Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I
 Part II
 Journal of the travels continued....
 Account of the persons, manners,...
 Part IV
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida
Title: Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000162/00001
 Material Information
Title: Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida ...
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Bartram, William
Publisher: J. Johnson
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: James and Johnson
Publication Date: 1792
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000162
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0110
notis - AEL7995

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Part I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 19a
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Part II
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 174a
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
    Journal of the travels continued. Part II
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 380a
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 474a
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
    Account of the persons, manners, customs and government of the Muscogulges, or Creeks, Cherokees, Chactaws, etc.
        Page 479
        Page 480
    Part IV
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
    Back Matter
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
    Back Cover
        Page 537
        Page 538
Full Text


I'' !
l. ,




\ \-I. t5;







-: .; t
:"' :c;

~ :::



R -'~a;T


'-411:B.. .i

- r-.

a~ -


I~ r



I- a-

r .Ir.. 't ~
m. Irr
1. I ~"




-,, .

We ~,

















C 1 CHAP. I.
ST THE Author embarks at Philadelphia-arrives at Charlefton Page i
Embarks again for Georgia and arrives at Savanna-proceeds Southward and
arrives at Sunbury-obfervations on the town, harbour, and ifland of St. Catha-
,; 9rine, its foil and productions7-account of the eftablifhment of St. John's diftria
y ?and Midway meeting-houfe-defcription of a beautiful fifl-proceeds for the
river Alatamaha, defcription of a tremendous thunder ftorm 4
Croffes the river at Fort Barrington and arrives at St. Ille-paffes the frontier
Settlements and meets an- hostile Indian-croffes the river St..Mary and. arrives
at the R'ading-houfc, account of the country thereabout, its natural produ&ions,
of the lake Ouaquaphenogaw, faid to be the force of the river St. Mary-returns
to the Alatamaha and thence to Savanna 6
Sets off from Savanna to Augufta, one hundred fixty-five miles North-Wefl
from the fea coaft-defcribes the face of the country, the river Savanna, the ca-
Starats and village of Augufta-congrefs with the Indians at St.-Augulaa-the
village of Wrightfborough on Little River-monurrients of an ancient Indian
town on Little River-Buffaloe Lick-begins the furvey of the New Purchafe-
S,,, high proof of Indian fagacity-returns to Savanna 28
The Author leaves Broughton ifland and afcends the Alatamaha-night feene
-a tempeft-defcription of the river-ruins of an ancient fortification-Indian
monuments at the Oakmulge fields-Creeks, account of their settlement in
i Georgia 47
Sets off from Savanna to Eaft Florida, proceeding by land to the Alatamaha-
defcends that river to Frederica on the ifland of St. Simon's-defcribes the ifland
and the city 55
Leaves Frederica for the lower trading-houfe on St. Juan's-paffes through and
describes the found, &c. 6x
C jA P. III.
SLeaves Amelia island and airives at the Cowford, on the river St. Juan's-pro-
,r ceeds up the river alone in a fmall canoe; fuffers by a gale of wind in croffing
the river; is hofpitably entertained at a gentleman's houfe, where he refits and fails
again-defcribes fort Picolata-various produAions, viz. Magnolia grandiflora,
Tiilandfia ufneadfcites, floating fields of the Piftia firatiotes, the river and coun-
try, touches at Charlotteville-arrives at the lower trading-houfe 68
Proceeds farther up the river-paffes by Mount Hope, and comes to at Mount
Royal--defcribes the mount, Indian highway, &c.-bcautiful landfcape of the
country and profpc& of the lake-enters Lake George-defcription of the lake-
a , forced

iv CO N T E N T S.
forced by firefs of weather to put into the beautiful ife Edelano, description of
the island, ancient Indian town, mount and highway-croffes over the lake and
arrives at the upper trading-houle 95
P1.!- ft : i. '; ,: C. i.- .ari river, engages an Indian to
;i'l .1 .. l l .. Ir... r i:r i I..j.l n becomes tired and requests
to be fet on aomn-ncamps at a delightful Orange grove-continues again alone
up the river: defription of the Palma Elata: enters the Little Lake and come
S -.. ,r r, n.,.t. [ .-'...1 r of alligators; a battle with them; great em-
.al ,.r .rt, aI.ri, kh e. : vaft affemblage of fifh: defcription of the
alligator and its neft, &c.-defaribes the Carica papaya-a very curious bird
- r.l...- r Ira- rak... ". .t ll ah I l ..-- 1baa. II
.".aW 't a[eapaa ,,r .a -rm a r.l' ,r.ra -I p.aI: r.
of the ancients-a hurricane-vifits a plantation on the banks of the Long Lake;
defcription of the lake, a large fulphureous funtain-account of the founding and
present late of New Smyrna, on the Mufquitoe river-returns down the river-
li L ka. .-.. t.rl [ I i tc a .d',. ltl-ll ea, Ced.a P..,ra,, ra.:1-..: rl.
i PI. ,-.td I 'a.l- t.. at S14 M.kt Sarda -nal 3. "
a,- th I .r, 4 ,la ta e Gad. .a, Zan..., Ca', po..." L.5 d.i.a,i
C:aa. ac.-:.te. a, R,::ky Potka-arriae.. gai rn tElk Es..V a h b t,,tnAe

Proceeds on a journey to Cufcowilla-defcribes the country and waters--An-
nona incana, Annona pygmea, Kalmia ciliata, Empetrum album, Andromeda
ferruginca, Rhododendron fpurium, Pica glandaria non criftata, Lanius, Laccrta,
Snakes, Chionanthus, Andromeda formofiffima, Cyrilla-encamps at the Half-
way Pond-defcribes the pond and meadows, a beautiful landfcape-pilgrimage
of fith-defcribes various kinds of fift-great foft shelled tortoife and'great land
tortoife-moral reflections and meditations-leaves Half-way Pond and proceeds
-fituation, quality, and furniture of the earth-arrives at Cufcowilla--recep
tion from the Indian chief: his charafter-Siminoles predilection for Spanith
cuftoms and civilization-India flames, their condition-departs for the Alachua
favanna; description of the favanna-Siminoles on horfeback-returns to a ufno-
willa-a council and Indian feaft--defcription of the town and Cufcowilla lake-

Sets out again on a journey to Talahafochte-defcription of the Siminole horfe
-encamps at an enchanting grotto on the banks of a beautiful lakea-rocky
ridges and desert wilds-engagement between a hawk and the coach-whip fnake-
a--defc riaption of the fnake-account of the country, grand Pine foreft-encamps
a. a I i .,,.,, i. ,-I .a. .i a, -a:, r _, r .

a troop under the condut and care of an Indian d4g-the fields of Capola a de-
a. : ... --....aka.l. .r T .i I I t, a rie
..-I -l.a ,.-.aa r..la-a al .I..-.C f.. . a.

,, i r L r i a l ,-. . . .
niains--vat Cane wilderneffes-ancient Spanilh plantations-.Apalachean old
Eflds-returns to town--White King's arrival-a council and feaft-charafte

of the king-leaves the town on refearches, and encamps in the forefls--accunt
of an extraordinary eruption of waters-joins his companions at camp-entery
tainment by the White King in Talahafiohte- Coitee, its preparation and uf--
returns to camp-great defert plains-entertainment with a party of young Simi-,
ole warriors--various natural wells and finksi conje res concerning them-
account of the Long Pond, and delightful profeCls adjacent-returns for the trad-
ing-houfe on St. Juan's-embarraffments occaftoned by the wild horfes-encamps
at Bird Illand pond--vat number of wild fowl tending their nefts-cngagtment
with an alligator who furprifed the camp by night-oblervations on the great A-
lachua favanna and its environs-arrival at the trading-hounf 21z
The Author makes an excursion again up St. Juan's to Lake George-revliits
Six Mile Springs and Illicium groves, makes collecions, and'recrofles the lake
to the Eaftern coaft-that thore more bolt and rocky than the oppofte-coafts
round that flaore, touching at old defeated plantations-Perennial Cotten-Indigo
-unpardonable devastation and neglect of the white fettlrs, with rmefipa to the
native Orange groves-returns to the trading-houle 25a
Indian warriors, their frolic-curious conference witl the Long Warrior-lu-
dicrous Indian farce relative to a rattle fnake-war fair .. 253
Farther account of the rattle fnake-account and deflription of other fakes
Ad animals-catalogue of birds of NorthAmerica; obfervations concerning their
migration, or'annual paflages from North to South, and back again 6z
Vifits an Indian village on the river-water melon feaft-defcription of ,th
banqueting-houfe-makes an excursion across the river; great dangers in croffing;
lands on the opposite lhore-difcovers a bee tree, which yielded a great quantity
of honey-returns to the lhore--embarks forPrederica in Georgia; vifits the plan-
tations down the river; enters the found and patfes through; arrives at Frederica
-embarks again-touches at Sunbury-arrives at Charlefton, South Carolina-
meditates a journey to the Cherokee country and Creek Nation, in Welt Flo-
rida 30S
The Author fets out for the Cherokee territories-paffes through a fine culti-
vated country-croffes Savanna river and enters the fate of Georgia-Dirca pa-
luitris-cowpens-civil entertainment at a plantation-purfues the road to Au-
gufta, and recroffes the river at Silver Bluff-account of Mr. Golphin's villa and
trading stores, Silver Bluff, fort Moore, Augufta, Savanna river, mountains of
large foffil oyfer-lhells 306
Proceeds for fort James, Dartmouth-curious species of Azalia-croffes
Broad River--etablilbment of Dartmouth--ndian mount, &c.-croffes Savanna
river-violent gul of rain--curious species of .Elculus pavia--town of Sinica-
fort Prince George, Keowe-defcribes the country 318
Ocone vale-monuments of the ancient town-croffes the mountains-their
Situation, views, and produaions-refts on the top of Mount Magnolia--defcrip-
tion of a new and beautiful species of Magnolia-cafcades of FallingCreek-thun-
der ftorm-head of Tanafee-vale of Cowe-Indian graves--towns of Echoe,
Nucaffee, and Whatoga-nobly entertained by the prince of Whatoga-arrives at
the town of Cowe-makes an excursion with a young trader on the hills of
Cowe-incomparable profpeas-horfe-ftamp-difcovers a company of Cherokee
aymphs-a frolic withthhem-returns to town 33t

C O0 N T E N T S.

e Author and his guide part- iurpriled by an Indian -falute and part friendly
,mouRnainous vegetable produ0 ions--arrives on the top of Iore mountam -futo

t...r ... '....... L,,,-,. __,

l 357
CHAP. V. 3

. [rr -, n-.- h r-th, o., r a.., da, .,.. JH ...... I,'.

elf Eicuhis 1 7

MA 0 l. .
Proceeds, and after thri days journey arrives atTaltafe, on tHe Taltapoofe rive
-Coloome, a handsome town-great plains-further account of the cotntry-
Dog woods--froffes the river chambe--comes to Taenfa on the Ea banks of
*.. Fii..., bori m.1 .F.1.. r r.-fi -- 1. c Vi1C a

,r r.:,- re r. i N r birr.. -- I h .. -

alli.. ' e r r Fr-- ,-,:nI. are l, ..--d ...t,. e

P el anlI after .r d' jourI ey arl ?-- nl atl lla,,l th.e .T, rl l ,ek

a delicate species of Mimofa--palffe lake Pontchartrain-touches at the rive
Taenfapaa-pafles over Lake Maurepas-proceeds up to Iberville-croffesby land
I Sn.. ... ,, .. 1... iy, ,, .. i -. 3 ,,,3
village and fertreff- high chffs opposite Point Coupe--returns to the Amite,
thence down through the lanks and founds bhck again to iMobile. 416

' ' .. .... 1 4; . rL r,' t. I'. ll .
S... r II. I -Ir- -I. [I-. : Ih- ,r '.. .... I .

wnarrage-ferious refeinsmh--prilous situation of e trader of Mucclaffe--ints
iF f iOt.-- .,:l. -I ...... ,r:. ,.i r Ii T.II1, : T .--1 .

are-rotunda and fquare--black drink- fpiral fire--.,' .rl r i, i, i,s I ri,.
Great Spirit--lets off with a company of traders for ,C .~. 0 ..I, ,r. i ''-
feta, Creek towns on the Apalachcla river, almhot join each other, yet the ini
habitants fpak two languages radically different-arrives at the Oakmulge-i
croies the river in a portable leather boat-rofhes the river OOconne-head
br-, '- X, ,t 1.. ...: .. -. ,'- 1 1 I ,1

onjetures concerning the rife of the Mhucogulge cotnfderacy 438
5 H CHAP.,

C O N T E N T S. vii
Short excursion in the South of Georgia-makes collcfions-gvthers feed of
two new and very curious hrub 465
Proceeds for CharleftRn-Calls at a gentleman's plantation-Adoe-Tannier-
wild pigeous-After fruticefus-leaves Charlefton, proceeds on his return home
to Pennfylvania-croies Cooper river, nine miles above the city-Long Bay-
reefs of rocks--ueMts4 gang of Negroes-paffes the boundary-hoofe-large fa-
vann" -Diontea muicipula-old towns--Brunfwick-the Clarendon or Cape-

and tumps of limbs, with the bark on, turned into very hard flone-Rockdi-f
crcck-Crofs Creeks-the rfe, progrfs, and pvefent late of Cambelton-u-
rious species of fcandent Fern-Dep River --crofes Haw River-Mehcvrre.




I... C, r

Drefs, feafls, and divertilements--youth of both fexes are fond of decorations
with refpeCt to drefs---their ears acerated---diadem plumes, &c.---paint their


treafu ;---women the mot ingenious and vigilant in mechanic arts L nd manufac-
tures A 509

,... ............. ... ,.
.. ......... . .5" .,. ., ,. ...

retain its form 5 A P. VI.
Hi t AP. VI.

flav points 5T7


THE attention of a traveller should be particularly
taned,. in Aie~.firft place, to. the various works of
Nature, to mark the diltinaions of the climates he
may explore, and to offer fuch ufeful observations
on the different produ&ions as may occur. Men
and manners undoubtedly hold the firft rank-what-
ever may contribute to our existence is alfo of equal
importance, whether it be found in the animal or
vegetable kingdom; neither are the various articles,
which tend to promote the happinefs and conve-
nience of mankind, to be difregarded. How far
the writer of the following sheets has succeeded in
furnishing information on thefe fubjecs, the reader
will be capable of determining. From the advan-
tages the journalift enjoyed under his father JOHN
BARTRAM, botanift to the king of Great Britain,
and fellow of the Royal Society, it is hoped that
his labours will present new as well as ufeful infor-
mation to the botanift and zoologift.
This world, as a glorious apartment of the bound-
lefs palace of the sovereign Creator, is furnished
with an infinite variety of animated fcenes, inex-
preffibly beautiful and pleading, equally free to the
infpe&ion and enjoyment of all his creatures.
Perhaps there is not any part of creation, within
the reach of our observations, which exhibits a more
glorious display of the Almighty hand, than the
vegetable world; fuch a variety of pleading fcenes,
ever changing throughout the feafons, arifing from


Cr3dous caul c, and affigned each to the purpose and
ife determined.
It is difficult to pronounce which division of the
earth, between the polar circles, produces the greatest
variety. The tropical division certainly affords
thofe which principally contribute to the more
luxurious feenes of fplendour, as Myrtus communis,
Myrc. caryophyllata, Myrt. pimenta, Caryophyllus
aromaticus, Laurus cinnam. Laurus camphor. Lau-
rus Perfica, Nux mofch. Illicium, Camellia, Pu-
nica, Catus melo-ca&us, Cactus grandiflora, GIo-
riofa fuperba, Theobroma, Adanfonia digitata,
Nydanihes, Pfidum, Mufa paradifica, Mufa fa-
pientum, Garcinia mangoilhna, Cocos nucifera, Ci-
trus, Citrus aurantium, Cucurbita citrullus, Hya-
cinthus, Amaryllis, Narciflus, Poinciana pulcherri-
ma, Crinum, Catus cochinellifer.
But the temperate zone (including by far the
greater portion of the earth, and a climate the moft
favourable to the increase and support of animal
life, as well as for the exercise and activity of the
human faculties) exhibits fcenes of infinitely greater
variety, magnificence, and confequence, with refpel
to human economy, in regard to the various ufes or
For instance; Triticum Cereale, which affords
us bread, and is termed, by way of eminence, the
flaff of life, the moft pleasant and nourishing food
to all terrestrial animals. Vitis vinifera, whofe ex-
' hilarating juice is faid to cheer the hearts of gods
and men. Oryza, Zea, Pyrus, Pyrus malus, Pru-
nus, Pr, cerafus, Ficus, Ne&tarin, Apricot, Cydo-
nia. Next follow.the illustrious families of foreft-
trees, as the Magnolia grandiflora and Quercus
fempervirens, which form the venerated groves and
folemna shades, on the Miffiflippi, Alatamaha arid
b Florida,


Florida; the magnificent Cuprefiis difticha of Ca-
rolina and Florida; the beautiful Water Oak *,
wliofe vaft hemifpheric head presents the likeness
of a diftant grove in the fields and favannas of ,Ca-
rolina; the gigantic Black Oak f, Platanus. occi,
dentalis, Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Liriodendron tu-
lipifera, Fagus caftanea, Fagus fylvatica, Juglans,
nigra, Juglans cinerea, Jug. pecan, Ulmus, Acer
faccharinum, of Virginia and Pennfylvania;j Pinus
phoenix, Pinus toeda, Magnolia acuminata, Nyffa
aquatica, Populus heterophylla, and the floriferous
Gordonia lafianthus, of Carolina and Flbrida; the
exalted Pinus ftrobus, Pin. balfamica, Pin. abies,
Pin. Canadenfis, Pin. larix, Fraxinus excelfior, Ro-
binia pfeudacacia, Guilandina dioica, iEfculus Vir-
ginica, Magnolia acuminata, of Virginia, Mary-
land, Pennfylvania, New erfeyj New York, New
England, Ohio, and the regions of Erie and the
Illinois; and the aromatic and floriferous shrubs,
as Azalea coccinea, Azalea rofea, Rofa, Rhodo-
dendron, Kalmia, Syringa, Gardenia, Calycanths,
Daphne, Franklinia, Styrax, and others equally
In every order of nature we perceive a variety
of qualities distributed amongft individuals, designed
for different purposes and ufes; yet it appears evi-
dent, that the great Author has impartially diftri-
buted his favours to his creatures, fo that the attri-
butes of each one feem to be of sufficient import-
ance to manifeft the divine and inimitable work-
manfhip. The pompous Palms of Florida, and
glorious Magnolia, firikes, us with the fenfe of dig-
nity and magnificence; the expanfive umbrageous
Live Oak + with awful veneration; the Carica
O ercuH emipherica. t Q~ermtori a qurcurs frmpcrirn,
6 papaya,

iapaya feems fupercilious with all the harmony of
beauty and gracefulnefs; the Lilium fuperbum re-
prefents pride and vanity; Kalmia latifolia and Aza-
lea coccinea, exhibit a perfect fhow of mirth and
gaiety; the Illicium Floridanum, Crinum Florida-
num, Convallaria majalis of the Cherokees, and
Calycanthus floridus, charm with their beauty and
fragrance. Yet they are not to be compared for
ufefulnefs with the nutritious Triticum, Zea, Oryza,
Solanur tuberofum, Mufa, Convolvulus Batata,
Rapa, Orchis, Vitis vinifera, Pyrus, Olea; for cloth-
ing with Linum Cannabis, GulTypium, Morus; for
medicinal virtues % iih Hyiropus, Thymus, Anthemis
nbbilis, Papaver Ibmnrulirm, Quinquina, Rheum
rhabarbarum, Pifum, &c. Though none of thefe
nioft useful tribes are confpicuous for ftatelinefs,
figure, or fplendour,. yet their valuable qualities and
virtues excite love, gratitude, and adoration to
the great Creator, who W\as pleaded to endow them
with fuch eminent qualities, and reveal them to
us for our fuftenance, amusement, and delight.
But there remain of the vegetable world feve-
ral tribes that are diftinguifhed by very remarkable
properties, which excite our admiration, fome for
the elegance, fingularity, and fplendour of their veft-
ment, as the Tulipa, Fritillaria, Colchicum, Pri-
mula, Lilium fuperbum, Kalmia, &c.: others
aftonifh us by their figure and difpnfal of their vef-
ture, as if designed only to enbellifh and pleafe
the observer, as the Nepenthes diftillatoria, Ophrys
infedoria, Cypripedium calceolus, Hydrangia quer-
cifolia, Bartramia brateata, Viburnum Canadenfe,
Bartfia, &c.
Obferve thefe green meadows how they are de-
corated; they feem enamelled with the beds of
flowers. The blufhing Chironia and Rhexia, the
b 2 fpiral

fpiral Ophrys with immaculate white flowers, the
Limodorum, Arethufa pulcherrima, Sarracenia pur-.
purea, Sarracenia galeata, Sarracenia lacunofa,
Sarracenia flava. Shall we analyze there beautiful
plants, fince they feem cheerfully to invite us? How
greatly the flowers of the yellow Sarracenia repre-
fent a filken canopy ? the yellow pendant petals are
the curtains, and the hollow leaves are not unlike
the cornucopia or Amalthea's horn; what a quan-
tity of water a leaf is capable of containing, about
a pint! tafe of it-how cool and animating-lim-
pid as the morning dew: nature feems to have fur-
nifhed them with this cordated appendage or lid,
which turns over, to prevent a too fudden and
copious fupply of water from heavy showers of rain,
which would bend down the leaves, never to rife
again; because their straight parallel nerves, which
extend and support them, are fo rigid and fragile,
the leaf would inevitbly break when bent down to
a right angle; therefore I fuppofe the waters which
contribute to their fupply, are the rebounding
drops or horizontal ftreams wafted by the winds,
which adventitioufly find their way into them, when
a blaft of wind fiifts the lid: fee thefe thort ftiff
hairs, they all point downwards, which dire& the con-
denfed vapours down into the funiculum; thefe ftiff
hairs alfo prevent the varieties of infects, which are
caught from returning, being invited down to fip the
mellifluous exudation, from the interior surface of the
tube, where they inevitably perifh; what quantities
there are of them! Thefe latent waters undoubtedly
contribute to the support and refrefhment of the
plant: perhaps designed as a refervoir in cafe of long
continued droughts, or other casualties, fince thefe
plants naturally dwell in low favannas liable to
overflows, from rain water; for although I am not

f the opinion that vegetables receive their nourifh-
ment only through the ascending part of the plant,
as the ftem, branches, leaves, &c.; and that their
defending parts, as the root and fibres, only ferve
to hold and retain them in their places; yet I be-
lieve they imbibe rain and dews through their
leaves, ftems, and branches, by extremely minute
pores, which open on both furfaces of the leaves
and on the. branches, which may communicate to
little auxiliary du&s or vcffels; or, perhaps th&
cool dews and showers, by conftrifing thefe pores,
and thereby preventing a too free perfpiration, may
recover and again invigorate the languid nerves of
thofe whith feem to fuffer for want of water, in
great heats and droughts; but whether the infets
caught in their leaves, and which diffolve and mix
with the fluid, ferve for aliment or support to
thefe kind of plants, is doubtful. All the Sarra-
cenias are infet catchers, and fo is the Droffea
But admirable are the properties of the extraor-
dinary Dionea mufcipula! A great extent on each
fide of that ferpentine rivulet is occupied by thofe
fportive vegetables-let us advance to the fpot in
which nature has feated them, Aftonifhing pro-
dution! fee the incarnate lobes expanding, how
gay and fportive they appear! ready on the spring
to intrap incautious deluded infets what artifice !
there behold one of the leaves juft closed upon a
firuggling fly; another has gotten a worm; its hold is
fure, its prey can never efcape-carnivorous vege-
table Can we after viewing this objet, hefitate a
moment to confefs, that vegetable beings are en-
dued with -fome fenfible faculties or attributes,
Similar to thofe that dignify animal nature; they are
or '. i;. '1'

organical, living, and felf-moving bodies, for we
fee here, in this plant, motion and volition. *
What power or faculty is it, that dires- the cirri
of the Cucurbita, Momordica, Vitis, and other
climbLrs, towards the twigs of firubs, trees, and
other friendly support ? we fee them invariably lean-
ing, extending, and like the fingers of the human
hand, reaching to catch hold of what is neareft,
juft as if they had eyes to fee 1 irh, and when their
hold is fixed, to coil the tendril in a Ypiral form,
by which artifice it becomes more elaftic and effec-
tual, than if it had remained in a direct line, for
every revolution of the coil adds a portion of
strength and thus collected, they are enabled to
dilate and contra& as occafion or neceffity requires,
and thus by yielding to, and humouring the motion
of the limbs and-twigs, or other support on which
they depend, are not fo liable to be torn off by
fudden blafts of wind or other affaults: is it fenfe or
inftinaf that influences their actions? it muft be
fome impulfe or does the hand of the Almighty
act and perform this work in our fight?
The vital principle or efficient caufe of mbtioq
and a&ion, in the animal and vegetable fyfiem,
perhaps, may be more similar than we generally ap-
prehend. Where is the effential difference between
the feed of peas, peaches, and other tribes iof
plants and trees, and the eggs of oviparous anj-
mals, as of birds, fhakes, or butterflies, fpawn of
fifth, &c. ? Let us begin at the force of terreftrial
exiftence, Are not the feeds of vegetables, and the.
eggs of oviparous animals fecundated, or influenced
with the vivific principle of life, through the approxi-
mation and intimacy of the fexes ? and inmmd;idely
after the eggs and feeds are hatched, does not the

.I il .... .fb -. . i un

young larva and infant plant, by heat and moifture,
rife into existence, increase, and in due time arrive
to a fate of perfect maturity ? The phyfiologifts
agree in opinion, that the work of generation s
viviparous animals, is exa&ly similar, only more
fecret and enveloped. The mode of operation that
nature purfues in the produaion of vegetables, and
oviparous animals, is infinitely more uniform and
manifest, than that which is or can be discovered to
take place in viviparous animals.
The moft apparent difference between animals
and vegetables is, that animals have the powers of
found, and -are locomotive, whereas vegetables are
Snot able to fhift themselves from the places where
nature has planted them: yet vegetables have the
power of moving and exercifing their members, and
have the means of tranfplanting or colonifing their
tribes almost over the furface of the whole earth;
fome feeds, for instance, grapes, nuts, fmilax, peas,
and others, whofe pulp or kernel is food for ani-
mals, will remain several days without being in-
jured in ftomachs of pigeons and other birds of
paffage; by this means fuch forts are diffibuted
from place to place, even acrofs feas; indeed, fome
feeds require this preparation by the digeftive heat
of the flomach of animals, to diffolve and detach
the oily, vifcid pulp, or to often the hard fhells.
Small feeds are sometimes furnifiaed with rays of
hair or down; and others with thin light membranes
attached to them, which ferve the purpose of wings,
on which they mount upward, leaving the earth,
float in the air, and are carried away by the fwift
winds to very remote regions before they fettle on
the earth; fome are furnished with hooks, which
catch hold of the wool and hair of animals paffing
by them, and are by that means fpread abroad;
b 4 other

other feeds ripen in pericarpes, which open with
elaftic force, and fhoot their feed to a very great
distance round about; fome other feeds, as of the
Mofles and Fungi, are bf very minute as to be in-
vifible, light as atoms, and thefe mixing with the
air, are wafted all over the world.
The animal creation alfo excites our admiration,
and equally manifefts the almighty power, wifdom,
and beneficence of the Supreme Creator and Sove,
reign Lord of the universe; fome in their vaft fize
and strength, as the mammoth, the elephant, the
whale, the lion, and alligator; others in agility;
others in their beauty and elegance of colour,
plumage, and rapidity of flight, having the faculty
of moving and living in the air; others for their
immediate and indifpenfable ufe and convenience
to man, in furnilhipg means for our clothing and
fuftenance, and adminiftering to our help in the
toils and labours of life: how wonderful is the me-
chanifm of. thefe finely formed felf-moving beings,
how complicated their fyftem, yet what unerring
uniformity prevails through every tribe and parti-
cular species the effect we fee and contemplate,
the caufe is invifible, incomprehensible; how can
jt be otherwise? when we cannot fee the end or
origin of a nerve or vein, while the divifibility of
matter or fluid, is infinite. We admire the me-
chanifm of a watch, and the fabric of a piece of
brocade, as being the production of art; thefe merit
our admiration, and muft exciteour efteem for the
ingenious artist or modifier; but nature is the work
of God omnipotent; and an elephant, nay even this
world, is comparatively but a very minute part of
his works. If then the vifible, the mechanical part
of the animal creation, the mere material part, is
fb admirably beautiful, harmonious, and incompre-

henfible, what muft be the intellectual fyftem ? that
inexpreffibly more effential principle, which secretly
operates within ? that which animates the inimitable
machines, which gives them motion, impowers
them to a&, fpeak, and perform, this muft be
divine and immortal ?
I am fenfible that the general opinion of philo-
fophers, has diftinguifhed the moral fyftem of the
brute creature from that of mankind, by an epithet
which implies a mere mechanical impulfe, which
leads and impels them to neceffary actions, without
any premeditated defign or contrivance; this we
term inftin&, which faculty we fuppofe to be infe-
rior to reason in man.
The parental and filial affe&ions feem to be as
ardent, their fenfibility and attachment as adive
and faithful, as thofe observed in human nature.
When travelling on the eaft coaft of the ifthmus
of Florida, afcending the fouth Mufquito .river, in
a canoe, we obferved numbers of deer and bears,
near the banks, and on the iflands of the river;
the bears were feeding on the fruit of the dwarf
creeping Chamaerops; (this fruit is of the form and
fize of dates, and is delicious and nonrifhing food:)
we faw eleven bears in the courfe of the day, they
seemed no way furprifed or affrighted at the fight
of us. In the evening, my hunter, who was an
excellent markfman, faid that he would foot one
of them, for the fake of the fkin and oil, for we
had plenty and variety of provisions in our bark.
We accordingly, on fight of two of them, planned
our approaches as artfully as poflible, by croffing
over to the opposite fhore, in order to get under
cover of a fmall island; this we cautiously coafted
round, to a point, which we apprehended would
* ke us within fhot of the bears; but here finding

ourselves at too great a distance from them, and
difcovering that we muft openly (how ourselves, we
had no other alternative to effect our purpose, but
making oblique approaches. We gained gradually
on our prey by this artifice, without their noticing
us: finding ourselves near enough, the hunter fired,
and laid the largest dead on the rpot where fhe
flood; when prefently the other, not feeming the
left moved at the report of our piece, approached
the dead body, fmelled, and pawed it, and ap-
pearing in agony, fell to weeping and looking up-
wards, then towards us, and cried out like a child.
Whilft our boat approached very near, the hunter
was loading his rifle in order to fhoot the survivor,
which was a young cub, and the flain"'fuppofed to
be the dam. The continual cries of this afflicted
child, bereft of its parent, -affefed me very fenfi-
bly; I was moved with compaflion, and charging
myfelf as if acceffary to what now appeared to
be a cruel murder, endeavoured to prevail on the
hunter to fave its life, but to no effect! for by
habit he had become' infenfible to compaffion to-
wards the brute creation: being now within a few
yards of the harmlefs devoted vidim, he fired, and
laid it dead upon the body of the dam.
If we beftow but very little attention to the
economy of the animal creation, we hall find ma-
nifeft examples of premeditation, perfeverance, re-
folution, and confummate artifice, in order to effe&
their purposes. The next morning, after the laughter
of the bears, whilft my companioQs were firiking
our tent and preparing to re-embark, I refolved to
make a little botanical excurfion alone: crofing
over a narrow ifthmus of land hills which separated
the river from the ocean, I paffed over a pretty
high hill, its flmmit created with a few palm trees,

surrounded with an Orange grove: this hill, whofe
bafe was washed on one fide by the floods of the
.Mufquitoe river, and on the other fide by the bil-
lows of the ocean, was about one hundred yards
diameter, and seemed to be an entire heap of fea
shells. I continued along the beach a quarter of
a mile, and came up to a foreft of the Agave vivi-
para (though composed of herbaceous plants, I
term it a foreft, because their fcapes or flower-
ftems arofe ere6t near 30 feet high): their tops re-
gularly branching in the form of a pyramidal tree,
and thefe plants growing near to each other, occu-
pied a pace of ground of federal acres: when their
feeds are ripe they vegetate, and grow on the
branches, until the fcape dries, when the young
plants fall to the ground, take root, and fix them-
felves in the fand: the plant grows to a prodigious
fize before the fcape shoots up from its centre.
Having contemplated this admirable grove, I pro-
ceeded towards the fhrubberies on the banks of the
river, and though it was now late in December,
the aromatic groves appeared in full bloom. The
broad-leaved iveet Myrtus, Erythrina coralloden-
drum, Caftus cochinellifer, Cacalia fuffruticofa, and
particularly, Rhizophora conjugata, which flood
clofe to and in the falt water of the river, were in
full bloom, with beautiful white feet fcented flowers,
which attra&ed to them two or three fpecies of very
beautiful butterflies, one of which was black, the
upper pair of its wings very long and narrow,
marked with tranfverfe ftripes of pale yellow, with
fome fpots of a crimfon colour near the body. Ano-
ther species remarkable for fplendour, was of a larger
fize; the wings were undulated and obtufely cre-
nated round their ends, the nether pair terminating
pear the body, with a long narrow forked tail; the

ground light yellow, ftriped oblique-tranfverfely,
with ftripes of pale celestial blue, the ends of them
adorned with little eyes encircled with the fineft
blue and crimfon, which represented a very brilliant
rofary. But thofe which were the moft numerous
were as white as fnow, their wings large, their ends
lightly created and ciliated, forming a fringed bor-
der, faintly marked with little black crefcents, their
points downward, with a cluster of little brilliant
orbs of blue and crimfon, on the nether wings near
the body; the numbers were incredible, and there
seemed to be fcarcely a flower for each fly, multi-
tudinous as they were, besides clouds of them hover-
ing over the mellifluous groves. Befides thefe pa-
piles, a variety of other infeas come in for a fhare,
particularly ti erel peciri of bees.
As I was gathering fpecimens of flowers from the
Thrubs, I was greatly furprifed at the fudden ap-
pearance of a remarkably large fpider on a leaf,
of the genus Araneus aliens: at fight of me he
boldly faced about, and railed himfelf up, as if ready
to fpring upon me; his body was about the fize of
a pigeon's egg, of a buff colour, which, with his
legs, were covered with thort filky hair; on the top
of the abdomen was a round red fpot or ocelle en-
circled with black. After I had recovered from the
furprife, obferving that the wary hunter had retired
under cover, I drew near again, and prefently dif-
covered that I had furprifed him on predatory at-
tempts against the infet tribes. I was therefore
determined to watch his proceedings. I foon no-
ticed that the objef of his wishes was a large fat
bomble bee'(apis bombylicus), that was visiting the
flowers, and piercing their nefariferous tubes: this
cunning intrepid hunter conducted his fubtil ap-
proaches with the circumfpeaion and perfeverance

of a Siminole when hunting a deer, advancing with
flow fteps obliquely, or under cover of denfe foli-
age, and behind the limbs, and when the bee was
engaged in probing a flower, he would leap nearer,
and then instantly retire out of fight, under a leaf or
behind a branch, at the fame time keeping a fharp
eye upon me. When he had now gotten within two
feet of his prey, and the bee was intent on fipping
the delicious near from a flower, with his back
next the fpider, he instantly sprang upon him, and
grafped him over the back and shoulder, when for
fome moments they both disappeared. I expected
the bee had carried off his enemy, but to my fur-
prife, they both together rebounded back again,
fufpended at the extremity of a strong elaftic thread
or web, which the fpider had artfully let fail, or
fixed on the twig, the instant he leaped from it: the
rapidity of the bee's wings, endeavouring to extricate
himself, made them both :.._i i .. i' I i [.r-
ing vapour, until the bee became fatigued by whirl-
ing round, firft one way and then back again: at
length, in about a quarter of an hour, the bee quite
exhausted by his firuggles, and the repeated wounds
of the butcher, became motionlefs, and quickly ex-
pired in the arms of the devouring fpider, who,
afcending the rope with his game, retired to feaft on
it under cover of the leaves; and perhaps before
night, became himself the delicious evening repaft
of a bird or lizard.
Birds are in general social and benevolent crea-
tures; intelligent, ingenious, volatile, active be-
ings; and this order of animal creation confifts of
various nations, bands, or tribes, as may be ob-
ferved from their different ftruture, manners, and
languages, or voice; each nation, though fubdi-
vided into many different tribes, retaining its ge-
8 neral

neral form or ftru&ure, a fimilarity ofcuftonis, and
a fort of diale& or language, particular to that na-
tion or genus from which thofe tribes feem to have
defcended or separated. What I mean by a language
in birds, is the common notes or speech, that they
ufe when employed in feeding themselves and their
young, calling on one another, as well as their me-
naces against their enemy; for their fongs feem to
be mufical compositions, performed only by the
males, about the time of incubation, in part to di-
vert and amufe the female, entertaining her with
melody, &c. This harmony, with the tender fo-
licitude of the male, alleviates the toils, cares, and
diftreffes of the female, confoles her in folitary re-
tirement whilit fitting, and animates her with affec-
tion and attachment to himself in preference to any
other. The volatility of their fpecies, and opera-
tion of their paffions and affe&ions, are particularly
conspicuous in the different tribes of the thruth, fa-
mous for fong. On a fweet May morning we fee
the red thrufhes (turdus rufus) perched on an ele-
vated fprig of the fnowy Hawthorn, fweet flower-
ing Crab, or other hedge fhrub, exerting their ac-
complifhments in fong, ftriving by varying and ele-
vating their voices to excel each other; we obferve
a very agreeable variation, not only in tone but in
modulation; the voice of one is thrill, of another
lively and elevated, of others fonorous and quiver-
ing. The mock-bird (turdus polyglottos) who ex-
cels, diftinguifhes himself in a variety of a&ion as
well as air; from a turret he bounds aloft with the
celerity of an arrow, as it were to recover or recal
his very foul, expired in the laft elevated train.
The high forefts are filled with the symphony of the
fong or wood thruth (turdus minor).
Both fexes of fome tribes of birds fing equally


as friendly vififts, into their towns: let thefe men
he inftruaed to learn perfe&ly their languages, and
by a liberal and friendly intimacy become acquaint
ed with their cufoms and uliges, religious and ci-
vil their fyftem of legislation and police, as well
as their moft ancient and present Aditions and hif-
tory. There men thus enlightened and intrufed
would be qualified to judge equitably, and when re-
turned to us, to make true and juft reports, which
.might allift the legislature of the United States to
form, and offer to them, a judicious plan for their
civilization and union with us.
But I prefume not to di&ate in thefe high con-
cerns of government, and I am fully convinced that
fuch important matters are far above my ability;
the duty and refpef we owe to religion and reti-
tude, the moft acceptable incenfe we offer to the
Almighty, as an atonement for our negligence it
the care of, the present and future wellbeing of our
Indian brethren, induce me to-mention this matter,
though perhaps of greater concernment than we ge-
nerally are aware.







AT the request of Dr. Fothergill, of London, to
fearch the Floridas, and the western parts (;f Ca-
rolina and Georgia, for the discovery of rare and
ufeful productions of nature, chiefly in the vege-
table kingdom; in April, 1773, I embarked for
Charleffon, South Carolina, on board the brigan-
tine Charlefton packet, captain Wright, the brig
- .- -, captain Mafon, being in company with
us, and bound to the fame port. We had a plea-
fant run down the Delaware, 150 miles to cape
Henlopen, the two veflels entering the Atlantic to-
gether. For the firft twenty-four hours we had a
profperous gale, and were cheerful and happy in
the profpet of a quick and pleasant voyage; but,
alas! how vain and uncertain are human expc&a-
tions! how quickly is the flattering fcene chang-
ed! The powerful winds, now ruling forth from
B their

their fecret abodes, suddenly fpread terror and de-
vaftation; and the wide ocean, which, a few mo-
ments paif, was gentle and placid, is now thrown
into disorder, and heaped into mountains, whofe
white curling crefts feem to fweep the ikies!
This furious gale continued near two days and
nights, and not a little damaged our fails, cabirnt
furniture, and ftate-rooms, besides retarding our
paffage. The form having abated, a lively gale
'from N. W. continued four or five days, when
shifting to N. and laftly to N. E. on the tenth of
our departure from cape Henlopen, early, in the
morning, we defcried a fail after, and in a fhort
time discovered it to be capt. Mafon, who foon
came up with us. We hailed each other, being
joyful to meet again, after fo many dangers, He
suffered greatly by the gale, but providentially
made a good harbour within cape Hatteras. As he
ran by us, he threw on board ten or a dozen bafs,
a large and delicious fith, having caught a great
number of them whilft he was detained in harbour.
He got into Charlefton that evening, and we the
next morning, about eleven o'clock.
There are few objeas out at fea to attract the
notice of the traveller, but what are fublime, aw-
ful, and inajeftic: the feas themselves, in a tem-
pefl, exhibit a tremendous fcene, where the winds
affert their power, and, in furious conflia, feem to
let the ocean on fire. On the other hand, nothing
can be more fublime than the view of the encir-
cling horizon, after the turbulent winds have taken
their flight, and the lately agitated bofom of the
deep has again become calm and pacific; the gen-
tle moon riling in dignity from the eaft, attended
by thousands of glittering orbs; the luminous ap-

pearance or the feas at night, wlen all the waters
feem tran-nuted into liquid filver; the prodigious
bands of porpoifes ;trbo.r:-bi ..n. -1, that appear
to cover the ocean; the mighty whale, fovereign
of the watery realms, who cleaves the feas in his
course; the fudden appearance of land from the
fea, the ftrand stretching each way, beyond the ut-
moft reach of fight; the alternate appearance and
recefs of the coat, whilft the far distant blue hills
flowly retreat and difappear; or, as we approach
the coaft, the capes and promontories firft ftrike
our fight, emerging from the watery expanfe, and,
like mighty giants, elevating their crets towards
the fkies; the water suddenly alive with its fealy in-
habitants; squadrons of fea-fowl sweeping through
the air, impregnated with the breath of fragrant
aromatic trees and flowers; the amplitude and
magnificence of thefe fcenes are great indeed, and
may present to the imagination, an idea of the firft
appearance of the earth to man at the creation.
On my arrival at Charleffon, I waited on doRor
Chalmer, a gentleman of eminence in his profeffion
and public employment, to whom I was recom-
mended by my worthy patron, and to whom I was
to apply for counsel and affiftance, for carrying in:o'
effe& my intended travels. The doAor received
me with perfect politenefs, and, on every occasion,
treated me with friendship; and by means of the
countenance which he gave me, and the marks of
efteem with which he honoured me, I became ac-
quainted with many of the worthy families, not
only of Carolina and Georgia, but alfo in :h. dt' mr
countries of Florida.



C H A P. II.

ARRIVING in Carolina very early in'the spring,
vegetation was not sufficiently advanced to invite
me into the western parts of this fate; from which
citcumflance, I concluded to make an excursion
into Georgia; accordingly, I embarked on board a
1..1 ;i;n \ .,l, and in twenty-four hours arrived in
Savanna, tle capital, where, acquainting the. go-
vernor, Sir J. Wright, with my bufinefs, his ex-
cellency received me with great politenefs, chewed
me every mark of efteem and regard, ard furnifh-
ed me with letters to the principal inhabitants of
the late, which were of great service to. me. An-
other circumftance very opportunely occurred on
my arrival: the affembly was then fitting in Sa-
vanna, and several members lodging in the fame
houfe where I took up my quarters, I became ac-
quainted with several worthy characters, who in-
vited me to call at their feats occasionally, as I
paffed through the country; particularly the hon.
B. Andrews, efq. a diffinguifhed, patriotic, and lb-
beral character. This gentleman's feat, and well
cultivated plantations, are fituated near the. fouth
high road, which I often travelled; and I feldom
paffed his houfc without calling to fee him, for it
was the feat of virtue, where hospitality, piety,
and philosophy, formed the happy family; where
the weary traveller and stranger found a hearty
welcome, and from whence it muft be his own
fault if he departed without being greatly be-

-After renting, and a little recreation for a few
days' in Savanna, and having in the mean time
purchased a good horfe, and equipped myfelf for a
journey fouthward, I fat off early in the morning
for Sunbury, a fea-port town, beautifully fituated
on the main, between Medway and Newport ri-
vers, about fifteen miles fouth of great Ogeeche
river. The town and harbour are defended from
the fury of the feas by the north and fourth points
of St. Helena and South Catharine's iflands; be-
tween which is the bar and entrance into the found:
the harbour is capacious and fafe, and has water
enougli for thips of grea.burthen. I arrived here.
in the evening, in company wiith a gentleman, one
of the inhabitants, who politely introduced me to
one of the principal families, where I fupped and
fpent the evening in a circle of genteel and polite
ladies and gentlemen. Next day, being defirous of
visiting the islands, I forded a narrow fhoal, part
of the found, and landed' on one of them, which
employed me the whole day to explore. The lur-
face and vegetable mould here is generally a loofe
fand, nrt \, r frrilr., except fome fpots bordering
on the found and inlets, where are found heaps or
mounds of fea-ihell, either-formerly brought there
by the Indians, who inhabited the island, or which
were perhaps thrown up in ridges, by the beating
surface of the fea: j.,1fLb:) both thefe circumstances
may have contributed to their formation. Thefe
fea shells, through length of time, and the fubtle
penetrating effects of the air, which diffolve them
to earth, render thefe ridges very fertile; and,
when clear of their trees, and cultivated, they
become profufely productive of almost every kind
of vegetable, Here are alfo large plantations of
B 3 indigo,

indigo, corn, and potatoes*, with many other forts
of efculent plants. I observed, amongst the shells
of the conical mounds, fragments of earthen vef-
fels, and of other utenfils, the manufa&ure of the
ancients: about the centre of one of them,! the rim
of an earthen pot appeared amongft the fhells and
earth, which I carefully removed, and drew it out,
almost whole: this pot was curioufly wrought all
over the outside, rie-rc -nring bLlkrt \iork, and was
undoubtedly efteemed a very ingenious perform-
ance, by .the people, at the age of its conftrufion.
The natural produce of tii e scll lace-ou ridges, be-
fides many of lefs note, are, the great Laurel Tree,
(Magnolia grandiflora) Pinus taed4, Laurus Bor-
bonia, Quercus fempervirens, or Live Oak, Prunus
Lauro-cerafus, Ilex aquifolium, Corypha palma,
Juniperus Americana. The general surface of the
island being low, and generally level, produces a
very great variety of trees, :11rub., and- hcrbaccoui
plants; particularly the grer. long-leaced Piah-
Pine, o' Broom-Pine, Pinus paluftris, Pinus fqua-
mofa, Pinus lutea, Gordonia Lafianthus, Liquid
ambar (Styractflua) Acer rubrum, Fraxinus excel-
cior, Flaxinis aquatica, Quercus aquatica, Quercus
phillos, Queri. ,-j irr, is ;iu hjuniija ai-L ria s,
Vaccinium v. cri.. ...J.a.,dJi i.lrlcaj P! i'.o) iaj-
rietas, Ilex varietas, Viburnum prunifolium, V. den-
tatum, Cornus florida, C. alba, C, fanguinea, Car-
pinus betula, C. oftrya, Itea Clethra alnifolia, Hale-
fia tetraptera, H. diptera, Iva, Rhampus frangula,
Callicarpa, Morus rubra, Sapindus, Caffine, and of
fuch as grow near water-courfes, round about
ponds and favannas, Fothergilla gardini, Myrica
Ferifera, Olea Americana, Cyrilla racemiflora,
SConvolvulus batat.

Magnolia glauca, Magnolia pyramidata, Cercis,
Kalmia anguftifolia, Kalmia ciliata, Chionanthus,
Cephalanthos, /Efculus parva; and the interme-
diate fpaces, surrounding and lying between the
ridges and favannas, are interfected with plains of
the dwarf prickly fan-leaved Palmetto, and lawns
of grafs variegated with ftately trees of the great
Broom-Pine, and the fp'eading ever-green Water-
Oak, either difpofed in clumps, or fcatteringly
planted by nature. The upper iiurface, or vegeta-
tive foil of the ifland, lies on a foundation, or ftra-
tum, of tenacious cinereous-coloured clay, which
perhaps is the principal support of the vaft growth
of timber, that arifes from the surface, which is
little more than a mixture of fine white fand and
diffolved vegetables, ferving as a nurfery bed to
hatch or bring into exiftence the infant plant,
and to fupply it with aliment and food, fuitable to
its delicacy and tender frame, until the root, ac-
quiring fuficient extent and folidity to lay h'ld of
the clay, foon attain a magnitude and liability fuf-
ficient to maintain its station. Probably if this clay
were dug out, and caft upon the furface, after be-
ing meliorated by the faline or nitrous qualities of
the air, it would kindly incorporate with the loofe
fand, and become a productive and lasting manure.
The roebuck, or deer, are numerous on this
ifland; the tyger, wolf, and bear, hold yet fome
poffeffions as alfo raccoons, foxes, hares, fquirrels,
rats, and mice, but I think no moles. There is
a large ground rat, more than twice the fize of tlse
common Norway rat. In the night time it throws
out the earth, forming little mounds, or hillocks.
opoffums are here in abundance, as alfo pole-
cats, wild-cats, rattle-fnakes, glafs-inake, coach-
whip fnake, and a variety of other ferpents.
B 4 Here

Here are alfo a great variety of birds, through-
out the feafons, inhabiting both fea and land. Firft
I fall name the eagle, of which there are three
species. The great grey eagle is the largest, of
great strength and high flight; he chiefly preys on
fawns and other young quadrupeds.
The bald eagle is likewife a large, ftrong, and
very a6tive-bird, but an execrable tyrant: he fup-
ports his affumed dignity and grandeur by rapine
and violence, extorting unreafonable tribute and
fubfidy from all the feathered nations.
The laft of this race I hall mention is the falco
pifcatorius, or fifhing-hawk: this is a large bird,
of high and rapid flight; his wings are very long
and pointed, and he fpreads a vaft fail, in propor-
tion to the volume of his body. This princely bird
fubfilfs entirely on fifth which he takes himself,
corning to live and grow fat on the dear earned
labours of another; he alfo contributes liberally to
the support of the bald eagle.
Water-fowl, and the various fpecies of land-
birds, alfo abound, mofl of which are mentioned
by Catefby, in his Hift. of Carolina, particularly his
painted finch (Emberiza Ceris Linn.) exceeded by
none of the feathered tribes, either in variety and
fplendour of drefs, or melody of fong.
Cate.by's ground doves are alfo here in abun-
dance: they are remarkably beautiful, about the
fize of a fparrow, and their foft and plaintive cooing
perfectly enchanting.
How chafte the dove! never known to violate the conjugal
contract "
t.: i.- r1 i a ..i envy and. itrife, and feeks the retired paths

The fight of this delightfid and produ&ive
island, placed in front of the rising city of Sun-
bury, quickly induced me to explore it; which I
apprehended, from former vifits to this coaft,
would exhibit a comprehensive epitome of the
history of all the fea-coafi iflands of Carolina and
Georgia, as likewise in general of the coat of the
main. And though I considered this excurfion along
the covld of Gecrgia and northern border of Flo-
rida, a deviation from the high road of my intended
travels, yet I performed it in order to employ to
the moft advantage the time on my hands, before
the treaty of Augufta came on, where I was to at-
tend; about May or June, by defire of the Super-
intendant, J. Stewart, efq. who, when I was in
Charlefton, proposed, in order to facilitate my tra-
vels in the Indian territories, that, if I would be
present at the Congrefs, he would introduce my
bufinefs to the chiefs of the Cherokees, Creeks, and
other nations, and recommend me to their friend-
thip and protection which promise he fully per-
formed, and it proved of great service to me.
Obedient to the admonitions of my attendant
fpirit, curiofity, as well as to gratify the expe&a-
tions of my worthy patron, I again fat off on my
southern excurfion, and left Sunbury, in company
with several of its polite inhabitants, who were go-
ing to Medway meeting, a very large and well con-
ftruted place of worfhip, in St. John's parish,
where I affociated with them in religious exercise,
and heard a very excellent fermon, delivered by
their pious and truly venerable paftor, the Rev.
--- -Ofgood. This refpetable (. .-r. ari.,n is
independent, and confift chiefly of -'. .c., and

profelytes to a flock, which this pious man led
about forty years ago, from South Carolina, and
fettled in this fruitful diftria. It is about nine
miles from Sunbury to Medway meeting-houfe,
which ftands on the high road opposite the Sun-
bury road. As foon as the congregation broke up,
I re-affumed my travels, proceeding down the high
road towards Fort Barrington, on the Alatamaha,
paffing through a level-country, well watered by
large ftreams, branches of Medway and Newport
rivers, courting from extensive fwamps and marches,
their forces: thefe fwamps are daily clearing
and improving into large fruitful rice plantations,
aggrandizing the well inhabited and rich difiria of
St. John's parifh. The road is straight, spacious,
and kept in excellent repair by the induftrious in-
habitants; and is generally bordered on each fide
with a light grove, confifting of the following trees
and Thrubs: Myrica Cerifera, Calycanthus, Halefia
retraptera, Itea flewartia, Andromeda nitida, Cy-
rella racemiflora, entwined with bands and gar-
lands of Bignonia fempervirens, B. crucigera, Lo-
nicera fempervirens and Glycene frutefcens; thefe
were overshadowed by tall and spreading trees, as
the Magnolia 'r.rl. i,, Liquid ambar, Lirio-
dendron, Catalpa, Quercus fempervirens, Quercus
dentata, Q Phillos; and on the verges of the
canals, where the road was caufwayed, flood
the CupreiThs diflicha, Gordonia Lacianthus, and
Magnolia g!auca, ali p;!:i:ed by nature, and left
Sn,li. i, eby e the virmious inhabitants, to thade the
road, and perfume the fultry air. The exten-
five plmntat:ons of rice and corn, now in early ver-
dure, decorated here and there with groves of flo-
riferous and : trees and firubs, under the

CoVer and prote&ion of pyramidal laurels and
plumed palms, which now and then break through
upon the fight from both fides of the way as we pafr
along; the eye at intervals stealing a view at the
humble, but elegant and neat habitation, of the
happy proprietor, amidit arbours and groves, all
day, and moon-light nights, filled with the melody
of the cheerful mockbird, warbling nonpareil, and
plaintive turtle-dove, altogether present a view of
magnificence and joy, inexpreffibly charming and
In the evening I arrived at the feat of the Hon,
B; Andrews, efq. who received and entertained me
in every refpe&t, as a worthy gentleman could a
ftraiger, that is, with hearty welcome, plain but
plentiful board, free conversation and liberality of
sentiment I fpent the evening very agreeably, and
the day following (for I was not pernmited to de-
part fooner): I viewed with pleasure this gertlem n's
exemplary improvements in agriculture; particu-
larly in the growth of rice, and in his machines for
shelling that valuable grain, which stands in the
water almost from the time it is fown, until within
a few days before it is reaped, when they draw off
the water by fluices, which ripens it all at once, and
when the heads or panicles are dry ripe, it is reap-
ed and left standing in the field, in fmall ricks, un-
til the ftraw is quite dry, when it is hauled, and
Racked in the barn yard. The machines for clean-
ing the rice are worked by the force of water.
They ftand on the great refervoir which contains
the waters that flood the rice fields below.
Towards the evening we made a little party at
fishing. We chofe a flhaded retreat, in a beautiful
grove of magnolias, myrtles, and feet bay trees,

which were left landing on the bank of a fine
creek, that, from this place, took a flow ferpen-
tine course through the plantation. We prefently
took fome fifh, one kind of which is very beau-
tiful; they call it the red-belly. It is as-large as a
man's hand, nearly oval and thin, being compretied
on each fide; the tail is beautifully tbrmed; h6.
top of the head and back of an olive green, be
sprinkled with ruffet fpecks; the, ides of a fea
green, inclining to azure, irdlrinibly blended with
the olive above, and beneath lightens to a filvery
white, or pearl colour, elegantly powdered with
fpecks of the fineft green, ruffet and gold; the
belly is of a bright fcarlet red, or vermilion, dart-
ing up rays or fiery fireaks into the pearl on each
fide; the ultimate angle of the branchioftega ex-
tends backwards with a long fpatula, ending with
a round or oval particoloured fpot, representing
the eye in the long feathers of a peacock's train,
verged round with a thin flame-coloured mem-
brane, and appears like a brilliant ruby fixed on
the fide of the fifh; the eyes are large, encircled
with a fiery iris; they are a voracious fifh, and are
eafily caught with a suitable bait.
The next morning I took leave of this worthy
family, and fat off for the settlements on the Ala-
tamaha, fill pursuing the high road for Fort Bay-
rington, till towards noon, when I turned off to
the left, following the road to Darian, a settlement
on the river twenty miles lower down, and near
the coaft. The fore part of this day's journey was
pleasant, the plantations frequent, and the roads in
tolerable good repair; but the country being now
lefs cultivated, the roads became bad. I purfued my
journey almost continually through fwamps and
creeks, waters of Newport and Sapello, till night,

when I loft my way; but coming up to a fence, I
faw a glimmering light, which condu&ed me to a
houfe, where I stayed all night, and met with very
civil entertainment. Early next morning I fat off
again, in company with the overfeer of the farm,
who piloted me through a large and difficult fwamp,
when we parted; he in chafe of deer, and I to-
wards Darian. I rode several miles through a
high foreft of pines, thinly growing on a level plain,
which admitted an ample view, and a free circula-
tion of air, to another fwamp; and cro.ing a con- t
fiderable branch of Sapello river, 1 then came to a
fmall plantation by the fide of another fwamp: the
people were remarkably civil and hospitable. The
man's name was M'Intofh, a family of the firft co-
lony eftablifhed in Georgia, under the conduct of
general Oglethorpe. Was there ever fuch a fcene
of primitive simplicity, as was here exhibited, fince
the days of the good king Tammany! The vener-
able grey headed Caledonian I,.,1 :. !. meets me
coming up to his houfe. V'.I. 1,;-, firanger;
come in, and reft; the air is now very fulry; it
is a very hot day." I was there treated widi fome
excellent venifon, and here found friendly and fecure
shelter' from a tremendous thunder form, which
came up from the N. W. and foon after my arri-
val began to discharge its fury all around. Step-
ping to the door to obferve-the progref'and di-
re ion of the tempeft, the fulgour and rapidity of
the ftreams of lightning, paffing from cloud to cloud,
and from the clouds to the earth, exhibited a very
awful fcene; when infiantly the lightning, as it
sere, opening a fiery chain in the black cloud,
darted with inconceivable rapidity on the trunk of a
large pine tree, that food thirty or forty yards from
me, and fet it in a blaze. The flame inftantiy
8 afccnded

afcended upwards of ten or twelve feet, and conti-
nued flaming about fifteen minutes, when it was gra-
dually extinguifhed by the deluges of rain that fell
upon it.
I faw here a remarkably large turkey of the na-
tive wild breed : his head was above three feet
from the ground when he food ereaft he was a
ftately beautiful bird, of a very dark dufky brown
colour, the tips of the feathers of his neck, breaft,
back, and holdersr, edged with a copper colour,
which in a certain exposure looked like lurnifled
gold, and he seemed not infenfible of the splendid
appearance he made. He was reared from an egg,
found in the foieft, and hatched by a hen of the
common domestic fowl.
Our turkey of America is a very different fpe-
cies from the meleagris of Afia and Europe; they
are nearly thrice their fize and weight. I have feen
several that have weighed between twenty and
thirty pounds, and fome have been killed that
weighed near forty. They are taller, and have a
much longer neck proportionally, and likewife
longer legs, and ftand more ereaft they are alfo
very different in colour. Ours are all, male and
female, of a dark brown colour, not having a black
feather on them; but the male exceedingly fplen-
did, with changeable colours. In other particulars
they differ not.
The tempeft being over, I waited till the floods
of rain had run off the ground, then took leave of
my friends, and departed. ,The air was now cool
and falubrious, and riding even or eight miles,
through a pine foreft, I came to Sapello bridge,
to which the falt tide flows. I here flopped, at

Mr. Bailey's, to deliver a letter from the governor.
This gentleman received me very civilly, inviting
me to ffy with him; but upon my urging the ne-
ceffity of my accelerating my journey, he permitted
me to proceed to Mr. L. M'Intofh's, near the river,
to whofe friendship I was recommended by Mr. B.
Perhaps, to a grateful mind, there is no intel-
leaual enjoyment, which regards human concerns,
of a more excellent nature, than the remembrance
of real a&s of friendship. The heart expands at
the pleading recollection. When I came up to his
door, the friendly man, filing, and with a grace
and dignity peculiar to himfelf, took me by the
hand, and accofted me thus: Friend Bartram,
come under my roof, and I defire you to make my
houfe your home, as long as convenient to your-
felf; remember, from this moment, that you are
a part of my family, and, on my part, I fall en-
deavour to make it agreeable," which was veri-
fied during my continuance in, and about, the
southern territories of Georgia and Florida; for I
found here fincerity in union with all the virtues, un-
der the influence of religion. I hall yet mention
a remarkable inftance of Mr. M'Intofh's friendfllip
and refpedt for me; which was, recommending his
eldeft fon, Mr. John M'Intofh, as a companion in
my travels. He was a fenfible virtuous youth, and
a very agreeable companion through a long and toil-
fome journey of near a thousand miles.
Having been greatly refrcfhed, by continuing a
few days withthhis kind ,ndl 1-eblh fmily, I pre-
pared to profecute my a' .,r:, I.. .




I SAT off early in the morning for the Indian
trading-houfe, in the river St. Mary, and took the
road up the N. E. fide of the Alatamaha to Fort-
Barrington. I paffed through a well inhabited dif-
trit, mostly rice plantations, on the waters of Cat-
head creek, a branch of the Alatamaha. On draw-
ing near the fort, I was greatly delighted at the
appearance of two new beautiful shrubs, in all their
blooming graces. One of them appeared to be a
species of Gordonia*, but the flowers are larger,
and more fragrant than thofe of the Gordonia Laf-
canthus,.and are feffile; the feed veffel is alfo very
different. The other was equally diftinguifhed for
beauty and fingularity; it grows twelve or fifteen
feet high, the branches afcendant and opposite, and
terminate with large panicles of pale blue tubular
flowers, fpecked on the inside with crimfon; but,
what is fingular, thefe panicles are ornamented
with a number of ovate large braftee, as white, and
like fine paper, their tops and verges ftained with
a role red, which, at a little distance, has the ap-
pearance of clusters of rofes, at the extremities of
the limbs: the flowers are of the Cl. Pentandria
monogynia; the leaves are nearly ovate, pointed
and petioled, standing oppofite to one another on
the branches.
After fifteen miles riding, I arrived at the ferry,
which is near the fite of the fort. Here is a confi-
derable height and bluff on the river, and evident
Fran,:lnla Ahvaleami

velliges of an ancient Indian town may be feen,
ruch as old extensive fields, and conical mounds,
or artificial heaps of earth. I here croffed the ri-
ver, which is about five hundred yards over, in a
good large boar, rowed by a Creek Indian, who
was married to a white woman; he seemed an ac-
tive, civil, and fenfible man. I faw large, tall trees
of the Nyffa coccinea, ft. Ogeeche, growing on the
banks of the river. They grow in the water, near
the fliore. There is no tree that exhibits a more
dcfirable appearance than this, in the autumn,
when the fruit is ripe, and the tree diverted of its
leaves; for then they look as red as fcarlet, with
their fruit, which is of that colour alfo. It is of
the fhape, but larger than the olive, containing an
agreeable acid juice. The leaves are oblong lan-
ceolate and entire, somewhat hoary underneath;
their upper surface of a full green, and fP.;,-._
the petioles ihort, pedunculis multifloris. I I i .'t
northern fetdlement of this tree, yet known, is on
Great Ogeche, where they are called Ogeeche
limes, from their acid fruit being about the fize of
limes, and their being, lonmetimes ufed in their
Being fafely landed on the opposite bank, I
mounted my horfe, and followed the high road to
the ferry on St. Ille, about fixty miles fourth of the
Alatamaha, paffing through an uninhabited wilder-
nefs. The fudden transition from rich cultivated
fettlements, to high pine forefts, dark and graffy
favannas, forms in my opinion no difagrecable con-
trafts; and the new objets of obfervation in the
works of nature foon reconcile the furprifed ima-
gination to the change. As foon as I had loft fight
of the Iia-, .f e...:..- fome fand-hills, I observed
C anew

a new and moft beautiful species of Annona, iav-
ing clusters of large white fragrant flowers; and a
diminutive but elegant Kalmia. The fiems are
very fmall, feeble, and for the moft part undivided,
furnifhed with little ovate pointed leaves, and ter-
minate with a simple racemi, or fpike of flowers,
falvcr formed, and of a deep rofe red. The whole
plant is ciliated. It grows in abundance all over
the moift favannas, but more especially near ponds
and bay-fwamps. In similar situations, and com-
monly a near neighbour to this new Kalmia, is feen
a very curious species of Annona. It is very dwarf,
the Items feldom extending from the earth more
than a foot or eighteen inches, and are weak and
almost decumbent. The leaves are long, extremely
narrow, almost lineal. However, fmall as they are,
they retain the figure common to the species, that
is, lanceolate, broadest at the upper end, and atte-
nuating down to the petiole, which is very fhort;
their leaves ftand alternately, nearly eret, forming
two feries, or wings, on the arcuated ftems. The
flowers, both in fize and colour, resemble thofe of
the Antrilobe, and are single from the axillm of
the leaves on incurved pedunculi, nodding down-
wards. I never faw the fruit. The dens, or ca-
verns, dug in the fand-hills, by the great land-tor-
toife, called here Gopher *, present a very fingular
appearance: thefe vaft caves are their caftles and
diurnal retreats, from whence they iflue forth in
the night, in fearch of prey. The little mounds,
or hillocks of frefh earth, thrown up in great num-
bers in the night, have alfo a curious appearance.
In the evening I arrived at a cow-pen, where
STetudo Polyphemus.



4:i- i

there was a habitation, and the people received me
very civilly. I ftaid here all nigh, and had for
upper plenty of milk, butter, and very good cheefe
of their own make, which is a novelty in the mari-
time parts of Carolina and Georgia; the inhabitants
being chiefly supplied with it from Europe and the
northern states. The next day's progress, in ge-
neral, presented fcenes similar to the preceding,
though the land is lower, more level and 'humid,
and the produce more varied: high open forefts of
ftately pines, flowery plains, and extensive green
favannas, chequered with the incarnate Chironia
pulchertima, and Afclepias fragrans, perfumed the
air whilft they pleaded the eye. I met with fome
troublesome cane fwamps, faw herds of horned
cattle, horfes and deer, and took notice of a pro-
aumbent species of Hibifcus, the leaves palmated,
the flowers large and expanded, pale yellow and-
white, having a deep crimfon eye; the whole plant,
except the corolla, armed with ftiff hair. I alfo
faw a beautiful species -of Lupin, having pale
green villous lingulate leaves; the flowers are
difpofed in long eret fpikes; fome plants produce
flowers of the finest celeffial blue, others incarnate,
and fome milk white, and though they all three
feem to be varieties of one species, yet they affoci-
ate in separate communities, sometimes approach-
"ing near each other's border, or in fight at a dif-
tance. Their diftrits are situated on dry fandy
heights, in open pine forefts, which are naturally
thin of undergrowth, and appear to great advan-
tage; generally, where they are found, they occu-
py many acres of surface. The vegetative mould
is composed of fine white fand, mixed, and colour-
ed, with diffolved and calcined vegetable fubftances;
Lupinus breuni foliis itegimi blongis vilos.
C 2 but

- 'IF"
6v 40-

20 TP.R \L IN
but this ftratum is not very deep, and covers one of
a tenacious cinereois coloured clay, as we ma,- ob-
ferve by the earth adhering to the roots of trees,
torn up by forms, &c. and by the litln chin-,
or air holes of cray-fifh, which perforate the favan-
nas. Turkeys, quails, and finally birds, are here to
be feen; but birds are not numerous in defert fo-
refts; they draw near to the habitations of men, as
I have constantly obfervcd in all my travels.
I anrived at St. Ille's in the evening, where I
lodged; and next morning, having crofled over in a
firry boat, fat forward for St. Mary's. The fittia-
tion of the territory, its foil and productions, be-
tween thefe two laft rivers, are nearly similar to
thofe which I had paf ed over, except that the fa-
vannas are more frequent and extensive.
It may be proper to obferve, that I had. now
paikcd the utnmot frontier of the l hitic fctdiri,t,
on, that border. It was drawing on towards the
cloe of day, the fkies ferene and cilm, the airiten-
perately cool, and gentle zephyrs brc hring-thr.:ough
the fragrant pines; the profpe&l around enchant-
ingly varied and beautiful; endlef, green favanna-,
cheiquered with coppices of fragrant thruibs, filled
the air with the richeft perfume. The gairs at-
tired plants which enamelled the green had begun
to imbibe the pearly dew of evening ; nature feem-
ed filent, and nothing appeared to ruffle the happy
moments of evening c,.r:.,riph.ljin; when, on a
fudden, an Indian appeared croffing the path, at a
considerable distance before me. On perceiving
that he was armed with a rifle, the firft fight of him
ftartled me, and I endeavoured to elude his fight,
by flopping my pace, and keeping large trees be-
tween us; but he efpied me, and turning thort





e~kc ~u
~hrpr~ ~pv a~Y

rAou;, fat fpurs to his horfe, and came up on full
gallop. I never before this was afraid at the fight
Cf an In. n.nm, but at this time, I muft own that my
spirits were very much agitated: I faw at once,
that being unarmed, I was in his power; and hav-
ing now but a few moments to prepare, I refined
myfelf entirely to the will of the Almighty, truft-
ing to his mercies for my preservation : my mind
then became tranquil, and I resolved to meet the
dreaded foe with resolution and cheerful confi-
dence. The intrepid Siminole stopped suddenly,
three or four yards before me, and filently viewed
me, his countenance angry and fierce, shifting his
rifle from Ahoulder to shoulder, and looking about
Inttantly on all fides. I advanced towards him, and
y with an air of confidence offered him my hand,
hailing him, brother; at this he haftily jerked
back his arm, with a look of malice, rage, and dif-
dain, feeming every way difcentented; when again
looking at me more attentively, he inflantly fpurred
up to me, and with dignity in his look and action,
gave me his hand. Poffibly the filent language of
his foul, during the moment of fBfpenfe (for I be-
lieve his design was to kill me when he firft came
up) was after this manner: White man, thou
art my enemy, and thou and thy brethren may
have killed mine; yet it may not be fo, and even
"were that the cafe, thou art now alone, and in
"my power. Live; the Great Spirit forbids me
to touch thy life; go to thy brethren, tell them
"thou faweft an Indian in the forests, who knew
how to be humane and compaffionate." In fine,
we hook hands, and parted in a friendly manner,
in the midft of a dreary wildernefs; and he inform-
ed me of the courfe and distance to the trading-
houfe, where I found he had been extremely ill-
treated the day before.
C I now

I now fat forward again, and after eight or ten
miles riding, arrived at the banks of St. Mary's,
oppofite the ftores, and got fafe over before dark.
The river is here about one hundred yards acrofs,
has ten feet water, and, following its course, about
fixty miles to the fea, though but about twenty
miles by land. The trading company here received
and treated me with great civility. On relating
my adventures on the road, particularly the laft
with the Indian, the chief replied, with a counte-
nance that at once befpoke furprife and pleasure,
" My friend, consider yourself a fortunate man:
" that fellow," faid he, is one of the grea'teft vil-
" lains on earth, a noted murderer, and outlawed
" by his countrymen. Laft evening he was here,
" we took his guq from him, broke it in pieces,
" and gave him a fevere drubbing: he, however,
" made his efcape, carrying off a new rifle gtu,-
" with which, he faid, going off, he would kilt
" the firft white man he met."
On ferioufly contemplating the behaviour of this
Indian towards me, fo foon after his ill treatment,
the following train of fentiments infenfibly crowded
in upon my mind.
Can it be denied, but that the moral principle,
which directs the favages to virtuous and praife-
worthy actions, is natural or innate ? It is certain
they have not the affiftance of letters, or thofe
means of education in the fchools of philosophy,
where the virtuous fentiments and actions of the
moft illustrious charafers are recorded, and care-
fully laid before the youth of civilized nations:
therefore this moral principle muff be innate, or
they muft be under the immediate influence and
guidance of a more divine and powerful preceptor,

who, on thefe occasions, inftantly infpires them,
and as with a ray of divine light, points out to them
at once the dignity, propriety, and beauty of vir-
The land on, and adjacent to, this river, not-
withftanding its arenaceous surface, appears natu-
rally fertile. The peach trees are large, healthy,
and fruitful; and Indian corn, rice, cotton, and
indigo, thrive exceedingly. This fandy surface,
one would fuppofe, from its loofe texture, would
poffefs a percolating quality, and fuffer the rain-
waters quickly to drain off; but it is quite the con-
trary, at leaft in thefe low maritime fandy coun-
tries of Carolina and Florida, beneath the moun-
tains; for in the fands, even the heights, where the
arenaceous ftratum is perhaps five, eight, and ten
feet above the clay, the earth, even in the longeft
droughts, is moift an inch or two under the surface;
whereas, in the rich tenacious low lands, at fuch
times, the ground is dry, and, as it were, baked ma-
ny inches, and sometimes fome feet deep, and the
crops, as well as almost all vegetation, fuffer in
fuch foils and situations. The reafon of this may
be, that this kind of earth admits more freely of a
tranfpiration of vapours, arifing from inteftine wa-
tery canals to the furface; and probably thefe va-
pours are impregnated with faline or nitrous prin-
ciples, friendly and nutritive to vegetables; how-
ever, of thefe caufes and fecret operations of nature
I am ignorant, and refume again my proper em-
ployment, that of discovering and collecting data
for the exercise of more able phyfiologifts.
The favannas about St. Mary's, at this feafon,
display a very charming appearance of flowers and
verdure; their more elevated borders are varied
C 4 with

with beds of violets, lupins, Amaryllis atamafco,
and plants of a new and very beautiful species of
Mimofa fenitiva, which I think as admirable and
more charming than the celebrated'Humble p'ant,
equally chafte'and fearful of the hafty touch of the
furprifed admirer. The flower is larger, of a bright
damafk, rofe colour, and exceedinglv fiagrirat: the
whole plant is deititute of prickles, but hairy: it is
procunbent, reclining itself upon the green turf,
and from thefe trailing branches proceeds an upright
peduncle, fix or eight inches high, supporting an
oblong head of flowerets, which altogether, at a
finally diffance, have the appearance of an exuber-
ant field of clover; and, what is fingular, and
richly varies the fcene, there are interfperfed
patches of the fame species of plants, having flowers
of the fineft golden yellow, and others fnow white;
but the incarnate is moft prevalent. Magnolia
glauca, Itea Clethra, Chionanthus, Gordonia lafi-
anthus, Ilex anguftifolium, Olea Americana,.Ho-
pea tindtoria, &c. are feared in detached groves
or clumps, round about the ponds or little lakes,
at the lower end of the favannas. I observed,
growing on the banks of this fequeftered river, the
following trees and shrubs; Quercus fempervirens,
Q. aquatica, Q Phillos, Q dentata, Nyffa aquati-
ca, N. fylvatica, N. Ogeeche, fi. coccinea, Cupreff-
us difticha, Fraxinus aquatica, Rhamnuis frangula,
Prunus laurocerafa, Cyrilla racemiflora, Myrica
cerifera, Andromeda ferruginia, Andr. nitida, and
the great evergreen Andromeda of Florida, called
Pipe-ftem Wood, to which I gave the name of An-
dromeda formofififma, as it far exceeds in beauty
every one of this family.
The river St. Mary has its force from a vaft
lake, or marfh, called Ouaquaphenogaw, which lies

between Flint and Oakmulge rivers, and occupies
a face of near three hundred miles in circuit.
This vaft accumulation of waters, in the wet feafon,
appears as a lake, and contains fome large iflands
cr knolls, of rich high land; one of which the pre-
fent generation of the Creeks represent to be a moft
blifsful fpot of the earth: they fay it is inhabited
by a peculiar race of Indians, whofe women are in-
comparably beautiful; they alfo tell you that this
terreftrial paradise has been feen by fome of their
enterprifing hunters, when in purfuit of game, who
being loft in inextricable fwamps and bogs, and on
the point of perithing, were unexpectedly relieved
by a company of beautiful women, whom they call
daughters of the fun, who kindly gave them fuch
provisions as they had with them, which were
chiefly fruit, oranges, dates, &c. and fome corn
cakes, and then enjoined them to fly for fafety to
their own country; for that their husbands were
fierce men, and cruel to strangers: they further
fay, that thefe hunters 'had a view of their fettle-
ments, fituaerd on the ,elevated lbaris of an island,
or promontory, in a beautiful lake f but that in
their endeavours to approach it, they were in-
volved in perpetual labyriiihs, and, like enchanted
land, till as they imagined they had juft gained it,
it seemed to fly before them, alternately appearing
and disappearing. They resolved, at length, to
leave the delufive purfuit, and to return; which,
after a number of inexpreflible difficulties, they ef-
fected. When they reported their adventures to
their countrymen, their young warriors were en-
flamed with an irrefiftible defire to invade, and
make a conqueft of, fo charming a country; but
all their attempts hitherto have proved abortive,
never having been able again to find that en-

chanting fpot, nor even any road or pathway to it;
yet they fay that they frequently meet with certain
figns of its being inhabited, as the building of ca-
noes, footsteps of men, &c, They tell another
ftory concerning the inhabitants of this fequeftered
country, which feems probable enough, which is,
that they are the pofterity. of a fugitive remnant of
the ancient Yamafes, who efcaped maffacre after a-
bloody and decisive conflict between them and the
Creek nation (who, it is certain, conquered, and
nearly exterminated, that once powerful people),
and here found an afylum, remote and fecure from
the fury of their proud conquerors. It is, however,
certain that there is a vaft lake, or drowned fwamp,
well known, and often visited both by white and In-
dian hunters, and on its environs the moft valuable
hunting grounds in Florida, well worth contending
for, by thofe powers whofe territories border upon
it. From this great force of rivers *, St. Mary
arifes, and meanders through a vaft plain and pine
foreft, near an hundred-nd. fty.T iles to the ocean,
with which it commnaickates' hitkr c n thr p.',ifi of
Amelia and Talbert islands; the warer,-ub deep
and getly down from its force to the 'ea*''.*.
Having rmJ e i,: "'.bri.,r'iir oh the vegetBle.
productions .:.' thl- rrr ( of die country, and 6b'-
tained fpecimens and feeds of fome curious trees
and fhrubs (which were the principal objefs of this
excurfion) I returned by the fame road to the Ala-
t!maha, and arrived fafe again at the feat of my
good friend, L. M'Intofh, Efq. where I tarried a
few days to reft and refrefh myfelf, and to wait for
Source of rivers. It is faid, that St. lllc, St. Mary, and the beautiful
i raters into the bay of Apalachi, at

my young companion and fellow pilgrim, Mr. John
M'Intofh, who, being fond of the enterprise, had
Been fo a&ive during my abfence, in the neceffary
preparations, that we had nothing to wait for now
but Mrs. M'Intofh's final content to give up her
fon to the perils and hardships offo long a journey;
which difficult point b:irn,. fetrl.-:J, we fet off with
the prayers and benevolent wifhes of my compa-
nion's worthy parents.




EARLY in the morning, we mounted our horfes,
and in two days arrived in Savanna; here we learned
that the fuperintendant of Indian affairs had left
the capital, and was on his way to Augufta. I re-
mained but one day in Savanna, which was em-
ployed in making up and forwarding the collefions
for Charlefton.
The day following we fet off for Augufta, which
is on Savanna river, at leaft an hundred and fifty
miles by land from the capital, and about three hun-
dred by water. We followed the course of the
river, and arrived there after having had a prof-
perous journey, though a little incommoded by the
heats of the feafon.
As nothing very material occurred on the road,
I hall proceed to give a summary account of the
observations I made concerning the foil, situation,
and natural produaions of the country.
In our progress from the fea coaft, we rife gra-
dually, by federal fteps or afcents, in the following
manner: Firft, from the fea-coaft, fifty miles back,
is a level plain, generally of a loofe fandy foil,
producing spacious high forests, of Pinus teda, P.
lutea, P. fquarrofa, P. echinata, I. Quercus femper-
virens, 2. Quercus aquatic, 3. Q_ phillos, 4. Q,-
tin&oria, 5. Q dentata, 6. Q.prinos, 7. Q- alba,
8. Q. finuata, 9. Q. rubra, Liriodendron tuli-
l. Live Oak. z. Della-aved Water Oak 3Willw-laved Oak. 4. Great
Black Oak. 5. Narrow leved Wintergren Oak. 6. Swamp W ilte O.lk.
7. Whit Oak. Spanlih Oak. 9. Red Oak.

pifera, Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Morus rubra,
Cercis tilia, Populus heterophylla, Platanus occi-
dentalis, Iaurus faffafras, Laurus Borbonia, Ho-
pea tin6oria, Fraxinus excelsior, Nyffa, Ulmus,
Juglans exaltat, Halefa, Stewartia. Nearly one
third of this vaft plain is what the inhabitants call
fwamps, which are the forces of numerous fall
rivers and their branches: thefe they call falt ri-
vert, becaufi the tides flow near to their forces,
and ,.:11, carry a good depth and breadth of
water for finally craft, twenty or thirty miles up-
wards from the fea, when they branch and fpread
abroad like an opera hand, interlocking with each
other, and forming a chain of fwamps across the
Carolinas and Georgia, federal hundred miles pa-
rallel with the fea coaft. Thefe fwamps are fed
and replenished constantly by an infinite number of
rivulets and rills, which spring out of the firft bank
or afcent: their native trees and flrubs are, besides
moft of thofe already enumerated above, as follow:
Actr rubrum, Nyffa aquatic, Chionanthus, Celtis,
Fagus fylvatica, Sambricus; and the higher knolls
afford beautiful clumps of Azalea nuda and Azalea
vifcofa, Corypha palma, Corypha pumila, and Mag-
nolia grandiflora; besides, the whole surface of the
ground between the trees and shrubs appear to be
occupied with canes (Arundo gigantea) entangled
with feftoons of the floriferous Glycine frutefcens,
Bignonia fempervirens, Glycine apios, Smilax, va-
rious species, Bignonia crucigera, Bign. radicans,
Lonicera fempervirens, and a multitude of other
trees, shrubs, and plants lefs confpicuous; and, in
very wet places, Cuprefils difticha. The upper
Soil of thefe fwamps is a perfectly black, foapy,
rich earth, or fliff mud, two or three feet deep,
on a foundation or firatum of calcareous foflil,

which the inhabitants call white marle; and] this is
the heart or strength of thefe fwamps: they never
wear out or become poor, but, on the contrary,
are more fertile by tillage; for when they turn up
this white marle, the air and winter frofts causing it
to fall like quicklime, it manures the surface: but
it has one disadvantage, that is, in great droughts,
when they cannot have water sufficient it their re-
fervoirs to lay the surface of the ground under wa-
ter, it binds, and becomes fo tough as to burn
and kill the crops, especially the old cleared lands;
as, while it was frefh and new, the great quantity
of rotten wood, roots, leaves, &c. kept the fur-
face loofe and open. Severe droughts feldom hap-
pen near the fea coaft.
We now rife a bank of considerable height, which
runs nearly parallel to the coaft, through Carolina
and Georgia: the afcent is gradual by several
flights or fteps, for eight or ten miles, the perpen-
dicular height whereof, above the level of the
ocean, may be two or three hundred feet (and thefe
are called the fand-hills), when we find ourfelves on
the entrance of a vaft plain, generally level, which
extends weft fixty or feventy miles, rifing gently as
the former, but more perceptibly. This plain is moft-
ly a foreft of the great long-leaved pine (P. paluffris
Linn.) the earth covered with grafs, interferrfed
with an infinite variety of herbaceous plants, and
embellished with extenfive favannas, always green,
sparkling with ponds of water, and ornamented
with clumps of evergreen, and other trees and
flrubs, as Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia glauca,
Gordonia, Illex aquifolium, Qiercus, various fpe-
cies, Laurus Borbonia, Chionanthus, Hopea tinto-
ria, Cyrilla, Kalmia anguftifolia, Andromeda, va-

rieties, Viburnum, Azalea, Rhus vernix, Prinos,
varieties, Fothergilla, and a new ihrub of great
beauty and fingularity: it grows ere&, even or
eight feet high; a multitude of ere& ftems arife
from its root; thefe divide themselves into afcend-
ant branches, which are garnished with abundance
of narrow lanceolate obtufe pointed leaves, of a
light green, fmooth and shining. Thefe branches,
with their many fubdivifions, terminate in simple
racemes of pale incarnate flowers, which make a
fine appearance among the leaves; the flowers are
succeeded by deficcated triquetrous pericarpi, each
containing a single kernel.
The loweft fides of thefe favannas are generally
joined by a great cane fwamp, varied with coppices
and hommocks of the various trees and thrubs al-
ready mentioned. In thefe fwamps several rivulets
take their rife, which drain them and the adjoining
favannas, and thence meandering to the rivers
through the forefts, with their banks decorated
with thrubs and trees. The earth under this level
plain may be deferibed after the following manner:
the upper furface, or vegetative mould, is a light
fandy loam, generally nine inches or a foot deep,
on a ftratum of cinereous coloured clay, except the
fand-hills, where the loofe fandy surface is much
deeper upon the clay; tone of any fort, or gravel,
is feldom feen.
The next afcent, or flight, is of much greater
and more abrupt elevation, and continues rifing by
broken ridges and narrow levels, or vales, for ten
or fifteen miles, when we reft again on another
extensive nearly level plain of pine forefts, mixed
with various other foreft trees, which continues
weft forty or fifty miles farther, and exhibits much

the fame appearance with the great foreft laft men-
tioned; its vegetable productions nearly the fame,'
excepting that the broken ridges by which we af-
cend to the plain are of a better foil; the vegeta-
tive mould is mixed with particles of clay and fmall
gravel, and the foil of a dufky brown colour, lying
on a ftratum of reddish brown tough clay. The
trees and Ihrubs are, Pinus tmda, great black Oak,
Quercus tintoria, Q.rubra, Laurus, Saffafras, Mag-
nolia grandiflora, Cornus Florida, Cercis, Halefia,
Juglans acuminata, Juglans exaltata, Andromeda
arborea: and, by the fides of rivulets (which wind
about and between thefe hills and fwamps, in the
vales) Styrax latifolia, Ptelea trifoliata, Stewartia,
Calycanthus, Chionanthus, Magnolia tripetala, A-
zalea, and others.
Thus have I endeavoured to give the reader a
ihort and natural description of the vaft plain lying
between the region of Augufta and the fea coaftR
for from Augufta the mountainous country begins
(when compared to the level fandy plain already
paffed), although it is at leaft an hundred and fifty
miles weft, thence to the Cherokee or Apalachean
mountains; and this fpace may with propriety be
called the hilly country, every where fertile and de-
lightful, continually replenished by innumerable ri-
vulets, either courting about the fragrant hills, or
springing from the rocky precipices, and forming
many cafcades; the coolnefs and purity of which
waters invigorate the air of this otherwise hot and
fultry climate.
The village of Augufta is fituated on a rich and
fertile plain, on the Savanna river; the buildings
are near its banks, and extend nearly two miles up
to the cataracts, or falls, which are formed by the

firf thain of rocky hills, through .which this fa-
r.n u rxi-r forces itfelf, as if impatient r:t rcpt.f:
on the extensive plain before it invades the ....- n.
Whien the river is low, which is during the fummer
months, the catara&s are four or five feet in height
acrofs the river, and the waters continue rapid and
broken, rufhing over rocks five miles higher up:
this river is near five hundred yards broad at
A few days after our arrival at Augufta, the
chiefs and warriors of the Creeks and Cherokees
being arrived, the Congrefs and the bufinefs of the
(trc% amne on, and die neg..,iatiorn continued un-
dc:rmrined many days; the merchants of Georgia
drnmanding at lealt to ,r,illi.on of acres of land
from tle- Irndran, a: i dil:hsrge rf" their debts,
due, aid of long standing: the Creeks, on the
other hand, being a powerful and proud spirited
people, :hlir ; ..ny irrior e-re ulir;ll;ng to rub-
mit to fo large a demand, and tri c:i-.ndilt ctvi-
dently betrayed a difpofition to dispute the ground
by force of arms, and they could not at firft be
brought to lifted to reason and amicable terms;
however, at Itrih, the cool and deliberate coun-
f.l ofc the ancient venerable chiefs, enforced by
lilbcrl prefents of suitable goods, were too power-
ful inducements for them any longer to re-
fift, and finally prevailed. The treaty conclud-
ed in unanimity, peace, and good order; and
the honourable fuperintendant, not forgetting his
promise to me, at the concluflon, mentioned my
ufinefs, and recommended me to the protection of
the Indian chiefs and warriors. The presents being
diffributed amohngft the Indians, they departed, re-
iuiring home to their towns. A company of fur-
D veyors

veyors were appointed, by the governor and -coun-
cil, to afcertain the boundaries of the new pur-
chal'e; they were to be attended by chiefs of the
Indians, fdfted and delegated, by. their country-
men, to Atift, and be wtnefReaRBd the articles of
the treaty were fullfled, as apn ed to by both par-
ties in Corgrcfs.
Cth Barne, who was eheif to conduct this
bufinefi on the part of the Georgians, a gentleman
every way qualified for that imporcant.truft, in a
very friendly and obliging manner, gave me an in-
viitation to accompany him on this tour,
It was now about the middle of the month of
May; vegetation, in perfe&ion, appeared with all
her attractive charms, breathing fragrance every
where; the armofphere was now animated with the
efficient principle of vegetative life; the arbuftive
hills, gay lawn,, and green meadows, which on
every fide invert the villa of Augulfa, had already
received my frequent vifiEs ; nd although here
much delighted %itch the new beauties in the rege-
table kingdom, and many eminent ones ha\e their
fequeftered refidncn near thi1 place, yet, as 1 was
never long fariied with present poffefion, however
endowed with ci c-r poffible charm to attract the
fight, or intrinsic valuee to engage and tix the
efteem, I wa, reillelr to be searching for more,
my curiosity being infatil.ble.
Thus it is with regard to out affetiens and at-
tachments, in the more important and interefing
concerns of human life. '--
Upon the rich rocky hills at the catara&s of At-
gufta, I firft observed the perfimed rhododendron

ferruglneum, white-robed philadelphus inodorus,
and cerulean malva; but nothing in vegetable na-
ture was more pleading than the odoriferous pancra-
tium fluitans, which almost alone poffeffes the little
rocky iflets which juft appear above the water.
The preparatory bufinefs of the furveyors being
now accomplished, Mr. J. M'Intolh, yet anxious
for travelling, and desirous to accompany me on this
tour, joined with me the caravan, confifting offur-
veyors, astronomers, artifans, chain-carriers, mark-
ers, guides, and hunters, besides a very refpe&able
number of gentlemen, who joined us, in order to
speculate in the lands, together with ten or twelve
Indians, altogether to the number of eighty or
ninety men, all or moft of us well mounted on
horfeback, besides twenty or thirty pack-horfes,
loaded with provisions, tents, and camp equipage.
The summer feafon now rapidly advancing, the
air at mid-day, about this region, was infufferably
hot and fultry. We fat off from Augufta, early in
the morning, for the Great Buffalo Lick, on the
Great Ridge, which feparates the waters of the Sa-
vanna and Alatamaha, about eighty miles distant
from Augufta. At this Lick the furveyors were to
separate themselves, and form three companies,
to proceed on different routes. On the evening of
the second day's journey, we arrived at a fmall vil-
lage on Little River, a branch of the Savanna: this
village, called Wrightfborough, was founded by
Jof. Mattock, efq., of the fed called quakers. This
public spirited man having obtained for himself
and his followers a diffrift, comprehending up-
wards of forty thousand acres of land, gave the new
town this name, in honour of fir James Wright,
then governor of Georgia, who greatly promoted
D a the

the eftabli1hment of the settlement. Mr. Mattock,
who is now about feventy years of age, healthy and
adive, and prefides as chief magiffrate of the fet-
tlement, received us with great hospitality. The
distance from Augufta to this place is about thirty
miles; the face of the country is chiefly a plain of
high forefts, favannas, and cane fwamps, until we
approach Little River, when the landfcape varies,
preventing to view high hills and rich vales. The
foil is a deep, rich, dark mould, on a deep flratum
of reddifh brown tenacious clay, and that on a foun-
dation of rocks which often break through both
ftrata, lifting their backs above the furface. The
foreft trees are chiefly of the deciduous order, as,
quercus tin6oria, q. laciniata, q. alba, q. rubra,
q. prinus, with many other fpecies; celtis, figus
fylvatica, and, on the rocky hills, figus caflanca,
fag. pumila, quercus caftanea; in the rich vales,
juglans nigra, jug. cinerca, gleditfia triacanthos,
magnolia acuminata, liriodendron, platanus, fraxi-
nus excelfior, cercea, juglans exaltata, carpinus,
morus rubra, calycanthus, halefia, feculus pavia,
afc. arborca.
Leaving the pleasant town of Wrightfborough
we continued eight or nine miles through a fertile
plain and high foreft, to the north branch of Little
River, being the largest of the two, croffing which,
we entered an extensive fertile plain, bordering on
the river, and faded by trees of vaft growth, which
at once fpoke its fertility. Continuing fame time
rl.r... h there Ihady groves, the fcene opens, and
I;..... to view the moft magnificent forest I had
ever feen. We rofe gradually a hoping bank of
twenty or thirty feet elevation; and immediately
entered this fublime foreft. The ground is perfectly
a level.

a level green plain, thinly planted by nature with
the moft lately foreft trees, fuch as the gigantic
black oak (q. tinaoria), liriodendron, juglans
nigra, platanus, juglans exaltata, fagus fyivatica,
ulmus fylvatica, liquidambar flyraciflua, whofe
mighty trunks, seemingly of an equal height, ap-
peared like fuperb columns. To keep within the
bounds of truth and reality, in deferibing the mag-
nitude and grandeur of there trees, would, I fear,
fail of credibility; yet, I think I can affert, that
many of the black oaks measured eight, nine, ten,
and eleven feet diameter five feet above the ground,
as we meafired several that were above thirty feet
girt, and from hence they afcend perfefly straight,
with a gradual taper, forty or fifty feet to the
limbs; but, below five or fix feet, thefe trunks
would measure a third more in circumference, on
account of the projeaing jambs, or supports, which
are more or lefs, according to the number of hori-
zontal roots that they arife from: the tulip tree,
liquidambar, and beech, were equally ftately.
Not far distant from the terrace, or eminence,
overlooking the low grounds of the river, many very
magnificent monuments of the power and industry of
the ancient inhabitants of thefe lands are vifible. I
obTerved a ftupendous conical pyramid, or artificial
gnount of earth, vaft tetragon terraces, and a large
funken area, of a cubical form, encompaffed with
banks of earth; and certain traces of a larger Indian
town, the work of a powerful nation, whole period
of grandeur perhaps long preceded the difcovery of
this continent.
Gigantic bHack cak. Qerc. tin rla d; the bark of this fpecies of oak L
foond to or aforiAdvable cllow dye. This tree is kno-n by th, nr.me ol
!ackl oak in Pcan;l a'.l, N .w-J,.rfy, New-Yutk, aid New-Englnd.
1) 3 After

After about even miles progress through this
forest of gigantic black oaks, we enter on terri-
tories which exhibit more varied fcenes: the land
rifes almost infenfibly by gentle afcents, exhibiting
defart plains, high forests, gravelly and itony
ridges, ever in fight of rapid rivulets; the foil, as
already deferibed. We then paffed over large rich
favannas, or natural meadows, wide spreading cane
fwamps, and frequently old Indian settlements,
now deferred and overgrown with forests, Thefe
are always on or near the banks of rivers, or great
fivamps, the artificial mounts and terraces elevat-
ing them above the surrounding groves. I ob-
ferved, in the ancient cultivated fields, i. diofpy-
ros, 2. gleditfia triacanthos, 3. prunus chicafaw,
4. callicarpa, 5. morus rubra, 6. juglans exaltata,
7. juglans nigra, which inform us, that thefe trees
were cultivated by the ancients, on account of their
fruit, as being wholefome and nourishing food.
Though thefe are nativesofthe forest*, yet theythrive
better, and are more fruitful, in cultivated planta-
tions, and the fruit is in great estimation with the
present generation of Indians, particularly juglans
exaltata, commonly called fhell-barked hiccory.
The Creeks ftore up the laft in their towns. I have
feen above an hundred bufhels of thefe nuts belong-
ing to one family. They pound them to pieces,
and then caft them into boiling water, which, after
paffing through fine trainers, preferves the mofti
oily part of the liquid: this they call by a name
which signifies hiccory milk; it is as feet and rich
as frefh cream, and is an ingredient in moft of their
cookery, especially homony and corn cakes.
The Chica pl-un:b I think, mft e ccepted, fir thou- --' t ':-
li-e oW America, yct 1 neor I w it ild in rOh_ oratih, but
z.i5 te Inia p.lnat T5 ogt rom iE'S.. w.
-y ,' 'I sfila.ippi,

After four days moderate and pleasant travel-
ling, we arrived in the evening at the Buffalo Lick.
This extraordinary place occupies several acres of
ground, at the foot of the S. E. promontory of the
Great Ridge, which, as before observed, divides
the rivers Savanna and Alatamaha. A large cane
fwamp and meadows, forming an immenfe plain,
lie S. E. from it, in this fwamp I believe the head
branches of the great Ogeeche river take their rife.
The place called the Lick contains three or four
acres, is nearly level, and lies between the head of
the cane fwamp and the afcent of the Ridge. The
earth, from the fuperficies to an unknown depth,
is an almoft white or cinereous coloured tenacious
fattifh clay, which all kinds of cattle lick into great
caves, pursuing the delicious vein. It is the com-
mon opinion of the inhabitants, that this clay is im-
pregnated with faline vapours, arifing from fofile
flts deep in the earth; but I could discover nothing
faline in its tafte, but 1 imagined an infipid tweet-
nefs. Horned cattle, horfes, and deer, are immo-
derately fond of it, infomuch, that their excrement,
which almost totally covers the earth to fome dif-
tance round this place, appears to be perfe& clay;
which, when dried by the fun and air, is almost as
hard as brick.
We were detained at this place one day, in ad-
jufling and planning the federal branches of the
furvey. A circumftance occurred during this time,
which was a remarkable instance of Indian faga
city, and had nearly difeoncerted all our plans, and
put an end to the bufipefs. The furveyor having fixed
his compafs on the fRaff, and being about to afcer-
tain the courfe from our place of departure, which
was to strike Savanna river at the confluence of a
certain river, about feventy miles distance from us;
P 4 iO

juft as he had determined upon the point, the In-
dian chief came up, and observing the courfc h- had
fixed upon, fpoke, and faid it was now right but
that the course to the place was fo and fe, holding
up his hand, and pointing. The furveyor replied,
that lie himself. was certainly right, adding, that
that little !-na itr u v.- r .i ... :,; r,,- compafs) told
him fo, which, he faid, could not err. The Indian
answered, he knew better, and that the little
wicked inflrument was a liar; and he would not ac-
quicice in its d:..'. fince it would wrong the
Indians out of their land. This mistake (the fur-
veyor proving to be in the wrong) difpleafed the
Indians; the dispute arofe to that height, that the
chief and his party had determined to break up the
bufiners, and return the fhorteft way home, and
forbad the furveyors to proceed any farther: how-
ever, after fome delay, dhe com;plaifance and pru-
dent conduct of the colonel made them change their
resolution; the chief became reconciled, upon con-
dition that the compafs flould be discarded, and
rendered incapable of serving on this bufinefs; that
the chief himfelf should lead the furveyv and,
moreover, receive an order for a very considerable
quantity of goods,
Matters being now amicably fettled, under this
new regulation, the colonel having detached two
companies on separate routes, Mr. M'lntolh and
myfelf attaching ourselves to the colonel's party,
whole excurfion was likely to be the moft extensive
and varied, we fat off from the Buffalo Lick, and
the Indian chief, heading the party, conducted us
on a straight line, as appeared by collateral obfer-
vation, to the desired place. We purfued nearly
a north course up the Great Ridge, until we came
near the branches of Broad River, when we turned

off to the right hand, and encamped on a confi-
derable branch of it. At this place we continued
almost a whole day, constituting furveyors and
aftronomers, who were to take the course, distance,
and observations on Broad River, and from thence
down to its confluence with the Savanna.
The Great Ridge confifts of a continued high
foreft; the foil fertile, and broken into moderately
elevated hills, by the many rivulets which have
their forces in it. The heights and precipices
abound in rock and ftone. The foreft trees and
other vegetable productions are the fame as already
mentioned about Little River: I observed hale-
fia, ftyrax, feiculus pavia, Mfc. fylvatica, robinia
hifpida, magnolia acuminata, mag. tripetala, and
forne very curious new shrubs and plants, particu-
larly the phyfic-nut, or Indian olive. The items
arife many from a root, two or three feet high;
the leaves fit opposite, on very fhort petioles; they
are broad, lanceolate, entire, and undulated, hav-
ing fmooth surfaces of a deep green colour. From
the boom of each leaf is produced a single oval
drupe, standing eret, on long lender ftems; it
has a large kernel, and thin pulp. The fruit is
yellow when ripe, and about the fize of an olive.
The Indians, when they go in purfuit of deer, carry
this fruit with them, fuppofing that it has the
power of charming or drawing that creature to
them; from whence, with the traders, it has ob-
tained the name of the phyfic-nut, which means,
with them, charming, conjuring, or fascinating.
malva icandens, filix fcandens, perhaps a species
of trichomanes; the leaves are palmated, or ra-
diated; it climbs and roves about, on flrubs, in moift
ground. A very singular and elegant plant, of an

unknown family, called Indian lettuce, made its firfi
appearance in thefe rich vales; it is a biennial; the
primary or radical leaves are somewhat fpatuled,
or broad, lanceolate, and obtufe pointed, of a pale
yellowish green, fmooth surface, and of a delicate
frame, or texture; there leaves spread equally on
every fide, almost reclining on the ground; from
their centre arifes a straight upright ftem, five, fix,
or even feet high, fmooth and polished; the ground
of a dark purple colour, which is elegantly pow-
dered with greenish yellow fpecks; the ftem, three-
fourths of its length, is embellished with narrow
leaves, nearly of the fame form with the radical ones,
placed at regular diftances, in verticilate order. The
superior one-fourth division of this ftem is formed
into a pyramidal fpike of flowers, rather diffufe;
thefe flowers are of the hexandria, large, and ex-
panded; of a dark purple colour, delicately pow-
dered with green, yellow, and red, and divided
into fix parts, or petals; thefe are succeeded by tri-
quetrous dry pericarpi, when ripe.
This great ridge is a vaft extended projection of
the Cherokee or Alegany mountains, gradually in-
c,. i'_ in height ard extent, from its extremity
ac the Lick, to its union with the high ridge of
mountains anciently called the Apalachian mousn-
tains; it every where approaches much nearer the
waters of the Alatamaha than thofe of the Savanna.
At one particular place, where we encamped, on
the Great Ridge, during our repofe there part of
a day, our hunters going out, understanding that
their route was to the low lands on the Ocone,
I accompanied them: we had not rode above
three miles before we came to the banks of that
beautiful river. The cane fwamps, of immenfe
extent, and the oak forces, on the level lands,

are incredibly fertile; which appears from the tall
reeds of the one, and the heavy timber of the other.
Before we left the waters of Broad River, having
encamped in the evening on one of its considerable
branches, and left my companions, to retire, as ufual,
on botanical refearches, on afcending a fteep rocky
hill, I accidentally discovered a new species of ca-
ryophyllata (geum odoratillimum); on reaching to
a fhrub my foot flipped, and, in recovering myfelf,
I tore up fome of the plants, whofe roots filled the
airwith animating cents of cloves and fpicy perfumes.
On my return towards camp, I met my philo-
fophic companion, Mr. M'Intolh, who was feared
on the bank of a rivulet, and whom I found highly
entertained by a very novel and curious natural ex-
hibition, in which I participated with high relifh.
The waters at this place were fill and ihoal, and
flowed over a bed of gravel juit beneath a rocky
rapid: in this eddy fhoal were a number of little
gravelly pyramidal hills, whole fummits rofe almost
to the surface of the water, very artfully conftruet-
ed by a fpecies of fmall cray-fifh (cancer macrou-
rus) which inhabited them: here seemed to be their
citadel, or place of retreat for their young against
the attacks and ravages of their enemy, the gold-
fifh: thefe, in numerous bands, continually infected
them, except at Ihort intervals, when fmall detach-
ments of veteran cray-fith allied out upon them,
from their cells within the gravelly pyramids, at
which time a brilliant fight presented: the little gold
fifh instantly fled from every fide, darting through
the transparent waters like streams of lightning
fome even sprang above the surface, into the air,
but all quickly returned to the charge, furround-
ing the pyramids as before, on the retreat of the

cray-fifl; in this manner the war f-emed to be
The gold-fim is about the fize of the anchovy,
nearly four inches long, of a neat .i.'.r -.i, the
head is covered with a facade of an ultramarine blue,
the back of a reddish brown, the fides and belly of
a flame, or of the colour of a fine red lead; a nar-
row dulky line runs along each fide, from the gills
to the tail; the eyes are large, with the iris like
burnished gold. This branch of Broad River is
about twelve yards wide, and has two, three, and.
four feet depth of water, and winds through a fer-
tile vale, almost overfihadowed on one fide by a
ridge of high hills, well timbered with oak, hic-,.
cory, liriodendron, magnolia acuminata, pavia fyl-
vatica, and on their rocky fummits, fagus cafta-
nea rhododendron ferrugineum, kalmia latifolia,
cornus Florida, &c.
One of our Indian young men, this evening,
caught a very large falmon trout, weighing about
fifteen pounds, which he presented to the colonel,
who ordered it to be ferved up for upper. The In-
dian truck this fifh, with a reed harpoon, pointed
very Tharp, barbed, and hardened by the fire. The
fi': lay clfe under the fleep bank, which the Indian
discovered and truck with his reed; instantly the fifh
darted off with it, whnilft the Indian purfued, with-
out extracting the hajpoon, and with repeated
thruLf drowned it, and then dragged it to thore.
After leaving Broad River, the land rifes very
fenfibly, and the country being mountainous, our
progress became daily more difficult and flow; yet
the varied fcenes of pyramidal hills, high forefts,
rich vales, terpcntine rivers, and cataraas, fully

compenfated for our difficulties and delays. I ob-
ferved the great aconitum napellus, delphinium
peregrinum, the carminative angelica lucida and
cerulean malva.
We at length happily accomplished our line, ar-
riving at the little river, where our hunters bring-
ing in plenty of venifon and turkeys, we had a plen-
tiful feat at fupper. Next morning we marked the
corner tree, at the confluence of Little River and the
Savanna; and, foon after, the Indians amicably
took leave of us, returning home to their towns.
The rocks and foffils, which conflitute the hills
of this middle region, are of various species,
as, quartfum, ferrum, cos, filex, glarea, arena,
ochra, ftalatites, faxum, mica, &c. I faw no
figns of marble, platter, or lime-ftone; yet there
are, near _il.li ,. in the forefts, great piles of a
porous friable white rock, in large and nearly hori-
zontal marfes, which feems to be an heterogeneous
concrete, confiting of pulverized fea shells, with
a finally proportion of fand, it is foft, and cafily
wrought into any form, yet of sufficient confidence
for conftruching any building.
As for the animal productions, they are the fame
which originally inhabited this part of North Ame-
rica, except fuch as have been affrighted away fince
the invafion of the Europeans. The buffalo (urus)
once fo very numerous, is not at this day to be feen
in this part of the country; there are but few elks, and
thofe only in the Apalachian mountains. The dreaded
and formidable rattie-fnake is yet too common, and
a variety of other ferpents abound, particularly that
admirable creature the glafs-fiake: I faw a very
Ca'lednondo ir, Vlrgini: by the Creek and Cherokee tadel, white
r, r.

large and beautiful one, a little distance from our
camp. I i. jalii;'..,r, i -;. .:, crocodile, abounds
in the rivers and fwamps, near the fea coat, but is
not to be feen above Augufta. Bears, tygers*,
wolves, and wild cats (felis cauda truncata) are
numerous enough: and there is a very great variety
of papilio and phalena, many of which are admire
ably beautiful, as well as other infects of infinite
The furveyors having completed their obferva-
tions, we fat off next day on our return to Augufta,
taking our route generally through the low lands
on the banks of the Savanna. We croffed Broad
River, at a newly fettled plantation, near its conflu-
ence with the Savanna. On my arrival at Augulta,
finding myfelf a little fatigued, I ftaid there a day
or two, and then fat off again for Savanna, the ca-
pital, where we arrived in good health.
Having, in this journey, met with extraordinary
fuccefs, not only in the enjoyment of an uninter-
rupted fate of good health, and efcaping ill acci-
dents, incident to fuch excurfions, through unin-
ihabited wilderneffes, and an Indian frontier, but aIfo
in making a very extensive collection of new dif-
coveries of natural productions; on the recolleacion
of fo many and great favours and bleffings, I now,
with a high fenfe of gratitude, prefume to offer up
my fincere thanks to the Almighty, the Creator and

S This creature i called, in Penf)!lvanil and the northern States, p thert
i Carolina and the southern States, h, called tyger; it is very thlngt
clh larger than ny dog, of a yll,wiih bLarown, or clay colour, havh.g a
-ery long tail ; it ih a Jc&iricvous aninl-, and preys on calve. young
c~alt,, &:.




HAVItN completed my Hortus Siccus, and made
up my collections of feeds and growing roots, the
fruits of my late wefftern tour, and fent them to
Charlefton, to be forwarded to Europe, I fpent the
remaining part of this feafon in botanical excursions
to the low countries, between Carolina and Eaft
Florida, and collected feeds, roots, and specimens,
making drawings of fuch curious fubjeas as could
not be preserved in their native itate of excellence.
During this recefs from the high road of my tra-
vels, having obtained the ufe of a neat light cyprefi
canoe, at Broughton Ifland, a plantation, the pro-
perty of the Hon. Henry Laurens, Efq. I flored
myself with neceffaries for the voyage, and resolved
upon a trip up the Alatamaha.
I ascended this beautiful river, on whofe fruit-
ful banks the generous and true fons of liberty fe-
curely dwell, fifty miles above the white fettle-
How gently flow thy peaceful floods, 0 Alata-
maha How fublimely rife to view, on thy elevated
fhores, yon magnolian groves, from whofe tops
the surrounding expanfe is perfumed, by clouds of
incenfe, blended with the exhaling balm of the li-
quidambar, and odours continually arifing from
circumambient aromatic groves of illicium, myrica,
laurus, and bignonia.
When wearied with working my canoe against
the impetuous current (which becomes fironger by

reason of the mighty floods of the river, with col-
lected force, preffing through the firft hilly afcents,
where the chores on each fide present to view rocky
cliffs riling above the surface of the water, in nearly
flat horizontal maifes, waifhed fmooth by the de-
fcending floods, and which appear to be a compo-
fition, or concrete, of fandy lime-ftone) I resigned
my bark to the friendly current, referving to my-
felf the control of the helm. My progress was
rendered delightful by the fylvan elegance of the
groves, cheerful meadows, and high distant forests,
which in grand order presented themselves to view.
The winding banks of the river, and the high pro-
jecing promontories, unfolded frefh fcenes ofgran-
deur and fublimity. The deep forefts and distant
hills re-echoed the cheering facial lowings of do-
meftic herds. The air was filled with the loud
and i,, .ii ,. i, ."1 ;" of the wary (harp-fighted crane.
Behold, on yon decayed, defoliated cyprefs tree,
the folitary wood-pelican, dejeftedly perched upon
ks utmoft elevated fpire; he there, like an ancient
venerable fage, fets himself up as a mark of deri-
fion, for the safety of his kindred tribes. The
crying-bird, another faithful guardian, screaming
in the gloomy thickets, warns the feathered tribes
of approaching peril; and the plumage of the fvift
failing fquadrons of Spanilh curlews (white as the
immaculate robe of innocence) gleams in the ceru-
lean fkies.
Thus fecure and tranquil, and meditating on the
marvellous fcenes of primitive nature, as yet un-
modified by the hand of man, I gently defcended
the peaceful ftream, on whofe polished surface were
depicted the mutable shadows from its penfile banks;
whilft myriads of finny inhabitants fported in its pel-
lucid foods.

The glorious fovereign of day, clothed in light
refulgent, rolling on his gilded chariot, haftened to
revifir the western realms. Grey penfive eve now
admonished us of gloomy night's hafty approach: I
was routed by care to feek a place of fecure repofe,
ere darknefs came on.
Drawing near the high chores, I afcended the
fteep banks, where food a venerable oak. An an-
cient Indian field, verdured over with fucculent
grafs, and chequered vith coppices of f-a:-inn
flhi.bs, offered to my view the Myrica ,r., ,
T' 1,o!ll glauca, Laurus benzoin, Laur. Borbonia,
inamnnus fiangula, Prunus Chicafaw, Prun. lau-
rocerafus, and others. It was nearly encircled with
an open forest of ftately pines (Pinus paluftris)
through which appeared the extensive favanna, the
fecure range of the fivift roebuck. In front of my
landing, and due eaft, 1 had a fine profpcc of the
river and low lands on each fide, which gradually
widened to the fea coat, and gav e me an uncon-
fined profped, whiiR tihe far dii'ant fea-coat ifands,
like a coronet, limited the hoary horizon.
My barque being fecurely moored, and having
reconnoitred the surrounding groves, and coUleted
fire-wood, I spread my fkins and blanket by my
cheerful fire, under tile -. o l .: fhade of the hof-
pitable Live-oak, and reclined my head on my hard
but healthy couch. I likened, '. .. ... 1, to the
divine hymns of the feathered tongiters of the
groves, whilft the l .s : 1. L ';- 1i. breezes faindy
died away.
The fin now below the western horl:-', the
moon :. .i.*}; ,.i. i'!..; in the cat; a a in the tune-
ful birds became inspired: how melodious is the
focial mock-bird! the groves refound the unceaPng
E cries

cries of the whip-poor-will; the moon about an
hour above the horizon; lo! a dark eclipse of her
glorious brightnefs came flowly on; at length, a
silver thread alone encircled her temples: at this
boding change, an universal filence prevailed.
Nature now weary, I resigned myfelf to reft;
the night paffed over; the cool dews of the morn-
ing awoke me; my fire burnt low; the blue fmoke
farce rofe above the moistened embers; all was
gloomy: the late ftarry fkies, now overcast by thick
clouds, warned me to rife and be going. The
livid purple clouds thickened on the frowning brows
of the morning; the tumultuous winds from the
eaft now exerted their power. 0 peaceful Alatama-
ha! gentle by nature how thou wert ruffled thy
wavy ftrface disfigured every obje&, preventing
them obfcurely to the fight, and they at length to-
tally disappeared, whilft the furious winds and lveep-
ing rains bent the lofty groves, and proftrated the
quaking grafs, driving the affrighted creatures to
their dens and caverns.
The tempeft now relaxed, its impetus being fpent,
and a calm ferenity gradually took place; by noon the
clouds broke away, the blue fly appeared, the fulgid
fun-beams fpread abroad their animating light, and
the fleady western wind refused his peaceful reign.
The waters were purified, the waves fubiided, and the
beautiful river regained its native calmness. So it is
with the varied and mutable fcenes of human events
on the fiream of life. The higher powers and af-
fedtions of -the foul are fo blended and connected
with the inferior paffons, that the moft painful feel-
ings are excited in the mind when the latter are
croffed: thus in the moral fyftern, which we have
The a;r at :i time bing flirene, and not a cloud; t be fopn, I law thin
l t::l t l pi o pnel di..oa .

planned for our condua, as a ladder whereby to
mount to the fummit of terreftrial glory and hap-
pinefs, and from whence we perhaps meditated our
flight to heaven itself, at the very moment when we
vainly imagine ourfelves to have attained its point,
fome unforu'een accident intervenes, and furprifes
us; the chin is violently shaken, we quit our hold
and fall: the well contrived fyilem at once becomes
a chaos; every idea of happinefs recedes; the fplen-
dour of glory darkens, and at length totally difap-
pears; every pleading object is defaced, all is de-
ranged, and the l- v'1 .-,-;, fcene paffes quite away;
a gloomy cloud pervades the understanding, and
when we fee our progrefs retarded, and our beft
intentions frustrated, we are apt to deviate from the
admonitions and convictions of virtue, to fhut our
eyes upon our guide and protecor, doubt of his
power, and despair of his afiftance. But let us wait
and rely on our God, who in due time will fhine
forth in brightnefs, diflipate the envious cloud, and
reveal to us how finite and circumfcribed is human
power, when affiming to 'i.h" i -,, l- -', i-,r i if .
But, before I leave the river Alatamaha, we
will proceed to give a further and more particular
account of it. It has its force in the Cherokee
mountains, near the head of Tugilo, the great
weft branch of Savanna, and, before it leaves
them, is joined and augmented by innumerable
rivulets; thence it defcends through the hilly
country, with all its collateral branches, and winds
rapidly amongft the hills two hundred and fifty
miles, and then enters the flat plain country, by
the name of the Oakmulge ; thence meandering an
hundred and fifty miles, it is joined on the eaft fide
by the Ocone, which likewife heads in the lower
ridges of the mountains. After this confluence,
E 2 having

having now gained a vaft acquifiaion of waters, it
afifmes the name of Alatamahn, when it becomes
a large majestic river, flowing with gentle wind-
ings through a vaft plain forest, near an hundred
miles, and enters the Atlantic by several mouths.
T he north channel, or entrance, glides by the
heights of Darien, on the eaft bank, about ten miles
above the bar, and running from thence with fe-
veral turnings, enters the ocean between Sapello
and Wolf islands. The fourth channel, which is
efleemed the largest and deepeft, after its fepara-
tion from the north, defcends gently, winding by
M'Intofh's and Broughton islands; and laftly, by
the weft coaft of St. Simon's island, enters the
ocean, through St. Simon's found, between the
fouth end of the island of that name and the north
end of Jekyl island. On the wcft banks of the
fouth channel, ten or twelve miles above its mouth,
and nearly opposite Darien, are to be feen the re-
mains of an ancient fort, or fortification; it is now
a regular tetragon terrace, about four feet high,
with bastions at each angle; the area may con-
tain about an acre of .. .., but the foffe which
surrounded it is nearly I II. 1 up. There are large
Live Oak, Pines, and other trees, growing upon
it, and in the old fields adjoining. It is fuppofed
to have been the work of the French or Spaniards.
.\ .. _e fwamp lies betwixt it and the river, and a
confidcrable creek runs clofe by the works, ani en-
ters the river -'. .-. the fwamp, a fmall diflance
above Broughron iriand. About feventy or eighty
miles above the confluence of the Oakmulge and
Ocone, the trading path, from Augufta to the Creek
nation, crofns lth e fine rivers, which are there
forty miles apart. On the eaft banks of the Oak-
mulge, this trading road runs nearly two miles
8 through

through ancient Indian field:, v h!c:'. ;; czi .i !
Oakmulge fields: they are the rich low lands c:.i
river. On the heights of thefe low grou-.ds arc y:,
vifible monuments, or traces, of an ;anci;Ct owLn,
fuch as artificial mounts or terraces, fluares and
banks, encircling considerable areas. Their old
fields and planting land excend up and down the
river, fifteen or twenty miles from this fite.
If we are to give credit to the account the
Creeks give of themselves, this place is remarkable
for being the tirft town or fettiement, when they fat
down (as they term it) or eftabliihed themselves,
after their emigration from the weft, beyond the
Miffifippi, their original native country. On this
long journey they suffered great and innumerable
difficulties, encountering and vanquifling numerous
and valiant tribes of Indians, who oppofed and re-
tarded their march. Having croffed the river, fill
pushing eastward, they were obliged to make a
ftand, and fortify themselves in this place, as their
only remaining hope, being to the laft degree per-
fecuted and weakened by their ; ..... 1.. 1, foes.
Having formed for themselves this retreat, and
driven off the inhabitants by degrees, they recover-
ed their fpirits, and again faced their enemies,
when they came off victorious in a memorable and
decisive battle. They afterwards i, ,.lu ill i'1.:..1.- 1
their surrounding er- ,.- r. r i ri.. .
by taking into conf ..i.- i"y h..: i, jili'- .i ri.i.
And they fay, alfo, that about this period the
Englift were eftablifhing the colony of Carolina;
and the Creeks, understanding that they were a
powerful, warlike people, fent deputies to Charlef-
ton, their capital, offering them their friendship and
alliance, which was accepted, and, in confequence
E 3 thereof,

thereof, a treaty took place between them, which
has remained inviolable to this day. They never
ceased war against the numerous and potent bands
of Indians, who then surrounded and cramped the
English plantations, as the Savannas, Ogeeches,
Wapoos, Santees, Yamafees, Utinas, Icofans, Pa-
ticas, and others, until they had extirpated them.
The Yamafees and their adherents fleltering them-
felves under the power and protection of the Spa-
niards of Eaft Florida, they purfued them to the
very'gates of St. Auguftine; and the Spaniards re-
r:fing to deliver them up, thefe faithful intrepid al-
lies had the courage to declare war against them,
and inceffantly perfecuted them, until they entirely
broke ip and ruined their settlements, driving them
before them, till at length they were obliged to re-
tire within the walls ofSt. Auguffine and a few in-
ferior fortified pofts on the fea coaft.
After a few days I returned to Broughton island.
The Cherokees and their confederates being yet dif-
contented, and on bad terms with the white people,
it was unfafe to purfue my travels in the north wef-
tern regions of Carolina. And recolletiing many
fubje&s of natural history, which I had observed in
the fouth of the ifthmus of Florida, when on a jour-
ney fome years ago with my father, John Bartram,
that were interesting, and not taken notice of by
any traveller; and as it was then in the autumn and
winter, having reafon to think that very many cu-
rious filbjets had efcaped our refearches; I now
form ed ti., ,c i, i. .. .. 'rr ,..!|i' ii r.. I ..it f l ...ri.. ,
accordingly, I immediately wrote to dodcor Fo-
thergill, in order that he might know where to di-
ret to me.





WE are, all of us, fuiijec to croffes and difap-
pointments, but more especially the traveller, and
when they furprife us, we frequently become reft-
lefs and impatient under them: but let us rely on
Providence, and by studying and contemplating the
works and power of the Creator, learn wifdom and
understanding in the economy of nature, and be
ferioufly attentive to the divine monitor within. Let
us be obedient to the ruling powers in fuch things
as regard human affairs, our duties to each other,
and all creatures and concerns that are submitted to
our care and control.
In the month of March, 1774, I fat : i-.., I
yanna, for Florida, i.r. ;-,. by land to the Ala-
ramaha, where I diverted my time agreeably in
fliort excursions, picking up curiofities, until the
arrival of a finally veffel at Frederica, from Savanna,
which was deitine.' to an Indian trading houfe high
up St. John's, in Eaft Florida. Upon information
of this veffl-'s arrival, I immediately took boat and
defended the Alatamaha, calling by the way of
Broughton island, where I was kindly received by
Mr. James Bailey, Mr. Laurens's agent. Leaving
Broughton island in the evening, I continued de-
: .1 -,.iiil rl,. :,,h channel nine or ten miles, when,
;,Ir rII;- .l.. found, I arrived at Frederica, on
the island of St. Simon, where I was well received
and entertained by James Spalding, efq, This gen-
E 4 teman

tliman carrying on a very considerable trade, and
h -i:-- ex:mnhve connections with the Indian tribes
S. I Florida, gave me letters to his agents refid-
ing at his trading houses, ordering them to furniih
me with horfes, guides, and every other convenient
Before the veffel was ready to fail again for St.
John's, I had time to explore the island. In the
cool of the morning early, I rode out of the town,
directing my course to the fourth end of the island.
After penetrating a thick grove of oaks, which al-
moft surrounded the town on the land-fide, fudden-
ly a very extenfive and beautiful green favanna
opened to view, in length nearly two miles, and in
breadth near a mile, well flocked with horned cat-
tle, horfes, Iheep, and deer. Following an old
highway, now out of repair, across the Savanna,
I afcended the floping green bank, and entered a
noble foreft of lofty pines, and then a venerable
grove of Live Oaks, under whofe fhady spreading
boughs opened a spacious avenue, leading to the
former feat of general Oglethorpe, but now the
property of capt. Raimond Demere. After leav-
ing this town, I was led into a high pine forest;
the trees were tall, and generally of the species
called Broom-pine (P. paluftris Linn.) the surface
of the ground covered with grafs, herbage, and
fome shrubbery: I continued through this foreft
nearly in a direct line towards the fea coat, five or
fi- wiles, when the land became uneven, with
ridges of fand-hills, mixed with fea fhells, and co-
vered by almost impenetrable thickets, confifting
of Live Oaks, Sweet-bay (L. Borbonia), Myrica,
Ilex aquifolium, Rhamnus C, .J.:l.-, Cafine, Sider-
oxylon, Ptelea, Halefia,C (.i!. 1j -, Carpinus, en-
tangled with Smilax pfeudo-china, and other

ip.:.*;... 5L _-. ", if. -'... ; .r B. crucigera, RIham-
nus volubilis, &c. This dark labyrinth is fucceeded
by a great extent of fault plains, beyond which the
boundlefs ncean is fcen. Betwixt the dark forest
and the fault plains, I croffed a rivulet of frcfi wa-
ter, where I fat down a while to reft myfell under
the fhidow of feet Bays and Oaks; the lively
breezes were perfumed by the fragrant breath of
the fbpcrb Crinum, called by the inhabitants, White
Lily. This admirable beauty of the fea-coaft-
iflands dwells ii the humid fhady groves, where the
foil is made fertile and mellow by the admixture of
fea inells. The delicate ftruaure of its fpadix, its
green broad leaves, and the texture and whitenefs
of its flowers, at once charmed me. The Euphor-
bia pida, Salvia coccinea, and Ipomea ereta,
were alfo heated in front of my renting place, as
well as the Lycium falfum (perhaps L. Afrum Linn.)
a very beautiful ever-green thrub, its cerulean
flowers, and coral red berries, always on its
branches, forming not the left of its beauties.
Time now .i.i. .-i, ..: to rife and be going,
I, with reluctance, broke away from this affembly
of maritime beauties.
Continuing on, fouthward, the falt plains on my
left hand infenfibly became narrower, and I at
length reached the ftrand, which was level, firm,
and paved with shells, and afforded me a grand
view of the boundless ocean.
O thou Creator supreme, almighty! how infinite
and incomprehenfible thy works! moft perfel, and
every way ,.ii0 .,..
I continued nearly a mile along this firm fandy
beach, the waves of the fea fometimes !.:-_ ..

horfe's feet. I observed a great variety of iheil-
fif, as Echiniis, Corallinus, Patella, Medufa,
Buccina, Concha venerea, Auris marina, Cancer,
Squilla, &c. fome ave, and others dead, having
been caft upon the beach by the feas, in times of
tempeft, where they became a prey to fea fowl,
and other maritime animals, or perished by the heat
of the fun and burning fands. At length I doubled
the utmoft fou:h point of St. Simon's, which forms
the north cpe of the fouth channel of the great
river Alatamaha. The found, juft within this cape,
forms an excellent bay, or cove, on the fourth end
of' the iflap., cn the oppofite fide of which I be-
held a h1if- a.1l farm, were I foon arrived. This
S";. C h.bit.ition was fituated in the midft of a
fpacious grove of Live Oaks and Palms, near the
firand of the bay, commanding a view of the inler.
A cool area surrounded the low but convenient
buildings, from whence, through the groves, was
a spacious avenue into the island, terminated by a
large favanna; each fide of the avenue was lined
with bee-hives, to the number of fifty or fixty;
they seemed to be well peopled, and exhibited a
lively image of a colony that has attained to a fate
of power and affluence, by the practice of virtue
and induflry.
When I approached the houfe, the good man,
who was reclining on a bear-fkin, fpread under the
Thade of a Live Oak, fmoking his pipe, rofe and
faluted me: Welcome, stranger, I am indulg-
ing the rational diftates of nature, taking a little
reft, having juft come in from the chace and fifh-
ing." After fome converfation and reft, his fer-
vant brought a bowl of honey and water, a very
refrefhing and agreeable liquor, of which I drank.
On rifing to take my departure, he objected, and

requested me to flay and dine with him; and on
my plead g, for excufe, the neceffity of my ip:.
at Freaerica, Yet, I pray you, flay a little, I l!
foon have fome refreihment for you." Prefently
was laid before us a plentiful repaft ofveniibn, &c.
our drink being honey and water, strengthened by
the addition of brandy. Our rural table was spread
under the (hadow of Oaks, Palms, and Sweet Bays,
fanned by the lively falubrious breezes wafted from
the fpicy groves. Our mufic was the refponfive
love-lays of the painted nonpareil, and the alert
and gay mockbird; whilft the brilliant humming-
bird darted through the flowery groves, fufpended
in air, and drank ne&tar from the flowers of the
yellow Jafmine, Lonicera, Andromeda, and fweet
But yet, how awfully great and fublime is the
majeflic feene eaftward! the folemn found of the
beating furf firikes our ears; the dalhing of yon
liquid mountains, like mighty giants, in vain affail
the fkies; they are beaten back, and fall proftrate
upon the chores of the trembling island.
Taking leave of my fylvan friend, I fat off on
my return to the town, where I arrived before
night, having observed, on the way, many curious
vegetable productions, particularly Corypha Palma
(or great Cabbage Palm) Corypha pumila, Corypha
repens, frondibus expanfis, flabellifbrmibus, plica-
tis, ftipit. fpinofis (Dwarf Saw Palmetto) Corypha
obliqua, caudice arboreo adfcendente, fiondibus
expanfis, flabelliformibus, plicatis, ftipit. ferratis,
Cyrilla, Tillandfia monoftachya, Till. lingulata, or
Wild Pine; both thefe curious vegetables are pa-
rafites, living on the fubftance of others, particu-
larly on the limbs of the Live Oak; the latter fpe-

cics is a ve;y !i-ge Boourifaig plant, gre.y; r.
fetmbling, at fime difiancc, a wcii grown :i of
the Bromelia Anana,: the large deep green 'coves
are placed in an inmbicated order, and afcendant;
but their extremities are reflex, their bafes gibbous
and hollowed, like a ladle, and capable of con-
taining near a pint of water: heavy tempFcis of
wind and rain tear thefe plants from the trees; yet
they live and flourish on the earth, under tie fia-
dow of thefe great Live Oaks. A very large part
of this island had formerly been cleared and planted
by the Englifli, as appeared evidently to me, by
velliges of plantations, ruins of costly buildings,
highways, &c. but it is now overgrown with forefts.
Frederica was the fifit town built by the F.n glifh in
Georgia, and was founded by general Ogiethorpe,
who began and eftablifhed the colony. The for-
trefs was regular and beautiful, conftruded chiefly
with brick, and was the largest, moft regular, and
perhaps moft costly, of any in North America, of
Britiih conftruf&ion: it is now in ruins, yet occu-
pied by a fmall garrifon tie ruins alib of the
town only remain; peach trees, figs, pomegra-
nates, and other flirubs, grow out of the ruinous
walls of former spacious and expensive buildings,
not only in the town, but at a distance in various
parts of the ifland; yet there are a few neat houfes
in good repair, and inhabited : it feems now reco-
vering again, owing to the public and liberal spirit
and exertions ofJ. Spalding, efq. who is president
.of the island, and engaged in very extensive mer-
cantile concerns.




THes veffel in which I was to embark for Eaft
Florida, being now ready to purfie her voyage, we
Jfa fail with a fair wind and tide. Our course was
fourth, through the found, betwixt a chain of fea-
coaft-iflands, and the main. In the evening we
came to, at the fouth end of St. Simon's, having
been hindered by the flood tide :n '. i I: 1 ,. u3.
The captain and myfelf, with one of our crew, went
on ihore, with a view of getting fome venifon and
fea fowl. We had not the good fortune to fee any
deer, yet we were not altogether unfuccefsful, hav-
ing taken three young racoons (Urfis cauda elon-
gata) which are excellent meat: we had them for
upper, served up in a pilo. Next morning early,
w, i-"in "or under way, running by Jehyl and
C ... ' I I, .d, large, beautiful, and itrtile, yet
thinly inhabited, and confequently exceliat haunts
for deer, bears, and other game.
As we ran by Cuinbcriand Ifle, keeping the chan-
pel through the found, awe faw a fail a head coming
up towards us. Our captain knew it to be the
trading fchooner from the stores on St. John's, and
immediately predicted bad news, as fhe was not to
fail until our arrival there. As lhe approached us,
his apprehensions were more and more confirmed,
from the appearance of a number of i.. on
deck. We laid to, until flte came up, when we
hailed her, What news ? "Bad; the Indians
have plundered the upper ftore, and the traders have
efcaped, only with their lives." Upon this both
veflfls came to anchor very near each other, when,

learning the particulars, it appeared, that a large
party of Indians had furprifed and plundered two
trading houfes, in the ifthmus, beyond the river St.
John's; anda third being timely apprifed of their hof-
tile intentions, by a faithful runner, had time to carry
off part of the efftas, which they fecreted in a fwamp
at fome distance from it, covering them with Ikins.
The upper ftore had faved their goods in like man-
ner; and die lower ftore, to which we were bound,
had removed the chief of theirs, and depofited them
on a fmall island, in the river, about five miles be-
low the ftore. With thefe effefs was my cheft, which
I had forwarded in this veffel, from Savanna, not
being at that time determined whether to make
this journey by land, or water. The captain of our
veffi1, resolved to put about and return to Frcde-
rica, for fiefl inflirfions how to proceed; but for
my part, I was determined to proceed for the island
up St. John's, where my cheft was lodged, there be-
ing fome valuable books and papers in it, wh;, I
could not do well without. I accordingly defircd
our captain to put me on fhore, on Little St. Si-
mon's, wh:ch was not far diftant, intending to walk
a few miles to a fort, at the fourth end of that island,
where fome fifhermen refided, who, as I expeced,
would fet me over on Amelia Iflad, where
was a large plantation, the property of Lord Eg-
mont, a Britifh nobleman, whofe agent, while I
was at Frederica, gave me an invitation to call on
him, as I paffed toward Eaft Florida; and here I
had expectations of getting a boat to carry me to
St. John's. Agreeably to my defire, the captain
put me on fhore, with a young man, a paffenger,
for Eaft Florida, who promised to continue with me,
and fhare my adventures. We landed fafely; the cap-
tain wifiing us a p:ofperous journey, returned on

board his veffel, and we proceeded for the fort, en-
countering bome harfh treatment from thorny thick-
ets, and prickly vines. However we reached the
fort in the evening. The commander was out in the
foreft, hunting. My companion being tired, or in-
dolent, betook himself to reft, while I made a tour
round the fouth point of the island, walking the
thelly paved fea beach, and picking up novelties. I
had not gone above a mile, before I came up to a
roebuck, lying flain on the fands; and hearing the
report of a gun, not far off, and fuppofing it to be
from the captain of the fort, whom I expected foon
to return to take up his game, I retired to a little
distance, mounted the fand hills, and fat down, en-
joying a fine profpe& of the rolling billows and
foaming breakers, beating on the bar, and north
promontory of Amelia Ifle, oppofite to me. The
captain of the fort fbon came up, with a flain buck
on his shoulders. We hailed each other, and re-
turned together to the fort, where we were well
treated, and next morning, at my requcft, the
captain obligingly fat us over, landing us fafely on
Amelia. After walking through a spacious forest
of Live Oaks and Palms, and crofing a creek that
ran through a narrow falt marth, I and my fellow
traveller arrived fafe at the plantation, where the
agent, Mr. Egan, received us very politely and hof-
pitably. This gentleman is a very intelligent and
able planter, having already greatly improved the
estate, particularly in the cultivation of indigo.
Great part of this island confifts of excellent hiom-
mocky land, which is the foil this plant delights
in, as well as cotton, corn, batatas, and almost
every other efculent vegetable. Mr. Egan po!itcly
rode with me over great part of the iiland. On

Egmont eftate are several very large Indian tu-
muli, which are called Ogeeche mounts, fo named
from that nation of Indians, who took Theker here,
after being driven fiom their native fetlements on
the main near Ogec he river. Here they were con-
ftantly haraffed by the Carolinians and Creeks, and
at length flain by their conquerors, and their bones
entombed in there heaps of earth and shells. I ob-
ferved here the ravages of the common grey cater-
pillar (Phalena periodica, fo deftruftive to foreft
and fruit trees, in Pennfylvania, and through the
northern fates, by stripping them of their leaves, in
the spring, while young and tender.
Mr. Egan having bufinefs of importance to tranf-
aft in S.. A.i';.,l',-. preffed me to continue with
him a f w days, when he would accompany me to
that place, and, if I chofe, I should have a paffage,
as far as the Cow-ford, on St.John's, where he Would
procure me a boat to prosecute my voyage.
It may be a fubjea worthy of fome inquiry, why
thofe fine i.i ., i., on the coaft of Georgia, are fo
thinly inhabited; though perhaps Amelia may in
fome degree plead an exemption, as it is a very fer-
tile island, on the north border of Eaft Florida, and
at the Capes of St. M.iry, the finest harbour in this
new colony. If I should give my opinion, the fol-
lowing fcem to be the moft probable reasons: the
greatest part of theft are as yet the property of a
few wealthy planters, who having their residence
on the continent, were lands on the large rivers,
asSavanna, O . '. '. -... : Ili '-.. r.,
are of a nature and quality adapted to the growth
of rice, which thie planters chiefly rely upon for
obtaining ready cafll, a i f. family arti-
cles; they fettle a tew 1 .....- on their in-

fi:hr elTates, wiho rear fiocks o
horfes, fine, and poulIlr, a'nd protrc t:_- t: -- r
their proprietors. The inbtn o t i
alfo lie open to the invasion and ravages or pl.ite0 ,
and in cafe of a war, to incurlious from their ene-
mies armed vefils, in which cafe they imuit either
remove with their families and effects to the main,
or be stripped of all their moveables, and their
houfes laid in ruins.
The foil of thefe islands appears to be particu-
larly favourable to the culture of indigo and cotton,
and there are on them fome few large plantations
for the cultivation and manufacture of thofe valu-
able articles. The cotton is planted only by the
poorer clafs of people, juft enough for their family
consumption: they plant two species of it, the an-
nual and Weft Indian; the former is low, and
planted every year; the balls of this are very
large, and the phlox long, flrong, and perfectly
white; the Weft Indian is a tall perennial plant,
the talk fomenwhat fbrubby, federal of which fife
up from the root for several years fucccfFively, the
Items of tihe former year being killed by the winter
frofts. The balls of this latter species are not quite
to large as thofi of the herbaceous cotton, but the
phlox, or wool, is long, extremely fine, filky, and
white. A plantation of this kind will laft federal
years, vwi-l moderate labour and care, whereas the
annual fort is planted every year.
The coats, founds, and inlets, E. ". '
iflands, abound with a variety of
particularly Rock, s, Drum, Muire-, Sheep'-
head, --' Gsiropr, Flou':&-r, Sea 'rio,
[this lar cms t; b a ipccies of Codi] i_-'te, Skip-
jack, Sigr. Sar, and
Ic ~ra

ray, are infatiable cannibals, and very troublesome
to -the fishermen. The bays and lagoons are stored
waith oyfters, and varieties of other ftell-fifh, crabs,
thrimp, &c. The clams, in particular, are large,
their meat white, tender, and delicate.
There is a large face betwixt this chain of fea-
coaft-iflands and the main land, perhaps generally
near three leagues in breadth; but all this face is
not covered with water: I eftimate nearly two-
thirds of it to confit of low falt plains, which pro-
duce Barilla, Sedge, Ruffies, &c. and which border
on the main land, and the western coafts of the iflands.
The eaft fides of thefe iflands are, for the molt part,
clean, hard, fandy beaches, expofed to the wafh of
the ocean. Between there iflands are the mouths
or entrances of fome rivers, which run down from
the continent, winding about through thefe low falt
marches, and delivering their waters into the founds,
which are very extensive capacious harbours, from
three to five and fix to eight miles over, and com-
municate with each other by parallel faith rivers, or
pafles, that flow into the found: they afford an ex-
tenfive and fecure inland navigation for moft craft,
fuch as large fchooners, floops, pettiaugers, boats,
and canoes; and this inland communication of wa-
ters extends along the tea coat with but few and
ihort interruptions, from the bay of Chefapeak, in
Virginia, to the Miffilippi, and how much farther I
know not, perhaps as far as Vera Cruz. Whether
this chain of fea-coaft-iflands is a ftep, or advance,
which this part of our continent is now making on
the Atlantic ocean, we muft leave to future ages to
determine. But it feems evident, even to demon-
ftration, that thofe falt mares adjoining the coaft
of the main, and the reedy and graffy iflands and

-- - -lB . . l I T II ...

marfles in the rivers, which are now overflowed at
every tide, were formerly high fwamps of firm land,
affording forefts of Cyprcfs, Tupilo, Magnolia gran-
diflora, Oak, Afh, Sweet Bay, and other timber
trees, the fame as are now growing on the river
fwamps, whofe furface is two feet or more above
the spring tides that flow at this day; and it is
plainly to be feen by every planter along the coat
of Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, to the Miffifippi,
when they bank in thefe graffy tide marfhes for
cultivation, that they cannot fink their drains above
three or four feet below the surface, before they
come to ftrata of Cyprefs ftumps and other trees, as
clofe together as they now grow in the fwamps.




BErNG now in readiness to prosecute our voyagn
to St. John's, we fat fail in a handsome pleathre-
boat, manned with four flout negro flaves, to row
in cafe of neceffity. After paffing Amelia Nar-
rows, we had a pleasant run acrofs fort George's
found, where, observing the pelicans fishing, Mr.
Egan fhot one of them, which he took into the
boat. I was greatly furprifed on obferving the
pouch or fack, which hangs under the bill: it is
capable of being expanded to a prodigious fize.
One of the people on board, faid, that he had feen
more than half a bufhel of bran crammed into one
of their pouches. The body is larger than that of
a tame goofe, the legs extremely fort, the feet
webbed, the bill'of a great length, bent inwards
like a fcythe, the wings extend near even feet from
tip to tip, the tail is very ihort, the head, neck, and
breast, nearly white, the body of a light bluifh gray,
except the quill feathers of the wings, which are
black. They feem to be of the gull kind, both in
form and ftructure, as well as manner of fishing.
The evening following, we landed on the main.
It was a promontory of high land, covered with
orange-trees, and projecting into the found, forming
a convenient port. We pitched our tent under the
shelter ofa forest of Live Oaks, Palms, and Sweet
Bays and having in the course of the day, procured
plenty of fea fowl, Itch as curlews, willets, fnipes,
fand birds, and others; we had them drelfed for
upper, and feafoned with excellent oyfters, which
lay in heaps itn the water, clofe to our landing-place.


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs