• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Introduction
 Methods
 Black crappie
 Black tilapia
 Bluefin killifish
 Bluegill
 Bluespotted sunfish
 Bowfin
 Brook silverside
 Brown bullhead
 Chain pickerel
 Dollar sunfish
 Eastern mosquitofish
 Everglades pygmy sunfish
 Flagfish
 Florida gar
 Gizzard shad
 Largemouth bass
 Least killifish
 Lined topminnow
 Longnose gar
 Pirate perch
 Pygmy killifish
 Redbreast sunfish
 Redear sunfish
 Intergrades between Redfin pickerel...
 Sailfin molly
 Seminole killifish
 Spotted sunfish
 Sunshine bass
 Swamp darter
 Tadpole madtom
 Taillight shiner
 Threadfin shad
 Warmouth
 White catfish
 Yellow bullhead
 Literature cited
 Appendix I
 Back Cover






Handbook of common freshwater fish in Florida lakes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000131/00001
 Material Information
Title: Handbook of common freshwater fish in Florida lakes
Physical Description: ii, 178 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hoyer, Mark V
Canfield, Daniel E
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Freshwater fishes -- Geographical distribution -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Limnology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Freshwater fishes -- Identification   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: "... the 39 fish species that commonly occur in north central Florida lakes ... are discussed in this book."
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 169-171).
General Note: "SP 160" -- Cover.
Statement of Responsibility: Mark V. Hoyer and Daniel E. Canfield, Jr.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0286
notis - AKF2715
alephbibnum - 001975884
oclc - 31875200
isbn - 0916287106
System ID: UF00000131:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Methods
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Black crappie
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Black tilapia
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Bluefin killifish
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Bluegill
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Bluespotted sunfish
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Bowfin
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Brook silverside
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Brown bullhead
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Chain pickerel
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Dollar sunfish
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Eastern mosquitofish
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Everglades pygmy sunfish
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Flagfish
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Florida gar
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Gizzard shad
        Page 75
    Largemouth bass
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Least killifish
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Lined topminnow
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Longnose gar
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Pirate perch
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Pygmy killifish
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Redbreast sunfish
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Redear sunfish
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Intergrades between Redfin pickerel and Grass pickerel
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Sailfin molly
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Seminole killifish
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Spotted sunfish
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Sunshine bass
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Swamp darter
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Tadpole madtom
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Taillight shiner
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Threadfin shad
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Warmouth
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    White catfish
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Yellow bullhead
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Literature cited
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Appendix I
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text








Best copy available.



Missing images for pages i-ii, 8-9, 76-99,

cover, and title page.









This handbook of common freshwater fish is a summary of fisheries data collected from 60 north
central Florida lakes by the staff of the University of Florida Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
(Table 1 and Figure 1). These data were collected to develop a quantitative method for use by the Florida
Department of Natural Resources (now Department of Environmental Protection) to predict how changes
in the abundance of aquatic macrophytes will influence the limnology and fisheries of Florida lakes
(Canfield and Hoyer 1992). Much of the fisheries data for individual lakes and fish species were not
included in the final report due to the volume of data. We are publishing this handbook, however, because
these data could be valuable to Florida fishery biologists as a reference for comparing their Florida systems,
much as Carlander's (1969; 1977) handbooks of freshwater fishery biology are used across the country.
Any comparison made with the data published in this book, however, should be limited to lake systems
that fall within the ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables listed in
Table 1 and Table 2 for all 60 lakes.

This handbook is not as complete as Carlander and does not add the large amount of literature data
that exists to the statistics reported in this handbook. These data are not included because all of our data
were collected with the same field supervisor, methods and equipment, and literature values would only
add variance due to different methodologies in addition to the natural variance of fish populations.
We feel our data will yield a good range of statistics for Florida fish populations because the selection
of 60 study lakes was based on a stratified design emphasizing lake trophic status and the abundance of
aquatic macrophytes. The lakes ranged from oligotrophic to hypereutrophic and from <1% to 100% area
covered with aquatic macrophytes, with approximately an equal number of lakes throughout each trophic
range (Table 2). The 60 study lakes also encompassed a wide range of pH with lake averages ranging from
4.3 to 9.7 (Table 2). These three major environmental variables (lake trophic status, abundance of aquatic
macrophytes, and pH) are major factors that have been shown to be related to fish populations in Florida
as well as other parts of the country (Haines and Backer 1986; Canfield et al. 1989; Jones and Hoyer 1982;
Canfield and Hoyer 1992; Savino and Stein 1982; Wiley et al. 1984). Thus, the lakes in this data set should
yield most of the possible fish population statistics and values that may occur in north central Florida.


Florida Lakes Sampled

1986 to 1990


Figure 1. Location of Florida lakes sampled 1986 to 1990.







Introduction


Table 1. Lake location and morphology of the Florida lakes sampled between 1986 and 1990.

County Lake Latitude Longitude Surface Mean
north west area (ha) depth (m)


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Bradford
Calhoun
Columbia
Columbia
Hernando
Hernando
Latayetre
Lake
Lake
L.A
Lake
Lake
Lake
Leon
Leon
Leon
Marion
Marion
Manon
Marion
Manon
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Osceola
Osceola
Pasc-o
Pabco
Pasco
Pasco
Polk
Polk
Polk
Pulk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk


Bivans Arm
Lochloosa
Wauberg
Rowel]
Turkey Pen
Alligator
Watertown
Lindsey
Mountain
Knion
Clay
Crooked

Grasshopper
Harris
Lawbreaker
Carr
Loften
Moore
Catherine
Mill Dam
Round Pond
Swmu Pond
Tomahawk
Apopka
Baldwin
Carlton
Holden
Killarn
Pearl
Susannah
Fish
Live Oak
Bell
Clear
Pasadena
West Moody
Bonny
Conine
Gale Lake
Hartndge
Holhngs.worth
Hunter
Sanitary
Mountain 2
Patrck
Thomas
Wales


76
2309
100
147
b
137
19
55
51
44
5
i.


59
5580
5
254
5
28
41
85
4
9
15
12412
80
155
102
gh
24
31
89
152
32
04
151
39
143
96
6
176
144
40
204
55
159
55
132


Shoreline
length
(km)
6.2
22.6
8.4
5.2
09
53
1.6
3.2
2.3
3b
09
20
I
5.1
61.3
12
51
2.0
1.8
4.5
3.6
0
19
40
54.9
3.1
4.5
50
5.8
2.0
1.9
4.0
5.0
2.8
31
8.1
2.5
6.4
3.6
14
55
42
2.3
6.2
3.9
47
17
5 0










Table 1. Continued.
County Lake Latitude Longitude Surface Mean Shoreline
north west area (ha) depth (m) length
(km)
Putnam Barco 29.40 82.00 13 4.4 1.3
Putnam Brim Pond 29.31 81.59 3 4.0 0.7
Putnam Bull Pond 29.31 81.58 11 2.3 1.4
Pumam Cue 2940 82.58 59 3.5 2.9
Putnam Deep 29.43 82.57 4 3.0 .1.6
Putnam Keys Pond 29.31 81.58 5 2.9 1.0
Putnam Little Fish 29.31 81.59 2 1.3 0.6
Putnam Picnic 29.30 81.58 18 '3.3 1.9
Putnam Sue11e 2041 R2 n1 73 20 2.3
Seminole Orienta 2.39 81 22 52 3.4 6.3
Sumter Mi'na 28.54 82.00 169 2.3 5.9
Sumter Okahumpka 2845 82.05 271 0.9 59


Table 2. Summary statistics for lake morphology, trophic state, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables
sampled in 60 Florida lakes 1986 to 1990.
Variables Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
deviation
Lake Morphology
Surface area (ha) 406 55 2 12412 1752
Mean depth (m) 2.8 2.9 0.6 5.9 1.2

Trophic State and Water Chemistry
Total phosphorus (pg/L) 56 20 1 1043 148
Total nitrogen (pg/L) 924 694 82 3789 802
Total chlorophyll a (gg/L) 28 10 1 241 47
Secchi depth (ml 2.0 1.5 0.3 58 1.5
Specific conductance (pSicm at 25'0 136 118 17 384 97
Total alkalinity (mg 'L as CaCO,I 31.4 136 00 130 6 330
*,' lL.r i' (- u n ir i- n r "- i '0 4i.11.1
pH 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6

Aquatic Macrophytes
Percent area covered (%) 40 30 1 100 39





Introduction


The term common freshwater fishes used in the book title requires a definition. There are well
over 100 species of freshwater fish that could occur in Florida lakes (Lee et al. 1981; Hocutt and Wiley
1986). Routine sampling of fish populations from 60 Florida lakes with electroshocking, experimental
gillnets and blocknet rotenone sampling, however, yielded a range of only four to 34 fish species per lake
(Canfield and Hoyer 1992), with a total of 48 species among all 60 lakes. Only 39 of these species
occurred in more than four of the sampled lakes, which is the level that we arbitrarily defined as common.
Thus, the 39 fish species listed in Table 3 are the species that commonly occur in north central Florida
lakes, and those are discussed in this book.

The number of lakes containing an individual fish species is listed in Table 4, with statistics (mean,
minimum, maximum, etc.) calculated on several lake morphology, lake trophic status, and water chemis-
try values for those lakes. The fish species were then ordered by median values for each variable to give
an idea which fish species were found under what environmental conditions. For example, blue tilapia
(Tilapia aurea), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), and threadfin shad (Dorosomapetenense)
tended to occur in eutrophic, high pH lakes with little aquatic vegetation (Table 4). Lined topminnow
(Fundulus lineolatus), Everglades pygmy sunfish (Elassoma evergladei) and redfin pickerel (Esox
americanus americanus), however, tend to occur in oligotrophic, low pH lakes with abundant aquatic
vegetation (Table 4). Therefore, Table 4 should be useful for examining the possible presence of fish
species given certain environmental conditions.

The organization of this book is similar to that used by Carlander (1969; 1977). The introduction
is followed by a methods section describing sampling and statistical procedures used to determine lake
morphology; water chemistry; aquatic macrophyte; fish population variables; and statistics that are
discussed in this book. The majority of the book will then be information presented on each of the 39
fish species in Table 3, listed alphabetically by common name.

The individual species will begin with a brief description and literature review of the species. A table
reproducing the data in Table 4 for the individual fish species will then be presented, providing informa-
tion on the range of environmental variables in which the individual fish species was found. The average
weight for each 40 mm total length size group was calculated for each lake and then averaged across lakes
to yield a size group weight table for each species. These tables are similar to those published by Carlander
(1969; 1977). A table presenting statistics (mean, minimum value, maximum value, etc.) for population
indices using experimental gillnets (catch per unit effort: number/net/24hr and g/net/24hr); electro-
fishing (catch per unit effort: number/hr and g/hr); and blocknet rotenone sampling (stock: number/ha
and standing crop g/ha) is then presented. Tables reporting individual total length and weight regressions
and length at age determinations for each lake are presented only for bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth
bass, and black crappie. These are the major freshwater sportfish in Florida. Standing stock estimates
(number/ha) of harvestable bluegill, redear sunfish and largemouth bass were also done on the majority
of lakes with mark recapture methods.

The data on the 39 fish species in this book were collected in Florida but these fish species occur in
many other places across North America. The data should be valuable to anyone across North America
who needs information on one of the species listed in this book. A lengthy discussion of each species and
variable could be added to this book, but then it would probably never be finished. Therefore, we present
these data with many interpretations and uses left up to the reader. We hope that these data will be useful
to the many fisheries biologists and interested citizens across North America who manage vast aquatic
resources.






Introduction


Table 3. Common and scientific names for fish sampled in four or more of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.


Common name


Scientific name


Black crappie
Blue tilapia
Bluefin killifish
Bluegill
Bluepotted sunhsh
Bowhn
Brook silverside
Brown bullhead
Chain pickerel
Dollar sunfish
Eastern mnsquitohsh
Evergladei pygmy sunti-h
Flagfish
Florida gar
Gizzard shad
Golden shiner
Golden topminnow
Inland silersjde
Lake chubsucker
Largemouth bass
Least killifish
Lined topmunnow
Longnose gar
Puate perch
Pygmy killifish
Redbreast sunfish
Redear sunfish
Redfin pickerel
Sailfin mollv
Seminole kllirth
Spotted sunfish
Sunshine bass
Swamp darter
Tadpole madtom
Taillght shiner
Threadfin shad
Warmouth
White catfish
Yellow bullhead


Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Tilapia aurea
Lucania goodei
Lepomrz maPLac1LJarJU
Euliiiesanthus .gricsir i
.4rma calih
Labidesthes sicculus
Ameiurus nebulosus
Esox niger
Ltrpqms Inr\'ola1uu
GaCmhbr hilbrrvok
Ela,,ma ,m r iadel
Jordanella floridae
Lepisosteus platyrhincus
Dorosoma cepedianum
Nole',ngonu- cnroh-ucas
f unduluis rthrusrs
.\ I rdta beruvllhua
Erimyzon sucetta
Micropterus salmoides
Heterandria formosa
Funiulus lizeoilatri
Lepino,,tenm ost'eS.
Aplir daderfs .auaitnu
Leptolucania ommata
Lepomis auritus
Lepomis microlophus
Ei.x arril'ncdniks anht'rIcaiu;i
PLYta latipiina
Fuwdult,, imminoli
Lepomis punctatus
Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis
Etheostoma fusiforme
Nilturr. yCirinsu
Notn'pi, tm i tliu
DiFrosoima peteineiie
Lepomis gulosus
Ameiurus catus
Ameiurus natalis






Introduction


Table 4. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for the lakes in which individual fish species were collected. The fish species are sorted by the
median values for the individual variable.
Lake surface area (ha)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Lined topminnow 19 43 15 4 169 55
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 45 28 4 137 45
Pygmy killifish 5 31 28 9 59 21
Least lulhllsh IS I-7 4) 4 123h 535
Lake chubacker 44 24" 52 4 54~0 892
Largemouth bass 59 413 r 2 12412 1767
Golden topminnow 30 156 55 4 2309 414
Swamp darter 38 276 55 4 5580 957
Eastern mosquitofish 47 504 55 2 12412 1973
Bluegill 9 413 r5 2 12412 1767
Vanrmouth 59 411 55 2 12412 1707



Brook silverside 46 246 59 4 5580 871
Rcdtm pickerel 11 572 4 5580 oIt.b
\ellow bullhead ?4 t,6 n2 4 12412 2308
Cham pickerel 12 27' 79 5 239 644
Sailfin molly 13 1629 80 8 12412 3607
Golden shiner 47 513 80 2 12412 1971
Redbreast sunfish 5 1176 80 24 5580 2463
Redear sunfLh 41 52t Ml 2 12412 141
Brown bullhead 34 o82 t3 2 12412 2304
Bluepotted sunith 25 40" 5 4 5580 1tlo
Black crappie 44 547 87 2 12412 2034
Dollar sunfish 20 366 87 9 5580 1230
Bluefin killifish 25 398 89 4 5580 1169
Bor t 2l 3-1 "h II 55 10154
Florida gar 30 651 "- 4 12412 2241
5emunole lulhfish 2c' 75 12412 24
Threadfin shad 22 1003 99 8 12412 2833
Tadpole madtom 13 1468 100 11 12412 3621
White catfish 13 1636 102 31 12412 3604
Pirate perch 4 n43 11 0 4- 2309 illI
Inland ilherside 6 2151 12.0 In 12412 5027
Taldght shiuner 1 17n4 122 11 12412 3733
Blue tilapia 15 1300 132 40 12412 3381
Spotted sunfish 19 522 137 19 5580 1325
Gizzard shad 24 948 138 19 12412 2713
Sunsmhne bass 4 211i 147 40 12412 42.N
Flagrsh 5 13n 151 ;9 271 9
Longnoue gar It' 0 Il 154 24 12412 4072







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.
Lake mean depth (m)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Pirate perch 4 1.7 1.7 1.3 2.0 0.3
Taillight shiner 12 2.6 2.2 1.3 4.5 1.1
Golden shiner 47 2.7 2.3 0.6 5.9 1.3
Chain pickerel 12 2 b 23 09 5 1 4
Flagtish 5 2 3 23 0 9 35 1 1
Tadpole madtom 13 2.7 23 I 3 5- 12
L,.i kll hl : "n I 1 4
Longnose gar 10 2.7 2.5 0.9 4.5 1.3
Golden topminnow 30 2.7 2.5 0.6 5.7 1.2
Redearsunhsh 46 2 25 06 50 13
Inland silderside h 29 26 12 57 1
Redin pickerel 11 2.9 2 5 57 1 2
Florida gar 36 2.7 2.7 0.9 5.7 1.2
Pygmy killifish 5 2.4 2.7 0.6 4.4 1.4
Bowfin 29 2.8 2.7 0.9 5.9 1.3
Black crapple 44 26 27 0 5 9 i 2
Lakchuke er 4c4 2 2 .8 0 o 57 2
Dollar suntish 20 29 2 S 11 6 5 7 13
Brown bullhead 34 2.7 2.8 0.6 5.7 1.3
Bluespotted sunfish 25 2.7 2.9 0.9 5.7 1.1
Eastern mosquitofish 47 2.9 2.9 0.6 5.9 1.3
Lined Iopmunnow 19 2 20 I t 5 12
Largemoulh bass 59 2.8 29 11 i 59 1 2
Swamp darter 38 2.S 29 0 o 5 7 1 2
Warmouth 59 2.8 2.9 0.6 5.9 1.2
Bluegill 59 2.8 2.9 0.6 5.9 1.2



Brook sdverqide 46 29 311 0 5 9 1 3
Yellow bullhead 34 3.0 3.0 0.9 5.9 1.3
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 3.2 3.0 1.1 5.7 1.2
Bluefin killifish 25 2.9 3.0 0.9 5.7 1.2
Gizzard shad 24 26 32 09 57 1 3
Sadhn molly 13 27 3 0' 4 5 1 2
Seminole killirish 29 30 33 1I 51 12
Threadfin shad 22 3.0 3.4 1.3 4.7 1.1
Sunshine bass 9 2.7 3.4 1.3 4.0 1.1
Blue tilapia 15 3.0 3.4 1.2 4.7 1.2
Spotted suntish 19 31 3 5 119 57 13
Whlte cattsh 13 3 35 1 47 1.1
Redbreast sunitsh 5 3.2 3.6 1 45 1 2






Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Specific conductance (mS/cm at 250C)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Pygmy killifish 5 37 35 17 61 16
Lined topminnow 19 64 45 17 286 62
Redfin pickerel 11 66 45 17 248 68
E\ergladei pygmy slumlu h 11 54 48 17 137 34
Cham pickerel 12 111 61 17 323 104
Golden topmmnow 30 111 74 21 323 89
Pirate perch 4 118 78 29 286 115
Least killifish 18 94 78 35 201 55
Lake chubsucker 44 118 114 17 323 88
Swamp darter 38 120 115 17 323 84
Brook sdverside 46 125 117 17 323 89
Warmouth 59 13t 117 17 3 98



Bluegil 59 137 118 17 384 98
Largemouth bass 59 13" 118 17 184 98
Dollarsunish 20 139 120 17 323 93
Tadp.:-l maJr-m i' I'-' 22 ?-1 iu
Bluespotted sunfish 25 142 122 17 384 106
Eastern mosquitofish 47 144 122 21 384 100
Bluehn killLtsh 25 14" 126 33 323 87
Flag-h h 5 1i 127 113 188 30
Nello%, bullhead 34 147 132 1' 384 100
Black crappie 44 162 135 26 384 95
Brown bullhead 34 162 135 26 384 104
Bowfin 29 169 137 26 384 96
Golden lhmeu r 47 i60 137 26 384 Yo
Redearsunfish 4n l-4 142 26 384 95
Seminole killihsh 29 181 18I 21 3q 93
Florida gar i". I I 2 24 97
Redbreast sunfish 5 222 182 117 384 102
Spotted sunfish 19 196 187 45 384 95
Saillin moll2v 1 14 3 1 88 6 384 94
Gzzard .had 24 206 141 45 384 94
Threadnn shad 22 216 07 96 384 92
Taillight shiner 12 223 218 57 384 112
Longnose gar 10 236 218 117 384 102
Blue tilapia 15 239 227 118 384 79
Whiue catfish 13 23 232 33 384 112
Sunshme bass 9 234 248 79 384 120
Inland sdilerside a 259 2% 45 384 135







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Color (Pt-Co units)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Lined topminnow 19 15 4 0 87 23
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 13 7 0 50 16
Least killifish 18 46 16 0 400 93
Bluehn killinsh 25 27 It 0i llb 2-
Eastern mo.quitotlbh 47 31 o1 0 4100 0
Brook sd erside 4t. 29 in 0 i400 60
Golden topminnow 30 35 16 0 400 74
Lake chubsucker 44 30 16 0 400 62
Tadpole madtom 13 53 16 0 400 107
Swamp darter 3 13 16 0 400 t6
yelloww bullhead 34 35 17 0 400 64
Bluespotted ;unhsh 25 41 17 0i 410 80
5,iJ. n.,:) I3 I 116 33
Bluegill 59 28 17 0 400 54
Redbreast sunfish 5 30 17 12 68 24
Largemouth bass 5' 28 17 I0 400 54
Senunole killifsh 29 2- 17 3 llb 2p
\Iarmouth 5'9 28 17 0 4I0 54



Dollar santish 20 20 1,' I rS In
Whute dcatfLh 13 3i0 1, 11 116 2
Threadnr shad 22 '10 19 6 Il 2
F n,., k l.. ': 22 i 0 63 26
Blue tilapia 15 23 19 10 43 10
Redfin pickerel 11 53 19 0 400 116
Fonda gar 30 3b 2i 0 40' t.7
Fagnsh 5 26t 20 It 3 11
Black crappie 44 35 21 |i 41o 1l
Golden shiner 47 34 21 2 400 59
Chain pickerel 12 66 21 0 400 111
Redear sunfish 46 35 22 0 400 59
Bowtim 29 43 22 0 400 73
Brown bullhead 34 23 0 lio 24
Gizzard shad 24 !3 24 116 2h
Spotted sunfish 19 34 27 7 116 29
Longnose gar 10 34 28 11 87 25
Inland silverside 6 26 30 7 37 12
Sunshine has, 9 42 30 10 l11 3o
Tallighl shiner 12 39 32 9 lIt 32
Pirate perch 4 167 1102 t3 4110 157






Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Lined topminnow 19 10 6 1 66 15
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 54 6 2 371 116
Pygmy killifish 5 9 6 5 25 9
Chain pickerel 12 20 11 2 66 23
Redfin pickerel II 16 11 2 66 18
Tadpole madtom 13 43 12 5 166 53
Golden topminnow 3, 2 2 1 ,-. 31
Dollar sunfish 20 23 13 2 166 35
Bluespotted sunfish 25 22 13 2 92 22
Swamp darter 38 30 14 2 371 63
Lakechubsucker 44 26 14 I 371 56
Flagtsh 5 20 15 12 37 10
Br-,.k ~.Ii c.r -1 4r. 24 i, 2 Inr. ",
Warmouth 59 56 19 1 1043 149
Least killifish 18 39 19 2 371 84



Largemouth bass 1- 21 2 11?3 i U
Bluefin killifish 25 25 21 1 166 32
Yellow bullhead 34 30 21 2 140 34
Bluegill 19 57 21 2 1043 149
Eastern mosqulohsh 47 68 21 2 1043 165
Brown bullhead 34 84 22 2 1013 142
Go.drn h.r.r 4- -I li
Black crappie 44 74 24 2 1043 170
Redear sunfish 46 72 24 2 1043 166
Bo rn 29 ") 25 6 1043 148
Flonda gar 3 65 26 2 1 43 186
Longnose gar 10 44 20 10 140 42
Spotted sunish 19 107 26 10 1043 242
Seminole killifish 29 88 27 2 1043 198
Threadfin shad 22 82 27 10 1043 217
VWhit catfih 13 120 28 o1 1043 280
Sailfin molly 13 47 2s 14 14i 40
Redbreast sjannsh 5 53 28 21 98 i8
Gizzard shad 24 IIn' i 1 4 ':
Blue tilapia 15 142 44 11 1043 266
Pirate perch 4 42 49 5 66 30
Ta.llighl shiner 12 148 63 11 1043 286
Sunshine bass ( 188 92 27 1043 324
Inland sdverside 6 235 103 11 1143 399







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Total nitrogen (pg/L)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Lined topminnow 19 422 353 108 1025 281
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 619 353 132 2367 694
Pygmy killifish 5 503 353 192 1025 348
Redrnn pickerel 11 649 522 158 1550 427
Lake chubsucker 44 693 iu 92 2367 50b
Least killinsh 18 730 62Q 158 23o7 518
..ld r t.,.pn-.. r,,,, ?l r- n' 2 I "') 4I-
Brook silverside 46 748 658 82 2517 511
Swamp darter 38 721 658 82 2367 504
Chain pickerel 12 741 660 82 I0KOS 490
Blue.pnrted sunthh 25 68 137 3228 652
Warmouth 59 925 687 82 3789 808



Largemouth bass 59 938 712 52 3789 l01
Bluegill 549 93 702 .2 37%i 801
Dollar -unfish 20) 75 '30 19Q2 180 457
Yellow bullhead 34 946 -?i 1:2 -, ,
Eastern mosquitofish 47 1023 777 82 3789 846
Bluefin killifish 25 786 777 108 1808 423
Flagfihh 5 SO,) ll 584 1u33 170
Black crapp.e 44 1128 443 158 3789 830
Seminole killihsh 2u 117n "- .03 3789 892
Guuldnhicni 4 I- 1i ,. *. ,2 ;14
Redear sunfish 46 1122 871 259 3789 813
Bowfin 29 1067 874 259 3228 670
Brown bullhead 34 11 6 802 CI 37s9 885
Threadtm shad 22 1195 005 331 ?378 891
Tadpole madtom 13 11]28 I1 251 3789 939
T.niljln IT.,ll, ? !251 u i,, 1 I -S l ,,4
Florida gar 36 1205 923 158 3789 901
Spotted sunfish 19 1169 935 389 3228 749
Longnose gar 10 1473 972 35s 37t9 1164
Puale perch 4 475 ?,2 n87 1249 23~
Gizzard shad 24 1431 1054 38. 3786 950
I-ul. ,:airr.h i 1i 12'; 441 '-s" ,.a
Taillight shiner 12 1636 1514 522 3789 1012
Sunshine bass 9 1854 1550 899 3789 1023
Redbreast sunish 5 1570 1550 530 3228 1051
Blue tlapia 15 1720 1550 485 37'9 1048
Inland silverside 6 219t 2287 402 3759 1256







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Everglades pygmy sunfish 11 19 2 1 102 37
Lined topminnow 19 6 3 1 47 10
Redfin pickerel 11 7 3 1 37 10
Pvgm\ kidhlsh 5 4 3 1 11 4
Chain pickerel 12 4 1 47 13
Golden ropnuninot 3kl 11 4 I 102 20
Least killifish 18 12 4 1 84 19
Swamp darter 38 14 5 1 102 22
Lake chubsucker 44 12 5 1 84 16
Tadpolemadtom 13 2n 5 I 127 41
Blue ported sunish 25 17 5 I 17i 35
Flagfish 5 7 2 11 4
Dollar sunfish 20 15 9 1 102 23
Brook silverside 46 18 9 1 135 26
Yellow bullhead 34 27 9 1 173 42
Warmouth 59 28 !I 241 17
Lagermouth bass 5Q 2 10 I 241 47
Bluegill 59 2N 10 1 24 47




Brown bullhead .1 38 11 1 241 5i
Eastern mo_.qultufiKh 47 33 11 I 241 51
Pirate perch 4 19 13 3 47 21
Bowfin 29 29 18 1 173 40
Bluefin killifish 25 19 18 1 102 22
Redear sunfish 46 36 18 1 241 51
Golden s-hnr 47 35 ia I 241 51
Black crappie 44 37 Is 1 241 52
Florida gar ?6 42 21 i 241 b
Threadfin shad 22 40 22 2 173 43
Seminole killifish 29 43 22 2 173 47
Spotted sunfish 19 40 22 4 173 45
Salfm mroll 13 4-1 2 2 173 52
Longno.e gar 10 47 24 5 17' 57
White catfish 13 51 25 5 173 53
Gizzard shad 24 57 31 4 241 62
Redbreast sunfish 5 66 37 18 173 65
Blue tilapia 15 75 42 4 241 69
Taillight shuier 12 i5 44 3 173 53
Sunshine ba- 82 82 22 173 50
Inland siverside 6 92 119 2 173 72







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.

Secchi depth (m)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Inland silverside 6 1.0 0.5 0.3 2.7 1.0
Redbreast sunfish 5 0.8 0.6 0.4 1.6 0.5
Blue tilapia 15 0.8 0.6 0.3 2.3 0.6
Taillght shiner 12 I0 0.0 03 1 6 04
Sunshme bass 9 0 b 06 u.3 1.0 02
Gizzard shad 24 1 1 09 0 3 2.7 0.7
Pirate perch 4 0.9 0.9 0.5 1.4 0.4
Spotted sunfish 19 1.2 1.0 0.4 2.7 0.7
White catfish 13 1.1 1.0 0.3 2.2 0.7
Threadfn shad 2 I 1 10 0.3 2 4 0b
Seminole kllifish 29 1.3 10 03 3 2 0.9
Flond gar b 1 4 11 ] 03 51 1 1
Sailfin molly 13 1.3 1.1 0.3 2.8 0.8
Longnose gar 10 1.2 1.2 0.3 2.6 0.7
Black crappie 44 1.4 1.4 0.3 5.1 1.0
Redear sunlrih 4n I 4 1 4 0 1 3 7 0
Eastern mosquitohsh 47 17 1.4 U 3 54 1 2
Golden shiner 47 14 14 0 3 54 10
Bowfin 29 1.4 1.4 0.4 3.7 0.8
Tadpole madtom 13 1.7 1.4 0.3 5.3 1.5
Brown bullhead 34 1.6 1.5 0.3 5.8 1.3
Warmouth 5 0 15 I1 5 1.5
Brook silTerside 46 20 I5 0 3 5. I 4
Tellow bullhead 14 1 1 5 1 3 5 3 1.3
Dollar suntish 20 2.0 1.5 0.6 5.3 1.3
Bluegill 59 1.9 1.5 0.3 5.8 1.4
Bluefin killifish 25 1.9 1.5 0.6 5.5 1.4
Bluespotted suntish 25 2 i 15 0 4 3 3
Largemoulh bass 59 1.9 1.5 0 5.8 14



Flagfish 5 1.9 1.7 1.4 2.8 0.6
Swamp darter 3 2 3 1 0 5 5 15
Least killfish b 2 1 1 8 0 55 I I 4
Lake chubsucker 44 23 1 9 0.5 5 1 5
Golden topminnow 30 2.2 2.0 0.5 5.3 1.3
Chain pickerel 12 2.4 2.3 0.5 5.4 1.6
Redfin pickerel 11 2.5 2.5 0.5 5.3 1.6
Everglades pygmy sunhish 11 2 8 2.7 0 5 5 3 1
Lined topmlnnow 19 31 31 0 6 5.5 I5
Pvgmy killihhsh 5 30 3 0 6 53 20







Introduction


Table 4. Continued.
Percent area covered with macrophytes (%)
Species Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Inland silverside 6 23 2 1 97 38
Redbreast sunfish 5 9 3 1 27 11
Blue tilapia 15 12 3 1 60 19
Sunshine bass 18 3 1 43 29
Gizzard shad 24 27 5 1 10 M
Tallight shiner 12 I" 7 I 63 25
L'. ,; t t :hll I '. ., I II.1"1
Threadfin shad 22 22 7 1 93 29
Seminole killifish 29 24 7 1 100 32
BIack crappie 44 36 12 1 10 40
Florda gay 36 35 13 i 1011 39
Sailfn molly 13 33 13 1 10I .38
Spotted sunfish 19 34 13 i i, ,,
Redear sunfish 46 38 17 1 100 39
Golden shiner 47 37 20 1 100 38
Longno-e gar Il 34 2' I 1 100 43
tllow. bullhead 14 I3 24 I 1111 3A
Bor. nn 2' 41 1 2 IO11 40(
E I ,tc l [Tr ., lu .' | l 4 "- I II"-



WVarmouth 9 41 :3 1 li( 30
LargeLmouth basic 5 41 3 1 100 3-?
T .iJ p ,:.I t...d r ,: .l I' 'i :I ''
Bluegill 59 41 33 1 100 39
Brook silverside 46 44 37 1 100 39
E. erglade-r p\.-m sunti-.h 11 4 410 I 47 35
Lake :huhbucker 44 4. 40 1 1(11 3
Brnwn bullhead 34 47 41 i I10 41
Bluefin killifish 25 47 4i I iii 42
Swamp darter 38 49 42 1 100 37
Least killifish 18 50 42 1 100 40
Dollar sunhsh 2i: 4- 46 I 100 38
Lined toprunnow IQ 60 48 1 100 33
Blucpotted -unhsh 25 59 no 1 luu 3k!
Pirate perch 4 56 63 1 97 43
Redfin pickerel 11 62 80 1 100 38
Pygmy killifish 5 69 80 40 97 26
Chain pickerel 12 on 82 1 100 33
Golden uporunnot, 30 65 82 1 IX) 36
Flaghfsh 5 82 Q 40 100 26










Lake Morphology, Water Chemistry and Aquatic Macrophyte Variables

Data for this handbook were collected from 60 north central Florida lakes (Table 1 and Figure 1)
between June 1986 and June 1990. Lake surface areas were obtained primarily from the Gazetteer of
Florida Lakes (Shafer et al. 1986). A boat-mounted Raytheon DE-719 recording fathometer was used in
each lake to record water depths along four to 10 transects for calculating mean lake depth. The percent
lake area covered by macrophytes (PAC) was determined with a Raytheon recording fathometer (Maceina
and Shireman 1980).

In each lake, summer water samples were collected from six stations (three littoral and three open
water) on one date, and from three open water stations on two additional dates. Water samples were
collected 0.5 m below the surface in acid-cleaned Nalgene bottles, placed on ice, and returned to the
laboratory for analysis. At the laboratory, pH was measured within 24 hr of collection using an Orion
Model 601A pH meter calibrated against buffers at pH of 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0. Total alkalinity (mg/L as
CaCO) was determined by titration with 0.02 N H2SO4 (APHA 1985). Specific conductance (pS/cm
@ 25 C) was measured using a Yellow Springs Instrument Model 31 conductivity bridge. Color (Pt-Co
units) was determined by using the platinum-cobalt method and matched Nessler tubes (APHA 1985).
Total phosphorus was analyzed (Murphy and Riley 1962) after a persulfate oxidation (Menzel and
Corwin 1965). Total nitrogen was determined by a modified Kjeldahl technique (Nelson and Sommers
1975). Water was filtered through Gelman type A-E glass fiber filters for chlorophyll a determinations.
Chlorophyll a was determined by using the method of Yentsch and Menzel (1963) and the equations of
Parson and Strickland (1963).

Fish Sampling Methods

Fish stock, standing crop and community structure were determined with blocknets and rotenone.
Four, six, and 12 0.08 ha blocknets were set in small (< 30 ha), medium (30 to 1000 ha) and large
(> 1000 ha) lakes, respectively. Nets were placed equally in littoral (with one side being the shore) and
limnetic habitats. Blocknet areas were treated with 2.0 mg/1 rotenone (5 % active ingredient, Noxfish).
Fish killed inside the nets were collected for three days. Fish were identified to species, separated into
40 mm total-length size groups (Table 5), counted. Only the fish collected on the first day were weighed.

Table 5. Size groups and range-of-fish total lengths incorporated in the size groups.
Size group Range-of-fish total length (mm TL)
40 0-40
80 41-80
120 121-1.0
loil 161-2110
200 20 1-240
240 241-280
280 281-320
320 321-360
Itill 3n 1-40t1
400 -) 1- 144-I)
44i1 441-480
480 481-520
520 521-560
560 561-600
t.i0 Ail -n41I
o41 64 1 -baA
on0 hql .7i20
720 721-760
760 761-800






Methods



The average weight of each species and size class for the first-day fish were multiplied by the corre-
sponding number of fish collected in each size class during days two and three to yield a biomass for
that day. The number and weight of the fish were totaled by net for all 3 days; averaged by littoral or open
water; and then extrapolated to a whole lake basis (number/ha and g/ha), adjusting for the area of littoral
and open water regions in each lake.

Three experimental gill nets were set for 24 hr in the offshore sections of each lake. Gillnets were
50 m long and 2.4 m deep, with five panels of different mesh sizes (bar mesh sizes: 19, 25, 38, 51, and 76
mm). Fish collected in gillnets were identified to species; separated into 40 mm total length size groups;
counted; and only whole, fresh fish were weighed, because some fish were partially decomposed or
eaten. The average weights of each species and size group for the whole, fresh fish were multiplied by
the corresponding number of fish collected in each size class that could not be weighed in order to yield
a biomass for those fish. The number and weight of fish were totaled by net; the nets were then averaged
to yield a gillnet catch per unit effort (number or g/experimental gill net/24 hr).

Two to nine 10-minute electrofishing transects, evenly spaced around the lake, were made on each
lake, depending on the size of the lake. Electrofishing was conducted in near-shore areas in all habitats
with a continuous current for 10 minutes. All shocked fish were collected; identified to species; separated
into 40 mm total length size groups; counted; and weighed. The number and weight of fish were totaled by
transect and then the mean determined by lake to yield a catch per unit shocking effort (number or g/hr
of shocking).

Individual length and weight were measured on subsamples of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear
sunfish (L. microlophis), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus
salmoides) collected in blocknets, gillnets, and electrofishing runs. Ten fish were measured in each 40
mm size group, to determine individual weight-length relations for each lake, using the following order of
sampling methods to fill the size groups: electrofishing; experimental gillnets; and blocknets. All first-day
or fresh largemouth bass over 160 mm total length were measured. Otoliths were collected from bluegill,
redear sunfish, black crappie, and largemouth bass greater than 120mm TL and were measured individu-
ally. The otoliths were read in whole view according to the methods of Hoyer et al. (1985) and back-
calculations for length at age determined with the Lee method.

An intensive mark-recapture program was conducted on most of the study lakes to determine the
abundance of harvestable bluegill (>149 mm TL), redear sunfish (>149 mm TL) and largemouth bass
(>249 mm TL). Some lakes were not sampled because of environmental conditions (e.g. low conductivity,
low water levels, or the lakes were too large). The mark-recapture programs were conducted between
January and June. Fish were collected with electrofishing and given a left pelvic fin-clip. Electrofishing
and marking with left pelvic clips continued until approximately 10% of each species captured showed
marks. Then, a recapture phase started giving those fish a right pelvic clip. Population estimates (fish/ha)
for each species were estimated with an adjusted Petersen method (Ricker 1975).

The ruler used in photographs of each fish was marked in inches.





















PLATE 1
PLATE 1


Description and distribution


Black crappies are laterally-compressed fish with dorsal and anal fins almost identical in size and shape
located on the back half of the fish; silvery-green with black blotches marking the sides; large mouth with
upper jaw extending under eye when mouth is closed (Plate 1). The black crappie is an important
sportfish sought for its excellent food value. Black crappie originally ranged from Virginia south to Florida,
along the Gulf Coast to central Texas, north to North Dakota and eastern Montana, and east to the Appala-
chians (Lee et al. 1981). Recently, black crappie have been widely transplanted throughout most of the
United States.

Biology

Black crappie spawn in Florida from February through April. Pairs nest in colonies with the males
fanning nests and remaining to guard the eggs after spawning. The nests are located in substrate types
from sand to mud and frequently near submerged structures. The primary foods of the black crappie are
zooplankton, aquatic insects, and fish. A wealth of additional biological information has been published
on black crappie (see Huish 1954; Calhoun 1966; and Carlander 1977).

Biologist comments

Black crappie are difficult fish to sample consistently due to their clumped distribution patterns in
mostly deep, open water. The black crappie has large population swings in many lakes. To date, these
have not been adequately described. The cause of these population swings is still unknown. More research
should be directed toward this elusive, highly valued sportfish.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of the lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte
variables for the 44 lakes in which black crappie were collected are almost identical to the entire data set
of 60 lakes (Table 6). This suggests that black crappie can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north
central Florida.

Black crappie were collected in 16, 36, and 37 lakes with electrofishing, experimental gillnets, and
blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 7). This suggests that experimental gillnets and blocknet
rotenone are both effective methods of collecting black crappie for presence-absence information. In lakes
where black crappie were collected, they averaged 3.8, 3.9 and 4.6 % of the total fish population sampled
by weight, when collected with experimental gillnet, electrofishing and blocknet rotenone methods,
respectively. The black crappie was consistently a small percentage of the total fish population when
estimated with any of the three sampling methods.


I






Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


Black crappie were collected in 10 size classes ranging from 40 to 400 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of less than 1 and 676 g (Table 8). The heaviest black crappie collected in experimental
gillnets, electrofishing or blocknet rotenone was 770 g (1.70 lbs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission official state record through April 1992 is 1740 g (3.83 Ibs).

Weight-length relations and length at age are an integral part of the management for black crappie
(Carlander 1977). Thus, individual weight-length relations (Table 9) and backcalculated length at age
determinations (Table 10) were recorded for each lake in which black crappie were collected. Some lakes
were sampled in more than one year and were recorded separately. The slopes of all regressions ranged
from 2.17 to 3.70 and intercepts ranged from -6.56 to -2.90. Black crappie averaged 119, 200, 243, and
269 mm TL for age 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Black crappie were collected in 44 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Bell Pa ,:, Sep. 7
Bwains Arm Alachua Jul 8',
Bonny Polk sip 5c'
Brim Pond Putnam Jun 86
Bull Fond Putnam May 89
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Can L.on lul '-
Clear Pa-co ep 6.
C.nmne Polk I ul 8
Deep Putnam Jun 87
Fish Osceola Oct 88
Gate Lake Polk Aug 89
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Harris Lake Oct 57
Hartndge Polk Aug 87
Holden Orange Sep 87
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Killarn Orange Aug K7
Koon Lafasctte lun M
Lidse% Hernando lMa i,,
Little Fish Putnam Sep 89
Live Oak Osceola May 88
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
Mill Dam Marion May 6-'
Niona Sumter Aug 56
Mountain Hernando lun rG
Okahumpka Sumter Jul 86
Orienta Seminole Jun 88
Pasadena Pasco Jul89
Patrck Polk Jun 8i
Pearl Orange Nov iS
Rowell Bradiord Aug i
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul 88
Susannah Orange Sep 88







Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


Black crappie collection data continued.
Lake County Date
Thomas Polk Aug 89
Wales Polk Sep 86
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
WIauberg Alchua |ul qh
West Moody Pascu Jun 6Y


Table 6. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 44 of those lakes in which black crappie were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


60 406 55
44 547 87


2 12412 1752
2 12412 2034


i0 28 29 i t
4- 2 27 i2

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
44 7.7 7.9 4.5


59 12
59 1.2

9.7 1.6
9.7 1.2


Total alkalhniu mg L a' CaCiO i 0
Black crappie 44

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Black crappie 44


Color IPr-Co urutil
Black crappie

Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Black crappie

Total rutrogen pg L i
Black crappie

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Black crappie

Secuhi depth i.m
Black crappie

Percent area covered (%)
Black crappie


31 4 13t
41 1 31 0

136 118
162 135


11) 2' 17
44 15 21

60 56 20
44 74 24

N) q24 094
44 1128 843

60 28 10
44 37 19


n0 2 1) 1 5 0 1
44 14 1 4 113


60 40 30
44 36 12


384 97
384 95

-.)lj 53
4) MnO

1043 148
1043 170

37KS 802
3789 i13)

241 47
241 52

58 1.5
51 10

100 39
100 40


Surface area (ha)
Black crappie

Mean depti ml
Black crappie

pH
Black crappie


44 36 12






Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


Table 7. Population estimates of black crappie sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 36 6.3 0.3 93.0 15.7
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 36 628.0 7.0 7067.0 1239.1
Percent ul tutal ample by weight (%) 3o 3.8 0 1 251 5.4
AveTrae size pi 3b lt7.5 21 2 "7.. 146.5

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 16 16.0 0.8 87.0 25.0
Total weight (g/hr) 16 666.9 7.5 2865.7 843.5
Percent of total sample b\ weight I') 16 3 I'0 1 41 7 10.2
Average size Igi It 9(08 I 3 31h.3I 9 2

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 37 463.6 <0.1 3270.8 791.6
Total weight (g/ha) 37 5081.1 <0.1 33120.0 6341.4
Percent o total sample by weight 1 1 37 -4n Average size tg 17 7"48 14 5h7 122 "'


Table 8. Average size group weights of black crappie; statistics were calculated first by individual lake and then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 8 305 0.4 0.1 1.0 0.1
80 24 2900 3 1 4 1
120 23 553 10 6 18 3
In -1 15Q 34 19 52 8
200 72 1S2 66 1 1115 12
240 30 127 133 107 157 11
280 28 95 220 168 315 35
320 22 70 352 !;' 4.4 44
?36 I1 11 '4 3oS 704 102
400 3 3 676 540 770 121







Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


Table 9. Black crappie log 10 weight (g) versus log 10 length (mm TL) regressions for individual lakes using measure-
ments from individual fish.
County Lake Number of fish Intercept Slope R2
Alachua Bivans Arm 2 -4.47 2.83 1.00
Alachua Lochloosa 31 -525 3.14 1.00
Alachua Wauberg 39 -5.07 3.06 0.99
Bradiord Rowell 13 -5.20 3 14 0.98
Columbia Alligator 32 -548 3 26 0.99
Columbia Watertown 3 -5.67 3 35 0.94
Hernando Lindsey 25 -4.89 2.99 1.00
Hemando Mountain 14 -5.71 3.36 1.00
Hernando Mountain 2 -4.77 2.88 1.00
Lake Grasshopper 2 -4 91 30u 1.00
Marion Mill Dam 7 -5 55 3.27 1.00
Orange Apupka 97 5 53 3 12 1 00
Orange Carlton 37 -5.73 3.36 1.00
Orange Pearl (1986) 3 -6.27 3.58 0.99
Orange Pearl (1989) 15 -5.24 3.14 1.00
Orange Susannah (198Ib 5 .598 3.4o 100
Orange Susannah (19'19 12 -5 M 1.08 0
Osieola Fish 17 -5 50 3 25 99
-,: ', ih r ? 4 -* 1 -:1
Pasco Pasadena 27 -5.16 3.10 1.00
Pasco West Moody 8 -5.44 3.21 1.00
Polk Bonny 43 -5 lb 3.13 1.00
Polk Conine It -507 305 1 00
Polk Gate Lake 2 -4 50 2.86 I L00
r,lk H .I |l, ,c.C: .rrh ,r, I' "4 I. I.i'
Polk Hunter 6 -5.50 3.28 1.00
Polk Patrick 20 -5.23 3.13 1.00
Polk Sanitary 10 5 58 3 28 I 00
Polk Thomas 13 -290 217 0.78
Polk Wales 35 -4 94 2 5 0 95
Putnam Bull Pond 6 -5.1V 3.11 1.0v
Putnam Suggs 13 -4.50 2.74 0.76
Sumter Miona 3 -6.56 3.70 1.00
Number of lakes 33 33 33 33
Mean 18 -5.21 3.13 0.98
Minimum 2 -6.56 2.17 0.76
Maximum 97 -2.90 3.70 1.00
Standard deviation 19 0.62 0.27 0.06







Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


Table 10. Black crappie length (mm, total length) at age, backcalculated from individual fish and averaged by lake.


County Lake


of fis


Alachua
Alachua
Columbia
Columbia
Hernando
Hernando

Marion
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange

Orange
Orange
Osceola
Osceola
Pasco

Pasco
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Polk
Punam
Sumter


Lochloosa
Wauberg
Alligator
Watertown
Lindsey
Mountain
C r.; ii h,..F r
Mill Dam
Apopka
Baldwin 986)
Carlton
Pearl 11986)

Susannah (1986)
Susannah (1989)
Fhsh
Live Oak
Clear

West Moody
Bonny
Coune
Gate Lake
Hartridge
Hollingsworth
Patrick
Sanitary
Thomas
Wales
Bull Pond
Miona
Number of lakes
Mean
Minimum
Maximum
Standard deviation


Agel Age 2 Age 3 Age 4


Speck, speckled perch, papermouth, perch, white perch, slab, barfish, bitterhead,
lamplighter, crappie, strawberry bass, grass bass, banklick bass and calico bass are the
many names that black crappie are called byfishermen across the country.
(Martin Mann)


Number
h examined
31
39
32
18
25
1

7
97
2
37
3

5
12
17
1


8
43
In
3
1
36
20
14
20
35
6
3





















F-,


7 ". v. A,


PLATE 2


Description and distribution


Blue tilapia are laterally-compressed fish with a long dorsal fin covering over half their total length;
blue to silver in color with several dark vertical bars on the sides; during breeding season, paired fins
may be aqua-blue and the margins of dorsal and caudal fins on mature males may be red (Plate 2).
The blue tilapia are exotic fish in the state of Florida, with a native distribution of Senegal, middle Niger
River, Chad, lower Nile, Jordan River system and hot pools at Ein Fashkha (Lee et al. 1981). In 1961,
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission acquired blue tilapia to investigate its potential as a
sportfish and biological weed control (Cailteux 1988). These fish were stocked and escaped into several
systems and as of 1984, the blue tilapia was established in at least 18 Florida counties (Courtenay et al.
1984). Blue tilapia are not considered a sportfish because of their reluctance to take natural or artificial
baits, but they are valuable as a forage fish and commercial species, both from aquaculture and harvest
from lakes (Torrans 1988).

Biology

The distribution of blue tilapia is limited by their sensitivity to low temperatures. Shafland and Pestrak
(1982) report that the lower lethal temperature for blue tilapia is 6 to 7'C and that minimum feeding
occurs at 16 to 17C. Blue tilapia mature quickly, spawning readily in waters exceeding 22C (Torrans
1988). Pairs nest in tight colonies with males building nests approximately 0.5 m in diameter. The females
incubate eggs and rear fry in their mouths. Blue tilapia can have multiple spawning in one season, showing
a remarkable production potential (Torrans 1988). Blue tilapia feed primarily on algae and detritus and
consume vascular plants incidentally in attempts to obtain attached periphyton (Cailteux 1988).

Biologist comments

Blue tilapia are difficult fish to electrofish, especially in warm water. They are easy to catch using
blocknet rotenone sampling, but die slowly and are usually collected on the second or third day. Food
habit analyses during this project were not conducted on top predators, but it was obvious during all
sampling that the tilapia was a substantial food item for largemouth bass in lakes where the blue tilapia
were present.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of the lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte
variable for the 15 lakes in which blue tilapia were collected suggest that blue tilapia tend to occur in
alkaline, nutrient rich lakes with low abundances of aquatic macrophytes (Table 11).


k


PLATE 2


1


J






Blue tilapia (Tilapia aurea)


Blue tilapia were collected in seven, eight, and 14 lakes with electrofishing, experimental gillnet, and
blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 12). Blocknet rotenone sampling appears to be the best
method for collecting blue tilapia for presence-absence information. In lakes where blue tilapia were
collected, they averaged 6.7, 9.4, and 13.2% of the total fish sample, by weight, with electrofishing,
blocknet rotenone, and experimental gillnet sampling, respectively. Blue tilapia can be a considerable
percentage of a fish population, comprising as high as 36% of the total population when collecting with
blocknet rotenone sampling.

Blue tilapia were collected in 14 size classes ranging from 40 to 560 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of 1 and 1525 g (Table 13). The heaviest blue tilapia collected in experimental gillnets,
electrofishing, or blocknet rotenone sampling weighed 1525 g (3.36 lbs).

Blue tilapia were collected in the following 15 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Bivans Arm Alachua Jul 86
Bonny Polk Sep 87
Carlton Orange Aug 8
Corune Polk lul 88
Fish Osccfola Oct 88
Harris Lake Oct 87
Hartridge Polk Aug 87
Holden Orange Sep 87
Hollng;%onrh Polk lul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 57
Killarny Oran~ e Aug 87
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Thomas Polk Aug 89
Wales Polk Sep 86


Table 11. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 15 of those lakes in which blue tilapia were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Blue tilapia

Mean depth Inm
Blue ilapla


pH
Blue tilapia


Tal alalalinity mg. L as CaCO,'
Blue nlapia


Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Blue tilapia 15


Colnr (Pr-Co urul i
Blue tlapia


60 406 55
15 1300 132


2 12412
40 12412


fol 28 12 1 .1
15 30 3.4 1.2

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
15 8.5 8.6 7.6

60 31 4 136 00
15 b4- M 0 256


136 118 17
239 227 118


00 2A 17
15 23 12


1752
3381


5.9 1 2
47 12

9.7 1.6
9.7 0.7


384 97
384 79

400i 53
43 10







Blue tilapia (Tilapia aurea)


Table 11. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total phosphorus (pg/L) 60 56 20 1 1043 148
Blue tilapia 15 142 44 11 1043 266

Toral mntrogen ipg L' 'l 92'4 k 4 82 3789 8112
Blue nlapa 15 1729 1550 448 3789 1048

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Blue tilapia 15 75 42 4 241 69

'echi dipth m MNl 20 15 03 58 I
Blue liilapa 15 Utl 06 0 3 2 3 06

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Blue tilapia 15 12 3 1 60 19


Table 12. Population estimates of blue tilapia sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 8 3.0 0.7 9.7 3.1
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 8 1700.5 468.7 4786.3 1484.1
Percent of total sample b\' eight I : 1 2 4 255 i !
A% erace t t-,t f.t.,l b 7 t447 45 It 24 Q 106-

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 7 16.5 0.6 60.0 20.8
Total weight (g/hr) 7 2634.8 611.4 6963.0 2068.8
Percent ot tolal ample b% weight I'; i 7 b 3.5 10) 2 '
erage siize g 7 490 1 4 5 111i,0 4477

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 14 69.4 1.0 265.1 80.4
Total weight (g/ha) 14 11644.3 60.0 53290.0 14747.9
Percent ot total sample b\ weight C.: 14 94 0.10 359 11.4
Average size Igl 14 ?hbi1 141 14 t 8 41S9






Blue tilapia (Tilapia aurea)


Table 13. Average size group weights of blue tilapia; statistics were calculated first by individual lake and then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 4 224 1 <1 4 2
80 9 546 5 3 9 2
120 9 165 22 17 36 6
Io1 MI3 1 ?o9 1W
20.) 4 .8 l1 If'2 1 14
240 4 21 20u 22o 390 44
280 8 47 A- 42s 4
320 8 104 605 551 691 56
360 10 59 866 737 1019 85
41i10 1 5 I 1l72 804 Ill'U li6
44l, 1 41' 1455 13 15. *3
4'[ 1I 1 1300 1300 130l1
SI I i 1 1'1 ii i5- 25
560 1 1 1525 1525 1525


Blue tilapia is one of over 40 exotic fish species that have reproducing populations in
several of the 48 contiguous United States.





















PLATE 3

Description and distribution

Bluefin killifish are small cylindrical fish with a black lateral band ending in a caudal spot; dorsal and
anal fins less than a third of the fish's total length, located just posterior to the middle of the fish (Plate 3).
Bluefin killifish are not sportfish and have no commercial value other than forage fish for some top preda-
tors. Bluefin killifish are mostly confined to peninsular Florida, west to the lower Choctawhatchee River
drainage, north in coastal Georgia to the Ogeechee River drainage and reported in central South Carolina,
where they were presumably introduced (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Bluefin killifish spawn from late January to mid-September but may spawn throughout the year. Eggs
are laid in thick vegetation. Major food items are periphyton and sometimes parts of vascular plants (Lee et
al. 1981).

Biologist comments

Bluefin killifish are extremely small fish and, when present, they are very abundant. Therefore,
population estimates of bluefin killifish using blocknets or electrofishing are always an underestimate of
the true population because all fish cannot be collected; they are too numerous. The bluefin killifish is
also so small that accurate weights cannot be obtained with normal fisheries scales, which usually weigh
only to the nearest gram.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 25 lakes in which bluefin killifish were collected are almost identical to the statistics for the
entire data set of 60 lakes (Table 14). This suggests that bluefin killifish can inhabit many diverse types of
lakes in north central Florida.

Bluefin killifish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they were too small. They were
collected in eight and 24 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table
15). Blocknet rotenone sampling is the best method of collecting bluefin killifish for presence-absence
information. In all samples, bluefin killifish were less than 1% of the total fish population sampled, by
weight.

Bluefin killifish were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 and 80 mm TL, with corre-
sponding average weights of 0.3 and 0.9 g (Table 16).







Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei)


Bluefin killifish were collected in 25 of the 60 lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Bell Pasco Sep 87
Deep Putnam Jun 87
Diuglas Lake Jun 8f
Fish Osceota Oct 8
Hamr Lake Oct R7
Hartridge Polk Aug 87
Keys Pond Putnam Jun 86
Killarny Orange Aug 87
Law breaker Lake lun s
Lmdsev Hernando May 86
Live Oak Osceola Ma\ SS
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Miona Sumter Aug 86
Okahumpka Sumtinr Jul 80
Patrick Polk lIu 88
Pearl Orange Nov 88
Round Pond Marion Jun 87
Rowell Bradford Aug 88
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Susannah Orange Sep .S
Wale' Polk Sep I,
W\atenurtn Columbi.i Jun S,
Wauberg Alachua Jul86


Table 14. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 25 of those lakes in which bluefin killifish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
flakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Bluefin killifish

Mean depth '.mj
Bluefn kdllish

pH
Bluefin killifish


Total alkalirur Img.'L as CaCO,)
Bluefin killish

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25C)
Bluefin killifish

Color IPL-Co unit.
Bluefin killinsh


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Bluefin killifish


60 406 55
25 398 89


6u 2 Q L A
25 1'2 2 LU


60 7.0 7.6 4.3
25 7.3 7.8 4.4

60 314 13.I 0.0
25 2 38 5 1.1 0 I1

60 136 118 17
25 147 126 33


it 2' 17
25 27 It-

60 56 20
25 25 21


54 12
57 12

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.3


384 97
323 87

40' 53
ll 27






Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei)


Table 14. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total nitrogen (pg/L) 60 924 694 82 3789 802
Bluefin killifish 25 786 777 108 1808 423

Total chlorophyll a lpg L) 60 28 10 I 241 47
Bluefm lulhfish 25 19 18 1 102 22

Secchi depth (m) 60 2.0 1.5 0.3 5.8 1.5
Bluefin killifish 25 1.9 1.5 0.6 5.5 1.4

Percent area covered (( ) 10 40 30 I 100
Bluhin killhish 25 47 40 1 100 42


Table 15. Population estimates of bluefin killifish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (gm/net/24hr) No Fish Collected
Percent of total sample b, w eight I i
Average size (gm i

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 8 3.8 1.2 10.0 3.0
Total weight (gm/hr) 8 2.0 0.2 7.5 2.7
Percent of total -ample by weight I': 8 <0 1 <0 1 0 2 10I
Average size ignmi1 8 0I 4 0 10 1 3 1.4

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 24 3219.7 0.9 34666.1 7516.6
Total weight (gm/ha) 24 828.3 <0.1 8020.0 1720.7
Percent ot toral sample by weight lr-J 24 0.t <:0.1 5 5 I 3
Average size (gm) 24 04 ,0.1 12 0 3


Table 16. Average size group weights of bluefin killifish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 25 24764 0.3 <0.1 0.6 0.1
80 19 1129 0.9 0.5 2.0 0.3




















PI Li
PLATE 4


Description and distribution


Bluegill are laterally-compressed fish with dorsal fin almost twice the length of anal fin; greenish on
top and sides with dark vertical bars and small amounts of blue and orange colors around the head; dark
spot on the posterior base of the dorsal fin; gill rakers long (Plate 4). The bluegill is an important sportfish
sought for its excellent food value and enjoyment of capture. Bluegill were originally restricted to western
and central North America, ranging from coastal Virginia to Florida; west to Texas and northern Mexico;
and north to Minnesota and western New York (Lee et al. 1981). Currently, bluegill have been trans-
planted to most other parts of North America, into Europe, and South Africa.

Biology

Bluegill may spawn throughout the growing season, which in most years is from February through
October in Florida. Pairs nest in colonies with males fanning nests in shallow water, usually less 1 m
(Carlander 1977). Bluegill have diverse food habits including algae, vascular plants, zooplankton, aquatic
and terrestrial insects, crayfish and small fish. A wealth of additional biological information has been
published on bluegill (see Huish 1954 and Carlander 1977).

Biologist comments

Bluegill are easy fish to sample and identify, except when they are small, have been dead for a few
days and are mixed with other Lepomid species. The best way to separate small bluegill from other
Lepomid species is to look for long gill rakers and the spot on the posterior base of the dorsal fin. Many
biologists insist that bluegill is primarily a littoral species. Many large and small bluegill were consistently
caught in open water experimental gillnets, suggesting that bluegills use open water habitat more than is
currently believed.

Florida data

Collecting bluegill in almost every lake sampled suggests that bluegill can inhabit many diverse types
of lakes in north central Florida (Table 17).

Bluegill were collected in 49, 58, and 59 lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and blocknet
rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 18). This suggests that electrofishing and blocknet rotenone
sampling are both effective methods of collecting bluegill for presence-absence information. In lakes
where bluegill were collected, they averaged 8, 16 and 28% of the total fish population sampled, by
weight, for experimental gillnets, electrofishing, and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively. Bluegill
averaged a substantial percentage of the population, with a maximum measured value of 81% for
electrofishing samples.
32







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Bluegill were collected in eight size classes ranging from 40 to 320 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of <1 and 595 g (Table 19). The heaviest bluegill collected in experimental gillnets,
electrofishing or blocknet rotenone weighed 595 g (1.31 Ibs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission official state record for bluegill, through April 1992, is 1338 g (2.95 lbs).

Weight-length relations and length at age are an integral part of the management for bluegill (Carlander
1977). Thus, individual weight-length relations (Table 20) and backcalculated length at age determinations
(Table 21) were recorded for each lake in which bluegill were collected. Some lakes were sampled in more
than one year and were recorded separately. The slopes of these regressions ranged from 2.60 to 3.65 and
intercepts ranged from -6.12 to -3.97. Bluegill averaged 61, 123, 161, 188 mm TL for age 1, 2, 3, and 4,
respectively.

Mark-recapture estimates for harvestable bluegill (> 149 mm TL) populations were also conducted on
37 lakes (Table 22). Harvestable bluegill populations averaged 120 fish/ha and ranged from 1 to 797 fish/
ha. The coefficient of variation for these population estimates is 141%, suggesting that harvestable bluegill
population abundance is extremely variable.

Bluegill were collected in 59 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Barce Puniam lul 86
Bell Pasco Sep 67
Bians Arm Alachua Jul 86
i,:r.i-.i- i ,i, i-
Brim Pond Putnam Jun 86
Bull Pond Putnam May 89
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Carr Leon jul 87
Cathenne Marion Sep 87
Clay Lake Jul 86
Clear Pasco Sep 86
Conine Polk Jul 88
Cruoked Lake Apr 87
Cue Putnam Oct 86
Deep Putnam Jun 87
Douglas Lake Jun 89
Fish Osceola Oct 88
Gate Lake Polk Aug 89
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Harris Lake Oct 87
Hartndge Polk Aug 87
Holden Orange Sep 87
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Ke cPond Putnanm Jun8
Killarnv Orange Aug 87
Koon Lalayette lun 88
Lindsey Hernando May 88
Little Fish Putnam Sep 89
Live Oak Osceola May 88
Lochloosa Alaich l Aug S"
Lotten Leon May 88
Mill Dam Manon May 89







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Bluegill collection data continued.
Lake County Date
Miona Sumter Aug 86
Moore Leon May 88
Mountain Hernando Jun 89
Mountain 2 Polk Aug 89
Okahumpka Sumler Jul 86
Orienta Seminole lun 88
Pasadena Pasco Jul 89
Patrick Polk Jun 88
Pearl Orange Nov 88
PIcnic Putnam Sep 80
Round Pond Manon Jun 87
Rowell Bradiord Aug 88
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul88
Susannah Orange Sep 88
Swim Pond Manon Oct 89
Thomas Polk Aug 8'
Tomahawk Marion lul A8
Turkey Pen Calhoun Aug 88
Wales Polk Sep 86
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
Wauberg Alachua lul 86
West Moody Paso Jun 89


Table 17. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 59 of those lakes in which bluegill were collected.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
flakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Bluegill


60 406 55
59 413 55


Mean depth iml
Bluegill

pH
Bluegill

Total alkalrut' (nig. L as CaCO.i
Bluegill

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C)
Bluegill

Color iPr-Co urus)
Bluegill


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Bluegill

Total mrrogen lpg, L'
Bluegill

34


2 12412
2 12412


1752
1767


60 28 20 Oh 59 12
59 2.8 29 0 6 5.9 12

60 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6
59 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6

0 314 13h 0.11 I1.6 330
5I 31Q 10 i00 1300 330


60 136 118 17
59 137 118 17


16 28 17
59 28 17

60 56 20
59 57 21


384 97
384 98

400 53
4(00 54


0o Q24 694 82
S '38 702: 82







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Table 17. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Bluegill 59 29 10 1 241 47

Secchi depth mJ 60 2 l 15 0.3 5.8 15
Bluegll 59 19 I 5 0. 5.8 1 4

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Bluegill 59 41 33 1 100 39


Table 18. Population estimates of bluegill sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 49 4.3 0.3 34.0 7.0
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 49 437.5 4.7 7610.0 1156.9
Percent oi total sample hby wight I'-) 49 7b i0 l 785 18
A erage-ze igl 49 8n 7 142 382 0 73

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 58 245.7 1.3 5103.3 684.6
Total weight (g/hr) 58 4965.6 38.8 44702.3 7494.3
Percent of lotal sample by weight I'.-) 58 15 4 0 3 &0 5 13.
At'*.rage size tg 58 455 554 334.3 52.8

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 59 5074.9 37.0 119145.6 15692.3
Total weight (g/ha) 59 40034.6 130.0 534840.0 74599.5
Percent ot total ample in weight i. T 5 276 10 79.3 19 1
Average site Ig) 59 21.1 Ih 1190 213c


Table 19. Average size group weights of bluegill; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes for
individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 54 27715 1.0 <0.1 2 <0.1
80 63 16542 3 1 8 2
120 63 9033 15 7 23 3
In0 r4 31?I 41 30 5-1 6
200 ft4 1468 88 56 145 Ib
240 58 551 177 84 259 3.

320 1 1 595 595 595







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Table 20. Bluegill log 10 weight (g) versus log 10 length (mm TL) regressions for individual lakes using measurements
from individual fish.
County Lake Number of fish Intercept Slope R2
Alachua Bivans Arm 180 -5.24 3.25 0.98
Alachua Lochloosa 53 -5.22 3.23 0.99
Alachua Wauberg 55 -5.56 3.40 0.98
Bradford Ro ell l -5 '.2 1 23 i0
C.lhoun Turkey Pen 23 -4% 304 0 ,
Columbia Alligator 4- -'5 1 11 1%1i
Columbia Watertown 104 -4.98 3.12 0.98
Hernando Lindsey 146 -5.21 3.20 0.99
Hernando Mountain 54 -5.11 3.18 1.00
Latatelt Koon 22 o .5 1 42 11.111
Lake Cla\ 71 -4 9 3 It u Yu
lakek Crvuked 2- .4 W 262 1 LC.'
Lake Douglas 31 -5.20 3.19 0.99
Lake Grasshopper 47 -5.13 3.15 1.00
Leon Carr 47 -5.24 3.24 0.99
Leon Lorten 2 .54" 3 01
Leon Moore 4 -4 9' 311 I1II
Marion Catherine 5,4 -4 vO 113? Il)
Marion Mill Dam 45 -5.31 3.23 1.00
Marion Round Pond 33 -4.60 2.89 0.97
Marion Swim Pond 26 -5.12 3.14 0.99
Marion' Tomahan k 4- -4 25 2 -2 0
Orange appka 3' !12 3 .5 1%
Orange Bald m iln"I 44 -50s 3 1i 1 C
Orange Baldwin (1989) 29 -4.89 3.04 1.00
Orange Carlton 61 -6.09 3.64 0.89
Orange Carlton 62 -5.53 3.40 0.99
Orange Holden no -494 3l" 0i
Orange Killarn\ 5 -5 I?3 31 i1
Orange Pearl il 61 4- -.5. 3!14 1 H)
Orange Pearl (1989) 42 -5.08 3.12 1.00
Orange Susannah (1986) 47 -4.88 3.03 0.99
Orange Susannah (1989) 50 -4.84 3.01 1.00
( ecola FL h 4' -5 18 2'0 1 0li
Oic)la Live Oak 44 .CiA 314 lQ'
Pasco b ll .5 1 33 I-) )-
Pasco Clear 102 -4.89 3.03 0.99
Pasco Pasadena 50 -4.92 3.06 0.99
Pasco West Moody 30 -5.02 3.10 0.99
Polk Bonny 44 5 13 21 1 0
Polk Conine 53 .-4 2 3 2 1 0
Polk Gate Lake l" -5 0" !4 0
Polk Hartridge 44 -4.97 3.08 1.00
Polk Hollingsworth 61 -5.23 3.25 1.00
Polk Hunter 36 -5.19 3.20 1.00
Polk Mounuin 2 41 -5 15 ? I 1 00
Polk Parick 41 .5 1 3 14 100
Polk Sarurtar 4- -4 "I il' I n.'
Polk Thomas 59 -4.67 2.95 1.00
Polk Wales 452 -5.01 3.11 0.98
Putnam Barco 18 -5.31 3.22 0.95







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Table 20. Continued.
County Lake Number of fish Intercept Slope R2
Putnam Brim Pond 27 -5.40 3.29 0.96
Putnam Bull Pond 59 -5.32 3.22 1.00
Putnam Deep 61 -6.04 3.55 0.98
Putnmm Liith Fih -5 32 3 1 00
Putnam Pk'im 30 4 4'1i 2 ". 07
Futnam Suagg 3U -5 34 327 1.00
Seminole Orienta 50 -3.97 2.60 0.99
Sumter Miona 121 -4.70 2.93 0.99
Sumter Okahumpka 12 -5.97 3.5 0.97
Number of lakes 60 60 60 60
Mean 59 -5.14 3.17 0.99
Minimum 12 -6.12 2.60 0.89
Maximum 452 -3.97 3.65 1.00
Standard deviation 59 0.39 0.19 0.02


Table 21. Bluegill length (mm, total length) at age, backcalculated from individual fish and averaged by lake.
County Lake Number Age 1 Age 2 Age 3 Age 4
of fish examined
Alachua Bivans Arm 180 58 121 159 194
Alachua Lochloosa 53 64 145 198 223
Alachua Wauberg 55 79 157 211 234
Brrdi.rd Rowell 53 61 131 1.i 202
Calhoun Turke\ Pen 23 39 3 10R 130
Colurmbl AlliIgarr 4" !11 11.I I" 194
Columbia Watertown 110 57 148 206 232
Hernando Lindsey 146 52 123 165 191
Hernando Mountain 54 69 161 202 221
Lala,,elti Koon 22 4I 121 17"4 17
Lake Clas 70 on 12Y 149
Lake Cimoktd I2c h2 113 151 ITs
Lake Douglas 31 30 93 130 156
Lake Grasshopper 47 46 102 140 176
Leon Carr 47 74 146 188 219
Len Lottnr. 25 3s 1' 14v 1-5
L on MNoore 4' 31 149 180
hlainon Catherine ;4 3.9 131 Irs
Marion Mill Dam 45 32 100 149 215
Marion Round Pond 33 92 121 146 155
Marion Swim Pond 29 75 115 146
Mainon To.nilhawk 4- ? .1 It'2 134 102
Orange Arppkja r, I 1311 134
Orange Ba.ld Unn I l' I 4-4 "' 14 1 r6 210
Orange Baldwin (1989) 45 74 127 164 185
Orange Carlton 124 70 140 180 195
Orange Holden 66 64 119 146 165
Orange Fc.irl I lAor 4. 12" 173 192
Orange I'trl i 18,S, 42 n 121 Il 1'q
Orange Su1rann,ih iln 4- 54 112 157 is






Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Table 21. Continued.
County Lake Number Age 1 Age 2 Age 3 Age 4
of fish examined
Orange Susannah (1989) 50 56 114 152 *
Osceola Fish 49 60 129 172 196
Osceola Live Oak 44 49 117 172 195
Pasco Bell 52 1Otb l2 194
Pasco Clear 101 45 103 136 167
Pasco Pasadena 50 53 129 178 2115
I ,,s,, i.e-l M i.,-..1.. .il -,1 14,, 2,,g 2 .
Polk Bonny 44 98 149 185 214
Polk Conine 53 71 134 172 190
Polk Gate Lake 50 ?3 104 143 213
Polk Harrridge 44 101 143 l l 18S
Polk Hollngsworth 61 87 15 6 193
i'..lk I liin ,.r n I! : I ll *
Polk Mountain 2 41 36 104 149 181
Polk Patrick 41 56 113 157 190
Polk Sa ntan 45 73 128 167 li3
Polk Thomas 99 .7 136 184 207
Polk Wales 452 8116 h 18 185
Putnam Barco 18 54 96 121 141
Putnam Brim Pond 27 68 164 203 220
Putnam Bull Pond 59 48 104 144 174
Putnam Deep tl 12 9t 12 157
Putnam Little Fish 3" 4b 102 153
Putnam Picnic 30 41 90 129 148
ruinj - C- 1 ;1- 11 1 1! ~"1 1-1
Seminole Orienta 50 62 135 166
Sumter Miona 121 49 94 133
Summer Okahbumpka 12 47 1051 IN 147
Number of lakes 58 58 57 48
Mean 61 123 161 188
Minimum 30 83 108 130
Maximum 115 180 211 233
Standard deviation 20 22 24 25


Bluegill are probably responsible for introducing more people to the sport offishing
than any otherfreshwater fish. They are numerous, Jbund in almost all aquatic
systems and readily take a variety of natural and artificial baits.







Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)


Table 22. Modified Petersen mark-recapture estimates for harvestable bluegill (> 149 mm TL) for 37 Florida lakes sampled
between 1986 and 1990. The estimates are listed with 95% confidence limits.


Alligator
Baldwin
Barco
Bell
Bivans Arm
Bonny
R.ill ir',r.J
Carlton
Clay
Clear
Conme
Deep
Fish
Gate Lake
Hartridge
Holden
Holling worth
Keyv. Pond
Killarny
Little Fish
Mill Dam
Mountam 2
Okahumpka
Orienma
Patrick
Pearl
Picnic
Round Pond
Rowell
Sanmaray
Suggs
Susannah
Thomas
Turkey Pen
Wales
Watertown
Wauberg


Number of lakes 37 37
Mean 120 84
Minimum 1 1
Maximum 797 478
Standard deviation 169 118


Year
of sample
87-88
86-87
88-89
87-88
86-7I
87-88

88-89
86-87
bb-8"
88-84
87-88
88-89
89-90
87-88
86-8',


87-88
89-90
89-90
89-19

88-89
88-89
86-87
89-90
87-'S8
88-89
89-90
88-89
86-87
89-90
88-84
6o-87
88-89
86-87


Stock
(fish/ha)
21
168
154

272
4

210
5
23
460
IS
225
31
5
155
84
43
100
797
2
59

125
1
23
44
14
233
91
22
43
15
2
7'
402
471


Lower 95%
confidence interval
17
116
69

175
3

191
4
13
375

159
15
15
10
125
59
13
66
478
1
24
3
91
1
56
13
19
149
49
13
29
10
1
52
2.4
385


Upper 95%
confidence interval
26
242
384
11
417
5
43
232
7
41'
W7
44
317
58
3
143
118
78
151
1084
3
118
7
171
2
9
76
11
385
162
35
63
23
I5
117
560
577
37
172
2
1084
229
























Description and distribution


Bluespotted sunfish are small laterally-compressed fish with a rounded homocercal caudal fin; dark
green with bright blue and orange spots on sides and fins, and a small dark opercular spot (Plate 5).
Bluespotted sunfish are not sportfish and have no commercial value other than forage fish for some top
predators. Bluespotted sunfish inhabit coastal lowlands from southern New York to southern Florida (Lee
et al. 1981)

Biology

Bluespotted sunfish may spawn throughout the year (Carlander 1977). Eggs are laid in thick vegetation
or filamentous algae. Major food items are small crustaceans, aquatic insects, plants, worms, and mollusks.
For a list of additional citations on the biology and life history of bluespotted sunfish, see Lee et al. (1981).

Biologist comments

Bluespotted sunfish are extremely small fish and, when present, are very abundant. Population esti-
mates of bluespotted sunfish are always underestimates of the true population because all fish cannot be
collected; they are too numerous. Bluespotted sunfish are also so small, accurate weights cannot be
obtained with normal fisheries scales, which usually weigh only to the nearest gram. Separating
bluespotted sunfish from small Lepomis species is easily done by looking for the rounded homocercal
caudal fin that does not exist on Lepomis species. This is especially handy for fish that have been dead for
a few days.

Florida data

The median values for lake morphology and water chemistry, variables for the 25 lakes in which
bluespotted sunfish were collected, are almost identical to the corresponding medians for the entire data
set of 60 lakes (Table 23). The median value for aquatic macrophyte abundance in the 25 lakes in which
bluespotted sunfish were collected, however, was two times the median for the entire data set of 60 lakes.
This suggests that bluespotted sunfish can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north central Florida but
tend to occur in lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation.

Bluespotted sunfish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small. They
were collected in nine and 25 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively
(Table 24). Blocknet rotenone sampling is the best method of collecting bluespotted sunfish for presence-
absence information. For all sampling methods the bluespotted sunfish averaged less than 2% of the total
fish population sampled, by weight.







Bluespotted sunfish (Enneacanthus glorious)



Bluespotted sunfish were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of 0.5 and 1.5 g (Table 25).

Bluespotted sunfish were collected in 25 of the 60 lakes sampled.


County


Lake
Bull Pond
Carlton
Carr
Catherine
Deep
Dougla'
Fish
Grasshopper
Harris
liarrridge
Koorn
Live Oak
Lochloosa
Mill Dam
Miona
Ni're
Okahlunpka
Onrinta
Patrick
Picnic
Rowell
manitarv
~'aniian'
Wuggs
s'uMannah
West Moody


Date


Putnam
Orange
Leon
Klanion
Putnam
Lake
Osceola
Lake
Lake
Polk
La ta ,e-t
Osc Cl)
Alachua
Marion
Sumter
Leon
Sumter
Seminole
Polk
Putnam
Bradford
Polk
Putnam
Oranis
Pasco


Table 23. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 25 of those lakes in which bluespotted sunfish were captured.

Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


60
25


Surface area (ha)
Bluespotted sunfish

Mean depth Imj
Blueapolted suntlsh

pH
Bluespotted sunfish


Total alkalihnr img L as CaCO,
Bluesported sunih h


Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Bluespotted sunfish 25


Color tPt-Co, unit
Bluespotted sunthih


406 55
407 85


1752
1167


'I 28 2" On
25 2 2 09

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
25 6.9 7.2 4.3

n l 31 4 13, U U
2? 24 220 0 0


136 118 17
142 122 17


NM 28 17
25 41 1-


51' 12
5- 1 1

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.5


384 97
384 106

44.1) 53
400 AlS


May 89
Aug 88
Jul87
Sep 17
Jun 87
I u p A
Oct 88
Jun 89
Oct 87
Au5 S-
lun P4

Aug 88
May 89
Aug 86

lul Ar.
luIt I'
Jun 88
Sep 89
Aug 88
Aug s4
jul 8

Junp 89
Jun 89






Bluespotted sunfish (Enneacanthus glorious)


Table 23. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total phosphorus (pg/L) 60 56 20 1 1043 148
Bluespotted sunfish 25 22 13 2 92 22

Total nitrogen ipg. Li 60 924 694 82 3789 802
Bluespotted sunfish 25 84n 6.97 137 3228 o52

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Bluespotted sunfish 25 17 5 1 173 35

~iCJu depth tm Ou 210 1.5 03 58 15
Bluespoted sunfish 25 20 1 5 0 4 3 13

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Bluespotted sunfish 25 59 60 1 100 38


Table 24. Population estimates of bluespotted sunfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets,
electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent io lutal sample by weight i"'D
Am erage sze (gi

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 9 3.2 1.0 9.0 2.6
Total weight (g/hr) 9 3.7 0.6 13.5 4.5
Percent ot total sample by weigh i -i) Q9 0 0 Average ize Igi 9 12 112 3 0 09

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 25 4372.0 1.4 35991.3 8658.3
Total weight (g/ha) 25 2484.4 <0.1 18500.0 4405.0
Percent of total sample by weight 'n 25 1 6 <0.1 8.4 1.9
Average size tg) 25 1 6 <0 1 22 1 4.3


Table 25. Average size group weights of bluespotted sunfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 25 26163 0.5 0.1 1.0 0.2
80 25 5133 1.5 0.9 2.0 0.2
























Description and distribution

Bowfin are fusiform fish with jaws that are not elongated; gular plate present; long spineless dorsal fin
located on the posterior half of the fish almost to the rounded caudal fin; dark brown on top, progressing
lighter on sides to a yellow on the belly (Plate 6). Bowfin are considered rough fish of no commercial or
sportfish value. Bowfin, however, are often caught by sportsmen fishing for largemouth bass. Bowfin
occur from St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers and Lake Champlain west throughout Great Lakes, including
Georgian Bay and lakes Nipissing and Simcoe, Ontario; south in Mississippi basin from Lake
Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, to Louisiana; in lower Texas drainages west to Colorado River; and along the
Coastal Plain from Alabama to eastern Pennsylvania (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Colonies of bowfin spawn in late spring to early summer, which is usually from April to July
(Carlander 1969). Males build and guard the nest and young. Nests are cleared-out spots of aquatic vegeta-
tion or filamentous algae in shallow areas (Carlander 1969). The nests observed during this study usually
had some shiny object in the middle of the nest, (e.g., shells or aluminum cans). Bowfin feed primarily on
fish but will eat virtually any animal.

Biologist comments

Larger bowfin are easy to identify and collect. However, they are usually collected on the third day in
blocknet rotenone samples because bowfin have a tendency to bury themselves in mud or vegetation
while the rotenone is affecting them. This may be why the bowfin were collected in only 16 lakes with
blocknet rotenone sampling and 23 with electrofishing. Bowfin are easily captured by electrofishing and
are drawn from considerable distances to the positive electrode of an electrofishing boat. No bowfin
under 160 mm TL were collected, which is hard to explain since the larger fish are quite common and
abundant in the lakes where bowfin were present. Our sampling methods must not be adequate for
capturing small bowfin.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 29 lakes in which bowfin were collected are almost identical to the entire data set of 60 lakes
(Table 26). This suggests that bowfin can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north central Florida.

Bowfin were collected in 16, 16, and 23 lakes with experimental gillnets, blocknet rotenone, and
electrofishing sampling methods, respectively (Table 27). This suggests that for presence-absence







Bowfin (Amia calva)


information electrofishing may be the best method for capturing bowfin. In lakes where bowfin were
collected they averaged 4.2, 9.3, and 15.9% of the total population sampled, by weight, for blocknet
rotenone, experimental gillnet, and electrofishing methods, respectively. Bowfin ranged from <1 to 34% of
the total population sampled, by weight, in blocknet rotenone and electrofishing samples, respectively.
Bowfin can be a substantial percentage of a total fish population.

Bowfin were collected in 15 size classes ranging from 160 to 720 mm TL, with corresponding average
weights of 50 and 3615 g (Table 28). The heaviest bowfin collected using experimental gillnets, electro-
fishing, and blocknet rotenone sampling was 3.19 kg (7.03 lbs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission official state record through April 1992 for the bowfin is 8.62 kg (19.00 lbs).

Bowfin were collected in 29 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.


Lake
Alligator
Baldwin
Bell
B-.nni
Bull Pond
Carlton
Carr
Clear
Conine
Dougla-
F-sh
Graslho'pp: r
Harris
Hartridge
Live Oak
Loc'loo-sa
Ill Dam
Nni.ana
Mountain
Okahumpka
Orienta
r.irnck

RcreIll
Sanitary
Suggs
Watertown
Wauberg
\_t 1l Muood\


County
Columbia
Orange
Pasco
Polk
Putnam
OTangeC
Leon
Pasco
Polk
Lake

LAk.
Lake
Polk
Osceola
Alichua
Marion

Hernando
Sumter
Seminole
Polk
Or.int.t
Eradi.,rd
Polk
Putnam
Columbia
li:chua
PflacC


Date
Jun87
Sep 88
Sep 87
5e*ph
Ma\ 8JQ
Aueg 4t
Jul87
Sep 86
Jul88

iln 't
Oct %"

Oct 87
Aug 87
May 88


Aug 8e
Jun 89
Jul86
Jun 88
lun 5



Aug 89
Jul88
Jun 88
Jul $t.
lurn 81


Table 26. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 36 of those lakes in which bowfin were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


60 406 55
29 371 96


,C i irt


12412
5580


St. 12
I' 1


Surface area (ha)
Bowfin

Mian depth i rr,


,0i1 2 h
2. -I
;d ;







Bowfin (Amia calva)


Table 26. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
pH 60 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6
Bowfin 29 7.5 7.8 4.5 9.5 1.1

Totalal akaluu Img Las CaCOi b6 314 13 t 0 1306 3 0
Bt uin 21 14 3 26 0 I 1 104.7 2 67

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25oC) 60 136 118 17 384 97
Bowfin 29 169 137 26 384 96

Color i.Pt-C un uI., bO 28 1' 0 400 53
B2.9% hn 43 22 0 4.nl 73

Total phosphorus (pg/L) 60 56 20 1 1043 148
Bowfin 29 79 25 6 1043 198

Total nitrogen (pg LI r)O 24 rq4 82 3789 *02
Bo'. fin 24 ICt7 S74 25 3.228 670l

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Bowfin 29 29 18 1 173 40

beichl dpth i" ni 20 15 0.3 .' 8 1
BoEwtrn 21 4 14 04 37 18

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Bowfin 29 41 27 1 100 40


Table 27. Population estimates of bowfin sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 16 0.9 0.3 3.5 0.8
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 16 1184.5 146.0 3202.0 788.5
Percent oi tolal sample bv weight I In 9 3 3.l 2> 9 n
At erage size ( )16 1424.4 442 4 24279 Wi 5

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 23 3.8 1.0 13.5 3.4
Total weight (g/hr) 23 6049.2 746.0 22497.0 5024.8
Percent iol toal ample b% weight I 2 159 35 342 1f00
Average ize igi' 2? 1lr84 524 0 355 0 i 787.

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 16 6.6 0.4 30.8 7.5
Total weight (g/ha) 16 6507.5 120.0 21740.0 6855.6
Percent ot total sample bv weight r'i lb 4 2 0 l1 14 7 4 1'
A erage izeigi Ib 81 2 44 2 278 6 5770







Bowfin (Amia calva)


Table 28. Average size group weights of bowfin; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes for
individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
160 1 1 50 50 50
200 1 1 50 50 50
240 1 1 93 93 93
280 1 1 213 213 213
320 2 2 400 300 50 141
360 6 6 362 254 433 60
400 8 11 527 438 588 56
440 11 16 803 615 1070 135
480 12 17 1034 834 1133 101
520 16 17 1403 805 1750 223
560 15 22 1630 1270 2000 182
600 11 12 2010 1650 2800 315
640 8 8 2656 2450 2860 168
680 9 9 3371 2940 3700 262
720 2 2 3615 3320 3910 417


Boatfin. also known as choupique, mudfish, or cypress trout, has shed its lowly
reputation to become the source of one of Louisiana's most expensive culinary
delicacies, "Lousiana caviar."


















41 11111 1151
-i I|'| lli, jl i 1ij''ii '1'T 5TI T IT'''' l


PLATE 7


Description and distribution

Brook silversides are small, slender fish, greenish with a conspicuous silvery band on the side; distin-
guished from inland silverside by having a snout longer than the diameter of the eye; while inland silver-
side have a short snout (Plate 7). Brook silversides are not sportfish and have no commercial value other
than forage fish for some top predators. Brook silversides are native to Mississippi and southern portions of
the Great Lakes basin; Gulf Coastal Plain from Texas to Florida; and on Atlantic slope north to South
Carolina (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Brook silversides are surface swimmers that spawn in late spring (Hubbs and Lagler 1974). The eggs
are unique, having a sticky thread-like process that serves both as a floatation organ and subsequently as a
holdfast when the egg touches an object. Brook silversides are specialized feeders on cladocerans, small
flying insects, and chaoborus (Lee et al. 1981).

Biologist comments

Brook silversides are extremely small fish and when present are very abundant. Therefore, population
estimates of brook silverside using blocknets or electrofishing are always an underestimate of the true
population because they are too numerous for a complete collection. The brook silverside is also so small
accurate weights cannot be obtained with normal fisheries scales, which usually weigh only to the nearest
gram.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 46 lakes in which brook silverside were collected are almost identical to the entire data set of
60 lakes (Table 29). This suggests that brook silversides can inhabit many diverse types of lakes found in
north central Florida.

Brook silversides were not collected in experimental gillnets because they are too small. They were
collected in 27 and 40 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone methods, respectively (Table 30).
This suggests that for presence-absence information blocknet rotenone sampling may be the best method
for capturing brook silverside. In lakes where brook silversides were collected they averaged less than 1%
of the total population sampled, by weight. Brook silversides are usually a small percentage of a total fish
population.







Brook silverside (Labidesthes sicculus)


Brook silversides that were collected fell into three size classes ranging from 40 to 120 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of less than 0.4 and 3.5 g (Table 31).

Brook silversides were collected in 46 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Barco Putnam Jul 88
Bell Pasco Sep 87
Bonny Polk Sep "7
Bull Pond Putnam Ma\ S'4
Carr Leon lul 6
Catherine Marion Sep 87
Clear Pasco Sep 86
Crooked Lake Apr 87
C u Putnam Oct 1S
Deep Putnam lun '7
Dougla- Lake Jun S6
Fish Osceola Oct 88
Gate Lake Polk Aug 89
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Harrim Lake Oct i
Hartndge Polk Aug '"
Hiilden Or)ar.ge S.p 7
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Killarny Orange Aug 87
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Lindsev, Hernando May 'S.
LiveOak 0-ci-ola Mas 88
Lochlo-.a Alachua Aug AR
Lotten Leon r.l:, ,
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Miona Sumter Aug 86
MorLIT Leuon Ma\ iA
Mounlair 2 Polk Aug ""
Okahumpka Sumter Jul in
Orienta Seminole Jun 88
Pasadena Pasco Jul89
Patrick Polk Jun 88
Pearl Orange Nov .8
Picnic Putnam Sep 89
Round Pond Marion Jun A"

Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul 88
Susannah Orange Sep 88
t'uim Pond Manon Oct RO
Tomahawk Marion Jul 8S
Turkey Pen Calhoun Aug 88
Wales Polk Sep 86
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
Wauberg ALachua lul S.o







Brook silverside (Labidesthes sickulus)


Table 29. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 46 of those lakes in which brook silversides were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Brook silverside

Mean depth (mla
Brook Atierside

pH
Brook silverside


Total alkalnmty tmg. L as CaC03
Brook sileride

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C)
Brook silverside

Color tPI-C:. unJrst
BrookistLerslde


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Brook silverside

Total rulrogen lpg L'
Brook -il\eri-ide

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Brook silverside

_'hiu d.:pth rr,,
Brook si lerslde

Percent area covered (%)
Brook silverside


60
46


406 55
246 59


1752
871


nO 2.8 2.9 0
4. 29 3f0 0.6

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
46 6.8 7.5 4.3

60 31.4 13 0.0
46 26.5 19.5 0.0


60 136
46 125


118 17
117 17


60 2.5 17
46 2N Il

60 56 20
46 24 18


5.9 12
5.9 1.3

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.5


384 97
323 89

400 53
400 60


0 924 694 62
4n 74,4A 56 82


60 28 10
46 18 9


60 21 15 0.3
46 20 1.5 0.3


60 40 30
46 44 37


241 47
135 26

5S 15
5.8 1 4

100 39
100 39










Table 30. Population estimates of brook silverside sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No Fish Collected
Percnit of to-sampte byweight% .


Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 27 11.3 1.0 78.3 20.1
Total weight (g/hr) 27 12.5 0.3 64.8 19.9




Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 40 125.2 <0.1 1276.8 223.2
Total weight (g/ha) 40 107.0 <0.1 1060.0 182.6





Table 31. Average size group weights of brook silverside; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 17 400 0.4 0.1 1.0 0.3
80 48 2211 1.1 0.1 2.8 0.5
120 12 49 3.5 1.0 10.0 2.3
























Description and distribution

Brown bullheads are medium-sized scaleless fish, flat head with sharp heavy pectoral and dorsal spines
and long dark barbels around the mouth; back and sides brown and often mottled with gray to yellow belly
(Plate 8). Brown bullheads can be considered sportfish and commercial fish. Florida has a large commer-
cial fishery for brown bullheads (Fox et al. 1989) and many sport fishermen fish with hook and line for
them. Brown bullheads originally range throughout the eastern half of the United States and into southern
Canada (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Brown bullheads spawn primarily from March to May but may continue through September (Carlander
1969). Males reportedly clear and guard the nests but both parents may be involved in nest building and
care of the young. Brown bullheads are bottom feeders, feeding on aquatic plants, aquatic insects, mol-
lusks, fish eggs and fish.

Biologist comments

Brown bullheads are easy to collect and identify. The brown bullhead is often belittled by fishermen in
favor of more high-profile fish like largemouth bass. The brown bullhead, however, can entertain many
people with enjoyable fishing and a quality food value.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 34 lakes in which brown bullheads were collected are almost identical to the entire data set
of 60 lakes (Table 32). This suggests that brown bullheads can inhabit many diverse types of lakes located
in north central Florida.

Brown bullheads were collected in eight, 16, and 29 lakes with electrofishing, experimental gillnets
and blocknet rotenone sampling methods, respectively (Table 33). This suggests that for presence-absence
information blocknet rotenone sampling may be the best method for capturing brown bullheads. In lakes
where brown bullheads were collected they averaged 2.2, 4.5, and 7.4% of the total population sampled,
by weight, for electrofishing, experimental gillnets, and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively. Brown
bullheads ranged from <1% in all sampling methods to a high of 25.7% of the total population sampled, by
weight, in electrofishing samples. Brown bullheads can be a substantial percentage of a total fish population.






Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)


Brown bullheads were collected in 11 size classes ranging from 40 to 440 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of 1 and 1210 g (Table 34). The heaviest brown bullhead collected weighed 1210 g (3.35
Ibs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission official state record through April 1992 is 1561 g
(3.44 lbs).

Brown bullheads were collected in 34 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Bivans Arm Alachua lul 8S
Carlton Orange Aug S8
Carr Leon iul h"
Conine Polk Jul 88
Cue Putnam Oct 86
Douglas Lake Jun 89
Grasihupper Lake lun ?4
Harns Lake Oct r"
Holden Orange Sep 17
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Keys Pond Putnam Jun 86
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Lmdsei Hernardo Ma'. 88
Lnle Fish Pulnamn Spts
Live k a Os;eola Mac'.M
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Miona Sumter Aug 86
Mountain Hernando olun 1
Mountain 2 Polk Aug %O
Okahumpka Sumter iul 0n
Pasadena Pasco Jul 89
Patrick Polk Jun 88
Rowell Bradford Aug 88
Satiarr Polk Aug 89
Susannrah Orange Sep 8
Swmun Pond Mianon Ocn _Q
Thomas Polk Aug 89
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
4I1 uh,.ri, Ila !J lunl ?5
Wei Moyodv i'aco olun 5







Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)


Table 32. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 34 of those lakes in which brown bullheads were captured.


Variables Number Mean Median Minimum
of lakes


Surface area (ha)
Brown bullhead

Mean depth i.m
Brown bullhead


60
34

.:l
M I
34


pH 60
Brown bullhead 34

Total al limrn i mg. L ia CaCO,i tn)
Brown bullhead 34

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25'C) 60
Brown bullhead 34

Color (Pi-Co unil nir
Brown bullhead 34

Total Phosphorus (pg/L) 60
Brown bullhead 34

Total nitrogen i.pg Li oil
Brown bullhead 34

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60
Brown bullhead 34

S-chi depth fmi nOf
Brown bullhead 14

Percent area covered (%) 60
Brown bullhead 34


406
682

2?i
2 "

7.0
7.6

31 4
401

136
162

IS
27

56
84

C24
11-1

28
38

2U
I 6

40
47


Maximum Standard
deviation
12412 1752
12412 2304

,59 12
5 1.3

9.7 1.6
9.7 1.3

1 i0 33?
111 0 32

384 97
384 104

41)3 53
11t 24

1043 148
1043 192

378U 802
37859 85

241 47
241 56

58 I;
58 13

100 39
100 41






Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)


Table 33. Population estimates of brown bullheads sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 16 0.5 0.2 2.3 0.5
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 16 249.0 22.0 906.0 216.4
Percent or total sample by %.eight 1',) It 4 5 0 1 252 5.9
Average size (g) 1 1503.7 129.4 906.0 254.3

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 8 7.0 1.2 38.4 12.7
Total weight (g/hr) 8 1666.5 9.2 7214.4 2325.4
Percent of total sample by weight I'; 8 74 <0 I 25 81
Average size Ig) 8 351 1 5.5 700.0 ZS 5

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 29 269.9 0.4 6258.3 1154.0
Total weight (g/ha) 29 2996.2 <0.1 21570.0 5677.0
Percent of total sample b\ weight I' 29 2 2 < 1 158 4.2
Av erage sizLe (zg' 20 1222 cl.1 123o 4 274.5


Table 34. Average size group weights of brown bullheads; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 9 188 1.0 <0.1 2 <0.1
80 20 1918 3 1 6 1.0
120 13 271 10 6 15 2
InOl 1 3b 38 2a 7'5 13
200 8 2' 82 74 o9 7
240 10 35 142 8o 176 24
280 8 19 237 183 312 35
320 9 13 373 232 558 99
360 11 15 626 458 906 129
400 49 11 7"4 024 119 168
440 1 1 1210 1210 1210






















rLAlMI

Description and distribution

Chain pickerel are cylindrical fish with large, prominent toothed jaws; small soft dorsal and anal fins
located on the posterior third of the fish; light greenish color on back and sides with a dark network, and
light-colored belly (Plate 9). The chain pickerel is considered a sportfish. Chain pickerel range throughout
the United States east of the Appalachians from the St. Lawrence River south along the Gulf coast to Texas
(Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Chain pickerel spawn primarily from late winter to spring (Lee et al. 1981). Chain pickerel do not
defend territory, build nests or protect young. A large number of demersal adhesive eggs are scattered over
aquatic vegetation or detritus. Chain pickerel are voracious predators, selecting many different live prey
items that are proportional to the size of the fish (Carlander 1969).

Biologist comments

Chain pickerel are sportfish that are maligned by most bass fishermen because they probably account
for half of the lost lures in a Florida lake. They are fun to catch but extremely bony, making them undesir-
able as food fish.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 12 lakes in which chain pickerel were collected suggest that chain pickerel tend to occur in
softwater, low nutrient lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation (Table 35).

Chain pickerel were collected in six, nine, and 10 lakes with experimental gillnets, blocknet rotenone,
and electrofishing methods, respectively (Table 36). This suggests that for presence-absence information
electrofishing may be the best method for capturing chain pickerel. In lakes where chain pickerel were
collected they averaged 5.9, 9.2, and 16.9% of the total population sampled, by weight, for blocknet
rotenone, experimental gillnets, and electrofishing methods, respectively. Chain pickerel ranged from
<0.2% of the fish collected in blocknets, to a high of 65.2% of the fish sampled electrofishing. Chain
pickerel can be a substantial percentage of a total fish population.

Chain pickerel were collected in 15 size classes ranging from 80 to 640 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of 6 and 1550 g (Table 37). The heaviest chain pickerel collected weighed 1550 g (2.53
lbs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission official state record for chain pickerel through
April 1992 is 3629 g (8.00 lbs).







Chain pickerel (Esox niger)


Chain pickerel were collected in 12 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Barco Putnam Jul 88
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Lve Oak Osceola Nla% 88
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
Loften Leon Mav 88
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Moore Leon May 88
Okahumpka Sumter Tul 86
Parick Polk lun as
Rovell Bradlord Aug88
Sugg4 Putnam lul 4s


Table 35. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 12 of those lakes in which chain pickerel were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
flakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Chain pickerel

iMean depth 'mi
Chain pickervl

pH
Chain pickerel


60 406 55
12 279 79


2 12412
5 2309


0' 28 29 :0
12 20 23 i19

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
12 6.4 6.2 4.5


Total alkaliniry mg L a;s CaCO,i
Chain pi:kerel

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25'C)
Chain pickerel

Color I 'r-Co unit i
Chain pkikerel


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Chain pickerel

Tutal nrtroger, ig LI
Chami pickerel

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Chain pickerel

Secchi depth imi
Chain pickerel

Percent area covered (%)
Chain pickerel


1752
644


5c 1 -1
57 14

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.6


nil 3i4 13 r i.U 1I h
12 15 35? 0.1 58


60 136
12 108


118 17
61 17


nr' 2B 17-
12 ,, 21

60 56 20
12 20 11


384 97
323 104

4ili1 V5
400 111


ri 9424 o.04 82
12 -43 660 82


60 28 10
12 9 4


hil 20 I 0: 1.
12 24 23 i).5


60 40 30
12 66 82


.8 1 5
5.4 1 n

100 39
100 33







Chain pickerel (Esox niger)


Table 36. Population estimates of chain pickerel sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 6 1.2 0.3 2.7 0.9
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 6 554.1 209.3 1038.3 309.7
Percent o total sample b\ ,eight I'' 9 2 1 3 25.3 8.8
Average size tIgi 500.4 2780 1038 2774

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 10 6.6 1.0 19.5 6.6
Total weight (g/hr) 10 2181.3 42.0 5706.0 2019.5
Perc~m of total sample b% weight I I 10 16 I 1.1 652 234
Ai erige '2 I g la; II 51 643 3 217n

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 9 53.0 3.4 157.0 56.5
Total weight (g/ha) 9 4801.1 1020.0 13850.0 4121.2
I'er.ent o' total ~ample tb wteiRgh I i '1'5 I 2 I '. 4 h
Average c'izeig',1 1 i -1 q 4b 4 Iuii 0 61 3


Table 37. Average size group weights of chain pickerel; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
80 2 3 6 6 6 <0.1
120 4 17 6 4 8 2
160 4 14 16 16 16 <0.1
2' t 24 32 3.1 40 4
240 S It :1 4i 2 I 8
260 5 | ,s -$ II 711 12
320 6 9 117 106 123 6
360 7 9 216 180 243 23
400 7 13 280 237 309 22
441) 14 4i~- 144 4"- ,(
480 4 9 5tu 496 s5i 5.cS
521) 4 4 72 r7.12 f86 11l
560 4 4 897 786 1000 93
600 2 2 1385 1385 1385 <0.1
640 1 1 1550 1550 1550


Chain pickerel are called jack-fish in Florida and not desired as food fish because of
numerous bones in the filets. However, ifthefilets are soaked in white inegarr for 10
hours and then in soda water for a couple of hours, the filets can be fried and eaten
without any worry of bones.
(Randy Myers)





















PLATE 10


Description and distribution


Dollar sunfish are small, laterally-compressed fish with a slightly forked caudal fin; green with orange
on cheeks and belly; opercular lobe long with a greenish-white margin (Plate 10). Dollar sunfish are small
but still considered sportfish and show up in aggregate bream catches. Dollar sunfish inhabit southern
coastal drainages from North Carolina to Texas and north through central Mississippi basin to Kentucky
and Arkansas (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Little information is available on dollar sunfish. Lee et al. (1981) classifies dollar sunfish as insectivo-
rous, and reported spawning from April to September in St. John's River, Florida.

Biologist comments

Dollar sunfish are common, occurring in a third of the lakes sampled, but they are not very numerous
when they occur. Unless one is looking for dollar sunfish in a sample they may be recorded as small blue-
gill. The long opercular lobe with a greenish-white margin is an easy way to identify the dollar sunfish.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 20 lakes in which dollar sunfish were collected are almost identical to the entire data set of 60
lakes (Table 38). This suggests that the dollar sunfish can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north
central Florida.

Dollar sunfish were not collected in experimental gill nets. They were collected in six and 20 lakes
with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 39). Blocknet rotenone sampling
is the best method of collecting dollar sunfish for presence-absence information. For all sampling methods
the dollar sunfish averaged <2% of the total fish population, by weight.

Dollar sunfish were collected in only three size groups ranging from 40 to 120 mm TL, with corre-
sponding average weights of 0.8 and 13 g (Table 40).







Dollar sunfish (Lepomsw-nw0ou sY


Dollar sunfish were collected in 20 of the 60 lakes sampled.


Lake
Bell
Bull Pond
Catherine
Douglas
Fish
Gras hopper
Harris
Hartridge
Killarny
Lie Oak
Mill Dam
thona
Moore
Okahumpka
Patrick
Pearl
Sanitary
S,im Pund

Wauberg


Table 38. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 20 of those lakes in which dollar sunfish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


60 406 55
20 366 87


2.8 29 0.b
2.9 2.8 O.6


60 7.0 7.6 4.3
20 7.0 7.5 4.5


Total alkahnlr-img. L as CaCO,
Dollar sunfih


Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Dollar sunfish 20


5.q 1 2
5.7 1.3

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.4


M) 314 136
20 25 6 200


136 118
139 120


384 97
323 93


Color Pt-Co units
Dollar sunfi.h


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Dollar sunfish

Total nitrogen pg LI
Dollar sunfish


6U 28 17
20 2n 18

60 56 20
20 23 13

b0 924 694
211 7Q5 730


1043 148
166 35


Surface area (ha)
Dollar sunfish

Mean depth im)
Dollar suntis.h

pH
Dollar sunfish


County
Pasco
Putnam
Marion
Lake
ONceola
Lake
Lake
Polk
Orange
Osceola
Marion
Sumter
Leon
Sumter
Polk
Orange
Poclk
Manrion


Date
Sep 87
May 89
Sep 87
Jun 89
Oct88
Jun89
Oct 87
Aug 87
Aug 87
May 88
May 89
Aug86
May 88
Jul86
Jun 88
Nov 88
Aug 89
Olt 89

Jul 86


Alachua







Dollar sunfish (Lepomis marginatus)


Table 38. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Dollar sunfish 20 15 9 1 102 23

SEcchl depth fmi n0 2.0 I 5 ( 3 5.8 1.5
Dollar suntrsh 20 2.0 1 5 0 53 1.3

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Dollar sunfish 20 49 46 1 100 38


Table 39. Population estimates of dollar sunfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (gm/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent ol total sample b\ vcight v i
k,.erage siz I gm

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 6 10.2 1.0 31.5 11.0
Total weight (gm/hr) 6 31.2 3.0 50.0 20.9
Percent ol total ample tb eight tr' n I 10 l .0.1 0 2 0 10
Average ize igmni o 50- 101 14 5 5 1

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 20 765.3 2.9 6546.7 1646.7
Total weight (gm/ha) 20 1254.5 <0.1 9340.0 2305.7
Percent of lital 'ample b' weighl 1t i 20 I 7 A% erag tcsrj tze tgm 20 2.1 ') i 39 l.8


Table 40. Average size group weights of dollar sunfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 13 1254 0.8 0.3 1.8 0.4
80 22 2141 2.5 1.3 6.0 1
120 5 10 13.0 13 15 1

















'-' '*,, " -



PLATE 11

Description and distribution

Eastern mosquitofish are small cylindrical fish with a rounded caudal fin; light gray fish with a black
edge on each scale; a jagged dark vertical line on caudal fin (Plate 11). Eastern mosquitofish are not
sportfish and have no commercial value other than forage fish for some top predators. Eastern
mosquitofish are confined to the Atlantic slope and peninsular Florida (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Eastern mosquitofish spawn from late May to mid-September but may spawn throughout the year
during warm periods (Carlander 1969; Lee et al. 1981). Eastern mosquitofish are different from most other
freshwater fish in that the females give birth to live young. Males bear an intromittent organ, the
gonopodium, developed from a modified anal fin. (Eddy and Underhill 1978). Fertilization is internal and
the female carries the developing eggs until they hatch internally and the live young emerge from the
female.

Biologist comments

Eastern mosquitofish are extremely small fish. When present, they are very abundant, making it
difficult to collect all fish in a given area. Therefore, population estimates of eastern mosquitofish using
blocknets or electrofishing are probably underestimates of the true population. The eastern mosquitofish
is also so small accurate weights cannot be obtained with normal fisheries scales, which usually weigh
only to the nearest gram.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 47 lakes in which eastern mosquitofish were collected are almost identical to the same
statistics for the entire data set of 60 lakes (Table 41). This suggests that eastern mosquitofish can inhabit
many diverse types of lakes in north central Florida.

Eastern mosquitofish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small. They
were collected in 20 and 47 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively
(Table 42). Blocknet rotenone sampling is the best method of collecting eastern mosquitofish for presence-
absence information. In all samples the eastern mosquitofish averaged <1% of the total fish population,
by weight.

Eastern mosquitofish were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of 0.3 and 0.9 g (Table 43).







Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)


Eastern mosquitofish were collected in 47 of the 60 lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Barco Putnam Jul 88
Bell Pasco Sep 87
Bivans Arm Alachua Jul 86
Brim Pond Putnam Jun 86
Bull Pond Putnam May 89
Carlton Orange Aue 88
Carr Leon Jul 87
Catherine Marion Sep 87
Cla, Lake Jul 8b
Clear Pasco Sep 86
Conine Polk Jul 88
Crooked Lake Apr87
Gate Lake Polk Aug 80
Harris Lake Oct 87
Hartndge Polk Aug 87
Holden Orange Sep 87
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Keys Pond Putnam jun Sn
Koon Lafavette Jun 88
Lndsey' Hernando May 88
Little Fish Putnam Sep 89
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Njuna Sumler Aug 8b
Mountain Hernando Jun I8
Mountain 2 Polk Aug 89
Okahumpka Sumter Jul 86
Pasadena Pasco Jul89
Patrick Polk Jun 88
Pearl Orange Nov 88
Plcnic Putnam Sep 89
Rowell Bradufrd Aug 88
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul88
Susannah Orange Sep 88
Swun Pond Marion OcLt 8
Thomas Polk Aug 89
Tumahawk Manon jul 88
Turkey Pen Calhoun Aug 88
Wales Polk Sep 86
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
Wauberg Alachua Jul 86
West Moodyv Pasco Jun 89







Eastmer 4meo.Ufish l (Ganmbusia hahbrooki)


Table 41. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 47 of those lakes in which eastern mosquitofish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Eastern mosquitofish

Mean depth (m)
Eastern mosquitotish

pH
Eastern mosquitofish


60 406 55
47 504 55


60 2.8 2.9
47 2.9 2.9

60 7.0 7.6
47 7.3 7.8


2 12412 1752
2 12412 1973

0.6 59 1.2
0.6 5.9 1.3

4.3 9.7 1.6
4.3 9.7 1.6


Total alkalimrty (mg/L as CaCO3 60
Eastern moquitofish 47

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Eastern mosquitofish 47


Color (Pt-Co unit
Eastern mosquatoish

Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Eastern mosquitofish

Total nitrogen (ptg/L)
Eastern mosquitofish

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Eastern mosquitofish

Secluh depth (m)
Eastern mosquaofish

Percent area covered (%)
Eastern mosquitofish


31.4 13.b
35.9 26.0

136 118
144 122


60 28 17
47 31 16

60 56 20
47 68 21

60 924 694
47 1023 777

60 28 10
47 33 11


60 2.0 1.5 0.3
47 1.7 1.4 03


60 40 30
47 38 27


00 130.6
0.0 130.6


384 97
384 100

400 53
400 6)


241 47
241 51

5.8 I 5
5.4 1 2

100 39
100 37






Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)


Table 42. Population estimates of eastern mosquitofish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets,
electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (gm/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent of total sample by weight (1%
Average size (gim)

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 20 36.6 1.0 407.0 92.4
Total weight (gm/hr) 20 15.2 0.2 197.1 43.9
Percent of total sample by weight (') I 20 0.10 <0.1 07 0.2
Average size igm) 21 05 01 25 05

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 47 867.9 0.7 22145.3 3308.5
Total weight (gm/ha) 47 306.6 <0.1 6930.0 1049.3
Percent of total sample by weight t(9i 47 0 2 <. I 41 O.
Average size Igm) 47 0 3 <0 1 1.1 0.3


Table 43. Average size group weights of eastern mosquitofish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 51 12870 0.3 0.1 1.0 0.1
80 34 721 0.9 0.10 2.5 0.4


Eastern mosquitofish are one of the most abundant and environmentally tolerant
species offreshwater fish in the southeast United States. Because fertilization is
internal, the species has no specific habitat requirements for reproduction.
Consequently, mosquitofish are an ideal model species for addressing a variety of
fundamental biological questions.
(Donald E. Campton)






















PLATE 12

Description and distribution

Everglades pygmy sunfish are extremely small fish with a rounded homocercal caudal fin; dark green
with iridescent blue markings (Plate 12). Everglades pygmy sunfish inhabit territory below the fall line in
coastal streams and lakes from Cape Fear River, North Carolina, into southern Florida, and west to Mobile
Bay basin, Alabama (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Everglades pygmy sunfish spawn in aquatic vegetation, laying 25 to 30 eggs. The primary food of
Everglades pygmy sunfish are copepods and cladocerans (Lee et al. 1981).

Biologist comments

Everglades pygmy sunfish are extremely small fish. When present, they are not very abundant. When
alive, they are extremely easy to identify by the iridescent blue colors on the sides.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 11 lakes in which Everglades pygmy sunfish were collected suggests that Everglades pygmy
sunfish tend to occur in soft-water, low nutrient lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation (Table 44).

Everglades pygmy sunfish were only collected with blocknet rotenone methods (Table 45). This
suggests that for presence-absence information blocknet rotenone sampling may be the best method for
capturing Everglades pygmy sunfish. In lakes where Everglades pygmy sunfish were collected, they aver-
aged <1% of the total population sampled, by weight. Everglades pygmy sunfish are usually an extremely
small percentage of a total fish population.

Everglades pygmy sunfish that were collected fell into two size classes ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL,
with corresponding average weights of 0.1 and 1 g (Table 46).







Everglades pygmy sunfish (Elassoma evergladei)


Everglades pygmy sunfish were collected in 11 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.

Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Bull Pond Putnam May 89
Catherine Marion Sep 87
DeLep Putnam tin i"
Grasshopper Lale lun '
Lonten L-n M1 't
Mill Dam Marion May 89
Moore Leon May 88
Picnic Putnam Sep 89
Turkey, Pen Calhoun .Aug b
\a.1ubrg A Lch. ua jul gh



Table 44. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 11 of those lakes in which Everglades pygmy sunfish were captured.

Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Everglades pygmy sunfish

Miap deplh imi
E, erglade; p im\ A.ntsh

pH
Everglades pygmy sunfish

Tira al allnmr. tImg L aC CaCCO
E% trFladed pimi ,sunsuh

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25'C)
Everglades pygmy sunfish

Color I t-Co unntl
E\ Lrglade p\i m\ untir h


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Everglades pygmy sunfish

Toral iltrogecn jitn Li
Ec rglade_ p\ nm Isunih-h

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Everglades pygmy sunfish

StchiJ depth inm
Ei ergldc- pigm .ur.slsh

Percent area covered (%)
Everglades vpymy sunfish


60
11


406 55
45 28


1752
45


nit 2 2" 1.n
11 3 3I 1 I

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
11 5.6 4.9 4.3

IU i li4n IL1 I
11 'aQ 1I1 ..0 1

60 136 118 17
11 54 48 17


os) 2 I."
11 13

60 56 20
11 54 6


5' 12



9.7 1.6
8.0 1.3


384 97
137 34

4-11 53
51 !h


i:i '94 F-4 82
11 nl9 353 132


60 28 10
11 19 2


hi) 21 1 0
11 ." 05


60 40 30
11 47 40


241 47
102 37

"',
5 3 1 ,


100 39
97 35







Everglades pygmy sunfish (Elassoma evergladei)


Table 45. Population estimates of Everglades pygmy sunfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets,
electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected
Perctr ol 1,ial ;.11 mpli b, -,.-;tht ,


Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr)
Total weight (g/hr) No fish collected
Percent of t..tal ample i\ .ti htI Ii
A ieraqt \ie i1I

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 11 15.2 0.6 53.8 22.0
Total weight (g/ha) 11 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Percentof .'ta! sanple I,. eiti I 11 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Average size (g) 11 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1


Table 46. Average size group weights of Everglades pygmy sunfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then
by all lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 11 21 0.1 0.1 0.1 <0.1
80 1 1 1.0 1.0 1.0























Description and distribution


Flagfish are small, deep-bodied fish with rounded caudal fins; light-colored with orange or brassy sides;
and four or five vertical dark stripes and a dark spot on side below the front of dorsal fin (Plate 13).
Flagfish are endemic to peninsular Florida, where they range from the southern tip of the state north to St.
Johns River drainage in Alachua County, and west along the Gulf coast to extreme lower Ocklockonee
River drainage (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Flagfish are bottom-feeding herbivores. The appearance of numerous young of uniform size in isolated,
previously dry ponds suggests eggs can survive severe reduced moisture (Lee et al. 1981).

Biologist comments

Flagfish are extremely small fish. When present, they are not very abundant. When alive, they are easy
to identify with orange sides with black stripes and a dark spot on the sides. They are definitely an aquatic
macrophyte-oriented fish.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 11 lakes in which flagfish were collected suggests that flagfish tend to occur in alkaline, low-
nutrient lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation. (Table 47)

Flagfish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small. They were collected
in three and five lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 48).
Blocknet rotenone sampling may be the best method of collecting flagfish for presence-absence informa-
tion. For all sampling methods the flagfish averaged <1% of the total fish population, by weight.

Flagfish that were collected fell into two size classes ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with correspond-
ing average weights of 0.9 and 1.8 g (Table 49).






Flagfish (Jordanella floridae)


Flagfish were collected in five of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Miona Sumter Aug 86
Mountain Hernando Jun 89
Okahumpka Sumter Jul86
Pasadena Pasco lul 89
West Moody% Pasco ]un 89


Table 47. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for five of those lakes in which flagfish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Surface area (ha) 60 406 55 2 12412 1752
Flagfish 5 136 151 39 271 95


11' 26 29 I~n
23 2' 0


pH 60
Flagfish 5

Total alkalinimy mg Las CaCO t.0I
Flagfish i

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25'C) 60
Flagfish 5


Color (PI-Co anusi
Flagihsh


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Flagfish

Total nrurogen pg Li
Flagtsh

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Flagfish

S'ecchi depth m
Flagtish

Percent area covered (%)
Flagfish


7.0 7.6 4.3
8.0 7.9 7.3


314 B13
3u 7 2n I

136 118
136 127


N0 28
5 2r 20

60 56 20
5 20 15

b.0 24 b24
f5 80 r13

60 28 10
5 7 8


60 2 0 5 0 3
c 9 1 4


60 40 30
5 82 97


59 12
35 1 i

9.7 1.6
9.0 0.6


384 97
188 30


1043 148
37 10

37",5 02
1033 1-0


S8 1 5
28 Ob

100 39
100 26


Mean depth tmi
Flagnsh






Flagfish (jordanella floridae)


Table 48. Population estimates of flagfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent ot total sample by %,eight I, I
Average size ig)

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 3 4.3 3.0 6.0 1.5
Total weight (g/hr) 3 8.0 2.2 16.5 7.5
Percent ol total sample tby weight t':" I 00 0 1 0 10 <0 1
Average ize iw 3 u 2.8 10

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 5 743.6 33.0 1686.0 650.9
Total weight (g/ha) 5 822.0 70.0 1700.0 666.9
Percent o lotal sample by eight L i 5 )."7 0 l0 1 o 0
Average size (gi 5 1 3 0 2 0 5


Table 49. Average size group weights of flagfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes for
individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 4 354 0.9 0.9 0.9 <0.1
80 5 214 1.8 1.5 2.8 0.5


Flagfish are a popular aquarium fish in Northern states. Flagfish are docile fish and
are often found in aquariums with mollies, platties and swordtails.
(Martin Mann)





















PLATE 14

Description and distribution

Florida gars are cylindrical fish with elongated jaws; well-toothed; nasal openings at the end of snout;
covered with thick rhomboidal ganoid scales; dorsal fin set back above anal fin; greenish above and silver
below with dark spots scattered along the entire body (Plate 14). Florida gars are considered rough fish of
no commercial value. Many individuals, however, use the Florida gar as a target for bow fishing and
occasional hook and line fishing. Florida gars occur from Ocklockonee River drainage, Florida and Geor-
gia, south through peninsular Florida and north to Savannah river drainage (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Florida gars spawn mostly in April and May but spawning continues into October (Carlander 1969).
Eggs are fertilized externally with pairing or polyandry. The adhesive eggs are laid in weedy areas and no
parental care is exhibited. Fish constitute most of the food but various crustaceans and insects are eaten in
significant quantities (Carlander 1969).

Biologist comments

Florida gars are easy to collect and identify. However, they are usually collected on the third day in
blocknet rotenone samples because Florida gars have a tendency to bury themselves in mud or vegetation
while the rotenone is affecting them. This may be why Florida gars were collected in only 20 lakes with
blocknet rotenone sampling. Florida gars are easily captured electrofishing and are drawn from consider-
able distances to the positive electrode of an electrofishing boat. The large number of Florida gars that
were caught in open water gillnets was unexpected, especially when reading about the Florida gar's
preference for aquatic vegetation. It may be that the Florida gars are more important to open water habi-
tats than was previously thought.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 36 lakes in which Florida gars were collected are almost identical to the entire data set of 60
lakes (Table 50). This suggests that Florida gars can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north central
Florida.

Florida gars were collected in 20, 29, and 36 lakes with blocknet rotenone, electrofishing and experi-
mental gillnet sampling methods, respectively (Table 51). This suggests that for presence-absence informa-
tion experimental gill nets may be the best method for capturing Florida gars. In lakes where Florida gars






Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus)


were collected, they averaged 2.9, 17.0, and 31.3% of the total population sampled, by weight, for
blocknet rotenone, electrofishing and experimental gillnet sampling, respectively. Florida gars ranged
from <1% of the total population sampled in blocknet rotenone samples, by weight, to a high of 86% of the
total population sampled in experimental gill nets (Table 51). Florida gars can be a substantial percentage
of a total fish population.

Florida gars were collected in 19 size classes ranging from 120 to 880 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of 1 and 2845 gm (Table 52). The heaviest Florida gar collected was 3.38 kg (7.45 lbs).
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission official state record through April 1992 for the Florida
gar is 3.18 kg (7.0 lbs).

Florida gars were collected in 36 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Bell Pasco Sep 87
Bians Arm Aiachua jul S6
Bonny Polk Sep 87
Bull Pond Putnam May 89
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Conine Polk Jul 88
Deep Putnam lun 67
Douglas Lake Jun ,Q
FLsh O-ceola Oct 88
Gate Lake Polk Aug 89
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Harris Lake Oct 87
Harrndge Polk Aug 87
Holden Orange Sep 87
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Killarny Orange Aug 87
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Lne Oak Osc-lla May 86
Lo hioosa Alachua Aug 88
Mill Dam MNanon May b8
Mountain 2 Polk Aug 89
Okahumpka Sumter Jul 86
Pasadena Pasco Jul 89
Patnck Polk Jun 88
Pearl Orange Nov 88
Rowell Bradford Aug 88
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul 88
Susannah Orange Sep 88
Wales Polk Sep 8S
Wauberg Alachua lul 86
VWet Moody Pa:so Jun 39






Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus)


Table 50. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes, compared
to the same statistics for 36 of those lakes in which Florida gar were captured.


Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Florida gar lakes

Mean depth iml
Florida gar lakes

pH
Florida gar lakes


60 406 55
36 651 96


2 12412
4 12412


60 28 29 06
36 27 2 7 0

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
36 7.7 8.0 4.5


Toll alkahrnit (mg, L as CaCO,,
Flonda gar lakes

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25C)
Florida gar lakes

Color (Pt-Co untas
Florida gar lakes


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Florida gar lakes

Tolal nirogen (pg.'L)
Flonda gar lakes

Chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Florida gar lakes

Sechlu deplh Iml
Florida gar lake

Percent area covered (%)
Florida gar lakes


1752
2241


59 1.2
57 1 2

9.7 1.6
9.7 1.3


tiO '1.4 13.0 0 0 130.6
36 44.1 34 5 01 1301)


60 136
36 180


118 17
181 29


61) 28 17
36 38 20

60 56 20
36 85 26


384 97
384 97

400 '5
400 67


'4 924 t94 82
3p 12U5 u23 15x


60 28 10
36 42 21


60 20 15 u 3
36 14 I 1 03


60 40 30
36 35 13


241 47
41 56

58 15
5 1 1

100 39
100 39


Florida gar are tough to clean, but a large one will yield a good back strap that, when fried
properly, has been called freshwater lobster






Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrineus)


Table 51. Population estimates of Florida gars sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 36 4.6 0.5 25.7 4.8
Total weight (gm/net/24hr) 36 3709.7 166.3 24743.3 4506.3
Percent of Intal sample by weight t7 I 36 30.4 05 80.2 25.1
Average size tgm) 36 853.5 122.0 1883.3 460.7

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 29 10.6 0.7 36.0 9.8
Total weight (gm/hr) 29 5392.5 80.0 32858.0 6406.0
Percent of total sample by weight (l% 29 o1.9 02 520 133
Average size (gnm 24 570.1 80 0 1470.0 3390

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 20 8.1 <0.1 34.4 9.2
Total weight (gm/ha) 20 2882.0 <0.1 12090.0 3022.0
Percent of total sample by weight ('i 20 26 <0 1 15 1 3.5
Average siie igmn) 20 414 2 <01 '91 4 280.7


Table 52. Average size group weights of Florida gars; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes for
individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
120 2 2 1 1 2 0
160 3 3 7 5 9 2
200 1 1 95 95 95
240 1 I 50 50 %0
280 4 11 75 42 83 67
320 h 12 3 72 150 29
i 2i4 ii 21
400 18 66 194 148 286 32
440 24 69 288 103 433 73
480 22 67 387 218 540 67
520 24 68 535 405 730 77
560 24 72 687 540 810 78

640 20 36 1038 813 1300 126
680 21 34 1325 1045 1570 146
720 5 o 1542 1270 1710 175
7.t) 14 24 2041 1540 2310 212
800 23 6 191" 1510 3050 303
4. :4, ;n "4''' '14





















PLATE 15


Description and distribution

Gizzard shad are laterally-compressed fish with the last fin ray of the dorsal fin elongated and a saw-
toothed belly; silvery scales with blue-green backs and a dark spot on side; copious slime layer especially
upon death (Plate 15). Gizzard shad are not considered sportfish. The gizzard shad is, however, a primary
forage fish in many lakes throughout the gizzard shad's occupied range. Gizzard shad populations occupy
the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River to southeastern South Dakota and central Minnesota, south across
New Mexico, east to the Gulf of Mexico and throughout Mississippi and Great Lakes drainages to about 400
North latitude on the Atlantic coast (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

In Florida, gizzard shad spawn in the spring with increasing water temperature, primarily from March
to April (Carlander 1969). Adhesive eggs are released in shallow open water or near aquatic vegetation.
Large post-spawn die off is common with gizzard shad. Young gizzard shad eat primarily protozoa and
rotifers, while adults eat phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus.

Biologist comments

Gizzard shad are difficult fish to electrofish, easy to collect with gillnets and far too easy to kill with
rotenone. When gizzard shad are present in a lake, outside-the-net fish kills are to be expected when
sampling with blocknet rotenone methods. The gizzard shad is one species that significantly increases in
total abundance as aquatic macrophytes are removed from a lake, aiding in the flow of energy from phy-
toplankton to zooplankton through gizzard shad and then to top predators.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of the lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte
variables for the 24 lakes in which gizzard shad were collected suggest that gizzard shad tends to occur in
hard-water, nutrient rich lakes with low abundances of aquatic macrophytes (Table 53).

Gizzard shad were collected in 13, 20, and 22 lakes with electrofishing, blocknet rotenone, and
experimental gillnet sampling, respectively (Table 54). Experimental gillnet sampling appears to be the
best method for collecting gizzard shad for presence-absence information. In lakes where gizzard shad
were collected, they averaged 3.9, 21.9, and 42.3% of the total fish population, by weight, with
electrofishing, blocknet rotenone, and experimental gillnet sampling, respectively. Gizzard shad can be a
considerable percentage of a fish population with a maximum of 96% of the total population sampled
when collecting with experimental gillnets.






Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)


Table 73. Modified Petersen mark-recapture estimates for harvestable largemouth bass (> 249 mm TL) for 51 Florida lakes
sampled between 1986 and 1990. The estimates are listed with the 95% confidence limits.
Lake Year Stock Lower 95% Upper 95%
of sample (fish/ha) confidence interval confidence interval


Alligator
Baldwin
Barco
Bell
Bivans Arm
Bonny
Brim Pond
Bull Pond
Carlton
Cathermne
Clay
Clear
Conine
Crooked
Cue
Deep
Fish
Cate Lake
Grasshopper
Hartridge
Holden
Holhngsworth
Hunter
Key Pond
Killarny
Little Fish
Live Oak
Lochlc.sa


87-88
86-87
88-89
1"-88
8-87
tr-88
86-87
89-90
88-89
87-88
86-A7

88-89
87-88
87-88

SR 8"

89-90
87-88
87-88


86-s7
87-88
89-90
88-89
>.N>.,






Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)


Table 73. Continued.


Mill Dam
Miona
Moore
Mountain
MNountain 2
Okahunmpka
Orienta
Pasadena
Patrick
Pearl
Picnic
Round Pond
Rowell
Sanitary
Su -k;:
Suajnrnah
Swim Pulnd
Thomas
Tomahawk
Wales
Watertown
WVauberg
\Vest Nl,_Id\


Mean
Number of lakes
Minimum
Maximum
Standard deviation


Year
of sample
89-90
86-87
87-88

8'i.Q"

88-89
89-90
88-89
jAn-A

A"-AS
88-89
89-90





87-88
86-87
88-89

S' -90


Lower 95%
confidence interval


Table 73. Continued.


Stock
(fish/ha)
8
18
14
26
I-
1
37
42
34
30

In
48
22

44

15
11
12
26
17
28
22
51
1
75
12.9


Upper 95%
confidence interval
12
29
33
40
20
21
43
58
42
44
11

59
27
2
52
3?
I1.
26
18
33
22
47























Description and distribution


Least killifish are small cylindrical fish with lateral band on sides and several dark vertical bars; black
spots on base of dorsal and anal fins (Plate 21). Least killifish have no value as sportfish or commercial
fish, but are valued as forage fish for some top predators. Least killifish inhabit a range from lower Cape
Fear River drainage in extreme southern North Carolina, to lower Mississippi River drainage in southeast
Louisiana (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Least killifish are unlike most other freshwater fish in that the females give birth to live young. Fertili-
zation is internal and the female carries the developing eggs until they hatch internally and the live young
emerge from the female (Scrimshaw 1944). Superfetation, the occurrence of more than one stage of
developing embryos in the same animal at the same time, is common for least killifish. Least killifish are
omnivorous daytime feeders with decided preferences for zooplankton (Reimer 1969).

Biologist comments

Least killifish are extremely small fish and are quite common, occurring in almost 30% of the lakes
sampled, but they are not very numerous when they occur. Unless one is looking for least killifish in a
sample they may be recorded as the more abundant bluefin killifish or mosquitofish.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 18 lakes in which least killifish were collected are almost identical to the same statistics for
the entire data set of 60 lakes (Table 74). This suggests that least killifish can inhabit many diverse types of
lakes in north central Florida.

Least killifish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small. They were
collected in one and 17 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 75).
Blocknet rotenone sampling is the best method of collecting least killifish for presence-absence informa-
tion. In all samples the least killifish was <1% of the total fish population sampled, by weight.

Least killifish were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with correspond-
ing average weights of 0.1 and 0.5 g (Table 76).


102






Least killifish (Heterandria formosa)


Least killifish were collected in 18 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.


Lake
Alligator
Bull Pond
Catherine
Clav
Deep
Lochlousa
Mill Dam
Mountain
Mountain 2
Okahumpka
Pear I
Round Pu.nd
Suggs
Susannah
Swim Pond
Thomas
Tomahawk
We't NMondi


County
Columbia
Putnam
Marion
Lake
Putnam
Alachu:
Marion
Hernando
Polk
Sumter
Orange
hMarion
Putnam
Orange
Marion
Polk
anrion
Pa3-0


Date
Jun 87
May 89
Sep 87
jIu] St
Ldeto
lun 87
AuG, 8A
May 89
Jun 89
Aug 89
lul Sb
Nov 88
lun s7
Jul 88
Sep 88
Oct 89
Aug S3
jul 88
Iun 84


Table 74. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 18 of those lakes in which least killifish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Least killifish

Mean depth min
LraJt kdlifish


pH
Least killifish


Total alkaliun tmg'L a. CaCO,
Least killhfish

Specific conductance (iS/cm at 250C)
Least killifish

Color IPt-Cu units)
Least killinsh


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Least killifish

Total mtrogen ipg, L'
Least kilhfih

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Least killifish


60
18


406 55
179 40


12412
2309


011 28 2'9 11
IS 2 2 3 l.n

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
18 6.5 7.0 4.6

nj 31 4 I'n I II
1i 20 0 11 1 I..3


60 136
18 94


118 17
78 35


00 2h 17
18 46 I

60 56 20
18 39 19


1752
535


5.9 12
5,7 1 4

9.7 1.6
9.0 1.5


384 97
201 55

40t. 53
400 93


O0 024 n4 82
It' 730 n2Q 158


60 28 10
18 12 4


241 47
84 19






Least killifish (Heterandria formosa)


Table 74. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Secchi depth (m) 60 2.0 1.5 0.3 5.8 1.5
Least killifish 18 2.1 1.8 0.5 5.1 1.4

Percent area caoered l ') 61] 40 30 1 100 30
Least kllhfish 18 50 42 I 100 40


Table 75. Population estimates of least killifish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent ot lotal sample bv weight I
A4Aerage size ig,

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Total weight (g/hr) 1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Percent ul total sample bvy eight (Ii I 0.1 0 1 -n I
Average size ig, I 0 1 0.1 I I

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 17 69.7 <0.1 321.0 105.0
Total weight (g/ha) 17 10.0 <0.1 80.0 22.4
percent of total sample by w eight I 'r1 17 ,0 1 0 I n.li 10 1I
Average size igl 1 10 1tio <0 I 1i 3 n II


Table 76. Average size group weights of least killifish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 18 429 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1
80 1 22 0.5 0.5 0.5


Least killifish are the smallest live-bearing vertebrate animals.





















PLATE 22

Description and distribution

Lined topminnows are small fusiform fish with dorsal and anal fins almost identical in size located on
the posterior third of the fish; caudal fin rounded; pale olive with faint longitudinal streaks; and about 10
to 12 dark vertical bars in males, and females missing vertical bars; light spot on top of head and between
eyes (Plate 22). Lined topminnows range from Ocklockonee River drainage Florida and Georgia, south to
Dade County, Florida, and north along Coastal Plain to southern Virginia (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Little biological information is available on the lined topminnow.

Biologist comments

Lined topminnows were recently described as a subspecies of Fundulus notti (Lee et al. 1981),
which once was called starhead topminnow because of a light spot located on top of the head and now is
called bayou topminnow (AFS 1991). Another subspecies of the bayou topminnow is Fundulus escambiae
(Lee et al. 1981), which is now called the russetfin topminnow (AFS 1991). Apparently fish west of the
Apalachicola River are russetfin topminnows and those east of the Apalachicola River are lined topmin-
nows (Lee et al. 1981). One lake in this data set was located west of the Apalachicola river (Figure 1) but
fish collected in this lake were lumped with lined topminnows from other lakes, probably diluting the
information presented in Tables 77, 78, and 79. The reader will be left with the split decision on whether
to use this information or not. (Good luck and may the force be with you!)

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 19 lakes in which lined topminnows were collected suggest that the lined topminnows tend
to occur in acidic, softwater, low-nutrient lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation (Table 77).

Lined topminnows were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small. They were
collected in 11 and 19 lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 78).
Blocknet rotenone sampling is the best method of collecting lined topminnows for presence-absence
information. For all sampling methods lined topminnows averaged <1% of the total fish population, by
weight.

Lined topminnows were collected in only three size groups ranging from 40 to 120 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of 0.3 and 5.5 g (79).






Lined topminnow (Fundulus lineolatus)



Lined topminnows were collected in 19 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.


Bull Pond
Catherine
Clay
Crooked
Deep
Grasshopper
Keys Pond
Koon
Lawbreaker
Live Oak
Loften
Mill Dam
Miona
Moore
Picnic
Rowell
Swunm -und
Tomahawk
Turkey Pen


Table 77. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 19 of those lakes in which lined topminnows were captured.

Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Lined topminnow

lMean depth inm
Lined topminr.i)

pH
Lined topminnow


Tnraallkiahlnm img L a-CaCO,'
Lined nopminnot

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C)
Lined topminnow

Color (Pt-Co unirsi
Lined topmminorw

Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Lined topminnow

Total mnogen pg L)
Lined Iopminnowi


60 406 55
19 43 15


2 12412
4 169


I'i 2, 2 O.h


60 7.0 7.6 4.3
19 5.4 4.9 4.3

bh 31 4 116 0 0
I 1Q I) 10 i11

60 136 118 17
19 64 45 17


)0 2: 17
1s 15 4

60 56 20
19 10 6


I <4 614 1
I 4 L 353 ls1


1752
55


9 12
57 12

9.7 1.6
7.9 1.1


384 97
286 62

400 53
%7 23

1043 148
66 15

378u 8i02
10251 281


County
Putnam
Marion
Lake
Lake
Putnam
Lake
Putnam
Lafayette
Lake
Osceola
Leon
Marion
Sumter
Leon
Putnam
Brad ford
Mainun
Mkanon
Calhoun


Date
May 89
Sep 87
ul 86
Apr 67
lun $7
Jun .6w
Jun 86
Jun 88
Jun 87
lMa\ 88
MaN ba
May S)
Aug 86
May 88
Sep 89
Aug SS
Oct a9
Aulg 8
Aug 88






Lined topminnow (Fundulus lineolatus)


Table 77. Continued.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Lined topminnow 19 6 3 1 47 10

Secchi depth (nl r) 2 0 1 5 0.3 58 1.5
Lined topminnow 1 3 1 3.1 0.6 55 1.5

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Lined topminnow 19 60 48 1 100 33


Table 78. Population estimates of lined topminnow sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected
Percent of total sample t ':tleiht k;
A\ erage size 'g;

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 11 7.7 1.0 30.0 9.3
Total weight (g/hr) 11 10.1 1.0 36.6 11.8
Percent ot total -ample b\ weight I" 11 (16 '0 1 5 n I b
Veragc sze Ig' i I Ih 05 3i0 0 8

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 19 215.6 4.0 794.0 228.5
Total weight (g/ha) 19 197.9 <0.1 550.0 177.0
Percent or total ;ample b\ i w,,ght" i 1 0 I3 I-.0 l I 9 0 4
Average size gI 1)9 11 I 2 3 0o


Table 79. Average size group weights of lined topminnow; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 13 460 0.3 0.1 1.0 0.3
80 19 340 1.4 0.5 3.0 0.5
120 2 2 5.5 5.4 5.6 0.1





















PLATE 23

Description and distribution

Longnose gars are large cylindrical fish with elongated slender jaws; well-toothed; nasal openings at
the end of snout; covered with thick rhomboidal ganoid scales; dorsal fin set back above anal fin; greenish
above and silver below with a few dark spots on the posterior offish body (Plate 23). Longnose gars are
considered rough fish of no commercial value. Many individuals, however, use longnose gars as targets for
bow fishing and occasional hook and line fishing. Longnose gars occur from southern Quebec south to
Florida, west to Great Lakes region and southwest to middle Rio Grande of Mexico and middle Rio Pecos
drainage of New Mexico (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Longnose gars spawn mostly in late spring through the summer, March to August, but primarily in
April (Carlander 1969). Eggs are fertilized externally with pairing or polyandry. The left ovary tends to be
larger than the right and eggs are green and toxic. Fish constitute most of the food but various crustaceans
and insects are eaten in significant quantities (Carlander 1969).

Biologist comments

Longnose gars are easy to identify and collect with experimental gillnets. When electrofished, how-
ever, longnose gars are stunned well but because of their large size they are often difficult to pick up with
regular sized dipnets. Longnose gars must tolerate salt water conditions well because they are often
spotted in coastal waters off Cedar Key, Florida (Hoyer, personal observations).

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the 10 lakes in which longnose gars were collected suggest that longnose gars tend to occur in
hardwater, nutrient rich lakes (Table 80).

Longnose gars were collected in one, three, and nine lakes with electrofishing, blocknet rotenone, and
experimental gill net sampling methods, respectively (Table 81). This suggests that for presence-absence
information, experimental gill nets may be the best method for capturing longnose gars. In lakes where
longnose gars were collected, they averaged <1.0, 4.4, and 22% of the total population sampled, by weight,
for blocknet rotenone, electrofishing and experimental gillnet sampling, respectively. Longnose gars
ranged from < 1 to 57% of the total population sampled, by weight, in experimental gill nets (Table 81).
Longnose gars can be a substantial percentage of a total fish population.


108






Longose gar (Leposteus.osseus)


Longnose gars that were collected fell into 22 size classes ranging from 160 to 1240 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of 8 and 7700 g (Table 82). The heaviest longnose gar collected was 7.70
kg (16.98 lbs). Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission official state record through April, 1992 for
the longnose gar is 18.60 kg (41.00 lbs).

Longnose gars were collected in 10 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Harr Lake Oct 87
Live Oak Osreola May 88
Okahumpka Sumter lul So
Patrick Polk Jun 88
Pearl Orange Nov 88
Rowell Bradford Aug 88
Susannah Orange Sep 88


Table 80. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes, compared
to the same statistics for 10 of those lakes in which longnose gars were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
flakes deviation
Surface area (ha) 60 406 55 2 12412 1752
Longnose gar 10 1901 154 24 12412 4072

Mean depth ti) 60 2.8 2.9 0.6 5.9 12
Longnose gar (1 2 2. 2.5 0.Q 4.5 13

pH 60 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6
Longnose gar 10 8.2 8.1 7.1 9.4 0.7

Total alkalinity (mg.: L as CaCO,i 60 31.4 13.o 0.0 130.6 330
Longnose gar 10 56.2 57.0 115 111.0 358

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60 136 118 17 384 97
Longnose gar 10 236 218 117 384 102

Color fPI-Co units) 60 28 17 0 400 53
Longnose gar 10 34 2 11 87 25

Total phosphorus (pg/L) 60 56 20 1 1043 148
Longnose gar 10 44 26 10 140 42

Total rutrogen (pg i L) b 924 694 82 3789 802
Longnose gr 10 1473 972 389 3789 1164

Total chlorophyll a (lg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Longnose gar 10 47 24 5 173 57

Secchi depth nm 60 .0 1.5 03 5.8 15
Longnose gar 10 12 1.2 03 26 0.7

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Longnose gar 10 39 20 1 100 43






Longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus)


Table 81. Population estimates of longnose gars sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 9 2.4 0.3 4.3 1.4
Total weight (gm/net/24hr) 9 4147.1 237.0 9517.9 3218.2
PeTcent of total sample by weight t'; I 21 7 1.8 t7 15 '
A\erge size gngm) 9 ib052 2 52?9 27"0 4 715

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
Total weight (gm/hr) 1 1648.3 1648.3 1648.3
Percent of total -ample bh weight i"i I 4 4 44 44
A erage sue Igmi I 491 9) 4ei5.0 495 1. *

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 3 1.4 0.1 3.7 2.0
Total weight (gm/ha) 3 6.7 <0.1 10.0 5.8
Percent of total sample b% weight i1 3 <0 1 'U 1 <0 1 .<.1
Average size ig imi 35 97 9iii .'9h3!8! "


Table 82. Average size group weights of longnose gars; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
160 1 1 8 8 8
280 1 1 36 36 36
320 1 1 41 41 41
4401 1 1 290 2'lI 2:90
4l,1) 3 349 21, 4Q5 14t'
9i)) 1 14 ;20l0 56') 1L4
560 3 7 657 603 738 71
600 2 2 740 530 950 297
640 2 3 710 710 710
hi 6( 4 t iN 5.)6 1250 324
7211 1 1 1071 IP70 o10170
760 3 133 R54 2225 71)
800 4 6 1688 1100 2350 558
840 4 10 1748 1410 2480 494
880 4 8 2583 2270 2895 255
1:1 1 I 2730 2710 ."3
9O0 I I 2800 2IXI 2B(O)
1(i'i 4 2-29 200 2731 W
1040 3 4 3110 2880 3340 230
1080 1 1 3410 3410 3410
1120 1 1 4155 4155 4155
12k40 1 1 771i0 7"n110 77110




















PLATE 241
PLATE 24


Description and distribution


Pirate perch are small, dark fusiform fish with single dorsal fin; anus located forward of the anal fins
and under throat in adults; caudal fin weakly forked; lateral line nonexistent or only partially developed
(Plate 24). Pirate perch are widespread throughout lowlands of Atlantic and Gulf slope and Mississippi
Valley (Lee et al. 1981).

Biology

Pirate perch spawn in early summer and it is suggested that both parents build and guard a nest
(Pflieger 1975). The anus of pirate perch gradually moves from just anterior of the anal fin to under the
throat as the fish develops. The pirate perch feed primarily on animals including aquatic insects, crusta-
ceans, and small fish.

Biologist comments

Pirate perch is one of the rarest fish described in this book, occurring in only four of the 60 lakes
sampled. When collected it was also not abundant. The pirate perch makes a unique aquarium fish, but
will survive only on live food.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the four lakes in which pirate perch were collected suggest pirate perch tend to occur in
softwater, highly colored lakes, with abundant aquatic vegetation (Table 83).

Pirate perch were not collected in experimental gillnets because they are too small (Table 84). They
were also not collected with electrofishing methods. Blocknet rotenone sampling was the only method
that collected pirate perch suggesting it is the best method of collecting pirate perch for presence-absence
information. Pirate perch averaged <0.1% of the fish population, by weight.

Pirate perch were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with corresponding
average weights of 1.0 and 5.9 g (Table 85).






Pirate perch (Aphredodnrs syams)


Pirate perch were collected in four of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
S.. l .r i..rd
Suggs Putnam Jul 88


Table 83. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for four of those lakes in which pirate perch were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Surface area (ha) 60 406 55 2 12412 1752


Pirate perch


4 643 110


60 2.8 29 06
4 1.- 1.7 13

60 7.0 7.6 4.3
4 6.6 6.6 5.0


5.9 1 2
20 03

9.7 1.6
8.1 1.7


Total alkalirnty 1mg, L as CaCO) o0
Pirate perch 4

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Pirate perch 4


Color iPt-Co urutsl
Pirate perch

Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Pirate perch

Total nitrogen ipg, LI
Pirate peTch

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Pirate perch

Secchi depth tmi
Pirate perch

Percent area covered (%)
Pirate perch


31 4 13
12.9 12 5

136 118
118 78


6) 28 17
4 In7 102

60 56 20
4 42 49

60 924 v94
4 975 982

60 28 10
4 19 13


60 20 1.5 U3
4 0.9 0.9 05


60 40 30
4 56 63


384 97
286 115

4O 53
400 157

1043 148
66 30

3789 802
124q 23"

241 47
47 21

5.8 15
1.4 0.4

100 39
97 43


112


Mean depth (ml
PiraLe perch

pH
Pirate perch






P irate perdih Apjhreeddeuswa yaNus)


Table 84. Population estimates of pirate perch sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected



Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr)
Total weight (g/hr) No fish collected



Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 4 16.7 3.7 50.7 22.7
Total weight (g/ha) 4 100.0 <0.1 300.0 137.6
Percent of total sample by weight I" 1 4 0 10 <0.1 0.1 <0 1
Average size igi 4 5 8 <0 1 12.0 49


Table 85. Average size group weights of pirate perch; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes for
individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 1 2 1.0 1.0 1.0
80 4 29 5.9 5.6 6.0 0.2






















PLATE 25


Description and distribution

Pygmy killifish are small cylindrical fish with anal fin almost two times the length of dorsal fin and
both dorsal and anal fins located on the posterior third of fish; straw-colored fish with a large dark spot at
the base of the caudal fin; five to six dark vertical bars on the males; and a black spot on the side just in
front of anal fin of the females (Plate 25). Pygmy killifish inhabit central peninsula Florida north to
Ogeechee River drainage, Georgia, and west at least to Perdido River drainage, Florida and Alabama (Lee
et al. 1981).

Biology

Pygmy killifish spawn from early April to late August, with some reproduction probably occurring
throughout the year (Lee et al. 1981). Spawning occurs in heavy vegetation. Pygmy killifish feed primarily
on arthropods and other invertebrates picked from aquatic vegetation.

Biologist comments

Pygmy killifish are extremely small fish and, when present, are very uncommon. The pygmy killifish
are small and accurate weights cannot be obtained with normal fisheries scales, which usually weigh only
to the nearest gram.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the five lakes in which pygmy killifish were collected suggest that pygmy killifish tend to occur
in softwater, low pH, nutrient-poor lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation (Table 86).

Pygmy killifish were not collected in experimental gill nets because they are too small (Table 87).
They were also not collected with electrofishing methods. Blocknet rotenone sampling was the only
method that collected pygmy killifish, suggesting it is the best method of collecting pygmy killifish for
presence-absence information. Pygmy killifish averaged <0.1% of the fish population, by weight, for all
sampling methods.

Pygmy killifish were collected in only two size groups ranging from 40 to 80 mm TL, with correspond-
ing average weights of 0.1 and 1.0 g (Table 88).







Pygmy killifish (Leptolucania ommata)


Pygmy killifish were collected in five of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Grasshopper Lake Jun 89
Koon Lafayette Jun 88
Moore Leon May 88
Swum Pond Marian Oct 8
Tomaluh k kManon luJ 88


Table 86. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared


to the same statistics for five of those lakes in which pygmy killifish were captured.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation


Surface area (ha)
Pygmy killifish


60
5


1752
21


Mean depth Inml
rvgm killh-h

pH
Pygmy killifish

Total alkalirih img L asCaCO,I
P\gmi killihqh

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C)
Pygmy killifish

Color i Pt-Co units)
Ivgmv killif.hh


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Pygmy killifish

Total nitrogen i'tp L
PIgm) killihsh

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Pygmy killifish

'e*chi depth (rrmi
Pvgr'v killtihsh

Percent area covered (%)
Pygmy killifish


60 28 2 9 L 5.9 1 2
5 24 27 Oh 44 14-

60 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6
5 5.2 5.2 4.5 5.8 0.5

nl 31 4 13? 00 I, 130. 33
5 II 1 0 2 10


60 136
5 37


118 17
35 17


n5 22 1I

60 56 20
5 9 6


nil Q24 or-q a6
3|? ?F?-


384 97
61 16

401 53
63 26


137 1402
102? 14&6


60 28 10
5 4 3


2lr .3 1.5 ii
lii (-it,


60 40 30
5 69 80


58 I 5
53 2.0

100 39
97 26






Pygma kilifish (Leptouceiia' Oenm~ata)


Table 87. Population estimates of pygmy killifish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
Total weight (g/net/24hr) No fish collected



Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr)
Total weight (g/hr) No fish collected
Percent of total sample by weight I'k.)
Average size tg)

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 5 15.2 0.6 53.8 22.0
Total weight (g/ha) 5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Percent of total sample by weight ~) 5 <0 1 <0.l 0.1 <0 1
Average size (g) 5 <0 1 <0.1 10 <0.1


Table 88. Average size group weights of pygmy killifish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 5 21 0.1 0.1 0.1 <0.1
80 1 1 1.0 1.0 1.0





















PLATE 26


Description and distribution


Redbreast sunfish are laterally-compressed fish with slightly-forked caudal fins and long, narrow
opercular lobe; light green with orange belly, and reddish spots and bluish colors on body (Plate 26).
Redbreast sunfish are considered valuable sportfish. Redbreast sunfish originally inhabit the Atlantic slope
north to southern New Brunswick; south to central Florida; and west to Apalachicola River (Lee et al.
1981).

Biology

Redbreast sunfish inhabit some lakes but they are primarily stream fish. Redbreast sunfish spawn
primarily from April to June in Florida, but may spawn throughout the year (Carlander 1977). The red-
breast sunfish is the only one of Lepomis species that does not produce a sound during courtship. Red-
breast sunfish feed primarily on aquatic insects. Canfield and Hoyer (1988) and Mantini et al. (1993)
report information on population sizes, age and growth of redbreast sunfish in Florida streams.

Biologist comments

Redbreast sunfish do not occur often in lakes. When they do, there is usually a stream or spring
flowing into the lake.

Florida data

The statistical means and ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte vari-
ables for the five lakes in which redbreast sunfish were collected suggest that the redbreast sunfish tend to
inhabit hardwater, high-nutrient lakes with little aquatic vegetation (Table 89).

Redbreast sunfish were not collected in experimental gill nets. They were collected in three and five
lakes with electrofishing and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 90). Blocknet rotenone
sampling appears the best method of collecting redbreast sunfish for presence-absence information. For
all sampling methods the redbreast sunfish averaged <2% of the total fish population, by weight.

Redbreast sunfish were collected in six size groups ranging from 40 to 240 mm TL, with correspond-
ing average weights of <1 and 170 g (Table 91). The heaviest redbreast sunfish collected was 170 g (0.37
Ibs). The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission official state record for redbreast sunfish through
April 1992 is 943 g (2.08 Ibs).







Redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus)


Redbreast sunfish were collected in five of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Harris Lake Oct 87
Hunter Polk Aug S7
Pearl Orange Nm SN


Table 89. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for five of those lakes in which redbreast sunfish were captured.


Variables Number Mean Median M
of lakes


Surface area (ha)
Redbreast sunfish

Mean depth Iml
Redbreast -unrsh

pH
Redbreast sunfish


60 406 55
5 1176 80


n0 2 4 29
5 32 3n

60 7.0 7.6
5 8.4 8.5


minimum Maximum Standard
deviation
2 12412 1752
24 5580 2463

I'' 5i 12
1' 45 1 2

4.3 9.7 1.6
7.3 9.0 0.7


Tot a alkaluit ri g La-iLaCO). oil
Redhrealt sunfish 5

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 250C) 60
Redbreast sunfish 5


Color PtCo uiruf
Redbreast ;unhfsh


Total phosphorus (pg/L)
Redbreast sunfish

Total ra lrogern pg L
Redbrcasr sunish

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L)
Redbreast sunfish

Seth"i depth i m
Redbreast sunfish

Percent area covered (%)
Redbreast sunfish


31 4 13
b; 4 n' 0

136 118
222 182


ti 2M i-
5 30 1"

60 56 20
5 53 28

60 924 tA4
'5 I i 1551t

60 28 10
5 66 37


0 Z.0 1 5 11 3
5 .8 li 0fI 4


60 40 30
5 9 3


111.1 130U n
18 S 104 -


384 97
384 102

400 53
6'i 24


241 47
173 65

1h 15
1 h 0 5

100 39
27 11






Redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus)


Table 90. Population estimates of redbreast sunfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing
and blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr)
To,'l ,, ,_, hi , : s41r N,:, ri r l, .:le ed
Percent ol total sample tw s tight i
Average size ig

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 3 18.7 1.5 45.0 23.2
Total weight (g/hr) 3 287.6 132.0 468.0 169.4
Percent or total sample be\ weight i 3 1 2 13 2.5 11
Average -ize tg) 5 42 0 10 4 88 0 40 7

Blocknet rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 5 187.4 5.4 416.8 210.5
Total weight (g/ha) 5 1862.0 40.0 5670.0 2334.0
Percent ol total sample bh weight 19 I 5 06 <01 1 4 06
Average size Ig) 5 101 5.8 13.7 3 4


Table 91. Average size group weights of redbreast sunfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all
lakes for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 4 93 <1 <1 <1 <1
80 8 339 7 6 8 1.0
120 8 53 15 8 22 4
1 6i 6 34 31 19q
200 4 7 73 65 P. I1
240 I 1 171 17n 170


Gilchrist and Lety counties in Florida trade the state record redbreast sunfish on a
regular basis. These fish are caught in the Suwuannee river, which borders each county





















PLATE 27

Description and distribution

Redear sunfish are laterally compressed fish with dorsal fin almost two times the length of anal fin;
brightly colored fish with orange and some blue, and opercular lope with a broad red or orange margin;
short stiff gill rakers (Plate 27). Redear sunfish are important sportfish sought for their excellent food
value and enjoyment of capture. Redear sunfish are native to peninsular Florida; lower Atlantic slope and
Gulf slope drainages west to Texas; and north to southern Indiana (Lee et al. 1981). Currently, redear
sunfish have been transplanted to other parts of North America.

Biology

Redear sunfish may spawn throughout the growing season, which can be from February through
October in Florida. Pairs nest in colonies with males fanning nests in shallow water, usually <1.00 m
(Carlander 1977). Redear sunfish have diverse food habits including: algae; vascular plants; zooplankton;
aquatic and terrestrial insects; and snails (Wilbur 1969). A wealth of additional biological information has
been published on redear sunfish (Wilbur 1969; Carlander 1977).

Biologist comments

Redear sunfish are easy fish to sample and identify, except when they are small, have been dead for a
few days, and are mixed with other Lepomid species. The best way to separate small redear sunfish from
other Lepomid species is to look for short stiff gill rakers.

Florida data

The statistical ranges of lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for the
46 lakes in which redear sunfish were collected are almost identical to the entire data set of 60 lakes (Table
92). This suggests that redear sunfish can inhabit many diverse types of lakes in north central Florida.

Redear sunfish were collected in 24, 39, and 45 lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively (Table 93). This suggests that blocknet rotenone sampling may
be the best method of collecting redear sunfish for presence-absence information. In lakes where redear
sunfish were collected, they averaged 1.8, 6.8 and 11% of the total fish population sampled, by weight, for
experimental gillnets, electrofishing, and blocknet rotenone sampling, respectively. Redear sunfish
averaged a substantial percentage of the population, by weight, with a maximum value of 43% for one
blocknet rotenone sample.






Redeatr surtlish {om/s m/ytopatfs)


Redear sunfish that were collected fell into nine size classes ranging from 40 to 440 mm TL, with
corresponding average weights of 1 and 1015 g (Table 94). The heaviest redear sunfish collected was 1015
g (2.24 lbs). The Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission official state record through April 1992 is
2204 g (4.86 lbs).

Weight-length relations and length at age information are an integral part of the management for
redear sunfish (Carlander 1977). Thus, individual weight-length relations (Table 95) and backcalculated
lengths at age determinations (Table 96) were recorded for each lake in which redear sunfish were col-
lected. Some lakes were sampled in more than one year and were recorded separately. The slopes of these
weight-length regressions ranged from 2.76 to 3.38 and intercepts ranged from -5.54 to -4.22. Redear
sunfish averaged 72, 136, 179, 208 mm TL for age 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Mark-recapture estimates for harvestable redear sunfish (> 149 mm TL) populations were also con-
ducted on 28 lakes (Table 97). Harvestable redear sunfish populations averaged 67 fish/ha and ranged
from 1 to 237 fish/ha. The coefficient of variation for these population estimates is 149%, suggesting that
harvestable redear sunfish populations are extremely variable in Florida lakes.

Redear sunfish were collected in 46 of the 60 Florida lakes sampled.
Lake County Date
Alligator Columbia Jun 87
Apopka Orange Aug 86
Baldwin Orange Sep 88
Bell Pasco Sep 87
Bivans Arm Alachua Jul 86
Bonny Polk Sep 87
-uil P.-.r.d Iuu.n .], r a^ y.
Carlton Orange Aug 88
Carr Leon Jul87
Catherine Marion Sep 87
Clear Pasco Sep 86
Conine Polk Jul 88
Douglas Lake Jun 89
Fish Osceola Oct 88
Gate Lake Polk Aug 89
Grasshopper Lake un 89
Harris Lake Oct 87
Hartridge Polk Aug 87
H.I.d, r. r ,.
Hollingsworth Polk Jul 87
Hunter Polk Aug 87
Killarny Orange Ang K
Koon Lafayette unt88
Lind4sv Hemando .May 88
Little Fish Putnam Sep 89
Live Oak Osceola May 88
Lochloosa Alachua Aug 88
MmllDam Marion May89
MAoIn Smter Auag6
Mountain Hemarndo Jun 89
Mountain 2 Polk Aug 89
Okahumpka Sumter Jul86
Orienta Seminole Jun 88






Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus)


Redear sunfish collection data continued.
Lake County Date
Pasadena Pasc, lul 89
Parick Polk Jun S
Pearl Orange Nov M8
Rowell Bradford Aug 88
Sanitary Polk Aug 89
Suggs Putnam Jul88
Susannah Orange Sep 88
wrim Pond Mar ion Oct 89
Thornas Polk Aug 89
,1, I r.:. i-k i? 'i
Watertown Columbia Jun 88
% ,,, tu'., rd 41j .la l, It, I ,
\\est Moojd Pasco un 89


Table 92. Statistics for lake morphology, water chemistry, and aquatic macrophyte variables for 60 Florida lakes compared
to the same statistics for 46 of those lakes in which redear sunfish were collected.
Variables Number Mean Median Minimum Maximum Standard
flakes deviation
Surface area (ha) 60 406 55 2 12412 1752
Redear sunfish 46 526 83 2 12412 1991

Mean depth I m i. 2 S 2 9 (0.6 5 9 12
Redear unnsh 4r 2 7 2 5 0 b 5 13

pH 60 7.0 7.6 4.3 9.7 1.6
Redear sunfish 46 7.6 7.9 4.5 9.7 1.2

Tot alalkahml Img L aCaCO.i 60 31 136 00 1301t 330
Redear suninsh 46 40 1 310 0 1 130 328

Specific conductance (pS/cm at 25'C) 60 136 118 17 384 97
Redear sunfish 46 164 142 26 384 95

Color iPt-Cu unalsi bi 28 17 0 4l0) 53
Redear sunfish 46 35 22 0 400 59

Total phosphorus (pg/L) 60 56 20 1 1043 148
Redear sunfish 46 72 24 2 1043 166

Total nitrogen pg LI nO 924 694 82 3749 802
Redear -unh'h 46 1121 871 259 378Q 813

Total chlorophyll a (pg/L) 60 28 10 1 241 47
Redear sunfish 46 36 18 1 241 51

Seccu depth Im) 60 20 I 03 58 I5
Redear 'unfth 4b 14 14 03 37 08

Percent area covered (%) 60 40 30 1 100 39
Redear sunfish 46 38 17 1 100 39






Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus)


Table 93. Population estimates of redear sunfish sampled in 60 Florida lakes with experimental gillnets, electrofishing and
blocknet rotenone sampling.
Experimental gillnets Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/net/24hr) 24 1.8 0.2 7.3 2.1
Total weight (g/net/24hr) 24 251.2 7.0 1087.0 310.3
Percent ol total ample b welight '"i 24 I 8 <0.1 9.8 2.3
Average size pg, 24 154 L0 348 34.7 79.4

Electrofishing Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/hr) 39 49.2 1.5 363.0 66.6
Total weight (g/hr) 39 2614.6 37.0 18310.0 3449.4
Percent of total sample by weight t" .i 39 6.6 0 3 2b.9 6 1
Average use (g' 39 70.3 6.6 2849 62 3

Blocknet Rotenone Number Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes deviation
Total number (no/ha) 45 1091.8 <0.1 11297.6 1967.7
Total weight (g/ha) 45 16289.1 <0.1 82530.0 16259.8
Percent of total sampk bh weight fIV. 45 11.0 <0 1 430 9.6
Average sule ig 45 47.b 33 3333 6309


Table 94. Average size group weights of redear sunfish; statistics were calculated first by individual lake, then by all lakes
for individual size groups.
Size group (mm TL) Number Total Mean Minimum Maximum Standard
of lakes number of weight (g) weight (g) weight (g) deviation
fish
40 24 2577 1 <1 3 1
80 45 5566 4 1 6 1
120 48 1764 16 5 28 4
160 46 799 43 25 72 II
2f ) 544 97 69 160 17
24 46 30 180) 124 337 38

320 8 9 466 328 579 78
440 1 1 1015 1015 1015






Redear sunfish (Lepomis micraophus)


Table 95. Redear sunfish Log 10 weight (g) verses log 10 length (mm TL) regressions for individual Florida lakes using
measurements from individual fish.


County Lake Number Intercept Slope R2
of fish
Alachua Bivans Arm 72 -4.61 2.96 0.97
Alachua Lochloosa 52 -5.40 3.32 1.00
Alachua Wauberg 30 -5.18 3.24 0.99
Bradford Rowell 51 -523 3.2. 1.00
Columbia Allhgator 53 -1.94 3.11 0.97
Columbia Walertown 6 -5.11 3.17 1.00

Hernando Mountain 45 -5.15 3.18 1.00
Lake Douglas 28 -4.89 3.04 0.99
Lake Grasshopper 17 -5.09 3.12 1.00
Maron Mill Dam 21 -5.11 15 1.00
Manron Swim Pond 14 -4.69 2.97 0.99
OiermL *p,.. pk I'. 4 ? .* i.'",
Orange Baldwin (1986) 36 -5.07 3.13 1.00
Orange Baldwin (1989) 41 -5.18 3.19 0.99
Orange Carlton 58 -422 2.82 0.81
Orange Holden 43 -4.64 2.95 0.95
Orange Kdlary 53 -4.95 3.06 098

Orange Pearl (1989) 49 -5.04 3.11 1.00
Orange Susannah (1986) 35 -4.89 3.03 1.00
Orange Susannah 198q) 42 -4.62 2.91 1.00
Osreola Fish 39 -5.11 3.lb LOO
COceola Live Oak 35 -4.67 2.95 0.99

Pasco Clear 75 -4.63 2.90 0.99
Pasco Pasadena 17 -4.81 3.00 0.99
Pasco West Moody 25 -4.85 3.00 1.00
Polk Bonny 40 -4.75 3.01 1.00
Polk Conine 52 -5.17 3.21 1.00

Polk Hartridge 34 -5.26 3.21 0.99
Polk Hollingsworth 38 -4.92 3.10 0.98
Polk Hunter 35 -5.12 3.16 0.99
Polk Mountain 2 61 -5 17 3.16 1.00.
Polk Patrick 54 -462 291 1.00

Polk Thomas 33 -4.76 2.98 0.99
Polk Wales 69 -5.22 3.21 0.94
Putnam Bull Pond 6 -431 2.76 0.99
Seminole Orienta 42 -4.91 307 0.99
Sumter Miona 66 -5.02 3.10 0.99
u. __ k Okj.Iiumpi 4 4
Number of lakes 43 43.00 43.00 43.00
Mean 39 -4.93 3.08 0.99
Minimum 6 -5.54 2.76 0.81
Maximum 75 -4.22 3.38 1.00
Standard deviation 17 0.29 0.14 0.03






Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus)


Table 96. Redear sunfish length (mm, total length) at age, backcalculated from individual fish and averaged by lake.
County Lake Number Age 1 Age 2 Age 3 Age 4
of fish examined
Alachua Bivans Arm 72 77 141 182
Alachua Lochloosa 52 77 151 212 234
Alachua Wauberg 30 110 198 242 277
Braduord Rowell 5 11'5 I n9 I 17
Columbia Alligator 53 100 176 212 221
Columbia Watertown 14 69 152 198
Hernando Lindsey 13 68 141 166 188
Hernando Mountain 45 79 159 222
Lake Douglas 28 50 128 169 178
Lake Granchopper I 64 142 204 232
Leon Cart I 72 13 193 222
Marion Mill Dam 21 51 109 160 184
Marion Swim Pond 14 72 132 169
Orange Apopka 16 65 134 173 193
Oranee Baldwin (1986) 36 59 122 153 162
Orange Baldwin (l",8l 41 h5 126 172 213
Orange Cailton 91 100 165 200 218
Orange Holden 43 102 149 162 194
r' nc," Ml.FT, 114 1 "-1 in it
Orange Pearl (1986) 42 74 156 209 232
Orange Pearl (1989) 49 83 162 204 229
Orange Susannah il986 35 57 115 15c Itb
Orange Susannah t 1891 42 51 111 18 190
Osceola Fi.h 39 55 126 2301 231
Osceola Live Oak 35 64 126 171
Pasco Bell 39 84 151 185
Pasco Clear 75 58 123
Pasco Padadena 17 9 111 168
Pasco West Mood) 25 67 III 136 177
Polk Bonne 40 ll 169 2001 224
Polk Conine 52 81 155 196 224
Polk Gate Lake 35 71 139 190 225
Polk Hartridge 34 74 115 128 174
Polk Hollngsworth 38 Ill nlo 217 31
Polk Hunter 35 102 152
Polk Mounram 2 61 74 135 192 230
Polk Patrick 54 49 107 159 189
Polk Sanitary 25 73 112 142 185
Polk Thomas 33 60 130 177 220
Polk Wale, ori 63 1 .k 1 3 137
Putnam Bull Pond 6 44 95 158 IA4
Putnam Little Filh 2 101
Putnam Suggs 2 61 132 167 194
Seminole Orienta 42 73 144 192 207
Sumter Miona 66 48 91 126
Sumter Okahumpka 44 41 'I 19 1'"b
Number of lakes 46 45 43 35
Mean 72 136 179 208
Minimum 38 91 126 137
Maximum 130 198 242 319
Standard deviation 21 23 26 33


125




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