Hydrogeological units of Florida ( FGS: Special publication 28 )

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Material Information

Title:
Hydrogeological units of Florida ( FGS: Special publication 28 )
Series Title:
Special publication - State of Florida, Bureau of Geology ; 28
Physical Description:
9 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Southeastern Geological Society (U.S.) -- Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1986

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hydrogeology -- Nomenclature   ( lcsh )
Geology, Stratigraphic -- Nomenclature   ( lcsh )
Hydrogeology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
compiled by Southeastern Geological Society, Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA0291
notis - AFF9913
alephbibnum - 001075215
oclc - 15306339
System ID:
UF00000138:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Background
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Proposed description of Florida's regional hydrogeologic units
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Back Cover
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Art Wilde, Dh/ctor
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Walter Schmidt, Chief


Published for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1986














STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Art Wilde, Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Walter Schmidt, Chief







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 28

HYDROGEOLOGICAL UNITS OF FLORIDA

Compiled by
Southeastern Geological Society
Ad Hoc Committee on
Florida Hydrostratigraphic
Unit Definition


Published for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1986













DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State

BILL GUNTER
Treasurer

RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General

GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller

DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director














LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee

August 1986



Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department
of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Special Publication No. 28,
"Hydrogeologic Units of Florida."

This report was prepared by an Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition under the auspices of the Southeastern
Geological Society. As such, it addresses the issue of consistency of
nomenclature within the hydrogeologic community in Florida. This impor-
tant step should assist both governmental agencies and the private sec-
tor regarding the proper and consistent use of hydrogeologic terms
throughout the state.

Respectfully yours,



Walter Schmidt, Chief
Bureau of Geology













































Printed for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee
1986













CONTENTS


Page
Introduction ............. .......................... 1
Background ............... .......................... .2
Proposed description of Florida's regional hydrogeologic units...... 4
I. surficial aquifer system ...................... . . . 4
II. intermediate aquifer system or intermediate confining unit.. .5
Ill. Floridan aquifer system .................. ....... . 6
IV. Sub-Floridan confining unit . ................... ........ .7



TABLE

Guide to the relationship of regional hydrogeologic units to
major stratigraphic units of Florida ........... ........... 8












FLORIDA HYDROGEOLOGIC UNITS

compiled by

Southeastern Geological Society

Ad Hoc Committee on

Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition










INTRODUCTION

Historically, hydrogeologists have not agreed upon a method to classify
water-bearing rock units and sediments. In addition, units sucn as aquifers
and confining beds have not been formally recognized within the Code
of Stratigraphic Nomenclature. They are, however, informally acknowledg-
ed and may be named on a stratigraphic basis as beds, members, or for-
mations. This, along with the varying emphasis of different investigators
(reflected in interchanging of the terms hydrogeologic, hydrostratigraphic,
geohydrologic, etc.) has led to the inconsistent and poorly-defined set of
criteria currently applied to the mapping of hydrostratigraphic units.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


BACKGROUND

The geologic/hydrogeologic community in Florida has long recognized
the inconsistent use of various terms applied to entire aquifer units or por-
tions of them. Terms or phrases such as surficial aquifer, water-table
aquifer, sand aquifer, nonartesian aquifer, shallow aquifer, limestone
aquifer, Floridan aquifer, upper/lower Floridan, deep aquifer, secondary
artesian aquifer, intermediate aquifer, Hawthorn aquifer, principal aquifer
and many others have made the literature difficult to read and units dif-
ficult to correlate.
In May of 1982 the Second Symposium on Florida Hydrogeology was
convened in Gainesville, Florida. At that meeting an introductory panel
discussion was organized to discuss some of the problems relating to
hydrogeologic unit nomenclature and offer observations. Symposium at-
tendees, representing all factions of the Florida hydrogeologic communi-
ty, reached the consensus that clarification of the definitions and
nomenclature of Florida's hydrostratigraphic units was needed for effec-
tive communication. In conjunction with that symposium and with a shared
concern for this topic, the Southeastern Geological Society (SEGS) created
an Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition. The
committee was established at that meeting May 12, 1982 by then SEGS
president, Ron Ceryak. The Committee's charge was to address problems
concerning the definition of hydrostratigraphic units in Florida and the
nomenclature applied to them.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 28


The Committee consisted of:
John Vecchioli, U.S. Geological Survey, Chairman
Richard Deuerling, Fla. Dept. of Environmental Regulation
David W. Fisk, Suwanee River Water Management District
James M. Frazee, Jr., St. Johns River Water Management District
Anthony E. Gilboy, Southwest Florida Water Management District
John J. Hickey, U.S. Geological Survey
Michael S. Knapp, South Florida Water Management District (now with
HydroDesigns, Inc.)
Thomas Kwader, (replaced by Jeffry R. Wagner) Northwest Florida Water
Management District
Fred W. Meyer, U.S. Geological Survey
Thomas M. Missimer, Missimer and Associates
Walter Schmidt, Florida Geological Survey
Daniel P. Spangler, University of Florida
C. Ross Sproul, CH2M Hill
Sam B. Upchurch, University of South Florida.

The Committee met as follows:
September 17, 1982, Gainesville
November 12, 1982, Orlando
January 28, 1983, Wakulla Springs
June 23, 1983, Tampa
October 7, 1983, Tallahassee
June 1, 1984, Tampa.

In addition, geographical subcommittee work sessions were held from
time to time under the direction of the Water Management District
members. The Committee expresses thanks to those hydrogeologists who
demonstrated interest in the work of the Committee by attending these
meetings and offering valuable comments.
The following proposed description of Florida's regional
hydrostratigraphic units reflects the consensus reached by the Commit-
tee in its deliberations. It is offered as a provisional working model to be
tested by the hydrogeologic community in their writings. A draft of this
text was submitted for review by the hydrogeological community through
the Southeastern Geological Society, the Florida Section of the American
Institute of Professional Geologists, the Miami Geological Society, and the
Florida Water Well Association.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


As an explanatory note, terms specifying lateral extent regional, sub-
regional, and local were intended by the Committee to have these mean-
ings in the context used herein: regional an extent approximating or
larger than the size of a Water Management District; sub-regional an
extent encompassing a few counties; local an area of less than a few
counties.

PROPOSED DESCRIPTION OF
FLORIDA'S REGIONAL HYDROGEOLOGIC UNITS

1. surficial aquifer system the permeable hydrogeologic unit con-
tiguous with land surface that is comprised principally of uncon-
solidated to poorly indurated plastic deposits. It also includes well-
indurated carbonate rocks, other than those of the Floridan aquifer
system where the Floridan is at or near land surface. Rocks mak-
ing up the surficial aquifer system belong to all or part of the upper
Miocene to Holocene Series. It contains the water table and water
within it is under mainly unconfined conditions; but beds of low
permeability may cause semi-confined or locally-confined conditions
to prevail in its deeper parts. The lower limit of the surficial aquifer
system coincides with the top of laterally extensive and vertically
persistent beds of much lower permeability.
Within the surficial aquifer system one or more aquifers may be
designated based on lateral or vertical variations in water-bearing
properties. In those parts of the State where all or part of the sur-
ficial aquifer system constitutes a major source of supply, aquifers
within it have been given distinctive names such as Biscayne aquifer
in southeast Florida and the "sand-and-gravel aquifer" in western
panhandle Florida. The term surficiall aquifer system" replaces
terms such as "water-table aquifer," "nonartesian aquifer,"
"shallow aquifer," "sand aquifer," etc., that have been heretofore
applied in the literature to this hydrogeologic unit.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 28


II. intermediate aquifer system or intermediate confining unit includes
all rocks that lie between and collectively retard the exchange of
water between the overlying surficial aquifer system and the
underlying Floridan aquifer system. These rocks in general con-
sist of fine grained plastic deposits interlayered with carbonate strata
belonging to all or parts of the Miocene and younger Series. In
places poorly-yielding to non-water-yielding strata mainly occur and
there the term "intermediate confining unit" applies. In other places,
one or more low to moderate-yielding aquifers may be interlayered
with relatively impermeable confining beds; there the term "in-
termediate aquifer system" applies. The aquifers within this system
contain water under confined conditions.
The top of the intermediate aquifer system or the intermediate
confining unit coincides with the base of the surficial aquifer system.
The base of the intermediate aquifer is at the top of the vertically
persistent permeable carbonate section that comprises the Floridan
aquifer system, or, in other words, that place in the section where
plastic layers of significant thickness are absent and permeable car-
bonate rocks are dominant. Where the upper layers of the persis-
tent carbonate section are of low permeability, they are part of either
the intermediate aquifer system or intermediate confining unit, as
applicable to the area. The term "intermediate aquifer system"
replaces previously used names such as "secondary artesian
aquifer(s)" and "shallow artesian aquifer(s)."








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ill. Floridan aquifer system thick carbonate sequence which includes
all or part of the Paleocene to early Miocene Series and functions
regionally as a water-yielding hydraulic unit. Where overlain by
either the intermediate aquifer system or the intermediate confin-
ing unit, the Floridan contains water under confined conditions.
Where overlain directly by the surficial aquifer system, the Floridan
may or may not contain water under confined conditions depen-
ding on the extent of low permeability material in the surficial aquifer
system. Where the carbonate rocks crop out, the Floridan general-
ly contains water under unconfined conditions near the top of the
aquifer system, but because of vertical variations in permeability,
deeper zones may contain water under confined conditions. The
Floridan aquifer system is present throughout the State and is the
deepest part of the active ground-water flow system on mainland
Florida.
The top of the aquifer system generally coincides with the
absence of significant thicknesses of clastics from the section and
with the top of the vertically persistent permeable carbonate sec-
tion. For the most part, the top of the aquifer system coincides with
the top of the Suwannee Limestone, where present, or the top of
the Ocala Group. In small areas of central peninsular Florida and
In southeast Florida where the Suwannee and Ocala are missing,
the Avon Park Limestone forms the top of the Floridan aquifer
system. In other parts of the State, permeable carbonate beds of
either the Hawthorn Formation, the Bruce Creek Limestone, the
St. Marks Formation, or the Tampa Formation constitute the up-
permost part of the aquifer system.
The base of the aquifer system in panhandle Florida is at the
gradational contact with fine-grained plastic rocks belonging to the
middle Eocene Series. In peninsular Florida, the base coincides
with the appearance of the regionally persistent sequence of
anhydrite beds that lies near the top of the Cedar Keys Limestone.
Within the Floridan aquifer system, one or more aquifers may
be designated based on vertical variations in water-bearing proper-
ties. The term "Floridan aquifer system" replaces the terms
"Floridan aquifer" and "principal artesian aquifer" that previously
have been applied to this unit.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 28 7



IV. Sub-Floridan confining unit strata of low permeability that limit
the depth of active ground-water circulation on mainland Florida.
In peninsular Florida the unit is comprised mainly of a sequence
of anhydrite beds interlayered with low permeability carbonate rocks
belonging to the Paleocene and older Series. In panhandle Florida,
the unit consists of fine-grained plastic deposits belonging to the
middle Eocene and older Series. The top of the unit is marked by
the sharp permeability contrast with the permeable carbonates of
the Floridan aquifer system. The base of the Sub-Floridan confin-
ing unit is poorly defined because of the inadequate data.















GUIDE TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL HYDROGEOLOGIC
UNITS TO MAJOR STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS* OF FLORIDA

PANHANDLE FLORIDA NORTH FLORIDA SOUTH FLORIDA
SYSTEM SERIES FORMATION D AI FORMATION YDROSTRATI FORMATION H A
YT ERFO GRAPHIC UNIT GRAPHIC UNIT GRAPHIC UNIT
QUATERNARY Holocene Terrace deposits
-----. Undifferentiated
terrace marine and Undifferentiated Miami Oslite suficial
fluvial deposits terrace marine and surficial Key Larg Liestone aquifer
uflumal deposit aquifer Key LargoLimrtone ifer
Pleistocene surial fl l dep s u Anastasia Formation system
aquifer Fort Thompson Formation

TERTIARY Citronelle Formation Mc k o Calahatchee Ma
Pliocene Miccosuket Formation ."*
icn Undiffer d Alachua Formation Tamniami Formation
Undifferentiated
S- intermediate intermediate
coarse plastics aquifer system aquifer system
Alum Bluff Group intermediate or or
Pensacola Clay confining unit intermediate inrmediate
Intracoasal Formaion confinin uni Hawthorn Formation cnr 1 Hawthorn Formation coining nit
onee HwhrFormato confining un confining unit
Miocen Hawlhom Formation -
Chipola Formation -
Bruce Creek Limestone Tampa Formation "
St. Mar tion S. ks Formation St. Mr orin
Chattahoochee Formation

Chickaiawhay Limestone Floridan
Oligocene Suiannee Limesrtne aquifer muwannee Limestone
Mlrianne Limestone sy Suwnee Limeone Floridan
Bucatunna Clay aquifer Floridan
system aquifer
Ocala Group system
Libon Formation -- -- Ocl roup Oala Group sy
Eocene Tallsaltt F*mation Avon Park Limestone Avon Park Limestone
Older Rocks Undiffer- Lake City Limestone Lake City Limestone
entiated sub-Floridan Oldsmar Limestone Oldsmar Limestone
confining
Paleocene Undifferentiated unit CeWar Keys limestone -oi-n Cedar Keys Limestone u oran
___________ saubb-lorkida
CRETACEOUS confining onfining
AND Udiffe ited Undiffertiated unit unit
OLDER -

* Terminology follows usage of Floride Bfurwu of Geology






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 28


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, Chief
Peter M. Dobbins, Admin. Asst. Alison Lewis, Librarian
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian Sandie Ray, Secretary

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

Thomas M. Scott, Senior Geologist/Administrator
Albert Applegate, Geologist Ted Kiper, Draftsman
Ken Campbell, Geologist Susan Kruhm, Staff Asst.
Cindy Collier, Secretary Ed Lane, Geologist
Shelton Graves, Research Asst. Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Geologist
Richard Howard, Laboratory Tech. Teresa Meyer, Staff Asst.
Richard Johnson, Geologist John Morrill, Core Driller
Jim Jones, Draftsman Albert Phillips, Asst. Driller
Frank Rupert, Geologist

MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

J. William Yon, Senior Geologist/Administrator
Paulette Bond, Geologist Connie Garrett, Research Asst.
Laura Cummins, Research Asst. Ron Hoenstine, Geologist
Diane Donnally, Research Asst. Steve Spencer, Geologist

OIL AND GAS SECTION

L. David Curry, Administrator
Clarence Babcock, Engineer Joan Gruber, Secretary
Brenda Brackin, Secretary David Poe, Geologist
Robert Caughey, Geologist Joan Ragland, Geologist
Cynthia Cook, Geologist Gwendolyn Staten, Secretary
Charles Tootle, Engineer














































DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

This public document was promulgated at a total cost
of $971.95 or a per copy cost of $0.78 for the purpose
of disseminating geologic data.




Full Text


TM SE HYDROSTRATI- FORMATION HYDROSTRAT ROS FORMATTRATI-
SYSTEM SERIES FORMATION GRAPHIC UNIT FORMATION GRAPHIC UNIT FORMATION GRAPHIC UNIT
GRAPHIC UNIT GRAPHIC UNIT GRAPHIC


Undifferentiated
terrace marine and
fluvial deposits


Citronelle Formation


Undifferentiated

coarse clastics
Alum Bluff Group
Pensacola Clay
Intracoastal Formation
Hawthorn Formation
Chipola Formation
Bruce Creek Limestone
St. Marks Formation
Chattahoochee Formation


Chickasawhay Limestone
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone
Marianna Limestone
Bucatunna Clay

Ocala Group
Lisbon Formation
Eocene Tallahatta Formation
Older Rocks Undiffer-
entiated


Holocene



Pleistocene


intermediate
confining unit


Floridan
aquifer
system


sub-Floridan
confining
unit


surficial
aquifer
system


Undifferentiated
terrace marine and
fluvial deposits




Miccosukee Formation
Alachua Formation




Hawthorn Formation



St. Marks Formation




Suwannee Limestone



Ocala Group
Avon Park Limestone
Lake City Limestone
Oldsmar Limestone


Cedar Keys Limestone


Undifferentiated


Terrace deposits

Miami Oolite
Key Largo Limestone
Anastasia Formation
Fort Thompson Formation
Caloosahatchee Marl


Tamiami Formation


surficial
aquifer
system






- intermediate
aquifer system
or
intermediate
confining unit

S- ----






Floridan
aquifer
system







sub-Floridan
confining ,/
unit -


Ocala Group
Avon Park Limestone
Lake City Limestone
Oldsmar Limestone


Cedar Keys Limestone


surficial
aquifer
system


intermediate
aquifer system
or
intermediate
confining unit











system






sub-Floridan
confining
unit


Hawthorn Formation


Tampa Formation





Suwannee Limestone


Pliocene


Miocene


QUATERNARY


TERTIARY


CRETACEOUS
AND
OLDER


Paleocene


Undifferentiated

Undifferentiated


_ _


PANHANDLE FLORIDA


NORTH FLORIDA


SOUTH FLORIDA