Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures ( FGS: Special publication 5 )

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Title:
Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures ( FGS: Special publication 5 )
Physical Description:
viii, 255 p. : maps (part fold. in pocket) tables. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Puri, Harbans Singh
Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912- ( joint author )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1959

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Florida Geological Survey special publication 5
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harbans S. Puri and Robert O. Vernon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
alephbibnum - 000743033
oclc - 01099749
notis - ADT5749
lccn - a 60009157
lccn - a 60009157
System ID:
UF00000137:00001


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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Structure and geologic setting
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Physiographic setting
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Cryptozoic era
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Paleozoic era
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Mesozoic era
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Cenozoic era
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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    Quaternary system
        Page 178
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    Bibliography
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    Plates 1-11
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Full Text
- ~ ~ r~s~e ~--------


SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY
OF FLORIDA

A GUIlDEBOOK
TO THE CLASSIC EXPOSURES





Harbans S. Puri
an~d
Robert O.Vernon

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1959


STATE OF FLORIDIA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL
Robert O.Vernon, Director


SURVEY


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO.5





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


P K YONGE
LIBRARY


OF
FLORIDA
HISTORY


















STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5





SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY
OF FLORIDA
AND
A GUIDEBOOK
TO THE CLASSIC EXPOSURES






By
Harbans S. Puri
and
Robert O. Vernon




Tallahassee, Florida
19 59














F=3 54
G-~s
no.5












PREFACE


Since the publication of Cooke's "Geology of Florida"
in 1945, a wealth of new information on the geology of the
State, mostly by the members of the Florida and U. S.
Geological Surveys, has been published. This additional
information is scattered over several publications; some
of them not readily available. This new knowledge has not
only added considerably to the accurate interpretation of the
geologic history of Florida but has also created a marked
interest on the part of geologists to visit and study Florida
outcrops. This renewed interest has resulted in the increas-
ing demand by the various professional societies, academic
institutions and students for a general guidebookto the classic
exposures of the State. The earlier guidebooks issuedbythe
Southeastern Geological Society and the Florida Geological
Survey were prepared for a portion of the State and most of
them are out of print. It is hopedthat this Guidebook will be
of help to future students of Florida geology in finding the
various outcrops.

A summary of the geology of the State appears with the
Guidebook. This summary is not intended tobe a treatise of
the geology of the State, but a resume of what is known to
date. Outcrops are numbered consecutively as they appear
in the Guidebook chronologically. These stops are located
on three maps (pls. 9-11). Their exact location, together
with brief road logs, appears in the insets.

Gratitude is expressed to E. W. Bishop, James W. Yon,
Jr., C. W. Hendry, Jr., and James A. Lavender for their
help with the field work; Paul L. Applin, Esther R. Applin,
H. V. Howe, C. W. Cooke, Joseph E. Banks, and Melvin C.
Schroeder, who have contributed through discussion; William
K. Benda and Phillip Roy Godbold, Jr., who assisted in pick-
ing microfaunal slides; Jules R. DuBar, Nevin D. Hoy and
Delbert W. Brown, who read the manuscript and offered
constructive criticism. The illustrations and maps were
prepared by Harry Whitehead with the assistance of Sandra
Lynne Rust. Mrs. Ruth Shuler typed the final manuscript
and edited it for inconsistencies.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Chattahoochee Anticline: Chattahoochee anticline was first used by
Veatch (1911, p. 62-64) for a broad flexure in the tri-state area of Geor-
gia, Alabama and Florida. He mapped the structure on exposures of
Cretaceous and Eocene rocks along the Chattahoochee River in south-
western Georgia and from the inequalities of drainage divides of the
Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. Veatch thought that the shorter tri-
butaries of the larger Chattahoochee River were developed along the
crest of an anticline and the much longer tributaries of the Flint River
were formed on the eastern flank of the anticline. The crustal movements
which caused this arch were dated by Stephenson (1928, p. 295) as late
Tertiary or early Quaternary. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1727) men-
tioned an upwarped area around Jackson County, "with dips extending
away from it towards the southeast, south and southwest." Pressler
(1947, p. 1852, fig. 1) refers to the same feature as "Decatur arch."

Jordan (1951, p. 44) refers to the Chattahoochee arch as a second
Paleozoic high, and it is a prominent feature on a structure map on the
top of the pre-Mesozoic rocks. This structure is an elongate anticline
that trends northeast-southwest and crests in Jackson, Holmes and Wash-
ington counties. This upwarp is primarily responsible for the exposures
of upper Eocene, Crystal R iver Formation in these counties.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


Preface.. .......... .................. ...


Structure and geologic setting ..........

Physiographic setting.........

Cryptozoic Era.......................
Pre-Caminian System ..............

Paleozoic(?) or Pre-Cambrian(?)....

Paleozoic Era . . . . . .

Ordovician System.........
Lower Ordovician........

Middle Ordovician ...............

Silurian(?) System ........

Devonian Systena...................

Mesozoic Era . . . . . .

Triassic(?) System ........

Jurassic(?) System ........

Cretaceous Systens.................
Comanche Series ........

Dulf Series .. . .. . .

Tuscaloosa formation .........

Atkinson formation............

Eutaw formation ..............

Beds of Austin Age............

Beds of Taylor Age............

Lawson lime stone .............

Beds of Navarro Age(?) .......
Cenozoic Era.........................

Tertiary System .........

Paleocene Series ........

Cedar Keys formation.........

Undifferentiated Midway Stage..
Eocene Series... ................

Oldsmar lime stone ... .. .

Undiffe rentiated Wilcox Stage

Claiborne Stage ...............

Lake City limestone ........

Tallahatta formation.. .. .. .

Avon Park lime stone ....

Lisbon formation...........,


. .. . .. .1

..... ....4

..... ....8

..... ....8

..... .... 10

..... .... 11

..... .... 11

..... .... 11

..... .... 12

..... .... 13

..... .... 13

..... .... 14

..... .... 14

..... .... 14

..... .... 16

..... .... 16

..... .... 16

..... .... 18

..... .... 19

..... .... 21

..... .... 23

..... .... 24

..... .... 25

..... .... 26

..... .... 27

..... .... 27

..... .... 27


......

.........

. . . .

. . . . .

......

........

. . . . .

....














Ocala Group............................ 43
hxglis fornaation..... . .. ....... 44
Williston fornaation.............. ... 50
Crystal River formation .............. 55
Oligocene Series .......................... 85
Marimanna limestone. ............... 85
IByran fornration......... ............ 88
Suwannee limestone .................. 91
Miocene Series........................... 101
Tampa Stage ......................... 101
Chattahoochee facies ................. 103
St. Marks facies..................... 111
Alum Bluff Stage......... ............... 112
Chdpola facies .... ................... 112
Shoal River facies. ................... 114
Oak Grove facies..................... 118
HEawthorn facies. ................... .. 119
Unnamed coar se cla stic s.............. 127
Choctawhatchee Stage ................... 131
Arca facie s ................ ..... .... 132
Yoldia facie s ................... ..... 136
Ecphora faucie s................... .... 137
Cancellaria facies............... ..... 143
Tamiami formation. .................. 147
Alachua formation ................... ... 160
Bone Valley formation. .................. 168
Facies and paleoecology of the ]Whocene ...... 173
Pliocene Series ........................... 177
?Plio-Pleistocene Series................... 177
High level alluvial and deltaic deposits 177
Chiaternary Systen ................... ........ 178
Pleistocene Series......................... 178
Caloosahatchee marl.................... 178
Fort Denaud member ................. 178
Bee ]Branch naenber. ................. 187
Ayer s Landing membe r............... 192
Paleoecology of the Caloosahatchee formation 207
Fort Thompson formation. .............. 217
Okaldakoochee meniber ............... 225
Coffee 14ill Hammock marl. .. ... .. .. 226
Paleoecology of the Fort Thompson formation 228
Key Largo limestone ................... 232













Anastasia formation..................... 233
Miami Oolite ................... ........ 236
Lake Flirt marl .................. ...... 239
Marine Terrace deposits ................ 239
Recent Series............................. 241
Bibliography ................... ................ 245




ILLUSTRA TIONS


Figure

1 Generalized geologic cross section through
Florida... ................... .......... 2
2 Index to principal geologic structures in
Florida. .................. ............. 3
3 Topographic divisions of Florida .. .. .. .. 7
4Florida stratigraphic nomenclature chart. 9
5 Generalized subsurface geologic section-
Panhandle Florida... ................... 17
6 Structure map of the Upper Cretaceous top
of a high resistivity curve in Eutaw forma-
tion................................... 22
7 Diagrammatic stratigraphic section showing
the Miocene terminology ................ 102
8 East-west geologic cross section through
part of Highlands County showvingi relation-
ship of the marine Hawthorn formation with
the nonmarine Hawvthorn (unnamed coarse
plastic s). ................... ............ 126
9 Paleogeographic map of Florida during the
Niocene ............................... 174
10 Composite stratigraphic section of the Qua-
ternary showing stratigraphic terminology
in the Caloosahatchee area .. .. .. .. .. .. 179


11 Block diagram of the Miami area.. .. .. .. 234












Plate


1 Preliminary age determination of the Pkleo-
zoic rocks in test wells in Florida andadja-
cent areas of Georgia and Alabama. .. ..In pocket
2 Surface occurrences of geologic formations
in Florida. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. . .. .. ... In pocket
3 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks
in the Florida Panhandle. ... .. .. . ... .. In pocket
4 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks
in central and northern Florida.. .. .. ..In pocket
5 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks
in central Florida. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. . .In pocket
6 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks
in southern Florida................,, .In pocket
7 Panel diagram of the Miocene rocks in the
Florida Panhandle ................... .. In pocket
8 Correlation of stratigraphic sections along
the Caloosahatchee River. ... ... .. .. .. .In pocket
9 Map of the Florida Panhandle showing route,
road log, and scheduled stops.. .. .. .. .. .In pocket
10 Mdap of the northern and central peninsula
showing route, road log, and scheduled
stops................................In pocket
11 Map of southern Florida showing route, road
log, and scheduled stops. .. . .... ... ... In pocket




Table


1 Data on wells penetrating pre-Cambrian
rocks ................................. 8
2 Data on wells penetrating rhyolitic lavas
and pyroclastic rocks................... 10
3 Data on wells penetrating Paleozoic sedi-
mentary rocks in Florida. .. .. .. ... .. .. 11
4 Data on wells penetrating diabase and
basalt................................. 15


V111















SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA
AND
A GUIDEBOOK TO THE CLASSIC EXPOSURES

By
Harbans S. Puri and Robert O. Vernon



STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGIC SETTING

Florida is a part of the eastern Gulf of Mexico sedi-
mentary basin consisting of southern Alabama, southern
Georgia, Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas. This sedimentary
basin is divided by Pressler (1947, p. 1851) into two sedi-
mentary provinces (North Gulf Coast sedimentary province
and Florida Peninsula sedimentary province) separated by
the Suwannee straits. The North Gulf Coast sedimentary
province consists mainly of plastic sediments and includes
the Apalachicola embaym~ent and the southeast Georgia em-
bayment. The Florida Peninsula sedimentary province is
characterized by nonclastic sediments, predominantly car-
bonates and anhydrites, and includes a South Florida embay-
ment of the Gulf of M~exico basin, with its center of deposition
pa7ssing~ through Sunniland field, Collier County.

The dominant subsurface structure in Florida is the
Peninsular arch which trends south-southeast and extends
frorn southeastern Georgia into central Florida. The crest
of the Peninsular arch is in the center of northern peninsular
Florida (around Union and Bradford counties) and this arch
forms the axis of peninsular Florida (Applin, 1951, p. 3).
This structure was the topographic high during Cretaceous
times and sediments of early Cre~taceous were deposited
around it but did not completely cover it. Beds of Austin
age (Upper Cretaceous) were deposited over the crest of
this paleozoic arch and they overlie early Ordovician sand-
stone .











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


The Ocala uplift, well developed along the peninsula,
passes westerly into a series of unnamed shallow noses and
basins that trend northeast-southwest and terminate in a
broadly developed uplift known as the Chattahoochee arch.
The arch crests in Holme s, Jackson and Washington counties s
and trends northeast- southwe st. The axis of the arch lies
along the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee river valleys.

The principal geologic structures of the State are shown
on figure 2.


FIGURE 2














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PHYSIOGRAPHIC SETTING

Cooke (1939, p. 14) described five natural topographic
subdivisions of the Floridan plateau: the Central Highlands,
the Tallahassee H~ills, the Marianna Lowlands, the Western
Highlands and the Coastal Lowlands. Vernon (1951, p. 14-16)
proposed four physiographic subdivisions of the Floridan
plateau on the basis of origin. The following table shows
Cooke's subdivisions, their equivalents in Vernon's classi-
fication and the subdivisions followed in this report:

Physiographic Subdivisions of the Floridan Plateau


Cooke, 1939 Vernon, 1951 This report

Central Central Delta Plain and
Highlands Delta Plain Tertiary Highlands
Highlands
Western Western Delta Plain and
Highlands Highlands

Tallahassee Tertiary Tallahassee Tertiary
Hills Hlighlands Highlands
Terraced
Coastal Coastal Terraced Coastal
Lowlands Lowlands Lowlands

Marianna River Valley Marianna River Valley
Lowlands Lowlands Lowlands



Generally speaking, boundaries of Cooke 's subdivisions
coincide with their equivalents in Vernon's classification.
It is here suggested, as it was in 1951 by Vernon, that the
geographic subdivision names proposed by Cooke be used to
qualify Vernon's physiographic units, thus giving a fair idea
as to the origin of these units and their locations.














SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Central Delta Plain and Tertiary Highlands: The
Tertiary Highlands extend from the Okefenokee Swamp in
south Georgia into the Florida Peninsula, extending south-
ward between St. Mary's River on the east and Withlacoochee
River on the west almost to Glades County. These highlands
have varied relief and the altitude ranges from less than 40
feet in the valleys to more than 300 feet near Lake Wales.

This subdivision is rather large and highly diversified.
It comprises high hills, swampy plains and thousands of
lake s. The lake s ar e in the soluble lime stone s of the Ocala
group and some are in the Suwannee limestone. The soils
are predominantly sandy and these sands are derived from
either the Pleistocene marine terrace deposits or from the
middle Miocene unnamed coarse clastics.

Western Delta Plain and Highlands: The Western Delta
Plain and Highlands are bounded on the north and west by the
State of Alabama, on the east by the Apalachicola River and
the Tertiary Highlands and by the Terraced Coastal Lowlands
on the south. The delta plain embraces the valley of the
Escambia, the Blackwater, the Shoal and the Yellow rivers,
and several other smaller streams. The northern portion
is hilly, about 300 feet in altitude; the southern portion is
broad, gently rolling uplands, ranging in altitude from 100
to 270 feet.

Tallahassee Tertiary Highlands: The northern bound-
ary of the Tallahassee Tertiary Highlands is marked by the
State of Georgia on the north, the Terraced Coastal Highlands
on the south and east, and the Apalachicola River on the
west. The area thus bounded is a long narrow strip of gently
sloping hills and highlands about 25 miles wide and 100 miles
long. The highlands, confined to the western part of Gadsden
County, are typically developed around Mt. Pleasant, where
the altitude is about 300 feet. The rest of the region consists
of low, gently sloping, rounded hills.















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Terraced Coastal Lowlands: In the Florida Panhandle,
areas west of Tallahassee and south of the Tallahassee
Tertiary Highlands, Marianna River Valley Lowlands and
the Western Delta Plain Highlands and north of the shoreline
fall under this subdivision. Parts of the coastal counties,
Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, Franklin, Calhoun, Liberty,
Wakulla, and Leon, represent only a segment of this vast
physiographic unit which borders the coast of Florida from
the Georgia state line at St. Mary's River to the Alabama
state line. Its inner edge is generally taken at the 220-foot
contour line.

In peninsular Florida, areas east, west and south of
Central Delta Plain and Tertiary H~ighlands fall under the
Terraced Coastal Lowlands. The Terraced Coastal Low-
lands, as the name implies, consist of plains representing
marine terraces. Cooke (1939, p. 15) recognizes four
marine terraces (Wicomico terrace, Penholoway terrace,
Talbot terrace and Pamlico terrace), which, according to
him, were the bottom of the sea during four previous high-
water levels (op. cit. ). Cooke top. cit. )admits his inability
to trace the se terrace s in the field or to draw them accurately
because of the lack of topographic coverage.

Marianna River Valley Lowlands: "'Mar ianna Lo wlands"'
is Cooke's (1939) name for this province, which includes
Jackson, Washington and Holmes counties. It is bounded by
the Alabama state line on the north, Chattahoochee and
Apalachicola rivers on the east and by the Delta Plain High-
lands on the south and west. It is a region of low rolling
hills, sinks and depre ssions. Cypress domes are among the
many interesting features of the region.

Physiographic divisions of Florida, modified from
Cooke (1945) appear on figure 3 but current detailed studies
by the writers on the physiography and geomorphology of the
State will undoubtedly modify this classification.



































































FIGURE 3


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 7


DIVISIONS OF FLORIDA
(MODI1FIED AFTER COOKE,1939 AND VERNON, 1951)














CRYPTOZOIC ERA

Pr e-Cambrian System

The crystalline rocks encountered in wells in Florida
represent the buried extension of rocks of the southern
Appalachian Piedmont. These pre-Cambrian rocks are
represented by granites and diorites and have been recorded
in three wells in eastern central Florida.

Applin (1951, p. 5) considered the crystalline rocks
encountered in Florida, like their outcropping counterpart
of southern Appalachian Piedmont, to be probably in part
pre- Cambrian and in part Paleozoic age.




Table 1 Data on Wells Penetrating Pre-Cambrian Rocks
(From Applin, 1951)








a, DU oUNature of Rocks




Lake W-275 -5983 17 6120 Granite

Osceola W-1014 -7973 14 8049 Altered and veined
biotitic granite

Volusia W-1 118 -5862 48 5958 Hornblende
Diorite


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


















































































I B~alol Nolora Ip I?~ (;nl~;iJ LDIOn Ilm~lfon~


Unnomeda Red Beds and Basel (Int ulr a ) Qurts Dloabas Poss ble S II



unnamed Sha1le and Sands


a EarI Sly5ur an or Late Ordoveson and Ordov c an or 5 lur on Block sha e









a ~i9Clrystlline Rocks





Figure 4. Florida stratigraphic nomenclature chart.


TAMPA STAGE
Chartabowhee faclIe St Marks I~l~ faie Magyp smo~ faces



LSnt Brrm frmatonr
EACSBRLY vuont 5BURG MannaHet






L~EVCSUnd fferen led cion Oldsma estone l


Undifl~l~nli~l( YI(l~


Ctd(lr r~l Ilmlf~o


Beds of Talollr Age



Beds of Aust n Age

Eulow


Beds of Taylar Age


Beds of Aust n Age




Beds of Eaglefor d Ag


Beds of Wodba0ne Age~


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


so



















Paleozoic(?) or Pre-Cambrian(?


Rhyolitic Lavas and Pyroclastic Rocks

In the central peninsula, eight wells terminated in
volcanic ro cks that are mostly lavas, tuffs and agglome rate s.
In two wells basalt occurred in association with rhyolite and
tuff. Depth of penetration and petrographic determinations
of these wells are listed on table 2.

The nature of rocks encounteredinthe different wells,
according to Applin (1951) are indicative of their extrusive
origin. These rocks are considered by Applin to possibly
occur either as continuous bodies of tuff and lava flows or
as localized discontinuous bodies separated by intervening
se dimentary rocks.






Table 2. Data on Wells Penetrating Rhyolitic Lavas and Pyroclastic Rocks
(From Applin, 1951)


Depth of Total
County Well No. Penetration Depth Nature of Rocks
Flagler W- 1474 44 4, 632 Tuff and volcanic agglomerate of
rhyolitic composition
Harder: W-1655 106 11,934 Lavas and pyroclastic: rocks

Highlands W-966 367 12,985 Basalt, rhyolite porphyry, and
related kinds of volcanic rocks
Hillsborough W-1005 119 10, 129 Rhyolite and volcanic agglomerate

Marion W-1482 ZZ 4, 637 Volcanic agglomerate or tuff of
rhyolitic composition
Osceola W-1411 58 8,798 Rhyolite

Putnam W-1838 19 3, 892 Volcanic ash and tuff

Volusia W- 1746 ZI 5, 424 Rhyolitic ? volcanic rock


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 11


PALEOZOIC ERA


Ordovician System


Lower Ordovician


Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been encountered in
37 wells in Florida. These sediments are parts of an exten-
sive Paleozoic strata that occupies the northern and central

portion of the Florida Tbninsula and southeastern Georgia.
The following table summarizes the occurrence of Paleozoic
sedimentary rocks (data from Applin, 1951):

Table 3. Data on Wells Penetrating Paleozoic Sedimentary
Rocks in Florida

Top of Total Total
Cout Well No. Paleozoic thickness depth Nature of sediments

Alachua W-1465 3135 15 3150 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Alachua W-1486 3170 50 3220 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Alachua W- 1472 3217 11 3228 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Baker W-1500 3342 7 33419 Quartzitic sandstone
Bradford W-1466 3140 27 3167 Quiartzitic sandstone and shale
Clay W- 1590 3725 2137 5862 Quartzitic sandstone
Columbia W- 1789 348' 967 4444 Weathered zone? 3482-3492
Black shale 3492-4444
Columbia W- 1981 2813 15 L8Z8 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Columbia W- 1915 3033 18 30i1 Quiartzitic sandstone
Columbia W-1923 2922 7 '929 Quiartzitic sandstone and shale
Columbia W- 1832 3303 8 3311 Black shale
Dixie W-1114l 5228 2282 7510 Quiartzitic sandstone
Dixze W-1568 5016 88 5104 Sandstone and shale
Dixwl W- 1405 3545 26 3b71 Quiartzitic sandstone and shale
Gilchrist W- 1003 3588 165 3753 Quiartzitic sandstone and shale
Gilchrist W- 1819 33418 18 3366 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Hernaldoo W-9941 77'0 75: 8472 Quartzitic sandstone
Jacksoin Y- 1886 8440 805 9245 Red and pLr.ay sandstone and
shale
Jffr Itrson H -1854 7909 4L? 79 13 Quartzitic sandstone
Lifai ntte W- 1866 34L80 L7 3507 Quiartzitic sandstone and shale
L~ia\tltte W-Z000 4505 7 4512L Quartzitic sandstone
blIv\ate H \-1690 4205j 30 4235 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Llfavette~l W-968 4030O 103 4133 Quartzitic sandstone and shale
Levi W-1537 5810 410 5850 Black shale
Levi W-:012 4177 232 4609 Srx Inches of altered black
shale overlying quartzitic
sandstone
Levi W-1007 3960 37 3997 Quartzitic sandstone
Mad'o W-159b 46 28~ 757 5385 Black shale
Ml.llbson W'- 1 598 400t0 36 41096 Qua rtzltlc sandstone and shale
M.lrmln W-~901 3000 9 674 ? 4334 Quartzatic sandstone
Malrlln W-8 100 '080? b180 Quiartzitic sandstone
MarionL-I H-4244 75 463)7 Qua rtaitic sandstone
Malrlln H-19041 3679 166 3845 Quartzitic sandstone
SNlssau W-336g 4040- 168 41824 Black shale
Rrlnantl W-1514 33.'0 8 3328 Quartzitic sandstone
\"uwannot H-1415 3040 ILl 3161 Black shale
SUwannee.l W-1924J 3135 3 3139 Quartzitic sandstone
Suw~anncr W~-158 3500 7L 3572 Black shale



















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Howell and Richards (1949) described a species of
brachiopod (Lingulepsis floI~ridnumfo fine grained mica-
ceous sandstone taken at 3,668 to 3,671 feet in Dixie County,
W-1405. They assigned a late Cambrian or early Ordovician
age to this species. BerdanandBridge (1951, p. 70)studied
the 232 feet of Paleozoic sediments cored from the Humble-
Robinson well in central Levy County. These sediments
consist of gray, quartzitic sandstone and black, micaceous,
sandy shale. Linguloid brachiopods were found in the upper
(between 4,390 to 4,424 feet) part of the section. Berdan and
Bridge (op. cit. )correlated these beds with the Union Pro-
ducing Company's Kirkland No. I well, Houston County,
Alabama, just north of the Florida-Alabama line. The same
type of lithology and type s of linguloid brachiopods were found
in the Kirkland well, which, in addition to the linguloid
brachiopods, also carries a rich graptolite fauna. On the
basis of this graptolite fauna associated withthese Paleozoic
sediments, Berdan and Bridge (op. cit. ) assigned a Lower
Ordovician age to these rocks.



MLiddle Ordovician

Beds of middle Ordovician (Black River) have been
definitely recognized in one well (Sun Oil Company, Gibson
No. 2, Madison County), and tentatively identified in another
(Sun Oil Company, Earl Odom No. 1, Suwannee County).
The maximum thickness of these rocks is 753 feet in the Sun
Oil Company, Gibson No. 2 well (Bridge and Berdan, 1952).





















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 13

Silurian(?) System

Late Silurian or Early Devonian(?)

Black shale encountered in three wells (Humble Oil and
Refining Company, Cone No. 1, Columbia County; Coastal
Petroleum Company, Ragland No. 1, Levy County; and Sun
Oil Company, Sapp No. 1A) are referred to Late Silurian or
Early Devonian(?) by Bridge and Berdan (1952). The maxi-
mum thickness of these sediments is 906 feet in Humble Oil
and Refining Company, Cone No. 1. Exact location, lithology
and probable age relationships are shown on plate 1.



Devonian System

Unnamed Shale s and Sands

In Humble Oil and Refining Company, Tindall No. 1,
Jackson County, 803 feet of sediments are assigned to Middle
Devonian (Bridge and Berdan, 1952).

Preliminary age determinations of the Paleozoic rocks
in Florida and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama by
Bridge and Berdan (1952) are reproduced as plate 1.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MESOZOIC ERA

Triassic(?) System

Diabase and Basalt

Diabase and basalt are encountered in nine wells in
Florida. Of these nine wells, diabase occurred in five of
them and basalt was encountered in two wells, while two
wells yielded both basalt and diabase. These volcanic rocks
occur as sills or dikes in some wells while in others they
are presumed to be flows (Applin, 1951, p. 15). Table 5
gives the location and manner of occurrence of these vol-
canic rocks.

Since the diabase in W-336 agrees in mineral compo-
sition with the upper chilled zone of the Palisade diabase,
these volcanic rocks are tentatively identified as Triassic
(Cole, 1944, p. 89-94).


Unnamed Red Beds

Red shale and sand encountered in Brown and Ravlin
No. 1 Philips well, Wakulla County, between 4270 and 5746
(total depth), and Hammonds No. 1, Granberry well, Jackson
County, between 3448 and 5022 feet (total depth), are con-
sidered to be of probable Triassic Age. Additional study
is needed to establishtheir exact thickne ss and areal extent.


Jurassic(?) System

In two wells (W-972 and W- 1471)in peninsular Florida,
lime stone s, dolomite s, anhydr ite s and shaly lime stone uncer -
lying the Lower Cretaceous are referred to Jurassic(?) Age
by Applin (1951). These wells are W-972, Gulf Oil Corpo-
ration, State of Florida No. 1, Monroe County, and W-1471,
Humble Oil and Refining Company, Tucson Corporation No. 1,
Palm Beach County. Additional studies are needed to estab-
lish a more precise age for these sediments.












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 15



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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Cretaceous System

Comanche Series

Lower Cretaceous in the Florida Panhandle consists
of undifferentiated, argillaceous sands, interbedded with
red and green shale with nodules of sandy limestone and
anhydrite. More than 1500 feet of sediments have been as-
signed to this stratigraphic unit although the total thickness
of sediments has not yet been penetrated by the drill.

Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1721) placed certain plastic
sediments penetrated in six wells in Florida in the Lower
Cretaceous. In southern Florida, Lower Cretaceous sedi-
ments, called "Sunniland payzone" by Pressler (1947) and
"'Sunniland formation''by Raa sch (19 55) have been re cogni ze d.
The upper part of the Lower Cretaceous in southern Florida
consists of a miliolid limestone and the lower parties gener-
ally anhydrite. Specimens of Orbitolina walnutensis and
Coskinolina sunnilandensis are common in this section.


Gulf Series

The Gulf Series in the Florida Peninsula consists of
four distinct units. These, in descending order, are beds of
Navarro Age (Latwson limestone), beds of Taylor Age, beds
of Austin Age, and Atkinson formation (beds of Eagleford
and Woodbine Age). This section is based on studies by
Applin and Applin (1944, 1947), Southeastern Geological
So city Me sozoic Committee ( 1949) and Ve rnon ( 19 51 ). The se
workers have correlated the Florida Cretaceous System with
that of the standard section of Texas. Cole (1938, 1941,
1942, 1944, 1945), however, has correlated the Florida
section with that of Alabama and has used the Alabama
nomenclature for Cretaceous rocks.

In the panhandle, the Gulf Series are divided into five
stratigraphic units. These units, in descending order, are
beds of Navarro Age(?), beds of Taylor Age, beds of Austin
Ago, Eutaw formation and Tuscaloosa formation.



























ALABAMA FLORIDA


I I


1. 1


Liibon Cream-colorrd, ylauronitac, sandy Ilmestone~laght grasy.blocky rlay,
crream.sof, chalky. pyrltic limestone. and Ilght gray~callarcous. giauconific
sand. Some dolomltizatlon of carbonates. Sand,. marls and clays typical of!
-trop areas present near Georgia-Alabaml uine 300-425 feet Ihcic
Tallahatta Gream to wrhlte, glauconltlc. sandy. clayey lamertone and gray' to
cream. sandy. calcareous c-lay. 150-500 feet thlck.






Undlfferentsated Watox Sandy, cream, glauconstic limestone. gray. glauco-
nltac, calcareous sand~whate to cream pasty limestone; gray-greenmlcaceous
clay at base. Sillceans~gray. clayeyllmestone and green-gray clay predoml-
note eastward. All has a Velasco fauna but concentrations of elements of the
fauna occur In the bottom 1 00 to 300 feet whlch Is princ Ipally a whste to c ream.
pasty~fosssiiterous limestone, named the Salt Mountain timestone. 400 to 1600
feet thlck.









Undlfferentiated Midway. Gray, mlcaceous, sandy clay utth seams of cream,
sandy, pasty, soft limestone. Dark gray to black micaceous clay wsth thin
beds of green, red and gray speckled~and banded fossiliferous clays make up
the base Velasco fauna. 250-750 feet thick.


Eroded ?
Beds of Navariro Age (7}: A thin, gray, pasty
mar Iat the top of the Cretaceans, contatnzng n
fossils.occuralm the western Panhandle. POs-
stbly Navarro Io age Taylor perhaps up to
100 feet thick.



Beds of Taylor Age. Cream to gray, clayey~pasty chalkr with thzn beds of cal*
careous clay andsaft cream to gray marl Taylor fossls~. Thans eastward -
350-700 feet thlck.



Beds of Austin Age The soft. pasty. gray marls and Elmestones of western-
mnost Panhandle rrade eastward to gray, soft, glauconltac. micaceous, kine to
c. ar e quart; sand .nte rbrdded wsth gr a-g reen, soft.calc areous. than-bedded
clay that downdlp inc reases In calcareous content. Asrpeckled calcareous~soft
clay chararctertres the base. 350-450 feet thick.
Eutav A gray to cream. calcareous, fine sandstone that grades downdxp into
soft. pasty. sands chalk uith limestone seams 150-300 feet thaick.


Upper Tuscaloor., Gray to cream, fine. calcareaus, macaceous, clayey, silty
sandstone with beds at calcareous shale Grades downdlp to a stmllar sand
Interbedded andoserhaing laminated. green~sh-gray, mlcaceous, carbonaceous,
glauconltac. calcarro~l ris hles Eagle Ford fauna. 400-500 feet thack.


Ma~rnn Tuscaloosa Mlarlne, gra hard. "poker-chlp shale Ilth laminated,
macaceous, glauconstic, sand, shell fragments and carbonaceous seams and
flecksi Globotruncans fauna. L50-375 (aet thlck.

Lower Tuscaloosa Nonmaranc. poorly sorted. gray to green, thne to coarse
sand and variegated shale The pastel color Increase eastrardand the per-
centage of shale .creases downdlp. 400-750 feet thtch.




Lover Cretaceous Undifferentiated, argEllaceous sands, anterbedded wxth red
and Rreen shale vlth nodules of sandy Ilamestone aNdanhydrlate Thackiness not
penetrated.


Figure 5. Generalized subsurface geologic section -

Panhandle Florida.


LISBON



TALLAMAITTA




HATCHIETIGBEE

















NAHEOLA


PORTERS CREEK 1


CLAYTON


PRAIRIE BLUFF







DEMOPOLIS









MOOREVILLE


O








o







O


LL

.~ Z


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tuscaloosa Formation

The sediments of the Tuscaloosa formation overlie the
Lower Cretaceous or older formation. The Tuscaloosa has
been divided into three members, a nonmarine lower Tusca-
loosa, marine Tuscaloosa and upper Tuscaloosa.

The lower Tuscaloosa in the panhandle consists of non-
marine, poorly sorted, gray to green, fine to coarse sand
and variegated shales. The pastel colors increase eastward
and the percentage of shale increases downdip. The thick-
ness of the lower Tuscaloosa ranges from 400 to 475 feet.

The term Moye (Pilot) sand r ese rvoir is used by Winte r
( 19 54) for the glauconitic, fine grained sand at the top of the
lower Tuscaloosa. This sand averages 91 feet in thickness
and the upper 25 to 30 feet are relatively clean, but argil-
laceous below this interval. It is the most prolific of the
oil-bearing sands in the Pollard field and has been identified
in most wells in the panhandle.

The marine Tuscaloosa consists predominantly of
marine, gray, hard, "poker-chip" shale with laminated,
micaceous, glauconitic, sand, shell fragments, carbona-
ceous seams and flecks, containing a Globotruncana fauna.
The formation varies in thickness from 250 to 375 feet.

The upper Tuscaloosa generally consists of gray to
cream, fine, calcareous, micaceous, clayey, silty sandstone
with beds of calcareous shale. It grades downdip to a similar
sand interbedded and overlying laminated, greenish gray,
micaceous, carbonaceous, glauconitic, calcareous shale.
This upper member contains Eagleford fauna and is 400 to
500 feet thick.

The name Miller sand reservoir is used by Winte r (19 54)
for lenticular, fine grained, sand at the base of the upper
Tuscaloosa. The Mviller sand is interbedded with streaks of
shale and dense sandstone. This sand is oil-bearing in the
Pollard field near depths ranging from 5, 624 to 5, 722 feet
below sea level. The thickness of this sand varies between
15 and 30 feet and has been identified in most wells in the
Florida Panhandle.












SPECIAL PUB LOCATION NO. 5


Applin and Applin (1944) identified the Tuscaloosa
formation in 13 wells in Florida and adjacent parts of Alabama
and Georgia and correlated it in part with the Eagleford,
and in part with the Woodbine formation of Texas.


Tuscaloosa Formation
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)

Total
County Well No. Top Bottom Thickne s s Depth

Dixie W-636 3626 3741 115 4776
Jackson W-285 2803 3448 645 5022
Je ffe r son W- 19 34 10 3838 428 3838
Lake W-Z75 5322 539 2 70 6120
Leon W-32 3465 3755 290 3755
Levy W-166 4170 4235 65 5266
Monroe W-445 7676 8168 49 2 10006
Nassau W-336 42541 4600 346 4821
Wakulla W-44 3672 4270 598 5746
Walton W-148 4133 5337 204 5337
Washington W-1 3470 ? 4912 ? 4912






Atkinson Formation

The Atkinson formation was proposed by Applin and
Applin (1947, chart) with a threefold division (upper, middle
and lower) for the sediments of pre-Austin Age that overlie
the Comanche Series in southern Alabama, Georgia and
northern Florida. Applin and Applin (1947) tentatively cor-
related this formation with the Tuscaloosa and McShane
formations of Alabama.

The lower and middle members of the Atkinson forma-
tion in Alabama and Georgia were distinguished by the













FLORIDA GEOLOGJICAL SURVEY


Applins (1947) on lithology. In sou;;hern Florida, the lower
and middle members are indistinct lithologically and are
separated mainly on microfauna.

The Atkinson formation has been divided by the South-
eastern Geological Society Mesozoic Committee into two
faunizones, faunizone "A" containing Eagleford fauna, and
faunizone "B" containing Woodbine fauna. This subdivision
is currently used by subsequent authors.

Cushman and Applin (1947, p. 53, 54) reported two
species of Ammobaculites (A. grts Cushman and Applin
and A. agrestis Cushman and Applin) from the Atkinson
formation in Florida.

Faunizone "A" commonly contains, in marine shale beds,
a fauna characteristic of the Eagleford shale of Texas and
includes Planulina eaglefordensis, V~qnaluiea infrequens,
Gumbelina moremnani, G. reussi, Trochammina wickendeni,
Globigerina cretacea and abundant ostracodes.

Faunizone "B" contains a microfauna characteristic
of the Woodbine sand of Texas, including Ammobaculites
braunsteini, A. comprimatus, A. advenus, A. plummerae,
and Trochammina rainwateri.

In general, the upper member of the Atkinson forma-
tion carries a microfauna of Eagleford Age and is equivalent
to faunizone "A". The middle and lower members of the
Atkinson contain a Woodbine fauna and both of the se members
are included in faunizone "B". Applin (1955) has redefined
the Atkinson formation to consist of two members, an upper
member of Eagleford Age and a lower member of Woodbine
Age consisting of the former lower and middle members.

Applin (1955)has described the foraminiferal fauna of
Woodbine biofacies of the Atkinson formation. The following
species are recorded from 13 wells in Florida and adjoining
parts of Alabama and Georgia:











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 21

Reophax de ckeri Tappan
Haplophragmoides langsdalensis Applin
Haplophragmoides advenus (Cushman and Applin)
Ammobaculites agrestis Cushman and Applin
Ammobaculite s junceus Cushman and Applin
Ammobaculoides plummerae Loeblich
Gaudryina barlowensis Applin
Quinqueloculina moremani Cushman
Quinqueloculina moremanibarlowensis Applin
Trochammina rainwateri C~ushman and Applin
Acruliammina longa Tappan
Placopsilina lansdalensis Applin
Robulus munsteri (Roemer)
Lenticulina cyprina (Vicaux)
Nodosaria affinis Reuss var.
Citharina recta (Reuss)
Frondicularia barlowensis Applin
Patellina subcretacea Cushman and Alexander
Discorbis minima Vicaux;
Valvulineria infriequen Morrow var.
Globorotalia cushmani Morrow
Globigerina cf. G. cretacea d'Orbigny
Anomalina obesa Cushman and Applin
Anomalina petita Carsey

The above fauna has been found in an area northward
from Levy and Putnam counties to Clinch County in southern
Georgia. In Florida, this biofacie s was identified in the sub-
surface from Jackson, Columbia, Putnam, Dixie, Suwannee
and Jefferson counties.

Ac cor ding to Applin ( 19 55), the pre dominance of ar ena -
ceous microfauna of this facies and the lithologic character
of the se diment s indic ate an envi ronme nt of depo sition r hanging
from very shallow marine to estuarine and brackish water
to weakly saline and poorly aerated waters.


Eutaw Formation

The Eutaw formation in the Florida Panhandle consists
of a gray to cream, calcareous, fine sandstone that grades
downdip into soft, pasty, sandy chalk withlimestone seams.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


On





O u














SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


The thickness of the Eutaw varies from 150 to 300 feet.

Beds of Austin Age

The following facies are recognized by Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1715-1716) in the beds of Austin Age:

Predominantly shale and sand facies (western and
northern Florida)

Shales and marly limestone facies (central Florida)

Limestone facies (southern Florida)

The shale and sand facies of western and northern
Florida grades into beds composed mainly of shares and
marly limestones in central Florida, which in turn grades
into limestone in southern Florida.

Beds of Austin Age in the westernmost Florida Pan-
handle consist of soft, pasty, gray marls and limestones.
Eastward, these sediments grade into gray, soft, glauconitic
micaceous, fine to coarse quartz sand, interbedded with
gray-green, soft, calcareous, thin bedded clay that increases
in calcareous content downdip. The base of these beds is
characterized by a speckled, calcareous, soft clay. The
thickness of the beds of Austin Age varies between 350 and
450 feet.

In central Florida, these sediments are composed of
gray and greenish gray marl or calcareous shale with streaks
of limestone and lenses of fine grained sand. The speckled,
calcareous shale is commonly present in central Florida.
In southern Florida, beds of Austin Age consist of hard, white
limestone. In peninsular Florida, the beds of Austin Age
have a uniform thickne ss of 2 50 to 350 feet (Applin and Applin,
1944). Vernon (1951, p. 80, 81)records the maximum thick-
ness of these sediments to be 527 feet.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Beds of Taylor Age

Beds of Taylor Age, in the Florida Panhandle, are
composed of cream to gray, clayey, pasty, chalk with thin
beds of calcareous clayand soft, creamto gray marl. The se
beds are 350 to 700 feet thick, thinning eastward.

Beds of Taylor Age unde rlie the beds of Navar ro Age(? )
in the Florida Panhandle, except in the Tallahassee area,
where Paleocene beds overlie beds of Taylor Age, with beds
of Navarro Age(?) being absent. Over most of the Florida
Peninsula these sediments are composed of hard, white,
cream colored, chalky lime stone with thin, irregular streaks
of shale and gray marl occasionally present. Applin and
Applin (1944) give the thickness of beds of Taylor Age in the
central part of the peninsula to be 400 feet, increasing north-
eastward to 600 feet and the southern peninsula to be more
than 1200 feet.

The top of the beds of Taylor Age can be picked by the
fir st appearance of an abundance of fr agent s of Ino ce ramus.



Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Anomalina cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Anomalina scholtzensis Cole
Bolivina incrassata Reuss
Bolivinoides decorate (Jones)
Buliminella cushmani Sandidge
Globigerina cretacea (?) d'Orbigny
Globotruncana arca (Cushman)
Globotruncana canaliculata (Reuss)
Gyroidina micheliniana (d'Orbigny)
Planulina cedarkeysensis Cole
Planulina texana Cushman
Stensioeina americana Cushman and Dorsey












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Lawson Lime stone

The name Lawson (from J. S. Cosden-Lawson well
No. 1, Marion County) limestone was named and described
by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1708-1711) for a limestone
facies of the late Upper Cretaceous beds occurring in north-
east Florida and in the peninsula below the Cedar Keys lime-
stone and above beds of Taylor Age. They ( 1944) divided this
formation into a lower and an upper member, each with a
distinctive microfauna. The upper member is a white to
cr eam colore d, gypsum impr e gnate d calcitic lime stone, 40 to
300 feet thick. The average thickness of the upper member
is about 200 feet. The upper member carries a re crystallized
rnic rofauna, which is difficult to identify both specifically and
generically. Species of Vaughanina, Orbitolina, Psedobi
toides and Lepidorbitoides are common (Applin and Applin,
1944).

The lower member is white to cream colored, hard,
chalky limestone, generally 300 to 400 feet thick, although
it reaches a maximum of 700 feet in wells in Levy County.
Applin and Applin ( 19 44) note d only a small amount of gypsum
in the lower member.

Fauna

The lower member of the Lawson has a distinctive
rnicrofauna in which the following species are common and
characteristic (Applin and Jordan, 1945):

Cibicides harper (Sandidge)
Lepidorbitoides (Astrobi) aguayoi D. K. Palmer
Lepidorbitoide s (Lepidorbitoide s) minima H. Dou-
ville
Lepidorbitoide s Lpioritids notoni
(Vaughan)
Lepidorbitoide s (Lepidorbitoide s) planasi M. G.
Rutten
Loxostoma clavatum (Cushman)
Robulus mfinsteri (Roemer)
Sulcoperculina cosdeni Applin and Jordan




























26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Beds of Navarro Age(?)

The Lawson limestone grades laterally into plastic
beds of Navarro Age(?) in the Florida Panhandle, composed
of a thin, gray, pasty marl, containing few fossils. These
sediments are up to 100 feet thick and are possibly Navarro
in age; but they may perhaps be equivalent of the upper part
of beds of Taylor Age.

It is hoped that current studies by ~Paul L. and Esther
R. Applin on the Cretaceous sediments of Florida, Georgia
and Alabama will clarify some of the problems in Cretaceous
stratigraphy and paleontology.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 27

CENOZOIC ERA

Tertiary System

Paleocene Series

Cedar Keys Formation

This formation was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27, 28)
for a mostly tan limestone that overlies the Cretaceous cal-
carenite containing Borelis gunteri Cole and Borelis flori-
danus Cole in its upper portion. As defined, this formation
is a stage and is synonymous with Midway Stage of the we ste rn
Gulf states. As used by Cole, the formation extended from
the uppermost occurrence of Borelis fauna to the top of the
Upper Cretaceous, as identified by him, and included a tran-
sition zone at base, which is considered by most workers to
represent the top of Upper Cretaceous (upper member of the
Lawson lime stone). The Cedar Keys is here used as emended
by Applin and Applin (1944) and Vernon (19 51) and covers the
interval between the top of the Borelis fauna, the fir st occur-
rence of a small foraminiferal assemblage associated with
Borelis, to the top of the Cretaceous. This current usage
includes in the Cedar Keys an indefinite thickness of beds at
the top and excludes the Upper Cretaceous beds. This def-
inition of Ce dar Keys make s the formation much more uniform
in its occurrence and thickness.


Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Borelis floridanus Cole
Borelis gunteri Cole
Cribrospira ? bunfshelni Applin and Jordan
Planispirina ? kissengenensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulammina nassauensis Applin and Jordan

Ostracoda (Applin and Applin, 1944)

Cytherella symmetrica Alexander
Cythereis aff. C. sculptilis Alexander









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Limestone Facies Cedar Keys Formation
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)
Total
County Well No. Top Bottom Thickne ss Depth

Dade W-215 3675 5432 (T 11) 1757 5432

Total
County Well No. Top Bottom Thickne ss Depth

Dade W-215 3675 5432 (TD.) 1757 5432
Dade W- 147 3773 4560 (TD. ) 787 4560
Dixie W-636 2561 1894 333 4776
Hillsborough W-8 3090 3255 165 3255
Lake W-275 1570 3365 795 6120
Levy W-166 2051 2489 438 5266
Marion W-901 1730 2235 505 4334
Monroe W-445 3310 5430 2120 10006
Nassau W-336 2215 2750 535 4821
Polk W-61 2630 4300 1670 4540
Sumter W-3 2005 2940 935 3070

Undifferentiated Midway Stage

In the Florida Panhandle, plastic beds of Midway Age
have not been differentiated into the three units (Clayton,
Porters Creek and Naheola) recognized in Alabama. The
undifferentiated Midway in the panhandle consists of gray,
micaceous, sandy clay with seams of cream, sandy, pasty,
soft limestone; the basal portion is composed of a dark gray
to black, micaceous clay with thin beds of green, red and
gray, speckled, and bande dfos silife rous clays. The thickness s
of the se sediments vary from 250 to 750 feet. In some wells in
Jackson, Jefferson, Washington and Wakulla counties, these
sediments in the lower part contain a very characteristic
Tamesi fauna which is composed of the following species
(Applin and Jordan, 1945):

Ammodiscus incertus d'Orbigny
Anomalina rubiginosa Cushman
Bulimina (Deinouliina quadrata Plummer
Cibicides cognatus Galloway and Morrey
Clavulinoidesa midwayensis Cushman
Dorothia alabamensis Cushman
Eponides waltonensis Applin and Jordan











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Gaudryina sp.
Globigerina cretacea d'Orbigny
Globigerina pseudobulloidesa Plummer
Globigerina triloculinoidesa Plumme r
Globigerina velascoensis Cushman
Globorotalia cf. G. membranacea (Ehrenberg)
Globorotalia velascoensis Cushman
Gyroidina sparksi White
Gyroidina suban~g(Pulat (lumer
Marssonella oxcycfnoniaflidna Applin and Jordan
Planulina waltonensis Applin and Jordan
Pseudoglandulina manifesta (Reuss)
Pullenia quinqueloba Reuss
Pulvinulinella obtusa (Burrows and Holland)
Trochamminoide s ~irreulri White
Vaginulina robusta Plummer
Valvulineria allomorphinoides (Reuss)



Clastic Facies of Midway Age
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)

Total
County Well No. Top Bottom Thickness Depth


Jackson W-285 1672 1761 89 5022
(Tamesi fauna) 1761 1934 173

Je ffe r son W- 19 2490 3056 app. 566 3838
( Tame si fauna)

Leon W-32 2235 2675 440 3755

Wakulla W-440 2665 2715 50 5746
(Tame si fauna)

Walton W- 148 20 10 2400 app. 390 5337


Washington W- 1 ? 2060 Unknown 49 12
(Tame si fauna) 2060 2545 485










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Eocene Series

01dsmar L~imestone

The name Olds mar lime stone was given by Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1699) to a series of faunizones to include
stratigraphic intervals overlying the Cedar Keys limestone
which is marked by the abundance of Helicostegina gyralis
Barker and Grimsdale. The following four faunizones were
recognized by the Applins:

Helicostegina gyralis faunizone

Salt Mountain limestone faunizone characterized by
Pseudophragmina cedarkeysensis Cole.

Coskinolina elongata faunizone

Unnamed faunizone, characterized over the north
peninsular Florida by Miscellanea nassauensis Applin
and Jordan and over the central and southern peninsula
by "Lockhartia" cushmani Applin and Jordan.

Levin (1957) reports the following Foraminifera and
Ostracoda from the Oldsmar limestone:

Foraminifera

Valvulina sp.
Coskinolina elongata Cole
Quinqueloculina akneriana d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina sp.
Nonion mimica Levin
Nummulites sp.
Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Miscellanea nassauensis var. reticulosus Applin
and Jordan
Borelis floridanus Cole
Tubulogenerina turbina Levin
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Discorbis tallahattensis Bandy
Discorbis yeguaensis Weinzierl and Applin
Gyroidina lottensis Garrett
Gyroidina lottensis var. impensa Levin











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Eponide s oldsmarensis Levin
Rotalia trochidiformis (Lamarck)
Lockhartia gyropapulosa Levin
Lockhartia praealt Lvi
Siphoning wilcoxensis Cushman
Asterigerina primaria var. helgm~a Levin
Asterigerina texana (Stadnichenko)
Helicostegina gyali Barker and Grimsdale
Amphiste gina lopetrgo Palmer
Cibicides sassei Cole
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) cedarkeysensis
Cole

Ostracoda

Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Haplocytheridea cf. H. goochi (Stephenson)
Xestoleberis sp.
Cythereis ? longicostata Blake

Besides the foraminiferal species listed above,
Clavulina floridana Cole, Lituonella elegans Cole, and
"Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan have been re-
ported from the Oldsmar limestone.

Undifferentiated Wilcox Stage

Stratigraphic equivalents of Nanafalia, Tuscahoma and
Hatchetigbee formations of Alabama have been recognized in
the Florida Panhandle as undifferentiated Wilcox. These
sediments consist of sandy, cream, glauconitic limestone;
gray, glauconitic, calcareous sand; white to cream, pasty,
limestone; gray-green micaceous clay at base. Siliceous,
gray, argillaceous limestone and greenish gray clay pre-
dominate eastward. The entire section has a Velasco fauna
but concentration of elements of fauna occurs in the bottom
100 to 300 feet, which is principally a white to cream, pasty,
fossilife rous lime stone name d the Salt Mountain limestone.
The sediments of Wilcox vary in thickness from400 to 1600
feet. East of Jefferson County, these plastic beds of Wilcox
Age grade laterally into a limestone facies, called the
Oldsmar limestone (Applin and Applin, 1944).














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Limestone Facies Oldsmar Limestone
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)


Total
De pth

3010
10 12
5432
4560
4776
3255
6120
5266
4334
10006
2310
4821
4540
1350
3070


Bottom Thickness


County


Well No. Top


Broward
Columbia
Dade
Dade
Dixie
Hillsborough
Lake
Levy
Marion
Monr oe
Monroe
Nassau
Polk
St. Johns
Sumter


W-150
W-299
W-215
W-147
W-636
W-4
W-275
W-166
w-90 1
W-445
W-2
W-3 36
W61
W-236
W-3


2500app. 3010


510
0 2
938
53
476
925
820
743
445
1260
390
845
670

575


10 10
2737
3720
1085
2165
1750
1308
1285
2050
1920
1370
1960
1350
1430


10 12(T.D.)
3675
3773
1561
3090
2570
2051
1730
3310
2310
2215
2630
(last sample)
2005


Clastic Beds of Wilcox Age
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)


Total
Depth

5022
3838
3755
5746
5337
4912


County

Jackson
Jefferson
Leon
Wakulla
Walton
Wa shington


Well No. Top


Bottom Thickness


W-285
W- 19
W-32
W-440
W- 148
W-1


776
2223
1995
2122
1508
970


1672
2490 ?
2235
2665
1980


896
267
240
543
472











SPECIAL PUB LOCATION NO. 5


Claiborne Stage

Lake City Lime stone

The Lake City limestone was erected by Applin and
Applin (1944) for a chalky limestone facies of the early
middle Eocene in northern and peninsular Florida from
chalky, glauconitic, sandy, plastic facies in western Florida
that contains a fauna related to the Cook Mountain formation,
into which it inter finger s. The type section is a well (W- 229)
at Lake City, Columbia County.

Vernon (1951i, p. 9 1-9 2) reported that the formation is
characterized by several lithologie s which probably occur as
thin beds in a thick carbonate section. The formation is com-
posed of a matrix of tan to cream, fragmental, often peat-
flecke d, granular and pasty limestone in which are embedded
quantities of foraminifers, crystals of calcite and echinoid
plate s. The limestone is irregularly dolomitized and dolo-
rnitization is present in all stages from incipient dolomite
crystals in the matrix to complete dolomite. The change is
usually accompanied by decalcification of the fauna to a de-
gree comparable to the amount of dolomitization. Such
decalcification is present in stages from unaltered fossils,
calcite dust retaining some of the fossil forms to molds
surrounded by crystalline dolomite. The complete removal
of fossils sometimes results in a dolomite that retains the
texture of a former granular limestone, in which the matrix
and interiors of the faunas have been filled by dolomite and
the calcite shells removed, to form a very porous scab and
skeletal spongy texture. Sometimes the limestone is essen-
tially a coquina of specimens of Dictyoconus, Coskinolina,
Lockhartia and associated foraminifers, and rarely this
coquina may be so impregnated with gypsum that the fossils
appear to be embedded in gypsum.

Gypsum has impregnated much of the Lake City lime-
stone and commonly the rock is completely impregnated with
anhydrite and gypsum, all porosity being filled, this resulting
in rare gypsum casts of the fossils. Thin beds and seams of
anhydrite and selenite are also pre sent and the se may repre -
sent cavity fills, since the impregnation appears in most
samples to have occurred after dolomitization.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The general lithology is emphasized by beds which ap-
parently characterize the Lake City limestone. These beds
occur throughout the formation but many are concentrated at
the top and serve with the diagnostic foraminifers to mark
the top of the formation.

These beds include a pseudo-oolite, a brown to coffee
colored chert, a bentonitic (?) clay, and a brownish gray,
laminated, finely crystalline dolomite containing seams of
black carbon and flattene d de calcified spe cimens of Fabularia
vaughani, Coskinolina sp., Archaias columbiaensis, and
larger Valvulinidae giving it a mottled and laminated (mo-
lasses and butter) appearance. Occasionally, the last
mentionedrockis seamedwith peat and is not fossiliferous.
The finely crystalline dolomite matrix grades vertically in
some wells to a granular fragmentalmatrix containing many
small calcareous foraminifers, making a white and brown
speckled limestone with a dolomite matrix.

At the top of the formation, and sometimes also in
samples below, a cream, yellowish and brownish gray, very
fissile, waxy, highly absorptive possible bentonitic clay was
encountered in a number of wells that penetrated the Lake
City limestone. Silica is commonly associated with the clay
and occurs at the top of the formation in great abundance.
The silica is dense, mammillary, hard, brown to tan colored
chalcedony which is transparent onthin edges. The chert is
frequently peat flecked and rarely contains specimens of
Archaias columbiaensis, Lockhartia cushmani and Dictyo-
conus sp. The brown chert is frequently associated with a
white chalcedony and milky quartz and rarely all the silica
is white and milky. The clay and silica usually occur with
the laminated and speckled dolomite described above.

The limestone facies laterally grades into a plastic
facies in a series of wells extending from Wakulla County
westward to Walton County.

Paleontologically, the formation is very distinct and
canbe identified from its fauna, the top of the formation being
picked on the first occurrence of Dictyoconus americanus
(Cushman).












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


The Lake City limestone overlies the Oldsmar and
unde rlie s the Avon Park lime stone. The formational contacts
are known only from rock cuttings taken from oil and water
wells. The Lake City probably rests unconformably upon
the Oldsmar. Vernon (1951, p. 92) noticed that peat content
increases toward the top of the Oldsmar, indicating progres-
sive near shore facies.

The upper contact of the Avon Park limestone upon the
Lake City limestone is undoubtedly non-conformable. The
deve lopment of peat and lignite be ds, clay and sand stringer s,
and phosphorite and limonite nodules along the contact are
evidences of an unconformity. In some well penetrations
the rock cuttings show signs of oxidation and weathering of
the Lake City limestone at the contact and locally the forma-
tion appears to have been thinned.


Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Amphistegina lopeztrigoi Palmer
Amphistegina nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Archaias columbiaensis Applin and Jordan
Asterigerina cedarkeysensis Cole
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
Asterocyclina monticellensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Epistomaria sem~limadrgiaa('rigny)
Eponides gunteri Cole
Fabularia gunteri Applin and Jordan
Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton
Gunteria floridana Cushman and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Linderin~a floridensis Cole
"Lckhartia" cushmani Applin and Jordan
Operculinoides je ni Barker











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Limestone Facies Lake City Limestone
(Data from Applin and Applin, 1944)


Total
Depth

872
3010
1012
5432
4776

100 5
9 80
3255
3838
6120
3755
5266
4334
10006
2310
4821
1060
4540
1040
1350
3070
650
2169
5746


Bottom Thickness


Well No. Top


County


756
2127
492
2490
525

805
965
19 10
1740
1010
1600
811
915
1810
1740
945
853
1540
930
590
890
475
1750
1750


872 (T.D.)
2500
1010
2737
1085
(1st sample)
1005 (T.D. )
980 (T D. )
2165
2223
2000
1995
1308
1285
2050
1920
1370
1060 (T.D. )
1960
1040 (T. D. )
1350 (TD. )
1430
650 (T. D. )
2169 (T.D. )
2122


116
373
518
247
560

200
15
255
483
990
395
497
370
240
180
425
207
420
110
760
540
175
419
372


W-104
W-150
W-299
W-215
W436

W-304
W-581

W-8

W-275
W-3 2
W-166
W-901


W-336
W-670

W-668
W-2 36
W-3

W-12
W-440


Brevard
Broward
Columbia
Dade
Dixie

Duval
Duval
HIillsborough
Jefferson
Lake
Leon
Levy
Marion
Monroe
Monroe
Nassau
Nassau
Polk
Polk
St. Johns
Sumter
Suwannee
Wakulla
Wakulla


Tallahatta Formation

Cream to white, glauconitic, sandy, clayey limestone
and gray to cream, sandy, glauconitic clay constitute the
Tallahatta formation. In the Florida Panhandle, thickness
of these beds varies from 150 to 500 feet. These beds are
called "clastic beds of Cook Mountain Age by the Applins
(1944). These plastic sediments merge laterally into the
limestone facies(Lake City limestone) from Wakulla County
eastward into the Florida Peninsula.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Avon Park Lime stone

The term Avon Park limestone was proposed by Applin
and Applin (1944, p. 1680, 1686) for the sediments of late
middle Eocene in Florida. The type locality is in a well at
Avon Park Bombing Range in Polk County. This formation in
its type area is a cream colored limestone that contains a
very distinct middle Eocene microfauna. The surface expo-
sures of this formation have only been found in Citrus and
Levy counties (Vernon, 1951, p 95).


General Lithology

The Avon Park lime stone is compo s ed of s eve ral lithol-
ogies having in common a distinct and prolific fauna and a
high content of lignitic and othe r carbonaceous plant re sidue s.
Three general lithologic types, all carbonates, are present
in Citrus and Levy counties in exposures and well penetrations
of the formation. These are as follows (Vernon, 1951,
p. 96, 97):

1. Cream to brown, highly fossiliferous, miliolid-rich,
marine, fragmental to pasty limestone that weathers
cream to white, and purple-tinted, stop 1. The bed
contains abundant spe cimens of mollusks, foraminifer s
and corals. In its porosity and fauna it resembles a
reef, and grades laterally and vertically through a tan
to brown, dense, brittle, thin lithographic limestone;
a four to six inch "fucoid- Cerithium" fragmental dolo-
mite; an irregular lens of lignite and a Foraminifera-
filled dolomite-clayinto the other rocktypes, stop 2.

2. Cream to brown, pasty and fragmental, peat flecked
and seamed, very fossiliferous, marine limestone,
not exposed. This bed is extremely rich in well pre-
served Bryozoa, foraminifers and ostracods, and the
fauna is concentrated and somewhat deformed along
thin be ds that ar e inte rbe dde d with peat and mor e barr en
pasty lime stone seams to give the rock a laminated and
mottled appearance, to which the term "molasses and
butter has been applied by some geologists.

3. Tan to brown, thin bedded and laminated, very finely










38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

crystalline marine dlolomite. Molds of characteristic
Avon Park foraminifers are common. The dolomite
is composed of euhedral, silt-sized crystals of dolo-
mite interbedded with layers of lignite and carbona-
ceous plant remains, each layer being commonly one-
sixteenth to one -fourth inch in thickne ss. The structure
of the rock resembles varve s and the poor consolidation
and grain size cause the rock to resemble siltstones.

Most of these generalized types willbe seen at stops 1
and 2.

The equivalent plastic beds in the panhandle are not
exposed. The Avon Park limestone is correlated with the
Gosport sand and with the Lisbon formation in part. These
names have been used for the Florida sediments although
they differ from the sediments at the type sections. Glau-
conitic, calcareous sand; hard, sandy, glauconitic lime-
stone; soft, sandy, glauconitic marl with minor seams of
shale near the glauconitic, cherty limestone and fos silife rous
bentonitic clay, have been placed in the late middle Eocene
and called Gosport sand or Lisbon formation.
Fauna

Foraminifera (Applin and Jordan, 1945)

Coskinolina floridana Cole
Cribrobulimina cushmani Applin and Jordan
Clyclammina waters Applin and Jordan
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Flintina avo~parkensis Applin and Jordan
Lituonella floridana Cole
Rotalia avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Spirolina corynsi Cole
Textularia coryensis Cole
Valvulammina minute Applin and Jordan
Valvulina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulina intermedia Applin and Jordan
Valvulina martii Cushman and Bermudez

Stop 1: (Section from Vernon, 1951, p. 105-106.)

Middle Eecene Stage
Avon Park limestone

3 Mottled creamto gray, very soft, granular,











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


fragmental, mas sive, weathered, marine
limestone topped by blocky, red, sandy clay
soils that extend back into a cultivated
field...............................(varibe 4.0

2 Cream to white, mottled, hard ledge of
dense, very fossiliferous, marine limestone
containing excellent specimens of Peneroplid
sp. "X" and other Avon Park microfauna.
Mollusk molds are abundant and several
Lucinids, Corbis sp. cf. C. claibornensis
and Trigonocardia, n. ap., are common.. 1.5

1 Lithology above but softer and containing
hardnodules............................ 3.0

Water level

Totalthickness............................. 8.5



Stop 2: (Section from Vernon, 1951, p. 108-110.)

Pleistocene Series
Pamlico formation

8 White to gray, fine, argillaceous, quartz
sand. ................... ...............1. 5 to 4. 0

Unconformity
Jackson Stage
Ocala group
Inglis formation

7 Tan, dense, hard, massive dolomite con-
taining scattered molds of foraminifers and
b broke n mollusk s ................... ..... 2. 35

6 Tan, very soft, friable, finely crystalline,
porous to dense, thinly bedded dolomite
composed of silt-size euhedral crystals.
Grades laterally into large, massive, dolo-
rnite beds containing platy dolomite pebble s,











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


apparently reworked from beds below. This
bed is high and low along the quarry face
and apparently has covered an erosional
surface of relief up to 10 feet............ 9. 75

Unconformity
Middle Eocene Stage
Avon Park limestone

5 High areas extending into Bed 6, tan to
brown, extremely platy and laminated by
alternate layers of plant remains and silt-
size eubedral crystals of dolomite. The
base is dark brown, heavily laminated and
contains thin beds of peat and specimens of
Peneroplid sp. "X", Coskinolina, Dictyo
conus and L~ituonella. Extensively exposed
in the south side of the quarry .. .. .. .(variable) 3. O

4 Tan to brownish gray, dense, fine grained,
fragmental dolomite, cut by numerous long
narrow borings made by worms or boring
mollusks. Many molds of "Cerithium" n.
sp., are present and the bed is absent in
place s................... ............. .0.35 to 0.85

3 Brownish gray, purple tinted, very dense,
fine grained, lithographic dolomite. Beds 3,
and 4 grade laterally and vertically into
Bed 2 or where absent into Bed 1. .. .... 0. 7 to 1. 6

2 Brown to greenish gray, very pure, thin
bedded, dense, carbonate having the texture
and consistency of clay when wet and ana-
lyzing 9 5 to 9 8pe recent calcium-magne sium
carbonate. Upon drying the mate rial cements
solidly. The bed is laminated by carbonized
plant remains, thinpeatbeds in places, and
a pavement-like Bryozoa. It contains an
abundant and beautifully preserved micro-
fauna of the Avon Park lime stone and includes
Elphidium sp. "A", Coskinolina floridana
and Dictyoconus cooe in great abundance 0. 7 to 1. 0











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 41

1 Brownish gray to brown, purple tinted, soft
but tough, granular, massive, porous lime-
stone containing an abundant Avon Park
fauna. Peneroplid sp. "X", Elphidium sp.
"A" are prominent. From this bed H. B.
Stensel has identified the following fossils:
Corbis claibornensis Dall (Gosport spe cie s),
Trachycardium or Trigonocardia n. sp.,
"Cerithium" n. sp., Ectinochilus n. sp. ,
Clavilithis columbaris Aldrich (a Cook
Mountain species) and a Hexacoral, genus
indet. On November 15, 1947, and July 11,
1948, boulders of this limestone completely
dolomitized, were mined in the north side of
the pit, and the se contained the lar ge Lucinid
of L- 123, a manatee rib andnumerous dolo-
mite casts of "Cerithium" n. sp......... 3.0

Maximum cumulative thickne s s. .. .. .... .. .. 25. 55

Howe (1951) reports the following ostracode fauna from
Bed 2:

Cytherella lebanonensis Howe
Cytherelloidea floridana Howe
Bairdoppilata leyesi Howe
Bairdoppilata vernoni Howe
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe
Clithrocytheridea lebanonensis Howe
Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe
Paracytheridea scorpiona var. permutata Howe
Paracythe ridea vernoni Howe
Cyteretainfirma Howe
Brachycythere lebanonensis Howe
Nephokirkos aquaplanus Howe
Hemicythere phrygionia Howe
Hemicythere lienosa Howe
Hemicythe re cribraria Howe
Hemicythere bellula Howe
Hemicythere mota Howe
Hemicythere aleatoria Howe
Hemicythere lemniscata Howe





















FLO>RIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Urocythere attenuata Howe
Spongicythere spissa Howe
Occultocythereis delumbata Howe
Hirsutocythere hornotina Howe
Leniocythere lebaonesi Howe
Cythereis ? scutulata Howe
Cythereis ? lebanonensis Howe
Cythereis ? b~iaat How
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe
Xestoleberis copiosa Howe



Lisbon Formation

The clasticbeds stratigraphically equivalent of the Avon
Park limestone of the Florida Peninsula are recognized in
the panhandle as the Lisbon formation. These sediments
are composed of cream colored, glauconitic, sandy lime-
stone; light gray, blocky clay; cream, soft, chalky, pyritic
limestone; and light gray, calcareous, glauconitic sand.
Some dolomitization of carbonates occurs in some places.
Sands, marls and clay typical of the outcrop areas are present
on the Georgia-Alabama line. The thickne ss of the se clastics
vary from 300 to 425 feet.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Ocala Group

The term Ocala limestone, fir st proposed by Dall (189 2,
p. 103, 104), has been widely used, primarily as a rock
unit. The name was employed thus by various writers to
cover all the calcareous sediments in eastern Alabama and
Florida deposited between middle Eocene (Claiborne) and
Oligocene (Vicksburg)time, although the exact stratigraphic
position of the sediments remained in doubt until Cooke (19 15)
established them as Eocene. He (op. cit. ) showed that the
Ocala limestone underlies the Marianna limestone and that
its fauna is essentially of Jackson Stage. Since then Ocala
limestone, Jackson group, Jackson Stage, have been used
indiscriminately by various writers for these upper Eocene
calcareous sediments. Vernon (1951) showed that "Ocala
limestone" consists of at least three easily recognizable
lithologic units. Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term Ocala
group on a diagram to include the Moodys Branch and Ocala
limestone (restricted) of Vernon (op. cit.) or "lower Ocala"
and "upper Ocala" of the Applins (op. cit. ).

The Ocala limestone was described from exposures in
the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida (Dall, 1892,
p. 103-104), and ever since it has been commonly used to
include all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age until
the Applins (1944) showed that it could be divided into an
upper and a lower member. Because Vernon (1951)has rec-
ognized three units and has establishedits subdivisions into
a lower Moodys Branch formation and upper Ocala limestone
(restricted) and because its regional nature has long been
recognized, the Ocala was used by Puri (1953, p. 130) as a
group name. Since the "Ocala limestone "at the type locality
has been quarried and the type section destroyed, and the
exposures in the vicinity of Ocala represent only about 40
feet of sediments (the basal section in most pits belongs to
the Williston member), the Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime
and Manufacturing Company in the SEiNWf, sec. 11, T. 14 S. ,
R. 21 E., Marion County, was designated by Puri (1957,
p. 24) as a cotype locality for the Ocala group. Seventy feet
of limestone is exposed here.

The following three formations are as signed to the Ocala











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


group (Puri, 1953) and their relationship, together with
their thickness is shown on plates 3-6.

Jackson Stage
Ocala group
3. Crystal River formation
2. Williston formation
1. Inglis formation


Inglis Formation

Vernon (1951, p. 115-116) proposed the name Inglis
member of the Moodys Branch formation for 50 feet of the
basal section of the "Ocala limestone as exposed in the
vicinity of Inglis, Levy County. Since Inglis differs both
faunistically and lithologically from the overlying Williston
and the underlying Avon Park limestone and has been rec-
ognized in the field and mapped, Puri (1953, p. 130) raised
it to formational rank.

Type Locality

The type locality of the Inglis formation is in the vicinity
of Inglis, Levy County, where the limestone is exposed
in severalpits and quarrie s, and also along the Withlacoochee
River. Vernon (1951, p. 123) gives the following section,
about one-eighth mile below the Florida Power Corporation
plant at Inglis, on the right bank of the Withlacoochee River
in the SES NWt sec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 16 E.:

Stop 3:

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
Pamlico formation

2 Quartz sand ................... .......... Variable

Unconformity
Upper Eocene Series
Inglis formation (member of Vernon)

















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


1 Creamto tan, soft, porous, but casehardened
and densely crystalline where weathered,
massive, granular, miliolid, marine lime-
stone. Contains numerous echinoids, particu-
larly Eupatagus moorenus Pararhu lyelli
floridanus, and associatedforaminifers Ex-
posed to water level in the stream bank. .. .. 5. O

Total thickness .................. ............ 5.0

The channel was improved in 1942 and the contact of the
limestone facies with the underlying dolomnite facies of the
Inglis member was penetrated. Boulders of the following
lithologies can be seen along the banks of the river at
this stop.

1. Gray, granular limestone as exposed along the river
banks.

2. Cream colored, soft, granular, porous miliolid lime-
stone with specimens of Velates floridanus, Lucinid sp.
"A", buckshot miliolids and echinoids. In addition to
these Dr. H.B. Stenzel identified "Cerithium" n. sp.,
Xenophora sp., Turritella carnaaLea?, Crassatella ?
flexura Conrad, Trachycardium or Trigoniocardia n.
sp., and Corbula (Caryocorbula) densata Conrad or C.
alabamensis tecla de Gregorio. Across the river in
channel dredgings of similar rock, one Aturia sp. was
found.

3. Mottled gray and brown, porous, finely crystalline,
massive, sugary textured dolomite with rare molds of
mollusks and Periarchus lyelli floridanus.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Probably the thickest exposure of the Inglis member in
Citrus and Levy counties is present at locality L-136 along
a small stream that crosses State Highway 40, NES SW(
sec. 1, T. 17 S., R. 16 E., 1. 65 miles east of State High-
way 55 as the e scarpment of the Pamlico- Wicomico terraces.
An aggregate thickness of 11. 35 feet of cream, soft, porous,
massive limestone composed of foraminifers, broken shells
and granular calcite in a pasty matrix lies below a variable
thickness of sand of the Wicomico formation.



Stop 4: (Section after Vernon, 1951, p. 127)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
Wicomico formation?

4 Quartz sand soil. ................... ..... 1.0

Unconformity
Jackson Stage
Ocala group
Williston formation

3 Typical Operclinide coquina in a cream
colored, pasty limestone ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 5. 0

2 Buff, pasty, hard, tough, porous limestone,
with numerous Oper culinoide s mo
branchensis.......................~~~~~~ 1.0

Inglis member Elevation 25 feet

1 Light tan, weathering pink, massive, hard,
porous limestone. Many mollusk molds,
Peneroplid "X", Ope rculinoide s mo
branchensis and rare Fabiania cubensis. .. 1. 25


Total thickness.. . . . . . . .


8.25











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Fauna

Inglia formation has a tremendous fauna. Swain (1946)
described some Ostracoda from the Ocala, including some
Inglis species. Vernon (1951) lists species of Foraminifera
and Mollusca from the Inglis formation in the outcrop area.
Fischer (1951) described the echinoid fauna. The molluscan
fauna has been described by Richards and Palmer (1953).
Roberts (1953) described a species of decapod crustaceous
from the Inglis.

Palmer (1953, p. 10, 11) lists the following gastropods
from the Inglis:

Astraea withlacoochensis Palmer
Velates floridanus Richards
Turritella fischeri Palmer
Diastoma sp.
Batillaria advena Palmer
Bellatara americana Palmer
Bellatara citrana Palmer
Bellatara floridana Palmer
Pseudoaluca clarki Palmer
Hipponix floridanus Palmer
Calyptraea aperta (Solander)
Xenophora sp.
Tugurium gry Palmer
Laevella floridana Palmer
Terrebellum (Seraphs) belemnitum Palmer
Cypraedia fenstrli Conrad
Ampullinopsis citrinensis Palmer
Pseudocrommium brucei Palmer
Distorsio (Personella) jacksonensis (Meyer)
Papillina grunteri Palmer
Agaronia inelisia Palmer
Olivella (Callianax) poinciana Palmer
Conomitra sp.
Lapparia conradi Palmer
Eovasum vernoni Palmer
Athleta arangia Palmer
Sycospira eocenica Palmer
Caricella obsoleta Palmer
Voluticella levensis Palmer












48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Lyria citrusensis Palmer
Lyria pycnopleura eocenia Palmer
Pseudotoma floridana Palmer
Conus sp. A
Conus sp. B
Scaphander richardsi Palmer

Richards (1953, p. 42, 43) lists the following pelecypods
from the Inglis:

Barbatia palmerae Richards
Barbatia ? inglisia Richards
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris
Ostrea falco Dall
Ostrea sp.
Volsella sp.
Crassatella inglisia Richards
Crassatella eutawacolens Harris
Crassatella sp.
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy
Venericardia withlacoochensis Richards
Pseudomiltha megarneris Dall
Here cf. H. wacissana Dall
Here sp.
Divaricella robertsi Richards
Fimbria vernoni Richards
Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi Richards
Cardium (Trigoniocardium) protoalicum
Richards
Cardium (Trachycardium) of. C. (T. )
claibornense Aldrich
Gari jacksonense Harris
Macrocallista annexa Conrad
Blagraveia ? gunteri Richards
Corbula densata Conrad

Fischer (1951) lists the following species of irregular
echinoids from the Inglis:

Fibularia vaughani (Twitchell)
01igopygus haldemani (Conrad)
laganum ocalanum Cooke











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Peronella crustuloides (Morton)
Peronella dalli Cooke
Peronella archerensis (Twitchell)
Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer
Cassidulus (C. ) ericsoni Fischer
Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli (Conrad)
Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer
Agassizia floridana de Lorio1
Eupatagus mooranu Pilsbry
Eupatagus clevei Cotteau

Cidaris (Phyllacathsmorton (Conrad) is the only
regular echinoid known from the Inglis (Fischer, 1951,
p. 55).

The following foraminiferal assemblage is contained in
the Inglis (Puri, 1957, p. 27):

Ammospirata ? levyensis Puri
Amphistegina pinaensi cosdeni Applin
and Jordan
Ar chaias withlacoochensis Puri
Camagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Cyclamina sp.
Dentalina vertebralis albtos (Cushman)
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis eunteri Cole
Elphidium sp.
Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny)
Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermudez
Globigerina sp.
Globulina gib d'Orbigny
Globulina gib globossa (Von Mh~nster)
Lepidocyclina sp. (small, noded)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Lituonella sp.
Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck
Nonion advnm (Cushman)
Plectofrondicularia ? inglisiana Puri
Quinqlueloculina ocalana Puri
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuse)
Spiolnacoryenais Cole
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri
Spiroloculina _seminoflen Applin and Jordan
Textularia adalta Cushmnan
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia ocalana Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Textularia triangulata Puri
Valvulina floridana Cole
Vernonia tuberculata Puri


Puri (1957)1ists the following species of ostracodes
from the Inglis:

Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe
Gytheretta daytonensis Swain
Cytheretta infirma Howe
Echinocythereis nuda Puri
Hemicythere mota Howe

Jugosocythereis lebanonensis Howe
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe
Spongicythere caudata Puri
Spongicythere spissa Howe
Trachyleberis parexanthemata (Swain)
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe


Williston Formation

Vernon (op. cit., p. 141) proposed the name Williston
member for about 30 feet of foraminiferal limestone over-
lying the Inglis and placed it in the Moodys Branch formation.
Over 60 feet of the basal section at Newberrybelongs to this
formation. Vernon (1951, p. 122, 144) recorded that the
Williston and Inglis thicken toward Polk, Baker and Volusia
counties and this is confirmed by the presence of 25 feet of
Williston and 55 feet of Inglis sediments in water well W- 381,
Polk County. Furthermore, two faunizones (Operculinoides










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


jacksonensis faunizone and Ope rculinoide s moodybranchensis
faunizone) can be recognized in the Williston. Because it
was lithologically and faunistically distinct from the under-
lying Inglis formation, and because faunizones were recog-
nizable in it, Puri (1953) raised the Williston to formational
rank.

Type Locality

The Williston formation is typically exposed west of the
town of Williston in Levy County. Vernon (1951, p. 145)
gives the following section on the southeast side of a lime-
stone quarry in the SE',NE, sec. 27, T. 12 S., R. 18 E.

Stop 5:

Bed Description Thickne ss

Upper Eocene Series (et
Williston formation (member of Vernon)

4 Cream to tan, soft, detrital limestone con-
taining numerous hard crystalline nodules,
many Pecten sp. rare Amusium sp., Lepido-
cyclina ocalana, Operculinoides floridensis,
Amphi ste gina pinarensi cos"de ni and abundant
Camerina vanderstoki ................... 0.6

3 Cream colored, mas sive, somewhat nodular,
pasty foraminiferal coquina limestone with
numerous spongiform concretions. Foramin-
ifers of Bed 4, Operculinoides floridensis,
Nonion advenum, Rotalia cushmani and
Eponides jacksonensis are very abundant .. 6. 8

2 Cream colored, very hard ledge, porous,
s ome what crystalline very fo s silife rou s
limestone containing numerous mollusks,
molds, echinoid plates, abundant miliolids
and other rare foraminifers ............... 0. 45

1 Cream colored, granular, detrital, soft,
porous, miliolid limestone containing the
fossils above. Somewhat more resistant to
weathering and more massive than beds
above................................... 9.3


Total thickness.. . . . . . . .


17. 15











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


On the northwe st side of the pit an additional 3. 6 feet of Bed 4
is exposed in the face of the quarry and an additional two
feet, 50 feet back of the rim.

The following faunizones are recognized by Puri(1957,
p. 50-52)in the Williston:

Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone

This faunizone consists of 15 to 50 feet of basal Williston
sediments. Opruln marianensi (in the Newberry sec-
tion, stop 12) and Operculinoides jacksonensis (in Polk
County, well W-381) are its markers. Operculinoides
jacksonensis seems to be confined to this faunizone. The
basal 15 feet of the section at Newberry (stop 12) belongs
to this faunizone, which is easily recognized by the marker
spe cies. Its top is marked by the uppermost occurrence of
either Operculina mariannensis or Operculinoides jackson-
ensis in peninsular Florida. In West Florida, however,
Operculina mariannensis occurs in the Asterocyclina fauni-
zone. This faunizone as such cannot be recognized in West
Florida.

Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone

The uppermost occurrence of Operculinoides jackson-
ensis overlain by an abundance of Operculinoides moody-
branchensis, Ampitgn pinarensis cosdeni and the
occasional occurrence of Spiroloculina seminolensis and
Spongicythere willistonensis mark the base of this faunizone.
Lepidocyclina ocalana and its varieties are uncommon and
the top of the faunizone is marked by the disappearance of
Operculinoides moodybranchensis, together with the gradual
increase in number ofarenaceous forms (various species of
Textularia, Valvulina and Neoclavulina), Miliolidae (species
of Spiroloculina and Q2uinqueloculina) and Lepidocyclina
ocalana and its varieties. At some places Nummults
vanderstoki is as sociated with Operculinoides moodybranch-
ensis but occurs only in small quantities. Relatively large
individuals ofOperculinoides floridensis and~>_erculinoides_
willcoxi are associated with Operclnodsmoodybranch-
ensis andAmphisteginapinarsi cosdeni and make it easy
to identify this zone in the field.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 53

The Oper culinoide s moodybranchensis faunizone varie s
in thickness from 14 feet at Bell (Stop 18) to 25 feet in the
Polk County well (W-381). At Newberry (Stop 12) it is 30
feet thick while at Kendrick (Stop 9) it is only five feet.



Fauna

Puri (1957) reports the following Foraminifera and
Ostracoda from the Williston:

Foraminife ra

Amphistegina pinarnsi csn Applin and
Jordan
Miliola of. M. saxorum Lamarck
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeorgypsina globula (Reuss)
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin & Jordan
Textularia adalta Cushman
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia ocalana Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Vernonia tuberculata Puri

Ostracoda

Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Bairdoppilata vernoni H-owe
Cytherelloidea floridana Howe
Cytheretta daytonensis Swain
Echinocythereis okeechobiensis (Swain)
Jugosocythereis bicarinata (Swain)
?Spongicythere cauat Puri
Trachyleberis parexathemaa (Swain)

Stop 6: Abandoned quarry, 0.9 mile north of northern city
lirnits of Bell, SEfNW1 sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist
County, Florida. Section measured on east wall of quarry.
(Section frorn Puri, 1957, p. 60.)














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Bed Description Thi-,kneass
(feet)
Crystal River formation

6 Cream to white colored, granular limestone,
with abundant Lepidocyclinas. Limestone is
filled with pockets of gray and pink to brown
sand of Hawthorn and post-Hawthorn age; solu-
tion funnels common........ . .. ........ 7.7

5 Hard, granular limestone, with molds of
Spondylus sp., and other Mollusca.. .. . ... 1. O

4 Cream to white colored, granular limestone,
almost a foraminiferal coquina.. .. .. .. .. 3.

3 Hard, white, chalky limestone, with abundant
Foraminifera and Mollusca; some of the
Foraminifera and Mollusca are of brownish
color and are embedded in a white chalky
matrix.................... .............. 2.0

2 White, chalky, granular limestone, with
occasional Lepidocyclin sp.. .. ... .. .. .. 6. 5

Williston formation

1 White to cream colored, chalky limestone
with abundant Foraminifera and Mollusca;
almost a foraminiferal coquina in places;
abundant Pecten sp., Solen sp. in lower three
feet .................................... 7.0

Total thickne s s................... ........... 27. 2



Stop 7: Marvin Stancel s pit SW4NE, sec. 11,
T. 8 S. R. 14 E. Gilchrist County, Flor ida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 64. )











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Bed De scription Thickne ss
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 50. 59 feet

5 White to cream colored, hard, granular, fos-
siliferous limestone ;many Lepidocyclina sp.,
Bryozoa, Spondylus sp. ...:............... 3. 0

Williston formation

4 Coar sely granular lime stone ; in places almo st
a coquina of large foraminifers............ 3. 5

3 Cream colored, granular limestone, with
very little smaller foraminifers. Modiolus
sp., Xenophora sp. present............... 4.0

2 Modiolus bed. Cream colored, large foramin-
iferal coquina, loosely cemented .. .. .. .. 2. 0

1 Soft, granular limestone with fewer lar ge
Foraminifera than Bed 2.................. 2.0

Total thickne ss ................... ........... 14. 5



Crystal River Formation

The name Crystal River formation (Puri, 1953, p. 130;
Vernon and Puri, 1956, p. 35, 38) proposed for the 108 feet
of limestone exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company
quarry, sec. 6, T. 19 S.,R. 18 E., Citrus County, Florida,
includes all calcareous deposits of upper Eocene age, lying
stratigraphically between the Williston formation and the
Oligocene limestones. It consists of a homogeneous micro-
coquina, almost entirely made up of tests of Foraminifera.
The basal portion may contain a few beds, as much as 12
feet thick, of secondary dolomite. The Crystal River forma-
tion is synonymous with "Ocala limestone (restricted)" of
Vernon (op. cit.). The entire Crystal River formation is
nowhere exposed, because its top is marked by an erosional
unconformity, but a total of 310 feet of sediments belonging











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to this formation are present in water well W-381, Polk
County.

The following faunizones are re cognized in the formation*

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone
Asterocyclina- Spirolaea vernoni faunizone

Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone

A thicknress of over 300 feet of the formation occur s in
the subsurface of Jackson County, Florida, where its upper
portion has been designated Lepidocyclina fragilis zone by
MacNeil (1944).

Type Locality

Stop 8: CrystM River Rock Company quarry, NE(SWf
sec. 6, T. 19 S., R. 18 E., Citrus County, Florida. ( Section
after Vernon, 1951, p. 166-167.)

Bed Description Thickne ss
(feet)
Oligocene Series
Suwannee limestone

13 A cream colored, porous, firmly cemented,
detrital lime stone compo se d of e chinoid plate s
and spines, poorly preserved foraminifers
and granular calcite. Chlamys brooksvill-
ensis, Chione sp. Clypeaster rgri
Cassidulus gouldii, Kuphus incrassatus, and
numerous specimens of Dictyoconus cookei,
Coskinolina floridana are present. The bed
measured nine feet from the top of the high st
pinnacle east of the quarry to the rim and an
additional eight feet is exposed in the quarry
face.. . * . . . . . . 17.0O


12 Cream to tan, hard, crystalline, nodular,












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


very porous lime stone with seams of the lime -
stone of Bed 13 and containing many poorly
preserved mollusk molds, including Chione
sp. cf. C. bainbridgensis, Turritela martin-
ensis, T. vicksburgensis and rare specimens
of Cassidulus gouldii and Lepidocyclina sp. 1. 6

11 White to light gray, dense, thin bedded, pasty
to cryptocrystalline lime stone containing
rather numerous molds of Turritella martin-
ensis and T. vicksburgensis. Weathered
surfaces appear brecciated ... .. .. .. .. .. 2. O

10 Layer of light gray to cream colored, weath-
e re brown, cryptoc rystalline sublithograph-
ic, hard, dense, thin bedded limestone with
an occasional seam of light green, waxy marl 0. 3

9 Light gray, dense, thin bedded, hard, litho-
graphic limestone with rare molds of Tur-
ritella ................... ............... 1. 65

8 Brown to light gray, dense, hard, crypto-
crystalline limestone with porous detrital
lime stone se ams ....................... 1.0

7 Light greenish gray clay with fibrous, crys-
talline, light greenish gray calcite growths
lying along a ve ry irregular surface developed
upon Bed 6 ................... .......(variable) 0. 5

U~nconformity
Cryjstal River formation Elevation 124. 65 feet

6 Cream colored, detrital, porous, firmly ce-
mented limestone with seams of dense, crys-
talline limestone and numerous poorly pre-
served molds of mollusks and rare specimens
of Gyps~ina sp. cf. G. globula. The upper few
inches are very indurated and the top of the
limestone is very irregular ............... 1.9












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


5 Cream to white, masvbedded, psy
soft coquina composed of mollusks, Bryozoa,
corals and large foraminifers in a pasty cal-
cite matrix. Specimens of Camerina vander-
stoki are common in the lower 25 feet, but
decrease upward and are replaced by Oper
culinoides ocalana. Turritella sp., Pecten
sp., corals, Lepidocyclina ocalana, Gypsina
globula, Eponides jacksonensis, Gaudryina
jacksonensis were identified . ... ... ... 43. 25

4 Cream to white limestone of Bed 5, but
containing irregular crystalline nodular con-
cretions and Ostrea poarnAmusium
ocalanum, Pecten sp., Gypsina globula,
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Reussella eocena,
Discocyclina flintensis, Nonion preadvenum,
Cibicides mississippiensis ocalaus ... .. 9. 5

3 Cream colored, coquina limestone composed
of foraminifers, Bryozoa, echinoidplates and
spines, corals, Pecten sp. cf. P. "perplanus ",
Agassizia floridana, 01ig~opyu haldemani,
Fibularia vaughani, Laganum floridanum, L.
ocalanum, Pe ronella cubae, Schizaster
ocalanus, and some of the foraminifers above 7. O

2 Cre am color ed, pas ty, mas sive co quina lime -
stone with numerous irregular and spongiform
concretions, and Amusium ocalanum, Ostrea
podagr ina Pe cten sp. P. "perplanus ",
Fibularia vaughani, Peronella cubae, Lagena
laevis and foraminifers of Bed 4. .. .. .. 38. O

1 Cream colored, very pasty, porous, soft
limestone containing Lepidocyclina oln,
Heterostegina ocalana, Operculnoide florid-
eniOperculinoides sp., Gypsina globula,
Cibicides mississippiensis, Rotalia cushmani
and other poorly preserved foraminifers .. 8. 25


Total thickness.,........................~.....


131.25











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 59

Fauna

Crystal River formation has an abundant molluscan
fauna. Mrs. Katherine Van Winkle Palmer is presently en-
gaged in a comprehensive study of the molluscan fauna
collected by Survey personnel from numerous outcrop
sections in Florida.

Harris (1951) lists the following pelecypods from the
"Ocala (most of Harris' locations belong to the Crystal River
formation):

Ostrea georgiana Conrad
Ostrea "podagrina Dall
Ostrea trigonalis Conrad
Plicatula filamentosa Conrad
Spondylus hollisteri Harris
Pecten perplanus Morton, var.
Pecten (Chlamys) spillmani (Gabb), vars.
Pecten (Chlamys) anatipes (Morton)
Amusium ocalanum (Dall)
Lima tricincta Harris
Lima vicksbugian Dall
Pinna quadrata Dall
Atrina jacksoniana Dall
Pteria cf. P_. argenta (Conrad)
Volsella ocalensis MacNeil
Arca cf. A. rhomboidella Lea, var.
Arca (Barbatia) cuculloides (Conrad)
Nuculana sp.
Glycymeris arctatus var. cookei Dall
Glycymeris cf. G. anteparilis Kellum
Venericardia planicosta var. ocalaedes Harris
Venericardia of. V. nodifera Kellum
Euloxa sp.
Crassatella protexta var. sinus Harris
Crassatella sp.
Crassatella porcus Harris
Crassatella ocordia Harris
Lirodiscus jacksonensis (Meyer)
Here cf. H. wacissana (Dall)
Miltha ocalana (Dall)











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lucina purovata(Dll
Pitar ef. P. nuttali Conrad
Pitar ef. P. subimpresa Conrad
Pitar trigoniata (Lea)
Cardium nicolletti Conrad
Cardium cf. C. cabezai (Gardner)
Cardium eversum? Conrad
Cardium sp.
Cardium eversum Conrad
Gari cerasium (Dall)
Panope oblongata (Conrad)
Siu praetenuis Conrad
Acroperna ? sp.
Arcoperna sp. (sic.)


Thickness

An exact estimate of the thickness of the Crystal River
formation is rendered difficult because the rockis unevenly
eroded at the top and its base is of transitional nature. A
maximum of 310 feet of the formation is present in water
well W-381, Polk County. Over 300 feet of the formation
occurs in the subsurface in Jackson County.

Vernon (19 51, p. 141) assigned 30 to 50 feet of sediments
to the Williston formation, The Williston formation thickens
at the expense of the Inglis formation in the Florida Pan-
handle, and may replace the Inglis locally.

The Inglis formation seems to have a more or less con-
stant thickness of 50 to 55 feet in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy
County, which is the type locality. In northeastern and east-
e~rn peninsular Florida (Columbia, Bradford, Duval and
Volusia counties) the Inglis formation appears to thicken as
mtuch as 150 feet (Vernon, op. cit., p. 122).


Distribution

The limestones of the Ocala group outcrop in two exten-
sive areas in Florida. The more extensive area is a regional
feature, the Ocala uplift, which borders the Gulf of Mexico










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


in the northwest part of peninsular Florida. The other area
is the northern half of Washington and Jackson counties and
the eastern portion of Holme s County, whence the lime stone s
extend into southern Alabama and southwestern Geor cin .

From subsurface samples, it is known that the Ocala
group underlies the entire State of Florida except for small
areas in northern Seminole County, Volusia County, southern
Orange County, norithern ~Osceola~ County,' Lake County,
Marion County, and in southern Levy County, where it is
absent (Vernon, op. cit., pl. 2). Applin and Applin (1944)
showed that their upper member of the "Ocala" which is the
typical Crystal River formation, occurs in subsurface
throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of
Seminole County. The wells in this area, on the east coast,
penetrated the lowe r le ss fos silife rous member of the "Ocala"'
directly beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds.

Surface distribution of the Ocala group is shown on
plate 2.


Downdip Facies of the Ocala Group

In several wells in the Florida Panhandle, the downdip
facies of the Ocala is a soft, chalky limestone that carries
a Pachuta, Shubuta and Danville Landing microfauna. Genera
of the large Foraminifera, like Lepidocyclina, Nummuites
Ope rculin o ide s, Hete roste gina Psecudo phr ag mina and
Asterocyclina are either absent or occur as lenses sporad-
ically. The microfauna encountered in these wells consist
of Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin), Anomalina
cocoaensis Cushman, Globorotalia sp., Bulimina jackson-
ensis, Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken), R. gutticostatus
(Gumbel), _R. gutticostatus cocanss(Cushman), Nodosaria
latejugata Gumbel, Dentlin jacksonensis (Cushman and
Applin), Valvulineria jacksonensis Cushman, Uvigerina
glabrans Cushman, U. jacksonensis Cushman, U. gardnerae~
Cushman, U. cocoaensis Cushman, Globigerina bulloides
d'Orbigny and Gyroidina soldanii d'Orbigny. The above
assemblage occurs in Calhoun County, W-1103, 566 to 1000
feet. At 945 feet, specimens of Pseudophragmina occur in
association with the above assemblage.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In Gadsden County, W-4, the following microfauna is
encountered between 650 and 1370 feet:

Anomalina bilateralis Cushman
Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin
Bulimina jackonesi Cushman
Cibicides pseudoungerianus (Cushman)
Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Dentalina vertebralis (Gu~mbel)
Eponides cocaesi Cushman
Eponides jack~psonni (Cushman and Applin)
Eponides ocalana Cushman
Globigerina sp.
Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman and
Applin )
Nodosaria atjugata carolinensis Cushman
Planulina cooperensis Cushman
Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace)
Robulus limbosus (Reuss)
Saracenaria moresiana Howe and Wallace
Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin
Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman
Uvigerina cookei Cushman
Uvigerina glabrans Cushman
Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman
Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellison

At 660 feet, this microfauna occurs in association with
larger Foraminifera like Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman,
Nummulites vanderstoki(Rutten and Vermunt). At 670 feet,
larger Foraminifera like Operculinoides willcoxi(Heilprin),
Nummulitesa vandertok (Rutten and Ve rmunt ), Le pido cyclina
ocalana and vars., occur with the microfaunal assemblage
listed above. At 720 to 750 feet, Lepidocyclina ocalana
Cushman and Operculinoides willcoxi(Heilprin) also occur.

In Jackson County, W-276, the Crystal River formation
is encountered from 245 to 430 feet. The interval between
270 to 280 feet has abundant Aste rocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina
ocalana Cushman, and Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman).
The section between 290 to 430 feet has the following micro-
fauna:












SPECIAL PUB LOCATION NO. 5


Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman
Dentalina jacksonensis Cushman
Dentalina vertebralis (Gilmbel)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman and
Applin )
Nodosaria latjGat (ibel)
Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken)
Robulus eut~ticsau (Giimbel) var.
Robulus limbosus (Reuss)
Uvigerina cookei Cushman

In this well, Moore (1955, p. 97) places the interval
between 270 and 460 feet in the "Gadsden limestone. If
Moore's definition of "Gadsden lime stone "' and Crystal River
formation is followed, we will have several alternating beds
of "Gadsden limestone and Crystal River formation. Since
the stratigraphic unit Crystal River formation was established
to include allcalcareous sediments lyingbetween the Willis-
ton formation and the overlying Oligocene limestones (Puri,
1953), the downdip sediments are referred to the Crystal
River formation.

Moore (1955, p. 97) places the top of the Claiborne in
W-276 at 460 feet. The section between 430 and477 feet has
yielded abundant Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and
Hanna), hence this inte rval i s included in the Williston forma-
tion in spite of the fact that Moore (1955, p. 23) does not
recognize Moodys Branch equivalent in Jackson County.

Moore (19 55, p. 97) place s the top of the Gadsden lime -
stone at 140 feet below the top in W- 1364. Sediments between
140-240 feet below ground level belong in the Oligocene
Marianna limestone since they have yielded specimens of
Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) undosa, L. mantelli and Opercu-
linoides dius. The top of the Crystal River formation is at
240 feet below ground level. Sediments between 240-300
feet below have yielded abundant specimens of Asterocyclina
characteristic of the Asterocyclina faunizone. Moore (op.
cit. ) also places this interval in the "Gadsden limestone. "












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Larger Foraminlifera of the Ocala Group

The following is a complete list of the species of larger
Fo raminife ra report d from Flo rida (F) and fr om Ge o rgia (G):

Asterocyclina americana (Cushman) F, G
A. chipolensis Vaughan F
A. georgiana (Cushman) F, G
A.mariannensis (Cushman) F, G
A-mariannensis var. papillata (Cushman) F, G
A. nassauensis Cole F
A-vaughani (Cushman) F, G
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman F
Lepidocyclina (Impidocyclina) georgiana (Cushman) G
L. (L. ) mortoni Cushman F, G
L. (L. ) ocalana Cushman F, G
L. (L. ) ocalana var. attenuata Cushman F
L. (L. ) ocalana var. cookei Cushman F
L. (L. ) ocalana var. floridana Cushman F
L. (L. ) ocalana var. pseudocarinata Cushman F
L. (L. ) ocalana var. pseudomarginata Cushman F
L. (L. ) tschoppi Thiadens F
L.r (Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman F
L. (N. ) semmesi Vaughan and Cole F
Nummulites guayabalensis (Barker) F
N. jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna) F
N. vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt F
Operculina barkeri Vaughan and Cole F
O. mariannensis Vaughan F
Operculinoides cookei (Cushman) F, G
O. curasvicus (Rutten and Vermunt) F
O. floridensis (Heilprin) F
O. moodybranchensis (Gravell and H~anna) F
O. ocalanus (Cushman) F, G
O. vaughani (Cushman) F, G
O. willcoxi (Heilprin) F
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis Vaughan F
P. (P. ) flintensis (Cushman) F, G
P. (Pseudophragmina) bainbridgensis (Vaughan) G
P. (P. ) floridana (Cushman) F, G











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Donation

Detailed faunal studies of the subsurface of Florida are
limited to a few wells studied by Cole (1938, 1941, 1942,
1944). Surface reconnaissance work has been confined to a
few selected localities and the faunal successionhas not been
precisely determined. In this work, most of the species
were described by Heilprin (1882), Cushman (1917, 1920,
1921, 1934), Vaughan (1928), Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944)
and Applin and Jordan (1945).

Among scores of papers published on the "Ocala lime-
stone, "only four have a direct bearing on its zonation.
Gravell and Hanna (1938, p. 99-106) reported three faunal
zones in the "Ocala limestone. These in the descending
order are:

1. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) zone including several
specie s of Discocyclina and Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman,
Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman), Operculinoides willcoxi
(Heilprin) and Heterostegina ocalana Cushman.

2. Operculinoides mariannensis zone.

3. "'Came rina "' jacksonensis zone including "Camerina "'
jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna, "Camerina" moodybranch-
ensis Gravell and Hanna and Lepidocyclina ( Le pido c yclina)
mortoni Cushman.

Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1684) divided the "Ocala
lime stone"informally into a lower and an upper member.
The lower member is hard crystalline lime stone and contains
a few species and specimens of larger Foraminifera, the
most abundant of these being "Camerina" aff. "C. vander-
stoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Other species present in the
lower member are Amphistegina pinarensis Cushman and
Bermudez var. lawsoni Applin and Jordan. The upper mem-
ber, which is mostly a chalky, porous coquinoid limestone,
is made entirely of Foraminifera containing Lepidocyclina
ocalana Cushman and its varieties, Operculinoides willcoxi
(Heilprin) and~perculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). This in-
formal division did not designate any names for these two
members.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Vernon (1951) divided the upper Eocene into two forma-
tions, a lower one, the Moodys Branch formation, and an
upper one, the "Ocala limestone (restricted)" on the basis
of both lithology and fauna. He recognized and mapped two
units (Inglis and Williston) in the Moodys Branch formation
which also differs faunistically from the overlying strata
designated by him as "Ocala limestone (restricted). "

The following faunizones were recognized in the Crystal
River formation by Puri (1957):

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone
Aste ro cycling -Spirolae vernon fauniz one
Nummulite s vander stoki -Hemicythe re faunizone
Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
Spiroloculina newherryensis faunizone

Lepidocyclina-P~seudophragmina faunizone

The base of this faunizone is marked by the uppermost
occurrence of Spiroloculina newberryensis and by the abun-
dance of species of Lepidocyclina and Pseudophragmina.
Several species like Jugo~soctheres tricarinata, Absono-
cytheropteron carinata, Valvulina jacksonensis, Textularia
howei, Nonion planatum, Cancris sp. and Bulimina sp. ,
occur at the base of this zone and help to delineate it. The
top of the zone is marked by the uppermost occurrence of
Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County se action ( W- 38 1) and
the incoming of Nummulites vanderstoki in epidemic occur-
rences in the Crystal River section (stop

The thickness of the L Repidocylina-Peudophagmin
faunizone varies from 10 feet (at Kendrick, stop 9) to 60
feet (in the Polk County section, W-381). Thirty-two feet
of sediments at Crystal River (stop 8) and at Newberry
(stop 12 ) and 10 feet of sediments at Kendrick (stop 9) are
referred to this zone.

Nummulite s vande rstoki- Hemicythe re faunizone

The base of this faunizone is marked by the epidemic
occurrence of Nummulites vanderstoki in the Crystal River
section (stop 8 ) and is indicated by the occurrence of











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County section (W-381).
This composite zone, which by some geologists maybe con-
sidered as two distinct bathymetric zones, is essentially
contemporaneous. There is a suggestion of relatively deeper
water conditions in the sediments referred to this faunizone
in the Polk County section (W-381). The top of this fauni-
zone is taken at the uppermost occurrence of Hemicythere
punctata. Twenty-seven feet of sediments in the Crystal
River section (stop 8 ) and 30 feet of sediments in the Polk
County section (W-381) are referred to this zone.

Aste rocyclina -Spirolaea ve rnoni fauni zone

The base of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost oc-
currence of Hemicythere punctata. The top is marked by an
unconfo rmity and the zone is ove rlain by beds of the Oligocene
or younger age in peninsular Florida and by Lepidocyclina
(Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone in Jackson County. The
species confined to this zone are: Asterocyclina americana,
Asterocyclina chipolensis, Aste rocyclina georfgiana, Astero-
cyclina mariannonsis, and Spirolaea vernoni. The smaller
Foraminifera are dominant over larger species and the
sporadic occurrences of Uvigerina suggest deeper water
conditions than those prevalent during the deposition of the
Lepidocyclina- Pseudophragmina zone.

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone

This faunizone, Bumpnose limestone of Moore (1955),
represents the youngest upper Eocene sediments in Florida
which contain abundant specimens of Lepidocyclina (Nephro-_
lepidina) chaperi Lemoine and Douville. This faunizone is
represented by 14 feet of sediments at stop 20, 10 feet of
sediments at stop 15, and 15 feet of sediments in W-276.

Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone

Spiroloculina newberryensis is the most common
miliolid species in this faunizone. The base of the zone is
marked by the uppermost occurrences of Operculinoides
moodybranchensis and Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni,
and by the relative abundance of arenaceous Foraminifera











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


such as various species of Textlaia Valvulina and Neo-
clavulina, and Spiroloculina newberryensis. The top of this
zone is marked by a distinct change in ecology. Several ne w
forms make their appearance here, e.g., at Zuber(stop 11)
the top of this zone is marked by the presence of Hirsuto-
cythere spinosa, Echinocythereis nuda, Jugos ocythe reis
tricarinata, Absonocytheropteron carinata, Textularia sub-
hauerii and Rotalia cushmani. Similar changes in o her
sections are seenby a total increase in the number of species
at the top of this zone. The fauna is suggestive of shallow
warm water conditions, not over 60 feet in depth, in an open
sea. The fauna of the overlying sediments inhabited a rela-
tively deeper water, the fauna being suggestive of a modern
bioherm or reef facies in which larger Foraminife ra thrived
at a depth between 60 to 150 feet.

The thickness of the Spiroloculina newberryenlsis fauni-
zone varies between 25 feet (at Kendrick, stop 9 ) to 48 feet
(at Crystal River, stop 8). Forty feet of sediments in the
Polk County section (W-381) and at Zuber (stop 11) and 40
feet of sediments at Newberry (stop 12) belong to this zone.


Stop 9 : Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufactur -
ing Company, NE) NES sec. 26, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Kendrick,
Marion County, Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 72. )

Composite section Elevation 115. 39 feet

Bed Description Thicknes s
(feet)
?Hawthorn (marine facies)

5 Pale to cream colored hard molluscan lime-
stone with abundant, large Turritella sp. .. 10

Unconformity
Crystal River formation

4 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with
beds of calcite and chert. Lepidocyclina
ocalana and vars. common; abundant speci-
mens of Amusium sp. ................... 22
















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 69

3 White chalky limestone, in places a larger
Foraminifera coquina, abundant large speci-
mens of Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.,
Heterosteeina ocalana and Operculinoides
ocalanus................................ 15

2 Cream to white, soft limestone, chalky in
places, with large specimens of Lepido
cyclina ocalana very common .. ... .. .. .. 3

Williston formation

1 Cream to white, granular limestone with
dwarfed Lepidocyclina ocalan, Oper culin-
oides moodybranchensis, Ope rculinoide s
willcoxi................................. 5

Total thicknes s................... ........... 55

Canu and Bassler ( 19 20) recorded the following species
of Bryozoa occurring in Jackson-Eocene "Ocala limestone "
from "Nine miles north of Ocala. "

Desmeplagioecia Elicata Canu and Bassler
Plagioecia botula Canu and Bassler
Aetea anguina (?) (Linnaeus)
Beisselina implicata Canu and Bassler
Dacryonella octonaria Canu and Bassler
Diplopholeos fusiforme Canu and Bassler
Grammella crassimarginata (Hincks)
Onychocella laciniosa Canu and Bassler
Rectonychocella tenuis Canu and Bassler
Stamenocella inferaviculifera Canu and Bassler
Velumella leviat Canu and Bassler










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Stop 10: Dixie Limestone Products Company pit at Reddick,
NW}- NE4 sec. 10, T. 13 Sw a R. 21 E., Marion County,
Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 70. )
Composite section Elevation 156.83 feet

Bed Description Thickne ss
(feet)
? Hawthorn (marine) facies

3 Cream colored molluscan limestone, cross-
bedded in places, lower portionhoneycombed
with molds of large Turritella sp., manatee
ribs, upper three feet beach rock facies . 8

Unconformity
Crystal River formation

2 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with
abundant specimens of Amusiu sp.. .. ... 20

1 White chalky limestone, a coquina of larger
Foraminifera, mostly Leidonyclinaa ocalana
and vars. ................... ............ 22

Total thickness..... ................... ...... 50



Stop 11: Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Company near Martin, SE',SW$ sec. 11, T. 14 S., R. 21 E.,
Marion County, Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 70-
72-)

Bed Description Thicknes s
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 134. 67 feet

6 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with
abundant Amuiu sp., upper portion with
several horizontal beds of silicified lime-
stone................................... 31

5 White, soft, chalky limestone with occasional
specimens of Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp. 5











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


4 Cream colored, soft, chalky limestone, in
places a coquina of larger Foraminifera;
specimens of Pecten sp. and Turritella sp.
common .............. .................. 10

3 Pale granular limestone, in places almost
entirely a larger Foraminifera coquina, with
casts and molds of mollusks ............... 9

2 Very hard, consolidated limestone, a shell
bed of Ostrea sp., Spondylus sp., and several
gastropod casts and molds. . .. ... .. .. ... 5

1 Pale, soft, granular limestone, in places a
coquina of Lepidocyclina ocalnaand nummu-
litids; specimens of Xenophora sp., Cardium
sp., and Ostrea sp. common. ............. 10

Total thickne ss ................... ........... 70



Stop 12 : Newberry Corporation pits, SWSSE) sec. 13,
T. 9 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida. Measured on
the southern wall of quarry. (Section from Puri, 1957, p .58.)

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 91.91 feet

5 Amusiumbed. Shell coquina of Foraminifera,
Mollusca and abundant Amusium well Qment-
ed in a granular matrix, nodular weathering 16. O

4 Moderately hard, granular limestone, with
several holothurian-like concretions and
Mollusca, grades into a foraminiferal shell
coquina toward the upper portion.. .. .. .. .. 4. O

3 Modiolus bed. Soft, chalky limestone, with
molluscan, echinoid and foraminiferal skele-
tal material; first smooth oval Amusium sp.
at 8. 5feet...............,, ........... 7.5












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2 Soft, granular limestone, with Spondylus sp.
and holothurian-like concretions. .. .. .. .. 2. 5

1 Foraminiferal shell coquina. Holothurian-
like concretions.. ............ ........ 5.0

Total thickness .................. ........... 35.0



Two more sections were also measured: one onthe east
wall and the other on the west wall of the quarry. The suc-
cession of beds throughout the quarry is the same. Section
on the west wall measured 36 feet.



Stop 13: S. M. Wall quarry, SWNE,' sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 18 E.,
Alachua County, Florida. Section measured on northwest
wall of quarry. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 58. )

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 108. 62 feet

4 Amusium bed. White, coarsely granular,
chalky limestone with abundant Amusium sp. ,
(flat, smooth, oval sp. ). .................. 21

3 A coquina of large foraminiferal shells in a
chalky matrix with some Amusium sp. (flat,
smooth, oval sp. ) present. ................ 10

2 Soft, chalky, limestone matrix cementing
a lepidocyclinic camerinid shell coquina.
Spondylus sp. and Pecten (striated) common.
Holothurian-like concretions present in lower
part of section. .......... ......... ..... .. 30

1 Modiolus bed. Soft, granular limestone with
pockets ofModiolus sp. ................... 5

Total thickne s s................... ........... 66










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Water percolating through the Modiolus bed has formed
beautiful stalactite s around individual Modiolus. Toward the
top of the section, boulders of chert occur. These boulders
are round and unlike the trunk-shaped boulders around Ken-
drick, Marion County.

The upper portion inthis quarry carries someboulders
of chert. Deposition of silica seemed to have started around
grains of quartz and gradually built up to chert boulders
which are over six feet across. Some Mollusca in these
boulders are also replaced.


Stop 14: Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, SEf
NE, sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 65.)

This is type locality of the Asterocyclina faunizone:

Bed Description Thickneass
(fe et)

Crystal River formation Elevation 115 feet

8 White, very hard, questionably dolomitic
limestone, with rounded solution cavities.
(Two to three feet behind the hill, hardening
due to solution). Back of the hill several pin-
nacles ofhardlimestone occur withthe softer
part eroded away ........................ 2-3

7 Amusium-Asterocyclina bed. Hard, white
limestone, well cemented, calcitic, with
abundant specimens of Amusium sp. Top bed
has crystals of calcite, horizontalpocket and
veins of calcite li2 to 2 feet thick. .. .. .. ... 5. 5

6 White, chalkylimestone, composedof broken
pieces of echinoid fragments, Bryozoa, Mol-
lusca, and larger Foraminifera, Le pido -
cyclina sp. common, occasional specimens of
Asterocyclina sp., on weathered exposures.
It almost looks like a shell coquina; bedding
not apparent. Specimens of Lepidocyclinas











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


oriented in all directions; geodes of calcite
commnon........... ..................... 9'2,

5 Hard, white, calcitic limestone composed of
tests of Foraminifera, skeletal remains of
Bryozoa, and some specimens of Lepido-
cyclina, Amusium sp., Pecten sp., and
Spondylus sp. Weathered exposures pink to
brown .............................. 3

4 White, chalky limestone, coarsely granular,
specimens of Lepidocyclina, Spondylus sp.
and Pecten sp., and echinoids common on
weathered exposures. The limestone has a
nodular appearance ...................... 1

3 White:, chalky limestone, with occasional
specimens of Asterocyclina georgiana, abun-
dant tests o-f Foraminifera and skeletal re-
mains of Bryozoa, Pecten sp. and Amusium
sp. fairly common (also Spondylus sp. ). ... 2

2 Hard, cream to white limestone, pink on
weathered exposures, almost microcoquina,
lower portion calcitic, Lepidcyci sp. fre-
quent, Pecten sp., Spondylus sp., Amusium
sp...................................... 1.5

1 White, granular, fossiliferous limestone,
composed mostly of rounded calcium grains
and tests of smaller Foraminifera. Bryozoa
and Lepidocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana
rare.................................... 3

Total thickness ....... ....... ....... ...... . 27'2"



Stop 15: NE, NW) sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 10 W., on the west
side of Chipola River, under bridge on U. S. Highway 90,
about one mile east of Marianna, Jackson County, Florida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 68. )

This is the type locality of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)
chaperi faunizone.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 75

Bed Description Thickne ss
(feet)
Byram formation

6 Buff colored, dense, finely crystalline dolo-
mite ................... ................. 3

Marianna limestone

5 Hard, white to cream colored granular lime-
stone, Lepidocyclina mantelli common. .. .. 3

4 Soft, white, massive limestone with abundant
Lepidocyclinamrantelli. ................... 15

3 White limestone with glauconite; Lepido-
cyclina mantelli and Pecten poulsoni common 6

Covered ................... ............. 6

Crystal River formation

2 Le pidocyc lina (Ne phr ole pidina ) chaperifauni-
zone. Very hard, cream colored limestone
with abundant Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)
chaperi................................. 10

1 Astroycin faunizone. Soft, cr e am color d
microcoquinoid limestone with Astroycin
sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heterostegin
ocalana and Oper culina ocalana. .. .. . .... 1

Total thickne ass................... ........... 44



Canu and Bas sler ( 19 20) report the following Cheilostome
Bryozoa from this locality:

Buffonella microstoma Canu and Bassler
Dacyonllaminor Canu and Bassler
Dacryonella octonaria Canu and Bassler
Diplopholeos fusiforme Canu and Bassler
Ellisina laxa Canu and Bassler


















76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Figularia (?) crassicostulata Canu and Bassler
Gephyrotes quadriserials Canu and Bassler
Gigantopora filiformis Canu and Bassler
Grammella pusilla Canu and Bassler
Hincksina ocalensis Canu and Bassler
Hippothoa sp.
Hipposeugosella teges Canu and Bassler
Lacerna hexagonalis Canu and Bassler
Lunularia verrucosa Canu and Bassler
Membraniporidra pyriformis Canu and Bassler
Membraniporidra spissimuralis Canu and Bassler
Membrendoecium duplex Canu and Bassler
Membrendoecium rectum Canu and Bassler
Metradolium transversum Canu and Bassler
Micropora coriacea (Esper)
Perigastrella ovoidea Canu and Bassler
Perigastrella tubuls Canu and Bassler
Plagiosmittia regulars Canu and Bassler
Puellina radiata (Moll)
Rectonychocella elliptica Canu and Bassler
Retepora scutulata Canu and Bassler
Schizomavella granulifera Canu and Bassler
Semihaswellia exilis Canu and Bassler
Smittina angulata (Reuss)
Smittina str ombe cki (Reus s)
Stamenocella grandis Canu and Bassler
Steganoporella incrustan Canu and Bassler
Tetraplaria tube rculata Canu and Bas sle r
Tremotoichos rectifurcatum Canu and Bassler
Trypostega inornat (Gabb and Horn)
Velumella plicata Canu and Bassler










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Stop 16: Gor don Philpot's quarry, 1.9 miles south of bridge
on Santa Fe River on State Highway 49, on section line,
between secs. 12 and 13, T. 7 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County,
Florida. Section measured on north wall of quarry.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 60.)

Bed Desacr iption Thickneass
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 37. 33 feet

2 Hard, white, foraminiferal coquina; weathers
yellowish brown, Pecten sp., solution funnels
common, filled with gray and brown, waxy
clay and sand. ................... ........ 7'10"'

1 White, granular, foraminiferal limestone,
soft and friable; lower portion at the base of
quarry with large Ostrea sp............... 6

Total thickness ................ ............. 13'10"



Stop 17 : Bill Rush's pit, NE SWt sec. 15, T. 8 S. R. 14 E. ,
Gilchrist County, Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 641.)

Composite section

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Crystal River formation Elevation 30. 36 feet

4 Cream to white colored, granular, chalky,
pure limestone; lower six inches to nine in-
ches with some calcite lenses; larger Foram-
inifera abundant .............,............ 4. 0

3 Cream to white colored, granular limestone,
with some foraminiferal and molluscan casts 4'7"

Williston formation

2 Modiolus bed. Hard, granular limestone,
with abundant Lepidocyclina and Mollusca;










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Modiolus sp., Turritella sp., Xenophora sp. 2. n

1 White, granular limestone, very few larger
Foraminifera, few Lepidocyclinas. . . .... 4'10 "

Total thickness ......................***..... 15'5"



Stop 18: Abandonedquarry SE(SE~ sec.23, T.8 S. R. 14E. ,
Gilchrist County, Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 65.)

Composite section

Bed Description Thickn~e ss
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 56. 16 feet

6 Cream colored to white foraminiferal lime-
stone................................... 5.0

5 Hard, well cemented, granular limestone
with casts of Mollusca. ................... 1.08

4 Cream colored, coarsely granular, chalky
limestone with abundant larger Foraminifera
and Mollusca, Lepidocyclina sp., Pe~cten sp. 2. O

3 Modiolus bed. Cream colored, granular
limestone, with few larger Foraminifera and
Mollusca, molds of mollusks and L~epido-
cyclina sp. ................... ........... 16.08

Williston formation

2 Cream colored foraminiferal lime stone, stud-
ded with larger Foraminifera, holethurian-
like concretions, Pecten sp., and Sponyu
sp.; has a characteristic nodular weathering;
echinoids common. ................... .... 8.08

1 Cream colored granular lime stone, tew larger
Foraminifera. ......................... 6.08


Total thickness .,.............................


38.0











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Stop 19 : Buda pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NEf
NE) sec. 32, T. 8 S. R. 17 E. Alachua County, Florida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 60. )

Composite section Elevation 6 3. 23 feet

Bed De scription Thicknes s
(feet)
Crystal River formation

7 Soft, chalky, friable limestone, studded with
Foraminifera and Mollusca sp.. .. .. .. ... 14'8 "

6 Soft, chalky limestone, questionably glauco-
nitic, with abundant Spondylus sp.; upper
portion contains striated Pecte~n sp.. .. .. .. 9

5 Cream colored, moderately hard, granular
limestone, with some holothurian-like con-
cretions; partially dolomitized. . .. .. .. .. 3

4 Soft, granular limestone, with very little
chalk, thin streaks of foraminiferal shell
coquina; striated Pecten sp................ 5

3 Larger foraminiferal shell coquina in a
granular matrix; abundant Mollusca; some
holothurian-like concretions. .. .. .. .. ... 5

2 Cream colored, soft, granular, somewhat
chalky lime stone; with abundant holothurian-
like concretions and Spondylus; somewhat
chalky ................... ............... 2.5

1 Cream colored, granular, pastyr limestone;
nodular weathering; abundant holothurian-
like concretions and Spondylus sp., poorly
bedded; dolomitized ledges up to one half foot
thick with casts of mollusks.. .. .. (lowest exposure) 4

Cream colored, granular limestone. .. (Dredged) 15-20

Total thicknes s................... .......... 58'2 "-63'2 "












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Stop 20: Sam Smith's quarry SEfNEa sec. 32, T. 5 N.,
R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida. (Section from Puri,
1957, p. 65, 68)

Bed Description Thickness
(fe et)
Marianna limestone

Soft granular pure limestone. . ... .. .. .. +60
Crystal River formation
5 Lepidocyclina chaperi zone. Hard, white,
granular limestone with L. chaperi and some
Pecten sp.; some Lepidocyclinas as large as
half a dollar. Glauconitic in places; oysters
and echinoids common.................... 4. 5

4 White, granular limestone with microfora-
miniferal coquinas and Lepidocyclina sp.
Abundant Xenophora sp. and Conus sp. .. .. 4. 75

3 White, granular limestone with abundant
Lepidocyclina chaperi. ................... 9 "-1'

2 White, granular limestone, with micro-
foraminiferal coquina in places, and Lepido-
cyclina sp. ... ... .. ... .. .. . .... .. ... 4

1 Cream to brown, soft limestone. .. .. ... (base) 8 "

Total thickness (Ocala). ................... ... 14'8"

The Limerock Company mined the Marianna limestone
as a building stone up to the second level before mining the
Crystal River formation. The present operations are in the
Crystal River formation. In this general area the Crystal
River formation is penetrated below 60 feet of Marianna
limestone. The top portion of Crystal River (chaperi zone)
is exposed wherever the outcrop exists and also occurs in
wells. MacNeil (1944, p. 1324, 1325) placed this sec-
tion in the Oligocene as an equivalent of Red Bluff of the
western Gulf states. The Marianna limestone generally is
finer grainedand yields purer lime and was quarried mostly











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 81

as building stone. Ocala limestone, however, yields around
80-85 percent of calcium (as against over 95 percent in
Marianna limestone) and has been quarried as agricultural
fertilizer.



Stop 21 : Dell Mvine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Com-
pany, NESNWS se c. 32, T. 4 S. R. 11 E. Lafayette County,
Florida. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 68-70. )

Bed Description Thickne ss
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 56. 17 feet

9 White, chalky limestone .................. 1. 25

8 Pecten bed, white, chalky limestone. . ... 9 -'

7 White, chalky limestone .................. 1

6 Pecten bed with Nummulites sp. in a chalky
matrix. ................... .............. 9"1

5 Nummulitid coquina in a chalky matrix. .. .. 2

4 White, granular, chalky limestone with abun-
dant Lepidocyclina sp. and some molluscan
casts................................... 11

3 White to pink, hard limestone; abundant
Amusium sp.,numerous Mollusca and Fora-
minifer s ................... ............. 12

2 Cream to pink, soft, nummulitid coquina with
coquina with some Pecten and holothurian-
like concretions ......................... 6"-2'

1 Cream to pink, granular lime stone with
holothurian-like concretion impressions and
nummulitids ................... .......... 5

Total thickness ................... ........ 33. 25 to 34.0






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Stop 22 : Abandoned quarry SEtSEf sec. 18 and NESNEt
sec. 19, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Section measured on north wall, parallel with U. S. High-
way 29. (Section from Puri, 1957, p. 72.)

Bed De scr iption Thicknes s
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 52. 72 feet

4 Amusiumbed. White, soft, chalky limestone,
with two species of Pecten, Amusium sp.
(smooth oval form, probably same horizon
as stop 21) Spondylus sp. ................. 13

3 White, granular limestone; large foraminif-
eral coquina and Pecten sp. (smooth type)
toward bottom, somewhat chalky; increases
in chalkiness toward top. ................. 11

2 White, granular limestone, chalky in places 1. 5-2

1 Hard, white limestone, firmly cemented with
molluscan casts. ................... ...... 2. 5-3

Total thickne ss ................... ........... 28-29



Stop 23: Abandoned quarry SW}SE) sec.~ 14 and NWiNE)
sec. 23, T. 6 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 72, 75. )

Bed De scription Thicknes s
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 45. 72 feet

7 Cream colored, foraminiferal coquina; with
Pecten sp. and Amusium sp., weathered ex-
posures are ferrugineous and brown in color 3-3.5

6 Amusium bed. Foraminiferal coquina, with
abundant Amusium sp. (smooth oval);Spondylus
.sp. harder than underlying bed............ 7. 5











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


5 For aminife ral co quina ce mente din a g ranular
matrix with abundant Lepidocyclina sp. . ... 7

4 Cream colored, granular, somewhat chalky
limestone, with some larger Foraminifera
and Amusium sp. ................... ..... 1.5

3 Coarse, foraminiferal coquina, cemented in
a granular limestone matrix. ... .. .. .. .. 2. 75

2 Cream colored, granular limestone, com-
posed mostly of Foraminifera and occasional
Pecten sp. and Amusium sp............... 2

1 Pecten-Amusium bed. Cream colored, hard,
well cemented limestone, nodular, weather-
ing, with striated Pecten sp; in places it is a
larger foraminiferal coquina .............. 7'l"

Total thickne ss ................... ........... 31-31.5



Stop 24: Suwannee Limerock Company quarry, SE$NWi
sec. 32, T. 5 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
(Section from Puri, 1957, p. 75, 76.)

Bed De sc ription Thicknes s
(feet)

Crystal River formation Elevation 38. 8 feet

9 Foraminiferal and molluscan coquina, ce-
mented in a hard limestone matrix. Larger
Foraminifera are of Ocala age. .. ... .. ... 5

8 Very hard, questionably dolomitized, brown-
ish limestone, with molds of Foraminifera
and Mollusca............................ 2

7 Turritella bed. Soft, granular, cream color-
ed limestone, with abundant Turritella sp.,
Conus sp., Pecten sp., and other Mollusca
(oyster a common); no Lepidocyclina noted. .. 3



















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


6 Cream colored, granular limestone, with
occasional Pecten sp. and Foraminifera. .. 5

5 Pecten bed. Very hard, partially dolomit-
ized limestone with abundant Pecten sp.
(striated)............................... 5

4 Soil sone consisting of limonite and weathered
specimens of Foraminifera and Pectens em-
bedded in a ferrugineous matrix........... 2"

3 White, granular limestone, with some tests
of Foraminifera and molds of Glycymeris sp. 2

2 Cream colored, foraminiferal coquin~a, well
cemented, with occasional Pecten sp.
(striated). ................... ...(Lowest exposure) 5

1 Cream colored, granular limestone, mod-
erately hard, massive tests of larger Pecten
sp. and Foraminifera, Pecten bed (striated)
is also represented in the dredged rock;
Turritella sp. common..................(~dredged) 15

Total thickne s s................... ........... 42'2"

The company removes all of the H~awthorn clay from
solution pipes and fills them back up with Crystal River
formation in order to blast the quarry effectively. This is
the reason why no "pipe "or sinkhole s exist around the quarry.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Oligocene Series

Marianna Limestone

The Marianna limestone is a cream to white uniformly
gr anula r ma s sive lime stone It is gene rally spar sely fo ssil-
iferous and carries in places abundant specimens of Pectn
poulsoni and Lepidocyclina mantelli. Locally, this limestone
is called "chimney rock" and is quarried in the vicinity of
Marianna and Cottondale as a building stone. The Marianna
has a very limited distribution and it crops out in most of
Jackson County. It occurs in the subsurface as far west as
Walton County.

Type Locality

Stop 25: The following section is exposed at the type locality
on the Chipola River and road cut (U. S. Highway 90) near
Marianna.

Bed Description Thickne ss
(feet)
Byram formation

6 Buff colored, dense, finely crystalline dolo-
mite....... .. .. .. ... .. . .... ...... ... 3. O

Marianna lime stone

5 Hard, white to cream colored, granular lime-
stone. Lepidocyclina mantll common. ... 3. O

4 Soft, white, massive limestone with abundant
Lepidocyclina mantelli ................... 15.0

3 White limestone with glauconite; Lepido-
cyclina mantelli and Pctn poulsoni common 6. O

Covered ................... ............. 6.0

Crystal River formation

2 Very hard, cream colored limestone with











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


abundant Lepidocyc lina (Nephr olepidina)
chaperi................................. 10.0

1 Soft, cream colored, microcoquinoid lime-
stone with Asterocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana and Oper-
culina ocalana. ................... ....... 1.0

Total thicknes s................... ........... 44.0O


Cole and Ponton (1930) list the following Foraminifera
from the Marianna limestone:

Textularia conica
Textularia mississippiensis
Textularia porrecta
Clavulina byramensis
Clavulina byramenlsis var. extans
Massilina decorate
Robulus cultratus
Lenticulina crassa var. mariannensis
Lenticulina convergens
Lenticulina rotulata
Lenticulina vicksbur gensis
Lenticulina vicksburgensis var. aperta
Marg~inulina pediformis
Dentalina communis
Nodosaria longiscata
Nodosaria of. N. jacksonensis
Nodosaria obliqua
Nodosaria vertebralis
Nodosaria latejugrata
Sracenaria italica
Frondicularia zeta
Guttulina problema
Globulina eib
Nonion umbilicatulum
Oper culinella dig
Bulimina sculptilis
Bolivina ariana
Bolivina caelata
Reussia spinulosa var. glbrt
Uvigrerina byrmesi




















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5

Uvigerina mariannensis
Uvigerina pigmea
Discorbis sp.
Gyroidina vicksburgensis
Eponides byramensis
Eponides mariannensis
Eponide s advena
Rotalia sp.
Siphoning advena
Cancris sar
Cassidulina elobosa
Globigerina bullloide s
Globigerina dutertrei
Globigerina inflata
Globigerina triloba
Globorotalia menardii
Anomalina beta
Anomalina bilateralis
Anomalina mis sis sippiensis
Anomalina vicksbur gensis
Planulina byramensis
Planulina mexicana
Cibicides americanus
Cibicide s lobatulus
Cibicides pseudoungerianus
Planorbulinella larvata
Lepidocyclina mantelli
Lepidocyclina mantelli var. papillat















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Byram Formation

The name Byram marl(from Byram, Mississippi) was
first recognized in Florida by Cooke and Mossom (1929,
p. 74-76). Cooke (1945, p. 81) used the term Byram lime-
stone.

The sediments referred to the Byram~ in Florida differ
lithologically from the type Byram since they consist predom-
inantly of buff, dense, finely crystalline, clayey dolomite
rather than a green-gray marl. This formation has so far
been definitely recognized in several outcrops in Jackson
County. Farther west, in Washington and Holmes counties,
Vernon (1942, p. 59) included in the Suwannee "all limestone
beds lying below definite Tampa formation and above definite
Marianna limestone. These sediments contain Turritella
martinensis and T. vicksburgensis (found in the western
Gulf states in the Forest Hill sand) and Vernon (1942) correl-
ated these sediments with both Marianna limestone and the
Byram formation. In~ Jackson County, Byram formation
overlie sthe Marianna lime stone but we stwar d in Washington
and Holmes counties) a uniform lithologic unit, with a varied
fauna of the Chickasawhay, Byram and Glendon occurs.
These sediments are lithologically similar to the Suwannee
in the type area and since they cannot be differentiated into
satisfactory subdivisions, they are included in the Suwannee
(Vernon, 1942, p. 56).


Fauna

The Byram mar1 in Mississippi carried a very rich
molluscan and microfauna. In Florida, several outcrops
have yielded abundant specimens of Lepidocyclina supera
Conrad, Operculinoides dius (Cole and Ponton) and Pecten
cf. P. poulsoni Morton. Smaller Foraminifera and Ostra-
coda from these sediments are largely undescribed.












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Stop 26: Exposure of Byram formation and of the Marianna
limestone in road cut on State Highway 71, approximatelyin
the NE, NE,' sec. 34, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., Jackson County.
(Section from Vernon and Puri, 1956, p. 66-68.)

Bed Description Thicknes s
(feet)
Pleistocene

10 Sand and gravel, yellow, red, gray, varie-
gated, slumped soil zone........,.......... 4. 0

9 Sand, mottled red, yellow and gray,1limonitic,
poorly sorted, containing quartz growl. .. .. 1. 5

Oligocene
Byram formation (?)

8 Clay, light gray, mottled brown, waxy,
blocky, slightly silty. ................... 3. 0

Byram formation

7 Dolomite, light brown, very clayey, slightly
silty, tough, massive, with impressions of
Lepidocyclina sp. The upper portion of the
dolomite makes a hard ledge with a very ir-
regular contact with Bed 8. The lower portion
grades downward into Bed 6............... 6.0

6 Dolomite,brownish gray, thinlybedded, rare
fossil molds. Contains 20 percent clay with
some fine silt ................... ......... 2.0

5 Dolomite, brownish gray, massive and con-
taining 21percent clay and some fine silt and
occasional nodules of limonite. .. .. .. .. .. 1. O

4 Dolomite, dark brownish gray, thin bedded,
containing nodules of limonite at the base and
about 23 percent clay and some fine silt ... 1. 0


















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


3 Limestone, light brown, gray streaked, thin
bedded, clayey. Very fossiliferous, made
platy with laminations of Lepidocyclina sp.
cf. L. supra and Pecten sp. cf. P. poulsoni 0.5 to 1. 5

2 Dolomite, light brown becoming more gray
at the top, soft, blocky, silty and clayey.
The clay, silt, and calcareous content in-
creases from about 12 percent at the base to
51 percent at the top. The upper few inches
are very calcareous and the clay and silt have
reduced to 29 percent. Numerous impres-
sions of Lepidocclin sp. and Pecten sp. are
contained in the base of the bed and the cal-
careous content increases with the percentage
and preservation of fossils ranging from
impressions, impressions with calcite dust,
altered shells and fairly well preserved
shells. There are irregular lenses of very
calcareous and fossiliferous, hard, silty,
dolomite, that in lithology and shape resemble
bar-reeffacies. The best development of this
facies occurs as a prominent ledge in the
limits of the east bank of the road cut. .. ... 5. O

Oligocene Series
Marianna lime stone

1 Limestone, white to cream, massive, with
platy weathering. The limestone is studded
with Lepidocyclina mantelli and at the top is
a softer limestone full of Lepidocyclinas. .. 12. O




Full Text






,-5s-7 ~-9


q & 1


Completed manuscript received
October 15, 1964
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Recent Series

The Recent Series includes sediments that have accumulated after
the end of the Wisconsin glacial Stage. Since that time, the melting of
glaciers caused the sea level to rise to a level which has remained fair-
ly constant. During this period, and as it is today, deposits of sand,
clay, marl and carbonates are being formed along the present coastline,
in estuaries, bays, inlets, sea bottom and lakes. Millions of tons of
sediments brought by the rivers to sea are being laid down together with
skeletal remains of animals that lived not long ago. These sediments
are also being deposited as calcite along poorly drained lakes and
streams. The carbonates are being precipitated today along with grow-
ing coral reefs in the Florida Bay. All these deposits are rich in organic
life.

Two sedimentary provinces are present along the coasts and in
adjacent waters, bays and lagoons. A carbonate province is generally
present along the extreme distal end of the peninsula, and Florida Bay.
The adjacent reefs are included. An aluminum silicate and silica pro-
vince with intermixed clastic carbonates exists generally elsewhere.
Distinctive microfaunas are present in each province.

Stubbs (1939) reported the following species of Foraminifera from
Biscayne Bay:

Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny
Archaias angulatus (Fichtell and Moll)
Archaias compressus (d'Orbigny)
Borelis pulchra (d'Orbigny)
Cibicides refulgens Montfort
Clavulina nodosaria d'Orbigny
Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny
Discorbis auberii (d'Orbigny)
Discorbis bertheloti var. floridensis (Cushman)
Discorbis candeiana (d'Orbigny)
Discorbis floridana Cushman
Discorbis mira Cushman
Discorbis orbicularis (Terquem)
Elphidium advenum (Cushman)
Elphidium lanieri (d'Orbigny)
Elphidium poeyanum (d'Orbigny)
Elphidium sagrum (d'Orbigny)
Hauerina bradyi Cushman
Massilina crenata (Karrer)


288




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)

Pleistocene Series
Key Largo Limestone

1 White to cream colored coralline limestone, fossiliferous
with molds and casts of boring mollusks, echinoids and coral-
line algae ........... .... ............... .. 14

Keystone Art Company quarries the reef rock as dimension stone
and trucks the large (almost 14 feet long) blocks to Miami, where these
are cut into smaller blocks, filled in part, and polished. These dimension
blocks are commonly used in the southern part of the State, particularly
around Miami, for decorative interior and exterior surfaces.

Besides the above outcrop, excellent exposures of the Key Largo
Limestone can be studied along the road at Key Largo, between Lake
Surprise and Tavernier Creek. Lithologically, the reef rock is the same
as the one noticed at Windleys Key except that the upper 3 feet of some
of the exposures consist of a carbonate breccia.

Anastasia Formation

The name Anastasia Formation was applied by Sellards (1912, p.
18) to the exposures of coquina rock which extends along the Atlantic
coast of Florida from Anastasia Island southward for about 150 miles.
The type locality is on Anastasia Island, opposite St. Augustine, Flo-
rida.

Lithologically, the Anastasia Formation consists primarily of a
sandy coquina of mollusks held loosely together by calcareous cement.
In some places, the rock is composed of sandy limestone, calcareous
sandstone, unconsolidated sand and shells. North of Boca Raton, the
Anastasia Formation forms the backbone of the Atlantic Ridge. Near
Boca Raton, the upper part of the Anastasia Formation gently grades
into Miami Oolite. South of Boca Raton, the Atlantic Ridge is made up
of Miami Oolite. The coquina rock extends from the Atlantic coastal
ridge north of Boca Raton into Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression,
where it merges into Fort Thompson Formation (Parker, et al., 1955,
p. 100). The coquina rock is also exposed along the west coast of Flo-
rida as a narrow strip from a point north of Ten Thousand Islands in
Collier County to about 10 miles north of Sarasota. Parker, et al., (op.
cit.) estimates the Anastasia Formation to be over 100 feet thick.


282




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The vertebrates reported from the quartz sand include brackish-
water, fresh-water and terrestrial species and DuBar (op. cit., p. 135)
suggests the correlation of this vertebrate-bearing sand with fresh-water
marls of Okaloakoochee Member.

The entire Fort Thompson Formation is considered by DuBar
(1958) to have been deposited in a single interglacial stage (Wiscon-
sinian) while Parker, et al., (1955) believed that the Fort Thompson
Formation was deposited during two glacial (Kansan and Illinoian) and
three interglacial (Aftonian, Yarmouthian and Sangamonian) periods.
These two conflicting opinions cannot be reconciled until some geo-
chemical studies of paleoenvironments are made. Dr. Cesare Emiliani
plans on doing some work along these lines and it is believed that Dr.
Emiliani's studies, together with some additional coring in the type
area, will throw more light on this controversial issue.

Key Largo Limestone

The name Key Largo Limestone was applied by Sanford (1909) to
the coralline limestone exposed in cuts and borrow pits at Key Largo
from the south shore of Lake Surprise to the Tavernier Creek, a distance
of 15 miles. Sanford (op. cit.) considered this reef limestone to have
been deposited in shallow water, some of it was a back reef deposited
during the growth of the reef which finally extended over it. Sanford
(op. cit.) estimated the thickness of this reef rock to be about 100 feet
and on fossil evidence assigned a post-Pliocene age to it. Parker, et
al., (1955) considers its maximum thickness to be 60 feet.

Lithologically, this reef rock consists of white to cream colored,
corallina limestone, about 40 percent of it being made up of skeletal
remains of reef-building corals, and the rest of it is either a carbonate
conglomerate in which skeletal remains of coral, mollusks, foraminifers,
coralline algae and echinoids are common. Along the road cuts at Key
Largo, the upper part of the reef is a carbonate breccia.

The Key Largo Limestone is overlain by Miami Oolite and in some
places interfingers with it. The reef extends over a distance of 90 miles
from Soldier Key off Miami to and including Bahia Honda (Parker, et al.,
1955, p. 99).

Stop 81: Keystone Art Company's quarry on Windleys Key, Monroe Coun-
ty, Florida.


280





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey 20th
Ann. Rept., p. 29-227.

1936 (and Mansfield, W. C.) Suwannee limestone of Florida (abstract):
Geol. Soc. America Proc., 1935, p. 71-72.


1939a Boundary between Oligocene and Miocene: Amer. Assoc. Petro-
leum Geologists Bull., v. 23, no. 10, pp. 1560-1561.

1939b Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Fla. Geol. Survey
Bull. 17, 118p., 53 figs.

1945 Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339p.

Cushman, Joseph A.
1917 Orbitoid Foraminifera of the genus Orthophiagmina from Georgia
and Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, p. 115-124.

1920 The American species of Orthophragmina and Lepidocyclina: U.S.
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125-D, p. 39-105.

1921 American species of Operculina and Heterostegina: U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey Prof. Paper 128-E, p. 125-142.


1930 The Foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida: Fla.
Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 5-63, pls. 1-12.

1932 (and Ponton, Garald M.) The Foraminifera of the upper, middle, and
part of the lower Miocene of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 9,
147 p., 2 figs., 17 pls.

1934 Upper Eocene Foraminifera of the southeastern United States: U. S.
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, 181 p.

1947 (and Applin, E.R.) Two new species of Lower Cretaceous from Flo-
rida: Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., v. 23, no. 291, p. 29-
30, pl. 10, figs. 4-10.

Dall, William H.
1887 Notes on the geology of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., v. 34,
p. 161-170.

1892 (and Harris, G.D.) Correlation papers, Neocene: U.S. Geol. Survey
Bull. 84, 349p.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Actinocythereis exanthemata marylandica (Howe and Hough)
Puriana rugipunctata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Bradleya n. sp. 1
Pontocythere n. sp. 4
Pontocythere n. sp. 3
Orionina bermudae (Brady)
Camplyocythere multipunctata (Edwards)
Campylocythere laeva Edwards
Haplocytheridea bassleri Stephenson
Cyprideis n. sp. 1
Microcythere n. sp. 2
Costa n. sp.
Cytheromorpha warneri Howe and Spurg.eon
Loxoconcha australis Brady
Loxoconcha matagordensis Swain
Loxoconcha anderseni Puri
Caudites n. sp. 1
Caudites n. sp. 2
Pterygocythereis jonesi (Baird)
Xestoleberis n. sp. 1
Xestoleberis n. sp. 2
Xestoleberis n. sp. 3
Cytherelloidea n. sp. 1
Platella n. sp. 1
Bythocypris n. sp. 1
Bairdia n. sp. 1
Paradoxostoma ensiforme Brady
Hemicythere conradi Howe and McGuirt
Hemicythere confragosa Edwards
Cytherura cf. C. costata Muller
C ytherura johnsoni Mincher
Kangarina n. sp. 1
Kangarina n. sp. 2
Leptocythere n. s p. 1
Leptocythere n. sp. 2
Cytherella n. sp. 1
Cytherella n. sp. 2
Brachycythere n. sp. 1
? "Cythere caudata" Brady
Eucytherura n. sp. 1


290





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5 291


The clastic province, north of Ten Thousand Islands, has a cha-
racteristic assemblage which in the inner neritic areas predominantly
consists of genera like Campylocythere, Microcythere, Haplocytheridea,
Pellucistoma, Hemicythere, Bythocypris, Paracytheridea, Pterygocythere-
is, and Cytheretta. The other genera represented are Cytherura, Puriana,
Pontocythere, Loxoconcha, Actinocythereis, Cyprideis, Cytherelloidea,
Platella, Bairdia, Paradoxostoma, Cytherella, Eucythere, Monoceratina,
Cytheromorpha, and Kangarina. Inasmuch as the salinity of both these
provinces is about the same, the difference in these assemblages is
attributed to the carbonate and noncarbonate clastic nature of the bot-
tom sediments.




INDEX (Cont.)


Coffee Mill Hammock Marl Member, 269,
271, 272, 273, 276, 277
Cole, W. S., 22, 24, 42, 73, 100, 225, 246,
256, 270, 283
Comanche Series, 24, 37
Cooke, C. W., 7, 57, 102, 105, 106,
116, 118, 126, 129, 136, 180,186,
196, 197, 202, 222, 225, 230, 236,
246, 253, 270, 275, 276, 284, 287,
Coskinolina elongata Faunizone, 46
Cotton Plant Ridge, 15
Crawfordville, Stop 32 near, 125
Crooked Creek Bridge, section near,
189, 190
Crescent Ridge, 13
Cretaceous Beds, Contours on the top
of, 5
Cretaceous Period, 24
Cretaceous System, 24
Lower, 24
Upper, 24
Structure map, 30
Cretaceous Rocks, 34
Lithofacies, 37
Nomenclature, 36
Structural Features, 39
Thickness, 36
Cryptozoic Era, 16
Crystal River Formation, 58, 67, 68,
70, 71, 72, 74, 77, 78, 81, 83, 84,
87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 98, 164, 178,
179
Fauna, 71
Structure Map, Thomas Farm
"Dig", 168
Type locality, Stop 8, 69, pl. 10
Zonation, 73
Cumber Lime and Manufacturing Pit,
at Zuber, 81
Cushman, J. A., 27, 73, 131, 198, 202,
205
Cyrtopleura costata Faunizone, 236,
258
Dall, W. H., 2, 37, 57, 116, 118, 126,
136, 145, 196, 231
Deadenings, The, 14
DeLand Ridge, 13
Dell Mine (Mayo), Stop 21, 91
DeSoto Plain, 14


Devonian System, 21
Middle, 21
Diabase, 22
List of wells penetrating, 23
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) Zone, 74
Distal Atolls, 14
Dixie Limestone Products Company
Pit, 77
DuBar, Jules, 219, 222, 223, 229, 231,
235, 240, 245, 246, 249, 252, 253,
258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264,
266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 273, 274,
275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 283, 285
Dunnellon Gap, 15
Duval Upland, 13
Eastern Valley, 13
Ellaville, Stop 27, 110
Eocene Series, 45
Eocene, Upper, Stratigraphic Chart, 58
Eutaw Formation, 29, 30
Everglades, 14
Evergreen Hill, 13
Fairfield Hills, 15
Falling Water Hill, 15
Falling Water Sink, Stop 30, 113
Finch, Alfred G., 125
Fischer, A. G., 60, 62, 63
Florahome Valley, 15
Florida Bay Mangrove Islands, 14
Florida Caverns State Park, 105
Foerste, August F., 118
Fort Denaud Member, 231, 234, 237,
241, 242, 246, 258
Fort Preston formation, 119, 185, 187,
188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194,
204
Photograph of alluvium, 140
Photograph of cross-bedded, coarse
clastic with plant impressions, 139
Fort Thompson Formation, 219, 222, 233,
238, 240, 245, 250, 251, 252, 254,
268, 269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 277
Fountain Slope, 14
Gainesville, section at airport, 186
Gardner, J. A., 126, 129, 136, 205
Geneva Hill, 13
Geologic Map, pl. 2
Geologic Setting, 1


308





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


293


SELECTED REFERENCES

Altschuler, Zalman Samuel
1960 (and Young, E. J.) Residual origin of the "Pleistocene" sand man-
tle in central Florida uplands and its bearing on marine terraces
and Cenozoic uplift: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 400-B, p. B
202-B 207.

Alverson, Douglas C. (see Carr, W. J. )

Antoine, J. W.
1963 (and Harding, James L.) Structure of the continental shelf, north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico (preliminary report): The Agricultural
and Mechanical College of Texas, Dept. of Oceanography and
Meteorology. A. & M. Project 286-1, 18 p., 9 figs.

Applin, Esther R. (also see Applin, Paul L.; Cole, W.S.; Cushman, J.A.)
1945 (and Jordan, Loui se) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v.. 19, no. 2, p.129-
148, pis. 18-21.

1955 A biofacies of Woodbine Age in southeastern Gulf Coast region:
U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 264-1, p. 187-197, pis. 48, 49.

1964 Some Middle Eocene, Lower Eocene, and Paleocene foraminiferal
faunas from west Florida: Cushman Found. Foram. Research Contr.,
v. 15, pt. 2, p. 45-72, pl. 1-4.

Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regioncl subsurface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.

1947 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy struc-
ture, and correlation of Middle Cretaceous rocks in Alabama,
Georgia, and north Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Oil and Gas
Investigations preliminary Chart 26 (in three sheets).

1951 Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and
adjacent states: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 91, 28p.

1952 Volume of Mesozoic sediments in Florida and Georgia, Pt. 1 of
Murray, G. E., Sedimentary volumes in Gulf Coastal Plain of the
United States and Mexico: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 63, p.
1159.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Several vertebrate remains, mostly
much shattered bones, have been found in
fauna from the shell bed and its habitat
1958, p. 122):


dismembered skeletons with
the shell bed. The vertebrate
is summarized below (DuBar,


SPECIES ECOLOGY


Alligator mississippiensis Fresh-water to possibly marine
or brackish

Crocodilian vertebra and femur Marine to possibly fresh-water


Equus (Equus) cf. E. (E.) leidyi (6 teeth) Terrestrial



Fresh-water carnivore lives in rivers

Machrochelys temminki flowing into Gulf, but not as far
south as the Caloosahatchee
River


Testudo sellardsi (common) Terrestrial herbivore



Trachemys sculpt ? (common) (could be Fresh-water
Pseudemys script)


267





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


279


Gastropoda:

Bulla occidentalis Adams
Olivella mutica (Say)
Marginella apicina Henke
Nassarius vibex (Say)
Crepidula fornicata (Linn'e)
Cerithium muscarum Say
Longcharus cf. L. marionae Bartsch
"Turbonilla" sp.
Terebra dislocata (Say)
Conus stearnsii Conrad
Busycon contrarium (Conrad)
Melongena corona corona Gmelin
Fasciolaria distans Lamarck
Columbella rusticoides Heilprin
Crepidula plana Say
Modulus modulus (Linn'e)

Vertebrate remains are known to occur in the Coffee Mill Hammock.
Two miles upstream from Fort Denaud, (station A33), DuBar (op. cit.,
p. 135) lists the following vertebrates from a quartz sand which grades
into the lower Coffee Mill Hammock Marl:

Upper Coffee Mill Hammock Marl

Mammuthus sp.

Lower Coffee Mill Hammock Marl

Pseudemys script? (Schoepff)
Pseudemys nelsoni Carr
Terrapene cf. T. canaliculata Hay
Testudo sp.
Chalydra sp.
Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin)
Tanupolama cf. T. mirifica Simpson

Probably from Lower Fort Thompson Sand

Amyda cf. A. ferox (Schneider)
Pseudemys floridana (LeConte)
Holmesina cf. H. septentrionalis
Mammuthus sp.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)

Recent and Pleistocene Series
Pamlico Formation
Recent Sand Undifferentiated

4 Sand, quartz, gray, grading down to orange-brown . .... I Y2-2

Pleistocene Series
Anastasia Formation

3 Marl, sandy, indurated, as cavity filling and as a thin ve-
neer or eroded surface of underlying rock . . . . . . 0-1

2 Limestone, very sandy, very shelly, locally a calcareous
sandstone, riddled with solution holes . . . . . . . 1-12

1 Sand, quartz, rust-brown, to base of ditch . . . . . . . 1

Total thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Miami Oolite

Sanford (1909, p. 211-214, 218-221) applied the name Miami Oolite
to oolitic limestone exposed on the southeastern Florida mainland and
named a similar limestone on the Florida Keys the "Key West Oolite."
These two different formational names were justified by Sanford (op. cit.)
because the limestone around Miami locally contained more sand than
similar deposits in the Keys. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204) lumped
both these oolitic limestones together into one formational unit, the Mi-
ami Oolite.

Miami Oolite is typically exposed around Miami along the Miami
River and canal, and in the Silver Bluff area in the Coconut Grove sec-
tion. The thickest section in the type area is exposed in Coral Gables
at LeJeuna and Sunset roads (stop 84).

Typically the Miami Oolite is a soft, white to yellow, stratified
to massive, cross-bedded, sandy, pure limestone, analyzing as high as
95 percent calcium carbonate, and consists of small, spherical ovules
with a marked concentric structure. These ovules have a distinct nu-
cleus which consists of either rounded aggregates of microscopic cal-


284





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


303


1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group: Fla. Geol. Survey
Bull. 38, 248p.

1959 (anJ Banks, J.E.) Structural features of the Sunniland Oil Field,
Collier County, Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. Trans., v. 9,
p. 121-130.
/
1959 Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic
exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Special Pub., no. 5, 255p.

1960 (and Vernon, R.O.) Notes on surficial geology of central peninsular
Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc., 9th Field Trip, p. 1-31, 3 figs.,
1 pl.


1960 Recent Ostracoda from the west coast of Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc.
Geol. Soc. Trans., v. 10, p. 107-149, 6 pls., 46 text figs.


aasch, Albert C.
1955 Sunniland Oil Field of Co llier County, Florida (abstract): Geol. Soc.
America, Eastern Section, Program, p. 17.

rainwater, E.H.
1945 (and Herring, D., Jr., and Ericson, David B.) Third field trip,
western Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc., 93p., geologic map.

ay, Clayton E.
1957 A list, bibliography and index of the fossil vertebrates of Floridaz:
Fla. Geol. Survey Special Pub. 3, 175p.

chards, Horace G. (also see Howell, B. F.)
1953 (and Palmer, K.V.W.) Eocene mollusks from Citrus and Levy
counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 35,95p., 13pls.

)berts, H.B.
1953 A new species of decapod crustacean from the Inglis member: In
Richards and Palmer, Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 35, p. 64-67.

)mer, Alfred S.
1948 The fossil mammals of Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida:
Fla. Acad. Sci. Quart. Jour., v. 10, no. 1, p. 1-11.












PREFACE


Since the publication of Cooke's "Geology of Florida" in 1945,
, wealth of new information on the geology of the state, mostly by the
members of the Florida and U.S. Geological Surveys, has been published.
This additional information is scattered over several publications, some
of them not readily available. This new knowledge has not only added
considerably to the accurate interpretation of the geologic history of
Florida but has also created a marked interest on the part of geologists to
visit and study Florida exposures. This renewed interest has resulted
in the increasing demand by the various professional societies, academic
institutions, and students for a general guidebook to classic exposures of
the state. The earlier guidebooks issued by the Southeastern Geological
Society and the Florida Geological Survey were prepared for a portion
of the state, and most of them are out of print. It is hoped that this
guidebook will be of help to future students of Florida geology in finding
the various exposures.

A summary of the geology of the state appears with the guidebook.
This summary is not intended to be a treatise of the geology of the state,
but a resume of what is known to date. The exposures are numbered
consecutively as they appear in the guidebook chronologically. These
stops are located on three maps (pis. 9-11). Their exact location,
together with brief road logs, appears in the insets.

The writers are indebted to their colleagues of the Division of
Geology, State Board of Conservation and the U. S. Geological Survey-
Ground Water Branch for help in field problems, stimulating discussions,
proofing of copy and preparation of illustrations. We have drawn freely
from published works of many people, and Paul and Esther Applin have
generously summarized their work on the Mesozoic sediments of Florida.
Stanley J. Olsen compiled the vertebrate check lists, and unpublished
data from studies made by William Yon, Charles Hendry and Ray Gremillion
have been used. These data will be published as geologic reports of
Jefferson, Leon and Gadsden counties. Mr. Gremillion also X-rayed
several clay samples.


iii





INDEX (Cont.)


Geologic Structures in Florida, Prin.
cipal, 4
Gilbert Farm, Stop 29, 112
Gilchrist County, Abandoned Quarry
Stop 18, 88
Gilchrist County, Marvin Stancel's F
68
Gordon Philpot's Quarry, Stop 16, 8;
Gordonville Ridge, 15
Grand Ridge, 15
Gravell, D. W., 73
Green Ridge, 13
Greenhead Slope, 14
Gulf Coastal Barrier Chains, 14
Gulf Coastal Estuaries, 14
Gulf Coastal Lagoons, 14
Gulf Coastal Lowlands, 14
Hanna, M. A., 73
Harding, J. L., 3, 39
Harris, G. D., 71
Hawthorn Formation, 119, 145, 146,
152, 155, 158, 185, 208
Geologic cross-section showing
marine and nonmarine deposits,
Heilprin, A., 73, 231, 268
Heilcostegina gyralis Faunizone, 4(
Hendry, Charles W., Jr., 115
High Coral Keys, 14
High Hill, 15
High Springs Gap, 15
Holmes Valley, Escarpment, 15
Homeland Mine, Stop 46, 181
Hopkins, 0. B., 39
Howe, H. V., 56, 199
Howell, B. F., 20
Hoy, Nevin D., 221, 223, 224,
Hulls, J. P. D., 2, 37
Immokalee Rise, 14
Inglis Formation, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61
63, 64
Type locality, Stop 3, 59, pl. 1
Fauna, 60
Interlevee Lowlands-Tates Hell Sw<
and Pickett Bay, 14
Intermediate Coastal Lowlands, 14
Inter-ridge Valley, 15
Jackson Bluff formation, 202, 208
Jackson Stage, 57, 58


Jim Woodruff Dam, Stop 31, 118
Johnson, L. C., 116
Jordan, L., 2, 6, 31, 32, 37, 42, 44, 50,
53, 73, 109
Jurassic Rocks, 36
Lithofacies, 37
Nomenclature, 36
Structural Features, 39
Thickness, 36
Jurassic System, 22
Karst, drowned coastal, 14
Kendrick, Pit at, 76
Kendrick, vertebrate remains, list, 78
Kenwood Gap, 15
Key Largo Limestone, 280, 282
Keys, 14
Kissimmee Faulted Flexure, 3
LaBelle clay member, 213
Lake Alfred City, Stop 51 near, 188
Lake City Limestone, 48
Fauna, 50
Limestone Facies, list of wells, 51
Lake Flirt Marl, 268, 273, 286
Lake Harris Cross Valley, 15
Lake Henry Ridge, 15
Lake Munson Hills, 14
Lake Upland, 15
Lake Wales Ridge, 15
Lakeland Ridge, 15
Landforms, 8
Langdon, Daniel, W., Jr., 118
Lawson Limestone, 32
Fauna, 32
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi
Faunizone, 69, 74, 75
Type locality, 85
Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina Fauni-
zone, 69, 74, 75
Levin, H. L., 46
Lisbon Formation, 56
Loncala Phosphate Company, abandoned
pit, Stop 43, 178
Low Coral Keys, 14
Lower Cretaceous System, 24
Lower Ordovician, 19
McNeil, F. S., 11, 69, 90, 287


309





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


cite crystals, shell fragments or even quartz sand. The concentric layers
around the nucleus vary from one to five in number, depending on the
nature and amount of organic matter and amorphous material. The concen-
tric layers may be either clear or opaque. The individual oolites rarely
exceed 1 milimeter in diameter and in some parts of the rock they are
the entire constituent while in others only a few or even none of these
spherules are present (Sanford, op. cit.).

From Boca Raton on the north, the Miami Oolite underlies the en-
tire Atlantic Coastal Ridge south to Florida City, the floor of Florida
Bay and from Big Pine Key to Key West. The maximum thickness of
Miami Oolite is about 40 feet and its base, which overlies the Fort
Thompson or Anastasia, is seldom lower than 20 feet below sea level.
Large shingles of oolitic limestone in some places are embedded in
either massive or cross-bedded oolite and rest on old erosion planes,
of which there are several. These old erosion planes are overlain by a
coquina made up entirely of immature, littoral or near shore mollusks of
which Donax variabilis, Chione cancellata, Crassatellites sp., Vasum
mercenaria, Carbula sp., Fasciolaria sp., Cerithium sp., Potamides sp.,
Cardium sp. are common. Parker, et al., (1955, p. 102-104) considered
these shingles to have been due to changing sea levels within one inter-
glacial (Sangamon) age, although the authors believed that the bed had
been deposited during several interglacial ages. DuBar (1958, p. 28) on
the other hand, considered that the Miami Oolite was deposited in the
lowan substage of the Wisconsin.

Stop 84: Miami Oolite exposures in Coral Gables Canal at Lejeune and
Sunset roads. The following section is exposed at this outcrop.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)

Pleistocene Series
Miami Oolite

1 White to cream colored, sandy, soft, stratified to massive,
cross-bedded, oolitic limestone . . . . . . .(to low water) 19

There are additional 5 to 10 feet of sediments below the lowest expo-
sure that also belong to the Miami Oolite. In this area the Miami Oolite
rests unconformably on the Anastasia Formation.

Stop 85: Silver Bluff, low cliffs of Miami Oolite at 2035 Bayshore Drive.

Bed Descriotion Thickness


(feet)


285


- r . . .






INDEX (Cont.)


Peninsular Arch, 2
Pensacola Clay, 194, 195
Peoria Hill, 13
Physiographic Divisions, Proposed, 13
Physiographic Setting, 7
Pickett Bay, 14
Pirkle, E. C. 146
Pleistocene Series, 231
Pc!k Upland, 14
Ponton, G. M., 100, 131, 196, 197,
198, 200, 202, 205
Pre-Cambrian Rocks, List of wells, 16
Pre-Cambrian System, 16
Pre-Mesozoic Beds, Contours of the top, 5
Pressler, E. D., 1, 6, 24, 36, 39
Puri, H. S., 7, 13, 35, 57, 59, 63,64,
65, 66, 67, 68, 74, 76, 77, 81,82,
83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91,92,
93, 95, 103, 115, 125, 129, 130,
136, 150, 186, 196, 197, 201, 202,
210, 225, 226, 228
Pyroclastic Rocks, 16
List of wells penetrating, 18
Quaternary System, 231
Raasch, A. C., 24, 104
Ray, C. E., 72, 81, 165
Recent Series, 268, 270, 273, 284, 288
Red Bay formation, 197, 198
Red Beds) Unnamed, 22
Reddick Pit, Stop 10, 77, 78
List of vertebrate remains, 78
Rhyolitic Lavas, 16
List of wells penetrating, 18
Richards, H. G., 20, 54, 61, 62
Rock Hill, 15
Rock Ridge Hills, 15
Roses Bluff, 13
St. John's River Offset, 13
St. Marks Formation, 99, 125
Type locality, Stop 32, 125
St. Mary's Meander Plain, 13
Salt Mountain Limestone Faunizone, 46
Sam Smith's Quarry, Stop 20, 20
San Mateo Hill, 13
Sanford High, The, 3
Schopf, J. M., 19, 21, 35


Schroeder, Melvin C., 218, 221, 223,
224, 283
Sellards, E. H., 161, 268, 276, 282,
286
Shell Bluff, Stop 34, 129
Shoal River Formation, 129, 130, 131,
133, 151
Type locality near Mossyhead, 129
Silurian,Middle, 21
Upper, 21
Silurian system, 21
Silver Bluff Scarp, 13
Smith, Robert H., 132,.133
South Florida Shelf, 2
Southeastern Geolog ical Society
Mesozoic Committee, 24
Southern Siope, 14
Southwestern Slope, 14
Spiroloculina newberryensis Faunizone,
69, 74, 75
Spits, Relict, 14
Springfield Church, Quarry near, Stop
14, 84
Stanley-Brown, J., 126, 136, 196
Stephenson, L. W., 6, 224, 225
Stratigraphic Chart, Cenozoic, 43
Mesozoic, 17
Miocene, 117
Oligocene, 99
Paleozoic, 17
Panhandle, 25
Stratigraphy, 16
Structure Map, Upper Cretaceous, 30
of Thomas Farm "Dig", Clayey
material, 167
of Thomncs Fari, "Dig", on top
of Crystal River Formation, 168
Sumter Upland, 15
Suwannee County, abandoned quarry,
Stop 22 and 23, 91, 92
Suwcn' r. _ierck Company Quarry,
S+rp 24, 93
Suwannee Limestone, 99, 105, 107,
110, 111, 112, 113, 123, 157
Fauna. 107
Suwannee Straits 2


311






INDEX (Cont.)


Mansfield, W. C., 105, 106, 111, 118,
125, 196, 197, 200, 202, 205,
207, 211, 212, 216, 217, 224,
259
Marianna Stop 15 near, 85
Marianna Limestone, 90, 98, 100, 104
Correlation, 13
Type locality, Stop 25, 98, pl. 9
Marianna Lowlands, 12, 15
Marine Marl, 235
Marion Upland, 15
Marsh, 0. T., 102, 135, 194, 195
Martel Hill, 15
Martin, Pit near, Stop 11, 81
Marvin Stancel"s Pit, 68
Matson, G. G., 116, 125, 126, 129, 180,
196
Mesozoic Era, 22
Miami Oolite, 284, 285, 286
Miccosukee formation, 185, 189, 190, 191,
192, 193, 194, 203
Middle Ordovician, 21
Middle Silurian, 21
Midway Age, Clastic Facies, list of wells
45
Midway Stage, 44, 45
Miocene, Middle, 137
Miocene Coarse Clastics, 185
Miocene Series, 115
Miocene Stratigraphic Chart, Florida Pan-
handle, 117
Moore, W. E., 76, 95, 96
Mosquito Creek, 190
Mossom, S., 102, 116, 118, 196, 197, 202,
276, 284
Mount Dora Ridge, 15
Murray, G. E., 3, 39, 57
Navarro Age, Beds of, 33
New Hope Ridge, 15
Newberry Corporation Pits, Stop 12,82
List of vertebrate remains, 82
Northern Highlands, 10, 15
Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere
Faunizone, 69, 74, 75
Oak Grove Facies, 136
Oak Hill, 15
Ocala Group, 55, 57, 58, 164, 177, 178, 179
Cotype locality, Stop 11, 81, pl. 10
Distribution, 73


310


Downdip Facies of the, 94
List of larger Foraminifera from Florida
and Georgia, 96
Thickness, 72
Zonation, 73
Ocala Hill, 15
Ocala Uplift, 3
Okaloakoochee Marl Member, 269, 275, 277
Okeechobee Plain, 14
Oldsmar Limestone, 45, 47
Limestone Facies, List cf wells,
4,
Lit ot Foraminifera and Ostra-
coda from, 46
Oligocene Series, 98, 99
Oligocene, Stratigraphic Chart, 99
Olsen, S. j., i,
Oolite Keys, 14
Operculinoides jacksonensis Faunizone, 65
Operculinoides mariainensis Zone, 74
Opercultnoides mo..s baonr her.sis
FoaLr'ni=:"n :b
Orange Hill, 15
Ordovician, Lower, 19
Ordovician, Middle, 21
Ordovician System, 19
Orlando Ridge, 14
Osceola Low, The, 3
Osceola Plain, 14
Oyster Biostrome, 259
Palatka Hill, 13
Paleocene Series, 42
Paleo r... 1n
Paleozu ,c Sodiment -ry Locks, list
of wells, 19
Paleozoic System, 16
Pamlico Formation, 217, 219, 221, 224
224, 233, 236, 240, 241, 243,244,
245, 250, 251; 252, 268, 271,274
284
Panhandle, Stratigraphic Chart of the
Subsurface, 25
Panhandle, Terraces of the, 14
Panope Faunizone, 253
Parish, A. L., Farm, Stop 28, 111
Parker, Garald G., 212, 213, 214,217,
222, 236, 246, 253, 270, 275, 276,
277, 278, 280, 282, 283, 285, 286
Pea Ridge, 14
Pensacola Clay, 194, 195
Peoria Hill, 13
Physiographic Divisions, Proposed, 13




289


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5



Monalysidium politum (Chapman)
Peneroplis pertusus (Forskal)
Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny
Planorbulina acervalis ? H. B. Brady
Planorbulina mediterranensis d'Orbigny
Pyrgo denticulata (H. B. Brady)
Pyrgo subsphaerica (d'Orbigny)
Quinqueloculina agglutinans d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina bidentata d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina collumnosa Cushman
Quinqueloculina funafutiensis Chapman
Quinqueloculina fusca ? H. B. Brady
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina polygona d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina striata d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny
Rotalia beccarii (Linnaeus)
Rotalia rosea d'Orbigny
Siphonina pulchra Cushman
Sorites marginalis Lamarck
Spirolina arietinus Bartsch
Spiroloculina antillarum d'Orbigny
Textularia floridana Cushman
Textularia mayor Cushman
Triloculina bicarinata d'Orbingy
Triloculina carinate d'Orbigny
Triloculina circularis Bornemann
Triloculina labiosa d'Orbigny
Triloculina linneiana d'Orbigny
Triloculina oblonga Montagu
Triloculina planciana d'Orbigny
Triloculina quadrilateral is d'Orbigny
Triloculina rotunda d'Orbigny
Triloculina suborbicularis d'Orbigny
Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny
Triloculina trigonula Lamarck
Valvulina oviedoiana d'Orbigny
Vertebralina cassis d'Orbigny
Vertebralina cassis var. mucronata d'Orbigny


The following species of ostracodes occur in the Florida Bay area:





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


Cole (1931) lists the following Foraminifera from Rose's Bluff,
right bank of St. Mary's River, Nassau County:

Elphidium fimbriatulum var. advenum
Elphidium incertum
Elphidium peoyanum
Bolivina doniezi
Angulogerina occidentalis
Rotalia beccarii var. tepida
Globegerina triloba
Cibicides lobatulus

North of Boca Raton, excellent exposures of the Anastasia Forma-
tion occur intermittently along the east coast of Florida. One of the most
interesting outcrops is at Blowing Rock, 1Y2 miles north of Jupiter Light.
About 10 feet of tan, hard, coquinoid limestone occurs at this outcrop.
Small, solution-hole perforations, through which water is extruded when
the rock is struck by waves, is one of the interesting features of this
outcrop.

Several outcrops of Anastasia are seen along the west coast of
Florida. At Siesta Key, near Sarasota, Anastasia Formation is almost
continuously exposed as a bluff about 7 feet high. Coarse coquinoid
limestone grades laterally to a microcoquina along the exposure.

Stop 82: Roadcut in the south end of Palm Beach golf course, one block
north of Ridgeview Avenue.

Regarding this outcrop, Parker, et al., (1955) state that 18 feet
of Anastasia is exposed here.

This is the thickest exposure of the Anastasia Formation in Flo-
rida and shows an unconformity between Bed 1 and Bed 2. Parker, et
al., (op. cit.) considered these beds to have been deposited in two diff-
erent ages in the Pleistocene. They also consider the possibility that
the entire Anastasia Formation was deposited during most, if not all,
of the Pleistocene interglacial ages. DuBar (1958, p. 28), however,
believes the Anastasia was deposited during the Iowan substage of the
Wisconsin.

Stop 83: Drainage ditch on left side of road where it crosses old rail-
road grade. (Section modified after Schroeder, 1954, p. 41.)


283





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


299


Heilprin, Angelo.
1882 On the occurrence of Nummulitic deposits in Florida, and the assoc-
iation of Nummulites with a fresh water fauna: Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia Proc., p. 189-193.

1887 Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee
wilderness: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., v. 1, 134p.

Hendry, Charle. W., Jr.
1958 (and Yon, J. William, Jr.) Geology of the area in and around the
Jim Woodruff reservoir: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 16, p. 1-52,
8 figs.

1964 Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida (ms.).

Herring, D., Jr. (see Rainwater, E.H.)


Hopkins, 0. B.
1920 Drilling for oil in Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Press Bull., Apr.,
1920.

Howe, Henry V.
1935 (and others) Ostracoda of the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee
Miocene of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 7-37, pis. 1-4.

1951 New Tertiary ostracode fauna from Levy County, Floerida: Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 34, pt. 1, p. 1-43, 5 pis.

Howell, B. F.
1949 (and Richards, H. G.) New Paleozoic linguloid brachipod from
Florida: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Bull., v. 24, no. 4, 35-37.

Hoy, Nevin D. (see Schroeder, Melvin C.)

Hull, J.P.D., Jr.
1962 Cretaceous Suwannee Strait, Georgia and Florida: Am. Assoc. Petro-
leum Geologists Bull., v. 46, p. 118-121.

Johnson, L. C.
1888 The structure of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci. (ser. 3), v. 36, p. 230-236.

Jordan, Louise (also see Applin, E.R.)
1954 Oil possibilities in Florida: Oil and Gas Jour., v. 53, no. 28, p.
370-372, 375, (Nov. 15, 1954).





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1957 Alabama, Georgia, Florida, in Reeside, J. B.k chm. Correlation of
the Triassic formations of North America exclusive of Canada:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 68, p. 1486-1489.

1960 Significance of changes in thickness and lithofacies of the Sunni-
land Limestone, Collier County, Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Paper 400-B, p. B 209-B 211.

1964 The Comanche Series and associated rocks in the subsurface in
central and south Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 447,
in press.

Banks, Joseph E. (see Puri, H. S.)

Bassler, R.S. (see Canu, Ferdinand)

Beardsley, Donald W. (see DuBar, Jules R.)

Berdan, Jean (also see Bridge, Josiah)
1951 (and Bridge, Josiah) In Geology of Citrus and Levy counties,
Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 33, p. 68-71.

1960 (and Schopf, J.M.) Personal correspondence.

Bergendahl, Maximilian H.
1956 Stratigraphy of the parts of DeSoto and Hardee counties, Florida:
U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1030-B, p. 65-98.

Bishop, Ernest W.
1956 Geology and ground water resources of Highlands County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 15, 115 p.

Bridge, Josiah (also see Berdan, Jean)
1952 (and Berdan, Jean) Preliminary correlation of the Paleozoic rocks
from test wells in Florida and adjacent parts of Georgia and Ala-
bama: Fla. Geol. Survey, Guidebook, Am. Assoc. State Geologists,
p. 29-38, 1 fig.

Canu, Ferdinand
1920 (and Bassler, R.S.) North American early Tertiary Bryozoa:
U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 106, 879p., 179 figs., 162 pis.

Carr, Wilfred J.
1959 (and Alverson, Douglas C.) Stratigraphy of the Middle Tertiary
rock in part of west central Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1092,
109p.





























































































































































































































































































































d





INDEX (Cont.)


Swain, F. M.. 60
Swamps, Coastai, 14
Tallahassee Hills, 15
T-.l'ha!ta Po-mation, 51
Torre-. : ou 44
Tamiami Formation, 212, 214, 217,220,
221, 222, 243, 253, 255
Toanr- S~ 116, 120, 1 1!, 123
Totes Heli Swamp, 14
Taylor Age, beds of, 31
Faur o, 31
Teasdale Hill, 13
Ten Mile Ridge, 13
Ten Thousand Islands, 14
Terraces of the Pcnhundle, 14
Thomas Farm, section at Gilchrist
County, 164
List of vertebrate fauna from, 171
Photographs of Alachua Forma-
tion, 170
Photographs of boulder bar, 169
Stru(cure Map, 167
Topographic Map, 166
Toulmin, L. D., 5
Trail Ridge, 15
Triassic System, 22
Tsala Apopka Plain, 15
Turritella facies, 259
Tuscaloosa Formation, 26
List of wells, 27
Upper Cretaceous Structure Map, 30
Upper Cretaceous System, 24
Upper Silurian, 21
Valley Lakes, Drowned, 15
Vaughrn, T. W., 2, 73
Veatch, Otto. 6, 224 225
Vernon, R. 0., 3, 7, 13, 24, 31, 39, 42,
48, 50, 52, 54, 57, 59, 60, 64, 68,
69, 72, 73, 74, 102, 106, 107, 111,
112, 113, 118, 137, 145, 150, 173,
186, 197, 225, 228, 230, 231,287
Vicksburg Group, 98, 99, 157
Wacissa River, Braided Channel of, 14
Wakulla Hills, 14
Wall, S. M., Quarry, Stop 13, 83
Washington County Outliers, 15


Wekiva Plain, 13
Western Highlands, 15
Western Valley, 15
White, W. A., 7, 13
White Springs, Location near, 158
Wilcox Stage, 47
Clastic beds, list of wells, 48
Williston Formation, 58, 60, 64, 65,
66, 68, 88, 177
Fauna, 60
Type locality, Stop 5, 64
Winter, V. C., 26
Winter Haven Ridge, 15
Yellow River formation, 200, 201
Yon, J. William, Jr., 115
Yulee Hill, 13
Zephyr Hills Gap, 15


312





304


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Sanford, Samuel.
1909 The topography and geology of southern Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey
2d Ann. Rept., p. 175-231.

Schopf, J.M. (see Berdan, J.)

Schroeder, Melvin C.
1952 (and Hoy, Nevin D.) Stratigraphy of the outcropping formations in
southern Flofida: Fla. Geol. Survey, 44th Ann. Meeting, Assoc. of
American State Geologists, Guidebook, p. 62-80.

1954a Stratigraphy of the outcropping formations in southern Florida: South-
eastern Geol. Soc., 8th Field Trip Guidebook, p. 18-48.

1954b (and Klein, Howard) Geology of the western Everglades area,
southern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 314, 26p., 3 figs.

Sellards, E.H.
1910 A preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits: Fla. Geol.
Survey, Ann. Rept. 3, p. 17-42.

1912 The soils and other surface residual materials of Florida: Fla. Geol.
Survey 4th Ann. Rept., p. 1-79, pls. 1-12, 3 figs.

1919 Geologic sections across the Everglades of Florida: Fla. Geol. Sur-
vey 12th Ann. Rept., p. 67-76.

Smith, Robert H.
1941 Micropaleontology and stratigraphy of a deep well at Niceville,
Okaloosa County, Florida: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists,
Bull., v. 25, p. 263-286.

Southeastern Geological Society Mesozoic Committee
1949 4 Charts, Alabama, Georgia and Florida.

Spencer, Charles W. (see Espenshade, G.H.)

Stanley-Brown, J. (see Dall, William H.)

Stephenson, L. W. (also see Veatch, 0.)
1928 Major marine transgressions and regressions and structural features
of the Gulf Coastal Plain: Am. Jour. Sci., v. 16, no. 94, p. 281-298.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


301


1932a Pleistocene fossils from limestone in southern Florida: U.S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 170-D, p. 43-56, 5 pis.

1932b Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey 9ull. 8, 240p., 3 figs., 34 pis.

1932c (and Ponton, G.M.) Faunal zones in the Miocene Choctawhatchee
formation of Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., v. 22, no. 4, p.
84-88, 1 fig.

1934 A new species of Pecten from the Oligocene near Duncan Church,
Washington County, Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., v. 24, no.
8, p. 331-333, 3 figs.

1937 Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee limestones of Florida: Fla.
Geol. Survey Bull. 15, 334p., 23 pls., 10 figs.

1939 Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of peninsular
Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 18, 75 p., 3 pis., 1 fig.

1940 Mollusks of the Chickasawhay marl: Jour. Paleontology, v. 14, no.
3, p. 171-224, pis. 25-27.

Marsh, Owe T.
1960 Relation of Bucatunna clay member of Byram formation to geology
and ground water of westernmost Florida: Geol. Soc. Am., Eastern
Section, Lexington meeting Progrdm, p. 14.

1964 Geology of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties, Florida (?) (ms.).

Matson, G.G.
1909 (and Clapp, F.G.) A preliminary report on the geology of Florida
with special reference to the stratigraphy: Fla. Geol. Survey 2d
Ann. Rept., 1908-1909, p. 25-173.

Moore, Wayne E.
1955 Geology of Jackson County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 37,
101p.

Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, C. Wythe)

Murray, Grover E.
1952 Geology of Beauregard and Allen parishes: Louisiana Dept. Cons.
Geol. Bull. 27 (stratigraphy, pl. 13).






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5






SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA

AND

A GUIDEBOOK TO THE CLASSIC EXPOSURES


By
Harbans S. Puri and Robert 0. Vernon






Revised


TA LLAHASSEE
1964





INDEX


Aeolian features, 14
Alachua Formation, 154, 159, 162,
176, 177, 178, 179
Alachua Lake Cross Valley, 15
Alum Bluff Stage, 119, 126, 146, 149,
151, 155, 158, 176, 177, 178,
179, 181, 182, 184, 185, 208
Anastasia Formation, 214, 217, 223,
282, 284
Antoine, J. W., 3, 5, 39
Applin, E. R. and P. L., 2, 3, 6, 16,
19, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32,
34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 44, 45, 47,
48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 73, 74,
109
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni Fauni-
zone, 69, 74, 76
Asterocyclina Faunizone, Type locality,
84
Atkinson Formation, 27, 38
Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, 13
Barrier chain, 13
Lagoons, 13
Ridge, 13
Austin Age, Beds of, 29
Avon Park Limestone, 50, 54, 55, 163
Fauna, 53
General lithology, 52
Ayers Landing Marl Member, 233, 237, 240,
241, 245, 264
Bars, Relict, 14
Basalt, 22
Listing of wells penetrating, 23
Bassler, R. S. 77, 86
Beacon Slope, 14
Bee Branch Member, 234, 240, 241, 242,
243, 244, 246, 250, 251, 262, 269,
271
Bell, quarry near, 67
Bell Ridge, 14
Berdan, Jean, 19, 20, 21, 34, 35
Big Cypress Spur, 14
Bill Rush's Pit, Stop 17, 87
Bombing Range Ridge, 14
Bone Valley Formation, 180, 181, 182,
184
Bonny Lake Mine, Stop 45, 180
Boulder Bar, Thomas Farm, 169


Bridge, Josiah, 19, 20, 21, 34, 35
Brooksville Ridge, 15
Broward Syncline, 2
Buckingham limestone
Type locality, Stop 58, 216
Buda Pit, Stop 19, 89
Byram Formation, 102, 103,
Fauna, 103
Exposure, Stop 26, 103
Calico Hill, 14
Caloosahatchee Formation, 224, 238, 243,
244, 251, 252, 258, 269, 271, 272
Caloosahatchee Incline, 14
Caloosahatchee Marl, 231, 233, 237, 240,
241, 245, 250, 254
Caloosahatchee Valley, 14
Canu, Ferdinand, 77, 86
Cape Sable, 14
Cedar Keys Formation, 42
Fauna, 42
Limestone Facies, List of wells, 44
Cenozoic Era, 42
Cenozoic Stratigraphic Chart, 43
Central Highlands, 9, 15
Central Valley, 15
"Charlton" Formation, 224, 225
Chattahoochee Anticline, 6
Chattahoochee Formation, 99, 111, 113,
118, 120, 121, 123
Type locality, Stop 31, 118
Chipola Formation, 126, 127, 128
Type locality, Stop 33, 126
Choctawhatchee Stage, 146, 150, 154, 181
182, 184, 192, 193, 196, 198, 201,
203, 208, 214, 217, 220, 221, 225,
243, 253, 255
Citronelle Formation, 130
Citrus County, Crystal River Rock Com-
pany Quarry, 69
Claiborne Stage, 48
Clapp, F. G., 116, 125, 126, 129, 180, 196
Clay Pit, Stop 48, 187
Clay Pit (kaolin), Stop 49, 187
Coastal Lowlands, 12
Intermediate, 14
Coastal Plain Floor, 35
Coastal Swamps, Reticulate, 14
Cody Escarpment, 15


307






TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Preface .................................................... ...... iii
Structure and Geologic Setting ....................................... 1
Physiographic Setting .............................................. 7
The Central Highlands ......................................... 9
The Northern Highlands ........................................ 10
Marianna Lowlands ............................................. 12
The Coastal Lowlands .... ..................................... 12
Proposed Physiographic Divisions ................................... 13
Stratigraphy ....................................................... 16
Cryptozoic Era ................................................ 16
Pre-Cambrian System ....................................... 16
Paleozoic (?) or Pre-Cambrian (?) System .............. ..... 16
Paleozoic Era ................................................. 19
Ordovician System ......................................... 19
Lower Ordovician ...................................... 19
Middle Ordovician ...................................... 21
Silurian (?) System ......................................... 21
Middle or Upper Silurian ................................ .1
Devonian System ........................................... 21
Middle (?) Devonian ....................... .... ..... 21
Mesozoic Era .................................................. 22
Triassic System ........................................... 22
Diabase and Basalt ............................ ........ 22
Unnamed Red Beds .................................... 22
Jurassic System .................................. ......... .. 22
Cretaceous Period ............................................. 24
Lower Cretaceous System .................................... 24
Comanche Series ...................................... 24
Upper Cretaceous System ...................................... 24
Tuscaloosa Formation ............................. ... 26
Atkinson Formation .................................... 27
Eutaw Formation ...................................... 29
Beds of Austin Age .................................... 29
Beds of Taylor Age ..................................... 31
Fauna ........................................... 31
Lawson Limestone ................................ .... 32
Fauna ............................................ 32
Beds of Navarro Age (?) ................................ 33
"Cretaceous and older rocks in the subsurface in the Florida
Peninsula," by P. L. Applin and E. R. Applin ............. 34
Cenozoic Era .................................................. '42
Tertiary System ............................................ 42
Paleocene Series ...................................... 42
Cedar Keys Formation .............................. 42
Fauna ......................................... 42
Undifferentiated Midway Stage ........................ 44





























































































































































































































































































































d




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pleistocene Series
Miami Oolite

1 White to cream colored, soft, sandy oolitic limestone (calcium
content 45 to 80 percent) highly cross-bedded fossiliferous in
part ... ... . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . 12

The wave-cut bench which records a stand of the sea called the
Silver Bluff shoreline, is very well preserved at this outcrop and is about
8 feet above mean sea level, the wave-cut notch being at about that
elevation. This shoreline is referred to the mid-Wisconsin recession.
Parker, et al., (1955) have correlated this shoreline with the climatic
optimum of the Recent.

Lake Flirt Marl

The name Lake Flirt Marl was first used by Sellards (1919, p.
73) for a fresh-water "calcareous mud" overlying the Gulf Hammock
Marl along the Caloosahatchee River at Lake Flirt.

Lake Flirt Marl is widely distributed over most of Florida. It
underlies the peat deposits of the Everglades. In the type area around
Lake Flirt, it overlies the Pamlico sand or, if Pamlico is missing,
it overlies the Fort Thompson Formation. In the northern and central
part of the peninsula, about 3 to 4 feet of fresh-water marl with Helisoma
scalare (Jay) is deposited along the banks of streams and on the bottoms
of old lakes. The maximum thickness of the Lake Flirt Marl is about 5
feet.

Marine Terrace Deposits

Florida is blanketed with a cover of unsorted, generally uncemente d
quartz sands that are occasionally set in a nitrogeneous-organic matrix
and which contains seams of clay. Belts of this sand extend around the
State, parallel to the present coastline. These belts occur in step-like
terraces rising inland from the coast, the oldest sediment being the
highest in elevation. Each coastwise belt extends up the major streams
as deltas and flood plain alluvium.

Only those sediments lowest in elevation and youngest in age
contain identifiable fossils of a marine environment. Nevertheless,
because of beach ridges, abandoned wave-cut escarpments, the distribu-
tion and trend of the sediments and general lithology, these sediments
are thought to represent land-marginal marine sediments deposited during


286





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


cycles of eustatic adjustments in sea level, associated with maxima
and minima developments of ice in the Pleistocene.

The coastwise belts and their contemporaneous upstream exten-
sions are bound by erosional escarpments and as such they are terraces.
The higher and older terraces are poorly defined. As many as nine ter-
races have been recorded by some students, but only four are separable
up the streams. Five significant coastwise surfaces are present, the
highest of which is a high-level alluvial deposit being present in the
north panhandle and down the center of the peninsula.

These terraces and contemporaneous deposits are presented below
with tentative age assignments:


Tentative Age

Late Wisconsin, Interglacial
Late Wisconsin, Glacial
Peorian, Interglacial
Early Wisconsin, Glacial
Sangamon, Interglacial
Illinoian, Glacial
Yarmouth, Interglacial
Kansan, Glacial
Aftonian, Interglacial
Nebraskan, Glacial


Terrace and Shore Line

Silver Bluff, 8 feet
Erosion
Pamlico, 30 feet
Erosion
Wicomico, 100 feet
Erosion
Okefenokee, 150 feet
Erosion
Coharie, 220 feet
Erosion. High-level alluvium


More complete discussions of the history and mechanisms of de-
position of the Pleistocene deposits are given by Vernon (1942; 1951,
p. 17-43, 208-215) and MacNeil (1950). Cooke (1945) presented a diffe-
rent view.


287




9 Stratigraphic chart of the Subsurface Panhandle . , ...... 25
10 Structure map upper cretaceous top of a high resistivity curve in
Eutaw Formation ................................ .............. 30
11 Stratigraphic Cenozoic nomenclature chart ................. ... 43
12 Nomenclature and relationships of the Upper Eocene rocks in
Florida ...................................................... 58
13 Nomenclature and relationships of the Oligocene rocks in Florida. 99
14 Nomenclature and relationships of the Miocene rocks in the Florida
Panhandle ................................................. 117
15 East-west geologic cross section through part of Highlands County
showing relationship of the marine Hawthorn formation with the non-
marine Hawthorn (Fort Preston formation?) (after Bishop, 1956)... 138
16 Cross-bedded, coarse clastic of the Fort Preston formation contain-
ing logs and plant impressions .............................. 139
17 Alluvium showing festoon bedding cut by "blind shrimp borings",
Fort Preston formation? ..................................... 140
18 Thin-bedded, contorted dolomite, quartz and phosphorite and algal
dolomite plate. Note the large more calcic mass left of center .... 141
19 Cross-bedded quartz and phosphorite sand and thin algal (?) dolo-
mite plates with mud cracks and large calcic mass ............... 142
20 View of beach area composed of algal (?) dolomi te plate, ripple-
marked, cross-bedded with sand and dipping steeply toward the back
of the picture .............................................. 143
21 Fill of cavern formed in the Suwannee limestone by alternating thin
beds of attapulgite and quartz-phosphate sands of the Hawthorn for-
m action .................................................... 144
22 View of the oyster biostrome (bed 1) in the Hawthorn formation near
White Springs, Columbia County, Florida....................... 160
23 Topographic map of the Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida,
showing location of auger holes (AS-288-AS-310), discovery well
and the various types of sediments exposed in the "Dig". ....... 166
24 Thomas Farm "'Dig"', Gilchrist County, Florida (April, 1956).....Pocket
25 Structure map on the top of predominantly clayey material, Thomas
Farm "aDig", Gilchrist County, Florida ........................ 167
26 Structure map on the top of the Crystal River Formation, Thomas
Farm "Dig", Gilchrist County, Florida ........................ 168
27 View of the boulder bar ..................................... 169
28 Close-up of figure 27 (area with pencil) showing the contact of the
boulder bar with cross-bedded sandy clay ...................... . 169
29 Cross-bedded coarse sands (strike N. 30 to 50 W. variable) of the
Alachua Formation, Thomas Farm ""Dig" ...................... 170
30 Close-up of figure 29 (area with pen) showing festoon type cross-
bedding ....................................... .......... 170
31 Geologic cross-section along the Caloosahatchee River from Moore
Haven and LaBelle ......................................... Pocket
32 Geologic cross-section along the Caloosahatchee River from LaBelle
to O lga.................. ................ ................. Pocket
33 Correlation of stratigraphic sections along the Alligator Creek .. Pocket
34 Paleogeographic map of Florida during the Miocene ............. 227


viii





300


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Kellogg, Remington.
1959 Description of the skull of Pomatodelphis inaequalis Allen (Florida):
Harvard Coll. Mus. Comp. Zoology Bull., v. 121, no. 1, p. 1-26.

Ketner, K.B.
1959 (and McGreevy, L.J.) Stratigraphy of the area between Hernando and
Hardee counties, Flo Ida: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1074-C, p. .-9-124.

Kjellesvig-Waering, E.N.
1950 A new silurian eurypterid from Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 24,
p. 229-231.

Klein, Howard (see Schroeder, Melvin C.)

Langdon, Daniel W., Jr.
1889 Some Florida Miocene: Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., v. 38, p. 322-323.

1891a Geological section along the Chattahoochee River from Columbus
to Alum Bluff: Georgia Geol. Survey 1st Prog. Rept., p. 90-97.

1891b Variations in the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of Alabama: Geol.
Soc. America Bull., v. 2, p. 587-606, pl. 23.

Levin, Harold L.
1957 Micropaleontology of the Oldsmar limestone (Eocene): Micropaleon-
tology, v. 3, no. 2, p. 137-154, pis. 1-4, text-figs. 1-2, chart 1.

1950 Pleistocene shore lines m Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.

McGreevy, L. J. (see Cathcart, J. B. and Ketner, K. B.)

MacNeil, F. Stearns
1944 Oligocene stratigraphy of southeastern United States: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 28, p. 1313-1354, 1 fig.

1949 Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.

Mansfield, Wendell C. (see also Cooke, C. Wythe)
1916 Mollusks from the type localidy of the Choctawhatchee marl: U.S.
Nat. Mus. Proc., v. 51, p. 599-607.

1930 Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion of Florida: Fla Geol. Survey Bull. 3, 142p., 21 pis.





Eocene Series .......................................... 45
Oldsmar Limestone ................................ 45
Undifferentiated Wilcox Stage ....................... 47
Clastic Beds of Wilcox Age ......................... 48
Claiborne Stage .................................... 48
Lake City Limestone .......................... 48
Fauna ............................. ...... 50
Tallahatta Formation ........................... 51
Avon Park Limestone .................. ........... 52
General Lithology ......................... 52
Fauna ................................ 53
Lisbon Formation ............................. 56
Ocala Group ............................... ..... .. 57
Inglis Formation ............................... 59
Fauna .................................... 60
Williston Formation ............................ 64
Fauna .................................... 66
Crystal River Formation ......... ................ 68
Fauna ...................................... 71
Thickness .................. ............. .. 72
Distribution ........ ........................ 73
Zonation ..................... ............ 73
Oligocene Series .................................. 98
Vicksburg Group ........ ........................ 98
Marianna Limestone ........................ 98
Byram Formation .......................... 102
Fauna ....................... ......... 103
Suwannee Limestone ....................... 105
Fauna .................................. 107
Miocene Series ................... ............ .......... 115
Tampa Stage .................. .. ....... ........ . 116
Chattahoochee Formation ............. .... .. 118
St. Marks Formation ........................... 125
Alum Bluff Siuge ................................... 126
Chipola Formation ............... ............. 126
Shoal River Formation ........................ 129
Oak Grove Sand ......................... ... 136
Hawthorn Formation .......................... 144
Alachua Formation ........................... 159
Bone Valley Formation ........................ 180
Miocene Coarse Clastics ...................... 185
Fort Preston Formation ... ..................... 185
Miccosukee Formation ........................ 185
Pensacola Clay .................... .......... 194
Choctawhatchee Stage ............................ 196
Red Bay Formation ........................... 197
Yellow River formation ........................ 200
Jackson Bluff formation ....................... 202
Tamiami Formation ........................... 212
Alva clay member ......................... 213
LaBelle clay member ..................... 213
""Charlton"" Formation .......................... 224
Paleoecology of the Miocene ............................ 226
Pliocene Series ... .............. ...............
?Plio-Pleistocene Series ............................
High level alluvial and deltaic deposits .........

vi





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


295


Cathcart, James B.
1959 (and McGreevy, Lawrence J.) Results of geologic exploration by
core drilling, 1953, land-pebble phosphate district, Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Bull. 1046-K, p. 221-298, pl. 16-34.

Cheeth am, Alan H.
1963 Late Eocene zoogeography of the eastern Gulf Coast region: Geol.
Soc. America Memoir 91, 113p.

Clapp, F. G. (see Matson, G. G.)

Cole, W. Storrs
1930 (and Ponton, G. M.) The Foraminifera of the Marianna limestone
of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 5, p. 19-69.

1931 The Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera of Florida: Fla. Geol.
Survey Bull. 6, 58p., pls. 1-7, text-figs. 1-3.


1938 Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two deep
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 77p.

1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells
Geol. Survey Bull. 19, 89p., 18 pis.

1942 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 89p., 16 pis.

1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 188p., 29 pis. 168 p.


wells in Florida:



in Florida: Fla.



in Florida:--No. 2:



in Florida--No. 3:


1945 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida--No. 4:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 28, 129p. 8 figs., 22 pls., 17 tables.

1961 (and Applin, E. R.) Stratigraphic and geographic distribution of
larger foraminifera occurring in a well in Coffee County, Georgia:
Cushman Found. Foram. Research. Contr., w. 12, pt. 4, pp. 127-
135, pl. 6-7. v. 12.

1964 (and Applin, E. R.) Problems of the geographic and stratigraphic
distribution of American Middle Eocene larger foraminifera: Amer.
Paleontology Bull., v. 47, no. 212, 48p., 11pls.

Cooke, C. Wythe (also see Parker, G. G.)
1915 The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
95, p..107-117.


































Fort Thompson A



aloosahatchee marl



Figure 37. Block diagram of the Miami area (after Parker, et. al., 1955).
uJR

Ah
P'IAEAH-l I IANAL7 N

















Fiue 7 loc igamoEhRMaiaea(fe Preeoal,15)


K)
00






298


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fenneman, Nevin M.
1938 Physiography of the eastern United States: McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
p. 46-47.

Finch, John.
1823 Geological essay on the Tertiary formation in America: Am. Jour.
Sci., v. 7, p. 31-43.

Fischer, Alfred G.
1951 The echinoid fauna of the Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 2, p. 45-101, 7 pis.

Foerste, August F.
1894 The upper Vicksburg Eocene and Chattahoochee Miocene of south-
west Georgia and adjacent Florida: Am. Jour. Sci. 3d ser., v. 48, no.
283, art. 8, p. 41-54, 1 fig.

Gardner, Julia A.
1926-1950 The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff group of Florida: U.S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 142, 709p., 62 pis. Pts. A-D, 1926; pt. E, 1928;
pt. F, 1937; pt. G, 1944; pt. H, 1947; pt. I, 1950.

Goodell, H. G.
1960 (and Yon, J. William, Jr.) The regional lithostratigraphy of the post-
Eocene rocks of Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc., 9th Field Trip,
p. 75-113, 3 pis., 7 figs.

Gravell, D. W.
1938 (and Hanna, M.A.) Subsurface Tertiary zones of correlation through
Mississippi, Alabama and Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists
Bull., v. 22, p. 984-1013.

Gremillion, Louis R.
1964 Geology of Gadsden County, Florida (ms.).

Hanna, M.A. (see Gravell, D.W.)

Harding, J.L. (see Antoine, J.W.)

Harris, G.D. (see Dall, W.H.)

Harris, G.D. (also see Dall, William H.)
1951 Preliminary notes on Ocala bivalves: Bull. Amer. Paleontology, v.
33, no. 138, 55p., 13 pis.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


297


1890-1903 Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida with especial ref-
erence to the Miocene silex beds of Tampa and the Pliocene of the
Caloosahatchee River: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., v. 3, pts. 1-6,
p. 1-1654, 60 pis. Pt. 1, 1890; pt. 2, 1892; pt. 3, 1895; pt. 4, 1898;
pt. 5, 1900; pt. 6, 1903.

1894 (and Stanley-Brown, J.) Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola
River: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 5, p. 147-170.

1915 A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of
the Oligocene of Tampa: Smithsonian Inst. Bull. 90, 173p., 16 pis.

DuBar, Jules R.
1958a Stratigraphy and paleontol loosahatchee River area of southern Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull.
40, 267p., 12 pis.

1958b Neogene stratigraphy of southwestern Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc.
Geol. Soc. Trans., v. VIII, p. 129-155, 14 figs.

1961 (and Beardsley, Donald W.) Paleoecology of the Choctawhatchee de-
posits (Late Miocene) at Alum Bluff, Florida: Southeastern Geology,
v. 2, no. 3, p. 155-189.

1962 Neogene biostratigraphy of the Charlotte Harbor area in southwestern
Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 43, 83p.

1962 (and Taylor, Donald S.) Paleoecology of the Choctawhatchee de-
posits, Jackson Bluff, Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc., v.
12, p. 349-376.


Ericson, David B. (see Rainwater, E.H.)

Espenshade, Gilbert H.
1958 Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala,
Marion County, Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1046-J, p. 203-219,
pl. 12-15, 5 tables.

1963 (and Spencer, Charles W.) Geology of phosphate deposits of Northern
peninsular Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1118, 115p., 12 pis., 4
figs., 25 tables.




Quaternary System ........................................ 231
Pleistocene Series.................................... 231
Caloosahatchee Marl .............................. 231
Fort Denaud Member .......................... 231
Marine Marl .................................. 235
Bee Branch Member ........................... 240
Ayers Landing Member ........................ 245
Shell Bed ................................. 249
Panope faunizone ......................... 253
Paleoecology of the Caloosahatchee Formation ....... 258
Fort Denaud Member .......................... 258
Cyrtopleura costata faunizone ............... 258
Brackish Shallow-Water facies.............. 258
High salinity shallow-water bay facies ...... 258
Turritella facies ......................... 259
Oyster Biostrome and related beds .......... 259
Brackish-water beds ..................... 261
Bee Branch Member ........................... 262
Limestone facies ......................... 262
Marly facies ............................. 262
Ayers Landing Member......................... 264
Shell bed ................................. 264
Fort Thompson Formation ...................... 268 28
Okaloakoochee Member ..... ...................... 275
Lower fresh-water marl .................... 275
Chlamys bed ............................. 275
Upper fresh-water marl ..................... 276
Fresh-water limestone .................... 276
Coffee Mill Hammock marl ................. 276
Paleoecology of the Fort Thompson Formation ....... 277
Okaloakoochee Member ........................ 277
Coffee Mill Hammock Marl ...................... 278
Key Largo Limestone .......................... 2800
Anastasia Formation .......................... 282
Miami Oolite ................................. 284
Lake Flirt Marl ............................... 286
Marine Terrace Deposits ....................... 286
Recent Series ........................................ 288
Selected References .............................................. 293
Index ............................................................ 307


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Generalized Geologic cross sections through Florida ............ Pocket
2 Index to principal geologic structures in Florida ................ 4
3 Contours of the top of the Pre-Mesozoic and Cretaceous beds .... 5
4 Generalized locations of landforms............................ 8
5 Physiographic map of West Florida........................... Pocket
6 Physiographic map of North Peninsular Florida ................ Pocket
7 Physiographic map of South Peninsular Florida ............... Pocket
8 Stratigraphic nomenclature chart of Florida..................... 17


vii





302


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1961 Geology of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Province of North America:
New York, Harper & Bros., 692p.

Olsen, Stanley J.
1959 Fossil mammals of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Special Pub., no. 6,
75p.

1962 The Thomas Farm fossil quarry: Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci., v. 25,
p. 142-146.

Palmer K.V.W. (see Richards, Horace G.)

Parker, Garald G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. Wythe) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull.
27, 119p., 4 figs., 16 pis.

1955 (and others) Water resources of southeastern Florida with special
reference to the geology and ground water of the Miami area: U.S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255, 963p.

Pirkle, E.C.
1956 The Hawthorn and Alachua formations of Alachua County, Florida:
Fla. Acad. Sci. Quart. Jour., v. 19, p. 197-240, 14 figs.


Ponton, G. M. (see Cole, W. Storrs; Cushman, Joseph A.; Mansfield, W.C.)

Pressler, E.D.
1947 Geology and occurrence of oil in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., v. 31, p. 1851-1862.

Puri, Harbans S. (also see Vernon, R.O.)
1953 Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Florida (abstract): Jour.
Sed. Petrology, v. 23, p. 130.

1954 Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 36, 345p.

1956 (and Vernon, R.O.) A summary of the geology of Florida with
emphasis on the Miocene deposits and guidebook to the Miocene ex-
posures: Fla. Geol. Survey, 85p.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 5


305


Stubbs, Sidney A.
1939 Studies of Foraminifera from seven stations in the vicinity of Bis-
cayne Bay: Fla. Acad. Sci. Proc., v. 4, p. 225-230.

Swain, Frederick M.
1946 Ostracoda from the Tertiary of Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 20,
p. 374-383, pis. 54, 55'.

1964 (and Brown, Philip M.) Cretaceous Ostracoda from wells in the
southeastern United States: North Carolina, Dept. Conser. Bull.
78, 55p.

Toulmin, L.D.
1955 Cenozoic geology of southeastern Alabama, Florida, and Georgia:
Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull.,v. 39, p. 207-235.

Vaughan, T.W.
1910 A contribution to the geologic history of the F loridian Plotean:
Carnegie Inst. Washington, Papers Tortuga Lab., no. 4, p. 99; 185.


1928 New species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala lime-
stone: Fla. Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., p. 155-165.

Veatch, Otto.
1911 (and Stephenson, L.W.) Preliminary report on the geology of the
coastal plain of Georgia: Ga. Geol. Survey Bull. 26, p. 30-31, 62-64.

Vernon, Robert 0.
1942 Geology of Holmes and Washington counties, Florida: Fla. Geol.
Survey Bull. 21, 161p., 20 figs.

1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey
Bull. 33, 256p., 2 pis.

1952 The Cenozoic rocks of the northern Peninsular and the Panhandle
of Florida, in Fla. Geol. Survey, Guidebook, Assoc. Am. State
Geologists, 44th Ann. Meeting Field Trip, p. 46-61.

1956 (and Puri, H.S.) A summary of the geology of Panhandle Florida
and a guidebook to the surface exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey G.S.A.
Field Trip, 93p.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


White, Theodore.
1942 The lower Miocene mammal fauna of Florida:
Comp. Zoology Bull., v. 92, no. 1, p. 1-49.

White, William A.
1958 Some geomorphic features of central peninsular
Survey Bull. 41, 92p., 14 figs., 3 pis.


Winter, Victor C.
1954 Pollard Field, Escambia County, Alabama- Gulf
Soc. Trans., v. 4, p. 121-142, 15 figs.


Harvard Coll. Mus.




Florida. Fla. Geol.




Coast Assoc. Geol.


Yon, J. William, Jr. (also see Hendry, Charles W., Jr.; Goodell, H.G.; Puri, H.S.)
1964 Geology and ground water resources of Jefferson County, Florida
(ms.).

1962 (and Puri, H S ) Geology of Waccasassa Flata, Gilchrist County,
Florida Am, Assoc Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 46, p. 674-
684, 6 figs

1964 Stratigraphic Significance of an Upper Miocene Fossil Discovery in
Jefferson County, Florida: (in press)


Yo-ng, E s-o Aitsc er, Z S )


306




35 Composite stratigraphic section of the Quaternay showing strati-
graphic terminology in the Caloosahatchee area ................ 232
36 Correlation of the stratigraphic sections along the Shell Creek... Pocket
37 Block diagram of the Miami area (after Parker, et. al., 1955) ..... 281

Plate
1 Preliminary age determination of the Paleozoic rocks in test wells
in Florida and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama ......... Pocket
2a Geologic map of West Florida ............................... Pocket
2b Geologic map of North Peninsular Florida ..................... Pocket-
2c Geologic map of South Peninsular Florida ..................... Pocket
3 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in the Florida Pan-
handle .................................................... Pocket
4 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in central and northern
Florida................................................... Pocket
5 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in central Florida.... Pocket
6 Panel diagram of the post-Avon Park rocks in southern Florida.. Pocket
7 Panel diagram of the Miocene rocks in the Florida Panhandle.... Pocket
8 Correlation of stratigraphic sections along the Caloosahatchee
River .......... .. ....... ... .................... ...... Pocket
9 Map of the Florida Panhandle showing route, oad log, and sche-
duled stops. ... ........................................... Pocket
10 Map of the northern and central peninsula showing route, road log,
and scheduled stops ......... .............................. Pocket
11 Map of southern Florida showing route, road log, and scheduled
stops ......... ........ .......................... ....... Pocket

Table
1 Data on wells penetrating pre-Cambrian rocks ................. 16
2 Data on wells penetrating rhyolitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks.. 18
3 Data on wells penetrating Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in
F lorida ............................. .... .. ................ 19
4 Data on wells penetrating diabase and basalt ................... 23


ix