e.g.,bydredging,constructionofpipelinesandroads);additionofdissolved,particulate,andtoxicmaterialstotheenvironment;andchangesinwaterflows.Theauthorsconsideredchangesinwaterflowthemostdamaginghazard,onethatmayresultincompleteconversionofamarshecosystem.Suchaneventcouldbeaccompaniedbyareductionoreliminationofthepopulationsofmarinebirdsthatusethehabitatfornestingorfeeding.20

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Similareffectsarelikelywhenoffshorebarrierislandsareaffectedbydevelopmentofoilandgasresources.Changesinwaterflowduetodredgingcouldeasilychangetidalandcurrentpatterns,resultingintheeliminationofislandsusedfornesting.Terrestrialaccesstolargerislandsmayresultintheintroductionofpredators(e.g.,foxes,raccoons)thatcouldeliminateanentirebirdcolonyinthespaceofaseasonortwo.Disturbanceengenderedbyconstructionmightresultinthemassdesertionofatraditionalbreedingareabysomespecies.Severalrecentreportsreviewedaspectsofhumanactivitiesthatarerelevanttodevelopmentofonshoreoilfacilities.ThesereportsincludeMulvihilletal.'s(1980)detailedreviewoftheeffectsofshorelinestructuresonthecoastalenvironment,Morton's(1976)reviewoftheecologicaleffectsofdredging,andBuckleyandBuckley's(1976,1977)reviewsoftheeffectsofhumandisturbanceoncoloniallynestingbirds.Burningofnaturalgasatelevatedflaresduringoilproductionisanotherpotentialhazardbecausebirdsmigratingatnightsometimesflyintosuchlights.ConsiderablenumbershavebeenkilledatTVtowers,lighthouses,andairportcei10meters(Howeetal.1978),anditmightbeexpectedthattheelevatedflareswouldattractandincineratepassingbirds.Bourne(1979)reportedthattherehavebeenonlyabout"ha1f-a-dozensecondhand"reportsofdeathfromthiscauseduringthefirst10yearsofdevelopmentintheNorthSea,anareawherefoggyweatherconditionsshouldmaximizethephenomenon.Aftercommentingonseveralspecificinstancesofrelativelysevereloss,includingoneinwhich"severalhundredstorm-petrels"purportedlydied,Bourneconcludedthat"thelossesareonlyaninsignificantproportionofthemillionsofbirdspassingthroughthearea ". .RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURERESEARCHCHOICEOFSPECIESFORFUTURERESEARCHUnlikemostofthebirdscoveredinVolumes I andIIIofthisreport,thefamilyAnatidaeisamongthebestknowngroupsofbirds.Palmer(1976a)pointedoutthat"AtleastintheNorthernHemisphere,theyarealsothemostadministered,innumerous waysareeconomicallythemostimportant,andcontinuetobethemoststudied.Theupshotisthat,evenwithpresentdataretrievalmethods,nobody,noranyagency,hasconvenientaccesstoextantinformation."WeagreethoroughlywithPalmer'sremarks.Ourstudyrevealedthattherearemanysourcesofinformationthatourresourcessimplycouldnottap.Thebodyofunpublishedinformationisstaggeringinitsextentandconsistsoftheses,rawdata,informalin-houseandpreliminary -.:eports, and"grayliterature",reportsproducedbygovernmentalagenciesthatusuallyreceivealimiteddistributionandthatconsequentlyareoftenunknowntotheacademiccommunity.Weexaminedagoodlyamountofsuchmaterialduringthecourseofthisstudy,butareawarethatimmenseamountsremainedunseen.Thequalityofthematerialvariesdrastically;somereportsareofexceptionallypooracademicquality,butothersneedlittleworkforsubmissiontoanacademicjournal.21

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Somethatarewelldonegivelittlenewinformationonaspecies.However,eveninreportsoflesserqualitytheremaybebitsofinformationofsubstantialvalue.AsPalmer(1976a)stated,"Oneneedstobecognizantofthefugitivestuffbecausesomeofitisvaluable."StudiesoftheAnatidaehavecharacteristicallycenteredaboutthemosthuntedspecies,whicharegenerallyregardedasthoseofgreatesteconomicworth.TheMallard--"theduck",huntedandkilledinlargenumbers,initsdomesticatedform amajorsourceoffood,andwidelyusedasanexperimentalanimalinstudiesofphysiology,toxicology,andotherlaboratorydisciplines-is,with,thepossibleexceptionofthechicken,probablythebeststudiedspeciesofbird.OtherextensivelyhuntedspeciesliketheWoodDuckandCanada Goosearealsowellstudied.Wethinkthatforthesewaterfowl,aswellasothersthatarewidelyhunted,searchesforunpublishedinformationonaparticulartaxonorgeographicareamayhaverealvalue.For groupsandspeciesofmarinebirds,knowledgeofwhichisbasedononlyarelativelysmallandmanageableliterature,fundsmightbemorewiselyappliedtofieldresearchandsurvey.Althoughmuchisknownaboutmanyofthespeciescoveredinthisreport,andalthoughresearchispresentlybeingconductedonmanyofthem,therearea numberofspeciesofAnatidaeaboutwhichweknowverylittle.Bel1rose(1976)statedthat"Insomespeciesofwaterfowlourlackofthesimplestlifehistoryknowledgeisscandalous.Forexample,muchofthemeagernestinginformationontheblackandsurfscotersdatesbacktotheturnofthecentury."Bellrose(1976)consideredthatthelatterspecieshadthe"dubiousdistinctionofbeingtheleaststudied"ofNorthAmericanducks.TheveryshortspeciesbibliographiesthatwewereabletoassembleforthesescotersattesttothecontinuingrelevanceofBellrose'sremarks.Indeed,becausewegaveequalemphasistoeachspeciesduringthecourseofcompilingthebibliographies,wesuspectthattherelativelengthofthebibliographiesisititselfa goodguidetowhichspeciesneedfurtherresearch.ThetenspecieswiththeshortestbibliographiesareAmerican Wigeon,MottledDuck, CinnamonTeal,GreaterScaup,KingEider,HarlequinDuck,SurfScoter,Bufflehead,HoodedMerganser,andMasked Duck. However,Erskine(1972)providedacomprehensivereviewofwhatisknownoftheBufflehead,andreportsdealingwithdiversespeciesofducksmaketheAmerican Wigeon and HoodedMerganserbetterknownthanourcrudeassessmentmightsuggest.Mostoftheothersevenducksaregenuinelypoorlyknownformanyaspectsoftheirbreedingbiologyanddistribution.MuchworkhasalreadybeenaccomplishedbytheFishandWildlifeServiceinvalidatingaerialsurveysofwinteringandbreedingpopulations(reviewsinJohnsgard1975 andBe1lrose1976).Somespeciesorspeciesgroupsaremuch morevisiblefromtheairthanothers.Perhapsasmanyas9in10Green-wingedTeal-arenotseenfromtheairduringsurveysofthebreedinggroundsbutperhapsasmanyas3outof4scotersareseen.Thebreedinggroundsurveys,whilevaluable,donotcovermuchofeasternCanadaorthenortheasternUnitedStates.Consequently,thesizeofthebreedingpopulationforspeciesknowntobreedorbelievedtobreedlargelywithinthisareaorthathavelargebreedingpopulationsinthisareaareinadequatelyknown.SpeciesorformsinthisreportthatareinthiscategoryincludetheAtlanticpopulationsoftheSnowGoose andBrant,WoodDucks,BlackDucks,CommonEiders,HarlequinDucks, 01dsquaw,Surf22

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Scotors,and HoodedMergansers.CommonGo1deneyes,Buff1eheads,Red-breastedandCommonMergansersarespecieswithwide-rangingnortherndistributions,whosetotalpopulationsinNorthAmericaarepoorlyknownbecauserelativelylittleisknownofbreedingpopulationsintheeasternUnitedStatesandCanada.SurveysofwinteringwaterfowlinthecontinentalUnitedStatesmissbirdswiththeresultthatnumbersseenare"considerablybelowtheleveloftheactualpopulationofagivenduckspecies"(Be11rose1976).Thedifficultyinmakingadequatefieldidentificationsofsomespecieshasdoubtlesscontributedtoourlackofknowledge. Thethreespecies scoters,thetwoscaup,theCommonandRed-breastedmergansers,thetwogoldeneyes,andtheCommonand Kingeidersarenotdistinguishedfrom oneanotherontheaerialsurveysofthewinteringandthebreedinggroundsbytheFishandWildlifeService.Sincethescotersandtheotherspeciespairsarealsodifficulttodistinguishontheground,atleastforsomeageandsexgroups,information fr6m bird-watchersisalsooflimitedvalue.Thesespeciesareallmoderatelytohighlysusceptibletooilpollution.Wesuggestthatgroundsurveysbeundertakeninvariouswinteringareasalongthesoutheasterncoast.Suchsurveysshouldprovidemoreinformationontheproportionofbirdsmissedonaerialsurveys.Duringsuchgroundsurveysmoreattentionshouldbepaidtodeterminingtheproportionofwhichspeciesof"scaup","merganser","goldeneye"ispresentinanygivenarea.Theseproportions,iftakenovera wide enougharea,andoverdiverseenoughhabitats,shouldallowonetobetterestimatethesizeofthepopulationsofdiVingandseaduckswinteringinthesoutheast.The economicvalueofthepopulationsofwinteringwaterbirdsofteninfluenceswhichspeciesofwaterfowlaremostextensivelyresearched.Johnsgard(1975)estimatedrecreationalvaluesofwaterfowl,basingtheseestimatesonananalysisofChristmasCounts from1954-1962.Heconcludedthatthe"fivemostimportantwaterfowlintermsofrecreationalvaluetobirdwatchersarethemallard,pintail,Canada Goose, Americanwigeon,andblack Thesespeciesarethosefoundinthegreatestnumbers andareamongthosemostimportanttohunters.Wedisagree,however,thatthesebirdsarethosemostimportanttobird-watchers,becausebird-watchersareusuallymoreinterested in thosespeciesseenleastoften.UtilizingJohnsgard'srarityindex,thetenwaterfowlmostimportanttobird-watcherswouldbetheMasked Duck, Emperor Goose (Chencanagica),Steller'sEider(Polystictastelleri),EurasianGreen-wingedTeal(Anas Black-belliedWhistling-Duck,TrumpeterSwan(Cygnusbuccinator),FulvousWhistling-Duck,Ross'Goose,KingEider,and European(Eurasian)Wigeon. West(1979)recentlycompletedapollofbird-watcherstodeterminewhichspeciestheywould mostliketosee.Amongducks,geese,andswans,the tenthatinstilledthemostinterestweretheMasked Duckt SpectacledEider(Somateriaspectabilis),KingEider,HarlequinDuck,TrumpeterSwan, Emperor Goose,Ross'Goose,Steller'sEider,Smew(Mergusa1be11us),andBarnacleGoose.TherelativelyclosecorrespondencebetweenWest'slistandJohnsgard'srarityindexsuggeststhatJohnsgard'sestimateoftherecreationalvaluesofvariousspeciesofwaterfowlmaybedistorted.Itwouldappearthatsomeoftherarespeciesofwaterfowlinthesoutheastarebothamongthoseleaststudied(e.g.,Masked Duck, KingEider,HarlequinDuck) andthoseofmostinteresttobirdwatchers.23

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LargenumbersofwaterfowlfoundinthesoutheastalsowinterinareassouthoftheU.S.border.Johnsgard(1975)pointedoutthatmorethanhalfofthetotalwinteringpopulationsofNorthernShovelersandBlue-wingedandCinnamonTealswinterinMexicanwatersandindicatedthatimportantconcentrationsoftheBrant,White-frontedGoose,Redhead,andRuddy Duckwerealsofoundthere.WintersurveysofwinteringwaterfowlsouthoftheUnitedStatesareoftenveryincompleteandinsomewinteringgrounds"havebeensurveyedeithernotatalloronlyonceina25-yearperiod."Asstatedpreviously(Clappetal.1982),internationalboundariesarebiologicallyimaginarylinesthattendtodistortourknowledgeofthedistributionofbirds.ThisisparticularlytrueforthespeciescoveredinVolumes I andIIIofthisreport,butalsoappliestomanyoftheanatidscoveredinthisreport.Consequently,wefeelthatmoreeffortshouldbeexpendedindeterminingthestatusofwaterfowlinMexicoandcountriestothesouthsothatmanagersmaybetterevaluatethesignificanceofeventsthatoccurwhilethewaterfowlareoffourshores.CooperativeinternationalsurveysofwaterfowlwinteringsouthoftheUnitedStatescouldbecombinedwiththosedocumentingthestatusofothermarinebirdsoccurringinthearea.Suchsurveyswouldsupplya muchbetterunderstandingoftheoverallstatusofthespeciesinvolvedand ,would permitfarbetterinsightintotheconsequencesoflocalmanagerialdecisionsonaspeciesthroughoutitsrange.Previouseffortsalongtheselines,particularlywithrespecttoCanadaandwaterfowl,havebeenhighlyeffectiveinproducingtheinformationneededtomanageanatidpopulations.Similareffortswithregardtootherareasmightalsoprovefruitful.RESEARCHNEEDEDONEFFECTSOFOILONSOUTHEASTERNMARINEBIRDSItisourfirmopinionthatattemptedrehabilitationofoiledbirdsfollowingamajorpollutionincidentislargelyawasteoftime,money,andotherresources.AsStanton(1977)oftheWildlifeRehabilitationCenterputit,"Thetimehascomeforthepublictorealizethatcleaning,rehabilitating,andreturningoil-coveredbirdstothewildisoftennotthewisestinvestmentoftheirtaxdollar."ThegroupworkingonecologicalresearchonseabirdsinEuropeiseVidentlyofthesameopinion,statingthat"sincetheresultsofattemptstorehabilitateoiledbirdsaresopoor,itmaybemoreprofitabletoexpendeffortsatpreventingbirdsfrombecomingpolluted"(NationalEnvironmentalResearchCouncil1977).Ontheotherhand,weconsideritdesirabletosalvagethesebirdstofindoutpreciselywhatbirdswereoiledandtoobtaininformationthatwillallowformoreprudentresponsestofuturespills.Althoughtherehavebeenmanymajoreffortsto"save"oiledbirds,theseresultedinlittleinformationthatwouldaidinplanningresponsestosubsequentincidents.However,therehavebeenexceedinglyfewinstancesinwhichanysystematicattempthasbeenmadetodeterminethefulleffectsofaspillonlocalpopulationsofmarinebirds.AsNelson(1977)stated,"documentationoftheeffectsofthespillisavitalpostspillresponsibility";consequently,werecommendthateveryattemptbemadetodeterminewhatspecieswereaffectedandhow manyofeachspeciesdied.Obtainingthisinformationisnoteasy.Evenifsomenotionisobtainedregardingwhichspecieswereoiledbyagivenspill,countsofdeadorcontam-24

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inatedbirds(orboth)maynotindicatehowseverelyaspecieswasaffected.Onereasonforthisisthatthereisseldomadequateinformationonthenumberofbirdsthatwerepresentinanareapriortocontamination.Asaresult,evenarelativelyaccurateestimateofthenumberofbirdskilledwillnotrevealhowbadlylocalpopulationsweredamaged.Assumingthatthenumberofeachspeciesinhabitinganareathatbecomesoiledwas known,itwouldstillbedifficulttopredicthow manybirdswereormaybeaffected.Forexample,thetimeofpassageofanoilslickthroughanareamaybecriticalindeterminingthedegreeofcontaminationandmortalityexperiencedbyeachspecies.DuringthecontaminationoftheFirthofForthinFebruary1978,theoilapparentlypassedatnightnearthemainfeedingareaforwaterbirds;consequently,therewas aproportionatelygreaterlossofnightfeedingGreaterScaupandPochard(Aythyaferina)thantherewasofCommonGoldeneyeandCommonEider,mostofwhichhadmovedelsewheretoroost(Campbelletal.1978).Theproportionofbirdsfoundoiledordeadafterapollutionincidentmayvarywidelybetweenspecies,dependingonthehabitatsusedandthehabitsofthebirds.Theprobabilityoffindingoiledbirdsthatroostorloafonshorenearfeedingareasoffshoreiscertainlymuchgreaterthanitisforthosethatspendallormostoftheirtimeoffshoreandthat,followingoiling,mightsimplysinkfromsightnevertobeseenagain.Furthermore,windandcurrentpatternsoffshoreaswellasmovementsbythebirdsthemselvescouldtakemostofthevictimsofanoilspillfarfromwheretheywereoiledlongbeforeanyonenoticedtheirplight.Levy(1980)analyzedthesortofoilfoundondeadormoribundbirdsintheAtlanticoffCanadaandsuggestedthatHerringandGreatBlack-backedgullsobtainednearSableIsland,NovaScotia,hadbeencontaminatedbyoilfromtheARGOMERCHANTspillonNantucketShoals,some 840km(522mi)away.InanotherinstanceabadlyoiledPochard(Aythyaferina)flew7km(4.3mi)inlandbeforebecomingincapacitated(Campbelletal.1978).InsomepartsofEuropeand onthewestcoastoftheUnitedStatesprevailingwindsbringvictimsofoilingtoshore.OntheAtlanticseaboard,windstakeoiledbirdsouttosea.Itisimpossibletomake asatisfactorycomparisonoftheextentofdamagefromoilpollutionincidentsbetweentheseareas.Likewise,estimatesofmortalityfrombeachedbirdsurveysinEuropecannotbeusedtopredicttheincidenceofmortalityalongthewesterncoastoftheAtlantic.Atbest,theyonlysuggestthatdamagetowildbirdsfromoilontheU.S.eastcoastmaybeunderestimated.Despiteallthesedifficultiesinobtainingunbiaseddata,werecommendthatabettereffortbemadetomonitorandpublishreportsoftheeffectsofoilspillsonmarinebirds.MuchoftheinformationneededtoanswerquestionsrelatingtooilpollutionandmarinebirdsinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesthatthisreportattemptstoprovidewouldhavebeenavailablepreviouslyhadsucheffortsbeenmadeinthepast.Wealsorecommendthatmoreattentionbepaidtomonitoringthelongtermandbackgroundeffectsofoilpollutioninthesoutheast.Oneofthebetter25

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andlessexpensivewaysinwhichthismaybeaccomplishedwouldbeaperiodiccensusingofbirdsfounddeadalongthebeaches.Thislendssomeobjectivebasistospeculationsabouttheeffectsofoilpollutiononmarine birdst andalsoprovidesinformationaboutunusualorincreasingmortalityfromothercauses (e.g.t pesticides).Over aperiodof timet thismayserveasanearlywarningindicatorofwhereseriousproblemsinwildlifeconservationmightarise.SuchsurveysarebeingconductedpresentlyintheeasternUnitedStatesbytheAtlanticandGulfCoastBeachedBirdSurvey Projectt butthearea cov eredinsomeregions (e.g.t twomilesoftheTexascoast [Simonst pers.comm.])issosmallthattheinformationobtainedmayhavelittleimportance.Manyofthebiasespreviouslydiscussedaboveinregardtooilspillsmayalsobeappliedtocensusesofbeachedbirds.In additiont increasingmortalityfromanother sourcet suchas pesticidest mightresultinlowermortalityfromoilandobscurethetrueeffectofthelatter.Nonethelesstchangesinthenumberofindividualsofaspeciesfounddeadandintheincidenceanddegreeofoilingfromyeartoyearshouldprovidefarmoreneededinformationthanispresentlyavailable.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSManypeoplehavecontributedtothisreport'inavarietyofways.GeneW.BlacklockallowedustousehisunpublishedmanuscriptontheoccurrenceandstatusofthebirdsofPadreandMustangislandsandHerbertW. Kalet IIsupplieduswithunpublishedinformationonFloridabirds.WearealsogratefultoMalcolmM. Simons tJr.t DirectoroftheAtlanticandGulfCoastBeachedBirdSurvey Projectt whosupplieduswithunpublisheddataonincidenceofoilingandmortalityonbirdsalongtheAtlanticandGulfcoasts.ThelibrarystaffoftheSmithsonianNaturalHistoryMuseumwasespeciallyhelpfulinobtainingcopiesofmostofthethesesandmanyofthepapersthatcomprisethefilesuponwhichthisandthecompanionreportsarebased;CarolynS. Hahn t AmyE. Levint andJackF.Marquardtwereespeciallyhelpfulinthisregard.AgnesC.NalleyalsoaidedusinfindingandobtainingliteratureintheBirdLibraryoftheGabrielsonLaboratoryofPatuxentNationalWildlifeResearchCenter.LindaA.HollenberghelpedassemblespeciesbibliographiesandtheliteraturefilesandJillParkerprovidedsomeusefulandmuch-neededediting.RogerA.LuchenbachpreparedsomeearlyversionsofthespeciesaccountsandWayneA.Hoffman made some commentsonthese.InitialversionsofthemapswerepreparedbyMarthaB. HaysandcompletedbythestaffofNationalCoastalEcosystems TeamtSlidellt Louisiana.PainstakingtypingofpreliminaryandfinaldraftmaterialwasaccomplishedbyGwynnS.LeonardandHelenL.Harbett.TheillustrationsinterspersedinthetextwerepreparedbyCharlotteI.Adamson.Wethankallfortheirefforts.Otherssuppliedunpublishedmanuscriptsorcopiesofpapers, journalst orreportsthatwouldhaveotherwisebeenverydifficulttoobtainandoftenprovidedinsightintoareaswhereadditionalinformationcouldbeacquired.Yet26

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othersreadand madevaluable comments onpreliminaryversionsofthemanuscript.Fortheseandotherservices,wethankW.R.P.Bourne,DannyBystrak,W.FrankCobb,Jr.,JeromeA.Jackson,CherryKeller,M.KathleenKlimkiewicz,MaryK.LeCroy,StorrsL.Olson,RalphS.Palmer,AllanR.Phillips,ChandlerS.Robbins,LarryR.Shanks,DavidM.Smith,George E.Watson,III;DonaldW.Woodard, andRichardL.Zusi.27

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FULVOUSWHISTLING-DUCK(Dendrocygnabicolor)[FR:Dendrocygneabecfauve,GE:Sichelpfeifgans,SP:Patosilbon,Pichicicolorado,Pijia,Serrano;US:FulvousTreeDuck]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheFulvousWhistling-Duckisessentiallyabirdofpantropicaldistribution,occurringinaseriesofdisjunctpopulationsinCeylonandIndia,CentralAfricaandMadagascar,innorthernandsouthernSouthAmerica,andfromthesouthwesternUnitedStatestocentralMexico.ThelatterpopulationbreedsfromsouthernCalifornia,southwesternArizona,centralTexasandtheGulfcoastofLouisianasouththroughMexicotoNayarit,theValleyofMexico,andVeracruz,andlocallyinsouthernFlorida,Cuba,andHonduras(AOU1957,MeyerdeSchaunesee1966,Bellrose1976).TheNorthAmericanpopulationwintersinmostofitsbreedingrange,butinrecentyearsincreasing numbers havespentthewinterinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesfromVirginiatoFlorida.Estimatesoflatesummer numbersofFulvousWhistling-DucksinsouthwesternLouisianaandsoutheasternTexasindicatedabout17,000birdsin1975;someoftherecentincreaseinbothbreedingandwinteringpopulationsinthesoutheastmayberelatedtochangingagriculturalmethodsinthatregion(Flickingeretal.1977).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWehavefoundnoreferencestooilingofFulvousWhistling-Ducks.Asbirdsofvegetatedcoastalmarshesthatareseldomfoundinopenwateroffshore,they notlikelytobeaffectedexceptbyamassivemishap.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Lambeth,D.o.andG.S.Lambeth.1980.SecondrecordofFulvousWhistlingDuckforNorthDakota.PrairieNat.12:110.Rylander,M.K.,E.G.Bolenand R.E.McCamant.1980.EvidenceofincubationpatchesinWhistlingDucks.Southwest.Nat.25:126-128.1979Langley,C.H.1979.AfurtherbreedingrecordfortheFulvousWhistlingDuckfromtheCapePeninsula.Ostrich50:62.28

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1978Beaubrun,P.,M.Thevenotand R.Leveque.1978.LeDendrocygnefauveDendro bicolorauMaroc. [TheFulvousWhistling-DuckDendrocygna inMorocco.]Alauda46:177-178.[InFrench.]Clark,A.1978.SomeaspectsofthebehaviourofwhistlingducksinSouthAfrica.Ostrich49:31-39.Vielliard,J.artique.arctic.]1978.LeDendrocygnefauveDendrocygnabicolordansIePale[TheFulvousWhistling-DuckDendrocygnabicolorinthePaleAlauda46:178-180.[InFrench.]1977Flickinger,E.L.,D.S.LobpriesandH.A.Bateman.1977.FulvousWhistlingDuckpopulationsinTexasandLouisiana.WilsonBull.89:329-331.1976Clark,A.1976.ObservationsonthebreedingofWhistlingDucksinsouthernAfrica.Ostrich47:59-64.Landers,J.L. andA.S.Johnson.1976.Foodsof6FulvousWhistlingDucksincoastalSouthCarolina.WilsonBull.88:659-660.Rice,o.o.1976.FulvousTreeDuckatMaraisdesCygnesWildlifeRefuge.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc.27:9.1975Flickinger,E.L.1975.IncubationbyamaleFulvousTreeDuck.WilsonBull.87:106-107.Ouellet,H.1975.AnadditionalrecordoftheFulvousTreeDuckinQuebec. Can.Field-Nat.89:74.1974Clark,A.1974a.HybridDendrocygnaviduataXDendrocygnabicolor.Ostrich45:255.1974b.ThestatusoftheWhistlingDucksinSouthAfrica.Ostrich------45:1-4.Neel,L.andR.L.Crawford.1974.FulvousTreeDucksinThomasCounty,Georgiaandvicinity.Oriole39:27-28.1973Flickinger,E.L.,K.A.King andO.Heyland.1973.Pen-rearedFulvousTreeDucksusedinmovementstudiesofwildpopulations.J.Wildl.Manage.37:171-175.29

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Milstein,P.IeS. 1973. Maccoa DuckparasitisingFulvousDucknest.Bokmakiere25:74. 1970Turcotte,W.H.1970.FulvousTreeDucks.Miss.Ornithol.Soc.Newsl.15:8.1969Tanzer,E.C.1969.AspringsightingofanaggregateofFulvousTreeDucks.Bull.TexasOrnithol.Soc.3: 23. 1967 Munro,W.T. 1967.OccurrenceoftheFulvousTreeDuckinCanada. Can.Field-Nat.81:151-152.Watson,G.E.1967.FulvousTreeDuckobservedinthesouthernSargassoSea.Auk84:424.1966Jones,H.L.status.1966. TheFulvousTreeDuckintheeast:itspastandpresentChat 30:4-7.Zimmerman,J.L. 1966.RecordsoftheFulvousTreeDuckinKansasduring1965.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc.17:9.1965Hanes,R.P.,Jr.1965.FulvousTreeDuckstakeninCurrituckSound,NorthCarolina.Chat 29: 23.Weighley,I.1965.101FulvousTreeDucks (Dendrocygnabicolor).Fla.Nat.38:105.1963Hunt,G.S. 1963.FulvousTreeDucksinMichigan.WilsonBull.75:198.McCartney,R.1963a.TheFulvousTreeDuckinLouisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.56pp.1963b. TheFulvousTreeDuckinLouisiana.La.Wildl.Fish.Commiss.,NewOrleans,LA.Kale,H.W.,II.1962. MoreFulvousTreeDucksinsoutheastGeorgia.Oriole27:18-19.30

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McKay,A.K.1962.HistoryoftheFulvousTreeDuckintheCovearea.TexasOrnithol.Soc. Newsl. 11:7-9.Squires,W.A.1962.FulvousTreeDuckinNewBrunswick.Can.Field-Nat.76:120.1961Craig,A.M.andJ.T.Craig.1961.FulvousTreeDuck andGlossyIbisinsoutheastGeorgia.Oriole26:45.Denton,J.F. 1961. AspecimenoftheFulvousTreeDuck fromAugusta,Georgia.Oriole26:53.Hoover,C.M.1961.FirstMarylandrecordofFulvousTreeDuck.Md.Birdlife17:67-68.Hoover,I.C.1961.FulvousTreeDuckatOceanCity,Md.Atl.Nat.16:253.Sykes,P.W.,Jr.1961. TheFulvousTreeDuckinvasionintosoutheasternVirginia.Raven32:60-63.1960Chamberlain,B.R.1960.FulvousTreeDucksatWilmington.Chat24:22-23.Grey,J.H.1960.FulvousTreeDucksatWilliamsburg,Virginia.Raven31:104-105.Mellinger,E.o.1960.FulvousTreeDucksagainontheSavannahRefuge.Chat24:22.1959Meanley,B.andA.G.Meanley. 1959.ObservationsontheFulvousTreeDuckinLouisiana.WilsonBull.71:33-45.1958Meanley,B.andA.G.Meanley.Black-belliedtreeducks.1958.Post-copulatorydisplayinFulvousandAuk75:96.1956Meanley,B.1956.TheFulvousTreeDuckaproductofthericefields.La.Conserve 8:22,26. 1949Robinson,F.H.1949.FulvousTree-duckatSouthernPines,N.C.Chat13:49.31

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1947Friedmann,H.1947.GeographicvariationsoftheBlack-bellied,Fu1vous,andWhite-facedtreeducks.Condor49:189-195.1944Hasbrouck,E.M.1944.Fu1vousTree-ducksinLouisiana.Auk61:305-306.1943Lynch,J.J.1943.Fu1vousTree-duckinLouisiana.Auk60:100-102.1940Sprunt,A.,Jr.1940.Fu1vousTree-duck,anadditiontotheavifaunaofFlorida.Auk57:563.1932Carroll,J.J.1932.AchangeindistributionoftheFu1vousTreeDuck(Dendrocygnabico1orhe1va)inTexas.Auk49:343-344.1931 Moyer,J.W.1931.Black-belliedand Fu1voustreeducksinIllinois.Auk48:258.1923Dickey,D.R. andA.J.vanRossem.1923.The Fu1vousTreeDucksofBuenaVistaLake.Condor25:39-50.1901Barnhart,F.S.1901.EvolutioninthebreedinghabitsoftheFu1vousTreeDuck. Condor3:67-68.1899Shields,A.M.1899.NestingoftheFu1vousTreeDuck.Bull.CooperOrnitho1.Club1:9-11.32

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BLACK-BELLIEDWHISTLING-DUCK(Dendrocygnaautumnalis)[FR:Dendrocygneabecrouge,GE:Herbstpfeifgans,SP:Patosilbadorpicorojo,Pichichicomun;US:Black-belliedTreeDuck,Red-billedWhistling-Duck,BlackbelliedWoodDuck,Red-billedTreeDuck,Gray-breastedTreeDuck]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheBlack-belliedWhistling-DuckisprimarilyabirdofSouthandCentralAmerica,reachingthenorthernlimitofitsdistributioninthesouthernUnitedStates.TheonlyregularoccurrenceintheUnitedStatesisinlowercoastalTexas,wherethespeciesisabreedingresident(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).Numbersfluctuatemarkedlyfromyeartoyear,buttherecenttrendhasbeenanincrease,withanestimatefor1974of3,000breedingbirds(Oberholser1974,Bellrose1976).RecordselsewhereinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesincludeonefromGeorgia(Teulings1977b),andseveralfromFloridaandLouisiana.Manyoftherecordsfromtheselattertwostatesmayhavebeenofescapedcaptivesorintroducedbirds(Kale1974,1978;Lowery1974).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWehavenoreportsofoiledBlack-belliedWhistling-Ducks.Theseareprimarilybirdsofinlandwaters,andevenincoastalareasdonotventurefrequentlyintotheopenocean.Becauseoftheirhabitsandbecauseonlyasmallproportionofthetotalpopulationoccursinthesoutheasternstates,itisunlikelythatdevelopmentinthatareawouldbeofseriousconsequencetoBlackbelliedWhistling-Ducks.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980 Boyd, R.L.,E.Schulenberg,J.SchulenbergandM.Schulenberg.belliedWhistlingDuckatQuiveraNationalWildlifeRefuge.Ornithol.Soc.31:38.1980.BlackBull.KansasRylander,M.K.,E.G.BolenandR.E. McCamant.1980.EvidenceofincubationpatchesinWhistlingDucks.Southwest.Nat.25:126-128.1979Bolen,E.G.1979.TheBlack-belliedWhistlingDuckinsouthTexas:areview.Pp.175-185inD. L. Drawe(ed.)Proc.Symp.FirstWelderWildlifeFoundation,14October1978,CorpusChristi,TX.33

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Bolen,E.G.andE.N.Smith.1979.Black-belliedWhistlingDucks.NotesontheincubationbehaviorofPrairieNat.11:119-123.Bourne,G.R.1979.WeightsandlinearmeasurementsofBlack-belliedWhistlingDucksinGuyana.Pp.186-188inD. L. Drawe(ed.)Proc.Symp.FirstWelderWildlifeFoundation, 14-october 1978,CorpusChristi,TX.McCamant,R.E.andE.G.Bolen.1979.byBlack-belliedWhistlingDucks. A12-yearstudyofnestboxutilizationJ.Wi1d1. Manage.43:936-943.1978Banks,R. C.1978.NomenclatureoftheBlack-belliedWhistling-Duck.Auk95:348-352.1977Barratt,B.1977.Black-belliedWhistlingDuck, a newspeciesforIowa.IowaBirdLife47:104-106.Bolen,E.G.andR.E. McCamant.1977.MortalityratesforBlack-belliedWhistlingDucks.Bird-Banding48:350-353.McCamant, R.E.andE.G.Bolen.1977.WhistlingDuckstolossofmates.ResponseofincubatingBlack-belliedWilsonBull.89:621.1976Bourne,G.R.1976.Black-belliedWhistlingDuckutilizationofariceculturehabitat.M.S.thesis,MiamiUniv./Oxford,OH.76pp.De1nicki,D. andE.G.Bolen.1976.RenestingbytheBlack-belliedWhistlingDuck.Auk93:535-542.De1nicki,D.,E.G.BolenandC.Cottam.1976.AnunusualclutchsizeoftheBlack-belliedWhistlingDuck.WilsonBull.88:347-348.1975De1nicki,D.andE.G.Bolen.1975.NaturalnestsiteavailabilityforB1ackbelliedWhistlingDucksinsouthTexas.Southwest.Nat.20:371-378.George,R. R. andE.G.Bolen.1975.EndoparasitesofBlack-belliedWhistlingDucksinsouthTexas.J.Wildl.Dis.11:17-22.1974Bolen,E.G.andM.K.Rylander.Whistling-DuckDendrocygna.1974.FootadaptationinfourspeciesofWildfowl25:81-83.34

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Bourne,G.R.1974 ms.WhistlingDuckforagingand foodhabitsduringautumnricecropsowing.Rept.infilesofGuyanaRiceBoard andMinistryofAgriculture,Georgetown,Guyana.Hersloff,L.,P.N.Lehner,E.G.BolenandM.K.Rylander.1974.VisualsensitivityintheBlack-belliedTreeDuck, acrepuscularspecies.J.CompoPhysiol.Psychol.86:486-492.Rylander,M.K.and E.G.Bolen.1974a.FeedingadaptationsinWhistlingDucks(Dendrocygna).Auk91:86-94.1974b.AnalysisandcomparisonofgaitsinWhistlingDucks(Dendro------cygna).WilsonBull.86:237-245.1973Bolen,E.G.andM.K.Rylander.1973.CopulatorybehaviorinDendrocygna.Southwest.Nat.18:348-350.Cain,B.W.1973.EffectoftemperatureonenergyrequirementsandnorthwarddistributionoftheBlack-belliedTreeDuck.WilsonBull.85:308-317.1972Cain,B.W.1972a.BiogeneticsofBlack-belliedTreeDucksinrelationtotheirgrowthanddistribution.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.III./Urbana,IL.64pp._____1972b.ColdhardinessandthedevelopmentofhomeothermyinyoungBlack-belliedTreeDucks.WilsonBull.84:483-485.1971Bolen,E.G.1971.PairbondtenureinBlack-belliedTreeducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 35:385-388.Johnson,A.R.andJ.C.Barlow.1971.NotesonthenestingoftheBlackbelliedTreeDucknearPhoenix,Arizona.Southwest.Nat.15:394-395.1970Bolen,E.G.1970.SexratiosintheBlack-belliedTreeDuck.J.Wildl.Manage. 34:68-73.Bolen,E.G.andJ.J.Beecham. 1970.NotesonthefoodsofjuvenileBlackbelliedTreeDucks.WilsonBull.82:325-326.Cain,B.W.1970. Growth and plumagedevelopmentoftheBlack-belliedTreeDuck Dendrocygnaautumnalis(Linnaeus).TexasA&IUniv.Stud.3:25-48.Rylander,M.K.andE.G.Bolen.1970.EcologicalandanatomicaladaptationsofNorthAmericanTreeDucks.Auk87:72-90.35

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1968 Bolen, E.G.and B.W.Cain.1968.MixedWoodDuck-Tree DuckclutchinTexas.Condor 70:389-390.1967 Bolen, E.G.Texas.1967a.TheecologyoftheBlack-belliedTreeDuckinsouthernPh.D. thesis, UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UTe138pp.1967b.NestingboxesforBlack-belliedTreeDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.------31:794-797. Bolen, E.G.andB.J.Forsyth.1967.FoodsoftheBlack-belliedTreeDuckinsouthTexas.WilsonBull.79:43-49.1966 McDaniel,B., D.Tuffand E.G.Bolen.1966.ExternalparasitesoftheBlackbelliedTreeDuck andotherdendrocygnids.WilsonBull.78:462-468.1964 Bolen, E.G.1964a.Tracersontreeducks.TexasGameFish22: 21, 28.1964b.WeightsandlinearmeasurmentsofBlack-belliedTreeDucks.TexasJ.Sci.16:257-260. Bolen, E. G., B.McDaniel andC.Cottam.1964.NaturalhistoryoftheBlackbelliedTreeDuck(Dendrocygnaautumnalis)insouthernTexas.Southwest.Nat.9:78-88.1962 Bolen, E.G.1962.NestingofBlack-belliedTreeDucksinsouthTexas.Aud.FieldNotes16:482-485.1958 Meanley, B. andA.G.Meanley.1958a.NestinghabitatoftheBlack-belliedTreeDuckinTexas.WilsonBull.70:94-95.1958b.Post-copulatorydisplayinFulvousandBlack-belliedtreeducks.Auk75:96.1957Johnstone,S.1957.Onbreedingwhistlingducks.Avicult.Mag.63:23-25.36

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1947Friedmann,H.1947.GeographicvariationsoftheBlack-bellied,Fulvous,andWhite-facedtreeducks.Condor 49:189-195.Haverschmidt,F.1947.FieldnotesontheBlack-belliedTreeDuckinDutchGuiana.WilsonBull.59:209.Vorhies,C.1945.Black-belliedTreeDucksinArizona.Condor 47:82.1931 Moyer,J.W.1931.Black-belliedandFulvoustreeducksinIllinois.Auk48:258.1914Bryant,H.1914.OccurrenceofBlack-belliedTreeDucksinCalifornia.Condor 16:94.1906 Brown,H.1906.The WaterTurkeyandTreeDucksnearTucson,Arizona.Auk23:217-218.37

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MUTESWAN(Cygnusolor)[DA:Knopsvane,DU:Knobbelzwaan,EN:White Swan,PolishSwan;FI:Kyhmyjoutsen,FR: Cygnemuet,GE:Hocker schwan IC:Hnudsvanur,IT:Cignoreale,JA:Kobuhakucho,NW:Knoppsvane,PO:Labedzniemy,PR:Cisnebravo,RU:(HissingSwan), SP:Cisnemudo,Cisnevulgar;SW:KnolsvanlGENERALDISTRIBUTIONThe MuteSwanisanativeofEurasia.FeralpopulationshavebecomeestablishedinseveralareasofNorthAmericaafterescapefromcaptiveorsemicaptiveflocks.ItismostcommoninthenortheastfromNewHampshiretoChesapeakeBay,butisalsowellestablishedinMichigan,BritishColumbia,andwesternWashington(Bellrose1976).TherearesixrecordsofapparentlywildbirdsinNorthCarolinasince1966(Potter1977,Teulings1977a)butnorecentrecordsinSouthCarolinaorGeorgia.AseeminglywildbirdwasseenatBiscayneBay,Florida,inDecember 1973(Stevenson1974);swansarecommonincaptivityinthatstate,andescapesaretobeexpected.TherearerecordsofoccurrenceandoccasionalnestinginAlabama (Imhof1976b),butthebirdsmaynothavebeentruly wild. SomeideaofthespreadandincreaseinnumbersofNorthAmerican Mute SwanscanbeobtainedfromtheannualAudubonChristmasCounts.Between 1949 and 1969thetotalnumberofMute Swanscountedincreasedfrom 374to1,644birds(Johnsgard1975).The1972 AudubonChristmasCountgaveatotalof2,135Mute SwansalongtheAtlanticseaboardfromNewHampshiretoMaryland.OnthePacificcoast,1,449werecounted,andatTraverseBay,Michigan(theonlymajorconcentrationintheMidwest),390werecounted(Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONAccordingtoBeer andOgilvie(inScott1972),theMuteSwanistheonlyswanwhichhasexperiencedsevere losses tooilpollution.Theynotedthattheseswans werekilledorcontaminatedbyoilinatleasttenBritishcountiesoveradecade;inoneinstance85ofaflockof100died.OilingofMute SwanshasalsobeenreportedinScotland(Dunnet 1974) andelsewhereinEurope;theyhavealsobeenreporteddyingfromoilinNorthAmerica(recordsintheBirdBandingLaboratory,Patuxent,MD).Because Mute Swansoccurinsuchsmallnumbersinthesoutheast,resourcedevelopmentthereshouldposenohazardtothisspecies.38

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981 McLeod,C.R.1981.MuteSwankillingBankVole.Scott.Birds11:194.1980 Bech,C.1980.Bodytemperature,metabolicrate,andinsulationinwinterand summeracclimatizedMute Swans (Cygnusolor).J.CompoPhysiol.B.Biochern.Syst.Environ.Physiol.136:61-66.Bech,C.andK.Johansen.1980.VentilatoryandcirculatoryresponsestohyperthermiaintheMute Swan (Cygnusolor).J.Exp.BioI.88:195-204.Beven,G.1980. Cootfeedingon weeddisturbedby Mute Swans.Brit.-Birds73:219-220.Campbell,W.D.1980.PostureofMute Swan.Brit.Birds73:218.Cobb,J.S.andM.M.Harlin.1980.Mute Swan (Cygnusolor)feedingandterritorialityaffectsdiversityanddensityofrootedaquaticplants.(Abstractonly).Am.Zool.20:882.Eckert,K.R.1980. MuteSwaninfluxintheDulutharea.Loon52:116-117.Krummholz,D.1980.[Renewed mixedclutchesofeggsofMute Swan, Cygnusolor,and Grey LagGoose,Anser Beitr.Vogelkd.26:127.[InGerman.]Reese,J.G.1980.DemographyofEuropeanMute SwansinChesapeakeBay.Auk97:449-464.Renssen,Th.A.andR.M.Teixeira.1980.TaxatievanhetaantalknobbelzwaneninNederland.[AppraisalofMute SwancountsintheNetherlands.]Watervogels5:18-24.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Ruitenbeek,W.1980.Verschillentussenaantallenindezomerenindewintergeteldeknobbelzwanen (Cygnusolor)inNederland.[Differencesbetweensummer andwintercountsofMute Swans (Cygnusolor)intheNetherlands.]Watervogels5:25-26.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1979 Coleman,A.E. andC.D.T.Minton.1979.PairingandbreedingofMute Swansinrelationtonatalarea.Wildfowl30:27-30.Dejong,R.P.andP.J.Bacon. 1979.VariationincohesionofabroodofMute Swans.Wildfowl30:86-89.Feiler,M.1979.ZueiningenProblemenderBestandsentwicklungbeimHockerschwan (Cygnusolor)inder DDR. [OnsomeproblemsofthepopulationdevelopmentofMute Swans CygnusolorinG.D.R.]Beitr.Vogelkd.25:27-32.[InGerman.] 39

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Kumari, E.1979.Moult andmigrationofwaterfowlinEstonia.Wildfowl30:90-98.Lipsberg,Yu.K.1979. [Number anddistributionoftheMuteSwan(Cygnusolor).]Ornitologiya14:126-123.[InRussian.]Nebrig,H.1979.KleineBeobachtungenamHock.erschwan, Cygnusolor.Beitr.Vogelkd.25:126-127.[InGerman.]Northcote,E.M.1979.SwanCygnusolor.DeterminationofageandsexoflongbonesofMuteIbis121:74-80.Schmidt,R.,A.SeifkeandH.Porner.1979.MitteleuropaischeSubarealedesHockerschwans (Cygnusolor)nachBeringungsergenissenausdemGebietderDDR.[ThecentralEuropeandistributionoftheMuteSwanCygnusolorbasedonEastGermanringingdata.]Beitr.Vogelkd.25: ?0-64. [InGerman. ]Simpson,V.R.,A.E. Hunt andM.C.French.1979.ChronicleadpoisoninginaherdofMute Swans.Environ.Pollute18:187-202.1978Breucker,H.1978.Macrophages,anormalcomponentinseasonallyinvolutingtestesoftheswan Cygnusolor.CellTissueRes.193:463-471.Elderud,C.1978.Knolsvankullfotvanderattakilometer.[Long-distancewalkbyabroodofMute Swans Cygnusolor.]VarFagelvarld37:136-137.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] MacDonald,J.W.,D.Lea andG.A.Hamilton.1978.ParasiticwormscausingdeathsofMute Swans.Brit.Birds71:358-359.Plant,C.W.1978.DifferingreactionsofadultMute Swanstointrudingjuvenile.Brit.Birds71:181.Ranftl,H.andH.Utschick.1978.SestandundreproduktiondesHoeckerschwansinBayern.[StatusandreproductionoftheMuteSwaninBavaria.]J.Ornithol.119:238-239.[InGerman.]Utschick,H.1978.DerBestandstrenddesHockerschwans (Cygnusolor)inSudbayerninAbhandgigk.eitvanderStichprobengrosse.[PopulationtrendofoftheMuteSwanCygnusolorinsouthernBavariaindependentofsamplesize.]J.Ornithol.119:191-196.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.] 1977 Norman,D.o.1977. AroleforplumagecolorinMuteSwan(Cygnusolor)parent-offspringinteractions.Behaviour62:314-321.Potter,E. F. 1977. The MuteSwaninNorthCarolina.Chat41:95-96.40

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1976Jenkins,D.,I.Newton andC.Brown.1976.Structureanddynamicsofa MuteSwanpopulation.Wildfowl27:77-82.Jogi,A.,J.LipsbergandV.Nedzinskas.1976.[Numbers andseasonaldistributionoftheEastBalticpopulationoftheMute Swan.]Pp.175-184inE. Kumari(ed.)Birdmigration.Tallinn.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Mathiasson,S. 1976.SomeaspectsonlearnedbehaviourandtraditioninthemigratoryhabitsofMuteSwanwithspecialreferencetoSwedish swanpopulation.Pp. 197-208inE. Kumari(ed.)Birdmigration.Tallinn.Tenuovo,R.1976.The MuteSwanCygnusolorinFinland.OrnisFenn.53:147-149.Zusman,I.N.,S. F. Lyashenko andV.S.Nedzinskas.1976.caladaptationsinearlyembryogenesisofCygnusolor.]255-266.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] 1975[Morpho-ecologiZool.Zh. 55: Owen,M.andC.J.Cadbury.Ouse Washes,England.1975. TheecologyandmortalityofswansattheWildfowl26:31-42.Reese,J.G.1975.Productivityand managementofferalMute SwansinChesapeakeBay.J.Wildl.Manage.39:280-286.1974Jensen,H.1974.Mageskiftogbigamihos Knopsvane (CygnusolorGm.).[Divorceand bigamyintheMuteSwan(CygnusolorGm.).]Dan.Fugle8:149160.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.] Lund,H.M.-K. 1974.TidligeggleggendeKnoppsvane iOstfold.[EarlyegglayingintheMute Swan.] Fauna27:234.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.] 1973Forster,R. andG.Wagner.1973.Der Hockerschwan CygnusolorinderNordostschweiz.Ornithol.Beob. 70:67-80.[InGermanwithFrenchsummary.]Mathiasson,S.1973a.Amoultingpopulationofnon-breedingMute Swanswithspecialreferencetoflightfeathermoult,feedingecologyandhabitatselection.Wildfowl24:43-53._____1973b.MoultinggroundsofMute Swans (Cygnusolor)inSweden,theiroriginandrelationtothepopulationdynamicsofMute SwansintheBalticarea.Viltrevy8:399-452.41

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Nedzinskas,V.1973.[AcontributiontotheecologyoftheLithuanianpopulationofCygnusolor.]Zool.Zh. 52:1360-1366.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary. ]Nilsson,L. 1973. [ThebreedingpopulationoftheMuteSwanCygnusolorintheprovincesofScaniaandBlekinge,southSwedenin1972.]VarFagelvarId32:115-119.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Reichholf,J.1973. DieBestandsenwicklungdesHockerschwans CygnusolorundseineEinordnungindasOkosystemderInnstauseen.Anz.Ornithol.Ges.Bayern 12:15-46.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.]Trapp,J.L. 1973. Mute Swansentangledinfishingline.Jack-PineWarbler51:91-92.1972Arnold,E. 1972. MuteSwanfeedinginfield.Atl.Nat.27:128.Bloch,D.and L.Kraul.1972.Residuesofpolychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB) andorganochlorineinsecticidesineggsfrom MuteSwan(Cygnusolor)andPochard(Aythyaferina).ActaVet.Scand.13:588-590.Cramp, S. 1972.OnehundredandfiftyyearsofMute SwansontheThames.Wildfowl23:119-124.Reynolds,C.M.1972. MuteSwanweightsinrelationtobreedingperformance.Wildfowl23:111-118.Willey,C.H.andB.F.Halla.1972.Mute SwansofRhodeIsland.RhodeIslandDept.Nat.Resourc.Wildl.Pamphl.No.8.47pp.Wood,R. andW.L.Gelston.1972.Preliminaryreport:theMute SwansofMichigan'sGrandTraverseBayregion.Mich.Dept.Nat.Resourc.Rept.No.2683.6pp.1971Minton,C.D.T. 1971. MuteSwanflocks.Wildfowl22:71-88.1970Bloch,D.1970. Knopsvanen (Cygnusolor)somkolonifugli Danmark. [The MuteSwanCygnusolorbreedingincolonyinDenmark.] Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.64:152-161.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Brooke,M.deL. 1970.SomeaspectsofMuteSwanmovement andmortality.CambridgeBirdClubRept.44:44-47.Gelston,W.L. 1970 ms. ApreliminaryreportontheTraverseCityMuteSwanflock.Mich.Dept.Nat.Resourc.,Lansing,MI. (Mimeo).42

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Hald-MortensentP.1970. Knopsvanen. [MuteSwans.]Feltornithologen12:73-76.[InDanish.]1969 Chang t P. W't M.C.PerryandV.Jasty.1969. Fibromaina Mute Swan.J.Am.Vet.Med.Assoc.155: 1039. Kraus t M.andA.Gauckler.1969. ZurAusbreitungdesHockerschwans (Cygnusolor)inNordbayern.[ThebreedingpopulationofMute SwansinnorthernBavaria.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges.Bayern8:452-462.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary. ]Perrins,C.M.1969. MuteSwan'smethodofdisposingofbrokenegg.Brit.Birds62:383.Reese,J.G.1969. Mute SwansbreedinginTalbotCounty,Maryland.Md.Birdlife25:14-16.Yates,V. J't L.T.Miller,V.Jasty,C.H.WilleyandM.Holtzinger.1969.WebnecrosisinMuteSwans---areportofanoutbreak.Bull.Wildl.Dis.Assoc.5:33-34.1968Berndt,R.1968.vogelrauber.Der Hockerschwan (Cygnusolor)alsGeleplundermrundJungIntern.RatVogelschutzSektion8:51-52.[InGerman.] Jogit A.1968. [ThepresentdistributionoftheMuteSwanintheEstonianS.S.R.]Communs.BalticCommissoStudyBirdMigr.5:74-79.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Minton,C.D.T. 1968.PairingandbreedingofMute Swans.Wildfowl19:41-60.Munro,R.E.,L.T.SmithandJ.J.Kupa. 1968. ThegeneticbasisofcolordifferencesobservedintheMuteSwan(Cygnusolor).Auk85:504-505.Willey,C.H.1968a.The ecologYt distributionandabundanceoftheMuteSwan(Cygnusolor)inRhodeIsland.M.S.thesis,Univ. Island/KingstontRI.93pp.1968b.TheecologicalsignificanceoftheMuteSwaninRhodeIsland.Proc.N.E.Fish&Wildl.Conf.23pp.1967 Harrisont J.G.andM.A.Ogilvie.1967.Immigrant Mute Swansinsouth-eastEngland.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:85-87. Jensent F. 1967. Knopsvanen (Cygnusolor)somynglefuglvedBognaes. [The MuteSwanCygnusolorbreedingatBognaes.]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.61:143-150.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]43

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Ogilvie,M.A.Britain.1967.PopulationchangesandmortalityoftheMuteSwaninWildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:64-73.Perrins,C.M.andC.M.Reynolds.1967. ApreliminarystudyoftheMuteSwanCygnusolor.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:74-84.1966Eltringham,S.K.1966. ThesurvivalofMuteSwancygnets.BirdStudy13:204-207.Halla,B.F. 1966.TheMuteSwaninRhodeIsland.Proc.N.E.Wildl.Conf.,Boston,MA.15pp.Pantfil,J.1966. Labedz niemy w wojewodztwieolstynskim.[The MuteSwanintheOlsztynVoivodship.]Chronm.Przyr.Ojczysta22:66-75,119.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.]Peck,G.K.1966.Firstpublished recordofMuteSwanforOntario.Ont.FieldBioI.20:43.1965Boase,H.1965. MovementsoftheMuteSwaninEastScotland.Scott.Birds3:301-310.Mathiasson,S. 1965.Preliminarrapportoverringmarkningsstudieravruggandeknopsvanar,Cygnusolor,iSverige.GoteborgNat.Hist.Mus. Yrbk.1965:24-29.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Reynolds,C.M.1965.ThesurvivalofMuteSwancygnets.BirdStudy12:128-129.1963Berglund,B.E.,K.Curry-Lindahl,H.Luther,V.Ollson,W.Rodhe andG.Sellerberg.1963.EcologicalstudiesontheMuteSwan(Cygnusolor)insoutheasternSweden. ActaVert.2:161-288.Eltringham,S.K.1963.TheBritishpopulationoftheMuteSwanin1961.BirdStudy10:10-28.Ollson,V.1963.EcologicalstudiesontheMute Swan.VIII.NutritionalbiologyoftheMuteSwaninValdemarsuikeninSmaland andOstergotland.ActaVert.2:256-264.1962King,B.1962.RawmeatasafoodforMute Swans. WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.13:171.44

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1960Bruun,B.1960.DeyngleendeKnopenvaners(CygnusolorGm.)fordelingmellumKystenoginlandeti Danmark1935-1959.[DistributionoftheMuteSwan(Cygnusolor(Gm.alongthecoastandintheinteriorofDenmark19351959.]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.54:77-84.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Campbell,B.1960.The MuteSwancensusinEnglandand Wales1955-56.BirdStudy7:208-223.Sokolowski,J.1960.The MuteSwaninPoland.StateCouncilConservationNature(Warsaw)1:1-28.1959Boase,H.1959.Notesonthedisplay,nestingandmoultoftheMute Swan.Brit.Birds52:114-123.1957Ticehurst,N.F.1957.The Mute SwaninEngland.Cleaver-HumePress,London.xivand 133pp.Zajac,R.1957.Zbadennadlabedziemniemym (CygnusolorGmel.)w wojewodztwieszczecinskim.[InvestigationsontheMute Swan (CygnusolorGmel.)intheSzczecinVoivodship.]Przyr.Pol.Zach.1:139-146.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.] 1956Gillham,M.E.1956.FeedinghabitsandseasonalmovementsofMute SwansontwoSouthDevonestuaries.BirdStudy3:205-212.Lawrence,L.deK.1956.ThefollowingreactioninabroodofMute Swans.Auk73:268.1954Staebler,A.E.1954.Mute Swan (Cygnusolor)observeddiving.Auk71:90.1951Harle,D.F.1951.Mute Swansfeedingonstandingoats.Brit.Birds44:287-288.1950Ellis,J.C.S.1950.Aggressivebehaviourofa Mute Swan.Brit.Birds43:125-126.45

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Jones,N.G.B.andR.A.F.Gillmor.1950.GreetingceremonyofMute Swan.Brit.Birds42:303.Marshall,R.V.A.1950.LargebroodofMute Swans.Brit.Birds42:19.Murphy,J.H.1950.BathingbehaviourofMute Swans.Brit.Birds42:303.1949Tebbutt,C.F.1949. MuteSwan'smethodofbreakingice.Brit.Birds42:249.1948 Hulme,D.C.1948. MuteSwaneatingdeadfish.Brit.Birds41:121.Rayner,M.1948.ReliefdisplayofMute Swan.Brit.Birds41:389.1947Huxley,J.S. 1947.DisplayoftheMuteSwan.Brit.Birds40:130-134.May,D.J.1947.NotesonthewinterterritoryofapairofMute Swans.Brit.Birds40:326-327.1946Thorn,A.S. 1946.CoitionofMuteSwanonland.Brit.Birds39:182.1944Bourdillion,B.H.1944. ThecolorationofMute Swans.Ibis86:412.Irwin,M.J.W.1944.EarlynestingoftheMute Swan.Brit.Birds38:349-351.1936 Dewar,J.M.1936. Menage atroisina Mute Swan.Brit.Birds30:178-179.1935 Howard,W.J.H.1935.NotesonthenestingofcaptiveMute Swans.WilsonBull.47:237-238.Patrick,R.W.1935. Mute Swansattackingbullock.Brit.Birds29:116.1931 Watson,J.B.1931.Mute Swanseatingfish.Brit.Birds24:367-368.1922Crosby,M.S.1922.Mute Swans ontheHudson.Auk39:100.46

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WHISTLINGSWAN(Olorcolumbianus)[DA:Pibesvane,FR:Cygnesiffleur,GE:Pfeifschwan,IT:Cignominore,po:Labedzczarnodzioby,SP:Cisnesilbador,Cisnechiflador,Ansarcaretogrande]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaWhistlingSwansbreedcoastallyinAlaskaandeastwardacrossnorthernCanadaeasttosouthwesternBaffinIsland,islandsinnorth-ernHudson Bay, andthenortheastcoastofHudson Bay.InthewesttheybreedsouthasfarasKodiakIslandoffAlaskaandintheeastbreedsouthasfarasBelcherIslandinsoutheasternHudson Bay(Delacour1954,AOU1957,Heylandetal.1970,Palmer1976a).TheywinterchieflyalongthePacificcoastfromBritishColumbia,Washington,andOregon,andoccasionallyintheAleutianIslands,Alaska,southtoCalifornia,andtheyoccasionallyreachnorthernBajaCalifornia.AlongtheAtlanticseaboard(Map1),theywinterprincipallyfrom Maryland(ChesapeakeBay)southtoNorthCarolina(CurrituckSound),andoccurrarelynorthtotheMaritimes,Maine,and LongIsland,andsouthtoFloridaandtheGulfcoastsofTexas andLouisiana.Inmigrationtheyoccuronlargebodiesofwaterthroughouttheinteriorstates,includingtheGreatBasin(AOU1957,Palmer1976a).WorldDistributionWhistlingSwansbreedentirelywithinArctictundrahabitatsofNorthAmerica,althoughKistchinskietal.(1975)reportedbreedinginSiberia.TheyhavebeenreportedfromAnadyrlandinwesternU.S.S.R.(Portenko1939inPalmer1976a) andquestionablyfromScotland(AOU1957).WinterstragglershavebeenreportedfromMexico,Bermuda, Cuba, andPuertoRico(AOU1957,Palmer1976a),Japan,andpossiblyEngland(EvansandSladen1980).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESInwinter,WhistlingSwansareverycommononthenorthernedgeofourarea,andareuncommontocasualthroughouttherestofthesoutheast(Map1).Numbers andthewinteringrangemaybeincreasing.Taxonomicnote:TheWhistlingSwanistheNorthAmerican memberofaHolarctic,tundra-breedingsuperspeciesofswanswhichincludesthePalearcticBewick'sSwan,Olorbewickii.Palmer(1976a)and Cramp etal.(1977) took theviewthattheseformsareconspecific.TheyalsofollowedDelacour(1954)andJohnsgard(1975,1978)inmergingthegenusOlorintoCygnus.WefollowtheAOU(1957)inretainingOlorandtreatingtheWhistlingSwanasadistinctNorthAmericanspecies,althoughmergingthetwoformsasasinglespecies,theTundraSwan,willprobablybemoregenerallyacceptedinthefuture.Wehaveincludeda numberofrecenttitlesregardingthePalearcticswansinthebibliographysincethedataobtainedonthesebirdsmaywellberelevanttotheNorthAmericanswan.47

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WHISTLINGSWANGULFOFMEXtCOsHOUSTON Xi AEWinterDistributionMapforSoutheasternUnitedStatesDALLAS
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NorthCarolinaWhistlingSwansareabundantwinterresidentsofextremenortheasternNorthCarolina.They mayarrive as earlyasearlyOctober,andanoccasionalbirdwilllingeruntilMay. TheprincipalwinteringareasareLakeMattamuskeet,HydeCounty,and PeaIsland,DareCounty.ThepopulationwinteringatLakeMattamuskeetincreasedfrom10,500in1970-71(Teulings1971a)toover25,000in1976-77(Teulings1977a).Wedonotknowhowmuch thisincreaserepresentedtruepopulationgrowthandhowmuch was duetodisplacementofbirdsthatpreviouslywinteredinChesapeakeBay.Bellrose(1976)reportedthatanaverageof14,000winteredfrom Back Bay,Virginia,toLakeMattamuskeetandPamlicoSoundinNorthCarolina.Thewintersurveyof1975(Goldsberryetal.1980)reportedawinteringpopulationof26,900inNorthCarolina;thisrepresentsabout22%ofthetotal(ca.120,900)recordedonthesurveyofNorthAmericanwaterfowl.ElsewhereinNorthCarolina,WhistlingSwansareregularinsmallnumbersalongthecoastandrareinland,althoughinlandrecordsareincreasing.SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)calledWhistlingSwansrarewinterresidentsthatoccurgenerallyalongthecoast;theylisteddatesofoccurrencefrom22Octoberto2April.Burton(1970)addedfiverecordsfromthe1960's.In1971-72,severalhundredmovedsouthfromNorthCarolinaforthewinter(Teulings1972b) andsincethentheseswanshavebeenseenregularlyinsmallbutincreasingnumbers.Cely(1979)madeaerialsurveysofwinteringpopulationsinSouthCarolinaduring1976-77 and 1977-78 and foundabout100birdseachwinter.Maximumconcentrationsfound wereatHuntingtonBeachStatePark(15birds),SouthIslandRefuge,Georgetown County(28),Bull'sIsland(30),and SavannahNWR(25).CelynotedthattheseswansalsoconcentrateatDoeHallPlantation,CharlestonCounty.Asmanyas30 swanshavebeenreportedthere.HealsosuggestedthatthewinteringpopulationinSouthCarolinamightbeashighas120birdsifthoseoverlookedduringthesurveyandthosefrominlandlocalitieswereincluded.Welistbelowcoastalrecordssince1970 from AmericanBirds.1971 2Jan.individualsseenCharlestonTeulings1971b 9Jan.1971-winter721971-winter7219736-9Nov. 2seen"many morethanusual""upto75present"1 foundTrentonCharlestonDoeHallPlantation,McClellanvilleParPond, SavannahRiverAtomicReserv.,nearAiken(inland)Teulings1971bTeulings1972bTeulings1972bTeulings1974a 197721Jan.individualseenHuntingtonBeachSt.Park49 LeGrand 1977a

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197715-19Feb.individualsseenSanteeNWRLeGrand 1977a 1978 12Feb.15seenSavannahNWRLeGrand 1978GeorgiaBurleigh(1958)regardedWhistlingSwansasraretransientsandwintervisitors,listingbuteightrecords.Dentonetal.(1977)consideredthemrarewintervisitorsthroughoutGeorgiaandlisteddatesofoccurrencefrom 13 Novemberto17April.Since1970theyhavebeenregularinsmallnumbersinlandandalongthecoast.1971 2nd weekJan.1974-winter751975 30 Nov.1975-winter76 1979 6 Dec.1978-winter791979Jan.-Feb.2seen"afew"9seen" some" 1seen7seenthroughout1seenRoswellSavannah,Dalton,and MaconGainesville,Ga.(inland)Savannah,Sylvania,Thomaston,AtlantaOkefenokeeNWRAugusta(inland)Eufaula(inland)Teulings1971 bTeulings1975bTeulings1976aTeulings1976b .LeGrand 1977a LeGrand 1979b LeGrand 1979bFloridaWhistlingSwansarerareonbothcoastsofFlorida(Kale1979ms a, 1979msb).Ofthe14recordsofWhistlingSwansinFloridalistedthrough1955 bySprunt (1954,1963), mostarefromtheGulfsideofthestate,andsevenofthem fromSt.MarksNWR.Since1970therehavebeenseveralrecordsinvolvingoneora fewbirds;theserecordsaremostlyfromthepanhandleandnorthernpeninsula.1969 1 Dec. 1seenPanaceaStevenson.19701969-winter3seenTallahasseeStevenson19707019729Jan.1seennearLanarkStevenson1972 197321-23Dec. 2seennearTitusvilleStevenson1974 1974lateNov. 2seenMosquito LagoonEdscorn197550

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197422Dec. 2seenGuana LakeRefuge,St.John'sCo.Stevenson1975 19763Dec. 1976 9 Dec. 197614-25Dec. 1977 29Jan.-28Feb.1977-31Dec.78 1Jan.1977-12Dec.-78 26Feb.1seen1seen1seen1seen1seen1seennearSt.Mark'sLightSt.JoeSt.ParkMcKayBayTarponSpringsnearLakelandnearSt.Mark'sLightStevenson1977Hamilton1977Stevenson1977Stevenson1977Stevenson1978Stevenson1978 Alabama TheWhistlingSwanisrareinwinterandduringmigrationintheTennesseeValleyregionofAlabama (Imhof1976b).TheseswanswinteralmostannuallyatWheelerNWR,inLimestoneand Morgancounties.Atleast47winteredtherein1978-79(Hamilton1979).Whistling Swans arecasualelsewhereinthestate.Howell(1928)statedthatswans,presumablythisspecies,wererarewintervisitorsinMississippiSound.Weknowofonlythreecoastalrecordsforwhichmoredetailedinformationisavailable.1916earlyDec. 1964 26 Dec. 197614-17Dec. 1seen1seen5ad.,2imm.seenMobileMobileCBCFoley,Baldwin Co. Imhof1976b,Howell 1928 Imhof1976b,Dorn 1965Hamilton1977DatesofoccurrencewithinAlabamarangefrom 25Octoberto25 March(Imhof1976b).MississippiWhistlingSwansoccurinMississippiasrareandirregularwintervisitors.Burleigh(1944)mentionedno'recordsfromthecoastandonlyoneofseveralrecentsightingswascoastal;accordingtoHamilton(1979),thiswasthefirstrecordfromthecoastofMississippi.1974-12Dec.-7513Jan. 26Jan.-9 Mar.1976-16Dec.-77 22Jan. 5, 3seen1 innn.seen5 mi WTunicaNoxubeeNWR51Hamilton1975Hamilton1977

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1976771977 1978 1978 1978 24Mar.3Apr.24 Nov. 3Jan.25 Nov. 30 Dec. 2seen1ad.seen1seen2seen4seenNoxubeeNWRNoxubeeNWRLakeWashingtonPearlRiverWaterfowlRefuge S. Hancock Co.CBCWeber andJackson1977 Weber andJackson1978JacksonandCooley1978aJacksonandCooley1978aHamilton1979LouisianaLowery(1974)notedlessthantwodozen"positive"identificationsofWhistlingSwansinLouisiana,and commentedthattheseswansarerarerthaninthe.past.Therewasaninfluxinthewinterof1976-77;nineindividualswerereportedatfivelocalities(Hamilton1977).Recordsextendfrom15Novemberthroughmid-February(Lowery1974).TexasOberholser(1974)listedWhistlingSwansaslocallyscarcetorareinTexas,occurringbetween September andApril;extremesareAugust and3May, andthereisa summerrecordforDallasCounty.Priorto1900,swansapparentlywerecommonthroughoutthestate.Theyarenowlocallyscarcetorarebothinlandandalongthecoast(Oberholser1974).Recentrecordsareasfollows:1969 18 Dec. 1969 Dec. 1970Jan.-Feb.1970 28 Dec.1971-winter72197514-28Mar. 1977Nov.-Dec.1977earlyDec. 4seeninflight"afew"seenupto12 1seen4seen4seen6seen1imm.seenPortIsabelWebster1970GalvestonBayareaWebster1970 CorpusChristi-Webster1970RockvilleareabetweenBrownsvilleWebster1971 andPortIsabelSheldonReservoir,Webster1972nearHouston.HolidayBeach,RockportWebster1975a Chambers Co.Webster1978b RanchoSantaMargarita,Webster1978bStarrCo.(inland)SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingWhistlingSwansbreedinArcticNorthAmerica,fromwesternAlaskatoBaffinIsland.Thebreedingpopulationconsistedofabout90,000adults52

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(60,000inAlaska)intheearly1970's 1976).WinterTheU.S.winteringpopulationwasbelievedtobeabout123,000birds(the90,000breedingbirds,plusjuvenilesandsubadults)duringtheearly1970's.About55,000ofthesewinteredintheeast,ofwhich40,000wereinChesapeakeBay(Bellrose1976).The 1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980)reportedabout120,900WhistlingSwans.About45%ofthesewereinthePacificFlyway,andalmostalltherestwerefoundinthe-AtlanticFlyway. ThegreatpreponderanceofthosewinteringinthesoutheasternstateswerefoundinNorthCarolina,whichharboredaboutonethirdofthepopulationwinteringalongtheAtlanticseaboard.OnlyCalifornia(ca.46,000)andMaryland(36,400)hadlargerwinteringpopulations.MigrationTheAthabascaDeltaisamajorfallstagingareaforswansfromwesternandnorthernAlaskaandfrommuchoftheCanadianbreedingrange.Fromthere,manybirdsmovesouthwestthroughMontana andUtahtowinteringareasinthewest.MostofthebirdswinteringontheAtlanticcoastalsogatherintheAthabascaDeltabutflyeast-southeastthroughManitoba,NorthDakota,andtheGreatLakesStatestotheChesapeakeBayarea(Bellrose1976).InChesapeakeBay,fallmigrantscontinuetoarriveduringDecemberandreachpeaknumbersinJanuary(Bellrose1976).ThespringdepartureforWhistlingSwanswinteringintheeastbeginsinearlyormid-March,andmigrationcontinuesthroughApril(Bellrose1976,Palmer.1976a).A few maydepartasearlyaslateFebruaryoraslateasearlyMay(Palmer1976b).HABITATNestingThroughoutitsbreedingrangeinNorthAmericatheWhistlingSwanisassociated with Arctictundra.Nestsitesaretypicallywidelydispersedoverthetundra,andsmallislandsintundrapoolsarepreferrednestingsites.Othernestsarefoundelsewhereinthetundra,sometimeswellremoved fromwater(Palmer1976a,Bellrose1976).Lensink(inBellrose1976)estimatedthatabouthalftheswannestsincoastalareasoftheYukonDeltawereontheshoresoflakesorpondswithin60ft(18m)ofwater.Some30%oftheremainderwere,onsmallislandsorpointsinlakes;therestwereinavarietyofsituations,suchasheathtundra,marshes,ortidalmeadows.Inthelatter,theswansfrequentlynestedonelevatedhummocks,andnestswerelesscommoninlevelareas.WhistlingSwansareusuallyabsentfromthebareareasof'thePre-CambrianShieldincentralandeasternCanada(Johnsgard1975).FeedingDetailedstudiesoffeedinghabitat,atleastintheeast,havenotbeenmade.SwanswinteringinChesapeakeBaypreferbrackishestuarinebays,buttheyhavebeenfoundfeedinginCaliforniainbothdryandfloodedfields(Bellrose1976).Duringtheearly1970's,swanswinteringintheChesapeakeBayareafedlessinaquatichabitatsandbegantofeedregularlyinfieldsofwastecorn (Zeal, soybeans(Glycine),andshootsofwinterwheat(Triticum)ontheMarylandEasternShore;theycommonlyflewasmuchas10-15mi(16-24kIn)inlandtofeedthere CBellrose 1976).WinterWinteringbirdspreferlarge,shallowexpansesoffreshandbrack-53

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ishwaterandoccurinfrequentlyinsaltwater(Palmer1976a).InChesapeakeBay,theseswanspreferredopen,extensiveareasofbrackishestuarinewaterno more 5ft(1.5m)deep(Stewartand Manning1958,Stewart1962).DuringJanuary,WhistlingSwansusedbrackishestuarinebays76%ofthetime,saltestuarinebays9%,freshestuarinebays8%,andslightlybrackishestuarinebays6%.Otherhabitats(ca.1%)usedincludedcoastalimpoundmentsandfreshandestuarinemarshes.Fresh-waterareaswereusedprimarilybyearlyfallarrivals(Stewart1962).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIOR .Theseswansnormallydiptheirheadsandnecksintothewatertofeedonbottomvegetation;whenfeedingindeeperwaterstheymaytipuptoseizesubmergedfoods(Bellrose1976).InterrestrialsituationsWhistlingSwans maybothgrubandgraze(Palmer1976a)andmaybrowseonshoregrasses(Gilmer1974) Foodhabitsonthebreedinggroundsarelargelyunknown,butinmigrationandonthewinteringgroundsWhistlingSwansusuallyfeedextensivelyonaquaticplants(Johnsgard1975,1978).StewartandManning(1958)analyzed49stomachsofbirdswinteringonChesapeakeBay. They foundthat100%ofthedietinfreshestuarinewatersconsistedofsubmergedaquaticplants.Inbrackishwatersandestuarinemarshpondstheseplantsformed60%and49%ofthediet,respectively.IntheChesapeakeBayregionwildcelery(Valisneriaspiralis)wasan"all-important"itemofdietinfreshestuarineareasbutwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima),sagopondweed(Potamogetonpectinatus),andtwobivalvemolluscs(longclam[Myaarenaria]andBalticmacoma[Macomabalthica])werethemostimportantfoodswhenallfeedinghabitatswereconsidered(StewartandManning1958).Otherplantseatenintheeastincludefoxtailgrass(Alopecurus),pondweeds(Potamogetonspp.),squarestemspikerush(Eleocharisquadrangulata),arrowhead(Sagittaria)andcoontail(Ceratophyllumdemersum)(Palmer1976a)Wehavefoundlittleinformationonthedietofbirdswinteringinthesoutheasternstates.PresumablytheyfeedonmuchthesamefoodsasinChesapeakeBay.Cely(1979)suggestedthattheprincipalfoodsinSouthCarolinawerewidgeongrassandmuskgrass(Charasp.).Inthewinterof1969-70,swansforagedinfieldsonthewinteringgroundsnearChesapeakeBaytoa muchgreaterextentthanformerly;wedonotknowwhetherthistrendcontinuednorhow portantwastegrainmaybeinthedietofWhistlingSwanswinteringinthesoutheast.Johnsgard(1975),Bellrose(1976),andPalmer(1976a)summarizedwhatlittleisknownoffoodhabitselsewhereinNorthAmerica.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingTimeoflayingatanyparticularlocalitymayvaryconsiderablyfromyeartoyear(Palmer1976a)butisusuallyremarkablysynchronouswithinanygivenseason(Bellrose1976).EgglayingusuallybeginsinlateMayorearlyJune(Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976a)andinsomeareasnestswitheggshavebeenfoundaslateasmid-July(Palmer1976a).54

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MeanClutchSizeClutchsizevarieswiththetimingoftheseason;itislowerinlateseasons.Inastudyof354nestsfrom1963-71ontheYukon Delta,Alaska, Lensink(1973inBellrose1976)foundanaverageclutchsizeof4.26eggs.Averageclutchsizevariedfrom3.3inalateseasontoabout5inanearlyseason.IncubationPeriodThemostaccuratefigurefortheincubationperiodoftheWhistlingSwaninthewildisbasedonasingleinstanceinwhichthelasteggofaclutchhatchedaftera31-dayinterval.Inanotherinstance,incubationtookabout32days(LensinkinBellrose1976).HatchingSuccessWefoundnoprecisefiguresforhatchingsuccessexpressedastheproportionofeggslaidthathatched.Lensink(inBellrose1976)thoughtthatnestingsuccess--consideredastheproportionofnestsinwhichatleastoneegghatches--wasveryhighontheYukonDelta;hebelievedthatatleastsomeeggshatchedinover90%ofthenests.Bellrose(1976)suggestedthatperhapsoneeggoftheaverageclutchfailsto hatch, basinghisremarksonaverageclutchsizeandthesizeofbroodsseeninJuneandJuly.FledgingSuccessNodefinitedataareavailable.Bellrose(1976)presenteddataindicatingthatproductionofyoungislow.,Ontheotherhand,adultsaccompaniedbyyoungtendtohavetwoormore(Bellrose1976),suggestingahighsuccessforsomeclutchesandthecompletelossofothers.AgeatFledgingBellrose(1976)suggestedthatmostcygnetsprobablyflyat60to70days,butnotedthatsomemightneed75days.AgeatFirstBreedingLensink(inBellrose1976)suggestedthatfewbirdsbreedbeforetheirthird summer, andthatmostprobablyfirstbreedwhenolder.MortalityofEggsandYoungPalmer(1976a)consideredegg-gatheringbyEskimosandIndiansasignificantmortalityfactorinsomeareas.Lensink(inBellrose1976)notednestdestructionbygullsandfoxes.--Earlyfreezingofwaterinfallaccountedforsome 3-5%ofpre-fledgingmortalityinyoung fromtheMackenzie-AndersonRiverDeltaarea.Inotherareas,freezingwasreportedasanoccasionalsourceofmajormortality(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).RenestingSwansoccasionallylayrepeatclutchesifnestsarelostearlyinthenestingcycle,butthechancesofnorthernswansdoingthis-successfullyinthewildareconsideredpoorbecauseoftheshortnestingseason(KearinScott1972).--MaximumNaturalLongevityAbirdbandedontheAndersonRiverDelta,NorthwestTerritories,attainedanageof16 years and2months(Clappetal.inpress).WeightMeanweightof42adultmaleswasabout16lb(7,260g)and63adultfemalesaveraged13.9lb(6,300g).The meanweightofadultswinteringinUtahwas17.3lb (7,850 g) and thatofimmatureswas13.3lb (6,030 g)(Bellrose1976).55

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SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWinteringWhistlingSwansnormallyrestonthewateratnightinprotected inlet's, estuaries,andlakes.Theyareveryvulnerabletooilinginthesewaters,andprobablyare more likelytobeaffectedbyspillsat supportfacilitiesthanbyoffshoredrillingaccidents.Perryetale(1979)estimatedthat385WhistlingSwansdiedasaresultoftwooilspillsinChesapeakeBayin1976and1978.King andSanger's(1979)studyofthevulnerabilityofmarinebirdsinthenortheasternPacificsuggestedthatthereshouldbehighconcernforWhistlingSwansregardingpotentialilleffectsfromdevelopmentofpetroleumresources.Amonganatidsonlythesea-ducks,BlackBrant,andEmperor Goosewereconsideredmorevulnerable.ConcernfortheeffectsofoilonthisspeciesshouldalsobehighforpopulationswinteringinNorthCarolina;sofewbirdswinterelsewhereinthesoutheastthatoilpollutionelsewhereshouldhavelittleeffectonthetotalpopulation.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Bateson,P.,W.LotwickandD.K.Scott.1980.SimilaritiesbetweenthefacesofparentsandoffspringinBewick'sSwansandthedifferencesbetweenmates.J.Zool.(Lond.)191:61-74.Evans,M.E.1980.TheeffectsofexperienceandbreedingstatusontheuseofawinteringsitebyBewick'sSwans Cygnusco1umbianusbewickii.Ibis122:287-297.Evans,M.E.andW.J.L.Sladen.1980.AcomparativeanalysisofthebillmarkingsofWhistlingandBewick'sSwansandout-of-rangeoccurrencesofthetwotaxa.Auk97:697-703.1979Cely,J.H.1979.AsurveyofWhistlingSwansalongtheSouthCarolinacoast.Chat43:93.Damare,J.M.,D.Hussong,R.M.WeinerandR.R.Colwell.1979.AerobicandfacultativelyanaerobicbacteriaassociatedwiththegutofCanadaGeese(Brantacanadensis)andWhistlingSwans(Cygnuscolumbianusco1umbianus).Appl.Environ.Microbiol.38:258-266.Evans,M.E.1979a.Populationcomposition,andreturnaccordingtobreedingstatusofBewick'sSwanswinteringatSlimbridge,1963to1976.Wildfowl30:118-128.1979b.AspectsofthelifecycleoftheBewick'sSwan,basedonrecog----nitionofindividualsatawintering site. BirdStudy26:149-162.56

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Evans,M.E.1979c.TheeffectsofweatheronthewinteringofBewick'sSwans CygnuscolumbianusbewickiiatSlimbridge,Gloucestershire,England.OrnisScand.10:124-132.Hussong,D.,J.M.Damare,R.J.Limpert,J.L.Sladen,R.M.Weiner andR.R.Colwell.1979.MicrobialimpactofCanada Geese(Brantacanadensis)andWhistlingSwans (Cygnuscolumbianuscolumbianus)onaquaticecosystems.Appl.Environ.Microbiol.37:14-20.1978Evans,M.E.1978.SomefactorsinfluencingtheuseofawinteringsitebyBewick'sSwans,studiesthroughindividualrecognition.M.S.thesis,Univ.ofWales/Cardiff,Wales.Evans,M.E. andJ.Kear.1978.WeightsandmeasurementsofBewick'sSwansduringwinter.Wildfowl29:118-122.Kappa,B.1978.WhistlingSwaninSullivanCounty.Migrant49:82.Lina,P.H.C. andH.D.VanderLaan.1978.WaarnemingvaneenKleineZwaanCygnusbewickiimetrodepoten.[ObservationofaBewick'sSwanCygnusbewickiiwithredlegs.]Limosa51:167.[InDutch.]Seegar,W.S. 1978.Prevalenceofheartworm, Sarcqnema eurycerca,Wehr, 1939,(Nematoda),inWhistlingSwan, Cygnuscolumbianuscolumbianus.Can.J.Zool.56: 1500-1502.Scott,D.K.1978.SocialbehaviourofwinteringBewick'sSwans. Ph.D.thesis,Univ.ofCambridge/Cambridge,England.1977 Brown,J.andV.Lewis.1977.AlaboratorystudyofindividualrecognitionusingBewick'sSwanbillpatterns.Wildfowl28: 159-162..Evans,M.E.Swans.1977a.NotesonthebreedingbehaviourofcaptiveWhistling 28:107-112. 1977b.RecognizingindividualBewick'sSwansbybillpattern.Wild----fowl28:153-158.Gaul,R.W.1977.Aphrodite'sGhost.TheSwaninNorthCarolina.Conclusion.Wildl.N.C. 41:20-21.Merne,o.J.1977.ThechangingstatusanddistributionoftheBewick'sSwaninIreland.IrishBirds1:3-15.Mullie,W.C.andE.P.R.Poorter.1977.Aantallen,verspreidingenterreinkeusvandeKleineZwaanbijvijelandelijketellingenin1976en1977.[Census,distributionandhabitatselectionofBewick'sSwaninfivecountry-widecensusesin1976 and1977.]Watervogels2:85-96.[InDutch.] 57

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Scott,D.1977.BreedingbehaviourofwildWhistlingSwans.Wildfowl28:101-106.Seegar,W.S.1977.Thelifecycleandepizootiologyoftheheartworm,Sarconemaeurycerca,intheWhistlingSwan.Ph.D.thesis,JohnsHopkinsUniv./Baltimore,MD.Sladen,W.J.L.andA.A.Kistchinski.1977.SomeresultsfromcircumpolarmarkingprogramsonnorthernSwans andSnowGeese.Pp. 498-507inProc.13thCongr.GameBioI.,Atlanta,GA.1976Nelson,C.H.1976.Akeytodownycygnetswithanalysisofplumagecharacters.WilsonBull.88:4-15.1975Barry,T.W.andJ.Kear.1975.Abibliographyoftheswans.Can.Wildl.Serve & WildfowlTrust.iiand181pp.Evans,M.E.1975.BreedingbehaviourofcaptiveBewick'sSwans.Wildfowl26:117-130.Irwin,J.C.Ontario.1975.MortalityfactorsinWhistlingSwansatLakeSt.Clair,J.Wildl.Dis.11:8-12.Kistchinski,A.A.,R.I.ZlotinandV.E.Flint.1975.WhistlingSwan (Cygnuscolumbianus)intheU.S.S.R.]1528.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] [ThebreedingoftheZool.Zh.54:1525-Lebret,T.andW.C.Mullie.1975.DeKleineZwaan CygnusbewickiopWalchereneneldersinZeeland.[TheBewick'sSwanCygnusbewickionWalcherenandelsewhereinZeeland.]Limosa48:50-59.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] Lumsden,H.G.1975.TheWhistlingSwaninJames BayandthesouthernregionofHudson Bay.Arctic28:194-200.[InEnglishwithFrenchandRussiansummaries.] Owen,M.andC.J.Cadbury.Ouse Washes,England.1975.TheecologyandmortalityofswansattheWildfowl26:31-42.1974Bailey,R.o.andB.D.J.Batt.1974.HierarchyofwaterfowlfeedingwithWhistlingSwans.Auk91:488-493.Gauthraux,S.A.,Jr.(ed.)1974.Proceedingsofaconferenceonthebiologicalaspectsofthebird/aircraftcollisionproblem.5-7February1974.Dept.ofZoology,ClemsonUniv./Clemson,SC.535pp.(mimeo).Gilmer,D.S.1974.Swansrestingonthesurfaceofadrylake.PrairieNat.6:16.58

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Johnsgard,P.A.1974. The andrelationshipsofthenorthernswans.Wildfowl25:155-161.Mary-Rousseliere,G.andJ.E.Heland.1974. TheWhistlingSwannestinginnorthernBaffinIsland,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Field-Nat.88:99.Ruttledge,R.F. 1974.WinterdistributionofWhooper andBewick'sSwansinIreland.BirdStudy21:141-145.1973Evans,M.E.and T.LeBret.1973.LeucisticBewick'sSwans.Wildfowl24:61-62.Evans,M.E.,N.A.Wood,andJ.Kear.1973. LeadshotinBewick'sSwans.Wildfowl24:56-60.Gunn,W.W.H.1973.EnvironmentalstressontheWhistlingSwan.Wildfowl24:5-7.King,J.G.1973.TheuseofsmallairplanestogatherswandatainAlaska.Wildfowl24:15-20.Lensink,C.J.1973.PopulationstructureandproductivityofWhistlingSwans ontheYukonDelta,Alaska.Wildfowl24:21-25.Sladen,W.J.L. 1973. AcontinentalstudyofWhistlingSwansusingneckcollars.Wildfowl24:8-14.1970Heyland,J.D.,E.B.Chamberlain,C.F.KimballandD.H.Baldwin.1970.WhistlingSwansbreedingonthenorthwestcoastofNewQuebec. Can.Field-Nat.84:398-399.1969Ogilvie,M.A.1969.Bewick'sSwansinBritainandIrelandduring1956-69.Brit.Birds62:505-522.Sladen,W.J.L. andW.W. 1969.StudiesoftheWhistlingSwan,1967-68.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Nat.Resour.Conf.34:42-50.1968Dixon,N.B.1968.WhistlingSwanswinteringin'centralOklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.1:10-11.Holden,B.L. andW.J.L.Sladen.1968.Heartworm, Sarconemaeurycerca,infectioninWhistlingSwans, Cygnuscolumbianus,intheChesapeakeBay.Bull.Wildl.Dis.Assoc.4:126-128.59

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jPakulak,A.S. andD.L.Littlefield.1968 ms.BreedingstatusofWhistlingSwansinnorthernManitoba.ManitobaDept.Mines,Resourc.,Environ.Manage. 1966Scott,P.1966.TheBewick'sSwanatSlimbridge.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.17:20-26.Tate,D.J.R.1966. MorphometricageandsexvariationintheWhistlingSwan,Olorcolumbianus.M.S.thesis,Univ.Nebraska/Lincoln,NE.1965Bartonek,J.C.1965.SwansinManitoba.Somesummer andmigrationobservationsonWhistlingCan.Field-Nat.79:217-218.Nagel,J.1965.FieldfeedingofWhistlingSwansinnorthernUtah.Condor 67:446-447.Post, W., Jr.1965.WhistlingSwanatBarnwell,SouthCarolina.Chat 29:52.Trainer,P.o.andR.A.Hunt. 1965. LeadpoisoningofWhistlingSwansinWisconsin.AvianDis.9:252-263.1963Geroudet,P.1963.RetourdesCygnesdeBewicksurLeLeman.NosOiseaux27:181-182.Sermet,E. 1963. Des CygnesdeBewick a Yverdon.NosOiseaux27: 181. 1962Geroudet,P.1962.L'hivernagedesCygnusbewickisurLeLemansavoyard.NosOiseaux26:317-319.1960Nero,R.W.1960. ArecordofflightaltitudeofWhistlingSwans. BlueJay18:159.Sherwood,G.A.1960.TheWhistlingSwaninthewestwithparticularreferencetoGreatSaltLakeValley,Utah.Condor 62:370-377.Sherwood,G.A.1959.TheWhistlingSwanintheGreatSaltLakeValleyofUtah.M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UT.79pp.60

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1958Atkeson,T. Jr.1958.WhistlingSwanrecordsfromWheelerReservoir.Ala.Birdlife6:11-12.Stewart,R.E. andJ.H.Manning. 1958. SwansintheChesapeakeBayregion.1955DistributionandecologyofWhistlingAuk75:203-212.Nicholson,D.J.1955.WhistlingSwan, Cygnuscolumbianus,killedinOsceolaCounty,Florida.Fla.Nat.28:59.1946Camp,C.L.1946.WhistlingSwans.WoodThrush1:10.1945 Cook,F.W.1945.WhistlingSwanswinterontheSt.Mark'sRefuge.Fla.FieldNat.19: 21.McCulloch,N.,Jr.1945.WhistlingSwansatRaleigh.Chat9:44.1941Kendall,J.B.1941.TheWhistlingSwans onGreenBay.PassengerPigeon3:21-23.1936Sprunt,A.,Jr.1936.TheWhistlingSwaninSouthCarolina.Auk53:204.1932Sprunt,A.,Jr.1932.Somenotesfrom CumberlandIsland,Georgia.Auk49:364.1928 Cobb,S.1928.WhistlingSwanatMartha'sVineyard,Mass.Auk45:93-94.1927 Bowen,W.W.and R.Boulton.1927.WhistlingSwan(Olorcolumbianus)atColdSpringHarbor,LongIsland,N.Y.Auk44: 245. 1926Burtch,V.1926.WhistlingSwanwinteringatBranchport,N.Y.Auk43:229-231.61

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1921Urner.C.A.1921.WhistlingSwan--acorrection.Auk38:273.Wayne.A.T. 1921.SouthCarolina.TheWhistlingSwan(Olorcolumbianus)onthecoastofAuk38:272-273.----Fleming.J.H.1908.atNiagaraFalls.ThedestructionofWhistlingSwans(Olorcolumbianus)Auk25:306-309.62

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WHITE-FRONTEDGOOSE(Anseralbifrons)[DA:Blisgas,DU:Kolgans,EN/US:Specklebelly,White-front,TuleGoose,Speck,LaughingGoose,SpecklebellyBrant;FI:Isokiljuhanhi,FR:Oierieuse,GE:Blassgans,IC:Blesgaes,IT:Ocalombardella,JA: Ma-gan,NW:Tundragas,PO:Gesbialoczelna,PR:Ganso,RU:(WhiteGoose),SP: Gansofrentebianca,Ocasalvaje,Ansarcaretogrande;SW:Blasgas]GENERALDISTRIBITrIONWhite-frontedGeesebreedcircumpolarlyontundraaroundtheshoresoftheArcticOcean,theBeringSea,andBaffinBay. TheynestfromKaninintheeasternU.S.S.R.tothenorthwestcoastofHudson Bay andhaveanisolatedbreedingpopulationinsouthwesternGreenland(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a,Crampetal.1977).Abouttwo-thirdsoftheNorthAmericanbreedingpopulationofapproximately100,000birds(Bellrose1976)isfoundinAlaska;mostoftherestinhabitnorth-centralandnorthwesternCanada(Palmer1976a).ThesegeeseoccurinthesoutheasternstatesprimarilyasmigrantsandwinterresidentsandreachtheirpeakabundancetherealongthecoastsofsouthwesternLousianaand Texas(Map2) whereasmanyas66,000maywinter(Bellrose1976).ThesegeeseareraretocasualalongtheAtlanticseaboardandarescarcelymorecommonalongtheshoresoftheeasternGulf.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONThereislittleinformationondirecteffectsofoilpollutiononWhitefrontedGeese.Mostofsome2,000-2,500geesesoiledwithfueloilintheHollandsDiep,Netherlands,inthewinterof1970-71 wereWhite-frontedGeese,butthenumberthatdiedisunknown (Ouweneel1971).Judgingbothfromreportsonthedirecteffectsofoil on othercloselyrelatedspeciesand from theWhitefrontedGoose'spreferenceforhabitatsinland(Palmer1976a),wesuspectthatthisspeciesisnotespeciallyvulnerabletooiling.Areasofmud-flatsandadjacentmarshareasthatareusedextensivelyforroostingandforagingand whicharelikelytobeoiledareareasinwhichthesegeesewillbemostsusceptible.Insuchareastheresultofoilingprobablywillbeprimarilyindirectmortalitythroughlossoffoodresourcesratherthandirectmortality.BIBLIOGRAPHY1979 Krogman,B.D.1979.AsystematicstudyofAnseralbifronsinCalifornia.Pp.22-43inR.L.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyofPacificFlywaygeese.OregonSt.Univ.Bookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.63

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88" 90 \ 1--1--f GULFOFMEXICOsXIAE More than20(Adapted f,om IVltrak,1974) ( DALLAS WinterDistributionMapforSoutheastern UnUed StatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthanone11111111111111111111111-5I 5-20INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanoneindividual @) None observedT --..... Map2

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Master,T. L. 1979.White-frontedGeeseineasternPennsylvania.Cassinia57:53.Patterson,T.K.1979.White-frontedGeeseseennearDublin.Oriole44:15.Phillippona,J.1979. HetuiteenvallenvanhetfamilieverbandbijdeKolgans.[FamilydisintegrationintheWhite-frontedGoose.]Watervogels4:40-43.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Ruttledge,R.F. andM.A.Ogilvie.1979. ThepastandcurrentstatusoftheGreenlandWhite-frontedGooseinIrelandandBritain.IrishBirds1:293363.Timrn,D.E. andC.P. Dau. 1979.Productivity,mortality,distributionandpopulationstatusofPacificFlywayWhite-frontedGeese.Pp.280-298inR.L.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyofPacificFlywaygeese.OregonSt.Univ.Bookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.1978Gerdes,K.,D.Hess andH.Reepmeyer. 1978. Raumliche undzeitlicheVerteilungsmusterderGanse(Anserfabalis,A.albifrons,undA.anser)imBereichdesDollart(1971-1977).Vogelwelt99:81-116. [InGennan withEnglishsummary.] Krogman,B.1978.TheTuleGoosemystery--aproblemintaxonomy.Am.Birds32:164-166.Kuyken, F. 1978.OverwinterendeganzeninBelgieinhetseizoen1975-76.[Over-winteringgeeseinBelgiuminthe1975-76season.]Watervogels3:10-12.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Lazarus,J.1978.Vigilance,flocksizeand domainofdangersizeintheWhite-frontedGoose. Wildfowl 29:135-145.Sharp,R.S. 1978. TheoriginsofspringmigratorystagingbySandhillCranesandWhite-frontedGeese.Trans.NebraskaAcad.Sci.6:141-144.Sterbetz,I.1978.ThefeedingecologyofAnseralbifrons,A.erythropusand !. fabalisinHungary.Internatl. Res.Bur. No. 45:9-16.1977Fitzner,R.E. 1977. AwinterrecordoftheWhite-frontedGooseineasternWashington.Murrelet58:89.Lebret,T. 1977. Waarnemingenoverdeann-enafwezigheidvanHolganzenAnseralbifrons1nhunvoedselgebiedenordeslaapplaatsinrelatietotmanlicht.[ObservationsonthepresenceorabsenceofWhite-frontedGeeseAnseralbifronsontheirfeedinggroundsandtheirroostinrelationtothemoon---phase.]Watervogels2:152-158.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]65

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1976Wierenga,H.K.1976.WaarnemingenaandeochtentrekvanganzeninFriesland:resultatenvaneentelaktiedoorledenvandeN.O.U. op23February1975.[ObservationsonthemorningflightofWhite-frontedGeeseincentralFriesland.]Limosa 49:293-302.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1975Delacour,J.and S.D.Ripley.1975.Descriptionofa newsubpseciesoftheWhite-frontedGooseAnseralbifrons.Am.Mus.Novit.2565.4pp.1974Burke,G.N.grounds.316-318.1974.TechniquesforcaptureofWhite-frontedGeeseonwinteringProc.27thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:Kuyt,E.1974. GoldenEaglesattackWhite-frontedGeese.BlueJay32:227228.vanTroostwijk,W.J.D.1974.RingingdataonWhite-frontedGeeseAnser albifronsintheNetherlands,1953-1968.Ardea 62:98-110.1973Mickelson,P.G.1973.BreedingbiologyofCacklingGeese(Brantacanadensisminima Ridgeway) andassociatedspeciesontheYukon-KuskokwimDelta,Alaska.Ph.D.thesis.,Univ.Mich./AnnArbor,MI. Young,W.F.1973. SpecimenofWhite-frontedGoose[fromBelize]nowinmuseum.BelizeAudubonSoc.Bull.5:1.1972 Owen,M.1972a.Movements andfeedingecologyofWhite-frontedGeeseattheNewGround,Slimbridge.J.Appl.Ecol.9:385-398.1972b.SomefactorsaffectingfoodintakeandselectioninWhite-----frontedGeese.J.Anim.Ecol.41:79-92.Philippona,J.1972.DieBlessgans.Neue BrehmBucheri457.135pp.WittenbergLutherstadt:A.Ziemsen.[InGerman.] 1971Fog,M.1971.HauntsinDenmarkforWhite-frontedGoose(Anseralbifrons),Bean Goose(Anserfabalisnonbrachyrhynchus)andPink-footedGoose(Anserfabulis brach]ThYnchus.) Dan. Rev.GameBioI.6:1-12.Helmstaedt,K.W.,M.MullerandH.J.Seeger.1971.BemerkungenzumZugderBlessgansAnser albifrons(Scop.).Beitr.Vogelkd.17:185-200.[InGerman.] 66

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Owen,M.ter.1971.TheselectionoffeedingsitebyWhite-frontedGeeseinwinJ.Appl.Ecol.8:905-917.1970Baird,J.C.1970. ArecordofaWhite-frontedGooseinNewBrunswick.Can.Field-Nat.84:59-60.Elgas,B.1970.BreedingpopulationsofTuleWhite-frontedGeeseinnorthwesternCanada.WilsonBull.82:420-426.LeGrand,H.,Jr.andE.LeGrand. 1970.White-frontedGoosenearRaleigh,N.C. Chat34:101-102.1969Atkeson,T.Z.,Jr.1969.White-frontedGoosespecimenfrom Alabama.Auk86: 141. Kuyken, F. 1969.GrazingofwildgeeseongrasslandsatDamme,Belgium.Wildfowl20:47-54.Lensink,C.J.1969 ms.ThedistributionofrecoveriesfromWhite-frontedGeese(Anseralbifronsfrontalis)bandedinNorthAmerica.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Bethel,AK.Unpubl. Admin.Rept.1968Miller,H.W.,A.Dzubin andJ.T.Sweet.1968.ofSaskatchewan-bandedWhite-frontedGeese.Resourc.Conf.33:101-119.DistributionandmortalityTrans.N.Am.Wildl.Nat.Ogilvie,M.A.1968.Thenumbers anddistributionoftheEuropeanWhitefrontedGooseinBritain.BirdStudy15:2-15.Pollard,D.F.W.and P.Walters-Davies.1968. ApreliminarystudyofthefeedingoftheGreenlandWhite-frontedGooseAnseralbifronsflavirostrisinCardiganshire.Wildfowl19:108-116.------1967Carlson,C.W.1967.White-frontedGooseatChincoteagueRefuge.Raven38:65.Olney,P.J.S. 1967.TheWAGBI-WildfowlTrustExperimentalReserve.II:ThefeedingecologyoflocalMallardandotherwildfowl.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:47-55.Vertse,A.1967.[EcologicalproblemsofWhite-frontedGeesepassingthewinterinHungary.PresenceofWhite-frontedGeeseinthelastcentury.]Aquila73-74:11-32.[InHungarian.]67

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1966Barry,T.W.1966. ThegeeseoftheAndersonRiverDelta,NorthwestTerritories.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Alberta/Edmonton,AB.181pp.Kear,J.1966 ms.FeedingbehaviourofWhite-frontedGeeseintheBritishIsles.WildfowlTrustUnpubl.Rept.1965Miller,H.andA.Dzubin.1965.RegroupingoffamilymembersoftheWhitefrontedGoose(Anseralbifrons)afterindividualrelease.Bird-Banding36:184-191. -----1964Dzubin,A.Goose. 1964.TwopossiblewildhybridsoftheWhite-frontedGoose XSnowBlueJay22:106-108.Dzubin,A.,H.W.MillerandG.V. Schildman. 1964. 143inJ.P.Linduska(ed.)Waterfowltommorrow. Wildl.Serv.,Washington,D.C.White-fronts.Pp.135u.S.Dept.Int.,U.S.Kessel,B.,H.K.SpringerandC.M.White.1964.JunebirdsoftheKolomakRiverYukon-KuskokwimDelta,Alaska.Murrelet45:37-47.1962Kuyt,E.1962.White-frontedGeesebreedingintheThelonValley,N.W.T. Can.Field-Nat.76: 224.Williams,L.E.,Jr.1962.White-frontedGoose andFranklinGullinMississippi.Miss.Ornithol.Soc. Newsl. 7:8.1960Philippona,J.and T.Mulder.1960.HetvorkommenvandeEuropeseKolgans,Ansera.albifrons(Scop.)inhetbijzonderinNederland.[Ontheoccur re;ceof theEuropeanWhite-frontedGoose,especiallyintheNetherlands.]Limosa33:90-127.[InDutchwithEnglish summary.] 1958 Boyd,H.1958.ThesurvivalofWhite-frontedGeese(Anseralbifronsflavirostris,DalgetyandScott)ringedinGreenland.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.52:1-8.1957Atkeson,T.Z.,Jr.1957. AWhite-frontedGooserecordforAlabama.Ala.Birdlife5:24-25.68

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Boyd,H.1957.MortalityandfertilityoftheWhite-frontedGoose.BirdStudy4:80-93.1956Geroudet,P.,R.Pricam,Y.ReverdinandF.Vuilleumier.1956.SixOiesrieusesdanslaradedeGeneve.NosOiseaux23:326.[InFrench.]Scott,P.1956.SomephotographicstudiesofWhite-frontedandLesserWhitefrontedgeese.Brit.Birds49:216-218.1954 Boyd,H.1954.White-frontedGoosestatistics.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.6:73-79.Goethe,F. 1954.GronlandischeBlassganseinNordwestdeutschland.Vogelwarte17:209-211.[InGerman.] 1953 Boyd,H.1953.OnencountersbetweenwildWhite-frontedGeeseinwinterflocks.Behaviour5:85-129.Cadman,W.A.1953. ThewinterfoodandecologicaldistributionofGreenlandWhite-frontedGeeseinBritain.Brit.Birds46:374-375.1950Fencker,H.1950.TheGreenlandWhite-frontedGoose anditsbreedingbiology.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.44:61-65.1948Dalgety,C.T. andP.M.Scott.1948.A newraceoftheWhite-frontedGoose.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club68:109-121.Hewitt,O.H.1948.QuebecrecoveryofWhite-frontedGoosebandedinGreenland.Bird-Banding19:124.Lebret,T.1948.WaaremingenoverleeftijdsgroepenbijKolganzen,Ansera.albifrons(Scop.).Ardea36:198-200.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1946Glazener,W.C.1946.FoodhabitsofwildgeeseonthecoastofTexas.J.Wildl.Manage. 10:322-329.Nichols,M.M.andC.K.Nichols.1946a.TheWhite-frontedGooseinNewJersey.Auk63:450.1946b.White-frontedGooseonthecoastsofNewYorkandNewJersey. ------Auk 63:598-599.69

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1944Davis.H.H.1944.Bill-colorationoftheimmatureWhite-frontedGoose.Brit.Birds38:37-38.1928 Mackay,G.H.Carolina.1928.White-frontedGoose(Anseralbifronsgambeli)inSouthAuk45:368-369.Wayne,A.T.1928.SouthCarolina.Griscom,L.1927a.SouthCarolina.TheWhite-frontedGoose(Anseralbifronsgambeli)inAuk45:201.1927TheWhite-frontedGoose(Anseralbifronsgambeli)inAuk44: 559. 1927b.TheWhite-frontedGoose(Anseralbifronsgambeli)inNewJersey.------Auk44:560.1926Urner,C.A.1926.White-frontedGeeseinVirginia.Auk43: 229. 1924Brimley,H.H.1924.White-frontedGooseinNorthCarolina.Auk41:339-340.1917Swarth.H.S.andH.C.Bryant.1917. AstudyoftheracesoftheWhitefrontedGoose(Anseralbifrons)occurringinCalifornia.Univ.Calif.Publ.Zool.17:209-222.70

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SNOWGOOSE(Chencaerulescens)[DA:Snegas,DU:Sneeuwgans,FI:Lumihanhi,FR:Oiedesneiges,GE:Schneegans,IC:Snjogaes,IT:Ocaiperborea,JA: Hakugan,NW:Snogas,PO:Gessniezyca,RU:(WhiteGoose),SP: Ansarhiperboreo,Ansarnival,Ansarreal,Ansarazul;SW:Snogas,US:Blue Goose,GreaterSnowGoose]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONSnowGeesebreedinArctictundrafromnortheasternSiberiaeastwardacrosstheNorthAmericanArctictonorthwesternGreenland(Crampeta1.1977).About1,635,000LesserSnowGeesebreedinthewesternandcentralNorthAmericanArctic.LargenumberswinterinLouisiana(ca.380,000duringthewintersof1972-73)and Texas(ca.435,000)(Bellrose1976;Maps3,4).InAlabama andMississippitheSnowGoosemaybeabundantduringmigration(Burleigh1944,Imhof 1976b)butthespeciesisuncommontorareelsewhereinthesoutheast.About67,000GreaterSnowGeesenestedinGreenlandandtheeasternCanadianArcticin1969 (HeylandinPalmer1976a).ThesebirdswinterprimarilyalongtheAtlanticcoast JerseytoNorthCarolina.Thelargestwinteringconcentration(ca.30,000birds)isfoundinCurrituckand Pam1icosounds,NorthCarolina(Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWebelievethatdirectmortalityofSnowGeese fromoilspillswillbeslight,sincefewoftheiractivitieswouldbringthemintocontactwithareasofspilledoil.Thespecieswould be mostsusceptibi1eonthenorthAtlanticcoast,becauseofcoldweatherand atendencytoutilizemarinehabitatsmorethanthebirdsthatwinterinLouisianaand Texas(Palmer1976a). The mostdeleteriouseffectsinwarmerareaswouldprobablyoccuronmarshyfeedinggroundsifanoilspillweresevereenoughtoinundatetheseareas.SuchanepisodeoccurredwhenanoilspillintheGulfofSt.LawrencepenetratedintomarshesusedasamajorstagingareabytheGreaterSnowGoose. Thedisasterwasavertedby promptcleanupoftheareabefore the geesearrived(Eagles1964).Taxonomicnote:TheAOU(1957)check-listassignedtheSnowGoosetothegenusChen.OpinionsdifferregardingthestatusofChen, and it isoftenlumpedwithgenusAnser,followingDe1acour(1954)andJohnsgard(1975,1978).Similarly,theAOU(1957)formerlylistedtheSnowandthe Blue Gooseasseparatespecies.Evidencepresentedby Cooch(1961)and Cooke and Cooch(1968),however,confirmedthattheBlue andSnowGeesearecolorphasesofthesamerace.Currently,theAOU(1973)recognizestwosubspecies:theLesserSnowGoose, Chencaeru1escenscaeru1escens,andtheGreaterSnowGoose, C.c.atlantica,the former displayingtwo plumagephases:dark(orblueform),-andlightphase.71

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linter Distributill MapforSoutheastern UnDed StatesLessthanone1-55-20INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURING CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977 (ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanoneindividual None observedTGULFOFMEXICOMap3BIRDNAME'

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More than20 (AdapNd from Iystrak,1974) INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1911(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed 'TWinter Distributil MapforSoutheasternUritedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthanonelinIIIIDI111111111111-5II5-20 DALLAS EX ---, GULFOFMEXICOMap'4BIRONAME'

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981 Abraham,K.F.1981.BreedingsiteselectionofLesserSnowGeese.Ph.D.thesis,Queen'sUniv./Kingston,ON.Bellrose,F.C.andR.C.Crompton. 1981.Migrationspeedsofthreewaterfowlspecies.WilsonBull."93:121-124.Campbell,R.R.,R.J.EtchesandJ.F.Leatherland.1981.SeasonalchangesinplasmaprolactinconcentrationandcarcasslipidlevelsintheLesserSnowGoose(Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens).CompoBiochem.Physiol.ACompoPhysiol.68:653-657.Flickinger,E. L. 1981. WeatherconditionsassociatedwithbeginningofnorthwardmigrationdeparturesofSnowGeese.J.Wildl.Manage.45:516-520.1980 Ankney,C.D.goslings.1980. Eggweight,survival,andgrowthofLesserSnowGooseJ.Wildl.Manage. 44:174-182.Blankert,J.J.1980.LesserSnowGoose from CanadainNetherlands.DutchBirding2:52.Campbell,R.R.1980.EcophysiologicalstudiesinLesserSnowGeese(Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens)oftheLaPerouseBaycolony.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Guelph/Guelph,ON.Campbell,R.R.andJ.F.Leatherland.1980a.fromwatercontentinLesserSnowGeese.EstimatingbodyproteinandfatJ.Wildl.Manage.44:438-446.1980b.SeasonalchangesinthyroidactivityintheLesserSnowGoose-----(Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens)includingreferencetoembryonicthyroidactivity.Can.J.Zool.58:1144-1150.Healey,R.F.,F. Cooke andP.W.Colgan.SnowGoosebrood-rearingtraditions.Prevett,J.P.andC.D.MacInnes.1980.SnowGeese.Wildl.Monogr. 71:1-46.1980. DemographicconsequencesofJ.Wildl.Manage. 44:900-905.FamilyandothersocialgroupsinSidle,J.G.andG.E.Erickson.1980.SnowGeesebreedinginNorthDakota.PrairieNat.12:103-104.Sulzbach,D.S.and F. Cooke. 1980. DemographicparametersofanestingcolonyofSnowGeese.Condor 81:232-235. Th.omas, V.G.andJ.P.Prevett.1980.Thenutritionalvalueofarrow-grassestogeeseatJames Bay.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:830-836.74

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Yesou,P.1980.L'Oiedesneiges Anser caerulescensL.enFrance.[Snow GooseAnsercaerulescensL.inFrance.]Alauda48:21-26.[InFrenchwithGerman andEnglishsummaries.]1979 Ankney,C.D.1979. DoesthewingmoultcausenutritionalstressinLesserSnowGeese?Auk96:68-72.Boothroyd,P.N.and P. L. Rakowski. 1979.UnsuccessfulnestingattemptoftheSnowGoose ontheRedRiveratWinnipeg,Manitoba.BlueJay37:224-226.Flickinger,E. L. and E.G.Bolen.1979.WeightsofLesserSnowGeesetakenontheirwinterrange.J.Wildl.Manage.43:531-533.Heagy,M.I.and F. Cooke. 1979.Vegetationcharacteristicsof Goosenestsites.Can.J.Bot.57:1502-1504.Kelsall,J.P. andR.Burton.1979.SomeproblemsinidentificationoforiginsofLesserSnowGeese bychemicalprofiles.Can.J.Zool.57:22922302. Mineau,P.and F. Cooke.1979a.RapeintheLesserSnowGeese.Behaviour70:280-291.1979b.TerritorialityinSnowGeeseortheprotectionofparenthood------Ryder'sandInglis'shypothesesre-assessed.Wildfowl30:16-19.Prevett,J.P.,I.F.MarshallandV.G.Thomas.1979.FallfoodsofLesserSnowGeeseintheJamesBayregion.J.Wildl.Manage. 43:736-742.Syroechkovskii,E.V.1979. [ThelayingofeggsbySnowGeeseintostrangenests.]Zool.Zh. 58:1033-1041.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]vandenBerg,A.B.,H.BlankertandJ.Brinkman.1979.ZeldzameganzeninNederlandindewinter1978/79.[RaregeeseintheNetherlandsinthewinterof1978/79.]DutchBirding1:34-41.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]West,L.D.andJ.D.Newson. 1979. Lead andmercuryinLesserSnowGeesewinteringinLouisiana.Proc.31stAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:180-187.Wypkema,R.C.P.andC.D.Ankney. 1979.NutrientreservedynamicsofLesserSnowGeeseatstaginginJames Ontario.Can.J.Zool.57:213-219.1978Blokpoel,H.andW.J.Richardson.1978.Weather andspringmigrationofSnowGeeseacrosssouthernManitoba.Oikos 30:350-363.75

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Bolen,E.G.andM.K.Rylander.Goose(Ansercaerulescens).1978.FeedingadaptationintheLesserSnowSouthwest.Nat.23:158-161.Burton,B.A.andR.J.Hudson. 1978.ActivitybudgetsofLesserSnowGeesewinteringontheFraserRiverEstuary,BritishColumbia. Wildfowl29:111-117.Campbell,R.R.and E. Boorman. 1978.PintailparasitizingSnow.Goosenest.BlueJay36:116-117.Cooke,F.1978.Earlylearninganditseffectonpopulationstructure.StudiesofawildpopulationofSnowGeese.Z.Tierpsychol.46:344-358.Cooke,F.andD.S.Sulzbach.1978.Mortality,emigrationandseparationofmatedSnowGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 42:271-280.Finney,G. and F. Cooke. 1978.ReproductivehabitsintheSnowGoose:theinfluenceoffemaleage.Condor80:147-158.Krechmar,A.V.and E.V.Syroechkovsky.1978.AnsercaerulescensontheWrangelIsland.]RussianwithEnglishsummary.] [EcologyofincubationinZoo!.Zh.57:899-910.[InMineau,P. .!!!!) 1978.Thebreedingstrategyofa maleSnowGoose {AnsercaerulesM.S.thesis,Queen'sUniv.!Kingston,ON.125pp.-----Simon,D.1978.IdentificationofSnowandRoss'geese.Birding10:289-291.Sulzbach,D.andF.Cooke.samplesofSnowGeese.1978. ofnonrandomnessinmass-capturedJ.Wildl.Manage. 42:437-441.Vermeer,K.and B.D.Davies.1978.ComparisonofthebreedingofCanada andSnowgeeseatWesthamIsland,BritishColumbia. Wildfowl 29:31-44.Voet,H.,S.LhoestandP.Devillers.1978.L'observationd'OiesdesneigesdanslaregionAnversoiseen1973-1974.[ObservationsofSnowGeeseintheAntwerpRegionduring1973-1974.]Gerfaut68:107-108.[InFrenchwithDutch andEnglishsummaries.]Wingate,D.B.1978. Blue Goose banded on Bermuda,recoveredatCapeHatteras,N.C. Chat 42:80.1977 Abraham,K.F.,P.Mineau andF.Cooke.1977.UnusualpredatorsofSnowGooseeggs.Can.Field-Nat.91:317-318.Ankney,C.D.1977a.FeedinganddigestiveorgansizeinbreedingLesserSnowGeese.Auk94:275-282.1977b. Malesizeand mateselectioninLesserSnowGeese.Evol.------Theory3:143-147.76

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Ankney,C.D.1977c.Theuseofnutrient bybreedingmaleLesserSnowGeese (Chencaerulescenscaerulescens).Can.J.Zool.55:1984-1987.Babcock,K.M.and E.L.Flickinger.1977.DieldrinmortalityofSnowGeeseinMissouri.J.Wildl.Manage. 41:100-103.Harwood,J.1977.GrazingstrategiesofBlueGeese,Ansercaerulescens.J.Wildl.Manage. 41:48-55.Kelsall,J.P.andR.Burton.1977.IdentificationoforiginsofLesserSnowGeesebyX-rayspectrometry.Can.J.Zool.55:718-732.Macmillan,A.T. 1977. ThestatusofSnow GeeseinScotland.Scott.Birds9:357.Rockwell,R. F.andF. Cooke. 1977. Geneflowandlocaladaptationinacoloniallynestingdimorphicbird:theLesserSnowGoose(Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens).Am.Nat.Ill:91-97.Sladen,W.J.L.andA.A.Kistchinski.1977.Someresultsfromcircumpolarmarkingprogramsonnorthernswans andSnowGeese.Internatl.Congr.GameBioI.13:498-507.Syroechkovski,E.V.,A.V.Krechmar andA.I.Artyukhov.1977.[ChangesinnumberofnestingSnowGeese,Chencaerulescens,onWrangelIsland.]Ornitologiya13:212-213.[InRussian.]1976 Ankney,C.D.andA.R.Bisset.intheLesserSnowGoose. 1976.Anexplanationofegg-weightvariationJ.Wildl.Manage.40:729-734.BlokpoelH.andD.R.M.Hatch.1976.SnowGeese,disturbedbyaircraft,crashintopowerlines.Can.Field-Nat.90:195.Boyd,H.1976a.MortalityratesofHudson BaySnowGeese,1967-74.Can.Wildl.ServeProgrs.Notes61:1-4.1976b.EstimatesoftotalnumbersintheHudson BaypopulationofLes---serSnowGeese,1964-1973.Can.WildLServoProgrs.Notes63:1-7.Cooke,F.,G.H.FinneyandR.F.Rockwell.1976.AssortativematinginlesserSnowGeese(Ansercaerulescens).Behav.Genet.6:127-140.Gauthier,M.C.,H.Blokpoeland S.G.Curtis.1976.ObservationsonthespringmigrationofSnowGeese fromsouthernManitobatoJames and Hudsonbays.Can.Field-Nat.90:196-199.Hanson,H.C. and R.L.Jones.1976.ThebiogeochemistryofBlue,Snow, andRoss'Geese.Ill.Nat.Hist.Surv.,Spec.Publ.No.1.S.Ill.Univ.Press/Urbana,IL.281pp.77

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Kelsall,J.P.andW.J.Pannekoek. 1976. ThemineralprofileofplumageincaptiveLesserSnowGeese.Can.J.Zool.54:301-305.Syroechkovsky,E.V.1976.[BehaviouralpatternsoftheSnowGeese(Ansercaerulescens)duringthenestingperiod.]Zool.Zh. 55: RussianwithEnglishsummary.] 1975 Ankney,C.D.1975a.ApparentbreedingofaGreaterSnowGooseattheMcCon nellRiver,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Field-Nat.89:185-186. 1975b. NeckbandscontributetostarvationinfemaleLesserSnowGeese.------J.Wildl.Manage. 39:825-826.Blokpoel,H.andM.C.Gauthier.1975.MigrationofLesserSnowandBlueGeese.Part1.Influenceoftheweatherandpredictionofmajorflights.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.Ser.No.32.30pp.Blokpoel,H.,J.D.Heyland,J.BurtonandN.Samson.1975.ObservationsofthefallmigrationofGreaterSnowGeeseacrosssouthernQuebec. Can.Field-Nat.89:268-277.Chabreck,R.H.andJ.D.Schroer.1975.Effectsofneck-collarsonthereproductionofSnowGeese.Bird-Banding46:346-347.Cooke, F. 1975. TheSnowGeeseofLaPerouseBay.Dept.Mines,Resourc.andEnviron.Manage.,ProvoofManitobaInform.Ser.No.3.14pp.Cooke,F.andC.M.McNally. 1975. MateselectionandcolourpreferencesinLesserSnowGeese.Behaviour53:151-170.Cooke,F.,C.D.MacInnes andJ.P.Prevett.1975. GeneflowbetweenbreedingpopulationsofLesserSnowGeese.Auk92:493-510.Dzubin,A.,H.BoydandW.J.D.Stephen.1975.Blue andSnowGoosedistributionintheMississippiandCentralflyways,1951-71.Can.Wildl.ServoProgrs.Notes54.34pp.Finney,G.H.1975.ReproductivestrategiesoftheLesserSnowGoose,Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens.Ph.D.thesis,Queen'sUniv./Kingston, 152pp.Harwood,J.1975.ThefeedingstrategiesofBlue GeeseAnsercaerulescens.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.WesternOntario/London,ON. 187-PP:Kelsall,J.P.,W.J.Pannekoek andR.Burton.1975. ChemicalvariabilityinplumageofwildLesserSnowGeese.Can.J.Zool.53:1369-1375.Kerbes,R.H.1975. Thenestingpopulation of LesserSnowGeeseintheeasternCanadianArctic:aphotographicinventoryofJune1973. Can.Wildl.ServoRept.Ser.No. 35.47pp.78

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Lumsden,R.G.1975.DifferentialmigrationinyearlingandadultLesserSnowGeese(Ansercaerulescens).Bird-Banding46:40-46.Lynch,J.J.1975.WinterecologyofSnowGeeseontheGulfCoast,1925to1975. Unpubl.paperpresentedatthe37thMidwestWildl.Conf.,Toronto,ON.45pp.Schroer,J.D.andR.R.Chabreck.1975.DispersalandflockintegrityofSnowGeeseinLouisianaandTexas.Proc.28thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:468-474.Sulzbach,D.S. 1975. AstudyofthepopulationdynamicsofanestingcolonyoftheLesserSnowGoose(Ansercaerulescenscaerulescens).M.S.thesis,Queen'sUniv./Kingston,ON-.----Syroechkovsky,E.V.1975. [EggweightanditseffectuponmortalityofnestlingsinChencaerulescensontheWrangelIsland.]Zool.Zh. 54:408-412.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] 1974 Ankney,C.D.1974.TheimportanceofnutrientreservestobreedingBlueGeese(Ansercaerulescens).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.W.Ontario/London,ON.232pp.--Blokpoel,R.1974a.MigrationofLesserSnowand Blue GeeseinspringacrosssouthernManitoba.PartI:distribution,chronology,directions,numbers,heights,andspeeds.Can.Wild!.ServoRept.SereNo. 28.29pp.1974b.RecentchangesinchronologyofspringSnowGoosemigration-----fromsouthernManitoba.Can.Field-Nat.88:67-71.Boag, P. T. 1974. Adescriptiveandfunctionalanalysisofpost-hatchflockingintheLesserSnowGoose.B.S.thesis,Queen'sUniv./Kingston,ON.Reyland,J.D.,D.B. Wingate andN.N.Powe. 1974.FiveGreaterSnowGeese fromnorthwesternBaffinIslandwinterinBermuda.Bird-Banding45:217223.Smithey,D.A.,R.R.Chabreck,F.W.Martin,E. T.SipioandJ.R.Walter.1974.SocialbehaviorandmigrationpatternsofBlue andSnowgeesewinteringinLouisianaandeasternTexas.Proc.27thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:43-56.1973Bartlett,D.andJ.Bartlett.1973. BeyondthenorthwindwiththeSnowGoose.Natl.Geogr.144:822-847.Lieff,B.C.1973. The summerfeedingecologyofBlue and CanadageeseatMcConnellRiver,N.W.T. Ph.D.thesis,Univ.W.Ontario/London,ON.230pp.79

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Prevett,J.P.1973.Familybehaviorandage-dependentbreedingbiologyoftheBlueGoose,Ansercaerulescens.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.W.Ontario/London,ON.Prevett,J.P.and L. S.Prevette1973.EggretrievalbyBlueGeese.Auk90:202-204.Smithey,D.1973.Socialorganization,behavior,and movementofBlueandSnowgeesewinteringinLouisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.135pp.1972 Cooke,F.andP.J.Mirsky.1972.AgeneticanalysisofLesserSnowGoosefamilies.Auk89:863-871.Cooke,F.,P.J.MirskyandM.B.Seiger.1972.ColorpreferencesintheLesserSnowGoose andtheirpossibleroleinmateselection.Can.J.Zool.50:529-536.Hanson,H.C.,H.G.Lumsden,J.J.Lynch andH.W.Norton.1972.PopulationcharacteristicsofthreemainlandcoloniesoftheBlueandLesserSnowGeesenestinginthesouthernHudson Bayregion.OntarioMinist.Nat.Resourc.,Resch.Rept.(Wildl.)No.92.38pp.Noble,M.D.1972. Blue GeeseobservationsinBritishColumbia.Murrelet53:13.Privette,A.,Jr.1972.SnowGeeseseeninWakeCounty,N.C. Chat 36:88.Schreiber,R.K.1972.RecentsightingsofBlue GeeseinWashington.Murrelet53:36-37.Starkey,E. E. 1972. Acaseofinterspecifichomosexualityingeese.Auk89:456-457.Syroechkovsky,E.V.1972.[SomepeculiaritiesofinterrelationshipsbetweentheSnowGeese andtheArcticFoxesontheWrangelIsland.]Zool.Zh.51:1208-1213.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] 1971Bateman,H.1971. Blue andSnowGeeseshortstopping.La.Conserve 23:4-9.Harvey,J.M.1971.FactorsaffectingBlue Goosenestingsuccess.Can.J.Zool.49:223-234.Ryder,J.P. 1971a-. DistributionandbreedingbiologyoftheLesserSnowGooseincentralarcticCanada.Wildfowl22:18-28._____1971b.SizedifferencesbetweenRoss'andSnowgooseeggsatKarrakLake,NorthwestTerritoriesin1968.WilsonBull.83:438-439.80

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Trauger,D.L.,A.Dzubin andJ.P.Ryder.1971. White GeeseintermediatebetweenRoss'Geese andLesserSnowGeese.Auk88:856-875.1970Heyland,J.D.andH.Boyd. 1970.GreaterSnowGeese(AnsercaerulescensatlanticusKennard)innorthwestGreenland.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.64:193-204.Nagel,J.E. Flyway. 361-377 1970.SnowGoosemigrationsintheeasternsegmentofthePacificProc.50thAnnu. Conf.WesternAssoc.StateGame&FishCommiss.:Peck,G.K.1970.FirstOntarionestrecordsofArcticLoon(Gaviaarctica)andSnowGoose (Chenhyperborea).Ont.FieldBio1.24:25-28.Penczak,T. 1970. Gessniezna,Ansercaeru1escens(L.)wPolsce.[Snow Goose,Ansercaeru1escens,in Ornithol.12:42.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.] 1969 Hanson,W.C.1969.FirstsightrecordsofBlue GeeseinWashington.Murrelet50:24.Kerbes,R.H.1969.BiologyanddistributionofnestingBlue GeeseonKoukdjuakPlain,BaffinIsland,N.W.T. M.S.thesis,Univ.W.Ontario/London,ON.122pp.Nagel,J.E. 1969.MigrationpatternsandgeneralhabitsoftheSnowGooseinUtah.UtahDept.Nat.Resourc.Pub1.69-6.74pp.Ryder,J.P.1969.Egg-eatingbywildLesserSnowGeese.AvicultMag.75:23-24.1968 Cooke,F.andF.G.Cooch. 1968. Thegeneticsofpolymorphisminthegoose,Ansercaeru1escens.Evolution22:289-300.Higgins,K.F.1968.EvaluationoftechniquesforestimatingfallageratiosofCanada andSnowgeese.M.S.thesis,S. Dak.St.Univ./Vermillion,SD.1967 Lemieux,L.andJ.Hey1and. 1967.FallmigrationofBlue Geese andLesserSnowGeese fromtheKoukdjuakRiver,BaffinIsland,NorthwestTerritories.Nat.Can.94:677-694.Lieff,B.C.1967.FeedingbehaviourofgeeseatMcConnellRiver,N.W.T. M.S.thesis,Univ.W.Ontario/London,ON.81

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Uspenski,S.M.1967. [Snow GeeseintheSovietArctic.]ProblemySevera11:224-228.[InRussian.]Rienecker,W.C.1965.A summaryofbandreturnsfromLesserSnowGeese (Chenhyperborea)ofthePacificFlyway.Calif.FishGame51:132-146.Sutherland,C.A. andD.S.McChesney.1965.Soundproductionintwospeciesofgeese.LivingBird4:99-106.Uspenski,S.M.1965. ThegeeseofWrangelIsland.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.16:126-129.Cooch,F.G. 1904. SnowsandBlues.Pp.125-133inJ.P.Linduska(ed.)Waterfowl tommorrow. U.S.Dept.Int.,U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Wash., D.C.Dzubin,A.Goose. 1964.TwopossiblewildhybridsoftheWhite-frontedGoose X Snow BlueJay22:106-108.Eagles,D.1964.Oilpollution--aneardisasterfortheGreaterSnowGoose. Can. Aud. 26:37-39.1963Baillie,J.L.1963.The13mostrecentOntarionestingbirds.OntoFieldBioI.17:15-26.Cooch, F.G.1963.RecentchangesindistributionofcolorphasesofChen caerulescens.Proc.XIIIInternatl.Ornithol.Congr.: Lawrence,L.deK.1962.AnoteworthyreversemigrationofSnowGeeseincentralOntario.Auk79: 718.Angstadt,R.B.1961.Predationbyjaegersina Blue Goosecolony.M.S.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.49pp.Cooch,G.1961.EcologicalaspectsoftheBlue-Snow Goose complex.Auk78: 72-89. Kebbe,C.E. 1961.ReportfromRussiaonbandedSnowGeese.Bull.OregonStateGameCommisso16:45.82

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1960 Cooch, F.G.,G.M.StirrettandG.F.Boyer.1960. AutumnweightsofBlue Geese (Chencaeru1escens).Auk77:460-465.Go1dstick,H.L. 1960. Blue Goose andshorebirdsatHuntingTowers,Alexandria,Va.At1.Nat.15:44.1959 Cooch, F.G.andJ.Beardmore. 1959.AssortativematingandreciprocaldifferenceintheBlue-Snow Goosecomplex.Nature183: 1833-1834. Lemieux, L.1959a. Histoirenature11eetamenagementde1a Grande Oieblanche,Chenhyperboreaatlantica.Nat.Can. 86:133-192.[InFrench.]1959b.Histoirenature11eetamenagementde1aGrande Oieblanche,-----Chenhyperboreaatlantica.Ph.D.thesis,LavalUniv./Quebec,PQ.1959c.ThebreedingbiologyoftheGreaterSnowGoose on By10tIsland,-----NorthwestTerritories.Can.Field-Nat.73:117-128.1959d. ThebreedingbiologyoftheGreaterSnowGoose (Chenhyperborea-----atlantica)onBylotIsland.(Abstract).Trans.N.E. Wi1d1.Conf.1: 122. 1958 Cooch, F.G.1958.caeru1escens.Thebreedingbiologyand managementoftheBlue Goose Chen Ph.D.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.235pp.Lahrman, F.W.1958.TheBlue GooseinSaskatchewan.BlueJay16:57-58.McEwen,E.H.1958.ObservationsontheLesserSnowGoosenestinggrounds,EggRiverBanksIsland.Can.Field-Nat.71:122-127.1957 Cooch,C.1957. MassringingofflightlessBlue andLesserSnowgeeseinCanada'seasternArctic.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.8:58-67.Foster,J.B.1957.Snowand geesenestinginthesouthernArctic.OntoFieldBiol.11: 22.Labisky,R.F. 1957. UnusualflightbehaviorofBlue andSnowgeese.Auk74:509.Lumsden,H.G.1957. ASnowGoosebreedingcolonyinOntario.Can.Fie1dNat.71:153-154.83

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1955Baillie,J.L. 1955.OnthespringflightofBlue andSnowgeeseacrossnorthernOntario.Can.Field-Nat.69: 135-139. Cooch,G.1955.ObservationsontheautumnmigrationofBlueGeese.WilsonBull.67: 171-174. Lemieux, L. 1955.LaGrande Oieblanche,Chenhyperboreaatlantica.M.S.thesis,LavalUniv./Quebec,PQ.Hohn, E.o.1954.InthehomeoftheSnowGoose.Beaver285:8-11.Stirrett,G.M.1954.FieldobservationsofgeeseinJames Bay,withspecialreferencetotheBlue Goose.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.19:211-220.1953 Cooch,F.G.1953a.ApreliminarystudyoftheBlue andLesserSnowgeeseonSouthamptonIsland.M.S.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.77pp.1953b.ApreliminarystudyoftheBlue andLesserSnowgeeseon-----SouthamptonIsland.ArcticCircle6:14-17.Nicholson,D.J.1953.Thefirstrecordingofthe(Lesser?)SnowGooseinOrange County,Florida.Fla.Nat.26: 136-137. 1952Hebard,F.V.1952. Blue GeeseinGlynn County.Oriole17:39.Morrison,A.1952.TheGreaterSnowGoose.Bull.Mass. AudubonSoc.36:285-291.Nelson,H.K.1952.HybridizationofCanada GeesewithBlue Geeseinthewild.Auk69:425-428.1950Hewitt,o.H.1950. RecentstudiesofBlue andLesserSnowgoosepopulationsinJames Bay.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf. 15:304-309.Sibley,C.G.1949.TheincidenceofhybridsinmigrantBlue andSnowgeeseinKansas.Condor 51: 274.Spinner,G.P. 1949.ObservationsonGreaterSnowGeeseintheDelaware Bayarea.Auk66:197-198.84

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1948Stiles,B.F.1948.The Blue Goose:isitchangingitsmigrationthroughIowa? IowaBirdLife18:9-13.Stupka,A.1948.SnowGooseinGreatSmokyMountainsNationalPark.Migrant21:80-82.1946Glazener,W.C.1946.FoodhabitsofwildgeeseontheGulfCoastofTexas.J.Wildl.Manage. 10:322-329.Soper,J.D.1946.SupplementarydataconcerningtheBlueGoose.Can.FieldNat.60:110-113.1945 Adams,I.S.1945.ArrivalanddepartureofGreaterSnowGeeseinQuebec.Bird-Banding16:36-37.1944Cahalane,V.H. and R.E.Griffith.1944.OccurrencesoftheBlue GooseinNewMexico.Condor46:124-125.Lynch,J.J.1944.FamilylifeoftheSnowGoose. Audubon46:2-8.1943 DuMont,P.A.1943.BlueGeeseonNationalWildlifeRefugesoftheAtlanticcoast,winterof1941-42.Auk60:110-111.Fleetwood,R.J.1943.Blue GooseineasternTennessee.Migrant14:62.1942 Adams,I.S.1942.Blue GeeseinSouthCarolina.Auk59:303-304.Fremont,C.,H.F.Lewis and F.C.Lincoln.1942. SouthwardmigrationofGreaterSnowGeesein1940.Auk59:301-303.Manning, T.H.1942.Blue andSnowgeeseonSouthampton andBaffinislands.Auk59:158-175.Soper,J.D.naeus).1942.LifehistoryoftheBlue Goose Chencaerulescens(LinProc.Bost.Soc.Nat.Hist.42:121-225.Stoddard,H.L.inGeorgia.1942.The Blue Goose andtheLesserSnowGooseasmigrantsOriole7:18-19.Tomkins,I.R.1942. ABlueGooseonBlackbeardIsland,Georgia.Oriole7:17-18.85

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1941Saylor,L.W.1941.WinterfoodofSnowandBluegeeseinDelaware.Auk58: 92. Howard,W.J.1940.WinteringoftheGreaterSnowGeese. Auk 57:523-531.1938Dery,A.1938.Migrationautomna1ede1aGrande DieBlanche.[Autumn movementsoftheGreaterSnowGoose.]ProvacherSoc.Nat.Hist.Can.,Annu.Rept.1938:120-133.[InFrench.]1937White,E. F.G.andH.F.Lewis.1937.TheGreaterSnowGooseinCanada.Auk54:440-444.1936Snyder,L.L.and T.M.Shortt.1936.totheBlue andLesserSnowgoose.A summaryofrecenteventspertainingAuk53:173-177.Sprunt, A., Jr.1936.TheBlue GooseagainincoastalSouthCarolina.Auk53:75-76.1935Brimley,H.H.1935. Blue Goose and GlaucousGullinNorthCarolina.Auk52:443-444.Cottam,C.1935. Blue andSnowgeeseineasternUnitedStatesinthewinterof1934-35---withnotesontheirfoodhabits.Auk52:432-441.Tomkins,I.R.1935a.A Blue Goose fromGeorgia.Auk52: 78. 1935b.AnotherBlue Goose fromGeorgia.Auk52:302.1932 Brown,J.W.1932.LesserSnowGooseinSouthCarolina.Auk49:343.McIlhenny,E.A.1932.TheBlue Gooseinitswinterhome.Auk49:279-306.Tomkins,I.R.1932. AGreaterSnowGoose fromGeorgia.Auk49:213-214.1931Stone,W.1931.Rare Geese ontheNorthCarolinacoast.Auk48:111.86

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Sutton,G.M.1931.TheBlue Goose andLesserSnowGooseonSouthamptonIsland,Hudson Bay.Auk48:335-364.1930Soper,J.D.1930.TheBlue Goose.Anaccountofitsbreedingground,migration,eggs,nests,andgeneralhabits.Can.Dept.Int.,Ottawa.64pp.1929Janvrin,E. R. P. 1929.GreaterSnowGoose on LongIsland,N.Y.Auk46:378-379.Langelier,G.A.1929.LesserSnowGoose (Chenhyperboreushyperboreus)inQuebec.Auk46:103.Townsend,C.W.andC.L.Bull.1929. The Blue Goose (Chencaerulescens)atVirginiaBeach,Va.Auk46:103.1928 Denmead, T.1928.The Blue GooseinMaryland.Auk45:201.Harrold,C.G.1928.NotesontheLesserSnowand BluegeeseobservedatWhitewaterLake,Manitoba.Auk45:290-292.Gromme,O.J.1927.AnunusualflightofSnowGeeseintheLake Winnebagoarea.Auk44:96.Kennard,F.H.1927.ThespecificstatusoftheGreaterSnowGoose.Proc.NewEngl.Zool.Club 9:85-93.Williams,R.w.1927.TheBlue GooseatEastGooseCreek,Florida..Auk44:244-245.1926Bull,C.L. 1926. Blue Goose (Chencaerulescens)inSouthCarolina.Auk43: 228.Coles,R.R.1926.GreaterSnowGoose (Chenhyperboreusnivalis)atSound Beach,Connecticut.Auk43:363-364.Townsend,C.w.1926. A Blue Goose (Chencaerulescens)inMassachusetts.Auk43:228.1925Norton,A.H.1925.Blue Goose (Chencaerulescens)inMaine.Auk42:265.87

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1923Doolittle,E.o.1923.Blue GeesealightinginnorthernOhio.Auk40:319.Kennard,F.H.1923.DownyyoungoftheGreaterSnowGoose,acorrection.Auk40:690.Smyth, T.1923.SnowGooseintheCayuga LakeBasin.Auk40:529.1922 Bagg,A.C.1922.TheGreaterSnowGooseinMassachusetts.Auk39:251.1921 Lamb,C.R.1921.Blue Goose (Chencaerulescens)inMassachusetts.Auk38:109.Lewis,H.F.1921. The Blue GooseintheProvinceofQuebec.Auk38:270271.Phillips,J.C.1921. Blue Geese (Chencaerulescens)inMassachusetts.Auk38:271.88

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ROSS'GOOSE[FR: OiedeRoss,GE:Zwergschneegans,SP:AnsardeRoss,GansodeRoss]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONRoss'GeesebreedinNorthAmericaprimarilyinthePerryRiverregionsouthofQueenMaudGulfintheNorthwestTerritories(Palmer1976a,Johnsgard1978).TheyhavealsobeenfoundbreedingontheBoasRiver,SouthamptonIslandandnearthemouthoftheMcConnellRiver,N.W.T.(Bellrose1976).Bellrose(1976)reportedthattheaverageFebruarypopulationfortheperiod195674 was23,400.ThesegeesewinterchieflyincentralCalifornia(Johnsgard1978),withsmallbutinceasingnumberswinteringalongthecentralGulfinrecentyears.Prevettand MacInnes(1972)estimatedthatthewinteringpopulationinLouisianawas127,178,and 167in1968,1969,and1970,respectively,andtheybelievedthatseveralhundredmorewinteredalongtheTexasGulfcoast.Elsewhereinthesoutheast,Ross'GooseisaveryraretoaccidentalvisitorandhasbeenreportedonlyinNorthCarolina.Weknowoffiverecordsfromthatstate(Buckley1969;Teulings1971b,1971c,1972b,1976b;E.K.LeGrand 1972)butthesemaynotinvolvemorethanthreeindividuals.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWehavefoundnorecordsofspecificinstancesofoilingofRoss'Goose,whichisoneoftheleastcoastalgeeseinwinter.Itisprobablyoneoftheleastvulnerablespeciesinthesoutheasternarea,becauseofitsterrestrialhabitsandbecauseofthe small (butincreasing)numbersthatwinterthere .BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Krehbiel,A.J.1980.Ross'sGooseinnortheasternNewMexico.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.13:28-29.1979 Kaufman,K.,J.Witzman andE.Cook.1979.PinningdowntheBlueRoss'Goose.ContinentalBirdlife1:112-115.Taxonomicnote:The genus ChenisoftenincludedinAnser,followingDelacour(1954) 89

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McLandress tM.R.1979.StatusofRoss GeeseinCalifornia.Pp.141-172inR.L.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyofPacificFlywaygeese.OregonSt.Univ.Bookstorest Inc.t CorvallistOR.McLandress tM.R. andI.McLandress.1979.Blue-phaseRoss'Geese andotherblue-phasegeeseinwesternNorthAmerica.Auk96:544-550.Shoffnert R. N.t N. Wangt F. Lee t R. King andJ.S.Otis.1979. Chromosome homologybetweentheRoss'sandtheEmperor Goose.J.Heredity70:395-400.1978 Baker t B.W.andM.F.Passmore.1978.FirstrecordofaRoss'GooseincoastalTexas.Bull.TexasOrnithol.Soc.11:48-49. Hallert K.W.1978.Ross'sGooseinGrayson CountYt north-centralTexas.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.11:21-22. Hoffman t R.1978.ARoss'GooseatSchoenebergMarsh.PassengerPigeon40:414-416. Simon t D.1978.IdentificationofSnowandRoss'geese.Birding10:289-291.1977 Klettt E.V.andC.C.Heflebower.1977.Ross'sGooseonWashitaNationalWildlife Refuge t west-centralOklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.10:30-31. Prevettt J.P.and F.C.Johnson.1977.ContinuedeasternexpansionofbreedingrangeofRoss'Goose. Condor79:121-123.1976 Hanson t H.C. and R.C.Jones.1976.Thebiogeochemistryof BluetSnowt andRoss'Geese.S.Ill.Univ. Presst CarbondaletIL.281pp.1975 Reed t A.and L. S.Maltby-Prevett.1975.Ross'GooseinQuebec. Can.FieldNat.89:313. 1974 Hanson t H.C.and R.L.Jones.1974.AninferredsexdifferentialincoppermetabolisminRoss'Geese(Anserrossii):biogeochemicalandphysiologicalconsiderations.Arctic27: lll-IZO:--1973 Ryder t J.P.andF.Cooke.1973.Ross'GeesenestinginManitoba.Auk90:691-692.90

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Furrer,R.K.1972. AlatespringsightrecordofRoss'Gooseineast-centralWashington.Murrelet53:49-50.LeGrand, E.K.1972. AsecondRoss'GooseatPeaIsland,N.C.;verificationofspecificpurityofthesebirds.Chat36:61-62.Prevett,J.P.andC.D.MacInnes.1972. The numberofRoss'GeeseincentralNorthAmerica. Condor 74:431-438.Ryder,J.P. 1972.BiologyofnestingRoss'Geese.Ardea 60:185-215.1971 Cooke, F. andJ.P.Ryder.Goose(Anserrossit).1971.ThegeneticsofpolymorphismintheRoss'Evolution25:483-496.Ryder,J.P. 1971.SizedifferencesbetweenRoss'andSnowgooseeggsatKarrakLake,NorthwestTerritoriesin1968.WilsonBull.83:438-439.Trauger,D.L.,A.Dzubin andJ.P.Ryder.1971. White GeeseintermediatebetweenRoss'Geese andLesserSnowGeese.Auk88:856-875.Zahm,G.R.1971.Ross'sGooseinJohnstonCounty,Oklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc. 4:32-34.Lahrman,F.W.1970.UnusuallylargenumbersofRoss'GeeseobservedatLastMountain Lake. BlueJay28:169-170.Buckley,P.A.occurrence.Ryder,J.P.Goose. 1970. ApossiblefactorintheevolutionofclutchsizeinRoss'WilsonBull.82:5-13.1969 1969.Ross'GooseinNorthCarolina:firstAtlanticseaboardAuk86:551-552.Ryder,J.P.1969a.NestingcoloniesofRoss'Goose.Auk86:282-292.1969b. Timing andspacingofnestsandbreedingbiologyofRoss'Goose.-----Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Saskatchewan/Saskatoon,SK.Schwilling,M.D.1969. Ross GoosetakeninKansas.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc. 20:27.1967Ryder,J.P.1967. ThebreedingbiologyofRoss'GooseinthePerryRiverregion,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.SeraNo.3.55pp.91

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Sweet,J.T.andK.Robertson.1966.Ross'GeeseinNebraska.Nebr.BirdRev. 34:70-71.1965Dzubin,A.1965.AstudyofmigratingRoss GeeseinwesternSaskatchewan.Condor 67:511-534.1964 MacInnes,C.D.1964.ThestatusofRoss'Goosein1962-63.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.15:137-139.Ryder,J.P. 1964. ApreliminarystudyofthebreedingbiologyofRoss'Goose. WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.15:127-137.Lumsden,H.G.1963.FurtherrecordsoftheRoss'GooseinOntario.Can.Field-Nat.77:174-175.MacInnes,C.D.and F.G.Cooch. 1963.AdditionaleasternrecordsofRoss'Goose (Chenrossii).Auk80:77-79.Niles,D.M.1963. A Ross GooseinNewMexico. Condor 65: 166. Rusch,A.J.1961.Ross'GoosediscoveredinWisconsin.PassengerPigeon23:49-51.Smart,G.1960.Ross'GoosetakenatHorseshoeLake,Illinois.WilsonBull.12:288-289.1958Barry,T.W.andJ.N.Eisenhart.1958.Ross'GeesenestingatSouthamptonIsland,N.W.T., Canada.Auk75:89-90.Williamson,M.H.1957. PolymorphisminRoss'Goose,Anserrossii,andthedetectionofgeneticdominance fromfielddata.Ibis99:516-518.1955Buller,R.J.1955.Ross'sGooseinTexas.Auk72:298-299.92

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Cooch,F.G.1955.SpringrecordofRoss'Goose from James Bay,Ontario.Condor57:191.1954 Cooch,G.1954.Ross'GooseintheeasternArctic.Condor56:307.Miller,F.W.1954.Ross'GooseinTexas.Condor56:312.O'Neill,E.J.1954.Ross'sGooseobservations.Condor56:311.1952 Dumont,P.A.1952.Ross'sGeeseatthezoo.Atl.Nat.7:141.1947 Shaw,W.T.1947.Relativeweights:Ross,SnowGoose andMallard.Murrelet28:21.1941Cartwright,B.W.1941.Discovered.ThehomeoftheRoss'sGoose.WesternSportsman,Feb.1941:6,18.Taverner,P.A.1941.BreedinggroundsofRoss'Gooseatlastdiscovered.Auk58:92.1940Cartwright,B.W.1940.WheretheRoss'Geesenest:PartI.TheBeaver(December):6-8.Gavin,A.1940.WheretheRoss'Geesenest: II.TheBeaver(December):8-9.Taverner,P.A.1940.ThenestingofRoss'sGoose,Chenrossi.Can.FieldNat.44:127-130.93

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CANADAGOOSE(Brantacanadensis)[DA:Kanadagas,DU:CanadeseGans,FI:Kanadanhanhi,FR:BernacheduCanada,GE:Kanadagans,IT:OcadelCanada,JA:Shijukaragan,NW:Canadgas,PO:Berniklakanadyjska,SP:Barnaclacanadiense,SW:KanadagasJGENERALDISTRIBUTIONThe Canada GooseisawidespreadandabundantbreedingbirdacrossCanada andthenorthernUnitedStates.Itshistoricalbreedingrangehasbeenalteredbythevirtualextinctionofsomepopulations,notablyinthenorth-centralstates,andtheestablishmentorre-establishmentofotherpopulations.Thetotalpopulationhasincreasedgreatlyinrecentdecades,andBellrose(1976)estimatedabout3millionbirdsatthebeginningofthe1974huntingseason.InwintertheCanada GooseisfoundalmostthroughouttheUnitedStatesinsuitablehabitat.Managementpracticesinrecentyears,particularlywinterfeedingandthedevelopmentofartificialimpoundments,haveresultedinmorebirdswinteringinnortherlyareasandfewerbirdsinthesouthernpartoftherange.Well-definedmigrationcorridorsareusedbyvarioussubpopulations,butthespeciesmayoccuralmostanywhereinNorthAmericaduringmigration.ThisgooseiscommoninwinterinthecoastalsoutheasternUnitedStates,withsomebirdsremainingtobreedinthesummermonths.About68,000winteredin coastal NorthCarolinainthe1970-75period(Bellrose1976).Another10,500winteredontheSouthCarolinacoast,23,000winteredinAlabama,and40,000winteredincoastalTexasmarshes(Bellrose1976).Smallernumberswerepresentinothersoutheasternstates(Map5).Numbersinthesouthweregenerallysmallerthaninpastdecades.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONThe Canada Gooseissusceptibletooilpollution.Anestimated300diedfollowingtwooilspillsintheChesapeakeBayin1976 and 1978(Perryetal.1979).TheBirdBandingLaboratoryhasreceivedslightlyover20bandsreturnedfrombirdsfoundoiled,includingonefromTexas.However,thebird'sdecreasingabundanceinthesoutheasternstates,inadditiontoitsinland,freshwaterorcoastalmarshhabitatsuggestthatoilcontaminationinthisareawouldhavelittleeffectontheoverallpopulation.BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Bellrose,F.C. and R. C. Crompton.1981.Migrationspeedsofthreewaterfowlspecies.WilsonBull.93:121-124.94

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linter DistributilllaP forSoutheasternUnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10111111111111.10-50 I I50-200 !iMI More than200 (Adapted 'rom lystrGk,1974) INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals 8 Lessthanoneindividual None observed GULFOFMEXICOMapS

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Craven,S.R.(comp.).1981. The Canada Goose(Brantacanadensis)--anannotatedbibliography.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.--Wildl.No.231.66pp.Malecki,R.A.,F.D.Caswell,R.A.Bishop,K.M.Babcock andM.M.Gillespie.1981.Abreeding-groundsurveyofEPPCanada GeeseinnorthernManitoba.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:46-53.Zicus,M.C.1981.MoltmigrationofCanada Geese from Crex Meadows,Wisconsin.J.Wildl.Manage.45:54-63.1980Akesson,T.R.1980.EndocrinecorrelatesofsocialbehaviorofCanadaGeese.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Calif./Davis.157pp.Allin,C.C.1980.Canada GeeseinRhodeIsland.R.I.Div.Fish&Wildl.,Wildl.Pamph. No.12.v and 46pp.Bishop,R. A., K.M.ReynoldsandR.D.Andrews.1980.GiantCanada Gooserestorationproject.IowaConserveCommissoRes.Bull.No.29.v and 17pp.Blokpoel,H.andM.C.Gauthier.1980.WeatherandthemigrationofCanada GeeseacrosssoutheasternOntarioinspring1975.Can.Field-Nat.94:293-299. Blus, L.J.andC.J.Henny.1980.Canada Geeseincubateeggslaidinpreviousyears.West.Birds11:112.Courtney,P.A.andH.Blokpoel.1980.Canada GoosepredationoneggsofCommonTerns.OntoFieldBioI.34:40-42. Cox, W.R.1980. Avian poxinfectionina Canada Goose(Brantacanadensis).J.Wildl.Dis.16:623-626.Douhan,B.1980.Kanadgasforsvarerfastfrusenartfrandemothavsorn.[Can adaGeese,Brantacanadensis,defendingafrozencompanionagainstattackingSeaEagle,Haliaeetusalbicilla.]VarFagelvarld39:102.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Garnett,M.G.H.1980.MoorlandbreedingandmoultingofCanada GeeseinYorkshire. Bird Study27:219-226.Giroux,J.-F.1980.OverlandtravelbyCanada Goosebroods.Can.Field-Nat.94:461-462.Hoffman,R.H.1980.SandhillCranespreyonCanada Gooseeggs.WilsonBull.92:122. Jelinski, D. E. 1980.Canada Goose andMallardDucknestingon astrawbale.BlueJay38:122-123.96

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Kaminski,R.M.1980. gan Canada Geese.SomeanatomicalcharacteristicsofsoutheasternMichiJack-PineWarbler58:99-103.Krohn,W.B.andE.G.Bizeau.1980.TheRocky MountainpopulationofthewesternCanada Goose:itsdistribution,habitats,and management. U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.--Wildl.No.229.93pp.Lumsden,H.G.1980.EgglessCanada Gooseraisesfoster broods., WilsonBull.92: 415.Malecki,R.A.,F.D.Caswell,K.M.Babcock,R.A.Bishop andR.K.Brace.1980. MajornestingrangeoftheeasternprairiepopulationofCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 44: 229-232.Nelson,R.C. and T.A.Bookhout. 1980. CountsofperiosteallayersinvalidforagingCanada Geese.J.Wildl.Manage. 44: 518-521.Nigus,T.A.andJ.J.Dinsmore. 1980.ProductivityofCanada GeeseinnorthwesternIowa.Proc.Iowa Acad.Sci.87:56-61.Schroeder,C.H.1980. Canada Goosenestingstructures.N.Dak. Outdoors 42:6-9.Tacha, T. C.,G.F. Martz andJ.Parker.1980.HarvestandmortalityofGiantCanada GeeseinsoutheasternMichigan.Wildl.Soc.Bull.8:40-45.Thomas,V.G.andJ.P.Prevette1980.Thenutritionalvalueofarrow-grassestogeeseatJames Bay.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:830-836.Wheeler,W.E. 1980. A Canada Goosekilledby acoyote.PassengerPigeon42:42-44.1979 Anderson,G.1979. Geeseinthetreetops.Am.Forests85: Andreev,B.N.VilyuyR.]Arnold,K.A.inTexas.1979. [The Canada Goose(Brantacanadensis)seenontheOrnitologiya14:185.[InRussian.]1979.AdditionalrecordsofsmallsubspeciesofCanada GeeseBull.Tex.Ornithol.Soc. 12:54-55.Blus,L.J.1979.Effectsofheptachlor-treatedgrainsonCanada GeeseintheColumbiabasin.Pp. 105-116inR.L.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyofPacificFlywaygeese:a symposium. OregonStateUniversityBookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.Gillespie,M.M.1979. Canada GeeseoftheHudsonBaylowlands.ManitobaDept.Mines,Nat.ResourcesandEnviron.,Winnipeg,MB.19pp.Godin, P.R.andR.E.Joyner.1979. AdescriptionofplumageaberrancyintwowildCanada Geese.Ont.FieldBioI.33:46-52.97

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Goodwin, T.M.Florida.1979.TwounusualnestsitesforCanada GeeseinLeonCounty,Fla.FieldNat.7:6-7.Heintzelman,D.andR.MacClay.1979.ineasternPennsylvaniainautumn.FlocksizesofmigratingCanada GeeseCassinia57:25.Hildebrand,B.W.1979.Reservoir,Montana.HabitatrequirementsofmoltingCanada GeeseatLima M.S.thesis,MontanaSt.Univ./Bozeman,MT.79pp.Kaminski,R.M.,J.M.ParkerandH.H.Prince.1979.ReproductivebiologyofGiantCanada Geesere-establishedinsoutheasternMichigan.Jack-PineWarbler57:59-69.Krohn,W.B.andE.G.Bizeau.1979.MoltmigrationoftheRocky MountainpopulationsoftheWesternCanada Goose.Pp.130-140inR.L.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyof geese:a symposium. OregonStateUniversityBookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.Lidicker,W.Z.,Jr.and F.C.McCollum.1979.Canada GooseestablishedasabreedingspeciesinSanFranciscoBay.West.Birds10:159-162.Marshall,A.1979. Saskatchewan. AstudyofnestingCanada GeeseatCondieNatureRefuge,BlueJay37:158-162.Raveling,D.G.1979a.TheannualcycleofbodycompositionofCanadaGeese,withreferencetocontrolofreproduction.Auk96:234-252.1979b.TraditionaluseofmigrationandwinterroostsitesbyCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage.43:229-235.Thomas,C.B.1979. Ringlossfrom CanadaGeese.BirdStudy26:270-271.vandenBerg,A.B.,H.BlankertandJ.Brinkman.1979.ZeldzameganzeninNederlandindewintervan1978/79.[RaregeeseintheNetherlandsinthewinterof1978/79.]DutchBirding1:34-41.[InDutchwithEnglish mary.] 1978Allen,G.T.,S.E.Fast,B.J.Langstaff,D.W.Tomrdle andB.L.Troutman.1978. CensusofCanada GeeseonthePalouseRiver,Washington,duringthespringof1977.Murrelet59:96-100.Cooper,J.A.1978.ThehistoryandbreedingbiologyoftheCanada GeeseofMarshyPoint,Manitoba.Wildl.Monogr.No.61.87pp.Fjetland,C.A.1978.GiantCanada Gooseincubatesegglessnest.WilsonBull.90:456-457.Hicks,L.L.,D.R.HerterandM.Yamasaki.1978. BaldEaglepreyson Canada Goose.Jack-PineWarbler56:94.98

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Johnson,S.C.andJ.E. Kennamner. 1978.ReproductivesuccessoftheresidentCanada GooseflockattheEufaulaNationalWildlifeRefuge.Proc.30thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:617-626.Knight,R.L.andA.W.Erickson.1978. CanadaGoose-GreatBlueHeron-GreatHornedOwlnestingassociations.WilsonBull.90:455-456.Manning, T.H.1978. Measurements andweightsofeggsoftheCanada Goose,Brantacanadensis,analyzedand comparedwiththoseof other species.Can.J.Zool.56:676-687.Mather,T. E. 1978. Canada GoosetakesoverMallardnest.WilsonBull.90:646-647.Mori,J.G.andJ.C.George.1978.Seasonalchangesinserumlevelsofcertainmetabolites,uricacidandcalciuminthemigratoryCanada Goose(Brantacanadensisinterior).CompoBiochem.Physiol.B,CompoBiochem. 59:263-269.Ratti,J.R.,D.E.TimmandD.R.Anderson.1978.ReevaluationofsurvivalestimatesforVancouver CanadaGeese:applicationofmodernmethods.Wildl.Soc.Bull.6:146-148.Raveling,D.G.1978a.MorphologyoftheCacklingCanada Goose.J.Wildl.Manage.42:897-900.1978b. DynamicsofdistributionofCanada Geeseinwinter.Trans.N.------Am.Wildl.Natl.Resourc.Conf. 43:206-225.Raveling,D.G.andH.G.Lumsden. 1978.NestingecologyofCanada GeeseintheHudsonBayLowlandsofOntario:evolutionandpopulationregulation.OntoMinistryNat.Resourc.,Fish&Wildl.Res.Rept.98:77.Raveling,D.G.,M.Sifriand R. B. Knudsen. 1978.Seasonalvariationoffemur andtibiotarsusconstituentsinCanadaGeese.Condor80:246-248.Tacha,T.C.,R.L.Linderand T.L.Kuck.1978.AnalysisofaerialcirclingsurveysforCanada Goosebreedingpopulations.Wildl.Soc.Bull.6:42-44.Vermeer,K. andB.D.Davies.1978.ComparisonofthebreedingofCanada andSnowgeeseatWesthamIsland,BritishColumbia.Wildfowl29:31-44.1977Buckalew,J.H.1977.DistributionofCanadaGeese.N.Am. Bird Bander2:58-60.Glasgow,W.M.1977. BroodmixingbehaviorandpopulationdynamicsofCanada GeeseatDowlingLake, M.S.thesis,Univ.Alberta/Edmonton,AB.149pp.99

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Kaminski,R.M.andH.H.Price.1977.NestinghabitatofCanada GeeseinsoutheasternMichigan.WilsonBull.89:523-531.Knight,R.L. andA.W.Erickson.1977.ObjectsincorporatedwithinclutchesoftheCanada Goose. West.Birds8:108.Morgan,R.P.,II,S. T.SulkinandC.J.Henny. 1977. SerumproteinsofCan ada Goose(Brantacanadensis)subspecies.Condor79:275-278.Mori,J.G.1977.CertainecophysiologicalaspectsintheannuallifecycleoftheCanada Goose(Brantacanadensisinterior).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.ofCuelphI Guelph,ON.Ogilvie,M.A.1977.ThenumbersofCanada GeeseinBritain,1976.Wildfowl28:27-34.Ratti,J.T.,D.E.Timmand F.C.Robards.1977.WeightsandmeasurementsofVancouver CanadaGeese. .48:354-357.Raveling,D.G.1977. Canada GeeseoftheChurchillRiverbasininnorthcentralManitoba. J. Wildl.Manage. 41:35-47.Reed,A.,G.Chapdelaineand P.Dupuis.1977.UseoffarmlandinspringbymigratingCanada GeeseintheSt.LawrenceValley,Quebec.J.Appl.Ecol.14:667-680.Thomas,C.B.1977.ThemortalityofYorkshireCanadaGeese.Wildfowl 28:35-47.Wilkens,F. 1977. BrutvorkommenderKanadagans(Brantacanadensis)inNiedersachsen.Ornithol.Mitt.29: 243.[In 1976 Babcock,K.M.1976.StudyXII.MigrationandmortalityofCanadaGeese.MissouriDept.ConserveStudyCompletionRept.,Fed.AidProj.W-13-R-30. 76pp.Bench,J.,W.J.RudersdorfandJ.P.Harley.1976. ApreliminarymethodtodeterminesexinCanada Geesebyskintransparency.IBBANews48:69-70.Bromley,R.G.1976.Nestingandhabitat.studiesoftheDusky Canada GooseontheCooperRiverdelta,Alaska.M.S.thesis,Univ.Alaska/Fairbanks,AK.81pp.Chabreck,R.H.andH.H.Dupuie.1976.AlligatorpredationonCanada Goosenests.Copeia 1976:404-405.Craven,S.R.1976. History andecologyofCanada GeesewinteringnearRockPrairie,Wisconsin.M.S.thesis,Univ.Wisc./Madison,WI.72pp.Glasrud,R.D.1976. Canada Geesekilledduringlightningstorm.Can.FieldNat.90:503.100

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Hilley,J.D.1976.Productivityofa Canada GooseflockinnortheasternSouthDakota.M.S.thesis,S.DakotaSt.Univ./Vermillion,SD.37pp.McCabe, T.R.1976.ProductivityandnestinghabitatofGreatBasinCanadaGeese:UmatillaWildlifeReguge. M.S.thesis,OregonSt.Univ./Corvallis,OR.82pp.Malecki,R.A.1976.ofCanadaGeese.ThebreedingbiologyoftheeasternprairiepopulationPh.D.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.150pp.Nilsson,I.and S.Nilsson.1976.KanadagassBrantacanadensistramparsonderaggavFisktarnaSternahirundo.[CanadaGoose,Brantacanadensis,crushingeggsoftheCommonTern,Sternahirundo.]VarFagelvarld35:157.[InSwedish.]Pichner,J.,M.R. Ryan andC.Zuckweiler.1976.Fish-feedingbehaviorinCanadaGeese.Loon48:37-38.Radesater,T.1976a.InteractionsbetweenmaleandfemaleduringthetriumphceremonyintheCanada Goose(BrantacanadensisL.).Z.Tierpsychol.39:189-205.1976b.IndividualsiblingrecognitioninjuvenileCanada Geese(Branta-----canadensis).Can.J.Zool.54:1069-1072.Raveling,D.G.1976a.Migrationreversal:aregularphenomenonofCanadaGeese.Science193:153-154._____1976b.StatusofGiantCanada GeesenestinginsoutheastManitoba.J.Wildl.Manage.40:214-226.Skinner,W.1976.Canada GoosestagingareasinwesternNewfoundland.Osprey7:17-19.Tautin,J.1976.PopulationdynamicsandharvestofCanada GeeseinUtah.Ph.D.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UTe100pp.Thomas,V.G.andJ.C.George.1976.PlasmaanddepotfattyacidsinCanadaGeeseinrelationtodiet,migration,andreproduction.Physiol.Zool.48:157-167.1975Boyer,R.L.andM.J.Psujek.1975.Canada GooseparasitizingMallardnest.WilsonBull.87:287.Heppner,F.H.andC.Willard.1975.InvertedflightinCanadaGeese.Condor77:478-480.101Langvatn,R. andP.Krigsvoll.1975.edEagleattackingCanadaGoose.]Englishsummary.] HavornangriperCanadagas.[White-tailSterna14:40-41.[InNorwegianwith

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Mickelson,P.G.1975.BreedingbiologyofCacklingGeese andassociatedspeciesontheYukon-KuskokwimDelta,Alaska.Wildl.Monogr.45.35pp.Radesater,T. 1975.BitinginthetriumphdisplayoftheCanada Goose.WilsonBull. 87: 554-555.Zicus,M.C.1975a.Loonpredationon a Canada Goosegosling.Auk92:611612. 1975b.CapturingnestingCanada Geesewithmistnets.Bird-Banding--.46:168-169.1974Cooper,J.A.1974. ThehistoryandnestingbiologyoftheCanada GeeseatMarshyPoint,Manitoba.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Mass./Amherst,MA.395pp.Cowan,P.J.1974.leadingbroods.IndividualdifferencesinalarmcallsofCanada GeeseAuk91:189-191.Fabricius,E.,A.Bylin,A.Fernoand T.Radesater.1974.Intra-andinterspecificterritorialisminmixedcoloniesoftheCanada GooseBrantacanadensisandtheGreylagGoose OrnisScand.5: Gould,L.L.andF.Heppner.1974.TheveeformationofCanadaGeese.Auk91:494-506.Kennedy,D.D.andG.C.Arthur.sissippiValleypopulation.1974.SubflocksinCanada GeeseoftheMisWildl.Soc.Bull.2:8-12.MacInnes,C.D.,R.A.Davis,R.N.Jones,B.C.LieffandA.J.Pakulak.1974.ReproductiveefficiencyofMcConnellRiversmallCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 38:686-707.Radesater,T.1974a.Form andsequentialassociationsbetweenthetriumphceremony andotherbehaviourpatternsintheCanada GooseBrantacanadensisL.OrnisScand 5:87-101. 1974b.Ontheontogenyoforientingmovementsinthetriumphceremonyintwospeciesofgeese L.andBrantacanadensisL.).Behaviour50:1-15.Tangen,H.I.L. 1974.ForsokmedCanadagas iNorge.[IntroductionsofCan ada GeeseinNorway.] Fauna27:166-176.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsum mary] Zicus,M.C.1974. AstudyoftheGiantCanada Geese(Brantacanadensismax ima)nestatCrex Meadows,Wisconsin.M.S.thesis,Univ. Minnesota/Se: Paul,MN.116pp.102

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1973Cowan, P.J.1973.Parentalcallsandtheapproachbehaviourofyoung CanadaGeese:alaboratorystudy.Can.J.Zool.51: 647-650.Kondla,N.G.1973.Canada Goosegoslingsleavingcliffnest.Auk90:890.Lieff,B.C.1973.SummerfeedingecologyofBlue and Canada geese atMcConnellRiver,N.W.T. Ph.D.thesis,Univ.WesternOntario/London,ON.Mickelson,P.G.1973.BreedingbiologyofCacklingGeese(Brantacanadensisminima Ridgway) andassociatedspeciesontheYukon-Kuskokwimdelta,Alaska.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Mich./AnnArbor,MI.261pp.Truett,E.A.,IIIandJ.A.Bailey.1973.ObservationsatanestofaGiantCanada GooseatNoxubeeNationalWildlifeRefuge.MississippiKite3:6-11.1972Cooper,J.A.andJ.R.Hickin.1972.ChronologyofhatchingbylayingsequenceinCanadaGeese.WilsonBull.84: 90-92.Ewaschuk,E.andD.A.Boag.1972.denselynestingCanadaGeese.FactorsaffectinghatchingsuccessofJ.Wildl.Manage.36: 1097-1106.Flath,D.L.1972.CanadaGoose-Ospreyinteractions.Auk89: 446-447.Korhonen, S.1972.Tuloksiakanadanhanhenistutuskokeilusta.introducingtheCanadaGoose.]SuomenRiista24:52-56.Englishsummary.][Experimentin[InFinnishwithMacInnes,C.D.andR.K.Misra.1972.PredationonCanada GoosenestsatMcConnellRiver,NorthwestTerritories.J.Wildl.Manage.36:414-422.Raveling,D.G.,W.E. Crews andW.D.Klimstra.1972.ActivitypatternsofCanada Geeseduringwinter.WilsonBull.84: 278-295.Starkey,E. E.1972.Acaseof homosexualityingeese.Auk89:456-457.Stephenson,J.D.andG.Smart.1972.Eggmeasurementsforthreeendangeredspecies.Auk89: 191-192. YOCtnn, C.F. 1972.CanadaGeese.WeightsandmeasurementsofTaverner'sandGreatBasinMurrelet53:33-34.1971Crow,J.H.1971.Earthquake-initiatedchangesinthenestinghabitatoftheDusky Canada Goose.Pp.130-136inK.B.Krauskopf(Chmn.) ThegreatAlaskaearthquakeof1964.BioI.Nat1.Res.Council,Washington,D.C.103

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CulbertsontJ. L't L.C.CadwellandI.O.Buss.1971.ofCanadaGeeseontheSnakeRiverinWashington.Nestingand movements Condor73:230-236. Rallt L.C.andF.B.McGilvrey.1971.NestingbyayearlingCanadaGoose.J.Wildl.Manage.35:835-836. Hanson t W. C. andL.L.Eberhard.1971.A ColumbiaRiverCanada Goosepopula tiont 1950-1970.Wildl.Monogr.28:1-61. Imbert M.J.1971.TheidentityofNewZealand'sCanadaGeese.Notornis18:253-261. Samsoll t F.B.1971.MigrationofresidentandmigrantCanada GeesebandedatNecedahNationalWildlifeRefuge.Bird-Banding42:115-118.1970 Chapman tJ. inOregon.1970.WeightsandmeasurementsofDusky CanadaGeesewinteringMurrelet51:34-37.Fabriciust E.1970.Kanadensiskanybyggare.[Canadiansettlers.AsurveyoftheCanada Goose(Brantacanadensis)inSweden.]ZooLRevy.32:19-25.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] Griebt J.R.1970.TheShortgrassPrairieCanada Goosepopulation.Wildl.Monogr.22.49pp. Jonest R.N.andM.Obbard.1970.sequentpairingofitsmate.Canada GoosekilledbyArcticLoon andsubAuk87:370-371.RavelingtD.G.1970a.DominancerelationshipsandagonisticbehaviourofCanadaGeeseinwinter.Behaviour37:291-319._____1970b.SurvivalofCanada Geeseunaffectedbywithdrawingbloodsamples.J.Wildl.Manage.34:941-943.SurrenditD.C.1970.ThemortalitYtbehaviorand homingoftransplantedjuvenileCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage.34:719-733.Vermeer tK.1970.AstudyofCanada Geese t BrantacanadensistnestingislandsinsoutheasternAlberta.Can.J.Zool.48:235-240. Walker t A.F.G.1970.ThemoultmigrationofYorkshireCanadaGeese.Wildfowl21:99-104. Yocumt C.F.1970a.TheGiantCanada GooseinNewZealand.Auk87:812-814.1970b.EvidenceofCanada GeeseinKashmir tIndia.Murrelet51:26.104

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1969 Chapman.J.A C.J.Henny andH.M.Wight.1969.dynamics andharvestoftheDusky Canada Goose. 48pp.The status. populationWildl.Monogr.18. Hanson. W.C.1969.FirstsightrecordsofBlue GeeseinWashington.Murrelet50:24.Ogilvie.M.A.1969. ThestatusoftheCanada GooseinBritain1967-69.Wildfowl20:79-85.Raveling.D.G.1969a.PreflightandflightbehaviourofCanadaGeese.Auk86:671-681.1969b.SocialclassesofCanada Geeseinwinter.J.Wildl.Manage.------33:304-318.1969c.RoostsitesandflightpatternsofCanada Geeseinwinter.J.------Wildl.Manage. 33:319-330.1968 Cadwell. L.L.1968.BehavioralstudyofCanada GeeseinsoutheastWashington.M.S. thesis. Wash.St.Univ./Pullman.WA. Crider. E.D.1968.Canada GooseinterceptionsinthesoutheasternUnited States. withspecialreferencetotheFloridaflock.Proc.21stAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:145-155.Dimmick.R.W.1968. Canada GeeseofJacksonHole,theirecologyandmanagement.Wyo.GameFishBull.No.11.86pp. Hankla. D.J.andR.R.Rudolph.1968.ChangesinmigrationandwinteringhabitsofCanada GeeseinthelowerportionoftheAtlanticand Missis sippiflyways--withspecialreferencetoNationalWildlifeRefuges.Proc.21stAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:133-144.Higgins.K.F.1968.EvaluationoftechniquesforestimatingfallageratiosofCanada andSnowGeese.M.S.thesis,S. Dak.St.Univ./Vermillion,SD. Imber. M.J.andG.R.Williams.populationinNewZealand.1968.Mortalityratesofa Canada GooseJ.Wildl.Manage. 32:256-267.Klopman,R.B.1968.TheagonisticbehaviouroftheCanada Goose(Brantacanadensiscanadensis).I.AttackBehaviour.Behaviour30:287-319.McDougle,H.C. and R.W.Vaught.1968.AnepizooticofaspergillosisinCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 32:415-417.Raveling.D.G.1968.WeightsofBrantacanadensisinteriorduringwinter.J.Wildl.Manage. 32:412-414.-------105

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Weigand,J.P.,M.J.PollockandG.A.Petrides.1968.SomeaspectsofreproductionofcaptiveCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 32: 894-905.1967Culbertson,J.L. 1967.BehaviorofCanada GeeseontheSnakeRiverinsoutheastWashington.M.S.thesis,Wash.St.Univ./Pullman,WA.Henny,C.J.1967.PopulationcharacteristicsoftheDusky Canada Gooseasdeterminedfrombandingdata.M.S.thesis,OregonSt.Univ./Corvallis,OR.Jarvis,R.L.andS.W.Harris.1967.Canada GoosenestsuccessandhabitatuseatMalheurRefuge.Murrelet49:6.Messinger,N.G.1967.TwoJunerecordsoftheCanada GooseinGrand Canyon,Arizona.Condor 69: 319.Olney,P.J.S. 1967.TheWAGBI-WildfowlTrustExperimentalReserve.II:ThefeedingecologyoflocalMallardandotherwildfowl.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:47-55.Raveling,D.G.1967.SociobiologyandecologyofCanada Geeseinwinter.Ph.D.thesis,S.Ill.Univ./Carbondale,IL.Reese,J.G.1967.BrantacanadensishutchinsiiinMaryland.Md.Birdlife23:45.Sherwood,G.A.1967.BehavioroffamilygroupsofCanadaGeese.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.32:340-355.Szymczak,M.R.1967.BreedingbiologyofCanada GeeseoftheMetro-Denverarea.M.S.thesis,ColoradoSt.Univ./FortCollins,CO.Wise,G.A.Refuge.1967. Canada GoosemortalityatCrab OrchardNationalWildlifeM.A.thesis,S.Ill.Univ./Carbondale,IL.Garcia,F.ando.Garrido.1966.NuevorecordornitologicoparaCuba. Mus.FelipePoey Acad.Cienc.CubaTrab.Divulg.36.3pp.[InSpanish.]Houston,C.S.1966.BreedingrecordsoftheGiantCanada GoosenearYorkton,Saskatchewan.BlueJay24:71-72.Hunt,R.A.and L.R.Jahn.1966. Canada GoosebreedingpopulationsinWisconsin.Wise.ConserveDept.Techn.Bull.No. 38.67pp.Kuyt,E.1966.FurtherobservationsonlargeCanada GeesemoultingontheThelonRiver,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Field-Nat.80:63-69.MacInnes,C.D.1966.PopulationbehaviorofeasternArcticCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 30:536-553.106

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Raveling,D.G.1966.FactorsaffectingageratiosofsamplesofCanada Geesecaughtwithcannon-nets.J.Wildl.Manage.30:682-691.Vaught,R.W.and L.M.Kirsch.1966. Canada GeeseoftheEasternPrairiepopulationwithspecialreferencetotheSwanLakeflock.MissouriDept.ConserveTech.Bull.No.3.xiiiand91pp.Yocum,C.F.andS.W.Harris.1966.GrowthratesofGreat Basin CanadaGeese.Murrelet47:33-37.Brakhage,G.K.1965.BiologyandbehavioroftubnestingCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 29:751-771.Hanson,H.C.1965.TheGiantCanada Goose.s.Ill.Univ.Press,Carbondale,IL.226pp.Vaught,R.W.andG.C.Arthur.1965.MigrationroutesandmortalityratesofCanada Geese bandedintheHudson Baylowlands.J.Wildl.Manage.29:244-252.Williams,J.E. 1965.EnergyrequirementsoftheCanada Gooseinrelationtodistributionandmigration.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Ill./Urbana,IL.Wood,J.S. 1965.SomeassociationsofbehaviourtoreproductivedevelopmentinCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage.29:237-244.Yocum,C.F. 1965.EstimatedpopulationsofGreatBasinCanada GeeseovertheirbreedingrangeinwesternCanada andwesternUnitedStates.Murrelet46:18-26.1964Craighead,J.J.andD.S.Stockstad.1964.BreedingageofCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 28:57-64.Day,N.H.1964. Canada Gooseproductionandpopulationstability,Ogden BayWaterfowlArea,Utah.M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UT.Dimmick,R.W.Wyoming. 1964. ApopulationstudyofCanada GeeseinJacksonHole,Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Wyoming/Laramie,WY. Hunt, J.H.1964.NestingrecordfortheCanada GooseinWakeCounty,NorthCarolina.Chat 28:133-135.Martin,F.R.1964.BehaviorandsurvivalofCanada GeeseinUtah.UtahDept.FishGameBull.64:1-89.Nass,R.D.1964.Sex-andage-ratio bias ofcannon-net"tedgeese.J.Wildl.Manage.28:522-527.107

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Olsen,D.L. 1964.Theeffectsofweatheronharvestand movementsoftheCanada Goose,Brantacanadensisinterior.M.S.thesis,S.Ill.Univ./Carbondale,IL-.--Wood,J.S.1964 CanadaGeese.Normaldevelopmentand c.ausesofreproductivefailureinJ.Wildl.Manage.28:197-208.1963Martin,F.W.1963.Breedingterritorialism,familyorganization,and populationdynamicsoftheCanada GooseattheOgden BayRefuge,Utah.Ph.D .thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UTeSkinner,R.W.1963.Albinismina Canada Goose.Auk80:366.Hansen,H.A.1962.Canada GeeseofcoastalAlaska.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Nat.Resourc.Conf.27:301-320.Hanson,H.C.1962a.The dynamicsofconditioningfactorsinCanada Geese andtheirrelationtoseasonalstress.ArcticInst.N.Am.Tech.Pap.No.12.68pp._____1962b.Charactersofage,sex,andsexualmaturityinCanadaGeese.Ill.Nat.Hist.Surv.BioI.NotesNo.49.Klopman,R.B.1962.SexualbehaviorintheCanada Goose.LivingBird1:123-129.Marquardt,R.E. 1962.TheecologyandmigrationofwinterflocksofthesmallWhite-checkedGeesewithinthesouth-centralUnitedStates.Ph.D.thesis,Okla.St.Univ./Stillwater,OK.Craighead,J.J.andD.S.Stockstad.1961.EvaluatingtheuseofaerialnestingplatformsbyCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage 25:363-372.Helm, L.G.souri.1961.EffectsofCanada GeeseoncropsandsoilsincentralMisM.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.Marquardt,R.E.1961.AlbinisminthesmallWhite-checkedGeese.Auk78:99-100.1960Brenner,F.J.1960.Canada Geesenestingonabeaverdam.Auk77: 476 .Jones,N.G.B.1960.ofCanadaGeese.ExperimentsonthecausationofthethreatposturesWildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.11:46-52.108

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Munro,D.A.1960.FactorsaffectingreproductionoftheCanada Goose.Proc.XIIthIntern.Orntihol.Congr.,Helsinki,5-12July,1958:542-560.Shepherd,P.E.K.1960ms.MortalitystudiesofwesternCanadaGeese-CopperRiverDelta.AlaskaDept.FishGame,Div.Game,Pittman-RobertsonProj.Rept.2:50-57.1959Atwater,M.G.1959.AstudyofrenestinginCanada GeeseinMontana.J.Wildl.Manage.23:91-97.Collias,N.E.and L.R.Jahn.1959.SocialbehaviourandbreedingsuccessinCanadaGeese(Brantacanadensis)confinedundersemi-naturalconditions.Auk76:478-50-9-.----Hanson,H.andR.Browning.1959.NestingstudiesofCanada GeeseontheHanford Reservation, 1953-56.J.Wildl.Manage.23:129-137.Nelson,U.C.andH.A.Hansen.1959.TheCacklingGoose--itsmigrationand management.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.24:174-187.Yelverton,C.S. andT.L. Quay.1959.LakeMattamuskeet,NorthCarolina.FoodhabitsoftheCanada GooseatN.C.Wildl.Resourc.Commisso44pp.1958Atwater,M.G.1958.Atwo-yearstudyofrenestinginCanadaGeese,Brantacanadensis,inPhillipsCounty,Montana.M.S.thesis,MontanaSt.Univ./Bozeman,MT.Hanson,H.C.1958.StudiesofthephysiologyofwinteringandofmoltingCanadaGeese,Brantacanadensisinterior.Ph.D.thesis,S.Ill.Univ./Carbondale,IL-.-----Klopman,R.B.1958.ThenestingoftheCanada GooseatDogLake,Manitoba.WilsonBull.70:168-173.Salter,R.L.1958.Canada GoosenestingstudiesinIdaho.IdahoWildl.Rev.10:7-9.1957Bell,R.Q.1957.Foodco-actionsofCanadaGeese,Brantacanadensisinterior(Todd),insouthernIllinois.M.A.thesis,S.Ill.Univ.!Carbondale,IL.Douville,C.H.andC.E.Friley,Jr.1957.RecordsoflongevityinCanadaGeese.Auk74: 510. 109

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1956 Cowan. A.B. andC.M.Herman.1956.WinterlossesofCanada GeeseatPeaIs land. NorthCarolina.Proc.9thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:172-174. Grice. G.D Jr E. L. Tyson and E.B.Chamberlain.1956.AnunexplainedmortalityofCanada GeeseinnorthFlorida.J.WildLManage-.20:330-331.Jones,N.G.1956. CensusofbreedingCanada Geese 1953.BirdStudy3:153170.Salter,R.L.1956. Canada GoosenestingstudiesinIdaho.Proc.36thAnnu.Conf.WesternAssoc.StateGame&FishCommiss.:191-194.Yelverton,C.S. 1956. FoodhabitsoftheCanada Goose,Brantacanadensis(Linnaeus),atLakeMattamuskeet,NorthCarolina.M.S.thesis,N.C.St.Univ./Raleigh,NC.1954 Balham, R.W.Manitoba.1954a.ThebehavioroftheCanada Goose. Brantacanadensis,inM.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia, MO.--zzg-pp. 1954b.ThebehavioroftheCanada Goose(Brantacanadensis)inManitoba.-----Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia.MO.244pp. Barraclough-Geis. M.E.1954.BiologyofCanadaGeese,Brantacanadensismoffitti,intheFlatheadValleyofMontana. M.S.thesis,Univ.Montana/--Missoula,MT.91pp. Collins. B.D.1954. AnestingstudyoftheCanada GooseatTuleLake and Lower KlamathNationalWildlifeRefuge.Proc.33rdAnnu.Conf.WesternAssoc.StateGame&FishCommiss.:172-176. Dumont. P.A.1954.A newfieldmarkfordistinguishingCanadaGeese.Atl. Nat. 9:201.Naylor,A.E.andE.G.Hunt.1954. AnestingstudyandpopulationsurveyofCanada Geese ontheSusan River. Lassen County. California.Calif.FishGame40:5-16.Yancey,R.K.1954.ThefutureofLouisiana'sCanada Goose.La.Conserve 6:10-11.Hanson,H.C.1953.Inter-familydominanceinCanadaGeese.Auk70:11-16.Miller,A.W.andB.D.Collins.1953. AnestingstudyofCanada GeeseonTuleLake and Lower KlamathNationalWildlife Refuges. SiskiyouCounty,California.Calif.FishGame39:385-396.110

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1952 Hanson,H.C. andR.E.Griffith.1952.NotesontheSouthAtlanticCanada Goosepopulation.Bird-Banding23:1-22.Nelson,H.K.1952.HybridizationofCanada GeesewithBlue Geeseinthewild.Auk69:425-428.Sykes,A.N.1952. Canada Goosediving.Brit.Birds45:34.VirginiaCommissionofGameandInlandFisheries.1952.Canada Geesebenefitwinterwheat.Va. CommissoGame&InlandFisheries,Educ.Bull.84:1-2.1951De1acour,J.1951.PreliminarynoteonthetaxonomyofCanadaGeese,Brantacanadensis.Am.Mus.Novit.1537. 10pp.Helm, L.G.souri.1951.EffectsofCanada Geese oncropsandsoilsincentralMisM.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.1950Critcher,S. 1950.RenalcoccidosisinPeaIslandCanadaGeese.Wi1d1. N.C. 14:14-15.Hanson,H.C.andR.H.Smith.1950. Canada GeeseoftheMississippiFlyway,withspecialreferencetoanIllinoisflock.Ill.Nat.Hist.Surv.Bull.25:67-210.Kossack,C.W.1950.BreedinghabitsofCanada Geeseunderrefugeconditions.Am.Mid1.Nat.43:627-649.Vine,A.E. 1950.Post-coitionaldisplayofCanada Goose.Brit.Birds42:227.1949 Amundson, R.1949.The Canada Goose. Wi1d1. N.C.13:4-7.Craighead,F.C.,Jr.andJ.J.Craighead.1949.NestingCanada GeeseontheUpper SnakeRiver.J.Wildi.Manage.13:51-64.Hanson,H.C.1949. MethodsofdeterminingageinCanada Geese andotherwaterfowl.J.Wi1d1. Manage.13:177-183.Jewett,S.G.1949.ThenestingpopulationoftheCanada GooseinthePacificNorthwest.Trans.N.Am.Wi1d1. Conf.14:87-94.1947Kossack,C.W.1947.Incubation temperatures ofCanadaGeese.J.Wild1.Manage.11:119-126.111

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1946 Aldricht J.W.1946.SpeciationintheWhite-cheekedgeese.WilsonBull.58:94-103. ConwaYt A.E.1946.Concerningthestatus of Hutchins'GooseontheAtlanticCoast.Auk63:261. Eldert W.H.1946.AgeandsexcriteriaandweightsofCanadaGeese.J.Wildl.Manage. 10:93-111. Glazenert W.C.1946a.FoodhabitsofwildgeeseontheGulfcoastofTexas.J.Wildl.Manage.10:322-329.1946b. FoodhabitsofwildgeeseontheTexasGulfcoast.Proc.&Trans.Texas Acad.Sci.29:227-234. Williamst C.S. 1946.Rareegg-layingdatefortheCanada Goose.Auk63:438.1945 McAtee t W.L.462.1945.Brantac.hutchinsiontheAtlanticcoast.Auk62:461----Millst H.R. 1945.ReportofCanada GooseatSt. Petersburgt Florida.Fla.Nat.19: 21. 1944 Lucas t A.R.1944.DivingofCanadaGeese.Brit.Birds37:199.1943Dow;J.S.ornia.1943.AstudyofnestingCanada GeeseinHoney Lake ValleYt CalifCalif.FishGame29:3-18. Williamst S.andM.C.Nelson.1943. Canada Goosenestsandeggs.Auk60:341-345.1938 Williamst C.S.andW.H.Marshall.BearRiver Refuge t Utah t 1937.1938.SurvivalofCanada Goose goslingst J.Wildl.Manage. 2:17-19.1934 Howard t W.J.1934. LeadpoisoninginBrantacanadensiscanadensis.Auk51:513-514.1932 Lincolnt F.C.1932.AlongevityrecordfortheHutchinson'sGoose.BirdBanding3:114.112

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1931Taverner, A.1931. AstudyofBrantacanadensis(Linnaeus),theCanada Goose. Annu.Rept.Nat.Mus. Canada 1929:30-40.1928 Mershon,W.B.1928. Canada GoosemigrationatSaginaw,Mich.Auk45:93.1926Lincoln,F.C.1926.ThemigrationoftheCacklingGoose. Condor 28:153-157.1925Davison,D.W.1925.NestingoftheCanada Gooseinatree.Can.Field-Nat.39:197-198.CanadaGeese. PhotographbyTomDwyer,U.S.FishandWildlife Service.113

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BARNACLEGOOSE leucopsis)[DA:Bramgas,DU:Brandgans,FI:Valkoposkihanhi,FR:Bernachenonnette,GE:Weisswangengans, IC:Helsingi,IT:Ocafacciabianca,NW:Kvitkinngas,PO:Berniklabialolica,RU:(White-cheekedGoose),SP:Barnaclacariblanca,Gansodecollar;SW:Vitkindadgas]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheBarnacleGooseisanOld Worldspecies,breedinginGreenlandand onSpitsbergenand Novaya ZemylaintheBaerentsSea.ItwintersinnorthernEurope(Salomonsen1950,Crampetale1977,Johnsgard1978).ThespeciesisofonlycasualoccurrenceinNorthAmerica(AOU1957),and someoftherecordsheremaybeofbirdsescapedfromcaptivity.TherearesevenrecordsforNorthCarolina,rangingfrom 1870 (Wray andDavis1959)to1972(Grant1972).Therewere twoobservations,ofthreebirds,inAlabamain1969 and 1970 (Imhof1976b),andtherearethreereportsfromTexas,1968-71(Webster1971a,Oberholser1974).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONBarnacleGeesehavebeenrecordedasaffectedbyoilinatleastoneinstance.About 200oil-smearedBarnacleGeese(outofover9,000)werefoundafterthereleaseoffueloilintotheAmerRiverintheNetherlandsinDecember1970 (Ouweneel1971).TheproportionofoiledBarnacleGeese wasconsiderablylessthaninotherspeciesofgeesepresent.DuetotherarityofthisbirdinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,theeffectofoilpollutioninthisareashouldbeoflittleconcern.BIBLIOGRAPHYBrandt,H.1980.Weiswanganganse, leucopsis,aufden KooserWiesen.[BarnacleGooseBrantaleucopsisattheKooserPlain.]Beitr.Vogelkd.26:239.[InGerman.]Butler,P.J.andA.J.Woakes. 1980.Heartrate,respiratoryfrequencyandwingbeatfrequencyoffreeflyingBarnacleGeese leucopsis.J.Exper.Biol.85:213-226.Jukema,J.,o.Rijpma andD.Hollenga.1980.InFrieslandeenwaarschijnlijkehybridevanRoodhalsgans(Brantaruficollis)enBrandgas(Brantaleucopsis.[AprobablehybridofRed-breastedGooseBrantaruficollisandBarnacleGooseBrantaleucopsisinFriesland.]Watervogels5:38-39.[InDutch with Englishsummary.]114

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Mauer,K.1980.Brandgans XRoodhalgansenKolgans x Brandgansin1979/80.[BarnacleXRed-breastedGoose andWhite-frontedxBarnacleGoosein1979/80.]DutchBirding2:53-54.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]1979Dittami,J.,S.Kennedy andC.Thomforde.1979.ObservationsonBarnacleGooseBrantaleucopsisbreedinginSpitsbergen1975.J. 120: 188-195.Lessells,C.M.,R.M.Silby,M.Owenand S.Ellers.1979.WeightsoffemaleBarnacleGeeseduringbreeding.Wildfowl30:72-74.Lok,C.M.1979.Derelatietussendeaardvandewinterenhetfouragerenvande BrandgansBrantaleucopsisinhetZUiderdiepgebied.[TherelationbetweenwinterconditionandforagewithBarnacleGeeseBrantaleucopsisintheZuiderdieparea.]Watervogels4: 212-221.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary. ] Owen,M.andM.A.Ogilvie.1979.WingmoltandweightsofBarnacleGeeseinSpitsbergen.Condor81:42-52.Owen,M.andR.Wells.1979.Territorialbehaviourinbreedinggeese--areexaminationofRyder'shypothesis.Wildfowl30:20-26.1978Lok,C.M.1978.DeWestplaatalsfouregeergebiedvoordeBrandgans(Brantaleucopsis).[TheWestplaatasafeedinggroundfortheBarnacleGoose(Brantaleucopsis).]Watervogels3: 192-198.[InDutchwithEnglishsum mary. ]Norderhaug,M.andM.Owen.1978.BreedingsuccessofBarnacleGeese(Brantaleucopsis)inSvalbardin1977.Nor.Polarinst.Arbok1977:259-26-4-.---Owen, M.,R.H.Drent,M.A.OgilvieandT.M.vanSpanje.1978.Numbers,distributionandcatchingofBarnacleGeese(Brantaleucopsis)ontheNordenskioldkysten,Svalbard,in1977.Nor.Polarinst.Arbok1977: 247-248. 1977Dittami,J.,C.Thomforde and S. Kennedy.1977.PreliminaryobservationsonthenestingofBarnacleGeeseinSpitsbergen.Wildfowl28:94-100.Drent,R.andR.Swierstra.1977.Gooseflocksand foodfinding:fieldexperimentswithBarnacleGeeseinwinter.Wildfowl28:15-20.Ebbinge,B.andD.Ebbinge-Dallmeijer.1977.BarnacleGeese(Brantaleucopsis)intheArcticsummer--areconnaissancetriptoSvalbard.Nor.Polarinst.Arbok1975: 119-138.115

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Owen,M.andM.Norderhaug.1977.PopulationdynamicsofBarnacleGeeseBrantaleucopsisbreedinginSvalbard,1948-1976.OrnisScand.8:161-174.Owen, M.,M.Nugent andN.Davies.1977.Discriminationbetweengrassspeciesandnitrogen-fertilizedvegetationbyyoungBarnacleGeese.Wildfowl28:21-26.1976Wolinski,R.A.andL.N.Fauver.1976.FirstspecimensoftheBarnacleGooseforMichigan.Jack-PineWarbler53: 131-132. 1975Ebbinge,B.,K.CantersandR.H.Drent.1975.ForagingroutinesandestimateddailyfoodintakeofBarnacleGeesewinteringinthenorthernNetherlands.Wildfowl26:5-19.Ferns,P.N.andG.H.Green.1975.ObservationsofPink-footedandBarnaclegeeseintheKongOscarFjord"regionofnortheastGreenland,1974.Wildfowl26: 131-138.Ogilvie,M.A.andH.Boyd.1975.GreenlandBarnacleGeeseintheBritishIsles.Wildfowl26:139-147.1974Dittberner,H.1974.Die Weisswangengans.Falke21: 178-179.[InGerman.]Holgersen,N.E.1974.BarnacleGooseatBombayHookRefuge.Atl.Nat.29: 133.Owen,M.1974.StudiesonSvalbardBrantaleucopsis.Bull.Internat.WaterfowlRes.Bur.No.37: 101-102.Owen,M.andC.R.G.Campbell.1974.RecentstudiesonBarnacleGeeseatCaerlaverock.Scott.Birds8:181-193.1973Cabot,D.and B. West.1973.PopulationdynamicsofBarnacleGeese,Brantaleucopsis,inIreland.Proc.R.IrishAcad.73(Sec.B):415-443-.-----1972Abbott,J.M.1972.CorrectingtherecordonBarnacleGoose.Atl.Nat.27: 194.Grant,G.S.1972.BarnacleGooseinCurrituckCounty,N.C. Chat36: 88.Jemison,E. 1972.BarnacleGoosewintersinsoutheasternOklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.5:27-28.116

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1971Burford,F.C.1971.BarnacleGooseatPeaIsland,N.C. Chat35:52.Kumari,E. 1971.PassageoftheBarnacleGoosethroughtheBalticArea.Wildfowl22:35-43.Owen,M.andR.H.Kerbes.1971.OntheautumnfoodoftheBarnacleGooseatCaer1averockNationalNatureReserve.Wildfowl22:114-119.1968 Boyd,H.1968.BarnacleGeeseinthewestofScotland,1957-1967.Wildfowl19:96-107.Mooser,R.and L.Zwarts.1968.DeBrandgansopSchiermonnikoog.[BarnacleGeeseontheIslandofSchiermonnikoog.]LevendeNat.71:138-142.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1967 Dumont,P.A.1967.BarnacleGooseobservations.At1.Nat.22:40.1966Roberts,E.L.-1966. Movements andflockbehaviourofBarnacleGeeseontheSolwayFirth.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.17:36-45.1964 Boyd,H.1964.BarnacleGeesecaughtinDumbriesshireinFebruary1963.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.15:75-76.Larsen,T. andM.Norderhaug.1964.Resu1tateravKvitkinngas-merkingerpaSvalbard.[ResultsfrombandingtheBarnacleGooseinSvalbard.]Sterna6:153-167.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.]Uspenski,S.M.1964.DieWeisswangengansinderSowjetunion.Falke11:7-10.[InGerman.] 1963Cabot,D.1963.BarnacleGeeseinIreland.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.14:104-106.Larsen,T. andM.Norderhaug.1963.TheringingofBarnacleGeeseinSpitsbergen,1962.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.14:98-104.Marris,R.1963.Colourmarked and1eucisticBarnacleGeese.Brit.Birds56:423-424.117

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1962Marris,R.andM.A.Ogilvie.1962. TheringingofBarnacleGeeseinGreenlandin1961. WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.13:53-64.Timmerman,A.1962.DeBrandgans(Brantaleucopsis)inNederland.[OntheoccurrenceoftheBarnacleGooseintheNetherlands.]Limosa 35:199-218.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1961 Boyd,H.1961.ThenumberofBarnacleGeeseinEuropein1959-1960.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.12: 116-124. Timmerman,A.1961. OverdeBrandganzeninNederlandSeizoen1959/1960.LevendeNat.64:35-39.[InDutch.]1960 MorzerBruijns,M.F. 1960. OverhetbepalenvandeverhoudingvanadulteenjuvenieleBrandganzen(Brantaleucopsis)-inhetveld.[AgegroupratiocountsofBarnacleGeese(Brantaleucopsis)inthefield.]Limosa34:2933.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1958 Boyd,H.andJ.Radford.1958.BarnacleGeeseinwesternScotland,February1957. WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.9:42-46.1951Delacour,J.1951. QueerbehaviourofBarnacleGeese.Avic.Mag.52:173-180.1949Shaftesbury,A.D.1949.BarnacleGooseatGaddy's Pond,Ansonville,N.C.Chat13: 75. 1926Batchelder,C.F.1926.TheBarnacleGooseinNorthCarolina.Auk43:88.1923Willard,F. C. 1923.OccurrenceoftheBarnacleGooseonLongIsland.Auk40: 528. 1922Jourdain,F.C.R.1922. ThebreedinghabitsoftheBarnacleGoose.Auk39:166-171.118

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BRANT bernicla)[DA:Knortegas,DU:Rotgans,EN:BrentGoose,Brent,Sea Goose,White-belliedBrant;FI:Sepelhanhi,FR:Bernachecravant,GE:Ringelgans,IC:Margaes,IT:OcaColombaccio,JA:Kokugan,NW:Ringgas,PO:Berniklaobrozna,PR:Gansobravo,SP:Barnaclacarinagra,Brantal;SW:Prutgas,US:BlackBrant,AmericanBrant,AtlanticBrant]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaBrantbreedinthemaritimeArcticregionsofeasternNorthAmericawesttoaboutlongitude100W,includingtheParryIslands,AxelHeilbergIsland,northernEllesmereIsland,SouthamptonIsland,theislandsaroundtheGulfofBoothia,PrinceRegentInlet,WellingtonChannel,andBaffinIsland(AOU1957).TheywinterchieflyalongtheAtlanticcoastoftheUnitedStatesfromMassachusettssouthtoNorthCarolina,rarelyfarthersouth,andlesscom monlyoffwesternNorthAmerica fromsouthwesternBritishColumbiasouthtothecoastsofBajaCaliforniaandthemainlandofwesternMexico(Bellrose1976).Thereareinlandrecordsfrom manyoftheeasternandmid-westernstates(AOU1957).Thewesternsubspecies(BlackBrant)breedsineasternAsia,northernAlaska,andnorthwesternCanadaeasttoabout110W;easternandwesternformsintergradeontheedgesoftheirbreedingranges.WesternbirdswinteronthePacificcoastofNorthAmerica fromBritishColumbiasouthtoBajaCaliforniaandthecoastofmainlandMexico(Bellrose1976),andonlargeinlandwesternlakes.TherearerecordsfromHawaii,inlandwesternstates,andAtlanticcoastalstates(AOU1957,Einarson1965).WorldDistributionBrantbreedinacircumpolarArcticbeltacrossNorthAmerica andacrossEurasiafromnorthernGreenland(Salomonsen1950),Spitsbergen,andFranzJosefLandtoeasternSiberia.TheywintersouthtoJapanandnorthernChinaandalongthecoastsofnorthwesternEurope andnorthernRussia(AOU1957).ThesegeesemaystrayinwinterasfarsouthasnorthernAfrica(Delacour1954,Crampetal.1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESBrantarecommoninwinterinNorthCarolinaandcasualorrareelsewhereinthesoutheast(Map6).Likemostothergeese,Brantareregularlykeptincaptivityandoccurrencesaway fromtheirnormalmarinehabitatmaynotbenatural.Taxonomicnote:TheAOU(1957)believedAmericanpopulationsrepresenteddistinctspecies,theBrant bernicla)intheeastandtheBlackBrant nigricans)inthewest.Morerecently,theAOU(1976)hasmergedtheformsintoasinglespecies,atreatmentearlieradoptedbymanyauthorities(Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).119

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BIRDNAME..--,\ 1----(i GULFOFMEXtCO \ ? J.----F------,; s A WinterDistributionMapforSoutheastern Dntted StatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 10-50ESH50-200 More than200(Adaptedfrom Bystrak,1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanoneindividual None observedT {.. _____.J:cP I d' --..&r DALLAS "}., -0 '\__ ..... .--\..---'MOUr \ "\....N oMap6

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NorthCarolinaPearsonetal.(1942)listedBrantascommonwinteringbirds.Theyarepresentfrom Novemberto March orAprilandareraresouthofPamlicoSound(Potteretal.1980).TheseBrantareusuallyrestrictedtosaltwaterareaslikePamlicoSoundthathaveextensiveareasofsubmergedsandbarsandmudflatsandabundantsuppliesofeelgrass(Zosteramarina).Wray andDavis(1959)notedagreatdecreaseinnumbersinthe1930'swhen ablightattackedtheeelgrass.Bellrose(1976)commentedthatfewerBrantreachNorthCarolinainwinternowthaninthepast,andhementionedthatonlya fewhundredwinterinCurrituckandPamlicosounds,wheretheyusedtobeabundant.The 1975Januarywaterfowlcensusreportedonly400BrantinNorth,Carolinaand noneelsewhereinthesoutheast(Goldsberryetal.1980).Thisfigurerepresentsonly0.5%ofthosecountedintheAtlanticFlyway andonly0.2%ofthetotalnumberofBrantcounted.LargernumbersoccasionallywinterinNorthCarolina.Duringtheseverewinterof1976-77largenumberswerefoundalongthecoastwherethespeciesisusuallyuncommon; apeakof1,650occurredatPeaIslandon15February1977 (LeGrand1977a).SouthCarolinaBe1lrose(1976)commentedthatBrantarefoundonlyrarelyandinsmallnumbersasfarsouthasSouthCarolina.SpruntandChamberlain(1949)calledtheBrantararewinterresidentinSouthCarolina;onlyoneoftheirfiverecords,between30 November and31January,wasofaflock.Burton(1970)summarizedfouradditionalrecordsofonlya fewbirdseach.The mostrecentrecordisfromwellinlandin1974(Teu1ings1975a).GeorgiaTherearebutfourrecordsofBrantfromGeorgiaoveraperiodof80years(Dentoneta1.1977);thelatestisfromHarrisNeckNWR,14February1971(Teu1ings1971b).FloridaSprunt(1954,1963)calledBrantaccidentalinFloridaandcitedonlyeightrecords.Kale(1979msa)regardeditasrarealongtheAtlanticcoast,withno morethantwoorthreebirdsseenatonetime.Since1970therehavebeensixreports,includinga fewbirdsthatlingeredwellintospring(Stevenson1971,1974, 1978;Kale1971;Edscorn1976).Only a fewoftherecordsarefromtheGulfcoast(Edscorn1976).Alabama Imhof(1976b)listedonlytworecordsofBrantinAlabama,bothinland.AthirdrecordisofaBrantthatremainedatHooverLake,nearBirmingham, from 2 November 1975until1May1976(Hamilton1976,Imhof1976a,Purrington1976).MississippiTherearetworecordsofBrantinMississippi;the most recentwasofasinglebirdseenoffShipIslandon 1July1978(JacksonandCooley1978b).Theotherrecord,alonebirdoffPassChristianinJanuary1961, wasconsideredtobepossiblythesamebirdseeninNewOrleanstwomonthsearlier(Lowery1974).LouisianaLowery(1974)reportedtworecordsofeasternBrantforLouisiana,oneinNewOrleansfrom November 1960toJanuary1961,andoneintheRockefellerRefugeinCameronParish,January1974.Inaddition,aBlackBrant(thePacificsubspecies)wasreportedattheEastJetty,Cameron, CameronPar-121

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ish,on21October1972(Purrington1973a,Lowery1974).TexasOberholser(1974)listed18Texasrecords(including4oftheBlackBrant),thatspannearlyacentury;mostarefromtheGulfcoastcounties.A morerecentreportisofonethatwasseenatAransasRefuge,2January1976(Webster1976).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingTheBrantbreedsinthenorthernHolarcticbetween83N and63DN.Itnestscircumpolarlyonarcticislandsandcoasts(BOll1971) andisoneofthenorthernmostbreedingbirdsintheworld(Bellrose1976).ThesizeofthebreedingpopulationinboththeNewand OldWorldsispoorlyknown.OneofthelargestknownbreedingpopulationsoccursontheouterYukon-KuskokwimDelta;Bellrose(1976)thoughtitmightcontainabout75,000breedingBrant.WinterBellrose(1976)indicatedthatanaverageofabout217,000BrantwinteredinNorthAmericathroughtheearly1970's;about140,000ofthemalongthePacificcoast,therestalongtheAtlantic.HealsopointedoutthattheBrantalongthePacificcoastwereshiftingtheirwinteringrangesouthward,resultinginagreatincreaseinthenumberwinteringonthemainlandcoastofMexico.Bellrosereportedthatthenumberincreasedfrom1,400in1949to41,300in1967.ThistrendapparentlycQntinued.The 1975winterwaterfowlsurveyfound115,340(Goldsberryetal.1980)winteringalongthewestcoastofMexico.Thisfigurerepresentsabout54%ofallBrantcountedontheJanuarysurveyofNorthAmericanwaterfowl,andabout93%ofthosecountedalongthePacificcoast.About 146,470winteredalongthePacificcoastduringthewinterof1976-77(Ogilvie1978).Another100winterinBritishColumbia(Bellrose1976),and upto5,000maywinterinCold Bay and Izembeck LagooninAlaska(Palmer1976a);bothareasarenorthofthosecoveredbytheJanuarysurvey(Bellrose1976).Bellrose(1976)reportedthatmost(150,000)oftheaveragepopulationwinteringintheAtlantic(177,000)winteredinNewJersey,withothersubstantialwinteringpopulationspresentinthebaysofLongIsland,NewYork(25,000)andVirginia(8,000);onlya fewhundredwinterinthestatestothesouth.AtlanticBrantnumbersfluctuatedramaticallyinresponsetovaryingweatherconditionsonthebreedinggroundsandavailabilityoffoodinwinter(Bellrose1976).PopulationsintheAtlanticFlywaywereabout87,600in1974(Bellrose1976)andabout88,500in1975(Goldsberryetal.1980).The 1976wintersurvey(Larnedetal.1980)reportedalargerwinteringpopulation(ca.249,000),butthedistributionofthispopulationremainedmuchthesame. Thelargestnumbers(122,100)winteredoffMexico,andthenexttwolargestpopulationsoccurredinNewJersey(99,000)andNewYork(17,000).Virginia(6,900)andWashington(7,500)alsohadrelativelylargewinteringpopulations.Inthewinterof1976-1977,AtlanticBrantnumberedabout115,400.Theseverewinterresultedinmassstarvationandlessthan40,000survivedintothespring(Ogilvie1978).122

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ConsiderablenumberswinterintheOldWorld.Duringthemid-1970'sanaverageofabout80,000BrantwinteredinnorthwesternEurope(Ogilvie1978).AcompilationofthemostrecentfigureslistedbyOgilvieindicatesawinteringpopulationontheorderof122,000birds,withover80,000ofthemwinteringinBritainandFrance.Small numbersalsowinterintheFarEast.TheJanuary1976countinJapanrevealedfewerthan100birds,butOgilvie(1978)guessedthatthetotalpopulationmightcontainasmuchas10,000Brant.MigrationTheprimarymigratoryroutefollowedbyNorthAmericanBrantwinteringalongthePacificcoastextendsoverwatertothewestcoastofCaliforniafromIzembeckBayinAlaskawhere amajorityofthisform(theBlackBrant)maycongregate.BirdswinteringinthewesternAtlanticfollowtworoutes.Theprincipaloneisoverlandfrom JamesandHudson BaytotheSt.LawrenceEstuaryandthentoLongIslandSound(Bellrose1976)and/orNewJersey(Palmer1976b).SomeofthebirdsontheoverlandroutefollowtheSusquehannaRivertoNewJerseyandcontinuesouthalongtheeastshoreofChincoteagueBaytoVirginiaandNorthCarolina(Palmer1976a).Theotherprimarymigrationroute,onethatBellrose(1976)believedconsiderablylessimportant,followsthecoastsofNewBrunswickandNewEnglandtoLongIsland;someofthesebirdsproceedsouthalongthecoasttothesoutheasternstates.FurtherdetailsofmigratoryroutesandchronologyofmigrationforNew World BrantareprovidedbyBellrose(1976)andPalmer(1976a);thelatter,Crampetal.(1977),andOgilvie(1978) summarizethisinformationforOld Worldpopulations.BrantmayoccuroffthecoastofCaliforniaasearlyasmid-Octoberbutthepeakflightsusuallyoccurinmid-November.BirdswinteringinthewestAtlanticmayarriveinNewJerseyasearlyasearlyOctober,butthepeakoccurslaterinthemonth,withsome movingaslateasearlyNovember(Bellrose1976).ConcentrationsatBarnegatBay,NewJersey,havereachedasmanyas100,000BrantinlateOctober;mostremainthereuntilmid-May(Palmer1976a).MostofthemigrationintotheChesapeakeBayregion,justnorthofthestudyarea,occursbetweenlateOctoberandearlyDecember(Stewart1962);some mayarriveasearlyasearlySeptember(Palmer1976a).Thereturn peaks,therebetweenlateFebruaryandearlyApril(Stewart1962).HABITATBreedingBrantbreedincoastaltundra,usuallyjustabovehightideline.Thismakesthenestinggroundshighlysusceptibletofloodingbystormtides(Johnsgard1975,1978;Ogilvie1978).Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatthisspeciesisoftencolonialwhennestingonsmallislandsneartheseaorinlakes.Nestselsewheremaybemoredispersedbutareusuallywithina fewhundredmetersofthetideline.AtlanticBrantprefergrassytundraalongrivervalleysornearseacoasts.ThosenestingintheYukonDeltaarefoundeitheralongthecoastoralongmajorestuariesflankedbytidalmeadows.Intheseareas,nestsaremostlyfoundonsmallisletsoralongtheshoresoftidalponds(LensinkinBellrose1976).OntheAndersonDelta,nestsareplaced on grassyhummocks bytidalflats;thenestsaverageonly3to7inabovethehighwaterandinoneyearaveragedonly20ftfrombothstandingwaterand snow 123

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cover(Barry1966inBellrose1976).Thegreatmajorityofthosenestingon Southhampton onlowsiteswithinamileofshoreorhightide.Theyoftennestonflotsammedseawrackandkelpdrivenashorebystorms(Palmer1976a).FeedingOgilvie(1978)indicatedthattheprincipalfeedinghabitatofBrantisestuarinemudflatsandshelteredseacoasts.Theyalsograzeinsaltmarshesandhavebeenreportedgrazingonhabitatsasdiverseasathleticfieldsandairports(Palmer1976a).FieldsofgrassandwinterwheathavealsobeenusedbyforagingBrantinEurope (Crampetal.1977,Ogilvie1978),andfieldfeedinghasbeennotedinNorthAmericaaswell(Bellrose 1976), Brantalsofrequentgravelbarsandspitstoingestgrit(Palmer1976a).WinterandOffshoreAlongtheAtlanticcoast,Brantwinteronshallowflatsonsaltycoastalbays,particularlyalongthebarrier-beachsideofbays(Johnsgard1975).Theysometimesoccurinareasofbrackishwater,butconcentrateinsalt-watershallowswheresealettuce(Ulva),eelgrass(Zostera),orwigeongrass(Ruppiamaritima)grow. ThosewinteringalongthePacificcoastpreferlargeshallowareas,usuallybays,coveredwitheelgrass(Zostera)(Johnsgard1975).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORFeedingBrantareprincipallygrazersthatuproottheentireplant,eattherootsandlowerstems,anddiscardthefronds;thelatterareeatenlaterontheincomingtide,whendabblingisimpossible(Oberholser1974).Whenfeedinginshallowareaswithmucheelgrass(Zosteraspp.),suchasIzembeck Bay,Alaska,theseBrantmaygraze,tipuplikepuddleducks,orsubmergetheirheadsandneckstopluckvegetation(Ogilvie1978).Withthelossofeelgrassinthe1930's,Brantbeganfeedinginfields.Intheseareas,theyfeedinflocksmuch more compactthanthoseformed bybirdsfeedingonmudflats(Ogilvie1978).InBritain,thesegeesehavealsobeenseen"pattering"onmudwiththeirfeettobringwormstothesurface;ina numberofareastheyhavealsobeenrecorded"trampling"toobtainrhizomesofeelgrass.Brantalsoseizeplantsbroughttothesurfacebydivingducks(Palmer1976a).Brantfeedlargelybyday(Palmer1976a)butwillalsofeedbymoonlight(Crampetal.1977).Feedinginshoreiscloselyrelatedtothetidalcycle.Birdsforageonmudflatsduringlowtide(Palmer1976a)andoftenrestatseaduringhightide.The numberoffeedingpeaksisdependentonthenumberoflowtidesoccurringduringtheday(Ogilvie1978).ThedietofBrantisalmostentirelyvegetable(Palmer1976a);thesmallamountsofanimalfoodreportedareapparentlyingestedonlybyaccident(Ogilvie1978).Eelgrass(Zosteraspp.)isusuallytheprimaryfood,whenavailable.InthewesternAtlantic,Zosteramarinaisthespecieseaten;Zosteramarinaand Z.nanaarethemostimportantspeciesinEurope(Palmer1976a).Analga,sealettuce,(Ulvaspp.)isalsoanimportantfoodinboth the NewWorld (U.lactua;Palmer1976a) andintheOld(bothU.lactuaandU.latissima;Cramp et a-l-.---1977).Widgeongrassisanimportantfoodfor Brant winteringoffthewesternAtlanticcoast.Otherplantsimportantinthedietinoneareaoranotherin-124

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cludeotheralgae(especiallyEnteromorphaspp.),budsofSaxifragaoppositifolia,rockgrass(Phyllospadix),glasswort(Salicornia),saltgrass(Distichlisspicata),cordgrass(Spartina),agrass(Puccinella),andsea-aster(Astertripolium).Variousgrassesanddomesticatedplantsobtainedwhilefeedinginfieldsmayalsobeimportantinthediet,particularlyinEurope.BrantinDenmarkhavebeennotedfeedingongrain-filledpelletsejectedbyHerringGulls(Fog 1967inCrampetal.1977).Mosses,lichens,berries,andsedgesarealsoconsumed(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a,Crampetal.1977,andauthorscitedtherein).Theseauthorsshouldbeconsultedformuch moredetailedlistsoffoodsconsumedinvariouspartsoftherange.LittleisknownoffoodhabitsinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,butthedietispresumablysimilartothatinotherareasalongtheAtlanticseaboard.Cottametal.(1944)reportedthestomachcontentsof11BrantcollectedinNorthCarolinapriortothedisappearanceofeelgrass(Zosteramarina)fromtheeastin1932. Theycontrastedthesewiththecontentsof21stomachscollectedsince1932.Thebirdscollectedpriorto1932fedalmostsolelyoneelgrassandwidgeongrass.Thest0machscontainedfrom 10to100%eelgrass(mean=69.5%)andfrom 8to90%widgeongrass(mean=28.2%).Stomachscollectedsince1932contained24%Zosteraand60%Ruppia.AuthorscitedinPalmer(1976a) thatabirdcollectedinSouthCarolinahadeatenonlysealettuce.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONBirdsoftheEuropeansubspeciesofBranthavebeenvictimsofoilspills(Joensenand Hansen1977).In1966,BrantwinteringpopulationsdecreasedsignificantlyfollowinganoilspillintheMedwayEstuary,GreatBritain.However,theirnumbersincreasedtwoyearsaftertheincident,indicatingthatamplefoodsupplieshadagainbecomeavailable(Harrisonand Buck1968).BecauseBrantrarelyoccuralongthecoastofthesoutheasternstates(exceptinNorthCarolina),thereislittlethreattothepopulationbythedevelopmentofoilresourcesinthatarea.Shouldoilwashintoshallowbays,however,potentialfeedingareasmightbeseverelydamaged.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980 Boyd,H.1980.ImportanceofIreland'sBrentGeese.Brit.Birds73:363-364.Boyd,H.andL. S.Maltby.1980.WeightsandprimarygrowthofBrentGeeseBrantaberniclamoultingintheQueenElizabethIslands,N.W.T.,Canada,1973-1975.OrnisScand.11:135-141.125

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1979 Boyd, H. and L. S.Maltby.1979. TheBrantofthewesternQueenElizabethIslands,N.W.T.Pp.5-21inR.I.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Manage ment andbiologyofPacificFlywaygeese.OregonSt.Univ.Bookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.Hamer, F. 1979.BlackBrantatBrigantineBeach.Cassinia57:44.Hubbard,J.only).1979.SpringmigrationatCapePrinceofWales,Alaska.Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:41.(AbstractKramer,G.W.,L.R.Rauen andS.W.Harris.1979.Populations,huntingmortalityandhabitatuseofBlackBrantatSanQuintinBay,BajaCalifornia,Mexico.Pp.176-188inR.I.JarvisandJ.C.Bartonek(eds.)Management andbiologyof PacifiC-Flyway geese.OregonSt.Univ.Bookstores,Inc.,Corvallis,OR.Lambeck,R.H.D.1979. RotganzeninhetDeltagebied:deleefijdsverhoudinginhetseizon1977/78enmeergegevensoverhunstatusbinnendetotalerotsgan-populatie.[BrentGeeseintheDeltaArea:theage-ratiointheseason1977/78and moreinformationabouttheirstatuswithinthetotalBrentpopulation.]Watervogels4:36-39.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary].Stanley,P.I.andA.K.M.St.Joseph.1979.PoisoningofDark-belliedBrentGeeseinEssex,February1979.Wildfowl30: 154. Weber,W.C.1979. ABrantonEastShipIsland:FirstrecordforMississippi.MississippiKite9:10-11.Wiss,K.andG.Andersson.1979.PrutgassBrantaberniclakolliderademedfarja.[BrentGeeseBrantaberniclacollidedwithferry.]OrnisFenn. 56:172.[InFinnish summary.] 1978 Boyd,H.1978.M.Penkala.CommentsonidentifyingyearlingfemaleAtlanticBrant--JosephJ.Wildl.Manage.42:697-698.Cadbury,C.J.andA.K.M.St.Joseph.1978.BrentGeeseontheWashinlatespring.Brit.Birds71:268-269.Charman,C.andA.Macey. 1978. ThewintergrazingofsaltmarshvegetationbyDark-belliedBrentGeese.Wildfowl29:153-162.Eisenhauer,J.H.1978.aska.(Abstract).NestingecologyandbehaviorofPacificBrantinAIProc.Mont. Acad.Sci.37:85.Inglis,I.R.andA.J.Issacson.1978.TheresponsesofDark-belliedBrentGeesetomodelsofgeeseinvariouspostures.Anim. Behav. 26:953-958.126

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Lambeck,R.H.D.1978.LeeftijdsverhoudingenenanderepopulatiegegevensvanRotganzen(Brantab.berniclaL.)inhetOosterschelde/VeerseMeergebiedinhetseizoen1976/1977.[Age-ratiosandotherpopulationdataofBrentGeese(Brantab.berniclaL.)intheeasternScheIdt/LakeVeereareaduring Watervogels3:3-9.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Nienhuis,P.H.andE.T.vanIerland.1978. Consumptionofeelgrass,Zosteramarina,bybirdsandinvertebratesinLakeGrevelingen(SWNetherlands).NetherlandsJ.SeaRes.12:180-194.Penkala,J.M.1978. Responsetocomments byHughBoyd.J.Wildl.Manage. 42: 699.Prokosch,P.1978.PlaenezureindeichungvonnahrungshabitatenderDunkelbaeuchigenRingelgans(Brantaberniclabernicla)inSchleswig-Holstein.[PlansforreclamationoffeedinghabitatofDark-belliedBrentGeese(Brantaberniclabernicla)inSchleswig-Holstein.]Ornithol.Mitt.30: GermanwithEnglishsummary.]St.Joseph,A.K.M.1978.PopulationlevelsofBrantaberniclainEurope.Internatl.WaterfowlRes.BureauBull.No. 45:31-32.vanderBilt,E.andB.Helming. 1978.Dewinterecologiesvande RotgansBrantaberniclaopTershcelling.[ThewinterecologyoftheBrentGooseBrantaberniclainTerschelling.]Limosa 51:31-40.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1977Babinski,A.andJ.R.Taylor.1977.OstatnieobserwacjeBernikliobroznych(Brantabernicla)nadzatokaGdanska. [ThelatestobservationsofBrentGeese(Brantabernicla)attheGdanskBay.]NotatkiOrnitol.18:46-45.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.]Burk,S.A.and S.D.Burk. 1977.BrantinJohnstonCounty,Oklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc. 10:29-30.Lambeck,R.H.D.1977. Het Vorkomen vanRotgansBrantaberniclaondersoorteninhetNederlandseWaddengebiedTijdenshetvoorjarvan 1976. [TheoccurrenceofBrentGooseBrantaberniclasubspeciesintheDutchWaddenSeaareaduringspring 50:92-97.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Penkala,J.M.1977a.AtechniqueforidentifyingyearlingfemaleAtlanticBrant.J.Wildl.Manage. 41:585-587.1977b.Winterfoodhabitsand bodyweightofAtlanticBrant.Trans.NESect.Wildl.Soc. 32:151-169.127

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Owezarek,A.1977. Obserwacja bernikliobroznej(Brantabernicla).[ObservationofBrentGoose(Brantabernicla)inKoszalinDistrict.]NotatkiOrnitol.18: 127.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.] Owens,N.W.1977.ResponsesofwinteringBrentGeesetohumandisturbance.Wildfowl28:5-14.Ruttledge,R.F. 1977.FurtherobservationsinIrelandofBrentGeesebandedintheCanadianArcticislands.IrishBirds1:65-67.1976Clough,T. R.1976.TheLittleSea Goose. CapeNat.5:23-29.Hubbard,J.D.1976.BlackBrantmigrationfromAlaska.J.Colo.-Wyo.Acad.Sci.8:72.Maheo, R. 1976.duMorbihan.TheBrentGeeseofFrance,withspecialreferencetotheGolfeWildfowl27:55-62.Ogilvie,M.A.andA.K.M.St.Joseph.1976.Dark-belliedBrentGeeseinBritainandEurope,1955-76.Brit.Birds69:422-439.Owens,N.W.1976.ResponsesofwinteringBrent Geese tohumandisturbance.Wildfowl27:152.Penkala,J.A.1976.Winterfoodhabitsand bodyweightsofAtlanticBrant.M.S.thesis,RutgersUniv./NewBrunswick,NJ.St.Joseph,A.K.M.1976. AstudyofthewintermovementsoftheDark-belliedBrentGoose.Wildfowl27:156.1975Abbott,J.M.1975a.Brantincornfield.Atl.Nat.30:35.1975b.BrantinfieldsinEngland.Atl.Nat.30:83.Davis,T.H.1975.BlackBrantatJamaicaBayWildlifeRefuge,QueensCo.,New York. Kingbird25:27.Maltby-Prevett,L.S.,H.Boyd andJ.D.Heyland.1975.ObservationsinIcelandandnorthwestEuropeofBrantfromtheQueenElizabethIslands,N.W.T.,Canada.Bird-Banding46:155-161.Neraasen,T.G. andJ.C.Holmes.1975.ThecirculationofcestodesamongthreespeciesofgeesenestingontheAndersonRiverDelta,Canada.ActaParasitol.Pol.23:277-289.[InEnglishwithPolishsummary.]Penkala,J. J.E.Applegateand L.J.Wolgast.1975. ManagementofAtlanticBrant:implicationsofexistingdata.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.&Nat.Resourc.Conf.40:325-333.128

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1974 Morehouse,K.A.1974. Development,energetics,andnutritionofcaptivePacificBrant(Brantaberniclaorientalis,Tougarinov).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Alaska/Fairbanks,AK.134pp.Norderhaug,M.1974.UndersokelseravRinggjess(Brantaberniclahrota)paTusenoyane.[StudiesofBrentGeese(Branta hrota)onTusenoyane.EastSvalbard.]Nor.Polarinst.Arbok 1972:89-98. [rn-NOrwegian withRussianandEnglishsummaries.]1973Barnard,A.E. 1973.OccurrenceofBlackBrantmoultinginBoundary Bay,BritishColumbia.Murrelet54:12-13.1970Jones,R.D.1970.ReproductivesuccessandagedistributionofBlackBrant.J.Wildl.Manage. 34:328-333.Sands,J.L. Mexico. 1970.FirstrecordoftheBlackBrant(Brantanigricans)forNewCondor 72:110.Smith,R.H.andG.H.Jensen.1970.BlackBrantonthemainlandcoastofMexico.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.35:227-241.1969Ogilvie,M.A. andG.V.T. Matthews.1969.BrentGeese,mudflats.andman. Wildfowl 20:119-125.1968Atkeson.T.Z.,Jr.1968. ABrantspecimenfrom Alabama.Auk85:697.MorzerBruyns.M.F. andA.Timmerman. 1968. Overhetvoorkomen vandeRotgansBrantaberniclaberniclainNederland.[OntheoccurrenceoftheDark-breastedBrentGooseintheNetherlands.]Limosa 41:90-106.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Voisin.C.1968. LesBernachesBrantab.bernicladugolfeduMorbihan.OiseauRev. Fr. Ornithol.38:151-174.225-248.[InFrench.]1967 Fog,M.1967.AninvestigationontheBrentGoose bernicla)inDenmark.Dan. Rev.GameBioI.5:1-40.Hout,J.L.1967.Contributiontoward abibliographyonBrant.U.S.Fish&Wildl.ServoSpec.Sci.Rept.--Wildl.No. 103.15pp.129

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Montgomery,R.A.1967.ObservationofBrantinsouthernIllinois.WilsonBull.79:242.Wolff,W.J.,P.DeKoeijer,A.J.J.Sandee and L.DeWolf.1967.DeverspreidingvanRotganzeninhetDeltagebiedinrelatietotdeverspreidingvanhunvoedsel.[ThedistributionofBrentGeeseintheDelta-areainrelationtothedistributionoftheirfood.]Limosa 40:163-174.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1966Jones,R.D.,Jr.andD.M.Jones.1966.TheprocessoffamilydisintegrationinBlackBrant.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.17:75-78.1965Einarson,A.S.1965.BlackBrant,seagooseofthePacificOcean.Univ.WashingtonPress,Seattle,WA.142pp.Harris,S.W.andP.E.K.Shepherd.1965.AgedeterminationandnotesonthebreedingageofBlackBrant.J.Wildl.Manage. 29:643-645.1964Davis,H.T. 1964.BlackBrant,aspecimenforNorthCarolina.Chat 28:45-46.1963Baillie,J.L.1963.The13mostrecentOntarionestingbirds.OntoFieldBio!.17:15-26.Burton,P.J.K.andH.Boyd. 1963.ThepresentstatusoftheBrentGooseinEurope.Proc.1stEuropeanMtg. on WildfowlConservation:73-75.1962Barry,T.W.1962.EffectsoflateseasonsonAtlanticBrantproduction.J.Wildl.Manage. 26:257-262.Denson, E.P.and S.C.Murrell.1962.BlackBrantpopulationsofHumboldt Bay,California.J.Wildl.Manage.26:257-262.Atkinson-Willes,Matthews,G.L.O. andG.V.T.Matthews.1960.ThepaststatusoftheBrentGoose.Brit.Birds53:352-257.Barry,T.W. 1960a.BreedinghistoryoftheAtlanticBrant(BrantaberniclaM.S.thesis,CornellUniv.!Ithaca,NY.1960b.TheBrentGoose anditsfoodsupplyinEssex.WildfowlTrust------Annu.Rept.12:104-113.130

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Burton,P.J.K.1960.BrentGoosepopulationstudies.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.11:94-98.Henderson,J.C.1960. A TexasrecordoftheBlackBrant.Auk77: 227.Shepherd,P. E.K.1960 ms.Distributionand abundanceoftheBlackBrantinAlaska.AlaskaDept.FishGame,Pittman-RobertsonProj.Rept.2:58-60.Uspenski,S.M.1960. [TheBrentGoose(BrantaberniclaL.)intheSovietUnion.]WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.11:80-93.[Englishtranslation.]1959Murrell,S. L. 1959.TheEasternBrantatHumboldt Bay,California.Condor 61:374.Ranwell,D.S. andB.M.Downing. 1959.BrentGoose(BrantaberniclaL.)winterfeedingpatternandZosteraresourcesatScoltHeadIsland,Norfolk.Anim. Behav. 7:42-56.1958 Salomonsen, F. 1958.ThepresentstatusoftheBrentGoose(Brantabernicla(L.))inwesternEurope.Vidensk.Medd. Dan.Naturh.Foren.120:43-80.1957Hansen,H.A.andU.C.Nelson.1957.BrantoftheBeringSea--migrationandmortality.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf. 22:237-254.Salomonsen, F. 1957. NissumFjordogKnortegaessene(Brantabernicla(L.)).[NissumFjordandtheBrentGeeseBrantabernicla(L.).]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.51: 119-131.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.] 1956Barry,T.W.1956.ObservationsofanestingcolonyofAmericanBrant.Auk73:193-202.1955 Cade, T.J.1955. RecordsoftheBlackBrantintheYukonBasinandthequestionofaspringmigrationroute.J.Wildl.Manage. 19:321-324.MorzerBruijns,M.F.andJ.Tanis.1955.DeRotganzen,Brantabernicla(L.)opTerschelling.[TheBrentGoose(Brantabernicla)onTerschelling(Netherlands).]Ardea 43:261-271.[InDutch.]1953Leopold,A.S.andR.H.Smith. 1953. Numbers andwinterdistributionofPacificBlackBrantinNorthAmerica.Calif.FishGame39:95-101.131

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1952Delacour,J.andJ.T. Zimmer. 1952. TheidentityofAnsernigricansLawrence 1846.Auk69:82-84.Ferguson-Lees,I.J.TheBrentGoose. 1952.Studiesofsomespeciesrarelyphotographed.Brit.Birds45:457. 1951XLVI:vonViereck,H.1951. UberdieUrsachenfurdieAbnahmederRingelgans(Brantabernicla)indenWinterquartieren.Vogelwarte16:18-22.[InGerman-.-j---1950Lincoln,F.C.1950.TheAmericanBrant--livingbirdofmuseumpiece?AudubonMag.52:282-287.Seiple,G.W.1950. AmericanBrant,Branta .. hrota,inGeorgia.Auk67: 383. 1949Sheppard,R.W.1949. The AmericanBrantonthelowerGreatLakes.Can.Field-Nat.63:99-100.1948Jewett,S.G.1948. TheEasternBrantinIdaho.Condor 50:93.1946Campbell,J.W.1946.ThefoodoftheWidgeon andBrentGoose.Brit.Birds39:194-200,226-232.1944 Cottam,C.,J.J.Lynch andA.L.Nelson.1944. Foodhabitsand managementofAmerican SeaBrant.J.Wildl.Manage. 8:36-56.1941Moffitt,J.andC.Cottam.1941.itseffectuponBlackBrant.Wildl.Leafl.204.26pp.EelgrassdepletiononthePacificcoastandU.S.Dept.Int.,U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,1937Lewis,H.F.1937.MigrationsoftheAmericanBrant berniclahrota).Auk54:73-95.132

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1936Brouwer,G.A.1936.VoedselschaarschtevoorBrantabernicla(L.)doorhetverdwijenvanhetZeegras(Zosteramarina 25:173-174.[InDutch.]1933Sprunt,A.,Jr.1933.inSouthCarolina.ThirdoccurrenceoftheBrant(Brantaberniclahrota)Auk50:209-210.1932Phillips,J.C.1932.FluctuationinnumbersoftheEasternBrantGoose.Auk49:445-453.1930Sprunt,A.,Jr.1930.TheBrant(Brantaberniclaglaucogastra)ontheSouthCarolinacoast.Auk47:244.------1927 Mershon,W.B.1927.NotesonthemigrationofBrant.Auk44:557-558.1926Jourdain,F.C.R. 1926.The,BrentGooseofSpitsbergenandGreenland.Auk43:536-537.1925Chamberlain,E.B.1925.TheBrant(Brantaberniclaglaucogastra)atCharleston,S.C.Auk42:265-266.1875 Hapgood,W.1875.BrantGeese(AnserberniclaLinn.):theirhabits,migration,breedingplaces.Forest&Stream5:49.133

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WOODDUCK[FR:Canardcarolin,GE:Brautente,SP:PatodelbosquedeCarolina,Huyoyo)GENERALDISTRIBUTIONAnendemicNorthAmericanspecies,theWoodDuckbreedsprimarilyineasternNorthAmericawiththewesternlimitsofthispartoftherangeextendingfromcentraleasternSaskatchewantosoutheastManitobathencesouthtonortheasternNebraska,easternMissouri,extremesoutheasternOklahoma, andeasternTexas.TheybreedeastthroughsouthernOntarioand QuebectonorthernMaine,NovaScotia,andPrinceEdwardIslandandsouththroughtheeasternUnitedStatestotheGulfcoast,Florida,and Cuba. AdisjunctpopulationbreedsinthePacificNorthwestfromsouthernBritishColumbiatonorthernIdahoandOregonandsouththrougheasternOregon andCaliforniatosouthernCalifornia(Palmer1976b).Inwinter,onlythesouthernpartsoftherangeareoccupied.Thus,thespeciesisacommonpermanentresidentinthesoutheasternstates,andaninfluxofnorthernbirdstakesplaceinwinter(Map7).Estimatedbreedingpopulationsinthestatesonthesoutheasterncoasttotal289,000birds(Bellrose1976).Thebreedinghabitatisprimarilywoodedbottomlandsand swamps.Somebirdsoccurintidalestuariesandprotectedcoastalmarshesinwinter(Palmer1976b).Becauseofexcessivehuntingandhabitatdestruction,theWoodDuckpopulationwasgreatlyreducedattheturnofthecentury.Amoratoriumonhunting,followingpassageoftheMigratoryBirdTreatyAct,andintensivemanagement,includingtheplacementofartificialnestingboxes,permittedthespeciestoregainmuchofitsformerabundance(Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONThereisnoinformationavailableonthehistoryofoilinginthisspecies.However,sincetheWoodDuckisaninteriorspecieslargelyrestrictedtofreshwatersituationswithquietwater,itprobablyseldomencountersoilingfromoffshoredevelopment.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980DiGiulio,R.T.and R.B.Hamilton.1980.UtilizationofagriculturalwetlandsinaMississippiRiverbottomlandbyWoodDuckandHoodedMerganserbroods.Proc.33rdAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:81-87.Drobney,R.D.1980.ReproductivebioenergeticsofWoodDucks.Auk97:480490.134

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......WV1WilllerIIisIriIIiII..firSlIIIIIustenUitHStales BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURS c::::J lessthan0.1 "0.1--':1.5 0.5-2 More than 2 INDIVIDUALS OBSERVED DURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEANI @Numbet' of individualsoLess thanOIMindividualNOMobMrYed ... OFMEXICO 90" ...Map72.'

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Graham,B.J.1980.NestholecompetitionbetweenWoodDucks and HoodedMergansers.Jack-PineWarbler58:36.Huesmann,H. W., R.Be11vil1eandR.G.BurrelL1980.FurtherobservationsondumpnestingbyWoodDucks.J. Manage. 44:908-915.Luckett,L. H. andJ.D.Hair.northwestSouthCarolina.& Wi1d1.Agencies:96-103.1980.AnalysisofWoodDuckroostcountsinProc.33rdAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.FishRid1ehuber,K.T. 1980.WoodDuckproductionandhabitatuse.Ph.D.thesis,TexasA&MUniv./Co11egeStation,TX.52pp.1979 Bowers, E.F.and B.Hamilton.1979.DerivationofnorthernWoodDucksharvestedinsouthernstatesoftheMississippiFlyway.Proc.31stAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish& Wi1d1.Agencies:90-98.Clawson,R.L.,G. W. Hartman and L.H.Fredrickson.1979.Dump-nestinginaMissouriWoodDuckpopulation.J.Wi1d1. Manage.43:347-355.Clay,D.L.,I.L.Brisbin,Jr.andK.A.Youngstrom.1979.Age-specificchangesinthemajorbodycomponentsandcaloricvaluesofgrowingWoodDucks.Auk96:296-305.Cottrell,S.D.1979.WoodDuckbrooduseofaneastTennesseeriverinehabitat.M.S.thesis,Mich.StateUniv./EastLansing,MI. 63pp.DiGiulio,R.T. 1979.WoodDucknestingandbroodutilizationofagriculturalfieldwetlandsinafloodplain.(Abstractonly).Va.J.Sci.30:47.Drobney,R.D.and L.H.Frederickson.1979. FoodselectionbyWoodDucksinrelationtobreedingstatus.J.Wi1d1. Manage.43:109-120.Fendley,T.T. 1979. UnusualpatternofnestinitiationsinaSouthCarolinaWoodDuckpopulation.(Abstractonly).Bull.S.C.Acad.Sci.41:49.Hepp,G.R.andJ.D.Hair.1979.WoodDuckbroodmobilityandutilizationofbeaverpondhabitats.Proc.31stAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wi1d1.Agencies:216-225.Parr,D.E.,M.D.ScottandD.D.Kennedy.1979.itatusebyWoodDucksinsouthernIllinois.108.Autumn movementsandhabJ.Wi1d1. Manage.43:102-Perry,H.R.,Jr.1979.WoodDuckroostutilizationofnortheasternNorthCarolinaswamps.Proc.31stAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish& Wi1d1.Agencies:307-311.136

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Rothbart,P.1979.Survival,habitatuse,and movementsofWoodDuckbroodsinnorthernLouisiana.M.S.thesis,La. State Univ./BatonRouge,LA.xivand 165pp.Stewart,P.A.1979.RadialdispersalofWoodDucksafterthenestingseasonandbeforefallmigration.N.Am.BirdBander4:1-3.1978Briggs,R.L.1978.WoodDucksgatheringacorns.N.Am.BirdBander3:102.Burke,C.J.,S.M.ByersandR.A.Montgomery. 1978. AfieldguidetotheagingofWoodDuckembryos.J.Wildl.Manage.42:432-437.DiGiulio,R.T. 1978.WoodDuck(Aixsponsa)brood-usageofagriculturalfieldwetlandsinConcordiaParish,Louisiana.M.S.thesis,La.StateUniv./BatonRouge,LA.132pp.Fendley,T.T. 1978.TheecologyofWoodDucks(Aixsponsa)utilizinganuclearproductionreactorstream.Ph.D.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UT.158pp.Gilmer,D.S.,I.J.Ball,L.M.Cowardin,J.E.MathisenandJ.H.Riechman.1978.NaturalcavitiesusedbyWoodDucksinnorth-centralMinnesota.J.Wildl.Manage. 42:288-298.Heusmann,H.W.,R.G.BurrellandR.Bellville.1978.Automaticshort-termcolormarkerfornestingWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.42:429-432.Keran,D.C.1978.SiteselectionforWoodDucknestboxes.Loon50:191-194.Lingle,G.R.1978.FactorsinfluencingautumndispersalandweightboostingoftheWoodDuckincentralMichigan.Jack-PineWarbler56:122-127.Parr,D.E.andM.D.Scott.1978.Analysisofroostingcounts-asanindextoWoodDuckpopulationsize.WilsonBull.90:423-437.Russell,R.P.,Jr.1978.Firstrecordofa Hooded Merganser-Wood Duckhybridinthewild.Loon 50:208-209.Scott,M.D.andD.E.Parr.1978.EnvironmentalfactorsaffectingWoodDuckroostingflightsinsouthernIllinois.Trans.Ill.StateAcad.Sci.71:72-80.Stewart,P.A.1978.AssociationofindividualWoodDucksinmovements away fromtheirnestinggrounds.Inl.BirdBandingNews50:132-133.Strader,R.W.,R.T.DiGiulioandR.B.Hamilton.1978.EggcarryingbyWoodDuck.WilsonBull.90:131-132.Strader,R.W.,R.E.Murry,H.R.Perry,Jr.andR.B.Hamilton.1978.HenWoodDuckcallsbroodfromneighboringnestbox.J.Wildl.Manage.42:919-920.137

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Doty,H.A.andA.D.Kruse.1972.TechniquesforestablishinglocalbreedingpopulationsofWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.36:428-435.Heaton,M.B.sponsa).1972.PrenatalauditorydiscriminationintheWoodDuck(AixAnim. Behav.20:421-424.Heusmann,H.W.1972.SurvivalofWoodDuckbroodsfromdumpnests.J.Wildl.Manage.36:620-624.Kerwin,J.A.and L.G.Webb.1972. FoodofduckswinteringincoastalSouthCarolina,1956-1957.Proc.25thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.: 223-245.Kimball,C.F. 1972.WoodDuck bandrecoverydatafor1971 andpopulationtrendsintheeasternUnitedStatesandOntario,1966-1971.Bur.SportFish.&Wildl.,Admin.Rept.No. 219. 7pp.McGilvrey,F.B.1972.IncreasingaWoodDucknestingpopulationbyreleaseofpen-rearedbirds.Proc.25thAnnu,.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:202-206.Stewart,P.A.1972.TheplightofWoodDucksintheCarolinas.Chat 36:4855.Tabberer,D.K.,J.D.Newsom,P.E.SchillingandH.A.Bateman. 1972.TheWoodDuckroostcountasanindextoWoodDuckabundanceinLouisiana.Proc.25thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.,Game&FishCommiss.:254-261.1971Baker,J.L.1971.WoodDuck(Aixsponsa)productionfromnestboxesandbroodstudiesontheNoxubeeNationalWildlifeRefuge.Ph.D.thesis,Miss.St.Univ./StateCollege,MS.48pp.Ball,I.J.,Jr.1971. Movements,habitatuseandbehaviorofWoodDuck(Aixsponsa)broodsinnorth-centralMinnesotaasdeterminedbyradiotracking.M.S.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/St.Paul,MN.56pp.Carleton,G.1971.WoodDuck presumednestingincliff.Kingbird21:212.Cringan,A.T. 1971.StatusoftheWoodDuckinOntario.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.&Nat.Resour.Conf.36: Gilmer,D.S. 1971.HomerangeandhabitatuseofbreedingMallards(Anasplatyrhynchos) and WoodDucks(Aixsponsa)innorth-centralMinnesotaasdeterminedbyradio-tracking.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.Herman,C.M.,J.O.Knisley,Jr.andG.D.Knipling.1971. BloodparasitesofWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.35:119-122.140

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Hocutt,G.E. andR.W.Dimmick. 1971.SummerfoodhabitsofjuvenileWoodDucksineastTennessee.J.Wildl.Manage.35:286-292.Johnson,N.F. 1971.EffectsoflevelsofdietaryproteinonWoodDuckgrowth.J.Wildl.Manage.35:798-802.McGilvrey,F.B.and F.M.Uhler.1971. Astarling-deterentWoodDucknestbox.J.Wildl.Manage.35:793-797.Odum,R.R.1971.NestboxproductionandbroodsurvivalofWoodDucksonthePiedmontNationalWildlifeRefuge,1969.Proc.24thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:108-117.Stewart,P.A.1971a.EggturningbyanincubatingWoodDuck.WilsonBull.83:97-99.1971b.WoodDucksnestinginchimneys.Auk88: 425.Strange,T.H.,E.R. Cunningham andJ.W.Goertz.1971.UseofnestboxesbyWoodDucksinMississippi.J.Wildl.Manage. 35:786-793.1970Kimball,C.F.1970.WoodDuck bandrecoverydatafor1969 andpopulationtrendsintheeasternUnitedStatesandOntario,1964-1969.Bur.SportFish&Wildl.,Admin.Rept.No.188.8pp.1969 Cunningham, E.R.1969.AthreeyearstudyoftheWoodDuck ontheYazooNationalWildlifeRefuge.Proc.22nd Annu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:145-155.Larude,S.E.,Jr.1969.TreeDuck/Wood Duck eggparasitism.Bull.TexasOrnithol.Soc.3:28.McGilvrey,F.B.1969.SurvivalinWoodDuckbroods.J.Wildl.Manage. 33:73-76.Morse,T. E. andH.M.Wight.1969.DumpnestinganditseffectsonproductioninWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.33:284-293.1968Barden,L.S.1968.ApopulationanalysisofMaine-bandedWoodDucks. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.109pp.Bolen,E.G.and B.W.Cain.1968.MixedWoodDuck/TreeDuckclutchinTexas.Condor 70:389-390.141

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McGilvrey,F.B.quirements.32pp.(comp.).1968. AguidetoWoodDuckproductionhabitatreU.S.Bur.SportFish.&Wildl.Resourc.Publ.No.60.ivandPrince,H.H.1968.NewBrunswick.NestsitesusedbyWoodDucks andCommonGoldeneyesinJ.Wildl.Manage.32:489-500.Stewart,P.A.1968.HatchingofWoodDuckducklings.Bird-Banding39:130.1967 Hollomon,J.L.1967.ReturnofyearlingfemaleWoodDucks, Aixsponsa,totheirnatalareastonest.M.S.thesis,N.CarolinaSt.Univ./Raleigh,NC.Jones,R.E.andA.S.Leopold.populationofWoodDucks. 1967.NestingandinterferenceinadenseJ.Wildl.Manage. 31:221-228.Lokemoen,J.T. 1967.FlightspeedoftheWoodDuck.WilsonBull.79:238239.Rogers,J.P.andJ.L.Hansen.1967. SecondbroodsintheWoodDuck.BirdBanding38:234-235.Shake,W.F.1967.Starling/WoodDuckrelationships.M.S.thesis,W.IllinoisUniv./Macomb,IL.Stewart,P.A.1967a.WoodDuckducklingscapturedbybullfrogs.WilsonBull.79:237-238.1967b.Disgorgingoffood byWoodDucks.WilsonBull.79:339-340.1967c.DivingWoodDuckducklingsentangledinfilamentousalgae.Con------dor69:531.1966Hein,D.andA.O.Haugen.1966a.IlluminationandWoodDuckroostingflights.WilsonBull.78:301-308. 1966b. AutumnroostingflightcountsasanindextoWoodDuckabundance.J.Wildl.Manage.30:657-668.Jahn,L.R.(ed.).1966.WoodDuck management andresearch:a symposium.Wildl.Manage.Instit.,Washington,D.C. 212pp.Leopold,F.1966.Experiencewithhome-grownWoodDucks.Pp.113-123inL.R.Jahn(ed.)WoodDuck mangement andresearch:a symposium.WildLManage.Instit.andN.CentralSect.oftheWildl.Soc.Wildl.Manage.Instit.,Washington,D.C.McGilvrey,F.B.1966a.FallfoodhabitsofWoodDucks from LakeMarion,SouthCarolina.J.Wildl.Manage.30:193-195.142

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McGilvrey,F.B.1966b. SecondnestingsoftheWoodDuck.Auk83: 1965 Almand,J.D.1965. AcontributiontothemanagementrequirementsoftheWoodDuck(Aixsponsa)inthePiedmontofGeorgia.M.S.thesis.,Univ.Georgia/Athens,GA.78pp.Grice,D.andJ.P.Rogers.1965.TheWoodDuckinMassachusetts.Mass.Div.Fish&Game,Pittman-RobertsonProjectW-19-R.Boston,MA.96pp.Hankla,D.J.andP.B.Smith.1965.WoodDucktrappingtechniques.Proc.17thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:79-85.Hartowicz,E. 1965. EveningroostinghabitsofWoodDucksinsoutheastMissouri.J.Wildl.Manage.29:399-401.Hein,D.1965.WoodDuckroostingflightphenomena. Ph.D.thesis,IowaSt.Univ./Ames,IA.Hester,F. E. 1965.Survival,renestingandreturnofadultWoodDuckstopreviouslyusednestboxes.Proc.16thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:67-70.Prince,H.H.1965.ThebreedingecologyoftheWoodDuck(AixsponsaL.)andCommonGoldeneye(BucephalaclangulaL.)incentralNewBrunswick.M.S.thesis.Univ.NewBrunswick/Fredericton,NB.109pp.1964Bellrose,F.C.,K.L.JohnsonandT.U.Meyers.1964.RelativevalueofnaturalcavitiesandnestinghousesforWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage. 28:661-676.Jones,R.E. 1964.ReproductionoftheWoodDuck, Aixsponsa,in.theSacramentoValley,California.M.S.thesis,Univ.Calif./Berkeley,CA.Webster,L.G.and F.M.Uhler.1964. ImprovedneststructuresforWoodDucks.U.S.Fish&Wildl.ServoLeafletNo.458.1963Gottlieb,G.sponsa) 1963. AnaturalisticstudyofimprintinginWoodducklings(AixJ.CompoPhysiol.Psychol.56:86-91.Hardister,J.P.,Jr.1963.MovementsofjuvenileWoodDucksasmeasuredbywebtagging.M.S.thesis,N.CarolinaSt.Univ./Raleigh,NC.Hartowicz,E. L.1963.NestingoftheWoodDuckinsoutheastMissouri.M.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.143

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1962Bolen,E.G.1962.AmandibularabnormalityintheWoodDuck.Auk79:712.Meyers,T.U.1962. AWoodDucknestingstudyinMasonCounty,Illinois.M.S.thesis,W.IllinoisUniv./Macomb,IL.Stewart,P.A.1962.NestingattentivenessandincubationperiodofaWoodDuck.Bird-Banding33:85-89.1961 Hall, V.M.1961.ObservationsofWoodDuckbroods.PassengerPigeon23:8385.Hein,D.1961.WoodDuckroostingflightsatPaintCreek,Iowa.Iowa Acad.Sci.68:264-270.Hester,F. E. and T. L. Quay. 1961. Athree-yearstudyofthefallmigrationandroostingflighthabitsoftheWoodDuckineastcentralNorthCarolina.Proc.15thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:55-60.Smith,M.M.1961.LouisianaWoodDuckstudies,finalreportJuly1950-June1961.LouisianaWildLifeandFisheriesCommissionTechnicalReport.NewOrleans.26pp.1960Martin,E.M.andA.O.Haugen.1960.SeasonalchangesinWoodDuckroostingflighthabits.WilsonBull.72:238-243.Naylor,A.E.1960.TheWoodDuckinCalifornia,withspecialreferencetotheuseofnestboxes.Calif.FishGame46:241-269.Powell,M.1960.WoodDuck-MallardpairamongwinteringducksinOhio.Atl.Nat.15:262-263.1959Decker,E. 1959. A4-yearstudyofWoodDucks on aPennsylvaniamarsh.J.Wildl.Manage. 23:310-315.Grayson,J.andW.Grayson.1959.RaisingWoodDucksincaptivity.Atl.Nat.14:86-96.Hailman,J.P.1959.WhyisthemaleWoodDuckstrikinglycolorful?Am.Nat.93:383-384.Johnson,K.L. 1959. AstudyofWoodDucknestinghabitsandnestingsuccessinMasonCounty,Illinois.M.S.thesis,W.IllinoisUniv./Macomb,IL.144

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1958Stewart,P.A.1958.LocalmovementsofWoodDucks(Aixsponsa).Auk75:157-168.1957Coulter,M.W.1957.FoodofWoodDucksinMaine.J.Wildl.Manage. 21:235-236.Rollin,N.1957.IncubationbydrakeWoodDuckintheeclipseplumage.Condor59:263-265.Stewart,P.A.1957. TheWoodDuck, Aixsponsa(Linnaeus),anditsmanagement.Ph.D.thesis,OhioSt.Univ./Columbus,OR.1956Breckenridge,W.J.1956.NestingstudyofWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage. 20:16-21.1955Bellrose,F.C.1955.No.45(revised).RousingforWoodDucks.Urbana,IL.48pp.Ill.Nat.Rist.Surv.,Circ.Coulter,M.W.1955.Springfoodhabitsofsurface-feedingducksinMaine.J.Wildl.Manage. 19:263-267.Rester,F.E. 1955. TheWoodDuckineast-centralNorthCarolina.M.S.thesis,N.CarolinaSt.Univ./Raleigh,NC.65pp.Klein,R.G.1955.WoodDuckproductionanduseofnestboxesonsomesmallmarshesinNewYork. N.Y.FishGameJ.2:68-83.Webster,C.G.1955.HatchingWoodDuckeggsafterabandonment.WilsonBull.67:306.1954Dreis,R.E.1954.AfieldobservationmethodofagingbroodsofWoodDucks.J.Wildl.Manage. 18:280-281.Hanson,R.C.1954.CriteriaofageofincubatedMallard,WoodDuck, and Bobwhiteeggs.Auk71:267-272.1952Dreis,R.E.andG.O.Hendrickson.1952.WoodDuckproductionfromnest-boxesandnaturalcavitiesontheLake OdessaArea,Iowa,in1951. IowaBirdLife22:18-22.145

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Mumford,R.E. 1952. AstudyofWoodDuckpopulationsonIndianastreams.M.S.thesis,PurdueUniv./Lafayette,IN. 49pp.1951Dreis,R.E. 1951.ProductivityoftheWoodDuck, Aix sonsa(L.),ineasternLouisaCounty,Iowa, 1951. M.S.thesis,Iowa Ames,IA. Hansen,H.C.1951.NotesonartificialpropagationofWoodDuck.J.Wildl.Manage. 15:68-72.Leopold,F.1951. Astudyof-nestingWoodDucksinIowa. Condor 53:209-220.1950Stollberg,B.P.Wisconsin.1950. Foodhabitsofshoal-waterducksonHoriconMarsh,J.Wildl.Manage. 14:214-217.1948Barnes,W.B.1948. UnusualnestingbehaviorofaWoodDuck.Auk65: 449. 1947 McCabe,R.A.1947.ThehomingoftransplantedyoungWoodDucks. WilsonBull.59: 104-109. 1944Nelson,A.L. 1944. A mouseeatenbyaWoodDuck. WilsonBull.56:170.1943 Brown, L.G.and F.C.Bellrose,Jr.1943. UseofnestingboxesforWoodDucksbyotherwildlife.J.Wildl.Manage. 7: 298-306. 1941 Hawkins,A.S. and F.C.Bellrose,Jr.1941.WoodDuckhabitatmanagementinIllinois.TransN.Am.Wildl.Conf.5:392-395.1938Gigstead,G.1938.WoodDucksintheIllinoisriverbottoms.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf. 3:603-610.1928Foster,F.B.1928.CuriousactionofWoodDuck.Auk45:369.146

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Dixon, J.1924. Nearing of theWoodDuck inCalifornia.Condor26:41-66. Townsend, C.W.1916. Thecourtship of theMerganser,Mallard,BlackDuck,"Baldpate, WoodDuck, andBufflehead. Auk33:9-17.Grinnell,J. snd H. C.Bryant.1915. TheWoodDuck inCalifornia.Calif. FishGame 1:1-14.Heinroth.O.1910.(Observationsonanaturalization exper1mentwith the Wood Duck.)J.Ornlthol.58:101-156.(In German.)Wood Duck drake inbreeding plumage. PhotographbyRogerB.Clapp.147

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EURASIANWIGEON(Anaspenelope)[DA:Pibeand,DU:Smient,EN:Wigeon,FI:Haapana,FR:Canardsiffleur,Siffleurd'Europe;GE:Pfeifente,IC: Raudhofdaond,IT:Fischione,JA:Hidorigame,NW:Brunnakke,PO:Swistun,PR:Assobiadeira,Piadeira;SP:Patoeuropeo,Anadesilbon;SW:Blasand,US:EuropeanWigeon)GENERALDISTRIBUTIONAsitsnameimplies,theEurasianWigeonisanOld Worldspeciesofduck,occurringasabreedingbirdfromIcelandacrosssubarcticandnorthernEurope andAsiatotheBeringSea(AOU1957,Crampetal.1977).InwinteritmovestosouthernEuropeandAsiaandintonorthernandcentralAfrica(Crampetal.1977).ThespeciesmaybreedintheAleutians,whereitisatleastacasualvisitorinsummer(KesselandGibson1978).TheEurasianWigeonoccursirregularlyasamigrantandwintervisitorinmuchoftheUnitedStates;mostobservationsareofsinglebirds.Hasbrouck(1944)summarizedearlyrecords.ObservationsreportedinAmericanBirdsoverthepastdecade(compiledforthisreport)indicateoccurrencesinthesoutheasternstatesasfollows:NorthCarolina,6;SouthCarolina,2;Georgia,3;Florida,7; Alabama, 1;Texas,1.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONBuck andHarrison(1967)correlated countsofbirdsintheMedwayEstuaryinGreatBritainwithdamagetofoodsourcesfollowingoilpollutionandemulsifiertreatment.TheEurasianWigeonoccursprimarilyalongthecoastsinNorthAmerica(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a)butissuchanuncommon inthesoutheasternUnitedStatesthatdevelopmentofresourcesinthatareaisnotlikelytohaveanyeffectonthepopulationofthespecies.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Danell,K.andK.Sjoberg.1980.FoodsofWigeon,Teal,Mallard,andPintailduringthesummerinanorthernSwedishlake.Viltrevy11:141-167.Taxonomicnote:Until 1973 thisspecieswasregardedbytheAOUas elope,andiscalledtheEuropeanWidgeonbytheAOUCheck-list(AOU1957)andbyBellrose(1976).Weprefertolistit a$ theEurasianWigeon,asdidtheAmericanBirdingAssociation(ABA1975) andPalmer(1976a),becausethiscommonnamebetterreflectstheworlddistributionofthisduck.148

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Dubois,P.1980.NidificationpossibleduCanardpiletAnasacutaL.etduCanardsiffleurAnaspenelopeL.dansleCantal?OiseauRev.Fr.OrnithoL48:282-283.[InFrench.]Wallace,D.I.M.1980.TertialpatternsofWigeon and American Wigeon.Brit.Birds73:218-219.1979 Owen,M.andG.J.Thomas.1979.ThefeedingecologyandconservationofWigeonattheOuseWashes,England.J.Appl.Ecol.16:795-809.1978 Meadows,B.S.1978.OnthewinteringoftheWigeon AnaspenelopeintheKen yahighlands.Scopus2:97.1977Halliday,K.C. R.1977.GreatBlack-backedGullkillingWigeon.Scott.Birds9:248.1976 Owen,M.and G.Williams.ofWigeoninBritain.1976.WinterdistributionandhabitatrequirementsWildfowl27:83-90.1974Cadwalladr,D.A.andJ.V.Morley.1974.FurtherexperimentsonthemanagementofsaltingpastureforWigeon(AnaspenelopeL.)conservationatBridgwaterBayNationalNatureReserve,Somerset.J.Appl.Ecol.11:461466.Mason,C.N.1974.EuropeanWidgeonsintheDistrictofColumbia.Atl.Nat.29:73.1973Cadwalladr,D.A.andJ.V.Morley.1973.SheepgrazingpreferencesonasaltingpastureandtheirsignificanceforWigeon AnaspenelopeL.conservation.J.Brit.GrassidSoc.28:235-242.Owen,M.set.1973.ThewinterfeedingecologyofWigeonatBridgwaterBay,SomerIbis115:227-243.1972Cadwalladr,D.A.,M.Owen,J.V.Morleyand R.S.Cook.1972.Wigeon(AnaspenelopeL.)conservationandsaltingpasturemanagementatBridgwaterBayNationalNatureReserve,Somerset.J.Appl.Ecol.9:417-425.149

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Tiussa,J.1972.Sinsoraan,haapananjatavinravinnostametsastyskaudenaikana.[The autumn foodofMallard,Wigeon_,andTealduringthehuntingseason.]SuomenRiista24:40-46.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1970 Watson,G.E. 1970. A presumedwildhybridBaldpateXEurasianWigeon.Auk87:353-357.1968Heintzelman,D.S.1968.AnearlyunrecordedEuropean WidgeonspecimenfromNorthCarolina.Chat 32:76-77.1967Olney,P.J.S.1967.TheWAGBI-WildfowlTrustExperimentalReserve.II:ThefeedingecologyoflocalMallardandotherwildfowl.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:47-55.1959 Donker,J.K.1959.MigrationanddistributionoftheWigeon, AnaspenelopeL.,inEurope,basedonringingresults.Ardea 47:1-28.Lebret,T. 1959.Dedagelijkseverplaatsingentussendagverblijfennachtelijkvoedselgebiedbijsmienten,AnaspenelopeL.,ineinigeterrfineninhetlagemiddenvanFriesland.[ThedailymovementsbetweendayquartersandnocturnalfeedinggroundsofWidgeon, AnaspenelopeL.,intheprovinceofFriesland.]Ardea 47:199-210.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Loftin,H.1959. European Widgeon (Marecapenelope)atSt.MarksRefuge.Fla.Nat.32:146.1957Teplova,E.N.1957.[ResultsoftheringingofAnaspenelopeinU.S.S.R.]TrudyBiuroK61'tsev9:144-152.[InRussian-.-]--1953Lorenz,K.1953. ComparativestudiesofthebehaviorofAnatinae.XVII. The Wigeon andtheChiloeWigeon.Avicult.Mag.59:24-26.1952Lebret,T. 1952.Pre-moultmigrationofa female Gadwall (AnasstreperaL.)and twofemaleWigeon (AnaspenelopeL.).Ardea 40:75-76.White,C.A.1952. Wigeon summeringinMiddlesex.Brit.Birds45:419. 150

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1951Davis,E.G.1951. European WidgeonatRoaches Run.Atl.Nat.6: 175. 1950Vleugel,D.A.1950. Weather-movementsinWigeon (AnaspenelopeL.)intheNetherlands.Ardea 38: 237-238. Adams,B.G.1947. MatingbehaviorofWigeon andRed-breastedMerganser.Brit.Birds40: 186-187.Harrison,J.andA.McLean. 1947.Theeffectofsevereweatheron Wigeon.Brit.Birds40: 218. Campbell,J.W.1946.ThefoodoftheWigeon andBrentGoose.Brit.Birds39: 194-200, 226-232. 1944Hasbrouck.E.M.1944. ApparentstatusoftheEuropean WidgeoninNorthAmerica. Auk 61: 93-104.Stevenson,H.M.1944. European WidgeoninAlabama. Auk 61: 650. 1943Glegg,W.E. 1943.ThefoodoftheWigeon. MarecapenelopeLinn.Ibis85:82-87.1939 Lynch,J.J.1939. AlgaeinfoodofRhodeIslandwaterfowl. Auk 56:374-380.1937 McClanahan,R.C.1937. European WidgeoninFlorida. Auk 54:532-533.1931Huber,W.1931. European WidgeoninGeorgia. Auk 48: 256.Lincoln.F.C.1931. Another banded European Widgeon.Bird-Banding2: 126. 1925Savage,J.1925. European Widgeon, Marecapenelope,atNiagaraFalls,N.Y. Auk 42: 263-264.151

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Stone,W.1924.European Widgeon in NorthCarolina.Auk 41:338. Widmann, C.1922.EuropeanWidgeon penelope)atCorpuaChristi, Texas. Auk39:250. BaUer. H.H.1919. Aninteresting hybrid Kareca penelope(Widgon (sic)) and (Baldpate).WilsonBulI:'3'i":25.Eurasian Wigeon.PhotographbyRogerB.Clapp. 152

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AMERICANWIGEON(Anasamericana)[DA:AmerikanskPibeand,DU:AmerikaanseSmient,EN:Baldpate,American Widgeon; FR: Canardsiffleurd'Amerique,GE:NordamerikanischePfiefente,IC:Ljoshofdaond,IT:Fischioneamericano,JA: Amerikahidori,NW:Blesand,Amerikansklyngand;PR:Pato,SP: Anadesilbonamericano,Patoamericano,Patolablanco,Patocabecilargo,Moniblanco;SW:Amerikanskblasand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONThe American WigeonbreedsacrossnorthernNorthAmerica fromtheBeringSea andinteriorAlaskatoHudson Bay, andsouthtonortheasternCalifornia,Utah,Minnesota,andsouthernManitoba(AOU1957).Inrecentyearstherehasbeenanapparentexpansionofthebreedingrangetotheeast,withscatteredreportsofnestingfromsouthernOntarioand Quebec,PrinceEdwardIsland,NovaScotia,NewBrunswick,and Maine(Palmer1976a,Spencer1977).From 1955to1973,theaverageNorthAmericanbreedingpopulationwasabout3,139,000birds,withanannualproductionofabout3,296,000young(Bellrose1976).InwintertheseducksoccuralongthePacificcoastofNorthAmerica fromsouthernAlaskatoCostaRicaandalongtheAtlanticseaboardfromNewEnglandsouththroughmuchofMexico andtheWestIndies,sometimesreachingSouthAmerica(AOU1957,Bond1971,Palmer1976a).InwintertheAmerican Wigeonisacommonbirdalongthesoutheasterncoast(Map8).Recentestimates(Bellrose1976)suggestwinterpopulationsof29,000inCurrituckSound,NorthCarolina;60,000inthemarshesofSouthCarolina;20,000inFlorida;and upto300,000intheextensivecoastalmarshesofLouisiana,whereevenmorearepresentinfallmigration.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONAlthoughtheAmerican Wigeonoccursincoastalmarshesandestuaries,wehavenorecordsofoilinginsoutheasternwaters.Thespeciesisoneofthe terrestrialofthedabblingducks(Palmer1976a),andasaresult,webelievethisspecieswillnotbeseverelyaffectedbyoffshoredevelopmentinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Theyshouldbemostadverselyaffectedifoilweretoinundateshorelineandmarshyareaswheremostarefound>.BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Wishart,R.A.1981.Wing-feathercriteriaforageseparationofAmericanWigeon.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:230-235.Taxonomicnote:Until1973thisspecieswasregardedbytheAOUasMarecaamericana.153

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Willer DistrtuIiIlapforSldeastn UnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 .. 10-SOII50-200_ Morethan200 (Adapted from 8ystrak. 1974.INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1917(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanoneindividual None observed 92GULFOFMEXICO 90" NMap886BIRO NAME' AMERICANWIGEON

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1980 Ouwennel,G.L.1980.WaarnemingenvaneenAmerikaaseSmient.[ObservationsofanAmericanWigeon.]Limosa53:70.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Wallace,D.I.M.1980.TertialpatternsofWigeon and American Wigeon.Brit.Birds73:218-219.1979Wishart,R.A.1979.IndicesofstructuralsizeandconditionofAmericanWigeon (Anasamericana).Can.J.Zool.57:2369-2374.1978Knapton,R.W.andB.Knudsen. 1978. FoodpiracybyAmerican WigeonsonAmericanCoots.Can.Field-Nat.92:403-404.1977Hellyer,D.T.1977.WigeonshakesdownCoot.Pac.Search11:26-27.Spencer,H.E.,Jr.1977. American WigeonbreedinginMaine.Auk94:790.Vermeer,K.andC.D.Levings.1977.Populations,biomassand foodhabitsofducksontheFraserDeltaintertidalarea,BritishColumbia.Wildfowl28:49-60.1976Reinecker,W.C.1976.Distribution,harvestandsurvivalofAmerican Wigeons bandedinCalifornia.Calif.FishGame62:141-153.1975Fisher,B.M.1975. American Wigeonstealsfoodfrommuskrats.Can.FieldNat.89:468.Lynch,G.M.andJ.E.Toepfer.1975.CaliforniaGullsattackwaterfowlbroodsinAlberta.Auk92:159-160.1973Mareschal,M.1973.WhitenessinanAmerican Wigeon. BlueJay31:232-233.Schwilling,M.D.1973.FirstattemptednestingbyAmerican WigeoninKansas.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc.24:36.Sugden,L.G.1973.FeedingecologyofPintail,Gadwall,American Wigeon,andLesserScaupducklingsinsouthernAlberta.Can.Wild.ServoRept.Ser.No.24.43pp.155

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1972Bartonek,J.C.1972.SummerfoodsofAmerican Wigeon,Mallards,and aGreenwingedTealnearGreatSlaveLake,N.W.T. Can.Field-Nat.86:373-376.Soutiere,E.C.,H.S.Myrickand E.G.Bolen.1972.ChronologyandbehaviorofAmerican WigeonwinteringinTexas.J.Wildl.Manage. 36:752-758.1971Yarker,B. andG.L.Atkinson-Wilkes.1971.ThenumericaldistributionofsomeBritishbreedingducks.Wildfowl22:63-70.1970Watson,G.E. 1970. A presumed wild hybridBaldpateXEurasianWigeon.Auk87:353-357.1969Gardaarsson,A.1969.[The American Widgeon (Anasamericana)inIceland).]Natturufraedingurinn38:165-175.[InIcelandic with Englishsummary.] 1964Fuller,R.W.andN.E.King.1964. American Widgeon andShovelerbreedinginVermont.Auk81:86-87.1960Bartlett,C.O.1960.American Widgeon andPintailintheMaritimeProvinces.Can.Field-Nat.74:153-155.1957Beter,R.A.1957.Acomparativewinterfoodhabitstudyofdabblingducksfrom.thebrackishLake Borgne MarshofSt.BernardParishandthefreshmarshofPassALoutre(Miss.Delta)PlaqueminesParish,Louisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.viiiand73pp.1956Martin,F.R.1956.Baldpate(Marecaamericana)nestinginMinnesota.Auk73:287.1955 Andrew,D.G.,G.Frazer,M.F.M.Meiklejohn,H.Mayer-Gross,R.W.T.SmithandC.Walker.1955.BaldpateinLanarkshire.Brit.Birds48:84-85.Bartlett,L.M.andG.Atwell.1955.ApparentcopulationofBaldpateincentralMassachusetts.Auk72:297.156

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King,F.1955.BaldpateinDublin.Brit.Birds48:84.1952 Boyd,A.W.1952.American WigeoninCheshire.Brit.Birds45:34.Lebret,T. 1952.Pre-moultmigrationofafemaleGadwall,AnasstreperaL.,and twofemaleWigeon, AnaspenelopeL.Ardea40: Southwick,C.H.1952.Theduckcalled"poacher".Audubon54:44-47.1949Hambleton,J.1949.NotesonthesexualbehavioroftheBaldpate.Auk66:198-199.Munro,J.A.1949.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.Baldpate.Can.J.Res.(Sect.D.)27:289-307.Zimmerman, F.R.1949.Baldpate.Wise.Conserv.Bull.14:38-39.1948Hammond,M.C.1948.MarshHawkkillsBaldpate.Auk65:297-298.1946Campbell,J.W.1946.The foodoftheWigeon andBrentGoose.Brit.Birds39:194-200,226-232.1919Bailey,H.H.1919.AninterestinghybridMarecapenelope(Widgon[sic])andMarecaamericana.WilsonBull.31:25.------1916 Townsend,C.W.1916. ThecourtshipoftheMerganser,Mallard,BlackDuck,Baldpate,WoodDuck, andBufflehead.Auk33:9-17.157

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Az:lerican Wigeon duke. PhotographbyRoger B.Clapp.'58

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GADWALL(Anasstrepera)[DA:Knarand,DU:Krakeend,FI:Harmaasorsa,FR:Canardchipeau,GE:Schnatterente,IC: Gargond,IT:Canapiglia,JA:Okayoshigamo,NW:Snadderand,po:Krakwa,PR:Frisada,RU:(GrayDuck),SP:Patoruidosa,Anadefriso;SW:Snatterand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONThe GadwallbreedsinsouthernAlaska,thesouthernPrairieProvincesofCanada,southernOntario(AOU1957,Godfrey1966),andinthewesternandcentralUnitedStates(AOU1957,Johnsgard1975).InrecentyearstherehasbeenanincreaseinbreedingintheeasternUnitedStates(HennyandHolgersen1974),includingallthecoastalstatestoSouthCarolina.InwinterGadwallsoccurthroughoutthesouthernhalfoftheUnitedStates,mostofMexico, andtheCaribbeanislands(AOU1957,Bond1971).AnOld WorldportionofthepopulationbreedsfromIcelandacrossnorthernEurasiaandwintersinsouthernEurope,northernAfrica,theMiddleEast,China,andJapan(Delacour1954,Johnsgard1978).TheNorthAmericanbreedingpopulationhasbeenestimatedatabout1,615,000birdsinrecentyears(Bellrose1976),withthemostimportantbreedinggroundsinthePrairieProvincesofCanada andintheDakotas.InwinterthespeciesislocallycommoninthesoutheasternUnitedStates(Map9),butlargeconcentrationsarefoundinthecoastalmarshesofLouisiana.Inrecentyears,populationestimatesinLouisianarangedfrom570,000in1972to938,000in1969(Bel1rose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONRecordsinthebandingofficeatPatuxentNationalResearchCenterindicatethatatleasttwoGadwallshavediedasaresultofoiling,oneinTexas and oneinLouisiana.Deathfromoilingisevidentlyuncommontorareinthisspecies,forwefound nootherrecords.TheGadwalloccursprimarilyinfreshwaterandinbrackishmarshesandestuaries.Becauseofitsinshorehabits,thisspeciesisnotlikelytobeparticularlyvulnerabletooilpollution.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980 Kennedy,R.S.and E.C.Dickinson.1980.FirstrecordoftheGadwall fromthePhilippines.Auk97: 902.Klein,H.P.1980.ErstergesicherterBrutnachweisderSchnatterente(Anasstrepera)inNordrhein-Westfalen.[FirstconfirmedsightingofbreedingofGadwall (Anasstrepera)inNorthRhine-Westphalia.]Charadrius16:88-90.159

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.....0\ oWinterDistributillMapforSoutheasternUnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI J Lessthan10..10-50II50-200_ More than200 (Adapted 'romBystralc, 19741INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed GULFOFMEXICO 88" Map9BIRDNAME' GADWALL

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1979 Blohm,R.J.andP.Ward. 1979.Experiencewitha decoytrapformale Gadwalls.Bird-Banding 50: 45-48.Sedwitz, W. 1979. Gadwallmatingdisplay.Kingbird29:82-83.1978 Blohm,R.J.1978.Migrational homing ofmale Gadwallstobreedinggrounds.Auk95: 763-766.Briefe,B.1978.Snatteranden strepera)paOland. [The Gadwall, Anasstrepera)onOland.]Calidris77:91-95.[InSwedishwithEnglish sum= mary. ] 1977 Blohm,R.J.1977. AcaptureandagedeterminationmethodfortheGadwall (Anasstrepera).M.S.thesis,Univ.Wisconsin/Madison, WI. Johnson,R.E.,Jr.and L.M.Kirsch.1977. Egg movementbya female Gadwall betweennestbowls.WilsonBull.89: 331-332.Serie,J.R.andG.A.Swanson. 1976. FeedingecologyofbreedingGadwalls onsalinewetlands.J.Wildl.Manage. 40:69-81.1975Armistead,H.T. 1975. BreedingofGreaterBlack-backedGull,HerringGull,and GadwallatSmithIsland,Maryland.Md.Birdlife31: 131-134. Daemon,F.and L. Deckx. 1975. Krakeend Anasstrepera.Wielewaal 41: 120.[InDutch.]Dwyer, T.J.1975.TimebudgetofbreedingGadwalls.WilsonBull.87:335343. 1974Dibblee,R.andD.Guignion. 1974. BreedingrecordsofGadwall onPrinceEd wardIsland.Can.Field-Nat.88: 365-366. Dwyer, T.J.1974.SocialbehaviorofbreedingGadwallsinNorthDakota.Auk91: 375-386.Florschutz,0.,Jr.1974.Bandrecoveriesfrom anisolatedGadwallcolonyineasternNorthCarolina.Proc.27thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.: 328-331.161

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Renny,C.J.andN.E.Rolgersen.1974. RangeexpansionandpopulationincreaseoftheGadwallineasternNorthAmerica.Wildfowl 25:95-101.Serie,J.R.1974.ThefeedingecologyofbreedingGadwalls (Anasstrepera)onsalinewetlands.M.S.thesis,NorthDakotaSt.Univ.!Fargo,ND.56pp.1973 Sugden, L.G.1973.FeedingecologyofPintail,Gadwall,American Wigeon, andLesserScaupducklingsinsouthernAlberta.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.SereNo.24.43pp.1972Child,K.N.1972. A newdistributionalrecordfortheGadwall.Can.FieldNat.86: 291-292.1971Batt,B.D.J.1971. Gadwall ducklearnstoflyafterbreakingawing.BirdBanding 42:301-302.1970Emmons,J.1970. Gadwallsrevisited.Fla.Wildl.24:12-15.1969Oring,L.W.1969.SummerbiologyoftheGadwallatDelta,Manitoba.WilsonBull.81:44-54.1968Oring,L.W.1968. Growth,moults,and plumagesoftheGadwall.Auk85:355380. 1966 Borden, R. andR.A.Rochbaum. 1966. GadwallseedinginNewEngland.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.31:79-88.Chabreck,R.R.1966.MoltingGadwall (Anasstepera)inLouisiana.Auk83:664.Duebbert,R.F. 1966.IslandnestingoftheGadwallinNorthDakota.WilsonBull.78:12-25.Oring,L.W.1966.BreedingbiologyandmoltsoftheGadwall, strepera(Linnaeus).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Okla.!Norman,OK.162

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1965Parnell,J.F.and T. L. Quay. 1965. Thepopulation,breedingbiologyandenvironmentalrelationsoftheBlackDuck,Gadwall,and Blue-wingedTealatPea and Bodieislands,NorthCarolina.Proc.16thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:53-67.1964 Delong,W.C.1964. GadwallnestinginIowa. IowaBirdLife34:72-73.1963Baillie,J.L. 1963.The13mostrecentOntarionestingbirds.Ont.FieldBioI.17:15-26.Harrison,J.M.andJ.G.Harrison.1963. A Gadwall (Anasstrepera)withawhiteneckringand areviewofplumagevariantsinwildfowl.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club 83:101-108.1962Gates,J.M.1962.BreedingbiologyoftheGadwallinnorthernUtah.WilsonBull.74:43-67.1961Dillon,O. W., Jr.1961. RecoveryofacrippledGadwall.Auk78:273-274.1960Chamberlain,B.R.1960. GadwallbreedingatBull'sIsland,SouthCarolina.Chat 24: 97. Hudson, M., T.G.PierceandJ.H.Taverner,Jr.1960.PiracybyGadwall.Brit.Birds53:271-272.Wust, W. 1960.DasProblemdesReihensderEnten,besondersvon Anasstrepera.[The problemofthedisplayflightofducks,especiallyofAnasstrepera.Proc.XIIthInternatl.Ornithol.Congr.,Helsinki1958: 795-800.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.] 1958Duebbert,H.F.1958.IslandnestingoftheGadwall,Anasstrepera,inNorthDakota.M.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.----Gates,J.M.1958a.Female Gadwallreturnstonestsiteafterlossofyoung. Condor 60:337-338.1958b. AstudyofthebreedingbehavioroftheGadwallinnorthernUtah.M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UTe124pp.

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Sedwitz, W. 1958.Sixyears(1947-1952)nestingofGadwall (Anasstrepera)onJonesBeach, LongIsland,N.Y.Proc.Linn.Soc.N.Y.66-70:71-76.1957Beter,R.A.1957. Acomparativewinter food habitstudyofdabblingducksfromthebrackishLake Borgne MarshofSt.BernardParishandthefreshmarshofPassALoutre(Miss.Delta),PlaqueminesParish,Louisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.Gates,J.M.1957. Autumn foodhabitsoftheGadwallinUtah.Proc.Utah Acad.Sci.Arts, & Lett.34:69-71.Treous,V.D.1957.[Seasonalmovements andmigrationsofAnasstreperaand clypeataasrevealedbyringingmethods.]TrudyBiuroKol'tsev9:162-208.[InRussian.]1952Lebret,T. 1952.Pre-moultmigration of afemaleGadwall,AnasstreperaL.,and twofemaleWigeon, AnaspenelopeL.Ardea 40: 75-i6'-:1950Springer.,P.F. andR.E. Stewart. 1950. GadwallnestinginMaryland.Auk67:234-235.1949Jensen,G.H.1949.MigrationoftheGadwall.Pp.9-10inMigrationofsomeNorthAmericanwaterfowl.U.S.Fish & Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.-Wildl.No.1.48pp.1948Sedwitz,W.,I.AlperinandM.Jacobson.1948.Gadwallbreedingon LongIsland,NewYork.Auk65:610-612.1946Griffith,R.E. 1946.NestingofGadwall andShovelerontheMiddleAtlanticcoast.Auk63:436-438.1944Glegg,W.E.1944.Gadwalldiving.Brit.Birds38:38.1932 SchimmelpenniIlCkvanderOije,F.A.L.C.1932. Second DutchseasonofhibernatingGadwall-pair(AnasstreperaL.).Ardea 21: 119. 164

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GREEN-WINGEDTEAL(Anas [DA:Krikand,DU:Wintertaling,EN:Teal,FI:Tavi,FR:Sarcelled'hiver,GE:Krickente,IC:Urtond,IT:Alzavola,JA: Kogamo, NW: Krikkand,po:Cyranoeczka,PR:Marreco,RU:(WhistlingTeal),SP:Cercetadealasverdes,Cercetacomun;SW:Kricka,us:EuropeanTeal]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheNorthAmericansubspeciesoftheGreen-wingedTeal(A.c.carolinensis)breedsfromnorthernAlaskaandthewesternMackenzie Di;tr!ct easttothe SOUthern Hudson Bayregion,northernQuebec,Labrador,andNewfoundland;southtoCalifornia,thenorthernGreatBasin,Colorado,centralNebraska,westernMinnesota,andsouthernOntarioandQuebec,withsmalldisjunctpopulationsoutsidethisgeneralrange(AOU1957,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).ScatteredrecordsindicateGreen-wingedTealformerlybredregularlyinthenortheasternUnitedStates.InwinterthespeciesoccursfromsouthernBritishColumbiasouththroughthesoutherntwo-thirdsoftheUnitedStatestotheAtlanticseaboard,throughMexico andCentralAmericatonorthernSouthAmerica,andintheWestIndies.AEurasiansubspeciesbreedswidelyacrossnorthernEuropeandAsia,winteringinsouthernEurope,northernAfrica,andsoutheasternAsia(Crampeta1.1977).AthirdsubspeciesisresidentinthewesternAleutians(AOU1957).TheGreen-wingedTealisacommonwinterbirdinallthesoutheasternstatestocentralFlorida(Map10).Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatthe55,000presentinSouthCarolinarepresentabout70%ofthebirdswinteringalongthesouthernAtlanticcoast.MorethanhalfthewinteringbirdsintheUnitedStatesmaybefoundintheMississippiFlyway,andsome600,000ofthoseutilizethecoastalmarshesandricefieldsofLouisiana(Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONAlthoughprimarilyabirdoffreshwaterandinlandpondsandlakes,GreenwingedTealfrequentlywinterincoastalmarshesandestuarineareasinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,particularlyalongtheGulfshoresofLouisianaandTexas.Chabreck(1973)documentedoilspilldamagetocoastalpondsofthetypeusedbythisspeciesinLouisiana,andshowedthatuseofthesepondsbywaterfowlwassignificantlylessthaninun-oiledareas.Inaddition,Vereschagin(1946inVermeer and Vermeer 1974)reportedthatthisteal(Anasc.crecca)isone mostaffectedspeciesinlandinAzerbaidzhan.ThissuggeststhatseriousdamagetoGreen-wingedTealcouldoccurifoilingincoastalmarshareasTaxonomicnote:The AmericanGreen-wingedTeal(Anascreccacarolinensis)wasnotregardedbytheAOUasafullspecies(Anas until1973.165

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BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI r Lessthan10IIIIIIIIIIIIIII10-SO m 50-200_ Morethan200 (Adapted frolll' .._ail, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals oLess than one individual @)None observed 96-.GULFOFMEXICO90"Map10 IIRD MAIlE' GIEEIII ..JW.

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werewidespread.Oilspillsinmoremarineareasandoffshorewillprobablyhavelittleeffect.BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Canaris,A.G.,A.C.MenaandJ.R.Bristol.1981.ParasitesofwaterfowlfromsouthwestTexas:III.TheGreen-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Dis.17:57-64.1980Danell,K.andK.Sjoberg.1980. FoodsofWigeon,Teal,MallardandPintailduringthesummerinanorthernSwedishlake.Viltrevy11:141-167.Meek, E. R. andB.Little.1980. UnusualnestsitesofTealinNorthumberland.Brit.Birds73: 581. 1979Laurie-Ahlberg,C.C.andF. MCKinney. Green-wingedTeal(Anascrecca).1979. The nod-swimdisplayofmaleAnim. Behav. 27: 165-172. MCKinney, F.and S.Derrickson.1979.Aerialscratching,leechesandnasalsaddlesinGreen-wingedTeal.Wildfowl 30: 151-153.Otnes,G.andM.Otnes.1979. Green-wingedTealvs.PeregrineFalcon.Loon 51: 200.Sell,D.L. 1979.FallfoodsoftealontheTexashighplains.Southwest.Nat.24:373-375.Triebl,R.1979. B;utverdachte KrickenteimHansag.[SuspectedbreedingoftealinHansag.]Egretta22: 83.[In.German.] Weber,M.1979.Krickente(Anascrecca)brutetamUlmenerJungferweiher/Eifel.[TealAnascreccabreedsatUlmenJungferweiher/Eifel.]Charadrius15:135-136.[InGerman.] 1978Afton,A.D.1978.Incubationrhythms and eggtemperaturesofan American Green-wingedTealand arenestingPintail.PrairieNat.10:"115-119.Bennett,J.W.and E.G.Bolen.1978.StressresponseinwinteringGreenwingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage. 42:81-86.167

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1977Danell,K.andK.Sjoberg.1977.Seasonalemergenceofchironomidsinrelationtoegg-layingandhatchingofducksinarestoredlake(northernSweden).Wildfowl28:129-135.Khagher,L.J.1977.CommonTealAnas migratingacrosstheHimalayas.J.BombayNat.Hist.Soc.73:391.Moller,A.P.1977.Yngletidspunkt,kuldstorrelseogungerproduktionhosnogleandefugleiNordjylland.[Timeofbreeding,clutchsizeandnestlingproductioninsomespeciesofAnatidaeinnorthernJutland,Denmark.) Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.71:68-69.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.)Pachenko,V.G.1977.[AhybridbetweentheMallard,Anasplatyrhynchos,andTeal,Anas Ornitologiya13:209-210.[InRussian.)Vermeer,K. andC.D.Levings.1977.Population,biomassandfoodhabitsofducksontheFraserDeltaintertidal area, BritishColumbia.Wildfowl28:49-60.1976Tamisier,A.1976.DiurnalactivitiesofGreen-wingedTealandPintailwinteringinLouisiana.Wildfowl27:19-32.Zwarts,L.1976.Density-relatedprocessesinfeedingdispersionandfeedingactivityofteal Ardea 64:192-209.1975Turner,B.C.andW.Threllfall.1975. ThemetazoanparasitesofGreen-wingedTeal(AnascreccaL.)andBlue-wingedTeal(AnasdiscorsL.)fromeastern Canada:--Proc. Helminthol.Soc.Wash. 42:157-169.1974Kortegaard,L.1974.Ierne,Denmark.Anecologicaloutlineofamoultingareaofteal,VejWildfowl25:134-142.Litvenenko,N.M.1974.[VariationsinthefoodcompositionofAnasacutaL.and AnascreccaL.causedbyfluctuationsinthewater IlistayaRiver(southernPrimoryeTerritory).)TrudyDal'nevost.Nauch.Tsentralbiol.Pochv.Inst.17:197-200.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.)Reichholf,J.1974.DerEinflussdesNahrungsangebotesaufdasZugmusterderKrickente(AnascreccaL.).Egretta17:4-14.[InGerman.)Tamisier,A.1974.Etho-ecologicalstudiesoftealwinteringintheCamargue (RhoneDelta,France).Wildfowl25:123-133.168

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1972Bartonek,J.C.1972.SummerfoodsofAmerican Wigeon,Mallardsand aGreenwingedTealnearGreatSlaveLake,N.W.T. Can.Field-Nat.86:373-376.Fournier,O.andF.Spitz.1972.QuelquesdonneessurlesSarcellesd'hiver(Anascrecca)dansIesuddelaVendee.OiseauRev.Fr.Ornithol.42: French.]Molodovski,A.V.1972.kovskiiReservoir.][ThebreedingoftheCommonTealAnascreccainGorOrnitologiya10:252-259.[InRussian-.-]----Tamisier,A.1972. RythmesnycthemerauxdesSarcellesd'hiverpendantleurhivernageenCamargue. Alauda40:107-135,235-256.[InFrenchwithEnglishsummary.]Tiussa,J.1972.Sinsorsan,haapananjatavinravinnostametsastyskaudanaikana.[The autumn foodoftheMallard,Wigeon, andTealduringthehuntingseason.]SuomenRiista24:40-46.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]1971Armistead,H.T. 1971.FirstMarylandbreedingoftheGreen-wingedTeal.Md.Birdlife27:111-114.LebretT. 1971. WaarnemingenvanZwemeenden(Anatinae)inVleugeluiinhetGetijmilieuvanhetbiesbosch-Hollandsdiep-Haringvlietgebied.[Observationsofsurface-feedingducks(Anatinae)inwingmoultintidalhabitatintheBiesbosch-HollandsDiep-Haringvliet-area.]LimQsa 44:29-44.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.]Mazzucchi,L. 1971.BeitragzurNahrungsokologieinderUmgebungvonBernuberwinternderKrickentenAnascreccaL.Ornithol.Beob.68:161-178.[InGermanwithFrench summ-;ry.-]--Molodov sky ,A.V.1971. GorskyReservoir.][FeedingofAnascreccaand !. querquedulaontheBioI.Nauki 1971:20-25.[InRussian.]Tamisier,A.1971a.LesbiomassesdenourrituredisponiblepourlesSarcelleshiverAnascreccacreccaenCamargue.TerreVie23:344-377.[InFrenchwithEnglish summary:-] 1971b. RegimealimentairedesSarcellesd'hiverAnascreccaL.enCamargue.Alauda39:261-311.[InFrenchwithEnglishsummary.] 1970Nellis,C.H.,J.J.Zohrerand D.W.Anderson.1970.Mallard/Green-wingedTealassociationsinsouthernWisconsin.WilsonBull.82:461-462.169

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Tamisier,A.1970.Significationdugregarismediurneetdel'alimentationnocturnedesSarcellesAnascrecca.TerreVie 22:511-562.[InFrench wi thEnglishsummary.]-----Willi,P.1970.Zugverhalten,Aktivitat,Nahrung, und NahrungserwerbaufdemKlingnaurStraussehaufigauftretenderAnatiden,insbesonderevonKrickente,Tafelente,undReiherente.Ornithol.Beob. 67:141-217.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.]Wolff,W.J.1970. Goalorientationversusone-directionorientationinTeal !!!!!.. during auttuDn migration.Ardea58:131-141.1969 Denny,R.B.1969.SightrecordofCommonTealinOregon.Murrelet50:34.Nystrom,G.1969.SightrecordofCommonTealatSeattle,Washington.Murrelet50:36.Rollo,J.D.andE.G.Bolen.1969.EcologicalrelationshipsofBlue and Green-wingedtealonthehighplainsofTexasinearlyfall.Southwest.Nat.14:171-188.1968Schwilling,M.D.andD.L.Keer.1968. Green-wingedTealnestinginKansas.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc.19:23.Threlfall,W.1968.AtypicalbehaviorofaGreen-wingedTeal.WilsonBull.80: 488 1967 Campbell,R.W.1967.CommonTealswinteringinsouthwesternBritish bia.Murrelet48:27.Moisan,G.,R.I.Smith andR.K.Martinson.1967.TheGreen-wingedTeal,itsdistribution,migrationandpopulationdynamics.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.--Wildl.No. 100.Washington,D.C. 248pp.Olney,P.J.S.1967.TheWAGBI-WildfowlTrustExperimentalReserve.II:ThefeedingecologyoflocalMallardandotherwildfowl.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:47-55.Rogers,J.P.1967.FlightlessGreen-wingedTealinsoutheastMissouri.WilsonBull.79:339. 1966Jarvis,R.L. 1966.OccurrenceofEuropeanorAleutianGreen-wingedTeal .in westernNorth Americawitharecentrecord.Murrelet47:15-18.170

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Moisan,G.1966.TheGreen-wingedTeal:itsdistribution,migration,andpopulationdynamics.Ph.D.thesis,LavalUniv./Quebec,PQ.Tamisier,A.1966.Dispersioncrepusculairedessarcellesd'hiverAnasc.creccaenrecherchedenourriture.TerreVie 1966:316-337.[InFrench.]Wolff,W.J.1966.230-270.MigrationoftealringedintheNetherlands.Ardea 54: 1965 McKinney, F. 1965. ThedisplaysoftheAmerican Green-wingedTeal.WilsonBull.77: 112-121. 1964 McKinney, F. 1964.Effectsofionizingradiationonpair-formationintheGreen-wingedTeal,Anascreccacarolinensis.InJ.R.TesterProgressRept.,U.S. Atomic Energy Commiss.,Contract A:-T. (11-1)1332,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.1963Olney,P.J.S. 1963. Food andfeedinghabitsoftealAnascrecca L.Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. 140:169-210.1962Bardwell,J.L. 1962.NutritionalanalysesofPintailandTealfoodsinsouthernLouisiana.M.S.thesis,La.State.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.Linkola,P.1962.HavaintojasorsalintujenlisaantymistuloksestaKeskiRameessa.[NotesonthebreedingsuccessofducksinCentralRime.] SuomenRiista15: 157-174.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] Mason,C.R.1962.CommonTeal(Anascrecca).Fla.Nat.32: 95. 1961 Kuroda,N.1961. ExamplesoftheoccurrenceoftheGreen-wingedTealofNorthAmericaobtainedinJapan.Bull.Biogeogr.Soc.Japan21:75-76.1959Frete,P. 1959.CaptureauMarocd'uneSarcelled'hiveramericaineAnas carolinensisGmelin. Alauda 27: 231-232.[InFrench.]----Nero,R.W.1959. Green-wingedTeal/Mallardpairassociation.BlueJay17:54.171

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1958Lebret,T. 1958.The"jUlllp-flight"oftheMallard, !!!!! platyrhynchosL.,theTeal,Anas L.,andtheShoveler,SpatulaclypeataL..Ardea 46:68-72.Beter,R.A.1957. Acomparativewinterfoodhabitstudyofdabblingducks fromthebrackishLake Borgne MarshofSt.BernardParishandthefreshmarshofPassALoutre(Miss.Delta)PlaqUlllinesParish,Louisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.Boyd,H.1957.MortalityandkillamongstBritish-ringedtealAnas Ibis99: 157-177. 195.5 Coulter,M. W. 1955.Springfoodhabitsofsurface-feedingducksinMaine.J.Wildl.Manage. 19: 263-267.Adams,R.G.1954. Green-winged TealinDevon.Brit.Birds47:83-84.Lee,R. W. M.1954. Green-w1nged TealinWarwickshire.Brit.Birds47: 244.Watt,R.H.1954. Green-wingedTealinLeix,Ireland.Brit.Birds47: 244. Kuroda,N.1952. Notes ontheGreen-wingedTealsobtainedinJapan.Nat.Sci.&-Mus.19:85-87,42.1951Kickey,J.J.1951. OccurrenceofEuropeanTealon Long Island.Proc.Linn.Soc.N.Y.58-62: 70-71. 1950 Brown,K.1950. Green-wingedTealinYorkshire.Brit.Birds42: 190. King,B.1950. Green-winged TealinSomerset.Brit.Birds42: 303-304.Sprunt,A.,Jr.1950. EuropeanTealagainincoastalSouthCarolina.Auk67:235.Blathwayt,F.'L.1949. Green-winged TealinDorset.Brit.Birds42:393.172

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Munro,J.A.1949.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.Green-wingedTeal.Can.J.Res.27:149-178.Sprunt,A.,Jr.1949. EuropeanTealincoastalSouthCarolina.Auk66:199.Whitlock,R.1949.Displayofteal.Brit.Birds42:249-250.1948Friedmann,H.1948.TheGreen-wingedTealoftheAleutianIslands.Proc.BioI.Soc.Wash. 61:157-158.1947Lebret,T.1947.ThemigrationoftheTeal,Anas creccaL.,inwesternEurope.Ardea 35:79-131.1944Peters,H.S.1944.Green-wingedTeal,bandedinCalifornia,takeninLabrador.Bird-Banding15: n. 1937Robinson,H. W. 1937.AmericanGreen-wingedTealinWestmorland.Brit.Birds30:378.1934Stone, W. 1934.EuropeanTealinSouthCarolina.Auk51:227.1927Huber, W. 1927.EuropeanTealinNorthCarolina.Auk44:95.1925Boase,H.1925.ThecourtshipoftheTeal.Brit.Birds19:162-164.173

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VagrantMallardon FrenchFrigate Shoala,Northwestern Hawaiian181amb, November1980.PhotographbyRogerB.Clapp.174

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MALLARD(Anasplatyrhynchos)[DA:Graand,DU:Wildeeend,FI:Heinasora,FR:Canardcol-vert,GE:Stockente,IC:Stokkond,IT:Anitraselvatica,Germanoreale;JA:Magamo,NW:Stokkand,PO:Krzyzowka,PR:Pato-real,SP:Patocomun, Anadereal;SW:Grassand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONInNorthAmerica,theMallardbreedsfromAlaskaandnorthernMacKenzieacrossCanadatothesouthernshoreofHudson Bay andsouthernQuebec,southtocentralCalifornia,centralNevada andUtah,NewMexico, Oklahoma,Missouri,Ohio,andVirginia,occasionallyfarthersouth(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).InrecentyearsMallardshavebeenreleased,intentionallyoraccidentally,in marty areassouthofthehistoricrange;manyofthesehavebred,andthenaturalrangeisdifficulttodetermine.InsouthernArizonaandNewMexico andwesternTexas,typicalgreen-headedMallardsintergradewitha monomorphicfemale-plumagedpopulation (!.E' diazi)whichisresidentinthecentralMexicanhighlands(Hubbard1977).InwintertheMallardoccursthroughoutmostoftheUnitedStatesandinMexico(AOU1957,Palmer1976a).MallardsarealsowidespreadthroughEurasiaandthereisasubspeciesincoastalGreenland(AOU1957, Palmer1976a,Crampetal.1977).TheNorthAmericanestimatedbreedingpopulationoftheMallardrangedfromabout6.1(1965)to14.5(1957)millionbirdsbetween1955 and1969,withanaverageof9.6million.ThelatesummerpopulationinNorthAmericaduringtheseyearsaveragedabout19.5million,andtheharvestwasabout3.5million(Andersonand Henny1972).Thespeciesiscommoninallthesoutheasternstates(Map11).TheMississippiFlywayisanimportantcorridorfortheMallard,andoftheestimated3.1millionbirds(theaveragein1960-1970)usingitannually,about400,000winteredinthecoastalLouisianamarshes.ManyfewerbirdsusetheAtlanticFlyway,butofthosethat.do,about110,000winterinsoutheasternSouthCarolinaand40,000intheChesapeake Bayregion(Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONMallardshavesufferedcasuslitiesfromcoastaloilingincidents(Smith1973,Table3).Theyarealsopronetoproblemsatinlandoil-sumps(King1953).IntheCaspianSearegion,MallardshavebeentheinlandspeciesmostaffectedTaxonomicnote:Ingeneral,thisaccountdealsonlywiththe"typical"greenheadedMallard,althoughtheNorthAmericanrangeincludesthe"Mexican Duck", Anas diazi,formerlyrecognizedasaspecies.TheMottled(includingFlorida)Duck, !. fulvigula,althoughtreatedby someauthors(Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976)asoneormoresubspeciesofMallard,istreatedhereasadistinctspecies,asarevariousinsularpopulations,welloutsidethegeographicscopeofthisreport,thatassociatewiththeMallardinsomewinters.175

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WinterDistribution lap forSoutheastnUnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10..10-50II50-200_ More than200(Adaptedfrom Bystrak,1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanone individual None observed\ .'.,1"'1' ......ATASCOSA GULFOFMEXICO 88" Map11BIRDNAME'

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bymarineoilpollution(Vereshchagin1946).Artificialfeedingofoilcausedareductioninmobilityaccompaniedbydiarrhea,lossofbalanceandcoordination,andtremors(Hartung1963).Ingestedoilhasalsobeendemonstratedasinterferingwithegg-laying(Hartung1963).InthesoutheasternUnitedStates,mostMallardsfrequentfreshwaterorbrackishorestuarinebaysandmarshes.Fewappearinsaltwater(Stewart1962).Inaddition,theportionofthetotalpopulationwinteringinthesoutheasternstatesissmall.TherisktoMallardsofoildevelopmentinthatareaisthereforerelativelylow.Table3.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadMallardsfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.Number NumberofoiledofdeadPercent-deadMal-age ITf AreaDatesbirdslardsMallardsSourcePooleHarbour,Jan.1961 433(a,b)20.46Bourne 1968aDorset,EnglandMedwayEstuary,Sept.19662,748(a)361.31Bourne1968aKent,EnglandTayEstuary,Mar.-Apr.1,168(b)0.09Greenwood andScotland1968Keddie1968N.Sealand,Feb.-Mar.2,376(a)20.08Joensen1972b Denmark 1969NortheastBritainJan.-Feb.10,992(a,c)80.07Greenwoodet1970 ale 1971North-centralKat-Mar.19724,759(a)10.02Joensenandtegat,Denmark Hansen 1977 Waddensea, Dec. 19729,151(a)30.03Joensenand Denmark Hansen 1977Balticseacoast,1970-19743,867(a,c)90.23GorskietPoland ale 1976FirthofForth,Feb.1978 680(a)10.14CampbelletsouthernScotlandal.1978(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludesbothliveanddeadoiledbirds.(c)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.177

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Bellrose,F.C. and R.C.Crompton.1981.Migrationspeedsofthreewaterfowlspecies.WilsonBull.93:121-124.Byers,S.M.andR.A.Montgomery.1981.StressresponseofcaptiveMallardstonasalsaddles.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:498-501.Gatti,R.C.1981.Acomparisonoftwohand-rearedMallardreleasemethods.Wildl.Soc.Bull.9:37-43.Trost,R.E.lards.1981. DynamicsofgritselectionandretentionincaptiveMalJ.Wildl.Manage.45:64-73.VanDyke, F. 1981.MortalityincrippledMallards.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:444-453.Young,D.A.andD.A.Boag. 1981. AdescriptionofmoultinmaleMallards.Can.J.Zool.58:252-259.[InEnglishwithFrenchsummary.] 1980Albers,P.H.1980.Transferofcrudeoilfromcontaminatedwatertobirdeggs.Environ.Res.22:307-314.Baldasarre,G.A.,R.J.Whyte and E.G.Bolen.1980.UseofultrasonicsoundtoestimatebodyfatdepositsintheMallard.PrairieNat.12:79-86.Bingman,V.P. 1980. NovelrapeavoidanceintheMallard.WilsonBull.92:409.Burns,J.T.,K.M.Cheng and F. McKinney.Mallards.I.Fertilizationofeggs.1980.ForcedcopulationincaptiveAuk97:875-879.Clark,G.W.1980. HematozoaofMallardducks (Anasplatyrhynchos)ofthePacificFlyway, Washington. J.Wildl.Dis.16:529-531.Danell,K.andK.Sjoberg.1980. FoodsofWigeon,Teal,Mallard,andPintailduringthesummerinanorthernSwedishlake.Viltrevy11:141-167.Donham,R.S. 1980.TheendocrinologyofreproductionintheMallard,Anasplatyrhynchos.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Washington/Seattle,WA.110pp-.---Fiala,V.1980. VeranderungenindenWinterbestandenderStockente(Anas rhynchos)inderTschechischenSozialistischenRepublik1970/71-1977/78.[ChangesinwinternumbersoftheMallard(Anasplatyrhynchos)intheCzechSocialistRepublic1970/71/-1977/78.]FoliaZool.29:251-266.[InGermanwithRussianandEnglishsummaries.]178

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Heinz,G.H.1980. Comparisonofgame-farm andwild-strainMallardducksinaccumulationofmethylmercury.J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.3:379-386.Jackson,D.H.1980.SociobiologyofbreedingdrakeMallardsinnorthernIowa. M.S.thesis,Mich.St.Univ./EastLansing,MI. 48pp.Klint,T.1980a.InfluenceofmalenuptialplumageonmateselectioninthefemaleMallard(Anasplatyrhynchos).Anim. Behav.28:1230-1238.1980b.rhynchos.OntheincidenceofrahbcallinginmaleMallardsAnas OrnisScand.11:81-84.Lipcius,R.N.,C.A.Coyne,B.A.Fairbanks,D.H.Hammond,P.J.Mohan,D.J.Nixon,J.J.StaskiewiczandF.H.Heppner.1980.AvoidanceresponseofMallardstocoloredandblackwater.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:511-518.Lutz,W.1980.UbereinerFallvonHypermeliebeieinerStockente(Anas rhynchosL.).[AcaseofhypermaliainaMallard(AnasplatyrhynchosL.).]z.Jagdwiss.26:233-236.McEwan,E.H.,andP.M.Whitehead.1980. Uptake andclearanceofpetroleumhydrocarbonsbytheGlaucous-wingedGull(Larusglaucescens)andtheMallardDuck (Anasplatyrhynchos).Can.J.Zool.58:723-726.McGarry,R.C. and T.K.R.Bourne.1980.AnnularbandsoflymphoidtissueintheintestineoftheMallardduckAnasplatyrhynchos.J.Morphol.163:1-8.Mitgard,U.1980. HeatlossfromthefeetofMallardsAnasplatyrhynchosandarteriovenousheatexchangeintheretetibiotarsale.Ibis122:354-359.Mueller,H.C.andP.G.Parker.1980. Naiveducklingsshowdifferentcardiacresponsestohawkthantogoosemodels.Behaviour74:101-113.[InEnglishwithGerman summary.]Mueller,N.S. 1980.MallardscaptureandeatAmericanToads.WilsonBull.92:523-524.Nelson,D.A.1980. AMallardXMottledDuckhybrid.WilsonBull.92:523524.Ringelman,J.K.and L.D.Flake.1980.Blue-wingedTealandMallardbroods.DiurnalvisibflityandactivityofJ.Wildl.Manage 44:822-829.Sugden, L.G.and E.A.Driver.1980.NaturalfoodsofMallardsinSaskatchewanparklandsduringlatesummer andfall.J.Wildl.Manage.44:705-709.Szaro,R.C.,N.C.Coon andW.Stout.1980. Weatheredpetroleum:effectsonMallardegghatchability.J.Wildl.Manage.44:709-713.Tallman,D.A.andP.M.Bultsma.1980.MallardmigrationintheOrdwayMemorialPrairieRegion,Leola,SouthDakota.S. Dak.BirdNotes32:28-31.179

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Batt,B.D.J.andH.H.Prince.weightofcaptiveMallards.19791979.Layingdates,clutchsize,and egg Condor81:35-41.Cowardin, L.M.andD.H.Johnson.1979.MathematicsandMallardmanagement.J.Wildl.Manage. 43:18-35.Dwyer, T.J.,G.L. Krapu andD. Janke.1979. UseofprairiepotholehabitatbybreedingMallards.J.Wildl.Manage43:526-531. G.H.1979.Methylmercury:reproductiveandbehavioraleffectsonthreegenerationsofMallardDucks.J.Wildl.Manage.43:394-401.Holmes,W.N.,J.GorslineandJ.Cronshaw. 1979.Effectsofmildcoldstressonthesurvivalofseawater-adaptedMallardDucks (Anasplatyrhynchos)maintainedon foodcontaminatedwithpetroleum.Environ.Res.20:425-444.Hudson,R.H.,M.A.Haegeleand R.K.Tucker.1979.AcuteoralandpercutaneoustoxicityofpesticidestoMallards:correlationswithmammaliantoxicitydata.Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol.47:451-460.Jones,D.R.,R.M.Bryan,Jr.,N.H.West,R.H.Lord andB.Clark.1979.Regionaldistributionofbloodflowduringdivingintheduck(Anas rhynchos).Can.J.Zool.57:995-1002.Krapu,G.L.andH.A.Doty.1979.AgerelatedaspectsofMallardreproduction.Wildfowl30:35-39.Krapu,G.L.,D.H.JohnsonandC.W.Dane. 1979.AgedeterminationofMallards.J.Wildl.Manage.43:384-393.Langford,W.A.and E.A.Driver.1979.QuantificationoftherelationshipbetweenMallardnestinitiationandtemperature.Wildfowl30:31-34.Lawler,G.C.,J.P.Holmes,B.J.Fiorito,J.L.LaseterandR.C.Szaro.1979.QuantificationofpetroleumhydrocarbonsinselectedtissuesofmaleMallardducklingschronicallyexposedtoSouthLouisianacrudeoil.Pp.584-612inC.C.Bates(chrmn.)Proc.conf.assessmentofecologicalimpactsofoilspills.CenterBio-OrganicStudies,NewOrleans,LA.Lumme,T. and E.Merila.1979.Heinasorsan(Anasplatyrhynchos)pesavanhanoravanpesanpaalla.[Mallard(Anasplatyrhynchos)nestingonanoldsquirrelnest.]Aureola4:82.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Orr,D.J.1979.MallardsnestinginGreatBlue HeronnestsandnearanactiveGreatHornedOwlnest.Loon51:100-101.Owen,M.andR.King.livingMallards.1979.ThedurationoftheflightlessperiodinfreeBirdStudy26: 180

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1931Boase,H.1931.ThedisplayoftheMallard.Brit.Birds25:12-17.Sprunt,A.,Jr.1931.TotalalbinismintheMallard(Anasplatyrhynchos).Auk48:414.1930Buxton,R.J. 1930. Mallardkillinghousesparrow.Brit.Birds23:222-223.Lack,D.1930.Mallardkillinghousesparrow.Brit.Birds23:255.1929 Owen,J.H.1929.Mallardlayinginoldcrow'snest.Brit.Birds23:65-66.1926Lincoln,F.C.1926.Lifting power oftheMallard.Proc.BioI.Soc.Wash.39:142.1925Bird,R.D.1925.MallardDucknestinginatree.Auk42:441-442.1918 McAtee,W.L.1918.FoodhabitsoftheMallardDucksoftheUnitedStates.U.S.Dept.Agric.Bull.No. 720. 36pp.1916 Townsend,C.W.1916. ThecourtshipoftheMerganser,Mallard,BlackDuck,Baldpate,WoodDuck andBufflehead.Auk33:9-17.1914Brock,S. E.1914.ThedisplayoftheMallardinrelationtopairing.Scott.Nat.1914:79-86.201

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MOTTLEDDUCK(Anasfulvigula)[US:MottledMallard,Dusky Duck,FloridaDuck,FloridaMallard]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaTheMottledDuckisaresidentofpeninsularFloridaandtheGulfcoastfrom Alabama (Imhof 1976b) andMississippi(Hackney and Hackney 1976)souththroughcoastalTamaulipasatleasttoTampico(Palmer1976a).ThewesternracewintersinthebreedingrangeandsouthtotheAlvaradomarshesinVeracruz(Leopold 1959inPalmer1976a);stragglershavebeentakeninKansas,Oklahoma, andattwolocalitiesinColorado(Palmer1976a).MottledDucksbredontheCheyenne BottomsWildlifeRefuge,BartonCounty,Kansas,in1963 (McHenry 1968) WorldDistributionTheMottledDuckisrestrictedtoNorthAmerica.DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESGeorgiaBurleigh(1958)listedthisspeciesasaccidentalinGeorgiaonthebasisofasinglespecimenfrom CumberlandIsland,taken23 December1902.FloridaTheMottiedDuckoccursthroughouttheyearinpeninsularFloridasouthofalineextendingfrom CedarKeytoGainesvilletoDaytona Beach,withabout60%ofthepopulationfoundinHendry,Lee,Charlotte,andGladescounties(E.B.Chamberlain 1960inBellrose1976).Earlyfallpopulationshavebeenestimatedat50,000birds (Bellrose 1976).Kale (1979msa,1979msb)considereditrarenorthofMerrittIsland'ontheAtlanticcoastandnorthofChassahowitzka NWR ontheGulf.Tothesouth,therearesightrecordsfromKeyLargo(Palmer1976a),SummerlandKey(Stevenson1978),andKeyWest(Edscorn1978).Alabama Imhof (1976b)consideredtheMottledDuckanuncommonlocalresidentoftheAlabamaGulfcoast.BreedingbirdshavebeenfoundatDauphinIslandinMayandatGulfShoresinJune.TheMottledDuckismorewidespreadoutsidethebreedingseasonandhasbeenrecordednorthtotheheadofMobile Bay. Imhof (1976b)suggestedthatnon-breedingbirdsinsuchareasaremostoftenfoundinsaltwaterandbrackishmarshes.Taxonomicnote:ConsideredbyJohnsgard(1975,1978)asasubspeciesofMallard(Anasplatyrhynchos),butonlyone form, !. fulvigula,isrecognizedbyPalmer(1976a).Others(AOU1957,Bellrose1976) havedividedfulvigulaintotworaces: !.1. fulvigula,theFloridaDuck; and A.f.maculosa,theMottledDuckorMottledMallardoftheGulfcoast.202

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MOTTLEDDUCK(Anasfulvigula)[US:MottledMallard,Dusky Duck,FloridaDuck,FloridaMallard]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaTheMottledDuckisaresidentofpeninsularFloridaandtheGulfcoastfrom Alabama (Imhof 1976b) andMississippi(Hackney and Hackney 1976)souththroughcoastalTamaulipasatleasttoTampico(Palmer1976a).ThewesternracewintersinthebreedingrangeandsouthtotheAlvaradomarshesinVeracruz(Leopold 1959inPalmer1976a);stragglershavebeentakeninKansas,Oklahoma, andattwolocalitiesinColorado(Palmer1976a).MottledDucksbredontheCheyenne BottomsWildlifeRefuge,BartonCounty,Kansas,in1963 (McHenry 1968) WorldDistributionTheMottledDuckisrestrictedtoNorthAmerica.DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESGeorgiaBurleigh(1958)listedthisspeciesasaccidentalinGeorgiaonthebasisofasinglespecimenfrom CumberlandIsland,taken23 December1902.FloridaTheMottiedDuckoccursthroughouttheyearinpeninsularFloridasouthofalineextendingfrom CedarKeytoGainesvilletoDaytona Beach,withabout60%ofthepopulationfoundinHendry,Lee,Charlotte,andGladescounties(E.B.Chamberlain 1960inBellrose1976).Earlyfallpopulationshavebeenestimatedat50,000birds (Bellrose 1976).Kale (1979msa,1979msb)considereditrarenorthofMerrittIsland'ontheAtlanticcoastandnorthofChassahowitzka NWR ontheGulf.Tothesouth,therearesightrecordsfromKeyLargo(Palmer1976a),SummerlandKey(Stevenson1978),andKeyWest(Edscorn1978).Alabama Imhof (1976b)consideredtheMottledDuckanuncommonlocalresidentoftheAlabamaGulfcoast.BreedingbirdshavebeenfoundatDauphinIslandinMayandatGulfShoresinJune.TheMottledDuckismorewidespreadoutsidethebreedingseasonandhasbeenrecordednorthtotheheadofMobile Bay. Imhof (1976b)suggestedthatnon-breedingbirdsinsuchareasaremostoftenfoundinsaltwaterandbrackishmarshes.Taxonomicnote:ConsideredbyJohnsgard(1975,1978)asasubspeciesofMallard(Anasplatyrhynchos),butonlyone form, !. fulvigula,isrecognizedbyPalmer(1976a).Others(AOU1957,Bellrose1976) havedividedfulvigulaintotworaces: !.1. fulvigula,theFloridaDuck; and A.f.maculosa,theMottledDuckorMottledMallardoftheGulfcoast.202

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MississippiHackney and Hackney(1976)consideredtheMottledDuck aresidentofMississippithatbreedsonlyinremotecoastalmarshes.NestshavebeenfoundatClaiborne,Lakeshore,and onthewestsideofSaintLouisBay(allinHancockCounty),whereadultsofthespeciesaremostfrequentlyreported.Eggshavebeenfound from 4Aprilthrough1July(Hackney and Hackney1976).LouisianaMottledDucksbreedinlargenumbersintheLouisianacoastalmarshes.Althoughsomebirdsareresident,others,sometimesmostofthepopulation,apparentlymovesouthwardintoTexasor-Mexicotowinter(Lowery1974).AllenandPerry(1980)examinedthegonadsof195birdsobtainedinsouthwesternLouisianaandconcludedthatthepeakreproductiveactivityoffemalesoccurredabout23April,two weekslaterthanmales.Bateman(inBellrose1976)estimatedthat39%oftheLouisianapopulationbreedsinfreshwatermarsh,32%inmarshintermediatebetweenfreshandbrackishwater,10%inbrackishandsalinemarshes,and9%onagriculturalland.Earlyfallpopulationsarethoughttocontain75,000to120,000birds.TexasTheMottledDuckisaresidentalongtheTexascoastwhereitislocallycommontouncommon; a fewbreedingrecordsarealsoknown fromfartherinland.Breedinghasbeenrecordedfrom mid-MarchtoAugust(Oberholser1974).MaximumbreedingdensitiesoccurbetweenSabineLake andGalvestonBay(Singleton1953).Stuzenbaker(inBellrose1976)estimatedthatearlyfallpopulationscontain60,000to SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreeding/WinterThisspeciesisayear-roundresidentincentralandsouthernFlorida,whichharborsaboutone-fifthtoone-sixthofthetotalpopulationofthespecies(Bellrose1976);itisuncommoninthecoastalmarshesofAlabama andMississippi,butlocallycommonincoastalLouisianaand Texaswheremostoftherestofthespeciesbreeds.ItalsobreedssouthtoTampico andTamaulipas.DatagiveninBellrose(1976)indicatethatthetotalbreedingpopulationis140,000to200,000birdsandthatearlyfallpopulationsareabout250,000to300,000birds.Palmer(1976a),ontheotherhand,reportedmid-winterinventoriesfortheconterminousUnitedStatesof66,000to81,200birdsfortheperiod1968-1970.InwintersomebirdsmovefarthersouthintoMexicotoasfarsouthasVeracruz;withintheUnitedStatestheyreachtheirpeakabundancealongtheTexascoast(Map12).MigrationMostFloridaMottledDucksareessentiallynon-migratorybutsomedisperseshortdistances.Fifty-one(63.0%)of81birdsbandedatvarioussitesinFloridawererecovered10-270 mi(16-434km)fromthebandingsite,butmost(71.4%)wererecoveredwithin49mi(79km)ofwheretheywerereleased(FogartyandLaHart1972).Palmer(1976a)notedthatthousandsofthewesternracewinterinMexico.Othernon-breedingbirdsinTexas wanderinland(Oberholser1974)andeastwardintoLouisiana(Bellrose1976).HABITATNestingStieglitzandWilson(1968)reportedthatMottledDucknestson203

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MOTTLEDDUCKBIRONAME' ,Jr'.----_.-----N .If i io ...90" GULFOFMEXICO /'",-'tI" ,\, I(,. I cP I I, -t ----cJ' I cP I --:...-tDALLAS< ,. I -) -0 ___ i\.-_ Winter DislriblltillapforSoutheastnUlitell StatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI Lessthan one "1-5IiPI 5-20_ Morethan20 (Adapted fro ...Iyllrak, 1974)INDIVIDUALS O.SERVED DURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMmCMEAN) @Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed TEXAS N o +:-Map12

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spoilisletsinandnearMerrittIsland NWR ontheeastcoastofFloridawerelocated6-79ft(2-24m)fromthewater(mean=27.8ft,or8.47m),butmost(78.9%,n=114)were found10-40ft(3.1-12.2m)fromwater.ExcludingcoverfornestsunderAustralianpines(Casuarinaequisetifolia),whichSteiglitzandWilsonconsideredatypical,heightofcoverrangedfrom0.5to8ft(0.15-2.4m).Infavorednestingsites,however,thecoverwastypically1.25-2ft(0.38-0.61m)tall.Ducksinthisstudyareapreferredtonestinpurestandsofseashorepaspalum(Paspalumvaginatum);broomsedge (Andropogonsp.)wasalsocommonlyused.Afew werealsofoundamongorunderwaxmyrtleshrubs(Cerothamnusceriferus),redmangrove(Rhizophoramangle),scrubpalmetto(Sabaletonia),orAustralianpine.BirdsnestingalongtheTexascoastpreferredtonestonslightridgesinheavystandsofsaltmeadowcordgrass(Spartinapatens).Ininlandareas,preferredsiteswereintallcoverinabandonedfields,onroadsides,andonlevees(Singleton1953).FeedingandOffshoreMottledDucksfeedinorneartheareasinwhichtheynest.Weknowofnorecordsoftheiroccurringoffshore.FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORTheMottledDuckhasarelativelyvarieddietforadabblingduckandeatsmoreanimalfoodsthandomostoftheducksinthegenusAnas.A fewstudieshavereportedinsomedetailthefoodsconsumed.We theseforFloridaand Texasbelow.AccordingtoPalmer(1976a),muchthesamefoodsareeatenalongtheLouisianacoastandhisworkshouldbeconsultedforalistofthese,aswellasforotherfoodsnotmentionedhere.FloridaBeckwithandHosford(1956,1957)reportedthecontentsof144gizzardscollectedfromOctober1953throughNovember 1954inthevicinityofLake OkeechobeeinGladesCounty.Onthebasisofidentifiedmaterialonly,thesebirdsconsumedanaverageof87.2%plantmaterialand 12.8%animalmatter.Foodsutilizedvariedfromseasontoseason,withthedietcomposedofasmuchas100%plantfood(fall,1953 and 1954;winter1953-54)oraslittleas61%(summer,1954).Seventy-sevenspeciesofplantsof51generawereconsumed.Fallplantfoodsmaking up morethan3%(byvolume)ofthedietinanygivenyearwere ragweed(Ambrosiaelatior 30.7%),dottedsmartweed (Polygonumpunctatum-28.3%),a Panicum(agrostoides?-17.4%),aPaspalum(cilatifolium? 12.4%),andovateleavedmarsh-pennywort(Centellaasiatica-3.6%).Majorfoodsduringoneortheotherwintersweregulfcoastspikerush(Eleochariscellulosa14.6%),themarsh-pennywort(12.2%),Carolinafanwort(Cabombacaroliniana11.8%),ragweed(8.6%),guava(Psidiumguajava-6.4%),dottedsmartweed(3.8to4.1%),and abeakrush(Rhynchosporasp. 3.4%).Theprincipalplantfoodstakenduringthespringof1954weredottedsmartweed(23.4%) andPuertoRicosmartweed(Persicariaportoricensis-10.4%),whilethemajorplantfoodseatenthatsummer wereBartowpanicgrass(Panicumbartowense-23.8%),dottedsmart weed (5.1%),and mudbankpaspalum(Paspalumdissectum-4.5%).AnimalfoodseatenwerenotasadequatelyidentifiedbyBeckwithandHosford,butconsistedlargelyofinsects,particularlyaquaticbeetles,andsnails.Inasubsequentstudy,Stieglitz(1972)compared foodhabitsatinland205

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LoxahatcheeNWRwiththoseofacoastalmarsharea(MerrittIslandNWR).FortyfivegizzardswereobtainedatLoxahatcheeand 40atMerrittIsland.Overall,89.9%ofthefood(byvolume) was plantmatterand 10.0% wasanimal,buttheproportionofplanttoanimalfood andspeciesconsumedvariedfromareatoarea.AtLoxahatchee,97.3%ofthefood wasvegetableinorigin;themostimportantplantswereTracy'sbeakrush(Rhynchosporatraceyi-32.8%),dottedsmartweed(29.4%),swampsmartweed (Polygonumhydropiperoides-18.2%),andsawgrass(Cladiumjaimaicensis).AtMerrittIsland,only81.1%ofthedietwasvegetable.Themostimportantplantsherewerespinynaiad(Naiasmarina49.2%),shoalgrass(Diplantherawrightii-10.6%),andmuskgrass(Charasp.7.3%).Gastropods(6.5%),pelecypods(6.9%),andadultandlarvalinsects(4.6%) werethemostimportant-oftheanimalfoodseatenatMerrittIsland.Scorchedmussel(Mytilusexustus2.9%ofallfood frombothlocalities),commonAtlanticmarginella apicinum-1.5%),anddragonflynymphs(Libellulinae1.2%) werethemostimportantindividualanimalfoods(Stieglitz1972).TexasSingleton(1953)reportedthecontentsof25stomachsthatwerecollectedfromspringthroughfallinarice-marshareainChambers County. Thesebirdshad consumed 41.8%(byvolume)plantmatterand 52.8%animalmatter.Insects(32.9%),junglerice(Echinochloacolona-23.8%),andfish(16.2%) weretheprimaryfoodstaken.Theonlyotherfoodsforming morethan 3% ofthedietinthissample weregastropods(7.5%),cultivatedrice(Oryzasativa-6.3%),andwildmillet(Echinochloacrusgalli-4.8%).StomachscollectedelsewhereinTexas showed a widevarietyoffoods.TwostomachscollectedinasalinehabitatinAransasCounty were90%fullofwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima),andfourstomachscollectedfromFebruarythroughAprilinCameron Countycontained50%insects,35%minutesnails,and 7% vegetation.ThestomachofanotherbirdtakeninCalhoun County wasalmostentirelyfullofsquarestemspikerush(Eleoquadrangulata).----Feedingtechniquesand manyotheraspectsofMottledDuckfeedingbehaviorhavenotbeenstudied.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingStieglitzand Wilson(1968)studiedbreedingMottledDucksfortwoseasonsattheMerrittIslandNWRinFlorida.In1966,thefirstegg waslaidon 6 March,thelaston25June.In1967,thefirstegg waslaidon11Februaryandthelaston 17July.Peaknestingperiodswere 16-31 Marchin1966 and1-15Aprilin1967.InbothyearsnestinitiationdeclinedinMay,andnestsfoundafterlateMaymayhavebeenreplacementefforts.InTexas,Oberholser(1974)reportedeggdatesfrom18Marchto21July;Singleton(1953)statedthatnestingoccasionallyoccurredasearlyasFebruary,butusuallybeganinMarch,withapeakofnestinginApril.MeanClutchSizeIntheirMerrittIsland(Florida)study,StieglitzandWilson(1968) haddatafor78completeclutches.Clutchsizerangedfrom 5to13eggs,witha meanof9.4;themostfrequentclutch was10(22nests).Clutchsizedecreasedasthenestingseasonprogressed.InastudynearLake Okeechobee,Florida,Beckwith and Hosford(1957)found 8eggstobethelargestand mostfrequentnumber found (4of5nests).Singleton(1953)reportedthat206

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thecompleteclutchsizefor108MottledDucknestsinTexasrangedfrom 7to14eggs,andaveraged10.4.IncubationPeriodStieglitzandWilson(1968)foundthatincubationofeggsinthewildtook25-26days;incubationwasdefinedastheperiodfromthelayingofthelasteggtotheemergenceofthelastduckling.Singleton(1953)reportedthatTexasbirdsincubatedfrom 25to27days.HatchingSuccessIn1966 and 1967at Merritt Island,93.6%ofthe612eggsinsuccessfulnestshatched(StieglitzandWilson1968).However,21of117nestswerenotsuccessful.BeckwithandHosford(1957)reportedthat15of16eggs(94%)intwosuccessfulnestshatched,but3nestscontaining21eggsweredestroyed;thus,about40%oftheeggslaidhatched.Singleton(1953)reportedahatchingsuccessof96.2%forMottledDucksinTexas,butthismayhavebeenonlyforsuccessfulnests.FledgingSuccessDataarenotavailable.AgeatFledgingDefiniteinformationisnotavailablebutPalmer(1976a)estimatedtheageatfirstflighttobefrom54to60days.AgeatFirstBreedingMottledDucksprobablybreedintheirfirstyear.Weeks(1969)notedthatinLouisiana,immaturebirdspairbymid-winteroftheirfirstwinter;nearly90%ofallducksheobservedduringmid-winterwerepaired.MortalityofEggs and YoungTwenty-sixof78 (33%)neststhatfailedinTexas werelosttopredationbydomesticdogs(Singleton1953).Othermajorsourcesofnestlosswere humandisturbances(15%) andburning(14%).Exceedinglylittleisknownofthefactorscausingmortalityinyoungbirds.Singleton(1953)sawbutoneinstanceofpredation;inthisinstanceajuvenilewaskilledby adomesticdog.RenestingSingleton(1953)statedthatthespeciesissingle-broodedandreportedanobservationofonepairrenestingfivetimesbeforeeggswerehatched;healsonotedseveralinstancesofthreenestingattempts.MaximumNaturalLongevityAnadultmalebandedinTexas wasrecoveredinthesamestateata minimumageof13years,5 months(Clappetal.inpress).WeightBeckwithandHosford(1957)reportedthemeanweightof30adultmalesas1,030g(2.27lb);themeanweightof11adultfemaleswas 968 g(2.13lb).Maxima were1,280g(2.82lb)formales,1,131 g(2.49lb)forfemales.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONNoreportsofoiledbirdsareavailable.Oilwashedintocoastalmarshesby waveorwindactioncouldaffectnestsorfeedinggrounds.207

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Allen,J.A.andH.R.Perry.1980.BreedingchronologyofLouisianaMottledDucksasindicatedbygonads.Proc. 33rd Annu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:159-164.Nelson,D.A.1980. AMallardXMottledDuckhybrid.WilsonBull.92:527529. 1976 Hackney,C.T.andO.Hackney. 1976.NestingoftheMottledDuckinMississippi.MississippiKite6:5.1974Johnson,T.W.1974. AstudyofMottledDuckbroodsintheMerrittIslandNationalWildlifeRefuge.WilsonBull.86:68-70.1973Johnson,T.w.1973.The wingmoltoftheFloridaDuck.WilsonBull.85:77-78.1972Fogarty,M.J.andD.E.LaHart.1972.FloridaDuck movements.Proc.25thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:191-202.Stieglitz,W.O.1972. FoodhabitsoftheFloridaDuck.J.Wildl.Manage. 36:422-428.1971LaHart, D. E.andG.W.Cornwell.1971.HabitatpreferenceandsurvivalofFloridaDuckbroods.Proc.24thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:117-121.Sutton,G.M.1971. A newbirdforOklahoma:MottledDuck.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc. 4:29-31.1970LaHart,D.E.1970.TheecologyandpopulationparametersoftheFloridaDuck, Anasplatyrhynchosfulvigula,Ridgway. M.S.thesis,Univ.Florida/Gainesville,FL. 208

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1969Lotter,C.F.1969.HabitatrequirementsandproceduresformeasuringvariouspopulationparametersoftheFloridaDuck, Anasplatyrhynchosfulvigula,Ridgway. M.S.thesis,Univ.Florida/Gainesville,FL. 153pp.Weeks,J.L.1969.BreedingbehaviorofMottledDucksinLouisiana.M.S.thesis,La.St.Univ./BatonRouge,LA.79pp.Johnson,T.W.1968.ThesurvivalandecologyofFloridaDuckbroodswithnotesonFloridaDuckmolting.M.S.thesis,TennesseeTech.Univ./Cookeville,TN.55pp.McHenry,M.G.1968.MottledDucksinKansas.WilsonBull.80:229-230.Singleton,J.R.1968.Texas'mistakenMallards.TexasParks&Wildl.26:8-11.Stieglitz,W.o.andC.T.Wilson.1968.BreedingbiologyoftheFloridaDuck.J.Wildl.Manage.32:921-934.1961Summerour,C.W.,III.1961.MottledDuck.Ala.Birdlife9:27.1957Beckwith,S.L.andH.J.Hosford.1957.ReportonseasonalfoodhabitsandlifehistorynotesoftheFloridaDuckinthevicinityofLakeOkeechobee,GladesCounty,Florida.Am.Midl.Nat.57:461-473.Beckwith,S.L.andH.J.Hosford.1956.TheFloridaDuckinthevicinityofLakeOkeechobee,GladesCounty,Florida.Proc.9thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:188-201.1951Engeling,G.A.1951.MottledDuck movementsinTexas.TexasGameFish9:2-4.1950Engeling,G.A.1950.ThenestinghabitsoftheMottledDuckinWharton,FortBend,andBrazoriacounties,Texas,withnotesonmoltingand movements. M.S.thesis,TexasA&MUniv./CollegeStation,TX.137pp.209

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1949Engeling,G.A.1949.TheMottledDuck--adeterminednester.Texas Game Fish7:6-7,19.1947Bailey,A.M.1947.BlackandMottledducksinColorado.Condor49:209.1924Henderson,J.1924.StatusoftheBlackandMottledducksinColorado.Auk41: 471. 210

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BLACKDUCK(Anasrubripes)[FR:Canardobscur,GE:Dunkelente,SP:Patonegro,us:BlackMallard]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaTheBlackDuckbreedsprimarilyinthenortheasternpartofNorthAmerica andonlynestssporadicallyelsewhere(rangemapsinPalmer1976a,Bellrose1976).BreedingrangesdelineatedbyPalmerandBellrosevarysome,butbothauthorsagreethatthenorthernlimitsofregularbreedingoccurfromnortheasternManitobaeastalongthesouthernshoresofHudson BaythroughQuebecandallbutthenorthwesternpartofNewBrunswick,thencesoutheastthroughoutNewfoundland.WesternlimitsofregularbreedingextendfromeasternMinnesotasouthtonortheasternIowa.FromnortheasternIowatheybreedeastwardthroughnorthernIllinois,northernIndiana,northernOhio,andnorthernPennsylvania.Palmer(1976a)indicatedthatthisspeciesregularlybreedsthroughoutmuchofPennsylvaniasouth northernWestVirginiaandnortheasternVirginia;Bellrose(1976)didnot.BothauthorsagreedthatthespeciesbreedsregularlyalongtheAtlanticcoasttotheCapeHatterasareaofNorthCarolina.BlackDucksbreedorhavebredsporadicallyorlocallyinsmallnumbersinAlberta,Saskatchewan,NorthDakota,Kansas,Tennessee,southernandwesternVirginia,coastalSouthCarolinaandGeorgia,andnorthernAlabama(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).BlackDuckswinterinthesouthernportionofthisrange,largelywithintheUnitedStates,southtotheGulfcoast in extremeeasternTexasandeasttocentralandnorthernFlorida(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).WorldDistributionTheseducksoccasionallystraggletotheOld WorldwheretheyhavebeenrecordedinIreland,England,theAzores(Palmer1976a),Sweden(Jonsson1975),andSouthAfrica(BrookeandSinclair1976).TheyoccurregularlyinBermudainfallandaresometimesseenthereinwinter(Palmer1976a).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEAsTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolina.Black DucksarecommonwinterresidentsofNorthCarolinaandbreedinsmallnumbers(Pearsonetal.1942).Theyrarelybreedintheinterior(Palmer1976a,LeGrand 1977b) andaremostabundantasbreedingbirdsalongthecoast(Florschutz1962),wheremoderatenumbers maybefound (LeGrand1979d).MoreBlackDuckswinteralongthe coast ofNorthCarolinathaninanyothercoastalareainthesoutheast.Wintersurveys(1950-1960)indicatedanaverageof18,300birdsalongthecoastofNorthCarolina,withmost(17,700)inthenorthernhalfofthestate(Geisetal.1971).The1975wintersurveyreported211

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awinteringpopulationof23,400birds(Goldsberryetal.1980).SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)consideredtheBlackDuck acommonwinterresidentalongthecoastfrom31Augustthrough1 May, and a much lesscommonvisitorinland.Peaknumbersarereachedincoastalareasduringthewinter(Map13).Wintersurveystakeninthe1950'sindicatedthatanaverageof15,700birdswinteredalongtheSouthCarolinacoast.TheSouthandNorthCarolinacoastsaretheonlymajorconcentrationofwinteringBlackDucksinthesoutheast(Geisetal.1971).Themostrecentcount(winter1975)reported9,700birdsontheSouthCarolinacoast(Goldsberryetal.1980),aconsiderabledecreasefromearlierfigures.Inaveryfewinstancesthisduckhasbeenfoundbreedingalongthesoutheasterncoast(Palmer1976a);oneofthesebreedinglocalitieswasnearMcClellanville(SpruntandChamberlain1949).GeorgiaDentonetal.(1977)consideredthisspeciesuncommon, atransientandwintervisitorthroughoutthestate,andsuggestedthatitmayrarelybreedinthePiedmont.Wehavefound nocertainindicationofbreeding,butamapinPalmer0976a)clearlyindicatesthatthereareoneormoreextralimitalbreedingrecordsfromthenortheasterncoast.Duringthe1950's,wintercountsaveraged2,800birds(Geisetal.1971);only400 were reportedduringthewinterof1975(Goldsberryetal.1980).FloridaSprunt(1954)regardedtheBlackDuckasanabundantwinterresidentinthenorthernportionofFloridabutasuncommonincentralandsouthernareasofthestate;henotedthatanyoccurrencesouthofLake Okeechobee wasunusual.MostBlackDucksareseeninthestatefromearlyOctobertoearlyApril,althougha fewsometimesremainuntillatespring.Howell(1932)indi thattheduckoccursmost commonlyincoastalmarshesandtidalcreeksbutisalsooninteriorfreshwatermarshes.Kale(1979msa)consideredtheBlackDuckuncommonontheAtlanticcoast,wherewintersurveysinthe1950'srevealedanaverageof2,900birds(Geisetal.1971).RecentfiguresforbirdswinteringatMerrittIslandNWRrangefrom 10to150birds(Kale1979msa).ThisduckisconsideredcommoninwinterontheupperGulfcoastsouthtoChas-,sahowitzka NWR (Kale1979msb,Map13).Wintercounts.duringthe1950'saveraged9,200birds(Geisetal.1971),buttheactualnumberpresentinthisareawasprobablysomewhatgreater.Theaveragenumberpresentintwowinters(197576and1976-77)attwoimportantwinteringareas(St.Marks NWR and ChassahowitzkaNWR)onthiscoastwasabout20,000birds(Kale1979msb).Incontrast,only600werereportedonthe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).MississippiTheBlackDuckisanuncommontocommonwinterresidentinMississippi;itismostcommoninthewesternpartofthestate(Geisetal.1971).Recentpeakconcentrationsinwinterhavebeenofabout50-65birds(Jacksonand Weber1977,Jacksonand Cooley1978a).Surveysofcoastalareasfrom 1950-60indicatedaveragewinterpopulationsofabout5,000birds(Geisetal.1971);themostrecentsurvey(January1975)reported400(Goldsberryetal.1980).212

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24GULFOFMEXICOsXA DALLAS ELessthanoneindividual None observedlinter Distribulilllap forSoutheastern DnRed StatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 ... 10-50 50-200 fIMt;?mWPJ Morethan200(Adaptedfrom Bystrak, 19741INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURING CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977 (ARITHMETICMEAN) tNQ\ Nb umerof individuals 8 T rr-------+-----l--------'\.) .. .i'\..--Map13

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BlackDucksmaylingeruntilearlyJune(JacksonandCooley1978a) and a fewindividualsmay summerinthestate.Burleigh(1944)notedthatpreferredhabitatwassaltwateralongthecoast.Alabama About adozenpairsofBlackDucksbreedatWheelerNWRinthenorthernpartofAlabama,butthespeciesoccursinthestateprimarilyasacommontoabundantmigrantandwinterresident.Alongthecoast,theBlackDuckhasbeenrecordedfromlateOctoberthroughmid-April,andapairhassum meredthere(Imhof1976b).Wintersurveysfrom 1950-1960 gaveanaveragecountofsome 700birds,butthecountsfromtheTennesseeValleyareaaveraged4,000(Geisetal.1971).RecentwinterpopulationsatWheeler Refugeareofabout2,500birdsbuthavepeakedat8,000(Imhof1976b).Goldsberryetal.(1980)reported7,200onthe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey.LouisianaTheBlackDuckwintersinLouisianaonlyinsmallnumbers.Lowery(1974)notedthatitarrivesinearlyOctoberandremainsuntillateMarch. From 1950to1960,anaverageof6,200wasseenonwintersurveysinthesouthernportionofthestate(Geisetal.1971).WinteringpopulationsinLouisianahaveevidentlydeclineddrastically,asnonewerereportedonthe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).TexasBlackDuckswinterinTexas from SeptembertoMayandareuncommontorareintheeasternpartofthestate;theywereformerlymorecommon(Oberholser1974).Wintersurveys(1950-1960)indicatedanaverageofabout3,000birdsintheextremenortheasternpartofthestate(Geisetal.1971).Nonewerereportedonthe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingBlackDucksbreedinnortheasternNorthAmerica fromnortheasternMinnesotaeasttoNewBrunswickand Newfoundland,southtonortheasternIowa,andtheneasttonorthernOhio andPennsylvaniaandsouthalongthecoasttocentralNorthCarolina.ThegreatestbreedingdensitiesinCanadaareintheforestedareasoftheGreatLakes,St.Lawrence,andAcadianareas(Reed 1968inBellrose1976);intheUnitedStatestheseducksbreedprimarilyinthecoastalmarshes(Bellrose1976).Averagepre-huntingseasonpopulationsoftheBlackDuck,in1952-1960,wereestimatedat3,740,000birds,1,551,000ofwhichwereadults(Geisetal.1971).Morerecentinformationisunavailable.WinterBlackDuckswinterprimarilyfromeasternMinnesotasouthtothenortheasterncoastofTexas,thenceeasttoNovaScotiaandnorthernFlorida(Geisetal.1971,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).TheJanuary1976winterwaterfowlsurveyindicatedthatamajority(64.5%)oftheU.S.winterpopulationofabout429,000birdswasalongtheAtlanticFlyway;almostalltherestwinteredintheMississippiFlyway(Larnedetal.1980).Statesharboringthe"largestwinteringpopulationsinJanuary1975 wereNewJersey(81,910counted),Ohio(41,000),Tennessee(34,300),and Maine(30,770)(Goldsberryet"al.1980).ThetotalnumberkilledintheUnitedStatesduringthe1975-76huntingseasonwasestimatedtobeabout361,000birds(Larnedetal.1980).214

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Accordingtothe1975waterfowlcount,11.7%ofthewinteringpopulationwas foundinthesoutheast.Amongthe41,600birdscountedthere,NorthCarolina'swinteringpopulationof23,400comprisedbyfarthelargestproportion(56.3%).Intheremainingstates,23.3%werefoundinSouthCarolina,17.3%inAlabama, 1.4%inFlorida,1.0%inGeorgia,and0.7%inMississippi.NonewerereportedontheTexasandLouisianacounts(Goldsberryetal,1980).BlackDuckpopulationshavebeensteadilydeclining,somuchsothatthespeciesisnowontheBlueList(Arbib1979),alistthatattemptstoindicatespeciesbecomingthreatenedorendangered.Wintersurveysfrom 1955to1974 showed adeclineinwinterpopulationsofslightlyover40%(Bellrose1976).The numberrecordedintheAtlanticFlywayduringthe1975mid-wintersurvey(ca.239,000)wasthelowestonrecord(Goldsberryetal.1980).ThereasonsforthissteadydecreasearenotadequatelyknownbutBellrose(1976)believesitisnotduetolossofbreedinghabitat.Recentmid-wintercountsshow aslightincreaseinnumberswinteringintheMississippiFlyway(Goldsberryetal,1980,Larnedetal,1980).MigrationBlackDucksarelessmigratorythanmanyotherNorthAmericanducks,and somewinterwithintheirbreedingrange.Thelongestmigrationsaremadebynortherninteriorpopulationsthatmaywinterevenfarthersouththanthesouthernbreedingpopulations(Palmer1976a).ManypostbreedingBlackDuckshaveapremigratorymovementwestwardintoManitobaandeasternSaskatchewanandnorthwardintoHudson Bay(Bellrose1976).Bellrose(1976)consideredmigrationcorridorspoorlydefined,withthemostimportantonealongtheAtlanticcoastfromtheMaritimeProvincestoFlorida.Palmer(1976a)notedthatsouthwarddeparturesfrom agivenareaoftenfollowtwoormoreclearlydistinctpathways.MoredetailedinformationonmigrationroutesmaybefoundinBellrose(1976)andPalmer(1976a).HABITATNestingPalmer(1976a).summarizingmanyauthors,notedthatbreedinghabitatsandnestsiteswereextremelydiverse,withpresenceofwatertheonlycharacteristicincommon.Healsonotedthatthisspeciesislargelyaresidentoftheborealforestzoneinsummer.BlackDucksnestinbogs,marshes,swamps,ongrassyorwoodlandhillsides,onthetopsofrottedstumpsandinthecrotchesoftreesinfloodedareas,onrockyoffshoreislets,indikedhaymeadows,inlargecavitiesinoldtrees,inabandonednestsofotherbirds,alonglakesandstreams(Palmer1976a).ondikesandmuskrathouses,inoldduckblinds,andinrockcrevices(authorscitedinBellrose1976).Palmer(1976a)alsonotedthattheyprefertonestonhigh-patchesindeadcordgrassalongthemiddleAtlanticcoast.FeedingFeedinghabitatisusuallyinwaterdeepenoughforthebirdstofloat,providedthatoneormorestaplesofdietarereadilyavailable(Palmer1976a).Thesebirdsmaybefoundfeedinginterrestrialsituationsonmudflats,instubblefields,and onuplandbarrens(Palmer1976a).Bellrose(1976)notedthatthesebirdscouldbefoundaseasilyinfresh,brackish,andsaltwatermarshesalongthecoastasoninlandmarshes,lakes,impoundments,beaverponds,andrivers.215

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WinterandOffshoreBlackDucksareusuallyfoundinsalt-waterhabitatsinwinter.AlongtheMiddleAtlanticcoast(wheremostwinter)theyarefoundprimarilyinbrackishmarshesnearbaysandestuaries.Otherhabitatsusedinthisareaincludeavarietyoffreshwaterareasaswellasoldricefields.Alongthecoasttothenorth,theBlackDuckismorestrictlymarineandfeedsontidalflats,saltmeadows, andinfloatingbedsofaquaticplants.FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORBlackDucksfeedprimarilyby"tipping-up"inshallowwaters,althoughonoccasiontheyalsograze(Johnsgard1975).They maydivewhenforagingindeeperwater(BourgetandChapdelaine1975) andhavebeenknowntodiveasdeepas10ft(3.0m)(Palmer1976a).ThedietoftheBlackDuckvariesso much fromhabitattohabitatthatPalmer(1976a)remarkedthattablesofcompositedietwereoflimiteduse.Henotedthatoneortwostaplesusuallycomprisemostofthedietandthatplantfoodsareconsumed moreinfreshwaterandbrackishhabitats;animalfoodsaremoreimportantinmaritimehabitats.Detailedinformationonfoodseatenatspecificlocalitieswithinthesoutheastissummarizedbystatebelow.ForanextensivelistingoffoodseateninotherpartsoftherangeseePalmer(1976a).NorthCarolinaTwenty-twowinteringBlackDuckscollectedonCurrituckSoundateawidervarietyoffoodsthantheotherspeciesofducksexamined (Quay andCritcher1965).Virtuallyallthefood (99.8% by volume) wasofvegetableorigin.Themostimportantitemsinthedietweretheseedsandvegetativepartsofsmartweed (Polygonumsp.-35.8%),theseedsofbulrush(Scirpussp.-13.0%),andtheseedsandvegetativepartsofwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima-12.3%).Otheridentifiedfoodsmakingup,morethan3%ofthedietwerethevegetativepartsofsouthernnaiad(Naiasguadalupensis-6.7%),wax-myrtle(Myrica-4.1%),andspikerush(Eleocharis-3.0%).SouthCarolinaConrad(1965)reportedthewinterfoodhabitsof23BlackDuckscollectedinthevicinityofthelowerPeeDeeandWaccamawriversnearthecoastinnortheasternSouthCarolina.Theseduckshadconsumed 97.6%vegetablefood and 2.4%animalfood;athirdofthediet(byvolume)consistedofswampsmartweed (Polygonumhydropiperoides).Otherplantfoodssignificantinthedietwereaneilema(Aneilemakeisak-16.7%),squarestemspikerush(Eleocharisquadrangulata-14.4%),softstembulrush(Scirpusvalidus-9.1%),theberriesofarrowalum(Peltandravirginica 6.2%),andwildrice(Zizaniaaquatica-5.8%).Theonlyanimalfood consumedtoanyextentwassmallfiddlercrabs(2.0%).Conrad commentedthattheBlackDuckatemorewildriceandmoreanimalfoodthananyoftheotherducksstudied.McGilvrey(1966)reportedfoodseateninNovember and December by 32BlackDucks from LakeMarion,themostimportantinlandwinteringareaforwaterfowlinSouthCarolina.Thedietwasagainlargelyvegetable(97.2%),withcorn(Zeamays -13.0%),seedsofsweetgum(Liquidambarstyraciflua-11.1%),andswampsmartweed(8.1%) consumedinthelargestamounts.Otheritemsmaking up 216

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3%ormoreofthedietweregreenhawthorne(Craetaegusviridis-7.3%),southernsmartweed(Polygonumdensiflorum-4.3%),theseedsofbuttonbush(Cephalanthusoccidentalis-6.4%),asedge(Cyperus-7.3%),andwatergrass(Hydrochloacarolinensis5.8%).Thefoodhabitsofanother63duckswinteringincoastalSouthCarolinawerereportedby KerwinandWebb(1972).Again,thesebirdshadfedlargelyonplants(98.4%).Ofthefoodsidentified,pickerelweed(Pontederiacordata 13.1%)andnorthernjointedspikerush(Eleocharisequisetoides10.5%)werethemostimportant.Otherspeciesfoundinsignificantamountswereswampsmartweed(6.1%),saltmarshbulrush(Scirpusrobustus-6.0%),dottedsmartweed(Polygonumpunctatum-5.7%),wax-myrtle(Myricacerifera-4.9%),arrowleaftearthumb(Polygonumsagittatum-4.8%),bigleaftearthumb(Polygonumarifolium-4.7%),softstembulrush(4.0%),aflatsedge(Cyperusodoratus-3.6%),andwidgeongrass(3.1%).Landersetal.(1976)reportedthefoodseatenby36BlackDuckscollectedduringthehuntingseasonsin1972-73and1973-74from managedtidalimpoundments.Themajorityofthefood(93.8%vegetable)consistedofdottedsmartweed (33.0%)andsaltmarshbulrush(34.1%).Onlythreeotherplantsmade up morethan3%ofthediet:saltmarshcockspurgrass(Echinocloawalteri-8.4%),redroot(Lachnanthescaroliniana-3.8%),andaflatsedge(Cyperuspolystachos-3.5%).Finally,Prevostetal.(1979)reportedthatsixBlackDuckscollectedduringthe1976-77huntingseasoninGeorgetown County hadfedalmostentirelyonsaltmarshbulrush(89.7%)andwidgeongrass(10.3%).IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingBlackDucksnestingatPeaIsland,NorthCarolina,hadahatchingpeakinthefirsthalfofJune,suggestingapeakoflayingabouta monthearlier(Palmer1976a).InMaryland,ashortdistancefarthernorth,peaklayingoccurredfrommid-tolateApril.Morenorthernpopulationsnestlater(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a),butterminatelayingataboutthesametime.MeanClutchSizeSummarizing manystudiesthattotalmorethan1,100nests,Bellrose(1976)placedtheaverageclutchsizeat9.3eggs;mostclutchescontainbetween7 and11eggs.IncubationPeriodTheincubationperiodvariesconsiderablydependingonambienttemperaturesandtheattentivenessofthehen.Averagesintwostudiesrangedfrom 23to29 days(Bellrose1976).Extremesof23-33daysaregivenbyPalmer(1976a),whonotedthatthemeanincubationperiodwas26.2days(mode 25)inMaryland,comparedwitha meanof29.3days(mode27)forcoolerQuebec.HatchingSuccessOverall,nestsuccessoftheBlackDuckaveragesabout42%.About6%oftheeggsinsuccessfulnestsfailedtohatchinaMarylandstudy(Bellrose1976).Palmer(1976a)remarkedthathatchingsuccessvariesfromyeartoyearthroughouttherange.Hereportedarangeofhatchingsuccessfrom51.4%to83.3%overafive-yearperiodinQuebec. 217

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FledgingSuccessThereisabouta23%reductioninbroodsizethroughtheperiodofdevelopment(Bellrose1976),butwehavenofiguresforfledgingsuccessasthistermisusuallyapplied.AgeatFledgingBlackDucks becomecapableofflightatanageof58-63days(GollopandMarshall1954inBellrose1976).Palmer(1976a)reportedthatyoungbirdsusuallyflyin their-8th week.AgeatFirstBreedingBothmalesandfemalesarecapableofbreedingintheirfirstyear.Alargeproportionofthefemalesdoso,butmanymalesmaynotbreeduntilthesecondyearorlater(Palmer1976a).Inatleastonearea,about6-10%ofthefemalesdidnotbreedintheirfirstyear;thesemayhavebeenbirdsthathatchedlatetheprecedingsummer(StottsinBellrose1976).MortalityofEggs and Young RaccoonsarethemostimportantpredatoronBlackDucknestsinthesouthernportionoftherange.Inotherareascrows andgullsmaydestroyalargeproportionofthenests.Tidalfloodingandhumanactivitiesareothersourcesofnestfailure(Bellrose1976).Asformanyotherprecocialbirds,littlequantitativeinformationisavailableonthesourcesofmortalityofBlackducklings,butthefactorsareprobablythesameasforotherdabblingducks,i.e.,predationandfailuretoreachwater.RenestingRenestingisfrequentintheBlackDuck andinsomeareasthesenestingattemptsmayaccountforalargeshareoftheyoungproduced(Bellrose1976).Onlyrarelyisathirdclutchinitiatedafterthelossofasecond.Variousstudieshavereportedarangeof5-26daysbetweennestingsafterlossofaclutch.Olderhensaremorelikelytorenestthanyoungerones.Inonestudy,14%oftheyearlingsand49%ofolderhensrenested(variousauthorscitedinBellrose1976).MaximumNaturalLongevityA bandedbirdrecoveredinDelaware hadreachedanestimatedminimumageof26yearsand 5 months(Clappetal.inpress).WeightBellrose(1976)gavetheaverageweightsof346adultmalesand 224adultfemalesasabout2.76lb(1,250g)and2.45lb(1,100g),respectively.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheBlackDuckisa knownvictimofoiling.Inthewinterof1942,oilpenetratedinlandalongcoastalNewJersey,killinghundredsofBlackDucks(Peterson1942).EstimatedmortalityofBlackDuckskilledinsevenspillsalongtheDelawareRiverandintheChesapeakeBay, 1973-1978 wasabout525birds,orabout0.1%ofallbirdskilled(Perryetal.1979).NootherdabblingduckexcepttheMallardwasasstronglyaffected.DatafromotheroilingincidentsareshowninTable4.Afewexperimentalstudieshaveproducedinformationontheeffectsofoilonthisspecies.BlackDucksexperimentallypaintedwithoilonthebreastwere showntoingestsignificantamountsfollowingpreening(Hartung1963);thoseexperimentallyfedcuttingordieseloildevelopedaninhibitionofacetylcholinesteraseactivitythatresultedinincoordination,ataxia,tremors,218

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andconstrictedpupils(Hartungand Hunt1966).BlackDucksaremorelikelytooccuronsaltwaterthanmostdabblingducks,andthusaremorelikelytobecomevictimsofoilspills.However,onlyasmallproportionofthewinterpopulationoccursincoastalwatersofthesoutheasternstates.ThespeciesismostlikelytobeathazardinNorthCarolina,whereoverhalftheBlackDuckswinteringinthesoutheastarefound andwherethecoolerwinterswillpromotegreatermortalityfromoiling.Table4.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBlackDucksfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.NumberNumberPercent-ofoiledofdeadageofdeadBlackBlackAreaDatesbirdsDucks DucksSourceIslandBeach,Jan.194592(a)11.09Kramer andNewJerseyKramer 1945OffeasternFeb.-Apr.1,276(b,c)0.08BrownetCanada 1970al.1973ChesapeakeBay,Feb.19768,385(b)120.14RolandetVirginiaal.1977(a)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(b)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(c)Totalincludesbothliveanddeadoiledbirds.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Eastin, W. C.,Jr.,S.D.HaseltineandH.C.Murray.1980.Intestinalabsorptionof5 chromium compoundsinyoungBlackDucks (Anasrubripes).Toxicol.Letters6:193-197.Reinecke,K.J.andR.B.Owen,Jr.1980. FooduseandnutritionofBlackDucksnestinginMaine.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:549-558.Ringelman,J.K.1980.ThebreedingecologyoftheBlackDuckinsouth-centralMaine.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.101pp.Ringelman,J.K.andJ.R.Longcore.1980. Computersimulationmodelsastoolsforidentifyingresearchneeds:aBlackDuckpopulationmodel.Trans.N.E.Sec.Wildl.Soc.37:182-193.219

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Mehrle,P.M.,M.T.Finley,J.L. Ludke,F.L.Mayer and T. E.Kaiser.Bonedevelopmentin BlackDucks asaffectedbydietarytoxaphene.Biochem.Physiol.10:168-173.1979.Pest.Reinecke,K.J.inMaine. 1979.Feedingecologyanddevelopmentofjuvenile BlackDucks Auk96:737-745.Ringelmen,J.K.andJ.R.Longcore.1979.Rockets,radios,andresearchorbuggingthe BlackDuck. MaineFishWildl.21:25-27.Seymour,N.R.andR.D.Titman.1979.Behaviourofunpairedmale BlackDucks (Anasrubripes)duringthebreedingseasonina NovaScotiatidalmarsh.Can.J.Zool.57:2421-2428.White,D.H.1979.NationwideresiduesoforganochlorinecompoundsinwingsofadultMallardand Black ducks,1976-77.Pest.Monit.J.13:12-16.Finley,M.T.andR.C.Stendall.1978.Survivalandreproductive success of BlackDucks fedmethylmercury.Environ.Pollut.16:51-64.Heinz,G.H. andM.T.Finley.1978.Toxaphenedoesnotaffectavoidancebehaviorofyoung Black Ducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 42:408-409.Mahoney, S.P.andW.Threlfall.1978.Digenea,Nematoda, andAcanthocephalaoftwospeciesof ducks fromOntarioandeasternCanada. Can.J.Zool.56:436-439.Ranta,W.B.,F.D.Tomassiniand E.Nieboer.1978.Elevationofcopperandnickellevelsinprimariesfrom Black andMallard duckscollected intheSudburyDistrict,Ontario.Can.J.Zool.56:581-586.Seymour,N.R. andR.D.Titman.1978.Changesinactivitypatterns,agon istic behaVior,andterritorialityof BlackDucks (Anasrubripes)duringthebreedingseasoninaNovaScotiatidalmarsh.Can.J.Zool.56:1773-1785.Wooley,J.B.,Jr.andR.B. Owen,Jr.1978.Energy costs ofactivityanddailyenergyexpenditureinthe BlackDuck. J.Wildl.Manage.42:739745.Longcore,J.R. and R. C.Stendell.1977.Shellthinningandreproductiveimpairmentin BlackDucks aftercessationofDDEdosage. Arch. Environ.Contam.Toxicol.6:293-304.Reinecke,K.J.1977.Invertebratefeedingby BlackDucks inMainewetlands.Trans.N.E. Sec. Wildl. Soc. 32:170-182.220

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Seymour,N.R.1977.SocialaspectsofreproductivebehaviourintheBlackDuck (Anasrubripes)ineasternNovaScotia.Ph.D.thesis,McGillUniv./Montreal,PQ.Wooley,J.B.,Jr.andR.B.Owen,Jr.1977.MetabolicratesandheartratemetabolismintheBlackDuck (Anasrubripes).CompoBiochem.Physiol.57(3A):363-367.1976Alison,R. tl. 1976.HistoryoftheBlackDuckinOntario.OntoFieldBioI.30:27-34.Brooke,R.K.andJ.C.Sinclair.1976.AnAmericanBlackDuckinDurban.Ostrich47:67-68.Daniels,B.A.andR.S.Freeman.1976.Corrigiaobscurasp.n.(Tremetoda:Dicrocoeliidae)fromtheNorthAmericanBlackDuck.J.Parasitol.62:59-62.Johnsgard,P.A.andR.DiSilvestro.1976.Seventy-fiveyearsofchangesinMallard/BlackDuckratiosineasternNorthAmerica.Am.Birds30:905908.White,D.H.andR.G.Heath.1976.NationwideresiduesoforganochlorinesinwingsofadultMallardsandBlackDucks,1972-73.Pest.Monit.J.9:176-185.1975Jonsson,P.E.1975.[FirstrecordofBlackDuck AnasrubripesinSweden.] VarFagelvarld34:53-55.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] Reed,A.1975.ReproductiveoutputofBlackDucksintheSt.Lawrenceestuary.J.Wildl.Manage. 39:243-255.1974 Anon.1974.Lecanardnoir.Faune Quebec5:1-8.Heath,R.G.and S.A.Hill.1974.NationwideorganochlorineandmercuryresiduesinwingsofadultMallardsandBlackDucksduringthe1969-70huntingseason.Pest.Monit.J.7:153-164.Heusmann, H.W.1974.Mallard-BlackDuckrelationshipsinthenortheast.Wildl.Soc.Bull.2:171-177.1973Longcore,J.R. andB.M.Mulhern.1973.OrganochlorinepesticidesandpolychlorinatedbiphenylsinBlackDuckeggsfromtheUnitedStatesandCanada,1971.Pest.Monit.J.7:62-66.221

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Longcore,J.R.and F.B.Samson. 1973.EggshellbreakagebyincubatingBlackDucks fedDDE.J.Wildl.Manage.37:390-394.McLaughlin,J.D.andM.D.B.Burt.1973.BlackDuck, rubripes(Brewster).1972 ChangesinthecestodefaunaoftheCan.J.Zool.51:1001-1006.Grandy,J.W.1972.DigestionandpassageofbluemusselseatenbyBlackDucks.Auk89:189-190.1971Berger,M.,J.S.Rartando.Z. Roy.1971.RespiratorywaterandheatlossoftheBlackDuckduringflightatdifferentambienttemperatures.Can.J.Zool.49:767-774.Geis,A.D.,R.I.Smith andJ.P.Rogers.1971.BlackDuckdistribution,harvestcharacteristics,andsurvival.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.---Wildl.No. 139.xxiiand241pp.Longcore,J.R.,F.B.Samson and T.W.Whittendale.1971.andlowersreproductivesuccessofcaptiveBlackDucks.Contam.Toxicol.6:485-490.1970DDEthinseggshellsBull.Environ.Barclay,J.S.1970.EcologicalaspectsofdefensivebehaviorinbreedingMallardsandBlackDucks.Ph.D.thesis,OhioStateUniv./Columbus,OR.176pp.Bellrose,F.C.andR.D.Crompton. 1970.MigrationbehaviorofMallardandBlackducksasdeterminedfrombanding.Ill.Nat.Rist.Surv.Bull.30:167-234.Penney,J.G.and E.D.Bailey.1970. ComparisonoftheenergyrequirementsoffledglingBlackDucks and AmericanCoots.J.Wildl.Manage.34:114.1968Coulter,M.W.andW.R.Miller.1968.NestingbiologyofBlackDucks and MallardsinnorthernNewEngland.VermontFishGameDept.Bull.No.68-2.74pp.Martinson,R.K.,A.D.GeisandR.I.Smith.1968.BlackDuckharvestandpopulationdynamicsineasternCanada andtheAtlanticflyway.Pp.21-52inP.Barske(ed.)TheBlackDuck:evaluation,management, andresearch.BrewPrintingCo.Reichel,W.L. andC.E. Addy.iduesinBlackDuckeggs.1968. AsurveyofchlorinatedpesticideresBull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol.3:174-179.222

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Young,C.M.1968.IslandnestingofducksinnorthernOntario.Can.FieldNat.82:209-212.1967Johnsgard,P.A.1967. SympatrychangesandhybridizationincidenceinMallardsandBlackDucks.Am.MidI.Nat.77:51-63.Young,C.M.1967.Overlandmigrationofduckbroodsinadrought-freearea.Can.J.Zool.45:249-251.1966Kaestner,P. 1966. Red-necked Grebe andalbinoBlackDuckatLoch Raven.Md.Birdlife22: 107. 1965 Bandy,L.W.1965.ColonizationofartificialnestingstructuresbywildMallardandBlackDucks. M.S.thesis,OhioStateUniv./Columbus,OH.67pp.Parnell,J.F.and T. L. Quay. 1965.Thepopulations,breedingbiology,andenvironmentalrelationsoftheBlackDuck, Gadwall, andBlue-wingedTealatPea and Bodieislands,NorthCarolina.Proc.16thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:53-67.1964Leitch,W.G.1964.BlackDuckbreedingrecordforAlberta.Can.Field-Nat.78: 199.Reed,A.F. 1964. AnestingstudyoftheBlackDuck, Anasrubripes,atIleaux-Pommes, Quebec. M.S.thesis,LavalUniv./Quebec,PQ.1963 Hartman,F.E. 1963.EstuarinewinteringhabitatforBlackDucks.J.Wildl.Manage. 27:339-347.1962Florschutz,0.,Jr.1962. TheBlackDuckinNorthCarolina.Wildl.N.C. 26:14-15.1961 Cadbury,C.J.1961.BlackDuckinCo. Wexford.Brit.Birds54:324-325.Johnsgard,P.A.1961.WinteringdistributionchangesinMallardsandBlackDucks.Am.MidI.Nat.66:477-484.223

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1960 Hartman, F. E.1960.EcologyofBlackDuckswinteringinthePenobscotEstuary.M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.142pp.Johnsgard,P.A.1960.AquantitativestudyofsexualbehaviorofMallardsandBlackDucks.WiisonBull.72:133-155.Stotts,V.D.andD.E.Davis.1960.TheBlackDuckintheChesapeake BayofMaryland:breedingbehaviorandbiology.ChesapeakeSci.1:127-154.Winner,R.w.1960.FallandwintermovementsofBlackandMallardducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 24:332-335.1959 Lemieux, L. andG.Moisan.1959.Themigration,mortalityrateandrecoveryrateoftheQuebecBlackDuck.Trans.N.E.Wildl.Conf.1:124-148.Stotts,V.D.1959.BlackDuckstudies:finalreport.Md.Pittman-RobertsonProjectW-30-R-7.241pp(typewritten).Winner,R.w.1959.Field-feedingperiodicityofBlackandMallardducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 23:197-202.1958Murray,L.H.1958.TheBlackDuckinSaskatchewan.BlueJay16:109-111.Stewart,R.E. 1958.DistributionoftheBlackDuck. U.S.Fish&Wildl.ServoCirc.No.51.iiand 8pp.Stotts,V.D.1958a.ThetimeofformationofpairsinBlackDucks.Md.Conservo35:11-15.1958b.ThetimeofformationofpairsinBlackDucks.Trans.N.Am. ------Wildl. Conf.23:192-197.1957 Benson,D.ster.1957.StudiesintheecologyoftheBlackDuck, AnasrubripesBrew M.S.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.Stotts,V.D.1957a.BandingBlackDucksinMaryland.Md.Conserv.34:16-20. 1957b.TheBlackDuck (Anasrubripes)intheupperChesapeake Bay.Proc.10thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:234-242.Winner,R.W.1957. AstudyoflocalandmigratorymovementsofBlackandMallardduckpopulationsincentralOhio.Ph.D.thesis,OhioSt.Univ./Columbus,OH.224

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1956 Goodwin,C.E.1956.BlackDuck andMallardpopulationsintheTorontoarea.OntoFieldBio1.10:7-18.McCormick,J.M.1956.BlackDuckseatstunnedfish.WilsonBull.68:320.1955Coulter,M. W. 1955.Springfoodhabitsofsurface-feedingducksinMaine.J.Wi1d1. Manage.19:263-267.Kennedy,P.G.Britain.1955.BlackDuckinCo.Kilkenny:abirdnewtoIrelandandBrit.Birds48:341.Miskiman,M.1955.Meteorologicalandsocialfactorsinautumnalmigrationofducks.Condor57:179-184.Scott,P.1955.NotesontheBlackDuck.Brit.Birds48:342.Stotts,V.D.1955.BlackDuckbreedingstudyendsintheKentIslandarea.Md.TidewaterNews12:1-4.Lee,J.A.1954.RecentstudiesonthefallmigrationofBlackDucksinNewHampshire.NewHampshireFishGameDept.6pp.Wright,B.S.1954.Hightideandaneastwind.ThestoryoftheBlackDuck.Stackpole&Wi1d1. Manage.Instit.xiiiand 162pp.1953 Addy,C.E.1953.FallmigrationoftheBlackDuck. U.S.Fish&Wi1d1.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.---Wi1d1.No.19.63pp.1950Be11rose,F.C. and E.B.Chase.Duck, andBlue-wingedTeal.27.1950.PopulationlossesintheMallard,BlackIll.Nat.Hist.Surv.Bio1.NotesNo. 22:1-Hammond, U. C.and E.J.Smith,Jr.1950. TheBlackDuck, Anasrubripes,inNorthDakota.Auk67:510-512.1949 Menda11,H.L.1949.FoodhabitsinrelationtoBlackDuck managementinMaine.J.Wi1d1. Manage. 13:64-101.225

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Wright,B.S. 1948.BlackDucksintheMaritimeProvincesand Canada.Proc.N.E.GameConf. 1948:72. 1947Bailey,A.M.1947.BlackandMottledducksinColorado.Condor49:209.Trautman,M.E. 1947.CourtshipbehavioroftheBlackDuck.WilsonBull.59:26-35.Wright,B.S.ecology.1947.TheBlackDuckineasternCanada,astudyofthebreedingM.S.thesis,Univ.Wisconsin/Madison,WI. 1946 Addy,C.E. 1946. FoodhabitsoftheBlackDuckontheEssexCountysaltmarshes.Bull.Mass. AudubonSoc.30:3-10.Griscom,L. 1946. TheBlackDuck--atributeand aplea.Bull.Mass. AudubonSoc.29:305-307.Hagar,J.A.1946.BlackDuckbandingsattheAustinOrnithologicalResearchStationonCape Cod,Massachusetts.Bird-Banding17:97-124,18:17-26.1945 Addy,C.E. 1943a. Massachusetts.ApreliminaryreportonfoodhabitsoftheBlackDuckinMass.Dept.Conserv.Resch.Bull.6.iiiand11pp.1945b.GreatBlack-backedGullkillsadultBlackDuck.Auk62:142------143.1945c.Massachusettswaterfowlsurvey.Mass.Dept.Conserv.,Div.-----Wildl.Resch. & Manage.,Resch.Bull.No.7.21pp.Gross,A.O.Maine. 1945.TheBlackDucknestingontheoutercoastalislandsofAuk62:620-622.1943Shortt,T.M.1943.Correlationofbillandfootcoloringwithage andseasonintheBlackDuck.WilsonBull.55:3-7.Trautman,M.B.fractures.1943. NormalflightofaBlackDuckafterhealingofwingWilsonBull.55: 126. Wing, L.1943.RelativedistributionofMallardandBlackDuckinwinter.Auk60:438-439.1940Kutz,H.L. 1940. ThedivingabilityoftheBlackDuck.J.Wildl.Manage. 4:19-20.226

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1939 Lynch,J.J.1939. MarinealgaeinfoodofRhodeIslandwaterfowl.Auk56:374-380.1937 Benson,D.1937.(Brewster).StudiesintheecologyoftheBlackDuck, rubripesM.A.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.1935Christofferson,K.1935.CommonBlackDuck,Red-leggedBlackDuck andMallardsexratios.Bird-Banding6:138.1932 vanHuizen,P.J.1932 ms.ReportontheBlackDucknestsontheBlackwaterMigratoryBirdRefuge,Cambridge,MD.MsfiledinBiol.Survey,Washington,D.C. 1931Pirnie,M.D.1931.FallmigrationoftheBlackDuck fromnorthernMichigan.Pap.Mich. Acad.Sci.,Arts&Letters15:485-490.1924Bergtold,W.H.1924.TheBlackDuckinColorado.Auk41: 338.Henderson,J.1924.StatusoftheBlackandMottledducksinColorado.Auk41:471.1922Phillips,J.C.1922.IstheBlackDuckextendingitsrange?Bull.Am.GameProtectiveAssoc.11:12-13.1920Phillips,J.C.1920.HabitsofthetwoBlackDucks, Anasrubripesrubripesand Anasrubripestristis.Auk37: 289-291. 1918 McAtee,W.L. 1918. FoodhabitsoftheMallardDucksoftheUnitedStates.U.S.Dept.Agric.Bull.No.720. 1916 Townsend, C.W.1916.ThecourtshipoftheMerganser,Mallard,BlackDuck,Baldpate,WoodDuck, andBufflehead.Auk33:9-17.227

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1909 Sawyer,E.J.1909. ThecourtshipofBlackDucks.BirdLore 11:195-196.1902Brewster,W.L. 1902.AnundescribedformoftheBlackDuck(Anasobscura).Auk19:183-188.228

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NORTHERNPINTAIL(Anasacuta)[DA:Spidsand,DU:Pijlstaart,FI:Jouhisorsa,FR:Canardpilet,GE:Spiessente,IC:Grafond,IT:Codone, JA: Onagagamo,NW:Stjertand,PO:Rozeniec,PR:Arrabio,RU:(Awltail),SP:Patocola-puntiagudacomun,Patopescuecilargo,Anaderabudo;SW:Stjartand,US:CommonPintail,Sprig]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONOneofthemostwidespreadoftheNorthAmericanwaterfowl,theNorthernPintailbreedsfromtheAleutianIslandsandAlaskaeastacrossnorthernCanadatotheUngavaPeninsula,andsouthtocentralCalifornia,northwesternNewMexico,Kansas,Iowa,theGreatLakes,theSt.LawrenceRiver,andNewfoundland.Isolatednestingoccasionallytakesplacesouthofthesegeneralboundaries(AOU1957,Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976a).ThespecieswintersfromsouthernAlaskaandcoastalBritishColumbiathroughthewesternstates,andontheAtlanticcoastalplainfromNewYorktotheGulfofMexico,throughMexico andCentralAmerica,andintheGreaterAntilles(AOU1957,Bond1971,Palmer1976a).ThespeciesalsobreedsacrossmostofEuropeandnorthernAsia,winteringsouthtosub-SaharanAfricaandsouthAsia(Dement'evandGladkov1952,Crampetal.1977) TheNorthernPintailisacommonwinterbirdinthecoastalsoutheasternUnitedStates(Map14).LargeproportionsofthebirdsusingtheAtlanticFlywaywinterinNorthCarolina(35,000)andSouthCarolina(87,000),wheretheyfrequentricefields,openponds,andcypresslagoons(SpruntandChamberlain1949,Bellrose1976).LargenumbersalsowinterinnorthernFlorida(Bellrose1976,Kale1979msb).BirdsfromtheMississippiFlywayareconcentratedinthecoastalmarshesofLouisiana(est.720,000)andcoastalTexas(Bellrose1976) SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONPintailsmaybebadlyaffectedbyoil.IninlandareasoftheCaspianSeatheyhavebeenthemostfrequentvictimsofoiling(Vereshchagin1946).OthershavesufferedheavymortalityduetooilsumpsinWyoming(King1953).AtleastonePintailwasaffectedbythe1971oilspillinSanFranciscoBay(Smailetal.1972).Largenumberswinterinandaroundthecoastalmarshesofthesoutheast,andanoilingincidentaffectingshallowwaterareascouldhaveanimpactontheNorthAmericanpopulation.However,theywillprobablybelittleaffectedbyoffshoreoilproductionorbyoilspillsoccurringatsea.Taxonomicnote:TheAOUCheck-list(1957)givestheEnglishnameofthisspeciessimplyasPintail.WeprefertocallittheNorthernPintailfollowingJohnsgard(1975)andPalmer(1976a)toreduceconfusionwithotherspeciesreferredtoasPintails(e.g.,BahamaorWhite-cheekedPintail,Anasbahamensis).229

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NW o "literDistrillltill.,..SldeastnUIIiIIIStates BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthon10IlIlIIIlIlIIlIl10-50 hSd 50-200 Morethan200 (Adaptecl 'ram Iystrafl, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1913-1977(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@Number ofindividuals 8 Lessthan oneindividual None observed 96 92" GULFOFMEXICO 90" Map14BIRD NAME' PI.TAIL

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Ebenhard,N.T.acutaacuta.------BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Baldassarre,G.A.,R.J.Whyte and E.G.Bolen.1980.PatagialtagsforPintailswinteringonthesouthernhighplainsofTexas.Inl.Bird-Banding52:13-18.Connelly,D.P.andD.L. Chesemore. 1980. FoodhabitsofPintails,Anasacuta,winteringonseasonallyfloodedwetlandsinthenorthernSanJoaquinValley,California.Calif.FishGame66:233-237.Danell,K. andK.Sjoberg.1980.FoodsofWigeon,Teal,MallardandPintailduringthesummerinanorthernSwedishlake.Viltrevy11:141-167.Derksen,D.V. and W. D.Eldridge.1980.Drought-displacementofPintailstotheArcticcoastalplain,Alaska.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:224-229.Dubois,P.1980.Nidificationpossibledu CanardpiletAnasacutaL.etdu CanardsiffleurAnaspenelopeL.dansIeCantal?OiseauRev.Fr.Ornithol.48:282-283.[InFrench.]1979 1979.FirstrecordintheSeychellesofNorthernPintailAnasBull.Brit.Ornithol.Club 99:39-40.1978Afton,A.D.1978.Incubationrhythmsand eggtemperaturesofanAmerican Green-wingedTealand arenestingPintail.PrairieNat.10:115-119.Campbell,R.R. and E. Boorman. 1978.PintailparasitizingSnowGoosenest.BlueJay36:116-117.Derrickson,S.R.1978.ThemobilityofbreedingPintails.Auk95:104-114.Hochbaum,G.andG.Ball.1978.Anaggressiveencounterbetween aPintailwithabroodanda'FranklinGull.WilsonBull.90:455.Nudds, T.D.1978.CommentsonCalverleyandBoag's(1977)hypothesisondisplacedducks and an alternative.Can.J.Zool.56:2239-2241.Wishart,R.A.and R. W. Knapton.1978.MalePintailsdefendingfemalesfromrape.Auk95:186-187.1977Alford,J.R.,IIIand E.G.Bolen.onPintailsexratiosinTexas.1977a.InfluenceofwintertemperaturesSouthwest.Nat.21:554-556.231

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Alford,J.R.,IIIand E.G.Bolen.femalePintailDuckstodecoys.1977b.DifferentialresponsesofmaleandJ.Wildl.Manage. 41:657-661.Calverley,B.K. andD.A.Boag.1977.Reproductivepotentialsinparklandandarctic-nestingpopulationsofMallardsandPintails(Anatidae).Can.J.Zool.55:1242-1251.Clark,A.1977.ReviewoftherecordsofthreePalearcticducksinsouthernAfrica.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club97:107-114.Danell,K.andK.Sjoberg.1977.Seasonalemergenceofchironomidsinrelationtoegg-layingandhatchingofducksinarestoredlake(northernSweden).Wildfowl28:129-135.Derrickson,S.R.1977.AspectsofbreedingbehaviorinthePintail(Anas Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.122pp.Krapu,G.L. 1977.Pintailreproductionhampered bysnowfallandagriculture.WilsonBull.89:154-157.Krapu,G.L. andG.A.Swanson. 1977.breedingPintailsinNorthDakota.Foodsofjuvenile,broodhen,andpostCondor79:504-507.Kuroda,N.1977.[ExamplesofmasculinizedfemalePintailsAnasacuta.] Rep. YamashinaInst.Ornithol.8:282-283.[InJapanesewithEnglishsummary.]Moller,A.P.1977.Yngletidspunkt,kuldstorrelseogungerproduktionhosnogleandefugleiNordjylland.[Timeofbreeding,clutchsize,andnestlingproductioninsomespeciesofAnatidaeinnorthernJutland,Denmark.] Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.71:68-69.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Rettig,K.1977.ZumVorkommenderSpeissente(Anasacuta)andderniedersachsischenNordseekuste.Vogelkdl.Ber. Nieders:-g:-1-3. Smith,F.W.1977.RecordsofmoltinginthePintail(Anasacuta)andtheNorthernShoveler(Anasclypeata)ontheTexasGulfCoast.Southwest.Nat.21:558.Williams,N.A.,B.K.CalverleyandJ.L.Mahrt.1977.BloodparasitesofMallardandPintailducksfromcentralAlbertaandtheMackenzieDelta,NorthwestTerritories.J.Wildl.Dis.13:226-229.1976Tamisier,A.1976.DiurnalactivitiesofGreen-wingedTealandPintailwinteringinLouisiana.Wildfowl27:19-32.1975Bourget,A. andG.Chapdelaine.1975.Divingbywinteringpuddleducks.Wildfowl26:55-57.232

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Coates,B.1975.NotesonaPintailseenatNdekeSettlingPonds,Kitwe.Bull.ZambianOrnithol.Soc.6:22-23.Krapu,G.L. andG.A.Swanson. 1975.tioninprairienestingPintails.SomenutritionalaspectsofreproducJ.Wildl.Manage.39:156-162.1974Coolidge,R.W.1974.EarlyfallobservationsofPintailsandCommonMerganser.Oriole39:48.Irwin,M.P.S. 1974. ThePintailAnas inRhodesia.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club94:56-57.Krapu,G.L.1974aFeedingecologyofPintailhensduringreproduction.Auk91:278-290.1974b.FoodsofbreedingPintailsinNorthDakota.J.Wildl.Manage.38:408-417.Litvenenko,N.M.1974.[VariationsinthefoodcompositionofAnas L.and AnascreccaL.causedbyfluctuationsinthewaterlevelintheIlistayaRiver(southernPrimoryeTerritory).]TrudyDal'nevost.Nauch.Tsentralbiol.Pochy.Inst.17:197-200.[InRussian with Englishsummary.]Swift,J.1974.Pintail:aprojectassessingthereleaseofhand-rearedbirds.WAGBIAnnu.Rept.1973-74:55-58.1973 Buckalew,J.R.1973.DistributionofPintails.EBBA-News36(Suppl.):44-52.Renny,C.J.Siberia.1973. DroughtdisplacedmovementofNorthAmericanPintailsintoJ.Wildl.Manage.37:23-29.Krapu,G.L.,G.A.Swanson andR.K.Nelson.1973.MercuryresiduesinPintailsbreedinginNorthDakota.J.Wildl.Manage.37:395-399.Sugden,L.G.1973.FeedingecologyofPintail,Gadwall,American Wigeon, andLesserScaupducklingsinsouthernAlberta.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.Ser.No.24.45pp.1972Asbirk,S.1972.Spidsoender.Feltornithologen14:148-149.Rochbaum,G.S. and E.F.Bossenmaier.1972. ResponseofPintailstoimprovedbreedinghabitatinsouthernManitoba.Can.Field-Nat.86:79-91.Krapu,G.L.1972.FeedingecologyofthePintail(Anasacuta)inNorthDakota.Ph.D.thesis,IowaSt.Univ./Ames,IA.91pp.-----233

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Worthen,G.L. 1972.AnanomalousbillinaPintail.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc. 23:9-10.1971Baysinger,E.B.andR.D.Bauer.1971. A documentedinstanceofreversemigrationinthePintail.Auk88:438. 1969Crichton,V.F.1969.ThehelminthsinthedigestivetractoftheMallardandPintailinsouthernManitoba.M.S.thesis,Univ.Manitoba/Winnipeg,MB.121pp.1968 Maher,W.J.andD.N.Nettleship.1968.ThePintail(Anasacuta)breedingatlatitude820NofEllesmereIsland,N.W.T., Canada.--XUk-as:-320-321. Smith,R.I.1968.ThesocialaspectsofreproductivebehaviorinthePintail.Auk85:381-396.1966Sterling,R.T. 1966.DispersalandmortalityofadultdrakePintailsAnas M.S.thesis,Univ.Saskatchewan/Saskatoon,SK.57pp.1965Bardwell,J.L.,L. L. Glasgow andE.A.Epps,Jr.1965.NutritionalanalysesoffoodseatenbyPintailandTealinsouthLouisiana.Proc.16thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:209-217.Beck,W.H.1965.AssociationofaPintaildrakeand aMallardpair.BlueJay23: 121. Swanson,C.V.andR.G.Jeffrey.1965.PintailduckbreedingrecordsinwesternWashington.Murrelet46:12-14.1964Oring,L.W.1964. Egg movingbyincubatingducks'.Auk81:88-89.1963Smith,R.I.1963.ThesocialaspectsofreproductivebehaviorinthePintail,Anas (L.).Ph.D.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UT.1962Hamilton,W.J.,III.1962.Initialorientationand homingofinexperiencedPintails.Bird-Banding33:61-69.234

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Phillips,R.andA.vanTienhoven.Pintailreproductivebehavior.1962.SomephysiologicalcorrelatesofCondor 64:291-299.1960Bartlett,C.O.1960. Wigeon andPintailintheMaritimeProvinces.Can.Field-Nat.74:153-155.Keith,L.B.andR.P.Stanislawski.someflightlessadultPintails.1960.StomachcontentsandweightsofJ.Wildl.Manage. 24:95-96.1959 Chapman,S.,B. King andN.Webb.1959.Pintailsdiving.Brit.Birds52:60.1957 Yocum,C.F.1957.BreedingrecordofPintailinHumboldtCounty,California.Condor 59:340-341.1956Turcotte,W.H.1956.ACalifornia-bandedPintailfoundinMississippi.Miss.Ornithol.Soc.Newsl. 1:6.Erickson,J.G.1955.PintailsharassingaShort-earedOwl.Auk72:431.1954Oglesby,C. V. andF.A.Glover.1954.BodytemperaturesofbotulisticPintails.Condor56:162-163.Wrakestraw,G.F.1954.Pintailmigrationpatterns.Wyo.Wildl.18:16-18.Wrakestraw,G.F.and R.M.Ballou.1954.MigrationpatternsofWyomingPintails.Proc.34thConf.WesternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:276-278.Yocum,C.F.1954.AmericanPintail(Anas tzitzihoa)onCraterLake.Murrelet35:9.1953Fuller,R.W.1953.StudiesinthelifehistoryandecologyoftheAmericanPintail,(AnasacutatzitzihoaViellot),inUtah.M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan, UT:--T81 pp.Parkes,K.C.Pintail.1953.EvidenceforthesuppressionoftheAmericanraceoftheCondor55:275-276.235

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1952 Cooch,G.1952. UnusualfootcolourationinPintails(Anas andnoteon Europeanrecoveries.Can.Field-Nat.66: 111.Pease,H.and E.W.Flaxman. 1952.DistractiondisplayofPintail.Brit.Birds45: 73. 1950Hamilton, R. D.1950. FoodofyoungPintailDuck,Anas inAlaska.Auk67: 383.Leach,E. P. 1950.Trans-AtlanticflightofringedPintail.Brit.Birds43:191.1949Krutzsch,P.H.1949.AnextensionofthealtitudinalnestingrangeofthePintailinCalifornia.Condor 51:232-233.Reeve,A.J.1949.PintailmigratestoEurope.Bird-Banding20:149-150.1946Kutz,H.L. andD.G.Allen.1946. The AmericanPintailbreedinginNewYork.Auk63: 596. 1944 Munro,J.A.1944.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia:Pintail.Can.J.Res.22:60-86.1943Lincoln,F.C.1943. AmericanPintailonPalmyraIsland.Condor45:232.1933Lewis,H.F.1933.BandingprovidesthefirstcertainrecordoftheEurasianPintail(Dafila L.)inNorthAmerica.Bird-Banding4:112-113.1927Lincoln,F.C.1927. AnoteonthelongevityofthePintail.Condor29:115.236

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BLUE-WINGEDTEAL(Anasdiscors)[DA:BlavingetAnd,DU:Blauwvleugeltaling,FI:Sinisiipitavi,FR:Sarcellsoucrourou,GR:Blauflugelente,IT:Marzaiolaamericana,PO:Kaczkamodroskrzydia,PR:Pato,SP:Cercetaaliazul,Cercetadealasazules;SW:AmerikanskartalGENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheBlue-wingedTealisabreedingbirdfromsoutheasternAlaskaandBritishColumbiaacrossthePrairieProvincesofCanadatosouthernOntarioand NovaScotia.TherangeextendssouthwardtoCalifornia,theGreatBasin,centralTexasandLouisiana,northernMissouri,Tennessee,andthecentralAtlanticSeaboard(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).Occasionalnestingtakesplaceinthesoutheasternstates.InwintertheBlue-wingedTealoccursfromsouthernCalifornia,northernMexico,coastalTexasandtheGulfcoasttoSouthCarolina,souththroughMexico andCentralAmericatonorthernSouthAmerica,occasionallyasfarsouthasArgentinaandChile(AOU1957,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976a).Thistealismostcommonasaspringandfallmigrantinthecoastalsoutheast,althoughmoderatenumberswinterthere(Map15)and a fewremaintobreed.Someestimatedwinteringpopulationsare5,000inSouthCarolina,11,000inFlorida,190,000inLouisiana,and8,000-9,000incoastalTexas(Bellrose1976).Preferredhabitatsarefreshwaterorbrackishmarshesandshallowinlandponds(Palmer1976a;Johnsgard1975,1978).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheBlue-wingedTealratedascoreofonly1ofapossible100 on King andSanger's(1979)OilVulnerabilityIndexbasedonbirdsofthenortheastPacific,wherethespeciesisuncommon. King(1953)reportedthisspeciesasavictimofoilsumpsininlandlocalities.AlthoughthespeciesbothnestsandwintersincoastalmarshesinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,onlyaverysmallproportionofthepopulationisinvolved.Manybirdsremaininlandonfreshwater,andmostwinterwellsouthofthearea.Dangertothisspeciesbydevelopmentinthesoutheastwouldbeslight.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Ringelman,J.K. and L. D.Flake.1980.Blue-wingedTealandMallardbroods.DiurnalvisibilityandactivityofJ.Wildl.Manage. 44:822-829.Stewart,G.R. and R. D.Titman.1980.TerritorialbehaviourbyprairiepotholeBlue-wingedTeal.Can.J.Zool.58:639-649.237

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aaos PER 10PARlY-HOURSII Less thanone 1111111111111111-5 I .. 5-20_ More than20 tnt.lysInIk, 1974)INDIVIDUALS OBSERvm DUlINGCHRISTMAS BaD COUNTS,1973-1977 (AIRHMETICMEAN)Number of individuahoLess than one individual Noneobserved GULFOFMEXICO90" Map15BIRO HAME' BLUEWINGEDTEAL

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1979Bolen,E.G.1979. Blue-winged X CinnamonTealhybridfrom Oklahoma.WilsonBull.91:367-370.Sell,D.L.1979.FallfoodsoftealontheTexashighplains.Southwest.Nat.24:373-375.Weller,M.W.1979.DensityandhabitatrelationshipsofBlue-wingedTealnestinginnorthwesternIowa.J.Wildl.Manage.43:367-374.Weseloh,D.V.and L.M.Weseloh. 1979. wingedTealfromsouthernAlberta.ProbablehybridsofCinnamon XBlueCan.Field-Nat.93:316-317.1978Bailey,R.0.,N.R.Seymour andG.R.Stewart.1978. RapebehaviorinBluewingedTeal.Auk95:188-190.Bolen,E.G.1978. Notes on Blue-wingedTealX CinnamonTealhybrids.Southwest. Nat. 23:692-696.Connelly,J.W.,Jr.1978.ofeasternWashington.TrendsinBlue-winged and CinnamontealpopulationsMurrelet59:2-6.Taylor,T. S. 1978.SpringfoodsofmigratingBlue-wingedTealsonseasonallyfloodedimpoundments.J.Wildl.Manage. 42:900-903.1977Briggs,R.L.1977. Blue-wingedTealbandingprojectPanamaCanalZone.N.Am.BirdBander2:104-105.Connelly,J.W.,Jr.1977. A studyofBlue-winged and CinnamontealbreedingineasternWashington.M.S.thesis,WashingtonSt.Univ./Pullman,WA.Swanson,G.A.andM.I.Meyer. 1977. ImpactoffluctuatingwaterlevelsonfeedingecologyofbreedingBlue-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage.41:426433.Wallace,D.I.M.andM.A.Ogilvie.1977.DistinguishingBlue-winged and CinnamonTeals.Brit.Birds70:290-294.1976 Dwyer,G.L. 1976.CompetitionandhostilebehaviorsofBlue-winged andCinnamontealinwesternMontana.M.A.thesis,Univ.Montana/Missoula,MT.Miller,K.J.1976.Activitypatterns,vocalizations,andsiteselectioninnestingBlue-wingedTeal.Wildfowl 27:33-43.Trauger,D.L. 1976. PlumageaberrancyinBlue-wingedTeal.Auk93:646-650.239

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1975Fernandez-Cruz,M.1975.PrimeracapturaenEspanadecercetaaliazul(Anasdiscors).Ardeola20:336-337.[InSpanish.)Turner,B.C.andW.Threlfall.1975. ThemetazoanparasitesofGreen-wingedTeal(AnascreccaL.)andBlue-wingedTeal(AnasdiscorsL.)fromeastern Canada:--Proc. Helminthol.Soc.Wash.42:157-169.1974Gore,J.F.andD.D.Foss.1974.ObservationsandimplicationsofBluewingedTealnestinginsouthernIllinois.Wildl.Soc. Bull. 2:70-71.Swanson,G.A.,M.I.Meyer andJ.R.Serie.1974.FeedingecologyofbreedingBlue-wingedTeals.J.Wildl.Manage. 38:396-407.1973Greij,E.D.1973. Effects ofsexhormonesonplumagesoftheBlue-wingedTeal.Auk90:533-551.1972Grant,G.S.1972.BreedingrangeextensionoftheBlue-wingedTealintosoutheasternNorthCarolina.Chat 36:31-32.1971Heiser,N.G.1971.northwestIowa.NestsiteselectionbyBlue-wingedTeal(Anasdiscors)inM.S.thesis,IowaSt.Univ./Ames,IA. 29pp.1970Harris,H.J.1970.EvidenceofstressresponseinbreedingBlue-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage.34:747-755.Haverschmidt,F. 1970. DieBlauflugel-Ente(Anasdiscors)imnordlichenSudamerikanebstBeringungs-ErgebnissenausSurinam.Vogelwarte25:229-233.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.) Owen,R.B.,Jr.1970.ThebioenergeticsofcaptiveBlue-wingedTealundercontrolledandoutdoorconditions.Condor 72:220.Swanson,G.A.andJ.C.Bartonek.1970.BiasassociatedwithfoodanalysisingizzardsofBlue-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage.34:739-746.1969Dirschl,H.J.1969. FoodsofLesserScaup andBlue-wingedTealintheSaskatchewanRiverdelta.J.Wildl.Manage. 33:77-87.240

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Drewien,R.C.andP.F.Springer.1969.EcologicalrelationshipsofbreedingBlue-wingedTealtoprairiepotholes.Pp.102-115inSaskatoonwetlandsseminar.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.Ser.No.6.Owen,R.B.,Jr.1969.Heartrate,ameasureofmetabolisminBlue-wingedTeal.Comp.Biochem.Physiol.31:431-436.Rollo,J.D.and E.G.Bolen.1969.EcologicalrelationshipsofBlue-and Green-wingedtealonthehighplainsofTexasinearlyfall.Southwest.Nat.14:171-188.Dane,C.W.1968.AgedeterminationofBlue-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage. 32:267-274.Drewien,R.C.1968.prairiepotholes.EcologicalrelationshipsofbreedingBlue-wingedTealtoM.S.thesis,S. Dak.St.Univ.!Brookings,SD.Owen,R.B.,Jr.1968.PremigratorybehaviorandorientationinBlue-wingedTeal(Anasdiscors).Auk85:617-632.1967Strohmeyer,D.L.V.1967. ThebiologyofrenestingbytheBlue-wingedTeal,Anasdiscors,innorthwestIowa. Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Minnesota!Minneap OIIS, MN.135pp.1966 Dane,C.1966.SomeaspectsofbreedingbiologyoftheBlue-wingedTeal.Auk83:389-402.Philippi,R.A.1966.Elpatodealaazul,Anasdiscors,capturadoporprimeravezenChile.Bol.Mus. Nac.Hist.Nat.,Santiago29:45-47.1965Bardwell,J.L.,L.L.GlascowandE.A.Epps.1965.NutritionalanalysesoffoodseatenbypintailandtealinsouthLouisiana.Proc.16thAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:209-217.Burgess,H.H.,H.H.PrinceandD.L.Trauger.1965.Blue-wingedTealnestingsuccessasrelatedtolanduse.J.Wildl.Manage.29:89-95.Chamberlain,E.B.1965.Blue-wingedTealbreedinginNorthCarolina.Chat29:23-24.Dane,C.W.1965.TheinfluenceofageonthedevelopmentandreproductivecapabilityoftheBlue-wingedTeal(AnasdiscorsLinnaeus).Ph.D.thesis,PurdueUniv.!LaFayette,IN.171pp.----241

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McKinney, F. 1965.ThedisplaysoftheShoveler,Blue-wingedTeal,andCinnamonTeal.M.S.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.23pp.Parnell,J.F. andT.L. Quay. 1965.Thepopulations,breedingbiology,andenvironmentalrelationsoftheBlackDuck,Gadwall,and Blue-wingedTealatPea and Bodieislands,NorthCarolina.Proc.16thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Game&FishCommiss.:53-67.Wheeler,R.J.1965.PioneeringofBlue-wingedTealinCalifornia,Oregon, Washington, andBritishColumbia.Murrelet46:40-42.1964Navas,J.R.1964.Elpatodealaazul,Anasdiscors,capturadoenlaArgentina.Neotropica7:58.[InSpanish-.-]--Vaught,R.W.1964.Resultsoftransplantingflightlessyoung Blue-wingedTeal.J.Wildl.Manage.13:359-376.Meitzen,T.C.1963.AdditionstotheknownbreedingrangesofseveralspeciesinsouthTexas.Auk80:368-369.1961Storer,R.W.and F.B.Gill.1961.Elpatodealaazul,Anasdiscors,observadoenlaprovinciade BuenosAires.Neotropica7: 9Z:--[In Spanish.]1956Glover,F.A.1956.NestingandproductionoftheBlue-wingedTeal dis Linnaeus)innorthwestIowa.J.Wildl.Manage. 20:28-46.Stewart,R.E.andJ.W.Aldrich.1956.DistinctionofmaritimeandprairiepopulationsofBlue-wingedTeal.Proc.Biol.Soc.Wash. 69:29-34.Yocum,C.F.andW.A.Wooten. 1956. Blue-wingedTealinDelNorteCounty,California.calif.FishGame42:81.Childs,H.E.,Jr.1952. Hybrid between aShovelerand a Blue-wingedTeal.Condor 54:67-68.Glover,F.A.1952.Nestingandproductionofwaterfowlinnorthwest Iowa: withspecialreferencetotheBlue-wingedTeal(AnasdiscorsLinnaeus).IowaSt.Coll.J.Sci.25:227-229.----Moltoni,E.1952.Second acatturadellaMarzaiolaamericanaAnasdiscorsL. -inItalia.Riv.Ital.Ornitol.22:69-71.[In 242

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1950Bellrose,F.C.and E.B.Chase. 1950.BlackDuck, and Blue-wingedTeal.22:1-27.PopulationlossesintheMallard,Ill.Nat.Hist.Surv.BioI.NotesNo.1949Glover,F.A.1949.NestingandproductionofwaterfowlinnorthwestIowa:withspecialreferencetotheBlue-wingedTeal(AnasdiscorsLinnaeus).Ph.D.thesis,IowaStateCollege/Ames, IA. Mann,G.1949. Notes from astudyoftheBlue-wingedTeal.Flicker21:1-6.Stoudt,J.H.1949.MigrationoftheBlue-wingedTeal.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.---Wildl.No.1:19-20.Zimmerman,F.R. 1949. Blue-wingedTeal.Wise. Conserv.Bull.14:31-32.1944 Wetmore,A.1944.TheBlue-wingedTealatsea.Auk61:473.1938Bennett,L.J.1938.TheBlue-wingedTeal,itsecologyand management.CollegiatePress,Ames,IA.xivand 144pp.1937Bennett,L.J.1937.Theecologyand managementoftheBlue-wingedTeal,Querqueduladiscors.Ph.D.thesis,IowaSt.Univ./Ames, IA.Austin,O.L.,Jr.1932.ThebreedingoftheBlue-wingedTealinMaryland.Md.Conserv.,summerissue:11-13.O'Mahony, E. 1930. American Blue-wingedTealinIreland.Brit.Birds24: 195. 1924 Latham,R.1924a. Blue-wingedTealbreedingonLongIsland,N.Y.Auk41: 338-339. 1924b. Blue-winged TealbreedingonLongIsland--supplement.Auk41:--471-472.243

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Xl!.nnard.Y. H.1919. Notl!.11 ona new BUbBpec1l!.8 of Blue-tngl!.dTeal.Auk 36:455-460. 81ue.-tngl!.dTul.I'tlotogrllph byRoger8.Clapp.244

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CINNAMONTEAL(Anascyanoptera)[FR:Sarcellecannelle,GE:Zimpente,SP:PatocoloradolGENERALDISTRIBUTIONThe CinnamonTealisprimarilyaSouthAmericanspecies,withonesubspeciesextendingintoNorthAmerica.ThissubspeciesbreedsfromsouthernBritishColumbia,Alberta,andSaskatchewansouththroughthePacificcoastalandinter-mountainstatesgenerallywestoftheRockyMountains,butalsointhewesternGreatPlainsthroughwesternTexastonorthernMexico.InwinterthesebirdsoccurinthesouthernportionsofthewesternstatesfromCaliforniatoTexas,southwardthroughMexico andCentralAmericatoColombia(AOU1957;Johnsgard1975,1978).CinnamonTealhavebeenreportedasstragglersinseveraleasternstatesandprovinces,fromOntarioandNewYorktoLouisianaandFlorida(AOU1957,Palmer1976a).Thereareonlya fewrecordsfrommostofthesoutheasterncoastalstates,mostofthembasedonobservations(Map16).Actualoccurrencesmaybemorenumerous,becausefemalesofthisspeciesarenotdistinguishablefromthemoreabundantBlue-wingedTeaLRecordsaccumulatedfrom Ameri-canBirdsandothersourcesforthisstudyindicatefourrecordsinNorthCarolina(1935-74),fourinSouthCarolina(1933-1962),threeinGeorgia(1977-79),severalolderrecordsand14recentones(1961-78)fromFlorida(thelatterrepresentingprobablynomorethan12-birds),andtworecordsfrom Alabama(1961-78).Lowery(1974)summarized some twodozenrecordsfromLouisiana;therearetwo morerecent(1974-76)reports.Thespeciesoccursregularlyinsmallnumbers onmigrationandinwinteralongthesouthernTexascoast(Oberholser1974,Bellrose1976).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONCinnamonTealrarelydiefromoiling;thebandingofficeatPatuxent,Maryland,hasonlytworecordsofCinnamonTealwhosedeathswereattributedtothiscause.Asabirdthatoccursprimarilyoninlandpondsandmarshes,andofonlyincidentaloccurrenceinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,thespeciesisnotlikelytobeadverselyaffectedbydevelopmentinthatarea.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980French,L.andJ.French.1980.A CinnamonTealinPipestoneCounty.Loon 52:113.Hegdahl,J.1980. CinnamonTealattheFuldasewageponds.Loon52:114-115.245

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.,.--CI A.,.TEALIlIRD NAME'-....,.L.:. \ \.("-.01--GULFOFMEXICO IillerDisbiIIiI.....SolemnU"Slates BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI I Lessthanone IIllIIIIIJ 1-5II5-20 ... More than20 (Ad"'"'romBy",1974) INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS, 1973-1977 (ARITHMETICMEAN) <) Numberofindividuals o Lessthanoneindividual None observedtt,\ I"" .,I*' I , I .,.J: N *' I --&rDALLAS.,0'\ "" ,-, -)....___i,\---TE x: ASMap16

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1979Bolen,E.G.1979. Blue-winged X CinnamonTealhybridfrom Oklahoma.WilsonBull.91:367-370.Sell,D.L.1979.FallfoodsoftealontheTexashighplains.Southwest.Nat.24:373-375.Weseloh,D.V.andL.M.Weseloh. 1979. wingedTealfromsouthernAlberta.ProbablehybridsofCinnamonXBlueCan.Field-Nat.93: 316-317. 1978Bolen,E.G.1978.Noteson Blue-wingedTealXCinnamonTealhybrids.Southwest.Nat.23:692-696.Connelly,J.W.,Jr.1978.ineasternWashington.TrendsinBlue-winged and Cinnamonteal Murrelet59:2-6.1977Connelly,J.W.,Jr.1977. AcomparativestudyofBlue-winged and Cinnamontealbreedingineastern"Washington.M.S.thesis,WashingtonSt.Univ./Pullman,WA.Wallace,D.I.M.andM.A.Ogilvie.1977.DistinguishingBlue-winged and CinnamonTeals.Brit.Birds70:290-294.Wilkinson,J.N.,A.G.CanarisandD.Broderson.1977.Parasitesofwaterfowl fromsouthwestTexas:I.TheNorthernCinnamonTealAnascyanopteraseptentrionalium.J.Wildl.Dis.13:62-63.1976 Dwyer,G.L.1976.CompetitionandhostilebehaviorsofBlue-winged andCinnamontealinwesternMontana.M.A.thesis,Univ.Montana/Missoula,MT.77pp.1975 Kosh,K.andP.M.Hunt. 1975. CinnamonTealatWilmington,N.C. Chat39:91.Snyder,D.H.1975. SecondrecordofCinnamonTealinTennessee.Migrant45: 94. 1974Haramis,G.M.1974. CinnamonTealsightedatMontezumaNationalWildlifeRefuge[NewYork].Kingbird24:172-173.247

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1973Alexander,G.E.1973.CinnamonTealreported.Miss.Ornithol.Soc. Newsl. 18:13.1970Cole,D.D.1970.WinterrecordofCinnamonTealinOklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.3:29.Davis,W.M.1970. CinnamonTealinOklahomainwinter.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc. 3:29.1969Schwilling,M.D.and E.Martinez.1969.CinnamonTealbroodatCheyenneBottoms.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc.20:27.1968Klett,A.T. andJ.T. Lokemoen. 1968. CinnamonTealobservationsinNorthDakota.PrairieNat.1:15.McKinney, F.1965.ThedisplaysoftheShoveler,Blue-wingedTeal,andCinnamonTeal.M.S.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.23pp.1953Spencer,H.E. 1953.TheCinnamonTeal, cyanoptera(Viellot):itslifehistory,ecology,andmanagement. M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ./Logan,UT.184pp.1952Dollahite,N.andM.P.Anderson,Jr.1952.A newnestingrecordfortheCinnamonTealinHumboldtCounty,California.Condor 54:320.Spencer,H.E.,Jr.1952.TheCinnamonTeal.UtahFishGameBull.9:3,6.1951Snyder,L.L.andH.G.Lumsdon.1951.VariationinAnascyanoptera.Occas.Pap.R.Onto Mus.Zool.10:1-18.Sprunt,A.,Jr.1933. The CinnamonTeal:a newbirdforSouthCarolina.Auk50: 210. 248

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1928Lawrence,R.B.1928.CinnamonTeal(Querquedulacyanoptera)inTexas.Auk45:201. 1918Oberholser,H.C.1918. CinnamonTeal(Querquedulacyanoptera)inNorthDakota.Auk35:476.249

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NORTHERNSHOVELER(Anasc1ypeata)[DA:Skeand,DU:Slobeend;EN:Shoveler,FI:Lapasorsa,FR:Canardsouchet,Souchetordinaire;GE:Loffelen,IC:Skeidond,IT:Mestolone,JA:Hashibirogarno,NW:Skjeand,PO:Plaskonos,PR:Pato-trombeteiro,RU:(Broad-nosedDuck),SP:Patocuchara,Cuchareta;SW:Skedand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheNorthernShovelerbreedsinNorthAmericainshallowopenmarshesfromwesternAlaskaandnorthwesternMackenziesouthtocentralCalifornia,Utah,Nebraska,andeasternManitoba(AOU1957,Palmer1976a).Therearemanyrecordsofnestingbeyondthatgeneralrangethatmayrepresentformerbreedingpopulationsornewlyestablishedones.TheaverageNorthAmericanbreedingpopulationisnearly2millionbirds,centeredinthemixedprairieassociationoftheDakotasandtheCanadianPrairieProvinces(Bellrose1976).AnOld WorldpopulationbreedsfromtheBritishIslesacrossEuropetosubarcticAsia(Crampetal.1977) InwintertheNorthernShoveleroccursalongthePacificcoast,throughthesouthernstates,andalongtheAtlanticseaboardfromChesapeakeBay andNorthCarolina'sCurrituckSoundsouthward(Map17)intoMexico andtheWestIndies(AOU1957).Theyarelocallycommoninthesoutheasternstatesinwinter,butaremoreabundantinfallandspringmigrations.LargesoutheasternwinteringpopulationsarefoundinLouisiana(235,000),SouthCarolina(15,000),andcoastalTexas(Bellrose1976). Most winteringbirdspreferfreshwater(Johnsgard1975)butsomearefoundinbrackishlagoonsandmarshessubjecttotidalinfluence,whereaquaticinvertebratesareplentiful(Stewart1962,Palmer1976a).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONAlthoughNorthernShovelershaveseldombeenreportedasvictimsinmarineoilingincidents(Joensen1972b),theyhavesufferedfromoilingfrominlandoil-sumpsinWyoming(King1953).NorthernShovelersarenotbirdsofopenmarinesituations,andthuswouldnotbevulnerabletomostspills.Shouldoildriftintoshallowestuarinemarshareas,thesebirdsmightbevulnerablebecauseoftheirfeedingmethods.Taxonomicnote:Until1973thisspecieswasregardedbytheAOUasSpatulac1ypeata.250

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BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI ., Lessthan10 10-50 iiiif I50-200_ More than200 (AdapIMfro....praIl, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETlCMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed 96GULFOFMEXICOMap17BIRD NAME'84"

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BIBLIOGRAPHYAfton.A.D.1980.FactorsaffectingincubationrhythmsofNorthernShovelers.Condor82:132-137.Mihelsons.H.1980.Studyofpopulationecologyofducksbyringing.ActaOrnithol.17:45-62.Afton.A.D.1979a.IncubationtemperaturesoftheNorthernShoveler.Can.J.Zool.57: 1052-1056. 1979b. TimebudgetofbreedingNorthernShovelers.WilsonBull.91:42-49.Weatherhead.P.J.1979.Behavioralimplicationsofthedefense'ofaShovelerbroodbyCommonEiders.Condor 81:427.1977Afton.A.D.1977.AspectsofreproductivebehaviorintheNorthernShoveler.M.S.thesis.Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis.MN.65pp.Broderson.DA.G.CanarisandJ.R.Bristol.1977.ParasitesofwaterfowlfromsouthwestTexas:II.TheShoveler.Anasclypeata. J. Wildl.Dis.13:435-439.Clark.A.1977. ReviewoftherecordsofthreePalearcticducksinsouthernAfrica.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club 97:107-114.Smith.F.W.1977. RecordsofmoltinginthePintail(Anasacuta)andtheNorthernShoveler(Anasclypeata)ontheTexas Gulf Nat.21:558.1974Poston.J.H.1974.HomerangeandbreedingbiologyoftheShoveler.Can.FishWildl.ServoRept.Ser.No.25.49pp.Seymour.N.R.1974a.AerialpursuitflightsintheShoveler.Can.J.Zool.52: 1473-1480. 1974b.SiteattachmentintheNorthernShoveler.Auk91:423-427.1974c.TerritorialbehaviourofwildShovelersatDelta.Manitoba.------Wildfowl25:49-55.252

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1972 Molodovsky, A.V.1972.[OnreproductionofAnasclypeataL.intheGorkyReservoir.]Vestn.Zool.1972:55-61.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Schlenker,R.1972.SommerlicheRast--undMauserplatzederLoffelente,Anasclypeata,inSchleswig-Holstein.Corax 4:52-56.[InGerman.] 1971 Seymour,N.1971.TerritorialbehaviouroftheShoveler,Anasclypeata,atDelta,Manitoba.M.S.thesis,Univ.Manitoba/Winnipeg,MB.87pp.Yarker,B.andG.L.Atkinson-Wilkes.1971. ThenumericaldistributionofsomeBritishbreedingducks.Wildfowl22:63-70.1969Harrison,J.1969.ThealtitudeofamigratingShoveler.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club89:72.1968 Swennen,C.faeces.1968.NestprotectionofEiderducksandShovelersbymeansofArdea56:248-258.1967 Dorn,Fr.J.L.(comp.).1967.Mobile,Ala.67thChristmasBirdCount.Aud.FieldNotes21:236-237.McKinney,F.1967.BreedingbehaviourofcaptiveShovelers.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:108-121.1965 McKinney,F.1965.ThedisplaysoftheShoveler,Blue-wingedTeal,andCinnamonTeal.M.S.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.23pp.1964Fuller,R.W.andN.E.King.1964. American Widgeon andShovelerbreedinginVermont.Auk81:86-87.Havlin,J.1964. [DieBrutdauerbeiderLoffelente(AnasclypeataL.).]FoliaZool.13:178-180.[InCzechoslovakianwithGerman summary.] 1959Harrison,J.M.andJ.G.Harrison.1959.EvolutionarysignificanceofcertainplumagesequencesinNorthernShoveler.Bull.Brit.Ornithol.Club79: 253

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1958Lebret,T. 1958. The"jump-flight"oftheMallard,AnasplatyrhynchosL.,theTeal,AnascreccaL.,andtheShoveler,SpatulaclypeataL. Ardea 46:68-72.-----1957Stewart,P.A.1957.NestingoftheShoveller(Spatulaclypeata)incentralOhio.WilsonBull.69: 280.Treous,V.D.1957.[Seasonalmovements andmigrationsofAnasstreperaand !. clypeataasrevealedbyringingmethods.]TrudyBiuroKol'stev.9:162-208.[InRussian.]Childs,H.E.,Jr.1952. Hybridbetween a Shovelerand a Blue-wingedTeal.Condor54:67-68.,1950 Dean,M.1950.DivingofShovelers.Brit.Birds42:19.Hickling,R.A.o.1950.Joint"injury-feigning"byShovelerandMallard.Brit.Birds42: 304. 1949 Boyer,G.F. 1949.BreedingoftheShovelerinNewBrunswick.Auk66:199-200.1948Henderson,M.1948.CallsoftheShovelerwithyoung.Brit.Birds41:25.Lebret,T. 1947.VeranderingvandeterreinkeuzebijdedoortrekkendeSlobeendenSpatulaclypeata,aanhetHollandischeDiep.Ardea 35:246-247.[InDutch.]1946Griffith,R.E. 1946.NestingofGadwall andShovelleronthemiddleAtlanticcoast.Auk63:436-438.Cottam,C.1945.DivinghabitsoftheShovellerDuck. Condor47:39.254

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1944Noll,H.1944. DieLoffelente,SpatulaclypeataL.,alsBrutvogelimKaltbrunnerRied.Ornithol.Beob. 41:113-119.[InGerman.] 1939Girard,G.L. 1939. Notes onthelifehistoryoftheShoveller.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf. 4:364-371.1938 Cahn,A.R. andP.Bryan. 1938.ShovellerbreedinginnorthernAlabama.Auk55: 271-272. 1935Temperley,G.W.1935.DivingoftheShoveler.Brit.Birds28:241.1934Lloyd,B.1934.DivingoftheShoveler.Brit.Birds28:207-208.1922 Griscom, L. and E.R.P.Janvrin.1922.ShovellerinBergenCo.,NewJersey,inspring.Auk39: 100. McAtee,W.L. 1922. Notes onthefoodhabitsoftheShovellerorSpoonbillDuck(Spatulaclypeata).Auk39:380-386.255

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CANVASBACK(Aythyavalisineria)[FR:Milouinauxyeuxrouges,GE:Riesentafelente,JA:O-hoshi-hajiro,SP:Patolomocruzada]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica TheprimarybreedingrangeoftheCanvasbackinNorthAmericaextendsinthewestfromnorthwesternandcentralAlaskasouththroughcentralandeasternBritishColumbiatosouthernBritishColumbia,andsouthfromnorthwesternandsoutheasternAlbertatonortheasternMontana,centralSouthDakota,northeasternNebraska,andnorthwesternIowa.TotheeasttheregularbreedingrangeincludesthenorthernYukon,easternNorthwestTerritories,northwesternandsouthernSaskatchewan,andsouthernManitobasouththroughwesternMinnesota(Palmer1976b).OutsidethemainbreedingrangeCanvasbacksbreedatscatteredlocalitiesapparentlybecauseofdestructionanddrainageofrequisitemarshnestinghabitat(Johnsgard1975).TothesouthandwesttheybreedinWashington,southernOregon,atTuleLakeinCalifornia,insouthernIdaho,southernNevada,northernUtah,northernArizona,Wyoming, andnorthernColorado.TothesouthandeastbreedinghasbeenreportedfromKansas,Ontario,Wisconsin,ontheMontezumamarshesofNewYork,andatleastonceinIllinois(Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).ThewinterrangeoftheCanvasbackpartiallyoverlapsthebreedingrangeandlargenumberswinterbothinlandandalongthecoast(Palmer1976b).InwesternNorthAmericatheprimarywinterrangeextendsfromsouthwesterncoastalBritishColumbiasouthalongthecoastsofOregon andWashingtontonorthernBajaCaliforniaandsouthinlandfromnorth-centralCaliforniatonortheasternBajaCalifornia,southeasternNewMexico,andnorthwesternSonora.IneasternNorthAmericatheprimarywinteringrangeeastoftheAppalachiansextendssouthfrom RhodeIslandandsouthernMassachusettsthroughFlorida.TothewestoftheAppalachians,CanvasbackswinterfromtheGreatLakessouthtotheGulfcoastandeastern,central,andwestern-centralMexico,westtonortheasternKansas,centralOklahoma,southeasternArizona,westernTexas,andsouthwesttothePacificcoastofMexico(Palmer1976b).Bellrose(1976)indicatedthattheregularwinterrangeintheeastextendsfrom VermontsouthtoLakeOkeechobee,Florida.WorldDistributionCanvasbacksarenativetoNorthAmerica andarefoundelsewhereonlyasstragglers.TheyhavewanderedtoBermuda, Cuba,theHawaiianIslands,andJapan(Palmer1976b).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaPearsonetal.(1942)notedthattheCanvasbackischiefly256

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acoastalspeciesinthewinterinNorthCarolina(Map18).Formerly,thespecieswasabundantand was aprizedgameduck.Inthe1930's,populationswereseriouslydepletedbyovershooting,lossofbreedinghabitat,andbotulism(Pearsonetal.1942,Geis1974).Asaresultofhuntingclosuresandvariousothermeasures,Canvasbacknumbershaveincreased,butnottotheformerabundance.TheprimarywinteringareainNorthCarolinaisinCurrituckSound(Bellrose1976).The 1975winterwaterfowlsurveyfound19,800CanvasbacksinNorthCarolina(Goldsberryetal.1980),makingthisstatesecondonlytoMarylandinimportanceasawinteringgroundalongtheAtlanticCoastandsecondonlytoTexasinthesoutheast.RecentconcentrationsatPeaIslandNWRhavenumberedasmanyas7,000inlateNovember 1975(Teulings1976a)and3,475inearlyDecember 1976 (LeGrand1977a).SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)regardedtheCanvasbackasacommonwinterresidentinthestatefromlateNovembertomid-April.Theseducksoccurinbothsaltandfreshwaterhabitats;theyusuallyfeedinfreshwaterandmovetotheseaatnight.Attheturnofthecentury,theseduckswereconsideredrareinthestate.SpruntandChamberlain(1949),however,notedthatCanvasbackshavelongbeenregularwintervisitors.Bellrose(1976)indicatedawinteringpopulationofabout3,600birds,butonly700werecounted onthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).GeorgiaBurleigh(1958)listedtheCanvasbackasafairlycommonwinterresidentalongthecoastbutuncommonandirregularintheinteriorofthestate.Dentonetal.(1977)listeddatesofoccurrencefrom NovembertoMay.Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatabout1,000winterinGeorgia;theJanuary1975survey(Goldsberryetal.1980) found 800winteringthere.FloridaHowell(1932)notedthattheseducksareuncommonlocalvisitorsinFlorida.Theyhavebeenrecordedfromallregions,butareapparentlymostnumerousinthenorthernandcentralportionsofthestate.GenerallypresentfromlateOctoberorearlyNovember,theyremainuntillateMarch.Sprunt(1954)foundCanvasbackstobemorecommoninthesouth-centralportionsofthestatesinceHowell'stime.Kale(1979msa,1979msb)consideredtheCanvasbackuncommonthroughoutthestate,buthenotedthatlargepopulationswinteratMerrittIslandandChassahowitzkaNationalWildlifeRefuges.Bellrose(1976)remarkedthatmostCanvasbackswinterinlandinFloridaandindicatedapopulationofabout7,500.The1975wintersurveyfoundonly300(Goldsberryetal.1980).AnotherestimatefortheFloridapopulationthatyearindicatedthat3,000werepresent(Gasawayetal.1979).Twoyearslater,9,500Canvasbackswererecorded(Gasawayetal.1979).Alabama Imhof(1976b)regardedtheCanvasbacktobecommoninwinterandonmigrationinAlabama,particularlyalongthecoast.PreferredhabitatsinAlabamaincludethewideexpansesofshallowwatersintheTennesseeRiverandMobileBay,butCanvasbacksarealsofound onsmallponds andlakes.Theyusuallyoccurinsmallflocks.AlongtheGulfcoasttheyhavebeenrecordedatCochraneCauseway from 4Octoberto21April,and amaximumof7,600wasrecordedon7January1955.Imhof(1976b)notedthatCanvasbacknumbershave257

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NV1 00 WillerDistriidiII.,firSllthastnUIiIMStates BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 .. 10-50rI50-200_Morethan200 (AdapNcl fro. Byllnllc. 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1913-1911(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed GULFOFMEXICOMap18lIIRD NAIt. CA.YASBACI --

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recentlydeclinedalongtheGulfcoast.Bellrose(1976)reportedwinterpopulationsforthe,stateofabout2,300,mostofthem on Mobile Bay;themostrecentcountavailable(1975) foundonly200birds(Goldsberryetal.1980). Mississie! Burleigh(1944)sawsmallflocksofCanvasbacksonlyinOctoberand NovemberalongtheMississippicoast,buttherearea fewrecordsoflatemigrantsand summeringbirdsfortheperiodforAprilthroughJulyaswell(Imhof 1973, 1975;Jacksonand Cooley1978b).Informationprovided,byBellrose(1976)indicatedsome4,400winterinMississippi,mostlyatSardisLake(inland)and onthecoastalbays.Morerecently,mid-winterraftsof1,600(1977)and1,000(1978)havebeenreportedatLakeWashington,intheinteriorportionofthestate(Jacksonand Weber 1977,Jacksonand Cooley1978a).TheJanuary1975waterfowlcountfound fewbirdsinMississippi.LouisianaThe CanvasbackisaregularwinterresidentinLouisiana,usuallyarrivinginthestateinlateOctoberanddepartingduringApril(Lowery1974).Bellrose(1976)reportedthat15,000winterthere,mostofthemnearMorganCityonSixMileandWaxlakes.The1975wintersurveyreportedonly1,000birds(Goldsberryetal.1980).ThesurveyofLouisianawasincomplete,however,anditseemslikelythata numberofbirdswereoverlooked.TexasOberholser(1974)notedthattheCanvasbackisirregularlyverycommonontheTexascoast.Itismostnumerousinthenorthernhalfofthestateinspringandfall.These ducksgenerallyareseenfrommid-OctobertoearlyMay.Bellros,e(1976)indicatedwinteringpopulationsofabout9,400,halfinlandandhalfonthecoast.TheJanuary1975surveylisted25,810(Goldsberryetal.1980).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedin&CanvasbacksnestonlyinNorthAmerica.MostbreedingoccursfromnorthwesternAlaskasouthtosouth-centralBritishColumbia, andsoutheasttosouthernManitoba,westernMinnesota,andeasternSouthDakota.TheheartofthebreedingrangeisinthesouthernportionsofAlberta,Saskatchewan,andManitoba.Ofapproximately678,000countedonthebreedinggroundsduringthe1976survey,76%were foundintheseprovinces(Larnedetal.1980).InrecentyearstherehasbeenconsiderableconcernaboutthestatusoftheCanvasback.NumbersfluctuatewidelyfromyeartoyearandBellrose(1976)considereditevenmorethreatenedthantheRedhead.Declinesinthepopulationhaveledtorestrictivehuntingregulations,bothinthe1930'sand morerecently.Poornestingsuccesshasbeenattributedtohighmortalityrates,habitatandrangereduction,andincreasednestpredation(Trauger1974inWhiteetal.1979).EvennowthisspeciesisstillontheBlue-list(Arbib1979),alistthatattemptstoindicatespecieswhosepopulationshavedeclinedsoseriouslythattheymaybecomethreatenedorendangered.Johnsgard(1978)remarkedthatunbalancedsexratios,decliningbreedinghabitat,sensitivitytooilandotherpollutantsonthewinteringgrounds,andvulnerabilitytohuntingmakethefutureoftheCanvasback mostuncertain.259

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WinterWinteringCanvasbacksarefoundprimarilyalongtheAtlantic,Pacific,andGulfcoastsoftheUnitedStatesand Mexico,butsubstantialnumbersalsowinterinland.The Chesapeake Bayisthelargestwinteringground,harboringsome92,000birds;thenextlargestconcentration,60,000birds,wintersinSanFranciscoBay(Bellrose1976).Bellrose(1976)summarizedwinterwaterfowlsurveysfor1960-1971 andindicatedthatabouthalftheaverageNorthAmericanwinterpopulationof290,000winteredalongtheAtlanticFlyway, mostofthemjustnorthofNorthCarolina.ThefiguresprovidedbyBellroseshowthatthesoutheasternstatesareanimportantwinteringgroundfortheCanvasback. Twenty percentofthetotalwinterpopulationisfoundthere; 26% oftheseoccurredinNorthCarolina, 6% inSouthCarolina,a fewinGeorgia, 13% inFlorida,4%inAlabama, 8% inMississippi,26%inLouisiana,and 16% inTexas.Figuresprovidedbythe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980)suggesta somewhatdifferentdistributionthatcanprobablybeattributedbothtoannualvariationinwinteringareasandtoincompletecoveragebythesurvey.Approximately291,000birdswere foundontheJanuarysurvey,about17%(48,610)ofwhich wereinthesoutheast.NorthCarolinaaccountedfor41%oftheCanvasbacksoccurringinsoutheasternwaters,and Texasharboredanother53%.Nootherstatereportedmorethan1,000birds.MigrationBellrose(1976) summarizedmigratorypathwaysoftheCanvasback,notingthatmost Canvasbacks move towardeithertheAtlanticorPacificcoastsfromtheirbreedinggroundsandstagingareas.ThosemigratingtowardtheChesapeakeBaymovefromsoutheasternSaskatchewansoutheastandtheneastalongtwopaths,onethroughtheGreatLakesareaandthentothesoutheast,andtheotherfromtheMississipiRiverbetweenFortMadison and Keokuk dueeast.MostoftheCanvasbacksarrivingintheChesapeakeBaywinterthere,butasubstantialnumbermovesouthtoCurrituckSoundinNorthCarolina.RelativelyfewcontinueonsouthtoFlorida(Bellrose1976).OtherbirdsfromtheFortMadison/KeokukareamovedirectlysouthandsoutheasttoLouisiana,Alabama, andFlorida.MostofthebirdswinteringinTexasmigratedirectlysouth(Bellrose1976).HABITATNestingCanvasbacksnestinsmall,shallowpondsusuallylessthananacreinsizeandborderedbycattails,bulrushes,andotheremergentvegetation.Mostoftheirfeeding,resting,andcourtingtakesplaceonlarger,deeper,permanent ponds(TraugerandStoudt1974inBellrose1976).Othersmaybreedinvillageponds,farmyardsloughs, largelDarshes, andpotholes(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Nestsareusuallybuiltoverwater,occasionallyonmuskrat(Ondatrazibethica)housesand seldom ondryland(Palmer1976b).AuthorscitedinBellrose(1976)indicatedthatcattailsaremostusedfornestsitesinprairiepotholesandthatwillows,bulrush,sedges,andphragmitescaneareextensivelyusedinotherareas.FeedingMostfeedingonthebreedinggroundsoccursnearthenestingareasonlarger,morepermanentpondsthanthoseusedfornesting(TraugerandStoudt1974inBellrose1976).Thosenestinginaprairiepotholeregioninsouthern260

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Manitobatendedtoforageinopenwaternearthecenterofponds(Siegfried1976b).Youngbirdsusuallyfeedonwell-vegetatedpondsintermediateinsizebetweenthoseusedfornestingandthoseusedforresting(TraugerandStoudt1974inBellrose1976).Inaddition,theyoftenfeedon openwaterfarfromthenestsite(Palmer1976b).Migrantsgatheronlargefreshwaterlakesandmarsheswhereaquaticplantsareabundant(Johnsgard1978).WinterandOffshoreJohnsgard(1978)reportedthatpreferredwinterhabitatconsistedofbrackishestuarinebaysratherthaneithersaltorfreshwater.Palmer(1976b)notedthatCanvasbacksregularlyfeedinshallowwaterafterflyinginfromroostingareasonopenbaysandlakes.Theseroostingareasareusuallywelloffshore,butCanvasbacksmay cometoshorewhenencounteringheavywinds.FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORCanvasbacksdiveforfoodusingtheirfeetforpropulsion;theyfeedmostlyintheearlymorningandevening.Indeeperwatertheydiveforperiodsof10-20sec(Palmer1976b).Whendiving,boththisspeciesandtheRedheadliftupthefrontoftheirbody,archtheirnecks,and submergevertically;theysubsequentlyrisetothewater'ssurfacenearwheretheydove(Siegfried1976b).Siegfried(1976b)recordedmeandivingtimesof17.6and15.6secformalesandfemales,respectively,foragingon pondsinManitoba.AtcoastalimpoundmentsinSouthCarolina,meandivingtimesvariedfrom13.1to15.3secinrelationtothedepthofthewater;therewas nosignificantdifferenceindivingtimesbetweenthesexes(AlexanderandHair1979).Foragingrates(divesper5minutes)intheimpoundmentsvariedwithdepthofwaterandrangedfrom1.7to10.0.AlexanderandHair(1979)notedthattheCanvasbacksestablishedanddefendedindividualforagingsites.Inveryshallowwaterthisduckwillalso"puddle"withitsfeetandthendipitsbilltofeed.Canvasbacksalsoseizeinsectsfromthewater'ssurfaceand fromtheair(Palmer1976b).SummariesofCanvasbackfoodhabitsbyBartonekandHickey(1969a),Bellrose(1976).andPalmer(1976b)indicatethattheseducksprimarilyfeedonplantsbutarenotaversetofeedingonanimals.Theextenttowhichplantsareutilizedmayvaryconsiderably.AuthorscitedinPalmer(1976b)indicatedaconsumptionof65%plantmatterinIllinois,74%atReelfootLakeinTennessee,95%inMissouri,and80%overalargeportionoftherange.Pondweeds(Potamogetonspp.).wildcelery(Vallisneriaspiralis),andwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima)areamongthemoreimportantplantfoods.BartonekandHickey(1969a)believedthatPotamogetonmaybemoreimportantinthedietthanVallisneriabecausetheformeroccursmorewidelywithintherangeoftheCanvasback(thisduck'sspecificnameisderivedfrom asupposedpredilectionforVallisneria).Animalfoodsconsistlargelyofvariousmolluscsandaquaticinsects;crustaceansandfishmayalsobetaken.Caddisflylarvaeandcasesand midge(Chironomidae)larvaeareamongtheinsectsfrequentlyreported.SomeCanvasbacksonthebreedinggroundseata muchhigherproportionof261

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animalmatterthanissuggestedbythestudiesindicatedabove.BartonekandHickey(1969a)reportedthatesophogealcontentsofjuvenilesandadultfemalesinManitobawere87%and92%animalmatter,respectively.Adultmaleshadconsumedonly2%animalmatter.Theirprincipalfood wastubersofPotamogeton (95%). Foodhabitsinthesoutheasthavebeenlittlestudied,andwehavefoundbutonedetailedreporton fo04 habitsinthisarea.Quay andCritcher(1965)reportedfoodseatenby62CanvasbackscollectedinCurrituckSoundduringwintersfrom 1947to1952.They foundthattheCanvasbacks hadsubsistedalmostentirelyonvegetablematter,primarilythevegetativepartsofpondweeds(Potamogetonspp.21.0% by volume) andtheirseeds(38.2%).Thevegetativepartsandseedsofwidgeongrass(12.3%) andsouthernnaiad(Najasguadalupensis4.6%) werealsoimportant.Nootheridentifiedplantmaterialformedasmuchastwopercentofthediet.InbothSouthCarolinaandGeorgia,bananawaterlily(Nymphaeamexicana)was apreferredfooditem(Cely1980b).AtMerrittIslandNWR,Florida,wherethisplant butwasunavailabletoCanvasbacks,theseducksfedlargelyonwidgeongrass,muskgrass,manateegrass(Syringodiumfiligormis),andinvertebrates(Cely1980b).McAteereportedthatthisplantwas foundinover70%oftheCanvasbackscollectedatLakeSurprise,Texas,butatLagunaAtascosaNWR,wherethisplantdidnotoccur,Canvasbacksfedprimarilyonwidgeongrass(Cely1980b).InLouisiana Canvasbacks eatacorns(Lowery 1931inPalmer1976b);tubersofdeltaduckpotato(Sagittariaplatyphylla)werereportedasanimportantfoodintheMississippiDelta(McAtee 1917inBartonekand Hickey Palmer1976b).---BartonekandHickey(1969a),Palmer(1976b),andBellrose(1976)givefurtherinformationonfoodseateninotherportionsoftherange.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingThroughoutitsrange,theCanvasbackbeginsnestingataboutthesametime,lateApriltomid-May.Nestinitiationpeaksaround10-25Mayintheheartoftherange(Bellrose1976).MeanClutchSizeRedheads(Aythyaamericana)frequentlyparasitizenestsofCanvasbacks,whichdepressesthenumberofeggslaidbythehostspecies.Instudiesinvolvingmorethan500nests,bothparasitizedandunparasitized,theaverageclutchsizeforCanvasbacks was7.9eggs.Inneststhatarenotparasitized,theaverageisabout9.5eggswitharangeofabout7to12(Bellrose1976).IncubationPeriodIncubationtakes24-29 days (mean 25)(Erickson1948a). SuccessNestingsuccessvariesdramaticallyfromyeartoyearandplacetoplace.Instudiestotalling1,715nests,46.2%weresuccessfulinproducingyoung.ReportscitedinBellrose(1976)indicatethateggsmayhatchinasfewas2.7%ofthenestsinpooryears.About7.3eggshatchintheaverageunparasitizednest,butonly6.0hatchinparasitizedones(Bellrose1976).262

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FledgingSuccessSurvivaltofledgingoftheyounginabroodisapproximately 75%, orabout5.3youngperbrood.Theoverallannualproductionisabout1 youngbirdperadult(Bellrose1976).AgeatFledgingFlightisfirstachievedat54to84days;Palmer(1976b)believedthatmostfirstflywhen60-70daysold.AgeatFirstBreedingMostCanvasbacksbreedinthefirstyear,exceptwhenhabitatconditionsareadverse(Bellrose1976).MortalityofEggs and Young RaccoonsaremajorpredatorsofCanvasbacknests,particularlywiththeirincreasingabundanceintheprairiepotholecountry.Skunks,crows,magpies,andravensalsopreyonCanvasbacknests.ManyfemaleCanvasbacksdesertnestsbecauseoffloodingorintrusionbyparasiticRedheads(Bellrose1976).RenestingThereisaconsiderableamountofrenestingbyhensthatloseclutches,theproportiondependingon avarietyofextrinsicfactors(Bellrose1976).MaximumNaturalLongevityAbirdbanded andrecoveredinNewYorkattained a minimum ageof18yearsand 9 months(Clappeta1.inpress).WeightBellrose(1976)gavetheaverageweightof191malesas2.76lb(1,250g)andof54adultfemalesas2.551b(1,160g).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONCanvasbacksareknowntobevictimsofoiling.Inonemonthin1948,anestimated10,000winteringducks(mostlyCanvasbacks)diedfollowinganoilandyellowphosphorousspillinthelowerDetroitRiverinMichigan(MillerandWhitlock1948).Mostoftheseducksfrozetodeathwhentheirnaturalinsulationwasdestroyedbytheoil.EightCanvasbacks werekilledbyanoilspillinSanFranciscoBay,Ca1ifornia,inJanuary1971(Smaileta1.1972).Mortalityfollowingsevenoilspills(1973-78)intheChesapeake Bay and onthelowerDelawareRiveramountedto815birds(Perryetal.1979).StoutandCornwell(1976)reportedthat 20% ofbandsrecoveredfromoiledwaterfowlwereCanvasbacks,afiguresecondonlytothatattainedbyscaup(Aythyaspp.).MostoftheAtlanticCanvasbackpopulationwintersinbaysandriversalongthecoastnorthofNorthCarolinaoronlarge.bodiesofwaterinland.However,theCanvasbackisfrequentlyfoundinlargeraftsinopenwateroffshore.Insuchlocationsanoilingincidentcouldaffectmanyindividuals,particularlysinceoneofthetwolargestconcentrationsinthesoutheastisfoundinCurrituckSound wherecolderwaterswouldmagnifytheeffectsofoiling.Inaspeciesalreadysubjecttopopulationfluctuations,accidentaloilingcouldhaveasignificantimpact.263

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Fleming,W.J.1981.EnvironmentalmetalresiduesintissuesofCanvasbacks.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:508-511.Nichols,J.D.andG.M.Haramis.1981.Sex-specificdifferencesinwinterdistributionpatternsofCanvasbacks.Condor82:406-416.Sugden,L.A.1981.ParasitismofCanvasbacknestsbyRedheads.J.FieldOrnithol.51:361-364.1980Alexander,W.C.1980.AggressivedisplaysinnonbreedingCanvasbacks.Auk97:198-201.Cely,J.E.1980a.DistributionandfeedingecologyofCanvasbackDucksalongtheSouthCarolinacoast.M.S.thesis,ClemsonUniv./Clemson,SC.59pp.1980b.TheecologyanddistributionofbananawaterlilyanditsutilizationbyCanvasbackducks.Proc.33rdAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:43-47.Nichols,J.D.andG.M.Haramis.1980.Inferencesregardingsurvivalandrecoveryratesofwinter-bandedCanvasbacks.J.Wildl.Manage.44:164-173.Nudds, T.D.1980. CanvasbacktoleranceofRedheadparasitism:anobservationandanhypothesis.WilsonBull.92:414.Perry,M.C.andP.H.Geissler.1980.IncidenceofembeddedshotinCanvasbacks.J.Wildl.Manage.44:888-894.Sugden,L.G.andG.Butler.1980.EstimatingdensitiesofbreedingCanvasbacksandRedheads.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:814-821.Alexander,W.C. andJ.D.Hair.1979.WinterforagingbehaviorandaggressionofdivingducksinSouthCarolina.Proc.31stAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:226-232.Haramis,G.M.andJ.D.Nichols.1979.Sex-specificdifferencesinwinterdistributionpatternsofCanvasbacks.(Abstractonly).Bull.Ecol.Soc.Amer. 60:100.Jessen,R. andC.Henderson.1979.CanvasbackbreedinginMinnesota.Loon 51:46.Welling,C.H.andW.J.L.Sladen.1979. Westrivers,ChesapeakeBay,1972-78.264CanvasbacksexratiosonRhode andJ.Wildl.Manage.43:811-813.

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White,D.R.,R.C.StendallandB.M.Mulhern.1979.RelationsofwinteringCanvasbackstoenvironmentalpollutants--ChesapeakeBay,Maryland.WilsonBull.91: 279-287. 1978Dieter,M.P. 1978. UseoftheALADbloodenzymebioassaytomonitorleadcontaminationintheCanvasbackpopulation.Proc.Internatl.Symp.PathobioI.Environ.Poll.C-227-e-229.Sugden, L.G.1978. CanvasbackhabitatuseandproductioninSaskatchewanparklands.Can.Wildl.ServoOccas.Pap.No.34.32pp.1977Stendell,R.C.,E.Cromartie,S.N.Wiemeyer andJ.R.Longcore.1977.OrganochlorineandmercuryresiduesinCanvasback Duckeggs,1972-73.J.Wildl.Manage. 41:453-457.1976Dieter,M.P.,M.C.PerryandB.M.Mulhern. 1976. Lead and PCB'sinCanvasbackDucks:relationshipsbetween enzymelevelsandresiduesinblood.Arch.Environ.Contam.Toxicol.5:1-13.Enders,F.A.1976. Where doNewYorkCityCanvasbacksfeed?Linn.Newsl.30:1.Kocan,R.M.andM.C.Perry.trappedCanvasback Ducks. 1976.InfectionandmortalityincaptivewildJ.Wildl.Dis.12:30-33.Kocan,R.M.and S.M.Pitts.1976. BloodvaluesoftheCanvasbackbyage,sexandseason.J.Wildl.Dis.12:341-346.Siegfried,W.R.1976b.SegregationinfeedingbehaviouroffourdivingducksinsouthernManitoba.Can.J.Zool.54:730-736.Sugden, L.G.1976.ExperimentalreleaseofCanvasbacks onbreedinghabitat.J.Wildl.Manage.40:716-720.1975Featherstone,J.D.1975.Aspectsofnestsiteselectioninthreespeciesofducks.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Toronto/Toronto,ON.Kovacs, S. 1975.AnentangledCanvasback.Jack-PineWarbler53:159-160.1974 Anon. 1974. Canvasbacks markedinmigrationstudy.Atl.Nat.29:149.265

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Geis,A.D.1974. Breeding andwinteringareasofCanvasbacksharvestedinvariousstatesandprovinces.U.S.Fish&Wildl.Serv.,Spec.Sci.Rept.---Wildl.No.185.ivand78pp.Perry,M.C.1974. LookingoutfortheCanvasback.PartIV. DucksUnlimited38:21-22,25-27.Trauger,D.L. 1974. LookingoutfortheCanvasback.Part1.DucksUnlimited38:12-15.Trauger,D.L. andJ.H.Stoudt.1974. LookingoutfortheCanvasback.PartII.DucksUnlimited38:30-31,42,44-45,48,60.1973Anon. 1973. Color-coded Canvasbacks.Atl.Nat.29:4.Bergman,R.D.1973.UseofsouthernboreallakesbypostbreedingCanvasbacks and Redheads.J. Wild!. Manage. 37:160-170.Mattson,M.E. 1973.Host-parasiterelationsofCanvasback and Redheadducklings.M.S.thesis,UtahStateUniv./Logan,UT.62pp.Trauger,D.L. 1973.Projectreport:specialCanvasbackproject,1973.NorthernPrairieWildl.Res.Cntr.,Jamestown,ND.3 pp.Slatick,E.R.1972. Alookatducks.Penna.GameNews43:24-27.Nieman,D.J.1971. BreedingbiologyandhabitatrelationshipsofMallardand CanvasbacksinthePeace-AthabaskaDelta.M.S.thesis,Univ.Saskatchewan/Saskatoon,SK.78pp.Kocan,R.M.andJ.O.Knisley.1970.IncidenceofmalariainawinteringpopulationofCanvasbacks (Aythyavalisineria)inChesapeake Bay.J.Wildl.Dis.6: 441-442.Bartonek,J.c.1969.Build-upofgritinthreepochardspeciesinManitoba.WilsonBull.81:96-97.Bartonek,J.C.andJ.J.Hickey.andLesserScaupinManitoba.1969a.FoodhabitsofCanvasbacks, Redheads, Condor 71:280-290.266

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Bartonek,J.C.andJ.J.Hickey.1969b.Selectivefeedingbyjuveniledivingducksinsummer.Auk86:443-457.Campbell,J.M.1969. The Canvasback,CommonGoldeneye, andBuffleheadinArcticAlaska.Condor 71:80.Geis,A.D.andW.F.Crissey.1969.Effectofrestrictivehuntingregulationson Canvasback and Redheadharvestratesandsurvival.J.Wildl.Manage. 33: 860-866. 1968 Kocan,R.M.1968.TheCanvasbackDuck(Aythyavalisineria)janewhostrecordforPlasmodium.Bull.Wildl.Dis.Assoc. 4:86-87.Martinson,R.K.andA.S. Hawkins. 1968. Lackofassociationamongduckbrood-matesduringmigrationandwintering.Auk85:684-686.1967 Timken,R.L. 1967. Canvasback maleparticipatingina Redheadcourtshipparty.Auk84: 588. 1965Olson,D.1965.tohunting.Differentialvulnerabilityofmale and female CanvasbacksTrans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf. 30: 121-135.Stoudt,J.H.1965.ProjectreportonhabitatrequirementsoftheCanvasbackduringthebreedingseason.U.S.Fish&Wildl.ServoProj.A-8. 6pp.Longcore,J.R.andG.W.Cornwell.1964.TheconsumptionofnaturalfoodsbycaptiveCanvasbacks andLesserScaups.J.Wildl.Manage.28:527-531.Olson,D.P. 1964. AstudyofCanvasback and Redheadbreedingpopulations,nestinghabitatsandproductivity.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.100pp.1963Cornwell,G.W.andA.B.Cowan.1963. HelminthpopulationsoftheCanvasback(Aythyavalisineria)and.host-parasite-environmentalinter-relationships.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.&Nat.ResourcesConf. 28: 173-199.Longcore,J.R.1963. Consumptionofnaturalfoodsandeffectsofstarvationon Canvasbacks andLesserScaups.M.S.thesis,Univ. Michigan/AnnArbor,MI.267

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1961DeGraff,L.W.,D.D.FoleyandD.Benson.1961.DistributionandmortalityofCanvasbacks bandedinNewYork.N.Y.FishGameJ.8:69-87.1960Benson,D.,D.D.FoleyandL.W.DeGraff.1960.CanvasbackabundanceinNewYork. N.Y.StateFishGameJ.7:48-59.Hochbaum,H.1960.Thebroodseason/briefcareandearlydesertionareCanvasbackduckling'slot.Nat.Hist.69:54-61.1959Dzubin,A.1959.Growth and plumagedevelopmentofwild-trappedjuvenileCanvasback(Aythyavalisineria).J.Wildl.Manage. 23:279-290.Geis,A.D.1959.Annual andshootingmortalityestimatesfortheCanvasback.J.Wildl.Manage. 23:253-261.Hochbaum,H.1959.TheCanvasbackonaprairiemarsh.StackpoleCo.,Harrisburg,PA.,&theWildl.Manage.Instit.,Washington,D.C.xiiand 207pp.1958Stewart,R.E.,A.D.Geisand C.D.Evans.1958.DistributionofpopulationsandhuntingkilloftheCanvasback.J.Wildl.Manage. 22:333-370.Erickson,R.C.1948a.LifehistoryandecologyoftheCanvasback,Nyrocavalisineria(Wilson),insoutheasternOregon.Ph.D.thesis,IowaSt.Coll./Ames,IA.324pp.1948b.LifehistoryandecologyoftheCanvasback,Nyrocavalisineria-----(Wilson)insoutheasternOregon. IowaSt.ColI.J.Sci.23:30-32.1946Smith,J.D.1946.The CanvasbackinMinnesota.Auk63:73-81.1944 Hochbaum,H.A.1944a.The Canvasbackonaprairiemarsh.M.S.thesis,Univ.Wisconsin/Madison,WI.1944b. The Canvasbackonaprairiemarsh.Am.Wildl.Inst.xiiand 201pp.268

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Erickson,Ro. C.1942. Breeding habitsof theCanvasbsck, (Wilson),onthe KalheurWildlifeRefuge,Oregon. M.S. thesis,Iowa St. Coll./Anlu, IA.118pp.Allen,A.A.1931.TheCsnvubsck.Bird-Lore33:347-360. Beck, H.H.sndC.Msrburger.1927.CanvasbackinPennsylvaniainsummer. Auk 44:557.CanvasbackDuck.PhotographbyNorthernPrairieWildlifeResearch Center U.S. Fish andWildlifeService.'269

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REDHEAD(Aythyaamericana)[FR:Milouinamericain,GE:Rotkopfente,SP: Cabezaroja]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica RedheadsbreedinNorthAmerica fromcentralBritishColumbia,northernAlberta,southernMackenzie,southernSaskatchewan,southernManitoba,andnorthwesternMinnesotasouththroughcentralandeasternWashington and 'OregontocentralCalifornia(Small1974),northwesternNevada,north-centralArizona, centralNebraska,northwesternIowa, andlesscommonlyinWisconsin,Michigan,andtheLakeEriemarshestonorthwesternPennsylvaniaandwesternNewYork(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Sincethelate1950's,theRedheadhas itsbreedingrangetoAlaskaandseveralsouthernandeasternstatesandprovinces,includingMaine andNewBrunswick(Weller1964).IthasbeenintroducedintoNewYork (Benson and Browne 1969) andisolatedbreedingrecordshavebeenreportedinKansas(Palmer1976b),Texas (Rhodes1979),andJalisco,Mexico(Williams1975).Inthewinter,RedheadsoccurfromsouthernBritishColumbia,Idaho,southwesternWyoming,southwesternColorado,northernTexas,southernArkansas,southernIllinois,theGreatLakes,centralNewYork,andConnecticutsouththroughtheUnitedStatesand Mexico. TheyreachtheirsouthernlimitsinGuatemala and onislandsintheCaribbean(AOU1957,Weller1964,Bond1971,Bellrose 1970, Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionTheRedheadbreedsexclusivelyinNorthAmerica;itoccurscasuallyinBermuda(AOU1957,Palmer1976b),andhasstraggledtoHawaii(Berger1972),Greenland,theNewSiberianArchipelago(Palmer1976b),and Sweden(Baueretal.1980).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaThe RedheadisacommonwinterresidentinNorthCarolina.Itisfoundchieflyonthesaltandbrackishwatersofthecoast,andrarelyinland(Pearsonetal.1942).Bellrose(1976)notedaconcentrationof6,000inCurrituckandAlbemarlesounds,'andPotter-etal.(1980)remarkedthatitisfairlycommoninmostyearsinCore and Pamlicosounds.TheJanuary1975winterwaterfowlsurveyrecorded6,700birds(Goldsberryetal.1980),makingNorthCarolinathethirdmostimportantwinteringgroundforRedheadsalongtheAtlanticcoast(behindRhodeIslandandFlorida).AtPeaIslandNWR,7,000werecountedinlateNovember 1975(Teulings1976a) and3,000werethereinDecember 1976(Teulings1976b, LeGrand1977a).SouthCarolinaSpruntand Chamberlain(1949)consideredtheRedheadanuncommonanderraticwintervisitorthroughoutthestate,occurringmostfrequentlyincoastalareas.Singlebirdsaremost commonlyseen,althoughpairs270

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orsmallgroupsmayalsobeobserved.ThespeciesismuchlesscommonherethaninNorthCarolinaandonlyaveryfewbirdswereseenonthe1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).RedheadsaregenerallypresentinthestatefromlateOctobertolateMarch(SpruntandChamberlain1949).GeorgiaDentonetal.(1977)regardedtheRedheadasanuncommonwinterresidentonthecoast;itisararewinterresidentinland.DatagivenbyBellrose(1976)fromwinterwaterfowlsurveyssupportthisstatus.Datesofoccurrencearefrom 28October(LeGrand1979a)to29April(Dentonetal.1977).Usuallyonlysmall flocks orindividualsareseen,infreshorsaltwater(Burleigh1958).FloridaThe RedheadislocallyabundantasawinterresidentinFlorida.TheGulfcoastofFloridaharborsthesecondlargestwinteringpopulationintheUnitedStates.TheJanuary1975waterfowlsurveyrecorded91,000birdsforthestate(Goldsberryetal.1980);itshouldberememberedthatthesecountsoftenunderestimatetheactualnumberpresent.Florida-AtlanticCoastSprunt(1954)consideredtheRedheadanuncommonwintervisitorinnorthernFlorida,perhapsmoreabundantinformertimes.However,hereporteditasfarsouthastheLake Okeechobeearea.Kale(1979msa)consideredituncommononmostofthecoastbutabundantatMerrittIsland NWR, where1,000to16,000birdswinter.Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatCapeCanaveralhadthesecondlargestconcentration(15,000birds)alongtheAtlanticcoast.Florida-GulfCoastSt.Marks NWR isthemostimportantwinteringareaoftheRedheadinthispartofFlorida.Thisspeciesisthemostabundantwinteringduckontherefuge,butitisuncommonelsewhereandraresouthofTampaBay(Kale1979msb).Redheadsoccur in FloridafromearlyNovemberto(exceptionally)lateJuneandJuly(Howell1932;Sprunt1954;Ogden1970,1973);exceptionallyearlybirdshavebeenseenon26September(St.MarksLight)(Edscorn1979).Bellrose(1976)gavefiguresof15,000winteringintheFloridapanhandle,and50,000atApalacheeBay.Anunusuallylargeconcentrationof56,000birdswasseenalongthecoastwestofGainesvilleinJanuary1975(Goldsberryetal.1980),andabout60,000wereseennearSt.MarksLighton21November 1978(Edscorn1979).Alabama Imhof(1976b)notedthatRedheadsareuncommoninwinterandonmigrationinmostofthestate,butmaybelocallyabundantontheGulfcoast.Theseducksarefound ondeeplakes,rivers,andbaysinfresh,brackish,andsaltwater.AlongtheGulfcoast',Redheadshavebeenrecordedfrom 26Septemberto19May;amaximumconcentrationof3,000wasreportedfromMississippiSound,19January1956 (Imhof1976b).Bellrose(1976)reportedanaverageof700RedheadsWinteringinMobileBay;the1975wintersurveyreported200(Goldsberryeta1.1980).MississippiBurleigh(1944)had fewrecordsofRedheads fromcoastalMississippi,andtheseweremostlyofsinglebirds.Datesofoccurrencewerefrommid-Octobertomid-March.Bellrose(1976)reportedupto20,000offthewest-271

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ernMississippiandeasternLouisianacoasts.Judgingfromthe1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980),mostofthesebirdsoccurredinLouisianawaters.Hamilton(1978)consideredaconcentrationof500nearHornIslandinJanuary1978unusuallylarge.LouisianaLowery(1974)statedthatRedheadsareuncommonwinterresidentsoninlandlakes,butareoccasionallyobservedformingraftsofseveralthousandonthecoast.ArrivinginthestatearoundthefirstweekofOctober,theyremainuntillateApril.Largenumbersmaywinteralongtheeasterncoast(Bellrose1976).AnincompletesurveyinJanuary1975found1,000RedheadsinLouisiana(Goldsberryet.al.1980).TexasFrommid-Octobertomid-May,Redheadsarelocallyabundanttocommononthelowerandcentralcoasts,andirregularlycommontouncommonelsewhereinthestate(Oberholser1974).Duringthespringandfall,theyaremostnumerousinthenortherntwo-thirdsofthestate.Bellrose(1976)consideredboththesouthTexascoastandthatofadjacentMexicoimportantwinteringareasforthisspecies.LargeconcentrationswerefoundattheLaguna MadreofTexas(300,000)and Mexico(60,000),andatMatagordaandSanAntoniobays(20,000).Goldsberryetal.(1980)reportedthat438,290werefoundontheJanuary1975waterfowlsurvey.Thisfigurerepresents62.4%ofallwinteringRedheadscountedinthecontiguousUnitedStatesandMexico,makingTexasbyfarthemostimportantwinteringgroundforthespecies.Sporadicnestingbyaveryfew RedheadshasbeenreportedfrominlandCastro,Medina,and Lubbockcounties.TheserecordsconsistedofunfledgedyoungseeninthemonthsofAugust(3of5records),November, and December(Oberholser1974,Rhodes1979).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingRedheadsbreedsolelyinNorthAmerica,mostoftheminanareaextendingfromsouthernMackenzieandcentralandsouthernBritishColumbiasoutheasttowesternMinnestota,northernNebraska,andcentralColorado,andsouthwesttonorthwesternNevada andcentralCalifornia(Small1974,Palmer1976b).Breedingpopulationsontheprincipalprairiebreedinggroundsrangedfrom387,000in1963to927,000duringtheperiod1955-74,andaveraged649,000(Bellrose1976).The 1976waterfowlbreedinggroundsurveyindicatedabreedingpopulationofatleast963,000birds,themajority(67.3%)insouthernAlbertaandsouthernSaskatchewan(Larnedetal.1980).ThissurveyevidentlydidnotcoverseveralstatesinwhichtheRedheadisknowntobreed.AmongtheseisUtah,whichcontainsthegreatestconcentrationofnestingRedheadsinNorthAmericainthemarshesnearGreatSaltLake.AccordingtofiguresprovidedbyBellrose(1976),thisareahasmorebreedingRedheads(130,000)thanalloftherestofthewesternUnitedStatesputtogether.Weller(1964)mappeddensitiesthroughoutthebreedingrangeoftheRedhead,findingthatextremedroughtintheprimarynestingrangeofboththeRedhead andtheCanvasbackseverelyreducedthequantityandqualityofbreed2n

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inghabitatfrom 1958to1963;lowproductionratescausedpopulationdeclines.WinterRedheadswinterfromsouthernBritishColumbiainthewestandsouthernNewYorkintheeasttosouthernMexico andGuatemalaandtheGulfCoastStates(Map19),witha fewintheCaribbean(Palmer1976b).However, asubstantialmajorityofthewinterpopulationisfoundalongthewesternGulfcoastinTexasand Mexico. Texas andtheeastcoastofMexico combinedheld77.8%oftheapproximately703,000RedheadscountedontheJanuary1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).Duringthe1976survey,approximately718,000birdswerefound(Larnedetal.1980).Thenextlargestwinteringconcentration(ca.50,000birds)occursinApalacheeBayontheGulfcoastofFlorida(Palmer1976b).Smaller,butalsoimportant,concentrationsoccurinNorthCarolinaand onthenorth-centralAtlanticcoastofFlorida(Map19).MigrationTheprincipalmigrationcorridorsareoverlandfrombreedinggroundsinIdaho,Alberta,Saskatchewan,andManitobatothesouthernGulfcoastof Texas andMexico.MostofthePacificcoastwinteringbirdsoriginateinthewest.SomebirdsfromthenorthernprairiesmoveeastwardtotheGreatLakesandsouthtoChesapeake BayortheGulfcoastofFlorida.MigrationisdiscussedindetailbyLincoln(1934),Weller(1964)andBellrose(1976).HABITATNestingThe Redheadnestsindensestandsofplants,preferringbulrushes,cattails,orsedgeson andaroundmarshesandpotholesoftheprairiesandparklands.Redheadspreferextensivemarsheswithshallowwateropenings(Palmer1976b);hardstembulrush(Scirpusacutus)isthepreferrednestingcoverovermuchoftherange(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Nestsitesareusuallyoverwater,butsomeareonislandsoronlandnearwater(Bellrose1976).FeedingRedheadsfeedmoreinshallowmarshesandpondsthando manyofthedivingducks(Bellrose1976).Duringmigrationtheyareoftenfound onshallow,slow-movingriversandlakes(Palmer1976b),and onfreshandslightlybrackishestuarinebayswithmuch submergedaquaticvegetation(Johnsgard1975).WinterandOffshoreRedheadswinterprimarilyoneithersalinewatersthatarerichinplantfoods,suchascoastalbaysandlagoons,orlargeinlandlakesandreservoirs(Palmer1976b).Weller(inJohnsgard1975)indicatedthatwinterhabitat was typicallywell shallow,brackishorhighlysalinewatersalongthecoast.Migrantsandwinteringbirdsareoftenfoundincompactrafts(Palmer1976b)thatmaycontainlargenumbersofbirds.RaftsinFloridacontainfrom5,000to20,000 ducks; asmanyas80,000-90,000havebeenobservedoffCedar Key,usually5-15mi(8-24km)offshore.AraftinTexasheldsome76,000birds.DuringWindyweatheronthelowerLagunaMadre,thesebirdsmaycongregateinwatersoshallowtheybarelyfloat(Palmer1976b andauthorscitedtherein).RedheadswinteringinthelowerLaguna Madreclearlypreferredareasofshallowwateroverhardsandvegetatedsolelywithshoalgrass(Halodulebeaudetti).Areaswithmoreluxuriantstandsofshoalgrassindeeper(1-2m=3.3-6.6ft)waterwererarelyvisited(Cornelius1977).273

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.,--IIIIDHAIlE IIfGULFOFMEXICO.05PEl10PARTY-HOURSII LeIS than10 .. 10-50 50-200_ Morethan200 L-JLLL-W4--tf-<-;--r \\ r--__ +-4 INDIVIDUALS OISDVED DURING CHRISTMAS 0 COUNTS, 1972(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@Number ofindividual. oleIS thanone individualNoneobserved Map19

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FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORRedheadsfeedinmarshes,sloughs,and pondsthatareoftenonlyameterorsodeep.Whenindeeperwaterstheydiveforfood"butintheshallowstheyeither"tip-up"orforagefromthesurface(Bellrose1976).AlexanderandHair(1979)reportedsomeelementsofforagingbehavioroncoastalimpoundmentsinSouthCarolina.Redheadsusuallyforagedinsmallgroupsof4-6birds.AtHuntingtonBeach,theydoveforanaverageof15secand movedunderwateranaverageofaboutthreebodylengths.The meanforagingrate(definedasthenumberofdivesortip-upsper5-minuteinterval)variedfrom4.2atonelocalityto13.9atanother;nodifferenceinforagingratebetweenthesexeswasnoted.Redheadsfeedlargelyonvegetablefood;studiescitedbyPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976)indicatedthatbetween78%and94%ofthedietmayconsistofplantmaterialintransientandwinteringareas.OnthebreedinggroundsinManitoba,however,Redheadsateconsiderablymoreanimalfood(BartonekandHickey1969a).Theprincipalanimalfood consumedinthisareawasthelarvaeofcaddisflies(Trichoptera).Wegivebelowastate-by-statesummaryoftheprincipalfoodseateninthesoutheast;moredetailedinformationonspecificfoodsconsumedinotherpartsoftherangemaybefoundinPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976).NorthCarolinaThe foodeatenby 44 RedheadswinteringinCurrituckSound wassimilartothatingestedbyCanvasbacksinthesameareabutincorporatedalargerproportionofsouthernnaiad(Najas Buadalupensis) and asmallerproportionofpondweed(Potamogetonspp.)(QuayandCritcher1965).Pondweedsaccountedfor41.1%(byvolume)ofthefood,southernnaiad21.9%, andwidgeongrass (RuePia maritima),12.9%. Thesethreeplantgeneramade upabout76%ofthefoodidentified.Unidentifiedanimalsandplantsmade up 2.2% and 19.0%,respectively,ofthetotalmaterialexamined.FloridaStieglitz(1967)reportedthefoodsconsumedby10RedheadswinteringatApalacheeBay,St.MarksNWR,ontheFloridaGulfcoast.Shoalgrass (Q!planthera wrightii)wastheprincipalfoodeaten,making up 85.3%ofthediet;theonlyotherplanteatenwasmanateegrass(Cymodocea manatorum 0.7%),anditwas foundinonlyoneRedhead.Therestofthefoodconsistedofmolluscs,principallyOlivellamutica(9.2%),Prunum !picinum (2.0%),Nassariusambiguus(1.0%),andAnachisavara(1.0%).TexasMcMahan(1970)reportedonthefoodsof104Redheadscollectedfrom NovemberthroughDecemberontheLower Laguna Madre.AsinFlorida,shoalgrasswastheprincipalfoodeatenand.comprisedalmostanidenticalproportionofthediet(84.2%).Widgeongrass(9.8%) wastheonlyotherplanteaten.Animal foodconsistedofsnails(2.0%)andclams(0.1%).McMahanpointedoutthatmanyofthesnailswerefossilsthatpresumablyhadbeenpickedupforgritandsuggestedthatRedheadsprobablyfedtoagreaterextentonwidgeongrassthanwasindicatedbyhisanalysisofstomachcontents.Duringthewinterof1974-75,Cornelius(1977)conductedanotherstudyofthefoodhabitsofRedheadsontheLower Laguna Madre,followingadecreased275

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useofthiswinteringarea.Rhizomesofshoalgrass(Halodulebeaudettei)accountedfor71%ofthedietof19Redheads;threemolluscs,Anachisavara,Neritinavirginea,andCerithideapliculosaweretheanimalfoods often,buttheycomprisedonly9.5%ofthediet.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingThe Redheadisnotedforthepracticeoflayingeggsinnestsofotherbirds,eitherofitsownorofotherspecies(Weller1959).InIowain1938,thepeakofthenest-buildingandegg-layingperiodwas 19-25June,whenone-thirdoftheobservednestswereconstructed(Low1940).InAlberta,themeandateofnestinitiationoverafive-yearstudyperiodwasbetween7and26May(Keith1961).NestswerebeguninlateAprilorearlyMayinMontana,withfirstnestestablishmentcompletedby10June(Lokemoen1966).MeanClutchSizeTheparasiticorsemiparasitichabitsoftheRedhead makedeterminationofclutchsizesomewhatdifficult(Weller1959).Layingbyseveralfemalesinonenesthasresultedin"clutches"ofasmanyas87eggs(Weller1959).Variousstudies(citedinBellrose1976 and Palmer 1976b)havereportedaverageclutchsizesvaryingfrom8.9to13.5eggs,andBellrosereportedanoverallaverageof11.1.Weller(1959)reportedthatunparasitizedclutchescontainedfrom 5to9eggsinstudiesconductedatDeltaMarsh,Manitoba,andKnudtsonMarsh,Utah.Theaverageclutchsizewas7.4(n17).Welleralsoreportedthatparasiticfemaleslaidanaverageof10.8eggs.Palmer(1976b)believedthatthetrueclutchsizewas 9eggsinmostinstances.IncubationPeriodIncubationperiodsinstudiescitedbyPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976)rangefrom23-29days.Palmer(1976b)statedthattheincubationperiodisusually24days.HatchingSuccessInatwo-yearstudyinwesternMontana, Lokemoen(1966)foundthateggshatchedin15.2%of138clutches.However,only9.9%oftheeggsintheseclutcheshatched.Hatchingsuccesswasgreaterthannestsuccessbecausesomenestslosteggsbyinterferencefromotherbirdsorcontainedlateeggslaidbyparasites.Ina summaryofstudies,Bellrose(1976)notedoverallthatsomeeggshatchedin52%ofthenestsobserved,butthatanunusuallylargenumberofunhatchedeggswereleftinsuccessfulnests.FledgingSuccessNoprecisedataareavailable.Bellrose(1976)calculatedthattheproductionofyoungperhenmayvaryfrom1.3to2.7.AgeatFledgingPalmer(1976b)reportedthatmostyoungflyat60-65days andnotedthatarangeof56-84dayshadbeenreported.AgeatFirstBreedingFemale Redheads maybreedasyearlings,buttheproportionthatdosoisunknown(Bellrose1976).MortalityofEggsandYoungManynestsinwhicheggsfailtohatchweredesertedbecauseoftheintrusionofparasiticfemales.ThisisprevalentenoughthatitledBellrose(1976)toremark"Theredheadappearstobeitsownworstenemy". Mauunalian (skunksandracoons)andavian(crows,magpies,and 276

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gulls)predatorsaccountforalargeproportionofdestroyednests,andmanyothersarefloodedbysuddenincreasesinwaterlevel.Nestsmayalsobedesertedintimeofdroughtorlowwater(Bellrose1976).RenestingAlliston(1979b)firstdocumentedrenestinginRedheads.Hefoundthat86.4%of22femaleswhoseclutcheswereremovedlaterrenested.Clutchsizeinfirstnestsaveraged10.5(n=8),versus10.3forsecondnests,astatisticallyinsignificantdifference.MaximumNaturalLongevityAbirdbandedinMarylandafteritssecondyearwasrecoveredinMichiganata minimumageof21yearsand 5 months(Clappetal.inpress).Weight Males(n=1,157)inspringmigrationaveraged1,100g(2.43lb)andfemales(n=485)averaged990 g(2.18lb).Thirty-twosummermalesaveraged940 g(2.07lb)and71femalesaveraged900 g(1.98lb).Duringfallmigration,40maleshada meanweightof990 g(2.18lb)and 52femalesaveraged900 g(1.98lb)(Weller1957inPalmer1976 b) SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONAtleastfiveRedheads wereincludedamongmorethan8,400birdskilledbyanoilspillinChesapeakeBay(Rolandetal.1977).Averylargeproportionoftheentirespeciespopulationwintersinthesoutheast,ofteninlargeaggregationsinhabitatssusceptibletooiling.Thisduckalsobelongstoagroupofdivingducks(Aythya) whose feedinghabitsmake themespeciallyvulnerabletotheeffectsofoil.Consequently,weregardthisspeciesasonepotentiallyathighriskfromoilpollutioninthesoutheast.BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Cable,T.T.record.1981.NestofRedhead DuckinNewtonCo.:firststatenestingIndianaAudubonQ.59:4-5.Sugden,L.A.1981.ParasitismofCanvasbacknestsbyRedheads.J.FieldOrnithol.51:361-364.1980Bauer,C.-A.,S.ChristianssonandG.Rudebeck.1980.Amerikanskbrunand,Aythyaamericana,ennyartforEuropa,funneni Malmo. [Redhead,Aythyaamericana,aspeciesnewtoEurope,foundinMalmo, Sweden.] VarFagelvarld39:275-276.Nudds, T.D.1980.CanvasbacktoleranceofRedheadparasitism:anobservationandanhypothesis.WilsonBull.92:414.277

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Sugden, L.G.andG.Butler.1980.EstimatingdensitiesofbreedingCanvasbacksand Redheads.J.Wildl.Manage. 44: 814-821. 1979Alexander,W.C. andJ.D.Hair.1979.WinterforagingbehaviorandaggressionofdivingducksinSouthCarolina.Proc.31stAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:226-232.Alliston,W.G.1979a.ThepopulationecologyofanisolatedpopulationofRedhead Ducks (Aythyaamericana).Ph.D.thesis,CornellUniv.!Ithaca,NY.1979b.RenestingbytheRedhead Duck. Wildfowl 30:40-44.Bailey,R.O.1979. MethodsofestimatingtotallipidcontentintheRedhead Duck (Aythyaamericana)and anevaluationofconditionindices.Can.J.Zool.57:1830-1833.Michot,T.C.,J.B.LowandD.R.Anderson.1979.DeclineofRedhead Ducknestingon Knudson Marsh,Utah.J.Wildl.Manage. 43:224-229.Rhodes,M.J.1979. RedheadsbreedingintheTexasPanhandle.Southwest.Nat.24:691-692.1977Cornelius,S. E. 1977. Lower Laguna Madre. Food andresourceutilizationbywinteringRedheads onJ.Wildl.Manage. 41:374-385.1976Joyner,D.E. 1976.Effectsofinterspecificnestparasitismby Redheads and Ruddy Ducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 40:33-38.Michot,T.C.1976.NestingecologyoftheRedheadDuckonKnudson Marsh,Utah.M.S.thesis,UtahSt.Univ.!Logan,Ut.62pp.1975Alliston,W.G.1975. Web-taggingducklingsinpippedeggs.J.Wildl.Manage. 39:625-628.Cornelius,S. E. 1975. FoodchoiceofwinteringRedhead Ducks andutilizationofavailablefoodresourcesinLower Laguna Madre,Texas.M.S.thesis,TexasA&MUniv./CollegeStation,TX.121pp.Dane,C.W.andD.H.Johnson.1975.AgedeterminationoffemaleRedheadducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 39:256-263.Featherstone,J.D.1975.Aspectsofnestsiteselectioninthreespeciesofducks.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Toronto/Toronto,ON.278

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Single,E. 1975. Bald EagleattacksRedhead(SullivanCo.).Linn.Newsl. 29:4.Williams,S.0.,III.1975. Redheadbreeding 'in thestateofJalisco,Mexico.Auk92:152-153.1974 McKnight,D.E. 1974.Dry-landnestingby Redheads and Ruddy Ducks.J.Wildl.Manage. 38: 112-119. 1973 Lokemoen,J.T. andH.F.Duebbert.1973.AnuplandnestoftheRedheadfarfromwater.WilsonBull.85: 468. -Mattson,M.E. 1973.Host-parasiterelationsofCanvasback and Redheadducklings.M.S.thesis,Univ.Manitoba/Winnipeg,MB.97pp.1972 Benson,D.and S.D.Browne. 1972.EstablishingbreedingcoloniesofRedheadsinNewYorkbyreleasinghand-rearedbirds.N.Y.FishGameJ.19:59-72.Stone,W.B.1972.Fishinglinestrapwaterfowl.N.Y.StateConserve27:38.1970Weller,M.W.1970.AdditionalnotesontheplumagesoftheRedhead(Aythyaamericana.WilsonBull.82:320-323.1969Bartonek,J.C.1969.Build-upofgritinthreepochardspeciesinManitoba.WilsonBull.81:96-97.Bartonek,J.C.andJ.J.Hickey.andLesserScaupinManitoba.1969a.FoodhabitsofCanvasbacks,Redheads,Condor 71:280-290.1969b.Selectivefeedingbyjuveniledivingducksinsummer.Auk86:------443-457.Benson,D.and S.D.Browne. 1969.Releasinghand-rearedRedheadstoestablishbreedingcoloniesinNew York. Trans.N.E.Sect.Wildl.Soc.,26thNEFishandWildl.Conf.,9-12Feb.1969:91-110.Geis,A.D.andW.F.Crissey.1969.Effectofrestrictivehuntingregulationson Canvasback-and Redheadharvestratesandsurvival.J.Wildl.Manage.33:860-866.279

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1968Fatora,J.R.1968.PresentstatusoftheRedheadontheAtomicEnergyCommissionSavannahRiverPlantareaofSouthCarolina.Chat 32:101-102.Reinecker,W.C.1968.A summaryofbandrecoveriesfrom Redheads(Aythyaamericana)bandedinnortheasternCalifornia.Calif.FishGame54:17-26.1967 Timken,R.L.1967.Canvasbackmaleparticipatingina Redheadcourtshipparty.Auk84:588.Weller,M.W.1967. CQurtship oftheRedhead(Aythyaamericana).Auk84:544-559.1966Lokemoen ,J.T. 1966.BreedingecologyoftheRedhead DuckinwesternMontana.J.Wildl.Manage. 30:668-681.1965Miller,J.B.1965.AnuplandRedheadnest.Auk82:280.Sealy,S.G.1965. RedheadparasitizingthenestoftheAmericanBittern.BlueJay23:172.Smart,G.1965.ducklings.Development andmaturationofprimaryfeathersofRedheadJ.Wildl.Manage.29:533-536.Weller,M.W.1965.ChronologyofpairformationinsomenearcticAythya(Anatidae).Auk82:227-235.Yocum,C.F. 1965.BreedingrecordforRedheadinAlaska.Auk82: 103. 1964Olson,D.P.1964. AstudyoftheCanvasbackand Redheadbreedingpopulations,nestinghabitatsandproductivity.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.100pp.Weller,M. W. 1964.DistributionandmigrationoftheRedhead.J.Wildl.Manage.28:64-103.1962 Lokemoen,J.T. 1962. TheproductivityoftheRedhead, Aythyaamericana,intheFlatheadValley,Montana. M.S.thesis,Univ.Montana/Missoula,MT.Smart,G.M.1962.BiologicalproblemsintherestockingofRedhead Ducks,Aythyaamericana.M.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.115pp.280

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1959Weller,M. W. 1959.ParasiticegglayingintheRedhead(Aythyaamericana)andotherNorthAmericanAnatidae.Ecol.Monogr. 29:333-365.Weller,M. W. andP.Ward.1959.Migrationandmortalityofhand-rearedRedheads(Aythyaamericana).J.Wildl.Manage. 23:427-433.1957Rate,H.1957.Redheadskilledbyadowndraft.Auk74:391.Weller,M. W. 1957.Growth,weights,and plumagesoftheRedhead,Aythyaamericana.WilsonBull.69:5-38.1956Weller,M. W. 1956.ParasiticegglayingintheRedhead(Aythyaamericana)andotherNorthAmericanAnatidae.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.160pp.1955Ferrell,H. W. 1955.RedheadsoftheLaguna Madre. TexasGameFish14:7, 31. 1954Kenaga,E.E.1954.SummerrecordsofRedheadsinaMichiganinlandmarsh.WilsonBull.66:151.McKinney,D.F.1954.AnobservationofRedheadparasitism.WilsonBull.66:146-148.Weller,M.W.1954.Growthrateand plumagedevelopmentoftheRedhead Duck,Aythyaamericana.M.A.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.1953Jennings,W.S.andJ.R.Singleton.1953.Redheadsacresof'em.TexasGameFish11:10-11,27.1949Robbins,C.S.1949.ericanwaterfowl.1.48pp.MigrationoftheRedheadinMigrationofsomeNorth Am U.S.Fish&Wildl. Serv.-Spec. Sci.Rept.---Wildl.No. 1946Baillie,J.L.,Jr.1946.The RedheadasabreedingbirdofMichiganandOntario.WilsonBull.58:111-112.281

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Hochbaum,H.A.1946.StatusoftheRedheadinsouthernManitoba.WilsonBull.58:62-65.Low,J.B.Iowa.1945.Ecologyand managementoftheRedhead (Nyrocaamericana)inEcol.Monogr. 15:35-69.Mendall,H.L. 1945. RedheadbreedinginNewBrunswick.Auk62:465.1944Williams,C.S. 1944.MigrationoftheRedhead fromtheUtahbreedinggrounds.Auk61:251-259.1943Low,J.B.1943. A deformed Redheadduckling.Condor45:234-235.1941Low,J.B.1941a.Theecologyand managementoftheRedhead, Nyrocaamericana,inIowa. Ph.Dthesis,IowaSt.Univ.lAmes,IA. 1941b.Theecologyand managementoftheRedhead, Nyrocaamericana(Eyton),inIowa. IowaSt. ColI. J. Sci. 16:90-92.1941c.NestingoftheRuddy DuckinIowa.Auk58:506-517.Low,J.B.1940.ProductionoftheRedhead(Nyrocaamericana)inIowa.WilsonBull.52:153-164.1938Bennett,L.J.1938. Redheads and Ruddy DucksnestinginIowa.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.3:647-650.1936 Todd, W. E.C.1936. The Redhead andRing-neckedDuckbreedingatPymatuningLake,Pennsylvania.Auk53: 440. 1934Lincoln,F.C.1934.DistributionandmigrationoftheRedhead. Pp. 280-287inTrans.20thAm.GameConf.,HotelPennsylvania,NewYork,NewYork, 12-24 January1934.viand 424pp.282

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Weydemeyer,W.1933.OccurrenceandnestingoftheRedhesdinMontana.Auk50:210-211.RedheadDuck.PhotographbyNorthernPrairieWildlifeResearchCenter.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 283

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RING-NECKED.DUCK(Aythyacollaris)[FR:Morillonacollier,GE:Halsringente,NW:Ringand,Halstingand,SP:Patodecollar,Patonegro,Patodelmediocavezon]GENERAL DISTRIBlITlON TheRing-neckedDuckbreedsfromtheMackenzieDistrictandBritishColumbiaeastacrossCanadatoNewfoundland and NovaScotia,andasfarsouthasnortheasternWashington,northernNorthDakota,Minnesota,Wisconsin,Michigan,NewYork, Vermont,Maine,andMassachusetts(Mendall1938,Chandler1953,AOU1957).RecentnorthwardextensionofthebreedingrangeintoLabradorhasalsobeennoted(Gillespieand Wetmore1974).Tothesouthofthisgeneralbreedingdistribution,localirregularbreedinghasbeenreportedfromOregon,California,Nevada,Montana,Colorado,Nebraska,SouthDakota,Illinois,'Indiana,andPennsylvania(AOU1957,Mendall1958).TheprincipalbreedinggroundistheclosedborealforestofnorthwesternCanada(Bellrose1976).Inwinter,theRing-neckedDuckcanbefound fromMassachusettssouthwardalongtheAtlanticcoasttoFlorida,theWestIndies,Gulfcoaststates,andMexico(AOU1957,Bond1971).Inthesoutheast,itmayoccurinlandasfarasTennesseeandArkansas(Johnsgard1975).AlongthePacificcoast,theseduckswinterfromsouthernBritishColumbiatoBajaCalifornia,inmostofMexico,andinCentralAmericaasfarsouthasPanama(AOU1957,Mendall1958).Ring-neckedDuckswinteralongthePacificcoastfromBritishColumbiasouthtoBajaCalifornia,inMexico andCentralAmericatoGuatemala,andalongtheAtlanticcoast(Map20) fromMassachusetts'southtoFlorida,theWestIndies,theGulfcoaststates,Mexico, andCentralAmerica(AOU1957,Mendall1958).Januarywaterfowlinventoriesindicatethatbetween240,000and300,000Ring-neckedDuckswinterinNorthAmerica.OverhalfofthebirdsintheAtlanticFlywaywinterinFlorida(Bellrose1976). Large concentrationshavealsobeennotedinCuba(15,000)andintheDominicanRepublic(5,500)(CrisseyinBellrose1976).Two-thirdsofthebirdswinteringintheMississippiFlyway occur inLouisiana(about73,000),andslightlyover10,000Ring-neckedDuckswinterfromeastTexastoYucatanontheGulfcoast.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONThreeRing-neckedDucks wereamongmorethan3,200oileddeadbirdsfoundafteraspillinSanFranciscoBay,California,in1971(Smailetal.1972).Becauseofitspreferenceforfreshwater,theRing-neckedDuckismuchlessvulnerabletomarineoilingthanotherdivingducks.284

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N 00 V1 WinterDistributionMapforSoutheasternUnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI,Lessthan10 I!!lIlI!ill!IIl 10-50 50-200 .UWMttll1 Morethan200(Adaptedfrom Bystrak, 1974) INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Numberof individuals o Lessthanoneindividual NoneobservedGULFOFMEXI'COMap20BIRD NAME' RINGNECKEDDUCK 24

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BIBLroGRAPHYGoodwin, T.M.1980. Ring-necked Ducksbreedinginanorth-centralFloridalake.Fla.FieldNat.8: 18.Maire,M.1979.Denouveau unFuliguleabeccercle,Aythyacollaris,surIeLeman.[Ring-neckedDuck AythyacollarisnewforlakeofGeneva.]NosOiseaux35:181-183.[InFrench.]1978 Noseworthy, S.M.andW.Threlfall.1978.SomemetazoanparasitesofRingnecked Ducks, Aythyacollaris(Donovan), from Canada.J.Parasitol.64:365-367.1977Fredriksson,R.1977. Ringand Aythya colIarisantraffadiSverige.[FirstrecordofRing-neckedDuckinSweden.] VarFagelvarld36:45-47.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Fukuda,M.1977.[FirstrecordoftheRing-neckedDuck AythyacollarisinJapan.]Tori26:95-96.[InJapanesewithEnglishsummary.] 1976Titman,R.D.andN.R.Seymour. 1976. UnusualintensityoffightinginRingnecked Ducks. WilsonBull.88:507-508.1974Gillespie,D.I.and S. P. Wetmore. 1974. Duck, Aythyacollaris,intoLabrador.1972 RangeextensionoftheRing-neckedCan.Field-Nat.88:75-76.Erskine,A.J.1972.PostbreedingassembliesofRing-necked DucksineasternNovaScotia.Auk89: 449-450. Kury,C.R.1972. Ring-necked Duck and RuddyTurnstoneswinteringatSitka.Murrelet53:11.1971 Adams, R. andJ.Eastman. 1971.FirstbreedingrecordofRing-neckedDucksinKalamazoo County.Jack-PineWarbler49: 130. 286

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Anderson, B.W.1970.Psuedo-sleepingattitudeinLesserScaup andRingneckedducks.Condor 72:370-371.1969 Anderson, B.W.andD.W.Warner. 1969. AmorphologicalanalysisofalargesampleofLesserScaup andRing-neckedDucks.Bird-Banding40:85-94.Anderson,B.W., T. P.KetolaandD.W.Warner. 1969.Springsexand ageratiosofLesserScaup andRing-neckedducksinMinnesota.J.Wildl.Manage. 33:209-212.Laperle,M.1969.BreedingrecordsoftheRing-neckedDuckinGaspeSouthCounty, Quebec. Can.Field-Nat.83:280-281.1966 Reed,A.1966.BreedingrecordsoftheRing-necked Duck (Aythyacollaris)inRiviere-du-Loupand Rimouskicounties,Quebec. Can.Field-Nat.80: 182. 1965Marshall,D.B.andH.F.Duebbert.1965.NestingoftheRing-neckedDuckinOregonin1963 and 1964.Murrelet46:43.1963Ripley,S.D.1963.CourtshipintheRing-neckedDuck. WilsonBull.75:373-375.1961Ennis,T. 1961.Ring-neckedDuckinCo. Armagh.Brit.Birds54:72-73.1958Mendall,H.L. 1958.TheRing-necked Duckinthenortheast.Univ.MaineStud.No. 73. 317pp.1957 Goodwin,A.B.1957. Astudyof-Ring-neckedDucknestinginthepotholeregionofMahnomenCounty, Minn.Flicker29:22-29.1955 Cooch,G.1955.Ring-neckedDuck(Aythyacollaris)breedinginSaguenayCounty,Quebec. Can.Field-Nat.69: 130. 287

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Scott,P. 1955.Ring-neckedDuckinGlouceatershire:a newBritishbird.Brit.Birds48:377.1954 Kilham, L. 1954. necked Duck.RepeatedterritorialattacksofPied-billedGrebe onRingWilsonBull.66: 265-267. 1953Chandler,E.H.chusetts.1953. AbreedingrecordfortheRing-neckedDuckinMassaAuk70: 86.Nicholson,W.R.1953. AstudyofthebreedingwaterfowlofCorinnaStream.M.S.thesis,Univ. Maine/Orono.ME.118pp.1952Mendall.H.L.1952.Maine'snewcitizen--theRing-neckedDuck.Bull.Maine AudubonSoc.8:22-25.1951Yocum.C.F.1951.BreedingstatusoftheRing-neckedDuckinWashington.Condor 53:47-49.1949Springer.P. F. 1949.RecentrecordsoftheRing-neckedDuck.Auk66:200.Tuck. L.M.1949.OccurrenceoftheRing-neckedDuckinNewfoundland. Can.Field-Nat.63:211-212.1947Mansell,W.C.1947.Ring-neckedDuckbreedinginOntario.Auk64:474.Severinghaus.C.W.andD.Benson. 1947. Ring-necked DuckbroodsinNewYorkState.Auk64:626-627.1946Squires.W.A.Brunswick.1946. OldbreedingrecordsoftheRing-necked DuckinNewAuk63: 600. 1945Zirrer,F.1945.TheRing-neckedDuck.PassengerPigeon7:41-46.1940Moffitt,J.1940. The Ring-necked DuckinnorthernCalifornia.Gull22:1315. 288

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Mendall,H.L.1938.Ring-neckedDuckbreedingineasternNorthAmerica.Auk55:401-404.Todd,W.E.C.1936.TheRedheadandRing-neckedDuckbreedingatPymatuningLake,Pennsylvania.Auk53:440.1926Sprunt,A.,Jr.1926.StatusoftheRing-neckedDuckinSouthCarolina.Auk43:364-366.1924Griscom,L.andJ.M.Johnson.1924.Ring-neckedDuckinnorthernNewJersey.Auk41:339.289

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GREATERSCAUP[DA:Bjergand,DU:Toppereend,EN:Scaup,FI:Lapasotlea,FR:Milouinan,Canardmilouinan;GE:Bergente,IC: Duggond,IT:Marettagrigia,JA: Suzugamo, NW: Bergand,po:Ogorzalka,RU:(MarineScaup),SP:Porronbastardo,Cosgrande,SW:Bergand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica TheGreaterScaupbreedsinNorthAmerica fromAlaskathroughArcticCanadaeasttotheshoresofHudson Bay,withisolatedrecordsorcasualnestinginnorthwesternBritishColumbia,centralAlberta,andtheGulfofSt.Lawrence.ItnestsalsointheChimaregionofnorthernUngava and commonlyinasmallareainsoutheasternNewfoundland(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)pointedoutthatbreedingrecordsforNorthDakota andMichigan(AOU1957)areprobablyerroneous;thevalidityofarecentbreedingrecordfromFlorida(Montalbano1977)isalsodubious(Palmer,pers.comm.).GreaterScaupwinterchieflyontheseacoasts,alongthePacificfromtheAleutianIslandstoCalifornia,ontheAtlanticfrom NewfoundlandtocentralFlorida,andalongtheGulfcoastfromFloridatocoastalTexas.OtherswinterinlandontheeasternGreatLakesandtoalesserextentalongthedrainageoftheMississippiRiver.ThesouthernlimitsinwesternNorthAmericaareinSinaloaandnorthernBajaCalifornia,andineasternNorthAmericaareinsouthernFlorida,theBahamas, andwesternCuba(Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionGreaterScaupalsobreedinIceland,atleastsporadicallyinGreatBritain,andregularlythroughnorthernEurasiafrom FennoScandiatoSiberiaandislandsintheBeringSea (Crampetale1977,Johnsgard1978).EurasianpopulationswinterinwesternEurope,alongtheMediterranean,intheBlackSea andPersianGulf,insomepartsofnorthernAfrica,inIndia,andalongtheshoresofJapan,China,and Korea (Crampetale1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthOctobertoale1980). 1942).CarolinaTheGreaterScaupisafairlycommonwinter fromAprilinthewatersofPamlicoSound andadjacentareas(PotteretItisoccasionallyfoundinlandonriversandlakes(Pearsonetale (1976)reportedtheproportionofGreaterScaupamongbothspeciesofscaupkilledduringhuntingseasonsfrom 1967to1969.HethenusedthesefigurestoestimatehowmanyofthebirdsseenonJanuarywaterfowlsurveyswereGreaterScaup.Ifhisproportionsarestillvalid,thenthenumberseeninNorthCarolinaduringtheJanuary1975survey(Goldsberryetale1980) wasabout1,175birds.290

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SouthCarolinaThisspeciesisawinterresident,ofuncertainnumericalstatus,butconsidereduncommonalongthecoastandinland(Potteretal.1980).ItisgenerallypresentfromlateOctobertoearlyApril;anoccasionalindividualmaybeobservedinearlysummer.Itpreferstoinhabitlargebays,estuaries,andtheocean,and seldomvisitsfreshwaterareas(SpruntandChamberlain1949).ThescarcityofinlandrecordsnodoubtpartlyreflectsthedifficultyinseparatingthisspeciesfromtheLesserScaupinthefield(Fatora1965,Burton1970).FollowingBellrose's(1976)methodsofcomputation,about150GreaterScaup wereseenduringthe1975mid-winterwaterfowlsurvey.Thisduckisprobablymoreabundantthanindicated,however,since2,000werereportedinCharlestonHarbor,7February1976(Teulings1976b);fourrecentChristmasCountsaverageabout170birds(Map21).GeorgiaBurleigh(1958)statedthattheGreaterScaupisarareandratherlocalwinterresidentontheeasternedgeofGeorgia;authenticrecordsofitsoccurrenceareveryfew.Inwinterthisbirdisnotablymaritimeinitshabits.OntheAtlanticcoastitisrarelyseenoninlandwaters,preferringsaltwaterbaysandsoundswhereitgathersindenserafts.Burleigh(1958)alsostatedthatthepaucityofrecordsreflectsthedifficultyinseparatingthetwoscaupspeciesinthewild.Perhapsasmanyas1,300birdswerepresentduringtheJanuarywinterwaterfowlsurveyifBellrose's(1976)methodofestimationisused.Ontheotherhand,recentChristmasCounts(Map21)continuetoindicatethatverysmallnumbersarepresent.FloridaTheGreaterScaupisafairlycommonwinterresidentinFlorida,occurringchieflyinthenorthernhalfofthestateintheGulf,lessabundantlyonbaysandsoundsalongtheAtlanticcoast,andoccasionallyonthelargerriverswhereitassociateswiththeLesserScaup(Sprunt1954,Kale1979msa,1979msb).Anisolatedrecordofbreedingwasreported(butpoorlydocumented)in1975 ontheMerrittIslandNWR,BrevardCounty,Florida(Montalbano1977).Bellrose(1976)estimatedthat 9.1% ofthescaupwinteringinFloridawereGreaterScaup.Ifthisfigureisreasonablyaccurate,thenabout26,750wereseenontheJanuary1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).ThisfigurecontrastsstronglywiththefewsightedonrecentChristmasCounts(Map21).Alabama Imhof(1976b)statedthattheGreaterScaupislocallycommoninwinterontheGulfcoastofAlabama,rareinlatefallandwinterintheTennesseeValley,andoccasionalintheinterveningarea.Alongthecoast,itisusuallyfoundonlyontheoutermostbays.Themaximumnumberreportedalongthecoastis600atGrand Bay,MobileCounty.Apairwasobservedatcloserangeon 16June1956atDauphinIsland,butthereisnoindicationthatthespeciesbreedsinAlabama(Imhof1976b).MississippiTheGreaterScaup seemstobequiteuncommoninMississippi;therearefewreportedobservations.Burleigh(1944). knewofasinglespecimenfromalongthecoast,abirdtakeninMayatGulfport.MorerecentreportssuggestthatsmallnumbersmaybeinthestatefromOctobertoMarch (Weber andJackson1977,JacksonandCooley1978a).Aselsewhere,however,thedifficultyinseparatingthetwoscaupinthefieldmayleadtounderestimatesoftheabundanceofthislesscommonspecies.291

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GREATERSCADP /BIRD NAME'86 88" 90"NGULFOFMEXICO \ J--'-F----I linter DistrillldilllapforSoutheasternDited States96BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURS,ILessthan10 .. 10-SOI &g 50-200_ More than200 (AdaptH from Byllr"', 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1913-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @Number afindividuals o Lessthan one individual None observedrt ..-------" I i I II I NcP I --:..\0N I -0 TEXASMap21

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LouisianaThisspeciesfrequentscoastalwatersbetweenearlyNovemberandearlyApril(Lowery1974).Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatabout60,000GreaterScaupwinterhere.Usinghismethodsofestimation,perhapsnotlessthan11,400wereseenduringtheincomplete1975waterfowlsurveyofLouisiana(Goldsberryetale1980).TexasOberholser(1974)notedthatthisspeciesisawinter-residentinTexas,generallyoccurringbetween18Octoberand20 May.'ItisscarcetorareontheGulfcoastandrareelsewhere.Bellrose(1976)estimatedawinteringpopulationofabout600birdsduringthelate1960's.HismethodsofcomputationleadtoanestimateofaboutadozenGreaterScauppresentduringthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetale1980).RecentChristmasCounts(Map 21)suggestthatitismorecommonthere.Historicrecordssuggestthatthisspecieswas much moreabundantearlierinthecentury.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingInNorthAmerica,theGreaterScaupbreedsfromcoastalandArcticAlaskaeastthroughtheYukonandtheNorthwestTerritoriestoextremenorthernManitobaandOntarioandwesternQuebec.OtherpopulationsregularlybreedonthecoastofUngava Bay andinNewfoundland(Palmer1976b).Bellrose(1976)suggestedthataboutthree-quartersoftheGreaterScaupinNorthAmericabreedinAlaska,principallyintheYukonDelta;heestimatedthat550,000breedthereandsuggestedthatanother200,000breedinCanada.TheGreaterScaupisalsoacommonbreedingbirdintheOldWorld.There,"theScaup"isfoundnestingacrossthenorthernPalearcticfromIcelandwesttonorthernRussiaandSiberiaandsouthtoabout60oN,withoccasionalbreedingfarthersouthintheFaeroes,Britain,andthesouthBaltic(BOU1971).FigureslistedinCrampetale(1977)indicatebreedingpopulationsofabout20,000inIceland,2,000inFinland,and230,000inthewesternU.S.S.R.WinterTheGreaterScaupwintersinNorthAmericaalongthePacificcoastfromtheAleutianIslandssouthtoCalifornia(rarelynorthernBajaCalifornia),alongtheAtlanticcoastfromtheGulfofSt.LawrencetoFlorida,andalongtheGulfcoastsouthtotheMexicanboundary(AOU1957).Januarysurveysbytheu.S.FishandWildlifeServiceindicatedthatabout60%ofthetotalwinteringpopulationisintheAtlanticFlyway;nearlyhalfofthesewinterbetweenMassachusettsandNewJersey.SouthofChesapeakeBay,GreaterScaup become muchlessabundant,andareapparentlyleastabundantoffGeorgia,andmostabundantoffFlorida.ThestatusofthisspeciesontheGulfcoastispoorlyknownbutitisapparentlyabundantoffFloridaandLouisiana.Atotalofabout1,131,800"scaup"werereportedwithinthecontiguousUnitedStatesonthe1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).Bellrose's293

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(1976)estimates(a)suggestthatabout358,000ofthesescaupwereGreaterScaup;hisearliercalculationsindicatedatotalofabout317,000birds.Probablysomewhat morethan 12% oftheGreaterScaupseenin1975winteredinthesoutheast,asubstantialmajorityoftheminwatersoffFloridaandLouisiana.ThedifficultyinidentifyingtheGreaterScaupinthefieldhasbeenfrequentlynotedabove.TheverysimilarLesserScaupismoreabundantinthesoutheast,andthereisatendencyeithertoapplythenameofthemorecommonspeciesortohedgebynotidentifyingscauptospecies.Thus,relianceonobserver'sreportsislikelytoconveyanerroneousconceptoftherelativeabundanceofthetwospecies.PopulationestimatesgivenbyBe11rose(1976)are.based onthetotalnumberof scaup detectedonaerialsurveys,allottedinproportiontothepercentageofGreaterandLesserScaup foundinspotchecksofhunters'bags,a methodthathasobviousshortcomings.MigrationTheprincipalmigrationroutesofGreaterScaup fromtheirbreedinggroundsinnorthwesternNorthAmericaextendeast-southeasttotheprincipalwinteringgroundsonthenorthernAtlanticcoast.Some,perhapsmost,ofthebirdswinteringalongthePacificcoastmovesouthwelloffshorebutothersapparentlyfollowa moreinteriorpathwaythroughwesternCanada.GreaterScaupwinteringalongtheGulfcoastapparentlydivergefromeast-southeastroutestoflysouthalongtheMississippidrainageandthroughIowa andGeorgiatowesternFlorida(Be11rose1976).HABITATNestingPreferrednestsitesoftheGreaterScaupinopenborealforest(taiga)ofNorthAmericaareislandsinlargelakes.IntheYukonDelta,however,thesebirdsnestonmarshy,lowlandtundraonslightlyelevatedareasnearponds(Be11rose1976).Somenestshavebeenfoundasmuchasathousandmetersfromwater(Palmer1976b),butmostareclosetopondsorotherbodiesofwater(Be11rose1976,Palmer1976b).SimilarbreedinghabitatshavebeenreportedintheOld World;inScandinaviatheyfrequentuplandbirchcommunities(Crampeta1.1977).Nestsareusuallyconcealedintallgrass(Be11rose1976).Preferredcoverisusuallygrass-sedge,mostlyG1yceria(R.KirkpatrickinPalmer1976b),butnestshavealsobeenfoundinrockcrevices,undershrubs,and onfloatingvegetation(Be11rose1976,Palmer1976b).FeedingGreaterScauphavea pronouncedtendencytofeedinopenwaterandarethemostmarineofthegenusAythya(Crampeta1.1977).Theyprefertofeedinwaterabout1-4 m(3-13ft)deep(Palmer1976b).Non-breeding(a)WeassumedthattheestimatesBe11rose(1976)madefortheproportionofGreaterScaupamongscaupseeninLouisiana(6.6%)appliesalsoforMississippiand Alabama.Fortheflywayasa wholeweusedhisestimatethat13.7%ofscaupseenwereGreaterScaup.Wealsousedhisproportionsof1.4%forTexas, 2.3% fortheCentralFlyway, andhisoverallproportionof37.7%forthePacificFlyway. 294

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birdsfrequentlycongregateinlargenumbersovermusselbedsorotherareassupplyingrichfoodresources(Crampetal.1977).WinterandOffshoreDuringthewinterGreaterScaupprefersaltandbrackishbaysandestuaries,aswellaslargeareasofopenmarineandnearbyfreshwater(Palmer1976b).Habitatsusedbynon-breedingbirdsintheOld Worldareusuallymarineandmaybetidalandexposedtosevereweather.Thesehabitatsincludepartiallylandlocked,lowsalineseas,suchastheBaltic.Brackishandfreshwatersareusedlessextensively,andriversareuncommonlyfrequented(Crampetal.1977).ScaupwinteringoffthecoastofConnecticutdidnotfeedonmudflatsbutwereseenfeedinginbreakingsurf(Cronan1957inPalmer1976b).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORGreaterScaupfeedprimarilybydivingusingonlythefeetforpropulsion,buttheyoccasionallytip-upanddabbleaswell.Theyfeedthroughouttheday,ofteninlargeflocks,andmayalsofeedatnight,particularlywhendisturbed(Crampetal.1977).OnestudyconductedoffConnecticut(Cronan1957inPalmer 1976b)reportedthatthesebirdsmadedivesofuptoto23ft(7 thatmostdivesweremuch moreshallow.Thesedivesaveraged20.4sec,witharangeof9-33sec.SummariesbyPalmer(1976b)and Crampetal.(1977)providedetailedaccountsofthefoodseatenintheNewand OldWorlds,respectively;theseshouldbeconsultedformoreextensivelistingsoffoodseatenbyGreaterScaups.Ourremarksbelowarelargelycondensedfromthesetwosources.Food maybeeithervegetableoranimalinoriginandmayvaryconsiderablyfromareatoareaand fromseasontoseason.Itwasnearlyequallydivided(46.5% -animal)inonestudyof752stomachsfromNorthAmerica.Pondweeds(Potamogeton,Ruppia,Phyllospadix,etc.)weretheprincipalplantseatenandconstituted18.9%ofthediet.Bivalvemolluscs(23.2%),snails(15.9%),aquaticinsects(7.2%),andcrustaceans(6.8%)weretheprincipalanimalfoodsconsumed.Insomeareas(e.g.,alongcoastallakesandstreamsinBritishColumbia),fishandfisheggsmaybeimportantitemsofdiet.Inotherareas,muskgrass(Chara)mayformthebulkofthefood.A numberofstudiesindicatethatbivalvemolluscsconstitutethemajorfoodofbirdswinteringonsaltwater.LittlequantitativeinformationonthefoodhabitsofGreaterScaupinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesisavailable.Wesummarizethismaterialbystatebelow.FloridaStieglitz(1967)reportedthefoodseatenbyfourGreaterScaupwinteringnearCabbageIslandinApalacheeBayontheFloridaGulfcoast.Thesebirdshadeatenalmostsolelygastropods(85.2% by volume) andmudcrabs(Rithropanopeussp.-13.8%).Molluscsconsumedtothegreatestextentweregreedydove-shell(Anachis -35.4%),variablenassa(Nassariusambiguus 26.3%),andAtlanticmodulus (Modulus modulus -20.0%).Theonlyplantfoodfoundwasshoalgrass(Diplantherawrightii-1.0%).295

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Table11.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadCommonGoldeneyes foundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaDatesNumberofoileddeadbirdsNumberofdeadCommonGoldeneyesPercentageofCommonGoldeneyesSourcePooleHarbor,Dorset,EnglandN.Sjaelland,DerunarkNortheastEnglandN.Sealand,DerunarkLaesso-Vendsyssel,DerunarkNortheastBritainMartha'sVineyard,MAE.coastJutland,Derunark OffEasternCanada S.Kattegat,DerunarkJan.1961Feb.-Mar.1965Jan.1966Feb.-Mar.1969 Dec. 1969Jan.-Feb.1970Feb.1970Feb.-Mar.1970Feb.-Apr.1970 Dec. 1970Jan.1971 433(a,b)2,340(a)8052,376(a)1,36210,992(a,c)541(a)1,974(a)1,276(a,c)2,311(a)13143 3 513 13493.000.600.120.130.220.052.400.660.310.39Bourne 1968aJoensen1972aParrack1967Joensen1972bJoensen1972b Greenwoodetal.1971CSLP1971Joensen1972b Brownetal.1973Joensen1972 bNorth-centralMar. 1972Kattegat,Derunark4,759(a)210.44Joensenand Hansen 1977 Waddensea, DerunarkBalticseacoast,PolandBalticseacoast,PolandDec. 1972 1970-1974 Nov. 1974 Aug. 1975 9,151(a)3,867(a,b)653(a,b)396163450.17 0.880.77Joensenand Hansen 1977Gorskietal.1976Gorskietal.1977

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thatabirdbandedinAlaskareacheda minimumageof18years,4 months(Clappetal.inpress).GreaterScaupintheOld Worldhaveattainedanageofatleast13yearsinthewild(Rydzewski1978).WeightBellrose(1976)listedtheaverageweightof177adultmalesas1.82lb(826g) andthatof44adultfemalesas1.65lb(748g).Immaturemales(n ; 190) and immaturefemales(n=124)averaged1.71lb(776g)and1.62lb(735g),respectively.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheGreaterScaupisa knownvictimofoilingatsea.Bourne(1972)reportedcasualtiesduetoaverysmalloilslickintheFirthofForthatSeafield,Scotland,andnotedtheextremevulnerabilityofspecies(suchasthescaup)thatconcentratealongcoastsforforaging.Joensen(1972b)reiteratedthispoint,notingthatGreaterScaupinDanishwaterswereveryvulnerabletooilingbecauselargeproportionsoftheirwinteringpopulationswereoftenconcentratedinverysmallareas.GreaterScaup werelistedamongoiledspeciesinaspillinSanFranciscoBayin1973 (Holmes and Cronshaw1977).Some1,500scaup(includingGreaterScaup)diedfollowingsevenspillsintheDelawareRiverand Chesapeake Bay, 1973-1978(Perryetal.1979).OtherreportsofoilingdeathsaresummarizedinTable5.TheGreaterScaupisclearlyaspeciesthatmaybeseriouslyaffectedbyoilpollution.However,theproportionofwinteringGreaterScaupthatutilizethecoastalwatersofthesoutheastisrelativelysmall,reducingthechanceofmajorpopulationeffectsifoilingweretooccurinthatarea.BIBLIOGRAPHY1978Campbell,L.H.1978.PatternsofdistributionandbehaviourofflocksofseaduckswinteringatLeithandMusselburgh,Scotland.BioI.Conserv.14:111-124.Montalbano,F.,III.1977.AFloridabreedingrecordfortheGreaterScaup.Fla.FieldNat.5:42-43.1974Peterson,S. R. and R.S.Ellarson.1974.SuccessfulbreedingrecordforGreaterScaupatRankinInlet,NorthwestTerritories,Canada.Musk-OxNo.14:62.297

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Table5.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadGreaterScaup foundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaN.Sjaelland,Denmark Bornholm, DenmarkDatesFeb.-Mar.1965Jan.-Feb.1968Numberofoileddeadbirds2,340(a)466(a)NumberofdeadGreaterScaup8PercentageofGreaterScaup0.340.21SourceJoensen1972aJoensen1972a TayEstuary,ScotlandNortheastBritainS.Kattegat,DenmarkNorth-central'Kattegat,Den mark Waddensea, DenmarkBalticseacoast,PolandFirthofForth,southernScotlandMar.-Apr.1968Jan.-Feb.1970 Dec. 1970Jan.1971 Mar. 1972 Dec. 1972 Nov.1974Aug. 1975 Feb. 19781,168(b)1 10,992(a,c)422,311(a)24,749(a)14 9,151(a)7 653(a,c)1 680(a)1300.090.38 0.09 0.290.080.1519.12Greenwood and Keddie 1968 Greenwoodetal.1971Joensen1972bJoensenand Hansen 1977Joensenand Hansen 1977Gorskietal.1977 Campbelletal.1978(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludesbothliveand deadoiledbirds.(c)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.298

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1973 Bromley,R.G.1973.ObservationofGreaterScaupatElliceRiver,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Field-Nat.87: 169. 1972Billard,R.S. and P. S. Humphrey. 1972.Moltsand plumagesintheGreaterScaup.J.Wildl.Manage.36:765-774.Vermeer,K.,D.R.M.HatchandJ.A.Windsor.1972.GreaterScaupiscommonbreederonnorthernLake Winnipeg. Can.Field-Nat.86:168.1970 Anderson,A.andK.E.Fridzen.1970.[GreatBlack-backedGull(Larusmarinus)catchesScaup (Aythyamarila)ontheStreamofStockholm.]VarFagelvarld29:267-269.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] Hodson,K.andM.Grimble.1970.ParasitesfromCommonGoldeneye,GreaterScaup and Oldsquawcollectedon Boundary Bay,B.C.,February,1970.BlueJay28: 125-126.Ruttledge,R.F. 1970.Winterdistributionand numbersofScaup,Long-tailedDuck andCommonScoterinIreland.BirdStudy17:241-246.1969Weller,M.W.,D.L.TraugerandG.L. Krapu. 1969.BreedingbirdsoftheWest MirageIslands,GreatSlaveLake,N.W.T. Can.Field-Nat.83:344-360.Bengtson,S.-A.1968.Inter-specificpairinginScaup andTuftedDuck.Wildfowl19:61-63.Dane,C.W.andH.F.Duebbert.1968. SpecimenrecordsofGreaterScaup.PrairieNat.1:16.Fatora,J.R.1965.GreaterScaup addedtoSavannahRiverPlantarealist.Chat 29:107-108.1962Godfrey,W.E. 1962. A SaskatchewanspecimenoftheGreaterScaup.Can.Field-Nat.76: 125.299

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Christmas.J.Y.1960.GreaterandLesserscaupfeedingon deadGulfmenhaden.Auk77: 346-347. 1958Atkeson.T. ZJr.1958. Goldeneye. Oldsquaw. andGreaterScauprecordsfrom WheelerReservoir.Ala.Birdlife6:15-16.Cronan.J.M.1958. SexratiosofwinteringscaupsinLongIslandSound. WilsonBull.70: 191-192. 1957 Cronan.J.MJr.1957.FoodandfeedinghabitsofthescaupsinConnecticutwaters.Auk74: 459-468. 1955 Cronan.J.M.1955. AstudyofscaupduckwinteringinLongIslandSound. M.S.thesis.Univ.Connecticut/Storrs.CT.Geroudet.P.1955.UnhybriddeMilouinanetdeMorillon?NosOiseaux23:17-18.[InFrench.]1954 King.B.1954. Alarmdisplaybyfemalescaup.Brit.Birds47:208.1951Gehrman.K.1951.Life ofthescaup.M.S.thesis.WashingtonSt.Univ./Pullman.WA.1949Longley.W.H.1949.GreaterScaupeatingfrogs.Auk66: 200. 1946Barrett.L.L. 1946.TheGreaterScaupinMinnesota.Flicker18:13-14.Monro.J.A.1941.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.GreaterScaup Duck.LesserScaup Duck. Can.J.Res.19(Sect.D): 113-138. 1939 Lynch.J.J.1939. MarinealgaeinfoodofRhodeIslandwaterfowl.Auk56: 374-380.300

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LESSERSCAUP(Aythyaaffinis)[FR:Petitmilouinan,GE:Veilchenete,SP:Costerochico,US:Dos-grislGENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica TheprimarybreedingrangeoftheLesserScaupextendsfromnorth-centralAlaskaeasttothenorthwesternNorthwestTerritories,southeasttosouthwesternJames Bay,southintheinteriortosouthernBritishColumbia,northeasternIdaho,northwesternWyoming,northeasternMontana,andnorthwesternNorthDakota,andeasttonortheasternSouthDakota andnorthwesternMinnesota(Palmer1976b).ItalsobreedsatscatteredlocalitiesfarthersouthandisapparentlyextendingitsbreedingrangetotheeastinCanada(Palmer1976b).Tothesouthoftheprimarybreedingrange,theLesserScaupbreedsorhasbredinnorthernCalifornia,Utah,southernWashington,easternOregon,northernIdaho,northernArizona,Nebraska,southernWisconsin,Michigan,northeasternIowa,Ohio,andseveraleasternlocalitiesinCanada(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).ThenorthernlimitsforwinteringLesserScauparefromsouthwesternBritishColumbiasoutheasttocentralandwesternUtah,northernTexas,easternKansas,andsouthwesternIowa and fromthesouthernGreatLakestosoutheasternMassachusetts(Palmer1976b).Southoftheseareas,LesserScaupwinterbothinlandandalongthePacific,Atlantic,andGulfcoastsoftheUnitedStates;anotableproportionoccursalongtheGulf.TheyalsocommonlywinteroffthecoastsofMexico andsouthatleasttothePacificcoastofGuatemala(Bellrose1976).ThespeciesisfoundlocallyandinsmallnumbersintherestofCentralAmerica(Palmer1976b). WorldDistributionTheLesserScaupbreedsonlyinNorthAmerica,andlargelywintersthere,althougha fewregularlywinterinBermuda andtheCaribbean.ThesouthernlimitsofdistributioninmainlandSouthAmericaaretheCaucaValleyandeasternAndesofColombia,Venezuela,andwesternEcuador(Palmer1976b).LesserScauphavestraggledtoHawaii,andtherearereportsofthespeciesfromBritainandEurope,althoughPalmer(1976b)doubtedthevalidityofthesereports.DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaTheLesserScaupisafairlycommonwinterresidentthroughoutthestate(Pearsonetal.1942).Oftenlocallyabundant,largeconcentrationsmaybefoundalongthecoast(Potteretal,1980).MostarepresentfromOctobertoMay(Potteretal.1980),buta few mayremaininthesummer(Teulings1971c,1972c).Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatwinterpopulationswereontheorderof8,000birds.The1975winterwaterfowlsurveybytheU.S.FishandWildlife301

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Service(Goldsberryetal.1980)(a)listed8,500scaupwinteringoffNorthCarolina.Ifthispopulationisapportionedtospecies[asdone byBellrose(1976)],about7,300ofthesebirdswereLesserScaup.SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)regardedtheLesserScaupasafairlycommonwinterresidentthroughoutthestate,mostabundantalongthecoast.MostarepresentfromlateOctobertomid-April(SpruntandChamberlain1949);verysmallnumbersareoccasionallypresentduringthesummer(Burton1970,Teulings1976c).Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatwinterpopulationstotalledabout16,000birds.Calculationsbasedonthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980)suggestapopulationoflessthanthanathousandbirds,althoughdatafromrecentChristmasCounts(Map22)indicatethatLesserScaupareconsiderablymoreabundantinSouthCarolinathanthewintersurveyindicated.Aflockofducksthoughttocontainmorethan50,000birds(mostofthemevidentlyLesserScaup) wasseeninCharlestonHarbor,23January1970(Teulings1971b).GeorgiaLesserScauparecommonmigrantsandwinterresidentsthroughoutGeorgiaandareabundantalongthecoastandoffshore(Dentonetal.1977).Burleigh(1958)consideredthisspeciestobethemostcommonmigrantandwinterresidentamongtheducks,and hereportedthatitpreferredfresh-waterareas.Excludingoccasionalsummeringbirds,limitsfordatesofoccurrenceare5October(Dentonetal.1977) and 2June(Teulings1976c).EstimatesbasedonJanuarywaterfowlsurveys(Bellrose1976)indicatethatthewinterpopulationisabout16,000birds.Calculationsbasedonthe1975survey(Goldsberryetal.1980)suggestthatabout8,300werepresentthatyear.FloridaHowell (1932)consideredtheLesserScaupthemostcommonduckinFloridainwinterandspring,anassessmentwithwhichSprunt(1954)andPalmer(1976b)agreed.Kale(1979msa)notedflocksofupto25,000atMerrittIslandNWRontheAtlanticcoast;aboutthatmanyareregularlyreportedonChristmasCounts fromthere(Map22).Asmanyas68,000LesserScauphavebeenreportedinTampaBayontheGulfcoast(FickettinSchreiberetal.1975),andthespeciesisabundantoffboththepeninsulaandthepanhandle.Bellrose(1976)estimatedawinteringpopulationofalmost285,000;anestimatederivedfromthe1975waterfowlsurveyindicatesthatatleast267,000werepresentthatyear.FoundthroughoutFlorida,these ducks normallyarriveinearlyOctoberandremainuntilMay.Thereare,however,JulyrecordsforSt.MarksNWR,andJulyand AugustrecordsfromPensacola(Sprunt1954).Thereisanestingrecordfrom LakeJackson,WakullaCounty,in1896,althoughthebirdwasthoughttohavebeenacripple(Sprunt1954);Kale(1979msb)indicatedotherisolatednestingrecords.Alabama TheLesserScaupisabundantinwinterand onmigrationinAlabama.Althoughthespeciesoccasionallysummersinthestate,therearenorecordsofbreedingbirds.Theseducksprefertowinterondeepinlandlakesand(a)WemanipulatedthedataforLesserScaupinGoldsberryetal.(1980)asexplainedintheprecedingaccount,q.v.302

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w o w DSPEl10 PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 10-50II50-200_ Morethan200 (A........hoMlysIraIo. 1974tINDIVIDUALS O.SERVm DURINGCHRISTMASD COUNTS.1973-1977(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@Number of individualso Lessthan oneindividualNoneobserved 96-GULFOFMEXICOMap2286-IIlRD HAME'

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ponds.LesserScaupalsooccurinlargenumbersalongthecoastwheretheyareusuallypresentfromearlyOctobertoearlyJune(Imhof1976b).OntheGulfcoast,amaximumof17,500wascountedatDauphinIslandon 20April1968(Imhof1976b);2,200scaupofbothspecieswerereportedpresentduringthewinterof1975(Goldsberryetale1980).MostofthesewerepresumablyLesserScaup.RecentChristmasCounts(Map22)fromthevicinityofDauphinIslandaveragedoverathousandbirds,suggestingthattheactualnumberwinteringinthestateisgreaterthanthatindicatedbyaerialwaterfowlsurveybytheFishandWildlifeService.MississippiBurleigh(1944)consideredtheLesserScaupthemostabundantwinteringduckontheMississippicoast,withnumerousflocksalsofoundonthelargerfreshwaterpondsandinshallowsaltwaterareas.BirdsarrivedinearlyNovember anddidnotdepartuntillateMay. Morerecentreportsinclude10,000LesserScaupatBellfountainePoint(Jackson1976),and10,200scaup(mostprobablyLesserScaup) onthe1975wintersurvey.Thislastcensuswasincomplete(Goldsberryetale1980),however,andthetotalwinteringpopulationisnodoubtlarger.ThesescaupoccurinMississippifromasearlyasmid-October(Jacksonand Weber1976),andoccasionalbirdshavebeenreportedthroughthesummer(JacksonandCooley1978a).LouisianaInsomeyears,theLesserScaupisthemostabundantduckwinteringinLouisiana(Smith1961inHarmon1962).TheyarriveinlargenumbersbylateOctoberandremain until-early April.InwinterthesescaupoftenformraftsofthousandsalongtheedgeoftheGulf.ThroughlateNovemberorearlyDecembermostLesserScaupremainonlakesandbays(Smith1960inHarmon1962).TheythenmoveoffshoreintotheGulfofMexico wheretheyareevidentlyfairlycommonaroundoilproductionplatforms(Harmon1962).A fewbirdshavebeennotedinsummer (Lowery1974).CoastalLouisianaisoneofthemajorwinteringgroundsfortheLesserScaup; morethan1,500,000werepresentthereduringthewinterof1960-1961(Smith1960in ijarmon 1962).CalculationsbasedondatapresentedbyBellrose(1976)indicatemorethanthree-quartersofamillionareregularlypresentinwinter;severalhundredthousandmorearepresentduringthepeakoffallmi Bellrose(1976)reportedthatconcentrationsoccuron LakesPontchartrainandBorgne,incoastalmarsh,andoffshore.TexasDuringthewinter,LesserScauparelocallyabundanttocommononthecoast,andirregularlycommonthroughoutthestate(Oberholser1974).Theyaremostnumerousinthenorthernhalfofthestateinspringandfall,andscarcetorareduringthesummer,particularlyonthecoast,althoughoccasionalflocksof50-100maylinger.Bellrose(1976)reportedthatGalvestonBayholdsoneofthelargestconcentrations(30,000birds)inthePacificFlyway.Othernotableconcentrationsinclude35,000presentinSanAntonioBay,AransasNWR,21November 1977 (Webster1978a),and50,000atCove,SFebruary1977(Webster1977).DataprovidedbyBellrose(1976)suggestthatsome 98.6%ofthescaupwinteringinTexasareLesserScaup.Ifthisfigureisstillapplicable,thenthe1975Januarysurvey(Goldsberryetale1980) foundabout187,000LesserScaupwinteringthere.304

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SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingTheLesserScaupnestsonlyinNorthAmerica.Mostbreedfromnorth-centralAlaskasouthtonortheasternIdaho and Wyoming,southeasttonortheasternManitoba,thencesouthtonorthwesternMinnesotaandnortheasternNorthDakota.OthersmallorlocalpopulationsbreedorhavebredfromnortheasternCaliforniaandeasternOregoneastacrossthenorthernGreatPlainstoOhio.BreedinghasalsobeenreportedoneasternJames BayinQuebec(Palmer1976b).PrecisenumbersofbreedingLesserScaupareunavailablebecausetheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicedoesnotdistinguishbetweenGreaterandLesserScaupinsurveysofthebreedinggrounds.AccordingtoBellrose(1976),thetotalbreedingpopulationofbothspeciesofscaupislargerthanthatforanyotherduckexcepttheMallard.Estimatedtotalbreedingpopulationsforthesetwospeciesvariedfrom5,100,000to9,100,000during1955-75,witha meanof6,900,000.ThelargestnumbersofbreedingbirdsarefoundintheopenborealforestofCanada(1,700,000birds),intheclosedborealforesttotheeast(1,900,000),andininteriorAlaska(600,000)(Bellrose1976).The1976breedinggroundsurvey(Larnedetal.1980)listedatotalofabout6,900,000breedingscaup.WinterLesserScaupwinterbothinlandandalongthecoastsofNorthAmerica,withmostwinteringintheeasternhalfofthecontinent(Bellrose1976).ThesouthernlimitsofthewinteringrangeareintheCaribbeanandnorthernSouthAmerica(Palmer1976b).Thisscaupismoreabundantalongthecoastsbutisoftenfound onfreshorbrackishwaterswithintheseareas.Bellrose(1976)estimatedthat1,454,000LesserScaup werewinteringintheUnitedStatesinthelate1960's,inadditiontoanother297,000inMexico.SmallernumberswinterinGuatemala,andabout7,500winterintheWestIndies,mostlyinCuba.FiguresprovidedbyBellrosesuggestthatnearly85%ofthetotalwinteringpopulationisfoundinsoutheasternwatersandalongthecoastofMexico.Only asmallproportion(ca.10%)ofthosewinteringwithintheUnitedStatesarefoundinthewesternhalfofthecontinent.MostoftherestoftheU.S.winterpopulationoccursalongthelowerMississippidrainageandalongthecentralandnortheasternAtlanticSeaboard(Johnsgard1975).MajorconcentrationsarefoundalongthecoastofTexas andLouisiana,alongthecentralGulfandAtlanticcoastsofFlorida,andoffGeorgia(Bellrose1976,Map22).Datafromthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980),whileincomplete,suggestawinteringpopulationintheUnitedStatesand Mexicoofnolessthan983,000thatyear.ThisdecreasefromthefiguresprovidedforearlycountsbyBellroseisprobablymoreapparentthanreal,sinceseveralareasofconcentrationforthisspeciesintheMississippiFlyway wentunsurveyed.MigrationMostmigratingLesserScaupmovesoutheastfromtheirprimarybreedinggroundsinthenorthwesternportionofNorthAmerica.Thepathwayusedbythelargestnumberofbirdsextendssouth-southeastfromtheretoLakesWinnepegosisandManitoba,northwesternMinnesota,andtotheMississippiRiverbetweenBurlingtonand Keokuk, Iowa(Bellrose1976).MostLesserScaupflyfromthelatterareasouthtotheGulf,butsubstantialnumberscontinuesoutheasttotheGulfcoastofFlorida.Otherimportantroutesfollowthecoastlines305

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south(Bellrose1976).ForfurtherdetailsonthemigrationofLesserScaupseeBellrose(1976)andPalmer(1976b);theirinterpretationofmigratoryroutesmayvaryindetail. llABITAT NestingLesserScaupnestnearponds,lakes,potholes,sloughs,marshes,inriverdeltas,onseasonallyfloodedflats,and onislands(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Theyoftennestsemi-colonially,withthelargestnestingconcentrationsinhardstembulrush(Scirpusacutus)marshesalonglakeswithanabundantfoodsupply(Palmer1976b).ThisspeciespreferredtonestinsedgesinLousana,Alberta,andintheSaskatchewanDelta;inthelatterareamostofthenestswereonfloatingorsemi-floatingplants.InanotherpartofAlbertajuncusbedswerepreferredovermixedprairie(authorscitedinBellrose1976).StudiescitedbyBellrose(1976)indicateconsiderablevariationinthe ityofthenesttowater.Averagedistanceslistedinonepotholeareawithstronglyfluctuatingwaterlevelsrangedfrom 7to125ft(2.1to38.1m)overaperiodoffourbreedingseasons.FeedingLesserScaupfeedina widevarietyofhabitats,ofteninimmenserafts.Bellrose(1976) saw themforaginginroadsideand farm ponds and onfloodedfieldsonlya fewfeetdeep,aswellasinwater10-40ft(3-12m)deepthatwere5-10mi(8-16km)offshoreintheGulfofMexico.Hestatedthatthisspeciesfeedsmore commonlyinwater10-25ft(3-8m)deep.Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatLesserScauppreferredtofeedinwater1-3m(3-10ft)deep.WinterandOffshoreWinterhabitatoftheLesserScaupconsistsofbaysandestuarinewaters,floodedcoastalmarshes,and openfreshwaterbothinlandandalongthecoast(Palmer1976b).ThisscaupprefersmoreshelteredwatersthantheGreaterScaup(Bellrose1976),butcompactflocksofdozenstothousandsofrestingbirdsmaybefoundwelloffshore(Palmer1976b).Bellrose(1976)remarkedthatLesserScaupfeedindeeperwaterthanotherdivingducks(exceptfortheseaducks,e.g.,Oldsquaw).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORLesserScaupfeedprincipallybydivingfromthesurfaceusingthefeetforpropulsion;theywillalso"tip-up"inshallowerwater(Palmer1976b).TheytendedtodiveobliquelyonpondsinManitoba(Siegfried1976b).Palmer(1976b)describeddivingbehaviorinmoredetail.Palmer(1976b)suggestedthatLesserScaupintidewaterareasvarytheirtimesoffeedingwiththetideandremarkedthattheyfeednearershoreathightide.Malesandfemalesdoveformeanperiodsof10.3and13.2sec,respectively,whileforagingon pondsinManitoba(Siegfried1976b).OncoastalimpoundmentsinSouthCarolina,divingtimesvariedfrom6.3secinwater1.5m(4.9ft)deepto16.6secinwater0.5m(1.6ft)deep(AlexanderandHair1979).AtthesecoastalimpoundmentsLesserScaupfedbythemselvesorinlooselyassociatedpairs.Theyfedata meanrateof5.1divespersecond;Alexanderand 306

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Hair(1979)found nosignificantdifferencebetweenthesexesintherateofdivingorindivingtime.LesserScaupfeedon avarietyoffoodsbutanimalfoodpredominatesinmostareas.Studiessummarized byBellrose(1976)reportanimalfood making upaslittleas1.0%ofthediet(inNorthCarolina)toasmuchas99.9%(offcoastalLouisiana).Plantfoodsofparticularsignificanceinoneareaoranotherincludepondweeds(Ruppia,Najas,Zannichellia,Zostera,andespeciallyPotamogetonspp.),SCirpussedges,wildcelery(Vallisneriaspiralis),sealettuce(Ulvalactuca),muskgrass(Chara),coontail(Ceratophyllum),andshoalgrass(Diplanthera)(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Animalfoodsarealsovaried.Molluscsarefrequentlythemostconsumedfood,accordingtostudiescitedby Palmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976).Variousaquaticinsectsmayalsobeimportantinthediet,andfishandcrustaceaarealsoeaten.Amphipodsareapparentlytheprincipalfoodinbreedingareasandarealsomucheatenbymigrants.Pelecypods,gastropods,orbothmaybetheprincipalfoodseateninotherareas(Palmer1976b).MorespecificlistsoffoodseatenoutsidethesoutheastarefoundinPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976).WegivebelowsummariesofstudiesoffoodhabitsofLesserScaupinthesoutheast.NorthCarolinaQuay andCritcher(1965)reportedthegizzardcontentsoffivewinteringscaupcollectedonCurrituckSound,buttheydidnotindicatewhichspeciesofscaupwasinvolved.Bellrose(1976)assumed,orindependentlylearned,thatthesewereLesserScaup,buttheidentificationisstillindoubt.Inanycase,theseAythya hadlargelyfedontheseedsandvegetativepartsofpondweeds(Potamogetonsp.57.3% by volume) andwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima-46.8%).Otherplantfoodsidentifiedincludedwaxmyrtle(Myrica10.0%) andthevegetativepartsofsouthernnaiad(Najasguadalupensis-5.0%).SouthCarolina The cropandgizzardofasinglewinteringLesserScaupcollectednearGeorgetownincoastalSouthCarolinawerenearlyempty(Conrad1965).Conrad foundonlytraceamountsofsixplants:widgeongrass,swampandPennsylvaniasmartweeds(Polygonumhydropiperoides, !. pensylvanicum),aneilema(Aneilemakeisak),commonspikerush(Eleocharispalustris),panicgrass(Panicumsp.),and asedge(Carexsp.).Kerwin andWebb(1972)reportedthefoodseatenby15scaupincoastalSouthCarolina.Theirsample wascomprisedofbothLesserandGreaterScaup,sowedonotsummarizetheirinformationonfoodhabitshere.Bellrose(1976)alsoattributedthisreporttoLesserScaup,whichmakesthevalidityofthereportmadeinNorthCarolina(seeabove)moresuspect.Landersetal.(1976)reportedfoodseatenby21LesserScaupatcoastalimpoundmentsinSouthCarolina,buttheylistedonlytheplantseaten.Plantmaterialcomprised89.8%(byvolume)ofthedietandconsistedalmostsolelyoftwoplants,widgeongrass(67.1%) andsaltmarshbulrush(Scirpusrobustus20.0%).LouisianaChamberlain(1959)examinedthegizzardsof9scaupcollectedonRockefellerRefugeinCameronParish.Hegavenodetailedlistofthefoodseaten,butindicatedthatplantseedsoccurredinallgizzards,insects307

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inone,andmolluscsinfive.Harmon(1962)studiedthefoodhabitsofLesserScaupwinteringofftheLouisianacoast.Heexaminedthegulletsandgizzardsof32scaupcollectedfrom 100yards(91m)to4 mi(6.4km)southofRockefellerRefuge,and foundthat99.8%ofthefood wassurfclams(Mulinialateralis).RogersandKorschgen(1966)conductedanextensivestudyofthefoodhabitsandreportedthestomachcontentsof37LesserScaup.TwentyofthesewerecollectedinDecember 1959inmarshesaroundLakeBorgne,nearNewOrleans;therestweretakenfromroadsideditchesand pondsnearGrandChenierinlateFebruaryandearlyMarch1960.Thesebirdshadsubsistedlargelyonfish(41.8%byvolume) andcrustaceans(16.6%);theonlyfishidentifiedintheremainswassheepsheadminnow(Cyprinodonvariegatus).Thecrustaceanfoodsidentifiedwerecrayfish(Cambarinae-7.0%),freshwatershrimp(Palaemonetessp.-4.5%),sideswimmers(Hyalellasp.-3.1%),and opossumshrimp(Mysidae-1.3%).Smallamountsofinsects(4.0%) andsnails(1.0%)werealsoeaten.Vegetablemattermade up 37.3%ofthediet.Identifiedplantfoodsweresawgrass(Cladiumjamai -6.9%),bulrush(Scirpusspp.-3.8%),andwidgeongrass(1.9%);therestofthefoodconsistedofsmallspiralshells(Nassarius Texas TwentywinteringLesserScaupcollectedontheLaguna Madre hadeaten22.1%plantfood,allofwhich wasshoalgrass-Diplantherawrightii(McMahan1970).Oftherest,39.1% wasunidentifiedorganicmatter.Snails(12.2%),clams(15.2%),anddecapodcrabs(10.8%) formedthebulkoftheanimalfoods,butfishfragments(0.2%)andshrimp(0.4%) hadalsobeeningested.Oneclam(Anomalocardiacuneimeris=A.auberiana)waseatenmorethananyotheranimal(Emerson andJacobson1976).IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingTheLesserScaupisalate-nestingduck.Nestingmaybegininsomeareasinmid-May,butthepeakofnestingisgenerallyinearlyJune.SomenestsmaynotbestarteduntilJuly(studiessummarizedbyBellrose1976).MeanClutchSizeTheaverageclutchin880nestsobservedinstudiesin10breedingareaswas9.0eggs(Bellrose1976).Palmer(1976b)reportedthattheclutchsizewasusually9-11eggs,andnotedonestudy(Keith1961)inwhichmeanclutchsizedeclinedduringthelayingperiod(from10.6foreggslaidbefore16Juneto8.5forthoselaidafter30June).LesserScaupsometimeslayeggsinthenestsofotherscauporotherspeciesofducks(Palmer1976b);one"dumpnest"contained26eggs(Phillips1925inPalmer1976b).Thistraitmakescalculationoftrueclutchsizedifficult,andseveralauthorshaveassumedthat all clutchescontainingmorethan14eggsaretheresultoftheeffortsofmorethanonefemale.IncubationPeriodPalmer(1976b)reportedtheincubationperiodas21-22daysandcitedonestudy(Vermeer 1968)thatgavearangeof21-27days.Bellrose(1976)reportedthattheaverageincubationperiodwas25days.HatchingSuccessInaseriesofstudiesinvolvingmorethan1,000nests,about 43% weresuccessful(Bellrose1976).Theaveragenumberofhatchedyoung 308

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persuccessfulnestwasabout8.3.Nestingsuccess(i.e.,theproportionofnestsinwhicheggshatch)variesconsiderablyfromareatoareaandfromyeartoyear.StudiescitedbyPalmer(1976b)givearangeof27%to83%.Palmer(1976b)pointedoutthattheproportionofeggshatchinginnestsinwhichatleastsomehatchishigh,andcitedfiguresof83.3% and91%fortwostudiesconductedinsoutheasternAlberta.FledgingSuccessBecausebroodsareoftencombinedduringdevelopment,itisdifficulttotracethefateofindividualbroodsandtodocumentfledging.Thereareindications,however,thatpost-nestingsuccessishigh(Bellrose1976).AgeatFledgingYoungscaupareabletoflyatagesof45-50days,accordingtoBellrose(1976).Palmer(1976b)reportedthatageoffirstflightcouldbeestimatedas47-54days.AgeatFirstBreedingAlthoughsomeLesserScaupattemptbreedingatoneyear,mostdonotdosountiltwoyearsofage(Trauger1971,Bellrose1976).MortalityofEggsandYoung Mammals,especiallyskunks,andbirds,especiallycorvids,areresponsibleformostnestlosses(Bellrose1976).Nestsplacednearlaridcoloniesmayescapeeggpredationbycrows,butthegullstakelargenumbersoftheyoungthathatch(Vermeer1968inBellrose1976).RenestingInanexperimentalstudyinwhichfirstclutcheswereremovedbeforeincubationbegan,5outof31scauprenestedonce.Onerenestedtwiceandanotherthreetimes(Hunt andAnderson1966).AnotherstudycitedbyBellrose(1976)reportednorenesting,yetanotherassumedthatabout39%ofthebirdsrenested.MaximumNaturalLongevityAbandedindividualreachedanageofatleast18yearsand4months(Clappetal.inpress).WeightTheaverageweightof130maleswas1.9lb(860g),andtheaverageof144femaleswas1.7lb(770g)(NelsonandMartin1953).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONLesserScaupareoneofthewaterfowlthathavesufferedlargelossestooilpollutioninNorthAmerica.Itmayalsobethespeciesofanatidmostsusceptibletooilpollutioninthesoutheast.Morethan2,000LesserScaupwerekilledbyoilduringthespringmigrationof1963(AndersonandWarner1969a,1969b).ThesourcesoftheoilweremassivespillsofcrudeandsoybeanoilabovethejunctionoftheMinnesotaandMississippiriversinDecember 1962 andJanuary1963(Peller1963).Atleast1,510scaupdiedfollowingfivespillsontheDelawareRiverand twoontheChesapeakeBayintheperiodfrom 1973to1978(Perryet.al.1979).Most(93.4%)ofthescaupmortalityoccurredinthemarinehabitatofChesapeakeBay.Perryetal.(1979)didnotreportwhichspeciesofscaupwasinvolvedinthiskill.Most,however,werepresumablyLesserScaupbecauselargenumbersofthisspecieswinterinChesapeakeBay(Bellrose1976)andbecausetheGreaterScaupisconsiderablylessabundantthere.In309

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thesoutheast300to500ducks,mainlyLesserScaup,diedinChocolateBayfollowingaleakfromanoilbargeatPortLavaca,Texas,inthelate1940's(Singleton1953).StoutandCornwell(1976)reportedthatscaup(presumablybothspecies)werethemostfrequently(47%)reportedvictimsofoilingamongbandedwaterfowl.TheLesserScaupisabundantinwinterinthesoutheast.Althoughmanyremainoninlandwaters,largeraftsformoffshoreandinbaysandestuaries.Theyalsooccursaroundoil-productionplatforms.AhighproportionofthetotalLesserScauppopulationwintersinthesoutheast,andsizeablenumbersoftenoccupyhabitatsmorelikelytobeoiledthanthoseoccupiedbyotherpotentiallyhighlyvulnerablespecies(e.g.,Redhead).Consequently,wethinkthatthisspeciesisonethatispotentiallyatveryhighriskfromoil-developmentactivitiesinthesoutheast.Administratorsinvolvedinprogramsdevelopingpetroleumresourcesshouldcarefullyconsidertheirprograms'effectsinareaswherethisspeciescongregatesinlargenumbers.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Windingstad,R.M.,M.E McDonald,L.N.Locke,S.M.KerrandJ.A.Zimm.1980.Epizooticofoccidiosisinfree-flyingLesserScaup.AvianDis.24:1044-1049.1979Alexander,W.C. andJ.D.Hair.1979.WinterforagingbehaviourandaggressionofdivingducksinSouthCarolina.Proc.31stAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&WildlifeAgencies:226-232.1978Krueger,D.M.andR.J.Whyte. 1978.LesserScaupcollideswithfenceinSouthTexas.Bull.TexasOrnithol.Soc.11:19.1977Forrester,D.J.,J.M.Gaskin,F.H.White,N.P.Thompson,J.A.Quick,Jr.,G.E.Henderson,J.C.WoodwardandW.D.Robertson.1977.AnepizooticofwaterfowlassociatedwitharedtideepisodeinFlorida.J.Wildl.Dis.13:160-167.Hines,J.E. 1977.Nestingand broodecologyofLesserScaupatWaterhen Marsh,Saskatchewan.Can.Field-Nat.91:248-255.1976Siegfried,W.R.1976b.SegregationinfeedingbehaviouroffourdivingducksinsouthernManitoba.Can.J.Zool.54:730-736.310

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1975 Anderson,W.L. 1975. LeadpoisoninginwaterfowlatRiceLake,Illinois.J.Wildl.Manage. 39:264-270.Schreiber,R.W., F.M.Dunstan andJ.J.Dinsmore. 1975.LesserScaupmortalityinTampaBay,Florida,1974.Fla.FieldNat.3:13-15.1974Siegfried,W.R.1974.TimebudgetofbehavioramongLesserScaupsonDeltaMarsh.J.Wildl.Manage. 38:708-713.Trauger,D.L. 1974. EyecoloroffemaleLesserScaupinrelationtoage.Auk91: 243-254. 1973 Sugden, L.G.1973.FeedingecologyofPintail,Gadwall,American Wigeon, andLesserScaupducklingsinsouthernAlberta.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.SereNo.24.45pp.1972 Dwernychuk, L.W.andD.A.Boag. 1972. Ducknestinginassociationwithgulls--anecologicaltrap?Can.J.Zool.50:559-563.Kocan,A.A.andR.M.Kocan. Scaup (Aythyaaffinis).1972. ImmatureProsthodendriumsp.inaLesserJ.Parasitol.58: 1014-1015. Sugden, L.G.and L. E.Harris.1972. EnergyrequirementsandgrowthofcaptiveLesserScaup.PoultrySci.51:625-633.1971 Sugden, L.G.1971.FeedingactivityofcaptiveLesserScaup. Can.Wildl.ServoProgr.Notes 24:1-14.Trauger,D.L. 1971.subarctictaiga.PopulationecologyofLesserScaup (Aythyaaffinis)inPh.D.thesis,IowaSt.Univ./Ames, IA.121pp.1970Anderson,B.W.1970.Psuedo-sleepingattitudeinLesserScaup andRingnecked Ducks. Condor 72:370-371.Bartonek,J.C. andH.W.Murdy. 1970.SummerfoodsofLesserScaupinsubarctictaiga.Arctic23:35-44.311

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1969Anderson,B.W.andD.W.Warner.1969a.AmorphologicalanalysisofalargesampleofLesserScaup andRing-neckedDucks.Bird-Banding40:85-94.1969b.Evidencefromsaltglandanalysisforconvergenceofmigratory-----routesandpossiblegeographicvariationinLesserScaup.Bird-Banding40:198-207.Anderson,B.W., T. E.KetolaandD.W.Warner.1969.SpringsexandageratiosofLesserScaup andRing-neckedDucksinMinnesota.J.Wildl.Manage. 33:209-212.Bartonek,J.C.1969.Build-upofgritinthreepochardspeciesinManitoba.WilsonBull.81:96-97.Bartonek,J.C.andJ.J.Hickey.andLesserScaupinManitoba.1969. FoodhabitsofCanvasbacks,Redheads,Condor 71:280-290.Dirschl,R.J.1969. FoodsofLesserScaup andBlue-wingedTealintheSaskatchewanRiverdelta.J.Wildl.Manage.33:77-87.Scharf,J.A.1969. DrowningofLesserScaupindraintile.Loon41:56-57.1968Anderson,B.W.andD.W.Warner.1968 ms. AstudyofsupraorbitalsaltglandsfromspringLesserScaupkilledinMinnesota.James FordBellMus.Nat.Rist.,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.17pp.Dindal,D.L.and T.J.Peterle.1968.Wingand bodytissuerelationshipsofDDTandmetaboliteresiduesinMallardandLesserScaupducks.Bull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol.3:37-48.1966Rogers,J.P.andL.J.Korschgen.1966. FoodsofLesserScaupsonbreeding,migration,andwinteringareas.J.Wildl.Manage.30:258-264.1964Longcore,J.R.andG.W.Cornwell.1964.captiveCanvasbacksandLesserScaups.TheconsumptionofnaturalfoodsbyJ.Wildl.Manage.28:527-531.Rogers,J.1964a.EffectofdroughtonreproductionoftheLesserScaup.J.Wildl.Manage.28:213-222.1964b. AdecoytrapformaleLesserScaups.J.Wildl.Manage. 28:--408-410.312

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1963Longcore,J.R.1963.ConsumptionofnaturalfoodsandeffectsofstarvationonCanvasbacksandLesserScaups.M.S.thesis,Univ.Michigan/AnnArbor,MI.Peller,E. 1963.Operationduckrescue.Aud.Mag.65:364-367.1962 Harmon,B.G.1962.MollusksasfoodofLesserScaupalongtheLouisianacoast.Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.27:132-137.McKnight,D.E.andI.O.Buss.1962.EvidenceofbreedinginyearlingfemaleLesserScaup.J.Wildl.Manage. 26:328-329.Rogers,J.P.1962.TheecologicaleffectsofdroughtonreproductionoftheLesserScaup,Aythyaaffinis(Eyton).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Missouri/Columbia,MO.99pp.1960Christmas,J.Y.1960.GreaterandLesserScaupfeedingondeadGulfmenhaden.Auk77:346-347.1959Rogers,J.P.Manitoba.1959.LowwaterandLesserScaupreproductionnearErickson,Trans.N.Am.Wildl.Conf.24:216-224.1958Cronan,J.M.1958. SexratiosofwinteringscaupsinLongIslandSound.WilsonBull.70:191-192.1957Cronan,J.M.,Jr.1957.Food andfeedinghabitsofthescaupsinConnecticutwaters.Auk74:459-468.1955Cronan,J.M.1955.AstudyofscaupduckwinteringinLongIslandSound. M.S.thesis,Univ.Connecticut/Storrs,CT.Miskiman,M.ducks.1955.MeteorologicalandsocialfactorsinautumnalmigrationofCondor57:179-184.1954Kilham,L.1954.UnusualfeedingbehavioroftheLesserScaup.Auk71:316.313

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1951 Gehrman,K.1951.AnecologicalstudyoftheLesserScaupDuck(AythyaaffinisEyton)atWestMedicalLake,SpokaneCounty,Washington.M.S.thesis,WashingtonSt.Univ./Pullman,WA.94pp.1941 Munro,J.A.1941.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.GreaterScaup Duck,LesserScaup Duck. Can.J.Res.19(Sect.D):113-138.1933Cottam,C.1933.FeedinghabitsoftheLesserScaup Duck. Condor35:118-119.1931Greene,E.R.1931. AlatespringrecordofLesserScaup Duck(Aythyaaffinis)inGeorgia.Auk48:256-257.Trautman,M.B.1931.StatusoftheAmerican andLesserScaup DucksinOhio.Auk48:257-258.1928Ford,E. R.1928.LesserScaup DuckinMichiganinsummer.Auk45:497-498.314

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COMMONEIDER(Somateriamollissima)[DA:Ederfugl,DU:Eidereend,EN:Eider-Duck,FI:Haahka,FR:Eideraduvet,GE:Eiderente,IC:AEderfugl,IT:Edredone,NW:AErfugl,PO:Edredon,SP:Eider,SW:EjderlGENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheCommonEidernestsverynearthecoastofArcticNorthAmerica fromsouthwesternAlaskaandtheAleutianIslandsaroundthewesternandnorthernshoresofAlaska,theArcticshoresofCanada(withagapatabout1000 Wlatitude),islandsintheCanadianArchipelago, the shoresofHudson Bay,andtheUngavaPeninsula,southalongtheAtlanticcoastofCanadatoNewfoundland,theSt.LawrenceEstuaryandGulfofSt.Lawrence,theMaritimeProvinces,andMaine.InwinterthiseiderisfoundalongthePacificcoastfromtheAleutianIslandssouthrarelytoWashington,andineasternNorthAmericaintheopenwatersofHudsonandJamesbaysand ontheAtlanticcoastfromLabradorsouthtoLongIsland.SomebirdsreachVirginiaandNorthCarolina,andtheyarecasualtoFlorida.Therearescatteredrecordsfrominlandstatesandprovinces(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).TheCommonEideralsonestsonthecoastsofGreenland,Iceland,northernEurope,andAsia.TheCommonEiderisfoundonlyuncommonlyinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.TherearerecordsalmosteveryyearinNorthCarolina(Map23),butofonlyoneora fewbirdseachyear.LiteraturesurveyedforthisreportrevealedonlysevenrecordsforSouthCarolina,1962-79,ofoneortwobirdsoneachoccasion.ThesevenrecordsforFlorida,1955-73,includeonefortheDryTortugas(Petrovicand King1972),perhapsthemostsouthernrecordforthespecies,and one fromtheGulfcoast(Sprunt1963),theonlydefinitereportfromtheGulf.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONLikeotherseaducksthatgatherinlargeconcentrationsintheopenocean, the CommonEiderisverysusceptibletooilpollution.Oilingincidentshavebeenfrequentandlargenumbersofbirdshavebeeninvolvedinsome(Table6).However,theCommonEiderisuncommoninwatersoffthesoutheasternUnitedStates,wheresightingshavebeenofoneora fewbirdsatatime,ratherthangreatrafts,andcloseinshoreratherthanwellouttosea.Althoughindividualswouldremainhighlyvulnerableinthesoutheast,damagetotheCommonEiderpopulationbyoilinginthisareawouldbeVirtuallynil.315

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.,-COMMONEIDERBIRO NAME. 86 ,Jr".-?------88" 100 90 \ 1---(---f GULFOFMEXtCO ---, 92 \ ( sA96 DALLAS E x: Winter DistributillMapforSoutheasti'll UnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 .. 10-50 I ==11 _/M:re than200 (Adapted fram Bystrak, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @Number of individuals o Lessthanoneindividual None observed T $"'cP i JI... i cP i --\v.,(]t.-:..... __ t+-1-__ -0 ') -0-_.-i.,__.Map23

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Table6.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadCommonEidersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaNorthSeacoast,DenmarkNorth-centralKattegat,DenmarkSoutheastKent,EnglandN.Sjaelland,DenmarkNorthSeacoast,DenmarkNortheastEnglandPaghamHarbourarea,W.Sussex,England Bornholm, DenmarkDates1957-1958Jan.-Feb.1962wintersof1963-64to1965-66Feb.-Mar.1965 1965-1966Jan.1966Jan.-Feb.1967Jan.-Feb.1968Numberofoileddeadbirds92(a)1,723(a,b)509(a)2,340(a)803(a)80591(a,c)466(a)NumberofdeadCommonEiders5254220855PercenageofCommonEiders5.4314.740.398.880.12 0.625.490.21SourceJoensen1972a Joensen1972aGibson1966Joensen1972aJoensen1972aParrack1967Phillips1967Joensen1972a TayEstuary,ScotlandN.Sealand,DenmarkLaeso-Vendsyssel,DenmarkNortheastEnglandMartha'sVineyard,MAMar.-Apr.1968Feb.-Mar.1969 Dec. 1969Jan.-Feb.1970Feb.19701,168(c)1,1272,376(a)1,6831,3621,08110,992(a,b)2,124541(a)9931796.4970.8379.3719.3218.30Greenwood and Keddie 1968Joensen1972bJoensen1972b Greenwoodetal.1971CSLP1971

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Table6.(Continued.)NumberNumberPercent-ofoiledofdeadageofdeadCommonCommonAreaDatesbirdsEidersEidersSourceE.coastJutland,Feb.-Mar.1,974(a)94747.97Joensen1972b Denmark 1970OffeasternFeb.-Apr.1,276(a,c)559 43.81 Brownet ale Canada 1970 1973 S.Kattegat,Dec. 1970-2,311(a)1,71374.12Joensen1972b DenmarkJan.1971 Mar. 1971 239197.95Joensen1972b DenmarkNorth-centralMar. 19724,759(a)68314.35JoensenandKattegat,Denmark Hansen 1977 Waddensea, Dec. 1972 9,151(a)4,41348.22Joensenand Denmark Hansen 1977Balticsea1970-19743,867(a,b)531.37Gorskiet al. coast,Poland1976FirthofClyde,Jan.1974 279(a)3111.llLloydet ale Ayrshire,Scot-1974landBalticseaNov. 1974653(a,b)81.23Gorskietal.coast,PolandAug. 1975 1977Varangerfjord,Mar. 19791,616(d)140.87Barrett1979northNorway(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(c)Totalincludesbothliveand deadoiledbirds.(d)Anestimated10,000to20,000seabirdswerekilledduringthisspill.318

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Kullapere,A.1980. HahkadeTaasleidudest.[Ontherecoveriesofeiders.]Loodusvaatlusi1978:24-27.[InEstonianwithRussianandEnglishsummaries.]Mendall,H.L. 1980.IntergradationofeasternAmericanCommonEiders.Can.Field-Nat.94:286-292.Minot,E.O.1980.Tidal,diurnialandhabitatinfluencesonCommonEiderrearingactivities.OrnisScand. 11:165-172.Otnes,G.andM.Otnes.1980.ProbableCommonEider,BattleLake,OttertailCounty. Loon 52:118.1979Andersson,A.1979.Jamforelseavmetoderfortaxeringavhackandeejderbestand-Somateriamollissma.[(A) ComparisonofmethodsforcensusingbreedingEiderSomateriamollissimapopulations.]VarFagelvarld38:1-10.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] Doughty,R.W.1979.EiderhusbandryintheNorthAtlantic:trendsandprospects.PolarRec. 19:447-460.HopeJones,P.J.and P.K.Kinnear.1979.MoultingEidersinOrkney andShetland.Wildfowl30:109-113. Hubbard,J.only).1979.SpringmigrationatCapePrinceofWales,Alaska.Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:41.(AbstractMendenhall,V.M.1979. BroodingofyoungducklingsbyfemaleEiders,Somateriamollissima.OrnisScand.10:94-99.Pulliainen,E.,E.Elomaa,O.Oksanen andJ.Valkama. 1979. HaahkaSomateriamollissimajalleenpesivanaperamerella.[TheEidernestingagaininnorthernBothnianBay.]Lintumies14:82.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary]. Swennen,C.,P. Duiven and L.A.F.Reyrink.1979.NotesonthesexratiointheCommonEiderSomateriamollissima(L.).Ardea 67:54-61.Szaro,R.C.,N.C.Coonand E.Kolbe.1979.PesticideandPCBofCommonEider,HerringGullandGreatBlack-backedGulleggs.Bull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol.22:394-399.Weatherhead,P.J.1979.BehavioralimplicationsofthedefenseofaShovelerbroodbyCommonEiders.Condor 81:427.Willoughby,E. 1979.CommonEideron PotomacRiveratPointLookout.Md.Birdlife35:32.319

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1978Albers,P.H.andR.C.Szaro.1978.EffectsofNo.12fueloilonCommonEidereggs.Mar.Pollut.Bull.9:138-139.Campbell, L.H.1978.DiurnalandtidalbehaviourpatternsofEiderswinteringatLeith.Wildfowl 29: 147-152.Korschgen,C.E.,H.Gibbs and H.L.Mendall.1978. AviancholerainEiderDucksinMaine.J.Wildl.Dis.14:254-258.McArthur, P.D.andM.L. Gorman. 1978.ThesaltglandoftheincubatingEiderDuckSomateriamollissima:theeffectsofnaturalsaltdeprivation.J.Zool.184:83-90.McDougall,P.andH.Milne.1978. Theanti-predatorfunctionofdefecationontheirowneggsbyfemaleEiders.Wildfowl29:55-59.Meltofte,H.1978. AbreedingassociationbetweenEidersandtetheredhuskiesinnortheastGreenland.Wildfowl 29:45-54.1977Bedard,J.andJ.Munro. 1977. Brood andcrechestabilityintheCommonEideroftheSt.LawrenceEstuary.Behaviour60: 221-260. Gorman,M.L. 1977.Sexualbehaviourand plasmaandrogenconcentrationsinthemaleEider(Somateriamollissima).J.Reprod.Fertil.49:225-230.Korschgen,C.E. 1977.BreedingstressoffemaleEidersinMaine.J.Wildl.Manage. 41:360-373.Munro,J.andJ.Bedard.1977a.CrecheformationintheCommonEider.Auk94:759-771.1977b.GullpredationandcrechingbehaviorintheCommonEider.J.------Anim.Ecol.46:799-810.Schamel,D.1977.BreedingoftheCommonEider(Somateriamollissima)ontheBeaufortSeacoastinAlaska.Condor79:478-485.Stanton,P.B.1977.EiderDucktransplantexperimentsonPenikeseIsland.Trans.N.E.Fish & Wildl.Conf.34:65-79.Szaro,R.C.and P.H.Albers.1977.EffectsofexternalapplicationofNo.2fueloilonCommonEidereggs.Pp. 164-167inD.A. Wolfe(ed.)Proc.Symp.onfateandeffectsofpetroleumhydrocarbonsinmarineecosystemsandorganisms.10-12November1976,Seattle,WA.PergammonPress,NewYork,NY.. 320

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Ashcroft,R.E. 1976. AfunctionofthepairbondintheCommonEider.Wildfowl 27:101-105.Gauthier,J.andJ.Bedard.1976. LesdeplacementsdeL'EiderCommon(Somateriamollissima)dansL'EstuaireduSaint-Laurent.[MovementsoftheCommonEider(Somateriamollissima)intheSt.LawrenceEstuary.]Nat.Can. 103:261-283.[InFrenchwithEnglishsummary.]Gauthier,J.,J.Bedard andA.Reed. 1976.OverlandmigrationbyCommonEidersoftheSt.LawrenceEstuary.WilsonBull.88:333-344.Korschgren,C.E. 1976.BreedingstressoffemaleEiders(SomateriamollissimadresseriSharpe).ph.Dthesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.115pp.Milne,H.1976. BodyweightsandcarcasscompositionoftheCommonEider.Wildfowl27:115-122.Minot,E.o.1976. AmericanEiderrearingecologyintheGrandMananArchipelago,N.B. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.90pp.Ostrander,W.1976.CommonEiderinElmira.Kingbird26:201-202.Spurr,E. B. andH.Milne.1976a.FactorsaffectinglayingdateintheCommonEider.Wildfowl27:107-109.1976b.AdaptivesignificanceofautumnpairformationintheCommon-----EiderSomateriamollissimaL.OrnisScand.7:84-89.Swennen,C.1976.Populatie-structuuren VoedselvandeEidereendSomateriam.mollissimaindeNederlandseWaddenzee.[Populationstructureand food of theEiderSomateriam.mollissimaintheDutchWaddenSea.]Ardea64:311-371.[InDutch with Englishsummary.]Wakeley,J.S. andH.L.Mendall.adultfemaleeidersinMaine. 1976.Migrationalhoming andsurvivalofJ.Wildl.Manage.40:15-21.Campbell,L.H.1975.PredationonEidersSomateriamollissimabytheGlaucousGull hyperboreusinSpitsbergen.OrnisScand.6:27-32.Goryainova,G.P.and T.N.Tarnovskaya.1975.[Changesintheporosityofeggshellduringembryogenesisofbirds.]Zool.Zh. 54:1113-1115.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] Koeman,J.H.1975.ThetoxicologicalimportanceofchemicalpollutionformarinebirdsintheNetherlands.Vogelwarte28:145-150.321

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Mendenhall,V.M.1975. Growth andmortalityfactorsofEiderducklings(Somateriam.mollissima)innorth-eastScotland.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Aberdeen/Aberdeen,Scotland.Munro,J.1975.L'elevagedesjeuneschezl'Eidercommun(Somateriamollissima)dansl'estuaireduSaint-Laurent.M.S.thesis,Univ.Laval/Quebec,PQ. Reed,A.1975.Migration,homing, andmortalityofbreedingfemaleEidersoftheSt.LawrenceEstuary,Quebec.OrnisScand.6:41-47.Swennen,C.1975.AfwijkendekleurenbijdeEidereendenvanVlieland.[AberrantcolorationsintheEiderducksofVlieland.]Limosa47:51-52.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1974Allerstam,T.,C.-A.BauerandG.Roos.1974.[Field-andradarstudiesofthespringmigrationoftheBalticEiderSomateriamollissima.]VarFagelvarld33:15-27.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Almkvist,B.,A.Andersson,A.Jogi,Th.K.Pirkola,M.SoikkeleandJ.Virtanen.1974. The numberofadultEidersintheBalticSea.Wildfowl25:89-94.Belopol'skii,L.0.,G.P.Goryainovaand T.V.Tarnovskya.1974. [SexratiointheCommonEider.]Ekologiya5:110-111.[InRussian.]Bishop,C.A.andW.Threlfall.1974.HelminthparasitesoftheCommonEiderDuck,Somateriamollissima(L.),inNewfoundland andLabrador.Proc.Helminthol.Soc.Wash. 41:23-35.Cantin,M.,J.Bedard andH.milne.1974.Thefood andfeedingofCommonEidersintheSt.LawrenceEstuaryinsummer. Can.J.Zool.52:319-334.Gjoseater,J.andR.Saetre.1974.PredationofeggsofcapelinMallotusvillosusbydivingducks.Astarte7:83-89.Gorman,M.L.1974a.CriteriaforagingembryosoftheEider.Wildfowl25:29-32.1974b.Thesignificanceofhabitatselectionduringnestingofthe-----EiderSomateriamollissimamollissima.Ibis116:152-154.1974c.Theendocrinebasisofpair-formationbehaviourinthemale-----EiderSomateriamollissima.Ibis116:451-465.Grenquist,P.1972.Eraanemottomanhaahkapoikueenvaiheistaensimmaistenelinpaivenaikana.[Observationsonfournewly-hatchedeiderducklingswithoutaconductingfemale.]SuomenRiista24:76-81.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 322

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Joensen,A.H.1974.PopulationsandshootingutilizationofmigratoryducksinDenmark,withparticularreferencetotheEiderDuck(Somateriamollis-sima).Internatl.Congr.GameBioI.11:269-278.------Milne,H.1974.Breedingofnumbers and reproiuction rateofEidersattheSandsofForvieNationalNatureReserve,Scotland.Ibis116:135-152.Milne,H.andA.Reed. 1974. Annualproductionoffledgedyoung fromtheEidercoloniesoftheSt.LawrenceEstuary.Can.Field-Nat.88:163-169.Nystrom,M.and S.B.Hansson. 1974.InteractionbewteenearlyexperienceanddepthavoidanceinyoungEiderducks(SomateriamollissimaL.).Behavior48:303-314.Persson,L. Sweden. 1974.EndoparasitismcausingheavymortalityinEiderDucksinInternatl.Congr.GameBioI.11:255-258.Persson,L.,K.Borg andH.FaIt.1974.OntheoccurrenceofendoparasitesinEiderDucksinSweden.Viltrevy9:1-24.Schamel,D.L.1974. ThebreedingbiologyofthePacificEider(Somateriamollissimav-nigraBonaparte)onabarrierislandintheBeaufortSea,Alaska.M.S.thesis,Univ.Alaska/Fairbanks,AK.95pp.Bourget,A.A.1973.RelationofEidersandgullsnestinginmixedcoloniesinPenobscotBay, Maine.Auk90:809-820.Fog,M.andI.Kraul.1973.Levelsofpolychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB) andorganochlorineinsecticidesineggsfromEider(Somateriamollissima).ActaVet.Scand.14:350-352.Gorman,M.L. 1973.m.mollissima.PituitaryprolactinlevelsintheCommonEiderSomateriaOrnisScand.4:123-125.Joensen,A.H.Denmark.] 1973. [ThebreedingoftheEider(Somateriamollissima)inDan.Vildt.20:1-36.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Leuzinger,H.and S.Schuster.1973. DerstarkeElnflugvonEiderentenSomateriamollissimaimHerbst1971nachSuddeutschlanundindir SchweiZ:Ornithol.Beob. 70:189-202.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.] McAloney,R.K.1973. BroodecologyoftheCommonEider(Somateriamollissimadresseri)intheLiscombeareaofNovaScotia.M.S.thesis,AcadiaUniv./Wolfville,NS.1972Almkvist,B. andA.Andersson.1972.[AerialcensusofflockedEidermalesSomateriamollissima--amethodforestimatingbreedingpopulations.]VarFagelvarld31:237-240.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] 323

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Gorman,M.L. andH.Milne. mollissimaL. 1972. CrechebehaviourintheCommonEiderSomaOrnisScand.3:21-26.Grenquist,P. 1972.Eraanemottomanhaahkapoikueenvaiheistaensimmaistenelinpaivenaikana.[ObservationsonfournewlyhatchedEiderducklingswithoutaconductingfemale.]SuomenRiista24:76-81.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Grenquist,P.,K.Henrikksonand T.Raitis.1972.Haahkakoiraudebsuolitukkeumasta.[OnintestinalocclusioninthemaleEider.]SuomenRiista24:91-96.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Karpovich,V.N.,B.V.KesterandL.O.Belopolski.1972.[TheactualstateofthenestingoftheEiderintheKandalakshaNatureReserve.]Communs.BalticCommn.StudyBirdMigr.7:140-153.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Petrovic,C.A.andJ.King,Jr.1972.CommonEiderand KingRailfromtheDryTortugas,Florida.Auk89:660.Soikkeli,M.andJ.Virtanen.1972. ThePaIvaoiltankerdisasterintheFinnishsouthwesternarchipelago.II.EffectsofoilpollutionontheEider,Somateriamollissima,populationinthearchipelagosofKokar andFolgo,southwesternFinland.AquaFenn.1972:122-128.Swegen,H.1972.[VisualmigrationofEiderDucksSomateriamollissimainlandinsouthernmostSweden.] VarFagelvarld31: 183190.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Uspenski,S.M.1972.TheEiders(genusSomateria).NeueBrehmBucheri,Wittenberg-Lutherstadt,EastGermany. 1971Dunthorne,A.A.1971. ThepredationofcultivatedmusselsbyEiders.BirdStudy18:107-112.Gorman,M.L. andH.Milne.1971.SeasonalchangesintheadrenalsteroidtissueoftheCommonEiderSomateriamollissimaanditsrelationtoorganicmetabolisminnormalandoil-pollutedbirds.Ibis113:218-228.Ilnicky,N.J.1971.FirstknownrecordofCommonEidersinMichigan.JackPineWarbler49:10-11.Player,P.V.1971. Food andfeedinghabitsoftheCommonEideratSeafield,Edinburgh,inwinter.Wildfowl22:100-106.Pounder,B.1971.WinteringEidersintheTayEstuary.Scott.Birds6:407419. 324

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1970Ahlen,I.andA.Andersson.1970.BreedingecologyofanEiderpopuiationonSpitsbergen.OrnisScand.1:83-106.Bourget,A.A.1970.InterrelationshipsofEidersandgullsnestinginmixedcoloniesinPenobscotBay, Maine. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.Cantin,M.1970.Alimentationdel'eidercommun(Somateriamollissimadresseri)dansl'estuaireduSaint-Laurent.M.S.thesis,LavalUniv.!Quebec,PQ.79pp.Clark,S. 1970.TheAmericanEider.SeaFrontiers16:302-308.Folkestad,A.o.andA.Moksnes.1970.ObservasjoneravTrekkendeaerfugeliTrondelag.[ObservationsonmigratingEidersinTrondelag, Norway.] Sterna9:9-17.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.]Freeman,M.M.R.1970.ObservationsontheseasonalbehavioroftheHudsonBayEider(Somateriamollissimasedentaria).Can.Field-Nat.84:145-153.Gorman,M.L.1970a.ThedailypatternofdisplayinawildpopulationofEiderDuck.Wildfowl21:105-107.1970b.Behaviouralandphysiologicaladaptationsforbreedinginthe-----EiderDuck(Somateriamollissima).Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Aberdeen/Aberdeen,Scotland.Grenquist,P.1970.[OnmortalityoftheEiderDuck(Somateriamollissima)causedbyacanthocephalanparasites.]SuomenRiista22:24-34.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Haila,Y.1970.PalvanOijyonnettomuus.[The"PaIva"oiltankercatastropheofftheSWcoastofFinland.]SuomenRiista22:7-13.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1969Drenckhahn,D.1969. Mauser und VorkommenvanEdierente,Somateriamollissima,Trauerente,Melanittanigra,undSamtente,Melanittafusca,wahrendder01pestimHerbst1968anderNordseekusteSchleswig-Holsteins.Corax3:2330.[InGerman.]Ingolfsson,A.1969.BehaviorofgullsrobbingEiders.BirdStudy16:45-52.Palmer,C.J.1969.SomeobservationsonthebehaviorandactivityregimeofEiderducklingsincreches.M.S.thesis,Univ.Aberdeen/Aberdeen,Scotland.325

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Barry,T.W.1968.ObservationsonnaturalmortalityandnativeuseofEiderDucksalongtheBeaufortSeacoast.Can.Field-Nat.82: 140-144.Clark,S.H.1968.ThebreedingbiologyandexperimentalmanagementoftheAmericanEiderinPenobscotBay, Maine. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.169pp.Guignion,D.L.1968.ClutchsizeandincubationperiodoftheAmericanEider(Somateriamollissimadresseri)onBrandypotIsland.Nat.Can.95: 1145 1152.Kumari, E.1968.[TheCommonEider(SomateriamollissimaL.)intheU.S.S.R.,Proc.Conf.Estonia,May1966.]Tallinn:Valgus,andInst.Zool. & Bot.,Acad.Sci.EstonianS.S.R.131pp.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Mendall,H.L.1968.AninventoryofMaine'sbreedingEiderDucks.Trans.Sect.Wildl.Soc.,Fish & Wildl.Conf.25:,95-104.Milne,H.1968.TheEider--musselfoodlinkinthecommunityoftheYthanEstuary.Rept.ChallengerSoc.3: 31.Pethon,P.1968.Food andfeedinghabitsoftheCommonEider(Somateriamollissima).NyttMag. Zool. 15: 97-111.Swennen,C.faeces.1968.NestprotectionofEiderducksandShovelersbymeansofArdea56: 248-258. 1967Choate,J.S.1967.scotBay, Maine.FactorsinfluencingnestingsuccessofEidersinJ.Wildl.Manage.31: 769-777.Penob-Guignion,D.L.1967.AnestingstudyoftheCommonEider(Somateriamollissimadresseri)intheSt.LawrenceEstuary.M.S.thesis,LavalUniv./Quebee,PQ.131pp.McGilvrey,F.B.1967.FoodhabitsofseaducksfromthenortheasternUnitedStates.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:142-145.McLaughlin,F. L.1967ms.BehaviorstudyoftheinterrelationshipsofgullsandEidersinmixedbreedingcoloniesofPenobscotBay, Maine.Unpubl.FileRept.,Maine Coop.Wildl.Res.Unit,Orono,ME.41pp.1966Choate,J.S.1966.BreedingbiologyoftheAmericanEiderinPenobscotBay, Maine. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.Marriot,R.W.1966.Thefood andfeedingoftheEiderpopulationoftheYthanEstuary,Aberdeenshire,inautumn andwinter.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Aberdeen/Aberdeen,Scotland.326

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1965Carlson,C.W.1965.CommonEidersatNags Head,NorthCarolina.Chat29:25-26.Cobb,J.L. S. 1965. AbnormalnestingbehaviourofEidersandHerringGulls.J.Scott.Ornithol.Club 3:252-253.Cooch, F.G.1965.ThebreedingbiologyandmanagementoftheNorthernEider(Somateriamollissimaborealis)intheCapeDorsetarea,NorthwestTerritories.Can.Wildl.ServoWildl.Manage.Bull.Ser.2a,No.10.68pp.Hatch,J.J.andR.P. Holmes,III.1965.CommonEideratMoreheadCity,NorthCarolina.Chat 29:24-25.Holmes,R.P.,III.1965.CommonEideratMoreheadCity--afootnote.Chat29:52.Milne,H.1965.Seasonalmovements anddistributionofEidersinnortheastScotland.BirdStudy12:170-180.1964Garden,E.A.,C.RayskiandV.M.Thorn.1964.AparasiticdiseaseinEiderDucks.BirdStudy11:280-287.Ryden,o.andH.Kallander.1964.[CalculationsofmigratoryflightspeedwithspecialreferencetotheEider(Somateriamollissima).]VarFagelvarld23:151-158.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] 1963Baillie,J.L. 1963.The13mostrecentOntarionestingbirds.Ont.FieldBioI.17:15-26.Milne,H.1963.SeasonaldistributionandbreedingbiologyoftheEiderSomateriamollissimamollissima(L.)innortheastofScotland.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Aberdeen/Aberdeen,Scotland.Pertsov,N.A. andV.E.Flint.1963.PitaniegagiKandalakshskogozapovednikiirol'eedinamikelitoral'noifauny.[ThedietoftheEideroftheKandalakshaReserveanditsroleinthedynamicsofthelittoralfauna.]Trudy-Kandalak. Gos. Zapov. 4:7-18.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] 1962Milne,H.1962.Seasonalmovements anddistributionofEidersinnortheastScotland.BirdStudy12:170-180.Paludan,K.1962.EderfugleneideDanskefarvande.Dan.Vildt.10:1-87.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.] 327

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1961 McKinney,F.1961.AnanalysisofthedisplaysoftheEuropeanEiderSomateriamollissimamollissima(Linnaeus)andthePacificEiderSomateriamolTissima v-nigra(Bonaparte).BehaviourSuppl.7.124pp.---1960Gerasimova,T. D. and Z.M.Baranova.1960.Ekologiyaobysknovennoigagi(SomateriamollissimaL.)vKandalakshskomzapovednike.[EcologyoftheCommonEider,SomateriamollissimaL.,intheKandalakshaReserve.]TrudyKandalak.Gos. Zapov.3:8-90.[InRussian.]Hebard,F.V.1960. ThespreadoftheEiderinAmerica.Brit.Birds53:135-136.Kulachkova,V.G.1960.Gibel'ptentsovobyknovennoigagiiprichiny,eevyzyvayushchie.[MortalityofEiderfledglingsanditscauses.]TrudyKandalak.Gos. Zapov.3.Murmanskoeknizhnoeizdatel'-tvo.[InRussian.]1959 Ames,J.E.1959.CommonEider,Kittiwakes,RazorbillatHatteras.Chat23:24.Kapitonov,V.I.1959. KbiologiigagiKandalakshskogozaliva.[OnthebiologyoftheEiderintheKandalakshaBay.]TrudyNauchno-Issledovatel'skogoInstitutaSel'skogoKhozyaistvaKrainegoSevera,Vol.9.[InRussian.]Lewis,H.F.1959MS.PredationofEiderDucksbyGreatBlack-backedGullsinNovaScotia.Rept.NovaScotiaDept.Lands&Forests,Halifax,NS.Pettingill,O.S.,Jr.1959a.KingEidersmated with CommonEidersinIceland.WilsonBull.71:205-207.1959b.PuffinsandEidersinIceland.MaineFieldNat.15:58-71.Sykes,P.B.1959.CommonEider,Kittiwake,Razorbill.Chat23:34.1958Clark,G.M.,D.O'Meara,andJ.W.vanWeelden.1958.AnepizooticamongEiderducksinvolvinganacanthocephalidworm.J.Wildl.Manage.22:204-205.Cooch,G.1958.AstudyofsomeaspectsofthebreedingbiologyoftheNorthernEider(Somateriamollissimaborealis).Trans.N.E.Wildl.Conf.1:122-123.Hoogerheide,J.andC.Hoogerheide.1958.HetaantalEidereenden(Somateriamollissima)bijVlieland.Limosa31:151-155.[InDutch.]328

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Humphrey, P. S. 1958. DivingofacaptiveCommonEider.Condor 60:408-410.Myres,M.T. 1958 ms.Preliminarystudiesofthebehavior,migrationanddistributionalecologyofEiderDucksinnorthernAlaska,1958.Rept.,Univ.Brit.Columbia,Dept.Zool.14pp.1957Moltoni, E. 1957.atiinItalia.ElencodiEdredoni-Somateriam.Riv.Ital.Ornitol.27:154-157.mollissima(L.)-cattur[InItalian.]Flint,V.E. 1955.[AcontributiontothebiologyoftheCommonEider.]Biull.MoskovskovoObshchestvaIspytateleiPrirody Bio!. 60:53-62.[InRussian.]1954Burnett,F. L. andD.E.Snyder.1954. BluecrabasstarvationfoodofoiledAmericanEiders.Auk71:315-316.1951Paynter,R.A.,Jr.1951.Clutch-sizeand eggmortalityofKentIslandEiders.Ecology32:497-507.Hoogerheide,C.1950.Ardea37: 139-161.DeEidereenden,SomateriamollissimaL.,opVlieland.[InDutch.]1948Williamson,K.1948.EiderDuckpluckingdownduringdistraction-display.Ibis90: 142-143. 1944Gross,A.o.coast.1944.ThepresentstatusoftheAmericanEiderontheMaineWilsonBull.56:15-26.Hibben,Ms.F.C.1942.PacificEidernestingatGlacierBay,Alaska.Condor44:181.1941Snyder,L.L. 1941.OntheHudsonBayEider.Occas.Pap.R.Ont.Mus.Zool.No.6:1-7.329

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1939Lewis,H.F. 1939.SizeandsetsofeggsoftheAmericanEider.J.Wildl.Manage. 3:70-73.1938Gross,A.O.1938.EiderDucksofKent'sIsland.Auk55:387-400.Grenquist,P. 1936.SomenotesondivingofyoungTuftedDucks, youngVelvetSeaters,and youngEiderDucks.OrnisFenn.13:6-23.1932 Gudmundsson,G.1932. Beobachtungen anislandischenEiderenten(Somateria mollissima).Beitr.Fortpf.Vogel 8:86-147.[InGennan.] 1931Lewis,H.F. 1931. Recoveryofa banded AmericanEider(Somateriamollissimadresseri).Bird-Banding2:184. 1930Robertson,D.J.1930.FurthernotesonEidersinOrkney.Brit.Birds23:309-310.1929Robertson,D.J.1929.Notesonbreeding-habitsoftheEiderintheOrkneys.Brit.Birds23:26-30.Boase,H.1925. TayEstuary.NotesonthecourtingdisplayandnestingoftheEiderintheBrit.Birds19:45-48.Montague, F.A.1925.NotesonthesummerhabitsoftheNorthernEider.Brit.Birds19: 138-144. 1922White,G.R.1922.EiderDuck--acorrection.Auk39:411-412.1909Evans,W.1909.ThefoodoftheEider.Brit.Birds3:165-166.Robinson,H.W.1909.ThefoodoftheCommonEider.Brit.Birds2: 344. 330

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KINGEIDER(Somateriaspectabilis)[DA:Kongeederfugl,DU:Koningseidereend,FI:Pulskahaahka,FR:Eideratetegrise,Eiderroyal;GE:Prachteiderente,IC:Aedarkongur,IT:RedegliEdredoni,NW:Praktaerfugl,po:Turkan,RU:(CrestedEider),SP:Eiderrey,Eiderreal;SW:Praktejder1GENERALDISTRIBUTIONKingEidersbreedontheArcticcoastofAlaskafromPointHope,Tigara,and Cape ThompsoneastwardalongthecoastsoftheYukon, andtheMackerizie andKeewatindistricts.TheybreedlocallyonthewestcoastofHudson BaytoCapeHenriettaMaria,andSouthTwinIsland,aswellasonmostoftheArcticislands(AOU1957,GabrielsonandLincoln1959,Palmer1976b).BreedingalsooccursonmostoftheislandsintheFranklinDistrict,northwardtonorthernEllesmereIslandandadjacentGreenland.LocalbreedinghasbeenreportedfromnortherncoastalQuebec, andissuspectedinLabrador(Godfrey1966,Johnsgard1978).Inthewinter,KingEidersoccurthroughouttheeasternAleutianIslandsandtheAlaskanPeninsula,aswellasinnortheasternNorthAmerica fromGreenlandand NewfoundlandsouthalongtheMaritimeProvincestotheNewEnglandStates(AOU1957,GabrielsonandLincoln1959),withoccasionalrecordsfarthersouthandintheinterior(Palmer1976b).TheKingEideralsobreedsinthePalearcticregion,includingpartsofIceland,Spitzbergen,Novaya Zemlya andVaigachislands,theeasternKolaPeninsula,andeastwardtotheChuckcheePeninsula(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).InwinterthesebirdsoccurintheNorthAtlantic,easttotheBarentsSea andoccasionallyintheBaltic,andinthenorthPacifictotheKurileIslandand Okhotsk Searegions(Palmer1976b).The KingEideroccursonlyasavagrantinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.InNorthCarolinatherearefiverecordspriorto1937 (Simpson 1970) andfiveinthe1970's,allofoneora fewbirds.ThethreerecordsfromSouthCarolinaincludeonebirdseeninland(SpruntandChamberlain1949,LeGrand1979b).TherearerecordsofseveraloccurrencesinGeorgia(Coolidge1954,Burleigh1958),threefromtheGulfcoastofFlorida(Kale1979msb),andoneeachfrom Alabama(Imhof1976b) and Texas(Oberholser1974).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTherearefewreportsofKingEiderssuccumbingtooilingatsea,butasadivingsea-duckitispresumablyhighlyvulnerabletooiling.King andSanger(1979)regardedthiseiderasaspeciesforwhichthereshouldbehighconcernastotheeffectsofoilinginthenortheastPacific.However, KingEidersoccuronlycasuallyinthesoutheast,andoilaccidentstherewouldposenohazzardtothespeciesasawhole.331

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Lindsey,H.R.1980. KingEideronSaludaRiveratColumbia, S.C. Chat 44: 41. 1977Norderhaug,M.1977.Undersokelseravpraktauerfuglen(Somateriaspectabilis)paSvalbard.[StudiesoftheKingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)inSvalbard.)Nor.Polarinst.Arbok 1976:271-284.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.]Palmer,R.S. 1977. KingEiderstudies.Brit.Birds70: 107-113. 1975Gates,L. 1975. KingEiderrecordinHattiesburgarea.Miss.Ornithol.Soc.Newsl. 20:2.1970 Simpson,M.B.,Jr.1970.AnunrecordedspecimenoftheKingEiderfromNorthCarolina.Chat 34: 102. 1968Reese,J.G.1968. KingEiderssummeringinChesapeake Bay.Md.Birdlife24:17-18.1967Burr,I.W.1967. KingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)intheSanJuans.Murrelet48:7.1965 Sherman,G.R. 1965.Theform anddurationofthemaledisplaysoftheKingEider,Somateriaspectabilis(Linnaeus).M.S.thesis,Univ.Nebraska/Lincoln,NE.Thompson,D.Q.andR.A.Person.1963.TheeiderpassatPointBarrow,Alaska.J.Wildl.Manage. 27:348-356.1962 Gandy,B.E. 1962. KingEidercollectedatPascagoula,Mississippi.Miss.Ornithol.Soc. Newsl. 7:20-21.332

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Owre,O.T. 1962.ThefirstrecordoftheKingEider,Somateriaspectabilis(Linnaeus),andtheoccurrenceofotherAnseriformesinFlorida.Auk79:270-271.1961Johnstone,S. T. 1961.BreedingtheKingEider,1961.Avicult.Mag.67:196197. 1959Pettingill,O.S.,Jr.1959. KingEidersmatedwith Common EidersinIceland.WilsonBull.71:205-207.1954Coolidge,H.W.1954. KingEidertakennearSavannah.Oriole19:18.1950Barnes,I.R. andC.O.Handley,Jr.1950. KingEidersseenatOceanCity[Maryland].Atl.Nat.5:183-184.1937Chamberlain,E.B.1937. KingEiderinSouthCarolina.Auk54:383.Griscom,L. 1925. KingEiderinNorthCarolina.Auk42:264.1924Janvrin,E.R.P.1924. KingEideron LongIslandinJune.Auk41:597-598.1923Hill,G.A.1923. ThemigrationoftheKingEideratSynuk,Alaska.Condor 25:103-104.Kennard,F.H.1923. KingEiderinMaine.Auk40: 120. 1922Bedell,E. 1922. KingEideratWaterford,N.Y.Auk39:563.Praeger,W.E. 1922. KingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)insouthernMichigan.Auk39:104.333

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1921Stone,W.1921. KingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)inPennsylvania.Auk38: 270.Wilson,E. S. 1921. KingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)inMichiganwaters.Auk38:454-455.1890Worthington,W.W.1890.TheKingEider(Somateriaspectabilis)atBrunswick,Ga.Auk7: 284. 334

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HARLEQUINDUCK(Histrionicushistrionicus)[DA:Stromand,DU:Harlekijneend,EN:Harlequin-Duck,FI:Virta-alli,FR:Garrotarlequin,Canardharlequin;GE:Kragenente,IC: Straumond,IT:Morettaarlecchino,JA:Shinorigamo,NW:Harlekinand,PO:Kaczkawzorzysta,Kamieniuszka;RU:(StoneDuck), SP:Patoarlequin,SW:Stromand]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONTheHarlequinDuckbreedsintwodisjunctareasinNorth America.TheeasternbreedingrangeextendsfromtheUngavaBayareasouthalongthecoastofLabradortothenorthernGulfofSt.Lawrence(AOU1957,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Thebreedingrangeinthewestismuchlarger,extendingfromtheAleutianIslandsandSt.LawrenceIslandtocentralAlaska,souththroughtheYukonTerritory,BritishColumbia,theOlympic and CascademountainsinWashington,andtheCascade and WallowamountainsinOregontothewesternslopesoftheSierraNevadainCaliforniaandthenorthernRocky MountainsofMontana,Idaho,andnorthernWyoming(AOU1957, Palmer1976b).InthewintertheseducksarefoundinthecoastalportionsoftheirbreedingrangesalongthePacificasfarsouthascoastalcentralCalifornia.TheeasternbirdswinterfromsouthernLabrador,Newfoundland, andNovaScotiasouthalongtheAtlanticcoasttoMassachusetts,rarelytoLongIslandSound, andcasuallytotheNiagaraRiver,LakeErie,and LakeOntario(AOU1957).Therearealsoreportsofaccidentalsoccurringfarthersouthduringwinter.HarlequinDucksalsobreedinnorthernandeasternAsiafrom LakeBaikalandtheLenaRiver,Siberia,easttonorthernKamchatka andtheKomandorskiyeIslands,andsouthtonorthernMongolia,Manchuria,andtheKurileIslands.Inthewintertheyoccurfrom Kamchatka,Manchuria,andtheAleutianandPribilofislandssouthtoKorea andsouthernJapan(AOU1957).HarlequinsalsobreedinGreenlandandIceland,oftenwinteringalongthesoutherncoastsofbothislands(AOU1957).TheHarlequinDuckisaspeciesofaccidentaloccurrenceinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.There were norecordsforNorthCarolinabefore1961,butsixrecordsaccumulatedby 1967(Parnell1965,Carter1968) andourstudiesshowthattherewerefiveadditionalrecordsby 1977. Therearetwoearlyrecords for SouthCarolina(Spruntand Chamberlain 1949) andthreemorerecentrecords,1975-77.EarlyrecordsfromFlorida,primarilyfromthepanhandle,aresummarizedbyWilliams(1968);sixrecentreports,1971-77,fromtheAtlanticcoasthavecometoourattention.Therearethreerecor.dsforAlabama,onlyoneof which isfromthecoast(Imhof 1976b); oneveryoldrecordforLouisiana(Lowery1974);andthreesightrecordsforcoastalTexas(Oberholser1974).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWehavefoundnopublishedaccountsofoiledHarlequinDucks,butthespe-335

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ciesshouldbeconsideredalwatersduringwinter.impliesthatno damagetothatarea.BIBLIOGRAPHYhighlyvulnerablebecauseofitspreferenceforcoastHowever,thescarcityofthespeciesinthesoutheastthepopulationwouldbedonebyoilingincidentsin1979 Kaufman,K.andJ.Witzeman.1979.AHarlequinDuckreachesSonora,Mexico.ContinentalBirdlife1:16-17.1978Lewis,B. and L.Lewis.1978.HarlequinDuckonBull'sIsland,S.C.Chat 42:81-82.1977Davis,R.1977.HarlequinDuckatCarolinaBeach,N.C. Chat41:48.1976Parkes,K.C. andC.H.Nelson.1976.AdefiniteColoradobreedingrecordfortheHarlequinDuck.Auk93:846-847.1973McNicholl,M.K.1973.RecordsoftheHarlequinDuckinManitobaandadjacentregions.BlueJay31:150-152.1972Bengston,S.-A.1972.BreedingecologyoftheHarlequinDuckHistrionicushistrionicus(L.)inIceland.OrnisScand.3:1-19.1971Bengtson,S.-A.1971.HabitatselectionofduckbroodsinLake Myvatnarea,north-eastIceland.OrnisScand.2:17-26.Bengtson,S.-A.and S.Ulfstrand.1971. FoodresourcesandbreedingfrequencyoftheHarlequinDuckHistrionicushistrionicusinIceland.Oikos22:235-239.Gudmundsson, F.1971.Straumendur(Histrionicushistrionicus)aIslandi.Fyrrihluti.[TheHarlequinDuck(Histrionicushistrionicus)inIceland.]Natturufraedingurinn41:1-28.[InIcelandicwithEnglishsummary.] 336

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1970 Keeny,D.and L. Keeny. 1970.HarlequinDuckinsummerinVirginia.Atl.Nat.5:183.1968Carter,D.1968.HarlequinDuckatCarolinaBeach,N.C. Chat32:45-46.Williams,L.E.1968.SpecimenoftheHarlequinDuckinFlorida.WilsonBull.80:488-489.1966Bengtson,S.-A.1966.FieldstudiesontheHarlequinDuckinIceland.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.17:79-94.1965Parnell,J.F.1965.AnotherHarlequinDuckinNorthCarolina.Chat29:24.1964 Holmes,R.P.1964.HarlequinDuckagainsightedinNorthCarolina.Chat 28:29.1962Pool,W.1962.FeedinghabitsoftheHarlequinDuck. WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.13:126-129.1945Hagar,C.N.1945.HarlequinDuck ontheTexascoast.Auk62:639-640.Pearse,T. 1945. MatingofthePacificHarlequinDuck. Can.Field-Nat.59:66.1923Floyd,C.B.1923a.HarlequinDuckinEssexCounty.Bull.EssexCo.Ornithol.Club 1923:8.1923b.TheHarlequinDuckinMassachusetts.Auk40:528.1883Merriam,C.H.1883.BreedingoftheHarlequinDuck.Bull.NuttallOrnithol.Club8:220.337

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OLDSQUAW(Clangulahyemalis)[DA:Haulit,DU:IJseend,EN:Long-tailedDuck, SeaPintail;FI:AlIi,FR:CanarddeMiquelon,GE:Eisente,JA: Korigamo,NW:Hauelle,po:Lodowka,RU:(MarineDuck),SP:AlfagellGENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaInNorthAmericatheOld squawbreedsintheAleutianIslandsandArcticAlaskaeastacrosstheArcticcoastofCanadatosoutheasternLabradorandtheeasternpanhandleofQuebec.ItbreedsnorthtonorthernEllesmereIslandandthecoastsofGreenlandandsouthtothenorthernandextremewesternYukon,northernandeasternNorthwestTerritories,northeasternManitoba,thecoastandislandsofJames and Hudsonbays,andinnorthernQuebec(Godfrey1966,Palmer1976b).TheprincipalwinteringgroundsoftheOld squawinNorthAmericalietothenorthofthesoutheasternstates.OnlyinNorthCarolinaisitcommon.InwesternNorthAmerica,winteringOld squawarefound fromSt.LawrenceIslandandtheAleutianIslandssouthalongthePacificcoasttotheWashingtonand Oregonborder,occasionallytosouthernCalifornia(AOU1957,Palmer1976b);mostwinterintheBeringSea(Bellrose1976).AlongtheAtlanticseaboard,Old squawsarefound fromsouthernGreenland,Labrador,andNewfoundland,southtoChesapeake Bay, andrarelytoFlorida(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).Inthisareathelargestconcentrationsfoundin1972occurredfromDelawareBaytothelowerChesapeakeBay(Bellrose1976).SmallnumberswinteralongtheGulfcoast;there,thespeciesisapparentlymostabundantinthenorthernGulf.Old squawsalsowinterintheinteriorofNorthAmerica,chieflyontheGreatLakes,andirregularlyonotherlakesandriverssouthtoColorado,Utah,Texas,Kentucky,andTennessee(AOU1957).WorldDistributionIntheOldWorld,thisduckbreedsinthenorthernPalearcticfromIceland,Spitsbergen,andScandinaviatothetundraofRussiaandSiberia,and ontheislandsoftheBeringSea(BOU1971).IneasternEurasia,theOldsquawbreedssouthtoabout60 NintheinterioroftheScandinavianpeninsula.SomebreedataboutthislatitudeinsouthernFinlandbutmostofthebreedingpopulationoccursnorthof65 N (Crampetale1977).WinteringOld squawintheOld WorldarefoundlargelyatseaandoccurinthebreedingrangesouthtonorthernFranceandtheBaltic,Caspian,andBlackseas(AOU1957,BOU1971,Crampetale1977).InAsiatheseduckswintersouthtoJapanandKorea,largelyincoastalareas(Vaurie1965,Crampetale1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaAccordingtoPearsonetale(1942)and Wray andDavis(1959),theOld squawisacommonwinterresidentinNorthCarolina,foundmost-338

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lyincoastalbaysandsounds.They mayalsooccasionallybeseeninland.Potteretal.(1980)consideredthemuncommontorareinland,andindicatedthatmostoccurinthestatefrom NovembertoApril.Oldsquawsinbreedingplumageobservedalongthecoastduringthesummerareprobablyinjuredbirdsunabletoflynorth.SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)regardedtheOld squawasanuncommonwinterresidentthatoccursinvaryingnumbersnearlyeveryyear,primarilyalongthecoast.Theymostlyoccurontheoceanandinlargerbays.Onemayoccasionallybefoundinfreshwaterhabitatssuchasricefieldsandthebackwatersofcypressswamps.Potteretal.(1980)recentlystatedthattheOld squawisrareinSouthCarolina.ThisstatusisalsosuggestedbyrecentChristmasCounts(Map24).GeorgiaBurleigh(1958)listedtheOld squawasanuncommonwinterresidentthroughoutthestate.Theyaremostfrequentlyseenasindividualsalongthecoastduringlatewinterandearlyspring,andareusuallyfemales.Dentonetal.(1977)consideredthespeciesuncommonandirregularinGeorgia.FloridaHowell(1932)consideredtheOld squaw ararewintervisitorinFlorida.Kale(1979msa)alsoreportedthattheyarerare,andnotedthata fewbirdsareseeneachwinterinAtlanticcoastalwaters.Inrecentyears,OldsquawshavebeenreportedmorefrequentlyonboththeAtlanticandGulfcoasts(Kale1979msa,1979msb).ObservationsreportedinAmericanBirdsduringthelasttenyearsgivedatesofoccurrencefortheAtlanticcoastrangingfrom 5 December(atMerrittIslandNWR;Stevenson1977)to28 March(38mi,or61kmoffMelbourne;Stevenson1976).OneatypicalbirdremainedintheIndianRivernearCocoauntilmid-May(Kale1972).TherangeofdateslistedfortheGulfcoastisfrom 7 November(Edscorn1977)to21April(Kale1978),bothatTampa. Alabama The Old squawisanuncommonbutregularwinterresidentalongtheGulfcoastofAlabama.BonSecourandMobileBayalsoharborsmallnumbers.ItisseldomseeninlandbutoccursfairlyfrequentlyinandnearWheelerNWR(Imhof1976b).Oldsquawshavebeenreportedalongthecoastfrom NovembertoApril.Amaximumof65wascountedatFortMorgan 9January1961.Otherparticularlylargeflocksseeninclude30birdsatDauphinIsland,7April1971,and50inlandatLakePurdy,16January1971 (Imhof1976b).MississippiBurleigh(1944)consideredtheOldsquawatleastacasualvisitoralongtheGulfcoastofMississippiinlatewinterandspring.RecentobservationsshowthatthespeciesisnowmorecommoninMississippithanBurleighsuggested.InMississippi,theOld squawismostabundantintheGulf.Asmanyas85 wereseenatWestShipIsland,24-28February1979(Hamilton1979),and40wereseenthereinMarch 1977 (Weber andJackson1977).Upto16werepresentatHornIslandinJanuaryandFebruary1978, andanother20werepresentatEastShipIslandthelattermonth(Hamilton1978).Another15wereseenoffBiloxiintheGulfofMexico,20-21February1976(Hamilton1976).Inlandrecordsarefew,butasmanyas25havebeenseenatSardisLake(Hamilton1971).DatesofoccurrencegiveninthelasttenyearsofAmericanBirdsshowthatOldsquaw maybepresentinAlabama from 20 December(Hamilton1971)through21April(Imhof1979).339

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.,.-OLDSQUAIBIRDNAME'86 90" GULFOFMEXICOlinter DiStriIIItiIIlapfurSolltlleastnURiIed Stales96BIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURS I ILessthan10 IIIlIIIlIIIIII 10-50 I50-200_ More than200 (Adapted from Byltnlk, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1913-1917(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@ Number of individuals 8 Lessthan one individual None observed--I-, ( \ I,. I .,#cP I
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LouisianaFormerlyregardedasonlyacasualwintervisitortoLouisiana(Oberholser1938),theOldsquawisnowregardedasararetouncommonwintervisitor(Lowery1974).The numberseenhasincreasedmarkedlyinthelastfewdecades. oftherecordsarefrominland,despitethebirdsIdecidedpreferenceforsaltwater(Lowery1974).WefoundaboutsixrecordsforOld squawsinLousianalistedinAmericanBirds,1970-1979.ThelocalitieswheretheywereseenwereLakePontchartrain,HollyBeach,Natchitoches,BatonRouge,andontheCalcasieuRivernearCameron(Hamilton1971,1974,1975,1976;Purrington1973b).ThespecieshasbeenrecordedinLouisianabetween15 Novemberand3May(Lowery1974).TexasThe Old squawisarareandirregularvisitortoTexasduringthewinter,mostcommoninthenorthernthirdofthestateandontheGulfcoast(Oberholser1974).Atleast16recordsofabout24birdswerereportedfromTexasinAmericanBirdsfrom1970-1979.Themajorityoftheserecordswerefromthecoastandconsistedofsightingsofindividualbirds.ThemostreportedatoncewerefiveseenoffHighIsland,27February1977(Webster1977).AmajorityoftherecordsfellbetweenNovember andJanuary;Oberholser(1974)listeddatesofoccurrenceforthestateas19Octoberto30 May.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingThe OldsquawnestsinthearcticandsubarcticregionsoftheHolarcticandisoneofthenorthernmostofducksinitsbreedingdistribution.Oldsquawsbreedcircumpolarlywithnomajorgapsintheirdistribution.IntheNewWorldtheyregularlybreedsouthtoDavisInletinLabrador(Bellrose1976);intheOldWorld,Old squawsbreedsouthtosouthernFinland(Crampetal.1977),northeasternKamchatka,andtheKomandorskiyeIslands(Vaurie1965).ThetotalnumberofOld squawsisunknown,butJohnsgard(1978)speculatedthattheworldwidepopulationisabout10,000,000birds.Bellrose(1976)estimatedthattheearlysummerpopulationofOld squawsinNorthAmericawas3,000,000to4,000,000.IntheOldWorld,theOldsquawisthemostabundantduckfarnorthinthewesternPalearctic(Crampetal.1977).ThetotalbreedingpopulationinEurasiaisunknown,butauthorscitedinCrampetal.(1977)suggestpopulationsofca.2,076,000intheU.S.S.R.;200,000to600,000inIceland;and1,000inFinland.WinterMostNorthAmerican Old squawswinterintheBeringSea;otherswintersouthalongthePacificcoasttoWashington,occasionallytosouthernCalifornia.Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatmorethan1,200,000winterintheareafromSt.LawrenceIslandandtheAleutianstotheAlaskanpeninsula.Morethan20,000OldsquawswinterintheinteriorontheGreatLakes(Bellrose1976),andlessernumbersmaybefoundonotherbodiesofwaterintheinterior.RelativelysmallnumberswinteralongtheAtlanticcoastfromsouthernGreenlandandNewfoundlandtoSouthCarolinaandGeorgia.TheyalsooccurirregularlyorinsmallnumbersinFloridaandtheGulfCoastStates.Bellrose(1976)reportedthat11,800OldsquawswereseenbetweenthecoastofNewJerseyandthelowerChesapeakeBayin1972.Thisfigurerepresentsmorethanhalfof341

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allOldsquawsseenonAudubonChristmasCountsalongtheAtlanticcoastthatyear.AlongtheGulfcoastOldsquawsaremostabundantfromtheFloridapanhandletoeasternLouisiana(Map24).The AuduboncountsprovidedbyBellrose(1976)suggestthatmuchsmallernumbersofOldsquawswinteralongthePacificcoastthanalongtheAtlantic.Onthe1975Januarywaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980),only432Oldsquaws werereportedalongthePacificcoast,comparedto11,966seenalongtheAtlanticSeaboard.Slightlyoverhalfthismany(6,800)wereseeninWisconsinandMichigan.EurasianOld squawswinterthroughoutmostoftheirbreedingarea--thesouthernScandinavianpeninsula,theBalticStatesandadjacentpartsoftheU.S.S.R.--southtotheBritishIsles,northernFrance,theNetherlands,Belgium,andtheBlackSea.InAsiatheywintersouth,largelyincoastalareas,toJapan andKorea.TherearenooverallpopulationfiguresforbirdswinteringintheOld World.Crampetal.(1977)reportedaprovisionalestimateofno morethan500,000winteringinwesternEuropeinrecentyears.TheysuggestedthatthedisparitybetweenthisestimateandestimatesforbreedingandmigrantbirdswastheresultofthelatterbeingwrongorthatthereweremassiveconcentrationsofOld squawswinteringinunknownareas.Crampetal.(1977)suggestedthatOldsquawpopulationsintheOld Worldmayhavedeclinedduetooilpollution.Palmer(1976b)believesthatNorthAmericanpopulationsareundiminishedfromearliertimes.MigrationInformationonthemigrationofNorthAmerican Old squawsissopoorthatBellrose(1976)wasunabletoprovideamapshowingtheirmigratorypathways.Hesuggested,however,thattheirmigrationparalleledthecoastwhenbreedingandwinteringareaswerenearsaltwaterandthatbirdsfoundintheinteriorand ontheGreatLakesmigratedoverland.ThismayalsobetrueforbirdswinteringonthenorthernGulfcoast.ThefallmigrationoftheOld squawislatecomparedwiththemigrationsofotherspecies.SomemayremainonthenorthernbreedinggroundsuntilearlySeptember.Long-distanceflightsoverlandusuallyoccuraftermid-October.OldsquawswinteringonthesoutheasternAtlanticcoastbeginarrivingbythelastthirdofOctober,withothersarrivingpastmid-December(Palmer1976b).Malesapparentlymigrateashorterdistancethanfemales(Palmer1976b).Consequently,onemayexpectmostofthebirdsinsoutheasternwaterstobefemales.OldsquawsinthesouthernportionsoftheirwinterrangeintheUnitedStatesmigrateearlierinspringthanthosewinteringfarthernorth(Palmer1976b).MostoftheOldsquawswinteringintheChesapeake Bay,justtothenorthofNorthCarolina,departbetweenmid-March andmid-April;peaknumbersarrivethereinthefallbetweenearlyNovember andearlyDecember(Bellrose1976).Crampet.al.(1977)indicatedthatsomepopulationsofEurasianOldsquawsaremigratoryandthatothersarepartiallymigratory(i.e.,somebirdsmigratetootherareastospendthewinterandothersremaintowinterinwatersnearthebreedingarea).Migratorypathwaysarepoorlyknown,butthetimingof342

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migrationappearssimilartothatofNorthAmericanbirds.HABITATNestingOldsquawslargelybreedonhigh-Arctic Xundra andareoftenthemostabundantnestingducksthere(Crampetale1977).Theyusuallynestontreelessornearlytreelessislandsinlargelakesorponds,and oncoastalislands(Bellrose1976, Palmer 1976b).Othersnestinuplandareasneartundraponds(Bellrose1976). Cramp etal.(1977)reportedsimilarnestinghabitatforOldsquawsbreedinginthewesternPalearctic.Nestsitesareusuallynearwaterandareoftenpartiallyhiddenbeneathshrubsoramongsedges,orincrevicesbetweenrocks(Palmer1976b).Alison(1975a)didanintensivestudyofOld squawbreedingbiologynearChurchill,Manitoba.Alisonreportedthat 59% of95nestswerelocatedinislandsinfreshwaterpondsorlakes.Mostoftherestofthenests(24.3%) were onmainlandponds; 9.5% wereinmarshyareas, 4.2% wereinscrubland,and 2.1% wereindryupland.BlackSpruce(Piceamariana)boughsconcealed27.3%ofthenestsfromabove;thesenestswerewellconcealedfromthesidebygrasses,dwarfwillows(Salixspp.),ordwarfbirches(Betulaspp.).Mostofthenests(64.1%) were open from abovebutwell-concealedfromtheside;therestwerepartiallyorpoorlyconcealed.Nestsfound onthemainlandweresignificantlybetterconcealedthanthosefound onislands.About 65% ofallactivenestswerewithin1.4m(4.6ft)ofopenwater,andonly 10% werefurtherthan14m (46ft)fromwater(Alison1975a).FeedingOld squawsapparentlyprefertofeedinmarinewatersevenduringthebreedingseason.Atothertimesofyeartheyfeedinopenocean,deeplakes,saltandbrackishbays,andoccasionallyinfreshwaterestuaries(Johnsgard1978).Alison(1972inBellrose1976)reportedthatOldsquawsfedinwater30-50ft(9-15m) deep-near Toronto;inLakeOntario,theywereseenfeedinginwater3-32ft(0.9-9.8m)deep(Bellrose1976).Johnsgard(1975)suggestedthattheforagingdepthoversub-tidalfeedingareasincoastalareasisno morethan25ft(7.6m),andPalmer(1976b) remarkedthattheyprobablycommonlydivetodepthsof10fathoms(18m).Crampetale(1977)statedthatnormalforagingdepthsare3-10 m(10-33ft).WinterandOffshoreWinteringOld squawarefoundbothon openwaterinlandandoffthecoast,butmostarefoundalongcoasts.Theyareoneofthemostpelagicducks andareoftenfoundfarfromshore.Palmer (1976b)indicatedthat birdsseldomorneverleft'thewater.Birdswinteringonfreshwateraregenerallywelloutintheopen;thosewinteringontheGreatLakesareusually7-10mi(11-16km)ormore fromshore(Palmer1976b).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIOROld squawsfeedbydiving,sometimestogreatdepths.Bellrose(1976)suggestedthatforagingOldsquawsdivedeeperthananyotherduck.Alison(1975a)examined Old squawscaughtingillnetsatadepthof51m (167ft);Palmer(1976b)believedthatadiveof34 fathoms (62m)wasthedeepest343

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divethathadbeenadequatelydocumented.Littleinformationisavailableonfeedingtechniquesbuttheseducksprobablyemploy avarietyofmethodstoobtainfood(Palmer1976b).Submergencetimesarelong;Crampetal.(1977)citedstudiesgivingtherangeoftimethatOldsquawsremainedbelowthesurfaceas30-40sec,30-60sec,and 22-61sec.Birdsinflocksmaydiveinsynchrony(Palmer1976b)ortheymaydiveoneaftertheotherinalongline(Crampetal.1977).Oldsquawsusuallyfeedbyday,buttheymayalsofeednocturnally(Millais1913inCrampetal.1977).Winteringbirdsmoveinshoretofeed,thenoutto Thetimingofsuchmovementsvarieswidelywitha numberofenvironmentalfactors(Palmer1976b).PetersonandEllarson(1977)recentlystudiedthefoodhabitsoftheOldsquaw on LakeMichiganandconcludedthatanimalmattercomprisesmostofthediet.TheyalsoconcludedthattheOld squawisanopportunisticfeederthateatsanyfoodwhichissufficientlynumerousorreadilyavailable.Mostofthisfoodislivinganimals,butOldsquawshavealsobeenknowntodivefordiscardedoffal(PetersonandEllarson1977) andtofeedonlong-deadfish.Crustaceansandmolluscsareoftenprincipalcomponentsofthediet.Oldsquawscollectedon LakeMichiganfrom 1951to1954 hadeaten99%(byvolume)animalfood.Mostofit(52-96%,dependingonthesamplearea)consistedofasingleamphipod(Pontoporeiaaffinis).ThisanimalwasalsoanimportantitemofdietinalargesampleofOldsquawscollectedon LakeMichiganfrom 1969to1972.Duringthelatterperiodthisamphipod waspresentin95%ofallOldsquawgulletsthatcontainedanyfood(PetersonandEllarson1977).Rofritz(1977)foundthatalltheidentifiablestomachcontentsfrom Old squawscollectedintheMilwaukeeharborconsistedofoligochaetesludgeworms(TubifextubifexandLimnodrilushoffmeisteri).StudiescitedinPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976)suggestaproportionofanimalfoodrangingfrom 88to100%ofthediet.Otheranimalseatenincludeavarietyofmolluscs(e.g.,snails,cockles,clams,chitons),crustaceans(e.g.,isopods,amphipods,shrimp,crabs),variousinsects(mostlyaquaticforms),fish(e.g.,gobies,cod,flatfish,minnows),fisheggs(e.g.,stickleback,herring),echinoderms,andannelids(e.g.,earthworms,cutworms)(authorscitedinBellrose1976,Palmer1976b,Crampetal.1977,PetersonandEllarson 1977). Thesmallamountofplantmaterialeatenincludessuchitemsaspondweeds,variouspartsofsedgesandgrasses,filamentousalgae,moss,berries,tubers,roots,andleaves(Palmer1976b, Crampetal.1977).Wehavefound noreportsoffoodhabitsoftheOldsquawinsoutheasternwatersasidefrom anoccasionalanecdotalremarkinthedistributionalliterature.MoreextensivereviewsoffoodseatenbyOldsquawsareprovidedby Johns gard(1975),Bellrose(1976),Palmer(1976b),Crampetal.(1977),andPetersonandEllarson(1977).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONThe Old squawisafrequentvictimofoilpollutionandisknowntohave344

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sufferedheavycasualtiesfromoilinboththeNewandOld Worlds(Table7).Crampetal.(1977)consideredtheOldsquawunusuallysusceptibletooilpollutionandsuggestedthattheOld Worldpopulationmayhavegreatlydeclinedfromthissourceofmortality.Perryetal.(1979)estimatedthatatotalofmorethan15,000Old squawsdiedfollowingtwooilspillsintheChesapeake Bayin1976 and1978.The Oldsquaw wastheprincipalvictimofthe1978spill,andin1976 more Old squawsdiedthananyotherspeciesexcepttheHornedGrebe.WeconsidertheOldsquawoneofthespeciesmostsusceptibletooilingofanyspeciesthatoccursinsoutheasternwaters.IndividualOldsquaws wouldprobablybeaffectedbyoilintheeventofoildischargesorspillsoffthesoutheasterncoastsoftheUnitedStates.However,onlyafractionofonepercentoftheNorthAmericanpopulation,letaloneoftheworldpopulation,wintersthere.Consequently,webelievethatoilspillsandothereffectsofpetroleumdevelopmentwouldhaveessentiallynoeffectontheoverallOld squawpopulation.Table7.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadOldsquaws foundaftermajoroilingincidents.Number NumberofoiledofdeadPercent-deadOld-ageofAreaDatesbirdssquaws Old squawsSourceNorthSeacoast,1957-195892(a)33.26Joensen1972a DenmarkNorth-centralJan.-Feb.1,723(a,b)694.00Joensen1972aKattegat,Denmark 1962 N.Sjaelland, Feb.-Har. 2,340(a)170.73Joensen1972a Denmark 1965Bornholm,Den-Jan.-Feb.466(a)30866.09Joensen1972a mark 1966 TayEstuary, Har.-Apr. 1,168(c)0.09Greenwood andScotland1968Keddie1968N.Sealand, Feb.-Har. 2,376(a)351.47Joensen1972b Denmark 1969Laeso-Vendsyssel,Dec. 19691,36220.15Joensen1972 b DenmarkNortheastJan.-Feb.10,992(a,b)350.32GreenwoodetBritain1970 a1. 1971 345

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Table7.(Continued.)NumberNumberofoiledofdeadPercent-deadOld-ageofAreaDatesbirdssquaws Old squawsSourceMartha'sVine-Feb.1970541(a)30.55CSLP1971yard,MAE.coastJutland,Feb.-Mar.1,974(a)261.32Joensen1972b Dernnark 1970OffeasternCan-Feb.-Apr.1,276(a,c)19215.05Brownetal.ada1970 1973 S.Kattegat,Dec.1970-2,311(a)60.26Joensen1972b Dernnark Jan.1971Djursland-Anholt,Mar. 1971 239 41.67Joensen1972b Dernnark North-centralMar. 19724,759(a)631.32JoensenandKattegat, Dernnark Hansen 1977 Waddensea, DenDec. 19729,151(a)110.12Joensenand mark Hansen 1977Balticsea1972-19743,867(a,b)2,56566.33Gorskiet al. coast,Poland1976BalticseaNov.1974-653(a,c)31347.93Gorskietal.coast,PolandAug. 1975 1977ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197630,000(d)11,90039.67Perryetal.Virginia1979ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197810,000(d)3,89038.90Perryet al. Virginia1979Varangerfjord,Mar. 19791,616(e)30.19Barrett1979northNorway(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(c)Totalincludesbothliveanddeadoiledbirds.(d)Figureisanestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.(e)Anestimated10,000to20,000seabirdsdiedasaresultofthisoilspill.346

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Snell,R.R.1981.HerringGullattacksandeatsadultmaleOldsquaw.WilsonBull.93: 110-111. 1980Nilsson,L.1980.DeovervintrandealfaglarnasClangulahyemalisantalochutbredninglagsdenSvenskakusten.[Numbers anddistributionoftheLong-tailedDuckClangulahyemalisalongtheSwedishcoast.]VarFagelvarld39:1-14.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Rogers,D.W.1980.OldsquawsoffCapeBlanco.OregonBirds5:26-27.Spomer,R.1980. Old squawsontheMissouri.S. Dak.BirdNotes32:59.1979Hirsch,K.V.1979.WinteringdivingducksinPugetSound andtheStraitofJuandeFuca.(Abstractonly).Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:37.HopeJones,P.1979.RoostingbehaviourofLong-tailedDucksinrelationtopossibleoilpollution.Wildfowl30:155-158.Hubbard,J.only).1979.SpringmigrationatCapePrinceofWales,Alaska.(AbstractPac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:41.Peterson,S.R.andR.S.Ellarson.1979.ChangesinOldsquawcarcassweight.WilsonBull.91:288-300.Stafford,S.K.1979.InlandrecordsofOld squaws andSurfScoterfromnorthFlorida.Fla.FieldNat.7:25-26.1978Peterson,S.R.and R.S.Ellarson.1978a.Bursae,reproductivestructures,andscapularcolorinwinteringfemaleOldsquaws.Auk95:115-121.1978b.p,p'-DDE,polychlorinatedbiphenyls,andendrininOldsquawsinNorthAmerica,1969-73.Pest.Monit.J.11:170-181.1977Alison,R.M.1977. Homing ofsubadultOldsquaws.Auk94:383-384.Kurik, H. 1977. LowdoWka (Clangulahyemalis)nasaniewPrzemyslu.[ObservationofLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis)nearPrzemyslu.]NotatkiOrnitol.18:50.[InPolishwithEnglishsummary.] 347

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Peterson,S.R.andR.S.Ellarson.1977. FoodhabitsofOld squawswinteringon LakeMichigan.WilsonBull.89:81-91.Rofritz,D.J.1977.OligochaetaasawinterfoodsourcefortheOld squaw.J.Wildl.Manage.41:590-591.Sexton,D.A.andK.M.Collins.1977.RecordsoftheOld squawinsouthernManitoba.BlueJay35:96-99.1976Alison,R.M.1976.Oldsquawbroodbehavior.Bird-Banding47:210-213.Gloden,R. 1976.Wintringen.12:112-114.Eisente(Clangulahyemalis)imKiesgrubengebietRemerschen/[ClangulahyemalisintheRemerschen/Wintringenarea.]Regulus[InGermanwithFrenchsummary.]Peterson,S.R.1976a.VariationinOldsquawrectrixnumbers.Auk93:190-192.1976b.TheOld squaw:bodymeasurements,foodhabits,andenvironmental-----contaminants.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Wisconsin/Madison,WI. 132pp.1975Alison,R.M.1975a.BreedingbiologyandbehavioroftheOldsquaw(ClangulahyemalisL.).Ornithol.Monogr.18.52pp.1975b.CapturingandmarkingOldsquaws.Bird-Banding46:248-250.Peterson,S.R.andR.S.Ellarson.1975.IncidenceofleadshotinLakeMichiganOldsquaws.J.Wildl.Manage39:217-219.1974Alison,R.M.1974.Oldsquaw hominginwinter.Auk91:188.Bergman,G.1974. ThespringmigrationoftheLong-tailedDuckandtheCommonScoterinwesternFinland.OrnisFenn.51:129-145.Fantin,G.1974.44:115-126.LaMorettaCodona(Clangulahyemalis).Riv.Ital.Ornitol.[InItalian.]Gjoseater,J.andR.Saetre.1974.PredationofeggsofCapelinMallotusvillosusbydivingducks.Astarte7:83-89.Pehrsson,o.1974.NutritionofsmallducklingsregulatingbreedingareaandreproductiveoutputintheLong-tailedDuck,Clangulahyemalis.Internatl.Congr.Game 11:259-264.1973Alison,R.M.1973.DelayednestinginOldsquaws.Bird-Banding44:61-62.348

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1972Alison,R.M.1972.ThebreedingbiologyoftheOld-squaw(ClangulahyemalisLinnaeus)atChurchill,Manitoba.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Toronto/Toronto,ON.129pp.Letson,E. S. 1972. Oldsquaw(Clangulahyemalis)inSarasotaCounty[Florida].Fla.Nat.45:129.1971 Bergman,G.andK.C.Donner.1971.WinddriftduringthespringmigrationoftheCommonScoter(Melanittanigra)andtheLong-tailedDuck(Clangula emalis).Vogelwarte26:157-159.Etnier,D.A.1971.SnowBuntings,Oldsquaw, andWhite-wingedScoterineastTennessee.Migrant42:5.1970Alison,R.1970.ThebehaviouroftheOld-squaw(ClangulahyemalisLinnaeus),Aves:Anatidae,inwinter.M.S.thesis,Univ.Toronto/Toronto,ON.68pp.Evans,R.M.1970.OldsquawnestinginassociationwithArcticTernatChurchill,Manitoba.WilsonBull.82:383-390.Haila,Y.1970.PalvanOijyonnettomuus.[The"PaIva"oiltankercatastropheofftheSWcoastofFinland.]SuomenRiista22:7-13.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Mathiasson,S. 1970. Numbers anddistributionofLong-tailedwinteringducksinnorthernEurope.Brit.Birds63:414-424.Ruttledge,R.F. 1970.Winterdistributionand numbersofScaup,Long-tailedDuck andCommonScoterinIreland.BirdStudy17:241-246.1967McGilvrey,F.B. 1967. FoodhabitsofseaducksfromthenortheasternUnitedStates.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:142-145.Stewart,P.A.1967.DivingschedulesofaCommonLoon and agroupofOldsquaws.Auk84:122-123.1966Paull,D.E. 1966.Long-tailedDucksomersaultingwhilebathing.Brit.Birds59:38.Wilbur,R.O.1966.InlandrecoveryofanOld squawinCalifornia.Condor 68: 516. 349

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1964 Bergman,G.andK.C.Donner. 1964.AnanalysisofthespringmigrationoftheCommonScoterandLong-tailedDuckinsouthernFinland. Acta Zool.Fenn. 105:1-59.Bergman,G.1961.Allinjamustalinnunmuuttokannatkevaalla1960. [ThemigratingpopulationsoftheLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis)andCommonScoter(Melanittanigra)inthespring1960.]SuomenRiista14:69-74.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Drury,W.H.1961.ObservationsonsomebreedingwaterbirdsonBylotIsland.Can.Field-Nat.75: 84-101.Curry-Lindahl,K.1960.SerioussituationwithregardtoSwedishpopulationsofLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis).Internatl.Waterfowl Res. Bur. Newsl. 10:15-18.1959 Kuroda,N.1959.[OsteologicalnotesonClangulahyemalis(L.)].Dobuts.Zasshi68: 330-334.[InJapanesewithEnglishsummary.] 1958 Atkeson, T. Z. 1958. Goldeneye, Old Squaw, andGreaterScauprecordsfrom WheelerReservoir.Ala.Birdlife6: 15-16. 1956Ellarson,R.S. 1956. AstudyoftheOld-squaw Duck on LakeMichigan.Ph.D.thesis,Univ. Wisconsin/Madison,WI.231pp. 1954Grenquist,P. 1954.[Long-tailedDuck,themostimportantgamebirdoftheFinnishArchipelago.]SuomenRUsta9: 72-80.[InFinnishwithEnglishabstract.]1951Schorger,A.1951. DeepdivingoftheOld-squaw. WilsonBull.63: 112. 1948Geroudet,P.malis.1948. QuelquesnotessurlaHareldede Miquelon,ClangulahyeNosOiseaux 19: 165-172.[InFrench.]350

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Lagler,K.F. andC.C.Wienert.1948.FoodoftheOld-squawinLakeMichigan.WilsonBull.60: 118.Stresemann,V.1948.Eclipseplumage andnuptialplumageintheOld Squaw,orLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis).Avicult.Mag.54: 188-194.1947Schorger,A.W.1947.ThedeepdivingoftheloonandtheOld-squaw anditsmechanism. WilsonBull.59: 151-159. 1946 Anon. 1946. Old Squawscaughtinsetnets.Mich. Conserv. 15: 15. Adams,R.G.1946.ActionsofLong-tailedDuckunderwater.Brit.Birds39: 283. 1945Speirs,J.M.1945.FlightspeedoftheOld-squaw.Auk62: 135-136. 1938Scott,W.E. 1938. Old-Squawstakeningill-nets.Auk55: 668. 1934Stoner,C.R.1934.Long-tailedDuckfeedingonseascorpion.Scott.Nat.1934: 50.1932Sutton,G.M.1932. Notes onthemoltsandsequenceofplumagesintheOld squaw.Auk49:42-51.1929Alford,C.E. 1929.Thediving-habitsoftheLong-tailedDuck.Brit.Birds22: 331.Forrest,H.E. 1929.Long-tailedDuckinMerionetta.Brit.Birds22: 214. Ingram,G.C.S.andH.M.Salmon. 1929.ThedivinghabitsoftheLong-tailedDuck.Brit.Birds22: 264-266. Oldham,C.1929.Long-tailedDucksinHertfordshireandtheirdivinghabits.Brit.Birds22: 214-215.351

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1928Burleigh,T.D.1928.OccurrenceoftheOld-squaw(Clangulahyemalis)atAthens,Clarke,Co.,Georgia.Auk45:92-93.1926Schorger,A.W.1926. Old-squaw(Hareldahyemalis)atSt.Joseph,Michigan.Auk43:536.1925Taylor,W.P.1925. Old Squaw, WesternGulland GlaucousGullinWashington.Murrelet6:32.1922 Anthony, A.W.1922.TheOld Squaw (HareIdahyemalis)atSanDiego,Calif.Auk39: 104.Lawrence,R.B.1922. Old-squaw(Clangulahyemalis)inTexas.Auk39: 250. 1919Harrison,J.M.1919.Long-tailedDuckfeedingongrain.Brit.Birds13:85-86.1914Hull,E.D.1914.Park,Chicago.HabitsoftheOld-squaw(Hareldahyemalis)inJacksonWilsonBull.26:116-123.1894 Mackay,G.H.1894.HabitsoftheOld squaw(Clangulahyemalis)inNewEngland.Auk9:330-337.352

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BlACKSCOTER(Melanittanigra)[DA:Sortand, Dfr: ZwarteZee-eend,EN:CommonScoter,FI:Meriteeri,FR:Macreusenoire,GE:Trauerente,IC:Hrafnsond,IT:Orchettomarino,JA:Kurogamo,NW:Svartand,po:Markaczkaczarna,PR:Pato-do-mar,Patonegro; RU: (Scoter),SP: Anadenegrocomun, Negron comun;SW:Sjoorre,US:AmericanScoterlGENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica TheBlackScoterbreedsincoastalinteriorAlaskafromBristolBaynorthtoKotzebueSound and Mount McKinley.ThereisasmallbreedingpopulationincentralUngava andtherearea fewscatteredbreedingrecordsfromNewfoundland,northernQuebec,andsouthernKeewatinDistrict(Godfrey1966).Detailsofthebreedingrangearenotclear(Johnsgard1975,Bel1rose1976,Palmer1976b),inpartbecausesummerbirdsdonotnecessarilynest.InwinterBlackScotersarefoundintheGreatLakesregionandalongtheAtlanticandPacificcoasts.AlongthePacificcoasttheyrangefromtheAleutianIslandssouthtonorthernBajaCalifornia(Palmer1976b),butareapparentlymostabundantintheAleutianIslandsand ontheAlaskaPeninsula(Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976b).BlackScoterscommonlywinterfrom NewfoundlandtotheCarolinas(Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976);theyalsowinter,insmallnumbers,offtheAtlanticcoastofFloridaandoffthecoastofstatesborderingtheGulfofMexico(Map25).WorldDistributionThe Americanrace americana)alsobreedsinnorthernAsiafromtheLena-YanawatershedtotheAnadyrRasinandtheKamchat kaPeninsulaand ontheKurileIslands.TheEuropeanBlackScoter (.!:!. nigra)breedsinIceland,Scotland,Norway, andnorthernEurasiaatleasttotheKhatangaRiver(Johnsgard1978).IthasoccurredinNorthAmericaonlyasastragglertoGreenland(Palmer1976b).EuropeanBlackScoterswinterprimarilyoffthecoastsofwesternEurope andontheMediterranean,Black,andCaspianseas(Johnsgard1978),butarealsofoundoffthecoastsofnorthwestAfrica.BirdsoftheAmericanracewinteralongtheAsiancoastsouthalongtheKamchatkaPeninsulatoKorea,Japan,andeasternChina(Crampetal.1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESTherecordofobservationsoftheBlackScoterinthesoutheastshows adramaticchangeineitherthewinterdistributionandabundanceofthespeciesorthepatternofobservationandreporting.Thetypicalwinterdistributionofthenorthernseaducks--Iargeconcentrationsoffthenortheasterncoast,Taxonomicnote:TheFifthEditionoftheAOUCheck-list(1957)liststhisspe cies astheCommonScoter,Oidemianigra.Manyolderreferencesusethespecificnameamericana.353

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..............BLACK SCITER .,;r ...... -f",.J--------,/' -----------.,\ a ,I\I ,I \\I --&r ")--_..\'--,. ..i I DALLAS90" GULFOFMEXICOTEXASBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIIlessthan10 IIIIIIIOOOOB 10-50I I 50-200_ Morethan200 (Adapted fro ...Iystralr. 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @Number ofindividuals oLess thanoneindividual @) None observed.;....",.J:"."(]t ....H-+-0 Map25

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perhapstoChesapeake Bay,withnumbers andobservationsdwindlingrapidlysouthward--wasapparentlyappropriateforthisspeciesthroughtheearlypartofthecentury.Morerecentobservations,however,indicatelargeconcentrationsofBlackScotersoffSouthCarolinaandGeorgia,butnotoffeitherNorthCarolinaorFlorida.Unfortunately,therecordsarenotsufficientlyconsistenttorevealwhethertheseconcentrationsoccureveryyear,inacyclicfashion,orjustsporadically.StottandOlson(1972)postulatedthatchangeddistributionalpatternsofallthreescotersmighthaveresultedfromchangesinhuntingpressureoffthenortherncoast,butifthemoresoutherlyoccurrencesarecyclicorsporadicthelackofintenseobservationinthepastmaymerelyobscurethefactthatthisisactuallyahistoricpattern.Atanyrate,thepatternisunusualenoughtowarrantexaminationinsomedetail.Thisspeciesgenerallyremainswelloffshore,whereitmighteasilyescapedetectionbyobserversonthecoast.Manyrecordsfromthesoutheastareofbirdsinlatespringorsummer,possiblycrippledbirdsthatcannotmigratebacktotheirbreedinggroundsandthatdriftshorewardafterflocksdepart.NorthCarolinaPearsonetal.(1919)consideredtheBlackScoter"acommonwinterspeciesinPamlicoand Core sounds"butmore numerousontheocean;nospecificrecordsweregiven.Later,Pearsonetal.(1942)reportedthespeciesas"occasional",notingobservationsdatingfrom1871,1919,1924,and1934.Theserecordsmayhavebeenselectedtoshowseasonalornumericalstatus,andthedegreetowhichtheyrepresenttotalobservationsisunclear.Wray andDavis(1959)reportedatleastnineadditionalobservations,butfailedtosuggestanychangefromthe"occasional"statusreportedearlier.Theonlyrecentreports(Teulings1976d,1977b; LeGrand 1977b)areofbirdsthatlingeredintothesummerorthatappearedinland,andtheliteratureforthelasttwodecadesissilentontheoverallstatusofthespecies.SouthCarolinaTherewereonlytworecordsoftheBlackScoterinthisstateuntil1929,representedbyspecimenstakenin1884 and1903.EightbirdswereseeninJanuary1929."Sincethen,recordshavemultiplied,andthespeciesisnowlistedasaregularwintervisitor.Itis,indeed,themostcommonofthescotersfrequentingtheSouthCarolinacoast"(SpruntandChamberlain1949).Althoughtherearefewpublishedrecordssince1949,Burton(1970)saidthat"Thisspeciesisbyfartheearliestofthesea-duckstoarriveinnumbersofftheSouthCarolinacoast".ThespeciesisseldommentionedasoccurringinSouthCarolinawatersduringthe sinanyoftheseasonalreportsinAmericanBirdsexceptonChristmasBirdCounts,whenitisgenerallyreportedinsmallnumbers(Map25).GeorgiaGreeneetal.(1945)reportedasingleoccurrenceoftheBlackScoterinGeorgia,datingfrom 1903(thesameyearasanearlySouthCarolinarecord).Tomkins(1955)reportedthreeadditionaloccurrences,ofsinglebirds,inandabout1955;theserecordsareoverlookedbyBurleigh(1958),whomentionedonlythe1903specimen.Theremusthavebeenaverysuddenchangeinthenextdecade--StottandOlson(1972)citedobservationsbyO.Dewberryof"10,000-30,000[Black]scotersusingtheopencoastduringthewintersof1968-70".Coolidge(1974)reportedtwoflocksof108 and55BlackScotersinOctober1974,and commentedthatbefore1960thespecies"wasconsideredararewintervisitortoourstate.Sincethattimeithasbeenseensofre-355

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quentlythatitnolongerhasthatstatusandwenowexpectitasamid-wintervisitoroff-shoreandinoursounds".Themostrecentanalysis(Dentonetal.1977),ontheotherhand,considerstheBlackScoteruncommoninwinterandoccasionalinotherseasons.FloridaThroughtheyear1925therewereonlyaboutsevenrecords,allfromtheeastcoast(Howell1932).Sprunt(1954)summarizedfourGulfcoastrecords,andnotedthatahighproportionofallFloridarecordswereinthespringorearlysummer. Atpresent,theBlackScoterisconsideredraretouncommononbothcoastsofFlorida,althoughregularintheUpperGulf,andobservationsareoccurringwithgreaterfrequencythaninthepast(Kale1979msa,1979msb).AlabamaBlackScotersareraretocasualvisitorsontheAlabamacoast,occurringmostfrequentlyinMississippiSound. Theyhavebeenrecordedbetween November andApril,and one wasobservedinthevicinityofDauphinIslandduringthesummerof1970 (Imhof1976b).MississippiThestatusofBlackScotersinMississippiisimperfectlyknown;theyareevidentlyuncommonorrare.Jacksonand Weber(1977)and WeberandJackson(1977)listedrecentsightingsofthreeinlandonSardisLake fromearlyNovemberthrough22December 1976, andofeightonthecoastatEastShipIsland,10 March1977.LouisianaTheBlackScoterisuncommoninLouisianawatersbuthasbecome morecommoninrecentyears.Therewereonlyfiverecordsthrough1960butby1973thespecieshadbeenrecorded19times,withatotalof120birds.Datesofoccurrencethroughthisperiodrangefrom 25Octoberthrough25May,withnoclearpatternofdistribution(Lowery1974).Mostoftherecordswerefromthecoast.TexasOberholser(1974)consideredthisduckarareandirregularwinter ischieflycoastalinitsdistributionbutthereareseveralinlandrecords.AccordingtoPalmer(1976b),itwasoncetherarestscoteronthecoastbutisnowthemostcommon.DatesofoccurrencegivenbyOberholser(1974)arefrom 4 Novemberto21April.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingThebreedingdistributionoftheBlackScoterisnotwellknownbutmostofthebreedingpopulationisfoundbetween75N and SO NlatitudeandinthenorthernPalearcticandnorthwesternNearctic.IntheOld WorlditbreedsinIceland,theFaeroes,andthroughScandinaviatotheTaimyrPeninsula.AnotherpopulationbreedsinnortheasternSiberia(BOU1971).TheprimarybreedingpopulationwithinNorthAmericaisinnorthwesternAlaska,withsmallernumbersbreedinginUngava(Palmer1976b).FewbreedingrecordsareavailableforCanada,butBellrose(1976)suggestedthepossibilityofalargebreedingpopulationwestofJames Bay. The numbersofBlackScotersbreedinginNorthAmericaarenotknownadequately.Bellrose(1976)statedthatmostofthe252,000scotersfoundin356

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AlaskaduringaerialsurveyswereBlackScoters.Ofthese,most(157,000)breedontheYukonDelta.Another75,000breedadjacenttoBristolBayandsome20,000breedontheSewardPeninsula(KingandLensink1971inBellrose1976).The 1976surveyofwaterfowlnestinginAlaskafound abreedingpopulationof376,200scoters(Larnedetal.1980).Informationonthesizeofmany Old WorldbreedingpopulationsislackingbutthisscoterisapparentlyconsiderablylessabundantinthewesternPalearcticthaninthenorthwestPacific.Crampetal.(1977)citedauthorslistingbreedingpopulationsof1,000inIcelandandFinlandandabout60inBritain.WinterTheBlackScoterwintersontheAsianandNorthAmericancoastlinesofthePacificOcean,intheGreatLakes,andontheAtlanticcoastsouthtoabouttheCarolinasandirregularlytoFloridaandtheGulfStates(Map25)(AOU1957,Johnsgard1975).EuropeanbirdswintermainlyoffthecoastofWesternEurope,andontheBlack,Mediterranean,andCaspianseas(Johnsgard1978).BecausewintersurveysofwaterfowlbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicedonotdistinguishbetweenspeciesofscoter,thedistributionandnumbersofbirdswinteringwithintheUnitedStatesispoorlyknown.Bellrose(1976)waspuzzledatthesmallnumberswinteringonthePacificcoastandreportedanestimated250,000winteringintheAleutianIslands.DuringtheJanuary1976waterfowlsurvey(Larnedetal.1980),totalsofabout97,000scoterswerefoundinthePacificFlywayandabout60,000intheAtlanticFlyway.Bellrose(1976)suggestedthatabout3%ofthebirdswinteringinthePacificFlywaywereBlackScotersandthatthisspeciesconstituted20%ofthescoterswinteringalongAtlanticcoasts.Ifthesefiguresarestillapplicable,approximately2,900BlackScoterswinteroffthePacificcoastsofthecontiguousUnitedStates,withanother15,000winteringofftheAtlanticcoasts.The numberofCommonScoterswinteringintheOld WorldisalsouncertainbutCrampetal.(1977)listedanestimateof400,000to500,000winteringinthewesternPalearctic.MigrationMigrationofBlackScotersispoorlyknown andrecenthandbooks(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b)arefranklyspeculativeindescribingpossiblemigratoryroutes.Wewouldrathernotaddtothesespeculationsuntilmoreandbetterinformationisobtainedonthedistributionandsizeofwinteringandbreedingpopulations.Judgingfromtheinformationavailable,BlackScotersusuallybegintoarriveinsoutheasternwatersinearlyNovember andhavelargelydepartedbylateApril.Muchoftheinformationavailableonhabitats,foodhabitsandbreedingbiologyoftheBlackScoterisfromstudiesmadeintheOldWorld.Consequently,muchofwhatispresentedinthefollowingsectionsislargelya summaryofinformationgivenbyCrampetal.(1977),supplementedbyinformationinotherrecenthandbooks.PresumablymuchofthedatagivenbyCrampetal.(1977)isgenerallyapplicabletoNorthAmericanpopulationsoftheBlackScoter.HABITATNesting Most BlackScotersnestwellinlandintundraordwarfheath.357

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Whennestinginwetter,more opensites,theyprefertonestonisletsand lowpromontories. Black Scoterswillalsoneston uplandslopes,arctic-alpineareas,andalongthebanksofrivers(Crampetal.1977).AtLake Myvatn,Iceland,these ducks nestedpredominantlyunderdense primarilylowratherthanhighshrubs.Theynestedtoa much lesserextentinholes,meadows, andamongsedges.Mostnestswerewithin10-100ft(3-30m)ofpotholesand were welldispersed.Theaveragenest-densitywas53nests/sqkm(1nest/5 acres [Bengtson 1970inJohnsgard1975,Bellrose1976]). Black Scotersnestedinthelargestclumps Of grassatHooper Bay, Alaska(Brandt1943inBellrose1976).FeedingBreedingbirdspresumablyfeedinwatersneartheirnestsites;winteringbirdslargelyfeed overshellfishbedsinshallowwaters.Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatthesescotersprefertofeedinwatersabout1-3 m(3.3-9.8ft)deep.Winter andOffshoreNon-breeding Black Scotersoftenformlargeflockscomprisedofseveralhundredtoathousandormorebirds.Thesescotersareusuallyfound onmarinewaters,generally500m(1,640ft)to2km(3.22mi)offshoreoverwatersnotmorethan10-20 m(32.8-65.6ft)deep.Theypreferopen ocean justoffshoretoareasinterspersedwith rocks andislands(Crampetal.1977).Johnsgard(1975)indicatedthattheoptimumhabitatalongtheAtlantic coast waswithinamile (ca. 1.6km)ofshoreandjustbeyondthebreakers.During stormyweatherBlackScoterssometimesseekshelteredwaters(Palmer1976b).Theyrarelycomeashorebutmayoccasionallyrestonisletsorsandbanks (Crampetal.1977).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORBlackScotersfeedbydiVing,usuallybydayinsmallerscatteredgroupsthanwhenroostingnocturnally(Crampetal.1977).Theyusuallymoveinshoretofeedearlyinthemorning(Phillips1926inJohnsgard1975).Divingisoftensynchronized(Crampetal.1977). These-Scoters donotdiveparticularlydeeply;Cottam (1939inJohnsgard1978)believedthatdivesseldom exceeded40ft(12 m).Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatthesescotersmayremainsubmergedforas much as49secbutthatdivesusuallytakebetween18and30sec.WeareunawareofanydetailedaccountsoffoodhabitswithinthewatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Thefollowingcomments on foodseatenelsewherearelargelyabstractedfrom Palmer (1976b) andCrampetal.(1977),whoshouldbeconsultedformoredetailedlistingsoforganismseaten.InonestudycoveringNorth America (Cottam 1939inPalmer1976b), Black Scotersfedlargely(ca. 90%) onanimals.Muchof consistedofmolluscs(e.g.,mussels,cockles,clams,snails.scallops)andcrustaceans(e.g amphipods.crabs.barnacles.crayfish.shrimp).Fishesandtheireggs.insects.frogsandtadpoles.echinoderms(e.g.,sanddollars.seaurchins.starfish.brittlestars)andannelidsarealsoeaten.Inland,freshwaterclamsarepreferred.VegetablefoodseateninNorth Americaarelargelypondweeds.includingZostera.Potamogeton. and Ruppia,aswellasvariousalgae.358

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BlackScotersintheOld WorldhavefoodhabitssimilartothoseofNorthAmericanbirdsandoftenfeedlargelyonmolluscs.InIceland,youngbirdsatemostlyaquaticinsectsandseeds;femalesmostlyatechironomidlarvaeand a fewadultmalesatemostlyfisheggsand somechironomidlarvae(Bengtson1971).A numberofstudieshaveshownthatBlueMussels(Mytilusedulis)areoftenan importantfooditeminbothNorth America andintheOld World.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS EggLayingTheBlackScoterDuckisthelasttonestintheYukonDelta.There,itlaysitseggsaboutthemiddleofJune(Bellrose1976).Palmer (1976b)indicatedthatBlackScotersmaycompletetheirclutchesasearlyasMayinIcelandandthatfullclutchesarecommonlypresentbyearlyJuneinIcelandandGreatBritain.MeanClutchSizeCiutchesrangefromabout5to8eggsinAlaskaandtheBritishIsles,butapparentlyarelargerinIceland(Bellrose1976).Palmer(1976b)indicatedthattheusualclutchsizeis7-8eggsandconsidered6-10thenormalrange.The meanofmeanclutchsizesfortheperiod1961-1970atLake Myvatyn,Iceland,was8.7;earlynestscontaineda meanof8.9eggsandlatenestsa meanof8.1eggs.Nestsconsideredtobetheresultofrenestingcontaineda meanof6.1eggs(Bengtson1972).IncubationPeriodNoinformationisavailableontheincubationperiodofNorthAmericanBlackScoters.Incubationperiodsrangingfrom26to33dayshavebeenreportedforOld WorldBlackScoters(Palmer1976b).HatchingSuccessForBlackScotersnestingatLake Myvatyn,Bengtson(1972)indicatedthat95.2%oftheeggshatchedinnestsinwhichanyeggshatchedatall.BengstonestimatedahatchingsuccessforBlackScotersof81.8%.Crampetal.(1977)reportedthateggshatchedin16of38nestsinIreland.ThereappeartobenoadequatedataonhatchingsuccessforNorthAmericanBlackScoters.FledgingSuccessNoexactinformationisavailable.Bengston(1972)estimatedthata meanof2.7young were producedperfemaleatLake Myvatn,Iceland.AgeatFledgingPalmer(1976b) commentedthattheageoffirstflight(6-7weeks)reportedbyHantzsch(1905inPalmer1976b) wasonlyanestimate;Palmerbelievedthatthetrueageof first flightwasgreater.Crampetal.(1977)reportedthatfledgingandindependence occur at45-50daysbuttheydidnotindicatethesourceoftheirinformation.AgeatFirstBreedingEuropeanbirdsfirstnestattwoyearsofage(Dement'evand Gladkov 1967inBellrose1976).Americanbirdsprobablydothesame(Palmer1976b).Crampetal.(1977)statedthatageatfirstbreedingis2-3years.359

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MortalityofEggsandYoung Crampetal.(1977)reportedthateggpredationby Hooded Crows(Corvuscorone)andMagpies(Picapica)wasthemaincauseofegglossforBlackScotersnestinginIreland.In109nestsatLakeMyvatn,Iceland,inwhichatleastoneegghatched,86%oftheremainingeggswereinfertileand3%containeddeadembryos(Bengtson1972).Bengtsonascribedegglossin19neststhatfailedtohatcheggstopredation(58%),desertion(32%),andflooding(11%).HebelievedthatRaven(Corvuscorax)predationwasthemostimportantcauseofnestfailureatLake Myvatn.--we-found noobservationsofactualdeathofyoung.RenestingBengtson(1972)estimatedthat31%of45femalesexaminedinIcelandrenested.MaximumNaturalLongevityAnadultbandedintheOld World wasrecovered15years,11months,and9daysafteritwasbanded(Rydzewski1978).WeightTheaverageweightof8maleswas2.4lb(1,089g);4femalesaveraged1.8lb(816g)(NelsonandMartin1953).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheBlackScoterisespeciallyvulnerabletonearshoreandoffshoreoilingthroughoutitsrange(Greenwood1970,Hope-Jones1971,Table8).Asadivingduckthatformslargeraftsintheopenoceanwhereitbothfeedsandrests,thissea-duckseemsparticularlyvulnerabletooiling.BlackScoterswereoneofthemostcommonoil-relatedcasualitiesalongboththeDutchandBelgiancoasts,accordingtoseveralseparatebeachedbirdsurveysconductedfrom 1948to1962(Hautekiet1955,MorzerBruijns1959,deRidder1961,TanisandMorzerBruijns1962,KuykenandZegers1968,allinVermeerand Vermeer1974).Goethe (1961inVermeer and Vermeer 1974)reportedthatBlackScoterswerethespecies moSt frequentlyfounddeadastheresultofoilingonGermancoastsfrom 1953to1961.TanisandMorzerBruijns(1968)consideredtheBlackScoterthespeciesmostaffectedbyoilintheeasternNorthSea,andBourne andDevlin(1969)regardeditasthewaterfowlspeciesmostvulnerabletooilinareasoffshoreBritain.Perryetal.(1979)estimatedthat335BlackScotersdiedfollowingtwospillsintheChesapeakeBay.WehavelittleknowledgeofthesizeofBlackScoterpopulationswinteringinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.SomeevidencesuggeststhatsubstantialnumbersmayoccurinwatersoffSouthCarolinaandGeorgia.FairnumberswinterinNorthCarolina,butfewarefoundoffFloridaorintheGulfofMexico.Wealsoknowthatthisisaspeciessubjecttoconsiderabledamage fromoilingandonewhosepopulationselsewherehavebeenaffectedbyoilpollution.WedonothaveanadequateideaoftheworldpopulationorofthatnestinginNorthAmerica.Neitherdoweknow muchofmigratorypathwaysusedbythespecies.Consequently, we cannotbecertainofthe ofoilpollutionalongtheAtlanticcoast.Iflargenumbers(i.e.,tensofthousands)winterthereregularly,oilpollutionpotentiallycouldseverelyreduceNorthAmericanpopulations.If360

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fewwinterthere,theeffectofdevelopmentofpetroleumresourceswouldprobablybeslight.Table8.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBlackScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaNorthSeacoast,DenmarkDates1957-1958 Numberofoileddeadbirds92(a)NumberofdeadBlackScoters52PercentageofBlackScoters56.52SourceJoensen1972aPooleHarbour,Dorset,EnglandNorth-centralKattegat,DenmarkSoutheastKent,EnglandN.Sjaelland,DenmarkNorthSeacoast,DenmarkNortheastEnglandJan.1961Jan.-Feb.1962wintersof1963-64to1965-66Feb.-Mar.1965 1965-1966Jan.1966 433(a,b)1,723(a,c)509(a)2,340(a)803(a)8054390 29 981 870.0922.635.7041.9210.830.12Bourne 1968aJoensen1972aGibson1966Joensen1972aJoensen1972aParrack1967 Pagham Harbourarea,WestSussex,EnglandBornholm, Den mark TayEstuary,ScotlandN.Sealand,Den markJan.-Feb.1967Jan.-Feb.1968Mar.-Apr.1968Feb.-Mar.196991(a,b)4 466(a)821,168(b)1672,376(a)3874.3917.60 14.30 16.29Phillips1967Joensen1972a Greenwood andKeddie1968Joensen1972bLaeso-Vendsyssel,Denmark Dec. 19691,36236124117.69Joensen1972b

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Table8.(Continued.)NumberNumberPercent-ofoiledofdeadageofdeadBlackBlackAreaDatesbirdsScotersScotersSourceNortheastJan.-Feb.10,992(a,c)2872.61GreenwoodetBritain1970al.1971 E.coastJutland,Feb.-Mar.1,974(a)52126.39Joensen1972b Denmark 1970S.Kattegat,Dec.1970-2,311(a)26211.34Joensen1972b DenmarkJan.1971 SanFranciscoJan.19713,221(a,d,e)100.31Smailetal.Bay,California1972Djursland-Anholt,Mar. 1971 2397732.22Joensen1972b DenmarkNorth-centralMar. 19724,759(a)2,66355.96JoensenandKattegat,Denmark Hansen 1977 Waddensea, DenDec. 19729,151(a)4,50049.17Joensenand mark Hansen 1977Balticseacoast,1970-19743,867(a,c)60415.62GorskietPolandal.1976BalticseaNov.1974-653(a,c)6910.57Gorskietcoast,PolandAug. 1975al.1977ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197630,000(f)650.22PerryetVirginiaal.1979ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197810,000(f)2700.27PerryetVirginiaal.1979(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludesbothliveanddeadoiledbirds.(c)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(d)Thisfigurerepresentsbirdsbroughttocleaning/receivingstations.(e)ListedonlyasCommonScoter.(f)Figureisanestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.362

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980 Wahlen, L.1980.AprilstrackavsjooreMelanittanigravidHoburgen.Blacku6:39-40.1977Viksne,J.andJ.Baumanis.1977.[ResultsoftheCommonScotermoultmigrationobservationsinIrbenSoundinJuly-August,1973.]Communs.BalticCommissoStudyBirdMigr.No.10:32-39.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]1975Heldt,R.1975.[TheseasonaldistributionoftheCommonScoterinSchleswigHolstein.]Communs.BalticCommissoStudyBirdMigr.No.9:25-39.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.]Jogi,A.1975. [MoultmigrationobservationsoftheCommonScoterin1971.]Communs.BalticCommissoStudyBirdMigr.No.9:40-46.[In Englishsummary.]Sutcliffe,S.J.1975.CommonScoterinCarmarthenanoilingincident.Nat.Wales14:243-249.Szentendrey,G.1975.Feketerece(Melanittanigra)TahiLataraban.Aquila1975:80-81.1974 Bergman,G.1974.ThespringmigrationoftheLong-tailedDuck andtheCommonScoterinwesternFinland.OrnisFenn.51:129-145.Coolidge,H.W.1974.CommonScotersontheGeorgiacoast.Oriole39:48-49.Holupirek,H.1974.ZumZugvonTrauerenteund SamentedurchdenBezirkKarlMarx-Stadt.Falke21:415-417.[InGerman.]Miller,M.1974.CommonScoterinCravens Bay. KentuckyWarbler47:31-32.Weiser,C.E. 1973.AnearlyCommonScoterinnorthernFlorida.Fla.FieldNat.1:14-15.Jacoby,V.E.andA.Jogi.1972.[ThemoultmigrationoftheCommonScoterinthelightofradarandvisualobservationaldata.]Communs.BalticCommissoStudyBirdMigr.No.7:118-139.[InRussianwithEnglishsummary.] 363

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Bengtson,S.-A.1971.Myvatn,Iceland.1971Food andfeedingofdivingducksbreedingatLakeOrnisFenn.48:77-92.Bergman,G.andK.O.Donner.1971.WinddriftduringthespringmigrationoftheCommonScoter(Melanittanigra)andLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis).Vogelwarte26: 157-159.Ferguson,A.1971.NotesonthebreedingoftheCommonScoter,MelanittanigraL.,inIreland.IrishNat.J.17:29-31.Jogi,A.1971.ZumMauserzugderSchellente(Bucephalaclangula)undTrauerente(Melanittanigra)inderEstnischenSSR.Ornithol.Mitt.23:65-67.1970Blomberg, L.1970.[CommonScoterswimmingunderwater.]Fauna23:300-301.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.]Ruttledge,R.F.1970.Winterdistributionand numbersofScaup,Long-tailedDuck andCommonScotersinIreland.BirdStudy17: 241-246.White,R.V.1970.InlandflightingofCommonScoter.Brit.Birds63:253-254.1969Drenckhahn,D.1969.Mauser und VorkommenvonEdierente,Somateriamollissima,Trauerente,Me1anittanigra,undSamtente,Me1anittafusca,wahrendder01pestimHerbst1968anderNordseekusteSchleswig-Holsteins.Corax3:2330.[InGerman.]1968Goethe,F.1968.Theeffectsofoilpollutiononmarineandcoastalbirds.Helgo.Wiss.Meeresunters17: 370-374. 1967McGi1vrey,F.B.1967.FoodhabitsofseaducksfromthenortheasternUnitedStates.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:142-145.1966Bengtson,S.-A. 196&. Observationerrorandesjoorrens(Me1anittanigra)sexuellabeteendepahackp1atsenmedspecie11tavseendepa1ekgruppsbeteenden.[ObservationsonthesexualbehaviouroftheCommonScoter(Melanitta ra)onthebreedinggrounds,withspecialreferencetocourtingparties.]VarFage1var1d25:202-26.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]364

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1965Joensen,A.H.1965.EnundersogelseafSortendens(Melanittanigra)faeldningsomradervedJyllandssydvestkyst,sommaren 1963.MedbemaerkningeromGravandens(Tadornatadorna)ogEderfuglens(Somateriamollissima)forekomstidetdanskeVadehav.[AninvestigationofthemoultingareasoftheCommonScoter(Melanittanigra)atthesouth-westcoastofJutland,Denmark, 1963. WithnotesonthenearbymoultingareasoftheShelduck(Tadornatadorna)andtheEiderduck(Somateriamollissima).]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.58:127-136.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.] 1964 Bergman,G.andK.O.Donner.1964.AnanalysisofthespringmigrationoftheCommonScoterandtheLong-tailedDuckinsouthernFinland.ActaZool.Fenn.105:1-59.Newhall,C.1964.AnAugustsightingoftheCommonScoteratHiltonHeadIsland,SouthCarolina.Chat28:135. 1961 Bergman,G.1961.Allinjamustalinnunmuuttokannatkevaalla1960.[ThemigratingpopulationsoftheLong-tailedDuck(Clangulahyemalis)andCommonScoter(Melanittanigra)inthespring1960.]SuomenRiista14:69-74.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1960 Bergman,G.andK.O.Donner.1960.DiejetzigeGrossedesFruhjahrsbestandesvonClangulahyemalisundMelanittanigraamFinnischenMeerbusen.OrnisFenn.37:117-122.1959 McKinney, F.1959.WaterfowlatCold Bay,Alaska,withnotesonthedisplayoftheBlackScoter.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.10:133-140.Myres,M.T.1959.DisplaybehaviorofBufflehead,ScotersandGoldeneyesatcopulation.WilsonBull.71:159-168.Reeves,H.M.1959.FirstCommonScotercollectedinTexas.Auk76:94.1957 Humphrey,P.S.1957. RemarksonthecourtshipandvoiceoftheBlackScoter.Condor59:139-140.Schmidt,G.1957. ZurPaarbildungderTrauerente.Vogelwelt78:125-126.365

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Geroudet,P. 1956. Notessurune Macreusenoire.NosOiseaux23:282.[InFrench.]Hubbs,C.L. 1956.Off-season,southernoccurrenceoftheBlackScoteronthePacificcoast.Condor 58:448-449.1955 Hubbs,C.L. 1955. BlackScotersreportedfrom BajaCalifornia.Condor 57: 121-122.Kist,J.andJ.Swaab. 1955.Eerstewaarneming de Amerikaanse Zwarte Zeeeend,Melanittanigraamericana(Swainson).Ardea 43: 132-134.[InDutch.]Tomkins,I.R.1955.AdditionalGeorgiarecordsoftheAmericanScoter.Oriole20:30-31.Verheyen,R.1955. NotesurlavariabilitedescharacteresosteologiqueschezlaMacreusenoire,Melanittanigra(L.).Bull.Instit.R.Sci.Nat.Belgique31No.21.19pp.[InFrench.]1953 Bannerman,D.andJ.Bannerman. 1953.CommonScotersroostingashore.Scott.Nat.65: 54. 1952Schmidt,G.A.J.1952. ZurBalzvonTrauer-undEistente.Vogelwelt73: 123-125.[InGerman.] 1951 Bettman,H.andM.Meijering.1951.Inseln.Ornithol.Mitt.3:278.TrauerentenzugvordenOstfriesischen[InGerman.] Lunau,C.1951.TrauerentenzuguberHaffkrug.Die Heimat 58:227-230.[InGerman.] 1950Cawkell,E.M.1950. SexratioofCommonScoteroffpartofthecoastofS.E.England.Brit.Birds42:304-305.Salomonsen,F.1950. OversomrendeSortaender(Melanittanigra(L. vedJyllandsvestkyst.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.44:171-172.366

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1941Jorgensen,J.1941.Sortandens(Melanittanigra)Juli-August-traek.Dan.Orntihol.Foren.Tidsskr.58: 127-136. 1937 von Hedemann,H.1937.VomZugderTrauerente(Oidemianigra)inSchleswigHolstein.Vogelzug8:131.[Ingerman.]1930Sprunt,A.,Jr.1930.SomerecentnotesfromcoastalSouthCarolina.Auk47: 265-266. 1929Sprunt,A.,Jr.1929.SomerecentrecordsfromcoastalSouthCarolina.Auk46: 248-249. 1927 Gunn,D.1927. ThecourtshipoftheCommonScoter.Brit.Birds20:193-197.Greene, E.R.1925.TheAmericanScoterinFlorida.Auk42:579-580.1914 Dwight,J.1914. Themoultsand plumagesoftheScoters-genusOidemia.Auk31: 293-308.1891Mackay,G.H.1891.Thescoters(Oidemiaamericana,O.deglandi,andO. spicillata)inNewEngland.Auk8:279-290.367

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SURFSCOTER(Melanittaperspicillata)[DA:Brilleand,DU:GebrildeZee-eend,FI:Pilkkaniska,FR:Macreusealunettes,GE:Brillenente,IT:Anitradelbeccolargo,NW:Brille-and,po:Uhlaamerykanska,RU:(Spotty-nosedScoter),SP:Negroncareto,SW:Vitnackadsvarta]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaTheSurfScoterbreedsfromtheBristolBayandKotzebueSoundregionofwesternAlaskaeasttotheareaoftheMackenzieDeltaand AndersonRiverinnorthwesternCanada,southtonorthernBritishColumbia,GreatBearandGreatSlavelakes,andLakeAthabasca;itisalsofoundinJames BayandintheinteriorofQuebec andLabrador(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).SurfScoterswinterprimarilyalongthePacificandAtlanticcoastsofNorthAmerica.TheyoccuronthePacificcoastfromtheAleutianchainsouthtotheGulfofCalifornia,andontheAtlanticcoastfromtheBayofFundysouthtoFlorida(AOU1957,Johnsgard1978).ThesescotersalsooccurregularlyontheGreatLakesandsporadicallyinlandthroughoutthewesternandcentralUnitedStates.SmallnumbersalsowinteralongatleastthenorthernhalfoftheGulfofMexico.SurfScotersarecasualinBermuda(AOU1957)andHawaii(Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionSurfScotersbreedandwinteralmostexclusivelyinNorthAmerica.TheyarecasualwintervisitorsinEurope,wheremostrecordsarefromBritainandIreland.ThesescotershavealsobeenreportedfromIceland,Norway, Sweden, Denmark,Finland,theFaeroeIslands,theNetherlands,Belgium,France,andCzechoslovakia(Crampetal.1977).SurfScotershavealsooccurredintheKomandorskiyeIslands,onBeringIsland,andontheChukotPeninsula(Dement'evand Gladkov1952).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaSurfScotersarecommonwintervisitorstocoastalNorthCarolinaandoccasionallyoccurthereinlargenumbers.Anestimated18,000wereseennearCapeHatteras,10January1938(Pearsonetal.1942),andasmanyas10,000wereoffPeaIsland,30October1971(Teulings1972a).Theseducksareusuallyseeninsmallergroups,however(WrayandDavis1959).Potteretal.(1980)statedthatthe Suif ScoterislocallyabundantofftheCarolinasinOctoberbutisusuallycommontouncommon. The numberpresentvariesfromwintertowinterandfromplacetoplace.TheusualperiodofoccurrencealongthecoastsoftheCarolinasisfromOctobertoMay(Potteretal.1980).A fewbirdsmayremainalongthecoastintoJune(Teulings1978)andoneortwoareoccasionallyseeninland(Zapf1945;Teulings1971a,1973a,1977a).SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)regardedSurfScotersasfairlycommonwinterresidentsthatweremoreabundantinthepast.Burton368

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(1970)regardedthisspeciesastheleastcommonofthethreespeciesofscoterwinteringinSouthCarolina.RecentChristmasBirdCounts(Map26)indicatethatSurfScotersmaybeatleastlocallycommonalongthecoastofSouthCarolina.A fewhavebeenrecordedfrominland(e.g.,on LakeHartwellnearClemson[Teulings1977al),butthegreatmajorityarefoundoffthecoast.GeorgiaSurfScotersareuncommonwinterresidentsontheGeorgiacoast,mostnumerousoffshore.They maybeexpectedbetweenOctoberandMay(Dentonetal.1977).FloridaTheSurfScoterisraretouncommoninFloridaandapparentlyalwayshasbeen.Howell(1932)listedonlyeightrecordsforthestatebetween1888 and 1932(atLakeWorth,PuntaRosa,SaintAugustine,TalbotIsland,PoncePark,DaytonaBeach,MosquitoLagoon,andtheSt.LucieRiver).Sprunt(1954)indicatedthatthisspeciesisusuallypresentinFloridafromlateOctobertolateMay,butlistedtwoexceptionallylateoccurrences:25June1949(MerrittIsland)and 4June1952(St.Marks).Afewbirdsremainintothesummer (Ogden1971,Edscorn1977).SurfScotersarepresentlyregardedasraretouncommononbothcoastsofFlorida,butaremuchlessfrequentalongthesouthernportions.TheyoccuralmostregularlyontheAtlanticcoastasfarsouthasCapeCanaveralandareuncommonbutregularinthenorthernGulf(Kale1979msa,1979msb).SeasonalreportsinAmericanBirdsusuallylistno morethanadozenbirdsbutinsomeyearsthenumberpresentismuchgreater.Some800SurfScoterswereseenoffnorthwestFloridaduringthewinterof1978-79(Stevenson1979).Alabama Imhof(1976b)consideredSurfScotersuncommonbutregularwintervisitorsinMississippiSound andnearbywaters.HebelievedthatSurfScotersarethemostcommonscoterinAlabama.Therearelessthanahalfdozeninlandrecords;nomorethantwohavebeenseenatonce.Moreareseenalongthecoast;maximumnumbersrecordedhavebeen22birdsseenatFortMorgan, 23January1971,and50-75seennearCoffeeIslandonanunknowndate(Imhof1976b).TheSurfScoterhasbeenrecordedinAlabamabetween6 November(Purrington1978)and20April(Imhof1976b).MississippiNeitherBurleigh(1944)norGandyandTurcotte(1970)mentionedtheoccurrenceoftheSurfScoterinMississippi.Thisscoterisapparentlyuncommon,judgingfromscatteredrecordslistedinAmericanBirdsandintheMississippiKite,aperiodicaldevotedtolocalornithology.FortheperiodfromJuly1976throughNovember1978,SurfScoterswerereportedinMississippifromasearlyas24November 1977(inlandatNoxubee NWR) toaslateas15May1977(HornIsland).The twolargestconcentrationsreportedduringthisperiodwereupto40birdsseen11-17February1978atEastShipIslandand 80seen28February1978atHornIsland(Weber and Jackson 1977,1978;JacksonandCooley1978a).LouisianaLowery(1974)indicatedthatSurfScotershadbeenrecorded19timesinLousianathrough1973;theserecordstotal72birds.Throughtheperiodcoveringthespringof1979,atleastsevenmorerecordsappearedinAmericanBirds;theseinvolvedatleast86individuals.MorethanhalfoftherecordsfortheSurfScoter,thesecondmostabundantscoterinLouisiana,are369

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05PEl 10 PAITY-HOUISrI less than10 IIIIIIIIIIIlIII 10-50II50-200_ MoreJhan 200 (A......."-.praIl, 1974)INDIVIDUALS OSSElYmDUIIiIG CHRISTMAS_0COUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMET1CMEAN) @Number of individualsoLeu than one individual None observed1I11DNAME''"--84" SURFSCOTERIfGULFOFMEXICO90" ttI r., I .;.. I I----.. .. I ( ., .<0 IW.I.AS TEX A SMap26

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from CameronParish.Extremedatesofoccurrenceare8 November and 13May(Lowery1974).SurfScotersmayoccuringreaterabundanceintheGulfoffLouisianathanthepresentrecordsuggests.Thelargestconcentrationsseeninclude17birdswestofHollyBeach,24April1971 (Imhof1971);20seenontheSabineNWRChristmasCountinthewinterof1976-77;and 34nearHollyBeach,21February1977(Hamilton1977).TexasOberholser(1974)listedthisspeciesasarareandirregularwintervisitortoTexas.HereportedthatSurfScotershadoccurredatleast30timesinTexas andweknowofaboutsevenmorerecentrecords.Recordsarechieflyfromcoastalareasbuta fewhavealsobeenreportedinland.SurfScotersusuallyoccurinTexasbetweenmid-Octoberand mid-May(Oberholser1974).MaximumnumbersreportedalongtheTexascoastduringtheperiod19701978inAmericanBirdswereanestimated24seenofftheBolivarPeninsula,22-23April1975(Webster1975b);6ata pondinAustin,10December 1974(Webster1975a);and 5atTexasCityDike,7 November 1973(Webster1974).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingTheSurfScoterbreedsonlyinNorthAmerica fromwesternAlaskaeastthroughtheYukon andNorthwestTerritories,southtoJames Bay, andintheinteriorofQuebec andLabrador.Bellrose(1976)estimatedabreedingpopulationof257,000SurfScoters,buthegavereasonswhyhebelievedthatthisestimatewastoolow.WinterMostwinteringSurfScotersarefoundalongthe'PacificcoastfromtheeasternAleutianstoBajaCalifornia,andintheAtlanticfromtheBayofFundytoSouthCarolina(Bellrose1976,Map26).IntheAtlantic,thesescoterswintermostabundantlybetweenBarnegatBay,NewJersey,andNorfolk,Virginia(Bellrose1976).SurfScotersaremuchlesscommonofftheAtlanticcoastsouthofSouthCarolinaandofftheGulfcoast(Map26).AfewregularlywinterontheGreatLakes.Bellrose(1976)estimatedawinterpopulationofabout765,000birdsinAlaska.However,Johnsgard(1978)warnedthattheseestimatesarehighlyuncertain,inthatobserversmadelittleefforttodistinguishscoterstospeciesduringwintersurveys.MigrationMigratorypathwaysusedbytheSurfScoteraretoopoorlyknowntowarrantmuchspeculationaboutthem.Bellrose(1976)suggestedthatSurfScoterswinteringinthePacificflyoverlandtothecoastandthatthosewinteringintheAtlanticmoveeast-southeasttoJames Bay andthentothenortheasternAtlanticcoast.HABITATNestingThebreedinghabitsoftheSurfScoterarenotwellknown;accordingtoBellrose(1976),thisscoteristheleaststudiedduckinNorthAmerica.Breedinghabitsprobablyresemblethoseofotherscoters.Palmer(1976b)examinedthesketchydataavailableandconcludedthatthesescotersnestedinbrushyorforestedhabitatssomedistancefrom"quietand slow-movingwatersoftheforestzone andsemibarrens".HealsostatedthatSurfScotersnestingin371

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thelake-plateauregionofinteriorUngavapreferredtonestbybogpondsandotherwatersinopenlichen-sprucewoodland.FeedingJohnsgard(1975)notedthatforagingSurfScotersfedinshallowerwatersthandidWhite-wingedScotersandindicatedthatSurfScotersforageclosertocoaststhandoeitheroftheothertwoscoters.WinterandOffshoreMostofthewinteringpopulationisexclusivelymarinebutsmallnumbersalsowinterontheGreatLakes(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatnon-breedingSurfScotersarefoundmoretypicallyinthelittoralzoneoftheoceanthanaretheothertwoscoterspecies.Othersarefoundonadjoiningcoastalestuariesandbays.Inthenortheast,sandysubstratesthatharbormolluscsimportantinthedietarefavored.Allthreespeciesofscoterstendtocongregateatthemouthsofestuarieswhere foodismoreplentiful(Stottand Olson 1974inBellrose1976).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORSurfScotersdivefortheirfood.Theydiveeitherwithwingsclosedorwithhalf-spreadwings,andtheymayormaynotusetheirwingsforpropulsionunderwater.Divingbirdsmayclearthesurfacebeforeadiveand maydiveeitherstraightdownorat angle(Palmer1976b).DivingperiodsofftheshoresoftheNorthPacificrangedfrom 19to45sec,withthelowestmean (20sec,n=9)recordedintheshallowestwaterandthegreatestmean(43.25sec,n=4)recordedinthedeepest(Alford1920).SurfScoterswinteringnearVancouver,BritishColumbia,dovefor32.7to65.3sec(mean51.9+2.29)inabout3.1to9.2m(10.2to30.1ft)ofwater(Dow1964).Thesequenceofdivesmadebya Horned Grebe and aSurfScoternearComax, VancouverIsland,BritishColumbia,andthebehaviorofthegrebesuggestedthatthesetwospecieswerefeedingcommensally(Pearse1950).Thegrebedoveshortlyafterthescoterdidandapparentlyobtainedfooddislodgedbythefeedingscoter.Paulson(1969)laterreportedsimilarobservationsoftwo HornedGrebesand aSurfScoteratDeceptionPass,WhidbeyIsland,Washington.WeknowofnodetailedinformationonthefoodhabitsoftheSurfScoterinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesnorhaveitsfoodhabitsbeenstudiedwellelsewhere.Cottam (1939inPalmer1976b,Bellrose1976)indicatedthat88%ofthedietwas composedofanimals,chieflymolluscs(60.8%),crustaceans(10.3%),andinsects(9.6%).Studiesonthe groundshaverevealedthatanimalfoodscomprisefrom96%(MainetoLongIsland)to100%(NewHampshire andMassachusetts)(authorscitedinBellrose1976)ofthefooditems.Asidefrommolluscs(e.g.,mussels,clams,oliveshells),crustaceans(e.g.,barnacles,clams),andvariousinsects(mostlyaquaticforms),SurfScoterseatechinoderms(particularyStrongylocentrotus),marineworms,clamworms,seaanenomes,hydroids,andfish (futimodytes, Fundulus)andtheireggs(Clupea)(Palmer1976b).Judgingfromthefewstudiesavailable,bluemussels(Mytilusedulis),Arcticwedgeclams(Mesodermaarctatum),Atlanticrazorclams372

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(EnsisorSiliquacostata),andvariousyoldias(Yoldiaspp.)areparticularlyimportantfoods(authorscitedinBellrose1976).Plantfoodseatenincludepondweeds(e.g.,Potamogeton,Ruppia,Zostera,Zannichellia)andrepresentativesofavarietyofothergenerathatarelistedbyPalmer(1976b).IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingAlmostnothingisknown. Bent(1925)listedeggdatesfrom 19Juneto8July,basingthisontwelverecords.MeanClutchSizeUnknown. Normalclutchesarethoughttocontain5-9eggs(Palmer1976b).IncubationPeriodUnknown(Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976b).HatchingSuccessUnknown(Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976b).AgeatFledgingUnknown(Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976b).FledgingSuccessUnknown. Murdy (1964inBellrose1976) foundthattwelvepairingsproducedatotaloffivebroods over-a three-yearperiod.AgeatFirstBreedingUnknown. The minimumageatfirstbreedingissuggestedbyPalmer(l976b)tobe"presumablytwoyears".MortalityofEggs and YoungWehavenoinformation,nordowehaveanyinformationonwhetherthisspeciesrenests.MaximumNaturalLongevityUnknown.WeightTwelvemalesaveraged2.2lbs(998g),10females2.0lbs(907g)(NelsonandMartin1953).FivesummermalesfrominteriorAlaskaweighed2.12.21lb(964-1,006g [mean=2.17lbor987g)(Irving1960inPalmer1976b).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheSurfScoterisafrequentvictimofoiling(Table9)and wasrecentlyratedby King andSanger(1979)asaspeciesofhighconcerninthisregardinthePacificNorthwest.Palmer(1976b)statedthatfloatingoilisafactorinthemortalityofthisspeciesalongboththeAtlanticandPacificcoastsofNorthAmerica.ManywerekilledduringanearlyoilpollutionincidentinSanFranciscoBay(Aldrich1938),andthiswasoneofthefourspeciesmostadverselyaffectedbythe1971spillinthesamearea(Smailetal.1972).ItisoflessconcerninthewatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStatessincesucharelativelysmallproportionofthetotalpopulationoftheSurfScoterwintersthere.Weconsideritlikelythatoilspillsinvolvingthesebirdswoulddecimatelocalpopulations.Areasofmaximumconcerninsoutheasternwaterswould bethosefarthestnorth(i.e.,theCarolinas)wheresignificantnumbers maywinter.373

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Table9.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadSurfScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.NumberNumberPercent-ofoiledofdead ageofdeadSurfSurfArea DatesbirdsScotersScotersSource SanFranciscoMar. 1937397(a)235.79Aldrich1938Bayarea,Cal-iforniaSanFranciscoJan.19713,221(a,b)1895.87Smailetal.Bay,California1972 Chesapeake Bay, Feb. 197630,000(c)1,6905.63PerryetVirginiaal.1979NorthernOregon Mar. 1976 362(a)0.28Harrington-and Washington Twelt 1979coastsChesapeake Bay, Feb. 1978 10,000(c)4004.00PerryetVirginiaal.1979(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Thisfigurerepresentsbirdsbroughttocleaning/receivingstations.(c)Figuresareestimatesbasedoncountsofdeadbirds.BIBLIOGRAPHY1979Hirsch,K.V.1979.WinteringdivingducksinPuget Sound, andtheStraitofJuandeFuca.(Abstractonly).Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6: 37.Stafford,S.K.1979.InlandrecordsofOldsquaws andSurfScoterfromnorthFlorida.Fla.FieldNat.7:25-26.Wahl, T. 1979.AssociationsofscoterswithherringspawninnorthwestWashington.(Abstractonly).Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6: 37. 1978Gilliland,A.R.1978.SurfScotertakeninJacksonCounty, Oklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc. 11:30-31.374

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Austin,G.T. Nevada. 1970 1970. TheoccurrenceandstatusofcertainanatidsinsouthernCondor 72: 474. Salomonsen, F. 1970.Brilleand(Melanittaperspicillata(Linnaeus,nyforDanmark. [TheSurfScoter,Melanittaperspicillata(Linnaeus),recordedinDenmark.] Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.64: 267-269.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Paulson,D.R.1969. Commensalfeedingingrebes.Auk86: 759. 1967 McGilvrey, F.B.1967.Foodhabitsofseaducks fromthenortheasternUnitedStates.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18: 142-145.Turcotte, W. H.1967.SurfScotersrecordedon RossBarnettReservoir.Miss.Ornithol.Soc.Newsl. 12:3.1964Dow,D.D.1964.Divingtimesofwinteringwaterbirds.Auk81:556-558.1963Baillie,J.L. 1963.The13mostrecentOntarionestingbirds.OntoFieldBio!.17:15-26.Simkin,D. W. 1963. ASurfScoternestingrecordfornorthwesternOntario.Can.Field-Nat.77: 60. 1960 Huey, W. S. 1960.SurfScoterinNewMexico.Auk77: 224.Radder,C.C.1960.PinellasCounty.SurfScoter(Melanittaperspicillata)andotherbirdsinFla.Nat.33:35.1959 Myres,M.T. 1959a. Thebehaviourofthesea-ducksanditsvaluetothesystematicsofthetribesMerginiandSomateriini,ofthefamilyAnatidae.Ph.D.thesis,Univ.Brit.Columbia/Vancouver,BC.504 pp. 1959b.DisplaybehaviorofBufflehead,scoters,andgoldeneyesat------copulation.WilsonBull.71:159-168.375

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1957 Humphrey,P.S.1957.ObservationsonthedivingoftheSurfSeater(Melanittaperspieillata).Auk74:392-394.1950Pearse,T.1950.Parasiticbirds.Murrelet31:14.1949Johnston,D.W.1949.SurfSeaterrecordsfromGeorgia.Auk66:81.1945Zapf,T.1945.SurfSeatersatGreensboro.Chat9:46.Trautman,M.B. andM.A.Trautman.1943.AnOhiorecordoftheSurfSeater.WilsonBull.55:54.1926Miller,W.DeW.1926.Structuralvariationsintheseaters.Am.Mus.Novit.243:1-5.1922 Widmann,o.1922.SurfSeaters(Oidemaperspieillata)nearSt.Louis.Auk39:250.1920Alford,C.E.1920.Somenotesondivingducks.Brit.Birds14:106-110.1914Dwight,J.1914.Themoultsandplumagesoftheseaters-genusOidemia.Auk31:293-308.1891Mackay,G.H.1891.Theseaters(Oidemiaamericana,O.deglandi,and Q. spieillata)inNewEngland.Auk8:279-290.376

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WHITE-WINGEDSCOTER(Melanittafusca)[DA:Flojlsand,DU:GroteZee-eend,EN:VelvetScoter,FI:Pilkkasiipi,FR:Macreusebruneblanches,Macreuse aailesblanches;GE:Samtente,IC: Korpond, IT: Orcomarino,JA:Birodokinkuro,NW:Sjo-orre,PO:Uhla,RU:(Hump-nosedScoter),SP: Anademarinodealasblancas,Negronespeculado;SW:Svarta]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmerica TheWhite-wingedScoterbreedsfromnorthwesternAlaska,theYukon, andtheNorthwestTerritorieseasttoHudson Bay,souththroughwesternCanadatosouthernManitoba(Johnsgard1975) andsouthtonorthernNorthDakota andnortheasternWashington.MostofthebreedingpopulationisfoundinextremenorthwesternCanada andnortheasternAlaska(Palmer1976b).White-wingedScoterswinterintheAleutiansandalongthesoutherncoastofAlaskasouthalongthePacificcoasttonorthernBajaCalifornia.InthewesternAtlantictheywintermainlyfromsouthernNewfoundlandsouthalongthecoasttoSouthCarolina(Palmer1976b),withverysmallnumbers foundfarthersouthandalongtheshoresoftheGulfofMexico. WorldDistributionOtherracesoftheWhite-wingedScoterbreedinthenorthernHolarcticfromFenno-ScandiaeastthroughnorthernEurasiatoKamchatkathencesouthtoEstoniaandto53 NlatitudeinwesternSiberiaandLakeBaikal(BOU1971).Old WorldpopulationslargelywinteralongtheAtlantic,NorthSea,andBalticcoastsofEurope(BOU1971, Crampetal.1977),andalongthecoastsofeasternAsiasouthtoJapanandChina(Johnsgard1978).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaWhite-WingedScotersoccurinsmallnumbersinwinter(Map27)alongtheNorthCarolinacoast(WrayandDavis1959);Potterelal.(1980)consideredthem uncommon. Theyarefoundonthesoundsandontheoceanoffshorefromtheouterbeaches(Pearsonetal.1942).MaximumnumbersreportedintheregionalreportsofAmericanBirdsinclude35seenoffAtlanticBeach,27April1974(Teulings1974b) andabout50seenoffPeaIsland,30October1971(Teulings1972a).SeveralunusualinlandrecordsaresummarizedbyWeeks(1975)andHarrison(1975).SouthCarolinaWhite-wingedScotersarerarewintervisitorsontheSouthCarolinacoast,withmostrecordsofoccurrencebetweenearlyNovemberandmid-Taxonomicnote:NorthAmericanpopulationshaveoftenbeenconsideredadistinctspecies, deglandi,withtwosubspecies(e.g.,AOU1957).WefollowmostcurrentworkersinmergingdeglandiintofuscabuthavelargelyrestrictedourliteraturesurveytoreferencesontheAmericanpopulation.377

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WHITEWINGEDSCOTERBIRONAME 86"f"r1..---------88".-------90"(i GULFOFMEXICO .,;'.,> sA DALLAS EXTWiller DistrilllltillIa, forSeutheastern Bliled StatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSI ILessthan10IIIIIIIIIIIIIII10-50 =I50-200_ Morethan200 (Adapted 'rom Iystrak,1974) INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1971(ARITHMETIC MEAN)@ Number of individuals o Lessthan one individual None observed(". I -J.cP d' i --\r., ( ]t,, __ H-----+') -0 __ i -, '----w........ 00Map27

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May(SpruntandChamberlain1949).Theyoccuralmostexclusivelyoffshore,butBurton(1970)mentionedtwoinlandrecordsand Weeks(1975)reportedasinglefemaleinBarnwellCounty,November 1967toFebruary1968.AnotherwasseeninlandatLake Greenwood,15January1978 (LeGrand1978).GeorgiaBurleigh(1958) knewofonlyonesightrecordforGeorgia.ThefirstspecimenforthestatewastakenonTybeeIsland,nearSavannah,7May1959 by Tomkins(1959),whocommentedthatthespeciesmaybemoreregularoffshorethanisgenerallyrealized.Observationsinsucceedingyearssustainedthissuggestionandthespeciesisnowregardedasanuncommonwinterresidentonthecoast,moreabundantoffshore,andrareinland(Dentonetal.1977).FloridaSprunt(1954)listedfiverecordsofWhite-wingedScoterinthestate.Althoughobservationsofthisspecies,aswellasoftheotherscoters,aremorefrequentnow,itisstillconsideredraretouncommononbothcoastsbutregularintheupperGulf(Kale1979msa,1979msb).Alabama Imhof(1976b)regardedthisscoterasararewintervisitanttotheTennesseeValleyandtheGulfcoast,andraretocasualonmigrationelsewhere.Thefirstspecimenwas afemaletakeninlandatWheelerNWR,LimestoneCounty(Atkeson1961).MostsightingsarebetweenOctoberandApril,withoneeachinJune(Jacksonand Cooley 1978b) andinAugust(Imhof1976b).AlongtheGulfcoast,ithasbeenreportedfromGulfStatePark,GulfShores,andFortMorgan. Themaximumnumberseenatonetime(15)wasatFortMorgan,29Nov ember 1957 (Imhof1976b). Gandy andTurcotte(1970)listedasinglespecimenofWhitewingedScotercollected6 December 1960atDesotoLake,CoahomaCounty.Therearemorerecentrecordsforseveralcoastallocalities(Weber andJackson1977,Jacksonand Cooley1978a),suggestingthatthespeciesmaywinterregularlyinsmallnumbersontheGulfcoast.Maximumnumbersreportedinrecentyears(12-13birds)wereseeninMississippiSound andoffEastShipand Hornislands(Hamilton1977,1978; Imhof1978).LouisianaLowery(1974)indicatedthatthestatusofallthescotersinLouisianawasverypoorlyknown,largelyduetoalackofadequateobservations.Heknewofonly27birdsreportedon21datesfromOctobertoMay,two-thirdsofthem from NovemberthroughJanuary.Onlyoneoftheserecordswas madewellinland.TexasOberholser(1974)consideredthisspeciestoberareandirregularinwinter,occurringchieflyontheupperandcentralcoasts(Chambers,Galveston,andAransascounties).InTexaswaterstheypreferoffshoreshoals,bigbays,andsounds(Oberholser1974).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCE Breedin& InNorthAmerica,theWhite-wingedScoterbreedsfromtheupperYukonRiverofAlaskaandtheMackenzieRiverDeltasouthtocentralBritishColumbia,southeasternAlberta,southernManitoba,northeasternWashington,andnorthernNorthDakota.Old WorldpopulationsbreedacrossthenorthernPale-379

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arcticfromScandinaviatoKamchatka.Usingaerialandgroundsurveysperformedbyvariousagencies,Bellrose(1976)gaveanestimateofca.675,000fortheNorthAmericanbreedingpopulationofWhite-wingedScoters,butheindicatedthatthisfigurewasprobablytoolarge.HealsonoteddeclinesinbreedingpopulationsinsomeportionsoftheNorthAmericanrange;surveysofthebreedinggroundsin1976indicateddeclinesfromthe1966-75meanforscoterspeciesbreedinginnorthernAlbertaandtheNorthwestTerritories(-14%),innorthernSaskatchewanandnorthernManitoba(-24%),andinsouthernSaskatchewan(-70%).PopulationsinsouthernAlbertaandManitobaincreasedmarkedlyfromtheten-yearmean(Larnedetal.1980).Old Worldbreedingpopulationsarepoorlyknown;thepopulationbreedinginthewesternPalearcticisapparentlymuchsmallerthanthatinNorthAmericaandisapparentlydecreasinginmuchofitsrange.WinterNorthAmericanWhite-wingedScoterswinteralongthePacificcoastfromtheAleutiansandsoutherncoastalAlaskatoBajaCalifornia,andalongtheAtlanticcoastfromtheGulfofSt.LawrencetoSouthCarolina.SomealsowinterintheGreatLakesStates,anda few(Map27)alongtheGulfcoast(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatabout56,000White-wingedScoterswinteredalongtheAtlanticcoastontheaverageduringU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceinventories(1966-73).Nearly70%ofallscoterswinteringalongtheAtlanticcoastarefound between LongIslandSound andtheChesapeakeBayregion;areasofmaximumconcentrationvaryfromspeciestospecies,however,andWhite-wingedScotersaremostabundantfrom MainetoNewJersey(Bellrose1976).OnthePacificcoastofNorthAmericathelargestwinteringpopulationsofWhite-wingedScotersarefoundintheAleutianIslands(perhaps250,000birds),andfromsoutheastAlaskatoCalifornia(Bellrose1976).The 1976winterwaterfowlsurveyofthecontiguousUnitedStates(Larnedetal.1980)listedwinteringpopulationsof96,800scotersinthePacificFlywayand59,800intheAtlanticFlyway;another10,500werereportedfromthewestcoastofMexico. Crampetal.(1977)consideredtheWhite-wingedScotertheleastnumeroussea-duckwinteringinthewesternPalearcticandcitedanestimateofperhaps150,000-200,000birds.MigrationMigrationroutesandchronologyaredetailedbyBellrose(1976).Ingeneral,birdsmigrateeastorwesttowardsthecoastandthenalongthecoastlinetotheirwinteringareas.Bandrecoveriessuggestthatthefarthernorthandeastthebirdsbreed,themorelikelytheyaretomigratetowardstheAtlanticcoast,andthefarthersouthandwesttheybreed,themorelikelythatmigrationistothePacificcoast(Bellrose1976).ThenorthwardmovementofWhite-wingedScoterswinteringalongtheAtlanticcoastbeginsasearlyasMarch;migrationoccursmostlyinOctoberand Nov ember(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)gaveadditionalinformationondifferencesinmigrationbetweenbirdsofdifferentageandsexandremarkedthatdatafrom Old Worldpopulationssuggestedsimilarpatternsofmovementthere.380

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HABITATNestingNorthAmericanWhite-wingedScotersbreedalonginlandlakesandstreams,onislandsandisletsininlandwaters,andinlandintreelessorfairlyopencountry(Palmer1976b).Nestsarecommonlyfoundnearwater(Palmer1976b)butaresometimesfoundasmuchasahalf-mile(aquarterkilometer)away,wheretheyareusuallysituatedindensecover(authorscitedinBellrose1976).InarecentstudyconductedinSaskatchewanandAlberta,Brown and Brown(1981)foundthatmostnestswereindensecoveratleast50 m(160ft)fromthenearestshoreline.Redshootgooseberry(Ribessetosum)wastheprimarycoverforalmostallthenestsfoundatRedberryLake,Saskatchewan.AtJessieLake,Alberta,gooseberry,westernsnowberry(Symphoricarposoccidentalis),roses(Rosaspp.),andraspberry(Rubusspp.)wereallimportantcoverplants.Crampetal.(1977)reportedthatWhite-wingedScotersintheOldWorldgenerallybreednearerfreshorbrackishwatersthandoestheBlackScoter.Nestsarewellconcealedandusuallywithin100 m(330ft)ofwater,althoughsome maybefound2-3km(1.2-1.9mi) away.FeedingPalmer(1976b)indicatedthatroostingandforagingbirdsprefershelteredwatersinshallowbaysandtotheleeofislands.Crampetal.(1977)addedthatVelvetScoters(=White-wingedScoters)weremorelikelytofeedinbrokenwateramongrocksandislandsthanBlackScoters.White-wingedScotersusuallyforageinwaterslessthan25ft(7.6m)deepbutdivesofasmuchas60ft(18m)havebeenreported(Johnsgard1975).Crampetal.(1977)statedthatthenormalforagingdepthwasca.5m (16ft).WinterandOffshoreWinteringandnon-breedingWhite-wingedScotersareusuallyfoundinbrackishandmarinecoastalwaters;intheseareas,theyprefershallowwaterovershellfishbedsthathavesandyorgravellybottoms(Palmer1976b).Johnsgard(1975)describedthishabitatasthe"littoralzoneoftheocean,justbeyondthebreakersandwithinamileofshore."HabitatsreportedforwinteringbirdsintheOldWorldaresimilar(Crampetal.1977).White-wingedScoterstendtoformflocksofabout10-15birdswhenlargenumbersarepresentonsaltwaterbays(Palmer1976b).Crampetal.(1977)pointedoutthatthisspeciesusuallyoccursinsmallerflocksthandoestheBlackScoter.FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORWhite-wingedScotersfeedbydivingfromthesurface.Theyusetheirfeetforpropulsionanddivewithpartiallyopenedwings(Palmer1976b,Crampetal.1977).They makerepeatedshortdives,withabouttwiceasmuchtimespentunderwaterasatthesurface(Palmer1976b),andtheymayexhibitsynchronizeddiving(Crampetal.1977).Insummarizingreportsfromvariousareas,Crampetal.(1977)reportedthattheseducksusuallysubmergedfor20-40secinsouthwestFinland,andtheycitedextremelylongdivesof56 and 65sec.Asidefromdivingforfood,White-wingedScotersalsooccasionallydabble381

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indriftlines(Naumann 1896-1905inCrampetale1977).Theyfeedlargelybydaybutapparentlysometimes feed-at nightandatdawnand dusk(Palmer1976b).LiketheBlackScoter,White-wingedScotersfeedprimarilyonanimallife,principallymolluscsandcrustaceans.Cottam (1939inPalmer1976b) summarized foodhabitsinNorthAmerica and foundthatthis scoter ateabout75%molluscsandabout13%crustaceans.Molluscseatenincludeoliveshells(01ive11a dog whelks(Nassariusfossatus),bluemussels(Myti1usedu1is),jacknifeclams(Solonsolarius),cockles(Cardium),snails(Physa),scallops,andoysters.Crustaceanseatenincludecrabs(e.g.,Cancer,Carcinus),isopods,amphipods,shrimp,andcrayfish.------White-wingedScotersalsoeatinsects(e.g.,caddisf1ylarvae,grasshoppers),echinoderms(sanddollars,sea-urchins,brittlestars,starfish,hearturchin),annelids(Polychaetes),andfishandtheireggs.Theyhavealsobeenknowntoeatfrogsbut eatthese,aswellasfish,relativelyrarely(authorscitedinBellrose1976,Palmer1976b,Crampeta1.1977).Whichfoodsaremostimportantinthedietvariesfromareatoarea.Indifferentstudies,bluemussels,rockclams(Cancerirroratus),Atlanticdogwinkle,(ThaisorNucellalapillus), Atlantic-raiOr clams(EnsisorSiliquacostata),andArcticwedgeclams(Mesodesmaarctatum),cockles(Cardiumedulis)(authorscitedinBellrose1976,Palmer1976b),andslippershells fornicata)(Hoff1977) have beentheprincipalfoodseaten.Plantseatenincludepondweeds(e.g.,Zostera,Potamogeton,Ruppia,Va11isneria),andsealettuce(U1va)(Pa1mer1976b).WehavenoquantitativeinformationonthefoodhabitsofWhite-wingedScotersinsoutheasternwaters.Theypresumablyfeedonthefoodsindicatedabove.Palmer(1976b) andCrampetal.(1977)providedmoreextensivelistsoffoodseaten,aswellasreferencestotheprimaryliteraturedealingwiththefoodhabitsoftheWhite-wingedScoter.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONWhite-wingedScotersappeartobehighlysusceptibletooilpollution.InNorthAmerica,oil-relateddeathsoftheseduckshavebeenrecordedsincethe1930's.In1937,theywereamongthemostfrequentlyencounteredvictimsofanoilpollutionincidentinSanFranciscoBay,California(Aldrich1938,MoffittandOrr1938,bothinVermeer and Vermeer1974).Itwasalsooneofthemost numerousvictims of-an oilspillinthesameareain1971(Smailetale1972,Table10).FollowingthegroundingofthefreighterSEAGATEofftheOlympicPeninsulainWashington,White-wingedScotersandCommonMurres werethetwospecieshardesthitbythesubsequentoilspill(Richardson1956, LaFave 1957,bothinVermeer and Vermeer1974).Thereisalsoevidenceofhighoil-relatedmortalityintheOld World.InareviewofoilspillsinDanishwatersfrom 1953to1968,Joensen(1972a)listedthisspeciesasoneofthemostfrequentvictims;inthesamearea,mostoftheworld'slargestwinteringpopulationwaslosttooilpollutionin1972(Joensen1972a).382

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Palmer(1976b)suggestedthatoilpollutiononbothcoastsofNorthAmericawas agreatersourceofmortalityfortheWhite-wingedScoterthanduckhunting.King and Sanger(1979)indicatedthatpopulationsofWhite-wingedScotersinthePacificNorthwestoftheUnitedStatescouldbeatsevereriskfromoilpollution.ThisspeciesisevidentlydeclininginnumbersintheOld World andinsomeportionsofitsNorthAmericanrange.AlthoughwehavenogoodideaofthenumberswinteringinthewatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStates,itseemslikelythatthetotalissmallcomparedtonumbersinthemorenorthernwatersoftheAtlanticandPacificcoasts.Consequently,althoughWhite-wingedScoterswillprobablybeamongthefirstbirdslosttooilspillsinthesoutheast,oilpollutionordevelopmentofpetroleumresourcesinthisareashouldhavelittleeffectonthetotalpopulation of this BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Brown,P. W. andM.A.Brown. 1981.NestingbiologyoftheWhite-wingedScoter.J.Wildl.Manage. 45:38-45.1980 Byard,M.E. 1980. White-wingedScotertakeninGrantCounty, Oklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.13: 21.Wilson, W. J.flight.1980.InvertedflightofWhite-wingedScotersduringcourtshipAm.Birds34: 747. 1979Hirsch,K.V.1979.WinteringdivingducksinPugetSound andtheStraitofJuandeFuca.(Abstractonly).Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:37.1978 Houston,C.S.andP. W. Brown. 1978.LongevityofWhite-wingedSeoters.Bird-Banding49:186-187.1977Hoff,J.G.1977.Slippershells,amajorfooditemforWhite-wingedSeoters.WilsonBull.89: 331. Mikuska,J.andI.Ham.1977.Patkakulasiea,Melanittafusea(L.),u KopacfvskomRezfrvatuiuJugoslaviji.[VelvetScoter, fusca(L.),intheKopacevskiRitReservationandinYugoslaviain 2930:137-140.[InSerbo-CroatianwithEnglishsummary.) 383

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Table10.Numberofdeadbirdsandnumber andpercentageofdeadWhitewingedScotersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.Area SanFranciscoBay,area,CaliforniaNorthSeacoast,DenmarkDatesMar. 1937 1957-1958 Numberofoileddeadbirds397(a)92(a)NumberofdeadWhitewingedScoters386PercentageofWhitewingedScoters9.576.52SourceAldrich1938Joensen1972aNorth-centralKattegat,DenmarkN.Sjaelland,DenmarkNorthSeacoast,Denmark PaghamHarbourarea,W.Sussex,EnglandBornholm, Denmark TayEstuary,ScotlandN.Sealand,DenmarkLaesso-Vendsyssel,DenmarkNortheastBritainMartha'sVineyard,MAE.CoastJutland,DenmarkJan.-Feb.1962Feb.-Mar.1965 1965-1966Jan.-Feb.1967Jan.-Feb.1968Mar.-Apr.1968Feb.-Mar.1969 Dec. 1969Jan.-Feb.1970Feb.1970Feb.-Mar.19701,723(a,b)2,340(a)803(a)91(a,c)466(a)1,168(c)2,376(a)1,36210,992(a,b)541(a)1,974(a)384 673 975 28 362197 33 58 397 41739.0641.663.491.107.730.178.292.420.5373.3821.12Joensen1972aJoensen1972aJoensen1972aPhillips1967Joensen1972a Greenwood andKeddie1968 Joensen1972 bJoensen1972b Greenwoodet al. 1971CSLP1971Joensen1972b

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Table10(Continued.)NumberPercent-Numberofdeadageof ofoiledWhite-White-deadwinged wingedAreaDatesbirdsScotersScotersSourceOffEasternFeb.-Apr.1,276(a,c)20.16Browneta1-Canada 1970 1973 S.Kattegat,Dec.1970-2,311(a)2239.65Joensen1972b DenmarkJan.1971 SanFranciscoJan.19713,221(a,d)1474.56Smaileta1-Bay,California1972Djursland-Anholt,Mar. 1971 239 11949.79Joensen1972b DenmarkNorth-centralMar. 19724,759(a)1,12923.72JoensenandKattegat,Denmark Hansen 1977 Waddensea, DenDec. 19729,151(a)890.97Joensenand mark Hansen 1977Balticsea1970-19743,867(a,b)2927.55Gorskietcoast,Polanda1-1976BalticseaNov.1974-653(a,b)10115.46Gorskietcoast,PolandAug. 1975al.1977ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197630,000(e)300.10Perryeta1-Virginia1979NorthernOregon Mar. 1976 362(a)226.08Harrington-andWashingtonTweit1979coasts(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(c)Totalincludesboth anddeadoiledbirds.(d)Thisfigurerepresentsbirdsbroughttocleaning/receivingstations.(e)Figureisanestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.385

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1975Harrison,J.R.(ed.).1975.[NoteonWhite-wingedScoterdistribution.]Chat39:57.Weeks,H.P.,Jr.1975.AninlandSouthCarolinarecordfortheWhite-wingedScoter.Chat39:56-57.Wetmore,A.land.1973.APleistocenerecordfortheWhite-wingedScoterinMaryAuk90:910-911.1972Grosz,T. andC.F.Yocom.1972.FoodhabitsoftheWhite-wingedScoterinnorthwesternCalifornia.J.Wildl.Manage. 36:1279-1282.1971Millard,J.L.,Jr.1971.White-wingedScoterinJohnstonCounty,Oklahoma.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.4:26-27.1969Vermeer,K.1969.SomeaspectsofthebreedingoftheWhite-wingedScoteratMiquelonLake,Alberta.BlueJay27:72-73.1968 Waaramaki, T. 1968.[FurtherobservationsonthebreedingoftheVelvetScoter(Melanittafusca)intheOulankaRiverbasin,north-eastFinland.]SuomenRiista20:87-93.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1967Kumerloeve,H.1967.ZumBrutvorkommenderSamtenteimtranskaukasisch(armenisch-)nordost-kleinasiatischenHochland.Anz.Ornithol.Ges.Bayern8:63-65.McGilvrey,F.B.1967. FoodhabitsofseaducksfromthenortheasternUnitedStates.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.18:142-145.Skinner,R. W. 1967.White-wingedScoterrecord.Ala.Birdlife16:40.1966Grosz,T.1966.FoodhabitsandparasitesofthePacificWhite-wingedScoter,Melanittafuscadixoni,intheHumboldt Bayarea.M.S.thesis,HumboldtSt.CoH./Arcata 386

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1961Atkeson,T. Z.1961.AWhite-wingedScoterspecimenfrom Alabama.Auk78:640.Duebbert,H.F.1961.RecentbroodrecordsfortheWhite-wingedScoterinNorthDakota.WilsonBull.73:209-210.1959Tomkins,I.R.1959. AGeorgiaspecimenoftheWhite-wingedScoter.Oriole24:27.1958Atkeson,T.Z.,Jr.1958.White-wingedScoterrecordsfromWheelerReservoir.Ala.Birdlife6:14.1957Koskimies,J.1957a.VerhaltenundOkologiederJungenundderjungenfuhrenden WiebchenderSamtente.Ann.Zool.Soc.Vanamo18/9:1-69.1957b.-----Samtente.NistorttreueundSterblichkeitbeieinemmarinenBestandderVogelwarte19:46-51.1957c.Polymorphicvariabilityinclutchsizeandlayingdateofthe-----VelvetScoter,MelanittafuscaL.OrnisFenn.34:118-144.1957d.VariationsinsizeandshapeofeggsoftheVelvetScoter.-----Arch.Soc.Vanamo12:58-691955Houston,C.S.1955.White-wingedScoterbanding.BlueJay13:28.Koskimies,J.1955.JuvenilemortalityandpopulationbalanceintheVelvetScoterinmaritimeconditions.Pp. 476-479inActaXIInternatl.Ornithol.Congr.Basel,1954. 1953 Huenecke,H.S.1953.White-wingedScoternestingrecordinNorthDakota.Auk70:366.Koskimies,J.andE.Routamo.1953a.ZurFortpflanzungsbiologiederSamtenteMelanittaf.fusca(L.).I.AllgemeineNistokologie.[Thebreedingbiologyofthe-VelvetScoterMelanittaf.fusca(L.).I.Generalnestingecology.]Pap.GameRes.Helsinki. No.-I0:--ro5 pp.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.] 387

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Koskimies, J.and E. Routamo. 1953b.TherateofsurvivalinaVelvetScoterpopulation.SuomenRiista8:183-184.1952Grenquist,P.1952.RecentchangesinthepopulationsoftheEiderandtheVelvetScoterintheFinnisharchipelago.Pap.Game.Res.,Helsinki8:81-100.1949Rawls,S.K.,Jr.1949.AninvestigationofthelifehistoryoftheWhitewingedScoterMelanittafuscadeglandi.M.S.thesis,Univ.Minnesota/Minneapolis,MN.1945Salomonsen,F.1945.AmerikanskFlojlsand(Melanittafuscadeglandi(BonapartenyforGronland.[The AmericanVelvetScoter(Melanittafuscadeglandi(BonaparteinGreenland.]Dan.Ornithol.Forens.Tidsskr.39:254-258.1943 Howard,J.A.1943.StatusoftheWhite-wingedScoterinLouisiana.Auk60: 453. 1936Grenquist,P.1936.SomenotesondivingofyoungTuftedDucks, youngVelvetScoters,and youngEiderDucks.OrnisFenn.13:6-23.1931Stoll,F. E. 1931.AndenBrutplatzenvonOidemiafuscaandArenariainterpres.J.Ornithol.79:541-547.[InGerman.] -----1926Miller,W.DeW.1926.Structuralvariationsinthescoters.Am.Mus.Novit.243:1-5.1925Bailey,A.M.1925. TheWhite-wingedScoterinLouisiana.Auk42:442.1891 Mackay,G.H.1891.Thescoters(Oidemiaamericana,O.deglandi,ando. spicillata)inNewEngland.Auk8:279-290.388

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COMMONGOLDENEYE(Bucephalaclangula)[DA:Hvinand,DU:Brilduiker,EN:Goldeneye,FI:Telkka,FR:Canardgarrot,GE:Schellente,IC:Hvinond,IT:Quattrocchi,JA:Hojirogamo,NW:Kvinand,PO:Gagolkrzykliwy,PR:Patodosgelos,SP:Porronosculado,SW:Knipa,US:EuropeanGoldeneye]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaNorthAmericanCommonGoldeneyes(B.c.americana)breedacrossnorthernNorthAmericafromwesternandcentral-AlaskaandnorthernMackenzietonorthernManitoba,northernOntarioandQuebec,centralLabrador,andNewfoundland.SouthernbreedinglimitsaresouthernBritishColumbia,northwesternMontana,easternNorthDakota,northernMinnesotaandMichigan,northeasternNewYork,northernNewEngland,andNewBrunswick(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).Inwinter,theseducksarefoundinopenwaterfromsoutheasternAlaskaandnorthernBritishColumbiaacrossthenorthernUnitedStatesandsoutheasternCanada,southwardtoextremenorthernMexico andtheGulfcoastoftheUnitedStates(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).WorldDistributionAEurasiansubspeciesoftheCommonGoldeneye(B.c.clangula)breedsextensivelyacrossnorthernEuropeandAsiafromNorway-toKamchatkaandtheKomondorskiyeIslands,extendssouthwardtoGermany,Switzerland,theBalticStates,centralRussia,Mongolia,andSakhalin,andoccasionallynestsoutsidethisextensiverange.InwinterthespeciesoccursfromBritainandthesouthernpartofthecontinentalbreedingrangesouthtotheMediterraneannations,theMiddleEast,northernIndia,southernChina,andJapan(AOU1957,Bellrose1976,Crampetal.1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaTheCommonGoldeneyeisaregularbutnotabundantwintervisitorinNorthCarolinawaters.Somearefoundinlandonfreshwater,butmostareinsmallscatteredflocksinsaltorbrackishwatersalongthecoast.Numberstoosmalltorecord(asotherthan"trace")werefoundinNorthCarolinaduringthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).WinteringGoldeneyesnormallyareseenbetweenOctoberandMarch,buroccasionalmigrantsmaybefoundaslateasMayorJune(Pearsonetal.1942,WrayandDavis1959).SouthCarolinaTheseducksarefairlycommonwinterresidentsofcoastalSouthCarolina,generallyfoundfrom NovembertoApril(SpruntandChamberlain1949).TheJanuary1975waterfowlsurveyreported100birds(Goldsberryetal.1980)GeorgiaTheCommonGoldeneyeisanuncommonwinterresidentinGeorgia,occurringinsuitablelocalitiesthroughoutthestatefromaboutNovembertoearlyApril(Burleigh1958,Dentonetal.1977).None wasreportedonthe1975 389

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winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).FloridaSprunt(1954)reportedthattheCommonGoldeneye was foundinwinter(November-March)throughoutthestate,butwasnevercommon.Morerecently,Kale(1979msa)listedthespeciesasrarealongtheAtlanticcoastofFloridabutfairlycommon(thoughnotabundant)ontheGulfcoastnorthofSt.MarksNWR(Kale1979msb).Onthebasisofearlierwaterfowlsurveys,Bellrose(1976)estimatedthat.theFloridawinteringpopulationheldabout100birds.TheJanuary1975wintersurveyreported200(Goldsberryetal.1980).Alabama Imhof (1976b)consideredthisspeciesuncommoninmostofinteriorAlabama,althoughitmaybelocallycommonintheTennesseeValleyandinsaltwaterbaysoftheGulfcoast.Themaximummid-wintercountsreported,atDauphinIsland,werebetween400 and 500.Inland,asmanyas200havebeenseennearDecatur(Hamilton1978).Three hundred wererecordedinAlabamawatersduringtheJanuaryL975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).MississippiBurleigh(1944)reportedthatgoldeneyesoccurregularly,butinverysmallnumbers,alongtheGulfcoastofMississippi.Morerecentobservationsinthestate(Jackson1976,Jacksonand Weber 1976)suggestthatthispatternstillholds.ThelargestgroupsofCommonGoldeneyesreportedwereof18and 10birds(Jacksonand Weber 1977,Jacksonand Cooley1978a).NonewasreportedforeitherMississippiorLouisianaduringthe1975wintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).LouisianaTheCommonGoldeneyeisseenregularlyinbaysandlagoonsalongthecoast,andinlargelakes,butnotinlargenumbers.Inmostinstances,thewintervisitlastsonlyfrom NovembertoFebruary(Lowery1974).Texas TheCommonGoldeneyeoccursirregularlyalongtheTexascoast,althoughitmaybelocallycommonattimes(Oberholser1974).Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatsome1,300goldeneyeswinterinTexas;onlyabout100reachthecoast.Only30werereportedonthe1975census(Goldsberryetal.1980).TheyusuallyoccurinTexas from mid-Novembertomid-May,althougha fewCommonGoldeneyesareoccasionallyseenoutsidetheseperiods(Oberholser1974).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingInNorthAmerica,theCommonGoldeneyebreedsprimarilyinCanadainabroadareafromcentralAlaska,theYukonTerritory,andnorthwesternMackenzieeastwardacrossthePrairieProvincestoHudson Bay andtheAtlanticcoastofLabradorand Newfoundland.ThesouthernlimitsofthebreedingrangeareinthenortherntieroftheUnitedStates(Bellrose1976, Palmer1976b).EstimatesofsummerpopulationsinCanadatotalapproximately1,225,000birds;Alaskanbirdsnumberabout45,000,andthoseintheUnitedStatessouthofCanada,about10,000(Bellrose1976).ThecentersofabundanceinCanadaaretheborealforests.BreedingpopulationsinEuropearelarge;Crampetal.(1977)citedbreedingpopulationsofabout100,000birdsinFinlandandabout240,000inEuropean andwesternAsianU.S.S.R.WinterWinterpopulationsoftheCommonGoldeneye seemsmallrelativeto390

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breedingnumbers,probablybecausethecoastalareasfavoredbythespeciesarenotsurveyedintensively.HalfofthecontinentalwinterpopulationisoffthePacificcoast,andaboutathirdisofftheAtlanticcoast.Inthelatterarea,themainwinteringgroundisbetween LongIslandSound andNorthCarolina.Onlyabout1,500birdsnormallywintersouthofVirginia(Bellrose1976).ThelargestnumbersofwinteringbirdsonthePacificcoastofNorthAmericaarefoundinsoutheasternAlaskaandBritishColumbia(Palmer1976b).Judgingfromfiguresprovidedbythemostrecentwintersurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980) and fromrecentChristmascountdata(Map28),theCommonGoldeneyereachesitspeak abundanceinthesoutheasternUnitedStatesinthenorthernandwesternGulfofMexico.Calculationsbasedonthewaterfowlharvestsurveyforthe1974-1975huntingseason(Larnedetal.1980)alsosupportthisconclusion.Theestimatednumberofgoldeneyesthatwerekilledandretrievedin1975ineachofthesoutheasternstatesisasfollows:NorthCarolina-0,SouthCarolina-0,Georgia-0,Florida-0,Alabama 328,Mississippi-0,Louisiana-2,437,and Texas -1,202--atotalof3,639birds.ThefiguresforLouisianaand Texas much exceedthoseobtainedonthewinterwatefowlsurveyfor1975(2,437vs.0,and 1,202vs.30);thefigureforAlabamaisonlyslightlygreater(328vs.300).Approximately114,000goldeneyeswerereportedwithinthecontiguousUnitedStatesduringtheJanuary1975winterwaterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).Only630(0.55%)ofthesewerereportedfromsoutheasternwaters.Thelargestwinteringpopulationswere foundinWashington(20,833),Maine(12,525),Maryland(11,300),andIllinois(10,800).Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatabout 80% ofthegoldeneyeswinteringinWashingtonareCommonGoldeneyes;thepopulationsinMaine,Maryland,andIllinoisarepresumablyalmostentirelyCommonGoldeneyes.DataprovidedbyBellrose(1976)from ground andaerialsurveysforareasinNorthAmericaoutsidethecontiguousUnitedStatessuggestwinteringpopulationsofatleast50,000birdsinAlaska,BritishColumbia, andtheAleutians;5,500inNewfoundland and theMaritimes;and 550alongtheMexicancoasts.Crampetal.(1977)listedwinteringpopulationsfornorthernandcentralEuropethattotalabout210,000birds,thegreatmajority(170,000)ofwhichareinDanishwaters.Another52,000winterinthewesternU.S.S.R.MigrationThemigrationpatternofNorthAmericanCommonGoldeneyesisnotwelldefined,partlybecauseoftheproximityofbreedingandwinteringareas.Manymoveonlyashortdistancefrombreedinggroundstowinteringareasbutothersmaymigrateasfaras800-1,200mi(1,300-1,900km)(Palmer1976b).Apparentlymostbirdsfromtheinteriormovetothecoastsinfall,dispersingtothesouthalongthecoastsratherthaninland(Bellrose1976).SpringmigrationbeginsabouttheendofFebruaryinthesouthernpartofthewinteringrangeintheconterminousUnitedStatesandreachesapeakinlateMarch andearlyApril;fallmigrationbeginsinearlyOctoberandpeaksinNovember and December(Palmer1976b).391

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BIRDNAME' WinterDistributill MapforSoutheasternUnitedStatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthanone IIlIIIIIIIlID 1-5 I 5-20_ More than20 (Adapted fram aystrak. 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Lessthanone individual None observed #,.J:d'w\0 d' DALLAS--.so_N .,.llCJ**,., I ), -0_.ii . TEXAS \...--GULFOFMEXICO 88" Map28

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HABITATNestingTheCommonGoldeneyenestsinholes,usuallynaturalcavitiesintrees,primarilyinborealforests,orinman-madenestboxes.Moreexoticnestingsitesincludealedgewithinachurchtower(Bellrose1976) andrabbit(Oryctolaguscuniculus)burrows(Crampetal.1977).Open woodsneartheedgesoffieldsormarshesarepreferred(Bellrose1976).Palmer(1976b)alsonotednestinginfloodplainforest,andonbog ponds andsmalllakesinforests.FeedingCommonGoldeneyesinsouthwestSwedenpreferredtofeedonlakesthatapparentlylackedfish;Eriksson(1979b)believedthatthischoicewastheresultofcompetitionbetweentheducksandthefishforfoodeatenbyboth.Duringautumn ontheSwedishwestcoastmostGoldeneyesarefound onsubaquaticmeadowsofZosteramarina,Ruppiaspp.,andCharaceae(Pehrsson1976).Goldeneyestakemostoftheirfood fromthebottomatdepthsofupto4m (13ft),withfewprobablydivingdeeperthan9m(30ft)(OlneyandMills1963).Palmer(1976b)reportedthatmost foodisobtainedin3-12ft(0.9-3.7m)ofwater;maximumdepthsrecordsfordivesareabout20ft(6m).Goldeneyestakefoodfrom submergedsurfacesorfromthewater,andfrequentlyoverturnandsearchbeneathstones(OlneyandMills1963).WinterandOffshoreMostCommon Goltleneyes movetothecoastsinwinterandfrequenttheopenoceanorbaysthere.Somearefound onfreshwaterintheinterioroftheUnitedStateswherelargeriversandlakesremainunfrozen.Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatnon-breedingbirdsofthisspeciesaretypicallyfoundinshallowbaysbutraftatnightwelloutfromshore.Non-breedingbirdsarealsofoundinestuaries(preferablybrackish)andnearthemouthsofrivers(Palmer1976b).Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatCommonGoldeneyesarefoundwidelyonbothsaltandfreshwaterinthewesternPalearcticbutpreferestuariesandmarinebays,shelteredshallowwatersalongthecoast,and sewageoutfalls.Theseducksareusuallyfoundinsmallflocksbutmayoccurinaggregationsofuptoseveralhundredbirds(Crampetal.1977).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORMostCommonGoldeneyesfeedbyday,obtainingtheirfoodbydiving,apparentlytothebottom,exceptwhenpursuingfish.Bellrose(1976)timed18divesbyfeedingGoldeneyesintheinteriorUnitedStatesand foundthattheyaveraged 30secinduration,witharangeof11-41sec.Eriksson(1976) foundthatducklingsfedbyfourmethods:diving,surfacefeeding,dabbling,andpeckingatemergentvegetation.Divingoccurredmostfrequently.Synchronousdivingbymembersofafeedingflockhasbeenobserved;inotherinstances,membersofaflockmaydiveoneafteranotherinrapidsuccession(Geroudet1965inCrampetal.1977).-Goldeneyesfeedpredominantlyonanimalmatterbutmayfeedtoaconsiderableextentonplantsinlatespringand autumn;inaddition,theseducksexhibitedmarkedlocalandseasonalvariationindiet(Pehrsson1976).Animalfoodsmade upthree-quartersofthedietofasampleof395CommonGoldeneyesexaminedbyCottam(1939inBellrose1976);crustaceans,insects,molluscs,andfishweretheimportantgroupsrepresented.Amongtheplantfoodtakenwere393

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pondweed,wildcelery,andseedsofotheraquaticplants.Inastudyofwinteringbirdson Chesapeake Bay,Stewart(1962) foundthatthedietconsistedlargelyofcrustaceans,molluscs,andsmallfish,withsomeplantmaterial.Crustacea(particularlycrabs),insectlarvae,amphipods,molluscs,andsmallfishmade up mostofthedietinBritain,withplantmaterialreportedfromonlytwooffoursamplesandinlowpercentages(OlneyandMills1963).Pehrsson(1976)foundthatCommonGoldeneyesfeedonsmallermussels(Mytilusedulis)thanthoseeatenbyotherdivingducksinthesamearea.Thus,-foodhabitsseemtobethesameonbothsidesoftheAtlantic.AstudyofthefoodofCommonGoldeneyeducklingsinSwedenrevealedthattheyfedalmostentirelyonaquaticinsects,bothadultsandlarvae(Eriksson1976).IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingNestingmay'begininmid-AprilandcontinuethroughmuchofMaywithregionalandseasonalvariation(Bellrose1976),probablydependingonlocalweatherconditions.Eggsarelaideverysecondday(Bellrose1976).The meandateofthebeginningofegglayingatonelocalityinsouthwestSweden,1971-1977,variedfrom15Aprilto9May(Eriksson1979c).OtherstudiesinEuropefoundmost eggspresentfromaboutmid-MaythroughJune(Crampetal.1977).MeanClutchSizeClutchesin75NorthAmericannestsheldfrom 5to15eggsandaveraged9.21eggs(Bellrose1976).InFinland,themeansizeof63clutcheswas9.3,rangingfrom 5to17(Linkola1962inCrampetal.1977).ClutchsizeinSwedenvariedfrom a meanof8.5to 10:2 overtheperiod19711977(Eriksson1979c).Therangeofclutchsizesrecordedforthisareawas3-15fortheperiod1974-1977(Eriksson1979a),butErikssondefinedclutchsizeasthenumberofeggsinanestinwhichincubationwas knowntohaveoccurred.Consequently,hisfigureswould haveincludednestsinwhichmorethanonefemalelaideggsandthoseinwhicheggswerelostduringegglaying.ClutcheslaidlateintheseasoninsouthwesternSweden weresignificantlysmallerthanthoselaidearlier(Eriksson1979c).IncubationPeriodIncubationtakes28-32days,withanaverageof30days(Bellrose1976).Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatmostincubationperiodsare29to30daysandlistedextremesof27and32days.HatchingSuccessAnaverageclutchof9.2eggsproducesanaverageof6.3ducklingsbuta meanofonlyabout4.1survivestonear-fledgingage(Bellrose1976).Anaverageclutchof9.3eggsathatchingproducedanaverageof4.7youngrearedinFinland(Linkola1962inCrampetal.1977).InSweden, a meanof8.9younghatchedinnestsin which-;t leastone younghatched,butanaverageofonly27%oftheclutcheshatchedanyeggs(Eriksson1979c).StudiesreportedinBellrose(1976),largelyonNorthAmericanGoldeneyes,indicatethat50-69%ofthenestsresultinatleastoneducklinghatched.InastudyconductedinsouthwesternSweden,1971-1977,thepercentageofclutchesthathatchedrangedfrom 16to38%(Eriksson1979c).FledgingSuccessBellrose(1976)reportedthatCommonGoldeneyebroodssufferunusuallyhighlosses.Henotedthatanaverageclutchof9.2eggs 3%

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resultedinonly4.71ducklingsbythetimetheyoungwerefullyfeatheredbutnotyetcapableofflight.AgeatFledgingAgeatfirstflightforNorthAmericanbirdsis56-60days(Bellrose1976).Crampetal.(1977)indicatedafledgingperiodof57to66days,withducklingsbecomingindependentoftheirparentsatabout50days.AgeatFirstBreedingBellrose(1976)suggestedthatmostCommonGoldeneyesbreedforthefirsttimeintheirsecondyear,andcitedareportindicatingthatsome maynotbreeduntiltheirthirdyearorlater.Mortalityof Eggs and YoungNestsinMinnesotaweredestroyedbyraccoons(procyonlotor),redsquirrels(Tamiasciurushudsonicus),andStarlings(Sturnusvulgaris)(Johnson1967inBellrose1976).Eggs wereeatenbymartens(Martesmartes)andjays(Garrulusglandarius)insouthwestSweden(Eriksson1979c).Dumpnestingcausesthedesertionofsomenests,asdoeshumandisturbance(Bellrose1976).LossofclutchesinsouthwestSweden,1971-1977,wasattributedtodesertion(22%ofnestslost)andpredation(52%);thereasonwhyothernestingattemptsfailedwasnotknown.TwoearlierstudiesconductedinFinlandfounddesertiontobethemostcommoncauseofnestfailure(Eriksson1979c).Palmer(1976b)notedthatcompetitionfornestsiteswas asourceofeggloss.Verylittleisknownofthesourcesofmortalityinyoungbirds.RenestingBellrose(1976)suggestedthatsomerenestingprobablyoccursifnestsarelostduringegg-layingandremarkedthatprobablyonlyasmallproportionofhensthatloseclutchesre-lay.Linkola(1962inCrampetal.1977)indicatedthatthiswasthesituationforbirdsnesting MaximumNaturalLongevityACommonGoldeneyebandedinNorthAmericaapparentlyreachedanageofatleast14yearsand 3 months(Clappetal.inpress).AnotherbirdbandedwhenfullgrowninEuropesurvivedforanother17years(Rydzewski1978).WeightFifty-eightmalesaveraged2.2lb(998 g) and53femalesaveraged1.8lb(816g)(NelsonandMartin1953).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONTheCommonGoldeneyeisfrequentlyavictimofoilingbutusuallyonlya fewindividualsareinvolved(Table11).King andSanger(1979)consideredthisspeciesonethatcouldbeaffectedbyoilpollutioninthePacificNorthwestbutnotonethatwouldbeseverelyatrisk.RecentoilspillsinChesapeakeBayresultedinrelativelylargefatalitiesforwinteringCommonGoldeneyes(Table11).CommonGoldeneyesarenotabundantinwatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStates,andthebirdsdonotgatherinlargeraftsasdomanyseaducks.Inmostofthesoutheasternstates,oilingisunlikelytohaveasubstantiallydetrimentaleffectontheoverallpopulationoftheCommonGoldeneye.However,thesebirdsmightsuffersignificantlossesinthecolder,morenorthern,watersofNorthCarolina,andpossiblyduringcoldwintersalongthenorthernandwesternGulf,wherethespeciesmaybemoreabundantthanisusuallythought.395

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Table11(Continued.)NumberPercent-Numberofdeadageof ofoiledCommonCommondeadGolden-Golden-AreaDatesbirdseyeseyesSourceChesapeakeBay,Feb.197630,000(a,c)3301.10PerryetVirginiaal.1979ChesapeakeBay,Feb.197810,000(a,c)1,65016.50PerryetVirginiaal.1979FirthofForth,Feb.1978 680(a)182.65CampbelletsouthernScotlandal.1978(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(c)Thisfigureisanestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Briefe,B.1980.StorsamlingavkniporBucephalaclangula.Calidris9:48.Eriksson,M.O.G.ulainSweden.burg,Sweden. 1980.BreedingbiologyoftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclangDoktorsavhandlung.,Zool.lnst.,GoteborgsUniv./Gothen-Janssen,R.B.1980. ApossibleCommonGoldeneyeXHoodedMerganser.Loon 52:37.Sims,A.C.1980. Female Goldeneyespinning.Brit.Birds73:33.1979Coulter,M.W.,W.Crenshaw,G.Donovan andJ.Dorso.1979.Anexperimenttotoestablishagoldeneyepopulation.Wildl.Soc.Bull.7:116-118.Eriksson,M.O.G.1979a.Clutchsizeandincubationefficiencyinrelationtonest-boxsizeamonggoldeneyesBucephalaclangula.Ibis121:107-109.1979b.CompetitionbetweenfreshwaterfishandGoldeneyesBucephalaclangula(L.)forcommonprey.Oecologia41:99-107.397

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Eriksson,M.O.G.1979c.AspectsofthebreedingbiologyoftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclangula.HolarcticEcol.2:186-194.Hirsch,K.V.1979.WinteringdivingducksinPuget Sound, andtheStraitofJuandeFuca.(Abstractonly).Pac.SeabirdGroupBull.6:37.Reichholf,J.1979. [ThewinteringofGoldeneye BucephalaclangulainsouthernBavaria,particularlyonthelowerRiverInn.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges. Bayern 18:37-48.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.] Rogge,D.1979. ProblemeundErfshrungenbeivorbertendenVesuchenzurWiederarsiedlungdeSchellente(Bucephalaclangula)an ausgewahlenbewassenderDDR.[Problems andexperienceswithpreliminaryexperimentsontheintroductionoftheCommonGoldeneye BucephalaclangulatoselectedwatersinEastGermany.]Beitr.Vogelkd. 25:94-96.[InGerman.] 1978Erikksson,M.O.G.1978. Lakeselectionby Goldeneyeducklingsinrelationtotheabundanceoffood.Wildfowl 29:81-85.Gauckler,A.,M.Kraus andW.Krauss.1978. DieSchellenteBucephalaclangulaBrutvogelinBayern.[BreedingoftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclanfulainBavaria.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges. Bayern17:161-175.[InGerman.Jepsen,P.U.1978. Sexand agecompositionofgoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula)populationsduringthenon-breedingseasoninDenmark.Nat.Jutlandica20:137-146.[InEnglishwithGermansummary.] Mahoney, S.P.andW.Threlfall.1978.Digena,Nematoda, andAcanthocephaliaoftwospeciesofducks fromOntarioandeasternCanada. Can.J.Zool.56:436-439.Moulton,M., andM.Ports.1978.PiracybyRing-billedGullonCommonGoldeneyes.Bull.KansasOrnithol.Soc. 29:18.Oliver,P.J.1978.Someobservationson GoldeneyesinWestMiddlesex.Lon donBirdRept.42:85-88.Schwab,A.1978.FlugunfaehigeSchellenteverweiltsiebenjahreaufdemwichelsee/ow.[FlightlessgoldeneyeremainsevenyearsatWichel Lake(nearAlpnach,Switzerland).]Ornithol.Beob. 75:98-99.[InGerman.] 1977 Campbell, L.H.1977. LocalvariationsintheproportionofadultmalesinflocksofGoldeneyewinteringintheFirthofForth.Wildfowl 28:77-80.Campbell, L.H.andH.Milne.1977. Goldeneyefeedingclosetoseweroutfallsinwinter.Wildfowl 28:81-85.398

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1976Eriksson,M.O.G.1976. Food andfeedinghabitsofdownyGoldeneyeBucephalaclangula(L.)ducklings.OrnisScand.7:159-169.Hume,R.A.1976.ReactionsofGoldeneyestoboating.Brit.Birds69:178-179.Gochfeld,M.1976.AnapparenthybridGoldeneye from Maine.WilsonBull.88:348-349.Jacob,K.J.1976. ZurHaltungund ZuchtdeSchellente,Bucephalaclangula.Zool.Garten46:139-144.Jepsen,P.u.1976.FeedingecologyofGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula)duringthewing-feathermoultinDenmark. Dan. Rev.GameBioI.10.23pp.[InEnglishwithDanish andRussiansummaries.]Lumsden,H.G.and R. Wenting. 1976.CommonGoldeneyeshatchingfromcrackedeggs.Auk93:833-835.Pehrsson,O.1976. Food andfeedinggroundsoftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclangula(L.)ontheSwedishwestcoast.OrnisScand. 7: 91-112.Pounder,B.1976. TayEstuary.WinteringflocksofGoldeneyesatsewageoutfallsintheBirdStudy 23:120-131.Eriksson,M.1975.EniakttagelseavmardMartesmartesrovandeaggavknipaBucephalacLangula.[AnobservationofaMartin,Martesmartes,stealingan eggofGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula.]Var [InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Gerrard,A.J.1975.Black-headedGullsassociatingwithfeedingGoldeneyes.Brit.Birds68:295-296.Pehrsson,O.1975.Regional,seasonal,andannualfluctuationsoftheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula(L.),ontheSwedishwestcoast.Viltrevy9:241302. 1974Mikkola,H.1974.Telkannaudonta-aktiivisuudestaKuusamonoulangalla.[OntheactiVityoftheGoldeneyeduringincubationinKuusamo.] SuomenR1ista25:71-73.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Pirkola,M.K.andJ.Hogmander. 1974.Sorsanpoikueidenianmaaritys.[Theagedeterminationofduckbroodsinthefield.]SuomenR1ista25:50-55.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Salo,L.J.1974.HabitatselectionbytheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula,andtheTuftedDuck, Aythyafuligula,inforestLappland.SuomenRiista25:36-41.399

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1973Jepsen,P.U.1973a.Studiesofthemoultmigrationandwing-feathermoultoftheGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula)inDenmark. Dan.Rev.GameBioI.No.8.23pp.1973b.Thedistributionand numbersofGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula)-----moultinginDenmark. Dan. Rev.GameBioI.No.8.8pp.1972Leuzinger,H.1972.ZurOkologiederSchellenteBucephalaclangulaamwichtigstenUberwinterungsplatzdesnordlichenAlpenvorlandes.Phanologie,Geschlecterver-HaltnisundAbhangigkeitdesVerhaltensderSchellentevonNahrungsangebotimGebietUntersee/Rhein.[OntheecologyoftheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula,inthemostimportantwinteringareaoftheNorthernAlpinePiedmont.Phenology,sexratio,anddependenceofthebehavioroftheGoldeneyeonavailablefoodintheUntersee/Rheindistrict.]Ornithol.Beob. 69:207-235.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.]Stone,W.B.1972.Fishinglinestrapwaterfowl.N.Y.StateConserv.27:38.1971Andrle,R.F.1971.ApparentGoldeneyenestatBuffalo,NewYork.Kingbird21:212-214.Jogi,A.1971.ZumMausermugderSchellente(Bucephalaclangula)undTrauerente(Melanittanigra)inderEstnicshenSSR.Ornithol.Mitt.23:65-67.Nilsson,L. 1971.[Migration,nest-sitetenacityandlongevityofSwedishGoldeneyeBucephalaclangula.]VarFagelvarld30:180-183.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Paget,J.M.1971.Barrow'sGoldeneyeandCommonGoldeneyeonLakeLanier.Oriole36:37.1970Bjerke,T.1970.[The jumpingreactionofGoldeneyeducklings.]Sterna9:149-152.[InNorwegianwithEnglishsummary.]Rajala,P.and T. Ormio.1970.OnthenestingoftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclangula(L.)intheMeltausgameresearchareainnorthernFinland,1959-1966. Finnish GameRes.31:3-9.1969Campbell,J.M.1969.TheCanvasback,CommonGoldeneye,andBuffleheadinarcticAlaska.Condor71:80.400

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Linsell,S. E. 1969.Pre-duskandnocturnalbehaviorofgoldeneye,withnotesonpopulationcomposition.Wildfowl20:75-77.McLaren,W.D.1969.FurtherdataoninterspecificcompetitionatajointBufflehead-Goldeneyenestsite.Can.Field-Nat.83:59-61.Nilsson,L.winter.1969a.ThebehavioroftheGoldeneyeBucephalaclangulaintheVarFagelvarld28:199-210.1969b.ThemigrationoftheGoldeneyeinnorth-westEurope.Wildfowl------20:112-118.1968Gardarsson,A.1968.[TheCommonGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula)inIceland,withnotesonidentification.]Natturufraedingurinn37:76-92.[InIcelandicwithEnglishsummary.]Prince,H.H.1968.NewBrunswick.NestsitesusedbyWoodDucks andCommonGoldeneyesinJ.Wildl.Manage.32:489-500.1967Nilsson,L.1967.Thewinterdistribution,migrationandsex-ratiooftheGoldeneyeinSweden. VarFagelvarld24:301-309.1966Mester,H.andW.Prunte.1966.BeobachtungenuberdieTauchdauerderSchellente.Anthus3:46-49.1965Erz,N.1965.RingfundevonReiherenteundSchellente.Auspicium2:166-169.Kendall,M.1965. Goldeneyedivingintowaterfromair.Brit.Birds58:341-342.Nilsson,L. 1965.[StudiesonthepreeningbehaviouroftheGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula).]VarFagelvarld24:301-309.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Nuorteva,P.andT.Ormio. 1965. TheinsectfaunaofthenestsoftheGoldeneye.Ann.Ent.Fenn. 31:208-219.Olney,P.J.S. 1965.Theautumn andwinterfeedingbiologyofcertainsympatrieducks.Internatl.Congr.GameBioI.6:309-321.Prince,H.H.1965. ThebreedingecologyofWoodDuck(AixsponsaL.)andCommonGoldeneye(BucephalaclangulaL.)incentralNewBrunswick.M.S.thesis,Univ.NewBrunswick/Fredericton,NB.109pp.401

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1964 Dane, B. andW.G.vanderKloot.1964.AnanalysisofthedisplayoftheGoldeneye Duck. Behaviour 22:282-328.Wodner,D.1964.VorkommenundDurchzugderSchellenteimKreisHoyerswerda.Falke11:21-24.1963Grenquist,P.ipelago.NY.1963.HatchinglossesofCommonGoldeneyesintheFinnishArchpp.685-689inProc.XIIIInternatl.Ornithol.Congr.,Ithaca,Heintzelman,D.S. 1963. DivingtimesofaCommonGoldeneye.WilsonBull.75: 91. Lemmetyinen,R.1963.Telkanpoikastensuhtautumisestaisokoskeloemoonsa.SuomenRiista16: 91. 1962Grenquist,P. 1962.TelkanpesakolokilpailijostalisaantymistulokestaKeskiHameesa. [Notes onthebreedingsuccessofduckaincentralHame.]SuomenRiista15:157-174.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1961 Dane,B.1961. AquantitativeanalysisofthedisplayoftheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula(L.).Ph.D.thesis,CornellUniv./lthaca,NY.Gibbs,R.M.1961.BreedingecologyoftheCommonGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangulaamericana,inMaine. M.S.thesis,Univ. Maine/Orono,ME.King,B.1961.Pre-duskgatheringsofGoldeneyes.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.12: 166.Mantysaari,E. 1961.Poikkeuksellisen suuri telkkapoikue.[Aclutchof21eggsofGoldeneye.]SuomenRiista14:124.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]Kuroda,N.1960. [The foodoftheGoldeneyes.]Tori15:289-290.[InJapanese.] 1959 Dane,B.,C.WalcottandW.H.Drury.1959.Theform anddurationofthedisplayactionsoftheGoldeneye(Bucephalaclangula).Behaviour14:265-281.402

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Lind,H.1959.StudiesoncourtshipandcopulatorybehaviourintheGoldeneye(BucephalaclangulaL.).Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.53:177-219.Oko, Z. 1959.Gagol,Bucephalaclangula(L.)wWielkopolsce.[TheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula(L.)inGreatPoland.]PrzegladZool.3:188-193.[InPolish.]1958Atkeson,T.Z.,Jr.1958.Goldeneye,Old Squaw, andGreaterScauprecordsfrom WheelerReservoir.AlaBirdlife6:15-16.Carter,R.C.1958. The American GoldeneyeincentralNewBrunswick. Can.Wildl.ServoWildl.Manage.Bull.(Ser.2)9.iiiand47pp.1957Myres,M.T. 1957.Anintroductiontothebehaviorofthegoldeneyes:Bucephalaislandica and!. clangula(ClassAves, FamilyAnatidae).M.A.thesis,Univ.Brit.Columbia/Vancouver,BC.254pp.Siren,M.1957a.Mitentelkkapoikueetsaadaansidotuisksiomilleristamaille.[HowGoldeneyebroodscanbetiedtoone'sowngamegrounds.]SuomenRiista11:59-64.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1957b.[OnthefaithfulnessofGoldeneyetoitsnestingregionandnestingsite.]SuomenRiista11:130-133.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.]1955Trub,J.,G.GilleronandP.Geroudet.1955.UnenidficationduGarrotenSuisseromande,Bucephalaclangula.NosOiseaux23:96-98.[InFrench.]1954King,B.1954. Goldeneye"up-ending"anditsmethodofdrinking.Brit.Birds47:355.1953Breckenridge,W.J.1953.NightraftingofAmerican Goldeneyes ontheMississippiRiver.Auk70:201-204.1952Carter,B.C.1952. The American GoldeneyeincentralNewBrunswick. M.S.thesis,Univ.Maine/Orono,ME.403

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Siren,M.1952.Undersokningaroverknipans,Bucephalaclangula,fortplantningsbiologi.[StudiesonthebreedingbiologyoftheGoldeneye,Bucephalaclangula.].RiistatieteellisiaJulkaisuja/Pap.GameRes.8:101-111.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.] 1951Siren,M.1951.[IncreasingtheGoldeneyepopulationwithnestboxes.]Pap.GameRes.8:101-111.[InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1944Wright,M.B.1944. AmericanGolden-eyesfeedingonsalmoneggs.Condor 46:126-127.1943Trautman,M.B..HerringGullattackon normalGolden-eye.WilsonBull.55: 192. 1940Bernhardt,P.1940.BeitragzurBiologiederSchellente(Bucephalaclangula).J.Ornithol.88:488-497.[InGerman.] 1939 Gunn,D.1939.Onthecourtship-displayoftheGoldeneye.Brit.Birds33:48-50.Munro,J.A.1939. ofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.Barrow'sGoldeneye,AmericanGolden-eye.Trans.R. Can.Instit.22:259-318.1929 Mershon,W.B.1929.Golden-eyenestingontheground.Auk46:532-533.1928Bernhardt,P.1928.BeobachtungenanderSchellente.Beitr.Fortpf.Vogel 4:85-88.Mershon,W.B.1928.Golden-eyeDucknestingontheground.Auk45:498.1924Boase,H.1924.CourtingdisplayoftheGolden-eyeonsaltwater.Brit.Birds18:69-71.404

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1920Mayhoff,H.1920.VondenBrutvogelndesMoritzburgerTeichgebietes.Verh.Ornithol.GesBayern13:352-359.1918Mayhoff,H.1918.ZumSchwingengerauschderSchellente.Verh.Ornithol.GesBayern13:351-359.1911Brewster,W.1911.CourtshipoftheAmericanGoldeneyeorWhistler(Clangulaclangulaamericana).Condor 13:22-30.1910 Townsend,C.W.1910.ThecourtshipoftheGoldeneye andEiderDuck.Auk27:177-181.1900Brewster,W.1900.NotesonthebreedinghabitsoftheAmericangolden-eyedduckorwhistler.Auk17:207-216.405

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BUFFLEHEAD(Bucephalaalbeola)[DA:AmerikanskHvinand,DU:Buffelkopeend,EN:Buffel-headedDuck,FI:Pikkutelkka,FR:Garrotalbeole,GE:Buffelkopfente,IC: Hjalmond,IT:Qusttrocchiamericano,JA:Himehijiro,PO:Gagolmalutki,RU:(SmallGoldeneye),SP:Porronalbeola,Patocabezaclara;SW:Buffelhuvud]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaBuffleheadsbreedfromcentralAlaska,theYukonTerritory,andBritishColumbiaeastwardthroughtheforestedportionsofCanadatoOntario,andperhapstotheUngavaPeninsula.ThemainrangeextendssouthintotheUnitedStatesonlyinMontana,Idaho,andNorthDakota,butthereareisolatedbreedingpopulationsinthemountainsofseveralwesternstates(Erskine1972),aswellasarecentbreedingrecordfromcentralIdaho(Lannoy andSakaguchi1979).Thereareoldrecordsfrom beyondtheprimarypresentrange(AOU1957,Palmer1976 b) Inwinter,Buffleheadsarefound fromtheAleutianIslandssouthalongthePacificcoasttonorthernMexico,alongtheAtlanticcoastfrom Newfoundland, NovaScotia,andNewBrunswicktothenorthernportionsofFlorida,andalongtheGulfcoasttoTamaulipas,Mexico(AOU1957, Palmer1976b).BuffleheadsalsowinterintheinteriorofNorthAmericaonopenwaterfromtheGreatLakessouthwesttothecentralinteriorhighlandsofMexico(Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionTheBuffleheadisaNearcticspecies,andrecordsoutsideofNorthAmericarepresentstagglers.The mostcommonextralimitalrecordscomefromtheKomandorskiyeIslandsandtheKamchatkaPeninsulainthewesternU.S.S.R.duringfallandwinter.IndividuslshavealsobeenreportedasfarsouthinthePacificastheKurilIslands,Japan,and Hawaii(Palmer1976b).Tothesoutheast,BuffleheadshavestraggledtoBermuda,PuertoRico,Cuba,andJamaica(Palmer1976b),andtothenortheastandeasthave wanderedtoGreenland,Britain,Czechoslovakia(Palmer1976b),andIceland(Crampetale1977) DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaBuff1eheadsarewinterresidentsinNorthCarolina,wheretheyareusus1lyfoundinsmallgroupsonlakesorotheropenwater(Pearsonetale1942).Theyarepresentfrom NovemberthroughAprilorMayandaremorecommonalongthecoastthaninland(Potteretale1980).Bel1rose(1976)reportedthatabout7,100BuffleheadswereseeninNorthCarolinaonwinterwaterfowlsurveys(1955-1974),makingthisstatethemostimportantwinteringgroundalongthesoutheasternAtlanticcoast.The1975winterwaterfowlsurveyreported3,000Buffleheads(Goldsberryetale1980);about3,800werebelievedtohavebeenkilledthereduringtheprecedinghuntingseason(Larnedeta1.1980).Largecongregationsareoccasionallyrecorded.Pearsoneta1.(1942)notedthe406

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presenceof2,500 on PeaIslandduringthewinterof1940-41.SouthCarolinaBuffleheadsarefairlycommonwinterresidentsinSouthCarolina,generallyarrivinginearlyNovember and sometimeslingeringuntillateApril.Theyprefersaltwaterandaremostnumerousalongthecoastonmarshes,bays,tidalrivers,andtheInlandWaterway;theyoccasionallyoccurinlandonfreshwaterponds andricefields(Spruntand Chamberlain1949).Januarywaterfowlsurveystypicallyfound 350BuffleheadsinSouthCarolina(Bellrose1976);300 were foundthereduringtheJanuary1975survey(Goldsberryetal.1980).Winterpopulationsaredoubtlesslargerthanthis,however,sinceanestimatebasedondataprovidedbyLarnedetal.(1980)suggeststhatabout850 werekilledthereduringthe1975huntingseason.Inaddition,fourrecentChristmasCounts(thatcoveredonlyaportionofthecoast)averagedatotalofslightlyover350birds(Map29).GeorgiaBurleigh(1958)regardedtheBuffleheadasanuncommontransientandwinterresidentthroughoutthestate.Dentonetal.(1977)assigneditthesamestatus,andgavedatesofoccurrencefromearlyNovembertolateApril.Bellrose(1976)reportedthat some 35wereseenthereonJanuarywaterfowlsurveys;200 werereportedontheJanuary1975survey(Goldsberryetal.1980).FloridaThisspeciesoccursinFlorida'asanuncommonwintervisitor,chieflyonthenorthernGulfcoast.Howell(1932)gaveonlytworecordsfromtheAtlanticcoast.Sprunt(1954)reportedthatBuffleheadsoccursparinglyinthecentralportionsofthestatesouthtoLake Okeechobee,theirnormalsouthernlimitinthestate.AtpresenttheBuffleheadisuncommonontheAtlanticcoast,withsmallconcentrationsatMerrittIslandNWR(Kale1979msa,Map29).ItisgenerallyuncommonontheGulfcoast,althoughmore numerousintheupperGulf(Kale1979msb,Map29).Bellrosereportedthatabout950 wereseenonwintersurveys;1,000werereportedthereontheJanuary1975survey(Goldsberryetal.1980).RecentAudubonChristmasBirdCountsaveragedslightlyover1,000Buffleheads(Map29).AlabamaBuffleheadsarewinterresidentsinAlabama. Theyarefoundbothinlandand ontheoutermostbaysoftheGulfcoastandareequallyabundantonfreshandsaltwater.TheseduckshavebeenreportedfromearlyNovembertolateAprilalongthecoast;themaximumconcentrationreportedtherewas 215birdsobservedatBonSecourBayon8February1957 (Imhof1976b).Bellrose(1976)gavenofiguresforpopulationswinteringinAlabama;the1975winterwaterfowlsurveyfound 500birds(Goldsberryetal.1980)MississippiBurleigh(1944)reportedthattheBuffleheadwintersinextremelysmallnumbersontheGulfcoast.MorerecentobservationsindicatethatthespeciesoccursinwinterinsmallnumbersthroughoutthestatefromearlyNovembertolateMarch(Jacksonand Weber 1976,Jacksonand Cooley1978a).Thelargestconcentrationreportedwas120birdsatHornIslandon 16January1978(Jacksonand Cooley1978a).Nonewerereportedduringthe1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980),butslightlyover800 werebelievedtohavebeenshotandretrievedbyhuntersduringtheprecedinghuntingseason(Larnedetal.1980).LouisianaTheBuffleheadisusuallyinLouisianafrom NovembertoMarch, 407

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Winter DistributillMap forSoutheasternUnitedSlatesBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan10 10-50I ? I50-200_ More than200 (Adapted framIyslrak, 1974) INDIVID'UALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals o Le.ssthanone individual None observed 96,92 ,d'd'd' GULFOFMEXICO90"BUFFLEHEAD /,'.-?--------Map29

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withextremedatesofoccurrencefrommid-OctobertolateApril.Theseducksoccurthroughoutthestatebutaremostfrequentinthedeepestlakesandbays(Lowery1974).AsinMississippi,nonewerereportedduringthe1975winterwaterfowlcensus(Goldsberryetal.1980),butslightlymorethan800 wereshotbyhunterstheprecedinghuntingseason(Larnedetal.1980).TexasTheBuffleheadoccursinTexas fromearlyNovembertolateAprilasawinterresident.Oberholser(1974)consideredthespecieslocallycommontoscarceinthewesternhalfofthestateanduncommontorareintheeasternhalf.Bellrose(1976)reportedthattheaverageseenonwintersurveyswas4,300Buffleheads.TheseducksmaynowbemorecommonalongtheTexascoastthanthisinformationsuggests.Blacklock(1978 ms)consideredthespeciescommoninwinter,withpeakdensitiespresentfrom DecembertoFebruary.Goldsberryetal.(1980)reported7,730Buffleheadsduringthe1975wintersurveyofTexas;thiswas morethantwicethatreportedforalloftheothersoutheasternstates.Inaddition,averageChristmasBirdCountsforrecentyearswerelargeralongthesouthernTexascoastthananywhereelseinthesoutheast(Map29).SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedin&TheBuffleheadbreedssolelyinNorthAmerica.ItbreedsfromcentralAlaskaeastthroughtheYukonTerritoryandnorthernMackenzieDistrict,acrossBritishColumbia,Alberta,Saskatchewan,andManitoba,toOntario,andprobablyintoQuebec.ItbreedssouthonlyasfarasnorthernIdahoandnorthwesternMontana(AOU1957,Erskine1972,Palmer1976b).IsolatedbreedingpopulationsoccurincentralOregon,northeasternCalifornia,northwesternWyoming, andnorthernandeasternIdaho(AOU1957,Palmer1976b,LannoyandSakaguchi1979).Erskine(1972)suggestedarangeofbetweenone-quarterandthree-quartersofamillionbirdsinthespringpopulationofBuffleheadsinNorthAmerica.Bellrose(1976)analyzedadditionalbreedinggroundsurveysandindicatedthatthespringpre-breedingpopulationwasabout745,000birds;Erskine'searlieranalysisofthesamekindofdatahadresultedinanestimateof500,000.Amajorityofthepopulation(423,000birds)isfoundintheclosedborealforestandextensiveparklandsoftheCanadianPrairieProvincesbutthegreatestdensities(10persqmi)arefoundintheCaribooDistrictofBritishColumbia(Bellrose1976).Asurveyofpartofthebreedinggroundsin1976(Larnedetal.1980)revealedapopulationofabout896,000birds.Nearlyhalf(45.1%)ofthesewereinnorthernAlberta,northeasternBritishColumbia,andtheNorthwestTerritories.Substantialnumbers werealsofoundinnorthernSaskatchewan,northernManitoba,andtheSaskatchewanRiverDelta(30.3%),andinAlaska(13.1%).WinterBuffleheadswinteralongthePacificcoastfromtheAleutianstoSinaloaonthecentralMexicancoast,andalongtheAtlanticcoastfrom NovaScotiaandNewBrunswicksouth(Map29)tonorthernFloridaandtheGulfcoastasfarasTamaulipas(AOU1957);theyarealsofoundinlargerinlandlakes(Bellrose1976).In1966-69,wintersurveysbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicefound90,000Buffleheads(Johnsgard1975).Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatnearly13,000morewinteronAlaskanrefugesandthatAudubonChristmasBird409

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Countsreportedabout150winteringinNovaScotia,NewBrunswick,andQuebec.About 53.4%ofthe90,000BuffleheadsreportedbyJohnsgard(1975)winterintheAtlanticFlywaywithanother35.6%inthePacificFlyway,6.2%intheMississippiFlyway,andabout4.6%intheCentralFlyway.TheproportionsforthePacificandCentralflywaysincludecountsforthewestcoastofMexico andfortheinteriorandeastcoastofMexico,respectively.About90,850Buffleheadswere found onthe1975winterwaterfowlsurvey,5,990ofwhichwereinMexico(Goldsberryetal.1980).TheproportionsfoundinthePacific(29.9%) andAtlantic(52.1%)flywaysweresimilartothosereportedbyJohnsgard(1975),buttheproportionintheCentralFlyway(15.7%)wasconsiderablylarger,principallybecauseofthelargenumberreportedfromTexas.TheMississippiFlywayheldtheremaining2.3%.Proportionsfoundineachflywayduringthe1976survey(Larnedetal.1980)wereroughlysimilar,buttheproportionintheCentralFlyway (8.9%)was,asintheprecedingyear,greaterthanintheMississippi-Flyway(4.6%),suggestingthattheremayhavebeenachangeinthewinterdistributionoftheBuffleheadinthesoutheast.In1975thesoutheasternUnitedStatesharbored12,820(ca.14.1%)ofthetotalfound onthewintersurvey;about60%oftheBuffleheadsinthesoutheastwere foundinTexas,whichheldthefifthlargestwinteringpopulation.ThelargestwinteringpopulationswerefoundinMaryland(14,300),Washington(13,686),NewJersey(12,260)andCalifornia(7,877).FiguresprovidedearlierbyBellrose(1976)suggestedthatroughly19%ofthepopulationwinteringinthecontiguousUnitedStatesand Mexico was foundinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.ThelargestnumbersofwinteringbirdswerefoundinWashington(ca.15,000),NewJersey(9,900),Maryland(8,800),NorthCarolina(7,100)andTexas(4,300).MigrationDuringfallmigrationmostBuffleheadsmigratefromtheirbreedinggroundsinnorthwesternNorthAmericaeithersouthwesttothePacificcoastorsoutheasttothenorthAtlanticcoast(Bellrose1976).Erskine(1972)pointedoutthatthemigratorypathwaysdivideinAlberta.From atriangularareaabout150mi(241km)acrossatitsbasenear54 Nlatitude,Buffleheadsmayfollowavarietyofroutes;thisareaisthesourceofmostbirdsmigratingsouth.AlmostallBuffleheadstothewestofthisareamigratesouthwestandmostofthosetotheeastmovesoutheast.ConsiderablylessisknownaboutroutesemployedbymigratingBuffleheadsduringthespringbecauserelativelyfewbirdsarebandedduringthewinterandonlya fewareshot(illegally)duringthespring.Theroutestakenmaywellbeverysimilartothoseemployedinfall(Erskine1972).Erskine(1972)providedthemostinformationonBuffleheadmigrationandhisworkhasbeenablysummarizedbyPalmer(1976b)andBellrose(1976).ByFebruary,winteringBuffleheadsmaybemovingnorthalongtheAtlanticcoasttotheareasfromwhichtheywillmigrateoverlandtothebreedinggrounds.MostwillhavelefttheGulfandsoutheasternAtlanticcoastsbyMarch.DuringfallmigrationthemajormovementbymigratingBuffleheadsapparentlyoccursinlateOctoberandearlyNovemberwithmostoftheseducksreachingtheirwinteringgroundsduringDecember(Palmer1976b).Bellrose(1976),Palmer(1976b),andespeciallyErskine(1972)shouldbeconsultedforfurtherdetailsonmigration410

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inareasotherthanthesoutheast.HABITATNestingTheBuffleheadisoneofthefewhole-nestingducks andisconsequentlyassociatedwithforestsinitsbreedingdistribution.Theseducksnestprimarilyinmixedconiferous-deciduouswoodlandsnorthandwestoftheGreatPlains(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatBuffleheadstypicallynestinorbysmall,shallow,freshorslightlyalkalinebodiesofwaterthathavelittleemergentvegetationaroundtheirmargins.Erskine(1972)characterizedlakesusedforbreedingasmoderatelytohighlyeutrophic,andindicatedthatBuffleheadsavoidbothshallow,weedysloughsandlarge,deep,gravel-shoredlakes.NestdensityiscloselyrelatedtothepresenceofdeciduoustreescontainingCommonFlicker(Colaptesauratus)holes,especiallyaspen.Flickerholesarepreferred,butholesexcavatedbyPileatedWoodpeckers(Dryocopuspileatus)arealsoused.BurnedareasandparklandgrovesofaspenswhichsupportlargenumbersofnestingFlickersalsosupportlargenumbersofBuffleheads.Fewnestfarfromwaterorindenseforest(Palmer1976b).Mostof205nestsfoundinbreedingareasfromAlaskatoCaliforniaandSaskatchewanwere foundininQuaking Aspen(Populustremuloides52.2%) andDouglasFir(Pseudotsugamenziesii-21.5%)(Erskine1972).FeedingBuffleheadsprefertofeedinshallowwater,withmostfeedingdoneatdepthsofabout6-10ft(1.8-3.0m)(Erskine1972).WinterandOffshoreBuffleheadsseekoutshelteredportionsofthemarinehabitatforwinter,avoidingthemoreexposedcoasts.Theyparticularlyfavorshallowwatersovermudflatsthatareexposedatlowtide.Habitatsutilizedrangefromsecludedcoves,rivermouths,andshoalsalongflatGulfshorestotheicyedgesofrockycoasts(Erskine1972).WinteringBuffleheadsmayoccurquitefarfromshoreandmaywinteronshelteredsaltwater,slightlybrackishwater,andoninlandfreshwaterjustsouthoftheareasinwhichmostsuchwatersfreeze(Palmer1976b).FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORBuffleheadsfeedpredominantlybydiving,usingthefeetforpropulsion(Erskine1972).Theyhavealsobeenseenwadinginshallowwaterseizingfoodwiththeirheadssubmergedbeneaththewaterandalsoseizingfoodatthesurface(King1976).Inanotherinstance,aflock was seenup-endingontheIndianRiveratCapeCanaveral(King1976).Buffleheadsmaydiveforfoodindividuallybutwheninflocksoftenexhibitsynchronizeddiving.Mostdivestake15-25secinwater6-10ft(1.8-3.0m)deep;divesmayaverageaslittleas10secinshallowerwater.Palmer(1976b)summarizedErskine's(1972)finesynthesisofthefeedinghabitsoftheBuffleheadbystatingthat"TheBuffleheadfeedsprimarilyon411

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smallanimals:aquaticinsects,shrimps,snails,etc.(total70%-90%),toa muchlesserextentonseedsandotherportionsofaquaticplants."Theprimaryfoodstakenonfreshwaterinspringand summerareinsects;inautumn,insects,gastropods,andplants;andinwinter,molluscs,thelattermostlysnails.Birdsonsaltwaterfromfallthroughspringfeedchieflyoncrustaceansandmolluscsandtoalimitedextentoninsects(Palmer1976b).Erskine(1972) summarizedthefoodhabitsofBuffleheadsbystatingthatinallseasonstheyfeedprimarilyonarthropodsandonlysecondarilyonmolluscs;theyfeedchieflyoninsectswhileonfreshwaterand oncrustaceansonsaltwater.Themostimportantfoodinmarinesituationsaredecapods,includingbothshrimpandcrabs;isopodsarealsofrequentlyeaten.Minoritemsofdietincludemarineworms,bryozoans,watermites(Hydrachnida),andsmallfishes(mostlysculpins[Cottidae])(Erskine1972).Erskine'ssummaryshouldbeconsultedforfurtherdetailsofthefoodhabitsoftheBufflehead.AlthoughlittleisknownofthefoodhabitsofBuffleheadsinsoutheasternwaters,presumablythefoodseatentherearesimilartothoseconsumedelsewhere.Quay andCritcher(1965)gavethesolereportofstomachcontentstakenentirelywithinsoutheasternwaters.TheyreportedthatfiveRuffleheadswinteringonCurrituckSound,NorthCarolina,hadeaten54.6%(byvolume)plantmaterial.Themostimportantfoodswere pondweeds(Potamogetonspp.28.6%) andwidgeongrass(Ruppiamaritima-12.6%);southernnaiad(Najasguadalupensis2.0%) wasconsiderablylessimportant.Quay andCritcherdidnotindicatewhatkindofanimalswereeaten.IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingEgg-layingbeginsinlateAprilinthesouthernpartsoftherangebutoccurslaterfarthernorth.The mostnorthernpopulationsbeginlayingaboutmid-May. TheperiodofpeaklayingrangesfromearlyMaytomid-May fromsoutherntonorthernpartsoftherange.Almostalllayingiscompletedbymid-Junethroughouttherange(Bellrose1976).MeanClutchSizeInstudiessummarized byErskine(1972)of263nests,themeanclutchsizewas8.75eggs;9eggsisthemostcommonsize.Meanclutchsizewassmallest(7.00,n=5)insouthernlocalities(California,Oregon),andlargest(9.00,n=18)innorthernlocalities(Alaska).IncubationPeriodIncubationperiodsrangedfrom28to33 daysinBritishColumbia(Erskine1972).HatchingSuccessInErskine's(1972)studyinBritishColumbia,someeggshatchedin75-80%ofallnests;inthesesuccessfulnests,about90%oftheeggslaidwerehatched.Theaverageproductionfromsuccessfulnestswas 8chicks,whichrepresentedalossoflessthanoneeggpernest.FledgingSuccess"Probablyonlyaboutone-halfofhatchedyoungsurvivetoflight"(Erskine1972).AgeatFledgingYoungBuffleheadsarecapableofflightat50-55daysinBritishColumbia(Erskine1972).412

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AgeatFirstBreedingBuffleheadsprobablybreedforthefirsttimeattheageof2years(Erskine1972).MortalityofEggsandYoungNestsmaybedestroyedbylargepredators orrobbedbysmallones(mustellids,squirrels).Competitorsfornestingcavities(flyingsquirrels,birds)maycausethelossordesertionofnestsandeggs.SomenestsaredesertedafterintrusionbyotherBuffleheadsorbyBarrow'sGoldeneyesthatlayinthesamecavity(Erskine1972).Someyoung fa\l toleavethenestcavityortoreachwater.Erskine(1972)suggestedthatlargecarnivorousfish,especiallythenorthernpike(Esoxlucius),maytaketheducklings.RenestingThereisno goodevidencethatBuffleheadsrenestafterthelossofaclutch(Erskine1972).MaximumNaturalLongevityBirdsbandedinBritishColumbiahavebeenfoundaliveuptonineyearsafterbanding(Erskine1972).AbirdrecoveredatSledLake,Saskatchewan,hadreachedanageofatleast14yearsand3 months(Clappetal.inpress).WeightAveragedovertheyear,maleBuffleheadsweighabout1lb(450g),andfemalesweighabout0.73lb(330g)(Erskine1972).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONBuffleheadshavebeeninvolvedina fewoilingincidents(Table12).King andSanger(1979)suggestedthatthisspeciesmaybeadverselyaffectedinthewatersofthePacificNorthwest,buttheythoughtthatthedamageprobablywouldnotbecatastrophic.ThisspeciesseldomformslargeaggregationsandisfairlyuncommoninmuchofthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Consequently,wethinkthatthereisnomajorhazardtotheBuffleheadpopulationfromdevelopmentofpetroleumresourcesinmostofthesoutheasternUnitedStates.OnlyinthecolderwatersofNorthCarolina,thestateharboringmorewinteringBuffleheadsthananyotherinthesoutheast,aretheseduckslikelytosuffersignificantmortalityfromoilpollution.BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Bolen,E.G.andB.R.Chapman.1981.EstimatingwintersexratiosforBuffleheads.Southwest.Nat.26:49-52.1980Limpert,R.J.1980.HomingofadultBuffleheadstoaMarylandwinteringsite.J.Wildl.Manage. 44:905-908.413

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Table12.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadBuffleheadsfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaMartha'sVineyard,MADatesFeb.1970Numberofoileddeadbirds541(a)NumberofdeadBuffleheads8PercentageofBuffleheads1.48SourceCSLP1971OffEasternCanada SanFranciscoBay,CaliforniaChesapeake Bay,VirginiaChesapeake Bay,VirginiaFeb.-Apr.1970Jan.1971Feb.1976Feb.19781,276(a,b)3,221(a,c)30,000(d)10,000(d)875302600.63 0.221.802.60Brownetal.1973Smaileta1.1972Perryeta1.1979Perryeta1.1979(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludesbothliveand deadoiledbirds(c)Thisfigurerepresentsbirdsbroughttocleaning/receivingstations.(d)Figureisanestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.1979Lannoy, S. L. and F.D.Sakaguchi.1979.FirstrecordofbreedingBuffleheadincentralIdaho.Murrelet60:72-73.1978Davis,G.1978.BuffleheadbroodinMarshallCounty. LoonSO:213-214.Erskine,A.J.1978.Durabilityoftreeholesused byBuffleheads.Can.Field-Nat.92: 94-95.1976King,B.1976.FeedingbehaviourofBuffleheads.Brit.Birds69: 105.414

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1973 Lubbock,M.R.1973.ThepropagationandcaptivemanagementofmergansersandBufflehead.Internatl.ZooYearbk. 13:72-77.1972Erskine,A.J.1972.Buffleheads.Can.Wildl.Servo Monogr.Ser.No.4.240pp.Kocan,R.M.andJ.O.Knisley,Jr.1971. TheBufflehead(Bucephalaalbeola):anewhostrecordforPlasmodium.J.Wildl.Dis.7:217-218.Schlauch,F.C.1971.TwoBuffleheadsonLongIslandduringthesummerof1970.Englehardtia4:51.Williams,W.M.H.1971.SomenotesontherearingofBuffleheadand HoodedMergansers(Bucephalaalbeolaand Merguscucullatus).Avicult.Mag.77:58-65.1969 Campbell,J.M.1969. The Canvasback,CommonGoldeneye andBuffleheadinarcticAlaska.Condor 71:80.1968 Gerasimov,N.N.1968. [TheBuffle-headedduck -thecasualbirdofKamchatka.]Ornitologiya9:345.[InRussian].1967 Wiemeyer, S.N.1967.Buffleheadfoodhabits,parasites,andbiologyinnorthernCalifornia.M.S.thesis,HumboldtSt.Coll./Arcata,CA.Yamamoto,H.1967. A maleBuffle-headwasobservedintwosuccessiveyears.Tori18:196-200.Miller,R.S. 1966.Buffleheadusesartificialnestbox.BlueJay24:184185.Schroeder,C.H.1966.RecentrecordsoftheBuffleheadbreedinginNorthDakota.N.Oak. Outdoors 28:14.1964Erskine,A.J.1964.Nest-sitecompetitionbetweenBufflehead,MountainBluebird,andTreeSwallow. Can.Field-Nat.78:202-203.415

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Hancock,D.A.1964.BreedingrecordfortheBuffleheadwestoftheCoastRangesinBritishColumbia. Can.Field-Nat.78:64-65.1961Erskine,A.J.1961.Nest-sitetenacityand homingintheBufflehead.Auk78:389-396.Griffei,W.E. 1961.BuffleheadnestingrecordsforOregon.Murre1et42:5.1960Erskine,A.J.1960. AdiscussionofthedistributionalecologyoftheBufflehead(Bucepha1aa1beo1a:Anatidae;Aves)baseduponbreedingbiologystudiesinBritishColumbia.M.A.thesis,Univ.Brit.Columbia/Vancouver,BC.1959Erskine,A.J.1959.AjointclutchofBarrow'sGoldeneye andBuffleheadeggs.Can.Field-Nat.73: 131.Myres,M.T. 1959.DisplaybehaviorofBufflehead,scoters,andgoldeneyesatcopulation.WilsonBull.71:159-168.1947Evenden,F.G.1947.TheBuffleheadnestinginOregon.Condor49:169.1942 Munro,J.A.1942.StudiesofwaterfowlinBritishColumbia.Bufflehead.Can.J.Res.20:133-160.1941Davis,H.P.1941.NestingofBuffleheadducksatLake A1manor,California.Condor43:294. 1933Linsda1e,J.1933.A waytodistinguishyoungBuff1e-headDucks from youngGolden-eyeDucks. Condor35: 1927Raine,G.duck.1927.NestoftheSolitarySandpiper,Ye11ow1egs, andBuffleheadOologist44:4-5.1926Dixon,J.1926.TheBuffleheadbreedsinCalifornia.Condor28:47-48.416

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1921Dixon,J.1921.TheBuffleheadbreedinginCalifornia.Condor23:165.Ray,M.S.1921.OntheoccurrenceoftheBuffleheadatEagleLake.Condor 23:192-193.1918 Monro,J.A.1918. TheBuffleHeadintheOkanaganValley,BritishColumbia.Oologist35:12-13.1911Simpson,R. B.1911.AflightofBuffleheads.Oologist28:44.417

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HOODEDMERGANSER(Lophodytescucullatus)[DA:Hjelmskallesluger,DU:Kuifzaagbek,FI:Vaippakoskelo,FR:Harlecouronne,GE:Kappensager,IT:Smergoamericano,SP:Serretacabezona,SW:Kamskrake]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONHoodedMergansersbreedintwodisjunctportionsofNorthAmerica.AwesternpopulationnestsfromsoutheasternAlaskaandsouthernBritishColumbiaeastwardintotheRockyMountainsofAlberta,northwesternMontanaandnorthernIdaho,souththroughWashingtonandwesternOregonthroughtheCascades,intheSierraNevadatocentralCalifornia,andintheRockyMountainstoColorado.TheeasternpopulationbreedsfromsouthernManitoba,Ontario,Quebec,NewBrunswick,and NovaScotiasouththroughtheMississippiValleyandtheAppalachianMountains,sporadicallytoKansas,northernLouisiana,Mississippi,andAlabama(AOU1957,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Nestingisveryrareandsporadiconthesoutheasterncoastalplain,buthasoccurredeventoFlorida(Sprunt1954,Repenning andWebster1978).Bothpartsofthebreedingrangemaybeexpanding(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).BirdsfromthewesternregionwinterinBritishColumbia,Washington,Oregon,andCalifornia,southrarelytoMexico. Those fromtheeasternregionwinterontheAtlanticandGulfcoastalplainfromNewEnglandtoTexas,althoughsomeoccurfartherinland,particularlyinmildwinters(AOU1957,Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Estimatesforthetotalpre-breedingspringpopulationtotalabout76,000birds(Bellrose1976).The HoodedMerganserisacommonmigrantandwintervisitorinthesoutheasternstatessouthtocentralFlorida.ItislesscommoninsouthernFlorida,anditsrelativeabundancedecreasestothewestthroughLouisianaand Texas(Map30).Itisprimarilyabirdofinlandandfreshwaterareas,althoughsomeoccuralongthecoast.The HoodedMerganserwasapparentlymuch morewidespreadand numerousinearlierdays.Thespeciesdeclinedwiththeclearingofbottomlandforestsandthedrainingofswampandmarshland.Sincethe1930's,anincreaseinnumbershasbeennoted,andthemoresoutherlyareasarebeinginvadedorrecolonized.MuchofthenestinginthePrairieStatesandinthesoutheasttakesplaceinboxesplacedforWoodDucks(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).SomenestinghasbeenreportedinrecentyearsinallthesoutheasternstatesexceptTexas.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONNorecordsofoilpollutionofHoodedMergansersareavailable.Becausethespeciesisseldom foundoffshoreinsaltwater,thepotentialforoilingposeslittlethreattothespeciesinthesoutheasternstates.418

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WillerDisbiltilMap far SntHastn UitedStates 24"..-HOODEDMERGANSERBIRONAME' 86"88"90" GULFOFMEXICO "-)v-> ), .;. IIII A S96-EXTBIRDSPER10PARTY-HOURSIILessthan one I5-20_ More than20 (AdaptedfromIystrak, 1974)INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @Number ofindividuals o Lessthanoneindividual None abserved Map30

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1981Smith,R.L.1981.HoodedMergansernestinginBrookingsCounty. S. Dak.BirdNotes33:15.1980Digulio,R.T.andR.B.Hamilton.1980.UtilizationofagriculturalwetlandsinaMississippiRiverbottomlandbyWoodDuck and HoodedMerganserbroods.Proc.33rdAnnu.Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&Wildl.Agencies:81-87.Graham,B.J.gansers.1980.NestholecompetitionbetweenWoodDucks and Hooded MerJack-PineWarbler58:36.Janssen,R. B.1980.ApossiblehybridCommonGoldeneye and HoodedMerganser.Loon52:37.1979Ruckel,S.W.1979.HoodedMergansernestsinWoodDuckbox.Oriole44:50-51.1978 Repenning,R.W.andJ.W.Webster.1978.HoodedMerganserbreedinginanorthFloridaphosphatemine.Fla.FieldNat.6:48.Riexinger,P.,W.T.CorbertandW.Sharick.1978.HoodedMerganserbreedinginSchoharieCounty.Kingbird28:30-31.Russell,R.P.,Jr.1978.Firstrecordofa Hooded Merganser-Wood Duckhybridinthewild.Loon50:208-209.1977Bain,G.A.andW.Threlfall.1977.HelminthparasitesofHoodedMergansers,Lophodytescucullatus(L.)fromOntario.Proc.Helminthol.Soc.Wash. 44:219-221.Dahlin,J.1977.Mallard/Merganserpairbond.PassengerPigeon39:300.Loughry,F.D. andT.Wheatley.Maryland'sEasternShore.1977..FirstnestingofHoodedMerganseronMd.Birdlife33:55.White,D.H. andE.Cromartie.1977.shellthinninginmergansereggs.ResiduesofenvironmentalpollutantsandWilsonBull.89:532-542.1975 Browne, S. 1975. HoodedMergansersbreedinginNewYork.N.Y.FishGameJ.22:68-70.420

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White,D.H.1975. HoodedMerganserkillsa meadowvole.WilsonBull.87:282.1974Bouvier,J.M.1974.BreedingbiologyoftheHoodedMerganserinsouthwesternQuebec,includinginteractionswithCommonGoldeneyesandWoodDucks.Can.Field-Nat.88:323-330.1973Fitzner,R. andJ.N.Fitzner.1973.TheHoodedMerganserinsoutheasternWashington.Murrelet54:38-39.1972Robinson,L.H.1972.AsecondHoodedMerganserbroodinSouthCarolina.Chat 36:107.Strong,L. 1972.UtilizationofartificialnestingstructuresbyHoodedMergansersinMississippi.MississippiKite2:23-24.1969Kitchen,D.W.andG.S.Hunt.1969.BroodhabitatoftheHoodedMerganser.J.Wildl.Manage. 33:605-609.Morse,T.E.,J.L.JakabovskyandV.P.McCrow. 1969.SomeaspectsofthebreedingbiologyoftheHoodedMerganser.J.Wildl.Manage.33:596-604.1968Kitchen,D.W.1968. BroodhabitatselectionoftheHoodedMerganser,Lophodytescucullatus,innortheasternWisconsin.M.Wildl.Man.thesis,Univ.Michigan/AnnArbor,MI.73pp.1966McGilvrey,F.B.1966.NestingofHoodedMergansersonthePatuxentWildlifeResearchCenter,Laurel,Maryland.Auk83:477-479.1961Johnsgard,P.A.1961. HoodedMerganser.ThesexualbehaviorandsystematicpositionoftheWilsonBull.73:227-236.1957 Mossman,A.S.1957. HoodedMergansersatAfognakIsland,Alaska.Condor59:341.421

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Sherwood,M.P. 1957. SouthernmostrecordsfortheHoodedMerganser (Lophodytescucullatus)intheUnitedStates.Auk74: 266-267. 1952 Mumford,R.E. 1952.TheHooded MerganserinIndiana.IndianaAud.Q.30: 1944Sprunt,A.,Jr.1944.TwoabnormalbreedingrecordsforSouthCarolina.Auk61: 306-307.1933Bagg,A.C.and S.A.Eliot,Jr.1933.CourtshipoftheHooded Merganser (Lophodytescucullatus).Auk50: 430-431. 1930 Robb,W.H.1930.NuptialperformanceoftheHoodedMerganser.Auk47:244245. 1924 Beck,H.H.1924. ApparentnestingoftheHooded MerganserinLancasterCo.,Pa.Auk 596-597.

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RED-BREASTEDMERGANSER(Mergusserrator)[DA:ToppetSkallesluger,DU:MiddelesteZaagbek,FI:Tukkakoskelo,FR:Harlehuppe,GE:Mittelsager,IC: Toppond,IT:Smergominore,JA:Umiaisa, NW: Siland,PO:Traczdlugodzioby,PR:Merganso,RU:(Long-nosedMerganser),SP:Mergansardepecho,Serretamediana;SW:SmaskrakelGENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaRed-breastedMergansersbreedfromtheAleutianIslands,Alaska,andtheYukoneastacrossnorthernCanada, andsouthtonorthernBritishColumbia andAlberta,centralSaskatchewan,southeasternManitoba,northernMinnesota,centralWisconsinandMichigan,southernOntarioand Quebec,northernMaine,andtheMaritimeProvinces.TheyoccuronsouthernBaffinIsland,butnotonmostotherislandsoftheCanadianArcticArchipelagoorintheinthenortheasternNorthwestTerritories(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).TheseduckswintermostlyonsaltwaterfromthesouthernportionsoftheirbreedingrangesouthalongtheNorthAmericancoastlinetoBajaCalifornia,Sonora,centralArizonaandNewMexico, andtheGulfcoast.Inland,theywinterintheGreatLakesStates,alongtheSt.LawrenceRiver,andsparselyelsewhere.TheyareaccidentalvisitorsintheHawaiianIslands,Bermuda,theBahamas, Cuba, andPuertoRico(Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionThebreedingrangeoftheRed-breastedMerganserextendsfromGreenland,Iceland,partsoftheBritishIsles,Denmark, Norway, Sweden,Finland,andEstoniaeastacrossnorthernEurope andAsia,andsouthtotheBalticcoastofGermany,Poland,centralRussia,LakeBaikal,Manchuria,and Kamchatka(Dement'evand Gladkov 1952,Delacour1954,AOU1957, Crampetal.1977).Red-breastedMerganserswinterchieflyalongcoastsfromsouthernGreenland,Iceland,theBritishIsles,Scandinavia,theNorthSea,theBayofBiscay,andtheMediterraneanandBlackseacoastseasttoPakistan,theChinacoast,Japan,and Kamchatka(Dement'evand Gladkov 1952,Delacour1954, Crampeta1.1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaPearsonetal.(1942)consideredtheRed-breastedMerganseracommonwintervisitor,arrivingmainlyinOctoberalongthecoastanddepartinginApril,althoughsomeremainuntilJune.Theyaremostcommonalongthecoast,especiallyintheCapeHatterasregion(Map31),butmaybeseenthroughoutthestate.NorthCarolinaevidentlyharborsoneofthelargestpopulationsofwinteringRed-breastedMergansersinthesoutheast.Aconcentrationofperhaps10,000ofthesemerganserswasseenoffNags Head, 3February1972(Teulings1972b),andBellrose(1976)reportedaveragewinterpopulationsof11,500inAlbemarleandPamlicosounds.423

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Wilter DistributilMap forSlutbeasternOitedStatesBIRDSPER10.PARTY-HOURSIILessthanoneIIIIIIllIIIIII1-5 II 5-20_ More than20 (Adapted from Iyltrak, 19741INDIVIDUALSOBSERVEDDURINGCHRISTMASBIRDCOUNTS,1973-1977(ARITHMETICMEAN) @ Number of individuals 8 Lessthanone individual None observedREDBREASTEDMERGANSER BIRO NAME'GULFOFMEXICO .,;'r .sADALLASEXTMap31

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Red-breastedMergansershavebredatleastonceinNorthCarolina.wellsouthoftheirnormalrange.Apairwithabroodofsevenyoung waspresentatPeaIslandduringthesummerof1956(ChamberlainandChamberlain1956).Needham(1968)sawanimmatureRed-breastedMerganseratWrightsvilleBeachon28June1967butneversawtheparents.TheidentificationremainsindoubtbecauseyoungRed-breastedandCommonMergansersareverysimilarinappearance(Palmer1976b) andbecauseNeedhamgavenobasisfortheidentification.AnotherflightlessyoungmerganserwasseenatanimpoundmentnearWest Onslow Beachon6July1970;itwasidentifiedasaRed-breastedMerganser(Teulings1970b).perhapsbecauseabirdbelievedtobeafemaleRed-breastedMerganserhadbeenseenthereon10June.SouthCarolinaThesemergansersareoneofthemostnumerouswinterwildfowlinSouthCarolina.generallyarrivinginlateOctoberandremainingalongthecoastuntilearlyApril;othersmaystaytosummer(SpruntandChamberlain1949).Theyaremostcommonalongthecoast(Map31).butalsooccuratinlandlocalities.Bellrose(1976)indicatedaveragewinterpopulationsofabout1.800birdsoffthecoast.Red-breastedMergansersreportedlybredwithinSouthCarolinaonatleastfouroccasions.buttheserecordsarepoorlydocumented andthebasesforspecificidentificationwerenevergiven.Burton(1970)statedthat"OnJune6.1965.afemalewithtwoducklingswasseensittingon a mudbankoppositeRockville.CharlestonCounty.byT.A.BeckettIII.Uponbeingobserved.theytooktothewaterandswamintothenearbymarsh.Allfurtherattemptstolocatethemfailed."Parnell(1967)notedthatduringthesummerof1967."RedbreastedMerganserswere foundnestingintheCharlestonareafor the-second yearwithyoungbirdsseenbyBeckett."Teulings(1972c).whoindicatedthattheobservationswereagainmadebyBeckett.statedthat"Atleast3pairsofRed-breastedMerganserswereknowntohavenestedsuccessfullyintheCharles-tonareaduringthesummerof1972."Teulings(1974c).againbasinghisstatementsonobservationsbyBeckett.reportedthat"Red-breastedMerganserswerepresentinsmallnumbersthroughtheperiod[thesummerof1974]atCharlestonwhere anestingpairsuccessfullyraisedabroodoffiveyoungonBohicketCreekTwofamiliesofRed-breastedMerganserswere.alsoseenJune17atRockville.S.C."Otherauthors(e.gJohnsgard1975.Potteretal.1980)didnotquestiontheserecordsofRed-breastedMergansersinSouthCarolinabutnorecordswerementionedbyBellrose(1976)orPalmer(1976b);Palmer(1976b)evidentlysuspectedthattheserecordsmayhavebeenconfusedwithCommonMergansers."themostlikelynesteratsoutherlylocalities."GeorgiaAlongthecoastofGeorgia.Red-breastedMergansersarefairlycommonwinterresidents(Burleigh1958).Theyaremarkedlylesscommonandirregularinappearancethroughouttheinteriorofthestate.Datesofoccurrencerangefrom 4 November(Dentonetal.1977)to27May(LeGrand1979c).witha fewremaininginsummer.FloridaSprunt(1954)notedthatRed-breastedMergansersarecommonwintervisitorsthroughoutthecoastalregionsofboththeAtlanticandGulf425

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portionsofthestate(Map31).Howell(1932)notedtheirpresenceinFloridafrom 10October(St.MarksNWR)tomid-June;thespecieshassincebeenreportedinJuly(Ogden1975).Red-breastedMergansersarenowabundantandwidespreadalongbothcoastsofFloridainbaysandopenwaterthelengthofthestate(Kale1979msa,1979msb),buttheyaremoreabundantalongtheGulfcoast(Palmer1976b,Map31).ElevenChristmasCountstakenalongtheAtlanticcoastin1977totalledabout1,200 Red-breasted Mergansers(Kale1979msa),whilesixteenCountsalongtheGulfcoasttotallednearly4,500(Kale1979msb).Flocksrangedinsizefrom a fewtomorethan100birds(Kale1979msa,1979msb).One nearSt.MarksNWRwasestimatedat1,500birds(Stevenson1976).TheFloridawinterpopulationwasplacedat6,300byBellrose(1976).AlabamaRed-breastedMergansersareabundantalongthecoastofAlabamainwinterandonmigration,andtheyarefairlycommoninland.They maybe pre sentalongtheGulfthroughouttheyearbutaremostabundantfrom 18Octoberto16May.Amaximumconcentrationof2,850Red-breastedMerganserswasseenatFortMorganPeninsula,27December 1947. TheyoccurcasuallyinlandduringthesummerbutarenotknowntonestinAlabama (Imhof1976b).MississippiTheRed-breastedMerganserwastheonlyduckseeneverymonthoftheyearontheMississippicoastbyBurleigh(1944).Thespeciesisabundantfrom DecembertoMarch, andflocksoftenormorebirdsareseenfrequently.Scatteredindividualsareobservedthroughoutthesummer(Burleigh1944,Jacksonand Cooley 1978b);Burleighnoticedthatthesenon-breedersareallinfirstyearplumage.LouisianaThisduckismoderatelycommoninLouisianafromthelastpartofOctoberuntiltheendofApril.A few mayremainintothesummer. TheyareparticularlycommoninBaratariaandVermilionbays,inLakeBorgne,andinChandeleurSound.Red-breastedMergansersoccurprimarilyonthecoastalwaterwaysofLouisianaandaremuchlesscommoninland(Lowery1974).Bellrose(1976)reportedwinterpopulationsof10,000birdsinLouisianabays.TexasTheRed-breastedMerganserisawintervisitorinTexas from NovembertoMay(extremes,18Septemberto28 May);casualsummerlingerershavebeenreported.ThismerganserisirregularlyverycommontofairlycommonontheupperTexascoast,commontouncommononthecentralandlowercoast,anduncommontorareandirregularovertherestofthestate(Oberholser1974).Bellrose(1976)remarkedthatabout98%ofthe1,200Red-breastedMergansersfound onwintersurveysoftheCentralFlywayarefound ontheTexascoast.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingThe MerganserbreedsintheWesternHemisphere fromtheAleutianIslandsandtheArcticcoastofAlaskaeasttothewesternshoreofHudson Bay andsoutheasternBaffinIsland,andsouthtonorthwesternBritishColumbia,centralSaskatchewan,thenorthernGreatLakesStates,andtheMaritimeProvinces(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Therearescatteredreportsofcasualbreedingwellsouthofthisareabutthevalidityofatleastsomeoftheseisdoubtful.426

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IntheOld World,thesemergansersbreedinthenorthernPalearcticfromIceland,theFaeroes,andtheBritishIslesthroughScandinavia,Denmark, andtheBalticStatestoRussia,northernSiberia,andtheislandsoftheBeringSea(BOU1971).Bellrose(1976)reviewedestimatesofpopulationsofNorthAmerican RedbreastedMergansersandderivedfromtheseatotalsummerpopulationof237,000.PopulationestimatesfornorthernEuropeindicateapopulationofprobablynotlessthan13,000pairs(Crampetal.1977).WinterInNorthAmerica,Red-breastedMerganserswinterprimarilyalongtheAtlantic,Gulf,andPacificcoastsfromopenwatersofthebreedingrangesouthtoBajaCaliforniaandcoastalSonora(Palmer1976b),coastalTamaulipas(SaundersandSaunders1949inLeopold1959),andsouthernFlorida(Palmer Bellrose(1976)usedChristmasCountfigurestoestimatetheproportionsofeachspeciesofmerganserthatwereincludedintheestimatesmadeduringJanuarywaterfowlsurveys.Heassigned67%oftheobservationstoCommonMergansers,25%toRed-breastedMergansers,and8%toHoodedMergansers.Heestimatedthatatotalofnearly60,000Red-breastedMerganserswinteredinthefourflyways:38,000(ca.64%)intheAtlantic,14,000(ca.24%)intheMississippi,6,000(ca.10%)inthePacific,and1,100(ca.2%)intheCentralFlyway(Bellrose1976).About165,000merganserswerecountedinthecontiguousUnitedStatesduringtheJanuary1975waterfowlsurvey(Goldsberryetal.1980).If methodofestimationisvalid,about41,000ofthesewereRed-breastedMergansers,and morethanhalfofthemwinteredinthewatersoffthe qouth easternstates.EurasianpopulationswintersouthtonorthernAfrica,theMiddleEast,theChinacoast,andJapan.About40,000winterinwesternEurope andtheBritishIsles,another50,000intheMediterraneanandBlacksearegions,and48,000pairsinRussia(Crampetal.1977).MigrationThemajorityofRed-breastedMergansersthatbreedinlandapparentlymigratetowardtheAtlanticorPacificcoaststoreachtheirprincipalwinteringgrounds.AsmallerproportionmigrateintotheGreatLakesregion,and fromtheremovetoeithertheGulforthemid-Atlanticcoast.ThosethatwinteralongtheTexascoastapparentlyflyfromcentralCanadasouthacrosstheGreatPlains(Bellrose1976).Crampetal.(1977) summarized movements andchronologyofmigrationsforthisspeciesintheOldWorld.FallmigrantsmayappearincoastalareastothenorthasearlyasSeptember(Palmer1976b)butthepeakoffallmigrationalongthesoutheasterncoastoccursduringthethirdweekofNovember(Bellrose1976),withsomemigrantsstillmovingpastmid-December(Palmer1976b).SpringmigrationoccurslargelyfromearlyMarchthroughMayinthecontiguousUnitedStates,withpeakmovement fromlateMarchthroughlateApril(Palmer1976b).Flocksoffallmigrantsmayconsistofa fewhundredbirdsormore,butflocksofspringmigrantsareusuallysmaller(Crampetal.1977).

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HABITATNestingNorthAmericanRed-breastedMergansersbreedbothinlandonlakes,riversand ponds andalongthecoastsonshoresandonmarineislets(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)describedidealbreedinghabitatassmallisletswithlow,prostratevegetationorothernaturalfeaturestocoverthenest,andwithopenstrand,gravelbars,orrockstoprovideroostingandpreeningareasfordrakesandyoung.Johnsgard(1975)notedthatRed-breastedMergansersbreedinginnorthernEuropenestmainlyonlakesandriversthathavebarrenshoresandclearwater.Crampetal.(1977)pointedoutthatthespeciesislargelyborealinitsbreedingdistribution,butalsoneststosomeextentintundraandtemperateforest.NestsitesofRed-breastedMergansersarehighlyvaried.Theynestinmarshes,rockyislets,onvegetatedislandsinlargelakes,onriverbanksandlakeshores,incavitiesinbanksandunderrocks,andbeneathpilesofdriftwood,fallenlogs,orconiferboughs(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Theseducksalsohaveusednest-boxesinFinland(Palmer1976b).Palmer(1976b)pointedoutthatoverheadcovermaybearequirementfornestingandthattheseducksprefertonestonsmallislandswithinabout10 m(33ft)oftheedgeofthewater.Ahalfdozenormorenestsmaybefoundnearoneanother;thisreflectshabitatpreferenceratherthansocialnesting(Palmer1976b).FeedingJohnsgard(1978)reportedthatwinteringRed-breastedMerganserspreferredtoforageinclearandshallow notaffectedbyheavywaves.Non-breedingRed-breastedMergansersareoftenfoundonlessshelteredwaters theircongener,theCommonMerganser, andiare moremarineindistributionthan (Palmer1976 b) ,,,I WinterandOffshoreWintering arefound onbothinlandfreshwatersandcoastalmarine water,s,but arefoundinthelargestconcentrationsalongthecoastswheretheyaremostcommoninshoreandintidewaterareas(Palmer1976b).Theyarefoundmorefrequentlyinopenoceanandonsaltandbrackishbaysthanonfreshorslightlybrackishwaters(Johnsgard1978) FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORRed-breastedMergansersusuallydiveforfood(Bellrose1976)buttheyalsopursuepreyalongthesurfacewithonlytheirheadssubmerged (Munro and Clemens1939).Thefeetprovidemostofthepropulsionbutthewingsareoccasionallyused(Palmer1976b).Most foodisbroughttothesurfacetobeswallowed,butsmalleritemsareeatenunderwater(Crampetal.1977).Mostfeedingdiveslastforabout10to30sec,withonlyshortpausesbetweendives(Palmer1976b).AuthorscitedinCrampetal.(1977)andBellrose(1976)providedarangeofsubmergencetimesfrom 15to48sec.Red-breastedMergansersfeedmostactivelyintheearlymorningandevening(Crampetal.1977)andtheyoftencooperatetodrivefishintoshallowerwaterwheretheymaybemoreeasilycaptured(authorscitedinCrampetal.1977).Theyfeedinpairsandinsmallandlargeflocks.RollsandRolls(1974)des-428

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cribedabehaviorinwhichbirdsarosefromtherearofaflockonthesurfaceofthewater,patteredthroughorflewoverthebirdsinfrontofthem,andthendoveintothewater,evidentlytoseizefish.Themergansersthatfoundthemselvesattherearoftheflockthendidlikewise.Aneditorialnotepointedoutthatthismaynothavebeenfeedingbehaviorbutmayhavebeena formof"diving-play."Palmer(1976b)and Crampetale(1977)providedextensivesummariesoffoodseatenbyRed-breastedMergansers,andcanbeconsultedfordetailedlistsofspecificorganismseaten.Mostofourbriefsummaryoffoodhabitsisderivedfromthesetwosources.Red-breastedMerganserslargelyfeedonfish;onestudydealingwithfoodhabitsinNorthAmericaindicatedthatabout87%ofthedietwasfish,theremainderconsistingprimarilyofcrayfishandshrimp.Thefisheatenaresmall,usuallylessthan8-10cminlength.FishmakingupasignificantpartofthedietinonepartofrangeoranotherincludeSalmon(Salmosalar),sculpins(Cottusasper, f. gobio),bluebackherring(Alosa herring(Clupeapallasii),sticklebacks(Gasterosteusspp.,especially Q. aculeatus),andminnows(Phoxinus).ShrimpseatenincludePandalusandCrago.Otherfoodstakentoalesserextentincludefisheggs,frogs(Rana),annelids,(nereids,Lubricidae),insects(nymphsofdragonflies[Anisoptera],mayflies[Ephemerida],aquaticColeoptera[e.g., andlarvalcraneflies[Tipulidae]andcaddisflies[Trichoptera]),amphipods(Gammarus),crabs(Carcinus,Lophopanopeus),prawns(Palaemonidae),andmolluscs(Hydrobira,Mytilus,Littorina,Cardium, ExceedinglylittleisknownoffoodhabitsinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.AwinteringbirdcollectedinSouthCarolina onlytopminnows(Gambusia)(SpruntandChamberlain1949).IMPORTANTBIOLOGICALPARAMETERSEggLayingInNorthAmerica,nestsmaybeinitiatedinlateMay,buttheseasonmorefrequentlybeginsinmid-June.NestsmaybestartedaslateasmidJuly(Bellrose1976).ThepeakoflayinginBritainisinMayandearlyJune,andinIcelandoccursduringthefirstthreeweeksofJune(authorscitedinCrampetale1977).MeanClutchSizeInNorthAmerica,nestshold5-11eggs,withanaverageof7.8pernest;clutchesinEuropeaverageslightlylarger(Bellrose1976).Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatfirstclutchesusuallycontain7-11eggs.ReplacementclutchesinFinlandaveraged6.2eggs.Eggsaresometimeslaidindumpnests,orinnestsofotherbirdsofthisorotherspecies(Palmer1976b).IncubationPeriodBellrose(1976)citedafigureof30daysforconfinedbirdsinEngland.Palmer(1976b)citedstudiesofclutchesinthewild,withincubationperiodsfrom 29to35days,usually32days.HatchingSuccessLittleexactinformationisavailable.Manynestsareabandoned,andnotalleggshatchinneststhatproduceyoung(Palmer1976b).429

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IndividualbroodsinNorthAmericarangefrom 3to13 young,withanaverageof7.8(Bellrose1976).FledgingSuccessBroodsofyoungoftencombineintolargegroups(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b),maskingthesuccessofindividualbroods.AgeatFledging The ageatfirstflightforbirdsinthewildisnotknown,butisprobablylessthanthe65daysormorerequiredbytheCommonMerganser(Bellrose1976).HeinrothandHeinroth(1928inPalmer1976b)estimatedanageatfirstflightof59days;theirestimate onobservationsofcaptivebirds.Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatyoungachievedindependencebeforethis,atabout50days.AgeatFirstBreedingRed-breastedMergansersfirstbreedastheyapproachtwoyearsofage(Palmer1976b).MortalityofEggs and YoungKortegaard(1968)indicatedthatnestsinNorthJutlandhadbeendestroyedbyotters rats(Rattusnorvegicus),foxes(Vulpesvulpes),andgulls(Larussp.).RenestingBellrose(1976)suggestedthatrenestingisrarebecauseofthelatenessofnestinitiation,butPalmer(1976b)citeddatatosuggestithappensfrequentlyinEurope.MaximumNaturalLongevityTheoldestbirdyetrecordedinNorthAmerica wasabout5yearsold(Clappetal.inpress),butrecordsfrom Europe showthatRed-breastedMergansersmayattainanageof9years,8 months (Rydzewski1978).WeightNelsonandMartin(1953) gave a meanweightof18adultmalesof2.5lb(1,100g) andthatof17adultfemalesof2.0lb(910g).SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONItswinteringhabitatincoastalmarinehabitatsanditsmethodoffeeding(diving,ofteninflocks)maketheRed-breastedMerganservulnerabletooiling.Therearemanyrecentreportsofoiledbirds,bothfromtheOld andNewWorlds(Table13),butfewmajorlosseshavebeenreported.Ranwell andHewitt(inVermeer and Vermeer 1974)indicatedheavylossesfollowingaspillin Poole Harbour,England.Brownetal.(1973)suggestedthatasmuchastwo-thirdsoftheRed-breastedMerganserswinteringinChedabucto Bay, NovaScotia,diedfollowinganoilspillinFebruary1970.MortalityfromoilinghasalsobeenrecordedinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Robertsonand Mason(1965)found twoRed-breastedMergansersthathadbeenkilledbyoilatLong KeyintheDryTortugasinJanuary1964, andatleasttwo morediedfromoilingfollowingaspilloffTampa,Florida,inJanuary1970(datafromtheBird-BandingOffice).King andSanger(1979) gavetheRed-breastedMerganseranOilVulnerabilityIndexof56(outofapossible100)forbirdsinthenortheastPacific.Thisfigureindicatedaspeciesthatmightbeaffected,butnotcatastrophicallyso.AsubstantialproportionoftheAmericanRed-breastedMerganserpopulation430

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wintersinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.Wemust assumethatdevelopmentofpetroleumresourcesinthesoutheastpresentssomehazardtothestabilityofpopulationsofthisspeciesinNorthAmerica.Table13.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadRed-breastedMergansersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaDatesNumberofoileddeadbirdsNumberofdeadRedbreastedMergansersPercentageofRed-breasted MergansersSourceNorthSeacoast,DenmarkPooleHarbour,Dorset,EnglandN.Sjaelland,DenmarkMedwayEstuary,Kent,England Pagham Harbourarea,W.Sussex,England Bornholm, Denmark TayEstuary,ScotlandN.Sealand,DenmarkNortheastBritainMartha'sVineyard,MAE.coastJutland,DenmarkOffeasternCanada 1957-1958Jan.1961Feb.-Mar.1965Sep.1966Jan.-Feb.1967Jan.-Feb.1968Mar.-Apr.1968Feb.-Mar.1969Jan.-Feb.1970Feb.1970Feb.-Mar.1970Feb.-Apr.197092(a)433(a,b)2,340(a)2,748(a)91(a,b)466(a)1,168(b)2,376(a)10,992(a,c)541(a)1,974(a)1,276(a,c)431348 55144 10 48 22328 403.2611.092.350.0448.350.210.862.020.200.551.423.13Joensen1972a Bourne 1968aJoensen1972aBourne1968aPhillips1967Joensen1972a Greenwood and Keddie 1968Joensen1972b Greenwoodeta1.1971CSLP1971Joensen1972b Browneta1.1973

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Table13.(Continued.)AreaDatesNumberofoileddeadbirdsNumberofdeadRedbreastedMergansersPercentageofRed-breasted MergansersSourceS.Kattegat,Denmark SanFranciscoBay,CaliforniaDjursland-Anholt,DenmarkNorth-centralKattegat,Denmark Waddensea, DenmarkBalticseacoast,PolandFirthofClyde,Ayrshire,ScotlandBalticseacoast,PolandChesapeakeBay,VirginiaChesapeakeBay,VirginiaFirthofForth,southernScotlandVarangerfjord,northNorway Dec.1970Jan.1971Jan.1971 Mar. 1971 Mar. 1972 Dec. 1972 1970-1974Jan.1974 Nov.1974Aug. 1975 Dec. 1976Feb.1978Feb.1978 Mar. 19792,311(a)3,221(a,d)2394,759(a)9,151(a)3,867(a,c)279(a)653(a,c)30,000(e)10,000(e)680(a)1,616(f)2862225 9 62630421.210.190.840.460.050.232.150.030.0020.590.730.12Joensen1972 bSmaileta1.1972Joensen1972bJoensenand Hansen 1977Joensenand Hansen 1977Gorskieta1.1976Lloydetal.1974Gorskieta1.1977Perryeta1.1979Perryetal.1979 Campbelleta1.1978Barrett1979(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludesbothliveanddeadoiledbirds.(c)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(d)Thisfigurerepresentsbirdsbroughttocleaning/receivingstations.(e)Figureisestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.(f)Anestimated10,000to20,000seabirdswerekilledduringthisspill.432

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Braun,B.M.,P.A.HeinzandG.H.Heinz.1980.HerringGullpredationonRed-breastedMerganserducklings.WilsonBull.92:403.Jackson,J.A. and B.J.Schardien.1980.summerbirdontheMississippiCoast.1979 TheRed-breastedMerganserasaMississippiKite10:8-9.Stedman,S.andA.Stedman.1979.FeedingassociationbetweenBonaparte'sGullsandRed-breastedMergansers.Fla.FieldNat.7:27.1978Atkinson,K.M.andD.P.Hewitt.1978. AnoteonthefoodconsumptionoftheRed-breastedMerganser.Wildfowl29:87-91.Blaser,P.1978.EinGaensesaeger-Mittelsaeger-bastardamThunersee.[AGoosanderXRed-breastedMerganserhybridatThunLake.]Ornithol.Beob. 75:275-276.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.]vanderBerg,A.,H.J.M.BaptistandP.L.Meininger.1978.TweebroedgevallenvandeMiddelsteZaagbek MergusserratorinhetGrevelingenmeer.[TwobreedingcasesoftheRed-breastedMerganserMergusserratorintheLakeGrevelingen.]Limosa51:1-5.[InDutchwithEnglishsummary.] 1977Lingle,G.R. andT.A.Schupbach.1977.FoodofaRed-breastedMerganserinMichigan.Jack-PineWarbler55:97.Moller,A.P.1977.Yngletidspunkt,kuldstorrelseogungerproduktionhosnogleandefugleiNordjylland.[Timeofbreeding,clutchsize,andnestlingproductioninsomespeciesofAnatidaeinnorthernJutland,Denmark.]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.71:68-69.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]Phillips,J.andJ.Duncan. 1977.Red-breastedMerganserkillingOystercatcher.Scott.Birds9:299-300.White,D.H.and E.Cromartie.1977.shellthinninginmergansereggs.ResiduesofenvironmentalpollutantsandWilsonBull.89:532-542.1975vanderKloot,W.andM.J.Morse.1975.AstochasticanalysisofthedisplaybehavioroftheRed-breastedMerganser(Mergusserrator).Behaviour54:181-216.433

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1974Rolls,J.C.andM.J.Rolls.1974.Red-breastedMergansersdivingfromtheair.Brit.Birds67: 78. 1973Petrovic,C.A.andJ.King,Jr.1973.BirdrecordsfromtheDryTortugas.Fla.FieldNat.1:5-8.Erskine,A.J.1972.Populations,movements andseasonaldistributionofmergansersinnorthernCapeBretonIsland.Can.Wildl.ServoRept.No.17.36pp.Keating,P. 1972.CourtshipbehaviorofRed-breastedMerganserinFebruary.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.5:28.Pelzl,H.W.1971. NestparasitismbyRed-breastedMergansersinWisconsin.Auk88: 184-185. 1970 Emlen, S. T. andH.W.Ambrose,III.1970.FeedinginteractionsofSnowyEgretsandRed-breastedMergansers.Auk87: 164-165. 1968Kortegaard,L. 1968.Studieroverden ToppendeSkalleslugers(Mergusserrator)ynglebiologiiVejlerne.[StudiesonthebreedingbiologyoftheRedbreastedMerganser (Mergusserrator)inVejlerne,NorthJutland.]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.62:37-67.[InDanish with Englishsummary.] Needham, F. 1968. ImmatureRed-breastedMerganseratWrightsvilleBeach, N.C. Chat 32:27.1966 Hogstrom, S. 1966.Anteckningaromkonskvotochflockstorlekhosovervintrandesmaskrake paGotland.FaunaFlora61: 207-213. DesLauriers,J.R.andB.H.Brattstrom.1965.CooperativefeedingbehaviorinRed-breastedMergansers.Auk82:639.Fatora,J.A.1965.Red-breastedMerganserobservedon SavannahRiverPlant.Chat 29:108-109.434

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Nilsson,L. 1965.[ObservationsofthespringbehaviouroftheRed-breastedMerganser.]VarFagelvarld24:244-256.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Robertson,W.B.,Jr.andC.R.Mason. 1965.AdditionalbirdrecordsfromtheDryTortugas.Fla.Nat.38:131-138.Walker,C.H.andD.H.Mills.1965.OrganicchlorineinsecticideresiduesinGoosanders andRed-breastedMergansers.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.16:56-57.1964 Locke, L.N.,J.B.DeWitt,C.M.Menzie andJ.A.Kerwin. 1964. Amerganserdie-offassociatedwithlarvalEustrongylides.AvianDis.8:420-427.Hending,P,B.King andR.Prytherch.1963.CommunaldivinginturbidwaterbyRed-breastedMergansers.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.14:172-173.Johnston,D.W.1963.Red-breastedMerganserinsummernearWinston-Salem,NorthCarolina. Ghat 27:54.Kumerloeve,H.1963.VonUbersommern (und Fruhsommerzug?)desMittelsagersbeidernordfriesichenInselAmrum.Beitr.Vogelkde.8:286-287.1962Mills,D.H.1962a.TheGoosander andRed-breastedMerganserinScotland.WildfowlTrustAnnu.Rept.13:79-62.1962b.TheGoosander andRed-breastedMerganseraspredatorsofsalmoninScottishwaters.Sci.Invest.FreshwaterSalm.FishRes.,Scott.HomeDept.29:1-10.1961 Thompson,M.C.1961.TheflightspeedofaRed-breastedMerganser.Condor 63: 265. 1958Grenquist,P. 1958.RUsta8:49-59.[AnestingboxfortheRed-breastedMerganser.][InFinnishwithEnglishsummary.] 1957 SuomenWhite,H.C.1957. Food andnaturalhistoryofMergansersonsalmonwatersintheMaritimeProvincesofCanada.Bull.Fish.Res. Bd. Can.116.63pp.435

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1956Aass,P.1956.Sil-andensnaeringiferskvann.Norg.Jeger-ogFiskForb.85:8-14.Bergman,G.1956.Omkullsammanslagninghosskrater,Mergusserrator,ochMergusmerganser.FaunaFlora1956:97-110.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Pflugbeil,A.1956.BrutendesMittelsagersaufSchleimunde,1955.Vogelwelt77:44-47.1954Curth,P.1954.DerMittelsager.A.ZiemsenVerlag.WittenburgLutherstadt.102pp.[InGerman.] 1953Penner,L. R.1953.TheRed-breastedMerganserasanaturalavianhostofthecausativeagentofClamDigger'sItch.J.Parasitol.39(suppl.):20.1952Erickson,J.G.1952. ApossiblehybridbetweentheHoodedMerganserandtheRed-breastedMerganser.WilsonBull.64:167.Owen,D.F.1952.Red-breastedMerganserbreedinginCumberland.Brit.Birds45:294.1951Hoogerheide,C. andC.Groot.1951.EnkelenotitiesoverhetgedragevandeMiddlesteZaagbek.Lev.Naturr54:33-38.Ringleben,H.1951. AusdemLebendesMittelsagers(MergusserratorL.).I.Vogelwelt72:43-50,84-87,119-128.[InGerman.] 1950 Yocum,C.F.1950.Red-breastedMerganserineasternWashington.Murrelet31:13.1947 Adams,R.G.1947.MatingbehaviourofWigeon andRed-breastedMerganser.Brit.Birds40:186-187.1946Bunker,A.1946.Gullstakingfishfrommergansers.Can.Field-Nat.60:115.436

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1940vonTorne,H.1940.EtwasvomMittelsager.Beitr.Fortpf.Vogel16:173-180.1939 Munro,J.A.andW.A.Clemens.1939.ThefoodandfeedinghabitsoftheRedbreastedMerganserin Columbia.J.Wildl.Manage. 3:46-53.White,H.C.1939.ThefoodofMergusserratorontheMargareeRiver.NovaScotiaJ.FishRes.Bd. Can. 4:309-311.1938Wilhjelm,o.1938.VoreynglendeSkalleslugeratern.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.32:101-153.1937Burdet,A.1937.Troisiemecasdenidificationduharlehuppe(MergusserratorL.)enHollande.Ardea 26:111-115.[InFrench.]Johnson,R.A.1937.TapeworminyoungRed-breastedMerganser.Auk54:383.Loppenthin,B.1937.ToppetSkallesluger,Mergusserrator,ynglendevedferskvand.Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.31:152-153.[InDanish.]1925 Colman,H.R. andH.Boase.1925.CourtingdisplayoftheRed-breastedMerganseronsaltwater.Brit.Birds18:313-316.1912Strong,R.M.1912.Someobservationsonthelife-historyoftheRed-breastedMerganser,MergusserratorLinn.Auk29:479-488.437

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COMMONMERGANSER(Mergusmerganser)[DA:StorSkallesluger,DU:GroteZaagbek,EN:Goosander,FI:Isokoskelo,FR:Harlebievre,GE:Gansesager,IC: Gulond,IT:Smergomaggiore,JA:Kawaaisa,NW:Laksand,PO:Tracznuroges,PR:Merganso,RU:(LargeMerganser),SP:Serretagrande,SW:Storskrake,US:AmericanMerganser]GENERALDISTRIBUTIONNorthAmericaTheCommonMerganserbreedsfromsouthernAlaskaandthesouthernYukoneastacrosscentralCanadatosouthernandeasternJames BayandacrosstheLabrador toNewfoundland,southinthemountainstocentralCaliforniaandsouthernColorado,occasionallyfarthersouth,andeastfromsouthernAlbertatotheGreatLakesStates,northernNewYork,andNewEngland(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).TheyhaverecentlybeenbreedinginsmallnumbersintheupperDelawareRiverofNewJerseyandPennsylvania,andintheSusquehannaRiverValleyofPennsylvania(Boyleetal.1980).MostNorthAmericanCommonMerganserswinterfromthePribilofandAleutianislands,southernBritishColumbia, Montana, Wyoming,Nebraska,Missouri,theGreatLakesStates,theSt.LawrenceValley,PrinceEdwardIsland,and NewfoundlandsouthtosouthernCalifornia,north-centralMexico,andnorthernTexas,andeasttocentralGeorgia(AOU1957,Bellrose1976).Small numberswinterfarthersouthtocentralBajaCalifornia,thenorthernGulfcoast,andsouthernFlorida(Palmer1976b).WorldDistributionOutsideNorthAmerica,theCommonMerganserbreedsfromIceland,GreatBritain,Scandinavia,andtheBalticSearegionsouthtoeasternFrance,Switzerland,Yugoslavia,andGreece,eastacrossRussia,centralSiberia,and MongoliatoKamchatka andSakhalin,and AfghanistanandtheHimalayastoTibetandAltai.'Theywinteron openwaterinEurope,thenorthernMediterraneanregion,ontheBlack,Caspian,andAralseas,thePersianGulf,northernIndia,northernIndochina,southeasternChina,andJapan(Delacour1954,AOU1957,BOU1971,Crampetal.1977).DISTRIBUTIONINTHECOASTALSOUTHEASTERNUNITEDSTATESNorthCarolinaCommonMergansersareuncommontorarewintervisitorsinNorthCarolina,wheretheyareprimarilyfoundinlandonfreshwater.Mostarepresentfrom NovembertoApril(Potteretal.1980);datesofoccurrenceforwintervisitorsextendfromasearlyas29October(LeGrand 1979a)toaslateas21April(Wray andDavis1959).ThenumbersofCommonMergansersthatoccuralongthecoastisnotwellknownbecausesomeareprobablyoverlookedamongthemuch moreabundantandsimilarappearingRed-breastedMergansers.LeGrand(1978)notedthatthisspeciesismore numerousintheCarolinasduringverycoldwintersandreportedthat18, 438

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whichheconsideredanimpressivenumber,wereseeninlandon RoanokeRapidsLake,22January1978.CommonMergansershavebredatleastonceinthestatebutarerarelyseenduringthesummer. ApairnestedatBennett'sPond,ChowanCounty,in1938 andanotherbirdwascollectedatCapeHatterason26June1939(Pearsonetal.1942) SouthCarolinaSpruntandChamberlain(1949)consideredtheCommonMerganser"decidedlyuncommon"asawinterresident,recordedbetween24 November andApril16.Burton(1970)believedthatitmightbemoreabundantthanpreviouslythoughtbecausefemalesmightbeconfusedwiththesimilarbutmorecommonRedbreastedMerganser;heremarkedthatthesemerganserswereprimarilyregardedascoastalvisitors.Reportsoflargernumbershavecomeprimarilyfrominland,however.Aflockof250ormore wasseenon24September1961atHartwellLake(Chamberlain1961).Inlandscountsof22atLake Greenwood, 3February1977 (LeGrand1977a),and 16there10February1978 (LeGrand1978)wereconsidered"impressive"and"remarkable"byLeGrand.GeorgiaInGeorgia,thisspeciesisanuncommonwintervisitor,seenonlyatinfrequentintervals(Burleigh1958).Dentonetal.(1977)considereditrareintheinterioranduncommononthecoast,withrecordsfrom mid-Novembertomid-April.FloridaThisspeciesoccursuncommonlyinFloridaasawintervisitor(Sprunt1954).Itisfoundcoastallyinsaltwaterbays,lagoons,rivers,andoffshore.Therewereseveralrecordsforthewinterof1977-78(Kale1978,Stevenson1978).Kale(1979msa,1979msb)consideredtheCommonMerganserrareonboththeAtlanticandGulfcoasts.Alabama Imhof(1976b)consideredthismerganserfairlycommontouncommoninwinterintheTennesseeValleybutrareandirregularelsewhereinthestate.MostarepresentbetweenlateOctoberandlateApril;datesofoccurrencealongthecoastarefrom 20 Novemberto24April.ThelargestnumberreportedfortheGulfcoastis10atDauphinIsland,27December 1958 (Imhof1976b).MississippiThereareonlya fewreportsoftheCommonMerganserinMississippi,allbetweenlateDecember andearlyFebruary1977-78,andallfrominlandlakes(Jacksonand Weber1977,Jacksonand Cooley1978a).ThelargestnumberreportediseightatMoonLake,4February1978.LouisianaLowery(1974)regardedtheCommonMerganserasanuncommonwintervisitorinLouisiana,recordedinallmonths fromOctoberthroughApril;thereisonerecordforJune.Mostofthe37recordsarefromnon-coastallocalitiesbutthespecieshasbeenseeninallcoastalparishes.Thelargestnumbersreportedhavebeen21onUniversityLake,BatonRouge, 4 December 1955 (Lowery1974);and "morethan20"atCalcasieuLake,5 December 1970 (Hamilton1971) TexasTheCommonMerganserisawintervisitorinTexas.Oberholser(1974)notedthattheseducksareirregularlyverycommoninthenorthernandmiddlePanhandle,locallycommontoscarceinthesouthernPanhandleandTrans-439

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Pecos,andscarcetorareelsewhere.MostarepresentbetweenlateOctoberand May,withextremedatesofoccurrenceof21Octoberand16June.Summerstragglersareoccasionallyrecordedbothinlandandalongthecoast.Oberholser(1974)indicatedthatmostCommonMergansersoccuronfreshwater,andonlya fewareseenonbrackishinletsandbays.SYNOPSISOFPRESENTDISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCEBreedingInNorthAmerica,mostCommonMergansersbreedfromsouthernAlaskaeastacrossCanadatoJames Bay andacrosstheLabradorPeninsulatoNewfoundland,southinthewesternmountainstoCaliforniaandColorado,andeasttotheGreatLakesStatesandNewEngland(AOU1957,Palmer1976b).Theyoccasionally'breedsouthofthisrange;somerecordsattributedtothemoremarineRed-breastedMergansermayapplytothisspecies.Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatthesummerpopulationofCommonMergansersinNorthAmericamaybeashighas641,000birds.Johnsgard(1978)cautionedthattheseestimatesarebasedonuncertainassumptions,andsuggestedthatthisfiguremaybeanoverestimate. (1976b)believedthatthetotalpopulationinNorthAmericawassmallcomparedtopopulationsofotherducksandprobablyconsistedofno morethanseveralhundredthousandbirds.TheprincipalbreedinggroundsareapparentlyintheclosedborealforestfromAlbertatoLabrador(Bellrose1976).BreedingpopulationsaremuchsmallerinEuropeandarepoorlyknownelsewhere.SomeofthelargerbreedingpopulationsreportedbyCrampetal.(1977)areasfollows:500-1,000pairsinGreatBritain,ca.4,000pairsinFinland,1,300-1,400pairsintheBalticareaoftheU.S.S.R.,and1,500pairsinEstonia.WinterMostNorthAmericanCommonMerganserswinterfromopenwaterswithinthebreedingrangesouthtoalineextendingeastwardfromsouthernCaliforniathroughnorthernTexastosouthernSouthCarolina(Bellrose1976).Old Worldpopulationsfrom someareas(Iceland,GreatBritain)largelywinterwithinthebreedingrange;otherpopulationsaremorestronglymigratoryandoccursouthtothenorthernMediterranean,theCaspianSeaareaandthePersianGulf,northernIndia,southeasternChina,andJapan.Bellrose(1976)estimatedthatthewinteringpopulationoftheNorthAmericanCommonMerganserwasabout165,000birds,themajoritywinteringintheinteriorofthecontinent.HeindicatedthatthelargestwinteringpopulationswereinOklahoma(30,000birds),Illinois(ca.20,000),Ohio(12,000),easternNewMexico(12,000),Kansas(10,000),Nebraska(9,000),andupstateNewYork(ca.6,000).ThestatusoftheCommonMerganserinthecoastalwatersofthesoutheasternUnitedStatesisinadequatelyknownbecauseofdifficultiesindistinguishingitfromthesimilarandmore numerousRed-breastedMerganser.Bellrose(1976)indicatedthatCommonMergansersaregenerallyuncommoninthesoutheast;onlya fewhundredarefoundalongtheAtlanticcoastbetweenVirginiaandFlorida,andlessthanathousandwintersouthofTennesseeandMissouri.Crampetal.(1977)listedestimatesforwinteringpopulationsofCommonMergansersinnorthwesternEurope:75,000intheEurope/BlackSea/Mediterranean440

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region;10,000intheBlackSea;and26,000intheCaspianSearegionoftheU.S.S.R.MigrationLikeOld Worldbirds(Crampetal.1977),NorthAmericanCommonMergansersmay makeeithershortlocalmigrationsormoreextensiveones(Palmer1976b),andmigratorypathwaysarestillpoorlyknown.Palmer(1976b)notedthatthisspeciesusuallymovessingly,inpairs,andinsmallgroupsthattendtoremainclosetoshorealongcoasts.Timken andAnderson(inJohnsgard1975)indicatedthatgroupsof8to9birdsareusuallyseen,andthatflocksnevercontainmorethan30birds.Apparently andyoungmigratefartherthandomostadultmales(Palmer1976b);thisaccountsforthepreponderanceofsightingsoftheformerinsoutheasternwaters.Infallthisspeciesmigrateslaterthanmostotherducks.Young andadultfemalesprecedeadultmalesbyseveralweeks.OntheAtlanticcoast,migrationpeaksinNovember;inFloridaitdoesnotpeakuntilaftermid-December(Palmer1976b).BirdswinteringfromMobiletoGalvestonBaydonotarriveuntillateDecember(Bellrose1976).Thespringmigrationisrelativelyearly,andtheagedifferenceinmigrationisreversedfromthatfoundinfall.Thespringmigrationofmoresoutherlywinteringbirdsmaybeginasearlyasmid-February(Palmer1976b),butthepeakisinMarchandmaycontinueintoApril.DatasummarizedbyCrampetal.(1977)suggestthatthesemigratoryphenomenaaresimilarinOld Worldbirds.HABITATBreedingPalmer(1976b)regardedtheCommonMerganserasaspeciesthatnestsprimarilyincool,clearwatersofnorthernforestsandwesternmountains.Johnsgard(1975)believedthatthepreferrednestinghabitatwaspondsneartheupperportionsofriversinforestedareasandclearfreshwaterlakeswithforestedshorelines.HeindicatedthatCommonMergansersprefertonestonislandsinsuchsituations.Nestsareusuallyfoundinholesandconcealedrecesses.Holesintreesarefrequentlyused(Palmer1976b).Othersitesusedincluderecessesbeneathboulders,darkspacesundertherootsoffallentrees,crevicesincliffs,areasunderdenseshrubbery,andhollowsinstreamcutbanks(Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b).Mostnestsaresituatednearwater(Palmer1976b) and maybefoundasmuchas50ft(15m)upintreeholes(White1957inBellrose1976).CommonMergansersalsohaveusedawidevarietyofartefactualcavitiesasnestsites.NestboxeshavebeenusedinboththeNewandOldWorlds.Sincetheavailabilityofsuitablenestingholesisbelievedtolimitdistribution(Palmer1976b),breeding ofthisspeciesinsomeareascouldpresumablybeincreasedbyprovidingsuchsites.Grenquist(1953inPalmer1976b)indicatedthatasmanyas63of100nestboxeswereoccupiedduringonebreedingseasonintheFinnishArchipelago,andyounghatchedin53.Othernestsitesprovidedbymanincludeanabandonedlighthousetower,balesofhayinanabandonedicehouse,andastonepiersupportingacoveredbridge(Bellrose1976).FeedingJohnsgard(1975)summarizedpreferredfeedinghabitatasfairly441

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shallowwatersfrom 11/2to6ftdeep.Palmer(1976b)addedthatCommonMergansersregularlyfeedindeeporshallowrapids.Mostforagingoccursinclearwater,becauseCommonMergansersvisuallyselectandfollowtheirprey;most foodistakennearthebottom(Palmer1976b).WinterandOffshoreDement'evand Gladkov(1952)statedthatthemostcharacteristicwinterhabitatwasthemouthsandpre-estuarineregionsofrivers.Crampetal.(1977)indicatedthatanylargebodyofopenwaterisused,anduseofmarinewatersisonlyincidental.TheseauthorsremarkedthatCommonMerganserscanonlyberegardedassea-duckstoaminordegreebecausetheyseekoutfreshwaterandmaywinterinlandonalmostanylargereservoir,lake,orriver.Bellrose(1976)indicatedthattheincreaseinwinteringpopulationsinstatessuchasOklahoma and Kansas wasprobablytheresultofthebuildingofmanyreservoirsand impoundments.Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatCommonMergansersareashoalwaterspeciesandthusareusuallyfoundneartheshore.FOODANDFEEDINGBEHAVIORCommonMergansersprincipallydivefromthesurfacefortheirfood,propellingthemselveswiththeirfeetastheychasetheirprey.They swimwiththeirheadssubmerged anddiveinallbutshallowwater.Occasionally,thesemergansersmay"tip-up"toseizeprey.Theyalsooccasionallyprobearoundnearstonesnearthebottom.Foodisoccasionallystolenfromgullsandtheyhavebeenobservedfeedingondeadordyingfishthathadbeencaughtinturbines(authorscitedinCrampetal.1977).Mostdivesareshallowbuttheseduckshavebeencaughtasdeepas35-40ft(11-12m)ingillnets(Palmer1976b).Submergencetimesareusuallyabout30sec,butmayrangeuptoabout2minutes.Theyfeedmostactivelyintheearlymorningandevening.Thepatternoffeedingbehaviormayvaryfromareatoarea(authorscitedinJohnsgard1975,Palmer1976b,Crampetal.1977).Moredetailedaccountsoffeedingtechniquesandinteractionswithotherspeciesmay be foundinJohnsgard(1975),Palmer(1976b),and Crampetal.(1977).Variousstudies(e.g.,Johnsgard1975,Palmer1976b)agreethatCommonMergansersareopportunisticfeeders.Theyfeedonwhateverismostplentifulandmosteasilyavailable,primarilyfish.Recentsummaries(Johnsgard1975,Bellrose1976,Palmer1976b,Crampetal.1977)indicatethataslittleas75%ofthedietmayconsistoffishbutoftenallfoodidentifiedisfish.Agreatvarietyoffishareconsumed;Palmer(1976b)indicatedthatthismerganserisknowntoeatatleast50speciesoffish.Otherfooditemsingestedincludefisheggsandfry,frogs(Rana),salamanders(Ambystoma),crustaceans(shrimp,crayfish,crabs),molluscs(mussels,crabs),insectsandtheirlarvae,andnereidannelids(authorscitedabove).OnrareoccasionstheyhavebeenknowntoeatbirdsandtheyoccasionallyeveneatWater Shrews (Neomysfodiens)andwatersnakes(Crampetal,1977).Theauthorscitedaboveprovideexhaustivelistsofspecieseaten.Theirsummaries,aswellasthepaperscitedtherein,shouldbeconsultedforfurtherdetails.Hansen(1978c)and Anderson andReeder(1977)givemorerecentinformationon foodhabitsthanthatprovidedbythehandbooks;wedonotsummarize 442

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theseherebecausetheirpapersshednolightonfoodhabitsinthesoutheasternUnitedStates.SUSCEPTIBILITYTOOILPOLLUTIONSmallnumbersofCommonMergansershavebeeninvolvedinoilspills(Table14).King andSanger(1979)suggestedthatthisspeciesismoderatelyvulnerabletooilingalongthenorthernPacificcoastofNorthAmerica.Thefactthattheseducksareuncommoninsoutheasternwatersandpreferfreshwaterimpliesthattheywouldnotbeadverselyaffectedbyoffshoredevelopmentofpetroleumresources.Table14.Numberofdeadbirdsand number andpercentageofdeadCommonMergansersfoundaftermajoroilingincidents.AreaDatesNumberofoileddeadbirdsNumberofdeadCommonMergansersPercentageofCommonMergansersSourceNortheastBritainNorth-centralKattegat,Denmark Waddensea, DenmarkBalticseacoast,PolandChesapeake Bay,VirginiaChesapeakeBay,VirginiaJan.-Feb.1970Mar.1972Dec.1972 1970-1974Feb.1976Feb.197810,992(a,b)4,759(a)9,151(a)3,867(a,c)8,385(a)10,000(c)2 11390.0090.040.010.030.130.39Greenwoodetal.1971JoensenandHansen 1977Joensenand Hansen 1977Gorskietal.1977Rolandetal.1977Perryetal.1979(a)Totalincludesonlythosebirdsidentifiedtospecies.(b)Totalincludessomebirdsthatwerenotoiled.(c)Figureisestimatebasedoncountsofdeadbirds.443

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BIBLIOGRAPHY1980Borenius,G.1980.Familjavstorskrakslussarfranostersjontillmalaren.[FemaleGoosander,Mergusmerganser,leadingbroodthroughalock.]VarFagelvarld39:105.[InSwedishwithEnglishsummary.]Hansen,S.G.1980a.BreedingstatusoftheGoosanderinNorway. Dan.Fugle32:147-151.[InEnglishwithDanishsummary.]1980b.Selectionofnest-sitesoftheGoosander(Mergus merganser-----L.)inDenmark. AfurthertestofHildenstheoriesconcerninghabitatselectioninbirds.Dan.Fugle32:177-192.[InEnglishwithDanishsummary.]Klaus,R.1980.Gansager--BrutvogelamoberenZurichsee.[Goosander--breedingbirdon UpperZurichLake.]Ornithol.Beob.77:244.[InGerman.] Meek, E.andB.Little.Fugle32:132-146.1980.GoosanderstudiesintheBritishIsles.Dan.[InEnglishwithDanishsummary.]Neubauer,W.derDDR.1980. Die BrutvorkommendesGansesagers(Mergus merganser)inDan.Fugle32:168-170.[InGermanwithDanishsummary.]Nittyla,J.1980.Onthedevelopmentofsome Goosander (Mergus merganserL.)populationsinFinland:areview.Dan.Fugle32:158-165.[InEnglishwithDanishsummary.]Schmidt,G.A.J.1980. ZurNestplatz-SituationbeimGansesagerinSchleswigHolstein.Dan.Fugle32:171-176.[InGermanwithDanishsummary.]Sjoberg,K.1980. TheGoosander--relationtoman. Dan.Fugle32:152-157.[InEnglishwithDanishsummary.]Walter,D.1980.GanseisagerMergusmerganser-BruterfolgimOberallgau.[GoosanderMergusmerganser--breedingsequenceinOberallgau.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges.Bayern19:111-112.1979 Foreman, L.D.1979.FlocksizeanddensityofCommonMergansersinnorthwesternCalifornia.Calif.FishGame65:124-127.1978Blaser,P.1978.Eingaensesaeger-mittelsaeger-bastardamThunersee.[AGoosanderXRed-breastedMerganserhybridatThunLake.]Ornithol.Beob.75:275-276.Brock,G.J.1978.GoosanderattackingOsprey.Scott.Birds10:53.444

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Hansen,S.G.1978a.DentidsmaessigefordelingafdenStoreSkalleslugers(Mergus merganser)forekomsti ogomkringDanmark itraek-ogvinterperioden.[TheappearanceoftheGoosander(Mergus merganser)inandaroundDenmarkduringthemigrationandwinter-period.]Dan.Fugle30:142-149.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]1978b.Konsfordelingenblandtdei ogomkringDanmarkrastendeogovervintrendeStoreSkalleslugere(Mergusmergansermerganser).[ThesexratiooftheGoosanders(Mergus merganser)restingandwinteringinandaroundDenmark.]Dan.Fugle30:150-154.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]_____1978c.StorrelseogfaconpadenStoreSkalleslugers(Mergus merganser)fodeemner--isaerfisk.[Sizeandshapeofthefood-items--especiallyfish--oftheGoosander merganser).]Dan.Fugle30:156-159.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]1978d.SkaldenStoreSkalleslugeroverlevesomdanskynglefugl?Dan.Jagt95:16-19.1978e.DenStoreSkallesluger-enskovensfugl.Jagetoghjemlos.Feltornithologen20:208-211.Lovegrove,R.1978.BreedingstatusofGoosandersinWales.Brit.Birds71:214-216Mattig,G-L.1978.DerGansesager,BrutvogelanderOderzwischenEisenhuttenstadtundFrankfurt.DerFalke25:330-336.Nitsche,G.1978.BrutnachweisdesGaensesaegersMergusmerganserinderOberenWertach.[BreedingoftheGoosanderMergusmerganserintheupperWertach.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges.Bayern17:182.[InGerman.]Sheppard,J.R.1978.ThebreedingoftheGoosanderinIreland.IrishBirds1:224-228.1977Anderson,B.W.andM.G.Reeder.1977.FoodhabitsoftheCommonMerganserinwinter.Bull.Okla.Ornithol.Soc.10:3-6.Hansen,S.G.1977a.FarveringmaerkningafstorSkalleslugerMergusmerganserpaynglepladseni Danmark.[Color-markingofGoosandersMergusmerganserattheDanishbreedinggrounds.]Dan.Ornithol.Foren.Tidsskr.71:65-66.[InDanishwithEnglishsummary.]1977b.StorrelsenafdenStoreSkalleslugers,Mergus merganser,ynglebestandei Danmarkfremtil1977.Feltornithologen19:206-207.Meek,E.R.andB.Little.1977a.ThespreadoftheGoosanderinBritainandIreland.Brit.Birds70:229-237.1977b.RingingstudiesofGoosandersinNorthumberland.Brit.Birds ------70: 273-283.445

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Michels,H.1977. Der RueckgangderSaegeraufdemRheinimraumDusseldorf.[ThedeclineofmergansersintheDusseldorfareaoftheRhine.]Charadrius13:26-29.White,D.H.andE.Cromartie.1977.shellthinninginmergansereggs.Residuesofenvironmentalpollutantsand WilsonBull.89:532-542.1976 Foreman,L.D.1976a. NestsiteandactivityofanincubatingCommonMerganserinnorthwesternCalifornia.Calif.FishGame62:87-88. 1976b.ObservationsofCommonMerganserbroodsinnorthwesternCalifor------nia.Calif.FishGame62:207-212.Hansen, S.G.1976a.A &urvey oftheGoosander (Mergusmerganser)breedingpopulationsinnorthernEurope.Dan.Fugle28:151-163.1976b.Someaspectsofthemigration-biologyofGoosander (Mergus -----ganser)populationsinnorthernEurope onthebasisofexistingringingdata.Dan.Fugle28:164-178.Hansen, S.G.and S.D.Hedrup. 1976. AlistofringingdataontheGoosander,Mergusmerganser,innorthernEurope.Dan.Fugle28:179-195.1975 Hansen, S.G.1975.MeddelelseromundersogelserafdenStoreSkalleslugersbiologii Danmark.Feltornithologen17: 16.Sjoberg,K.1975.Bytesvalochpredationseffektivitethosskrakerilaboratorieforsok.[Preyselectionandeffectofpredationby MergusmerganserandM.serratorinthelaboratory.]FaunaFlora70:241-246.[InSwedishwith-Englishsummary.] 1974 Anderson, B. W.,M.G.Reeder andR.L. Timken. 1974.NotesonthefeedingbehavioroftheCommonMerganser (Mergusmerganser).Condor 76:472-476.Bauer,U.andH.Zintl.1974. Brutvorkommen undBrutbiologiedesGansesagers,Mergusmerganser,inBayern.[DistributionandbreedingbiologyoftheGoosanderinBavaria.]Anz.Ornithol.Ges. Bayern 13:71-76.[InGermanwithEnglishsummary.]Bowman,M.C.1974.CommonCrowsascommensalsofCommonMergansers.Kingbird24:60-61.Citron,J.D.1974.GullsstealfishfromCommonMergansers.DelmarvaOrnithol.9:71-72.Coolidge,H.W.1974.EarlyfallobservationsofPintailsandCommonMergansers.Oriole39:48.446

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Miller,S.W.andJ.S.Barclay.1974.PredationinwarmwaterreservoirsbywinteringCommonMergansers.Proc.27thAnnu. Conf.SoutheasternAssoc.Fish&GameCommiss.: 243-252.Nilsson,L. 1974.NaringsvalhosrastandeochovervintrandestorskrakeMergusmerganseriSkane.[FoodpreferenceinrestingandwinteringGoosanders,Mergusmerganser,inScania,Sweden.] VarFagelvarld33:293-294.[InSwedishwithEnglishs
Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico : part 2 : anseriformes
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000171/00002
 Material Information
Title: Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico : part 2 : anseriformes
Added title page title: Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clapp, Roger B.
Clapp, Roger B
Morgan-Jacobs, Deborah
Banks, Richard C., 1940-
National Coastal Ecosystems Team (U.S.)
United States -- Minerals Management Service
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Denver Wildlife Research Center -- Museum Section
Publisher: Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior
Place of Publication: <Washington, D.C.>
Publication Date: 1982-
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Sea birds -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Sea birds -- Gulf States   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Gulf States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
General Note: "Museum Section, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Museum of Natural History."
General Note: Project sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, Minerals Management Service.
General Note: Pt. 3: "Prepared for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Division of Biological Services, Fish and WIldlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior."
General Note: "March 1982" (pt.1); "July 1982" (pt.2); "September 1983"--Pt. 3.
General Note: "Contract no. 14-16-0009-78-917."
General Note: FWS/OBS-82/20
Statement of Responsibility: prepared for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Division of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0257
notis - AME1920
alephbibnum - 002436756
oclc - 08359556
lccn - 82601888 //r83
System ID: UF00000171:00002

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page i
        Front page ii
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
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    Preface
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    Abstract
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text


Blogial Seres Pogam


FRED E. LOHRER
ARCIHOLO BIOLOGICAL STALO
OUTE BOX 1
MWE PUMI. f RA 3MS2


July 1982
MARINE BIRDS OF THE
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
AND GULF OF MEXICO


Part II
ANSERIFORMES


Bureau of Land Management
Fish and Wildlife Service
S Depar ent of the Iterior


















The Biological Services Program was established within the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service to supply scientific information and methodologies on
key environmental issues that impact fish and ..li, r e resources and their
supporting ecosystems. The mission of the program is as follows:
To strengthen the Fish and Wildlife Service in its role as
a primary source of information on national fish and wild-
life resources, particularly in respect to environmental
impact assessment.
To gather, analyze, and present information that will aid
decisionnakers in the identification and resolution of
problems associated with major changes in land and water
use.
To provide better ecological information and evaluation
for Department of the Interior development programs, such
as those relating to energy development.
Information developed by the Biological Services Program is intended
for use in the planning and decisionmaking process to prevent or minimize
the impact of development on fish and wildlife. Research activities and
technical assistance services are based on an analysis of the issues, a
determination of the decisionnmakers involved and their information needs,
and an evaluation of the state of the art to identify information gaps
and to determine priorities. This is a strategy that will ensure that
the products produced and disseminated are timely and useful.
Projects have been initiated in the following areas: coal extraction
and conversion; power plants; geothermal, mineral and oil shale develop-
ment; water resource analysis; including stream alterations and western
water allocation; coastal ecosystems and Outer Continental Shelf develop-
ment; and systems inventory, including National Wetland Inventory,
habitat classification and analysis, and information transfer.
The Biological Services Program consists of the Office of Biological
Services in Washington, D.C., which is responsible for overall planning and
management; National Teams, which provide the Program's central scientific
and technical expertise and arrange for contracting biological services
studies with states, universities, consulting firms, and others; Regional
Staffs, who provide a link to problems at the operating level;and staffs at
certain Fish and Wildlife Service research facilities, who conduct in-house
research studies.






FWS/OBS-82/20
July 1982


MARINE BIRDS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

AND GULF OF MEXICO



PART II



ANSERIFORMES



by


Roger B. Clapp, Deborah Morgan-Jacobs, and Richard C. Banks




Museum Section
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
National Museum of Natural History
Washington, D.C. 20560


Contract No. 14-16-0009-78-917


Project Officer
Jill Parker
National Coastal Ecosystems Team
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
NASA-Slidell Computer Complex
1010 Gause Boulevard
Slidell, Louisiana 70458

This project was sponsored by the
Bureau of Land Management

Prepared for
Coastal Ecosystems Project
Office of Biological Services
Fish and Wildlife Service
U.S. Department of the Interior
Washington, D.C. 20240




































J .. .W hj .L



















Library of Congress Card Number 82-600553


This report should be cited as:
Clapp, R. B., D. Morgan-Jacobs, and R. C. Banks. 1982. Marine birds of
the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico. Part II: Anseriformes.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, D.C.
FWS/OBS-82/20. 492 pp.







PREFACE


Part II of the volumes Marine Birds of the Southeastern Unitea States ahd
Gulf of Mexico, published by the National Coastal Ecosystems Team, provides a
synthesis and analysis of information about marine birds in this area. Accounts
for 41 species include information on distribution, abundance, and suscepti-
bility to oil pollution. More detailed information on distribution in the
southeast and a summary of food habits and habitats utilized are presented
for 17 species. Information on breeding ecology is summarized for 12 species
that we think are most likely to be affected by oil pollution. Selected bib-
liographies follow each species account and include additional sources of in-
formation.

Any suggestions or questions regarding this report should be directed
to:

Information Transfer Specialist
National Coastal Ecosystems Team
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
NASA-Slidell Computer Complex
1010 Gause Boulevard
Slidell, Louisiana 70458


iii








ABSTRACT


Information on the seasonal distribution and abundance of 41 species of
waterfowl of the order Anseriformes that occur in the coastal southeastern
United States has been compiled and mapped from the literature. In many in-
stances this provides the first synthesis of knowledge about a species for
this region. For the species we consider most important in coastal areas we
also provide information on world-wide distribution, habitat, food, and vari-
ous aspects of life history. This information was gathered in an attempt to
assess the possible effects of offshore oil development on populations of
marine birds in the southeast.

The susceptibility of birds to oil depends not only on their juxtaposi-
tion in time and space, but also on currents and climatic factors and on the
stage of the life or annual cycle and the behavior of the species. Contamina-
tion by oil may result in matting of the feathers with death following from
chilling, starvation, and the ingestion of oil during preening. Among the
birds covered by this report, the sea ducks and diving ducks are considered
the most susceptible to oil pollution in the southeast. Most of the other
ducks, geese, and swans covered in the report are relatively insusceptible to
oil pollution because they are seldom found in areas where oiling is likely
to occur.

One of the conclusions reached by this report is that we know very little
about the status and populations of some of the anatids that occur in the
southeast. Some of these species (e.g., the scoters) are among those that may
be expected to be most detrimentally affected by development of oil resources.
In general, most species that are widely hunted are relatively well studied,
but much is unknown of those that are not game birds.


iv









CONTENTS


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


ABSTRACT . . .. . .


MAPS . . . . . .


TABLES . . . * .


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT .


. 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0. 0 0 0 S iv


* 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 . . . .0 ix


.* * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . xi


S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0 0


xii


PURPOSE OF REPORT


0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 1


STUDY AREA . . .


Habitats . . .
Climates . . * .


METHODS . . .


* *0


* * *
* * *


. 0 0 0 0 a * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1


* *
* *


* 0 0 0 0 0 0


ARRANGEMENT AND CONTENT OF SPECIES ACCOUNTS .


* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * 0 4


. . . . 0 0 0 0 7


Species Included . . * *
Scientific and Vernacular Names .
General Distribution . . * .


* *
* 0


* *
* *


0 0 0 0 0 0


Distribution in the Coastal Southeastern United States
Synopsis of Present Distribution and Abundance .
Habitat . . . * * *
Food and Feeding Behavior *. . . * * *
Important Biological Parameters . . . * *
Susceptibility to Oil Pollution . . . * *
Species Bibliography . . . * *


OIL POLLUTION AND MARINE BIRDS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES


Variability in Species' Susceptibility to Oil Pollution . .
Regional Differences in Oiling and Mortality of Beached Birds
Major Birdkills Following Oil Spills in the Southeastern U.S.
Sources of Variation in Mortality from Oil Pollution . .* *
Effects of Oil on Contaminated Birds and Their Eggs . . .
Potential Hazards to Marine Birds from Offshore Oil Production


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH . . . . * * * *


0 . 13


14
14
17
18
19
20


* 21


Choice of Species for Future Research * * * * * *
Research Needed on Effects of Oil on Southeastern Marine Birds


o 0 0 0
* * *
* . *


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . * 0 * * 0 * * 0 0 *


PREFACE


iii


* 0
* 0
* *
* *
* *
* *
* *


9
10
10
10
11
11
12
12






Page


ANSERIFORMES

Anatidae


Fulvous Whistling Duck (Dendrocyg


na bicolor) . .


Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)


Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). .............


Whistling Swan (Olor columbianus). . . .


White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons). . .


Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) . . . . .


Ross' Goose (Chen rossii). . . . . . .


Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) . . . . .


Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis). . .. . .


Brant (Branta bernicla). * *. . .


Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) . . . . . . .


Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope). . . . .


American Wigeon (Anas americana) . . . . .


Gadwall (Anas strepera). ........ .


Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca). . . . . ..


Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) . . . . .


* account .
bibliography

. account .
bibliography

* account .
bibliography

. account .
bibliography

" account .
bibliography

* account .
bibliography

" account .
bibliography

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bibliography

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bibliography

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bibliography

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bibliography

. account .
bibliography

* account 0
bibliography

. account .
bibliography

* account
bibliography

* account .
bibliography


28
28

33
33

38
39

47
56

63
63

71
74

89
89

94
94

114
114

119
125

134
134

148
148

153
153

159
159

165
167

175
178











Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula). . . .



Black Duck (Anas rubripes) .. .



Northern Pintail (Anas acuta). . .



Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). . . .



Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera). . .



Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata). . .



Canvasback (Aythya valisineria). . .



Redhead (Aythya americana) . . . .



Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) .



Greater Scaup (Aythya marila). . .



Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis). . . .



Common Eider (Somateria mollissima). .



King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) . .



Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)



Oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) . . .



Black Scoter (Melanitta nigra) . . .



Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) *


* . . account e
bibliography


* . 0 account 0 .
bibliography .

* . . account 0 .
bibliography .

* . . account 0
bibliography


* . . account .*
bibliography


* . 0 . account *
bibliography .

* . . account .


bibliography


* . 0 account *
bibliography

* . . account
bibliography


. . . account 0
bibliography .

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bibliography


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bibliography

* 0 account *
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* * * account *
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bibliography

* . account *
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vii


.I


*

*
*
.*

.*


*

*

*
.I
.


338
347

353
363

368
374


I


*
.*


Page

202
208

211
219

229
231

237
237

245
245

250
252

256
264

270
277

284
286

290
297

301
310

315
319

331
332

. 335
336











White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca) .


Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). .


Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) . .


Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)


Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)


Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)...


Masked Duck (Oxyura dominica). ....


Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) . .


.* . . account . .
bibliography .


. . 0 .


. account .
bibliography


* . . account .
bibliography .


* * * * account *.
bibliography

* . . account .
bibliography

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bibliography


* * * * account *
bibliography

* . .. account .
bibliography


LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


viii


Page


377
383


. 389
. 397


406
413

418
420


. 423
. 433


438
444

452
453

454
461

467








MAPS


Number

1 Winter Distribution Map for the

2 Winter Distribution Map for the

3 Winter Distribution Map for the

4 Winter Distribution Map for the

5 Winter Distribution Map for the

6 Winter Distribution Map for the

7 Winter Distribution Map for the

8 Winter Distribution Map for the

9 Winter Distribution Map for the

10 Winter Distribution Map for the

11 Winter Distribution Map for the

12 Winter Distribution Map for the

13 Winter Distribution Map for the

14 Winter Distribution Map for the

15 Winter Distribution Map for the

16 Winter Distribution Map for the

17 Winter Distribution Map for the

18 Winter Distribution Map for the

19 Winter Distribution Map for the

20 Winter Distribution Map for the

21 Winter Distribution Map for the

22 Winter Distribution Map for the

23 Winter Distribution Map for the


Whistling Swan . .

White-fronted Goose .

White-morph Snow Goose

Blue-morph Snow Goose

Canada Goose . .

Brant . . . .

Wood Duck . . .

American Wigeon ....

Gadwall . . . ..

Green-winged Teal .

Mallard . . . .

Mottled Duck . .

Black Duck . . .

Northern Pintail .

Blue-winged Teal .

Cinnamon Teal . . .

Northern Shoveler ...

Canvasback . . .

Redhead . . . .

Ring-necked Duck .

Greater Scaup . . .

Lesser Scaup . . .

Common Eider . . .


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. 0 0 . .

* . 0 0 0

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. . . .


24 Winter Distribution Map for the Oldsquaw . .


. . . 0 . .


ix


Page

48

64

72

73

95

120

135

154

160

166

176

204

213

230

238

246

251

258

274

285

292

303

316


340









Number


Page


Winter Distribution Map for the Black Scoter . . .

Winter Distribution Map for the Surf Scoter . . .

Winter Distribution Map for the White-winged Scoter .

Winter Distribution Map for the Common Goldeneye .

Winter Distribution Map for the Bufflehead . . .

Winter Distribution Map for the Hooded Merganser . .

Winter Distribution Map for the Red-breasted Merganser

Winter Distribution Map for the Ruddy Duck . . .


. . . . 354

. . . 370

S. . .. . 378

S. . .. . 392

. . . . 408

S. . .. . 419

S. . . 424

. . . . 458


4


i








TABLES


Number


Page

. 15


. 16


1 Number and percentage of beached birds examined and oiled .

2 Comparison' of regional and seasonal variation of beached bird
mortality and incidence of oiling in the eastern United States .

3 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Mallards
found after major oiling incidents . . . . . . .

4 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Black
Ducks found after major oiling incidents . . .* . *

5 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Greater
Scaup found after major oiling incidents . .* . .

6 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Common
Eiders found after major oiling incidents . . . .

7 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Oldsquaws
found after major oiling incidents . . . *. . . .

8 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Black
Scoters found after major oiling incidents .* * * .. . .

9 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Surf
Scoters found after major oiling incidents .. . . . .

10 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead White-win
Scoters found after major oiling incidents . . . . .

11 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Common
Goldeneyes found after major oiling incidents . . . .


ged
*


* .


12 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Bufflehead
found after major oiling incidents * .......

13 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Red-breasted
Mergansers found after major oiling incidents . .* . *

14 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Common
Mergansers found after major oiling incidents . . . . .

15 Number of dead birds and number and percentage of dead Ruddy Ducks
found after major oiling incidents .* * * * ..............


* S


* 0


* S


* S


* 0


* S


xi


177


219


298


317


345


361


374


384


396


414


431


443


462









ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT


Most of the abbreviations used in the text are in standard use and will be
known to the reader; a few may be less familiar. These are listed below with a
brief indication of their interpretation.


N, S, E, W, (capitalized without period)
N., S., E., W. (capitalized with period)


ac
ad.
AOU
BOU
BLM
ca
CBC
cf.
coll.
comp.
Co.
CSLP
EBBA
et. seq.
ha
IBBA
imm.
in litt.
in prep.
ms
n
Natl. Park
Natl. Seashore
nonad.
NWR
op. cit.
Par.
pers. comm.
pers. observ.
photogr.
prep.
SD
spec.
sp./spp.
St. Park
subad.
subseq.
unpubl.
USFWS
WAGBI
WMA


compass directions
geographic site designation (e.g.,
S. Padre Island)


acre
adult
American Ornithologists' Union
British Ornithologists' Union
Bureau of Land Management
(circa) about
Christmas Bird Count
(confer) compare/see
collected
compiler
County
Center for Short-lived Phenomena
Eastern Bird Banding Association
and the following
hectare
Inland Bird Banding Association
imma t ure
in the letters (of)
in preparation
manuscript
sample size
National Park
National Seashore
nonadult
National Wildlife Refuge
(opere citato) in the work cited
Parish
personal communication
personal observation
photographed
preparer
Standard Deviation
specimen
species (sing./plu.)
State Park
subadult
subsequent
unpublished
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Waterfowlers Association of Great Britain and Ireland
Wildlife Management Area


xii








Units of measurement in the text are presented as they were in the source
from which they were derived and are followed by parenthetical conversion to
the metric or English systems, as appropriate.


xiii























S








PURPOSE OF REPORT


The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of waterfowl in the
southeastern United States and explore the potential effects on these species
of the development of petroleum resources on the outer continental shelf (OCS).
This entailed a review of available information in order to:

1) determine where and when waterfowl occur in marine areas to be developed for
oil and gas production;

2) ascertain which species would be most at risk from oil and the development
of oil resources;

3) evaluate the importance of populations in the southeastern United States
in relation to the entire distribution and abundance of the species;

4) summarize information on the life history of species most likely to be ad-
versely affected by development of oil resources.

This material is presented in a form that enables the Bureau of Land Man-
agement (BLM) to identify aspects of OCS development that might threaten popu-
lations of marine birds. It provides information that will aid managers in
making decisions that minimize damage to these populations during the develop-
ment of energy resources.

A corollary objective is to recommend topics for future research in areas
for which information is particularly scarce.


STUDY AREA


The study area encompasses the coastal and offshore waters of the south-
eastern United States, from the northern border of North Carolina to the Mexican
border. A wide variety of coastal habitats occurs within this area: sandy bar-
rier islands; fresh, salt, and brackish marshes; open beach; coastal bays;
dredge spoil islands; mud-flats; and mangrove islands. The dominant habitats
of sections of the coastline will be discussed below.


HABITATS

North Carolina is dominated by a series of fringing barrier beaches behind
which lie large estuaries with extensive areas of shallow water and salt marsh.
These fringing islands (the Outer Banks) are farther (30-50 km or 20-30 mi)
from the mainland than are such islands along other areas of the Atlantic coast
(Warinner et al. 1976). Extensive stands of salt marsh with deep tidal channels
are found south of Cape Lookout, North Carolina, through South Carolina and
Georgia. Almost three-quarters of the salt marsh acreage along the Atlantic
seaboard is found in these three states. The largest areas of salt marsh on the
Atlantic coast are in Georgia, which has 193,000 ha (477,000 ac), North Carolina








(64,000 ha or 158,000 ac), and South Carolina (176,000 ha or 435,000 ac)(West
1977).

Barrier islands are also very important coastal habitat in these three
states. The land areas of the barrier islands for each state are 120,000 ac
(48,000 ha) in North Carolina, 124,000 ac (50,200 ha) in South Carolina, and
153,000 ac (62,000 ha) in Georgia (Warner 1976), for a total of about 397,000
ac (160,000 ha). The area of water behind these islands becomes smaller to the
south (Warinner et al. 1976). These three states (North Carolina, South Caro-
lina, and Georgia) respectively have about 266 mi (428 km), 199 mi (320 km),
and 98 mi (158 km) of open beach along their barrier islands. In other parts
of the study area (e.g., parts of the Florida Gulf coast), beaches are few or
nonexistent (Woolfenden and Schreiber 1973).

The east coast of Florida is dominated by a chain of barrier islands oc-
casionally broken by tidal passes. Typically, these islands are sandy along
their outer perimeters. Large areas of marsh and estuarine swamp lie landward
of these islands (Warinner et al. 1976) and salt marshes gradually give way to
mangrove swamp (Reimold 1977). Much of the Gulf coast of Florida is dominated
by salt marshes and mangrove swamps (Wariner et al. 1976). Open beach is ex-
tensive from Naples on the Florida peninsula north along the panhandle to Ala-
bama (Woolfenden and Schreiber 1973). In Alabama, tidal salt marsh, sandy
beaches, and offshore islands are common coastal landforms. Mississippi's Gulf
coast consists almost entirely of barrier islands that have salt marshes in
their centers. The shoreline of Mississippi is extensively developed but still
contains fresh, salt, and brackish marshes (Warinner et al. 1976). Only a lim-
ited amount of salt marsh is found between northern Florida and Mississippi.
Most marshes are small, disjunct, and in alluvial pockets protected by bay
shores (West 1977).

Louisiana has more marsh and estuarine area than any of the other United
States except Alaska (Warinner et al. 1976) and contains nearly half the total
acreage of salt marsh in the contiguous United States. In some places the
marshes extend inland as much as 40-50 km (25-30 mi)(West 1977). The coastline
along the western third of the state is sandy, but the rest of the area is dom-
inated by barrier islands and marsh that are strongly influenced by the enor-
mous amounts of mud and silt deposited by the Mississippi River (Warinner et
al. 1976). The Louisiana coast is one of the most productive areas for marine
birds in the continental United States and supports enormous wintering popula-
tions of waterfowl.

The coast of Texas makes up a large portion of the western shore of the
Gulf of Mexico. Sandy beaches and offshore barrier islands are abundant. Two
semi-landlocked lagoons, the Upper and Lower Laguna Madre, and a large low-
salinity estuary, Sabine Lake, are areas of great importance to wintering water-
fowl. An estimated 78% of the world's population of Redhead ducks winters in
the Laguna Madre, and 13% of the world's shrimp harvest comes from Texas waters
(Warinner et al. 1976). A limited amount of salt marsh is present in Texas
along bay shores enclosed by offshore bars (West 1977).








CLIMATES


The climatic regime, like the landform, differs widely from one part of
the study area to another. The northeastern portion is the coldest. The low-
est midwinter temperatures along the coast of North Carolina are on the order
of 200F (-7C) and the average daily maximum during midsummer along the extreme
southern coast is only 86F (30*C), some 6*F less than is usually recorded in
the interior. July is the wettest month and October the driest. Along the
coast, snow and sleet usually fall only once or twice a year and are usually
associated with northeasterly winds. Prevailing winds in North Carolina blow
from the southwest most of the year and from the northeast in September and Oct-
ober (Hardy 1974). The weather along the coast of South Carolina is similar to
that in North Carolina with some variation. Average annual temperatures along
the South Carolina coast are about 68F (200C), with an average daily maximum
in July of 880F (31C) and average daily minimums in January from 350F (1.7C)
in the northeast to 42F (6C) in the southeast. March is particularly rainy
along the coast, and October and November are the driest months. Prevailing
winds in South Carolina are from the southwest and south in spring and summer,
predominantly from the northeast in autumn, and from the northeast and southwest
in winter (Landers 1974).

The climate in Georgia is characterized by short mild winters and warm hu-
mid summers. The coastal area becomes progressively drier and warmer from north
to south. Peak periods of precipitation occur in winter and early spring; the
average annual rainfall ranges from 75 in (190 cm) in the extreme northeastern
part of the state to 53 in (135 cm) along the lower east coast. Average summer
temperatures range from 73*F (230C) in the extreme north to 820F (280C) in parts
of south Georgia; average temperature for the three winter months ranges from
410F (50C) in the north to 560F (130C) on the lower east coast. Areas in north-
ern Georgia have freezing temperatures during the day for almost a third of the
year but the lower coast only has about ten days of freezing temperatures annu-
ally (Carter 1974).

Florida has a wider range of climate than any other state in the southeast.
The climate ranges from temperate to subtropical in the north, to tropical in
the Florida Keys. Summers are warm, humid, and long, and winters are mild and
brief. Rainfall is abundant, especially from June to September. Mean annual
temperatures range from the upper 60's (F) in northern Florida to the mid-70's
in the south and reach nearly 780F (260C) at Key West. Rainfall varies widely
from area to area and from year to year, with most areas usually receiving be-
tween 50-65 in (127-165 cm). The drier Keys have an average annual rainfall of
only about 40 in (100 cm). On the southern part of the peninsula, prevailing
winds are from the southeast and east; elsewhere they are more erratic but tend
to be from the north in winter and from the south in summer. Tropical storms
frequently cause great damage; few years pass without a hurricane affecting part
of the state (Bradley 1974).

The Gulf has a maritime tropical climate with mean winter temperatures of
about 700F (210C) and mean summer temperatures of 84F (29C). Relative to sea-
sons in other parts of the study area, both summer and winter are hot and humid;
humidity is greatest during spring and summer and lowest during late fall and
winter (BLM 1978a). Rain occurs fairly evenly throughout the year along the








eastern and northern Gulf, with a peak from June through August (BLM 1978a).
The peak tends to be later farther east and falls in August and September (BLM
1978b). The area becomes progressively wetter from the southwest to the north
and central portions of the northern Gulf. The driest area of the Texas coast
extends from Brownsville north to about Corpus Christi; the most humid area from
Galveston to the Sabine River (Chaney et al. 1978). Average annual precipita-
tion ranges from about 69 am (27 in) at Brownsville to 137 cm (54 in) at New
Orleans (BLM 1978a) and 170 cm (67 in) in Mobile (BLM 1978b).

Tropical storms and hurricanes that often ravage coastal habitats are reg-
ular during late summer and fall and enter the Gulf largely through the Yucatan
Channel and Straits of Florida (BLM 1978a). Southeasterly winds predominate
over the northern Gulf during the summer. Easterlies are more common during
the winter, and prevailing winds from the west and southwest are rare at any
time of year (BLM 1978a).


METHODS


Most of the information was obtained by a standard literature search. Ad-
ditional information on oiling of individual species of birds and their distri-
bution was obtained through examination of museum specimens and interviews, but
these were not major sources. Several computerized information retrieval sys-
tems were investigated but the data did not meet our needs. These sources were
particularly weak on the local distribution of birds, much of which is to be
found in regional journals not covered by computer services; the temporal cover-
age was also inadequate for this study. Visual searches of periodicals "proved
far more productive from the standpoint of both numbers of citations and thor-
oughness of the search", as Bartonek and Lensink (1978) pointed out in a review
and bibliography of the literature of marine birds of Alaska.

We obtained literature citations primarily by scanning the literature and
by consulting bibliographies in relevant papers. The primary sources for the
journals, books, and papers were the libraries and reprint files of the Bird
Divisions of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. and the American Mu-
seum of Natural History, New York. Other major sources of information were the
library of the Department of the Interior, the Library of Congress, and the
Bird Library and reprint files of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel,
Maryland. The Welder Wildlife Foundation, Sinton, Texas, and the library of
government publications and reports maintained by the National Coastal Ecosys-
tems Team, Slidell, Louisiana, were particularly rich sources of information
otherwise difficult to obtain. Unpublished reports and papers were obtained
from: the Florida Audubon Society, Vero Beach; the Florida Fish and Game Com-
mission, Gainesville; and Everglades National Park, Homestead; and other indi-
viduals listed in the acknowledgments. Several dozen valuable but unpublished
theses were obtained from several educational institutions.

Searches were made of several secondary sources of literature citations.
Literature review sections of major ornithological journals, particularly The
Auk, The Ibis, and Bird-Banding, were especially useful, as was Wildlife Review.
We also made extensive use of Current Contents, Oil Pollution Abstracts, and









Dissertation Abstracts. Biological Abstracts, Ecological Abstracts, and the
Zoological Record were also consulted but were less efficient sources of infor-
mation. All state bird journals dealing with the southeastern United States
(see list below) were scanned; these journals, along with American Birds (Audu-
bon Field Notes in earlier volumes), provided much of the information on local
distribution in each state.

We placed considerable emphasis on recentness of information in the liter-
ature search. A few journals (e.g., Wilson Bulletin, Bird-Banding) were exam-
ined for at least 30 years into the past, The Auk from 1930 to the present.
Many others, depending on the degree to which they yielded useful information,
were scanned for only a few recent years. We covered the foreign literature as
thoroughly as possible. Most of the species treated in this report have a wide
geographic distribution, and much of what is known of their breeding biology is
to be found only in foreign periodicals. The linguistic limitations of the
authors, as well as the temporal and fiscal limitations involved in the produc-
tion of this report, precluded full use of this material.

Listed below are the serial publications covered extensively. Where appro-
priate, those areas of the world that these journals cover most thoroughly are
listed in parentheses.


Acta Ornithologica (Poland, U.S.S.R.)
Alauda (France, French Africa)
Animal Behavior
Ardea (western Europe)
Atoll Research Bulletin
Auk (North America, world)

Behaviour
Bird-Banding (Journal of Field
Ornithology)(United States)
Bird Study (Great Britain)
British Birds
Bulletin of the Kansas
Ornithological Society
Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological
Society

California Fish and Game
Canadian Journal of Zoology
Chesapeake Science (Estuaries)
(U.S. Atlantic coast)
Dansk Fugle (Denmark)
Ecology
Ekologia Polska (Poland)

El Hornero (Argentina)
Fauna (Oslo) (Norway)
Florida Naturalist
Gerfaut (western Europe, Africa)


Alabama Birds
American Birds (Audubon Field Notes)
(United States, Canada)
Atlantic Naturalist (Delaware to
Virginia)
Australian Bird Watcher

Biologia (Bratislava) (Seria B)
(Czechoslovakia)
Biotropica
Blue Jay (central Canada)
Bulletin of the British Ornitholo-
gists' Club (world)
Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornitholo-
gical Society


Canadian Field-Naturalist
Chat (North and South Carolina)
Condor (North America, neotropics)
Corella (Austalian Bird-Bander)
Dansk Ornithologisk Forenings Tids-
skrift (Denmark)
Elepaio (Hawaii)

Emu (Australia, New Guinea)
Florida Field Naturalist
Florida Scientist
Ibis (Old World, Africa)









Jack-Pine Warbler (Michigan)
Journal of Animal Ecology
Journal of Applied Ecology
Journal of Wildlife Management
(N. America)

Larus (Yugoslavia, eastern Europe)
L0Oiseau et la Revue Francaise
d0Ornithologie (France, world)

Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mississippi Kite
Murrelet (Pacific northwest Alaska,
western Canada)
Notornis (New Zealand, Pacific islands)

Oikos (Denmark, Scandinavia)
Ornis Fennica (Finland, Baltic area)
Der Ornithologische Beobachter
(Switzerland, middle Europe)
Ostrich (South Africa)

Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy
of Science
Revue Suisse de Zoologie (Switzerland,
central Europe)

Ring (Europe, world)
Rivista Italiana di Ornithologia (Italy)
Scottish Birds
Southwestern Naturalist (southwestern
U.S.)
Suomen Riista (Finland, Baltic area)

Texas Journal of Science
Transactions of the North American Wild-
life and Natural Resources Conference
Die Vogelwarte (western and central
Europe)
Wilson Bulletin (North America, world)'
Zoologichesky Zhurnal (U.S.S.R.)


Journal fur Ornithologie (Germany,
world)
Journal of Ecology
Kingbird (New York)


Limosa (Netherlands)
Loon (Minnesota)
Louisiana Ornithological Society News

Maryland Birdlife
Mississippi Ornithological Society
Newsletter
Nos Oiseaux (France, western Europe)


Oriole (Georgia)
Ornis Scandinavica (Scandinavia,
Finland)
Ornithologische Mitteilungen (world)


Proceedings of the Annual Conference
Southeastern Association of Game
and Fish Commissioners (southeastern
U.S.)

Ringing & Migration (Great Britain,
world)
South Australian Ornithologist
Soviet Journal of Ecology
Sterna (Norway)


Tori (Japan)
Var Vagelvarld (Sweden)
Vestnik Zoologi (U.S.S.R.)
Western Birds (western U.S.)
Wildfowl
Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie


The reprint files of several institutions were a particularly fertile source
for some undistributed material. The most useful of these were the files of the
National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, the Bird Division of the National Museum
of Natural History, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Bird Library
of the Gabrielson Laboratory of Patuxent National Wildlife Research Center.

In all, about 10,000 citations dealing directly with the species treated
are included in the three parts of this report. Perhaps an additional 1,000
more general articles are listed in the Literature Cited sections at the end of
the three volumes.









ARRANGEMENT AND CONTENT OF SPECIES ACCOUNTS


Waterfowl are among the most studied species of birds, and the technical
and popular literature on this group is tremendous in volume and scope. Three
major works (Johnsgard 1975; Bellrose 1976; Palmer 1976a, 1976b) on North Amer-
ican waterfowl were published in the past decade. Each of these works provides
information on life history, distribution, status of populations, and other as-
pects of waterfowl biology. Each also approaches the study of waterfowl in a
different way (Weller 1977) and to some extent is based on a different set of
primary literature, although there is a great deal of overlap. Another source
(Cramp et al. 1977) summarized what is known of waterfowl in waterfowl in Europe,
the Middle East, and North Africa. Many of the species covered by Cramp et al.
also occur in North America. We relied heavily on these works in the prepara-
tion of this report, both for their informational content and as a guide to the
primary literature. However, we supplemented these summaries with literature
that has appeared since their publication and that provides some kinds of infor-
mation that none of these works fully explored.

The accounts for the 41 species included in this section of the report vary
considerably in length and in detail. Twenty-four of the species covered are
either uncommon in the southeastern states or are found there primarily in fresh
water. Because these species, for reasons of geographic distribution or habitat
selection, form a very insignificant part of the marine avifauna of the south-
east and because their populations would not be threatened by development of
energy resources along the coast, their accounts are much abbreviated: we pre-
sent only a short synopsis of the status and distribution of the species, with
emphasis on the southeastern states, and a statement about the potential effects
of development of petroleum resources offshore. We present a full bibliography
for each of these species.

Seventeen species of waterfowl treated herein are either important members
of the fauna of the southeastern United States or are species (e.g., Oldsquaw
[Clangula hyemalis]) known to be highly susceptible to oil pollution elsewhere.
For these species, we provide more detailed accounts.


SPECIES INCLUDED

None of the waterfowl treated here are truly pelagic in the sense of occur-
ring primarily far offshore. Most of the species for which we provide full ac-
counts are found primarily in the open sea or on large embayments while winter-
ing in the southeastern states or passing through on spring and fall migrations.
Many sea ducks and diving ducks tend to congregate into large rafts when feeding
or resting, making them vulnerable to oil pollution. Other species included
here frequent inshore areas or coastal marshes primarily, where their vulnera-
bility to contamination may be indirect, by contamination of food resources.
Other species occur almost solely on fresh water in coastal areas and are quite
unlikely to suffer any direct effect from oil pollution.

This report includes accounts for 41 of the 53 species of ducks, geese,
and swans that we know have been reported in the coastal southeastern states.









Species that have been excluded occur only accidentally in the southeast. Re-
cords for eight (West Indian Whistling Duck [Dendrocygna arborea], Red-breasted
Goose [Branta ruficollis], Ruddy Shelduck [Tadorna ferrugineal, Baikal Teal
[Anas formosa], Falcated Teal [Anas falcata], Garganey [A. querquedula], Man-
darin Duck [Aix galericulata], Muscovy Duck [Cairina moschatal) of the eleven
species excluded are likely based on escaped captive birds. Two other species
that we have not included stray into the southeast only rarely, one from the
north (Barrow's Golden-eye [Bucephala islandica]) and the other from the Carib-
bean (White-cheeked Pintail [Anas bahamensis]). We have also excluded the Smew
(Mergus albellus) because the record from Louisiana is believed to be unsatis-
factory (Palmer 1976b). The remaining species excluded, the Trumpeter Swan
(Cygnus buccinator), formerly wintered along the Texas and Louisiana coasts but
is no longer found there (Palmer 1976a).

Nearly half the species treated here occur primarily in freshwater habi-
tats in the southeast. Most of the rest occur primarily in marine and coastal
areas or are found widely on both fresh and salt water in the southeast. Some
of these, primarily freshwater species (e.g., Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos],
Common Pintail [Anas acuta]), occur in the southeast in extremely large numbers
during winter and others (e.g., Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis], Redhead [Aythya
americana]) are of considerable economic importance because they are major game
bird species.

Two species treated more fully (Black Duck [Anas rubripes] and. Canvasback
[Aythya valisineria]) are on the most recent Blue List (Tate 1981), a list that
attempts to identify species declining in all or part of their range. The Black
Duck is seriously threatened by genetic swamping by populations of Mallards
(Anas platyrhynchos) now breeding in the eastern United States (Tate 1981), and
the Canvasback is a much hunted species whose harvest is being carefully regu-
lated by the Fish and Wildlife Service.


SCIENTIFIC AND VERNACULAR NAMES

The species accounts are headed by the English and scientific names of the
species, followed by vernacular names in other languages and alternative names
in English. The primary English names and scientific names are based on those
used by the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list (AOU 1957) and its sup-
plements (AOU 1973, 1976). Footnotes explain recently adopted changes in sci-
entific names. The arrangement of species within the family Anatidae follows
the revised edition of Volume I of Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World
(Johnsgard 1979).

The primary source for most of the non-English vernacular names was the
Nomina Avium Europaearum (Jorgensen 1958); other sources consulted included
Dement'ev and Gladkov (1952), Austin and Kuroda (1953), Edwards (1972), and
Cramp et al. (1977). The abbreviations for the languages and other geographi-
cal usages appearing in this section are as follows:

DA: Danish IC: Icelandic PR: Portuguese
DU: Dutch IT: Italian RU: Russian
EN: English (Old World) JA: Japanese SAf: South African









FI: Finnish NW: Norwegian SP: Spanish
FR: French NZ: New Zealand SW: Swedish
GE: German PO: Polish US: United States

With few exceptions, the foreign language common names are those in the
widest use in the ornithological literature of the countries indicated. In
several instances we have included transliterated names from languages in which
Roman characters are not used (Japanese, Russian). For Japanese names we have
relied on Austin and Kuroda (1953) and for Russian names we have supplied the
names used in translations of Dement'ev and Gladkov (1952).

A major reason for providing these alternative names is to assist future
literature searches based on retrieval of citations by computer. In both the
Old and New World literature, species treated in a paper are sometimes indicated
in the title only by the vernacular names which are often used as keywords in
computer retrieval systems. In addition, some of the English translations of
foreign language names (which are those entered on computers) imply a different
species than the name would normally suggest to a reader of English or cannot
be readily associated with an English name. As a result, searches of computer
literature systems by scientific name alone may fail to indicate important notes
or papers that document recent changes in distribution.

We supply alternative scientific names widely or recently in use as another
aid to searches of literature compiled on computers. The Caspian Tern appears
in recent literature as Sterna caspia, Sterna tschegrava, Hydroprogne tschegrava,
and Hydroprogne caspia, as well as with caspius as a variant of the specific
epithet. One computer search we made revealed no less than four different lists
of titles when each scientific name was used as a keyword. Such differences in
taxonomic usage might well cause confusion when computer-based retrieval of or-
nithological information is attempted for a wide geographic area. On the other
hand, when the translated foreign name is one of widespread use in English speak-
ing countries we have not bothered to list it.

In some instances we have listed more than one vernacular name for a for-
eign language; this is particularly true for Spanish, in which vernacular names
may vary considerably from area to area. The means by which this report was
Produced precluded a highly accurate rendering of foreign words which incorpo-
rate characters or accents not available in our production process. As a re-
sult, there are lapses in our orthography, particularly for Icelandic and the
Scandinavian tongues.


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

This section is divided into two parts, one giving occurrence in North Amer-
ica, the other occurrence elsewhere in the world. Most of this information was
taken from standard distributional works, but we supplemented this material
where possible with more recent literature. Breeding and wintering ranges are
emphasized in this section, with-less information given on areas of occurrence
during migration; material relating to North America is more detailed and more
complete than for other areas of the world.









DISTRIBUTION IN THE COASTAL SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES


In this section we present more detailed remarks on distribution in the
southeast. We incorporated as much recent information through 1979 as we were
able to obtain. This section is based on the most recent state ornithological
handbooks and check-lists, and includes information from a search through sea-
sonal observations published in American Birds and state journals. It also
includes information from a number of unpublished manuscripts dealing with dis-
tribution in various sections of the southeast. This section also incorporates
information on seasonal occurrence, breeding status and numbers, and occasion-
ally brief remarks on habitats. The emphasis is on coastal areas, but in some
cases remarks are also made about status elsewhere in the state. Available
data for some species are unsatisfactory, incomplete, or extremely scanty. This
is particularly true for transients whose numbers are seldom recorded.

Information is given in order by state from North Carolina south and west
to Texas; we did not list states in which a species has not been recorded.


SYNOPSIS OF PRESENT DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE

This section in the species accounts summarizes information given in the
previous sections, often with additional data on population levels in the coast-
al southeastern United States. Some additional information on the world-wide
status of the species may be included, depending on our present knowledge of
the species.

We show distribution of waterfowl wintering in coastal areas on a series
of maps. Most of these maps are based on Bystrak (1974), whose report was based
on an analysis of National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Counts (CBC) for one
or more of the years from 1970 to 1972. We chose 45 of 58 coastal Christmas
Bird Counts in the study area and compiled 5-year means for 1973-1977. In some
instances fewer than five years of counts were available and the mean is for a
shorter period. We picked the localities to show geographic variation in num-
bers and to emphasize where the largest concentrations were found.

These figures should not be construed as indicating the true size of local
populations. The Christmas Bird Counts varied considerably in the amount of
estuarine, coastal, and marine habitat covered, but we tried to allow for this
by choosing counts that contained the most marine habitat. We realize that the
numbers reported in any given year may not be precise because of the limitations
of Christmas Bird Counts. We intend these maps to serve primarily as an index
of where winter concentrations are likely to be found and to show how this dis-
tribution varies throughout the southeast.


HABITAT

This section usually consists of brief remarks dealing with nesting, feed-
ing, and winter habitats. As in other sections in the species accounts, the
extent and detail of information reported depends on the relative importance
of the species in the southeast.








FOOD AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR


Here again, the amount of information given varies depending pn the rela-
tive importance of the species in the southeastern marine avifauna and on the
amount of information available. In all cases we gave at least a brief general
statement on the types of foods eaten and the primary feeding methods. In some
instances we included more detailed information on food habits, briefly abstract-
ing recent studies and indicating proportions of different varieties of foods
eaten. For a few species for which much recent information is available, we
summarized food habits by geographic area. For species whose food habits have
been well documented, we pointed out differences in food habits of adults and
young, and commented on seasonal variation of food habits as well as difference
in foods eaten in different habitats. We gave little specific data on food
habits in southeastern waters because little or nothing is known of the diet in
this area.


IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

This section presents basic information to allow biologists to infer the
effects of developing oil resources on populations and to help choose alternate
courses of action in the planning of such developments. We include this infor-
mation for only thirteen of the species discussed in this report because these
species are those most likely to be affected by oil in southeastern waters.
Much of the information is derived from studies conducted outside the southeast
because only a few species of waterfowl breed in the southeast.

The data in this section consist of brief summaries of the egg-laying peri-
od, mean clutch size, incubation period, hatching success, fledging success, age
at first breeding and at fledging, mortality of eggs and young (including infor-
mation on renesting), maximum natural longevity, and weight. Data on egg laying,
incubation period, and age at fledging allow one to estimate when birds breeding
within the study area are most vulnerable to disturbance. Information on mortal-
ity and renesting describes factors that lower reproductive success and suggest
the potential for recovery following a nesting failure. Data on clutch size and
hatching and fledging success allow an estimate of productivity. Detailed life
table data are unavailable for most of the species covered in these reports.
Consequently, we have provided figures for known maximum natural longevity that
will in some instances allow a crude comparison between species of the total re-
productive potential. The maximum natural longevity is given in terms of "esti-
mated minimum age" in years and months following Kennard (1975), and may list
information based on banding in the United States and Canada and in the Old
World. Finally, we include information on weights, since this and population
data given elsewhere in the report will allow planners to compare species in
terms of biomass affected as the result of any given oil-related activity.

The quality and quantity of this information vary from species to species
and from topic to topic. Many of the waterfowl treated in the second volume of
this report are among the best-studied wild birds. For such species we make no
attempt to give all the information available, but confine ourselves to brief
summaries. For other species, particularly some of the seaducks, information
is sparse or nonexistent. We have indicated this in each account.









SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION


Instances of oiling for a given species are documented to show the extent
to which a species is known to be affected by oil. We stressed records from
southeastern waters, but few data are available from this area. We report the
number killed in major oiling incidents and the proportion this represented of
the total number of all birds killed and identified to species. We may have
missed reports of oiling for some species. Much of the Old World literature
reports oiled birds only by species groups (e.g., gulls, divers, ducks). Some
information may be found in Old World regional periodicals unavailable in the
United States and not covered by computer-based literature retrieval systems.

This section refers frequently to an oil-vulnerabity index for birds in
the northeastern Pacific developed by King and Sanger (1979). That publication,
while valuable, was used with caution since it refers to a different geographic
area with a dissimilar environment and a different (but strongly overlapping)
species complex. We included some of King and Sanger's index scores in this
section, not to indicate the degree of vulnerability in the southeast (although
we often think it is similar), but rather to show the degree of vulnerability
in another part of the range. The northeastern Pacific area is important to
North American populations of a number of species of waterfowl that regularly
occur in the southeast (e.g., Redhead, Canvasback, Lesser Scaup) and that are
at risk from oil development activities in both areas.

In addition, we estimated the overall potential effect of oil pollution
and the development of oil resources on the species in the southeast, taking
into account the known or suspected vulnerability of the species, its abundance
in the southeast, and its abundance elsewhere.


SPECIES BIBLIOGRAPHY

At the end of each species account is a species bibliography that contains
references to the distribution and biology of the species. Selected references
to the species treated are also found in the species bibliography which follows
the text in each account. The species bibliography also includes many other
citations that provide additional data on the topics briefly covered in the
text, as well as on various other aspects of the biology of the species. All
citations used in the text are included in the bibliography at the end of this
report.

The species bibliographies are not exhaustive. In his account of the Can-
ada Goose, Palmer (1976a) indicated he had seen over a thousand papers dealing
with this species. To prepare complete or near-complete bibliographies for many
of the species included in this volume would entail the publication of a series
of books of many thousands of pages. The emphasis in our species bibliographies
is placed on the ecology and behavior of the species. More general works and
some distributional literature, are found in the terminal section of the Liter-
ature Cited. Although some material on taxonomy, parasitology, hybrids, identi-
fication, and disease may be included, we did not specifically search for this
material. We covered the world literature because little is known of the
biology of many of the waterfowl while they are in the coastal southeastern











United States and because most of the waterfowl breed only well north of the
area under consideration.

Our search of the literature also stressed recentness of information and
each species bibliography should be relatively complete through mid-1980. Some
important references published subsequently are included but these may not have
been used in writing the account. The variety of recent papers covered is some-
what greater than in Volume I because we attempted to provide a more complete
listing of references that have appeared subsequent to recent handbooks. We
have listed important papers dealing with the biology of the species going back
to the early part of the century, but have been more complete with papers writ-
ten in English. We include older references that are still major sources of
information on the species.

The species bibliographies are arranged from present to past with authors
listed alphabetically under each year, rather than in the more conventional al-
phabetical and chronological arrangement used in the Literature Cited. We did
so to make it easier for the reader to find the most recent information on any
topic covered by the bibliography.

We have checked all references used in the text as well as a large propor-
tion of the remaining references, but some citations from secondary sources re-
main unverified. We estimate that the three volumes in this series will contain
on the order of 10,000 references in the terminal species bibliographies, and
our temporal and fiscal limitations were too great for us to undertake complete
verification of all references included.


OIL POLLUTION AND MARINE BIRDS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES


With the possible exception of marine turtles, marine birds are the verte-
brates most severely threatened by oil pollution and the development of oil re-
sources.

The work of Old World biologists presents clear evidence of severe and sub-
stantial damage to several populations of marine birds. Specific, detailed in-
formation on the effects of oiling and oil spills on wild birds and their popu-
lations in the New World, let alone the southeastern United States, is very li-
mited. Whether any given species has ever been oiled and what effect this may
have had is unknown in many instances. Systematic gathering of data on the spe-
cies composition of large seabird kills following oil spills has been done in-
frequently in the New World and systematic surveys of beached birds have only
recently begun in the United States. Furthermore, data on oiling of marine
birds are scattered through a diverse body of literature. Many distributional
notes reporting the first occurrence or first specimen of a species from a geo-
graphic locality parenthetically note that the specimen was oiled. Other in-
formation is scattered through regional distributional works, and yet more data,
which we did not have time to explore fully, lies in the banding and recovery
files of the Bird Banding Laboratory of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

In Denmark, oil pollution kills thousands of seabirds each year. Most of








these are ducks, but many other species are also involved (Riisgard 1979). Oil
has caused major losses in populations of Common Eiders in the Danish Waddensea
(Joensen 1973), in breeding populations of Common Eiders and Black Scoters in
Holland (Swennen and Spaans 1970), and in populations of the Atlantic Puffin
(Fratercula arctica) in France (Bourne 1976). Oil is also a major cause of
death for Jackass Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in South Africa (Randall et
al. 1980).

Other losses reported include the death of an estimated 25-50% of the Com-
mon Loons wintering in Shetland, off Scotland, following the ESSO BERNICLA oil
spill on 30 December 1978 (Stowe and Morgan 1979), and the loss of all Mallards,
European Coots (Fulica atra), and Moorhens (- Common Gallinule, Gallinula chlor-
opus) following an oiling of the Amer River in the Netherlands; it was estimated
that approximately 88% of the Greylag Geese (Anser anser) and about 71% of the
Bewick's Swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) would ultimately be lost as well
(Belterman 1972). Still other examples of major or significant reductions in
avian populations due to oil pollution are given in reviews by Bourne (1968b,
1976), Croxall (1975), Vermeer and Vermeer (1975), and Food and Agricultural Or-
ganization of the United Nations (1977).


VARIABILITY IN SPECIES' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

Surveys of beached birds are biased indicators of what proportion of a pop-
ulation is affected by oiling (Bourne 1976). However, the proportions of spe-
cies found oiled gives some idea of differences in susceptibility between dif-
ferent groups of birds and also suggests the magnitude of the oil pollution
problem for a given area. Such surveys also provide data on seasonal variation
in the incidence and extent of oil pollution. Table 1 gives the percentage of
beached birds that were oiled in four different areas. Species such as loons,
grebes, auks, and seaducks are most affected, whereas more aerial species such
as gulls and terns are usually among the least affected.


REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN OILING AND MORTALITY OF BEACHED BIRDS

Although beached bird surveys in the eastern United States have been con-
ducted for only a relatively short time, the extent of oiling in birds found
dead along the southern Atlantic coast appears low compared with other areas in
the United States and elsewhere. Only 4% of 400 birds found dead along the
south Atlantic coast from January 1976 through August 1978 were oiled. In con-
trast, oiling occurred in 82% of 667 birds found along the Polish Baltic coast
from November 1974 to August 1975 (Gorski et al. 1977), in 26% of 162 found
along Irish coasts from December 1977 to March 1978 (O'Keeffe 1978), in 79% of
3,431 found on the international beached bird surveys in Northwest Europe in
January-March 1975 (Lloyd 1976), and in 18% of 2,420 found along the California
coast in 1975 (Ainley 1976).

Bird mortality per mile of beach also tends to be less in the southeastern
United States than in other areas (Table 2). Mortality figures for a heavily
polluted area, the Polish Baltic coast, (3.2 birds/km or 5.2/mi; Gorski et al.
1977) are considerably higher than for anywhere in the southeast. Other









Table 1. Number and percentage of beached birds examined and oiled (a).


South- Oregon-
Great Atlantic Coast Washington California
Kinds of Birds Britain United States Coast Coast


Total % Total % Total % Total %
found oiled found oiled found oiled found oiled

Loons (Divers) 152 94 114 4 3 33 175 10
Grebes 54 59 14 64 14 36 798 5
Albatross -- 0 -- 0 -- 8 0
Petrels (b) 337 17 0 -- 2 50 0? -
Northern Fulmar (c) -- -- 0 -- 570 28 301 4
Shearwaters -- -- 14 0 0 -- 623 22
Storm-petrels 0 -- 4 25 40 0
Gannets 182 50 6 17 -
Cormorants 218 45 6 0 0 -- 653 0.5
Brown Pelican 17 0 38 0
Wildfowl 1137 76 51 4 26 92 296 7
Phalaropes -- 0 -- 119 3
Jaegers 1 0 0 -- 8 0
Kittiwake -- 0 -- 105 21 33 24
Gulls 2448 30 131 0 16 31 1197 2
Terns 37 0 0 --
Skimmer -- 1 0 -
Auks 6171 80 0 -- 104 94 2848 19


(a) Data for Great Britain, the south Atlantic coast of the United States,
the Oregon-Washington coast, and the California coast are from Table 1
in Bourne (1976), Malcolm Simons (in litt.), Table 2 in Harrington-Tweit
(1979), and Table 3 in Ainley (1976), respectively; the periods covered
are 1968-1970, December 1977-August 1978, mid-winter 1976, and 1971-1975,
respectively. Data for the southeastern coast through 1 December 1977 are
based on surveys from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral,
Florida, thereafter south to Jensen Beach, Florida.
(b) Although Bourne (1976) did not specifically so state, his term 'petrels'
probably indicates all Procellariidae (petrels, shearwaters, fulmars,
etc.), and may have included Hydrobatidae (storm-petrels) as well. His
term 'gulls' probably indicates all Laridae (gulls and terns). For other
material summarized here, 'petrels' refers to Pterodroma, shearwaterss'
to Puffinus, 'gulls' to Larus, and 'terns' to Sterninae.
(c) Harrington-Tweit (1979) pointed out that fulmar mortality and at least
half that of Black-legged Kittiwakes was not due to oil but that most
wildfowl and alcid mortality was attributable to oil.









Table 2. Comparison of regional and seasonal variation of beached bird
mortality and incidence of oiling in the eastern United States (a).


Atlantic Coast Atlantic Coast
N of Cape Hatteras S of Cape Hatteras Florida Gulf Coast

Dead Dead Dead
birds/ % birds/ % birds/ %
Dates mile oiled mile oiled mile oiled


SPRING

Mar.-May 1979 --- 51.4 --- 20.0 --- 0.0
Mar.-May 1978 ---- 66.8 (b) 1.58 0.0 ---
Mar.-May 1977 2.50 5.5 0.95 0.0 0.75 0.0

SUMMER

Jun.-Aug. 1979 4.40 1.2 0.38 5.6 0.53 0.0
Jun.-Aug. 1978 6.37 0.0 1.00 0.0 1.50 0.0
Jun.-Aug. 1977 6.81 0.9 0.14 0.0 --

FALL

Sep.-Nov. 1979 0.98 13.4 1.43 0.0 0.59 0.0
Sep.-Nov. 1978 1.05 0.0 1.49 0.0 1.00 5.6
Sep.-Nov. 1977 0.24 0.0 0.60 0.0 1.25 0.0

WINTER

Dec.-Feb. 1978-79 2.19 2.3 1.84 1.1 1.74 0.0
Dec.-Feb. 1977-78 2.70 6.5 2.87 1.4 --- ---
Dec.-Feb. 1976-77 9.33 5.5 1.75 0.0 2.88 0.0


(a) This comparison is based on information provided by the Atlantic and
Gulf Coast Beach Bird Survey Project. These data, while useful, have
sometimes been based on surveys of so few miles of beach that the results
obtained may not be adequately comparable from region to region. Dashes
indicate that we lack data.
(b) This high figure is the result of an oil spill in the Chesapeake Bay in
February 1978.


areas in northwestern Europe vary considerably in recorded mortality during
beached bird surveys, but mortalities are usually greater than those found in
the southeastern United States. Lloyd (1976) reported a range of 0.17/km
(0.3/mi) in part of France to 4.06/km (6.5/mi) in West Germany during the win-
ter of 1975. For Great Britain, 1968-70, the average was 1.3/km (2.1/mi)
(Bourne 1976). Reported mortality along the California coast is also greater









than in the southeast; surveys there averaged 3.5 birds/mi (2.2/km) from 1971
to 1975 (Ainley 1976). The disparity in beached bird mortality rates between
California and Europe and the southeast may result partly from differences in
prevailing winds and currents. In parts of North America where prevailing winds
blow offshore, most mortality is found around enclosed inlets. On islands off-
shore in North America and in northwest Europe, where prevailing winds carry
dying birds (and oil) to shore, both chronic oil pollution and the recorded mor-
tality of marine birds is greater (Bourne 1976).


MAJOR BIRD KILLS FOLLOWING OIL SPILLS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

There are few records of large bird kills following oil spills in south-
eastern waters, and the records that do exist are usually inadequate. A typical
example occurred in late December 1968, when a barge spilled crude oil along
the coast of Wakulla County, Florida. This resulted in "many ducks snipe and
other birds so covered with oil that they were unable to fly. Smaller birds
were unable to walk in the heavy oil" (Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 1969).

We have found only a few instances of major oil spills in or near the study
area for which there is even fair information on the number and species of birds
killed. The first of these occurred in early February 1976 in the lower Chesa-
peake Bay. About 250,000 gallons (950,000 1) of No. 6 fuel oil entered the bay
following the sinking of a barge near the mouth of the Potomac River (Roland et
al. 1977). Subsequent movement of the oil resulted in the widespread contami-
nation of marshes and beaches. Roland et al. (1977) estimated that 20,000 to
50,000 birds were killed. Perry et al. (1979) made individual estimates for
each species that died during this spill as well as for five spills that occur-
red in the Delaware River and for another large spill that occurred in the Ches-
apeake Bay. They estimated that 15,715 Oldsquaw, 14,571 Horned Grebes, and
12,665 Ruddy Ducks died as a result of these seven spills. A thousand or more
each of Canvasbacks, Common Goldeneyes, and scaup were also killed, as well as
lesser numbers of 15 other species of ducks, geese, and swans. These figures
indicate that about five percent of the North American Ruddy Duck winter popu-
lation may have been lost to these spills.

The second major mortality following an oil spill in the southeast was in
Tampa Bay on the Florida Gulf in mid-February 1970 (Sims 1970). Some 80-100
tons of Bunker C oil were spilled from the Greek tanker DELIAN APPOLON when it
ran aground and ruptured its hull (Wallace 1970, Clark 1973). Winds and tides
spread the oil to cover more than 100 sq ml (259 sq km) of Tampa Bay. Sims
(1970) estimated that as many as 4,500 birds were handled at cleaning and rehab-
ilitation stations following the spill, and Clark (1973) suggested that there
may have been as many as 9,000 casualties. Sims (1970) indicated that the St.
Petersburg Audubon Society handled "some 500 Common Loon, 200 Horned Grebe, 200
Red-breasted Merganser, 2500 Lesser Scaup and 100 other species including sev-
eral cormorant, two Mallard, a White-winged Scoter, several heron, a kingfisher
and many small shore birds."









SOURCES OF VARIATION IN MORTALITY FROM OIL POLLUTION


A large number of factors are involved in determining the magnitude of det-
rimental effects of oil pollution on marine birds. Birds oiled in cold weather
and cold waters have a much higher fatality than do those in warm weather and
warm waters. Even minimal amounts of oil may lead quickly to death under the
stress of a cold environmental regime (Levy 1980), but birds in warmer areas may
survive the same degree of oiling (R. Clapp, pers. observe ; C. Harrison, pers.
comm.). Reports from Europe (Bourne and Bibby 1975, Riisgard 1979) indicate
that mortality from oiling is greater during the winter months than during the
summer.

Oil spilled in cold water remains liquid longer than in warmer water and
is likely to cause more damage as a result. It first forms a "chocolate mousse"
water-in-oil emulsion and then becomes tar-balls. Although these forms of oil
may present some hazard to birds (Bourne and Bibby 1975), the hazard of fresh
oil is apparently much greater.

Bourne (1976) summarized some of the changes in daily, annual, and life
cycles of marine birds that may increase their vulnerability to oil pollution.
Local currents and winds may bring drifting slicks into rafts of birds roosting
on the water. Bourne and Devlin (1969) suggested that most mortality from oil-
ing occurs when roosting or feeding birds are trapped by drifting slicks.

Breeding populations are particularly susceptible to oil. The loss of one
member of a pair may mean complete loss of their reproductive potential for that
year. Depending on the number of offspring usually produced, this could mean
that every breeding bird killed by oil represents a theoretical loss to the pop-
ulation of two birds or more. Although this loss may be recouped in future gen-
erations, most marine birds have relatively low productivity and their popula-
tions may take many years to recover from one severe oiling incident. Oil in
the vicinity of breeding colonies may also diminish reproductive success in
other ways, by causing a decrease in the hatching success of contaminated eggs,
and by disturbance to the colony resulting from attempts to control pollution
(Bourne 1976).

Bourne (1976) also pointed out that marine birds are particularly suscep-
tible to damage from oil when they are molting. When birds lack their usual
insulation, smaller than usual amounts of oil may lead to death from chilling,
shock, and starvation. Some waterfowl perform a molt-migration in which large
numbers gather away from the breeding ground to renew feathers prior to continu-
ing migration. Some molt in late summer, others in the spring just prior to
their migration north. Birds in such concentrations are more likely to die in
large numbers than those of normal mobility.

Few observations on the behavior of birds encountering oil have been re-
ported. Information available indicates that differences in behavior between
species may increase or decrease their vulnerability. According to the Inter-
national Council for Bird Protection (1960), Long-tailed Ducks (Oldsquaw) will
choose t6 land on oil slicks. If true, this may account for some of the very
high oil-related mortalities that have been reported for this diving duck.
On the other hand, Guillemots (Common Murres) dive to escape floating oil but








suffer the risk of emerging into it and thus becoming severely contaminated
(Bourne 1968b). Other species may actively avoid oil; Hainard (1959) reported
that some diving ducks (Tufted Duck [Aythya fuligula] and Pochard [A. ferina])
avoid patches of oil floating down a river. Other, more aerial species such as
gulls (Bourne 1968b) and Manx Shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus)(Casement 1966)
may also actively avoid at least the thicker, more noticeable oil slicks. Some
of these birds evidently avoid oil when swimming as well; a Herring Gull (Larus
argentatus) and a Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) that swam into a
patch of floating oil immediately took flight (Bourne 1968b, Bourne and Devlin
1969).

The number of birds that die following an oil spill is also related to the
type of petroleum that was spilled and how long it has been in the environment.
Crude oil is less toxic than refined oils (diesel oil, No. 2 fuel oil, Bunker
"C")(Hay 1979), and fresh oil causes more damage than older, more weathered oils
(Bourne and Bibby 1975). Some oils may be innocuous enough that oiled birds are
not killed and are even capable of cleaning their plumage (Birkhead et al. 1973,
Phillips 1974).

The number of deaths from oiling following a spill is not necessarily re-
lated to the amount of oil spilled; large spills may result in relatively few
deaths, while smaller spills may cause large losses, particularly when substan-
tial numbers of birds are concentrated in small areas (Croxall 1975, Salomonsen
1979). In addition, large catastrophic oil spills may cause no greater loss of
marine birds than does chronic oil pollution of the environment (Nelson-Smith
1973, Croxall 1975, Holmes and Cronshaw 1977).


EFFECTS OF OIL ON CONTAMINATED BIRDS AND THEIR EGGS

The primary effect of oil on birds is to cause a loss of buoyancy and insu-
lation when the feathers become matted (Szaro 1977). This increases the meta-
bolic demand to maintain body heat and in cold weather quickly results in chil-
ling. The increased physical effort to remain afloat also increases the demand
on the body's resources, and death from exhaustion and exposure may ensue (Bourne
1976). McEwan and Koelink (1973) reported that heat loss of experimentally
oiled Mallards and scaup was 1.7 and 2 times greater, respectively, than normal.

Ingestion of oil as the contaminated bird tries to preen its feathers will
usually cause further harm. A pioneer study by Hartung and Hunt (1966) showed
that ingestion of oil by Mallards and Black Ducks could be followed by nervous
disorders, enlargement of the adrenal cortex, lipid pneumonia, diarrhea, and
gastrointestinal irritation. A considerable number of experimental studies con-
ducted on marine birds in the United States were reviewed recently at length by
Albers (1977), Holmes and Cronshaw (1977), Szaro (1977), Eastin and Hoffman
(1978), Ohlendorf et al. (1978), and Stickel and Dieter (1979). Some of the
findings that involve both primary and secondary effects of oiling are briefly
summarized as follows:

(1) Physiological effects that result from ingestion of oil include dehy-
dration, enteritis, fatty changes in the liver, renal tubular nephro-
sis, and reduction in the rates of sodium and water transfer across









intestinal mucosa (various authors in Ohlendorf et al. 1978);


(2) A low mortality (under unstressed conditions) was found in adult Mal-
lards fed small amounts of oil; ducklings were more adversely affected
(Stickel and Dieter 1979);

(3) Mallard hens laid half as many eggs as usual when fed diets containing
2.5% South Louisiana crude oil (Eastin and Hoffman 1978, Stickel and
Dieter 1979);

(4) Ducklings fed 5% South Louisiana crude oil grew more poorly than con-
trols, did not develop normal flight feathers, and exhibited liver hy-
pertrophy and splenic atrophy (Eastin and Hoffman 1978).

Oil, even in miniscule amounts, will severely reduce the hatching success
of duck, heron, gull, and tern eggs (Eastin and Hoffman 1978, Stickel and Dieter
1979). As little as 5 microliters of oil reduced hatching of Mallard eggs, by
26% (for Prudhoe Bay crude oil) to 90% (for South Louisiana crude oil; Stickel
and Dieter 1979). Toxicity of these and other oils is greater for newer eggs
than for those further along in incubation, and older, weathered oils are less
toxic than fresh ones. Experimental oiling of the plumage of incubating gulls
causes significant egg mortality when the oiled feathers come in contact with
the eggs. Oiling of eggs also results in a significant number of deformed
chicks: deformed bills, incompletely ossified wing or foot bones, abnormally
small liver lobes, and stunting were the most common abnormalities found in
these experimental studies (Stickel and Dieter 1979).


POTENTIAL HAZARDS TO MARINE BIRDS FROM OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION

About two-thirds of the oil in coastal waters is derived from runoff and
effluent from terrestrial sources. Tanker operations account for about 26 times
as much oil in marine waters of the United States as do offshore operations
(Ohlendorf et al. 1978), but may account for a disproportionately large share
of avian mortality to oil. Ohlendorf et al. (1978) suggested that, for the
marine environment, it may be safer to produce oil offshore than to import it.
It seems likely, however, that onshore habitat change and loss resulting from
the development of facilities related to offshore oil production will, in the
long run, have a more adverse effect on the waterbirds of the southeastern
United States than will oil production itself.

Longley and Jackson (1980) reviewed this problem for brackish marsh areas.
They summarized activities related to oil production and their effects on the
environment and suggested ameliorative measures that may be taken. Effects in-
clude direct loss of vegetation and animals (e.g., by dredging, construction of
pipelines and roads); addition of dissolved, particulate, and toxic materials
to the environment; and changes in water flows. The authors considered changes
in water flow the most damaging hazard, one that may result in complete conver-
sion of a marsh ecosystem. Such an event could be accompanied by a reduction
or elimination of the populations of marine birds that use the habitat for nest-
ing or feeding.









Similar effects are likely when offshore barrier islands are affected by
development of oil and gas resources. Changes in water flow due to dredging
could easily change tidal and current patterns, resulting in the elimination of
islands used for nesting. Terrestrial access to larger islands may result in
the introduction of predators (e.g., foxes, raccoons) that could eliminate an
entire bird colony in the space of a season or two. Disturbance engendered by
construction might result in the mass desertion of a traditional breeding area
by some species.

Several recent reports reviewed aspects of human activities that are rele-
vant to development of onshore oil facilities. These reports include Mulvihill
et al.'s (1980) detailed review of the effects of shoreline structures on the
coastal environment, Morton's (1976) review of the ecological effects of dred-
ging, and Buckley and Buckley's (1976, 1977) reviews of the effects of human
disturbance on colonially nesting birds.

Burning of natural gas at elevated flares during oil production is another
potential hazard because birds migrating at night sometimes fly into such
lights. Considerable numbers have been killed at TV towers, lighthouses, and
airport ceilometers (Howe et al. 1978), and it might be expected that the ele-
vated flares would attract and incinerate passing birds. Bourne (1979) reported
that there have been only about "half-a-dozen second hand" reports of death from
this cause during the first 10 years of development in the North Sea, an area
where foggy weather conditions should maximize the phenomenon. After commenting
on several specific instances of relatively severe loss, including one in which
"several hundred storm-petrels" purportedly died, Bourne concluded that "the
losses are only an insignificant proportion of the millions of birds passing
through the area...".


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH


CHOICE OF SPECIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

Unlike most of the birds covered in Volumes I and III of this report, the
family Anatidae is among the best known groups of birds. Palmer (1976a) pointed
out that "At least in the Northern Hemisphere, they are also the most adminis-
tered, in numerous ways are economically the most important, and continue to be
the most studied. The upshot is that, even with present data retrieval methods,
nobody, nor any agency, has convenient access to extant information." We agree
thoroughly with Palmer's remarks. Our study revealed that there are many
sources of information that our resources simply could not tap. The body of
unpublished information is staggering in its extent and consists of theses, raw
data, informal in-house and preliminary reports, and "gray literature", reports
produced by governmental agencies that usually receive a limited distribution
and that consequently are often unknown to the academic community.

We examined a goodly amount of such material during the course of this
study, but are aware that immense amounts remained unseen. The quality of the
material varies drastically; some reports are of exceptionally poor academic
quality, but others need little work for submission to an academic journal.









Some that are well done give little new information on a species. However,
even in reports of lesser quality there may be bits of information of substan-
tial value. As Palmer (1976a) stated, "One needs to be cognizant of the fugi-
tive stuff because some of it is valuable."

Studies of the Anatidae have characteristically centered about the most
hunted species, which are generally regarded as those of greatest economic
worth. The Mallard--"the duck", hunted and killed in large numbers, in its
domesticated form a major source of food, and widely used as an experimental
animal in studies of physiology, toxicology, and other laboratory disciplines--
is, with the possible exception of the chicken, probably the best studied spe-
cies of bird. Other extensively hunted species like the Wood Duck and Canada
Goose are also well studied. We think that for these waterfowl, as well as
others that are widely hunted, searches for unpublished information on a partic-
ular taxon or geographic area may have real value. For other groups and species
of marine birds, knowledge of which is based on only a relatively small and
manageable literature, funds might be more wisely applied to field research and
survey.

Although much is known about many of the species covered in this report,
and although research is presently being conducted on many of them, there are
a number of species of Anatidae about which we know very little. Bellrose
(1976) stated that "In some species of waterfowl our lack of the simplest life
history knowledge is scandalous. For example, much of the meager nesting infor-
mation on the black and surf scoters dates back to the turn of the century."
Bellrose (1976) considered that the latter species had the "dubious distinction
of being the least studied" of North American ducks. The very short species
bibliographies that we were able to assemble for these scoters attest to the
continuing relevance of Bellrose's remarks. Indeed, because we gave equal em-
phasis to each species during the course of compiling the bibliographies, we
suspect that the relative length of the bibliographies is it itself a good guide
to which species need further research. The ten species with the shortest bib-
liographies are American Wigeon, Mottled Duck, Cinnamon Teal, Greater Scaup,
King Eider, Harlequin Duck, Surf Scoter, Bufflehead, Hooded Merganser, and
Masked Duck. However, Erskine (1972) provided a comprehensive review of what
is known of the Bufflehead, and reports dealing with diverse species of ducks
make the American Wigeon and Hooded Merganser better known than our crude as-
sessment might suggest. Most of the other seven ducks are genuinely poorly
known for many aspects of their breeding biology and distribution.

Much work has already been accomplished by the Fish and Wildlife Service
in validating aerial surveys of wintering and breeding populations (reviews in
Johnsgard 1975 and Bellrose 1976). Some species or species groups are much
more visible from the air than others. Perhaps as many as 9 in 10 Green-winged
Teal are not seen from the air during surveys of the breeding grounds but per-
haps as many as 3 out of 4 scoters are seen. The breeding ground surveys, while
valuable, do not cover much of eastern Canada or the northeastern United States.
Consequently, the size of the breeding population for species known to breed or
believed to breed largely within this area or that have large breeding popula-
tions in this area are inadequately known. Species or forms in this report that
are in this category include the Atlantic populations of the Snow Goose and
Brant, Wood Ducks, Black Ducks, Common Eiders, Harlequin Ducks, Oldsquaw, Surf









Scotors, and Hooded Mergansers. Common Goldeneyes, Buffleheads, Red-breasted
and Common Mergansers are species with wide-ranging northern distributions,
whose total populations in North America are poorly known because relatively
little is known of breeding populations in the eastern United States and Canada.

Surveys of wintering waterfowl in the continental United States miss birds
with the result that numbers seen are "considerably below the level of the ac-
tual population of a given duck species" (Bellrose 1976). The difficulty in
making adequate field identifications of some species has doubtless contributed
to our lack of knowledge. The three species of scoters, the two scaup, the Com-
mon and Red-breasted mergansers, the two goldeneyes, and the Common and King
eiders are not distinguished from one another on the aerial surveys of the win-
tering and the breeding grounds by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Since the
scoters and the other species pairs are also difficult to distinguish on the
ground, at least for some age and sex groups, information fr6m bird-watchers is
also of limited value. These species are all moderately to highly susceptible
to oil pollution.

We suggest that ground surveys be undertaken in various wintering areas
along the southeastern coast. Such surveys should provide more information on
the proportion of birds missed on aerial surveys. During such ground surveys
more attention should be paid to determining the proportion of which species of
"scaup", merganserr", "goldeneye" is present in any given area. These propor-
tions, if taken over a wide enough area, and over diverse enough habitats,
should allow one to better estimate the size of the populations of diving and
seaducks wintering in the southeast.

The economic value of the populations of wintering waterbirds often influ-
ences which species of waterfowl are most extensively researched. Johnsgard
(1975) estimated recreational values of waterfowl, basing these estimates on an
analysis of Christmas Counts from 1954-1962. He concluded that the "five most
important waterfowl in terms of recreational value to bird watchers are the mal-
lard, pintail, Canada Goose, American wigeon, and black duck". These species
are those found in the greatest numbers and are among those most important to
hunters. We disagree, however, that these birds are those most important to
bird-watchers, because bird-watchers are usually more interested in those spe-
cies seen least often. Utilizing Johnsgard's rarity index, the ten waterfowl
most important to bird-watchers would be the Masked Duck, Emperor Goose (Chen
canagica), Steller's Eider (Polysticta stelleri), Eurasian Green-winged Teal
(Anas c. crecca), Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccin-
ator), Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Ross' Goose, King Eider, and European (Eurasian)
Wigeon. West (1979) recently completed a poll of bird-watchers to determine
which species they would most like to see. Among ducks, geese, and swans, the
ten that instilled the most interest were the Masked Duck, Spectacled Eider
(Somateria spectabilis), King Eider, Harlequin Duck, Trumpeter Swan, Emperor
Goose, Ross' Goose, Steller's Eider, Smew (Mergus albellus), and Barnacle Goose.
The relatively close correspondence between West's list and Johnsgard's rarity
index suggests that Johnsgard's estimate of the recreational values of various
species of waterfowl may be distorted. It would appear that some of the rare
species of waterfowl in the southeast are both among those least studied (e.g.,
Masked Duck, King Eider, Harlequin Duck) and those of most interest to bird-
watchers.









Large numbers of waterfowl found in the southeast also winter in areas
south of the U.S. border. Johnsgard (1975) pointed out that more than half of
the total wintering populations of Northern Shovelers and Blue-winged and Cin-
namon Teals winter in Mexican waters and indicated that important concentra-
tions of the Brant, White-fronted Goose, Redhead, and Ruddy Duck were also found
there. Winter surveys of wintering waterfowl south of the United States are
often very incomplete and in some wintering grounds "have been surveyed either
not at all or only once in a 25-year period." As stated previously (Clapp et
al. 1982), international boundaries are biologically imaginary lines that tend
to distort our knowledge of the distribution of birds. This is particularly
true for the species covered in Volumes I and III of this report, but also ap-
plies to many of the anatids covered in this report. Consequently, we feel
that more effort should be expended in determining the status of waterfowl in
Mexico and countries to the south so that managers may better evaluate the sig-
nificance of events that occur while the waterfowl are off our shores. Cooper-
ative international surveys of waterfowl wintering south of the United States
could be combined with those documenting the status of other marine birds occur-
ring in the area. Such surveys would supply a much better understanding of the
overall status of the species involved and would permit far better insight into
the consequences of local managerial decisions on a species throughout its range.
Previous efforts along these lines, particularly with respect to Canada and
waterfowl, have been highly effective in producing the information needed to
manage anatid populations. Similar efforts with regard to other areas might
also prove fruitful.


RESEARCH NEEDED ON EFFECTS OF OIL ON SOUTHEASTERN MARINE BIRDS

It is our firm opinion that attempted rehabilitation of oiled birds follow-
ing a major pollution incident is largely a waste of time, money, and other re-
sources. As Stanton (1977) of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center put it, "The
time has come for the public to realize that cleaning, rehabilitating, and re-
turning oil-covered birds to the wild is often not the wisest investment of
their tax dollar." The group working on ecological research on seabirds in
Europe is evidently of the same opinion, stating that "since the results of at-
tempts to rehabilitate oiled birds are so poor, it may be more profitable to
expend efforts at preventing birds from becoming polluted" (National Environ-
mental Research Council 1977).

On the other hand, we consider it desirable to salvage these birds to find
out precisely what birds were oiled and to obtain information that will allow
for more prudent responses to future spills. Although there have been many
major efforts to "save" oiled birds, these resulted in little information that
would aid in planning responses to subsequent incidents. However, there have
been exceedingly few instances in which any systematic attempt has been made to
determine the full effects of a spill on local populations of marine birds. As
Nelson (1977) stated, "documentation of the effects of the spill is a vital
postspill responsibility"; consequently, we recommend that every attempt be made
to determine what species were affected and how many of each species died.

Obtaining this information is not easy. Even if some notion is obtained
regarding which species were oiled by a given spill, counts of dead or contam-










inated birds (or both) may not indicate how severely a species was affected.
One reason for this is that there is seldom adequate information on the number
of birds that were present in an area prior to contamination. As a result,
even a relatively accurate estimate of the number of birds killed will not re-
veal how badly local populations were damaged.

Assuming that the number of each species inhabiting an area that becomes
oiled was known, it would still be difficult to predict how many birds were or
may be affected. For example, the time of passage of an oil slick through an
area may be critical in determining the degree of contamination and mortality
experienced by each species. During the contamination of the Firth of Forth
in February 1978, the oil apparently passed at night near the main feeding area
for waterbirds; consequently, there was a proportionately greater loss of night-
feeding Greater Scaup and Pochard (Aythya ferina) than there was of Common Gold-
eneye and Common Eider, most of which had moved elsewhere to roost (Campbell et
al. 1978).

The proportion of birds found oiled or dead after a pollution incident may
vary widely between species, depending on the habitats used and the habits of
the birds. The probability of finding oiled birds that roost or loaf onshore
near feeding areas offshore is certainly much greater than it is for those that
spend all or most of their time offshore and that, following oiling, might sim-
ply sink from sight never to be seen again.

Furthermore, wind and current patterns offshore as well as movements by
the birds themselves could take most of the victims of an oil spill far from
where they were oiled long before anyone noticed their plight. Levy (1980)
analyzed the sort of oil found on dead or moribund birds in the Atlantic off
Canada and suggested that Herring and Great Black-backed gulls obtained near
Sable Island, Nova Scotia, had been contaminated by oil from the ARGO MERCHANT
spill on Nantucket Shoals, some 840 km (522 mi) away. In another instance a
badly oiled Pochard (Aythya ferina) flew 7 km (4.3 mi) inland before becoming
incapacitated (Campbell et al. 1978).

In some parts of Europe and on the west coast of the United States prevail-
ing winds bring victims of oiling to shore. On the Atlantic seaboard, winds
take oiled birds out to sea. It is impossible to make a satisfactory comparison
of the extent of damage from oil pollution incidents between these areas. Like-
wise, estimates of mortality from beached bird surveys in Europe cannot be used
to predict the incidence of mortality along the western coast of the Atlantic.
At best, they only suggest that damage to wild birds from oil on the U.S. east
coast may be underestimated.

Despite all these difficulties in obtaining unbiased data, we recommend
that a better effort be made to monitor and publish reports of the effects of
oil spills on marine birds. Much of the information needed to answer questions
relating to oil pollution and marine birds in the southeastern United States
that this report attempts to provide would have been available previously had
such efforts been made in the past.

We also recommend that more attention be paid to monitoring the long term
and background effects of oil pollution in the southeast. One of the better










and less expensive ways in which this may be accomplished would be a periodic
censusing of birds found dead along the beaches. This lends some objective
basis to speculations about the effects of oil pollution on marine birds, and
also provides information about unusual or increasing mortality from other
causes (e.g., pesticides). Over a period of time, this may serve as an early
warning indicator of where serious problems in wildlife conservation might
arise. Such surveys are being conducted presently in the eastern United States
by the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Beached Bird Survey Project, but the area cov-
ered in some regions (e.g., two miles of the Texas coast [Simons, pers. comm.])
is so small that the information obtained may have little importance.

Many of the biases previously discussed above in regard to oil spills may
also be applied to censuses of beached birds. In addition, increasing mortal-
ity from another source, such as pesticides, might result in lower mortality
from oil and obscure the true effect of the latter. Nonetheless, changes in
the number of individuals of a species found dead and in the incidence and de-
gree of oiling from year to year should provide far more needed information
than is presently available.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Many people have contributed to this report in a variety of ways. Gene W.
Blacklock allowed us to use his unpublished manuscript on the occurrence and
status of the birds of Padre and Mustang islands and Herbert W. Kale, II sup-
plied us with unpublished information on Florida birds. We are also grateful
to Malcolm M. Simons, Jr., Director of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Beached Bird
Survey Project, who supplied us with unpublished data on incidence of oiling
and mortality on birds along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

The library staff of the Smithsonian Natural History Museum was especially
helpful in obtaining copies of most of the theses and many of the papers that
comprise the files upon which this and the companion reports are based; Carolyn
S. Hahn, Amy E. Levin, and Jack F. Marquardt were especially helpful in this
regard. Agnes C. Nalley also aided us in finding and obtaining literature in
the Bird Library of the Gabrielson Laboratory of Patuxent National Wildlife Re-
search Center.

Linda A. Hollenberg helped assemble species bibliographies and the litera-
ture files and Jill Parker provided some useful and much-needed editing. Roger
A. Luchenbach prepared some early versions of the species accounts and Wayne A.
Hoffman made some comments on these. Initial versions of the maps were prepared
by Martha B. Hays and completed by the staff of National Coastal Ecosystems
Team, Slidell, Louisiana. Painstaking typing of preliminary and final draft
material was accomplished by Gwynn S. Leonard and Helen L. Harbett. The il-
lustrations interspersed in the text were prepared by Charlotte I. Adamson.
We thank all for their efforts.

Others supplied unpublished manuscripts or copies of papers, journals, or
reports that would have otherwise been very difficult to obtain and often pro-
vided insight into areas where additional information could be acquired. Yet










others read and made valuable comments on preliminary versions of the manu-
script. For these and other services, we thank W. R. P. Bourne, Danny Bystrak,
W. Frank Cobb, Jr., Jerome A. Jackson, Cherry Keller, M. Kathleen Klimkiewicz,
Mary K. LeCroy, Storrs L. Olson, Ralph S. Palmer, Allan R. Phillips, Chandler
S. Robbins, Larry R. Shanks, David M. Smith, George E. Watson, III; Donald W.
Woodard, and Richard L. Zusi.










FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK


(Dendrocygna bicolor)


[FR: Dendrocygne a bec fauve, GE: Sichelpfeifgans, SP: Pato silbon, Pichici col-
orado, Pijia, Serrano; US: Fulvous Tree Duck]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

The Fulvous Whistling-Duck is essentially a bird of pantropical distribu-
tion, occurring in a series of disjunct populations in Ceylon and India, Cen-
tral Africa and Madagascar, in northern and southern South America, and from
the southwestern United States to central Mexico. The latter population breeds
from southern California, southwestern Arizona, central Texas and the Gulf
coast of Louisiana south through Mexico to Nayarit, the Valley of Mexico, and
Veracruz, and locally in southern Florida, Cuba, and Honduras (AOU 1957, Meyer
de Schaunesee 1966, Bellrose 1976). The North American population winters in
most of its breeding range, but in recent years increasing numbers have spent
the winter in the southeastern United States from Virginia to Florida. Esti-
mates of late summer numbers of Fulvous Whistling-Ducks in southwestern Louisi-
ana and southeastern Texas indicated about 17,000 birds in 1975; some of the
recent increase in both breeding and wintering populations in the southeast may
be related to changing agricultural methods in that region (Flickinger et al.
1977).


SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

We have found no references to oiling of Fulvous Whistling-Ducks. As birds
of vegetated coastal marshes that are seldom found in open water offshore, they
are not likely to be affected except by a massive mishap.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1980

Lambeth, D. O. and G. S. Lambeth. 1980. Second record of Fulvous Whistling
Duck for North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 12: 110.

Rylander, M. K., E. G. Bolen and R. E. McCamant. 1980. Evidence of incubation
patches in Whistling Ducks. Southwest. Nat. 25: 126-128.

1979

Langley, C. H. 1979. A further breeding record for the Fulvous Whistling Duck
from the Cape Peninsula. Ostrich 50: 62.












Beaubrun, P., M. Thevenot and
cygna bicolor au Maroc.
in Morocco.] Alauda 46:


1978

R. Leveque. 1978. Le Dendrocygne fauve Dendro-
[The Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor
177-178. [In French.]


Clark, A. 1978. Some aspects of the behaviour of whistling ducks in South
Africa. Ostrich 49: 31-39.


Vielliard, J.
artique.
arctic.]


1978. Le Dendrocygne fauve Dendrocygna bicolor dans le Pale-
[The Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor in the Pale-
Alauda 46: 178-180. [In French.]


1977

Flickinger, E. L., D. S. Lobpries and H. A. Bateman. 1977. Fulvous Whistling
Duck populations in Texas and Louisiana. Wilson Bull. 89: 329-331.

1976

Clark, A. 1976. Observations on the breeding of Whistling Ducks in southern
Africa. Ostrich 47: 59-64.

Landers, J. L. and A. S. Johnson. 1976. Foods of 6 Fulvous Whistling Ducks in
coastal South Carolina. Wilson Bull. 88: 659-660.

Rice, 0. O. 1976. Fulvous Tree Duck at Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Refuge.
Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 27: 9.

1975

Flickinger, E. L. 1975. Incubation by a male Fulvous Tree Duck. Wilson Bull.
87: 106-107.

Ouellet, H. 1975. An additional record of the Fulvous Tree Duck in Quebec.
Can. Field-Nat. 89: 74.

1974

Clark, A. 1974a. Hybrid Dendrocygna viduata X Dendrocygna bicolor. Ostrich
45: 255.

1974b. The status of the Whistling Ducks in South Africa. Ostrich
45: 1-4.

Neel, L. and R. L. Crawford. 1974. Fulvous Tree Ducks in Thomas County,
Georgia and vicinity. Oriole 39: 27-28.

1973

Flickinger, E. L., K. A. King and 0. Heyland. 1973. Pen-reared Fulvous Tree
Ducks used in movement studies of wild populations. J. Wildl. Manage.
37: 171-175.









Milstein, P. le S. 1973. Maccoa Duck parasitising Fulvous Duck nest. Bok-
makiere 25: 74.

1970

Turcotte, W. H. 1970. Fulvous Tree Ducks. Miss. Ornithol. Soc. Newsl. 15: 8.

1969

Tanzer, E. C. 1969. A spring sighting of an aggregate of Fulvous Tree Ducks.
Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 3: 23.

1967

Munro, W. T. 1967. Occurrence of the Fulvous Tree Duck in Canada. Can.
Field-Nat. 81: 151-152.

Watson, G. E. 1967. Fulvous Tree Duck observed in the southern Sargasso Sea.
Auk 84: 424.

1966

Jones, H. L. 1966. The Fulvous Tree Duck in the east: its past and present
status. Chat 30: 4-7.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1966. Records of the Fulvous Tree Duck in Kansas during
1965. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 17: 9.

1965

Hanes, R. P., Jr. 1965. Fulvous Tree Ducks taken in Currituck Sound, North
Carolina. Chat 29: 23.

Weighley, I. 1965. 101 Fulvous Tree Ducks (Dendrocygna bicolor). Fla. Nat.
38: 105.

1963

Hunt, G. S. 1963. Fulvous Tree Ducks in Michigan. Wilson Bull. 75: 198.

McCartney, R. 1963a. The Fulvous Tree Duck in Louisiana. M.S. thesis, La.
St. Univ./Baton Rouge, LA. 56 pp.

1963b. The Fulvous Tree Duck in Louisiana. La. Wildl. Fish. Commiss.,
New Orleans, LA.

1962

Kale, H. W., II. 1962. More Fulvous Tree Ducks in southeast Georgia. Oriole
27: 18-19.










McKay, A. K. 1962. History of the Fulvous Tree Duck in the Cove area. Texas
Ornithol. Soc. Newsl. 11: 7-9.

Squires, W. A. 1962. Fulvous Tree Duck in New Brunswick. Can. Field-Nat.
76: 120.

1961

Craig, A. M. and J. T. Craig. 1961. Fulvous Tree Duck and Glossy Ibis in
southeast Georgia. Oriole 26: 45.

Denton, J. F. 1961. A specimen of the Fulvous Tree Duck from Augusta, Georgia.
Oriole 26: 53.

Hoover, C. M. 1961. First Maryland record of Fulvous Tree Duck. Md. Birdlife
17: 67-68.

Hoover, I. C. 1961. Fulvous Tree Duck at Ocean City, Md. Atl. Nat. 16: 253.

Sykes, P. W., Jr. 1961. The Fulvous Tree Duck invasion into southeastern
Virginia. Raven 32: 60-63.

1960

Chamberlain, B. R. 1960. Fulvous Tree Ducks at Wilmington. Chat 24: 22-23.

Grey, J. H. 1960. Fulvous Tree Ducks at Williamsburg, Virginia. Raven 31:
104-105.

Mellinger, E. 0. 1960. Fulvous Tree Ducks again on the Savannah Refuge. Chat
24: 22.


1959

Meanley, B. and A. G. Meanley. 1959. Observations on the Fulvous Tree
Louisiana. Wilson Bull. 71: 33-45.

1958

Meanley, B. and A. G. Meanley. 1958. Post-copulatory display in Fulvoi
Black-bellied tree ducks. Auk 75: 96.

1956

Meanley, B. 1956. The Fulvous Tree Duck....a product of the rice field
La. Conserv. 8: 22, 26.

1949

Robinson, F. H. 1949. Fulvous Tree-duck at Southern Pines, N.C. Chat
13: 49.


Duck in




us and


ds.










1947

Friedmann, H. 1947. Geographic variations of the Black-bellied, Fulvous, and
White-faced tree ducks. Condor 49: 189-195.

1944

Hasbrouck, E. M. 1944. Fulvous Tree-ducks in Louisiana. Auk 61: 305-306.

1943

Lynch, J. J. 1943. Fulvous Tree-duck in Louisiana. Auk 60: 100-102.

1940

Sprunt, A., Jr. 1940. Fulvous Tree-duck, an addition to the avifauna of
Florida. Auk 57: 563.

1932

Carroll, J. J. 1932. A change in distribution of the Fulvous Tree Duck
(Dendrocygna bicolor helva) in Texas. Auk 49: 343-344.

1931

Moyer, J. W. 1931. Black-bellied and Fulvous tree ducks in Illinois. Auk
48: 258.

1923

Dickey, D. R. and A. J. van Rossem. 1923. The Fulvous Tree Ducks of Buena
Vista Lake. Condor 25: 39-50.

1901

Barnhart, F. S. 1901. Evolution in the breeding habits of the Fulvous Tree
Duck. Condor 3: 67-68.

1899

Shields, A. M. 1899. Nesting of the Fulvous Tree Duck. Bull. Cooper Ornithol.
Club 1: 9-11.










BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK


(Dendrocygna autumnalis)


[FR: Dendrocygne a bec rouge, GE: Herbstpfeifgans, SP: Pato silbador pico rojo,
Pichichi comun; US: Black-bellied Tree Duck, Red-billed Whistling-Duck, Black-
bellied Wood Duck, Red-billed Tree Duck, Gray-breasted Tree Duck]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

The Black-bellied Whistling-Duck is primarily a bird of South and Central
America, reaching the northern limit of its distribution in the southern United
States. The only regular occurrence in the United States is in lower coastal
Texas, where the species is a breeding resident (AOU 1957, Bellrose 1976).
Numbers fluctuate markedly from year to year, but the recent trend has been an
increase, with an estimate for 1974 of 3,000 breeding birds (Oberholser 1974,
Bellrose 1976). Records elsewhere in the southeastern United States include
one from Georgia (Teulings 1977b), and several from Florida and Louisiana. Many
of the records from these latter two states may have been of escaped captives
or introduced birds (Kale 1974, 1978; Lowery 1974).


SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

We have no reports of oiled Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks. These are pri-
marily birds of inland waters, and even in coastal areas do not venture fre-
quently into the open ocean. Because of their habits and because only a small
proportion of the total population occurs in the southeastern states, it is un-
likely that development in that area would be of serious consequence to Black-
bellied Whistling-Ducks.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1980

Boyd, R. L., E. Schulenberg, J. Schulenberg and M. Schulenberg. 1980. Black-
bellied Whistling Duck at Quivera National Wildlife Refuge. Bull. Kansas
Ornithol. Soc. 31: 38.

Rylander, M. K., E. G. Bolen and R. E. McCamant. 1980. Evidence of incubation
patches in Whistling Ducks. Southwest. Nat. 25: 126-128.

1979

Bolen, E. G. 1979. The Black-bellied Whistling Duck in south Texas: a review.
Pp. 175-185 in D. L. Drawe (ed.) Proc. Symp. First Welder Wildlife Founda-
tion, 14 October 1978, Corpus Christi, TX.










Bolen, E. G. and E. N. Smith. 1979. Notes on the incubation behavior of
Black-bellied Whistling Ducks. Prairie Nat. 11: 119-123.

Bourne, G. R. 1979. Weights and linear measurements of Black-bellied Whis-
tling Ducks in Guyana. Pp. 186-188 in D. L. Drawe (ed.) Proc. Symp.
First Welder Wildlife Foundation, 14 October 1978, Corpus Christi, TX.

McCamant, R. E. and E. G. Bolen. 1979. A 12-year study of nest box utilization
by Black-bellied Whistling Ducks. J. Wildl. Manage. 43: 936-943.

1978

Banks, R. C. 1978. Nomenclature of the Black-bellied Whistling-Duck. Auk
95: 348-352.

1977

Barratt, B. 1977. Black-bellied Whistling Duck, a new species for Iowa. Iowa
Bird Life 47: 104-106.

Bolen, E. G. and R. E. McCamant. 1977. Mortality rates for Black-bellied
Whistling Ducks. Bird-Banding 48: 350-353.

McCamant, R. E. and E. G. Bolen. 1977. Response of incubating Black-bellied
Whistling Ducks to loss of mates. Wilson Bull. 89: 621.

1976

Bourne, G. R. 1976. Black-bellied Whistling Duck utilization of a rice cul-
ture habitat. M.S. thesis, Miami Univ./Oxford, OH. 76 pp.

Delnicki, D. and E. G. Bolen. 1976. Renesting by the Black-bellied Whistling
Duck. Auk 93: 535-542.

Delnicki, D., E. G. Bolen and C. Cottam. 1976. An unusual clutch size of the
Black-bellied Whistling Duck. Wilson Bull. 88: 347-348.

1975

Delnicki, D. and E. G. Bolen. 1975. Natural nest site availability for Black-
bellied Whistling Ducks in south Texas. Southwest. Nat. 20: 371-378.

George, R. R. and E. G. Bolen. 1975. Endoparasites of Black-bellied Whistling
Ducks in south Texas. J. Wildl. Dis. 11: 17-22.

1974

Bolen, E. G. and M. K. Rylander. 1974. Foot adaptation in four species of
Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna. Wildfowl 25: 81-83.










Bourne, G. R. 1974 ms. Whistling Duck foraging and food habits during autumn
rice crop sowing. Rept. in files of Guyana Rice Board and Ministry of Ag-
riculture, Georgetown, Guyana.

Hersloff, L., P. N. Lehner, E. G. Bolen and M. K. Rylander. 1974. Visual
sensitivity in the Black-bellied Tree Duck, a crepuscular species. J.
Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 86: 486-492.

Rylander, M. K. and E. G. Bolen. 1974a. Feeding adaptations in Whistling-
Ducks (Dendrocygna). Auk 91: 86-94.

1974b. Analysis and comparison of gaits in Whistling Ducks (Dendro-
cygna). Wilson Bull. 86: 237-245.

1973

Bolen, E. G. and M. K. Rylander. 1973. Copulatory behavior in Dendrocygna.
Southwest. Nat. 18: 348-350.

Cain, B. W. 1973. Effect of temperature on energy requirements and northward
distribution of the Black-bellied Tree Duck. Wilson Bull. 85: 308-317.

1972

Cain, B. W. 1972a. Biogenetics of Black-bellied Tree Ducks in relation to
their growth and distribution. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Ill./Urbana, IL.
64 pp.

1972b. Cold hardiness and the development of homeothermy in young
Black-bellied Tree Ducks. Wilson Bull. 84: 483-485.

1971

Bolen, E. G. 1971. Pair bond tenure in Black-bellied Tree ducks. J. Wildl.
Manage. 35: 385-388.

Johnson, A. R. and J. C. Barlow. 1971. Notes on the nesting of the Black-
bellied Tree Duck near Phoenix, Arizona. Southwest. Nat. 15: 394-395.

1970

Bolen, E. G. 1970. Sex ratios in the Black-bellied Tree Duck. J. Wildl.
Manage. 34: 68-73.

Bolen, E. G. and J. J. Beecham. 1970. Notes on the foods of juvenile Black-
bellied Tree Ducks. Wilson Bull. 82: 325-326.

Cain, B. W. 1970. Growth and plumage development of the Black-bellied Tree
Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus). Texas A&I Univ. Stud. 3: 25-48.

Rylander, M. K. and E. G. Bolen. 1970. Ecological and anatomical adaptations
of North American Tree Ducks. Auk 87: 72-90.









1968

Bolen, E. G. and B. W. Cain. 1968. Mixed Wood Duck-Tree Duck clutch in Texas.
Condor 70: 389-390.

1967

Bolen, E. G. 1967a. The ecology of the Black-bellied Tree Duck in southern
Texas. Ph.D. thesis, Utah St. Univ./Logan, UT. 138 pp.

1967b. Nesting boxes for Black-bellied Tree Ducks. J. Wildl. Manage.
31: 794-797.

Bolen, E. G. and B. J. Forsyth. 1967. Foods of the Black-bellied Tree Duck
in south Texas. Wilson Bull. 79: 43-49.

1966

McDaniel, B., D. Tuff and E. G. Bolen. 1966. External parasites of the Black-
bellied Tree Duck and other dendrocygnids. Wilson Bull. 78: 462-468.

1964

Bolen, E. G. 1964a. Tracers on tree ducks. Texas Game Fish 22: 21, 28.

_ 1964b. Weights and linear measurements of Black-bellied Tree Ducks.
Texas J. Sci. 16: 257-260.

Bolen, E. G., B. McDaniel and C. Cottam. 1964. Natural history of the Black-
bellied Tree Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) in southern Texas. Southwest.
Nat. 9: 78-88.

1962

Bolen, E. G. 1962. Nesting of Black-bellied Tree Ducks in south Texas. Aud.
Field Notes 16: 482-485.

1958

Meanley, B. and A. G. Meanley. 1958a. Nesting habitat of the Black-bellied
Tree Duck in Texas. Wilson Bull. 70: 94-95.

1958b. Post-copulatory display in Fulvous and Black-bellied tree
ducks. Auk 75: 96.

1957

Johnstone, S. 1957. On breeding whistling ducks. Avicult. Mag. 63: 23-25.










1947

Friedmann, H. 1947. Geographic variations of the Black-bellied, Fulvous, and
White-faced tree ducks. Condor 49: 189-195.


Haverschmidt, F. 1947. Field notes on the Black-bellied
Guiana. Wilson Bull. 59: 209.


Tree Duck in Dutch


1945

Vorhies, C. 1945. Black-bellied Tree Ducks in Arizona. Condor 47: 82.

1931


Moyer, J. W. 1931. Black-bellied and Fulvous tree ducks
48: 258.


in Illinois. Auk


1914

Bryant, H. 1914. Occurrence of Black-bellied Tree Ducks in California.
Condor 16: 94.

1906

Brown, H. 1906. The Water Turkey and Tree Ducks near Tucson, Arizona. Auk
23: 217-218.









MUTE SWAN


(Cygnus olor)


[DA: Knopsvane, DU: Knobbelzwaan, EN: White Swan, Polish Swan; FI: Kyhmyjoutsen,
FR: Cygne muet, GE: Hockerschwan, IC: Hnudsvanur, IT: Cigno reale, JA: Kobu
hakucho, NW: Knoppsvane, PO: Labedz niemy, PR: Cisne bravo, RU: (Hissing Swan),
SP: Cisne mudo, Cisne vulgar; SW: Knolsvan]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

The Mute Swan is a native of Eurasia. Feral populations have become es-
tablished in several areas of North America after escape from captive or semi-
captive flocks. It is most common in the northeast from New Hampshire to Ches-
apeake Bay, but is also well established in Michigan, British Columbia, and
western Washington (Bellrose 1976). There are six records of apparently wild
birds in North Carolina since 1966 (Potter 1977, Teulings 1977a) but no recent
records in South Carolina or Georgia. A seemingly wild bird was seen at Bis-
cayne Bay, Florida, in December 1973 (Stevenson 1974); swans are common in cap-
tivity in that state, and escapes are to be expected. There are records of oc-
currence and occasional nesting in Alabama (Imhof 1976b), but the birds may not
have been truly wild.

Some idea of the spread and increase in numbers of North American Mute
Swans can be obtained from the annual Audubon Christmas Counts. Between 1949
and 1969 the total number of Mute Swans counted increased from 374 to 1,644
birds (Johnsgard 1975). The 1972 Audubon Christmas Count gave a total of 2,135
Mute Swans along the Atlantic seaboard from New Hampshire to Maryland. On the
Pacific coast, 1,449 were counted, and at Traverse Bay, Michigan (the only
major concentration in the Midwest), 390 were counted (Bellrose 1976).


SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

According to Beer and Ogilvie (in Scott 1972), the Mute Swan is the only
swan which has experienced severe losses to oil pollution. They noted that
these swans were killed or contaminated by oil in at least ten British counties
over a decade; in one instance 85 of a flock of 100 died. Oiling of Mute Swans
has also been reported in Scotland (Dunnet 1974) and elsewhere in Europe; they
have also been reported dying from oil in North America (records in the Bird
Banding Laboratory, Patuxent, MD).

Because Mute Swans occur in such small numbers in the southeast, resource
development there should pose no hazard to this species.









BIBLIOGRAPHY


1981

McLeod, C. R. 1981. Mute Swan killing Bank Vole. Scott. Birds 11: 194.

1980

Bech, C. 1980. Body temperature, metabolic rate, and insulation in winter and
summer acclimatized Mute Swans (Cygnus olor). J. Comp. Physiol. B. Bio-
chem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 136: 61-66.

Bech, C. and K. Johansen. 1980. Ventilatory and circulatory responses to
hyperthermia in the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). J. Exp. Biol. 88: 195-204.

Beven, G. 1980. Coot feeding on weed disturbed by Mute Swans. Brit.-Birds
73: 219-220.

Campbell, W. D. 1980. Posture of Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 73: 218.

Cobb, J. S. and M. M. Harlin. 1980. Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) feeding and ter-
ritoriality affects diversity and density of rooted aquatic plants. (Ab-
stract only). Am. Zool. 20: 882.

Eckert, K. R. 1980. Mute Swan influx in the Duluth area. Loon 52: 116-117.

Krummholz, D. 1980. [Renewed mixed clutches of eggs of Mute Swan, Cygnus olor,
and Grey Lag Goose, Anser anser.] Beitr. Vogelkd. 26: 127. [In German.]

Reese, J. G. 1980. Demography of European Mute Swans in Chesapeake Bay. Auk
97: 449-464.

Renssen, Th. A. and R. M. Teixeira. 1980. Taxatie van het aantal knobbel-
zwanen in Nederland. [Appraisal of Mute Swan counts in the Netherlands.]
Watervogels 5: 18-24. [In Dutch with English summary.]

Ruitenbeek, W. 1980. Verschillen tussen aantallen in de zomer en in de winter
getelde knobbelzwanen (Cygnus olor) in Nederland. [Differences between
summer and winter counts of Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Netherlands.]
Watervogels 5: 25-26. [In Dutch with English summary.]

1979

Coleman, A. E. and C. D. T. Minton. 1979. Pairing and breeding of Mute Swans
in relation to natal area. Wildfowl 30: 27-30.

DeJong, R. P. and P. J. Bacon. 1979. Variation in cohesion of a brood of Mute
Swans. Wildfowl 30: 86-89.

Feiler, M. 1979. Zu einingen Problemen der Bestandsentwicklung beim Hocker-
schwan (Cygnus olor) in der DDR. [On some problems of the population de-
velopment of Mute Swans Cygnus olor in G.D.R.] Beitr. Vogelkd. 25: 27-32.
[In German.]









Kumari, E. 1979. Moult and migration of waterfowl in Estonia. Wildfowl 30:
90-98.

Lipsberg, Yu. K. 1979. [Number and distribution of the Mute Swan (Cygnus
olor).] Ornitologiya 14: 126-123. [In Russian.]

Nebrig, H. 1979. Kleine Beobachtungen am Hockerschwan, Cygnus olor. Beitr.
Vogelkd. 25: 126-127. [In German.]

Northcote, E. M. 1979. Determination of age and sex of long bones of Mute
Swan Cygnus olor. Ibis 121: 74-80.

Schmidt, R., A. Seifke and H. Porner. 1979. Mitteleuropaische Subareale des
Hockerschwans (Cygnus olor) nach Beringungsergenissen aus dem Gebiet der
DDR. [The central European distribution of the Mute Swan Cygnus olor
based on East German ringing data.] Beitr. Vogelkd. 25: 50-64. [In
German.]

Simpson, V. R., A. E. Hunt and M. C. French. 1979. Chronic lead poisoning in
a herd of Mute Swans. Environ. Pollut. 18: 187-202.

1978

Breucker, H. 1978. Macrophages, a normal component in seasonally involuting
testes of the swan Cygnus olor. Cell Tissue Res. 193: 463-471.

Elderud, C. 1978. Knolsvankull fotvander atta kilometer. [Long-distance walk
by a brood of Mute Swans Cygnus olor.] Var Fagelvarld 37: 136-137. [In
Swedish with English summary.]

MacDonald, J. W., D. Lea and G. A. Hamilton. 1978. Parasitic worms causing
deaths of Mute Swans. Brit. Birds 71: 358-359.

Plant, C. W. 1978. Differing reactions of adult Mute Swans to intruding
juvenile. Brit. Birds 71: 181.

Ranftl, H. and H. Utschick. 1978. Sestand und reproduktion des Hoeckerschwans
in Bayern. [Status and reproduction of the Mute Swan in Bavaria.] J.
Ornithol. 119: 238-239. [In German.]

Utschick, H. 1978. Der Bestandstrend des Hockerschwans (Cygnus olor) in Sud-
bayern in Abhandgigkeit van der Stichprobengrosse. [Population trend of
of the Mute Swan Cygnus olor in southern Bavaria independent of sample
size.] J. Ornithol. 119: 191-196. [In German with English summary.]

1977

Norman, D. 0. 1977. A role for plumage color in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) par-
ent-offspring interactions. Behaviour 62: 314-321.

Potter, E. F. 1977. The Mute Swan in North Carolina. Chat 41: 95-96.










1976

Jenkins, D., I. Newton and C. Brown. 1976. Structure and dynamics of a Mute
Swan population. Wildfowl 27: 77-82.


Jogi, A., J. Lipsberg and V. Nedzinskas. 1976.
bution of the East Baltic population of the
E. Kumari (ed.) Bird migration. Tallinn.
mary.]


[Numbers and seasonal distri-
Mute Swan.] Pp. 175-184 in
[In Russian with English sum-


Mathiasson, S. 1976. Some aspects on learned behaviour and tradition in the
migratory habits of Mute Swan with special reference to Swedish swan popu-
lation. Pp. 197-208 in E. Kumari (ed.) Bird migration. Tallinn.

Tenuovo, R. 1976. The Mute Swan Cygnus olor in Finland. Ornis Fenn. 53:
147-149.


Zusman, I. N., S. F. Lyashenko and V. S. Nedzinskas.
cal adaptations in early embryogenesis of Cygnus
255-266. [In Russian with English summary.]


1976. [Morpho-ecologi-
olor.] Zool. Zh. 55:


1975

Owen, M. and C. J. Cadbury. 1975. The ecology and mortality of swans at the
Ouse Washes, England. Wildfowl 26: 31-42.

Reese, J. G. 1975. Productivity and management of feral Mute Swans in Chesa-
peake Bay. J. Wildl. Manage. 39: 280-286.

1974


Jensen, H.
vorce
160.


1974. Mageskift og bigami hos Knopsvane (Cygnus olor Gm.). [Di-
and bigamy in the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor Gm.).] Dan. Fugle 8: 149-
[In Danish with English summary.]


Lund, H. M.-K. 1974. Tidlig eggleggende Knoppsvane i Ostfold. [Early egg
laying in the Mute Swan.] Fauna 27: 234. [In Norwegian with English
summary.]

1973

Forster, R. and G. Wagner. 1973. Der Hockerschwan Cygnus olor in der Nord-
ostschweiz. Ornithol. Beob. 70: 67-80. [In German with French summary.]

Mathiasson, S. 1973a. A moulting population of non-breeding Mute Swans with
special reference to flight feather moult, feeding ecology and habitat
selection. Wildfowl 24: 43-53.

S_ 1973b. Moulting grounds of Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in Sweden, their
origin and relation to the population dynamics of Mute Swans in the Baltic
area. Viltrevy 8: 399-452.









Nedzinskas, V. 1973. [A contribution to the ecology of the Lithuanian popula-
tion of Cygnus olor.] Zool. Zh. 52: 1360-1366. [In Russian with English
summary.]

Nilsson, L. 1973. [The breeding population of the Mute Swan Cygnus olor in
the provinces of Scania and Blekinge, south Sweden in 1972.] Var Fagel-
varld 32: 115-119. [In Swedish with English summary.]

Reichholf, J. 1973. Die Bestandsenwicklung des Hockerschwans Cygnus olor und
seine Einordnung in das Okosystem der Innstauseen. Anz. Ornithol. Ges.
Bayern 12: 15-46. [In German with English summary.]

Trapp, J. L. 1973. Mute Swans entangled in fishing line. Jack-Pine Warbler
51: 91-92.

1972

Arnold, E. 1972. Mute Swan feeding in field. Atl. Nat. 27: 128.

Bloch, D. and L. Kraul. 1972. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
and organochlorine insecticides in eggs from Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) and
Pochard (Aythya ferina). Acta Vet. Scand. 13: 588-590.

Cramp, S. 1972. One hundred and fifty years of Mute Swans on the Thames.
Wildfowl 23: 119-124.

Reynolds, C. M. 1972. Mute Swan weights in relation to breeding performance.
Wildfowl 23: 111-118.

Willey, C. H. and B. F. Halla. 1972. Mute Swans of Rhode Island. Rhode Is-
land Dept. Nat. Resource. Wildl. Pamphl. No. 8. 47 pp.

Wood, R. and W. L. Gelston. 1972. Preliminary report: the Mute Swans of Mich-
igan's Grand Traverse Bay region. Mich. Dept. Nat. Resourc. Rept. No.
2683. 6 pp.

1971

Minton, C. D. T. 1971. Mute Swan flocks. Wildfowl 22: 71-88.

1970

Bloch, D. 1970. Knopsvanen (Cygnus olor) som kolonifugl i Danmark. [The Mute
Swan Cygnus olor breeding in colony in Denmark.] Dan. Ornithol. Foren.
Tidsskr. 64: 152-161. [In Danish with English summary.]

Brooke, M. de L. 1970. Some aspects of Mute Swan movement and mortality.
Cambridge Bird Club Rept. 44: 44-47.

Gelston, W. L. 1970 ms. A preliminary report on the Traverse City Mute Swan
flock. Mich. Dept. Nat. Resourc., Lansing, MI. (Mimeo).









Hald-Mortensen, P. 1970. Knopsvanen. [Mute Swans.] Feltornithologen 12:
73-76. [In Danish.]

1969

Chang, P. W., M. C. Perry and V. Jasty. 1969. Fibroma in a Mute Swan. J. Am.
Vet. Med. Assoc. 155: 1039.

Kraus, M. and A. Gauckler. 1969. Zur Ausbreitung des Hockerschwans (Cygnus
olor) in Nordbayern. [The breeding population of Mute Swans in northern
Bavaria.] Anz. Ornithol. Ges. Bayern 8: 452-462. [In German with English
summary.]

Perrins, C. M. 1969. Mute Swan's method of disposing of broken egg. Brit.
Birds 62: 383.

Reese, J. G. 1969. Mute Swans breeding in Talbot County, Maryland. Md. Bird-
life 25: 14-16.

Yates, V. J., L. T. Miller, V. Jasty, C. H. Willey and M. Holtzinger. 1969.
Web necrosis in Mute Swans---a report of an outbreak. Bull. Wildl. Dis.
Assoc. 5: 33-34.

1968

Berndt, R. 1968. Der Hockerschwan (Cygnus olor) als Geleplundermr und Jung-
vogelrauber. Intern. Rat Vogelschutz Sektion 8: 51-52. [In German.]

Jogi, A. 1968. [The present distribution of the Mute Swan in the Estonian
S.S.R.] Communs. Baltic Commiss. Study Bird Migr. 5: 74-79. [In Russian
with English summary.]

Minton, C. D. T. 1968. Pairing and breeding of Mute Swans. Wildfowl 19: 41-60.

Munro, R. E., L. T. Smith and J. J. Kupa. 1968. The genetic basis of color
differences observed in the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). Auk 85: 504-505.

Willey, C. H. 1968a. The ecology, distribution and abundance of the Mute Swan
(Cygnus olor) in Rhode Island. M.S. thesis, Univ. Rhode Island/Kingston,
RI. 93 pp.

1968b. The ecological significance of the Mute Swan in Rhode Island.
Proc. N.E. Fish & Wildl. Conf. 23 pp.

1967

Harrison, J. G. and M. A. Ogilvie. 1967. Immigrant Mute Swans in south-east
England. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept. 18: 85-87.

Jensen, F. 1967. Knopsvanen (Cygnus olor) som ynglefugl ved Bognaes. [The
Mute Swan Cygnus olor breeding at Bognaes.] Dan. Ornithol. Foren.
Tidsskr. 61: 143-150. [In Danish with English summary.]









Ogilvie, M. A. 1967. Population changes and mortality of the Mute Swan in
Britain. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept. 18: 64-73.

Perrins, C. M. and C. M. Reynolds. 1967. A preliminary study of the Mute
Swan Cygnus olor. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept. 18: 74-84.

1966

Eltringham, S. K. 1966. The survival of Mute Swan cygnets. Bird Study 13:
204-207.

Halla, B. F. 1966. The Mute Swan in Rhode Island. Proc. N.E. Wildl. Conf.,
Boston, MA. 15 pp.

Pantfil, J. 1966. Labedz niemy w wojewodztwie olstynskim. [The Mute Swan in
the Olsztyn Voivodship.] Chronm. Przyr. Ojczysta 22: 66-75, 119. [In
Polish with English summary.]

Peck, G. K. 1966. First published breeding record of Mute Swan for Ontario.
Ont. Field Biol. 20: 43.

1965

Boase, H. 1965. Movements of the Mute Swan in East Scotland. Scott. Birds
3: 301-310.

Mathiasson, S. 1965. Preliminar rapport over ringmarkningsstudier av ruggande
knopsvanar, Cygnus olor, i Sverige. Goteborg Nat. Hist. Mus. Yrbk. 1965:
24-29. [In Swedish with English summary.]

Reynolds, C. M. 1965. The survival of Mute Swan cygnets. Bird Study 12:
128-129.

1963

Berglund, B. E., K. Curry-Lindahl, H. Luther, V. Ollson, W. Rodhe and G. Seller-
berg. 1963. Ecological studies on the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) in south-
eastern Sweden. Acta Vert. 2: 161-288.

Eltringham, S. K. 1963. The British population of the Mute Swan in 1961.
Bird Study 10: 10-28.

Ollson, V. 1963. Ecological studies on the Mute Swan. VIII. Nutritional
biology of the Mute Swan in Valdemarsuiken in Smaland and Ostergotland.
Acta Vert. 2: 256-264.

1962

King, B. 1962. Raw meat as a food for Mute Swans. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept.
13: 171.










1960

Bruun, B. 1960. De yngleende Knopenvaners (Cygnus olor Gm.) fordeling mellum
Kysten og inlandet i Danmark 1935-1959. [Distribution of the Mute Swan
(Cygnus olor (Gm.)) along the coast and in the interior of Denmark 1935-
1959.] Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 54: 77-84. [In Danish with English
summary.]

Campbell, B. 1960. The Mute Swan census in England and Wales 1955-56. Bird
Study 7: 208-223.

Sokolowski, J. 1960. The Mute Swan in Poland. State Council Conservation
Nature (Warsaw) 1: 1-28.

1959

Boase, H. 1959. Notes on the display, nesting and moult of the Mute Swan.
Brit. Birds 52: 114-123.

1957

Ticehurst, N. F. 1957. The Mute Swan in England. Cleaver-Hume Press, London.
xiv and 133 pp.

Zajac, R. 1957. Z baden nad labedziem niemym (Cygnus olor Gmel.) w wojewod-
ztwie szczecinskim. [Investigations on the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor Gmel.)
in the Szczecin Voivodship.] Przyr. Pol. Zach. 1: 139-146. [In Polish
with English summary.]

1956

Gillham, M. E. 1956. Feeding habits and seasonal movements of Mute Swans on
two South Devon estuaries. Bird Study 3: 205-212.

Lawrence, L. de K. 1956. The following reaction in a brood of Mute Swans.
Auk 73: 268.

1954

Staebler, A. E. 1954. Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) observed diving. Auk 71: 90.

1951

Harle, D. F. 1951. Mute Swans feeding on standing oats. Brit. Birds 44:
287-288.

1950

Ellis, J. C. S. 1950. Aggressive behaviour of a Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 43:
125-126.









Jones, N. G. B. and R. A. F. Gillmor. 1950. Greeting ceremony of Mute Swan.
Brit. Birds 42: 303.

Marshall, R. V. A. 1950. Large brood of Mute Swans. Brit. Birds 42: 19.

Murphy, J. H. 1950. Bathing behaviour of Mute Swans. Brit. Birds 42: 303.

1949

Tebbutt, C. F. 1949. Mute Swan's method of breaking ice. Brit. Birds 42: 249.

1948

Hulme, D. C. 1948. Mute Swan eating dead fish. Brit. Birds 41: 121.

Rayner, M. 1948. Relief display of Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 41: 389.

1947

Huxley, J. S. 1947. Display of the Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 40: 130-134.

May, D. J. 1947. Notes on the winter territory of a pair of Mute Swans.
Brit. Birds 40: 326-327.

1946

Thom, A. S. 1946. Coition of Mute Swan on land. Brit. Birds 39: 182.

1944

Bourdillion, B. H. 1944. The coloration of Mute Swans. Ibis 86: 412.

Irwin, M. J. W. 1944. Early nesting of the Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 38: 349-351.

1936

Dewar, J. M. 1936. Menage a trois in a Mute Swan. Brit. Birds 30: 178-179.

1935

Howard, W. J. H. 1935. Notes on the nesting of captive Mute Swans. Wilson
Bull. 47: 237-238.

Patrick, R. W. 1935. Mute Swans attacking bullock. Brit. Birds 29: 116.

1931

Watson, J. B. 1931. Mute Swans eating fish. Brit. Birds 24: 367-368.

1922

Crosby, M. S. 1922. Mute Swans on the Hudson. Auk 39: 100.

46









WHISTLING SWAN


(Olor columbianus)


[DA: Pibesvane, FR: Cygne siffleur, GE: Pfeifschwan, IT: Cigno minore, PO:
Labedz czarnodzioby, SP: Cisne silbador, Cisne chiflador, Ansar careto grande]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

North America Whistling Swans breed coastally in Alaska and eastward
across northern Canada east to southwestern Baffin Island, islands in north-
ern Hudson Bay, and the northeast coast of Hudson Bay. In the west they breed
south as far as Kodiak Island off Alaska and in the east breed south as far as
Belcher Island in southeastern Hudson Bay (Delacour 1954, AOU 1957, Heyland et
al. 1970, Palmer 1976a). They winter chiefly along the Pacific coast from Brit-
ish Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, and occasionally in the Aleutian Islands,
Alaska, south to California, and they occasionally reach northern Baja Califor-
nia. Along the Atlantic seaboard (Map 1), they winter principally from Mary-
land (Chesapeake Bay) south to North Carolina (Currituck Sound), and occur
rarely north to the Maritimes, Maine, and Long Island, and south to Florida and
the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisiana. In migration they occur on large bodies
of water throughout the interior states, including the Great Basin (AOU 1957,
Palmer 1976a).

World Distribution Whistling Swans breed entirely within Arctic tundra
habitats of North America, although Kistchinski et al. (1975) reported breeding
in Siberia. They have been reported from Anadyrland in western U.S.S.R. (Por-
tenko 1939 in Palmer 1976a) and questionably from Scotland (AOU 1957). Winter
stragglers have been reported from Mexico, Bermuda, Cuba, and Puerto Rico (AOU
1957, Palmer 1976a), Japan, and possibly England (Evans and Sladen 1980).


DISTRIBUTION IN THE COASTAL SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

In winter, Whistling Swans are very common on the northern edge of our
area, and are uncommon to casual throughout the rest of the southeast (Map 1).
Numbers and the wintering range may be increasing.



Taxonomic note: The Whistling Swan is the North American member of a Holarctic,
tundra-breeding superspecies of swans which includes the Palearctic Bewick's
Swan, Olor bewickii. Palmer (1976a) and Cramp et al. (1977) took the view that
these forms are conspecific. They also followed Delacour (1954) and Johnsgard
(1975, 1978) in merging the genus Olor into Cygnus. We follow the AOU (1957) in
retaining Olor and treating the Whistling Swan as a distinct North American spe-
cies, although merging the two forms as a single species, the Tundra Swan, will
probably be more generally accepted in the future. We have included a number
of recent titles regarding the Palearctic swans in the bibliography since the
data obtained on these birds may well be relevant to the North American swan.














Winter Distribution Map for
Southeastern United States


BIRDS PER





(Adapted
( t I


10 PARTY-HOURS
Less than one
1-5
5-20
More than 20
from Bystrak, 1974)


INDIVIDUALS OBSERVED DURING
CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977
(ARITHMETIC MEAN)

SNumber of individuals
O Less than one individual
SNone observed


Map 1









North Carolina Whistling Swans are abundant winter residents of extreme
northeastern North Carolina. They may arrive as early as early October, and an
occasional bird will linger until May. The principal wintering areas are Lake
Mattamuskeet, Hyde County, and Pea Island, Dare County. The population winter-
ing at Lake Mattamuskeet increased from 10,500 in 1970-71 (Teulings 1971a) to
over 25,000 in 1976-77 (Teulings 1977a). We do not know how much of this in-
crease represented true population growth and how much was due to displacement
of birds that previously wintered in Chesapeake Bay. Bellrose (1976) reported
that an average of 14,000 wintered from Back Bay, Virginia, to Lake Mattamuskeet
and Pamlico Sound in North Carolina. The winter survey of 1975 (Goldsberry et
al. 1980) reported a wintering population of 26,900 in North Carolina; this re-
presents about 22% of the total (ca. 120,900) recorded on the survey of North
American waterfowl. Elsewhere in North Carolina, Whistling Swans are regular
in small numbers along the coast and rare inland, although inland records are
increasing.

South Carolina Sprunt and Chamberlain (1949) called Whistling Swans rare
winter residents that occur generally along the coast; they listed dates of oc-
currence from 22 October to 2 April. Burton (1970) added five records from the
1960's. In 1971-72, several hundred moved south from North Carolina for the
winter (Teulings 1972b) and since then these swans have been seen regularly in
small but increasing numbers.

Cely (1979) made aerial surveys of wintering populations in South Carolina
during 1976-77 and 1977-78 and found about 100 birds each winter. Maximum con-
centrations found were at Huntington Beach State Park (15 birds), South Island
Refuge, Georgetown County (28), Bull's Island (30), and Savannah NWR (25). Cely
noted that these swans also concentrate at Doe Hall Plantation, Charleston
County. As many as 30 swans have been reported there. He also suggested that
the wintering population in South Carolina might be as high as 120 birds if
those overlooked during the survey and those from inland localities were in-
cluded. We list below coastal records since 1970 from American Birds.

1971 2 Jan. individuals Charleston Teulings 1971b
seen

1971 9 Jan. 2 seen Trenton Teulings 1971b

1971- winter "many more Charleston Teulings 1972b
72 than usual"

1971- winter "up to 75 Doe Hall Plantation, Teulings 1972b
72 present" McClellanville

1973 6-9 Nov. 1 found Par Pond, Savannah Riv- Teulings 1974a
er Atomic Reserv., near
Aiken (inland)

1977 21 Jan. individual Huntington Beach St. LeGrand 1977a
seen Park


49










1977 15-19 Feb.


individuals
seen


LeGrand 1977a


1978 12 Feb.


15 seen


Savannah NWR


LeGrand 1978


Georgia Burleigh (1958) regarded Whistling Swans as rare transients and
winter visitors, listing but eight records. Denton et al. (1977) considered


them rare winter visitors throughout
from 13 November to 17 April. Since
bers inland and along the coast.


Georgia and listed dates of occurrence
1970 they have been regular in small num-


1971


2nd week
Jan.


1974- winter
75


1975


30 Nov.


1975- winter
76


1979


6 Dec.


1978- winter
79


1979


Jan.-Feb.


2 seen


"a few"


9 seen


"some"


1 seen

7 seen
throughout


1 seen


Roswell


Savannah, Dalton,
and Macon

Gainesville, Ga.
(inland)

Savannah, Sylvania,
Thomaston, Atlanta

Okefenokee NWR

Augusta (inland)


Eufaula (inland)


Teulings


Teulings


Teulings


Teulings


1971b


1975b


1976a


1976b


LeGrand 1977a

LeGrand 1979b


LeGrand 1979b


Florida Whistling Swans are rare on both coasts of Florida (Kale 1979 ms a,
1979 ms b). Of the 14 records of Whistling Swans in Florida listed through 1955
by Sprunt (1954, 1963), most are from the Gulf side of the state, and seven of


them from St. Marks
one or a few birds;
peninsula.


NWR.


Since 1970 there have been several records involving


these records are mostly from the panhandle and northern


1969


1 Dec.


1969- winter
70


1972


9 Jan.


1973 21-23 Dec.

1974 late Nov.


1 seen

3 seen


1 seen

2 seen

2 seen


Panacea


Tallahassee


near Lanark


near Titusville

Mosquito Lagoon


Stevenson 1970

Stevenson 1970


Stevenson 1972

Stevenson 1974

Edscorn 1975


50


Santee NWR










1974 22 Dec.


1976

1976


3 Dec.

9 Dec.


1976 14-25 Dec.

1977 29 Jan.-
28 Feb.


1977-
78

1977-
78


31 Dec.-
1 Jan.

12 Dec.-
26 Feb.


seen


seen

seen


1 seen


seen


seen


seen


Guana Lake Refuge,
St. John's Co.

near St. Mark's Light

St. Joe St. Park


McKay Bay

Tarpon Springs


near Lakeland


near St. Mark's
Light


Stevenson 1975


Stevenson 1977

Hamilton 1977

Stevenson 1977

Stevenson 1977


Stevenson 1978


Stevenson 1978


Alabama The Whistling Swan is rare in winter and during migration in the
Tennessee Valley region of Alabama (Imhof 1976b). These swans winter almost
annually at Wheeler NWR, in Limestone and Morgan counties. At least 47 win-
tered there in 1978-79 (Hamilton 1979). Whistling Swans are casual elsewhere
in the state. Howell (1928) stated that swans, presumably this species, were
rare winter visitors in Mississippi Sound. We know of only three coastal re-
cords for which more detailed information is available.


1916 early Dec.


1964 26 Dec.


1976 14-17 Dec.


1 seen


1 seen


5 ad., 2
imm. seen


Mobile


Mobile CBC


Foley, Baldwin
Co.


Imhof 1976b,
Howell 1928

Imhof 1976b,
Dorn 1965

Hamilton 1977


Dates of occurrence within Alabama range from 25 October to 25 March
(Imhof 1976b).

Mississippi Whistling Swans occur in Mississippi as rare and irregular
winter visitors. Burleigh (1944) mentioned no records from the coast and only
one of several recent sightings was coastal; according to Hamilton (1979), this
was the first record from the coast of Mississippi.


1974-
75


12 Dec.-
13 Jan.,
26 Jan.-
9 Mar.


1976- 16 Dec.-
77 22 Jan.


5, 3 seen




1 imm. seen


5 mi W Tunica




Noxubee NWR


Hamilton 1975




Hamilton 1977


51










1976-
77


24 Mar.-
3 Apr.


1977 24 Nov.


1978


3 Jan.


1978 25 Nov.


1978 30 Dec.


seen


1 ad. seen


seen


seen


seen


Noxubee NWR


Noxubee NWR


Lake Washington


Pearl River Waterfowl
Refuge

S. Hancock Co. CBC


Weber and Jack-
son 1977

Weber and Jack-
son 1978

Jackson and
Cooley 1978a

Jackson and
Cooley 1978a

Hamilton 1979


Louisiana Lowery (1974) noted less than two dozen "positive" identifica-
tions of Whistling Swans in Louisiana, and commented that these swans are rarer
than in the past. There was an influx in the winter of 1976-77; nine individ-
uals were reported at five localities (Hamilton 1977). Records extend from
15 November through mid-February (Lowery 1974).

Texas Oberholser (1974) listed Whistling Swans as locally scarce to rare
in Texas, occurring between September and April; extremes are August and 3 May,
and there is a summer record for Dallas County. Prior to 1900, swans apparent-
ly were common throughout the state. They are now locally scarce to rare both
inland and along the coast (Oberholser 1974). Recent records are as follows:


1969 18 Dec.


1969 Dec.


1970


Jan. -Feb.


4 seen in
flight

"a few" seen

up to 12


Port Isabel


Webster


Galveston Bay area

Corpus Christi-
Rockville area


Webster

Webster


1970 28 Dec.


1971-
72


winter


1975 14-28 Mar.

1977 Nov.-Dec.

1977 early Dec.


seen


seen


seen

seen


between Brownsville
and Port Isabel

Sheldon Reservoir,
near Houston

Holiday Beach, Rockport


Chambers Co.


1 imm. seen


Rancho Santa Margarita,
Starr Co. (inland)


Webster


Webster


Webster

Webster

Webster


SYNOPSIS OF PRESENT DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE


Breeding Whistling Swans breed
aska to Baffin Island. The breeding


in Arctic North America, from western Al-
population consisted of about 90,000 adults


52


1970


1970

1970


1971


1972


1975a

1978b

1978b









(60,000 in Alaska) in the early 1970's (Bellrose 1976).


Winter The U.S. wintering population was believed to be about 123,000
birds (the 90,000 breeding birds, plus juveniles and subadults) during the ear-
ly 1970's. About 55,000 of these wintered in the east, of which 40,000 were in
Chesapeake Bay (Bellrose 1976). The 1975 winter waterfowl survey (Goldsberry
et al. 1980) reported about 120,900 Whistling Swans. About 45% of these were
in the Pacific Flyway, and almost all the rest were found in the Atlantic Fly-
way. The great preponderance of those wintering in the southeastern states were
found in North Carolina, which harbored about one third of the population win-
tering along the Atlantic seaboard. Only California (ca. 46,000) and Maryland
(36,400) had larger wintering populations.

Migration The Athabasca Delta is a major fall staging area for swans from
western and northern Alaska and from much of the Canadian breeding range. From
there, many birds move southwest through Montana and Utah to wintering areas in
the west. Most of the birds wintering on the Atlantic coast also gather in the
Athabasca Delta but fly east-southeast through Manitoba, North Dakota, and the
Great Lakes States to the Chesapeake Bay area (Bellrose 1976).

In Chesapeake Bay, fall migrants continue to arrive during December and
reach peak numbers in January (Bellrose 1976). The spring departure for Whis-
tling Swans wintering in the east begins in early or mid-March, and migration
continues through April (Bellrose 1976, Palmer 1976a). A few may depart as
early as late February or as late as early May (Palmer 1976b).


HABITAT

Nesting Throughout its breeding range in North America the Whistling Swan
is associated with Arctic tundra. Nest sites are typically widely dispersed
over the tundra, and small islands in tundra pools are preferred nesting sites.
Other nests are found elsewhere in the tundra, sometimes well removed from
water (Palmer 1976a, Bellrose 1976). Lensink (in Bellrose 1976) estimated that
about half the swan nests in coastal areas of the Yukon Delta were on the shores
of lakes or ponds within 60 ft (18 m) of water. Some 30% of the remainder were
on small islands or points in lakes; the rest were in a variety of situations,
such as heath tundra, marshes, or tidal meadows. In the latter, the swans fre-
quently nested on elevated hummocks, and nests were less common in level areas.
Whistling Swans are usually absent from the bare areas of the Pre-Cambrian
Shield in central and eastern Canada (Johnsgard 1975).

Feeding Detailed studies of feeding habitat, at least in the east, have
not been made. Swans wintering in Chesapeake Bay prefer brackish estuarine
bays, but they have been found feeding in California in both dry and flooded
fields (Bellrose 1976). During the early 1970's, swans wintering in the Chesa-
peake Bay area fed less in aquatic habitats and began to feed regularly in
fields of waste corn (Zea)., soybeans (Glycine), and shoots of winter wheat (Tri-
ticum) on the Maryland Eastern Shore; they commonly flew as much as 10-15 mi
(16-24 km) inland to feed there (Bellrose 1976).

Winter Wintering birds prefer large, shallow expanses of fresh and brack-


53









ish water and occur infrequently in salt water (Palmer 1976a). In Chesapeake
Bay, these swans preferred open, extensive areas of brackish estuarine water no
more than 5 ft (1.5 m) deep (Stewart and Manning 1958, Stewart 1962). During
January, Whistling Swans used brackish estuarine bays 76% of the time, salt
estuarine bays 9%, fresh estuarine bays 8%, and slightly brackish estuarine
bays 6%. Other habitats (ca. 1%) used included coastal impoundments and fresh
and estuarine marshes. Fresh-water areas were used primarily by early fall ar-
rivals (Stewart 1962).


FOOD AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR

These swans normally dip their heads and necks into the water to feed on
bottom vegetation; when feeding in deeper waters they may tip up to seize sub-
merged foods (Bellrose 1976). In terrestrial situations Whistling Swans may
both grub and graze (Palmer 1976a) and may browse on shore grasses (Gilmer
1974).

Food habits on the breeding grounds are largely unknown, but in migration
and on the wintering grounds Whistling Swans usually feed extensively on aqua-
tic plants (Johnsgard 1975, 1978). Stewart and Manning (1958) analyzed 49 stom-
achs of birds wintering on Chesapeake Bay. They found that 100% of the diet in
fresh estuarine waters consisted of submerged aquatic plants. In brackish
waters and estuarine marsh ponds these plants formed 60% and 49% of the diet,
respectively. In the Chesapeake Bay region wild celery (Valisneria spiralis)
was an "all-important" item of diet in fresh estuarine areas but widgeongrass
(Ruppia maritima), sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), and two bivalve mol-
luscs (long clam [Mya arenaria] and Baltic macoma [Macoma balthica]) were the
most important foods when all feeding habitats were considered (Stewart and
Manning 1958). Other plants eaten in the east include foxtail grass (Alope-
curus), pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.), squarestem spikerush (Eleocharis quad-
rangulata), arrowhead (Sagittaria) and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum)(Palmer
1976a).

We have found little information on the diet of birds wintering in the
southeastern states. Presumably they feed on much the same foods as in Chesa-
peake Bay. Cely (1979) suggested that the principal foods in South Carolina
were widgeongrass and muskgrass (Chara sp.). In the winter of 1969-70, swans
foraged in fields on the wintering grounds near Chesapeake Bay to a much greater
extent than formerly; we do not know whether this trend continued nor how im-
portant waste grain may be in the diet of Whistling Swans wintering in the
southeast. Johnsgard (1975), Bellrose (1976), and Palmer (1976a) summarized
what little is known of food habits elsewhere in North America.


IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

Egg Laying Time of laying at any particular locality may vary consider-
ably from year to year (Palmer 1976a) but is usually remarkably synchronous
within any given season (Bellrose 1976). Egg laying usually begins in late May
or early June (Johnsgard 1975, Palmer 1976a) and in some areas nests with eggs
have been found as late as mid-July (Palmer 1976a).


54









Mean Clutch Size Clutch size varies with the timing of the season; it is
lower in late seasons. In a study of 354 nests from 1963-71 on the Yukon Delta,
Alaska, Lensink (1973 in Bellrose 1976) found an average clutch size of 4.26
eggs. Average clutch size varied from 3.3 in a late season to about 5 in an
early season.

Incubation Period The most accurate figure for the incubation period of
the Whistling Swan in the wild is based on a single instance in which the last
egg of a clutch hatched after a 31-day interval. In another instance, incuba-
tion took about 32 days (Lensink in Bellrose 1976).

Hatching Success We found no precise figures for hatching success expres-
sed as the proportion of eggs laid that hatched. Lensink (in Bellrose 1976)
thought that nesting success--considered as the proportion of nests in which at
least one egg hatches--was very high on the Yukon Delta; he believed that at
least some eggs hatched in over 90% of the nests. Bellrose (1976) suggested
that perhaps one egg of the average clutch fails to hatch, basing his remarks
on average clutch size and the size of broods seen in June and July.

Fledging Success No definite data are available. Bellrose (1976) pre-
sented data indicating that production of young is low. On the other hand,
adults accompanied by young tend to have two or more (Bellrose 1976), suggest-
ing a high success for some clutches and the complete loss of others.

Age at Fledging Bellrose (1976) suggested that most cygnets probably fly
at 60 to 70 days, but noted that some might need 75 days.

Age at First Breeding Lensink (in Bellrose 1976) suggested that few birds
breed before their third summer, and that most probably first breed when older.

Mortality of Eggs and Young Palmer (1976a) considered egg-gathering by
Eskimos and Indians a significant mortality factor in some areas. Lensink (in
Bellrose 1976) noted nest destruction by gulls and foxes.

Early freezing of water in fall accounted for some 3-5% of pre-fledging
mortality in young from the Mackenzie-Anderson River Delta area. In other areas,
freezing was reported as an occasional source of major mortality (Bellrose 1976,
Palmer 1976a).

Renesting Swans occasionally lay repeat clutches if nests are lost early
in the nesting cycle, but the chances of northern swans doing this successfully
in the wild are considered poor because of the short nesting season (Kear in
Scott 1972).

Maximum Natural Longevity A bird banded on the Anderson River Delta,
Northwest Territories, attained an age of 16 years and 2 months (Clapp et al.
in press).

Weight Mean weight of 42 adult males was about 16 lb (7,260 g) and 63
adult females averaged 13.9 Ib (6,300 g). The mean weight of adults winter-
ing in Utah was 17.3 Ib (7,850 g) and that of immatures was 13.3 Ib (6,030 g)
(Bellrose 1976).


55









SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION


Wintering Whistling Swans normally rest on the water at night in protected
inlets, estuaries, and lakes. They are very vulnerable to oiling in these wa-
ters, and probably are more likely to be affected by spills at onshore support
facilities than by offshore drilling accidents. Perry et al. (1979) estimated
that 385 Whistling Swans died as a result of two oil spills in Chesapeake Bay
in 1976 and 1978.

King and Sanger's (1979) study of the vulnerability of marine birds in the
northeastern Pacific suggested that there should be high concern for Whistling
Swans regarding potential ill effects from development of petroleum resources.
Among anatids only the sea-ducks, Black Brant, and Emperor Goose were consid-
ered more vulnerable. Concern for the effects of oil on this species should
also be high for populations wintering in North Carolina; so few birds winter
elsewhere in the southeast that oil pollution elsewhere should have little ef-
fect on the total population.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1980

Bateson, P., W. Lotwick and D. K. Scott. 1980. Similarities between the faces
of parents and offspring in Bewick's Swans and the differences between
mates. J. Zool. (Lond.) 191: 61-74.

Evans, M. E. 1980. The effects of experience and breeding status on the use
of a wintering site by Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii. Ibis
122: 287-297.

Evans, M. E. and W. J. L. Sladen. 1980. A comparative analysis of the bill
markings of Whistling and Bewick's Swans and out-of-range occurrences of
the two taxa. Auk 97: 697-703.

1979

Cely, J. H. 1979. A survey of Whistling Swans along the South Carolina coast.
Chat 43: 93.

Damare, J. M., D. Hussong, R. M. Weiner and R. R. Colwell. 1979. Aerobic and
facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada Geese
(Branta canadensis) and Whistling Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 258-266.

Evans, M. E. 1979a. Population composition, and return according to breeding
status of Bewick's Swans wintering at Slimbridge, 1963 to 1976. Wildfowl
30: 118-128.

1979b. Aspects of the life cycle of the Bewick's Swan, based on recog-
nition of individuals at a wintering site. Bird Study 26: 149-162.


56










Evans, M. E. 1979c. The effects of weather on the wintering of Bewick's Swans
Cygnus columbianus bewickii at Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. Ornis
Scand. 10: 124-132.

Hussong, D., J. M. Damare, R. J. Limpert, J. L. Sladen, R. M. Weiner and R. R.
Colwell. 1979. Microbial impact of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and
Whistling Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) on aquatic ecosystems.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 14-20.

1978

Evans, M. E. 1978. Some factors influencing the use of a wintering site by
Bewick's Swans, studies through individual recognition. M.S. thesis, Univ.
of Wales/Cardiff, Wales.

Evans, M. E. and J. Kear. 1978. Weights and measurements of Bewick's Swans
during winter. Wildfowl 29: 118-122.

Kappa, B. 1978. Whistling Swan in Sullivan County. Migrant 49: 82.

Lina, P. H. C. and H. D. Van der Laan. 1978. Waarneming van een Kleine Zwaan
Cygnus bewickii met rode poten. [Observation of a Bewick's Swan Cygnus
bewickii with red legs.] Limosa 51: 167. [In Dutch.]

Seegar, W. S. 1978. Prevalence of heartworm, Sarconema eurycerca, Wehr, 1939,
(Nematoda), in Whistling Swan, Cygnus columbianus columbianus. Can. J.
Zool. 56: 1500-1502.

Scott, D. K. 1978. Social behaviour of wintering Bewick's Swans. Ph.D. the-
sis, Univ. of Cambridge/Cambridge, England.

1977

Brown, J. and V. Lewis. 1977. A laboratory study of individual recognition
using Bewick's Swan bill patterns. Wildfowl 28: 159-162.

Evans, M. E. 1977a. Notes on the breeding behaviour of captive Whistling
Swans. Wildfowl 28: 107-112.

1977b. Recognizing individual Bewick's Swans by bill pattern. Wild-
fowl 28: 153-158.

Gaul, R. W. 1977. Aphrodite's Ghost. The Swan in North Carolina. Conclusion.
Wildl. N.C. 41: 20-21.

Merne, 0. J. 1977. The changing status and distribution of the Bewick's Swan
in Ireland. Irish Birds 1: 3-15.

Mullie, W. C. and E. P. R. Poorter. 1977. Aantallen, verspreiding en terrein-
keus van de Kleine Zwaan bij vije landelijke tellingen in 1976 en 1977.
[Census, distribution and habitat selection of Bewick's Swan in five
country-wide censuses in 1976 and 1977.] Watervogels 2: 85-96. [In
Dutch.]
57










1977. Breeding behaviour of wild Whistling Swans.


101-106.


Seegar, W. S. 1977. The life cycle and epizootiology of the heartworm, Sarco-
nema eurycerca, in the Whistling Swan. Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins Univ./
Baltimore, MD.


Sladen, W. J. L. and A. A. Kistchinski.


1977. Some results from circumpolar


marking programs on northern Swans and Snow Geese.
13th Congr. Game Biol., Atlanta, GA.


Pp. 498-507 in Proc.


1976


Nelson, C. H.


1976. A key to downy cygnets with analysis of plumage charac-


ters. Wilson Bull. 88: 4-15.


1975


Barry, T. W. and J. Kear. 1975. A bibliography of the swans.
Serv. & Wildfowl Trust. ii and 181 pp.


Evans, M. E. 1975. Breeding behaviour of captive Bewick's Swans.
26: 117-130.


Irwin, J. C.


Can. Wildl.


Wildfowl


1975. Mortality factors in Whistling Swans at Lake St. Clair,


Ontario. J. Wildl. Dis. 11: 8-12.


Kistchinski, A. A., R. I. Zlotin and V. E. Flint. 1975. [The breeding of the
Whistling Swan (Cygnus columbianus) in the U.S.S.R.] Zool. Zh. 54: 1525-
1528. [In Russian with English summary.]


Lebret, T. and W. C. Mullie.
en elders in Zeeland.
elsewhere in Zeeland.]


Lumsden, H. G.
of Hudson B
summaries.]


1975. De Kleine Zwaan Cygnus bewicki op Walcheren
[The Bewick's Swan Cygnus bewicki on Walcheren and
Limosa 48: 50-59. [In Dutch with English summary.]


1975. The Whistling Swan in James Bay and the southern region
lay. Arctic 28: 194-200. [In English with French and Russian


Owen, M. and C. J. Cadbury.


1975. The ecology and mortality of swans at the


Ouse Washes, England. Wildfowl 26: 31-42.


1974


Bailey, R. 0. and B. D. J. Batt. 1974.
Whistling Swans. Auk 91: 488-493.

Gauthraux, S. A., Jr. (ed.) 1974. Pro


Hierarchy of waterfowl feeding with


ceedings of a conference on the biologi-


cal aspects of the bird/aircraft collision problem. 5-7 February 1974.


Dept. of Zoology, Clemson Univ./Clemson, SC. 535 pp.


(mimeo).


Gilmer, D. S.
6: 16.


1974. Swans resting on the surface of a dry lake.


Prairie Nat.


58


Scott D,


Wildfowl 28,,


-,U-









1974. The taxonomy and relationships of the northern swans.


Wildfowl 25: 155-161.


Mary-Rousseliere, G. and J. E. Heland.
northern Baffin Island, Northwest T


Ruttledge, R. F.


Ireland.


1974. The Whistling Swan nesting in
territories. Can. Field-Nat. 88: 99.


1974. Winter distribution of Whooper and Bewick's Swans in


Bird Study 21: 141-145.


1973


Evans, M. E. and T. LeBret.
61-62.


1973. Leucistic Bewick's Swans.


Wildfowl 24:


Evans, M. E., N. A. Wood, and J. Kear.
Wildfowl 24: 56-60.


Gunn, W. W. H. 1973. Environmental stress on
24: 5-7.

King, J. G. 1973. The use of small airplanes
Wildfowl 24: 15-20.


Lensink, C. J.


1973. Lead shot in Bewick's Swans.


the Whistling Swan. Wildfowl


to gather swan data in Alaska.


1973. Population structure and productivity of Whistling Swans


on the Yukon Delta, Alaska.


Wildfowl 24: 21-25.


Sladen, W. J. L. 1973. A continental study of Whistling Swans using neck
collars. Wildfowl 24: 8-14.


1970


Heyland, J. D., E. B. Chamberlain, C. F. Kimball and D. H. Baldwin. 1970.
Whistling Swans breeding on the northwest coast of New Quebec. Can.
Field-Nat. 84: 398-399.

1969


Ogilvie, M. A.


1969. Bewick's Swans in Britain and Ireland during 1956-69.


Brit. Birds 62: 505-522.


Sladen, W. J. L. and W. W. Cochran.


1967-68.


1969. Studies of the Whistling Swan,


Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 34: 42-50.


1968


Dixon, N. B.


1968. Whistling Swans wintering in central Oklahoma.


Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 1: 10-11.


Holden, B. L. and W. J. L. Sladen. 1968. Heart worm, Sarconema eurycerca, in-
fection in Whistling Swans, Cygnus columbianus, in the Chesapeake Bay.
Bull. Wildl. Dis. Assoc. 4: 126-128.


59


Bull.


Johnsgard, P. A.









Pakulak, A. S. and D. L. Littlefield. 1968 ms. Breeding status of Whistling
Swans in northern Manitoba. Manitoba Dept. Mines, Resourc., Environ.
Manage.

1966

Scott, P. 1966. The Bewick's Swan at Slimbridge. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept.
17: 20-26.

Tate, D. J. R. 1966. Morphometric age and sex variation in the Whistling
Swan, Olor columbianus. M.S. thesis, Univ. Nebraska/Lincoln, NE.

1965

Bartonek, J. C. 1965. Some summer and migration observations on Whistling
Swans in Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 79: 217-218.

Nagel, J. 1965. Field feeding of Whistling Swans in northern Utah. Condor
67: 446-447.

Post, W., Jr. 1965. Whistling Swan at Barnwell, South Carolina. Chat 29: 52.

Trainer, P. 0. and R. A. Hunt. 1965. Lead poisoning of Whistling Swans in
Wisconsin. Avian Dis. 9: 252-263.

1963

Geroudet, P. 1963. Retour des Cygnes de Bewick sur Le Leman. Nos Oiseaux
27: 181-182.

Sermet, E. 1963. Des Cygnes de Bewick a Yverdon. Nos Oiseaux 27: 181.

1962

Geroudet, P. 1962. L'hivernage des Cygnus bewicki sur Le Leman savoyard.
Nos Oiseaux 26: 317-319.

1960

Nero, R. W. 1960. A record of flight altitude of Whistling Swans. Blue Jay
18: 159.

Sherwood, G. A. 1960. The Whistling Swan in the west with particular refer-
ence to Great Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Condor 62: 370-377.

1959

Sherwood, G. A. 1959. The Whistling Swan in the Great Salt Lake Valley of
Utah. M.S. thesis, Utah St. Univ./Logan, UT. 79 pp.










1958

Atkeson, T. Z., Jr. 1958. Whistling Swan records from Wheeler Reservoir.
Ala. Birdlife 6: 11-12.

Stewart, R. E. and J. H. Manning. 1958. Distribution and ecology of Whistling
Swans in the Chesapeake Bay region. Auk 75: 203-212.

1955

Nicholson, D. J. 1955. Whistling Swan, Cygnus columbianus, killed in Osceola
County, Florida. Fla. Nat. 28: 59.

1946

Camp, C. L. 1946. Whistling Swans. Wood Thrush 1: 10.

1945

Cook, F. W. 1945. Whistling Swans winter on the St. Mark's Refuge. Fla.
Field Nat. 19: 21.

McCulloch, N., Jr. 1945. Whistling Swans at Raleigh. Chat 9: 44.

1941

Kendall, J. B. 1941. The Whistling Swans on Green Bay. Passenger Pigeon


3: 21-23.



Sprunt, A., Jr.



Sprunt, A., Jr.
364.


1936

1936. The Whistling Swan in South Carolina. Auk 53: 204.

1932

1932. Some notes from Cumberland Island, Georgia. Auk 49:


1928

Cobb, S. 1928. Whistling Swan at Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Auk 45: 93-94.

1927

Bowen, W. W. and R. Boulton. 1927. Whistling Swan (Olor columbianus) at Cold
Spring Harbor, Long Island, N.Y. Auk 44: 245.

1926

Burtch, V. 1926. Whistling Swan wintering at Branchport, N.Y. Auk 43:
229-231.


v v









1921

Urner, C. A. 1921. Whistling Swan--a correction. Auk 38: 273.

Wayne, A. T. 1921. The Whistling Swan (Olor columbianus) on the coast of
South Carolina. Auk 38: 272-273.

1908

Fleming, J. H. 1908. The destruction of Whistling Swans (Olor columbianus)
at Niagara Falls. Auk 25: 306-309.









WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE


(Anser albifrons)


[DA: Blisgas, DU: Kolgans, EN/US: Specklebelly, White-front, Tule Goose, Speck,
Laughing Goose, Specklebelly Brant; FI: Isokiljuhanhi, FR: Oie rieuse, GE:
Blassgans, IC: Blesgaes, IT: Oca lombardella, JA: Ma-gan, NW: Tundragas, PO:
Ges bialoczelna, PR: Ganso, RU: (White Goose), SP: Ganso frente blanca, Oca sal-
vaje, Ansar careto grande; SW: Blasgas]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

White-fronted Geese breed circumpolarly on tundra around the shores of the
Arctic Ocean, the Bering Sea, and Baffin Bay. They nest from Kanin in the east-
ern U.S.S.R. to the northwest coast of Hudson Bay and have an isolated breeding
population in southwestern Greenland (Bellrose 1976, Palmer 1976a, Cramp et al.
1977). About two-thirds of the North American breeding population of approxi-
mately 100,000 birds (Bellrose 1976) is found in Alaska; most of the rest inha-
bit north-central and northwestern Canada (Palmer 1976a). These geese occur in
the southeastern states primarily as migrants and winter residents and reach
their peak abundance there along the coasts of southwestern Lousiana and Texas
(Map 2) where as many as 66,000 may winter (Bellrose 1976). These geese are
rare to casual along the Atlantic seaboard and are scarcely more common along
the shores of the eastern Gulf.


SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

There is little information on direct effects of oil pollution on White-
fronted Geese. Most of some 2,000-2,500 geese soiled with fuel oil in the Hol-
lands Diep, Netherlands, in the winter of 1970-71 were White-fronted Geese, but
the number that died is unknown (Ouweneel 1971). Judging both from reports on
the direct effects of oil on other closely related species and from the White-
fronted Goose's preference for habitats inland (Palmer 1976a), we suspect that
this species is not especially vulnerable to oiling. Areas of mud-flats and
adjacent marsh areas that are used extensively for roosting and foraging and
which are likely to be oiled are areas in which these geese will be most sus-
ceptible. In such areas the result of oiling probably will be primarily in-
direct mortality through loss of food resources rather than direct mortality.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1979

Krogman, B. D. 1979. A systematic study of Anser albifrons in California.
Pp. 22-43 in R. L. Jarvis and J. C. Bartonek (eds.) Management and biol-
ogy of Pacific Flyway geese. Oregon St. Univ. Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis,
OR.














Winter Distribution Map for
Southeastern United States
BIRDS PER 10 PARTY-HOURS
1 Less than one
1-5
5-20
More than 20
(Adapted from Bystrak, 1974)
INDIVIDUALS OBSERVED DURING
CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977
(ARITHMETIC MEAN)

( Number of individuals

O Less than one individual

K None observed


,- -0 48 1
AM


Map 2









Master, T. L. 1979. White-fronted Geese in eastern Pennsylvania. Cassinia
57: 53.

Patterson, T. K. 1979. White-fronted Geese seen near Dublin. Oriole 44: 15.

Phillippona, J. 1979. Het uiteenvallen van het familieverband bij de Kolgans.
[Family disintegration in the White-fronted Goose.] Watervogels 4: 40-43.
[In Dutch with English summary.]

Ruttledge, R. F. and M. A. Ogilvie. 1979. The past and current status of the
Greenland White-fronted Goose in Ireland and Britain. Irish Birds 1: 293-
363.

Timm, D. E. and C. P. Dau. 1979. Productivity, mortality, distribution and
population status of Pacific Flyway White-fronted Geese. Pp. 280-298 in
R. L. Jarvis and J. C. Bartonek (eds.) Management and biology of Pacific
Flyway geese. Oregon St. Univ. Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis, OR.

1978

Gerdes, K., D. Hess and H. Reepmeyer. 1978. Raumliche und zeitliche Verteil-
ungsmuster der Ganse (Anser fabalis, A. albifrons, und A. anser) im Ber-
eich des Dollart (1971-1977). Vogelwelt 99: 81-116. [In German with
English summary.]

Krogman, B. 1978. The Tule Goose mystery--a problem in taxonomy. Am. Birds
32: 164-166.

Kuyken, F. 1978. Overwinterende ganzen in Belgie in het seizoen 1975-76.
[Over-wintering geese in Belgium in the 1975-76 season.] Watervogels
3: 10-12. [In Dutch with English summary.]

Lazarus, J. 1978. Vigilance, flock size and domain of danger size in the
White-fronted Goose. Wildfowl 29: 135-145.

Sharp, R. S. 1978. The origins of spring migratory staging by Sandhill Cranes
and White-fronted Geese. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 6: 141-144.

Sterbetz, I. 1978. The feeding ecology of Anser albifrons, A. erythropus and
A. fabalis in Hungary. Internatl. Waterfowl Res. Bur. No. 45: 9-16.

1977

Fitzner, R. E. 1977. A winter record of the White-fronted Goose in eastern
Washington. Murrelet 58: 89.

Lebret, T. 1977. Waarnemingen over de ann- en afwezigheid van Holganzen Anser
albifrons in hun voedselgebied en or de slaapplaats in relative tot manlicht.
[Observations on the presence or absence of White-fronted Geese Anser albi-
frons on their feeding grounds and their roost in relation to the moon
phase.] Watervogels 2: 152-158. [In Dutch with English summary.]









1976

Wierenga, H. K. 1976. Waarnemingen aan de ochtentrek van ganzen in Friesland:
resultaten van een telaktie door leden van de N.O.U. op 23 February 1975.
[Observations on the morning flight of White-fronted Geese in central
Friesland.] Limosa 49: 293-302. [In Dutch with English summary.]

1975

Delacour, J. and S. D. Ripley. 1975. Description of a new subpsecies of the
White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons. Am. Mus. Novit. 2565. 4 pp.

1974

Burke, G. N. 1974. Techniques for capture of White-fronted Geese on wintering
grounds. Proc. 27th Annu. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game & Fish Commiss.:
316-318.

Kuyt, E. 1974. Golden Eagles attack White-fronted Geese. Blue Jay 32: 227-
228.

van Troostwijk, W. J. D. 1974. Ringing data on White-fronted Geese Anser a.
albifrons in the Netherlands, 1953-1968. Ardea 62: 98-110.

1973

Mickelson, P. G. 1973. Breeding biology of Cackling Geese (Branta canadensis
minima Ridgeway) and associated species on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta,
Alaska. Ph.D. thesis., Univ. Mich./Ann Arbor, MI.


Young, W. F.
museum.


1973. Specimen of White-fronted Goose [from Belize] now in
Belize Audubon Soc. Bull. 5: 1.


1972

Owen, M. 1972a. Movements and feeding ecology of White-fronted Geese at the
New Ground, Slimbridge. J. Appl. Ecol. 9: 385-398.

1972b. Some factors affecting food intake and selection in White-
fronted Geese. J. Anim. Ecol. 41: 79-92.


Philippona, J. 1972. Die Blessgans.
Neue Brehm Bucheri 457. 135 pp.


Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen.
[In German.]


1971

Fog, M. 1971. Haunts in Denmark for White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons),
Bean Goose (Anser fabalis non brachyrhynchus) and Pink-footed Goose (Anser
fabulis brachyrhynchus.) Dan. Rev. Game Biol. 6: 1-12.

Helmstaedt, K. W., M. Muller and H. J. Seeger. 1971. Bemerkungen zum Zug der
Blessgans Anser a. albifrons (Scop.). Beitr. Vogelkd. 17: 185-200. [In
German.]










Owen, M. 1971. The selection of feeding site by White-fronted Geese in win-
ter. J. Appl. Ecol. 8: 905-917.

1970

Baird, J. C. 1970. A record of a White-fronted Goose in New Brunswick. Can.
Field-Nat. 84: 59-60.

Elgas, B. 1970. Breeding populations of Tule White-fronted Geese in north-
western Canada. Wilson Bull. 82: 420-426.

LeGrand, H., Jr. and E. LeGrand. 1970. White-fronted Goose near Raleigh, N.C.
Chat 34: 101-102.

1969

Atkeson, T. Z., Jr. 1969. White-fronted Goose specimen from Alabama. Auk
86: 141.

Kuyken, F. 1969. Grazing of wild geese on grasslands at Damme, Belgium.
Wildfowl 20: 47-54.

Lensink, C. J. 1969 ms. The distribution of recoveries from White-fronted
Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) banded in North America. U.S. Fish &
Wildl. Serv., Bethel, AK. Unpubl. Admin. Rept.

1968


Miller, H. W., A. Dzubin and J. T. Sweet. 1968.
of Saskatchewan-banded White-fronted Geese.
Resourc. Conf. 33: 101-119.


Distribution and mortality
Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat.


Ogilvie, M. A. 1968. The numbers and distribution of the European White-
fronted Goose in Britain. Bird Study 15: 2-15.

Pollard, D. F. W. and P. Walters-Davies. 1968. A preliminary study of the
feeding of the Greenland White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons flavirostris
in Cardiganshire. Wildfowl 19: 108-116.

1967

Carlson, C. W. 1967. White-fronted Goose at Chincoteague Refuge. Raven 38:
65.


Olney, P. J. S.
The feeding
Annu. Rept.


Vertse, A.
ter in
Aquila


1967. The WAGBI-Wildfowl Trust Experimental Reserve. II:
ecology of local Mallard and other wildfowl. Wildfowl Trust
18: 47-55.


1967. [Ecological problems of White-fronted Geese passing the win-
Hungary. Presence of White-fronted Geese in the last century.]
73-74: 11-32. [In Hungarian.]











Barry, T. W.
stories.


1966

1966. The geese of the Anderson River Delta, Northwest Terri-
Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Alberta/Edmonton, AB. 181 pp.


Kear, J. 1966 ms. Feeding behaviour of White-fronted Geese in the British
Isles. Wildfowl Trust Unpubl. Rept.

1965

Miller, H. and A. Dzubin. 1965. Regrouping of family members of the White-
fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) after individual release. Bird-Banding
36: 184-191.

1964

Dzubin, A. 1964. Two possible wild hybrids of the White-fronted Goose X Snow
Goose. Blue Jay 22: 106-108.


Dzubin, A., H. W. Miller and G. V. Schildman. 1964.
143 in J. P. Linduska (ed.) Waterfowl tomorrow.
Fish. & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.


White-fronts. Pp. 135-
U.S. Dept. Int., U.S.


Kessel, B., H. K. Springer and C. M. White. 1964. June birds of the Kolomak
River Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Murrelet 45: 37-47.

1962

Kuyt, E. 1962. White-fronted Geese breeding in the Thelon Valley, N.W.T.
Can. Field-Nat. 76: 224.

Williams, L. E., Jr. 1962. White-fronted Goose and Franklin Gull in Missis-
sippi. Miss. Ornithol. Soc. Newsl. 7: 8.

1960

Philippona, J. and T. Mulder. 1960. Het vorkommen van de Europese Kolgans,
Anser a. albifrons (Scop.) in het bijzonder in Nederland. [On the occur-
rence of the European White-fronted Goose, especially in the Netherlands.]
Limosa 33: 90-127. [In Dutch with English summary.]

1958

Boyd, H. 1958. The survival of White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons flaviros-
tris, Dalgety and Scott) ringed in Greenland. Dan. Ornithol. Foren.
Tidsskr. 52: 1-8.

1957

Atkeson, T. Z., Jr. 1957. A White-fronted Goose record for Alabama. Ala.
Birdlife 5: 24-25.










Boyd, H. 1957. Mortality and fertility of the White-fronted Goose. Bird
Study 4: 80-93.

1956

Geroudet, P., R. Pricam, Y. Reverdin and F. Vuilleumier. 1956. Six Oies
rieuses dans la rade de Geneve. Nos Oiseaux 23: 326. [In French.]

Scott, P. 1956. Some photographic studies of White-fronted and Lesser White-
fronted geese. Brit. Birds 49: 216-218.

1954

Boyd, H. 1954. White-fronted Goose statistics. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept.
6: 73-79.

Goethe, F. 1954. Gronlandische Blassganse in Nordwestdeutschland. Vogel-
warte 17: 209-211. [In German.]

1953

Boyd, H. 1953. On encounters between wild White-fronted Geese in winter
flocks. Behaviour 5: 85-129.

Cadman, W. A. 1953. The winter food and ecological distribution of Greenland
White-fronted Geese in Britain. Brit. Birds 46: 374-375.

1950

Fencker, H. 1950. The Greenland White-fronted Goose and its breeding biology.
Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 44: 61-65.

1948

Dalgety, C. T. and P. M. Scott. 1948. A new race of the White-fronted Goose.
Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 68: 109-121.

Hewitt, 0. H. 1948. Quebec recovery of White-fronted Goose banded in Green-
land. Bird-Banding 19: 124.

Lebret, T. 1948. Waaremingen over leeftijdsgroepen bij Kolganzen, Anser a.
albifrons (Scop.). Ardea 36: 198-200. [In Dutch with English summary.]

1946

Glazener, W. C. 1946. Food habits of wild geese on the coast of Texas.
J. Wildl. Manage. 10: 322-329.

Nichols, M. M. and C. K. Nichols. 1946a. The White-fronted Goose in New
Jersey. Auk 63: 450.

_ 1946b. White-fronted Goose on the coasts of New York and New Jersey.
Auk 63: 598-599.
69









1944

Davis, H. H. 1944. Bill-coloration of the immature White-fronted Goose.
Brit. Birds 38: 37-38.

1928

Mackay, G. H. 1928. White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons gambeli) in South
Carolina. Auk 45: 368-369.

Wayne, A. T. 1928. The White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons gambeli) in
South Carolina. Auk 45: 201.

1927

Griscom, L. 1927a. The White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons gambeli) in
South Carolina. Auk 44: 559.

1927b. The White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons gambeli) in New Jersey.
Auk 44: 560.

1926

Urner, C. A. 1926. White-fronted Geese in Virginia. Auk 43: 229.

1924

Brimley, H. H. 1924. White-fronted Goose in North Carolina. Auk 41: 339-340.

1917

Swarth, H. S. and H. C. Bryant. 1917. A study of the races of the White-
fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) occurring in California. Univ. Calif.
Publ. Zool. 17: 209-222.









SNOW GOOSE


(Chen caerulescens)


[DA: Snegas, DU: Sneeuwgans, FI: Lumihanhi, FR: Oie des neiges, GE: Schneegans,
IC: Snjogaes, IT: Oca iperborea, JA: Haku gan, NW: Snogas, PO: Ges sniezyca,
RU: (White Goose), SP: Ansar hiperboreo, Ansar nival, Ansar real, Ansar azul;
SW: Snogas, US: Blue Goose, Greater Snow Goose]


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

Snow Geese breed in Arctic tundra from northeastern Siberia eastward across
the North American Arctic to northwestern Greenland (Cramp et al. 1977). About
1,635,000 Lesser Snow Geese breed in the western and central North American
Arctic. Large numbers winter in Louisiana (ca. 380,000 during the winters of
1972-73) and Texas (ca. 435,000)(Bellrose 1976; Maps 3, 4). In Alabama and
Mississippi the Snow Goose may be abundant during migration (Burleigh 1944,
Imhof 1976b) but the species is uncommon to rare elsewhere in the southeast.

About 67,000 Greater Snow Geese nested in Greenland and the eastern Cana-
dian Arctic in 1969 (Heyland in Palmer 1976a). These birds winter primarily
along the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to North Carolina. The largest winter-
ing concentration (ca. 30,000 birds) is found in Currituck and Pamlico sounds,
North Carolina (Bellrose 1976).


SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OIL POLLUTION

We believe that direct mortality of Snow Geese from oil spills will be
slight, since few of their activities would bring them into contact with areas
of spilled oil. The species would be most susceptibile on the north Atlantic
coast, because of cold weather and a tendency to utilize marine habitats more
than the birds that winter in Louisiana and Texas (Palmer 1976a). The most del-
eterious effects in warmer areas would probably occur on marshy feeding grounds
if an oil spill were severe enough to inundate these areas. Such an episode
occurred when an oil spill in the Gulf of St. Lawrence penetrated into marshes
used as a major staging area by the Greater Snow Goose. The disaster was
averted by prompt cleanup of the area before the geese arrived (Eagles 1964).


Taxonomic note: The AOU (1957) check-list assigned the Snow Goose to the genus
Chen. Opinions differ regarding the status of Chen, and it is often lumped with
genus Anser, following Delacour (1954) and Johnsgard (1975, 1978). Similarly,
the AOU (1957) formerly listed the Snow and the Blue Goose as separate species.
Evidence presented by Cooch (1961) and Cooke and Cooch (1968), however, con-
firmed that the Blue and Snow Geese are color phases of the same race. Current-
ly, the AOU (1973) recognizes two subspecies: the Lesser Snow Goose, Chen caer-
ulescens caerulescens, and the Greater Snow Goose, C. c. atlantica, the former
displaying two plumage phases: dark (or blue form), and light phase.














Winter Distribution Map for
Southeastern United States


BIRDS PER
r-----


10 PARTY-HOURS
Less than one
1-5
5-20
More than 20


(Adopted from Bystrak, 1974)
INDIVIDUALS OBSERVED DURING
CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977
(ARITHMETIC MEAN)
V Number of individuals
O Less than one individual
O None observed


Map 3















Winter Distribution Map for
Southeastern United States
BIRDS PER 10 PARTY-HOURS
SLess than one
1-5
5-20
More than 20
(Adapted from Bystrok, 1974)
INDIVIDUALS OBSERVED DURING
CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS, 1973-1977
(ARITHMETIC MEAN)
SNumber of individuals
O Less than one individual
None observed


Map 4









BIBLIOGRAPHY


1981

Abraham, K. F. 1981. Breeding site selection of Lesser Snow Geese. Ph.D.
thesis, Queen's Univ./Kingston, ON.

Bellrose, F. C. and R. C. Crompton. 1981. Migration speeds of three water-
fowl species. Wilson Bull. 93: 121-124.

Campbell, R. R., R. J. Etches and J. F. Leatherland. 1981. Seasonal changes
in plasma prolactin concentration and carcass lipid levels in the Lesser
Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A
Comp. Physiol. 68: 653-657.

Flickinger, E. L. 1981. Weather conditions associated with beginning of north-
ward migration departures of Snow Geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 45: 516-520.

1980

Ankney, C. D. 1980. Egg weight, survival, and growth of Lesser Snow Goose
goslings. J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 174-182.

Blankert, J. J. 1980. Lesser Snow Goose from Canada in Netherlands. Dutch
Birding 2: 52.

Campbell, R. R. 1980. Ecophysiological studies in Lesser Snow Geese (Anser
caerulescens caerulescens) of the La Perouse Bay colony. Ph.D. thesis,
Univ. Guelph/Guelph, ON.

Campbell, R. R. and J. F. Leatherland. 1980a. Estimating body protein and fat
from water content in Lesser Snow Geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 438-446.

S_ 1980b. Seasonal changes in thyroid activity in the Lesser Snow Goose
(Anser caerulescens caerulescens) including reference to embryonic thyroid
activity. Can. J. Zool. 58: 1144-1150.

Healey, R. F., F. Cooke and P. W. Colgan. 1980. Demographic consequences of
Snow Goose brood-rearing traditions. J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 900-905.

Prevett, J. P. and C. D. Maclnnes. 1980. Family and other social groups in
Snow Geese. Wildl. Monogr. 71: 1-46.

Sidle, J. G. and G. E. Erickson. 1980. Snow Geese breeding in North Dakota.
Prairie Nat. 12: 103-104.

Sulzbach, D. S. and F. Cooke. 1980. Demographic parameters of a nesting col-
ony of Snow Geese. Condor 81: 232-235.

Thomas, V. G. and J. P. Prevett. 1980. The nutritional value of arrow-grasses
to geese at James Bay. J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 830-836.









Yesou, P. 1980. L'Oie des neiges Anser caerulescens L. en France. [Snow
Goose Anser caerulescens L. in France.] Alauda 48: 21-26. [In French
with German and English summaries.]

1979

Ankney, C. D. 1979. Does the wing moult cause nutritional stress in Lesser
Snow Geese? Auk 96: 68-72.

Boothroyd, P. N. and P. L. Rakowski. 1979. Unsuccessful nesting attempt of
the Snow Goose on the Red River at Winnipeg, Manitoba. Blue Jay 37:
224-226.

Flickinger, E. L. and E. G. Bolen. 1979. Weights of Lesser Snow Geese taken
on their winter range. J. Wildl. Manage. 43: 531-533.

Heagy, M. I. and F. Cooke. 1979. Vegetation characteristics of Snow Goose
nest sites. Can. J. Bot. 57: 1502-1504.

Kelsall, J. P. and R. Burton. 1979. Some problems in identification of ori-
gins of Lesser Snow Geese by chemical profiles. Can. J. Zool. 57: 2292-
2302.

Mineau, P. and F. Cooke. 1979a. Rape in the Lesser Snow Geese. Behaviour
70: 280-291.

1979b. Territoriality in Snow Geese or the protection of parenthood--
Ryder's and Inglis's hypotheses re-assessed. Wildfowl 30: 16-19.

Prevett, J. P., I. F. Marshall and V. G. Thomas. 1979. Fall foods of Lesser
Snow Geese in the James Bay region. J. Wildl. Manage. 43: 736-742.

Syroechkovskii, E. V. 1979. [The laying of eggs by Snow Geese into strange
nests.] Zool. Zh. 58: 1033-1041. [In Russian with English summary.]

van den Berg, A. B., H. Blankert and J. Brinkman. 1979. Zeldzame ganzen in
Nederland in de winter 1978/79. [Rare geese in the Netherlands in the
winter of 1978/79.] Dutch Birding 1: 34-41. [In Dutch with English
summary.]

West, L. D. and J. D. Newson. 1979. Lead and mercury in Lesser Snow Geese
wintering in Louisiana. Proc. 31st Annu. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Fish
& Wildl. Agencies: 180-187.

Wypkema, R. C. P. and C. D. Ankney. 1979. Nutrient reserve dynamics of Lesser
Snow Geese at staging in James Bay, Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 57: 213-219.

1978

Blokpoel, H. and W. J. Richardson. 1978. Weather and spring migration of Snow
Geese across southern Manitoba. Oikos 30: 350-363.









Bolen, E. G. and M. K. Rylander.
Goose (Anser caerulescens).


1978. Feeding adaptation in the Lesser Snow
Southwest. Nat. 23: 158-161.


Burton, B. A. and R. J. Hudson. 1978. Activity budgets of Lesser Snow Geese
wintering on the Fraser River Estuary, British Columbia. Wildfowl 29:
111-117.

Campbell, R. R. and E. Boorman. 1978. Pintail parasitizing Snow Goose nest.
Blue Jay 36: 116-117.

Cooke, F. 1978. Early learning and its effect on population structure. Stud-
ies of a wild population of Snow Geese. Z. Tierpsychol. 46: 344-358.

Cooke, F. and D. S. Sulzbach. 1978. Mortality, emigration and separation of
mated Snow Geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 42: 271-280.

Finney, G. and F. Cooke. 1978. Reproductive habits in the Snow Goose: the in-
fluence of female age. Condor 80: 147-158.


Krechmar, A. V. and E. V. Syroechkovsky. 1978.
Anser caerulescens on the Wrangel Island.]
Russian with English summary.]


[Ecology of incubation in
Zool. Zh. 57: 899-910. [In


Mineau, P. 1978. The breeding strategy of a male Snow Goose (Anser caerules-
cens). M.S. thesis, Queen's Univ./Kingston, ON. 125 pp.

Simon, D. 1978. Identification of Snow and Ross' geese. Birding 10: 289-291.

Sulzbach, D. and F. Cooke. 1978. Elements of nonrandomness in mass-captured
samples of Snow Geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 42: 437-441.

Vermeer, K. and B. D. Davies. 1978. Comparison of the breeding of Canada and
Snow geese at Westham Island, British Columbia. Wildfowl 29: 31-44.

Voet, H., S. Lhoest and P. Devillers. 1978. L'observation d'Oies des neiges
dans la region Anversoise en 1973-1974. [Observations of Snow Geese in
the Antwerp Region during 1973-1974.] Gerfaut 68: 107-108. [In French
with Dutch and English summaries.]

Wingate, D. B. 1978. Blue Goose banded on Bermuda, recovered at Cape Hatteras,
N.C. Chat 42: 80.

1977

Abraham, K. F., P. Mineau and F. Cooke. 1977. Unusual predators of Snow Goose
eggs. Can. Field-Nat. 91: 317-318.

Ankney, C. D. 1977a. Feeding and digestive organ size in breeding Lesser Snow
Geese. Auk 94: 275-282.

1977b. Male size and mate selection in Lesser Snow Geese. Evol.
Theory 3: 143-147.









Ankney, C. D. 1977c. The use of nutrient reserves by breeding male Lesser
Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens). Can. J. Zool. 55: 1984-1987.

Babcock, K. M. and E. L. Flickinger. 1977. Dieldrin mortality of Snow Geese
in Missouri. J. Wildl. Manage. 41: 100-103.

Harwood, J. 1977. Grazing strategies of Blue Geese, Anser caerulescens.
J. Wildl. Manage. 41: 48-55.

Kelsall, J. P. and R. Burton. 1977. Identification of origins of Lesser Snow
Geese by X-ray spectrometry. Can. J. Zool. 55: 718-732.

Macmillan, A. T. 1977. The status of Snow Geese in Scotland. Scott. Birds
9: 357.

Rockwell, R. F. and F. Cooke. 1977. Gene flow and local adaptation in a col-
onially nesting dimorphic bird: the Lesser Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens
caerulescens). Am. Nat. 111: 91-97.

Sladen, W. J. L. and A. A. Kistchinski. 1977. Some results from circumpolar
marking programs on northern swans and Snow Geese. Internatl. Congr. Game
Biol. 13: 498-507.

Syroechkovski, E. V., A. V. Krechmar and A. I. Artyukhov. 1977. [Changes in
number of nesting Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, on Wrangel Island.]
Ornitologiya 13: 212-213. [In Russian.]

1976

Ankney, C. D. and A. R. Bisset. 1976. An explanation of egg-weight variation
in the Lesser Snow Goose. J. Wildl. Manage. 40: 729-734.

Blokpoel H. and D. R. M. Hatch. 1976. Snow Geese, disturbed by aircraft,
crash into powerlines. Can. Field-Nat. 90: 195.

Boyd, H. 1976a. Mortality rates of Hudson Bay Snow Geese, 1967-74. Can.
Wildl. Serv. Progrs. Notes 61: 1-4.

1976b. Estimates of total numbers in the Hudson Bay population of Les-
ser Snow Geese, 1964-1973. Can. Wildl. Serv. Progrs. Notes 63: 1-7.

Cooke, F., G. H. Finney and R. F. Rockwell. 1976. Assortative mating in Les-
ser Snow Geese (Anser caerulescens). Behav. Genet. 6: 127-140.

Gauthier, M. C., H. Blokpoel and S. G. Curtis. 1976. Observations on the
spring migration of Snow Geese from southern Manitoba to James and Hudson
bays. Can. Field-Nat. 90: 196-199.

Hanson, H. C. and R. L. Jones. 1976. The biogeochemistry of Blue, Snow, and
Ross' Geese. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv., Spec. Publ. No. 1. S. Ill. Univ.
Press/Urbana, IL. 281 pp.









Kelsall, J. P. and W. J. Pannekoek. 1976. The mineral profile of plumage in
captive Lesser Snow Geese. Can. J. Zool. 54: 301-305.

Syroechkovsky, E. V. 1976. [Behavioural patterns of the Snow Geese (Anser
caerulescens) during the nesting period.] Zool. Zh. 55: 1495-1504. [In
Russian with English summary.]

1975

Ankney, C. D. 1975a. Apparent breeding of a Greater Snow Goose at the McCon-
nell River, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 89: 185-186.

1975b. Neckbands contribute to starvation in female Lesser Snow Geese.
J. Wildl. Manage. 39: 825-826.

Blokpoel, H. and M. C. Gauthier. 1975. Migration of Lesser Snow and Blue
Geese. Part 1. Influence of the weather and prediction of major flights.
Can. Wildl. Serv. Rept. Ser. No. 32. 30 pp.

Blokpoel, H., J. D. Heyland, J. Burton and N. Samson. 1975. Observations of
the fall migration of Greater Snow Geese across southern Quebec. Can.
Field-Nat. 89: 268-277.

Chabreck, R. H. and J. D. Schroer. 1975. Effects of neck-collars on the
reproduction of Snow Geese. Bird-Banding 46: 346-347.

Cooke, F. 1975. The Snow Geese of La Perouse Bay. Dept. Mines, Resourc. and
Environ. Manage., Prov. of Manitoba Inform. Ser. No. 3. 14 pp.

Cooke, F. and C. M. McNally. 1975. Mate selection and colour preferences in
Lesser Snow Geese. Behaviour 53: 151-170.

Cooke, F., C. D. MacInnes and J. P. Prevett. 1975. Gene flow between breeding
populations of Lesser Snow Geese. Auk 92: 493-510.

Dzubin, A., H. Boyd and W. J. D. Stephen. 1975. Blue and Snow Goose distribu-
tion in the Mississippi and Central flyways, 1951-71. Can. Wildl. Serv.
Progrs. Notes 54. 34 pp.

Finney, G. H. 1975. Reproductive strategies of the Lesser Snow Goose, Anser
caerulescens caerulescens. Ph.D. thesis, Queen's Univ./Kingston, ON.
152 pp.

Harwood, J. 1975. The feeding strategies of Blue Geese Anser caerulescens.
Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Western Ontario/London, ON. 187 pp.

Kelsall, J. P., W. J. Pannekoek and R. Burton. 1975. Chemical variability in
plumage of wild Lesser Snow Geese. Can. J. Zool. 53: 1369-1375.

Kerbes, R. H. 1975. The nesting population of Lesser Snow Geese in the east-
ern Canadian Arctic: a photographic inventory of June 1973. Can. Wildl.
Serv. Rept. Ser. No. 35. 47 pp.









Lumsden, H. G. 1975. Differential migration in yearling and adult Lesser Snow
Geese (Anser caerulescens). Bird-Banding 46: 40-46.

Lynch, J. J. 1975. Winter ecology of Snow Geese on the Gulf Coast, 1925 to
1975. Unpubl. paper presented at the 37th Midwest Wildl. Conf., Toronto,
ON. 45 pp.


Schroer, J. D. and
Snow Geese in
Assoc. Game &


R. H. Chabreck. 1975. Dispersal and flock integrity of
Louisiana and Texas. Proc. 28th Annu. Conf. Southeastern
Fish Commiss.: 468-474.


Sulzbach, D. S. 1975. A study of the population dynamics of a nesting colony
of the Lesser Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens). M.S. thesis,
Queen's Univ./Kingston, ON.

Syroechkovsky, E. V. 1975. [Egg weight and its effect upon mortality of nest-
lings in Chen caerulescens on the Wrangel Island.] Zool. Zh. 54: 408-412.
[In Russian with English summary.]

1974

Ankney, C. D. 1974. The importance of nutrient reserves to breeding Blue
Geese (Anser caerulescens). Ph.D. thesis, Univ. W. Ontario/London, ON.
232 pp.


Blokpoel, H.
southern
heights,


1974a. Migration of Lesser Snow and Blue Geese in spring across
Manitoba. Part I: distribution, chronology, directions, numbers,
and speeds. Can. Wildl. Serv. Rept. Ser. No. 28. 29 pp.


S_ 1974b. Recent changes in chronology of spring Snow Goose migration
from southern Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 88: 67-71.

Boag, P. T. 1974. A descriptive and functional analysis of post-hatch flock-
ing in the Lesser Snow Goose. B.S. thesis, Queen's Univ./Kingston, ON.

Heyland, J. D., D. B. Wingate and N. N. Powe. 1974. Five Greater Snow Geese
from northwestern Baffin Island winter in Bermuda. Bird-Banding 45: 217-
223.

Smithey, D. A., R. H. Chabreck, F. W. Martin, E. T. Sipio and J. R. Walter.
1974. Social behavior and migration patterns of Blue and Snow geese win-
tering in Louisiana and eastern Texas. Proc. 27th Annu. Conf. Southeast-
ern Assoc. Game & Fish Commiss.: 43-56.

1973

Bartlett, D. and J. Bartlett. 1973. Beyond the north wind with the Snow
Goose. Natl. Geogr. 144: 822-847.

Lieff, B. C. 1973. The summer feeding ecology of Blue and Canada geese at
McConnell River, N.W.T. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. W. Ontario/London, ON.
230 pp.










Prevett, J. P. 1973. Family behavior and age-dependent breeding biology of
the Blue Goose, Anser caerulescens. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. W. Ontario/Lon-
don, ON.

Prevett, J. P. and L. S. Prevett. 1973. Egg retrieval by Blue Geese. Auk
90: 202-204.

Smithey, D. 1973. Social organization, behavior, and movement of Blue and
Snow geese wintering in Louisiana. M.S. thesis, La. St. Univ./Baton
Rouge, LA. 135 pp.

1972

Cooke, F. and P. J. Mirsky. 1972. A genetic analysis of Lesser Snow Goose
families. Auk 89: 863-871.

Cooke, F., P. J. Mirsky and M. B. Seiger. 1972. Color preferences in the Les-
ser Snow Goose and their possible role in mate selection. Can. J. Zool.
50: 529-536.

Hanson, H. C., H. G. Lumsden, J. J. Lynch and H. W. Norton. 1972. Population
characteristics of three mainland colonies of the Blue and Lesser Snow
Geese nesting in the southern Hudson Bay region. Ontario Minist. Nat.
Resource Resch. Rept. (Wildl.) No. 92. 38 pp.

Noble, M. D. 1972. Blue Geese observations in British Columbia. Murrelet
53: 13.

Privette, A., Jr. 1972. Snow Geese seen in Wake County, N.C. Chat 36: 88.

Schreiber, R. K. 1972. Recent sightings of Blue Geese in Washington. Murre-
let 53: 36-37.

Starkey, E. E. 1972. A case of interspecific homosexuality in geese. Auk
89: 456-457.

Syroechkovsky, E. V. 1972. [Some peculiarities of interrelationships between
the Snow Geese and the Arctic Foxes on the Wrangel Island.] Zool. Zh. 51:
1208-1213. [In Russian with English summary.]

1971

Bateman, H. 1971. Blue and Snow Geese short stopping. La. Conserv. 23: 4-9.

Harvey, J. M. 1971. Factors affecting Blue Goose nesting success. Can. J.
Zool. 49: 223-234.

Ryder, J. P. 1971a. Distribution and breeding biology of the Lesser Snow
Goose in central arctic Canada. Wildfowl 22: 18-28.

1971b. Size differences between Ross' and Snow goose eggs at Karrak
Lake, Northwest Territories in 1968. Wilson Bull. 83: 438-439.










Trauger, D. L., A. Dzubin and J. P. Ryder. 1971. White Geese intermediate be-
tween Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese. Auk 88: 856-875.

1970

Heyland, J. D. and H. Boyd. 1970. Greater Snow Geese (Anser caerulescens at-
lanticus Kennard) in northwest Greenland. Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr.
64: 193-204.

Nagel, J. E. 1970. Snow Goose migrations in the eastern segment of the Pacific
Flyway. Proc. 50th Annu. Conf. Western Assoc. State Game & Fish Commiss.:
361-377.

Peck, G. K. 1970. First Ontario nest records of Arctic Loon (Gavia arctica)
and Snow Goose (Chen hyperborea). Ont. Field Biol. 24: 25-28.

Penczak, T. 1970. Ges sniezna, Anser caerulescens (L.) w Polsce. [Snow Goose,
Anser caerulescens, in Poland.] Acta Ornithol. 12: 42. [In Polish with
English summary.]

1969

Hanson, W. C. 1969. First sight records of Blue Geese in Washington. Murre-
let 50: 24.

Kerbes, R. H. 1969. Biology and distribution of nesting Blue Geese on Kouk-
djuak Plain, Baffin Island, N.W.T. M.S. thesis, Univ. W. Ontario/London,
ON. 122 pp.

Nagel, J. E. 1969. Migration patterns and general habits of the Snow Goose in
Utah. Utah Dept. Nat. Resourc. Publ. 69-6. 74 pp.

Ryder, J. P. 1969. Egg-eating by wild Lesser Snow Geese. Avicult Mag. 75:
23-24.

1968

Cooke, F. and F. G. Cooch. 1968. The genetics of polymorphism in the goose,
Anser caerulescens. Evolution 22: 289-300.

Higgins, K. F. 1968. Evaluation of techniques for estimating fall age ratios
of Canada and Snow geese. M.S. thesis, S. Dak. St. Univ./Vermillion, SD.

1967

Lemieux, L. and J. Heyland. 1967. Fall migration of Blue Geese and Lesser
Snow Geese from the Koukdjuak River, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories.
Nat. Can. 94: 677-694.

Lieff, B. C. 1967. Feeding behaviour of geese at McConnell River, N.W.T.
M.S. thesis, Univ. W. Ontario/London, ON.









Uspenski, S. M. 1967. [Snow Geese in the Soviet Arctic.] Problemy Severa 11:
224-228. [In Russian.]

1965

Rienecker, W. C. 1965. A summary of band returns from Lesser Snow Geese (Chen
hyperborea) of the Pacific Flyway. Calif. Fish Game 51: 132-146.

Sutherland, C. A. and D. S. McChesney. 1965. Sound production in two species
of geese. Living Bird 4: 99-106.

Uspenski, S. M. 1965. The geese of Wrangel Island. Wildfowl Trust Annu.
Rept. 16: 126-129.

1964

Cooch, F. G. 1964. Snows and Blues. Pp. 125-133 in J. P. Linduska (ed.)
Waterfowl tomorrow. U.S. Dept. Int., U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Wash.,
D.C.

Dzubin, A. 1964. Two possible wild hybrids of the White-fronted Goose X Snow
Goose. Blue Jay 22: 106-108.

Eagles, D. 1964. Oil pollution--a near disaster for the Greater Snow Goose.
Can. Aud. 26: 37-39.

1963

Baillie, J. L. 1963. The 13 most recent Ontario nesting birds. Ont. Field
Biol. 17: 15-26.

Cooch, F. G. 1963. Recent changes in distribution of color phases of Chen
c. caerulescens. Proc. XIII Internatl. Ornithol. Congr.: 1182-1194.

1962

Lawrence, L. de K. 1962. A noteworthy reverse migration of Snow Geese in
central Ontario. Auk 79: 718.

1961

Angstadt, R. B. 1961. Predation by jaegers in a Blue Goose colony. M.S.
thesis, Cornell Univ./Ithaca, NY. 49 pp.

Cooch, G. 1961. Ecological aspects of the Blue-Snow Goose complex. Auk 78:
72-89.

Kebbe, C. E. 1961. Report from Russia on banded Snow Geese. Bull. Oregon
State Game Commiss. 16: 45.










1960

Cooch, F. G., G. M. Stirrett and G. F. Boyer. 1960. Autumn weights of Blue
Geese (Chen caerulescens). Auk 77: 460-465.

Goldstick, H. L. 1960. Blue Goose and shorebirds at Hunting Towers, Alexan-
dria, Va. Atl. Nat. 15: 44.

1959

Cooch, F. G. and J. Beardmore. 1959. Assortative mating and reciprocal dif-
ference in the Blue-Snow Goose complex. Nature 183: 1833-1834.

Lemieux, L. 1959a. Histoire naturelle et amenagement de la Grande Oie blanche,
Chen hyperborea atlantica. Nat. Can. 86: 133-192. [In French.]

1959b. Histoire naturelle et amenagement de la Grande Oie blanche,
Chen hyperborea atlantica. Ph.D. thesis, Laval Univ./Quebec, PQ.

1959c. The breeding biology of the Greater Snow Goose on Bylot Island,
Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 73: 117-128.

1959d. The breeding biology of the Greater Snow Goose (Chen hyperborea
atlantica) on Bylot Island. (Abstract). Trans. N.E. Wildl. Conf. 1: 122.

1958

Cooch, F. G. 1958. The breeding biology and management of the Blue Goose Chen
caerulescens. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell Univ./Ithaca, NY. 235 pp.

Lahrman, F. W. 1958. The Blue Goose in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 16: 57-58.

McEwen, E. H. 1958. Observations on the Lesser Snow Goose nesting grounds,
Egg River Banks Island. Can. Field-Nat. 71: 122-127.

1957

Cooch, C. 1957. Mass ringing of flightless Blue and Lesser Snow geese in
Canada's eastern Arctic. Wildfowl Trust Annu. Rept. 8: 58-67.

Foster, J. B. 1957. Snow and Blue geese nesting in the southern Arctic.
Ont. Field Biol. 11: 22.

Labisky, R. F. 1957. Unusual flight behavior of Blue and Snow geese. Auk
74: 509.

Lumsden, H. G. 1957. A Snow Goose breeding colony in Ontario. Can. Field-
Nat. 71: 153-154.










1955

Baillie, J. L. 1955. On the spring flight of Blue and Snow geese across north-
ern Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 69: 135-139.

Cooch, G. 1955. Observations on the autumn migration of Blue Geese. Wilson
Bull. 67: 171-174.

Lemieux, L. 1955. La Grande Oie blanche, Chen hyperborea atlantica. M.S.
thesis, Laval Univ./Quebec, PQ.

1954

Hohn, E. O. 1954. In the home of the Snow Goose. Beaver 285: 8-11.

Stirrett, G. M. 1954. Field observations of geese in James Bay, with special
reference to the Blue Goose. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 19: 211-220.

1953

Cooch, F. G. 1953a. A preliminary study of the Blue and Lesser Snow geese
on Southampton Island. M.S. thesis, Cornell Univ./Ithaca, NY. 77 pp.

1953b. A preliminary study of the Blue and Lesser Snow geese on
Southampton Island. Arctic Circle 6: 14-17.

Nicholson, D. J. 1953. The first recording of the (Lesser?) Snow Goose in
Orange County, Florida. Fla. Nat. 26: 136-137.

1952

Hebard, F. V. 1952. Blue Geese in Glynn County. Oriole 17: 39.

Morrison, A. 1952. The Greater Snow Goose. Bull. Mass. Audubon Soc. 36:
285-291.

Nelson, H. K. 1952. Hybridization of Canada Geese with Blue Geese in the
wild. Auk 69: 425-428.

1950

Hewitt, O. H. 1950. Recent studies of Blue and Lesser Snow goose populations
in James Bay. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 15: 304-309.

1949

Sibley, C. G. 1949. The incidence of hybrids in migrant Blue and Snow geese
in Kansas. Condor 51: 274.

Spinner, G. P. 1949. Observations on Greater Snow Geese in the Delaware Bay
area. Auk 66: 197-198.