• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 North Florida coastal strand
 South Florida coastal strand
 Sand Pine scrub
 Longleaf Pine - Turkey Oak...
 Mixed hardwood and pine
 South Florida flatwoods
 North Florida flatwoods
 Cabbage Palm flatwoods
 Everglades flatwoods
 Cutthroat seeps
 Upland hardwood hammocks
 Wetland hardwood hammocks
 Cabbage Palm hammocks
 Tropical hammocks
 Oak hammocks
 Scrub cypress
 Cypress swamp
 Salt marsh
 Mangrove swamp
 Bottomland hardwoods
 Swamp hardwoods
 Shrug bogs - Bay swamps
 Pitcher plant bogs
 Sawgrass marsh
 Freshwater marsh
 Slough
 Appendix A: Correlation of community...
 Appendix B: Ecological community...
 Appendix C: Ecological community...
 Reference
 Back Cover














Title: 26 ecological communities of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000110/00001
 Material Information
Title: 26 ecological communities of Florida
Alternate Title: Twenty-six ecological communities of Florida
Physical Description: 268 p. in various pagings : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: <Washington D.C.?>
Publication Date: <198->
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Soil Conservation Service.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000110
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0265
notis - AFH1918
alephbibnum - 001086633
oclc - 15747112

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
    North Florida coastal strand
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    South Florida coastal strand
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Sand Pine scrub
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Longleaf Pine - Turkey Oak Hills
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Mixed hardwood and pine
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    South Florida flatwoods
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    North Florida flatwoods
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Cabbage Palm flatwoods
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Everglades flatwoods
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Cutthroat seeps
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Upland hardwood hammocks
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Wetland hardwood hammocks
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Cabbage Palm hammocks
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Tropical hammocks
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Oak hammocks
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Scrub cypress
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Cypress swamp
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Salt marsh
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Mangrove swamp
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Bottomland hardwoods
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Swamp hardwoods
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Shrug bogs - Bay swamps
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Pitcher plant bogs
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Sawgrass marsh
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Freshwater marsh
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Slough
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Appendix A: Correlation of community occurence by soil series
        Page A
        Page A-i
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page A-22
        Page A-23
        Page A-24
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
        Page A-27
        Page A-28
        Page A-29
        Page A-30
        Page A-31
        Page A-32
        Page A-33
        Page A-34
        Page A-35
        Page A-36
        Page A-37
        Page A-38
        Page A-39
        Page A-40
    Appendix B: Ecological community plant tables
        Page B
        Page B-i
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
        Page B-11
        Page B-12
        Page B-13
        Page B-14
        Page B-15
        Page B-16
        Page B-17
        Page B-18
        Page B-19
        Page B-20
        Page B-21
        Page B-22
        Page B-23
        Page B-24
        Page B-25
        Page B-26
        Page B-27
        Page B-28
        Page B-29
        Page B-30
        Page B-31
        Page B-32
        Page B-33
        Page B-34
        Page B-35
        Page B-36
        Page B-37
        Page B-38
        Page B-39
        Page B-40
        Page B-41
        Page B-42
        Page B-43
        Page B-44
        Page B-45
        Page B-46
        Page B-47
        Page B-48
        Page B-49
        Page B-50
        Page B-51
        Page B-52
        Page B-53
        Page B-54
        Page B-55
        Page B-56
        Page B-57
        Page B-58
        Page B-59
        Page B-60
        Page B-61
        Page B-62
        Page B-63
        Page B-64
    Appendix C: Ecological community animal tables
        Page C
        Page C
        Page C-i
        Page C-ii
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
        Page C-5
        Page C-6
        Page C-7
        Page C-8
        Page C-9
        Page C-10
        Page C-11
        Page C-12
        Page C-13
        Page C-14
        Page C-15
    Reference
        Page C-16
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE oe


26 ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES

OF FLORIDA


CVCB329 1151









TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1 North Florida Coastal Strand ................. 2

2 South Florida Coastal Strand ................. 8

3 Sand Pine Scrub . . . . . . . . . . 14

I Longleaf Pine Turkey Oak Hills . . . . . . .. 20

5 Mixed Hardwood and Pine ....... . . . . 26

6 South Florida Flatwoods .... . . . . . 32

7 North Florida Flatwoods .... . . . . . 38

8 Cabbage Palm Flatwoods .... . . . . 44

9 Everglades Flatwoods ..... . . . .. 50

10 Cutthroat Seeps . . . ....... .... . . 56

11 Upland Hardwood Hammocks ... . . . . . 61

12 Wetland Hardwood Hammocks . . . . . . 66

13 Cabbage Palm Hammocks .. ................ 71

14 Tropical Hammocks ....... . . . . . 76

15 Oak Hammocks . . . ...... ... . . . 81

16 Scrub Cypress . . . ........ ... . . . 86

17 -Cypress Swamp . . . ...... ... . . . 91

18 Sa Marsh . . ...... .... . . . 97

19 Mangrove Swamp . . . .... ....... . . 102

20 Bottomland Hardwoods ..... . . . .. 107

21 Swamp Hardwoods ..... ... . . . . . . 112

22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps .. ........... ... 118









TABLE OF CONTENTS


23 Pitcher Plant Bogs . . . .

24 Sawgrass Marsh . . . . . . . . .

2Z Freshwater Marsh . . . .

26 Slough . . .

Climatic Zone Map .. ..... ....


. . . . 123

. . . 128

. . . . 133

. . . .. 141

. . . . 146


APPENDICES

Appendix A--Correlation of Soils Series with Ecological Community

Appendix B--Ecological Community Plant Tables

Appendix C--Ecological CommuniLy Animal Tables

List of Birds

ReSaerences


LIBRARY







INTRODUCTION


The ecological community concept as used in this booklet is based on the
awareness that a soil type commonly supports a specific vegetative community,
which in turn provides the habitat needed by specific wildlife species.

These vegetative communities form recognizable units in the landscape, most
of which are apparent to the casual observer after only a little training.
Even with no botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish between pine
flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills; between hardwood hammocks and cypress
swamps; and between mangrove swamps and salt marsh. Once the community is
recognized, information can be found concerning the general characteristics of
the soil in which it occurs and the types of plants and animals that commonly
occur there.

In the mid-1970's, Soil Conservation Service plant and soil scientists began
to try to draw all this information together for the communities most often
encountered by SCS personnel in their work. Field studies were made, in
addition to consulting many reference works. Twenty-six different communities
were identified, although this is by no means a complete listing of
communities occurring in Florida. Strictly aquatic communities (such as
lakes, rivers and bays) were not included, and the 26 picked could obviously
be broken down more--or lumped together--depending on which characteristics
are of most interest. These 26 were picked based on how knowledge about them
would be useful in SCS field work, which constantly involves environmental
evaluations.

The information was sent to SCS field office Technical Guides as a "working
draft" in 1978. Since that time, field checks and refinements have been made
and this booklet presents the up-dated information. This booklet has been
developed primarily as a supplement to SCS Technical Guides for Florida.

The communities described are essentially the climax types that occur in
nature where man's influence has not greatly altered them. In other words,
they have evolved through natural plant succession over long periods of time.
Under this concept, even a cropfield would be expected to revert to a specific
type of climax community if man's influence were removed. For instance, a
Norfolk soil in northwest Florida that now supports a corn field was
originally a Mixed Hardwood-Pine forest community and would return to that
community within 50 to 75 years if the field were to be abandoned. By
contrast, a Hontoon muck in south Florida that has been drained and is being
used to produce vegetables would revert to a freshwater marsh within only a
few years if the drainage were stopped.

The more we recognize the characteristics and values of our natural ecological
communities, the wiser the decisions we can make regarding the use and care
of these resources. It is hoped that the information in this booklet will
help to lead to these wise decisions.











1 NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


*CAL9
so 20 W 30 40 mouca


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UIDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TIXAS IU1


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-1
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


SAW.fP~





















Typical coastal
sFlorand n west
Florida


Coastal strands
from Panama City
to Alligator
Point are normal
y low in hleght

width


Soa oats, 101010

domn tot on Olse
duePttttoo oP
oootsal+roodo.


09R*I~' .-' ~_F;i~"j~~
c--


-Ji "







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 1 NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


OCCURRENCE

The North Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the
Atlantic Ocean north of Indian River County and along the Gulf of Mexico west
of Alligator Point in Franklin County. Individual communities are generally
large in size, being narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small,
isolated communities can also be found along some bays or sounds. This
community generally encompasses the area affected by salt spray from the
ocean, Gulf and salt water bays.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily
identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment.
Small areas of hammock may occur on the more inland parts of the community.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to
excessively drained with some being moderately well drained or somewhat
poorly drained. They are coarse textured throughout. Representative
soils included: Canaveral, Corolla, Fripp, Newhan and Palm Beach. In
Escambia County, it is the areas mapped as coastal dune land and beach.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community is low-growing grasses, vines,
and herbaceous plants with few trees or large shrubs. These trees and
shrubs often occur in stunted form due to the action of the wind. The
natural forces of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment
difficult on the foredunes. Plants which do establish here are well
adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often
have vegetation similar to the Sand Pine Scrub and the Wetland Hardwood
Hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community
are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. maritima; Live oak, _Quercus virginiana

SHRUBS Marshelder, Iva imbricata; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repenss; Spanish
bayonet, Yucca aloifolia; Yaupon holly, Ilex vomitoria; Red
bay, Persea borbonia








HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Blanket flower, Gaillardia pulchella;
Fiddleleaf morning-glory, Ipomoea stolonifera; Largeleaf
pennywort, Hydrocotyle bonariaensis; Sea purslane, Sesuvium
portulacastrum; greenbriars, Smilax spp.; Wildgrape, Vitis spp.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Bitter panicum, Panicum amarum; Gulf
bluestem, Schizachyrium maritimus; Marshhay cordgrass, Spartina
patents; Sandbur, Cenchrus spp.; Seaoats, Uniola paniculata;
Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum; Seashore panicum,
Panicum amarum; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Seashore saltgrass,
Distich-lis spicata

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the
beach. This community provides a good food source as well as nesting
sites. Crustaceans such as crabs are numerous near the shorelines. This
area also serves as nesting grounds for sea turtles. Small mammals can
also be found on the coastal dunes and larger mammals behind the
fcredunes. The most common species are:

MAMMALS Bobcats, foxes, mice, raccoons, skunks, and similar mammals
also inhabit the community.

BIRDS American kestrel, gulls, pelicans, shorebirds, terns, and other
predatory birds and a number of songbirds in the backdune
areas.

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental_ Value as a Natural System

The coastal strand is highly endangered. Areas privately owned but
undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels, and motels. This urban
development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands
are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action
tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned
structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and
coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also
cause erosion through removal of native vegetation which helps hold the
dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system.

Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important.
Recreation is much in demand in these areas but can cause damage due to
trampling and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their
extensive root systems are no longer available to hold the soil together
and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile
community. This community is not generally used for agriculture or
wood land.







2. RangReland


This community is not generally used for rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls and terns. The native
grasses and legumes provide good food sources and nesting sites. The area
is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It is suited for
mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Many
songbirds also inhabit the area.

4. Woodland

This community is not generally used for woodland.

5. Urbanland

The better drained areas inland from the ocean or gulf have few
limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be
subject to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where
construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts
of native vegetation. The section on Environmental Value as a Natural
Sjste further explains these concerns. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively
well drained and saline soils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation
establishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results.
Without vegetation, water and wind erosion can become a problem during and
after construction.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage
palm, chickasaw plum, live oak, redbay, redcedar. slash pine, magnolia,
and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear cactus,
coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder, partridge pea,
sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet, and waxmyrtle. Some of the grasses are sea
cats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore saltgrass, Gulf
bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore dropseed, common bermudagrass, and
shoredune panicum. Some of the herbs and vines are beach morning-glory,
fiddler-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, largeleaf pennywort, sea
purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds, shorebirds such as terns,
and gulls, and crustaceans such as crabs and sea turtles. Undisturbed
areas are also inhabited by other birds and various mammals. These areas
also provide food and escape cover for many forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND_ ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:
Gulfcoast lupine, Lupinus wystijnanus; Godfrey's blazing-star,
Liatris prcvincialis








The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Choctawhatchee beach mouse (Okaloosa, Walton and Bay Counties),
Peromyscus polionotus allophvrs; Goff's pocket gopher, Geomys
pinetis goffi; Pallid beach mouse (Atlantic Coast), Permoyscus
polionotus decoloratus; Perdido Bay beach mouse (Escambia
County only), Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis

BIRDS Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis;
Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
coerulescens; Least term, Sterna antillarum; Southeastern
kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; Peregrine falcon, Falco
peregrinus; Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii

REPTILES Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata;
Atlantic loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta caretta; Atlantic
green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas; Atlantic ridley turtle,
Lepidocheyls kempi; Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea











2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
t I I I I I


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


Ocean


",U-


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1911


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-2
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770



















Coconut palm,
Cocos nucifera,

South Florida
coastal Lstrands.


Coastal strands
are important
recreational areas
in South Florida.


Australian pine
(Casuarina spp.) and
sea grape (Coccoloba
uvfra) are two woody
plants typically found
on strands along Flori-
da's southeast coast.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


OCCURRENCE

The South Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the
Atlantic Ocean south of Brevard County and along the Gulf of Mexico south of
Pasco County. Individual communities are generally large in size, being
narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small, isolated communities
can also be found along some bays or sounds. This community generally
encompasses the area affected by salt sprays from the ocean, Gulf and salt
water bays.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily
identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment.
Small areas of hammock may occur on more inland parts of this community.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to
excessively drained with some moderately well drained or somewhat poorly
drained. They are coarsely textured throughout. Representative soils
include: Canaveral and Palm Beach. It also includes areas mapped as
Coastal Beach and Coastal Beach Ridges. Appendix A contains information
on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community is low growing grasses, vines,
and herbaceous plants with few trees or large shrubs. These trees and
shrubs often occur in stunted form due to the action of the wind. The
natural forces of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment
difficult on the foredunes. Plants which do establish here are well
adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often
have vegetation similar to the sand pine scrub or the wetland hardwood
hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community
are:

TREES Australian pine, Casuarine equisetifolia; Cabbage palm, Sabal
palmetto; Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. maritima

SHRUBS Bay cedar, Suriana maritima; Coco plum, Chrysobalanus icaco;
Inkberry, Scaevola plumieri; Marshelder, Iva imbricata;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa reopens; Silverleaf croton, Croton
punctatus; Spanish bayonet, Yucca aloifolia; Sea grape,
Coccoloba uvifera







HERBACEOUS


PLANTS AND VINES Bay bean, Canavalia maritima; Beach morning-
glory, Ipomoea pes-caprae; Cucumberleaf sunflower, Helianthus
debilis; Sea purslane, Sesuvium portulacastrum; Greenbriars,
Smilax spp.; Wild grape, Vitis spp.


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -
cordgrass, Spartina
Uniola paniculata;
Seashore saltgrass,
spp.;


Bitter panicum, Panicum amarum; Marshhay
patens; Sandbur, Cenchrus spp.; Seaoats,
Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum;
Distichlis spicata; Low panicum, Panicum


Additional plants that occur in this community are in Appendix B.

3. Animals

A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the
beach. This community provides good food sources as well as nesting
sites. Small mammals can also be found on the coastal dunes. Larger
mammals also occur behind the foredunes. Some species that occur are:


MAMMALS Bobcat, fox, rabbits, skunks, raccoon, mice


BIRDS American kestrel,
songbirds


pelicans,


gulls, terns, shorebirds,


REPTILES Alligator, frogs, lizards


This area also serves as
such as crab are numerous
known to occur in specific

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


nesting grounds for sea turtles. Crustaceans
near the shorelines. Information on animals
ecological communities is in Appendix C.


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System


The coastal strand in highly endangered. Areas privately owned but
undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels and motels. This urban
development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands
are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action
tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned
structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and
coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also
cause erosion through removal of native vegetation, which helps hold the
dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system.

Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important.
Recreation is much in demand in these areas but can cause damage due to
trampling and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their
extensive root systems are no longer available to hold the soil together
and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile
community. This community is not generally used for agriculture or
woodland.







2. Rangeland


This community is not generally used for rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls, and terns. The native
grasses and legumes provide a good food sources and nesting sites. The
area is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It is suited for
mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Many
songbirds also inhabit the area.

4. Woodland

This community is not generally used for woodland.

5. Urbanland

The better drained areas inland from the ocean or gulf have few
limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be
subject to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where
construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts
of native vegetation. The section on Environmental Value as a Natural
System further explains these concerns. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively
well drained and saline soils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation
establishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results.
Without vegetation, water and wind erosion can become a problem during and
after construction.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautifica-
tion and landscaping. This is because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, coco
plum, Florida thatch palm, Florida silver palm, Florida cherry palm,
live oak, pidgeon plum, redbay, slash pine, magnolia, wild tamarind, tree
hibiscus and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear
cactus, sea grape, coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder,
partridge pea, sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet and waxmyrtle. Some of the
grasses are sea oats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore
saltgrass, Gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore dropseed, common
bermudagrass, and shoredune panicum. Some of the herbs and vines are
beach morning-glory, fiddle-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, largeleaf
pennywort, sea purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Beach star, Remirea maritima; Small-flowered
lily-thorn, Catesbaea parviflora (Keys)

The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:








MAMMALS Pallid beach mouse, Peromyscus polionotus decoloratus, Goff's
pocket gopher, Geomys pinetis goffi

BIRDS Arctic Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius; Eastern
brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis;
Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
coerulescens; Least tern, Sterna antillarum; Roseate spoonbill,
Ajaia aiaia

REPTILES Atlantic green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas (Atlantic coast
only); Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata
imbricata; Atlantic loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta caretta;
Atlantic ridley turtle, Lepidochelys kempi; Leatherback turtle,
Dermochelys coriacea













- SAND PINE SCRUB


SCALE
O 10 10 30 40 O MILES
I llI 1 I i


A tlan tic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Also commonly found inland from
coast as relatively small communities.


S~ a


ASI : -w
00-


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1M1


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-3
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770





















Typical, even-aged
stand of sand pine,
Pinus clause


Sand pine scrub in
South Florida often
have fewer sand
pine, Pinu clause,
and more shrubs than
those farther north.


Dense understory of
scrub naks, saw pal-
metto and other shrubs.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 3 SAND PINE SCRUB


OCCURRENCE

The Sand Pine Scrub ecological community occurs throughout Florida. It is
most commonly found inland from the coast and in the central portion of the
state in and around Marion County. Individual communities are generally
small in size, i.e., several hundred acres. A large community, several
thousands of acres in size, occurs just east of Ocala in the Ocala National
Forest. It typically has a few smaller communities of wetland types
interspersed throughout.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. Water
movement is rapid through the soil. It is easily identified by the even-aged
stands of sand pine or by the thick scrubby oak growth.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acid, somewhat
poorly to excessively drained and coarse textured throughout.
Representative soils includes: Archbold, Daytona, Duette, Hobe, Paola,
Pomello, Resota, St. Lucie, Satellite and Welaka. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community may be typically even-aged sand
pine trees with a dense understory of oaks, sawpalmetto, and other shrubs.
Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and large areas of
light colored sand are often noticeable. In other cases, the sand pine
are scattered or absent, with oaks being the dominant vegetation.
Satellite soils, which have a high water table for part of the year,
support a scrubby growth also, but the myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and sand
pine become infrequent and gallberry becomes prominent. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES Bluejack oak, Quercus incana; Chapman oak, Quercus chapmannii;
Myrtle oak, Quercus myrtifolia; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. geminata; Sand pine, Pinus clausa

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gopher apple,
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius; Prickly pear, Opuntia spp.;
Sawplametto, Serenoa repens

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Grassleaf goldenaster, Heterotheca
graminifolia; Deermoss, Cladonia spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax
glauca








GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans, Low
panicum, Panicum spp.

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Animals found in this community are adapted to high temperatures and
drought conditions. The wildlife food production is low. Dense
vegetation provides good escape cover for animals such as the white-tailed
deer. The palmetto and various species of oaks provide good food when
they are fruiting. Gopher apple is also a good wildlife food plant.

Typical animals of the sand scrub are:

MAMMALS Deer

BIRDS Florida mouse, Towhee, great crested flycatcher, scrub jay,
Bachman's sparrow

REPTILES Black racer, gopher frog, gopher tortoise, scrub lizard, sand
skink

AMPHIBIANS Gopher frog

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The sand pine is a fire-based community. Understory vegetation is dense
and fuel supplies build up in the trees. The thick understory creates a
pathway for fire to the crowns of the trees. Fire normally occurs every
20-40 years. Sand pines have a low resistance to fire and the high
density, even-aged stands make fire devastating. Cones of the sand pine
require heat of a fire to open and release seeds. This method of
regeneration helps to form even-aged stands. Without occasional fire,
this community would tend to become a type of upland hammock community.

The sand pine scrub is a valuable ecological community. The coarse
textured, excessively well drained soils make the community important in
aquifer recharge. It is a unique ecosystem which gives it an important
scientific value. Heat and drought stress response by plants and animals
are often studied on these sites. Uncontrolled fire and damage to
vegetation by excessive feet or vehicle travel have adverse effects on the
community.

Sand scrubs are good producers of sand pine and some areas are utilized
for commercial wood production. Intensive management for wood production
will not cause excessive damage to the community if good silvicultural
practices are applied.







Native forage production is low and the community has limited use for
rangeland. Adverse soils conditions make it infeasible to convert this
community to cropland. It has been converted to some extent for citrus
production in South Florida. This community has fair to good value for
wildlife escape cover with proper management.

Areas of sand pine scrub communities, except in the Ocala National Forest,
are rapidly declining. Favorable conditions for residential use and
proximity to the coast make them prime sites for real estate development.

2. Rangeland

This community supports a fairly dense stand of trees and shrubs and
therefore has a limited potential for producing native forage. Livestock
do not use this site if other ecological communities are available. For
sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry
plant material varies from 1,500 to 3,500 pounds per acre. The variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 15 to 40+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available.
The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 40
percent grasses, 40 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous
plants and vines.

3. Wildlifeland

This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape
cover. Many birds inhabit this area including warblers, rufous-sided
towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub jays, and quail. Several
varieties of native legumes furnish food (seeds) for bird life. The
palmetto, gopher apple and various species of oak provide good food when
they are fruiting. Timber harvest and other disturbances increase
wildlife food value by increasing the amount and types of herbaceous
plants and by sprout production.

4. Woodland

This community has a low potential for commercial wood production. There
are severe equipment limitations and moderate seedling mortality problems
due to loose, well to excessively well-drained and infertile soil
conditions. Sand pine is a commercial species suitable for planting. It
has a potential annual growth of approximately 0.5 cords per acre in north
Florida. South of Hernando County in the west and Orange County in the
east, the potential annual growth is 0.4 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

The moderately well to excessively well drained areas have few limitations
for urban development. The somewhat poorly drained Satellite soils,
although very drought in the surface layers, have a water table at 20
inches for part of the year and has more limitations. Vegetation is
difficult to establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, and
drought surface soils. Water moves rapidly through the soil. Intensive
vegetation establishment and maintenance methods, including irrigation are







needed for best results. Without vegetation, wind erosion can be a
problem during and after construction. Water erosion control and water
retention facilities are usually not needed.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are live oak,
sand live oak, sand pine, turkey oak, and Eastern red cedar. Some of the
shrubs are Adam's needle, coral bean, Carolina holly, gopher apple,
pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, rosemary, sawpalmetto, and shining sumac.
Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria,
blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, goldenrod, lupine, morning
glory, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhee,
great crested flycatcher, and scrub jay. Gopher tortoise, sand skink,
scrub lizard, and snakes are some of the reptiles using this habitat.
Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS Four-petal pawpaw, Asimina tetramera; Pigmy fringetree,
Chionanthus pygmaea

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Curtis milkweed, Asclepias curtissii;
Dancing-lady orchid, Ocidium variegatum

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida mouse, Peromyscus floirdanus, Goff's pocket gopher,
Geomys pinetis goffi

BIRDS Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens

REPTILES Blue-tailed mole skink, Eumeces egregious lividus; Sand skink,
Neoseps reynoldsi; Short-tailed snake, Stilosome extenuatum











4 LONGLEAF PINE


- TURKEY OAK HILLS


SCALE
0 10 20 0 40 SO MILES


Gulf


Mexico


ad absop'l.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-4
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


Atlantic





Ocean





















Typical Loagleaf Pine-
Tnrkey Oak Hills
Ecologi-al Coc-anity


The deciduous turkey
oak, urcus laevis,
gives a bare appear-
anne in the winter.


Ground cover under
the trees and shrubs
is usually very sparse.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 4 LONGLEAF PINE-TURKEY OAK HILLS


OCCURRENCE


The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community
Florida. It is most commonly found in the central part of
Lake Placid and in the Florida panhandle inland from the
Individual communities vary widely in size and limited
communities may occur within it.


occurs throughout
the state north of
Gulf of Mexicd.
numbers of other


DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on rolling land with nearly level to strong slopes.
Water movement is rapid through the soil. It is easily identified by the land
form and dominant vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acid, moderately
well to excessively drained, and mostly coarse textured throughout or
mostly coarsely textured in the upper part and moderately fine textured or
moderately coarse textured in the lower part. Representative soils are
Alpin, Bonifay, Candler, Chiefland, Cocoa, Deland, Eustis, Hurricane,
Kershaw, Lake, Lakeland, Orlando, Tavares, and Troup. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

There are several variations of this community. Mature, natural stands of
trees which have not been logged have scattered longleaf pine as an
overstory. Areas on which pines have been removed are predominantly oaks.
Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and numerous bare
areas are noticeable. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Longleaf pine, Pinus palustris; Turkey oak, Quercus laevis


HERBACEOUS


PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Blazing star, Liatris
tenuifolia; Bracken fern, Pteridum aquilinum; Butterfly pea,
Centrosema virginianum; Butterfly pea, Clitoria mariana;
Elephant's foot, Elephantopus spp.; Grassleaf goldenaster,
Heterotheca graminifolia, Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Pineland
beggarweed, Desmodium strictum; Sandhill milkweed, Asclepias
humistrata; Showy crotalaria, Crotalaria spectabilis; Wild
indigo, Baptista spp.


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Curtiss dropseed, Sporobolus curtissii;
Hairy panicum, Panicum anceps; Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum
nutans; low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pinewoods dropseed,
Sporobolus iunceus

Other plants that occur in this community are found in Appendix B.








3. Animals


Animals utilizing this community are adapted to stress conditions of high
temperature and drought. Many of the animals are burrowers. This helps
to prevent water loss and provides protection against high temperatures.
The most common animals of this community are:

MAMMALS Fox squirrel, pocket gopher, white-tailed deer

BIRDS Bobwhite quail, ground dove, rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Gopher tortoise, fence lizard

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The longleaf pine-turkey oak community is a fairly open forest community
influenced by fire, heat and drought. The most important influence is
fire which typically occurs frequently. The natural vegetation is adapted
to withstand the effects of occasional fire. Grasses cover large areas
and provide fuel for the fire and prevent competing hardwoods from
regenerating. Longleaf pine cannot tolerate hardwood competition and,
with fire, this species remains dominant. The community can be changed to
an upland hammock type by elimination of fires. Water moves rapidly
through most of the soil to the aquifer with little runoff and minimal
evaporation. This is important for aquifer recharge.

Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills are used to some extent for timber
production. In west Florida, sand pine is often planted because it is
better adapted than slash pine on these sites. Longleaf pine does not
replant well because of its nature to remain in the "grass "stage" for
several years.

Native forage production is low, so the community has limited value as
rangeland. Improved practices for rangeland have little effect on the
community.

This community has value for wildlife if proper management techniques are
used. Bobwhite quail utilize this area for food and cover and this makes
the hunting aspects especially important. In central and south Florida
most of this community has been planted to citrus.

In north Florida is is used for improved pasture, pine plantations, and to
a limited degree, for more intensive farming operation with use of
irrigation. Soil conditions are very favorable for urban development.
The community is decreasing rapidly in size because of the demand for
urban and agricultural uses.







2. Rangeland


The natural fertility of this community is low due to adverse soil
conditions. Forage production and quality are poor and cattle do not
readily utilize this ecological community if other communities are
available. For sites in excellent condition the average annual production
of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000 pounds per acre. The
variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 10 to 35+ acres are
usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage
available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative
production by weight is 60 percent grasses, 20 percent trees and shrubs
and 20 percent forbs.

3. Wildlifeland

This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape
cover. Many songbirds inhabit this area including warblers, towhees,
crested flycatchers, and quail. Several varieties of native legumes
furnish food (seeds) for bird life. Timber harvest and similar
disturbances improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount and
types of herbaceous plants and by sprout production.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high potential for commercial woodland
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to loose, well drained and infertile soil conditions.
Commercial species suitable for planting are sand pine, slash pine,
loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Potential annual growth is 1.2, 1.2,
1.0 and 0.6 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is 18
percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west to
Orange County in the east.

5. Urbanland

These moderately well to excessively drained areas have few limitations
for urban development. It is often difficult to establish vegetation
because of the infertile, coarse textured and well drained soil
conditions. Intensive vegetation establishment methods are needed and
irrigation is required for best results during dry seasons. Maintenance
becomes a problem without adequate fertilization and similar techniques.
Without vegetation, wind erosion can become a problem during and after
construction. Water erosion can also be a problem on the steeper slopes.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping unless intensive establishment and
management practices are used. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are American
holly, chickasaw plum, longleaf and slash pine, live, oak, Southern
redcedar, sand pine, and turkey and bluejack oak. Some of the shrubs are
Adam's needle, American beautyberry, Carolina holly, coontie, coral bean,
Florida chinkapin, pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, sawpalmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm,







crotalaria, blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, lupine, morning
glory, goldenrod, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhees,
great crested flycatchers, dove and quail. Undisturbed areas provide good
escape cover, and food for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS East coast coontie, Zamia umbrosa; Florida coontie, Zamia
floridana


HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Godfrey's
provincialis


blazing star,


The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:


MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi;
Peromyscus floridanus


Florida mouse,


BIRDS Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus;
Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis


REPTILES -


Blue-tailed mole skink, Eumeces egregius lividus; Eastern
indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi; Short-tailed snake,
Stilosoma extenuatum


Liatris











5 MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 O0 MILES
1--t------t----~-f-- I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


A"

~~,c9~a:8,


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-5
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770




















During winter, the
occasional pine and
evergreen hardwoods
contrast sharply with
the deciduous hardwoods.


Typical mixed hard-
wood and i eo
10gic., community
in Gadsden County.


Ground cover under
the trees and shrubs
is somewhat sparse.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 5 MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE


OCCURRENCE

The Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological community is an extension of the middle
coastal plains hardwoods forest. It occurs only in west and north Florida.
Individual communities vary in size and are interspersed with other
communities and natural drainageways.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on rolling uplands. Water movement is gradual to the
natural drainageways. It can be easily identified by the mixed hardwood and
pine vegetation occurring in a predominately well drained area.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep to moderately deep,
acid, moderately well to well drained, with loamy to sandy surfaces, and
are underlain with fine textured materials. Representative soils include:
Benndale, Binnsville, Blakley, Boswell, Bowie, Carnegie, Chipola,
Clarendon, Compass, Cuthbert, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville,
Gritney, Kalmia, Magnolia, Marlboro, Maxton, Norfolk, Oktibbeha,
Orangeburg, Red Bay, Ruston, Shubuta, Sunsweet, Susquehanna, and Tifton.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

There is a variation in the type and amount of vegetation depending on the
successional stage. In the early successional stages of this community,
pine is present with shortleaf and loblolly predominating. As the system
matures, hardwoods replace pines. The natural climax- vegetation is
thought to be a beach-magnolia-maple association. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES American beech, Fagus grandiflora; American holly, Ilex opaca;
Eastern hophornbean, Ostrya virginiana; Flowering dogwood,
Cornus florida; Hawthorns, Crataegus spp.; Loblolly pine,
Pinus taeda; Mockernut hickory, Carya tomentosa; Pignut
hickory, Carya glabra; Southern red oak, Quercus falcata;
Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; White oak, uercus
alba; Water oak, Quercus nigra

SHRUBS Shining sumac, Rhus copallina; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum

GRASSES Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus; Longleaf uniola,
Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Spike
uniola, Chasmanthium laxium








HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Common ragweed Ambrosia
artemisiifolia; Partridge berry, Mitchella repens; Partridge
pea, Cassia spp.; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Violet,
Viola spp.; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia; Wild
grape, Vitis spp.

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Animals found in this community vary according to the stages of plant
succession. Areas of young growth attract wildlife that are widely
adapted and quick reproducing, such as cottontail rabbits and bobwhite
quail. In more mature stands, woodpeckers, moles, woodcocks, and other
narrowly adapted animals can be found.

Wildlife that occur in this community include:

MAMMALS Cottontail rabbit, gray squirrel, gray fox, cotton mouse,
white-tailed deer, raccoons

BIRDS Barred owl, bobwhite quail, pileated woodpecker, red-bellied
woodpecker, wild turkey, woodcock

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Unlike most communities, the mixed hardwood and pine do not have a
dominant stress factor. There is some competition between plants for use
of water, sunlight, and available nutrients. Once the mixed hardwoods and
pine are established, they can withstand disturbance due to the complex
and diverse vegetation and the excellent plant growth conditions. The
community is fire resistant but fire may occur during drought conditions.
Recovery of hardwoods after a fire is vigorous but damaged trees are often
attacked by disease and subject to rot.

Fire will keep the system in a predominantly pine stage. However, in
mature stands, fire is infrequent and plants that are not fire-tolerant
can become dominant.

The finer textured soils of this community have a relatively low
permeability. This results in a limited aquifer recharge and some surface
runoff. Mixed hardwood and pine communities are important for flood
control on watersheds. This community is a good producer of timber and
areas are used for timber production. Intensive management may cause a
low diversity of plants with an adverse change in some wildlife
populations.

The community has a high value for wildlife. This is especially true
where varying successional stages occur next to each other. The community








contains good agricultural soils. The acreage available in a natural
condition is not great--most is cultivated, used for residences, or held
at the pine stage of succession.

2. Rangeland

The soil's moisture-holding capacity and natural fertility is relatively
high and good quality forages are produced. This community is preferred
for grazing by livestock in the earlier stages of succession. Tree canopy
cover can become excessive and drastically reduce forage quality. For
sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry
plant material varies from 3,000 to 4,500 pounds per acre. The variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 8 to 23+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages
available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative
production by weight is 50 percent grasses, 30 percent trees and shrubs
and 20 percent forbs.

3. Wildlifeland

Mixed hardwood and pine are very good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel,
and many songbirds. Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and
berries) furnish a good source of wildlife food. Mature hardwoods and
snags provide good nesting sites for birds. Habitat is good for raccoons,
opposums, bobwhite quail and dove, fair for reptiles, and poor for most
amphibians.

4. Woodland

This community has a high potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are no serious management problems. Commercial species
suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine. Potential annual
growth is 1.5 and 1.2 cords per acre, respectively. The potential annual
growth of longleaf pine is 0.8 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

These moderately well to well drained areas have few limitations for urban
development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood and pine
vegetation make them prized areas for residential development. Water
erosion is often a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative
establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where
water erosion is a concern.

Plants native to the community are easily established and require less
maintenance than introduced ornamentals. Some of the trees are American
holly, laurelcherry, chickasaw plum, dogwoods, fringetree, hickory,
southern magnolia, oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, redcedar, and
sweetgum. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coral bean,
pawpaw, strawberry bush, shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. Some of
the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, blazing star, iris and
sunflower.







The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrels.
Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for most
forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

TREES Florida torreya, Torreya taxifolia; Pagoda dogwood, Cornus
alternifolia

SHRUBS Ashe's magnolia, Magnolia ashei; Miccosukee gooseberry, Ribes
echinellum; Orange azalea, Rhododendron austrinum

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

Florida panther, Felix concolor corvi; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides
borealis












- SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 t0 20 30 40 SOMILES
St I I


Atlantic


Gulf


HERNANDO


Ocean


Mexico


Loke
Okechobee


BROWARD


/
/
/


-.
~


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-6
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


6







I',-'


Although numbers of
trees vary greatly
in different loca-
tions, South Florida
flatwoods are typical-
ly savannas, a type of
community intermediate
between grassland and
forest.


South Florida
flatwoods are used
extensively for
range.


Areas north and we
of Lake Okeechobee
have few trees.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 6 SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The South Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south and
central Florida. The northern limit of its occurrence is approximately on a
line from Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east. This
community covers more land area than any other in south Florida. Individual
communities may comprise several thousand acres and are typically interspersed
with smaller communities of other types, especially wetlands.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
the natural drainageways, swamps, marshes, and ponds associated with this
community. During the rainy season, usually June through September, this
community may have water on or near the soil surface. It is easily identified
by the flat topography and pine and palmetto vegetation.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained,
and coarse textured throughout or coarse textured in the upper part and
moderately coarse textured or moderately fine textured in the lower part.
Representative soils included: Braden, Eaton, Electra, Elred, Heights,
Immokalee, Lawnwood, Myakka, Nettles, Palmetto, Pomona, Smyrna and
Waveland. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series
with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The landscape position of this community affects plant-water
relationships and causes slight differences in plant composition from
wetter to drier areas. Although these differences are recognized, they
are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities, the
natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine trees
with an understory of sawpalmetto and grasses. Some areas in extreme
south Florida have few, if any, trees. These areas are often called
prairies or dry prairies. The largest of these areas occur north and west
of Lake Okeechobee. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii;
South Florida slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. densa

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gallberry, Iex glabra;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Tarflower, Befaria racemosa;
Shining sumac, Rhus copallina; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Chalky bluestem, Andorpogon capillipes;
Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium stoloniferum; Lopsided
indiangrass, Sorhastrum secundum; Fall panicum, Panicum
dichotomiflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn,
Aristida stricta

Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The South Florida Flatwoods is host to a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Many larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods
join other communities. These ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites,
food and cover.

Typical animals of the flatwoods are:

MAMMALS Armadillo, eastern cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, deer,
skunks, raccoon, opossum

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, brown-headed nuthatch,
meadowlark, pileated woodpecker, pine warblers, red-bellied
woodpecker, rufous-sided towhee, yellow-throated warblers

REPTILES Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake, yellow
ratsnake

AMPHIBIANS Oak toad, chorus frog, pinewoods tree frog

Introduced feral hogs are common in much of the community. Information
about animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in
Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community. Fire
controls hardwoods and promote the natural regeneration of pine. Removal
of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood community.

Flatwood communities are good cellulose producers and the original areas
of predominantly longleaf pine have been logged. Areas in the northern
part of the community are extensively used for timber production,
Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes in the
vegetation. Without proper consideration this results in a low diversity
of plants and an adverse change in some wildlife populations.

Native forage production is good with proper management. Use for
rangeland has only a light effect on the community if properly managed.
Chopping and similar range practices result in more grasses and fewer
shrubs. With sufficient cover left, the resulting increase in diversity
usually leads to an increase in types and amount of wildlife.







This community has good wildlife values, especially with proper
management. It is especially important as a wildlife buffer zone between
urban areas occurring on better drained sites.

Water control practices and improved management techniques have
facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetables, citrus,
and urban development. This is especially true in south Florida.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and indiangrass. It is Florida's most important community for the
production of cattle on native range. For sites in excellent condition,
the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000
to 6,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth
conditions. From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit
depending upon amount and type, of forage available, there will be little
forage available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative
percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 75 percent
grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent
herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

The South Florida Flatwoods community is well suited for deer, quail, and
turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds,
particularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks,
opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre.
The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando County in the west to Orange County in the east.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil and special techniques may
be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine.
Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern







waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds like warblers.
Undisturbed areas also provide good escape cover for all forms of
wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor corvi; Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Crested Caracara, Polyborus plancus; Florida grasshopper
sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum floridanus; Southeastern kestrel
(Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus; Red-cockaded
woodpecker, Picoides borealis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi













- NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


GADSDEN
LEON MASON











SCALE
0 i0 20 30 d40 0 MILES




Gulf




ofo



Mexico


MARION


Atlantic


Ocean


/
I


.4


Map prepared by U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981 O


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-7
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770






















Typical North Florida
flatwoods are open
woodland, dominated hb
pine trees.


Woodland is a
common land se.


INX
'C :


Saw palmetto, Serenoa
ren, is a c on
shrub.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 7 NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs north of a line from
Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east, and in the northwest
portion of the state. It is quite extensive, occurring most frequently in the
northeastern region of the state and the southern portion of the northwest
region. Individual communities may comprise several thousand acres and are
typically interspersed with smaller communities of other types, especially
wetlands.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associated with this
community. Wet conditions prevail during the rainy season with the water
table on or near the surface. It is easily identified by the flat topography,
slash pine and sawpalmetto vegetation.

1. Soil

Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are nearly
level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured
or coarse textured in the upper part and moderately coarse textured or
moderately fine textured in the lower part. Representative soils include:
Chaires, Garcon, Leon, Lumber, Lutterluh, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, Olustee,
Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Sapelo, Scranton, and Talquin. Appendix A
contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate
ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Slight differences in plant composition occur in this community depending
upon location but these differences are of minor consequence. As this
community is observed, a moderate to dense stand of pine trees is usually
noted. An understory of sawpalmetto and grasses are also evident.
Compared to the South Florida Flatwoods community, several differences are
apparent. A shorter growing season and colder temperature have helped
cause significant vegetative differences. More frequent interspersion of
hardwood and cypress strands coupled with higher pine tree density reduces
the open appearance.

Close study reveals the following characteristic plants:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gallberry, Ilex 2labra;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Shining sumac, Rhus lanceoluta;
Tarflower, Befaria racemosa; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Blackberry, Rubus spp.; Bracken fern,
Pteridum aquilinum; Creeping beggarweed, Desmodium incanum;
Deer tongue, Trilisa odoratissima; Dog fennel, Eupatorium
capillifolium; Gayfeather, Liatris gracilis; Greenbriar, Smilax
auriculata; Milkwort, Polygala spp.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Chalky bluestem, Andropogon capillipes;
Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus; Yellow indiangrass,
Sorghastrum nutans; Lopsided indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum;
Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn, Aristida stricta;
Sedges, Cyperus spp.

Other plants that are known to occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

The North Florida Flatwoods are host to a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Mnay larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods
join other communities. These ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites,
food and cover. Typical animals of the flatwoods are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, fox squirrel,
gray fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, pine warbler, red-bellied
woodpecker, red-shouldered hawk, rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake

AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, grass frog, flatwoods salamander

Introduced feral hogs are common in much of the flatwoods community.
Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community.
Modification of either condition will change the plant and animal
composition. Removal of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood
community.

Flatwoods communities are good cellulose producers because of their high
net productivity. The original areas of predominantly longleaf pine have
been logged. Extensive areas have been replanted to slash pine.
Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes in the
vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and often adverse
changes in types and amounts of some wildlife.







Native forage production is good with proper woodland grazing practices.
Proper rangeland use has only a slight effect on the community and results
in more grasses and few shrubs. This often increases the type and amount
of wildlife.

Water control practices and improved management techniques have
facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetable
production, and urban development. This effect is minimal in north
Florida. This community has good wildlife values with proper management.
It is also important as a buffer zone between urban areas.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and
several of the panicum species. More pines occur in this community than
in South Florida Flatwoods. Vegetative production differs from the South
Florid Flatwoods community due to a shorter growing season and lower
winter temperatures. For sites in excellent condition the average annual
production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 5,500 pounds
per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 5 to
15+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and
type of forage available. For each 15 percent canopy cover, the stocking
rate is reduced 15 percent. There will be little forage available if the
canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual
vegetative production by weight is 65 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
25 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

The North Florida Flatwoods community is well suited for deer, quail and
turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds,
particularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks,
opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre.
The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,







cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine.
Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds. Undisturbed areas also
provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this
community, but may occur in some instances:

SHRUBS Chapman's rhododendron, Rhododendron chapmanii

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around the community:

MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus, Florida
panther, Felis concolor coryi

BIRDS Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus;
Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis; Florida sandhill
crane, Grus canadensis pratensis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarshon corais couperi













8 CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
I t s e l i l


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Occurs mostly south of this line
as small scattered communities
and often adjacent to coastal
areas, major drainageways and lakes.


"0d

la.V


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1961


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-8
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770















typical cabbage palm
flatwood in Colier
County,


Plant composition
depends partly on
soil drainage and
better drained
sites have more
cabbage palm,
Sabal palmetto.


Cabbage palm, Sabal
palmetto, charaterize
this community.


I F t








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 8 CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south
Florida and, to a limited extent, in central Florida. The northern limit of
its occurrence is approximately on a line from Levy County on the west to St.
Johns County on the east. Small, isolated areas are found north of this line.
Locally, it most often occurs adjacent to coastal areas, major drainageways,
and lakes. Individual communities are typically interspersed with smaller
communities of wetland types.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
and through the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associated
with the community. During the rainy season, usually June through September,
the water table is on or near the soil surface.

1. Soil

Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are most often
nearly- level, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, shallow to deep, and
coarse textured to fine textured in the subsoil. Some parts of the
subsoil are calcareous or it is neutral to moderately alkaline. The
surface and subsurface layers are coarse textured. Representative soils
include Broward, Ft. Drum, Matmon, and Pinellas. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

Slight differences in plant composition occur depending upon water
relationships. The slight wetter sites contain a higher percentage of
grasses and herbaceous plants. Although these differences are recognized,
they are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities.

The natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine and
cabbage pine with an understory of palmetto and grasses. There is
considerable uniformity and openness. It is similar to the South Florida
Flatwoods community except for a higher percentage of herbaceous plants
and the presence of cabbage palms. The plants which characterize this
community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Tarflower, Befaria racemosa;
Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Caesar weed, Urena lobata; Creeping
beggarweed, Desmodium incanum; Deer tongue, Trilisa








odoratissima; Gay feather, Liatris gracillis; Greenbriar,
Smilax auriculata

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Lopsided indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum;
Saltmarsh windmillgrass, Estachys glauca; Stiffleaf
windmillgrass, Estachys petraea; Pineland threeawn, Aristida
stricta

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods are habitat for a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Larger animals are found where the flatwoods join other
communities, especially the wetlands. Typical animals are:

MAMMALS Cotton mice, cotton rat, cottontail rabbit, bobcat, deer,
opossum, raccoon, striped skunks

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, bobwhite quail, red-shouldered hawk,
rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake, black racer,
yellow rat snake

AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, oak toad

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stresses of this community. Fire is
important in control of hardwoods. Removal of fire will cause a
successional move to hardwoods. The kind of hardwoods will depend on soil
conditions such as drainage. Flatwoods are good cellulose producers and
nearly all of the original areas of pine have been harvested. Intensive
management for pulp production normally causes major changes in
vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and a reduction in
number and kinds of wildlife.

Native forage production is excellent with good management. Proper
rangeland use has only a slight effect on this community. Application of
range practices will increase the grasses and reduce the shrubs. This
brings about an increase in types and amount of wildlife.

The community has very good wildlife values that can be enhanced with
proper management. It is especially important as a buffer zone for
wildlife between urban areas occurring on better drained sites and the
natural drainageways. Water control practices and improved management
techniques have facilitated the use of Cabbage Palm Flatwoods for







extensive agricultural and urban land uses. This is especially true in
south Florida near the coast.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the
average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 4,500 to
9,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions.
From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon
amount and type of forages available. There will be little forage
available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative
percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 70 percent
grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent
herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cabbage palm flatwoods offer good food and cover to many species of
wildlife. Food value comes from palm and palmetto fruit, pine mast, and
acorns from associated oaks. Legumes and grasses furnish good food
sources to quail and other small birds. Habitat is well suited for deer
and turkey and offers refuges to migrating birds during winter months.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial
wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition, the
commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine.
Potential annual growth respectively is 1.2 and 1.0 cords per acre.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando County to Orange County.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and
has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile soil. Special techniques may oe
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
effort for establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American
holly, cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash
pine. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most common urban wildlife is songbirds. Undisturbed areas provide
escape cover and travel routes for most forms of wildlife.







ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this
community but may occur in some instances:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Virginia chain fern, Woodwardia virginica;

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Southeastern kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; bald eagle,
Haliaeetus leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi












- EVERGLADES FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 O SMILES
1 =1=1 I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


,
:\

p o~


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 11


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-9
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770























Typical Everglades
fl~too wst of
_lmesread


P--, pin-ace
limestone rock

obe -rface.


Grassy areas are
interspersed through-
out some Everglades
Flatwo.ds.


I~


"rcrt








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 9 EVERGLADES FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The Everglades Flatwoods ecological community occurs only in the Everglades
region of south Florida. The largest area is west of Homestead in and round
the Everglades National Park. The tropical hammock ecological community is
generally interspersed throughout this community.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level land. It is underlain at shallow depths
by a porous pinnacle limestone rock. Many areas have little or no soil and
the pinnacle rock occurs on the surface. Water movement is rapid through the
porous limestone. Consequently, the sites are wet for only short periods
following heavy rains.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level, shallow and coarse textured over porous
limestone rock. Representative soils are Dade, Hallandale and Rockdale.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation that occurs on this community is dominated by an
overstory of south Florida slash pine. The understory is mostly
sawpalmetto and grasses. There is considerable uniformity and openness.
The specific plants which characterize this community are:

TREES South Florida slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. densa

SHRUBS Marlberry, Ardisia escallonioides; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens;
Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Florida peperomia, Peperomia obtusifolia

GRASSES Cabanis bluestem, Andropogon cabanissi; Chalky bluestem,
Andropogon capillipes; Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Low panicums, Panicum spp.; Saltmarsh
windmillgrass, Estachys glauca

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.







3. Animals


The Everglades Flatwoods are habitat for a variety of wildlife. Typical
animals are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, cotton mouse, five-lined skink, marsh rabbit, opossum,
raccoon, white-tailed deer

BIRDS Pine warbler, red-shoulder hawk

REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Values as a Natural System

Fire is the major stress condition of the community. It is important in
control of hardwoods and removal of fire will cause a successional move to
a hardwood community. With road and canal building, natural firebreaks
are produced which endanger the pineland.

Decaying plant material is important in that it produces a weak acid which
dissolves the rock and in time produces soil for seed germination.

Everglades Flatwoods are good cellulose producers but distance from
woodland markets generally limit commercial production. Native forage
production is good with proper management. Use for rangeland has only a
slight effect on the community. This community has good wildlife values,
especially with proper management. It affords a drier habitat for
wildlife species utilizing the wetlands nearer the Lake Ockeechobee and
the sawgrass marsh in the Everglades. A special importance is that it
serves as a buffer for wildlife between the wetlands adjacent to Lake
Okeechobee and urban development near the coast. Water control practices
and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of this
community for vegetables, fruit crops, and urban development. This .s
especially true near the coast.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky oluestem,
and indiangrass. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual
production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to ,000 pounds per
acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 14+
acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of
forage available. There will be little forage available if the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetative
production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15
percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants.








3. Wildlifeland


Due to its geographic position, this community is valuable to migrating
bird life headed to South America for wintering. It serves the same
purpose on the return trip, acting primarily as resting cover. It is well
suited for deer, bobcat, owls, and small rodents. Many reptiles find
suitable habitat in this community.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and severe seedling
mortality due to the rocky soil conditions. The commercial species for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre for
South Florida slash pine and 0.7 cords per acre for slash pine.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to some unique limitations for urban
development. The hard limestone rock is on or near the surface and
special equipment is needed for excavations evacuation. The most serious
limitations for urban development are those imposed by the above factor
and a high water table during the rainy season.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
live oak, myrsine, silver palm, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
coco plum, dahoon holly, Florida fiddlewood, Florida privet, marlberry,
sawpalmetto, varnish leaf, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous
plants are aster, bunchflower, cone flowers, crotalaria, ferns, iris,
meadow beauty, partridge pea, rose-mallow, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and rabbit. Undisturbed
areas do provide good escape cover for many other forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community:

TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata

SHRUBS Big pine partridge pea, Cassia kevensis; Pride-of-big-pine,
Strumpfia maritima

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Night scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum;
Pineland clustervine, Jacquemontia curtissii, Tiny milkwort,
Polygala smallii







The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:


MAMMALS


BIRDS

REPTILES


- Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi, Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

- Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis

- Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon coaris couperi; Miami black-
headed snake, Tantilla oolitica












10


- CUTTHROAT SEEPS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
I I I 1~tz


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


Occurs mostly in Polk and Highland
Counties as small communities below
Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf Pine-
Turkey Oak Hills communities.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-10
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


Ocean


11
CIN Alw.


















Dense cutthroat grass is
the most prominent fea-
ture of this community
at Lhil Polk County site.


Scattered slash pine
arees over a dense
ground cover of cut-
throat grass typifies
the appearance of
tll community.









ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 10 CUTTHROAT SEEPS

OCCURRENCE

The Cutthroat Seeps ecological community is found mostly in Polk and Highlands
Counties. It occurs to a limited extent in adjoining counties. Individual
size of the community is normally less than 100 acres. Much of the original
community has been destroyed and developed to intensive uses.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level to gently sloping or depressed areas
where water seeps from the adjacent Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf Pine-Turkey
Oak Hills communities. The soil profile is wet most of the time.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained, deep and
coarse textured throughout. The Ona and St. Johns soil series are
representative of this community. Appendix A contains information on
correlation of soils series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The appearance of this community is distinctive. It has open scattered
pine trees, isolated sawpalmetto and waxmyrtle and a dense cover of
cutthroat grass that stays green the year round. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

GRASSES Cutthroat grass, Panicum abscissium; Chalky bluestem,
Andropogon capillipes; Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Toothache grass,
Ctenium aromaticum; Low panicums, Panicum spp.

Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Typical animals include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, cottontail rabbit, deer, raccoon, skunks, opossum

BIRDS Woodpeckers, several songbirds

REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake, yellow ratsnake

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.








LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Seepage water from the higher elevated and better drained areas is the
controlling factor of the Cutthroat Seep ecological community.
Development in and around.this site causes changes in water quality and
quantity which usually result in wide changes of plant composition.

These areas are not generally used for woodlands due to wetness, plant
composition and difficulty of harvest. They are sometimes used for
woodland if part of a larger flatwoods area. Native forage production is
very good with proper management. Rangeland use has only a slight effect
on the community. Range practices will'result in an increase of grasses
and reduction of shrubs. Wildlife values are good, especially with
improved wildlife management practices. Its different plant composition
from surrounding communities offers good cover and food for wildlife.

Environmental values are especially important. Water from better drained
areas "seeps" out to the ground surface at these communities. They then
serve as natural drainageways and help to improve water quality by
the filtering action and nutrient uptake of plants.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of good quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the
average annual production of air dry plant materials varies from 3,000 to
5,500 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions.
From 4 to 16+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon
amount and type of forages available. The relative percentage of annual
vegetative production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike
plants, 10 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cutthroat seeps are well suited for deer, turkey, and songbirds. They are
fair for quail and good for many mammals, such as skunks, opossums, and
raccoons. Reptiles such as ratsnakes and rattlesnakes find suitable
habitat in the community. It is poorly suited for squirrel and dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial
woodland production. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. There are no commercial species
suitable for planting. Potential annual growth of existing slash and pond
pine is at 0.4 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables and has limitations for
urban development. Intensive water management systems are required for
urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep
channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques are usually







required in these situations.
sedimentation is usually a problem.
in the spring on unvegetated areas.


Without vegetation, erosion and
Wind erosion is also a severe problem


Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
longleaf pine, pond pine, ahd slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
sawpalmetto and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
ferns, iris, meadow beauty, partridge pea, and sunflower.


The most adapted urban wildlife is birds.
escape cover for many forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS


Undisturbed areas provide good


The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi


- Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
Little kestrel, Falco sparverius; Red-cockaded
Picoides borealis? Florida sandhill crane, Grus
pratensis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus


floridanus;
woodpecker,
canadensis


REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi


BIRDS












11- UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 la 20 30 40 MILES


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


/
I
I


Ocean


xv


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORT, TEXAS teUt


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-11
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770













Winter brings about
e open appearance
as the deciduous
trees lose their
leaves.


This community
typically has a
very sparse ground
cover due to the
shading effect of
he larger trees
and understory
shrubs.


Typical upland hard-
wood hammock in the
spring.


ZI 1-1y",. I .-IQ-








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 11 UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Upland Hardwood Hammock ecological community occurs commonly in north
central Florida and sparingly in north and west Florida. Individual
communities vary in size from a few acres to several hundred. The largest
communities occur near Brooksville, Gainesville, and Ocala. This community is
generally considered to be a climax vegetation of ecological succession in the
Southern Coastal Plains. A climax community is one that perpetuates its kind
in equilibrium with the environment without influence of man.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on rolling terrain with nearly level to strong slopes.
Moderately moist regimes without excessive water or drought conditions
characterize this community. It can be readily identified by the occurrence
of thick stands of shade tolerant hardwoods and few pines. There is usually
more organic material and litter present than on drier sites.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, somewhat poorly to
well drained and coarse-textured throughout or coarse-textured in the
upper part with moderately coarse-textured to moderately fine-textured
subsoils. Representative soils included Blichton, Bonneau, Flemington,
Fort Meade, Gainesville, Hernando, Mabel, Millhopper, Shubuta, Sparr and
Zuber. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with
the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

This community is considered to be in a climax stage of vegetation when
only a few pines occur with hardwoods dominating. Under climax
conditions, understory vegetation may be quite sparse. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES American beech, Fagus grandifolia; American holly, Ilex opaca;
Black cherry, Prunus serotina; Eastern hophornbeam, Ostrva
virginiana; Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida; Hawthorns,
Crataegus spp.; Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak,
Quercus virainiana; Pignut hickory, Carva glabra; Southern
magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; Sweetgum, Liquidambar
styraciflua

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Arrowwood, Viburnum
dentatum; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum; Waxmyrtle, Mvrica
cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax
glauca; Common greenbriar, Smilax rotunidifolia; Crossvine,
Bignoniu capreolata; Partridge berry, Mitchella repens;







Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicanaM
Ragweed, Ambrosia arteiaisifolia; Spanish moss, Tillandsia
usneoides; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus abrinqsfsla; Wild
grape, Vitis app.; Yellow jessamine, Gsalaaminm seerviarea
Dotted horsemint, Monarda Punctata; Blackberry, kRbus app.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Low panicua, Panicam app.; Switchgrass,
Panicumn irtatum

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological comanities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The more common wildlife species include:

MAMMALS -Raccoon, opossum, southern flying squirrel, gray squirrel, gray
f i, bobcat, white-tailed deer, armadillo

BIRDS Bluebird, bluejay, cardinal, cedar waxwing, chickadee, ckuck-
wills widow, great crested flycatcher, eastern phoebe, eastern
mockingbird, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, palm warbler,
summer tanager, robin, rufous-sided towhee, turkey, tufted
titmouse, woodpeckers, wrens

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Upland hardwood hammocks occur on some of the soils that are well suited
for a variety of uses and may undergo considerable stress and change.
From a purely aesthetic standpoint the interior of this community, if not
recently disturbed, usually is inspiring. Large hardwoods exhibit an
interesting diversity in growth forms. In the moist drainageways, true
mosses, several species of ferns and violets represent the fragile side of
nature. Many aspects related to environmental awareness such as the
function of microorganisms in decay and nutrient-cycling may be viewed in
this community.

Upland hardwood hammocks are valuable for watershed protection, and
hardwood products and are prized areas for residential development.

2. Rangeland

Upland hardwood hammocks have very poor potential for range and are
therefore not used for this purpose.

3. Wildlifeland

Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries) makes upland
hardwood hammocks good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and
many songbirds. Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites








for squirrels, owls, and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons
and opossums; poor for bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor
for most amphibians.

4. Woodland

When managed for hardwood production, this community produces quality
products. However, there has been a tendency to maintain these areas in
predominantly pine through species management due to quicker returns on
investment. The community has a high potential for commercial woodland
production. there are no significant management hazards and limitations.
Slash pine and loblolly pine are the commercial coniferous species
suitable for planting. Potential annual growth respectively is 1.5 and
1.2 cords per acre. Longleaf pine has a potential annual growth of 0.8
cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

The moderately well to well drained areas have few limitations for urban
development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood vegetation make
upland hardwood hammocks prized areas for residential development. Water
erosion can be a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative
establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where
water erosion is a concern. Plants native to the community should receive
preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are
easier established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are
American holly, cabbage palm,, laurelcherry, chickasaw plum, common
persimmon, dogwood, fringetree, live oak, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
redbud, red maple, slash pine," magnolia, red cedar, swamp chestnut oak,
sweetgum, and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry,
beargrass, coral bean, elderberry, lantana, strawberry bush, shining
sumac, and waxmyrtle.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Threatened or endangered plants include:

SHRUBS Needle palm, Rhapidophyllum hystrix

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum;
Dwarf spleenwort, Asplenium pumilum; Sinkhole fern, Blechnum
occidentale

Threatened or endangered animals include:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Florida black bear,
Ursus americanus floridanus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi













12 WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


HAMILTON


SCALE
0 ', o0 30 40 SO MILES




Gulf




of



Mexico






Numerous small communi-
ties also occur throughout
Central and South Florida.


MARION


Atlantic


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1911


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-12
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


ALACHUA


Ocean


Go 66





















Ditantneo o1-f
typinni -1tland
1, dnood-d hootk
i, TIylor County.
















































Typi ol .,llnd hi-dno-d
1 o-k.


Interior of a wetland
hardwood hamock.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 12 WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Wetland Hardwood Hammock ecological community is scattered east and west
of the Central Florida Ridge, extending northwesterly into the panhandle. It
predominates in the region from Hillsborough County to Wakulla County. One of
the largest areas is along the Gulf Coast north of the Withlacoochee River.

DESCRIPTION

This community is a wetland forest on poorly drained soils, soils subject to
constant seepage, or soils with high water tables. It has an evergreen
appearance since it is dominated by the laurel, live, and water oaks,
magnolia, and cabbage palm. In many areas red cedar is also one of the
dominants. The deciduous sweetgum is one of the trees. Red maple, various
bays, and cypress also occur but these species are not dominant in this
community. Topography is low and nearly level. These hammocks are not
flooded for as long a period of time are are associated swamp hardwoods. the
swamp hardwoods community is often found within depressional areas of the
wetland hardwood hammock. Wetland hardwood hammock may be distinguished from
bottomland hardwoods by the dominant plant species and the type of flooding.
If the inundating water derives from river overflow, it is a bottomland
hardwood; if inundated by local rainfall, it is wetland hardwood hammock.

1. Soils

Soils associated with this community are nearly level, somewhat poorly and
poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces. Many of these
soils have very thick sandy surface and subsurface layers. Representative
soils include Aripeka, Coxville, Herod, Matmon, Megget, Nutall, Oleno,
Portsmouth, and Plummer. Appendix A contains information on correlation
of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

This community supports a luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity
of species. Although supporting plants that are found in both drier and
wetter sites, this community has definite flora characteristics. Plants
which characterize this community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Hawthorns, Craetaegus spp.;
Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak, Quercus virginiana;
Red bay, Persea borbonia; Red maple, Acer rubrum; Sweetbay,
Magnolia virginiana; Sweetgum, Liquidambar stvraciflua; Water
oak, Quercus nigra; Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera; Witchhazel, Hamamelis virginiana;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea;
Crossvine, Anisostichus capreolata; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron
radicans; Royal fern, Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia
usneoides; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia; Wild
grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow jessamine, Gelsemium sempervirens


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Longleaf uniola,
sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.


Chasmanthium


A list of plants that may occur in this community are in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, skunk, mink, opossum, otter, raccoon, wild hog,
gray squirrel


BIRDS Mississippi kite, owls, turkey,
woodpeckers and numerous songbirds


red-shouldered hawk,


REPTILES Green anole

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System


Wetland hardwood hammocks have high recreational values for
hiking, and nature study. They also have important aesthetic
Water quality and quantity control is one of the most important
provided, particular in the coastal areas.


hunting,
benefits.
benefits


2. Rangeland

Although some woodland grazing occurs in wet hardwood hammocks, it is
generally not recommended.

3. Wildlifeland


Wetland
wildlife
turkey,
is poor
reptiles


hardwood hammocks are one of the most productive and diverse
habitats. This community is good habitat for wild hogs, deer,
black bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers, owls, and furbearers. It
for quail and dove and fair for many songbirds. It is good for
and amphibians, being moist most of the year.


4. Woodland

There has been considerable acreage of wet hardwood hammocks converted to
pine production. Drainage is needed for optimum growth of pines. The
drainage and conversion destroys this community as a viable unit. With
the value of hardwoods increasing, much of the remaining acreage may stay








in hardwood production. However, new markets are needed for hardwood
production, such as furniture stock, to keep these areas in hardwood
production.

This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial
wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition. The
commercial species for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine.
Potential annual growth is 1.2 and 1.0 cords per acres respectively.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando to Orange Counties.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation
on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and
management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind
erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is
especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, dahoon holly, fringetree, hawthorns, live oak, loblolly bay,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, red maple, slash pine, southern magnolia,
red cedar, sugarberry, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water oak. Some
of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining sumac, yaupon holly,
sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayflower, rose-mallow, meadowbeauty, and
sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon, and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Threatened and endangered plants include:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled
spleenwort, Asplenium-auritum; Climbing dayflower, Commelina
gigas; Cuplet fern, Dennstaedtia bipinnata

Threatened or endangered animals may include:

MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus; Florida
panther, Felis concolor corvi












13 CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS


SCALE
oto 10 0 30 40 MILES


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Numerous small communities
also occur in Highlands, Okee-
chobee and surrounding
counties, and just inland
from the coast in peninsular
Florida.


4%
06--6 x7


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FMOT WORTH TEXAS 1991


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-13
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


f--,
/
/
/
















J. small Cabbage
Palm H mock has
been h-aily gra..d
by i ie t-k and
i the understoy
lar ly ds t oyed
-4vFr r-- -


Typic .1 -bb. g. pa I.
hammock in the back-
8 round with a saltgrass
marsh in foreground.


Interior view of a Cabbage Palm
Hammock shows the typical dense
o erstory with a spar se ground
cover.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 13 CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Cabbage Palm Hammock ecological community occurs predominantly in south
Florida. Counties having the most significant communities of this type are
Highlands, Okeechobee and surrounding counties. Communities are usually one
to several acres and rarely extensive in size.

DESCRIPTION

This community is easily identified by the occurrence of thick stands of
cabbage palm with a few scattered oak. It occurs mostly on slightly elevated
areas within the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods communities.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly to somewhat poorly
drained, calcareous, and coarse textured. They occur mostly on low lying
poorly drained ridges or flats. Representative soils included Bradenton,
Hilolo, Parkwood, and Winder. Appendix A contains information on
correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation is dominated by tree species, especially cabbage
palms. Plants that characterize this community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia;
Live oak, Quercus yirginiana

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Sawpalmetto,
Serenoa repens; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

GRASSES Creeping bluestem, Schizachrium stoloniferum; Low panicums,
Panicum spp.; Stiffleaf windmillgrass, Estachvs petraea

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Caesar weed, Urena lobata; Poison ivy,
Toxicodendron radicans; Wild grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow
jessamine, Gelemium sempervivens

Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Armadillo, bobcat, gray squirrel, opossum, deer, skunk,
raccoons, wild hogs

BIRDS Owls, red-shouldered hawk, woodpeckers, numerous songbirds







REPTILES Diamondback rattlesnake


Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Normally standing as islands in the landscape-, cabbage palm hammocks have
high aesthetic values. Fire and water are the major stresses of this
community. The past removal of fires probably caused a successional move
to hardwoods and palms. The kind and mixture of hardwoods and palms will
depend on specific soil conditions such as drainage and closeness to
calcareous materials.

The areas are not generally used for woodland, range, or intensive land
uses due to type and composition of plants. Some areas have been utilized
for citrus production. However, this community has good wildlife values
that can be enhanced with good management. Cabbage palm hammocks offer
resting cover for both migratory and resident wildlife and serve as
refuges during wet conditions.

2. Rangeland

This community has low potential for producing forage due to the dense
canopy of palm trees. It does provide protection during cold, rainy
weather and shade during hot weather. It is usually severely grazed due
to the above factors. For sites in excellent condition, the average
annual production of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000
pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From
10 to 30+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount
and type of forage available. There will be little forage available when
the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual
vegetation production by weight is 55 percent grasses and grasslike
plants, 25 percent trees and shrubs, and 20 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cabbage palm hammocks are productive communities for many wildlife
species. They are good habitat for wild hogs, deer, turkey, woodpeckers,
and owls and poor for quail and dove, but fair for most songbirds and
squirrels.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high to high potential productivity for
commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and
seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant composition. The
commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine, loblolly pine,
sweetgum, and sycamore. Potential annual growth for the first threes is
1.5, 1.2 and 0.8 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is
18 percent less for soils south of a line from Hernando County to Orange
County.







5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, dahoon
holly, gumbo-limbo (south Florida), hawthorns, laurel oak, live oak, and
thatch palm (south Florida). Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry,
coral bean, dahoon holly, marlberry, myrsine, sawpalmetto, tetrazygia,
shining sumac, varnish leaf, waxmyrtle, and wild coffee. Some of the
herbaceous plants are aster, coneflowers, dayflowers, iris, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey, and
similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this community
but may occur in some instances:

TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled
spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; cowhorn orchid, Cvrtopodium
punctatum, Night-scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Bird's
nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum

The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Everglades mink, Mustela vison evergladensis; Florida panther,
Felis concolor coryi

BIRDS Caracara, Caracara cheriway auduboni; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drvmarchon corais couperi













14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 S0 MILES
rt - - -


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Tropical Hammocks occur in
Plant Hardness Zone 10b.


Oh'


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA -SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1961


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-14
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770























Stpical tropical
hammock with
Gumbo limbo trees

hiram '"I


j466I


Interior View of a Tropical Interior View of a Tropical
1Hammock with Royal Palms Hammock Showing a strangler
fig, Ficus area








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Topical Hammock ecological community is confined to south Florida. It
occurs on elevated areas in the Everglades and along the limestone ridges of
the Florida Keys. Individual communities range in size from less than an acre
to several acres.

DESCRIPTION

Tropical hammocks generally appear as thick clumps of strands or small to
medium-sized trees. On the sites where disturbance has not occurred for
several years, a more "jungle-like" appearance is observed. A heavy canopy
closure, causing deep interior shade, is prevalent. This condition serves to
moderate temperatures and conserve moisture. Characteristically,trees of the
tropical hammocks have dense, heavy, strong wood and shallow spreading root
systems which adapt them to a harsh environment of wind, periodic droughts and
salt spray.

1. Soils

Soils are shallow to rock with only a few inches of organic material
overlying porous limestone and marl. Characteristic soils were mapped in
an older reconnaissance type soil survey and have not been classified into
the current soil classification system. Appendix A contains information
on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Tropical hammocks typically have a very high plant diversity. Most of the
vegetation is probably of West Indies origin. The following species are
characteristic:

TREES Bahama lysiloma, Lysiloma latisiliqua; Jamaica dogwood,
Piscidia piscipula; Mastic, Sideroxylon foetidissimum;
Poisontree, Metopium toxiferum; Strangler fig, Ficus aurea;
Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto

SHRUBS Marlberry, Ardisia escalloniodes; Snowberry, Chiococca alba;
Wild coffee, Psychotria nervosa

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Golden serpent fern, Phlebodium aureum; Resurrection
fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Stiff-leaved wild pine,
Tillandsia fasciculata

GRASSES Low paniucm, Panicum spp.; Sour paspalum, Paspalum coniugatum

Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.







3. Animals

Tropical hammocks serve as habitat for a variety of wildlife species, many
of which are not found elsewhere. Some species that occur are:

MAMMALS Everglades mink, Mustela vison; Gray squirrel, Sciurus
carolinensis; Key deer, Odocoileus virginanus; Key Largo cotton
mouse, Peromyscus Rossvpinus; Key Largo woodrat, Neotoma
floridana; Marsh rabbit, Sylvilagus palustris

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Values as a Natural System

Tropical hammock communities are probably the most endangered ecological
type in Florida. Such endangerment lies in the fact that the communities
are not widespread in occurrence and have received considerable pressures
for other land uses. Special consideration should be given to
incorporating all existing tropical hammock into an overall land use plan.
Such a plan would insure the continued use of these communities as
hurricane protection, landscape and greenbelt areas, parks, and wildlife
habitat in an areas under tremendous population growth pressures.

2. Rangeland

Not recommended as a land use.

3. Wildlifeland

There are very specific requirements for the wildlife that occur in
tropical hammocks, particularly those resident species. Able to fulfill
the requirements of both local and migratory wildlife, tropical hammocks
naturally become good habitat for these species. A special function is
that of cover for many mammals during periods of high water and resting
and feeding areas for migratory birdlife.

4. Woodland

Not recommended for commercial production.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and
has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation
on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and
management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind
erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is
especially severe in the spring.








Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, dahoon holly, live oak, loblolly bay, red maple, slash pine,
and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining
sumac, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are
aster, blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayflower, rosemallow, meadowbeauty,
and sunflower.

The most common urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS


Threatened or endangered plants of the tropical hammocks are:


TREES






SHRU-BS


- Brittle thatch palm, Thrinax morrissii; Buccaneer palm,
Pseudophoenix sargentii; Cupania, Cupania glabra; Florida
thatch palm, Thrinax parvitolia; Krug's holly, Ilex krugiana;
Lignum-vitae, Guaiacum sanctum; Manchineel, Hippomane
mancinella; Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata; Tree
cactus, Cereus robinii

- Pride-of-big-pine, Strumpfia martima


HERBACEOUS


PLANTS Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; Bird's nest
spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Cowhorn orchid, Cyrtopodium
punctatum; Dollar orchid, Encyclia boothiana; Everglades
peperomia, Peperomia floridana; Fragrant maidenhair fern,
Adiantum melanoleucum; 2uch's bromeliad, Guzmania monostachia;
Adder's tongue fern, Ophioglossum palmatum; Hattie Bauer
halberd fern, Tectaria coriandrifolia; Night-scent orchid,
Epidendrum nocturnum; Narrow strap fern, Campyloneurum
angustifolium; Powdery catopsis, Catopsis beteroniana; Slender
spleenwort, Asplenium dentatum; Star-scale fern, Pleopeltis
revoluta; Twisted air plant, Tillandsia flexuosa; Worm-vine
orchid, Vanilla barbellata; Young-palm orchid, Tropidia
polystachya


Threatened or endangered animals of the tropical hammocks are:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Key ieer, Odocoileus
virginianus clavium; Key Largo cotton mouse; Peromyscus
gossypinus allapaticola; Key Largo woodrat, leotoma floridana
small; Key Vaca raccoon, Procyon lotor auspicatus; Aangrove
fox squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Bald eagle, Haliaeetis leucocephalus; White-crowned pigeon,
Columba leucocephala; Wood stork, Mycteria americana












15


- OAK HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
r I I I i I



Gulf



of



Mexico





Oak Hammocks occur mostly as
relatively small communities east of
Leon County to Lake Okeechobee.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-15
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


a
C
^c
.J
-c


Atlantic


Ocean


w

























Many oak hammocks have
a park-like appearance.


Typical interior
of a oak hammock.


Oak hamrmock as seen
from a distance as it
typically occurs with-
in south Florida flatwoods.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 15 OAK HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Oak Hammock ecological community occurs through central Florida in
scattered locations, south to the Everglades and west to about Tallahassee.
Typical examples of this community occur in Marion and Sumter Counties.
Although this community is a recognizable feature in the landscape, there is
some feeling that it may not be a separate, available community, but simply a
viable variation of either the upland or wetland hardwood hammock, induced by
man's influence.

DESCRIPTION

This community is readily identified by the dense canopy of predominantly
laurel and live oak trees on nearly level to rolling topography. The
understory is usually sparse.

1. Soils

Soils are nearly level to gently sloping, deep, and somewhat poorly to
poorly drained. Some have limestone rock occurring on or near the
surface. Representative soils include: Adamsville, Lochloosa, Nobleton,
and Pactolus. Appendix A contain information on correlation of soil
series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Tree species consists of mostly laurel and live oaks associated with other
oaks and pine. there are few understory plants. Plants that characterize
this community are:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Sawpalmetto,
Serenoa repens

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans;
Purple nutsedge, Cvperus planifolius and C. rotundus; Longleaf
uniola, Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans;
Resurrection fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Spanish moss,
Tillandsia usneoides; Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia
utriculata

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix B.







3. Animals

The most common animals of this community are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, foxes, armadillo, opossum, raccoon, skunks,
squirrels, rabbits

BIRDS Owls, rufous-sided towhee, songbirds, turkey, woodpeckers

AMPHIBIANS Southern toad

REPTILES Green anole, Southern fence lizard, diamondback rattlesnake,
hognose snake

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Oak hammocks add considerable to the quality of the landscape. Spreading,
stately oaks in many hammocks offer desirable surroundings for homesites
and were used extensively for this purpose by many early settlers. They
are also important wildlife areas. This community offers both food and
cover to various species. Many areas have been cleared or altered
extensively for both urban and agricultural uses, predominantly improved
pasture.

2. Rangeland

Due to the usually dense canopy cover and relatively open understory,
cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting areas. For sites
in excellent conditions, the average annual production of air dry plant
materials varies from 2,000 to 3,500 pounds per acre. This variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 12 to 35+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages
available, the relative percentage of annual vegetative production by
weight is 40 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 40 percent trees and
shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds and berries) make oak hammocks
good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and many songbirds.
Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites for squirrel,
owls, and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons and opossums;
poor for bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor for most
amphibians.

4. Woodland

This community has a high potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality problems due to poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine,








loblolly pine, sycamore and sweetgum are the commercial species suitable
for planting. Potential annual growth is 1.5, 1.2, 0.8, and 1.5 cords per
acre respectively. Potential production is 18 percent less for areas
south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Brevard County in the
east.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to a high water table during the rainy season
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
usually required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish
vegetation on channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting
and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem. Wind erosion can also become a problem,
especially in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
laurelcherry, hawthorns, live oak, common persimmon, and slash pine. Some
of the shrubs are beargrass, coral bean, lantana, pawpaw, sawpalmetto,
shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
coneflower, standing cypress, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas also provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS East coast coontie, Zamia pupila

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Dwarf spleenwort, Asjlen.iup pumilum; sinkhole fern,
Blechnurm occidental

Endangered and threatened animals are:

MAIMALS Florida panther, Felis cpncop.er cprj

REPTILES Short-tailed snake, Stilosoppa c: LiUDiatt'm













16 SCRUB CYPRESS


0 10 0 s Id o I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


This community also occurs
In small areas over the south-
ern tip of the peninsula too
small to delineate at this
scale.


poh a


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS.FORT WOT. TEXAS IMI


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-16
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770








a"


A sp arse stand of stunted
cypr ess trees are a typi-
cal feature of te Scru
Cypress Comou th ru


Air plants, like
the one in eftrtt
le ft cen t r of
pict ure are often
found in the cy-
pre .s tr c ea


Scbh cypress as seen
from a distance.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 16 SCRUB CYPRESS


OCCURRENCE

The Scrub Cypress ecological community occurs in south Florida on marl and
rock that is frequently flooded. Eastern Collier County and northern Monroe
County have the largest areas of this community. This region is called "Big
Cypress."

DESCRIPTION

This community appears as a broad area of marshes with dwarf cypress (less
than 20 feet tall) scattered throughout. It is stressed by the extreme
seasonal change in water levels, and low level of plant nutrients. These
factors cause poor growing conditions with a lack of plant diversity and small
wildlife populations in comparison to the cypress swamp community.

1. Soils

Soils associated with this community are nearly level, poorly to very
poorly drained, with coarse to medium textured surfaces underlain by finer
textured material or fractured limestone. A representative soil is
Margate. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series
with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The vegetation is much like that of the freshwater marsh community.
Occasional air plants and orchids can be found in the scattered cypress
trees. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; Pond cypress, Taxodium
distichum var. nutans

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia fasiculata

GRASSES Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum; Clubhead
cutgrass, Leersia hexandra; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The poor soil and lack of plant nutrients that are responsible for the
relatively sparse plant life also account for a fairly scattered wildlife
population.








Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, mink, panther, raccoon

BIRDS Roseate spoonbill, wood stork, herons

REPTILES Alligator, frogs, turtles, snakes

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The scrub cypress community occurs primarily in southwest Florida.
Developments in and around the community cause changes in water quality
and quantity which results in wide changes in portions of the plant
community. The scrub cypress community is highly endangered.

Scrub cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water
and slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced
by the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by
absorbing nutrients from the water.

2. Rangeland

This community has little or no use as rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Due to the sparseness of vegetative growth, this community is one of the
least productive of wildlife. Deer will range through these areas, but
the habitat is poor. The primary value is seasonal to frogs, turtles,
snakes, and salamanders which can adjust to the short hydroperiod and to
predators on these animals such as raccoons, mink, and the wading birds.

4, Woodland

These areas are not generally used for commercial woodland production.
However, this community does have a moderate potential productivity for
commercial woodland production on areas with adequate surface drainage,
There are severe equipment limitations due to the poorly drained soil
conditions. Slash pine is the species suitable for planting on areas with
adequate surface drainage. Potential annual growth is 0.7 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations
for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required
for urban uses.

It is difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and
infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, selected plants and
and unusual seeding and plant management techniques may be required.









Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress,
cabbage palm, pond cypress and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
buttonbush, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are aster and
sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and water-adapted reptiles
and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel
routes for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following threatened and endangered plants may occur in this community:

HERBS Acuna's epidendrum, Epidendrum acunae; Auricled spleenwort,
Asplenium auritum; Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum;
Cow-horn orchid, Cyrtopodium punctatum; Dwarf epidendrum,
Encyclia pvgmaea; Hidden orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia;
leafless orchid, Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum; Night-scent
orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis nutans

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor corgi

BIRDS Wood stork, Mycteria americana

REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis














17 CYPRESS SWAMP


SCALE
o 1O 0o Jo o0 10 MILES
I i I i i I /---


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Numerous small communities are
scattered over the state, especially
within the flatwoods and surrounding
lakes and streams.


v** -


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-17
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770
























A cypress "head" in
south central Florida.


Cypress often
occur along
lake edges.


Interior of a cypress
s-ap. Air plant.
are -.mo on the
cypress trees in south
Florida.
















































Interior of a
cypress swamp in
North Florida.


Typical cypress swamp
in Jefferson County
appears In the background.


Cypress swamps often
occur adjacent to
rivers and streams.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 17 CYPRESS SWAMP


OCCURRENCE

The Cypress Swamp ecological community occurs along rivers, lake margins,
slough and strands, or interspersed throughout other communities such as
flatwoods and slough. It occurs throughout Florida, but is the predominant
swamp type in the area from Flagler County south through Polk County and in
southwest Florida. The "Big Cypress" area of Monroe and Collier Counties is
included in Ecological Community No. 16 Scrub Cypress.

DESCRIPTION

This community is poorly drained and water is at or above ground level a good
portion of the year. Bald cypress is the dominant tree and is often the only
plant which occurs in significant numbers. Cypress swamps growing on sand,
rock and shallow mucky pond areas are not as productive as those found on
alluvial floodplain soils. As the soil depth in muck ponds increases, so does
the growth rate of cypress. The submerged or saturated condition of the soil
and general absence of fire help reduce competition and keep the community
from a successional change to a swamp hardwood (Bayhead) community.

I. Soils

Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level or
depressional, poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces.
Representative soils include: Martel, Monteocha, and Surrency. Appendix
A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate
ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Bald cypress, along lakes and stream margins, is dominant and often is the
only plant found in large numbers. Pond cypress occurs in cypress heads
or domes which are usually found in flatwoods and prairies. The diversity
of trees is low in the cypress heads but increases in the strands and
stream margins. Plants which characterize this community are.

TREES Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; Blackgum, Nyss6 sylvatica;
Coastal Plain willow, Salix caroliniana; Pond cypress, Taxodium
distichum var. nutans; Red maple, Acer rubrum

SHRUBS Common buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Southern
waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Fall-
flowering ixia, Nemastylis floridana; Laurel greenbriar, Smilax
laurifolia; Pickerel weed, Pontederia cordata; Royal fern,
Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides; Stiff-
leafed wild pine, Tillandsic utriculata; Sphagnur moss,
Sphagnur. spp.








GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Narrowleaf
sawgrass, Cladium mariscoides

Other plants that occur in the community are found in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The most common wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Deer, mink, raccoon, otter

BIRDS Anhinga, barred owl, egrets, herons, limpkin, pileated
woodpecker, purple gallinule, prothonotary warbler, wood duck,
wood stork

REPTILES Alligator, frogs, turtles, salamanders, variety of water snakes

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Cypress swamps are an extremely Valuable resource. They can be used for
environmental educational study, scientific research, and recreation.
They have a high value for use as wildlife habitat. This community has a
relatively low diversity of plant species due to the fluctuating water
levels and low nutrient availability. Both drastic changes in the water
level and a stabilized water level may change the plant community. Often
this will occur due to the effects of dams, dikes, or drainage channels.
The cypress swamp is not a prime area for residential development. When
ditched and drained, these areas may be used for pine production although
they are not as productive as the surrounding pine lands.

Fire is a stress factor, primarily on the drier portions, but water is
important in all areas. Water enters the swamp directly from rainfall or
runoff. The water level is highest in summer and peak productivity occurs
in early spring. Stagnant water will result in slow tree growth
especially if it occurs during the growing season.

Natural regeneration of cypress requires fluctuation of the water.
Flooding during the dry season will prevent the cypress trees from
reproducing. Water must be available to germinate the seeds because it
provides natural stratification. However, when the seedling starts to
grow its top must be maintained above water.

Cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water and
slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced by
the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by absorbing
nutrients from the water.

2. Rangeland

This community has little or no value as rangeland.








3. Wildlifeland

This community is very important for wildlife refuge areas and as a turkey
roosting area. It is well suited for waterfowl and wading birds. Aquatic
animals may be found in large numbers. The permanent residents of cypress
heads are relatively few, but much of the wildlife of the flatwoods is
dependent on these ponds for breeding purposes.

4. Woodland

Extensive drainage would be required, thereby destroying this community.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations
for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required
for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep
channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as
mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques may
be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem
in some water management systems. Intensive management measures may also
be necessary to maintain design capacity.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress, button
mangrove, loblolly bay, pond cypress, red maple, slash pine, and sweetgum,
Some of the shrubs are buttonbush, coco plum, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle.
Some of the herbs are aster, golden canna, cardinal flower, pine lily,
celestial lily, ferns, cone flower, cattail, rosemallow, iris, and
meadowbeauty.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds, water fowl, and water
adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover
and travel routes for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following plants of this community are considered threatened or
endangered:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Climbing
dayflower, Commelina gigas; Fuzzy-wuzzy air plant, Tillandsia
pruinosa; Giant water dropwort, Oxypolis greenmanii; Hidden
orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis
nutans; Grass- of-parnassus, Parnassia grandiflora

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

BIRDS Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis; Bald eagle,
Haliaeetus leucocephalus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana;


MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus




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