Common plants of Florida's aquatic plant industry

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Common plants of Florida's aquatic plant industry section 3 of aquatic plant inspection manual
Series Title:
Contribution / Bureau of Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology, Botany Section ;
Portion of title:
Aquatic plant inspection manual, section 3
Physical Description:
132 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Coile, Nancy C ( Nancy Craft ), 1940-
Lotz, Jeffrey W ( Jeffrey Weston )
Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher:
Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aquatic plants -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nurseries (Horticulture) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 121) and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
Nancy C. Coile ; photographs by Jeffrey W. Lotz ; illustrations by Gisele C. Legare.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA0298
notis - AKV7118
alephbibnum - 002117402
oclc - 34769794
System ID:
UF00000153:00001

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Foreword
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    References
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Index
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Copyright
        Page 133
Full Text

PLANTS OF FL

LC PLANT INDU
V 3 o\ Aquatic Plant Inspection Il,


Nancy C. Coile

Photographs by Jeffrey W. Lotz
Illustrations by Gisele C. Legare

Aquatic Plant Committee: W. Jack Shirley, Chairman, Dennis C. Clinton, Nancy C. Coile, Peter E. Forkgen,
* E x E E . . . * E . Paul L. Hornby, Terry L. Kipp and James E. "Pete" Lindsay . . . . 0 0 . . . . u . . 0


Q14 Bureau of Entomology,
.C641
1995
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES
Bob Crawford, Commissioner


Nematology and Plant Pathology - Botany Section
Contribution No. 31


1995


DIVISION OF
PLANT INDUSTRY
Richard Gaskalla, Director





FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY

PLANT INDUSTRY TECHNICAL COUNCIL


191

cip
UW^"


ADMINISTRATION

R .D . G askalla, D director ....................................................................................... Gainesville

C.C. Riherd, A assistant Director ............................................................................ Gainesville

W.N. Dixon, Ph.D., Chief of Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology ......... Gainesville

D.L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development and Biological Control...................... Gainesville

L.H. Hebb, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control ........................................... Winter Haven

R.A. Clark, Chief of Plant and Apiary Inspection.................................................. Gainesville

M.C. Kesinger, Chief of Citrus Budwood Registration ..................................... Winter Haven




PI-95T-16


Joseph W elker, Chairm an (Horticulture) ............................................................. Jacksonville

Richard M im s, Vice Chairm an (Citrus) .................................................................... Orlando

Leonard Coward (Comm ercial Flower) ............................................................ Punta Gorda

Edward Davis (Turfgrass) ................................................................................ Okeechobee

Edward Holt (Citizen-at-Large) ......................................................................... Jacksonville

John Hom buckle (Citrus) ............................................................................... BelleairBeach

James Humble (Tropical Fruit) ............................................................................ Homestead

Ken Jorgensen (Vegetable) .................................................................................... Zellwood

Pending (Foliage) ............................................................................................................

Bill Shearman (Apiary) .......................................................................................... W imauma

Harold Stokes (Forestry) ...................................................................................... Bryceville


I




FOREWORD


Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry is the result of the vision of a Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (DPI), committee
appointed to investigate how to undertake yet another new service to Florida agriculture. The Florida
legislature added to the DPI's Bureau of Plant Inspection the responsibility of inspecting aquatic
nurseries, a task formerly assigned to the Department of Environmental Protection. Knowing how to
recognize the aquatic plants (both the prohibited and the desirable species) is a crucial part of this new
assignment. Our inspectors take pride in the performance of their duties and responsibilities and
requested additional aquatic plant identification resources to assist in carrying out this new function.
There were no comprehensive, reasonably priced publications about the aquatic plants grown in
Florida nurseries; as a result, the committee suggested the development of this guide. An immediate
copy (without photographs) was prepared and distributed for the inspectors' use.

The descriptions of the species and the comparisons with similar-appearing species were
provided by DPI botanist, Dr. Nancy C. Coile. The pictures in this volume are an integral part of the
information provided; therefore, Jeffrey Lotz, Department photographer, is recognized for his
contributions in providing superb photographs.

While originally intended for our inspectors, this volume may also be of interest to nurserymen,
students, wildlife biologists, aquarium enthusiasts and other citizens of the state of Florida. The Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is pleased to make this useful volume available to
all interested parties.



Bob Crawford, Commissioner

Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services




















fIWs~1TY Of FLORIDA LIBRARIES 3





INTRODUCTION


The Aquatic Plant Committee was formed by Richard A. Clark, Chief of
Plant and Apiary Inspection, in response to new legislation which requires the
Division of Plant Industry to regulate aquatic plant nurseries. Previously, the
Florida Department of Natural Resources (since 1 July 1993, the Department of
Environmental Protection) regulated these nurseries to restrict the presence
of prohibited aquatic plants in Florida. The first meeting of the Aquatic Plant
Committee was held in Winter Haven on 27 May 1992 with the following
members: W. Jack Shirley, Chairman, Dennis C. Clinton, Nancy C. Coile,
Peter E. Forkgen, Paul L. Homby, Terry L. Kipp, and James E. 'Pete' Lindsay.
Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry is the result of
the Aquatic Plant Committee's efforts. This publication is a chapter in the Aquatic
Plant Inspection Manual, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services.
When a genus is first listed, the total number of species in the genus is
provided from Mabberley (1989). Common names were obtained from several
sources; especially useful were Vandiver (1986) and Rataj and Horeman (1977).
Geographic origin of the species was derived from Muhlberg (1980) and/or
Huxley (1992).
The intention of the border codes is to facilitate identification of a
species by matching shaded characters with a plant sample. However, there
are drawbacks to this shorthand format because all possible combinations cannot
be shown on the three borders. For example, Acorus calamus is not arranged in a
basal rosette, but (as the text reveals) "basally in 2 rows." Therefore, use the
border codes cautiously. Depend more on the descriptions and the photographs
than the border codes.
Most of the photographs were made by Jeffrey W. Lotz in the studio from
material obtained at Suwannee Laboratories, Inc., Lake City, FL, or made on site.
The Orontium and the Limnobium photographs are from 35mm slides belonging to
Ken A. Langeland, IFAS Center for Aquatic Plants, Gainesville. Nasturtium
officinale photograph is from a 35mm slide taken by Ken Hibbard, DPI. Credits
for the prohibited plant photographs are given on those pages. Page composition
was done by Gisele C. Legare using PageMaker�. Drawings were done by
Legare. W.D. Ross McClain did the final page composition.
This chapter is meant to provide information about plants in the aquatic
plant nursery trade and is not intended to cover species of the wetlands. If you
need to know the identities of Florida wetland plants, consult the IFAS publication,
Identification Manual for Wetland Plant Species of Florida (SP-35), 1987,
$18.00. It is expected that wetland nurseries will expand in the future.

Nancy C. Coile, 1995




Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services,
Division of Plant Industry
P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FI 32614-7100





FLORIDA'S PROHIBITED AQUATIC PLANTS1


Class I
Alternanthera philoxeroides "alligator weed"
Casuarina (all) "Australian-pine"
Crassula helmsii "Swamp stone crop"
Eichhornia (all) "water hyacinth" [Only E. azurea is on the List of Federal
Noxious Weeds]
Hydrilla verticillata "hydrilla" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Ipomoea aquatica "water spinach" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Ipomoea fistulosa (current name: I. carnea ssp. fistulosa) "bush morning glory"
"besharam"
Lagarosiphon (all) "African elodea" [Only L. major is on the List of Federal
Noxious Weeds]
Limnocharisflava "Sawah-flowing rush"
Lythrum salicaria "purple loosestrife"
Melaleuca quinquenervia melaleucaa" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Mimosa pigra "catclaw mimosa" or "Giant sensitive plant"
Monochoria hastata [Federal Noxious Weed]
Monochoria vaginalis [Federal Noxious Weed]
Myriophyllum spicatum "Eurasian watermilfoil"
Nechamandra alternifolia
Oryza rufipogon "wild red rice"
Pontederia rotundifolia "tropical pickerelweed"
Salvinia: all except S. rotundifolia (=minima) [List of Federal Noxious Weeds
includes S. auriculata, S. biloba, S. herzogii, S. molesta]
Schinus terebinthifolius "Brazilian pepper" or "Florida holly"
Sparganium erectum "exotic bur-reed" [Federal Noxious weed]
Stratiotes aloides "water soldier" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Trapa all species "water-chestnut." [Caution!: Chinese water-chestnut is
Eleocharis dulchis]
Vossia cuspidata "hippo grass"

Class II
These may be grown in regulated Florida nurseries for sale only out-of-state.
These three species may not be imported to or sold in Florida,
nor collected from the wild.

Hygrophila polysperma "hygro" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Limnophila sessiliflora "ambulia" [Federal Noxious Weed]
Pistia stratiotes "water lettuce"




1Rules of the State of Florida Department of Natural Resources. Chapter 16C-52.011 - Prohibited
Aquatic Plants. Authority: 369.25, 369.251 Florida Statutes.
History: New 8-11-86, amended 6-13-93.












SOME OF FLORIDA'S PROHIBITED PLANTS


Hydlla tubers Photograph courtesy of K Langeland


Comparison Egena, Elodea and Hyddlla
Photograph courtesy of K Langeland









SOME OF FLORIDA'S PROHIBITED PLANTS


V-r j 0o

-414,& �-*'w


Salv a molea File photo - photographer unknown


Gary Buckingham










SOME OF FLORIDA'S PROHIBITED PLANTS


!'i1chhOrnii ci.;.i....i" I'1lC pIltol phwloi


Eichholiinuis a ci.


r, /IL





FEDERAL LIST OF NOXIOUS AQUATIC WEEDS1

Azollapinnata

Eichhornia azurea

Hydrilla verticillata

Hygrophila polysperma

Ipomoea aquatica

Lagarosiphon major

Limnophila sessiliflora

Melaleuca quinquenervia

Monochoria vaginalis

Monochoria hastata

Sagittaria sagitiifolia

Salvinia auriculata

Salvinia biloba

Salvinia herzogii

Salvinia molesta

Sparganium erectum

Stratiotes aloides















'USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Part 360 - Noxious Weed Regulations. Authority: 7 U.S.C. 2803
and 2809; 7 CFR 2.17, 2.51, and 371.2(C).




RESOURCE PAGE

1. You suspect that some aquatic plants in a nursery have been collected from the wild.
Who do you contact?

Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Innovation Park, Collins Bldg.
2051 East Dirac Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32314
(904) 488-5631 SUNCOM: 278-5631

2. There are questions about aquaculture. To whom can you refer the nursery personnel?

Florida Department of Agriculture
Division of Marketing
Room 425, Mayo Bldg.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0800
(904) 488-4033 SUNCOM: 278-4031

3. Where can you send someone to get informational programs about aquatic plants?


a. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences University of Florida
Center for Aquatic Plants
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32606
(904) 392-9613 SUNCOM: 622-9613

b. IFAS, University of Florida
Research and Education Center
3205 College Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314
(305) 475-8990 SUNCOM: 444-1011

c. Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management
Innovation Park, Collins Building
2051 East Dirac Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32314-3760
(904) 488-5631 SUNCOM: 278-5631


d. Regional DEP Offices:
Bartow (813) 534-7074
Floral City (904) 726-8622
Lake City (904) 758-0464
Orlando (407) 275-4004
Wellington (407) 791-4720
Tallahassee (904) 487-2600
Tampa (813) 744-6164

e. Water Management Districts:
Northwest Florida
(904) 539-5999 SUNCOM: 771-2080
Southwest Florida
(904) 796-7211 SUNCOM: 628-4150
South Florida
(407) 686-8800 SUNCOM: 229-1011
St. Johns River
(904) 329-4500 SUNCOM: 860-4500
Suwannee River
(904) 362-1001 SUNCOM: 821-3220


4. You have questions on aquatic plant identification.

Bring the entire plant in a plastic bag; or if too large, bring a complete leaf attached to
the stem, along with flowers or fruits (if present) to: Botany, DPI, 1911 SW 34th St.,
Gainesville.

Send the material blotted and between paper towels. Do NOT place in a plastic bag, rather
place between cardboards and tie or tape tightly. Mail to: Botany/Division of Plant
Industry, P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100.





GLOSSARY

achene: small dry fruit with a single seed, does not split.
Example: sunflower seed
alternate: only one leaf per node
angiosperm: group of plants which produce seed enclosed in an ovary.
See: gymnosperm
anther: part of stamen which produces pollen
aromatic: possessing volatile chemicals that are fragrant
axil: angle formed by the leaf and the stem
basal: at or near the base
basal rosette: leaves crowded together on a very short stem and forming a cluster
near the ground
berry: fleshy fruit with tiny seeds. Examples: tomato, grape
bipinnate: two times pinnately compound
bisexual: perfect; having both male and female parts in the same flower
bladders: modified leaves for trapping tiny water-living organisms
blade: photosynthetic surface of the leaf, often broad and flattened; leaf consists
of the blade and the petiole
bloom: a waxy, grayish-blue coating
bract: enlarged leafy structure; may be brightly colored
bullate: crinkled, puckered, or blistered surface
calyx: collection of sepals in a flower
capsule: dry fruit which splits. Examples: okra, morning glory
centimeter: cm, 1\100 part of a meter; 1 centimeter equals .3937 inches;
1 inch equals about 2 1/2 cm; 100 cm equals a meter
cleft: deeply divided into two parts
cordate: heart-shaped
corolla: the collection of petals in a flower
corona: petal-like structures which are an outgrowth from the petals or modified
from the stamens. Example: daffodil trumpet
culm: grass stem
decussate: arranged in opposite pairs on the stem, with each pair at 90 degrees to
the preceding pair
dichotomous: branching into two parts
dicot: group of angiosperms with the following characteristics: petals usually in
4's or 5's; two cotyledons; may have woody tissue; net venation.
Examples: rose, oak, grape, daisy, magnolia, bean, celery, etc.
dissected: cut; separated
downy: with soft hairs
egg: female; ovule; inside the ovary in angiosperms, naked in gymnosperms;
haploid; when fertilized by sperm, becomes the embryo
elliptic: oval-shaped, with narrowed ends
elliptical: oval-shaped, with narrowed ends
entire margins: the margins are not divided; smooth
fern ally: fern like plants. Examples: horsetails, spikeworts, grape ferns, isoetes
filament: part of stamen which supports the anther
frond: a loose term which may refer to the fern leaf, the stems of Lemna, the
large leaves of palms, the thallus of seaweed, etc.
glume: bract-like structure in grasses; at the base of the spikelet





gymnosperm: group of plants which produce seeds not enclosed in an ovary.
Examples: pines and junipers, cycads, Ginkgo, Welwitschia, Ephedra
herbaceous: does not develop woody tissue above the ground; may survive
over winter
incised: cut
inflorescence: arrangement of flowers. Several descriptive terms: raceme, cyme,
spike, panicle, etc.
keel: resembling the keel of a boat
lanceolate: narrow with tapering ends; as a lance
lemma: bract like structure in grasses; lemma and palea enclose the grain
linear: elongated shape with parallel sides
lobe: a curved or rounded part
m: meter; equals 39.37 inches
midrib: the central, largest vein of a leaf
millimeter: mm, 1/1000 of a meter; .0394 inch; about 1/32 inch; 10 mm equal 1 cm
monocot: group of angiosperms with the following characteristics: petals usually
in 3's, one cotyledon, no woody tissue, parallel venation, etc. Examples: lily,
orchid, palm, grass, Egeria, etc.
node: point on the stem where one or more leaves are borne
obovate: broadest above the middle and attached at the narrow end
opposite: refers to two structures (such as leaves) which grow at the same node and
across from each other
ovary: base of the pistil which contains haploid eggs (ovules)
palea: bract like structure in grasses; lemma and palea enclose the grain
palmate: with 3 or more segments arising from one point
peltate: blade roundish, flat, with the petiole inserted in the middle. Example:
Nelumbo leaf
petals: 2nd whorl of the flower; often colorful and enlarged; part of the corolla
petiolate: having a petiole
petiole: stalk of the leaf
phyllodial leaf: a flattened petiole which acts like a leaf blade
pinnate: compound, with leaflets in opposite pairs; odd pinnate has a leaflet at the tip;
even pinnate has even number of leaflets
pistil: 4th and innermost whorl of the flower; female; in 3 parts (stigma, style
and ovary)
plantlets: small plants formed asexually
pollen: male gametophyte; contains sperm cells and pollen tube cells; haploid
rhizome: underground stem, may bear roots and leaves
runner: stolon; above-ground prostrate stem
seed: a reproductive dispersal structure which contains a diploid embryo
sepals: 1st or outmost whorl of the flower; often green, may be petaloid; encloses
flower bud
septate: divided into segments by walls; stems may have crosswalls and be septate
serrated: toothed, like a saw
sessile: lacks a stalk, appears as though the blade or flower is stuck on the stem
sheath: part of leaf which wraps around the stem; grass sheaths are open, sedge
sheaths are closed
spadix: spike of flowers on a fleshy central stem; usually enclosed in a spathe
spathe: large bract under a group of flowers
spathulate: shaped like a spoon




spike: group of flowers arranged in an elongated structure; individual flowers
lack stalks
spikelet: a small spike, as in grasses
spore: a reproductive dispersal structure which is haploid; produced by
ferns, fungi
stamens: 3rd whorl of the flower; male; produces pollen; consists of the filament
and anther
stigma: pollen-receptive area on the pistil
stolon: prostrate stem, above ground
style: pistil tissue between the stigma and ovary
suborbicular: almost circular in shape
succulent: leaves, stems, etc. which are fleshy and juicy due to stored water
ternate: palmately trifoliate
truncate: squared at the base or tip
tuber: underground stem which is swollen with food reserves. Example: potato
umbel: describes flower arrangement which is like an umbrella, where the
flowers are at the ends of the branches and all the branches arise at the
same point. Example: Queen Anne's lace
vegetative reproduction: without sex; duplication without seeds; several
methods: cutting, rootings, division of clump grafts of buds, etc.;
may also form plants at ends of rhizomes, in inflorescences, bulblets in
leaf axils, etc.
viviparous: germinating before becoming detached from the ovary. Example:
beakrushes; or producing young plant without sex. Example: water-lilies
whorled: three or more leaves at one node
woody: has woody tissue; material resulting from secondary cambium; xylem
cells with strong walls made of cellulose and lignin





CATEGORIES OF AQUATIC PLANTS i


SUBMERSED PLANTS


FLOATING PLANTS


The main vegetative structures are located completely
underwater.

Flowers usually extend above the water 'surface.

Included in this category are the pondweeds, elodea,
Hydrilla, tape-grasses, hornworts, watermilfoils,
and bladderworts.







The leaves or whole plants float on the surface of the water.
There are two categories of floating plants:

1. Rooted-floating plant leaves are usually flat on the water
surface, like water-lily, banana plant and Brasenia.
Leaves may extend above the water surface like
spadderdock and lotus.

2. Free-floating plants include water hyacinth, Limnobium,
duckweeds, and Azolla.


EMERSED PLANTS


The majority of the plant grows above the surface of the
water during normal conditions.

This group is sometimes called "wetland plants."

Included in this category are cattails, burheads, arrowheads,
pickerelweed, lizard's tail, parrot-feather, bacopa,
maidencane, spikerush, and wild rice.





trifoliate blpinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basally
c(s.s Cmornund compound compound r rnged


ARACEAE


Acorus calamus L.


There are 2 species of Acorus.

COMMON NAMES: sweet-flag, sweet-sedge, sword leaf acorus, sweet calamus
ORIGIN: eastern Asia, naturalized in Europe and North America
DESCRIPTION: grows as an emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes (used medicinally and as a flavoring and scent)
Leaves: emersed; arranged basally in two rows; linear; up to 1 m long and
2.5 cm wide; with a distinct midrib; aromatic; sometimes variegated
Flowers: inconspicuous; in spikelike structures inside a spathe
Fruit: a reddish berry
Propagation: division of the rhizome

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Acorus gramineus Solander (Japanese rush) - lacks a distinct midrib and leaves
much narrower; some varieties with yellow or white striped leaves
Iris pseudacorus L. (yellow flag, water flag) - unscented rhizomes; leaves
also have the strong midrib


*. . Varieg..a .. .rds efst
Acorus calamus. Variegated plant on left.


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL


annual
biennial


cylindrical


linear


oblong


elliptic


lanceolat


oblanceolat


ovate


obovat


renlform


sp ate


orbicular




sagittFt


peltate v


cordate


rounded


truncate'
acute


obtuse

(T


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
Introduced vine p o
native tree




OTHER ARACEAE GENERA WHICH MAY BE EMERSED
AS WELL AS SUBMERSED:

Aglaonema spp. - grown as submersed plants, although they are better used as greenhouse and
indoor plants

Anubias spp. - much larger when grown as marsh plants

Cryptocoryne spp. - in nature grows most of time as bog plant, submersed for short periods; they
are successfully grown as submersed plants

Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel - successfully grown as submersed plant

Syngonium angustatum Schott 'Albolineatum' - usually cultivated as indoor plant, but it
can be submersed

Typhoniumflagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume - may grow either submersed or emersed






trilfoliate blpinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
compound compound compound rosette

PC li * ��& 1


AMARANTHACEAE
There are 80 species of Alternanthera.


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC


red ivy, joyweed, red hygro; var. lilacina is called ruby hedge or telanthera
Telanthera sessilis, T. lilacina
all tropical regions
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: opposite and decussate; lanceolate; up to 8 cm long and 1.5 cm wide;
olive green to brownish; underside dark red
Flowers: inconspicuous, dense clusters in leaf axils of emerged stems
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Ammania, Bacopa, Ludwigia, Didiplis and Rotala spp.
decussate leaves


may also have opposite,


A. sessilts var. Ilacina (enlarged).


Coile. N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division ol Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.


annual


Alternanthera sessilts.


I vegetative






OTHER Alternanthera SPECIES:

Alternantheraficoidea (L.) R. Brown ex Roemer & Schultes
Common name: green hedge
Origin: Mexico to Argentina
Description: leaves elliptic to obovate, green, tipped with a very short spine

Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb
Common name: alligator weed
Alternanthera philoxeroides is on Florida's Prohibited Plant List

Alternanthera reineckii Briquet
Common names: small telanthera, small parrot leaf
Synonym: Telanthera osiris
Origin: tropical South America
Description: rooted, herbaceous plant with erect, reddish or greenish stems;
leaves opposite and decussate; upper surface green, lower surface red or
pink; flowers very small, in dense clusters in leaf axils of emersed
stems






trifoliate bipinnotely pinnately palmately alternate oppose whorled basal
, c pound compound compound rosette





LYTHRACEAE Ammania senegalensis Lam.
There are about 30 species of Ammania.

COMMON NAMES: apple plant, copper hedge
ORIGIN: tropical and subtropical Asia
DESCRIPTION: grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect, often 4-sided
Leaves: opposite; decussate; sessile; variable in size and color
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils, pink, or reddish
Propagation: cuttings, and by seed

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Alternanthera, Bacopa, Didiplis, Ludwigia and Rotala spp. - may also have
opposite, decussate leaves


Coile.N. C1995 CommonPlantsof Florida's AquaticPlant Industry FDACS, DivisionofPlantndustry Gainesville,FL






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound nd compound


ARACEAE
There are 7 species of Anubias.
Name taken from Egyptian jackel-headed god, Anubis.


COMMON NAMES:

SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Anubias afzelii Schott


anubias, African cryptocoryne, water aspidistra, hairy-leaf anubias,
lance-leaf anubias
A. congensis, A. lanceolata
tropical West Africa
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stem: erect, with rhizomes
Leaves: basal rosette; petiolate; leaf blade elliptical to obovate; up to 20 cm long
and 10 cm wide; medium green; many veins which run to the leaf margin
Flowers: flowers on spike, no petals or sepals, green spathe encloses flowers
Propagation: seeds, lateral shoots, cuttings from rhizomes


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Echinodorus spp. - an obvious petiole; side veins branch off and curve away from
the midvein before becoming parallel
Cryptocoryne spp. - similar; also have spathe/spadix (which can distinguish the
genera). See: Cryptocoryne
Spathiphyllum wallisi - a marsh plant which is sometimes submersed: petiole
longer than leaf blade; leaf margins wavy; leaf thicker than Anubias
Sagittaria spp. - resemble Anubias somewhat, but the leaves are more elongated;
flowers differ


Anubias ajfelit. Note flower bud.


Core. N, C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville. FL


annual


vegetative






trifollate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorted basal
c pound compound compound losete


ARACEAE


Anubias barteri Engler


COMMONNAME:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


anubias
Amauriella hastifolia
SierraLeone(Africa)
submersed in nature also
Roots: yes
Stem: rhizome
Leaves: arrow-shaped; with long pointed lobes; to 25 cm long; petioles longer
than blade; dark green above; pale beneath
Propagation: seeds and vegetative


Anubia barteri. Note basal lobes on leaf.


Cole, N. C 1995. Common Plantsof Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industy. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.


vegetative






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnotely trifoliote
rosette compound c Tietr 0 compound


ARACEAE


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Anubias heterophylla Engelmann

anubias
tropical West Africa
grown as submersed or emersed plants
Roots: yes
Stem: rhizome
Leaves: petiolate; leaf blades up to 15 cm long and 3 cm wide; margins slightly
wavy; dark green above, pale below
Propagation: seeds and vegetative


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See Echinodorus, Aponogeton, Cryptocoryne


Cole, N C 1995. Common Plantsof Florida's Aquatic Plant Industy. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL


-u--mu n--ropy-au






trifollate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Scpound compound mpound rosette


ARACEAE


Anubias nana Engler


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


dwarf anubias
tropical West Africa (Cameroon)
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stem: rhizome
Leaves: elliptical to egg-shaped; up to 8 cm long and up to 3 cm wide;
medium to dark green; the smallest of the anubias
Propagation: division of rhizomes


Anubias nana.


Coile, N. C. 1995 Common Plantsof Floridas Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. FL


I annual


vegetative






basol whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compoundd compound compound


annual
biennial
perennial
� cylindrical


- linear


V oblong





oblanceolate


oblanceolate


s ovate


obovate


enlform


'patulate


(9 rbicular




.sgittate


T peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse
(1+A


Aponogeton crispus Thunb.


COMMON NAMES: ruffled sword plant, crispum
SYNONYMS: A. undulatus; forms hybrids with A. echinatus and A. natans
ORIGIN: Sri Lanka
DESCRIPTION: grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes, with tubers
Stems: not apparent
Leaves: basal rosette; leaves up to 3 feet long; variable in shape but leaf blades
more or less lanceolate; long petioles; leaf blades flat; wavy or crimped
edges; midrib and 3-4 pairs of veins; patches of different colors give a
mosaic appearance; pale green to dark green or reddish
Flowers: floral spikes to 7 feet long; flowers white or pale purplish
Propagation: by seed

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Lizard's tail (Saururus) - long spikes of flowers, also Echinodorus spp. -
obvious petiole; side veins branch off and curve
away from the midvein before becoming parallel
Anubias spp. - broader leaves than Aponogeton spp. strong midvein and many
veins which run to the sides of the leaf
Cryptocor.ne spp. - petiolate; leaves are highly variable


refers to the leaf margins.


Codle, N C 1995 Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry, FOACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville. FL


APONOGETONACEAE
There are about 44 species of Aponogeton.


seed
spores
vegetative


free floating floating, rooted submersed emerged herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
J J-7 ~tree native





OTHER Aponogeton SPECIES:


Aponogeton abyssinicus Hochst
Origin: central East Africa
Description: leaves linear to egg-shaped; up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide;
dark green; inflorescence violet; twin spiked
Aponogeton appendiculatus Van Bruggen
Origin: southwest India
Description: petiole to 10 cm; leaf blades to 40 cm long and 3 cm wide; flat or
wavy; pale green; midrib and 2-4 pairs of parallel veins; inflorescence
with one spike, white
Aponogeton boivinianus Baillon
Origin: northern Madagascar
Description: petiole up to 45 cm long; leaf blades up to 30 cm long and 5 cm
wide; dark green; strong midrib and 3-4 pairs of parallel veins
Aponogeton elongatus F. von Mueller
Origin: northern and eastern Australia
Description: petiole to 15 cm long; leaf blades to 35 cm long and 5 cm wide;
flat to wavy; pale green to brownish; midrib and 2-4 pairs of parallel
veins; inflorescence with one spike, yellowish
Aponogeton longiplumulosus Van Bruggen
Origin: Madagascar
Description: petiole up to 10 cm long; leaf blades up to 35 cm long and 1.5 cm
wide; flattened or wavy; pale green; midrib and 1-3 pairs of
parallel veins
Aponogeton rigidifolius Van Bruggen
Origin: Sri Lanka
Description: rhizome may give rise to 10 or more new plants; petiole to 10 cm
long; leaf blades to 50 cm long and 4 cm wide; flat to wavy; dark green
to olive green; midrib and 3-4 pairs parallel veins; no floating leaves;
inflorescence with one spike, white

Note: although leaves of Aponogeton species are typically submerged, many
species produce floating leaves; most species best suited for pools rather
than aquaria, although A. ulvaceus and A. madagascariensis useful in
aquarium; Aponogeton species produce basal rosette of leaves from tuber
or rhizome; propagated mainly from seed, except when rhizomes present






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


APONOGETONACEAE


COMMON NAME:
SYNONYMS:

ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Aponogeton madagascariensis

(Mirbel) Van Bruggen


Madagascar lace plant
Aponogeton fenestralis var. guillotii; A. guillotii Hochreutiner;
A. henkelianus (Falk.) Baum
Madagascar
grown as submersed plants
Leaves: petioles to 5 cm long; leaf blades to 10-25 cm long and 2.5-7.5 cm wide;
leaf blade "lacy" because tissue is lacking between the cross veins
Flowers: tiny white or yellowish flowers arranged in 2 to 5 spikes; when
fertilized the flowers turn pinkish


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See Aponogeton crispus for confusing genera


,n yiuonogelon ouuguscurewnfa. fiutS uis luiKcu iiuJuiccinc t- ncl.u inis is a very young plant wit unexpanaed leaves.
adove the water surface)


Cote, N, C. 1995. Common Plants of Florda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant industry. Gainesvile, FL






trifollate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Sc pound compound compound roette


APONOGETONACEAE


Forms hybrids with A. crispus and A. echinatus.


SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Saururus natans
India
grown as submersed plants
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves up to 10 cm long, 1.5 cm wide; flat;
medium green to dark green; floating leaves up to 12 cm long
and 3 cm wide
Flowers: arranged in one spike; individual flowers white, pink or violet


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

See Aponogeton crispus for confusing genera






























Aponogeton natans. Note the elongated petioles of the floating leaves.






Cole, N C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatc Plant Industry, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Ganesvdle, FL.


annual


Aponogeton natans (L.)

Engler & Krause


vegetative






annual basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


APONOGETONACEAE


ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker


Madagascar
submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stem: tuberous
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles up to 20 cm long; leaf blade up to 30 cm long and
8 cm wide; very thin and translucent; wavy edges; pale green to reddish;
midrib and 3-5 pairs of parallel veins; no floating leaves
Flowers: small yellow flowers arranged into 2 spikes


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See Aponogeton crispus for confusing genera


,,pojxge.n ..v.. ceus..


Coile, N. C. 1995. Common Plantsof Flonda'sAquatic Plant industry FDACS, Division of Plant industry, Gainesville, FL.







trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
c pound compound compound rosette


AZOLLACEAE
This is a fern.


Azolla caroliniana Willdenow


There are 6 species of Azolla.


COMMON NAMES: mosquito fern, Carolina water fern, lesser fairy moss, water-velvet
ORIGIN: North and South America and the West Indies
DESCRIPTION: floating plant
Roots: yes (slender and unbranched)
Stems: branched and covered by overlapping leaves
Leaves: arranged alternately in two rows, each leaf is 2-lobed with the lower lobe
under water; may be green or red; velvety textured
Flowers: none; spores microsporess and megaspores) are formed at the base of the
lower leaf lobe
Propagation: spontaneous division and spores
Note: blue-green algae are likely to be present in the pockets of the leaf

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Salvinia, also a tiny floating fern ally - obvious forked hairs; the individual leaves
of Salvinia are larger
Lemna (duckweed) - a tiny flowering plant with one root per each "frond"


Azolla carohniana. Pigments (anthocyanins) are in the red plants. A response to intense
sunlight.

Coile, N C 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


annual
biennial

perennial
cylindrical


linear


oblong


ellliptc


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


obovate


reniform


spatulate


orbicular





sagitt e


peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


tropical herb emersed submersed
temperate shrub
ntroduced vine
native tree


floating, rooted free floating


seed
spores

vegetative













SCROPHULARIACEAE

There are 50 species of Bacopa.


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Bacopa caroliniana

(Walter) Robinson


giant bacopa
Bacopa amplexicaulis
Atlantic coastal regions of southern and central North America
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect when submersed
Leaves: decussate, opposite; sessile and almost clasping stem; up to 2.5 cm long
and 2 cm wide; delicate; pale green (sometimes with reddish markings);
glossy upper surface, lower surface with fine hairs; lemon-scented
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils, blue
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Alternanthera, Ammania. Didiplis, Ludwigia and Rotala sp.. - opposite, decussate
leaves
Torenia spp. - unusual winged sepals: stamens are connected together, giving the
common name "Wishbone flower"


nacopa carotCiniCina.


Code, N C 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL






trifollate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Sound compound compound y rosette


SCROPHULARIACEAE
There are 50 species of Bacopa.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell


small bacopa, water hyssop, moneywort
tropical and subtropical regions
grown as a submersed or emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect when submersed, forms tufts
Leaves: decussate, opposite; obovate to wedge-shaped; up to 1.5 cm long
and 0.8 cm wide; firm; pale green; without obvious veins
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils; pale violet
Propagation: cuttings
Note: weed in rice fields


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Alternanthera, Ammania, Didiplis, Ludwigia and Rotala sp.. - opposite, decussate
leaves
Torenia spp. - unusual winged sepals; stamens are connected together, giving the
common name "Wishbone flower"
Micromeria and Micranthemum - very similar; flowers differ


Bacopa monnieri. Note the long pedicels (flower stalks).


Code, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


cylindrical


line


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate-_


oblanceolate


ovate& 7


obov ,M


reniform


spatu lte


orbicula"




sagi t


peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate '
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


annual
biennial
perennial


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temoperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


CW 0


I







annual

biennial
perennial

cylindrical


I Linear


oblong


~ elliptic






oblanceolate


e ovate


obovate


uniform


Kspatulate


Srbicular




saittate


T peltate


cordate


grounded


T truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores

vegetative


Southeast Asia
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizome and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles up to 20 cm long; leaves lanceolate except for the
cordate base; tip blunt; up to 30 cm long and 4 cm wide; margins undulate;
upper surface olive, lower surface reddish
Flowers: 8+ petals fused at the base to form a tube, tips are free; green outside and
purple inside
Propagation: divide slips, seeds


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Resembles Aponogeton and Echinodorus spp.


Barclaya longifolia.


Code, N, C. 1995, Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Ganesville, FL


ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette \ s compound compound compound





NYMPHAEACEAE Barclaya longifolia Wallich
There are 3 species of Barclaya. Hydrostemma may be the better generic name.


free floating floating, rooted submersed emersed herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
vie- iotree native







trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled
Sc compound compound compound


PC 0ptr w �*-- %Lot- ^^^


CABOMBACEAE
There are 7 species of Cabomba.


basal
rosette


Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray


COMMON NAMES: fanwort, Carolina water shield, fishweed
ORIGIN: southeastern United States; naturalized in Cuba
DESCRIPTION: submersed plant
Roots: yes; fibrous and silvery
Stems: elongated
Leaves: submersed leaves opposite, decussate; stalked; dichotomously dissected
into linear segments which are broadest at their tips; the midrib of the leaf
is distiguishable; leaf about 4 cm across, roundish to kidney-shaped; soft
to the touch; dark green to purplish; floating leaves alternate; peltate;
shield-shaped; up to 2 cm across
Flowers: solitary from the leaf axils of floating leaves; stalks are longer than
floating leaves; about 1\2 inch across; the 3 sepals and 3 petals are white
with yellow spots; emergent
Propagation: by seed from pod like fruit; cuttings

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Some Myriophyllum spp. - submersed, whorled leaves with many capillary
divisions
Ceratophyllum - leaves in whorls; each leaf divided into two slender segments,
rough to the touch
Chara (an algae) - appears to have stems and whorls of leaves; very distinctive
fishy, garlic-like odor
Egeria, Hydrilla, Elodea, Lagarosiphon and Najas spp. - have elongated stems
with undivided leaves


Cabomba carolniana. Note tme emergent stem on me lett.
floating leaves are smaller and undivided.


Coile, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry.


I ne Lross section or ianwort, snowing mi
ments of two opposite leaves.


FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville. FL.


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub :
introduced vine
native tree V


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


line


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate-_


oblanceolate


ovate e


obovate


renffotm


spatulate


orbicular




sagi ate


peltate


cordate


roundedT


truncate
acute


obtuse





OTHER Cabomba SPECIES:

Cabomba aquatica Aublet
Common names: fanwort, yellow cabomba, green cabomba, fishgrass
Origin: Amazon estuary (Brazil)
Description: outline of the dissected leaf is roundish; up to 5 cm across; yellowish to green;
linear leaf segments not broadest at the tips and midrib cannot be seen; floating
leaves roundish and up to 23 cm across
Cabomba aquatica is listed by Florida as a Prohibited Aquatic Plant.

Cabomba australis Speg.
Common name: cabomba
Origin: southeastern South America
Description: leaf segments not spathulate at tips, midrib distinquishable

Cabomba piauhyensis Gardn.
Common name: red cabomba
Origin: Central American and South America
Description: leaves and stems red to purplish, but color fades in aquaria; flowers
purplish; fragile

Cabomba pulcherrima (Harper) Fass.
Common name: purple cabomba; considered a variant of C. caroliniana by many
taxonomists; differs in having purplish foliage and flowers






trifollate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Scopound compound compound rosette


BRASSICACEAE OR CRUCIFERAE
There are about 130 species of Cardamine.


Cardamine lyrata Bunge


COMMON NAMES: bittercress, bitter cress
ORIGIN: eastern Asia
DESCRIPTION: emersed plant; may be grown submersed for short period
Roots: yes
Stems: erect when submersed, creeping or prostrate when emersed
Leaves: alternate; petiolate; leaf blades up to 5 cm long; kidney-shaped or
roundish; pale green; margins entire
Flowers: 4 small white petals, 6 stamens (like all Cruciferae species 4 long and
2 short stamens)
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Rorippa aquatic - 4 petals and 6 stamens; leaf margins toothed


Cardamine Ivrata.


Coile, N. C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL


vegetative


I nnual






annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear


oblong


s elliptic





oblanceolate


K ovate


obovate


reniform


spatulate


( rblcular




sagittate


T peltate


cordate


'rounded


T truncate
acute


/obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


basal whorted opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifollate
rosette compound compound compound


CERATOPHYLLACEAE Cern
There are 2 variable species of Ceratophyllum;
some taxonomists divide these 2 species into 30 species.


rtophyllum demersum L.


COMMON NAMES: hornwort, coontail
ORIGIN: worldwide
DESCRIPTION: submersed plant
Roots: no, but may anchor to soil by shoot growth
Stems: elongated, much branched; brittle, break easily
Leaves: whorled with 5+ at nodes; 1/2 to 3/4 cm long; each leaf divided
into two parts; teeth only one side of the segment;
rough to touch
Flowers: solitary in the leaf axils; lack sepals or petals; submerged
Propagation: division of stem, or by lateral shoots

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Ceratophyllum muricatum (=C. echinatum) - teeth on both sides of segments
or may lack any teeth
Some Myriophyllum spp. - submersed, whorled leaves with many
capillary divisions
Chara (an algae) - appears to have stems and whorls of leaves; a very distinctive
fishy, garlic-like odor
Egeria, Hydrilla, Elodea, Lagarosiphon and Najas spp. - elongated stems
with undivided leaves
Cabomba - opposite leaves; each leaf is divided into segments by branching
twice each time it branches; Cabomba is soft to the touch


Ceratophyllum demerunm.


Cross section of stem, showing 9 whorled leaves. Each leaf
resembles an antelope horn.


Code. N C 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL


free floating floating, rooted submersed emersed herb tropical
_ shrub temperate
I\ H vine introduced
tree native






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
S\ compound compound compound rosette


CERATOPTERIDACEAE

This is a fem.
There are 4 species of Ceratopteris.


Ceratopteris thalictroides

(L.) Brongn.


COMMON NAMES: water sprite, Indian fern, pod fern, water homfern
ORIGIN: East and Southeast Asia, northern Australia, East Africa, central South America
to southeast North America, Greater Antilles
DESCRIPTION: grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: (fronds) sterile fronds petiolate, up to 1 meter long and 1/2 m wide;
divided into segments; upperside green, underside whitish;
fertile fronds much narrower and longer than sterile fronds
Flowers: none; forms spores on the fertile fronds
Propagation: germination of spores

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Broadleaf water sprite, Ceratopteris cornuta (Beauvois) Leprieur - does
not have lobed or divided leaves
Submersed Hygrophila difformis - leaves whitish beneath;
H. difformis leaves have divisions more or less opposite each other,
while Ceratopteris have leaf (frond) divisions alternately arranged


Ceratopteris thalictroides. The broad leaves (eg., on the left)
are sterile. The thin leaves (eg., on the right) will bear spores.
Note the circinate vernation (= coiled fiddle-head leaves).


Coie. N. C. 1995. Common Plantsof Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL 3 /

tropical herb emerged submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
introduced vine


cyllndricol -


line


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate,-1


oblanceolate


ovate& 7


obovta >


reniform


spauate


orbicular




sagittate


peltateT


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


annual

biennial
perennial






annual basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette \J compound compound compound

erennial*M0


CHAROPHYTA
This is an alga.

COMMON NAME:
DESCRIPTION:


Chara sp.


musk-grass
submersed plant
Roots: no
Stems: no
Leaves: no
Flowers: no
Chara resembles vascular plants, but similarity is superficial; has whorls
of 6 to 8 "branches" which resemble leaves; branches bear reproductive
structures called antheridia and archegonia which are about the size of a
strawberry achene; Chara is rough to touch and has characteristic odor
which is garlicky-fishy


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Ceratophyllum - whorls of leaves and rough to the touch. Ceratophyllum is
a true vascular plant, thus its leaves will never bear reproductive
structures
Nitella - another alga; lacks the odor of Chara; branchlets have branches


t-ura sp.


Coile, N C 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL


vegetative I






trifollate bipinnotely pinnately palmatlye altemat opposite whorled basal

j compound compound compound rosette


AMARYLLIDACEAE
There are about 120 species of Crinum.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Crinum americanum L.


swamp-lily, string-lily
southeastern North America
emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: bulbous
Leaves: arranged spirally and arising alternately; leaf bases overlap and
form a stalk like structure above the bulb; leaves strap like,
to 1.5 m long and 6-7 cm wide, with spongy tissue in long parallel rows
Flowers: umbels of 2-6 (usually 4) showy flowers, the umbel with
2 membranous bracts at its base; large flowers with long floral
tube of 3 petaloid sepals and 3 petals; white or white with pinkish streaks;
fragrant; filaments and pistils purplish-pink
Fruit: 3-lobed capsule; large fleshy seeds
Propagation: young plants form at the base of the bulb; seeds


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Hymenocallis - forms strap like leaves from bulb, but Hymenocallis flowers
have corona (like daffodils) in addition to petals and sepals


The Crinum which is illustrated is an exotic species whose leaves are
much more ribbon-like than C americanum.




Cole, N. C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry, FDACS. Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL.


annual
biennial
perennial


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate-


oblanceolate


ovate


obovat


renlform


spatulate


orbicular




sagitt te


peltate7


cordate


rounded _


truncate
acute


obtuse




vegetative
spre
f^\tohr


tropical herb emerged submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
Introduced vine K S
native tree





Cryptocoryne SPECIES:
The spathe of Cryptocoryne species is tubular with a long tube extending above a slightly inflated basal
area; the spadix is hidden inside the basal area; spathe blades vary from flat to spirally twisted. There are 3
main groups of Cryptocoryne.

1. Cryptocoryne beckettii Group: leaves are broad lanceolate to longish egg shaped; petioles
nearly as long or shorter than the leaf blades
C. affinis [this spp. has spathe characteristics like C. retrospiralis group] -
upperside glossy dark green, underside pale green to red violet
C. beckettii - wavy edge, upperside olive green with dark green slanting streaks
either side of midrib, underside pale green to slightly violet
See photograph of C. beckettii
C. bullosa - bullate, upperside dark green, underside paler
C. legroi (=C. walker legroi) - wavy edge, upperside medium green to olive
green without markings, underside red brown or red
C. lucens. See C. X willisii
C. lutea (=C. walker lutea). See C. walker
C. nevillii. See C. X willisii
C. parva - flat margin, upperside medium green, underside pale green
C. petchii. See C. beckettii
C. thwaitesii - slightly wavy, fine teeth on margin, upper dark green to olive
green or brown with darker markings, underside pale green to reddish
C. undulata - wavy margin, upperside medium green to pale olive green with
dark marking, underside pale green to reddish
C. versteegii - leaf blade thick, fleshy, green, base heart-shaped to square,
tip blunt
C. walker. See photograph
C. wendtii. See photograph
C. X willisii. See photograph

2. Cryptocoryne purpurea Group: leaves are elliptical or egg-shaped and petioles conspicuously long
C. cordata. See photograph
C. pontederiifolia - bullate, upperside glossy without markings, underside pale
green or with a pale reddish gleam
C. purpurea - flat to slightly wavy, upperside with a pattern of dots, streaks and
patches, underside pale green to violet and also patterned
C. siamensis. See C. cordata

3. Cryptocoryne retrospiralis Group: leaves are long, narrow-linear and the petioles are usually short
C. albida - flat to slightly wavy, medium green, underside whitish green
C. ciliata - tough, upperside pale to dark green, underside paler
C. costata - flat to slightly wavy, upperside brownish with dark markings on
either side of midrib, underside pale brownish
C. crispatula. See photograph
C. lingua - tough, pale green both sides
C. retrospiralis. See photograph
C. spiralis - flat to slightly wavy, upperside medium green, underside pale green
C. usteriana - bullate, upperside dark green, underside paler green













Cryptocoryne beckettii

Thwaites ex Trimen
Sri Lanka
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles 2 times as long as the blade, greenish;
submersed leaf blades up to 8 cm long and 2.5 cm wide; narrowly
ovate; acuminate tips; upper surface is olive green with dark veins and
streaks; lower surface is pale green to purplish
Flowers: spathe pinkish, flat, slightly twisted
Propagation: slips


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Echinodorus, Aponogeton and Anubias spp. - similar appearing leaves


Coile, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


ARACEAE


ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


vegetative







basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette \ compound compound compound


Cryptocoryne cordata Griff.


There are 3 forms: diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid.


SYNONYMS: Pictured is form siamensis which has elliptical leaf blades, sometimes
incorrectly called C. blassii; form kerri includes C. blassii and has
cordate leaf blades; form ewansii has dentate leaf blades


Thailand
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles reddish; submersed leaves with petioles
2 to 3 times longer than the blade; blade elliptic, ovate, or cordate; up to
25 cm long and 5 cm wide; underneath reddish purple;
emersed leaves with petioles as long as the blades
Flowers: spathe white with violet spots, elongated, twisted
Propagation: slips


Echinodorus, Aponogeton and Anubias spp.


similar appearing leaves


Cryptocoryne cordata, form siamensis.


Coide, N C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS. Division of Plant Industry Gainesville. FL


annual


ARACEAE


ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


vegetative






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
I r compound compound compound rosette


PC 0 �*#


ARACEAE Cryptocoryne crispatula Engler
There are about 50 species of Cryptocoryne.


C. balansae, C. longispatha, C. somphongsii, C. tonkinensis
Indochina
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles reddish; as long as the blades; submersed leaves
elliptic to linear blades; to 40 cm long and 3.5 cm wide; olive green;
crinkled; emerged leaves to 10 cm long and I cm wide; green
Flowers: spathe brownish, or white with violet spots; elongated and twisted
Propagation: slips


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Vallisneria - flat, ribbon like leaves
Some Sagittaria spp. - similar in appearance


Cryptocoryne crispatula.


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perennial


cylinarical





oblong


ellpt c


lanceoiale_


oblanceolate


ovate


obovat


reniform


spatulate


orbicular




sagittteN


peltate 1


cordate


rounded<


truncated
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree 3





annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


UInear


oblong


' e liiptlc


lanceolate


oblanceolate


basal
rosette


whorled


ARACEAE


SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


opposite


alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately
compound compound compound


trifoliate


41l


Cryptocoryne retrospiralis


(Roxb.)


Kunth


Ambrosinia retrospiralis
Indochina and India
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles short; blade linear; up to 50 cm long; margins flat;
both surfaces dark green
Flowers: spathe whitish; elongated; tightly twisted
Propagation: slips


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Vallisneria spp. - flat, ribbon like leaves
Some Sagittaria spp. - similar in appearance


Cryptocoryne retrospirahs.


Cole, N C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


free floating floating, rooted submersed emerged


-^-; - -T-Ir^^ \'-1Sa


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


pKtulate


seed
spores
vegetative





trifollate


bipinnately pinnately palmotely alternate
c mpound compound compound


opposite


whorled

1*


ARACEAE Cryptocoryne walker Schott
There are three varieties: walker, lutea, and legroi.


Cryptocoryne lutea (=C. walker var. lutea); C. legroi (= C. walked var. legroi)
Sri Lanka
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles 2 to 3 times as long as the blade in emersed leaves
while submersed petioles are I to 2 times as long as the blade; greenish;
blades up to 10 cm long and 3.5 cm wide; narrow lanceolate; acuminate
tips; upper surface medium green, lower surface pale green with
reddish brown veins
Flowers: spathe pinkish to whitish, flat, slightly twisted
Propagation: slips


basal
rosette


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Echinodorus, Aponogeton and Anubias spp. - similar appearing leaves


Cryptocoryne walker var. lutea.


Cole, N.C. 1995, Common PlantsofFlorida'sAquaticPlant Industry. FDACS. Divis of Plant Industry, Gainesvile. FL.


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating

r^�'( rp-71 --IT - -*
Av� 19'\h^


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical

linear


oblong


SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


cordate


rounded _


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative





annual
biennial
perennial

S cylindrical


linear


" oblong


elliptic


ganc001ate


oblanceolate


basal whorled opposite alternate palmate pinnotely bipinnately trifollate
rosette compound compound compound


ARACEAE
There are 5 varieties for this species.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Cryptocoryne wendtii de Witt


crypt, Cryptocoryne wendtii var. rubella Rataj is called "red crypt"
Sri Lanka
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: thin rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; petioles are green or brownish; blades lanceolate to
elongate egg-shaped; to 20 cm long and 3.5 cm wide; usually with
stripes, colors range from green to brownish to red
Flowers: medium brown spathe; throat with dark brown to dark violet ring;
spathe blade flat to slightly twisted
Propagation: seeds, slips from parent plant


renlform


patsulate


r rbicular




soaittate


' peltate


cordate


Sounded


*truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Echinodorus spp. - an obvious petiole, also; side veins branch off and curve
away from midvein before becoming parallel
Spathiphyllum wallisi - marsh plant which is sometimes submersed; leaf
margins wavy; leaf thicker than Cryptocoryne
Sagittaria spp. - more elongated leaves and 3 white petals
Anubias spp. - resembleCryptocoryne. See: Anubias


Cryptocoryne wendtii var. krauten.


Cryptocoryne wendtii var. rubella.


Coide,N.C.1995. Common PlantsofFlorda'sAquatic PlantIndustry. FDACS, Dvisionof Plant Industry Gainesville, FL.


emersed

(A
'N'V^-


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine Introduced


tree native


I




trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite
Scompound compound compound


ARACEAE


SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


whorled

i*


basal
rosette


Cryptocoryne x willisii Reitz


C. nevillii, C. lucens
Sri Lanka
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; greenish petioles; submersed leaf blades up to
7.5 cm long and 1.5 cm wide; narrowly elliptic to lanceolate; acuminate
tips recurved; upper surface medium green, lower surface pale green
Flowers: spathe reddish-brown; flat; slightly twisted
Propagation: slips


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear -


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Echinodorus, Aponogeton and Anubias spp. - similar appearing leaves, but
seldom have recurved tips


Cryptocozyne x willisii. Note: the leaf tips curl under.


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


obovate


reniform


cordate


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


/ \'%








annual

biennial
perennial

cylindrical


nceolate


oblanceolate


'*rounded


* truncate


basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound





CYPERACEAE Cyperus involucratus Rottb.
There are about 600 species of Cyperus.

COMMON NAME: umbrella plant
SYNONYM: Cyperus alternifolius L.
ORIGIN: Madagascar
DESCRIPTION: emersed plants
Roots: yes
Stem: erect; up to 1.5 m tall; solid, with pith in center; finely grooved
Leaves: no basal leaves, instead, sheathing bracts only
Bracts: involucral bracts leaf like, arranged like umbrella ribs;
up to 20 cm long and 1 cm wide
Flowers: inconspicuous, green, in groups on stalks


Center foreground: tall plants are umbrella plant. Water-lettuce (Pistia) are light green plants.
Nymphaca leaves are in right foreground. Left background shows Ludwigia. Center and right
background is papyrus. See: C. papyrus.





Cole, N C 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville. FL


free floating floating, rooted submersed


emersed


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced


spores

vegetative


native I


1






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately
Sound compound


CYPERACEAE
There are about 600 species of Cyperus.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Cyperus papyrus L.


papyrus
central Africa and Nile Valley, naturalized in eastern Sicily
emersed plant
Roots: yes; tuberous rhizomes are edible
Stems: erect; 3-sided; bare of leaves; up to 5 m tall
Leaves: reduced to sheaths
Flowers: fountainlike spray of flowers; individual flowers tiny and
inconspicuous, but grouped into large terminal clusters
Propagation: division of the rhizome, seed

In ancient times, pith was sliced into strips, laid crosswise, and pounded so that a
sheet of paper was formed. Some samples of this paper are more than 4,000 years
old. Stems of this species would be the material from the Biblical story in which
infant Moses' boat was formed. Stems also used for sandals and ropes.


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Cyperus spp. - other species not this tall
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel, (cane grass, giant reed, common
reed) - grass which grows along streams in Florida; may be 4 m tall
Grasses (POACEAE) - round, hollow stems and leaves 2-ranked; grass flowers
enclosed in highly modified bracts called lemmas, paleas and glumes

Note: See photograph of Cyperus involucratus. Cyperus papyrus is the tall plant in
the background.























Cole, N C. 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Induslry Gainesville, FL 4


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


emersed submersed


palmately
compound


alternate

111


opposite


whorled


annual


basal
rosette


vegetative


II ....


9lBI


|






opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


LYTHRACEAE
Didiplis is considered by some
taxonomists as a synonym of Lythrum.


COMMON NAME:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Di&dplis diandria (DC.) Wood


peplis
Peplis diandria DC.
southern North America
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: opposite, decussate; crowded; linear to narrow lanceolate;
up to 2.5 cm long and 1/3 cm wide
Flowers: inconspicuous; reddish; sessile in axils of leaves
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Alternanthera, Ammania, Bacopa, Hygrophila, and Rotala spp. - opposite,
decussate leaves
Some Ludwigia spp. - opposite leaves, while others have alternate leaves


Cole, N. C 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


annual


basal
rosette


whorled







trifoliate


bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite
c pound compound compound


whorled


basal
rosette


Echinodorus amazonicus.


Code. N C 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


annual
biennial
perennial


|


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


emerged submersed floating, rooted free floating


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


seed
spores
vegetative


ALISMATACEAE Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj
There are 47 species of Echinodorus.

COMMON NAME: small-leaved Amazon swordplant
SYNONYM: E. brevipedicellatus
ORIGIN: South America, Amazon region
DESCRIPTION: grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: runners and rhizomes
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves with short petiole; leaf blades up to
40 cm long and about 3 cm wide; pointed; arched; pale green; midrib and
2 pairs of parallel veins (the outer pair curves from the base of the blade
and ends close to the margins, while the inner pair angles toward the
margins and becomes parallel)
Flowers: bisexual; 4 to 9 flowers per node; each flower with 3 petals; seed
usually do not form; plantlets often form in the inflorescence
Propagation: seeds or plantlets

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Sagittaria spp. - different leaf venation and separate male and female flowers;
only 3 flowers at each node
Cryptocoryne spp. - petiolate, highly variable leaves
Vallisneria spp. - lack a prominent midvein and very flat and narrow
Aponogeton spp. - similar, but venation differs


cylindrical .


linear -


oblong


ellptic


lanceolte-


oblanceolate


ovate&


obovate


reniform











OTHER Echinodorus SPECIES:
"Echinodorus" means "hedgehog tube" and refers to the spiny fruits which provide the common name "burhead."

Echinodorus angustifolius Rataj
Common name: Brazilian sword
Origin: Brazil, State of Mato Grosso
Description: forms runners; leaves with long pointed tip; up to 40 cm wide and
0.5 cm wide; pale green; midrib only conspicuous vein; resembles
Vallisneria, and narrow leaved Sagittaria spp.

Echinodorus argentinesis Rataj
Common name: melon Amazon swordplant
Synonym: E. longistyllis Buchenau
Origin: Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina
Description: submersed leaves in 2 forms (broad and narrow leaved) with
petioles about as long as the leaf blades; leaf blades up to 30 cm long and
about 10 cm wide for broad form and up to about 15 cm long and 7.5 cm
for narrow form; midrib and 2 pairs of parallel veins


Echinodorus berteroi


(Sprengel) Fassett
Common name: cellophane plant
Synonyms: Echinodorus rostratus, E. nymphaeifolius
Origin: southern United States, Central America and West Indies
Description: forms rhizomes. Submersed leaves up to 40 cm long, variable on
the same plant (may be lanceolate or may be long petiolate with egg
shaped leaf blades); very thin; translucent; dark green; midrib and 1-4
pairs parallel veins; "cellophane plant" is a descriptive common name


Leaf of Echinodorus cordifolius,
illustrating the strong, curving veins.







bipinnately pinnately
c pound compound


ALISMATACEAE


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


palmately
compound


alternate


opposite


whorled


basal
rosette


E Echinodorus cordifolius

(L.) Griseb.
creeping burhead, Texas mud baby
Alisma cordifolia, Sagittaria radicans
southern North America and northern South America
grown as submersed or emersed plants
Roots: yes; form tubercles on the roots
Stems: rhizomes
Leaves: basal rosette; leaf blades tough; egg-shaped to heart-shaped;
2 to 14 cm long and 0.8 to 11 cm wide; 7-9 curving veins, with nearly
straight crossveins; petioles 5-50 cm long, spongy
Flowers: 5 to 15 per node; individual flowers 12-20 mm across; plantlets form
in the inflorescence
Propagation: seed or plantlets


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Anubias, Aponogeton and Cryptocoryne spp. - have broad leaves, but strong
midvein and many veins which run to sides of leaf
Sagittaria latifolia - emersed leaves; broad, but veins do not curve away
from the midvein before becoming parallel. Sagittaria spp.
separate male and female flowers and only 3 per node, while
Echinodorus flowers bisexual with 4 or more flowers per node
Echinodorus parviflorus - dark-colored veins


S :. ' " . .'


Echinodorus cordifohus. A native species.


Coie. N. C. 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL.


trifollate


pC


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


line


oblong


cordate


rounded 4e_


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative






annual
biennial
perennial

S cylindrical


linear


" oblong


tic


oblanceolate


oblanceolate


basal
rosette


whorled


ALISMATACEAE


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
\<1. 'IJcompound compound compound


Echinodorus magdalenensis


Fassett
dwarf Amazon swordplant, dwarf chain sword
E. latifolius, E. magdalensis, Alisma tenellum forma latifolius
Central America, Greater Antilles, northern South America
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves without a petiole; tapering at base and
tip; up to 25 cm long and 1 cm wide; curved on one side; pale green;
midrib is the only conspicuous vein
Flowers: 1.2 to 1.5 cm across; 6 to 9 stamens; petals downtilting
Propagation: runners


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

E. quadricostatus - leaves more narrow;E. angustifolius leaves are wider
Sagittaria subulata -phyllodial leaves superficially similar
Sagittaria spp. - separate male and female flowers borne 3 per node


Echinodorus magdalenensis.


Cole. N.C. 1995 Common Plantsof Flonda'sAquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


free floating


herb tropical I


r rbicular




saittate


peltate


cordate


*rounded


*truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores

vegetative






bipinnately pinnately
c impound compound


ALISMATACEAE


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


palmately
compound


alternate



9


opposite


whorled


basal
rosette


Echinodorus major

(Micheli) Rataj


ruffled Amazon sword, ruffled sword
E. martin, E. leopoldina, E. maior
Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Goias [not Amazon area]
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes
Leaves: basal rosette; short petiolate; up to 50 cm long and 5 cm wide; somewhat
spathulate; pale green, wavy edges; midrib and 2-3 pairs of parallel veins
behave like those of E. amazonicus
Flowers: self-fertile; about 10 mm across; 9 to 12 stamens
Propagation: seeds, or plantlets formed in the inflorescences


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Aponogeton ulvaceus - superficially similar but petioles shorter and
venation differs
See E. cordifolius


Echinodorus major.


Coide, N. C. 1995, Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


trifoliate


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear


oblong


renlform


spateu


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


E






basal
rosette


whorled


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


opposite


alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound





Echinodorus opacus Rataj


named in 1970, no common name yet in use
Brazilian state of Parana
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; blade oval to heart-shaped; often with cuspidate tip;
midrib and 2 pairs of parallel veins, outer pair curves to margin and
inner pair runs toward apex
Flowers: bisexual
Propagation: division of rhizomes


( bovate


rounded


*truncate
acute


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Anubias, Aponogeton and Cryptocoryne spp. - broad leaves, but have a
strong midvein and many veins which run to sides of leaf
Common Echinodorus spp. - lack cuspidate tip


Echinodorus opacus. Note the cuspidate leaf tip; and new plants formed on the
floral stalks.

Coile,N.C 1995 Common Plants o Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Drvastonof Plant industry Gainesville, FL


emersed


tropical


shrub temperate
vine introduced


tree native


ALISMATACEAI



COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


t


E


I






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate
Sc pound compound compound


ALISMATACEAE


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


opposite


whorled


basal
rosette


Echinodorus osiris Rataj


Swedish echinodorus, melon sword
E. aureobrunensis, E. Osiris rubra
Brazilian state of Parana
grown as submersed plants, these are marsh plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves with petioles up to 40 cm long;
blades up to 25 cm long and up to 8 cm wide; shape variable from
obovate, obcordate to elliptic; margins flat to undulate; midrib and 2
pairs of veins; young leaves red, fading to olive to dark green;
emersed leaves elliptic
Flowers: flowers rarely open; about 3 cm across; 18 to 24 stamens
Propagation: cuttings from rhizomes and by plantlets that form in the
inflorescence


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical





oblong


ellipt e


lanceolat-
a i


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See E. cordifolius


Echinodorus osiris. One of several species commonly called "melon sword."


Coil, N C 1995. Cormmnon Plantso Florida'sAquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL


cordate


rounded _


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


I II I I I m


E






basal
rosette


whorled


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear


oblong


tIc


^jnceolate


opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound





Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli


ALISMATACEAI


COMMON NAME:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


bovoate


60 uniform


patulate


4 truncate
acute


obtuse
(T�
I T �


E. amazonicus and E. parviflorus --similar in appearance


Echmodorus paniculatus. Note the new
plant formed at the end of the floral stalk.


Code. N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda'sAquatc Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced


tree native


amazon swordplant
E. bleheri, E. ranger
probably central South America
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette with 20 to 30 leaves; submersed leaves with petioles up
to 30 cm long and 3-edged; leaf blade up to 40 cm long and up to
7 cm wide; lanceolate; tips pointed; not arched like E. amazonicus, but
venation like E. amazonicus and with many cross veins
Flowers: develop underwater
Propagation: separate the plantlets which form at the end of the floral stalk


I emersed


4


E






trifoliote i. r, .- , c r.. - ,
:ia :^/ ? ''- ' -uri.. :.:.rnei: u..:.r


ALISMATACEAI



COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


a I-


r~ ~,T-


Dosal
rosette


Echinodorus parviflorus Rataj


black Amazon plant, black echinodorus
E. peruense, E. peruensis, E. tocantins
central South America
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizomes and runners
Leaves: basal rosette with numerous leaves; submersed leaves with petioles up
to 20 cm long; blades up to 25 cm long and up to 5 cm wide; lanceolate;
acute tips; veins dark colored, 2 pairs in addition to the midvein
Flowers: small, about 5 mm across; 9 stamens; rarely forms seed when plants are
grown submersed
Propagation: seeds, or plantlets formed in inflorescence


C..)I3T, 3IT l,
: :-,T,| ,.:jr. 3


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

See E. cordifolius
E. cordifolius -veins of E. parviflorus dark colored and only 2 pairs in
addition to the midrib, while E. cordifolius has 3 to 4 pairs


Echinodorus parviflorus.


Coile. N.C.1995. Common Plantsof Florida'sAquabc Plant Industry. FDACS. Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL


emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating


spatulate


orbicula





sagittate


peltatet7


cordate


roundedT


truncate
acute


obtuse

M-ee
seed

spores

vegetative


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


cylindrical ,.


linear -


oblong


ellpt


lanceolate


E







basal
rosette


whorled


annual

biennial
perennial

S cylindrical


opposite alternate palmotely pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
\c4 compound compound compound





Echinodorus quadricostatus Fassett


ALISMATACEAE



COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


( bovate


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

E. opacus -leaves have cuspidate tip


Echinodorus quadricostatus.


Coile.N C. 1995. Common PlantsofFlonda'sAquaticPlant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plan Industry. Gainesvdle. FL.


tropical


shrub temperate
vine introduced


tree native


dwarf amazon swordplant, pygmy chain amazon swordplant
E. intermedius (incorrectly called by this name)
Central America to middle South America
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: short rhizome, runners
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves without petioles; blades up to
15 cm long and about 1.5 cm wide; erect to spreading; midrib the only
conspicuous vein
Flowers: 1.5 to 1.8 cm across; 6 to 9 stamens; thin floral stalks with 6 to 10
flowers; seed rare; plantlets often form in the inflorescence
Propagation: separate the young plants on the runners and the plantlets
in the inflorescences


oblanceolate


emersed


I


I


rounded


truncate
t acute


*I
*






trifoliate


bipinnately pinnately
c pound compound


palmately
compound


alternate


opposite


whorled


basal
rosette


ALISMATACEAE Echinodorus uruguayensis

Arechavaleta
COMMON NAME: none
ORIGIN: southern South America
DESCRIPTION: grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizome
Leaves: basal rosette; submersed leaves (including the petioles) up to 30 cm
long; blades up to 3 cm wide; lanceolate; undulate edges; midrib and
2 pairs of parallel veins; dark olive green, red-black or black-green;
darkest and most highly colored leaves in the genus
Flowers: 1 to 1.5 cm across; 18 stamens; seed usually not formed
Propagation: dividing the rhizome, and plantlets in the inflorescence


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See E. cordifolius


Echinodorus uruguayensis. Leaves may be red-black, black-green, olive green, etc.


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical .


linear


obovat


reniform


rounded


truncate
acute






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


annual

biennial
perennial

cylindrical


Egeria densa Planch.


liptic


nceolate


latenform


spatulate


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:

DESCRIPTION:


Brazilian elodea,anacharis, Brazilian waterweed, waterweed
warm-temperate South America; introduced into North America,
Africa, Europe and Japan
submersed plants with emergent flowers
Roots: yes
Stems: up to 0.5 cm diameter and up to 2' m long; stems may branch
Leaves: usually in whorls of 4, may be in whorls of 3-6; leaves are up to 2 cm
long and 5mm wide; margins have fine teeth, but need magnification
to view; never forms teeth on midrib; leaves are soft to the touch
Flowers: in the United States, only staminate ones; 3 small sepals and 3 white petals
up to 1/3 inch long; stamens are in 3 whorls, 3 in each whorl
Propagation: vegetative, by fragmentation


Egeria densa. Cross section of stem. Although 4-leaved
whorls are common, may have 3 to 6 leaves per node.


Egena densa. Stem with crowded leaves as a result of short
internodes.


Code, N C 1995 Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Plant industry Ganesville, FL


emersed


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced


tree native


HYDROCHARITACEAE
There are 2 species of Egeria.


rounded


truncate
cute


t





MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Hydrilla -rough to the touch due to sharp teeth on the lower midrib of the
leaf (use hand lens); Hydrilla is on FL's prohibited list and the U.S.
Federal Noxious Weed list
Elodea - leaves in whorls of 3;Elodea found in the northern half of the
United States; rare in the natural environments of Florida
Najas spp. - opposite, linear leaves with marginal teeth
Lagarosiphon -leaves spiral; numerous flowers in the male spathe;
all species of Lagarosiphon are on FL's prohibited list; only L. major
is on the U.S. Federal Noxious Weed list
Myriophyllum spp. - elongated stems with many leaves; some species have
submersed, whorled leaves, but many capillary divisions
Ceratophyllum demersum - leaves in whorls of 5+, but each split again;
rough to the touch
See the page comparing these plants in "Florida Prohibited Aquatic Plants"







opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


annual

biennial
perennial

cylindrical


Habenaria repens Nuttall


liptic


aonceolate


oblanceolate


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:

DESCRIPTION:


water-spider orchid, floating orchid, creeping orchid
northern South America, West Indies, southern Mexico,
southeastern North America
floating on rafts of vegetation, or emersed in wet areas
Roots: tuberous
Stems: lower stem with elongated stolons; erect
Leaves: alternate; leaf bases sheath the stem; leaf blades oblong to linear-lanceolate;
strongly 3-veined; pointed tips; succulent
Flowers: many; small; green to pale yellow; long "spidery" petals
Propagation: seed, divisions
Note: grows in dense stands at edge of ponds, may form floating mats


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Spiranthes cemua (L.) L.C. Rich - terrestrial orchid; distinguished by its white,
spiralling flowers on an elongated spike; common names: nodding
ladies' tresses orchid, fragrant ladies' tresses, spiral orchid


Habenaria repens. Photo by K. Langeland.


Nancy N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS. Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


free floating floating, rooted submersed


emersed


herb 1 tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced


native I


basal
rosette


ORCHIDACEAE
There are about 500 species of Habenaria.


whorled


3 reniform


tulate


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores

vegetative


t






bipinnately pinnately
c impound compound


WerIc


palmately
compound


ACANTHACEAE
There are about 60 species of Hemigraphis.
This cultivar lacks a formal scientific name at present.


alternate


0


opposite


whorled


basal
rosette


Hemigraphis'Exotica'


waffle plant, red ruffles
New Guinea
emersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: prostrate; reddish
Leaves: alternate; ovate; about 8 cm long; surface puckered bullatete); metallic
purplish above and wine red below
Flowers: 5 lobed calyx; corolla tubular, with 5 lobes; 4 stamens enclosed
in the tube, 2 long, 2 short; I style
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Iresine herbstii Hook (AMARANTHACEAE) - opposite leaves purplish-red and
bullate; commonly called "Chicken-gizzard Plant"
Hemigraphis altemata (Burm f.) T. Anderson - metallic purple leaves, purple
underneath; although bullate, they are less puckered than H. 'Exotica'
Hemigraphis repanda (L.) H. G. Hallier - linear leaves to about 7 cm long;
commonly called "Dragon's Tongue"


obovte


reniform


Hemigraphis 'Exotica'. Close-up
of leaf.


Hemigraphis 'Exotica'.


Coile,N C. 1995 Common Plantsof Flonda'sAquatic Plant Industry. FDACS. Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


tropical herb
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


emerged submersed floating, rooted free floating


trifollate


P&


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear


cordate


rounded _


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative






opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


There are about 10 species of Heteranthera.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Heteranthera reniformis

Ruiz & Pav.


kidney-leaved mud-plantain
tropical South America north to Connecticut
floating or rooted plants
Roots: yes
Stems: elongated
Leaves: rosette; petioles up to 15 cm long, sheathing at the base; leaf blades
up to 4 cm broad, kidney-shaped; entire margins; glossy
Flowers: 3 to 10 individual flowers in the spathe; 3 petal-like sepals and 3 petals,
white or pale blue; 3 stamens
Propagation: cuttings


obvate


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Pontederia and Eichhornia -other members of PONTEDERIACEAE family
Hydrocleys - similarly shaped


Heteranthera renitormis. Entire plant held in hand ot
Don Bryne.


Plants growing in a vat with Nymphaea.


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


free floating floating, oted submersed emerged

A~'-Tubmer\ed


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


basal
rosette


PONTEDERIACEAE


whorled


tic


nceolate


oblanceolate


*truncate
cute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative






bipinnately pinnately
c impound compound


PONTEDERIACEAE

There are about 10 species of Heteranthera.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Heteranthera zosterifolia

Martius


zostera-leaved mud plantain, sea-grass plant
Brazil and Bolivia
floating or rooted plants
Roots: yes
Stems: elongated
Leaves: alternate; up to 5 cm long and 5 mm wide; submersed leaves sessile
and linear; floating leaves petiolate and elliptic to lanceolate
Flowers: paired; 3 petal-like sepals and 3 petals, bright to medium blue,
up to 1.5 cm across; 3 stamens
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Najas - somewhat similar, but leaves opposite


elliptic


lnceolateolat

_4 'r


spatulate


Heteranthera zosterifolia. Growing with water-lilies and duckweed.
Note the paired flowers.


"Grassy" appearance of plants when not flowering.


Code, N C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gamnesville, FL


palmately
compound


opposite


whorled


alternate


W


basal
rosette


trifoliate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical






annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


lInear


song


r elliptic


anceolate


truncate
/ acute
xl�r


basal
rosette


whorled


opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


LIMNOCHARITACEAE

There are 9 species of Hydrocleys.


Hydrocleys nymphoides

(Willd.) Buchenau


Some put Hydrocleys in Butomaceae, which in
modem treatments has only one member: Butomus umbellatus.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


water-poppy, hydrocleys, hydrocleis
tropical South America
floating plant with milky sap
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: arranged in rosettes; heart-shaped leaf blades; up to 10 cm long and
7.5 cm wide; held just above the water; leathery; glossy; green above,
light green undersurface
Flowers: solitary; held above the water; showy; 3 yellow petals
and 3 green sepals
Reproduction: slips


Hydrocleys nymphoides. Water-poppy.


Colle,N.C. 1995. Common PlantsofFlionda'sAquaticPlant industry FDACS, Divison of Plant Industry Ganesville, FL


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


submersed


emersed


N4




MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Eichhomia and Limnobium -young plants similar
Nymphoides spp. - erect shoots and leaf blade about same size; flowers totally
different; forms long banana-shaped tubers
Nymphaea spp. - angled lobes on their leafbases;Nymphaea flowers with
numerous petals
Nelumbo spp. - peltate, rounded leaves, some leaves will be emergent; fruit is
flat-topped and has seeds embedded in the surface
Nuphar spp. - heart-shaped leaves much larger than this species
Brasenia schreberi - peltate floating leaves, but shield-shaped; petioles and
underneath of leaves covered with jelly like substance






annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear


oblong





lanceolate


oblanceolate


basal
rosette


whorled


opposite altemote palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


UMBELLIFERAE OR Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.
APIACEAE
There are about 75 species of Hydrocotyle.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


pennywort, water pennywort
southeastern North America, Central America
emersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: horizontal, elongated and rooted in soil
Leaves: alternate, erect petioles attached to the center of the leaf blade; blades
up to 10 cm across; shield-shaped; margins irregularly scalloped
Flowers: arranged into whorled umbels; individual flowers tiny, white
Propagation: cuttings


Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schlecht.


Wbovate


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


mushroom plant, Brazilian pennywort
tropical South America
Stem: roots profusely at nodes of stem; elongated shoots, creeping on boggy
soil or floating
Leaves: alternate, petiolate and attached at point where leaf blade is cut most
deeply; leaf blades roundish to kidney shaped; 2-4 cm across; pale
green; margins are entire to irregularly wavy
Flowers: many, arranged into long stalked umbels, corollas white
Propagation: clippings from rhizomes


Hydrocotyle sp. cannot be identified Leaf of Hydrocotyle sp., probably
to species unless in flower. H. leucocephala, but need flowers
for positive identification.


BOTH MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Regnellidium diphyllum -a fern ally with general appearance of Hydrocotyle
Brasenia spp. - shield-shaped leaves, but leaves float
Heteranthera spp. - same general appearance, but plants float


Coile, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL.


herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


/ acute

/1�


emersed




trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
c cmpound compound compound rosette


HYDROCHARITACEAE Hydromystria laevigata (Willd.)

There is only 1 species of Hydromystria. Diaz-Miranda & Philcox


American frog bit, tropical frog bit
Limnobium laevigatum. Limnobium stoloniferum. Trianea bogotensis,
Hydromystria stolonifera
Central America, Greater Antilles, South America
floating plant
Roots: yes; root hairs used in classrooms to demonstrate cytoplasmic streaming
Stem: runners
Leaves: rosette, leaves growing close together; short petioles; blades
orbicular to heart-shaped; bright green above and whitish beneath;
thick spongy tissue on underneath surface
Flowers: tiny; separate male and female flowers
Propagation: seeds, fragmentation


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Nymphoides aquaticum - heart-shaped leaves; reddish beneath; seeNymphaea
for other similar species
Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steudel - native plant; leaves not as glossy above,
less spongy beneath


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida sAquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL


tropical herb emersed submersed
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree T-


floating, rooted free floating


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYMS:

ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perennial


cylinder cal


lnea


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate-


oblanceolate


ovate


obovate


reniform


spatulate


orbiculam





sagl tte


peltate


cordate


rounded<


truncate_
acute


obtuse




spores

vegetative







annual

biennial
perennial

S cylindrical


linear


' oblong


' llptic



nceolate

oblanceolate


I ovate


Kbovate


renlform


patulate


Q rbicular




Sittate


peltate


A cordate


Rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores

vegetative


basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately biplnnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound





ACANTHACEAE Hygrophila difformis (L. f.) Blume
There are about 100 species of Hygrophila.
Includes Nomaphila and Synemma.


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


wisteria, water-wisteria
Synemma triflorum(Roxb. ex Nees) 0. Kuntze
Southeast Asia mainland
grown as a submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: submersed leaves decussate, opposite; highly variable; margins toothed
or with indentations; lower leaves divided into segments;
up to 10 cm long, and 8 cm wide; upperside pale green, underside
whitish green; emersed leaves smaller and not finely divided,
merely toothed
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils; pink
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Alternanthera, Ammania, Bacopa and Didiplis spp. - emersed leaves;
opposite, decussate
Ceratopteris spp. - submersed leaves with underside whitish, but leaves
are in rosette
Rotala rotundifolia -leaves with rounded tips
Ludwigia spp. -some with alternate leaves, while others with
opposite leaves


Hygrophila difformis. Growing emersed.


free floating


Hygrophila difformis Note upper leaves
which were formed after submersion.


Cole,N. C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda'sAquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL

floating, rooted submersed emerged herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native







OTHER Hygrophila SPECIES:


Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson
Common names: hygro, green hygro, oriental ludwigia, East Indian hygro,
Miramarweed
Origin: Southeast Asia
Description: emersed plants; stem delicate, rooting at nodes; submersed leaves
sessile; rounded tips; up to 5 cm long and 1.5 cm wide; underside
whitish-green; this is a prohibited aquatic plant: FL & U.S., see
Prohibited Aquatic Plant section
Hygrophila sp. 'Reddish'
Common name: red stem hygro
Not yet named
Description: leaves reddish to olive green on upper side of leaves, underside
whitish-green; up to 7 cm long and 0.8 cm wide; slightly wavy margins
Hygrophila corymbosa (Blume) Lindau
Common name: temple plant
Synonym: Nomaphila stricta (Vahl.) Nees
Origin: Southeast Asia
Description: submersed leaves petiolate; tips pointed; up to 12 cm long
and 4 cm wide; bright green; submersed stems swollen at the nodes;
emersed stems hairy; leaves egg-shaped; brownish-green
to reddish-green
Hygrophila angustifolia R. Brown
Common names: sword leaf stricta, giant hygro
Synonyms: Hygrophila salicifolia Nees, Nomaphila angustifolia
Origin: Southeast Asia
Description: stems erect, up to 1 cm thick; leaves decussate; opposite;
sessile; submersed leaves up to 10 cm long and 10 mm wide; may be
curved on one side; emersed leaves up to 15 cm long and 15 mm wide;
flowers dense clusters in leaf axils; white; propagation by cuttings






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette 4 compound compound compound


JUNCACEAE
There are about 225 species of Juncus.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Juncus repens Michaux


creeping rush, bog rush, palm-grass
southeastern North America
emersed
Roots: yes
Stems: ascending or creeping
Leaves: flat; grass like; basal; numerous; arising from compressed sheaths
Flowers: arranged into a cluster; inconspicuous; papery petals about 2X as
long as sepals; capsule a bit longer than sepals, with many tiny seeds
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


CYPERACEAE (sedges) - 3-ranked leaves with closed sheaths; petals absent
or replaced by bristles
GRAMINEAE (grasses) - 2-ranked leaves with open sheaths; flowers with
bracts (palea & lemma) enclosing them; fruit a grain


Coe, N.C. 1995 Common PlantsofFlondasAquatic Plant Industry FDACS, DvisionofPlant industry. Gainesville, FL







trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
( c impound compound compound , rosette


�� ( 0 �* - OO


Lemna minor L.


LEMNACEAE
There are 9 species of Lemna.


duckweed, lesser duckweed
cosmopolitan
floating, unrooted
Roots: yes, one
Stems: leaf-like (="frond"); light green; 2 reproductive pouches in which
grow daughter segments or flowers
Leaves: no
Flowers: unisexual; 2 male flowers and I female flower enclosed in a
spathe; inconspicuous
Reproduction: vegetative division, or rarely by seed
Note: these are very tiny plants without much differentiation


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Lemna gibba L. - fronds 3-nerved, orbicular-obovate, inflated below
Lemna trisulca L., "ivy-leafed duckweed" - frond flat, dark green,
remain united for a long time
Salvinia - tiny flowering fern ally; larger thanLemna with obvious hairs
Spirodela - several roots per frond
Wolffia - very tiny, lacks roots, and I reproductive pouch (but so tiny
you can't see it!)
Wolffiella - long skinny frond, lacks roots, and I reproductive pouch
(too small to see)


Coile, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant industry Gainesville, FL


tropical herb emersed submersed
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree -7


floating, rooted free floating
"- ot- _*df


annual
biennial
perennial


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


+


cylindricolr


linear -


oblong


ellIptic
ell i W


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


obovat


renifo


spatulate


orbicule





sagittate.


peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate_
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative






annual basal whorled opposite alternate palmotely pinnately bipinnotely trifoliate
Srosette compound compound compound


UMBELLIFERAE OR APIACEAE
There are 15 species of Lilaeopsis.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Lilacopsis spp.


lilaeopsis
North and South America, Australia, New Zealand
grown as submersed plants
Roots: yes
Stems: creeping, rooting at nodes
Leaves: alternate; simple; awl-shaped; linear; up to 5 cm tall; forms a turf;
leaves of some species with internal cross-walls (=septate)
Flowers: white, tiny, arranged in an umbrella-like structure
Progagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Young Vallisneria - leaves tape-shaped
Sagittaria - leaves grow in a rosette
Grasses - leaves with sheaths
Isoetes - awl-shaped leaves with sporangia at the bases


Lilaeopsis sp. Note roots at nodes of rhizomes.


Coile,N C 1995. Common Plantsof Flonda'sAquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Divisionof Plant Industry Gainesvile, FL







trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Scmpound compound compound A osette


HYDROCHARITACEAE

There is only 1 species of Limnobium.


Limnobium spongia

(Bosc.) Steudel


frog'sbit, frogbit
southeastern North America
floating
Roots: whitish, spongy
Stems: rosette, with runners
Leaves: juvenile small, free-floating rosette; heart-shaped blades about 3 cm
long and 1 cm wide; a mass of spongy tissue on underside
of leaf; mature emersed leaves in rosettes; petioles spongy and
thickened; blades ovate to heart-shaped, with up to 7 obvious
veins fanning from the base
Flowers: at base of plant; tiny; inside a membraneous spathe; separate
male and female flowers
Reproduction: fragmentation, seed


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Eichhomia crassipes -mature foliage of frog's bit may form floating mats highly
reminiscent of water hyacinth; Limnobium lacks black, fine roots
of E. crassipes
Nymphoides aquaticum - resembles immature form of frog's bit
Hydromystria - thicker spongy tissue on underside of leaf


Limnobium spongia (left and right).
(Illustration based on drawing by Beal, 1977)


Photo by K. Langeland


Colle, N. C 1995. Common Plants of Flonda'sAquatc Plant Industry FDACS, Divsionof Plant industry. Gainesville, FL


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


tropical herb emerged submersed
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


I II 1 II I IIa I I f . ... . . I


floating, rooted free floating



- -I - __*


seed
spores
vegetative


I


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear -


oblo


elliptic


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


obovate


reniform


spatute


orbicular&




sagittate


peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse

+^






annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


Sear





g r elliptic


nceolate


oblanceolate


a ovate


bovate


reniform


patulate


Q9 bicular




Msgittate


peltate


cordate


rounded


7 truncate
/ acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


SCROPHULARIACEAE

There are 36 species of Limnophila.


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Limnophila aquatica

(Roxburgh) Alston


ambulia, giantambulia, limnophila
Cyrilla aquatica
India and Sri Lanka
submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect; elongated; up to 50 cm long
Leaves: whorls of 3-11; submersed leaves divided into linear, pinnate or
bipinnate segments; underside whitish-green; emersed leaves lanceolate
to elliptical, with toothed margins; up to 2.5 cm long; dark green
Flowers: violet with purple-red dots; tubular; up to 2 cm long
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Hydrilla (see Prohibited Plant Section) and Elodea - whorled leaves on
elongated stems; leaves not dissected
Ceratophyllum demersum- leaves in whorls of 5+, each is split again;
rough to the touch
Myriophyllum spp. - some with submersed, whorled leaves, with many
capillary divisions
Cabomba caroliniana - opposite, dissected, fan-shaped leaves;see "Florida
Prohibited Aquatic Plants" for the comparison page following
the Hydrilla page


Limnophila aquatic stem.


Lross section or stem, snowing a wno ol i I leaves, each
dissected into fine segments.


Cole, N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Flonda's Aquatic Plant Industry, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


free tflooting floating, rooted submersed emersed herb tropical
Shrub temperate
vine introduced
- - " - tree native





OTHER Limnophila SPECIES:

Linmophila aromatica Merrill
Common names: red ambulia, [Mayaca spp. have linear leaves arranged
spirally; and also called "red ambulia"]
Origin: tropical Asia
Description: submersed leaves not divided, but like emersed leaves:
lanceolate; deep green or red; toothed margins

Limnophila heterophylla Bentham
Commonname: ambulia
Origin: Southeast Asia
Description: submersed leaves are finely divided

Limnophila indica (L.) Druce
Common names: Indian ambulia, ambulia
Origin: tropical Africa and Southeast Asia
Synonyms: Ambulia indica, Hottonia indica, Limnophia gratioloides
Description: submersed leaves simple pinnate or bipinnate; up to 3 cm long;
pale green; shoots are cut underwater releases a poisonous sap
which kills fish; flowers pale pink

Limnophila sessiliflora (Wahl.) Blume
Limnophila sessiliflora is a prohibited aquatic plant: both FL and U. S.
Commonname: ambulia
Origin: Southeast and East Asia
Description: very similar to L. indica vegetatively; flowers pale blue with dark
markings, no stalk or bracts






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately blpinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear

Sobong



elliptic


anceolote


oblanceolate


ovate


Kbovate


reniform


patulate


Q9 bicular




* sa ittate


Tpeltate


cordate


'rounded


truncate
acute


btuse


Ludwigia palustris (L.) Elliot


red ludwigia, creeping primrose
Europe, Central Asia, Africa, North America, and naturalized in New Zealand
emersed plant, grown as submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect
Leaves: opposite, decussate; obviously petiolate; lanceolate to elliptical,
up to 2.5 cm long and 1.2 cm wide; pointed tip; green upper,
green to dark olive to violet-red beneath; soft (when removed from water,
leaves flop down); emerged leaves smaller, greener, tougher
Flowers: sessile with 4 sepals, no petals
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Alternanthera, Ammania, Bacopa, Didiplis, Hygrophila, Lysimachia, and
Rotala spp. - opposite, decussate leaves as inL. palustris.
Check with each of these genera for differences. You're in luck if the
plants are in flower! Otherwise, compare photographs and check on leaf
shape and size.


Cole. N C 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


ONAGRACEAE
There are about 75 species of Ludwigia.


seed
spores

vegetative


free floating floating, rooted submersed emerged herb tropical
shrub temperate
srvine introduced
'-.- '< :". tree native





OTHER Ludwigia SPECIES:

Ludwigia alternifolia L.
Common names: narrowleafludwigia, alternate-leafludwigia
Origin: Southeast United States
Description: leaves alternate, elliptic or lanceolate; up to 10 cm long and 2 cm
wide; sessile; flowers with 4 petals; capsule winged, cube-shaped

Ludwigia arcuata Walter
Common name: native ludwigia, ludwiggy, narrow-leaf ludwigia
Origin: Southeast United States
Description: leaves opposite, decussate, sessile, pointed, linear; up to 3.5 cm long
and 0.2 cm wide; upper side olive green, underside pale reddish;
flowers with 4 yellow petals and stalk to 3 cm long

Ludwigia brevipes (Long) E. H. Eames
Origin: Northeast United States
Description: this is not a submerged species

Ludwigia repens Forster
Common name: creeping ludwigia
Origin: southern North America, Central America, Greater Antilles
Description: leaves opposite, decussate; submersed leaves variable in shape and
color; tough (leaves remain in position when removed from water);
flowers stalked, with 4 yellow petals






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately biplnnately trifollate
rosette t compound compound compound

*4q


PRIMULACEAE
There are about 150 species of Lysimachia.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Lysimachia nummularia L.


creeping Jenny, moneywort bloydiella, creeping Charlie, moneywort
Europe
emersed plant, sometimes grown as submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: erect, elongated
Leaves: opposite, decussate; very short petiole; blade delicate; roundish
elliptical or egg-shaped; up to 2.5 cm long and 2 cm wide; pale green
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils of emersed shoots, bright yellow petals
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


See Ludwigia palustris


Lysimachia nummularia. Dotted with reddish glands (use lens).


Coile,N.C 1995. CommonPlantsofFlorida'sAquatc Pantndustry. FDACS.DMvisionof Plantndustry. Galnesville. FL






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal

c pound compound compound rosette


MARSILEACEAE
A fern ally.
There are 65 species of Marsilea.


Marsilea mutica Mettenius


nardoo
Australia
emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: horizontal, elongated and rooted in soil
Leaves: no water leaves, 2 rows of leaves; petiolate; blades with 4 clover like
lobes held above the water or floating on the surface; soft;
medium green; slightly hairy
Flowers: none; this is a fern ally; forms spores; the sporocarps produced at the
base of the petiole
Propagation: cuttings of rhizome; spores


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Regnellidium diphyllum - a fern ally, generally similar, but has 2 leaflets
rather than 4
Oxalis tetraphylla Cav. - flowering plant with 3-foliate leaves,
called"shamrock"
Marsilea quadrifolia L. (commonly called water clover, hairy pepperwort,
marsilia, four leaf clover fern, or water fern) - lacks yellowish band
at the base of leaf lobes


Marsilea mulica. Leaves floating on water surface.


ColleN C 1995 CommonPlantsofFlonda'sAquaticPlantlndustry FDACS,DivisionofPlantlndustry Ganesville, FL


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perenne
cylindrical .


linear


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovatee


obovat


reniform


spatulate


orbicular




sagittate





cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse

(T�


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree .- 7






whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
compound compound compound


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


- linear


Koblong


elliptic


anceolate


oblanceolate


' ovate


pbovate


reniform


'patulate


Q9 blcular




sagittate


' peltate


__cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


Micranthemum umbrosum

(J.F. Gmelin) Blake


baby tears, shade mudflower
southeastern North America, Central America
emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: elongated, highly branched; erect when submersed, creeping and
forming mats when emersed
Leaves: opposite; orbicular; up to 1 cm long and wide
Flowers: solitary in leaf axils: 4 sepals which form a 2-lipped calyx;
corolla tubular; 4-lobed; white; 2 stamens, exserted
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Bacopa caroliniana - larger leaves; leaves when crushed give lemon scent;
flowers blue and about 1/2" long
Lysimachia nummularia - leaves longer
Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt.) Wett. - leaves in whorls of 3 or 4,
linear to lanceolate, up to 1 cm long and 0.2 cm wide


Nicranlnhcrnlli unlbromunm.


Cotle.N C 1995 CommonPlantso Florida'sAquaticPlant Industry FDACS. OvisionofPlantIndustry Gainesville.FL


free floating floating, rooted
.... ...


submersed


emerged herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
NV , tree native


basal
rosette


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


SCROPHULARIACEAE

There are 3 species of Micranthemum.






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorted basal
cmpound compound compound rosette


POLYPODIACEAE

This is a fern.
There are 60 species of Microsorium.


Microsorium pteropus

(Blume) Copel


Java fern
tropical Southeast Asia
submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: horizontal, elongated
Leaves: submerged fronds with short, dark brown stalks; blade up to 25 cm long
and 3 cm wide; lanceolate; medium to dark green; with obvious venation;
margins undulate; emersed fronds lanceolate or with lobes at leaf base
Flowers: none; true fern, forms spores; sporangia on underside of fronds
Propagation: cuttings of rhizome; spores


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Resembles several flowering plants such as Echinodorus and others.
This species does not look like a fern - look for young coiled fronds.


Microsonrum preropus.


Coile. N. C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Divison of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear


oblong


elliptic -


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


obovat


reniform


spatulate


orbicular





sagittate


peltateT


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emerged submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub
introduced vine f
native tree






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear





elliptic





oblanceolate
oblanceolate




Tovate



reniform


pulate


9 bicular




Maittate


' peltate


cordate


'rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


MyTiophyllum aquaticum

(Veil.) Verdc.


golden myriophyllum, parrot's-feather, watenrnilfoil
Myriophyllum brasiliense
South America, naturalized in North America, East and Southeast Asia, Australia
submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: elongated, intensively branched
Leaves: submersed leaves in whorls of 4-6; up to 4 cm long; pale green and
sometimes with reddish tips; sessile; with numerous capillary segments
(but not dichotomously branched); emersed leaves shorter, stiff, velvety
sheen; medium green to blue-green; without capillary segments
Flowers: emergent, spike like arrangement; individual flowers inconspicuous
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Cabomba - capillary segments, but dichotomously branched; leaves
stalked and opposite
Ceratophyllum- leaves in whorls; each leaf divided into two slender
segments
Limnophila sessiliflora - divisions dichotomously branched
Some other submersed, elongate stemmed genera Elodca, Hydrilla,
Lagarosiphon and Najas -these species with simple leaves


shown, each vith 5 whorled leaves


Cole,N.C 1995 Common Plantsof Florida's Aquatic Plantindustry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry Gainesville, FL


free floating floating, rooted


^~ -- '


submersed emersed herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
* 7 tree native


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


HALORAGACEAE

There are about 40 species of Myriophyllum.






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorted basal
Sccm pound compound compound rosette


E


Myriophyllum heterophyllum

Michaux


foxtail, variable-leafwatermilfoil
eastern Canada southward to Florida and New Mexico, naturalized in Europe
submersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: elongated, usually dark red, up to 8 mm in diameter
Leaves: submersed leaves in whorls of 5 or 6; up to 6 cm long; up to
28 capillary divisions; reddish; emersed leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate;
serrate; on stems up to 30 cm long
Flowers: bisexual or staminate; axillary; sessile; tiny; petals translucent;
4 stamens; leafy bracts subtend inconspicuous flowers
See: Cabomba page for confusing genera


OTHER Myriophyllum SPECIES: FRILL & WATERMILFOIL

Myriophyllum hippuroides Torrey & A. Gray
Commonname: brown myriophyllum
Origin: North and Central America
Description: submerged leaves with filiform segments at the tips of leaf blades;
emersed leaves are linear to lanceolate
Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walter) Britton, Stems and Pogg.
Commonname: cut-leafwatermilfoil
Origin: southern United States and Cuba
Description: submersed leaves with less than 10 pairs of capillary divisions per
leaf; emersed bracts whorled and pinnately divided; may be confused
with M. scabratum - small flowers in the axils of the bracts while
juvenile shoots of M. heterophyllum's lack flowers
Myriophyllum spicatum L.
Commonname: Eurasian watermilfoil
This is on the list of Florida's Prohibited Aquatic Plants,
but not on the federal list.
Myriophyllum ussuriense (Regal) Maxim
Synonyms: M. verticillatum var. ussuriense, M. japonicum
Origin: eastern Asia
Description: little branched stems; leaves in whorls of 3-4


vyFiorpanyuI nteriopniytun.
Cole, N.C 1995 CommonPlantsofFIonda'sAquatcPlantindustry FDACS, DivisionofPlantIndus.ry Gainesvlle.FL


HALORAGACEA


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub

native tree


+


seed
pores

vegetative


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate&


obovat


reniform


spatu:eW


orbiculaR




sagittate


peltate(


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


NAJADACEAE

There are 35 species of Najas.


. cylindrical


linear





� ellptic


inceolate


oblanceolate


T ovate


Kbovate


reniform


spotulate


( rbicular




Msgittate


T peltate


cordate


rounded


*truncate
>t�acute


obtuse

(T)


Najas guadalupensis

(Sprengel) Morong


southern naiad, common water nymph
Najas microdon
South and North America
submersed plant
Rooted: yes
Stems: elongated, much branched
Leaves: opposite, with a sheath; blades linear; up to 2 cm long and 0.2 cm wide;
slightly wavy; leaf margins with small teeth
Flowers: inconspicuous; enclosed in a membraneous spathe, in leaf axils
Propagation: cuttings


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Hydrilla, Elodea, Ceratophyllum, Egeria, Myriophyllum, Cabomba,
Lagarosiphon -submersed elongated stems: only Cabomba has opposite
leaves; Cabomba leaves dissected
Heteranthera zosteraefolia -with alternate leaves


vNajas guaitaiupcnsis.


CojleN C 1995 CommonPlantsoiFlonda'sAquatcPlant Industry FDACS Dvisionof Plant Industry. GainesvilleFL


annual
biennial
perennial


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


seed
spores
vegetative


free floating floating, rooted submersed emersed herb tropical
"" shrub temperate
Svine introduced
,\./ -tree native






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
Sc pound compound compound rosette

rboa ke//
I&kc�


BRASSICACEAE OR CRUCIFERAE

There are 6 species of Nasturtium.


Nasturtium officinale

R. Br. in Aiton


watercress
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek
Europe
emergent plant
Roots: yes
Stems: branched; hollow; up to I cm in diameter
Leaves: alternate; pinnately dissected with up to I I leaflets; terminal leaflet
usually largest; glabrous; cultivated for use as green salad;
pungent flavor
Flowers: clustered; petals white or pale purplish; the two inner sepals sac-like at
the base; 4 long stamens and 2 short ones; horseshoe-shaped glands
beside short stamens
Fruit: a silique; elongated, I to 2 cm long and 2-3 mm wide, with papery septum;
seed in 2 rows on each side of septum


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Cardamine - 4 petals and 6 stamens; leaf margins toothed
The common garden nasturtium is Tropaeolum majus L.


Coile,N C 1995 Common Plans of Florida'sAquatic Plantndustry FDACS, Divisionof Plantndustry Gainesville. FL


I II I II I I I I I f I t -- l II I+


+


COMMON NAME:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


annual
biennial
perennial


cylindrical


linear


oblong


elliptic


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovatee


obovate


reniform


spatulate


orbicula




sagittate


peltateT


cordate


rounded


truncate'
acute


obtuse

(T


seed
spores
vegetative


tropical herb emersed submersed floating, rooted free floating
temperate shrub - -
introduced vine
native tree 7






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette N 4 comcompounompound compound


NELUMBONACEAE
There are 2 species of Nelumbo.


COMMON NAMES:
SYNONYM:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers.


cylindrical


S linear


oblong


elliptic


nceolte


oblanceolate


sovate


obovate


reniform


patulate


rbicular




s gittate


T peltate


cordate


*rounded


truncate
/ acute


obtuse

( T


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Nuphar spp. - rounded lobes on leaf bases and fewer petals; petals and sepals
strongly concave and stiff
Nymphaea spp. - floating leaves cleft to point of attachment
Victoria spp. - huge leaves with folded leaf margins which form a rim
Nymphoides spp. - erect shoots and leaf blade is smaller; flowers totally
d'lil ri 11.i 1ii 1i.raino Nymphoides forms long banana-
shaped tubers
Hydrocleys spp. - heart-shaped leaves and milky sap; flowers with 3 petals
Brasenia schreberi -peltate, shield-shaped floating leaves, lower surface
and petiole coated with jelly like substance
Nelumbo nucifera -pink to red flowers; in other features very similar

Note: See photograph of Nelumbo nucifera. Nelumbo lutea has yellow petals.


Colle, N C. 1995 Common Plants of Florda's Aquatic Plant Industry FDACS, Division of Planl Industry Gainesville, FL,


I . I 4-


free floati ng floating, rooted
|^ -f^^Led"


submersed emersed herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


annual

biennial
perennial


yellow-lotus, water-chinquapin, pond nuts, yellow nelumbo
Nelumbo pentapetala (Walter) Femald
eastern United States
floating plant, rooted
Roots: yes
Stems: spongy, long-cylindrical rhizomes
Leaves: long petiole; some floating and some emergent; floating leaves flat;
emergent leaves somewhat funnel-shaped, blades orbicular; satiny
and bluish-green on upper surface; pale beneath with prominent veins
Flowers: solitary; day-blooming; emergent on long stalks; sepals grading into
petals; overlapping; larger petals about 8 cm long and yellow; petals
toward middle of flower intergrade into stamens
Fruits: flat-topped, with nut like seeds about 1 cm wide embedded in the surface;
used in dried flower arrangements
Reproduction: seed, or slips


seed
spores

vegetative





trifoiate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
c pound compound compound rosette


NELUMBONACEAE
Numerous cultivars.


Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner


sacred lotus, Egyptian bean, Indian lotus
East Asia
floating plant, rooted
Roots: yes
Stems: spongy, long-cylindrical rhizome
Leaves: long petiole; blades floating or emersed; peltate; round, to 30 cm across;
emergent leaves somewhat less funnel-shaped than N. lutea; deep green
above; pale beneath, with prominent veins
Flowers: solitary; up to 25 cm across; emergent on long stalks; sepals grading
into petals; overlapping; petals up to 10 cm long, red or pink; fragrant.
Fruits: flat-topped, with nut like seeds embedded in the surface (used in dried
flower arrangements), the "seeds" are source of Chinese arrowroot;
Florida arrowroot is from Zamia; true arrowroot is from
Maranta arundinacea
Note: sacred in India, China and Tibet, Nelumbo nucifera is devoted to Brahma;
introduced into Egypt in 500 B.C., but no longer growing naturally there


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Nelumbo lutea - similar, but yellow flowers
This is the only genus with floating peltate leaves which are round and lacking
a split.


Nelumbo nucifera.


Cole, N C. 1995 Common Plantsof Florida'sAquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL


tropical herb emerged submersed
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


floating, rooted free floating


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


--1


seed
spores
vegetative


annual
biennial

perennial
cylindrical


linear


oblong


elliptic


lanceola e


oblanceolate


ovat


obovat


reniform


spatulate 1


orblcula





sagittate


peltateT


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse


1






basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette c compouncompound compound


NYMPHAEACEAE

There are 20 species of Nuphar.
Many manuals use Nuphar luteum.


cylindrical


linear





elliptic


nceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


Kbovate


reniform


patulate


Q9 bicular




M sagittate


peltate


cordate


'Vrounded


*truncate
acute


obtuse


seed
spores
vegetative


Nuphar lutea

(L.) Sibth. & Smith


spadder-docks, spatter-docks, yellow cow lilies, brandy bottle,
yellow water lilies
Europe and central West Asia, naturalized in eastern North America
floating plant, rooted
Roots: yes
Stems: horizontal rhizome, elongated
Leaves: long petiole; floating or emersed blades; ovate to roundish; deeply cleft
toward the petiole and with rounded lobes; thin; wavy;
pale green; glossy
Flowers: solitary; held above the water; day-blooming; 6-9 yellow sepals strongly
concave: petals numerous; small, stiff and thick [beetles attracted to
alcoholic smell of flowers]
Fruit: stalk supporting fruit does not coil, fruit emersed
(See Nymphaea for contrast)
Reproduction: seed or slips


Nuphar lutea The leaf in the lower left rith (ie hrovwn spots at the tip is Nymphaea, not
Nuphar

Colle NC 1995 Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Dvisionof Plant industry. Gainesville, FL.


-- floating floating, rooted


submersed emersed herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


annual

biennial
perennial


COMMON NAMES:

ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:





MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Nymphaea spp. - angled lobes on their leaf bases;Nymphaea flowers with
numerous petals
Nelumbo spp. - peltate, rounded leaves, some leaves will be emergent; fruit
flat-topped and seeds embedded in surface
Victoria spp. - huge leaves with folded leaf margins
Nymphoides spp. - erect shoots and blade smaller; flowers are
totally different; after flowering, Nymphoides forms long banana-
shaped tubers
Brasenia schreberi -peltate, shield-shaped, floating leaves, under
surface and petioles coated with jelly like substance

OTHER Nuphar SPECIES:

Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC.
Common name: small spadder-dock, dwarf European water-lily
Origin: northern Europe, central Europe, temperate areas of Asia
Description: smaller than Nuphar luteum, floating leaves up to 15 cm long

Nuphar japonica DC.
Common name: Japanese nuphar
Origin: Japan.
Description: blades arrow-shaped, up to 30 cm long; leaves floating or
submersed; flowers to 5 cm across; variety rubrotinctum with red-brown
leaves and orange-red flowers






annual
biennial
perennial

cylindrical


linear


oblong


' elliptic


anceolte


oblanceolate


V ovate


( bovate


- uniform


~ patulate


E rblcular




sagittate


T peltate


cordate


*rounded


* truncate
i cute


obtuse


basal whorled opposite alternate palmately pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
rosette compound compound compound


NYMPHAEACEAE
Nymphaea are not true lilies.
There are 35 species of Nymphaea.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:

DESCRIPTION:


Nymphaea odorata Aiton


water-lily, fragrant water-lily, pond lily, white water-lily
Newfoundland and Quebec to Manitoba and south to South Florida,
Texas and Arizona
floating plant, rooted
Roots: yes
Stems: horizontal rhizome, elongated
Leaves: long petiole; floating blades; suborbicular; deeply cleft toward
the petiole and with angular lobes; green above, purple undersurface;
margins entire
Flowers: solitary; day-blooming; floating on water; 4 sepals, numerous white
to pinkish petals; numerous stamens
Fruits: stalk supporting the fruit curls and draws the fruit back to the soil
Reproduction: seed or slips
Note: numerous cultivars are in the trade and often involve hybrids of tropical
and temperate water lilies


Nymphaea odorata, a native. Like all Nymphaea species, the leaves have sharply
angled leaf lobes.


Coile,NC 1995 Common PlantsofFlonda'sAquaic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL


4 -


free floating rooted

cg 1 fl atn rooe d I _
-^ -IT-h


submersed emerged herb tropical
shrub temperate
vine introduced
tree native


seed
spores
vegetative


. ' , t * *s










MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Nuphar spp. - rounded leaf lobes (versus angular lobes ofNymphaea)
and fewer petals; petals and sepals strongly concave and stiff
Nelumbo spp. - peltate, rounded leaves, some leaves emergent; fruit is
flat-topped and has seeds embedded in surface
Victoria spp. - huge leaves with folded leaf margins which form a rim
Nymphoides spp. - erect shoots and leaf blade smaller; flowers totally different;
after flowering forms long banana-shaped tubers
Brasenia schreberi - peltate, floating shield-shaped leaves

OTHER Nymphaea SPECIES:

Nymphaea mexicana Zucc.
Common name: yellow water-lily
Origin: Florida to Texas and Arizona
Description: flowers with bright yellow petals; day-blooming.
Nymphaea capensis Thunb.
Common name: Cape blue water-lily.
Origin: South Africa; naturalized in Florida in Indian River and
Seminole Counties
Description: flowers with blue petals; leaves with toothed margins


Nymphaea x


daubeniana Baxter ex Daubeny
Common names: Daubeny's hybrid water-lily, blue hybrid water-lily
Origin: Oxford Botanic Garden (England) as a hybrid of unknown origin,
probably with N. micrantha as one of the parents
Description: flower petals are medium to light blue; leaves green
CAUTION: leaves have fungal-appearing tissue at the junction of the petiole
and blade; new plantlets (viviparous) may form here


Nymphaea elegans Hook.
Common name: blue water-lily
Origin: Mexico, Florida, Louisiana, Texas
Description: flower petals are white suffused with pale blue; leaves
purple beneath
Nymphaea blanda G. F. W. Meyer
Common name: tropical white water-lily
Origin: tropical America, naturalized in Florida
Description: flowers with white petals, night blooming; leaves thin
(easily torn), green
Nymphaea alba L.
Common name: European white water-lily
Origin: Europe, Asia, Mediterranean, Northwest Africa
Description: flowers with white petals, day blooming; variety rosea
(from Sweden) red-flowered









OTHER Nymphaea SPECIES (Continued)


Nymphaea caerulea Savigny
Origin: North and central Africa
Nymphaea lotus L.
Origin: Egypt
This water-lily and N. caerulea found as wreaths on Egyptian mummies
back to 2000 BC; Egyptian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) not
introduced to Egypt until 500 BC
Nymphaea micrantha Guillemin & Perrottet
Origin: West Africa; possible parent of important hybrid N. x daubeniana
Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
Common names: Ciwa's water-lily, night lotus
Origin: Indomalaysia
Description: white-flowered, blooms at night; sacred to Ciwa
Nymphaea teragons Georgi
Common name: white pygmy water-lily
Synonym: Nymphaea pygmaea
Origin: northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America
Description: smallest species of Nymphaea in cultivation; leaves are up to 15 cm
in diameter; upper side dark green with blackish spots; underside
pale green; used in hybridization


Several Nymphaea species.






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorled basal
I(, compound compound compound rosette


MENYANTHACEAE on GENTIANACEAE Nymphoides aquatic

There are 20 species of Nymphoides. (Walter ex J. F. Gmel.) Kuntze


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


banana plant, banana lily, floating hearts
southeastern North America
floating plant
Roots: yes; swollen adventitious roots resemble bunches of tiny bananas
Stems: erect, stems and petiole fused and thus appear like petiole
Leaves: floating; heart-shaped leaf blades; up to 10 cm long; pale green to
reddish above, purplish beneath
Flowers: just below the leaf; 5 sepals, 5 white petals which are
united at the base
Reproduction: slips


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Nymphaea spp. - angled lobes on their bases;Nymphaea flowers with
numerous petals
Nelumbo spp. - peltate, rounded leaves; some leaves emergent; fruit flat-topped
and seeds embedded surface
Victoria spp. - huge leaves with folded leaf margins
Brasenia schreberi - peltate, shield-shaped floating leaves


Nymphoides aquatica. Close-up of leaf.


Nymphoides aquatica.


Coile, N.C. 1995. Common Plantsof Fionda's Aquabc Plant industry FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


cylindrical


linear


oblong T


elliptic


late


oblanceolate


ovate


obovat


reniform


spatulate


orbiculaR




sagittate


peltateT


cordate


rounded _


truncate
acute

obtuse
(,),


tropical herb emersed submersed
temperate shrub
introduced vine
native tree


floating, rooted free floating

-Ssf _17S s_;17A�


annual
biennial
perennial


seed
spores
vegetative


m II I II III Iz I.. .. . . .. .


I












OTHER Nymphoides SPECIES:


Nymphoides ciistatum (Roxb.) 0. Kuntze
Commonname: snowflake
Description: petals fringed, giving the common name;
weed in rice fields
Nymphoides geminatum (Griseb.) 0. Kuntze
Common name: yellow fringe
Description: petals yellow and fringed
Nymphoides peltata (Gmelin) 0. Kuntze
Common name: floating heart


Nymphoides geminatum.


Nymphoides cristatum.


Nymphoides peltata.






trifoliate bipinnately pinnately palmately alternate opposite whorted basal
C pound compound


ARACEAE
This is the only species of Orontium.


COMMON NAME:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


Orontium aquaticum L.


golden club
eastern North America
emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: rhizome buried deep in the soil
Leaves: basal leaves whorled; long petioles; blades up to 15 cm long and
5 cm wide; emersed; upper surface bluish-green or dull green; under
surface smooth, silvery and with evident midvein
Flowers: grouped together in a spike (spadix) up to 20" long, yellow; white stalk
elevating the spadix (hence the name "golden club"); spathe small and
weak; flowers in late winter
Propagation: slips cultivated for use in ponds


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:

Foliage similar to several members of the ARACEAE


In flower.


� Lo,,gdoed


I


Coile,N C 1995. Common Plantsof FloridasAquaticPlant industry FDACS, Divsion of Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL.


tropical herb emerged submersed
temperate shrub _ _
introduced vine
native tree


floating, rooted tree floating

_ _T _ _*


seed
spores
vegetative


I I I II I ... ... .. . .. . . ..


annual
biennial
perennial
cylindrical


linear -


oblon


eilw_


lanceolate


oblanceolate


ovate


obovaote


reniform


spatuate


orbicular




sagittate


peltate


cordate


rounded


truncate
acute


obtuse

(T�


Photo by K. Langtand







annual bosal whorled opposite alternate palmotely pinnately bipinnately trifoliate
...... rosette .. rocompound compound compound
biennial
arennial*


ARACEAE


Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth


There are 3 species of Peltandra.


COMMON NAMES:
ORIGIN:
DESCRIPTION:


green arum, arrow arum
eastern North America
emersed plant
Roots: yes
Stems: thick rhizomes
Leaves: basally clustered; long petioles; blades up to 25 cm long and 15 cm wide;
base of blade with long flaring lobes (arrow like); glossy; prominent
midvein, and vein extends into each basal lobe
Flowers: green spathe encloses the spadix (spike of many tiny flowers)
Fruits: cluster of red berries
Propagation: division of the rhizome


MAY BE CONFUSED WITH:


Sagittaria latifolia - arrow-shaped leaves with more obvious veins
Alocasia spp. (elephant's ear) and Colocasia esculenta (wild taro) - arrow
head-shaped leaves, but peltate; prominent veins and fine veins which
parallel leaf margin
Pontederia cordata - leaves with heart-shaped bases


shape of leaf may be grown in Florida nurseries.
The fruit is not yet mature.


Cole, N C. 1995. Common Plants of Florida's Aquatic Plant Industry. FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL