Florida butterflies


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Florida butterflies
Series Title:
Florida butterflies
Physical Description:
Gerberg, Eugene J.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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ltqf - AAA0157
ltuf - AHA4840
alephbibnum - 001492333
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Florida map and illustration of major butterfly wing areas
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 15
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        Page 29
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        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
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        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Checklist of Florida butterflies
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
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        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text



Eugene J. Gerberg
Ross H. Arnett, Jr.


Baltimore, Maryland
CB963 494

.1 -

Copyright 1989 by E. J. Gerberg and R. H. Arnett, Jr.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form
or by any means without permission in writing from the authors and

ISBN 0-89140-031-1 (Pk)

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Gerberg, Eugene J.
Florida butterflies

Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Butterflies-Florida. 2. Insects-Florida.
I. Arnett, Ross H. II. Title.
QL551.F6G47 1988 595.78'909759 88-29127
ISBN 0-89140-031-1

2406 NW 47th Terrace
(904) 371-9858


Manufactured in the United States of America

_ _I ___




Welcome to the fascinating study of insects, the science of entomol-
ogy. This book is written for those who have just now noticed the beauty
of butterflies and as a handy guide for the initiated naturalist who wishes
a complete record of the butterflies that live in Florida.
Does there live any person who has not noticed the beauty of these
insects? Their color alone attracts the attention of the most sophisticated
city dweller. Butterflies abound in all areas of the world except the plant-
less arctic and antarctic. They are often seen in the heart of cities because
of their habit of migrating from place to place in search of new locations
to live. The scales on their wings and bodies form a wide variety of beauti-
ful color patterns, each distinctive for the species to which they belong.
These attract and hold our interest. In this way they easily rival the birds
both in relative ease of identification and in interesting habits.

Acknowledgements: We wish to thank Dr. John B. Heppner and Mr.
H. David Baggett for their help with the names and distribution of the but-
terflies in Florida. Mr. Baggett has included unpublished distribution and
host data which greatly improves this section. Dr. E. N. Woodbury fur-
nished the photographs of living butterflies for which we are very grate-
ful. The remaining photographs are those of the authors.

Cover: Top: American Swallowtail Papilio polyxenes asterius, no. 4
Bottom: Zebra Long Wing, Heliconius charitonius, no. 62


------- -- ~-1'1`- ----7----


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0C ; E --rIN

C3V4 0 'V4
0r Ao x r


INER MA GiN zor C A"g^

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Map of Florida showing counties and regions. Left: Butterfly wings with
names of the major wing areas as used in this book.


Introduction ................... .... ..... ... ..... .. iii
Florida Map and Illustration of Major Butterfly Wing Areas ...... iv

What are Butterflies? ................. .............. 1
Butterfly Life Cycle ................................... 2
Butterfly Migration and Strays .......................... 6
Where to Look for Butterflies ........................... 7
Butterfly Walks ............................ .......... 11
Butterfly Conservation ................................ 12
Butterflies and Skippers ........ ................. ... 12
Butterfly Names ...................................... 13
Butterflies in Florida ................................. 14
Skippers in Florida ................................... 66
How to Rear Butterflies ................. ............ 71
Collecting Butterflies ............................. 72
Preserving Butterflies ............................. 74
Arranging and Displaying Butterflies ............... 74
Exchanging Specimans ....................... 76
Books, Magazines, and Societies ......................... 76
Where to get Supplies ................................. 77

Glossary ............... ...............................78
Checklist of Florida Butterflies ................ .. ..... 80
Index .................................................. 86



Fossil evidence shows us that butterflies have existed on this earth for
about 50 million years, about the same length of time as the mammals.
They form a group of families of insects belonging to the order Lepidop-
tera, those animals we call moths, butterflies, and skippers. That means the
insects discussed and illustrated in this book are really just specialized
moths. All of these insects have a common ancestor, long ago extinct, and
probably related to the rather drab appearing insects, stoneflies (Order
All of the species of Lepidoptera are characterized as true insects be-
cause they have bodies divided into three sections: head, thorax, and ab-
domen. The head bears the antennae, eyes, and mouthparts; the thorax,
the wings (some insects lack wings), either one pair (as in the true flies, the
Diptera), or two pairs (as in the butterflies), and the legs, always 3 pairs un-
less secondarily lost. (Some butterflies may seem to have only two pairs of
legs, but this is because the front pair are reduced to small, brushlike struc-
tures.) The thorax is really composed of three parts, the prothorax, which
bears the front pair of legs; the mesothorax, with the middle pair of legs,
and the front pair of wings; and the metathorax, with the hind pair of wings
and the hind legs. The abdomen is also divided into several segments,
without appendages. Inside the abdomen is the digestive system and the
reproductive organs, as well as other organ systems. At the end of the ab-
domen are the external reproductive organs, termed the genitalia. These
are the copulatory organs, and in the female, the egg laying organs.
Various hard parts, especially in the male, are distinctive in their shape for
each species and in some cases, these are used for the critical identification
of species.
The Lepidoptera are separated from other orders of insects by the
presence of scales and hairlike setae that cover the body. It is these scales
that give the color to the wings of butterflies. Lepidoptera adults either
have a coiled proboscis, or sucking tube, as the usual mouthpart, or they
completely lack mouthparts (some primitive moths have rudimentary
jaws). The life cycle of the lepidopterans is "complete" in that there are
four stages, the egg, the larva (the principal feeding stage with mouthparts
consisting of mandibles used to chew leaves), a resting stage called, in but-
terflies, the chrysalis, or in other lepidopterans, the pupa, and the imago,
or adult stage. These four stages are found in most, but not all insects.
Butterflies and skippers cannot be separated easily from the moths.
In general, moths fly at night (a few are day flyers), and butterflies and
skippers are day flyers. Butterflies and skippers hold their wings together
above their abdomen when at rest, but most moths fold their wings down
at their sides, usually tentlike over the abdomen. Butterflies have an en-


large knob (called a club) at the terminal end of the antennae Skippeis
have this enlargement and in addition, a fine hook hke a shepherd' r rook
at the end. Moths (except rarely) do not hase clubbed antennae. In addi
don, the pupae of moths are frequently) covered with a cocoon, Ahere as
those ofbutterflies are encased in a plastichke cox ering, the thr sdals Final-
ly, those insects that look like the creatui es illustrated in this honk are but-
terflies and skippers. The others, somewhat similar an appearance, are
moths. Don't be fooled by the few day Eying moths!


Symbol of reincarnation, butterflies emerging from an apparently
lifeless, emerald or drab colored chrysalis gives credence to the widely held
belief of rebirit ii another orinm 'heir caterpillars, with slow'. undulaung.
somenmes furry bodice. often Lh bright colors, ade not aluass associated
as one stage in a series of stardlug metamorphic changes in the life of a
butterfly. Buttern) eggs are rarely seen
without a thorough search of uhe plants
selected b1 die female as the food for
her offspring %he dlU neser see her
descendants. but unerringly. and widi
the precision of the iusi s'killeri
botanist, lie deposits her eggs on or
near the leases the ncwlh hatched larva
must consume, for often no odier Lind
will do.
Butte lls mreramnrphosis is a
complicated process. \V'hv does this
take place? To answer this quLIestion.
mans aspects 01 lile mnst be examined
In the chrs salis tpupall stage of the but-
terfl), for example, mu.st of the hOlcd, us-
Eggo"f Irrnr,."... L.mw~w, no sues niituall return to an embryonic
state Furdici studies ot metamorphosis may uncover another priniple of
science I he lce c cle of insects, involving as it does, a complex metamor-
phoiis. is the major reason for their success in the biological world of intri
cave food du.ias, saried physical factors, and ensmronmental ithauge To
understand ths., sc must first review their l'fe stles Buterite, offiler per-
f cc examples
Ncarl. all lover animals las eggs. Because egg. arc poorls protected,
survival of egg-lajets depends on the abdtlls to produce large numbers
Buueiflies ate no excrptioln. These eggs are only about 2-4 uimt in
diameter. Their eggs do have a tough shell whluch protects them from

'drying and from certain predators. hut
'idnk bugs and spiders, among other
creatures, are adept at finding and
sucking them dry.
The shells are almost always orna-
Smened with grooves, ridges, knobs,
pits, or variously patterned siulpuring.
Generally dtey are cream colored, at
least when hreshly laid, but some arc
.known to be pink, reddish, biuwn, pale
.bhue, or yellowish. The eggs of only a
'Aw species are knni ii. and few of these
:have been photographed or painted. Lan ofAnrican SwaUwe4ai, no. 4
S BuIerfly eggs, when laid, contain the embryo which changes into the
iCterpillar (the larvaj within a few days. Most eggs are deposited on the
i food plant, but some Us their eggs in crevices in bark where they remain
dormant through the winter month. Generally after hatching the shell is
Comapletels consumed by the freed caterpillar, but not always.
Burteillh taterpillars are disunrclve only in their specific color pat-
Wtrns and shapes, otherwise they resemble the larvae of most of the
pidoptera. Those of the swallow tads have eversible organs on the first
agents behind the head. This organ, the osmeterium, secretes a power-
repugnant substaine which serves as a defense mechanism. All cater-
ars have three pairs of rhoi L legs as do most adult insects, and in
addition, five pairs of prolcgs" (lalse legs) on the abdomen.
S Caterpillars are noted for ihen enormous appetites. They do litde
dse but eat, fob it is during the larsal
I|ge that the insect guws .As adults.
Growth takes place. The lI11 de Lon-
mine as much as possible, storing far
d growing in expoential proper
J Soon their skin is stretched as far
possible Thes niust stop A new skin -
hal formed beneath ihe old one,
ever, and soon the process of mnlh-
Slakes place. Frd)si,, or lea ing the
larval skin permits hnrthei eaung
d growth. This process occurs four
Before exrieitdl acu\vit ceases
the preparaunn fIr thie next stage
The caterpillars Icave the loud
and search out a sheltered spnr
S Ch-rls. ,f 4wmai S oatlourl, so I


to pupate. First, they spin a small pad of silk and attach this to a twig or t
piece of bark. Small hooks located at the end of the abdomen are inserted
into this. Some caterpillars then hang down from this anchor. Others spin
in addition, a girdle or stout strand of silk which is looped over the back b
as a safety belt which holds the caterpillar upright against a stem. Then a
final molt takes place, the last larval skin is shed, and in its place is a stiff,
nearly immobile, legless, beautiful jewellike chrysalis, the butterfly's uni-
que form of pupa. These are usually brownish or green objects, sometimes
marked with black or red. They hang in this position while final develop- 1
ment takes place.
Once again the insect is in a nearly helpless, critical stage. It is any- s
thing but inactive, however. The remarkable transformation that is about p
to take place is the result of intense chemical and physiological change,
possibly only because of a dual set of genes, those DNA molecules that con-
trol all life processes. One set of genes were active during the development
of the embryo and the growth of the caterpillar. Now the second set ac-
tivates minute pads of cells strategically located within the body. Through
the action of hormones nearly all tissues are broken down into their basic
chemical components. The newly activated cells "feed" on these materials,
grow in size, and multiply to completely reorganize the old larva into a
very different adult. The chrysalis shell that formed at the larva-pupa molt
acts as a mold. Muscles are restrung, particularly in the thorax and these t
are attached in such a way that they will be able to operate the developing
wings. Mouthparts change from the strong chewing type of the caterpillar i
to a sucking tube to be used by the adult for sipping nectar. This means
that the alimentary tract too must change to accommodate new food. Legs
lengthen to serve as "landing gear." Most important, reproductive organs
form. The skin gains a new set of sense organs; antennae become elaborate,
elongate sensory receptor sites; compound eyes develop. All of these help
in the difficult process of mate searching, fertilization, and egg laying, the
role of the adult. Obviously, a far more complete nervous system must
develop to control these activities. The whole process of pupation may take
a few days, or in many species, the butterfly spends the entire winter in this
Finally the new "house" is in order. All is ready for the emergence of
the adult. The pupal skin splits as a result of pressure along fracture lines.
Emergence is easy for butterflies; more difficult for moths, surrounded as
they are, by a cocoon. Eventually a new creature pushes out.
When first outside the chrysalis the adult is a strange creature with
stubby, drooping wings. By pumping blood through the veins, the wings
soon unfold, take their final shape, and harden. The color of the scale-
covered body intensifies; the final change has taken place. Within a short
time the now "perfect" insect is ready to fly. No parent is nearby to instruct


them in this process. Entirely by instinct the creature takes to the air
without practice attempts, and flies like a veteran.
Butterflies are among the most beautiful of all creatures, rivaled only
by birds and flowers. Their lives are free. The simple brain is without
memory; because of the new genes to program adult activities, no cater-
pillar instincts survive.
One would suppose that their beautiful color would serve to identify
mates, but there is little to support this hypothesis. Instead, the sexes usual-
ly are attracted by pheromones, strong scents characteristic of each species,
secreted by the female. The male is able to detect this odor from a con-
siderable distance and home in to a female. Mating takes place with little
preamble, followed shortly by egg laying. The generation is now complete;
a new one is started.
Metamorphosis is controlled by hormones, proteinaceous substances,
secreted at the command of the DNA programmed in the cells. Two op-
posing hormones control the development of insects, a juvenile hormone
(JH) secreted by a gland in the head. This is in opposition with a molting
hormone (MH) discharged from glands in the front part of the thorax. JH
maintains the larval form. MH, under stimulus of still another hormone
termed brain hormone (BH), controls molting and permits ecdysis. The
proper mixing of these substances allows the process of metamorphosis to
take place, but only the genes determine what occurs at each stage. This
marvelous set of checks and balances has evolved through the ages until,
in its perfection, butterflies populate our fields and forest to delight most
of mankind.
We now have enough data to answer our question: Why does this
process take place?
The primary reason is that each stage in the life of the butterfly is
fitted for a special process. Eggs are small and can be produced in great
numbers. This greatly increases the chance of survival during the critical
period of embryo development. Caterpillars are feeding machines. Those
of each species are adapted for the processing of a particular kind of plant,
changing that raw food material into butterfly protein.
Pupation permits the building of the adult, the most drastic and per-
fect process bringing about puberty known in the animal kingdom. Its suc-
cess is already attested to by the fact that the majority of all animal species,
those legions of insects with complete metamorphosis just described, have
found this to be efficient, rapid, and with high survival potential.
The emergent adult is equipped solely for reproduction. The final
inurnltuion li complete and the life of the butterfly begins again.



It is not always possible to present an accurate list of the species of
butterflies that inhabit a given area because many butterflies migrate far
beyond the area in which they actually breed, i.e., where their larvae live.
When outside of the breeding range, they are called strays. Some of these
strays may remain and breed for a year, or a few years, only to die out due
to adverse conditions. Hence some of the now rare species may have been
common in Florida for a few years and are well represented in collections.
Later they disappear and are removed from the list of native species. They
are not extinct because they live elsewhere, either on the continent, or in
the West Indies. They may become reestablished at any time. Any of the
strays listed in the checklist at the end of this section could become estab-
lished in the state, and some of those listed as breeding species may no
longer breed here at the moment this book is being written, but may remain
common elsewhere.

List of Strays with their Florida Distribution
Swallowtails (Papilionidae)
Cuban Kite Swallowtail (Eurytides celadon) Reported but not confirmed in
s. FL.
Bahamas Swallowtail (Papilio andraemon bonhotei) Stray in Miami area; may
be established in the FL Keys.
Sulfurs, Whites, and Orange Tip Butterflies (Pieridae)
Yellow (= Giant) Brimstone (Anteos maerula) Reported from near Orlan-
do and Miami, but not established.
Orbed Sulfur (Phoebis orbis) Rare stray in FL Keys.
Poodle Face (= Boisduval's) Sulfur (Eurema boisduvaliana) Extremely rare
stray in Lower Keys and Everglades.
Bahamas (= Chamberlain's) Sulfur (Eurema chamberlain) Miami area.
Sly Sulfur (Eurema messalina blakei) Rare stray in s. FL.
Hairstreaks, Coppers, and Blue Butterflies (Lycaenidae)
Disguised Hairstreak (Strymon limenia) Stray in FL Keys only.
Ruddy Hairstreak (Electrostrymon endymion eyphara) S. FL.
Brushfooted Butterflies (Nymphalidae)
Banded Orange (Dryadula phaetusa) Rare stray in s. FL.
Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele) Stray in n.w. FL.
Comma (=Compton) Tortise Shell (Nymphalis vau-album j-album) Ex-
tremely rare stray in FL.
Painted Lady (= Cosmopolitan) (Vanessa cardui) Worldwide, stray

throughout FL; doesn't breed here.
Mimic (Hypolimnas misippus) Stray in FL near St. Augustine and Tampa
Smoky Buckeye (Precis Vunonia] evarte zonalis) Stray, but may be newly
established in s. FL.
Caribbean Peacock (= Hubner's Anartia) (Anartia lytrea chrysopeles) Stray in
Lower FL Keys.
Eighty-eight Butterfly (Diaethria clymena) Three records in FL, probably
from airplane imports in Miami area.
Orion (= Stinky Leaf Wings) (Historis odius) A rare stray in s. FL.
Antillian (= Cuban) Dagger Wing (Marpesia eleuchea) Stray in FL Keys.
Banded Dagger Wing (Marpesia chiron) Stray in extreme s. FL.
Waiter (Marpesia coresia) Reported as a stray in s. FL.
Milkweed Butterfly (Danaidae)
Large Tiger (= Fig Butterfly) (Lycorea cleobaea) Extremely rare stray in
Miami area.
Skippers (Hesperiidae)
Haitian V-Mark Skipper (Choranthus haitensis) May have strayed once to
n. FL, but not confirmed.
Mercurial Skipper (Proteides mercurius) Rare stray found twice in FL.
Variegated Skipper (Gorgythion begga pyralina) Very rare stray in s. FL.


Fortunately butterflies do not fear humans. Therefore, they may be
found in suburban gardens as well as in wild areas. We have treated these
areas separately below.

Butterfly Gardens
It matters not where you live you can plant butterfly-attracting
flowers in your yard or in a park near your apartment. Never mind that
their caterpillars will feed on the leaves of some of your plants. Your reward
will be the bejur ol the adult butterflies swarming to the nectar flow of
your floieri
Certain tlvucr, attract butterflies more than others. Because this
k is abut Flrd-, species, we concentrate on the locally grown plants,
t ol -hi:h need 4un.
The shrimp plant (Beloperone guttata, Acanthaceae) may be planted
rooted culuiLg, to produce bright red flowers. This long blooming
will attract species of Pieridae.

FiLmL. LI-r'gjiks TU-neis alipore Beacii

I he famous bulterlh bush iBuddlri rdtrnmajflha. Loganiat.eadc. iih
its pale purple flowucs, attracts a diverse group ofspeties This 'hrub must
be pruned back carh scar to keep it lotwerniiK luiuno-iis.
LanwiLia ILatdnri culaira. \ erbenaceaei lih tal!. prickl\ st-ns and
Lluiers of orange, pink. velloI%, .lad led Iloknrr. It can be grown liomi
softwood outings or frouim fleh trh-in h seeds.
\ arrow .tIchlea /ifipendida., a oniposiite o a perennial w.th l, ci err
of floers and IFriilike i hage It is a rapid gro"ei and makes:, good bor
.mnc.rg other garden plant thdai .JLniCI hiimerflies iare- %ellow sun-
hursi, portulaca. salvia, snapdiagnns, .edum, passion \ o, iassias boi-
debush, citrus marigold, single zinni>. ligustruin, m u-e it sharon. mimosa
tee, garden phlox. spearmint. chte, dajidelion,. bultcrls weed. bee balm,
and clover.

Butterflies in the Wild
Probabb tlli best hutterlns wildflowers are niilkweedH., daisies, mus-
urd. iunlis. peas. and Spanish needle These plant. are found in a -irnetl
of habitats Florida. aldliougi mo.ils a flat plain, has a wide a.diet n nt in-
teresting habiLAb Thrr art named and charactteLred as Ihllors-
Florida Life Zunes
I Everglades. graisland wuh rmediumo t11 iall grds,. the dottumaiiiil
species being sawgras (~biAnrai ,amounriiji. lI is a welland uih wiai-
tered hammint.Lks oc-nupsing much of south Florida
2. Mangrove beach. Thick groves of black m.angrocc (.lrc':ina nmlda)
and red mangroe IRA,.:-phu,, n uriglrl along the shore of the ocean
and inland saLne lakr% in much of the southwetei n11 Fitrida coast
3. Southern mixed forest. Tall iree ofJ both deciduous and evergreen
tree, characterisui of niu.li l -o 'niiiheacerna LISA.
4. Sand pine scrub RaKhcr open forest nll a JniuIUre nt tree, including


flrda Ha HraWo H.2,eN fTridja .m.p Ir

sand pine IPa,9 iun. i. Ch.ipman oak IQ, rcri (dhapmarl. m rtle oak
(Q pnrhjt."lu' and sand live oak iQ. v'rgmnwuw maruirrat i, Ima as dryer
regions of Florida
5. Southern fluuplaiin Forest. Medium to tall trees in dense forests com-
posed pnmaril of bald press ilaxodiiruam diaishuml, oak IQ,'ru..s
spp.I. and tupelo I.\,nu aqillolaui. found along ihi floodplain of
soudicastei n USA
Palm palmetto prairie. Open grassland o'iregdras.A.4isnitJt Iurai with
scattered palms iparucularls ,am palineno, *ern.'na rrper. In sast areas
SufFluo ,da
SCypress savanna. Open area, ,ilh Isteied bald esprrss Iliaxodrum
Sdistithumi, and a tariert uf ..ilhel IreeP I he dominant grasses are
species ol.Inatda. the ihrre-a.wn or Aire graises found in Florida
Marl everglades. Dilfer Irom the etergladec pioper bI rhr presence
of wet marl soil The duliinalln plaiat is saigr,as (fllairu irru maKSenin).
lThe hammur.sk, aie co:mpisled primdrilv of red bas IPrsa 'forbuunaui
and bald cspri-' I la.uvialra dulthaum. This area i. ii etiemre soumh
Subtropical pine forel. 1 all open forest of south Florida slash pine
S(Paon Ullarotri denu i and a '.'arirc of broadleaf t:e ci een trees cnnfined
to extreme houLh Florida nea tdie e\rrglarlde
Live oak- ea oats. Open grassland of sea oats i ti'ola pa ia mul arI a s-
u.ag to dense shrubs and gro\e` of sid l r Oak I.Q hrrO (t'I.rgingniaa
.inanrtnina, fucld along the short of eastern Florida

.I These e the mj',ir lite onc found in Florida. Of course. bulnet llbe
or confine themselves to anv one area Tlhelefoie, in the deicnpuic
we have goIen the general I al abita here \sri can cxpci 1to find the
spedes of butertilialr I hee habitat are lihsed here, each habitat
or more peni c up tu. as man\ as 36 species as indicated aher the



name of the habitat in the following list You nia) lind more species in a
given area, and you should record this in your notes.
Butterfly Habitats in Florida
Open fields (36) Subuupical scrub (6)
Bushy fields (9) Stanmpy areas (12)
Wood areas (16) I hardwood hammocks 19)
Open woodland (5) Wecdv fields (3)
Gardens (12) Beaches (2)
Pine palmetto woods (10) Mangrove swamzip (1)
Red and white cedar Salt marshes (3)
areas (2) Sa annahs (I

Deciduous woodlands (12)
Shore of ponds, streams,
Lakes, and rivers (6)
Subtropical and tropical
Wooded areas (7)

Dunes (4p
lMoed fields Il)
Aldri thirkeLs (I)
Ci us groves (Il

Butterflies are most abundant flHing on sunn) da)r They can be
found in the sites listed above. But ii these snes are, of course, flower, of
various species, sometimes mud
puddles which attract many species.
duig, carrion, and rotting fruit.
T' these serve, in addition to the lar-
val host plant, as attractants. Some
buterflies fly low among the vegeta-
tion. while others selem to prefer
tree tups and are difficult to see and
rapture. Look for swalluwlails
around garden, and in meadows
IheriC wld carrot occurs. near paw-
paw trees. and along suntn wood-
land paths. WVhites and orange tips
may be found ahbount crucferous
Ionda C*prps, Hwm ,.. plants Siulfurs occur near cloves.
vech,. and similar leguminuus plants Blue, may be found Ineat a wide
sarietr of plants, but especially legumes. Metalm.rks seem to prefer vel
low thistle. Snout butterflies may be found on hackherry. Heliconras fly
about passion flowers, though they can be Int nd in nearby meadows The
nymphalids fly near asters, daisies, and other composiles. Some are fnuind
on morning glory, willow, snapdragons. ligs, and other plants. The leaf
wing butterflies are on hackberries and iotomn. Nymphs and satyrs are
found near various grasses such as giant sedges Milkweed buulerllicb, aq
would be expected, are found near various speues of milkveeds. Certain

butterflies may be attracted to a bait made of a mixture of beer, molasses,
sugar, and applesauce.


Watching butterflies is as easy as watching birds and requires the
same equipment: field glasses and camera. A collection of butterfly pictures
is as rewarding as a collection of wildflower pictures, but harder to acquire.
No need to collect butterflies unless you want to.
You can observe butterflies in any nature park. Walk the paths and
watch for butterflies. Most species are fairly easy to recognize by referring
to the pictures in this book. Many times it is possible to approach a butter-
fly feasting on nectar. They usually move their wings slowly up and down
as they feed. This enables you to see both sides of the wings and compare
them with the pictures and descriptions herein. Once you have made an
identification you can check the name in the list at the end of the book, as
your "life list" of species. You will be surprised how fast your list grows.
Soon you will be looking for the rare species.
It is a good idea to keep a notebook, preferably looseleaf, with a sheet
for each species. You can record your observations in this book and con-
tinuously add information as your observations increase.
Remember butterflies do much more than just sip nectar. Watch for
males perched waiting for passing females. Some species do this. Which
ones? Males of other species patrol an area in search of females. These
males stake out an area and may jossle with other males to keep them out
of their territory. Not much is known about this so your observations may
materially add to the knowledge about these species.
Some of the species cannot be identified without close observation.
These species can be carefully captured in a net and then gently removed
alive for dose study. Once the identification is made the specimen may be
released, or if you are collecting and you need that species, you may kill it
and preserve it for your collection.
The trend today is to lay out an area for butterfly walks. This will re-
quire paths leading to clumps of flowers that attract butterflies. For a par-
tial list of these, see section 4. These walks can be in private or public
gardens, or in wild areas. Once the preliminary layout is complete, signs
canbe posted at various "stations" with a list of the species seen at each ob-
servation stop. These will need to be added to as more observations are
A butterfly club might be started. Among the activities of the club
could be monthly meetings with reports and lists of species that have been
seen. Annual butterfly counts can be made in conjuction with the activities
of the Xerces Society (see list of societies at the end). Reports on the habits


and habitats of a particular species may be given. The results of butterfly
rearing projects and tips on how to raise various species are interesting to


With rare exception butterflies do not become extinct by over collect-
ing them. Those that have disappeared have been the result of habitat dis-
truction. It is only when the populations have been depleted to a few
hundred individuals by the loss of land growing the food plant that col-
lecting is a real threat to the species.
Even so, some individuals have been known to take far too many
specimens. Constant collecting of a species in one area certainly could wipe
out the species in that locality. This should not be done. Don't be greedy.
The biologists refer to the balance of nature as a series of ecosystems.
These are complex food (or energy) chains. Every species belongs to an
ecosystem. These involve many other species, each linked to the other by
complex interrelationships. Once any part of this chain is broken, all of the
species are threatened, some more than others.
Those species, such as butterflies, that have specific food require-
ments are the most vulnerable because if the host plant of the larva is
destroyed, the species becomes extinct in that area. As more land is cul-
tivated or used for housing, roads, and parking lots, food plants are
eliminated. The species of butterflies have fewer breeding sites and the
populations become smaller.
For these reasons collecting may need to be curtailed for certain
species. At the present time butterfly collecting in State parks in Florida is
prohibited. For most species this is unwarranted, but to be on the safe side
it is well to let the populations build up in these wild areas.
Remember to help conserve the land and do not be greedy if you col-
lect. Unless you are interested in doing butterfly research it is not neces-
sary for you to build a butterfly collection of more than a few specimens of
each species as a reference collection.


Butterflies and skippers are not the same, although many people
refer to skippers as butterflies. Butterflies are those species that belong to
the 9 families of Lepidoptera treated in detail in this book. Skippers belong
to two other families, of which the Florida species are listed in this book.
We have included photographs of a few species of skippers to give you an
idea of what they look like. If you get interested in these insects you will
need another book to identify them to species. These are more difficult


and sometimes need to be dissected in order to see the distinguishing fea-
tures. Also, for the most part, you will need to collect specimens and ex-
amine them in detail.

The main difference between butterflies and skippers are:
Butterflies (Superfamily Papilionoidea) have relatively slender
bodies; wing usually broad; wing beats usually relatively slow;
antennae close together and head is small and without hairlike
setae; antennal club symmetrical without a slender curved tip.
Skippers (Superfamily Hespernodea) have relatively stout bodies;
their wings are short and stronger in appearance than those of
butterflies and the wings beat faster; antennae are set apart on
the wide head and with hairhke setae in tufts at the base; anten-
nal club is curved and drawn out at the tip, sometimes the tip is
curved backward. Most of the species in Florida are relatively
small and inconspicuous.


All butterflies, as with all plants and animals, have two or more Latin
names. The first name is the name of the genus (the generic name) and
the second name is the specific name. Together, these two names are the
scientific name of the species (ex. Papilio cresphontes). Some genera are
divided into two or more subgenera. If this is the case, the subgeneric name
is placed in parentheses between the generic name and the specific name
(ex. Colias [Zerene] cesonia). Many butterfly species are divided into sub-
species. These represent populations that show some minor color varia-
tion and generally a distinct geographical range. When this occurs, and
this includes a great number of butterflies, the scientific name may be com-
posed of 4 Latin words (ex. Phoebis [Aphrisa] statira floridensis). Scientific
names are Latin words or Greek words which have been Latinized, i.e.,
written in the Latin alphabet and with Latin endings. Because these are
foreign words, they are printed in italic type. Also note that generic names
always begin with a capital letter; specific names are not capitalized. The
generic name is treated as a noun and the specific name as an adjective.
Therefore, specific names must end in agreement with the Latin rules of
The scientific names of animals follow complex rules adopted by all
biologists, the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. The
primary purpose of these rules is to assure one scientific name for each
species. Sometimes the same species has been described more than once
by different authors. The rules state that the oldest name must be used,


that is, the first name to be applied to that species. The author's name fol-
lows the scientific name in formal publications (ex, Papilio polyxenes
Fabricius). The date it was first published in the scientific literature deter-
mines which name is oldest. Other names given to the same species are
In addition to the Latin name, butterflies, unlike most other insects,
have common, or English, names. These names are selected by the authors
of various books and are not governed by formal rules. More than one
common name may be used for the same species. It is for this reason that
scientists use the Latin names instead of the common names except in in-
formal literature. We have used both names throughout this book. We have
not given the synonyms of the Iatin names, but only used the oldest name
for the species. Synonyms may be found in formal, scientific catalogs.
Many other scientific names are used for a hierarchy of classification
categories. We have used in this book, the common and Latin names of
the families of butterflies and skippers. Family names always end in "-idae."
These names, although foreign language names, are not placed in italic


The true butterflies in Florida are assigned to families according to
the classification used in this book. Approximately 97 species are known to
actually breed here. These are arranged in 9 families. The skippers are as-
signed to 2 other families with a total of 67 species. Twenty-six additional
species have been collected in the state but apparently do not breed here.
These strays are usually from the West Indies. They are not pictured or
described in the text, but they are all listed in the section on strays.
The descriptions of the species refer to regions on the wings. These
are shown on the drawing on page iv.

These beautiful insects are usually recognized by the tails on the hind
wings. One species in Florida, the gold rim swallowtail (Battus polydamas
lucayas) actually lacks tails, but otherwise looks like a swallowtail. Although
some skippers have tails, they are brown with an irridescent green scheen
very different from any swallowtail (see fig. 108). Swallowtails have full sized
front legs, the same size as the hind two pair of legs, eyes entirely round,
not notched. Thirty species of swallowtails are found in the USA, ten of
which breed in Florida. See species 1 to 10.

Sulfurs, Whites, and Orange-Tip Butterflies
These butterflies are easy to recognize by the white and yellow color
with black markings. The antennae are relatively short and straight. A close
examination with a hand lens or microscope will show that the claws at the
end of the legs are divided into 2 parts. Most species are associated with
the mustard family (Crucifereace), Sixty-three species occur in Canada and
the USA, of which 19 species are known to breed in Florida. See species 11
to 29.

Hairstreaks, Coppers, and Blue Butterflies
The compound eyes of these delicate species are notched near the
base of the antennae; the antennae are short, about half the length of the
front wings. The underside of the wings are usually much different than
the upperside and must be examined for identification of the species. This
is a large family with 135 species in Canada and USA; 28 species live in
Florida. See species 30 to 57.

Metalmark Butterflies
These butterflies, although similar to the Lycaenidae, have longer an-
tennae, more than half the length of the front wing. The front legs are
reduced in size in the males, but normal size in the females. Twenty-five
species occur in the USA, but only one has been recorded in Florida. See
species 58.

Snout Butterflies
The palpi of these butterflies are very long, forming a "snout," hence
their common name. Three species are reported from southern USA, one
of which ranges widely in the USA including Florida. See species 59.

Brushfooted Butterflies
The front legs of both sexes of these butterflies are greatly reduced;
the antennae are finely scaled. This large family has 138 species recorded
in Canada and USA, with 23 species known to breed in Florida. See species
60 to 82.


- ---

Goatweed Butterflies
The front wings of these butterflies are usually sickleshaped with the
outer margin usually strongly indented or irregular. Seventeen species are
recorded in Canada and USA; 4 species in Florida. Sec species 83 to 86.

Nymphs and Satyrs
Antennae with a narrow club; front wings with l to 3 veins swollen at
the base; wings dull but often with eye spots; front legs reduced. Fifty
species live in Canada and USA; 8 species in Florida. See species 87 to 94.

Milkweed Butterflies
These large butterflies have the front tarsi of the female knobbed and
spined. They are associated with milkweeds. There are only 3 species
breeding in Canada and USA, each of which is found in Florida, along with
one stray. See species 95 to 97.


Batlus phltnor phzlenor

IWS 2.25-3.5 in. A dark species
,ith UP HW with iidescent blue
scales; FW and 11W with narrow
creamy white spots along outer
margin; HW with six crealmy sub-
marginal spots; tails of IW short.
IN FWwith live small creamy,
n.bmarginal spots; HW with seven
large orange submarginal spots en-
circled with black in an iridescent
blue background. Females slightly
larger than males. Males more
brightly marked than females.
Habitat: )pen fields, bushy, or
wooded areas, and in gardens.
Flight: Februaiy to November.
Common, usually near host
plants, or pink, purple, or orange
flowers as a nectar source. Larvae:
Feed on Dutchman's pipe and
other species of Aristolthia. Dis-
tribution: All of Florida south to
Ft. Myers. Note: This species is
the distasteful model and is
mimicked by several other species
of butterflies.

Ban [. I'l,., .,,.. ., .
FWXS '.4 A i ik t ...
H11 ij l ih .tl1 hiu r.,,. scll.o,
margiri.iI iial.iik .iiid

band .., lilt \\\ .uid II\\. Ilit
yell gretii uiae I" '1\ 1%% i,-I I,-
U P; I. N Il 11 \ .r., .,Iimil a rI.iijI
yellow" %p .t: i..Jrl\ ..I hr l It nl
repl.tti I-. -tcti 1 .i ip t 1
m ar. /Wi >\. -* -II ,. if'..i, ,.
Hab;1 .is \1.ir Itl.lI.I |i ,p. II
ficle, mid>l I'mII. i.....l il 111ihi l.
subtiri_.. ..h..I dc Fliglh Ii
so mll' I Il't ..l.i .ill \ '..r l ., t i tn ini i
N ot .l0. nl-iml. in. b.ul tI r l .i- i.ii r1
lan iJ,... L.is ie. .iI ..l ii ,ii
sperl I [ I lllI.JL.lll. [l0.l.,
Arist..i.-' .... Ditrinbuiion- N..i,1.
centl l.U I J i.'.J I v -..I. I1. Mil.i.ll l
and tli I k. l.r ,i ti ,i- 'li n
south ti-itail I l.i I.h Note li'i.
spet.tI, -II.I ri n Ii I.. lI IN -.i,


Eu ytides marcellu florideni~
FWS 2.25-3.5 in. The only black
and pale green, nearly white striped
subspecies in Florida; UP with a
large red spot at the inner
subapical margin of 11W, with
three blue crescents at the apex.
The underside is similar to the
UP but the subapical red spot is
extended to the costal margin.
The tails are very long in the
summer brood, shorlte in the
early brood. Habitat: In
deciduous woodlands along
streams and rivers near lai val
food plant. Flight: In Florida
from March to December with
numerous flights searching fii
nectar from a variety of plants.
Common locally. Larvae: On
pawpaw in the Panhandle
(Asimina triloba) and other species
ofAlsiinia. Distribution: All of
Florida except southeast coast
north of Miami; aIlnost all of
eastern USA.

Papilio polyxenes asterisk.
FWS 2.5-3.5 in. This small sub-
species has very narrow I P mar-
ginal spots; close to the margin of
both wings is a row of yellow, dis-
tinct, submarginal spots; large yel-
low postmedial spols are present
on each wing of male, narrow or
absent in female; those of HW
much closer together bfrming a
nearly complete band; 11W with
blue spots between submarginal
and postmedian spots and with an
apical eyespot surrounded partly
by red and partly by yellow. UN
similar to UP side except spots ol
HW are orange partly sur-
rounded by yellow; tails black.
Habitat: Open fields including
gardens. Flight: All year in
Florida. Adults feed on flower nec-
tar. Larvae: On wild carrot
(Daiucus carnoa) in the Panhandle,
and other umbelliferous plants.
Distribution: All of Florida except
for small area north ot MNamni.


Papilio cresphontes
FWS 3.25-5.5 ins. Black, UP with
a striking diagonal yellow band
across FW to base of 11 \V:
submarginal spots of' FW small at
apex, larger nea, base; a large
U-shaped spot extends Ironm
diagonal band nearly to costal
margin; small black eyespot on
HW with read and bluc border
along top of spot: tails yellow
surrounded by black margins;
IUN nearly all yellow with black
markings; -W with median hitln,
black, and red band. Habitat:
Woodlands and citrus groves,
Flight: All yeatr i so th Flrid ia.
Common. Migrates far to the
north and west. Adults sip nectar
from many flowers and juice fiunm
manure. Larvae: On citrus and
torchwood (Amyris elemifera) and
other Rutaceae. Distrihution: All
of Florida.

Papilio aristodemus ponceanu.
FWS 3.25-3.75 in. This black
subspecies is marked, UP with the
same diagonal yellow band across
FW and base of HW as seen in
the Giant Swallowtail (Papilio
crelshontes), but miay} be
distinguished from that species by
the all black tails witli nanow
yellow border and the yellow
wing band is narrower. UN with
broad narrow median as on HW.
Habitat: Subttipital wooded
areas ll)ing taboult the I rcw
canopy. Flight: late April, May to
led lol uly. Very rare, an
LND.)ANG(;ER) stbspec ies,
protected. Larvae: On torchwood
(I 4m n is eemilfea) and wild lime
(Zauthoxylum jagarn). Distribution:
On north Florida Keys.

Papilio androgeu epidanurus
FWS 3.4-4.2 ins. The Queen is a
yellow subspecies, UP with broad
black margins in the male. The
female is marked differently,
nearly all black with two narrow
and one wide green bands. Both
sexes have a long tail and several
smaller ones. Habitat: Subtropical
and tropical wooded areas. This
species is sometimes common in
orange groves, probably
introduced from the Caribbean
in 1976, but is no longer
established; last seen in 1983, but
may return. Flight: March to
November, feeding on nectar of
many flowers and drinking at
mud. Larvae: Feed on unange
(Citrus sinensis) in Fl.
Distribution: South Florida in

I'aplto glaucus australi.
FWS 3.25-5.5 in. These large
yellow butterflies are very easy to
recognize by the four black bands
on the UP FW, the inner most
one of which connects with the
single median black band on the
HW; the margin of the FW is
black; narrow row of yellow
submarginal spots; I1W with
larger submarginal spots; tails are
all black; red, black, and blue spot
at subaipex of HW. UN neal ly the
same as UP. Habitat: Near edge
ofdeciduous woods. Flight:
March to November; very
common; adults feed on nectar ol
many flowers, also visit mud and
carrion. Larvae: On wide variety
of trees and sometimes shil bs
such as wild cher y, yellow
poplar, and ash. Distribution: All
of Florida except Keys, tale in
Dade County.

Paplio troIlus dioneus

S FWS 3.25-1.5 in. This black
subspecies has a narrow marginal
) row of spots on lP FW and HW,
and a narrow submarginal row of
yellow spots on FW. HW with out
median area blue; a costal narrow
spot on HW and apical maroon
and yellow spots; tails black. UN
with spots on FW larger than
those of UP; HW with two rows of
irregular maroon spots. Habitat:
Deciduous woodlands. Flight:
March to December. Common on
flowers and mud. Larvae: Feed
on sasafias (in Panhandle),
spicebush, camphor tree
(Cinnamomum camphora), sweet
bay, and prickly ash (Zanthoxylum
canate.un). Distribution: All of
Florida except Miami area.

Papilio palamedes
FWS 3.25 5.5 in. A black species,
UP FW with marginal, submiar-
ginal, and postmedial rows ot yel-
low spots and a single small costal
crescent; IIW similar except
postmedial row of spots is fused
into a yellow band across wing;
tails narrowly yellow in center.
UN similar to UP except yellow
spots are larger on the FW and
with 1maioon and blue spots, and
a long narrow yellow basal band
and blue spots on HW. Habitat:
Wooded areas, particularly swam
py areas. Flight: March to Decem-
ber. Fairly common. Adults visit
many kinds of flowers and mud.
Larvae: In wet areas on red bay
(Iersea borhbom) and avocado (Per-
sea americana, and probably other
species of Lauriaceae growing in
swampy areas. Distribution: Al-
most all of Florida; absent in
central prairie areas and Floiida


Appas drudlla neumoegen u

RFS I 5-2.25 in All whlie excepI
fol a thin grave edging of scalcs on
the coastal margin of LIP FW.
Habitat: In hardwood lidaiinucks
Flight: All ,eai Larva: (On
Jamaica raper tree L(DIpelr
laenflorai. Distribution: Tropltal
Florida with traini north to
CGunestille and north.

PirrUs Pounlw protlode
FWS 1.25.1 75 in. LP white .uh
variable black llad kings, the
rrrrangular black spot in the
postmedian fW area i, di.llncine:
other black marking uon FU may
%ar, from a le% black spots in the
iubmarginal area to heasilv
marked in the apical and
marginal areas 11W white wilh
no markings, to white with black
markings along the ensure
inailginal area I IN similar
Habitat: Open relativel) drN fields
in weedy areas. Flight: Mar.d lu
November, adnIrs attracted to
nectar of host plants. Larnae: On
peppergrabs iLepidzujmi ir-ink auri
dad uine o her rnuirier'
Distribution: All of Florida.

Puni nrpue
FWS 1.25-1 n in LIP whitee with
black apical area and a black spot
in the niedo1ii area of FW and
coastal median area ao HW. UN
FW with 2 black spots. Habitat:
Mosdv in uopet fields, gardens (a
peil). Flight: Larls spring to fall.
Larvae: On various crucifers.
Distributiun: All of Florida.

Ascia 7nnuste phileta
FWS: 1.75-2.25 in. UP FW white
with black edging along costal
margin; black indented marks
along outer margins. HW with no
markings. UN white with FW
slightly darkened along margin.
Summer females may appear
dark gray in appearance. Habitat:
Open fields near beaches, salt
marshes, dunes, and gardens.
Flight: All year in south Florida;
adults attracted to beach flowers.
Larvae: On sea rocket (Cakile
edentule), saltwort (Batis miaitima),
and other crucifers. Distribution:
Coastal Florida except Panhandle.


.~niocarns mideu inadea

FWS: I 5 in. LiP hni-e hirh
orange apex, bordered bv black
iild whie scaling along margin of
aptx, orange spot ends unh a
black dot in pnsrmedian area of
FW II\ whitc hilh black
markings on margin LIN IIv
%hue uh hbl.n k marbling
Fernmle ma\ lack orange
markings. Habitat: Usually in
open decidnous woods. Flight:
lMarh April; adults ariracted IJ
tracifer blossoms. Larvae: On
crucifcrs Distrihution: Liberts

Cohin ru rynthea

I \VS. 1.5-2.4 in. LIP FVW uange
and yellow iih black cnr~al
a1diglii, Hidening a pex and
iontinulng in a broad bdlak b,,nd
along uuiei iiargin. icllon spots
in black marginal band; a dark
black pot in upper median .rea
HW hiIli similar pattern but with
an orange spot in upper media.
area Great %ariabilitn o cnri,r
(bhite to ell:,wl Habitat: Open
lielcls. cnmnon in mored field,
Flight: March to Decembei.
adults aura.ied to llowrri and
nuJ Lainae. On isseet closer.
letch, and other Fabaceac
Distribution: .l uof Florid;a

pri& g. I IF..-


Colha phdudi(e
FWS 1.3 2 in LIP FW yellow with
black narginalJ L[nd; black spot
in upper median area. IIW yellow
with black marginal band; orange
spot in uppei jmrdian area.
Habitai. Open fields, particularly
ihose ilh hoit plants. Rare.
Flight: Marth to December.
Larvae: On h lile clover (Trifolium
repni. Disiriburmin: North
Flonda and western Panhandle,
out niiu a breeding resident.

Colias (Zerene) cesonia
FWS: 1.8-2.5 in. UP FW yellow
with black markings creating a
"dog- face"; black "eye spot" in
upper median area; HW yellow
with scalloped black outer
marginal area; HW with faint
orange spot in upper median
area. UN IIW with two silvery
spots boardered by orange.
Habitat: Open woodland. Flight:
All year in south Florida; adults
attracted to host plant. Larvae:
On indigo bush (Dalea sp.), sweet
clover, soybeans, and alfalfa.
Distribution: All of Florida except
Keys; rare in south Florida.

Phoebu agaruhe maxima
F\'S- 2.25-2.5 in. LiP usually subhd
orange, some color sariauons.
with white and orange forms UN
yellow with faint brownmdl puos
median line on l ,; hlth iuns
speckles of orange on basal hall of
both wings. Habitat: Edges and
clearings of subtropical scrub
Flight: March to December.
adults visit bougaunslla
(Bligoanrille glahra [rnlu\atedjl.
hibiscus (Hiburuj sp.I. and lantana
(Lanaana spp.i. Larvae: On
blatkbeaid (Pilticellhinn, o s ker v
and rat claw II' unfeitrdat
Distribution: Southern hall of
Florida. siraviig ioiu il

Phoiebis senn, etul-/r

FWS 2 5-2 7. in l, P ellow hilh
outcr margin with series of
brownibh black dots, rather LthIa a
sulid line, posi median spni dark
broHn. HW' with two small faint
discil spoLt UN wlld large
median brownish spnr and other
small brown spots scattered on
wing Habitat: Open or brusln
litlds, gai dens, and beaches
Flight: All ecar in south Florida:
adults attracted to bougairnlla
Bltugauirtileau spp i. Iniiuscus
(Ilh/uir-, 'pp.I. cordia iCordra
.pp.i. and lantana laniana spp I.
Larvae: On sennas (Couri spp P
Distrihurinn: All of londa.



Phoebt phdra
FWS 2 75 3.5 in. UP yellow with
orange subnmedian markings. HW
yellow diHused inwardly from
outer margin with orange. UN
FW selloi* %nh large brownish
posimedan spots, and both wings
with scanered small brownish
spots Habitat: Rare in open
fields, tree tops, and gardens.
Flight: 4l! sear. adults sip nectar
and mud Larvae: On senna
ICai s bicapilaris) and royal
pomoana I Po,, iana pudcwhrima).
Distributon: Southern half of
Florida, strasing north.

Phoebia (Aphrissa) statira floridensis
FWS: 2.25-2.5 in. UP with pale
yellow wing base and white outer
portion. UN yellow and white
with no markings. Habitat: Open
tropical scrub. Flight: February to
November, two broods. Larvae:
On false violet (Dalbergia
ecastophyllum) and powderpuff
(Calliuulra spp.). Distribution:
Coastal south Florida, rarely
north, near Gainesville.

Kncogorna sides
FWS: 1 5-2 il UP FW sharply
angled at apex, with yellowish
basal patch fading tu while and
dliii fanil. sellrow at outer
margin. UN FV yellow at base
Habitat: Subtropical fuileLs
Flight: Mad to Augiul, adults
attracted to Sparush needle
IB&dna pilosa) and black mangirue
H eIvniriia germnuwna Larvae: On
ligiiuiu itade (Giumruum ianctum).
Distribution: South Florida.
established and locally common

Eurrenia dl daiatz
FWS. I-I in ULP F\\ \ellow %ilth
heavy\ border on costal and outer
margin, heavy black border on
hind margin, not reaching apex.
HW yellow with black border unil
on outer Iima1 iii I N t W\ ith
black bar on hind margin: HW
white, hwh no markings. Habitat:
Subtropical brulis dieas, dunes,
and open pine wonds Flight: All
year in south Florida; adults visit
flowers of host plant and SpailuSl
needle iBtjder pilusai Larvae: )n
hiv leaves erhcnome 'ceidtlai
and othcr fabaceous legumes.
Distribution: All of Floi ada


Ettrema lui.
FWS: I-1.5 in UP yellow and pale
orange, with blackish brown
markings hiu n apex to tornus of
FW and along outer margins of
HW L'N HW yelloww with apical
brownsli spul nd scattered small
brownish fleck;. Habitat: Open
fields in roods. brushy fields.
Flight: All Sead il south Florida;
adults visil many small flowers,
especially legumnes. Larvae: On
sennas (Camiu spp.), and other
legumes Distribution: All of

Eurema dina helios
FWS: 1-1.25 in. UP orange, FW
with narrow black band from
apex to tornus. UN yellowish
orange with a number of very
small black dots. Habitat:
Subtropical open forest, brushy
fields. Flight: All year locally;
attracted to small flower
composites. Larvae: On Mexican
alvaradoa (Alvaradoa anmrphoides).
Distribution: South Florida, very
rare except locally common in
Dade County.

Eurema nue

FWS- 1-1 25 in LIP yellow. F\M
with black markings from apex to
inrnus. HW with irregular black
outer margin UN csllow with no
obouus markings except for
scartered small dots. Habitat:
Subtropical ufrest border' Flight:
May to December; attracted to
flowers of small composites.
Larvae: Probably on herhaceous
leguines Distribution: Extreme
snuth Florida, rare

Euremu naitppe

FWS: 1.4-1 8 i LIP orange, \ W
witl bload blarkish-brown border
Irom mid-costal margin to 1ornu',
small black strip nead aper ol
discal area H\W wih irregular
black klih-hrown outer marginal
band. L'N yellow itli a fei
irregular Spors Habitat: Pine
woods, open fields. Flight: All
sear in south FluInda. lia.t a
sarietl ul flowers including
spanish needle IBd.ns pdo3ail
Larvae: On senias iCusia spp I
Distribution: ,Ml nf Florida.


Nohalw wlie
FWS .75.1.1 in (smallest NA
IprLue .,i Pieridae). UP yellow,
SW with black markings at apex
and a black bar at hind margin.
HW with black bar on costal
maigili LN yellow with black bar
at hind margin of FW and faint
orange mar kngs at basal half of
coastal margin. Habitat: Dry open
fields including coastal dunes,
along roadsides. Flight: All year
in south Florida; visit low flowers,
eipeuallk huslI plants; do not
migrate in Ilorida. Larvae: On
asters Distribution: All of Florida
except Pdilhndiile.

Feniseca tarquinius tarquinius
FWS: 1.2-1.25. UP dark brown
with discal area yellow; UN light
brown; HW with gray circular
markings; UN thorax and
abdomen whitish. Habitat:
Swampy wooded areas, wooded
riverbanks, alder thickets. Flight:
February to December; adults
feed on aphid honeydew and
animal droppings. Larvae:
Carnivorous on aphids on alders
(Alnus serrulata) and other trees
and bushes. Distribution:
Distrupted, very local distribution
in Florida Panhandle,
Jacksonville, Tampa, and
Orlando areas.

* Ijft photo: L~ p
Righl photo: ULndeide

Eumaeus atalaflorida
FWS: 1.5-1.75 in. UP FW black
with bluish central iridescent area
and submarginal area of UP HW:
UN FW dark brown, H1\V iIh I
iows ol .ridesceni hbluih di.i and
central and marginal area orange:
abdomen ordnge Habitat: Bushil
edger nl onndy area' N
Flight: .Al %eaI, kitu l JLa.Juu
lower% including palmenin
Larvae: On Florida (oonune
lZarnr 17ondana i. Distribution:
Tiupical Floi ida

Atlides halesus halesus

FWS: 1.25-1.5 in. UP FW
iridescent blue with black border
on outer margin: HW iridescent
blue, bla.k JplLdI a.,Ci. aid 2
black iails L N brown: iornus
with 2 row s of iridescent Ncalea.
iiiIu rl o r iC ildi ge ui.ltel :n111 bll'e
Underside of abdomen red
Habitat: Wooded areas ,ith
instleloe in tees Flighl All sear,
attracted to Spanish needle
iBdens pdosai. wild plum,
Hercules club iZurtlahnlim a/uIu.
h, .'tul l, and snwer pepperbu'h
IC/ethra u'nr/olha. Lanrac: Onlh on
mi'iletoe iPholrwuldrln irrunun ui.
Ditribution: Florida souih to

L'- -

Choinlronmon mi ttes maresites
FWS- 0 75 0.8 In UP iridescent
purple. L'N pale green, HW with
large hrov n pdatli in marginal
area. with 2 tails Habitat:
Subtropical woods, hardwood
hamniuiLk Flight: All year; on
Spanish nredlr tBadens pilosa),
Bralian pcpprrrree (Schinus
Inebrmihiohu i. .and guaymochil
(I'tllhwrelubb dulce). Larvae: On
leadtrcc. ,Albui lebbeck.
Disiribulion: Florida Keys, rare.

Chlorostrymon srmarhu lnvnlatlh
FWS: 0.75-0 8 in. UP dark purple
iridescent L'N F\V green ilth
large brownish patch aluing hind
margin, extending from base to
outer nlargin Narrow slierv
white hand ii puiomedian area.
HW with a dlinnrite ildiurr
silvery white band in posnmedian
area and giR outer margin
bordered intrnall) will an
irregular brown line. tailrd
Habitat: Subuopical Aoodland
Flight: May 'rn Detembier: visits
small white flowers of tropiril
plants. Larvae: In pods on seeds
ofheart seed (ruiitiatid]
[Cardicspennum ihalicaainaln m
Sapindaceda Distribution:
Florida he)< ind Ddde Co.

* Leftpos Ipr.I
JIgthpa La0 trdir


It.o .... .. Nr, ,d ,..p.,.

I \% I- n L'Pbri,,n. L N
F\' gr.\..h broni.. -IIId a Jduble
iu ol bhii, k Lp'n in margiuld
.rta: H%\\ ,ith marginal rcmi. (.1
ourainge JI'-i and a .Llti.lllJri ll I
r. ,.I hl.I k .pur [. no) tal.
Habitat: Deiduou. lrt't ,edgcs
Flight: Mla I., |ul\ net.ir *..nrI,
., h. rI"l e 111% ,% C dI. I l.,, ...
!,ntl ,. I Larae: On jarius
,tiItt L ItPrt ,.. . ,
Distribution I'lorida I allah.'.c
Irr I I.tr

* ,. I .j. .. J

%, l\ri m calardlw,

11\S 1.1 25 111 LiP L ...dl n. Fl\
nrlh ,1nll orange ipot in lower
mnarinal area. LiN FRV .ih a
airii lbnigdinial band and a
ili.ln,-i postmedian line; H\\
.iilh : range evespotl iIar tail.
l.lje id$, pal:h rlrteen long tall
and r.:.rnuw Underside of
jabdmnen white Habitar Open
d(,iJdu.,uS oilerss Flight: Aprl to
J.ini. i\lit dogbane I.Apoornum
,a,,iid,Inlum). milkvieed ..4nfbhpa
spp 'elloi an, d .lthiae lli.eirs ol
d..I L,,. plants Larsae: In nak
ind rt loaded deciduous trees suih
J, lIhkors. Distribution: Flonda
Ouiii i.) Taminpa died

*I' I aJ Uw


alI'riu.m kaigi

F\S I 1 25 in UP brown L'N
F\\ ,urh j hean dark brolrl
purunedi.i Inne and %iihme.hiin
spot. HW hth broad median and
poilmedian lines Tailed
Liaidel .ide ul abdonmeni hile
Habiuta: Coailal plain near
swampland and oak hardwood
hamnii..Ck Flight: Mai .and june
tiinl llrwt r.- f cak Lanae: On
ibeetleatf i Simpl.r o! c t,, i.na i
Distribution: Florida Panhandle

S;,narr m lipar.'p, hiparpi

F\'S I 1.3 in UP brown. FW wih
dull orange patl li i Imedilai jied
UIN F% a. h r.arr,- vwhule line.
H'W avih addluonal black e\e
potL in apical area, ete spout
pieoenil a batse ol lais Habitat
Svwampv arcade Flight: Mav to
June. i milkweed i. Arlpia,
lp I d]..gltu e harir I .-,t s
l.ialllir.kl i. dnd 'hicl 'i t
closer l.UAltuh I /u, al Larvae: On
I u.lOriunm aJdi C(.uIa.gu, 'pp
Distirbuiion: t :rid,o Panhandle
,iiih II Tampa

&j~ph 1*'' U

rTmolL, o :.ti

i b. 0.d-1 in LPbron. L'N
gra alith median band of
rust-red un FI'liii H\v small
black and orange ere>pot al up uf
H\I. Tailed Habitat: Subcr.pical.
.pen eted\ fields Fligh- .\pnil 1
December, 'iin Spanish ncidlc
IBid'rT pdi:ai and scrub palmeno
i Sabjl eura) flo, ers Larvae: On
hild rtamarinr I I.ldanm- lafiitqda\
and Icadlrce i flt,.:ri Mith .l
Distribution: iamrri area and
FluI ijda ke,

-Lalv Jpa I1ro7f"
F\\% 075 1 in LIP FW graj
bla k. HWV gr, black iili all
irlle'rni dl.rk blue patch. L N
F graN black, no markings, H\\
gra .blajk %iuh rul t.id inixuli
poli.rierld.in hanti. hli rk re r in.pt
near tail vuh no red mark:
Habitat: Brush olergrurn frlld
Flight: All eain iisii :herr,
iPnian., pp I. dogbane I.lprn()'iiu
sjnqahmiiii, milkweed \.ilrpra,
tpp i. arid "eel peppeC Liull
II I/thi. .d.ir;'.lh Lanae: On hax
m rdie I.%ahni.r i.nea trutor~.
and oak. Distribution: A. ul



41. LEDAR i = OLIVE or


FIS i'ii .l in Li 'dark broin
I IN I % grLeren ih iiregula.i
brown aid ihlliie iltii.,n hand.
HW' .,,,h 'lis nci he e pi:.t
hisal potai and a median L'iu.ii
and dhiie bai.1d *I hl.. k point
dl...ng marg.inal rea I ild
Habilat: Rtd icd.Ar .,.i-. 1 ..-e
fitids. .'ptili "*.i-I-l I i..iijl
h II ...I i k. .anrld lunCe Flight:
I'ehruars to Sepienibcr, nult s
dait -in h.-I irL ts Ih, Ienri d'r. \i I,
Spiaiin.i ite'lh: Ia 'ti, p1'.'.. i and
wtill pl.nm IPi'erui inf. t.o L l
Larvae: On oiulherr. IL tl .i t-
yjurnitsou w/n A,. ... i.dui i
Dituribmiinn. I I..iida a l'.n tLjt
and est c1.,,ui oulh in) Tariiil.
and Oila Ind .itc.,

S ivu'.i. I *I

Cdhrf.'hn i i,1li..hr' I| hi A tll

F\\S 08-1in Ul'Ihrn.n LUN FW
binM n nth greenish unt, hiler
po.ibaisl spot. white nirtdian
band, HW biown nith green and
*hire markings. 2 brown and
Shile postbasal spoti, di irregular
blunii and s.hrr median Lne.
niliardl bordered b\ grctii
it h 4 small black spray ; tailcd.
Habitat. lnog and swamps close
in "hitr cedar in sands pine
Iore'ts. Flights: Apiti too Jul,,. t
IroinT lhut area to ohiain nec(tr
Son.m .1 arilacl of plant,, and ut sip
imud Larvae: On AtJlaInt uhire
cedar Cluaniur'e, ptni rh idili
Distribution: I lorida. Libern and
'.ania loia Counties.


Calluphr iln'bialia) hftn i

FWS. II 8-I in Lil hro.n LIN
F\\\ brown ,ith faint median line.
and faint black posrbasal spot.
HW wlAll illregular median line
and dark brown inside line to
base: tailed. Habitat: Coasial
plitn caica, open held near pine
or oak-pine hoods. Flight:
Februan to April, lnit iiiaii
flu is and mud Larvae: Mainly
on /lrx ras. w., occasional]; on
blueberry i\lacclriam mffniri .,i
Disribuion: Florida. woiih In
Orlandn and Tampa areas

C lloplr. I In-l.idi,; I niphon

FvS ll i-1'5 in LIPbrown.
,hitc spois along outer margin uf
wings. LN brouii e.nlh niilcir.Rl
banded HW Habitat: I'nc,
pine.n.,k woodlands Flight:
March to April. %li it.rnous
:lor ers, fir Iretil anlil ip mud
Larvae. (n pinci. Distribution:
Florida. Jacksontille to CGadiiieille

SLef photo: Uppsuled
Right pknal: Undeniel

* Phfor: UVd id


taxiriM. /piliiisi /(ui'niS

FWS 1-1.2i In L'P bJuni. HW
hlnh submarginal orange padtli
LN pearl\ gray. Ht\ narrow
brown and JliLte ubmarginal
line orange and black ete spots at
baje of aui Habnai. IOak
hamiiiuxc ipp. ontano alio in
coaald dninrsi Flighi: March to
May. iisit chinqljapin (Quer, i
nuiMirnirgri [Panhandle onl il.
sweel ldoii e (Mhihlii: albaj.
Spanish needle I Illten pilusa, and
,'burnum II'iberrtm pp I
larnae: On oak Distribulion: All
of Florida erxepi Paujnndle for
nominate subipec.,c ihe
su,%iprel.r% ,nlino is reported
from the Panhandle

Ptjr7rhaiu m albun rn-album

WS 1 2-1 5 in UP iridescent
blue. bordered wnth bldak. UN
F\\ gra\ hith drilinct shite
iiiedin. and faint white
pnomedian stripes. HW with
orange eye spot Iiraddhiiu
posrmedian stripe. median rripe
torminR a "MN" near orange eve
spot: black pnio on Lt ius, railed.
Habitat: Near oak wondlands
Flight; March to December; mlr
flower ol i ibui nuin i(Iiburnum
spp ), milkccd I 4hl.pun spp ),
weetipepper bush IClahwa
alruinilani. pomsetinu iEuphorbla
pulkhernma criillnaiedji. and
laniina (L~ana spp p. Lanara
On oaks Dilsribution: Flonda
except area near Fi Pievce

*blrpAa. Lflfr.JI
R"rAI-- tnJr,


1SlrvmRn rnmlunh. mr/ir'iu)

FWS I 1 25 in LIP brot:n uihout
markiijg ex~erpi for %enr narrow
hire margin and orange iput 011
margin of H '. t base ol ailli,
uLl black spot inside orange
*po,. and 2 black spots cirded
with whilt Uii inner halc of wing
nert rin aila. tadi moder.aels
long. tipped wnlh whlte LN I \%
brow nlih1 ai uwith 2 narrow
subiapral row, of black dashes
edged wtlh while: HW as FW niih
2 rows of blatLk dashes cdgIed w'nh
white. apital orange ipot as on
L P HW one large black inner
,ipi'al spot Habitat: Open
deciduous woud, and in wccdd
diilurbeiJ Jnea Flight: April to
(J.oher. adults sIit blossuiii ul a
great \arier of helbat.ecus plarnii
Larae: Ceiicnial leader;.
p.ul Lilarl\ Ion pea family
Ustribution: .Al of FIk.i d

Slrin s ii Iw ito/i'

FW'S 0 9-1 in UP black w th
graj-bluc unge to HW LN gra
ulh whlle puiimedian line on
F'W' ,nd 11W. two black ee ipots
near tails Habitat: Open held
along LUdas Flight: All ear. stii
ipanish needle IBidni pdlmai.
laLnna iwn itanl u spp I Hranlidn
peppelIcee S,. h lna>
lerhmrinrh/r.iti. and ba\ cedar
i.iSunarn mranmnai Lainae: On
Florida ireinMd i''m,i rand rfilhd i.
and bLu cedar irnaurra anlar2il
Distrihution: Tropical Flouida,
Tampa south.

I* L1 I .w. trfr-td
RWA&plww. Lur..-rjke


Strymon u I, hi rtriri,

FWS: C9-l I I Pallblack
except for dn orange p,.tl near
upper tail. LN gra,\ "ula %hire
postmed.aii Ines on h-th kinmg. 2
basal white ipotl on H\W
distinctne. wlth a verN lung aprIal
tail and ,horter nhapical tail on
HW. Ilabitat: Subtropical
wooded areas. Flight: AlI earr
visit SpainAlh needle iS.rio filudJi.
and hnoe plant Larvae: On
narrow leafed croton (CrLu.r
rieari. Distribution I rop. il
Flunda unll

1#M~' PT""'.
84.1PicI* ,e'Lit~u

Sinmnmi iul rn Rl mrd1t.'`1 lu

F\WS iq-l in L PbluiNh tinge to
dark H hith 2 black
submarginal puts near lail I'N
pe.itl girA. F%% and H\%
paitlmedian line broken Inro
ipotb. H\\' .llIh oIange and ilack
e\e sp'..i iear ..il Habitat: Open
Irld, light: .AI year, ut small
vhlte flower, Lirvae: On ,arin s,
mallu A iM.il\acecic and bja
r*edl.r I\S rra turuiafr
Distribution: S ia.Jal Florida

*" lIA j,',r r -.iJr
ihu kaln t rrenJf


Electrostrymon angelia
FWS: 0.75-0.9 in. UP dark brown,
border around a central copper
colored section. UN HW with
post median line consisting of a
few white dots; 2 large black eye
spots near tails. Habitat:
Subtropical shruby areas,
hardwood hammocks. Flight: All
year; visit Spanish needle (Bidens
pilosa), sea grape (Coccoloba
uvifera), and Brazilian peppertree
(Schinus terebinthifolius). larvae:
On Brasilian peppertree (Schinus
terebinthifolius). Distribution:
Extreme south Florida only.

Brephidium isophthalma pseudlfea
FWS: 0.5-0.75 in. UP uniformly
brown. UN brown mottled with
rows of gray spots; distinctive 4
black spots on outer margin; no
tails. Habitat: Salt marshes and
tidal flats. Flight: All year; visit
saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), and
saltwort flowers (Batis anritima).
Larvae: On annual glasswort
(Salicrnia bigelovii). Distribution.
East Florida coast south to
Orlando, west Florida coast,
Pensacola, Perry, thru Keys.

* Lef photo: Lpprd
Right phaun: Unlride


lpUtres oa,.s,, tlheonus
FWS (I 0- 75 in UP bluish
purple UN grau mottled with
rows of bruI n spots; HW with 2
black outer marginal eye spots; no
tails. Habitat: Common in
residential ieas, %oods edge.
Flight: All ,ear, risit Spanish
needle BdTer, pidoa), and
capeweed ILippia ,pp.). Larvae:
On ornamenitl leadwort
(Plumbago capeniw i. Distribution:
Central Florida, southward,
straying noi LlIaIid

Hemiargui thnmasi bethunebukeri
FWS: 0.75-1.2 in. UP brownish,
FW with discal area blue; HW
with 2 apical black spots, the
outer one partially surrounded
with orange. UN tawny gray with
margin of postmedial area with
rows of white spots; HW with 4
black spots on basal and postbasal
area, marginal area with row of 6
spots, the 2 basal ones black, the
outer one partially surrounded
with orange as on UP HW; no
tails. Habitat: Open fields. Flight:
All year: visits Spanish needle
(Bidens pilosa). Larvae: On ballon
vine ((Crdiospennum sp.).
Distribution: Extreme coastal
region of south Florida.

HimnTrgWl C~rainlsi .inlhilah'til
'WS. 0 75-1 in UP blue with
narrow white outer fringe and
nal.ow maiginal iou ol black
dots. HW with blick doti ai hase
LIN brownish gra wilth rows of
narrow black dots. one large black
doi on anal margin No talt
Habital: Turke; oak forests, open
pine wood), and beach dunes
Flight: All jeai, isil Spanish
needle i dsris pdnAl', and other
plants Larvae: On various
legumes. Distribution: .A1 of

Eirrre curinras
FWS 0 75-l in LP blue with
white outer fringe and narrow
row of black marginal dots, black
dult at base of uils LIN glas widi
marginal and irlhmarginal rnew
of black dots: anal margin with 2
orange spots and 2 black dotU
I alls ihort liabiiat: Open tields
where host plant is present
Flight: Februar; to Nosember.
usil Ilorwei anid miud Larvae: Or1
vanous legumes Distribution:
Northern Florida. south to
Gainesi ile.

* I.il p4..i. t'er.9J.


Celmasiru uryiolus pseudargiolus

FWS. 0 75-1.25 in. Very similar to
easlern tailed blue except
generally uLimewhat larger. UP
kith bluc kings darker at base.
LTU gray wih wide brown
marginal area. rows of black dots
heavier than those of the eastern
taileJ blue No tails. Habitat:
Wooded arreas. freshwater
swamps. Flight:January to
Ouuber. vislt milkweed (Asclepias
'pp ,. anid iiaivl other plants.
Larvae: On ,oody shrubs and
trees Distribution: Northern
Flurida ouih to Gainesville.

CGiepheh, .irgspi,,.s.j
FW\S: (1.5-0.75 I' hrown u~th
marginal and submarginal row'
ot shins nietalla wales and several
rows of black dors I N biuvjuili
orange with several rows of black
dosi Habitat: Open pine woods,
savannah, and salt marsh
rmeadowi Flight: All year; Msit
short flowered comnposites
Larvae: On ycllow thistle (irari,,
homrdulum). Distribution: .dl

554M 1- L Me-


Libytheana carinenta bachmanii
FWS: 1.6-1.9 in. UP brown and
orange; FW dark brown
background with 3 white patches
in apical area, and 2 orange
patchles. Head appears to have a
long beak. Habitat: Brushy areas.
Flight: January to August;
migrates in huge flights; visits
asters and other flowers. Larvae:
On hackberry (Cellis spp.).
Distribution: All of Florida, but
rare in southern half except
around Lake Okeechobee.

Dione (Agraulis) vanilla nigrior
FWS: 2.5-2.9 in. UP orange with
black markings; 3 black marginal
silver spots near midcosta of FW;
IIW with a broad black and
orange spotted outer margin. UN
with many silver spots. Habitat:
Open fields and gardens. Flight:
All year; visit Spanish needle
(Bidens pilosa), and lantana
(Lantana spp.). Larvae: On
maypops (Passiflora incarnate).
Distribution: All ou Flrnd-.

* L',i 1' ",,


Dr-aa wuho laue.-
FWS 3 '- i3 ,i. Long orange or
brown orange wings. UP FW with
dark brow n spot near middle of
(usia, L. oi r. edging at margin;
H\\ iluh djrk brown margin. UN
orange bronr with faint brown
mai Lm H.bitat: Hardwood
hammrni. knd open fields. Flight:
All ear i' Spanish needle
(Builf, pl.,a i. and lantana
ILuwari., 5pp Larvae: On
paisson Ine l'lssiflora spp.).
Distribunon: South Florida.

FS s 3 2 in Long narrim black
wiii~s LTP F1% is h .1 lKrr~,l~i111.
yellov bandi IIW irh one --l.irl
and one domed %ellow horizontl
baind LIN HW" isrli It'd dii It
base r-ising llahilar I Irrdlii,,rl
hammocks. brulhv tCelds. pine
(Al %-(-idh. diiI gidedrri. Flight:
Al rir ii '.F..rh reedle
(BaIm pri,.rro. and lani.na
(L.r-alan -pp I Larvae: On
passion itjr P4 jl.e .' Tpp
Distribution. -Il oI FjIridd

* tIn pi.t. fiSr .L


Euptoieta claudia
FWS: 1.75-2.25 in. UP tawny
brown with black markings; row
of submarginal black spots on
both wings. UN FW with 3
submarginal black spots; HW with
black border near mid-costa area.
Habitat: Open fields. Flight:
March to December; visit a wide
variety of plants. Larvae: On
various plants including
stonecrop (Sedum spp.), and
beggar's tick (Desmodium spp.).
Distribution: All of Florida.

Chlosyne (Charxdryas) nycleis
FWS: 1.3-1.75 in. Dark brown with
tawny brown markings; UP wings
with broad median band of tawny
brown, FW with band interrupted
at middle and sinuate; HW with
postmedian band with a black dot
in center between each wing vein.
UN much lighter in color with
scattered silvery spots; tawny
bands and black dots as on UP
wings. Habitat: Open moist
deciduous woods. Flight: March
10 Sipiemnber nmale', I1 ritai liuli
pl.~lll Stalknlig leirl tIl % ,,l1
nimlk..cl i I,, ilp.a r p i red
,I,<,:. r i I ,..,i,'m prf ,,, ,. ji.J
.'IIIip.it .' Lai iar: ()n
compo nic Distribution: FloridJ
near Mlriannja -.ni


Phyciodes (Anthanaiua) texano semi-
FWS: 1-1.5 in. Dark brown with
yellow and reddish brown
markings. UP FW with yellow
spots in apical half of wing; wing
base reddish brown with dark
spots; HW with very narrow
marginal crescents and median
yellow bands. UN similar to UP
but much lighter in color; HW
with grayish background.
Habitat: Along banks of streams.
Flight: March to November; male
patrol seeking females. Larvae:
On water willow,justicra sp.,
Acanthaceae. Distribution:
Florida south to Orlando and

Phyciod, E rr..u fI .iu
FWS: 1 1-I in liP.-,r.ngr urrh
black markings: H\V
predounnnael s elloiish-orange.
UN paler Ihan lip H\W iih
grayish brown tinge. Habinal:
Open fields. Flight: .All ear.
migratir\ Larvae. On sIIInip
plant (/fr.,uc brundqganr i and
others. Distribution: Tropicil

Phyciodes phaon
FWS: 0.8-1.25 in. UP brown with
orange checker spots. UN orange
and light tan with blackish-brown
markings. UN HW with middle
portion of marginal area dark
with tan crescent. Habitat:
Swampy areas. Flight: March to
December; attracted to flowers of
larval host and other composites.
Larvae: On mat grass (Lippia
nodiflora). Distribution: All of

Phyciodes tharos tharos
FWS: 1-1.5 in. UP orange with
black markings and black outer
margin. UN orange-yellow.
Habitat: Swampy areas and open
fields. Flight: All year in s. FL;
visit many kinds of flowers
including Spanish needle (Bidens
pilosa), milkweed (Asclepias spp.),
and many composites. Larvae: On
various smooth-leaved asters.
Distribution: All of Florida, rarely
on Keys.


S Polygonia idrougatiunis

I WS: 2.3-2.6 in. UP FW orange
',ith dark brown markings; HW
dark brown, narrowly margined
with violet; edge of both wings
irregular; FW with apical hook;
HW with a distinct, short, broad
1iil. UN violet to reddish brown
with silver comma and an
additional dot, forming a question
Imark. Habitat: Open fields and
drcidnous woods. Flight: All year;
attracted to sap, rotting fruit,
union, dung, and mud. Larvae:
On various trees, Ulmaceae,
Moraceae. and herbaceous
L'rticaceae. Distribution:
Northern Florida south to
Orlando and Ft. Myers.

Polygonia comma
FWS 1.75-2 in. UP FW orange
with brown outer margin and
large brown spots in post-, sub-,
and median areas; HW dark
brown, fading to orange at costal
margin. UN HW patterned
brown and gray with silver
comma in median area. Habitat:
Open fields. Flight: May to
September; attracted to sap, fruit,
carrion, and mud. Larvae: On
nettle and elm family.
Distribution: Northern Florida,
Panhandle south to Gainesville

_ I

Nymphalis antiopa
FWS: 2.8-3.2 in. UP black with
yellowish wing margins with a
row of submarginal blue spots.
UN similar to UP but markings
are grayish-tan. Habitat: Open
deciduous woodlands. Flight:
February March; attracted to
nectar, sap, decaying plants, and
mud. Larvae: On many species of
trees, but not on pine or pahn.
Distribution: Flurida in
Jacksonville and I ampa areas

Vanessa virginiensis
FWS: 1.75-2.1 in. UP orange with
black and white markings; FW
with pink and basal area with
black markings. UN HW brown
and white with 2 large eye spots.
Habitat: Open fields and gardens.
Flight: All year, though mainly
spring and fall; attracted to nectar
and mud. Larvae: On many
species of asters. Distribution: All
of Florida.

L __ L

71 RFn lDMlIRl I
I r% t it l., lr., . P i ., i

Fl\ I ;.,- -". ]ii L t'jl. k i.,ITl
red bndj Jl,..n,; Hl\' margin ajrd
a. rosis FWi Inie mS-..., 11 ip....I
arlm LIN n.liitl .1 tl bi., n I I
zilh pink ba.r. bl. L k t[m ji.:l
whlrlle: J...i sII .i ..iL. p..al j ...
Habina. i )fp n I It hlI l di i II I .
lIor i and i.ardtii: Flight: Ull
Ier l 1 -1 'p 1 >' Imi f irml lllim
Thii, rd hi,1 dr. i -.p.i ,,'I,
on Ilol.rm Lanae. I in nitlit:
iL rLlU .t:. el ili li ildin I.il, icil
IRm-,A"."i Ilri ii i I jiid
Mi.rl r.- DI, i rihulinn \ll I

Precise (unaina) roenia

FWS: 2-2.5 in. UP brown; FW
with large black eye spot with
blue pupil, more or less
surrounded by white, 2 brick red
bars along coastal margin; HW
with one large and one small eye
spot. Habitat: Opcn weedy fields
and pine woods. Flight: all year;
visit olumposite flowers. Larvae:
On snapdragons (Antirrhinun
orontium [cultivated]), plantain
(Plantago lanceolata), and
Acanliaceae. Distribution: All of


Precise (JunmLnia) genovevu
FWS: 2-2.5 in. UP brown; FW
with large eye spot, only partially
surrounded by white (no white
toward body), 2 brick red bars on
costal margin; HW with 2 small
eye spots. UN brown, FW with
large eye spot; H W with small eye
spot and tan wavy lines. Habitat:
Open fields with low vegetation,
coastal black mangrove swamps
and tidal flats. Flight: All year;
visit flowers of various plants.
Larvae: On herbaceous
Verbenaceae, black mangrove
(Avicennia germinans), and blue
porterwood (Stachytarpheta
juamicensis). Distribution: South
Florida along coast.

Anartia jatrophae guantanamo
FWS: 2-2.3 in. UP whitish with
pale brown markings along wing
margins; FW with black spot; HW
with 2 black spots; wing margins
slightly scalloped. Habitat: Open
fields near swampy areas, ponds,
and streams. Flight: All year in
south Florida; visits Spanish
needle (Bidens pilosa). Larvae: On
Scrophalariaceae, incl. water
hyssop (Bacopa mnnenri),
Acanthaccac, such as Ruellia spp.
Distribution: Peninsular Florida.


Siproeta stelenes biplagiata

FWS: 2.5-3 in. UP pale
plde-green and dark brown. UN
palcjade and light brown
Habitat: In wooded area, in
IImngo, citrus, and avocado
groves where host plant is
present. Flight: All year; attracted
sI rotting fruit, dung, and
l.wers. Larvae: On cajetin
aIlechum brownei), and Ruelha spp.
Distribution: Tropical Florida.

Limein -,r I r,, .;,.,,,
FWS 2 A in UI' blrtki.h blei
to irnilrd enr blue. F\\ n, h ,hi-a
spots Iu piCal a.Ca, 1 \\' % lth
iridescent blue markings along
marginal and submarginal areas.
UN black with brick red markings
along suhmarginal and basal
areas. Habitat: Open woodland,
open fields near edge of forests.
Flight: March to October; visit
rotting fruit, carrion, dung, and
sap flows. Larvae: On wild cherry
(Prunus seratina), oaks, and other
trees. Distribution: Florida south
to Orlando and Tainpa, rare

Limenitis archippus florideiJis
FWS: 2.5-3 in. UP orange-brown
with black veins and marginal
areas; FW with white spots in
black border of apex and margin;
FW with thin black line along
posutedian area. UN orange with
black veins and marginal area,
black line running length of
postmnedian aiea. Habitat: Brushy
fields, marshes, and lake shores.
Flight: April to September; visit
carrion, dung, and flowers of
composites. Larvae: On willows
(Salicaceae). Distribution: All of
Florida except Keys. Note:
Mimics the distasteful (to birds)

Eunica tatila tatilista
FWS: 1.6-2 in. UP FW dark brown
with purple iridescence, 2-3 rows
of distinct white spots in median
to apical area; HW dark brown.
UN grayish brown with white
spots on FW. Habitat: Hardwood
hammocks. Flight: All year except
June; visit rotting fruit, dung,
mud, and sap flows, rarely visits
flowers. Larvae: On rrahwood,
Gymnanthes lucida
(Euphorbiaceae). Distribution:
Tropical Florida.


Lunica monima
I WS: 1.5-175 in. UP dark brown
Sixth violet iridescence; FW with 2
rows of white spots; HW dark
brown. UN grayish brown,
mottled, pale white spots on FW.
Habitat: Hardwood hammocks.
Flight: May to December; visit
rotting fruit, dung, mud, and sap
lows; rest in trees; rarely visit
flowers. Larvae: On gumbo limbo
Bursera simaruba, Burseraceae).
Distribution: Tropical Florida,

Marpesia pretreus
FWS: 2.6-2.9 in. UP orange with
longitudinal brown lines; HW
with brown tails. UN
orange-brown with thin brown
lines. Habitat: Hardwood
hammocks, wooded swampy
areas. Flight: All year; visit giant
milkweed, rotting fruit, and mud.
Larvae: On wild banyon tree
(Ficus citrifolia) and common fig
(Ficus carica). Distribution:
Florida from St. Augustine and
Tampa south.


Anaea andria

FWS: 2.8-3 in. UP orange brown
to brown at outer margins; FW
with small brown spot near mid
costa, outer margin not serrate.
UN marked to resemble a dead
leaf. Habitat: Wooded and
swampy areas. Flight: April,
August. and September. visit
rotting Irun. sap fluo, bird
dropping,. ad dung Larae- (On
wooly roton i Cruoturn Iti',eni. and
other trulons Distribution:
Florida Panhiandle southi lu i
Augustine and north of Tampa.
Note: Adulti pla dead %hen

Anaea troglodyta floridalis
FWS: 2.75-3 in. UP
reddish-orange with dark brown
markings; FW with brown outer
margin which is somewhat
serrate, irregular brown
submedian line. UN marked to
resemble a dead leaf with darker
basal median area Habitat: Edges
o.f woods, pine-palmetio scrub
Fligln. A.kll eai IuLttjig IIuia dll
dung. rarelN %siit Iloers Larac:
On .oul]v crol:n ICrvlun ilnreafn
Distribution: F i ,d.Jt Ntariii .ea
and Kcr. Note: Endemic to



F%%.*) 22 ,rI LIP jvIe-br-:,%n
becominon dd rk ai .1x A
%ith Ircr djt L vie putl in
ubniigijl area. ll%%' %Iih 5 cr
mi-re dairk %pt A ii su bi~rgini l t~
Jred LIN purplih-pra% t rh I.,,A
tic .pv* .nd pale grat paichci
Habittav %%oudcd irciii.s
prirtiulirI rh, sc containlng
h.nILbcr r irees Flight: March t.)
Nijserriher 111,IiLICIJ UI
fermcmintg perslrnmon%. *ap
duilt. mad a.jrrion Larsae: Fecd
(n I 'm ..ie.,. IIAIludiIIIn
hakkberr% ldlit, ipp I
Dimiribution: Al of Florida

Asterocampa clyton

FWS: 2-2.6 in. UP orange-brown;
FW without dark eye spot in
lower submarginal area; HW with
a row of 5 or more dark spots in
submarginal area. I:N tawny with
light colored bands and spots.
Habitat: Wooded areas,
particularly those containing
hackberries. Flight: March to
November; visit loLLing fruit, sap,
dung, carrion, and larval host
plant. Larvae: On hackberry
(CelLts spp.). Distribution: Florida
south to Ft. Pierce and Ft. Myers.

* LUf photo. AMl
Rght phof : h-iae

Lethe (Enodia) portlandia

FWS: 1.75-2 in. UP
chocolate-brown; UN HW with 5
,litrmargrnal e pr 'pl jnI'l 'ri
jl.rng oi.iial margin F%\ "i,,h .,nt
S i II se p-..t ., l 4c jll. I ,.r -.
arinnril dub ,ih .larng lip
Habitat: \%,.....Jed aiea. Flight:
p.' l i., N .P, r'rolh- i .. .i%.r .iIh .
Iruil .ap. .Jrrilon. and rlalU tii.,
noti luer! Larnae: On i.i-elr.
hiz llew iil e I Ii,'10 n , ,.i. I .P 1 I
jnd mjiadi.n t.jli. i I fa 'riii
..ala Distribution: F...rida
P.nliriul, siuth ti, (I lan- ,

Lethe (Satyrodes) appalachia

FWS: 1.6-2 in. UP FW
I hi.. *llc. hrebr n .' darker in
ubt.apica area. ith mall blij.k
NAL-iI.i II.l e,.e .*|,,".v H \% i.iIlI
bljuk uuL.mnrginal c.: spot slthi
Ij tl riiic LUIN flight
iipli,, h .-.ic, n 6,uh re c rpit .
pr'nrilCt ri rdc lli % hihll
pupil Habitat: Bru-h\ licld,
Ineml -,%.ini .:p.g' .ind t lo,
nlI.. ng I irtamn Ilight: JILIIIL 1r
I O l..br. >uI t mud and. -ap
L narae: on t lt il[ -di-

Disribunion: N.rthc rn
I'le.illtulaj FIridj

_.I --

Cyllopsis gemma gemma
F\% S: 1.25-1.4 in. UP
ifllnwish-brown with usnall black
crc ,pots on HW margin. UN
H\\ yellowish-brown with small
ese spots in large submarginal
gras patch. Habitat: Tall grassy
fielJs, shaded, moist areas along
,ire ims and ponds, pine woods.
Flight: February to November.
Larnae: On Bermuda grass
If .n.)don dactylon). Distribution:
Northern Florida south to
Orlando and Tampa.

S iL. ghot. Upftrnd,
hLel. poiwlo: [Ingdmi

Hermeuptypchia hermes sosybiw
FWS: 1.5-1.7 in. UP FW dull
brown to violet-gray, without eye
spots. UIN dull brown; HW with
submarginal area with row of
small eye spots. Habitat: Open
fields and wooded areas. Flight:
All year; on sap and rotting fruit,
but not at flowers. Larvae: On
various grasses. Distribution: All
of Florida to Key Largo.

*142 photo: Upp-dm
Right ph~o: LlndnMde

Neonympha areolata

FWS 1 5.1 75 in UP dull brown.
LIN dull Lr.u II nil Lui I .L-l.
m.,rking' in Ill\ ihr red
mari kini' encirl:ing 3 ,jr m,:-re
irregular t e ,puLr Habiiat
4)pen lhli-l. pinit Ir .nd1 Highl.
.ll \ear. males patrol area in
'ejlll, uf fetIcuiJ Larade: On,
i.irioiiu gra.,sts [u ributlon: .All
of Florida

Megisto cymela

FWS: 1.75-1.9 in. UP FW dull
brown to violet-grav with 2 black
c e p..t LIN Fl'.; s LIP F\% 11\
iuuall lilh 2 Iarg(. ct. spotl and
iome rmall ',ne. Habitat: Shad\.
pltIss Ol*I..dld .21 C.'l ai'ild opUcll
icldi near nt.nds Flight: Mlarch
to June. i.II tree sap. iphid
II-nlf dc%, I arit r I' i "hiirh
Ilowcrs Larvae: Probabli on
grjasei Distribulion: Nurtrlieri
Flir. -

* L... /1 t, I,- .
liJ I:I t LrrL


Megisto viola
I-WS: 1.75-1.9 in. UP brown, FW
with postmedian area wilh two
large eye spots of about equal
%ize; HW with two eye spots,
anterior one much smaller than
posterior. UN as UP except HW
with eye spots of equal size.
Habitat: Grassy wooded areas.
Flight: April. Larvae: Host plants
uncertain. Distribution:
Northern Florida to Orlando and
nor111 ofTampa.

Cercyonis pegala abbohhn
FWS: 2 2.9 in. UP brownish, FW
and HW each with one, usually 2
eye spots with a broad pale
yellowish brown band. UN IlW
with row of eye spots in
postmedian area. Habitat: Moist
grassy fields, open pine woods.
Flight: June and July; males
patrol grassy areas seeking
females; may feed on rotting fruit.
Larvae: On various grasses.
Distribution: Northern Florida
south to Ft. Pierce on east coast
and south to Tampa on west
coast, hut rare south of Cedar Key
and Daytona.

I _

Danaus plexippus
FWS: 3.25-3.5 in. Orange with
black veins and white spotted
black outer margin. UP FW with
subapical area with orange and
white spots on black. Habitat:
Open fields, gardens. Flight:
Most common in early spring and
late fall, but may be found every
month; visit milkweeds (Aslepias
spp.) and composites. Larvae: On
scarlet milkweed (Asclepias
curassuvica), and Indian hemp
(Apacynum amnnabhmum).
Distribution: All of Florida.
Note: This is the only butterfly
that annually migrates north and

Danaus gilippu. I..'r ,.
FWS: 3-3.4 in. Bro, nmih ..rarne:
UIP FW with si hilr p...r nidian
spots. Habitat: Optn iood; a nd
fields. Flight: .All ',er nicrneri
from n. FL Au,,,i i w.- ( h i. her
visit milkweed I Ic1rrpia, pp I
Spanish needle IB.J pia..... and
fog fruit (Lippi.a i,.,il i Ldr% e-
On butterfly u, .i ,1 I ,prt.
tuberosa) and oih r milki..J-d.
white vine (Sa:'... iiv,., ii-. i.
and oleander i .,,,, .,.i,.1 i,
Distribution: All <.l t lorida

I. _

Danaus eresimus tethy)
FWS: 3.2-3.4 in. UI' FW orange
with white spotted black outer
margins, lack white pusunedian
spots: HW with dark veins. UN
HW with irregular brown median
band, white patches at end of
discal cell. Habitat: Open
,ubtropical woodlands and open
fields. Flight: February to
October; sometimes common;
visits flowers. Larvae: On white
vine (Sarcostemma clalua), and
other Asclcpiadaceae, and on
West Indian pinkroot (Spigeha
nithelmia) (Loganiaceae).
Distribution: Tropical Florida.


This large group of insects i% not treated in detail in dlu book (ee
section 7) llhough some of the common species are patrurcl as examples
of die group rhe following specie aie known 1o hrcd in the late. Their
diitribution and larvae food plans are given.

Giant Skippers
These are senr large add sioin 'kippers. ihe head is narrut-i than
the thorax, palpi s nll Trhntv-cightl species occur in CAnuada and I IA, 2
in Fluiida
98 YUCCA SKIPPER (.Alifutlsv.n. ,u'Lr I .1l of Florida except exit nie
%outh. l.ar'n. oin mi ii 'pcies of ucca primardt v 1qni ol. (Ihg.
I'Alegtua fihw 'o'no qn/' ,qa 1aquI i AUI
ol I Inrda. Lar\ae on .arluc,
species of uu.a. primardl) I

(Hesper idae)
I h1% I, a Idrge fam llN of 1%arIuo.
vizcs. nth head a, ridc as the thorav.
pIlpi mode&IAIe in large I[here are
262 spells In (.ainada and L'.S. with
hon poss in Florida.

True Skipperh
Fig 4s J ..." 98 (Her.periinac)
10U SWARTHY SKIPPER tVa-tra Iherminwcrl .11 vriI tlrlda Larae on
lhe gra.. little blue temn Sthila,h ,rllmn ...pa -:
lil SOUTHERN SWARTH' SKLIPPERI.l'asirz r.rom.Alai.s I .I II hrida
Lr-xac ,.n gr.. ei Onl% endemic skippr- in Flnrida
Itn. DIN~t1 DOTTED SKIPPER I r iu,. t.v. ,mpP,u-w South FlIl,.da
Lartae on al ious gra--1'
h.,3. CLOUDII.U SKIPPER Il.e'e,,a t,,l-, Ml of F[lorida Larsac ui
adniou, gra-'w
Io4 LEAST SKIPPERLLNG i.,ileloxipha ,iorur.v I All of Florida La\rae
on .arioui graiseb.

105. TINY SKIPPER (Copaeodes min-
ima) All of Florida. Larvae on
the grass, Cynodon dactylon.
106. FIERY SKIPPER (Hylephila phy-
leus) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses, sometimes a
lawn pest.
107. DOTTED SKIPPER (Hespena
attalus slosunae) All of Florida.
Larvae on various grasses. (Fig.
(Hesperia meskei stratmn) All of Fig. 99. see 107.
Florida. Larvae on grass.
109. TAWNY EDGED SKIPPER (Polites themistocles) Florida south to Or-
lando and Ft. Mycrs. Larvae on grasses, Panicum spp., and otler gras-
110. LITTLE TAWNY EDGE (Polites baracoa) All of Florida. Larvae on
111. CROSS LINE SKIPPER (Polites origenes) Florida south to Orlando.
Larvae on grasses.
112. WHIRLABOUT (Polites vibex) All of Florida. Larvae on various gras-
113. BROWN BROKEN DASH (Wallengrenia egeremet) Northern Florida.
Larvae on various grasses.
114. RED BROKEN DASH (Wallengrnia otho) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses.
115. LITTLE GLASSY WING (Pompeius verna) Florida north of Gaines-
villc, rare, local. Larvae on the grass, tall redtop, Tridens flavus.
116. SACHEM (Atalopedes campestris) All of Florida. Larvae on various gras-
117. BROWN RIM SKIPPER (Atrytone arogos) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses.
118. BLACK VEIN SKIPPER (Atrytone logan) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses.
119. GOLDEN SKIPPER (Problema byssus) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses.
120. BROAD MARSH SKIPPER (Poane. viator izaniae) Florida Pan-
handle south to Gainesville. Larvae on various sedges and grasses.

SKIPPER IPoane4 a bzalal -
No lrhern Firirirla I dAr5e on
daniou gras5ics.
Patkurt uUo10ia hs..,rarl All nl
I lorida except hcic(rn pan-
handle. Lanae on t-e gras. salt
marsh cordgras. Sprarhu .uaer-
s l a n tlub,,a ,a g rifl
PER jP r,. iL, l -. NiuL d llI
ri, ,.m Florida Lardae on a bamboo.
.irandnara spp
124 COASTAL SEDGE SKIPPER IEuap'r', pd l1 a All oi Ilorida Lanae
on the nahgrasi. Cladlim jomfina.,arn.
125 EASTERN SEDGE SKIPPER IEuphy,, dJls .slsha... I Norrhern
Florida only L.aaen on various scdgcs
126 FLORIDA SEDGE SKIPPER l arphi~r bIerni .1U of Florida Laiar
uonii edges
12L IPALMEf FO SKIPPER (Euphi: orpi Al .Ilof Florida Lardae n sa
palmetto I Sevel,.a riep ni
123 SEDGE WITCH I=DULN %If)(.L .'slKPERi ) iE phyr, runl.idc
,nr,..mn. tm, [=*,rtr.aj, All of Florida Larae on various sedgei
129 BROWN SEDGE SKIPPER ,Ephisc, Jutr R,:sl iled area .n norrh.
east ci. Flulda, Iare and Iciril I r a r % erld ,n .anous edgee.
I'ltI PALM SKIPPER i.hbuol rap.us irt I Florida south of Gaines,.dle. Lar-
sae on tarioul palms.
131 DUSTED SKIPPER I tlrr trn.rpi hmrai hl-;mnrra Al] of Florida Lir
sac on sarnous planLi
is- colu ,r fc, localiucs in extreme north central Florida Lar-
sae on anrous grassei
133 DUSKY LITTLE SKIPPER (l ambl,1rrle, ,ltrrnatil Al of Florida. Lar
,ac probably, on grass.
134 BLACK LITTLE SKIPPFR 1len/wr.,.rvri l u Northern Flonda
Ia.l r on sanoui grats s
135 COBWEB LITTLE SKIPPERt 4trAt-A .i,, , n ada.a/,L,. Noi hern .indl
Cilial Florida Lardac on the gra.s lnn.finr.ln.r I. t


!if ll, see no. 138. Fig. 102, see no. 139.
13% GRAY SKIPPER (Ieradena enfala) All of Florida. Larvae on various
1I7 THREE SPOT SKIPPER (Oligoriu maculuaa) All of Florida. Larvae
on various grasses.
I 3i CANNA SKIPPER (Calpodes ethlius) All of Florida. Larvae on various
species ofCanna and sometimes on other lilylike plants. (Fig. 101).
I Ni SALT MARSH SKIPPER (Panoquina panoquin) All of Florida coast.
Larval foodplant uncertain. (Fig. 102).
140. BEACH SKIPPER (Panoquina panoquinoides) Southern Florida
cujiL. Larvae on various grasses.
141 IONG WING SKIPPER (Panoquina aocla) All of Florida. Larvae on
various grasses.
Fig 107, w n. 142
Herb, Shrub, and
Tree Skippers
(Phocides piginalin okeechobee) -
Central and south Florida. Lar-
vae on red mangrove
(Rhizophorn mangle). (Fig. 103).

(Epargyreus clIrus) All of
Florida except Keys. larvae on
many species of tree and her-
baceous Leguminosae.

I-1 RUSTY SKIPPER itpl.rgfrt.
:. .,,, I'\*rerme ,uuth Florlda,
mini. Kmr; Larjec on ll e
legume. Gal,-I,,a .p.-. Im
14!- VIOLET SKIPPER iPo lygnru.
I..o South Flonda Ljrjac, on
Jamaica dl.,g-g ..cuJ rP,.blLi pt-
'api l dr lr ihe imported tree.
PIu .,ml a prehala l [culi.airdI,
n ,al prn',, p 11I ul FI.. rta uFar.
S ,* d ll N11 ide irdi, \ clrc.ll lo Legun-
Ifo c' a i, IiUaJiin L, icri Ht ri it. 1k
IT BROWN TAILEDSKIPPFR I rtairt. Ir,lantii All o F'I ..i 1,i reed
in teririil aIdll iih Ilolrda on atjrilu L.uIIlIInul'. ar
14 (.OLDEN BANDED SKIPPERi -., .. I ', Noriherni FIl ida .i,
GIinerRKIlc. LOUijieir i, l.uith La.re ol n hi pa\lcul t I r.j laicpajm
Ibl\ on ra loindtl iiher pei. pp of L.egiLmin .os.
14I IISARY EDGE i.SOOTY tWING i s...., N .rth FloridI ,uilt .1 GaFl~,ne
%il I.a. r dl u tl hrI r .t ir.- Lll gumi -. Chnua
150 CLOUDY WING iD!,'SK t. pIsd,.C I Ail .I I-rida I.jarJe on her-
haccu,, LegumInnuSat
1I31 EASTERN CLOUDY WING N G n. /.,thll i- .All ,I I Ii .,., in ar
e ci La hcrbrci .11 Liruini e [il nd
15' DARK CLOUDY WING' IT Iert.,1.N( I V,.,i ,li Io FlIrida Lar I t'r p
Ibis on lo .IP ,I. pp I.lgumMn,- e.-a
153 SCA I.OPLD SOOTY WING ,l.Ii. ia.,hil.. .ll*1I Florda
LUnare a)n larrmb', Huan te It hiip..diuir. albi, Chenup..,i.cire and
(.uppelil -.I n. ',a Th,'a spp *.marariihat.ic
i54 CARIBBE.N DUSKY WING ifpIir d.. br,'. nt,' t'h..ird..d. I Fluiid.,
ken n Lari, r imiiK lar irl chcrr i.1layghia gl-.i [c ulintedli and
Ker I.wist tb rr. IBir-c lan ,u a uina \lilrpighlact:c
159 BANDED OAK DUSKY WING L rire, tr:lI .. oAll FIviL..idJ I .arite
tln a IOut U yp.' Ir, .I i-ak,
I',l L4 %FERN OAK DL'SKY WING it r,,un po-'llbl .ill vf Flund,d
I.ir'ae on tari.ui %pe,..a ol ..iki
157 BROWN DUSkI WING iFrit' ,.raI.ju. Ml .',I lrida Larijt on
.i rl, i pocic oi l )fujks



if,0 nr+.: martiahls) No then
Florida. Larvae on redroot
ii md_,nvth. .mericanus).
WING itrvnnis zarucco) All of
FIlJda Larvae feed on many
specti of .eguminnosae.
I1 rk-,., l'uneralis) South
Fluridi Larvae on species of
161 INDIGO DUSKY WING (Eryn Fig o. we no. 163.
mIs .,pap!fir ) North and central Florida. Larvae on various
Leguil IIosae.
162 CHECKI HRED SKIPPER (Pyrgtus communis) All ol Flourida Iariae on
rnan, species of Malvaceae.
163 TROPICAL CHECKERED SKIPPER (Pyrgio oileus) All c.I Florida
Breeds in central and south Florida, probably on Malvicate i Fig

164 COMMON SOOTY WING (= Roadside Rambler) (Phoolior :atullh,
N,,rih I li-.rda. La rvae on various species ofAmaranthaccae


Noi a.ll buLlerflies should be collected, nor need they be. If ',ou u,.nl
a burle tlh collar ion, the best way to obtain perfect specimen. is to rear
them Thi n, lio a great way to learn more about the species. In 1.11 A.,
all i: thie 1.1". itl's ofbutterflics are known; so if you are able to rear umr
species. atid krr'p good records, this may be information new .u ctlcnce
You nmnir iltain some stage to start with. Since it is the adiul that i
nls.t tlirn Ieer it will be the easiest to start with a gravid fen.lr II \...u
collrrr nl.h,, appears to be a female full ol eggs, or you actually tai(h her
im he act ol ld ihg eggs, confine this specimen in a glassjar. Plate somi
lhesih >.,ung. tender leaves from the larval host plant in the jjr s,,h lie
cmale and see .I she will lay her eggs. If you are lucky, she will. uu might
et her go aif r a hatch of eggs are laid. Keep a record of what she did. and.
ofu, ,.ce, belf.,re you let her go, make sure you know what spri.c, she n,
Once ii. h it iliese eggs, then it is a matter of waiting, mailitining an
aversjg humiditr, until they hatch. The young larvae must be gini\ largi
luourtit ol Ire.h food each day. Remember, most larvae are hil pl.ii
speti il so. ,..u must know the proper plant to use as a food source

The next best way to get started is to try to find some eggs. Watch
butterflies carefully and see if you can catch the females in the act of egg
laying. Usually eggs are placed on the underside of leaves. If once you find
them there, you also know the host plant of the larvae.
It may be easier to look for caterpillars. These may be found feeding
on the leaves of trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and grasses. Of course,
you may find the larvae of many other kinds of insects beside butterflies.
It will be fun to rear any of these. Also, you will become a good botanist by
trying to identify the host plants of these various species. This procedure
is best done near your home because that way you can easily get food for
your rearing cages. However, when away from home you may recognize
the host plant as being a species found in your garden or nearby fields, in
which case, you need only worry about getting the eggs or larvae home
alive and well.
In the fall look for the chrysalis of butterflies. These are attached to
stems or branches. Remove these to ajar but keep the gauze covered jars
outside where it will receive weather and moisture changes (protect from
rain). When the adult emerges you will have a perfect specimen.
You will need rearing cages. Fruit jars are the easier to set up. You
can cover the top with cheese cloth after removing the lid from the jar ring,
and then hold the gauze in place by screwing on the cover ring. If you need
a larger cage, this can be made by building a frame of wood and covering
it with marquisette. The food plant can be placed inside the cage. One side
of the cage should have a sleeve of marquisette which can be tied closed.
The food plant is kept fresh by placing it in ajar of water; make a collar of
foil around the stems so as to block the caterpillars from crawling into the
water and drowning.
After the larvae have completed their feeding, they will seek a place
to pupate, i.e., to transform into the chrysalis stage. They will need a branch
to which to tie a silken pad, or girdle (see section on life cycle), to which
the chrysalis is attached. Here they will remain for some period of time
before they transform into the adult butterfly. Do not let the chrysalis dry
out and keep it in a cage large enough to enable the butterfly to emerge
without damaging its wings, away from cockroaches and other predators.


If you decide to make a butterfly collection, butterflies may be col-
lected using inexpensive equipment. All that is needed is a butterfly net
(fig. 1), a killing jar, and some glassine envelopes. The net may be pur-
chased from a biological supply house (see section 17) or made from a 3/4
in dowel approximately 3 feet long. A heavy wire, or metal band forms the
loop to hold the net. A cone-shaped bag of nylon marquisette is fitted on


to the loop. The wire, or band, should be 4 feet long, and the net bag dimen-
sions are 42" in circumference and 30" long.
A simple killing jar may be made from any wide mouthed glass, or
clear plastic, jar with a tight fitting lid. The lid should be a screw top, not
one that has the edges crimped. Only the screw top jars remain tightly
enough closed to transport into the field. The killing agent is ethyl acetate
which must be obtained from a school or biological supply company. One
method for charging the jar is to pour 1 inch of wet plaster of Paris into the
bottom of the jar. Let this dry and harden over night. Then pour a small
quantity of the ethyl acetate on to the plaster. This will soak up the liquid.
Any that remains should be poured off. Another method is to pour some
ethyl acetate on some crumpled tissue placed in the jar so that it is damp
but not soaking. Some collectors forego the jar entirely. Instead, they care-
fully pinch the thorax of the butterfly between the thumb and forefinger.
This quickly stuns and kills the specimen.
Now you are ready for the field. When you attempt to collect a but-
terfly on a flower, take a full swing, follow thru, and then flip the net so
that it folds over itself. This traps the butterfly inside the net. Another tech-
nique is to plop the net down over the butterfly. Grasp the tip of the bag
in one hand and with the other hand on the handle, bring the net down
over the butterfly at rest. When collecting, do not let your shadow fall across
the butterfly as it will be scared will fly away. You will have to learn your
own technique, and you will soon see that a certain amount of skill will be
needed before you are a successful collector.
Carefully, lightly pinch the butterfly through the netting, but be ex-
tremely careful that you do not touch the wings otherwise you will rub the
scales and have a poor looking specimen. Be sure the wings are folded
back. At this point, holding on to the butterfly from the outside, you can
reach into the net with your other hand and remove the specimen. Now
you can place it into the killing jar, or, increase the pressure on the thorax
of the butterfly until it no longer moves. It can be place directly into a glas-
sine envelope. Some collectors prefer a paper triangle for storage. These
are made from a rectangular piece of paper folded into a triangle with
overlapping edges and can be of various sizes to fit the size of the butterf-
ly. They must be protected from mold and insect damage (see section 13).
It is important that the collecting data be preserved with the
specimen. On the envelope or triangle, record the geographical locality
where collected, the date collected, the habit where found, and your name.
This information must always be kept with the specimen, and eventually it
will appear on a label to go on the insect mounting pin.


Preserving Butterflies
If you collect butterflies it is important that you properly preserve
them. Fortunately, insects do not require any special methods for their
preservation. Once they are dry, they will keep indefinitely. If they are to
remain unmounted in storage for some period of time, it will be necessary
for you to protect them from mold and insect damage. Most collectors store
these envelopes in a cigar box or similar box that can be closed tightly. A
mold inhibitor such as moth crystals or phenol should be placed in the box
when it is stored. In humid climates it is important that the specimens are
well dried, especially if they are in glassine envelopes or mold will grow
and ruin the specimen.
Be sure that complete collecting data are included with the envelope
or triangle. Do not rely on memory for details. Generally it is necessary to
number the specimens and record additional data in a record book, but
don't rely on the number alone. Sometimes notebooks are misplaced. If
that happens and the data are lost, the specimens will be worthless for any
scientific use.

Arranging and Displaying Specimens
The most time consuming job is mounting and spreading the
specimens for study. Unless you mount the specimens shortly after they
are caught, you must now relax the specimens, that is, moisten them so
that they are again flexible because the dried specimens are extremely brit-
tle. This is done in a relaxing jar made from a restaurant size mayonnaise
jar, large plastic sandwich box, plastic shoe box, or similar container. Place
a layer of sand an inch or so deep in the bottom. Add water to dampen the
sand, but not enough so water shows. Again mold can be a problem, so
sprinkle a few moth crystals on the sand. Place some non-absorbent cover
on top of the sand (a small piece of plastic, or a plastic jar top), and then
place a few of the envelopes or triangles (with the ends open) containing
the butterflies on the non-absorbent surface. The specimens should not
come in contact with the moist sand. Cover the relaxing jar. It usually takes
2 to 3 days for the butterflies to become relaxed. Open the jar and careful-
ly remove the envelopes with the butterflies, and with a pair of forceps
remove the butterflies one at a time, keeping the data with the specimen.
Now comes the tricky part. You must first pin the butterfly using
standard insect pins which come in various sizes. For most butterflies, no.
2 pins will do; for small ones, use no. 1, and of course, for bigger and heavier
butterflies you can use no. 3's. The pin is inserted down through the mid-
dle of the thorax (see fig. below), leaving about 3/8 of an inch of the pin
showing above the thorax. You now need a spreading board (see fig. below)
so that the wings can be spread and displayed. These, as the other items


mentioned may be obtained from biological supply companies. However,
you can make an inexpensive spreading board from a block of styrofoam.
Merely cut a groove in an 18" strip to accommodate the body of the insect.
Be sure that the styrofoam is wide enough so that the wings can be spread.
Assuming you now have a spreading
board, grasp the pin (with the butterfly) by the
head of the pin and insert the pin into the cen-
ter of the groove of the spreading board. Push
it down deeply enough so that the body of the
butterfly rests in the groove. By using strips
of wax paper as wide as the butterfly wing, the
wings are flattened down on the board and
held in place. Then withan insect pin, move
the wings into position so that the hind mar-
gin of the front wing and the front margin of
the hind wing form a straight line at right
angles to the thorax. The hind wing is then
brought forward so that a small v-shaped
angle is formed at the juncture of the front
and hind wings. It will be necessary to move
the wings into place by inserting a pin just be-
hind the front vein of the wing. Then pin the
wings in place by inserting insect pins through
the wax paperjust beyond the margins of the
wing. It is best to do this as close to the base
of the wing as possible. The antennae are
spread so as to appear natural, and then the
specimen is left to dry for a week. Of course, /
if the spreading board is long enough, several
specimens may be mounted on each board.
Cut out the data from the envelope and place
it at the side of each specimen.
When the specimens are dry, carefully remove the stay pins and
paper covering the wings. To remove the butterfly from the board grasp
the head of the pin and transfer the specimens to an insect box. The label
data should be place on the pin beneath the specimen. Labels may be hand
printed very small, using India ink, or they may be printed commercially
in handy stripes ready for use. The data should be concise, but complete.
Once your locality data labels are made, the envelope label data may be
You are now ready to arrange your specimens. This is usually done
by placing them in the insect box in the same order are they are listed in
the species section in this book or in a butterfly catalog. This is termed a


phylogenetic arrangement. Stored specimens must be protected from
mold and insect damage. You will need to keep the boxes fumigated. This
is done by keeping a supply of moth crystals in the box at all times.
You may prefer to display your butterflies using glass topped Riker
mounts (obtainable from biological supply houses). If you do this, you will
need to remove the insect pin first. Riker mount specimens should include
label data, and they too must be protected from the growth of mold and
insect damage by inserting moth crystals into the bottom of the Riker

Exchanging Specimens
Many collectors exchange specimens with other collectors
throughout the world. This enables butterfly enthusiasts to obtain species
for their collections otherwise unobtainable because they cannot travel to
every part of the world. Dealers in butterfly specimens also provide a means
of obtaining specimens. In this respect, butterfly collecting is the same as
stamp collecting. The problem is that when dealers and private collectors
take large numbers of specimens for sale or exchange, species may become
depleted. This is especially true of large, showy, tropical species that are
considered rare. Therefore, the practice should be discouraged except
when the dealer is selling reared specimens from a "butterfly farm."
Serious students of the classification of butterflies are able to borrow
specimens from museums and private collections. These are studied, scien-
tific papers are written, and the specimens returned to the collections at
the end of the study. Other butterfly enthusiasts should spend their time
observing. Modest collections of common local species, or a few specimens
collected during travels should be sufficient. Collecting and exchanging
for the sake of building up a large collection of showy specimens is usual-
ly to be discouraged.
However, collecting and exchanging, if properly controlled, can be
fun. The best way to get into this is to join a society and exchange with
members of the society (see separate section for a list of societies).


The entomological literature on butterflies is very extensive. We have
included here only a few references to get you started.
Arnett, Ross H. Jr. and Richard L. Jacques, Jr. 1985. Insect Life. Baltimore:
Natural Science Publications, xii+354 p. [Everything you need to
know to identify, collect, preserve, and understand insects.]
Backyard Bugwatching, Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc., P. O. Box 5624,
Tucson, AZ 85703. [A newsletter for those interested in bug watch-


Butterfly News, Global Butterfly Science, Lodmoor Country Park, Dorset
DT4 7SX, England. [This attractive newspaper style magazine con-
tains much useful information on butterflies and butterfly en-
Brewer, Jo and Dave Winter. 1986. Butterflies and Moths. New York: Pren-
tice-Hall Press, xiii + 194 p. [A companion to your field guide.]
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, Lepidopterists Society, 1041 New
Hampshire Street, Lawrence, KS 66044. [A technical journal devoted
to moths, butterflies, and skippers.]
Lepidopterists News, Lepidopterists Society, 1041 New Hampshire Street,
Lawrence, KS 66044. [The informal newsletter of the Society.]
Opler, Paul A. and George O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great
Plains. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, xvii+ 294 p.
[Detailed discussions of the butterflies and skippers of eastern North
Pyle, Robert M. 1984. Handbook for butterfly watchers. New York: Char-
les Scribner's Sons, xiv + 274 p. [Practical advice for observing but-
terflies throughout the world.]
Scott, James A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford:
Standford University Press, xviii+ 583 p. [A complete guide to the
species of butterflies and skippers of Canada and the USA.]
Wings, The Xerces Society, 10 Southwest Ash St., Portland, OR 97204. [An
international group dedicated to the conservation of rare inver-
tebrates (including butterflies and skippers) and their habitats.]
Young Entomologists' Society, c/o Gary Dunn, Department of Entomol-
ogy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. [Publishes
a quarterly journal devoted to general articles on entomology of in-
terest to the beginner.]


There are many biological supply companies, but not all of them carry
entomological supplies. Write to the following for catalogs explaining that
you want to order entomological supplies.
American Biological Supply Co. (AMBI), 1330 Dillon Heights Avenue, Bal-
timore, MD 21228.
BioQuip Products, Inc., 17803 LaSalle Avenue, Gardena, CA 90248.
Carolina Biological Supply Co., Burlington, NC 27216
Turtox, Cambosco, MacMillan Science Co., Inc. 8200 South Hoyne Ave.,
Chicago, IL 60620. (They charge a fee for their catalog.)

Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., P. O. Box 1712, Rochester, NY
14603, or P. O. Box 1749, Monterey, CA 93942 (for West Coast or-


adult the last stage in the life cycle; the reproductive stage of insects.
apical at the tip; farthest point away from the center of the insect.
basal toward the body; the point of attachment.
caterpillar the feeding stage of butterflies; see larva.
chrysalis the transformation stage of butterflies; see pupa.
composite a plant belonging to the family Compositae (e.g., aster).
conifer a cone bearing plant.
costa the outermost vein of the wings of butterflies.
deciduous trees or bushes that shed their leaves seasonally instead of
gradually throughout the year.
disturbed habitat environment changes naturally or by man, e.g., plow-
ing, bull dozing, flooding, etc.
eye spot pattern on butterfly wings resembing an eye with contrasting
colors with a ringed center.
family taxonomic category below the level of order; family names end in
fauna animal species of a given region.
FWS front wing span; refers to the width of both wings of the butterfly
when the wings are spread.
FW front wing.
genitalia the modified apical abdominal segments and intromitten organ
of male butterflies, or the ovipositor of the female butterflies.
genus a taxonomic category to which species are assigned.
hammock a raised clump or "island" of dense woody vegetation sur-
rounded by grassy plains which are often covered with a thin layer
of water.
host plant the food plant of the larval stage (catepillar of butterflies) of
phytophagous (plant eating) insects.
HW hind wings.
in. inches.
imago the adult stage.


introduced a species not native to an area but one that invaded either
naturally or is brought in by man into the area.
iridescence the metallic reflections of structurally specialized scales or sur-
face of an insect.
larva the immature stage between egg and pupa, e.g., caterpillar.
margin/marginal at the edge.
marsh wetlands with emergent vegetation.
metamorphosis process of development from the egg to the adult.
migration a mass movement of adult butterflies (and other animals), usual-
ly seasonally.
mimicry two or more unrelated species that closely resemble each other,
presumably for protection.
n north or northern
oviposition the act of laying eggs.
patrolling the flying about in a certain area of males in search of receptive
perching the males sit or "perch" on vegetation awaiting a receptive
population a group of individuals of a single species living in a particular
area where they interbreed.
pupa the immature stage between larva and adult (in butterflies, referred
to as a chrysalis).
savannah a treeless grassy plain.
scrub low, dense, woody vegetation.
shrub a non-grassy woody perennial with a number of stems.
species group of individuals similar in structure and physiology capable
of breeding and reproducing viable offspring of the same kind.
stray a butterfly that flies or is blown into an area outside its normal range
where it usually does not breed; not a regular migrant.
subspecies a taxonomic subdivision of species with some structural or color
difference, usually with a distinct geographical distribution.
subtropical an area bordering the tropical zone.
taxonomy the naming and arranging of species and higher group into a
system of classification.
UN underside of the wings.
UP upper side of the wings.



The number proceeding the common name of each butterfly in the
following list corresponds to the assigned number and common name of
the butterfly found in the main text (pages 17 through 71).
"Stray." in the following list is a stray butterfly (and hence, does not
breed) in Florida.
When you see a Florida butterfly or stray, use the E in front of the
following checklist entries to place a check-mark: E. Notes may be added -
in the main text-after the description of each butterfly.

O 1. Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor philenor)
O 2. Gold Rim Swallowtail (Ballus polydamas lucayus)
O 3. Zebra Swallowtail (Eurytzdes marcellusfloridemnis)
O Stray. Cuban Kite Swallowtail (Eurytides celadon)
O 4. American (= Black) Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes asterius)
D 5. Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes)
O Stray. Bahamas Swallowtail (Papilio andraemon bonhotei)
O 6. Schaus' (= Island) Swallowtail (Papilio arttodemus ponceanus)
O 7. Queen Swallowtail (Paptlio androgeus epidaurus)
D 8. Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Paptlio glaucus australis)
O 9. Spicebush Swallowtail (Papilio trolus lwoneus)
O 10. Laurel (= Palamedes) Swallowtail (Papdio palamedes)

[ 11. Florida (=Tropical) White (Appias drsilla neumoegenn)
O 12. Checkered White (=Southern Cabbageworm) Butterfly (Pieris
[Pontia] protodice)
O 13. European Cabbage Butterfly (=Small White) (Pieris rapae)
O 14. Great Southern White (Ascia monuste phileta)
n 15. Falcate Orangetip (Anthochans msdea modea)
O 16. Orange Sulfur (- Alfalfa Caterpillar) Butterfly (Colzas eurytheme)
O 17. Common (= Clouded) Sulfur (Colias phtlodice)
O 18. Eastern Dogface (Colias [Zerene] cesonia)
O Stray. Yellow (= Giant) Brimstone (Anteos maerula)
D 19. Large Orange Sulfur (Phoebis aganthe maxima)
[ 20. Cloudless Sulfur (Phoebis sennae eubule)
O 21. Orange Barred Sulfur (Phoebis philea)



L 22. Migrant (= Statira) Sulfur (Phoebis [Aphrissa] statirafloridenis)
O Stray. Orbed Sulfur (Phoebhs orbis)
O 23. Guayacan (= Lyside) Sulfur (Kncogonia lyside)
D 24. Barred Sulfur (Eurema daira daira)
O Stray. Poodle Face (= Boisduval's) Sulfur (Eurema boisduvaliana)
O 25. Little Sulfur (Eurema lisa)
H Stray. Bahamas (= Chamberlain's) Sulfur (Eurema chamberlain)
O 26. Bush Sulfur (Eurema dina helios)
O 27. Blacktip (=Jamaican) Sulfur (Eurema nise)
O Stray. Sly Sulfur (Eurema messalina blakei)
O 28. Rambling (= Sleepy) Orange (Eurema nicippe)
O 29. Dainty Sulfur (Nathalis iole)

O 30. Harvester (Fenseca tarquinius tarquinius)
O 31. Coontie Hairstreak (=Atala) (Eumaeus alaa florida)
H 32. Great Blue (= Purple) Hairstreak (Atlides halesus halesus)
[ 33. Verde Azul (=Maesites) Hairstreak (Chlorostrymon maesites maesiles)
O 34. Silver Banded (=St. Christopher's) Hairstreak (Chlorostrymon s.
O 35. Coral Hairstreak (Harkenclenus titus mopus)
O 36. Banded Hairstreak (Satyrium calanus)
D 37. Sweetleaf(= King's) Hairstreak ., ,. o, ., ,
0 38. Striped Hairstreak (Satynum liparops)
D 39. Tiny (= Light Banded) Hairstreak (Tmolus azia)
0 40. Red Banded Hairstreak (Calycopis cecrops)
O 41. Cedar (= Olive) Hairstreak (Callophrys [Mitoura] gryneus sweadneri)
H 42. White Cedar (= Hessel's) Hairstreak (Callophrys [Mitoura] hesseli)
O Stray. Frosted Elfin (Callophrys (= Incisalia) irus)
O 43. Woodland (= Henry's) Elfin (Callophrys [Incisalia] henrici margaretae)
O 44. Eastern Pine Elfin (Callophrys [Incisala] niphon)
D 45. Southern Oak Hairstreak (Fixseniafavoniusfavonius)
H 46. White M Hairstreak (Parrhasius m-album m-album)
O 47. Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus melinus)
O 48. Blue and Gray (= Martialis) Hairstreak (Strymon martialis)
[ Stray. Disguised Hairstreak (Strymon limenia)
O 49. Bartram's (=Antillean) Hairstreak (Slrymon acis bartrami)
L 50. Dotted (= Columella) Hairstreak (Strymon columella modest)



D Stray. Ruddy Hairstreak (Electrostrymon endymion eyphara)
D 51. Fulvous Hairstreak (Electrostrymon angelia)
O 52. Eastern Pigmy Blue (Brephudium isophthalma pseudofea)
O 53. Tropical Striped (= Cassius) Blue (Leptotes cassius theonus)
O 54. Miami (= Caribbean) Blue (Hemiargus thomasi bethunebakeri)
D 55. Southern (= Ceraunus) Blue (IHemiargus ceraunus antibubastus)
O 56. Eastern Tailed Blue (Everes comyntas)
O 57. Spring Azure (Celastrina argiolus pseudargiolus [=ladon])

O 58. Little Metalmark (Calephelis virginiensis)

l 59. Snout Butterfly (Libytheana carinenta bachmanii)

L Stray. Banded Orange (Dryadula phaetusa)
L 60. Gulf Fritillary (Dione [Agraulis] vanilla nignor)
O 61. Orange Long Wing (=Julia) (Dryas iulia largo)
O 62. Zebra Long Wing (Heliconius charitonius tucker)
[ 63. Variegated Fritillary (Euptoieta claudia)
O 64. Streamside (= Silvery) Checkerspot (Chlosyne [Charidryas] nycteis)
L 65. Seminole (=Texas) Crescent (Phyciodes [Anthanassa] texana seminole)
O 66. Black (= Cuban) Crescent (Phyciodes [Eresia frisia)
O 67. Mat Plant (= Phaon) Crescent (Phyciodes phaon)
[ 68. Pearl Crescent (Phyciodes tharos tharos)
O Stray. Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele)
O 69. Question Mark (Polygonta interrogations)
O 70. Comma Anglewing (= Hop Merchant) (Polygonia comma)
O Stray. Comma (= Compton) Tortise Shell (Nymphalis vau-albumj-album)
O 71. Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)
O 72. American Painted Lady (Vanessa virginiensis)
O Stray. Painted Lady (= Cosmopolitan) (Vanessa cardui)
O 73. Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta rubria)
O Stray. Mimic (Hypolimnas misippus)
O 74. The Buckeye (Precis [unonia] coenia)
O Stray. Smoky Buckeye (Precis [Junonia] evarte zonals)


[ 75. Black Mangrove (=Caribbean) Buckeye (Precs [Junonia] genoveva)
O 76. White Peacock (Anartia jatrophae guantanamo)
O Stray. Caribbean Peacock (= Hubner's Anartia) (Anartia lytrea
O 77. Malachite (Siproeta stelenes biplagiata)
O 78. Red Spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax)
O 79. Viceroy (Basilarchia [Limenitis] archippusfloridensis)
[ 80. Large (= Florida) Purplewing (Eunica tatila tatilista)
O Stray. Eighty-eight Butterfly (Diaethria clymena)
O 81. Dingy Purple Wing (Eunica monima)
O Stray. Orion (Historis odius)
O 82. Red (= Ruddy) Dagger Wing (Marpesia petreus)
[ Stray. Antillean (=Cuban) Dagger Wing (Marpesia eleuchea)
O Stray. Banded Dagger Wing (Marpesia chiron)
O Stray. Waiter (Marpesia coresia)

El 83. Goatweed Butterfly (Anaea andria)
O 84. Florida Leafwing (Anaea troglodyta floridalis)
D 85. Hackberry Butterfly (Asterocampa celtis alicia)
[l 86. Tawney Emperor (Asterocampa clyton)

O 87. Southern Pearly Eye (Lethe portlandia)
i 88. Woods (=Appalachian) Eyed Brown (Lethe appalachia)
O 89. Jeweled (= Gemmed) Satyr (Cyllopsis gemma)
O 90. Southern (= Carolina) Satyr (Hermeuptychia hermes sosybius)
O 91. Orange Oval (=Georgia) Satyr (Neonympha areolata)
O 92. Little Wood Satyr (Megisto cymela)
O 93. Viola's Wood Satyr (Megisto viola)
O 94. Common Wood Nymph (= Goggle Eye) (Cercyonis pegala abbotti)

O 95. Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
Ol 96. Queen (Danaus gilippus berenice)
O 97. Soldier (Danaus eresimus tethys)
D Stray. Large Tiger (= Fig Butterfly) (Lycorea cleobaea)


O 98. Yucca Skipper (Megathymus yuccae)
] 99. Southern Yucca Skipper (Megathymus cofaqui cofaqui)

O 100. Swarthy Skipper (Nastra lherminier)
D 101. Southern Swarthy Skipper (Nastra neamathla)
E 102. Dingy Dotted Skipper (Cymaenes tripunctus)
D 103. Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius)
O 104. Least Skipperling (Ancyloxypha numitor)
D 105. Tiny Skipper (Copaeodes minima)
O 106. Fiery Skipper (Hylephila phyleus)
O 107. Dotted Skipper (Hesperia attalus slossonae)
D 108. Gulf Coast Skipper (Hesperia meskei straton)
O 109. Tawny Edged Skipper (Polites themistocles)
O 110. Little Tawny Edge (Polites baracoa)
0 111. Cross Line Skipper (Polites origenes)
D 112. Whirlabout (Polites vibex)
* 113. Brown Broken Dash (Wallengrenia egeremet)
D 114. Red Broken Dash (Wallengrenia otho)
* 115. Little Glassy Wing (Pompetus verna)
[ 116. Sachem (Atalopedes campestris)
O 117. Brown Rim Skipper (Arytone arogos)
O 118. Black Vein Skipper (Arytone logan)
O 119. Golden Skipper (Problema byssus)
D 120. Broad Marsh Skipper (Poanes viator zizaniae)
O 121. Southern Dimorphic Skipper (Poanes zabulon)
O 122. Atlantic Marsh Skipper (Poanes aaroni howardi)
L 123. Southern Swamp Skipper (Poanes yehl)
O Stray. Haitian V Mark Skipper (Choranthus haitensis)
D 124. Coastal Sedge Skipper (Euphyes platka)
D 125. Eastern Sedge Skipper (Euphyes dion alabamae)
D 126. Florida Sedge Skipper (Euphyes berryi)
O 127. Palmetto Skipper (Euphyes arpa)
[ 128. Sedge Witch (= Dun Sedge Skipper) (Euphyes ruricola
metacomet [ = vestris])
D 129. Brown Sedge Skipper (Euphyes dukesi)
D 130. Palm Skipper (Asbolis capucinus)

_ _______ __

l 131. Dusted Skipper (Atrytonopsis hianna loammi)
[ 132. Greenish Little (= Pepper-and-Salt) Skipper (Amblyscirtes celia belli)
O 133. Dusky Little Skipper (Amblyscirles alternate)
O 134. Black Little Skipper (Amblyscirtes vialis)
O 135. Cobweb Little Skipper (Amblyscirtes aesculapius)
D 136. Gray Skipper (Lerodea eufala)
O 137. Three Spot Skipper (Oligora maculata)
O 138. Canna Skipper (Calpodes ethlius)
O 139. Salt Marsh Skipper (Panoquina panoquin)
D 140. Beach Skipper (Panoquina panoquinoides)
L 141. Long Wing Skipper (Panoquina ocola)
O Stray. Sugarcane Skipper (Panoquina sylvicola)
O 142. Mangrove Skipper (Phocdes pigmalion okeechobee)
L Stray. Mercurial Skipper (Proteides mercurius)
L 143. Silver Spotted Skipper (Epargyreus clarus)
O 144. Rusty Skipper (Epargyreus zestos)
[ 145. Violet Skipper (Polygonus leo)
L 146. Long Tailed Skipper (Urbanus proteus)
O 147. Brown Tailed Skipper (Urbanus dorantes)
[ 148. Golden Banded Skipper (Autochton cells)
O 149. Hoary Edge (Achalarus lyciodes)
O 150. Cloudy Wing (Thorybes pylades)
O 151. Eastern Cloudy Wing (Thorybes confuses)
O 153. Scalloped Sooty Wing (Staphylus hayhurstii)
D Stray. Variegated Skipper (Gorgythion begga pyralina)
O 154. Caribbean Dusky Wing (Ephyriades brunneusfloridensts)
O 155. Banded Oak Dusky Wing (Erynnis brizo)
Li 156. Eastern Oak Dusky Wing (Eiynnisjuvenalis)
O 157. Brown Dusky Wing (Erynnis horatius)
l 158. Mottled Dusky Wing (Erynnis martialis)
' 159. Streamlined Dusky Wing (Erynns zarucco)
] 160. Funered Dusky Wing (Erynnmsfuneralis)
] 161. Indigo Dusky Wing (Erynnis baptisiae)
Li 162. Checkered Skipper (Pyrgus commune)
O 163. Checkered Skipper (Pyrgus oilers)
O 164. Common Sooty Wing (-Roadside Rambler) (Pholisora catullus)


- I


The number after the name of each butterfly in the following list cor-
responds to the assigned number and name of the butterfly found in the
main text (pages 17 through 71).
"Stray" after the name means that it is a stray (and hence, does not
breed) in Florida.

Achalarus lyciodes 149
Alfalfa Caterpillar 16
aesculapius 135
alternate 133
vialis 134
celia belli 132
American Painted Lady 72
andria 83
troglodyta flordalis 84
jatrophae guantanamo 76
lytrea chrysopelea Stray
Ancyloxypha numitor 104
Comma 70
Hop Merchant 70
Anteos maerula Stray
Anthocharis midea midea 15
Appias drusilla neumoegenii 11
Asbolis capucinus 130
Ascia monuste phileta 14
celtis alicia 85
clyton 86
Atalopedes campestris 116
Atlides halesus halesus 32
logan 118
arogos 117
Atrytonopsis hianna loammi 131
Autochton cells 148

Banded Orange Stray
Basilarchia [Limenitis] archippus
floridensis 79
philenorphilenor 1
polydamas lucayus 2
Caribbean 54

Cassius 53
Ceraunus 55
Eastern Pigmy 52
Eastern Tailed 56
Miami 54
Southern 55
Tropical Striped 53
Brephidium isophthalma pseudofea 52
Brown Broken Dash 113
Buckeye, The 74
Black Mangrove 75
Caribbean 75
Calephilus virginensis 58
Callophrys [Incisalia]
niphon 44
henrici margaretae 43
Callophrys [Mitoura]
gryneus sweadneri 41
hesseli 42
Calpodes ethlius 138
Calycopis cecrops 40
Celastrina argiolus ladan 57
Cercyonis pegala abbotti 94
Silvery 64
Streamside 64
maesites maesites 33
s. simaethis 34
Chlosyne [Charidryas] nycteis 64
Choranthus haitensis Stray
Cloudy Wing 150
Colias [Cohas]
eurytheme 16
philodice 17
Cohas [Zerene] cesonia 18
Tortoise Shell Stray
Compton Stray
Copaeodes minima 105
Cosmopolitan Stray

I ~_~ ~_~~~_~

Black 66
Cuban 66
Mat Plant 67
Pearl 68
Phaon 67
Seminole 65
Texas 65
Cyllopsis gemma 89
Cymaenes tripunctus 102
Dagger Wing
Antillean Stray
Banded Stray
Red 82
Ruddy 82
Cuban Stray
Dana us
eresimus tethys 97
gilippus berenice 96
plexippus 95
Diaethria clymena Stray
Dingy Purple Wing 81
Dione [Agraulis] vanilla nigrior 60
Dryadula phaetusa Stray
Dryas iulia largo 61
Dusky Wing
Banded Oak 155
Brown 157
Caribbean 154
Eastern Oak 156
Funered 160
Indigo 161
Mottled 158
Streamlined 159
Eastern Cloudy Wing 151
Eastern Dogface 18
Eighty-eight Butterfly Stray
angelia 51
endymion eyphara Stray
Eastern Pine 44
Frosted Stray
Henry's 43
Woodland 43
clars 143
zestos 144
Ephyriades brunneus floridensis 154
baptisiae 161
brizo 155

funerals 160
horatius 157
juvenalis 156
martialis 158
zarucco 159
Eumaeus atalaflorida 31
monima 81
talila tatilita 80
arpa 127
berryi 126
dion alabamae 125
dukesi 129
pilatka 124
ruricola vestris 128
Euptoieta claudia 63
boisduvaliana Stray
chamberlain Stray
daira daira 24
dina helios 26
lisa 25
messalina blakei Stray
nicippe 28
nise 27
European Cabbage Butterfly 13
celadon Stray
marcellus floridensis 3
Everes comyntas 56
Eyed Brown
Woods 88
Appalachian 88
Falcate Orangetip 15
Feniseca tarquinius tarquinius 30
Fig Butterfly Stray
Fixsenia favoniavonifvonius 45
Florida Leafwing 84
Great Spangled Stray
Gulf 60
Variegated 63
Giant Brimstone Stray
Goatweed Butterfly 83
Gorgythion begga pyralina Stray
Hackberry Butterfly 85
Antillean 49
Atala 31
Banded 36
Bartram's 49

_ I I II


Blue and Gray 48
Cedar 41
Columella 50
Coontie 31
Coral 35
Disguised Stray
Dotted 50
Fulvous 51
Gray 47
Great Blue 32
Purple 32
Hessel's 42
King's 37
Light Banded 39
Maesites 33
Martialis 48
Olive 41
Red Banded 40
Ruddy Stray
Silver Banded 34
Southern Oak 45
St. Christopher's 34
Striped 38
Sweetleaf 37
Tiny 39
Verde Azul 33
White Cedar 42
White M 46
Harkenclenus titus mopus 35
Harvester 30
Heliconius charitonius luckeri 62
ceraunus antibubastus 55
thomasi bethunebakeri 54
Hermeuptychia henres sosybius 90
attalus slossonae 107
meskei strain 108
Historic odius Stray
Hoary Edge 149
Hylephila phyleus 106
Hypolimnas misippus Stray
Incisalia irus Stray
Julia 61
Kricogonia lyside 23
Large Tiger Stray
Leptotes cassius theonus 3
Lerema accius 103
Lerodea eufala 136
appalachia 88
portlandia 87

Lihytheana carinenta bachmanii 59
Limrenitis arthemis astyanax 78
Little Glassy Wing 115
Little Metalmark 58
I.ittle Tawny Edge 110
Long Wing
Orange 61
Zebra 62
Lycorea cleobaea Stray
Malachite 77
chiron Stray
coresia Stray
eleuchea Stray
petreus 82
cofaqui cofaqui 99
yuccae 98
cymela 92
viola 93
Mimic Stray
Monarch 95
Mourning Cloak 71
Iherminier 100
neamathla 101
Nathalis tole 29
Neonympha areolata 91
antiopa 71
vau-albumj-album Stray
Oligoria maculata 137
Rambling 28
Sleepy 28
Orion Stray
Painted Lady Stray
ocola 141
panoquin 139
panoquinoides 140
sylvicola Stray
andraemon bonhotei Stray
androgeus epidaurus 7
aristodemus ponceanus 6
cresphonles 5
glaucus australis 8
palamedes 10
polyxenes asterrus 4
troilus ihoneus 9

r ~~I~

Parrhasius m-album m-album 46
Caribbean Stray
Hubner's Anartia Stray
White 76
Pearly Eye, Southern 87
Phocides pigmalion okeechobee 142
agarithe maxima 19
orbcs Stray
philea 21
sennae eubule 20
Phoebis [Aphnssa] statira floridensis 22
Pholisora catullus 164
phaon 67
tharos tharos 68
Phyciodes [Anthanassa] texana seminole
Phyciodes [Eresia]frisia 66
Pieris rapae 13
Pieris [Pontia] protodice 12
aaroni howardi 122
yehl 123
aviator zizaniae 120
zabulon 121
baracoa 110
origenes 111
themstocles 109
vibex 112
comma 70
interrogationis 69
Polygonus leo 145
Pompeius verna 115
Precise [aunona]
coenma 74
evarte zonalis Stray
genoveva 75
Problem byssus 119
Proteides mercurius Stray
Florida 80
S Large 80
communis 162
oileus 163
Queen 96
. Question Mark 69
Red Admiral 73

Red Broken Dash 114
Red Spotted Purple 78
Sachem 116
calanus 36
kingi 37
liparops 38
Carolina 90
Gemmed 89
Georgia 91
Jeweled 89
Little Wood 92
Orange Oval 91
Southern 90
Viola's Wood 93
Siproeta stelenes biplagiala 77
Skipperling, Least 104
Atlantic Marsh 122
Beach 140
Black Little 134
Black Vein 118
Broad Marsh 120
Brown Rim 117
Brown Sedge 129
Brown Tailed 147
Canna 138
Checkered 162
Checkered 163
Clouded 103
Coastal Sedge 124
Cobweb Little 135
Cross Line 111
Dingy Dotted 102
Dotted 107
Dun Sedge 128
Dusky Little 133
Dusted 131
Eastern Sedge 125
Fiery 106
Florida Sedge 126
Golden 119
Golden Banded 148
Gray 136
Greenish Little 132
GulfCoast 108
Haitian V Mark Stray
Long Tailed 146
Long Wing 141
Mangrove 142
Mercurial Stray



Palm 130
Palmetto 127
Pepper-and-Salt 132
Salt Marsh 139
Sedge Witch 128
Silver Spotted 143
Rusty 144
Southern Dimorphic 121
Southern Swamp 123
Southern Swarthy 101
Southern Yucca 99
Sugarcane Stray
Swarthy 100
Tawny Edged 109
Three Spot 137
Tiny 105
Variegated Stray
Violet 145
Yucca 98
Smoky Buckeye Stray
Snout Butterfly 59
Soldier 97
Sooty Wing
Scalloped 153
Common 164
Roadside Rambler 164
Southern Cabbageworm Butterfly 12
Speyena cybele Stray
Spring Azure 57
Staphylus hayhurstii 153
acis bartrami 49
columella modest 50
limenia Stray
martialis 48
melinus melinus 47
Bahamas Stray
Barred 24
Blacktip 27
Boisduval's Stray
Bush 26
Chamberlain's Stray
Clouded 17
Cloudless 20
Common 17
Dainty 29
Guayacan 23
Jamaican 27
Large Orange 19
Little 25
Lyside 23

Migrant 22
Orange 16
Orange Barred 21
Orbed Stray
Poodle Face Stray
Sly Stray
Statira 22
American 4
Bahamas Stray
Black 4
Cuban Kite Stray
Eastern Tiger 8
Giant 5
Gold Rim 2
Island 6
Laurel 10
Palamedes 10
Pipevine 1
Queen 7
Schaus' 6
Spicebush 9
Zebra 3
Tawney Emperor 86
confusis 151
pylades 150
Tmolus azia 39
dorantes 147
proteus 146
atalanta rubria 73
cardui Stray
virginiensis 72
Viceroy 79
Waiter Stray
egeremet 113
otho 114
Whirlabout 112
Checkered 12
Florida 11
Great Southern 14
Small 13
Tropical 11
Wood Nymph
Common 94
Goggle Eye 94
Yellow Brimstone Stray

_ __I

0 E I