• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Main
 Back Cover














Group Title: flat bark beetles of Florida (Coleoptera Silvanidae, Passandridae, Laemophloeidae)
Title: The flat bark beetles of Florida (Coleoptera Silvanidae, Passandridae, Laemophloeidae)
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000095/00001
 Material Information
Title: The flat bark beetles of Florida (Coleoptera Silvanidae, Passandridae, Laemophloeidae)
Physical Description: xiii, 239 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thomas, M. C ( Michael Charles ), 1948-
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Bark beetles -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cucujidae   ( lcsh )
Cucujidae   ( lcsh )
Cucujidae   ( lcsh )
Entomology and Nematology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Entomology and Nematology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 218-237.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Charles Thomas.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000095
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0028
notis - ACU9970
alephbibnum - 000527840
oclc - 13476012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Back Cover
        Page 95
Full Text


l ;/6rARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
v, i/ And Neighboring Land Areas

Volume 15

The Flat Bark Beetles of Florida
(Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Passandridae,
Laemophloeidae)

by


Michael C. Thomas
Florida State Collection of Arthropods
P.O. Box 147100
Gainesville, FL 32614-7100 ,


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES
Bob Crawford, Commissioner
Division of Plant Industry
Richard Gaskalla, Director
P.O. Box 147100
Gainesville, Florida 32614-7100


102
F641ar
v.15








ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
And Neighboring Land Areas

Volume 15


The Flat Bark Beetles of Florida
(Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Passandridae,
Laemophloeidae)

by


Michael C. Thomas
Taxonomic Entomologist and Curator
Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Entomology Section
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
P.O. Box 147100
Gainesville, FL 32614-7100


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES
Bob Crawford, Commissioner
Division of Plant Industry
Richard Gaskalla, Director
Contribution No. 789 Date of Issue: July 1993
ISSN: 0066-8036 COST: $10.00
PI93T-21
MFIVERSITY OF FLOPIDA lr.1aiRES









FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICE

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY



Plant Industry Technical Council

Joseph W elker, Chairman (Horticulture) .......................................................... ........ ..........................................Jacksonville

Richard M im s, V ice Chairm an (Citrus)................................................................................... ..................................O rlando

Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower)..................... .............................. ..............................Punta Gorda

Edward D avis (Turfgrass)............................ ................................................................ ...........................Okeechobee

Edward Holt (Citizen-at-Large)............................ .............................................................Jacksonville

John ornbuckle (C itrus) .......................................................................................................... ................... B elleair B each

James Humble (Tropical Fruit) ........................... ................ ........................... .....................Homestead

Ken Jorgensen (Vegetable) ................................................................................ .................................. ........ Zellwood

B ryan N elson (Foliage) ..................................................................................................................... ....... ........ ... A popka

Bill Shearm an (Apiary)................................. .................................................................... ..........................W im aum a

Harold Stokes (Forestry)........................................ .....................................................Bryceville

Administration

R .D G askalla, D director ............................................................................. ................................. ...................G ainesville

C.C. Riherd, Assistant Director ........ ...... .............................................................. ........................ Gainesville

W.N. Dixon, Ph.D., Chief of Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology ....................................................Gainesville

D.L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development and Biological Control .................................... ........................Gainesville

L.H. Hebb, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control ........................................................... ........................Winter Haven

R.A. Clark, Chief of Plant and Apiary Inspection ............................................................. ..........................Gainesville

C.O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration ........................................................................ Winter Haven


SC!!l4S







TABLE OF CONTENTS

FO REW ORD .......................................................................................................... .............................................. v
ABSTRACT .............................................. ................................................................ vi
ACKN OW LEDGM ENTS .................................................................................................... ............................ vii
INTRODUCTION ......................................................... ....... 1
M ATERIALS AN D M ETHO DS ...................................................... ................................................................ 2
CHECKLIST OF FLAT BARK BEETLES FOR AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO ........................................ 3
COM PO SITION OF FAU NA .........................................................................................................................6
KEY TO THE GENERA OF CUCUJIDAE, SILVANIDAE, PASSANDRIDAE AND LAEMOPHLOEIDAE
KNOWN TO OCCUR IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO ........................................ ...................7
SILVANIDAE ............. ......................................... ....... 10
U leiotinae ........................................................... 11
Telephanani ............................................................ .. 12
Genus Cryptamorpha Erichson ............................... ..... ........................................... 12
Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guerin-M encvillc) .................................................. .............................. 13
Genus Telephanus W ollaston ......................................................................................... ......................... 14
Telephanus velox (H aldem an) ................................................................. .............. ................. ......... 14
Silvaninae ........................................................................ ......................................................................... 15
Genus Nausibius Redtenbacher .................... ........................................................................................... 15
Nausibius clavicornis (K ugelann) .......................................................... .......................................... 16
Nausi ius major Zim m erm ann ............................................ ........................................................... 17
Nausibius repandus LeConte ................................................................... ............ .................. 18
Nausibius sahlbergi Grouvelle .................................................. ....................................................... 19
Genus Eunausibius Grouvelle .................................................................................... .............................. 19
Eunausibius salutaris Parsons .................................................................................. ........................20
Genus Or zaephilus G anglbauer....................................................................... ......................................... 20
Genus Silvanus Latreille ..................... ...........................................................................................................22
Silvanus lewisi Reitter ..................... .......................................................................................................23
Silvanus m uticus Sharp .................... .......................................................................................................23
Silvanus planatus Germ ar ...................... .................................................................................................24
Silvanus proxim us Grouvelle ........................................................................................... 25
Silvanus recticollis Reitter ............................................................... ................................................. 25
Genus Cathartosilvanus Grouvelle ................................................................................... .......................27
Cathartosilvanus i bellis (LeConte) ........................................... ..................................................... 27
Cathartosilvanus opaculus (LeConte) ............................................ ............................ ................... 28
Genus Silvanoprus Reitter .............................................................................................................................29
Silvanoprus scuticollis (W walker) ..................................................................... ............................. .....29
Genus M onanus Sharp ..................... ........................... ........................................................ ......................... 30
M onanus concinnulus (W walker) ........................................................................... ....................... 31
Genus Ahasverus Gozis ............................................................................ ............................................... 32
Ahasverus advena (W altl) ....................... ............................................. ................................................32
Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley) ..................................................... ................................................... 34
Ahasverus rectus (LeConte) ................................................... ....................................................... 34
Genus Cathartus Reiche ...................................................................................... ..................................... 35
Cathartus quadricollis (G u rin-M ncvillc) ........................... .................... ...................... 36
PA SSAND RID AE .............................................................................................. ............................................. 37
Genus Catogenus W estwood ...................................................................................... .............................38
Catogenus ru us (Fabricius) ....................................................................................................................39
Genus Taphroscelidia Erichson ................... ................................................................................... .............40
Taphroscelidia linearis (LeConte)......................................................................... .....................41
LAEM OPHLOEID AE ............................................................................................. ................................ 41
Genus Lathropus Erichson .......................................................................... .............................................42


iii








Lathropus pictus Schw arz ...................................................................................... 43
Lathropus vernalis Casey ........................................ ...................................................................... 43
Genus Rhabdophloeus Sharp .....................................................................44
Rhabdophloeus horni (C asey) .................................................................................. ........................45
G enus Cr ptolestes G anglbauer .......................................................................... ........................................45
C ryptolestes dybasi Thom as .............................................................. ..............................................48
Cryptolestes schwarzi (Casey) ............................................. ................................. .........49
Crvptolestes uncicor is (Reitter) .................................................................... ....................... 49
Cryptolestes punctatus (LeConte) .....................................................50
G enus Leptophloeus C asey ............................................................................................................................51
Leptophloeus angustulus (LeConte) ................................. ............................... .........................52
Genus Dysmerus Casey ............................ ................................................53
Dysmerus basalis Casey ..........................................................................................................53
G enus N arthecius LeC onte .................... ............................................................................................. ....... 54
Narthecius grandiceps (LeConte) ............................................................ ............................... 54
G enus Laem ophloeus D ejean .......................................................................................... ...................... 56
Laem ophloeus higuttatus (Say) ................................................................ ............................ 58
Laemophloeus fasciatus M elsheimer .......................................... ...................... .....................59
Laem ophloeus lecontei Grouvelle ........................................ ....................................................59
Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle ........................................................... ......................... 60
Laem ophloeus suturalis R either .......................................................................... ................. ...... ...61
Laemophloeus .... Thomas, n.sp. ......................................... ..... .....................62
G enus Charaphloeus Cas y ................... ........................................................................................................63
Charaphloeus adustus (LeConte) ..................................................... ..................... ....... ...64
Charaphloeus bituberculatus (Reitter) ............................. .. ..................................................64
Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte)......................... ...... ...............................................65
G enus Placonotus M acleay ................................................................................. ... .. 65
Placonotus m acrognathus Thom as ..................................................... ..................... ......................66
Placonotus m odestus (Say) .............................................. ............................. ............... .......67
Placonotus politissimus (W ollaston) ...................................... ........ .... ..................... 68
Placonotus zim m erm anni (LeConte) ........................................ ........................ ..... .....................69
Genus Parandrita LeConte & Horn........................... ... ............... ..... .........................69
Prandrita pennixtus (Grouvelle) ............................................................................. ...................70
Genus Phloeolaemus Casey ..................................... ................ ......................71
Phloeolaem us chamaeropis (Schwarz) ............................. ........... .... ................ .................. .. ....72
Phloeolaemus quinquearticulatus (Grouvelle) ........................................................... ................73
REFERENCES CITED.......... ............................. ............................. ............................... 74
APPENDIX ........................... .......... ........... ... ...... ..........................................84








FOREWORD


It is well-known that some flat bark beetles are serious pests of stored grains. Little is published, however, about
the biology or pest potential of most species of flat bark beetles. The first step in exploring the biology of these beetles
for any geographic area must be a knowledge of the species occurring in the region. This volume of the Arthropods
of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas thoroughly covers the species which occur or might be expected to occur
in Florida. Complete descriptions, illustrations, and distributions in the state are given for all but the most common
pests (which have been amply described elsewhere), and all species (including all pest species) are included in the
key.
Dr. Michael C. Thomas was born in Miami, Florida, on 5 May 1948, son of Charles E. and June Thomas. One
of 3 children, he has 2 sisters. In 1970, he married Sheila McCuiston of Indialantic, Florida; they have two daughters,
Andrea and Erin. Mike was raised and educated in Miami, where he graduated from Southwest High School. His
undergraduate work in fine arts was begun at Miami-Dade Community College (A.A. degree) and completed at the
University of South Florida (B.A. degree). After working for several years in the news business, first as a reporter
and news editor for the Punta Gorda Daily Herald-News, then as a reporter and bureau chief for the Orlando Sentinel-
Star, Mike took a position in 1977 with the University of Florida's Division of Information and Publications Services
as an information specialist and research editor.
It was during these last several years that Mike renewed a childhood interest in beetles which was to culminate
in his decision to return to school in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida
as a graduate assistant in entomology. In 1985, he received his doctoral degree and he was employed as a biological
scientist in the same department, working on the biological control of the aquatic weed, hydrilla. Mike took a
taxonomic entomologist position with the Plant Protection Programs of the West Virginia Department of Agriculture
in 1986, where he was curator of the arthropod collection. Two years later, he replaced the retired Dr. Robert E.
Woodruff as curator of Coleoptera and Orthoptera for the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. In 1992, Mike was appointed head curator to
replace Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., who retired that year.
Mike has been editor of Insecta Mundi, journal of the Center for Systematic Entomology, since 1987. He
presently serves on the Division of Plant Industry Library, Computer, and Editorial Committees. He has 33 previous
entomological publications, mostly on flat bark beetles, weevils, long-horn beetles, and rove beetles. He claims not
to have any hobbies, but his friends and colleagues know him as something of a computer fanatic.

G. B. Edwards, Jr., Ph.D.
Editor, Entomology Section
Bureau of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
28 January 1993








ABSTRACT

The Florida species of the cucujoid families Silvanidae, Passandridae, and Laemophloeidae are reviewed. Keys
and illustrations for all Florida genera and species and diagnoses and detailed distribution records for all non-
economic species in the state are provided. A key to the genera of the United States is also provided, as is a checklist
of species. There are 14 genera and 33 species of Silvanidae in the United States, 11 genera and 22 species of which
occur in Florida. Of the two U.S. genera and four species of Cucujidac, none occurs in Florida. Two genera and two
species of Passandridae occur in the U.S., including Florida. The Laemophloeidae are represented by 14 genera and
53 species in the U.S.. of which 11 genera and 31 species are recorded from Florida.
One new species. Laemophloeus woodruffi, is described.
New combinations proposed ate. Charaphloeus bituberculatus (Reitter) (from Laemophloeus); Charaphloeus
flavosignatus (Schaeffer) (trom Laemophloeus); Parandrita permixtus (Grouvelle) (from Laemophloeus);
Phloeolaemus chamneropis (Schwarz) (from Laemophloeus); Phloeolaemus quiqueariculatus (Grouvelle) (from
Laemophloeus); Phloeolaemus macrocephalus (Schaeffer) (from Laemophloeus).
New synonyms proposed are:Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle = L. floridanus Casey; Charaphloeus
convexulus (LeConte) = C. filiger Casey and C. sphaerops Casey: Charaphloeus adustus (LeConte) = C. fraterculus
Cascy; Lathropuspictus Schwarz = L. costatus Grouvelle. A lectotype is designated for Laemophloeus megacephalus
Grouvelle. Dysmerus caseyi (Grouvelle) is revived from synonymy under Dysmerus basalis Casey.








ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the following curators for their cooperation and patience in making possible the many loans
necessary to realize this work: R.E. Woodruff (FSCA), T.J. Spilman and G.H. Hevel (I SNM), R.J.W Aldridge
(BMNH), N. Berti (MNHN), D.H. Kavanaugh (CASC), A.F. Newton, Jr. (MCZC), E.C. Becker (CNCC). and S.A.
Slipinski (PASC).
Individuals who supplied many valuable specimens were: Gary Shook, Boise, ID, Albert Alien, Twin Falls, ID,
Karl Stephan, Red Oak, OK, R H Tumbow, Jr., Fort Rucker, AL, and Tim King, Birmingham, AL. D.G.H. Halstead,
Slough, England, identified or confirmed my identifications for most of the specimens of Silvaninae recorded here
and supplied specimens of many species. Ken Curry, University of Florida, helped identify gut contents of many
specimens. Miss Lori Parker of Miami helped tend an ultraviolet light trap that produced many important records.
Drs. R.E. Woodruff, J.H. Frank, D.H. Habeck, J. Reiskind, and the late R.I. Sailer provided guidance.
encouragement and valuable criticism, for which I am deeply indebted. Last, but certainly not least, I want to thank
my wife, Sheila. She has, more than anyone, made this work possible.


























INTRODUCTION


The flat bark beetles are a diverse group of taxa atus Halstead was described in 1980 from specimens
traditionally included in the family Cucujidae, but from India and Sri Lanka and from coconut shells
recently considered to belong to three or four separate imported into Great Britain (Halstead 1980). A year
families. They are ubiquitous under the bark of dead later, Jacob (1981) discussed the species' potential as
deciduous, and to a lesser extent, evergreen trees and a stored products pest. Three years later, Thomas and
logs. Most species appear to be fungivorous, feeding Woodruff(1984)recordedtheimportationofO.acu-mi
primarily on ascomycete fungi. However, some spe- natus into Florida from India. Cryptolestes klapperirhi
cies are found only in the galleries of Scolytidae and Lefkovitch was described from Afghanistan in 1962
may be an important, but little studied, element in the (Lefkovitch 1962a); and recorded from Arabia in 1965
natural control of bark beetles. (Lefkovitch 1965b); 14 years later it was reported to be
Like other members of the series Cucujiformia, a stored products pest in Sri Lanka and Malaysia
the flat bark beetles are well-adapted to relatively dry (Green 1979). It was reported from the New World for
habitats, andthuspreadapted to life in storedproducts, the first time by Thomas (1988a) and is regularly
Indeed, several species are among the most destructive intercepted in foodstuffs imported from Asia
of stored products pests and have been distributed (Zimmerman 1987a). It is apparently actively expand-
throughout the world by commerce. ing its range, probably through the agency of com-
Although the biology and taxonomy of the econ- merce.
omically important species are reasonably well known, The only published list of flat bark beetles for the
the same cannot be said for other U.S. flat bark beetles, state as a whole is that of Schwarz (1878), who recorded
Many, if not most, museum specimens are either not 13 speciesfromthe families treated the present work.
identified or misidentified, and the only current identi- Fifty-six species are included in this study, including
fiction keys deal strictly with the stored products economic species which may not be established in the
species. As Amett (1963:776) concluded, "The group state but which have been, or arc likely to be, recorded
is badly in need of study at all levels." Because of this, from Florida. In comparison, Thomas and Peck (1991)
I have included a checklist of described United States found 26 species in Florida's four southernmost coun-
species assigned to their proper genus, and a key to the ties. Economic species (especially those of Crypto-
adults of genera known to occur in the United States. lestes and Oryzaephtlus) which do not occur, or rarely
Ofthe32generaand93speciesofthesefamiliesknown occur, in the wild, are keyed and illustrated hut are
to occur in the United States, 24 genera (75 percent) and otherwise not considered in detail. The taxonomic and
56 species (60 percent) occur in Florida, so that the keys biological literature on such species is voluminous.
permit the identification of the majority of the species Although larval diagnoses are presented for each
in the United States, family, this work is predominantly concerned with the
The importance of knowing the taxonomy and identification and taxonomy of adults. A generic key
biology of apparently non-economic species is illus- (Thomas 1988b) to the known larvae should be con-
trated by two recent examples: Oryzaephilus acumin suited for more details on larval recognition.









This study is based on more than 2,000 specimens
collected in Florida, deposited primarily in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA), Gainesville,
plus more than a thousand specimens from outside the
state. Collection data for all Florida specimens ex
amined for this study are listed in the Appendix. Types
and other specimens were also examined from the
United States National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, D.C. (USNM); Field Museum of Natural
History, Chicago (FMNH); California Academy of
Sciences, San Francisco (CASC); American Museum
of Natural History, New York (AMNH); British Muse-
um (Natural History), London (RMNH); Museum Na-
tional d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN); Canadian
National Collection, Ottawa (CNCI); Archbold Bio-
logical Station (ABSC), Lake Placid; and the Pohsh
Academy of Science, Warsaw (ZMPA). Individuals
who supplied many valuable specimens were: Gary


Shook, Boise, ID; Albert Allen, Twin Falls, ID; Karl
Stephan, Red Oak, OK; R.H. Tumbow, Jr., Fort
Rucker, AL; S.B. Peck, Ottawa, Canada (SBPC); C.W.
Mills, III, Gainesville, FL; R.W. Lundgren, Archer,
FL; and Tim King, Birmingham, AL.
With the increasing interest in habitat protection
as a method of environmental preservation, the distri-
bution records compiled during this study pinpoint
those areas in which isolated populations of West
Indian species continue to exist, and which face immi-
nent threat of extinction from the continued urbaniza-
tion of southern Florida. Several of these species may
very well be useful as indicator species of especially
fragile habitats.
Although this is intended primarily as a faunal
study, the taxonomy of these groups is such that
numerous taxonomic and nomenclatural changes have
been necessary.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


Flat bark beetles are more abundant in nature than
their representation in museum collections suggests.
but because of their usually minute size and retiring
habits they do not often come to the attention of the
general collector. Their small size also necessitates
special preparation in order to accurately observe their
external skeletal structure and genitalia.
Ultraviolet light-trapping, particularly in areas
with much dead wood, is especially productive and is
the method by which the majority of specimens for this
study were obtained. It is the most efficient method tor
gathering basic data on the spatial and temporal dis-
tribution of the adults. However, it reveals little infor-
mation on their habits and habitats.
In Florida, where my collecting experience has
been concentrated, most flat bark beetles can be found
under the bark of hardwood trees and logs, especially
oaks, Quercus spp. The stage of decay and physical
location of the log (e.g., whether it is located in the sun
or shade, whether it is contact with the ground, or is
above the ground) are apparently important factors in
determining the abundance of flat bark beetles and,
probably, the composition of taxa present. A few
species (e.g., Phloeolaemus chamaeropis (Schwarz))
seem to be most abundant on freshly downed wood, but
most laemophloeines and silvanines can be found most
abundantly on logs that have been down long enough
for the bark to crack and ascomycete fungi to separate
the thin outer bark from the thick, corky layer of inner
bark. It is within these pockets of loose outer bark that


many flat bark beetles can be collected (as well as
colyditds. rhizophagids, nitidulids, mycetophagids, and
corylophids). (The fruiting bodies of ascomycete fungi
are often flat, black or grey structures that look like
splotches of tar and not at all like the fleshy fungi with
which most collectors are most familiar.) Flat bark
beetles can also be found, although less abundantly, in
the space between the inner bark and the sapwood on
older, well-seasoned logs. Moist-rotten logs rarely
produce many specimens of flat bark beetles.
I have also collected specimens by beating dead
branches and by placing leaf debris in a modified
Berlese funnel. The latter method produces some
silvanines, but few other flat bark beetles. I have seen
specimens of several species that were collected in
vane traps baited with ethanol. This is a potentially
productive collectmg procedure that should be investi-
gated in greater detail.
Most specimens can be glued to standard points,
but representative specimens should be mounted on
microscope slides. The following procedure has given
good results: clear the specimen by boiling in a dilute
(approximately 10 percent by weight) solution of
potassium hydroxide (KOH). Once the soft tissues
have cleared (the specimen will appear transparent but
not colorless), rinse the specimen in distilled water.
Using fine pins or needles under a dissecting micro-
scope, dissect away the abdomen, and separate the
tergum from the sternum. The genitalia will come
away with the tergum. The mouthparts can be removed










by placing the point of the pin firmly against the
mentumn and pulling anteriorly; this will usually sepa-
rate all of the mouthparts from the head capsule except
for the mandibles, which can then be pulled away with
forceps or the tip of the pin. To better observe the
structure of the pro- and mesocoxal cavities, the legs on
one side of the body should also be removed If the
body is heavily pigmented, it may be bleached in a 3
percent solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Body, genitalia, and mouthparts should be mount-
ed under separate cover slips. I use Hoyer's solution as
a mounting medium so that specimens can be mounted
directly from water or alcohol: for greater permanence
balsam may be used, but requires time-consuming
dehydration of specimens. Using 12mm diameter cover
slips, three mounts may be made on the same slide, thus
keeping the different parts of the specimen together.
All observations of surface sculpture were made
with the aid of a light diffuser constructed of frosted
Mylar. Diffusion greatly facilitates observation of
surface features, especially at relatively high magnifi-
cations.


Larvae are often present in the same habitat as the
adults and should be collected and kept associated with
the adults. I use KAAD (1 part kerosene, 7 to 10 parts
95 percent ethanol, 2 parts glacial acetic acid, I part
dioxane (Petcrson 1962:7)) larval fixative for killing
larvae; specimens are then stored in vials of 70 percent
isopropyl alcohol or are slide-mounted. Rearing larvae
in Petri dishes or snap-cap plastic vials with bits of
fungus-covered bark is relatively simple and would
provide much needed information on the immature
stages of these beetles. The larvae of most species, and
even many Nearctic genera, are unknown,
A representative of at least one species is illus-
trated for each genus. It should be possible to identify
many specimens to genus by reference to the illustra-
tions. The illustrations were prepared using a binocular
dissecting microscope equipped with an cycpiece scale.
The measurements were transferred to graph paper,
and a preliminary pencil sketch made. After transfer-
ring the pencil sketch, the drawing was inked and then
shaded by one of the following techniques: stippling.
scratch board, or coquille board.


CHECKLIST OF FLAT BARK BEETLES
FOR AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO

(Note: Species marked with an asterisk are present in or, in the case of economic species, are likely
to be found in Florida. Valid names are in bold italic. Where species arc now assigned to a genus
other than the one in which they were originally placed, the original assignment is indicated in
parentheses after the species name.)


SILVANIDAE
Uleiotinae
Uleiotini

Uleiota Latreille 1796.46
Brontes Fabricius 1801:97
Hyliota Reltter 1880:80
debilis LeConte 1854:76 (Brontes)
dubius dubious Fabrlcius 1801:97 (Brontes)
dubius truncatus Motschulsky 1845:92
texana Dajoz 1989:198

Dendrophagus Schonherr 1809:50
cygnaei Mannerheim 1846:515
?germari Mannerheim 1843:306
glaber LeConte 1850:223
americanus Mannerheim 1853 207

Telephanini

Cryptamorpha Wollaston 1854:156


Pseudophanus LeConte 1860:84
desjardinsii Gu6rin-Meneville 1829-44:196
(Psammnecua)
nusae Wollaston 1854:157
signatus LeConte 1860:85 (Pseudophanus)
hubbardi Casey 1884:167 (Psammoecus)

Telephanus Enchson 1846:329
Heterodromia Haldeman 1846:127
lecontei Casey 1884:103
velox Haldeman 1846:127 (Heterodromia)
atricapillus Erichson 1846:330 (?nomen
nudum)

Silvaninae

Nausibius Lentz 1857:75
c lavicornis Kugelann 1794:511 (Cucujus)
dentatus Marsham 1802:108 (Coricaria).










denticulatus Macleay 1825:46 (Sylvanus)
latus Fairmaire 1850:53 (Silvanus)
intermedius Smith 1851:16 (Silvanus)
parllelus Walker 1858:206 (Rhtzophagus)
major Zimmermann 1869:257
dentatus var. major, Crotch 1873:44
repandus LeConte 1866:70
sahlbergi Grouvelle 1896:206

Eunausibius Grouvelle 1912a:314
salutaris Parsons 1974:182

Oryzaephilus Ganglbauer 1899:584
mercator Fauvel 1889:132 (Silvanus)
gossypi Chittenden 1897:12 (Silvanus)
surinamensis Linnaeus 1758:357 (Dermestes)
frumentarius Fabricius 1775:62 (Anobium)
sexdentatus Herbst 1783:31 (Ips)
cursor Fabricius 1792:96 (Tenebrio)
sexdentatusFabricius 1792-232(Dermestes)
bicornis Erichson 1846:337 (Silvanus)
acuminatus Halstead 1980:309

Silvanus Latreille 1804:158
bidentatus Fabricius 1792:233 (Dermestes)
sulcatum Fabricius 1792:555 (Colydium)
affinis Reitter 1876:58
S lewisi Reitter 1876:57
muticus Sharp 1899:560
nitidulus LeConte 1854:78
planatus Germar 1824:466
zimmermanni Gu6rin-Meneville 1829-
44:198
cognatus LeConte 1854:77
proximus Grouvelle 1904:183
amabilis Grouvelle 1914:140
recticollis Reitter 1876:61
?Leucohimatium breve Wollaston 1873-
74:170
reflexus Reitter 1880:25
vitulus Grouvelle 1882:294
pumilus Grouvelle 1912a:332
minimus Grouvelle 1912a:334
unidentatus Olivier 1790:9 (Ips)
planum Herbst 1797:285 (Colydium)
gratiosus Motschulsky 1863:501
siculus Stierlin 1864 147


Pensus Halstcad 1973:77
gilae Casey 1884:72 (Silvanus)

Cathartosilvanus Grouvclle 1912a:340
imbellis LeConte 1854:77 (Silvanus)
?rommunis Grouvelle 1878a:75 (Silvanus)
S opaculus LcConte 1854:78 (Silvanus)
trinvalis Grouvelle 1878a:75 (Silvanus)

Silvanoprus Rcittcr 1911:45
angusticollis Reitter 1876:59 (Silvanus)
scuticllis Walker 1859:53 (Silvanus)
triangulus Rcittcr 1876:60 (Silvanus)

Monanus Sharp 1879:85
Emporius Ganglbaucr 1899:578
concinnulus Walker 1858:207 (Monotoma)
signatus Frauenfeld 1867:438 (Silvanus)
fasciatus Wollaston 1874:169 (Cryptamor
pha)
fascipennis Reitter 1876:129 (Cathartus)

Cathartus Reiche 1854:77
* quadricollis Guerin-M6neville 1829-44:198
(Silvanus)
cassiae Reiche 1854:78
gemellatus Jacquelin du Val 1857:104
(Silvanus)

Ahasverus Go7is 1881:cxxvii
advena Waltl 1834:169 (Cryptophagus)
musaeorum Ziegler 1844:270 (Latridius)
guerint Allibert 1847:12 (Silvanus)
angustatus Lucas 1846-49:221 (Silvanus)
strratus Rouget 1876:ccvii (Cryptophagus)
longulus Blatchley 1910:564 (Cathartus)
parviceps Cascy 1916:136 (Silvanus)
rectus LeConte 1854:78 (Silvanus)

CUCUJIDAE

Cucujus Fabricius 1775:204
clavipes clavipes Fabricius 1781:257
clavipes puniceus Mannerheim 1843:303
clavipes var. subnitens Schaeffer 1931:175

Pediacus Shuckard 1839:185
depressus Herbst 1797:286 (Cucujus)
subglaber LeConte 1854:73
fuscus Erichson 1846:313
dermestoides Schonherr 1809:53 (Cucu-
jus) (not Fabricius 1972:96)
plans LeConte 1850:223









subcarinatus Mannerheim 1852:363

PASSANDRIDAE

Catogenus Westwood 1835:221
Scalidia Erichson 1846:305
rufus Fabricius 1798:123 (Cucujus)
puncticollis Newman 1839:399
monilicornis Casey 1916:115
parvus Casey 1916:116
puncticeps Casey 1916:116
thomasi Slipinski 1989:126

Taphroscelidia Crotch 1873:44
Syssitos Sharp 1899:541
linearis LeConte 1863:70 (Catogenus)
longiceps Sharp 1899:542 (Syssitos)
addendus Sharp 1899:543 (Syssitos)

LAEMOPHLOEIDAE

Lathropus Erichson 1846:327
pictus Schwarz 1878:358
costutus Grouvelle 1902:763, n. syn.
pubescens Casey 1884:96
robustulus Casey 1916:120
striatus Casey 1916:119
vernalis Casey 1884:95

Rhabdophloeus Sharp 1899.531
horni Casey 1884:89 (Laemophloeus)
disseptus Casey 1916:133 (Cryptolestes)

Cryptolestes Ganglbauer 1899:612
Leptus Thomson 1863:92
Fractophloeus Kessel 1921,28
capensis Waltl 1834:169
elongatulus Lucas 1846-49:479 (Laemo-
phlueua)
vermiculatus Wollaston 1854:164 (Laemo-
phloeus)
rotundicollir Casey 1884:89 (Laemo-
phloeus)
dissimulatus Thomas 1988a:47
dybusi Thomas 1988a:48
ferrugineus Stephens 1831:223 (Cucujus)
testaceus Paykull 1800-168 (not Fabricius
1787) (Cucujus)
monilicornis Stephens 1831:223 (Cucujus)
concolor Smith 1851:6 (Laemophloeus)
obsoletus Smith 1851:7 (Laemophloeus)
carinulatus Wollaston 1877:44 (Laemo-
phloeus)


emgei Reitter 1887:286 (Laemophloeus)
pubescens Casey 1884:93 (Laemophloeus)
punctatus LeConte 1854:75 (Laemophloeus)
geminatus LeConte 1854:75 (Laemo-
phloeus)
extricatus Casey 1884:92 (Laemophloeus)
adumbratus Casey 1916:134
pusilloides Steel and Howe 1952:86 (Laemo-
phloeus)
pusillus Sch6nherr 1817a:55
minutes Olivier 1791:243 (not Fourcroy
1785) (Cucujus)
testaceus Stephens 1831:224 (Cucujus)
crassicornis Waltl 1839:225 (Laemo-
phloeus)
longicornis Mannerheim 1843:303 (Laemo-
phloeus)
brevis Fairmaire 1850:56 (Laemophloeus)
parallels Smith 1851:7 (Laemophloeus)
puberulus LeConte 1854:75 (Laemo-
phloeus)
pauper Sharp 1899:530 (Laemophloeus)
turcicus Grouvelle 1876:xxxii (Laemo-
phloeus)
truncatus Casey 1884:93 (Laemophloeus)
schwarzi Casey 1884:83 (Laemophloeus)
uneicornis Reitter 1874:45 (Microbrontes)
recticollis Reitter 1876:52 (Laemophloeus)
quadratus Casey 1884:90 (Laemophloeus)
denticornis Casey 1884:94 (Laemophloeus)
iteratus Sharp 1899:528 (Laemophloeus)
addendus Sharp 1899:529 (Laemophloeus)

Leptophloeus Casey 1916:135
Truncatophloeus Kessel 1921:28
angustulus LeConte 1866:379 (Laemo-
phloeus)

Dysmerus Casey 1884:97
Brontophloeus Kessel 1921:28
basalis Casey 1884:97

Narthecius LeConte 1861:95
Paraphloeus Sharp 1899:509
* grandiceps LeConte 1863:70
breviceps Casey 1890:323, n. syn.
monticola Fall 1907:222
oregonensis Hatch 1961:200
simulator Casey 1890:322
striaticeps Fall 1907:222


Laemophloeus Dejean 1836:340
* biguttatus Say 1827:267 (Cucujus)









bisignatus Guerin-Meneville 1829-44:205
californicus Casey 1916:122
fascialus Melsheimer 1846:113
fervidus Casey 1916:121
megacephalus Grouvelle 1876:425
floridanus Casey 1884:85, n. syn.
lecontei Grouvelle 1876:496
shastanus Casey 1916:123
suturalis Reitter 1876:50
terminalis Casey 1884:83
S woodruffi Thomas, n.sp.

Charaphloeus Casey 1916:127
adustus LeConte 1854:74 (Laemophloeus)
fraterculus Casey 1916:124, n. syn.
bituberculatus Reitter 1876:316 (Laemophlo-
eus), n. comb.
convexulus LeConte 1879:2 (Laemophloeus)
filiger Casey 1916:125, n. syn.
sphaerops Casey 1916 126, n. syn.
dimidiatus Schaeffer 1910:215 (Laemo-
phloeus), n. comb.
flavosignatus Schaeffer 1910:214 (Lojemo-
phloeus). n. comb.

Metaxyphloeus Thomas 1984a:67
texanus Schaeffer 1904:201 (Rhinonalus)

Placonotus Macleay 1871:168
Silvanophloeus Sharp 1899:537
arizonensis Thomas 1984c:7
macrognathus Thomas 1984c 12
modestus Say 1827:268 (Cucujus)
singularis Smith 1851:7 (Laemophloeus)


gundlachi Grouvelle 1874:499 (Laemo-
phloeus)
liquidus Casey 1916:130 (Silvanophloeus)
nitens LeConte 1854:75 (Laemophloeus)
bullatus LeConte 1856:75 (Laemophloeus)
politissimus Wollaston 1867:67 (Laemophl-
oeus)
mirus Grouvelle 1905:142 (Laemophloeus
(Sdlvanophloeus))
commixtrs Grouvelle 1912b:304 (Laemo-
phloeus)
victus Kessel 1926:69 (Laemophloeus
(Silvanophloeus))
z*immermanni LeConte 1854:75 (Laemophl-
oeus)
apertus Casey 1916:128 (Silvanophloeus)
illustris Casey 1916:129 (Silvanophloeus)
sobrinus Casey 1916:129 (Silvanophloeus)

Parandrita LeConte and Horn 1880:133
cephalotes LeConte 1854:76 (Laemophloeus)
permixtus Grouvelle 1912b:303 (Laemo-
phloeus), n. comb.

Phloeolaemus Casey 1916:127, new status
* chamaeropis Schwarz 1878:359 (Laemo-
phloeus), n. comb.
macrocephalus Schaeffer 1910:214 (Laemo-
phloeus), n. comb.
quinquearticulatus Grouvelle 1896: (Laemo-
phloeus), n. comb.

Deinophloeus Sharp 1899'540
inpressifrons Schaeffer 1910:213 (Laemophloeus)


COMPOSITION OF FAUNA


Including stored products species which may or
may not be established in the wild, there are 93 species
in the families Cucujidae, Passandridae, Silvamdae,
and Laemophloeidae known to occur in the Nearctic
region north of Mexico. Of that total, 56 species in
three families (Cucujidae sens. str. does not occur in
Florida) are here listed from Flonda.
Of those species recorded from Florida, II are
stored products pests which may or may not occur in the
wild One other is a stored products pest that does occur
in the wild and which may be native to the southeastern
Umted States. Nine other species are almost certainly
introduced and may be established, but are not of
economic importance. That leaves 38 species naturally


occurring in Florida, two fewer than naturally occur
elsewhere m the country but which are not found in
Florida.
The native Florida fauna can be divided into five
groups based on distribution:

1. Generally distributed in the eastern half of the
United States, often as far west as Texas or Arizona;
more or less widespread in at least the northern two-
thirds of Florida: Laemophloeus biguttatus,
Laemophloeusfasciatus, Placonotus modestus, Placo-
notuszimmennanni, Cathartosilvanusimbellis, Silvanus
muticus, Silvanus planatus.










2. Generally distributed in the eastern half of the
United States, often as far west as Texas or Arizona;
more or less restricted to the northern third of
Florida: Charaphloeus adustus, Charaphloeus con-
vexulus, Lathropus vernalis, Leptophloeus angustulus,
Narthecius grandiceps, Ahasverus longulus, Nausi-
bius major, Telephanus velox.

3. Generally occurring in the southeastern United
states as well as in the Neotropics: Cryptolestes
uncicornis, Laemophloeus megacephalus, Phloeolae-
mus chamaeropis, Taphroscelidia linearis.


4. Generally occurring in the southeastern United
States but not known from the Neotropics: Laemo-
phloeus .. .,. ,,r. Cryptolestes dybasi, Cryptolestes
punctatus, Cryptolestes schwarzi, Dysmerus basalis,
Catogenus rufus, Ahasverus rectus, Nausibius repan-
dus.

5. Occurring in southern Florida and the Neotro-
pics: Charaphloeus bituberculatus, Laemophloeus
lecontei, Laemophloeus suturalis, Lathropus pictus,
Rhabdophloeus horni, Parandrita permixtus,
Placonotus macrognathus, Phloeolaemus quinque-
articulatus.


GENERIC KEY TO THE CUCUJIDAE, SILVANIDAE, PASSANDRIDAE,
AND LAEMOPHLOEIDAE KNOWN TO OCCUR IN AMERICA
NORTH OF MEXICO


Tarsomere I longer than II (fig.), tarsal formula 5-
5-5 in both sexes; aedeagus with parameres on
dorsal aspect of median lobe; procoxal cavities
closed posteriorly, usually broadly (fig. 28);
suture between mesosternum and mesepist-
ernum incomplete or obsolete (Silvanidae:
Silvaninae)
........ .. .... ............ ..... ........... ..... ...... ... 22
1'. Tarsomere I 1 -. i, shorter than II (fig. 6), tarsal
formula 5-5-5 or 4-4-4 in both sexes, or 5-5-4 in
males only; aedeagus with parameres on ventral
aspect of median lobe (fig. 3); procoxal cavities
usually open posteriorly (fig. 4, 7, 42, 76);
suture between mesosternum and mesepist-
ernum usually complete .............................2

2(1'). Genae produced anteriorly as rounded plates cov-
ering maxillae (fig. 41); elytra, but not pronotum,
with longitudinal grooves; tarsal formula 5-5-5
in both sexes; mesocoxal cavities closed later-
ally by juncture of meso- and metasterna (fig.
42) (Passandridae) ........................................ 3
2'. Genae not produced anteriorly, maxillae free; if
elytra with longitudinal grooves then pronotum
also with grooves or carinac; tarsal formula
often 5-5-5 in both sexes, sometimes 5-5-4 in
males; mesocoxal cavities usually closed later-
ally by mesepisternum or mesepimeron or both
(fig. 4 7, 76) ................... .............................4

3(2). Body cylindrical (fig. 43); tarsomere I as long as
II (fig. 44) .................. Taphroscelidia Crotch
3'. Body dorsoventrally compressed (fig. 39); tar-
somere I distinctly shorter than II (fig. 40).....
................................... ... Catogenus Westwood


4(2'). Pronotum with longitudinal lines paralleling lat-
eral margins (fig. 79); parameres fused to basal
piece and reduced to tooth-like processes on
ventral aspect of aedeagus (fig. 78) (Laemo
phloeidae) ........................................ ..... 10
4'. Pronotum without longitudinal lines paralleling
lateral margins; parameres freely articulated to
basal piece and not reduced (fig. 3)...............5

5(4'). Antennal scape elongate (fig. 13); tarsi not heter-
omerous in males, tarsomeres lobed in some
genera (Silvanidae: Uleiotinae) ...................
5'. Antennal scape not elongate; tarsi heteromerous
in males, tarsomeres not lobed (Cucujidae)..9

6(5). Procoxal cavities open posteriorly (fig. 4); tar-
someres not lobed (Uleiotini) ......................
6'. Procoxal cavities closed posteriorly; tarsomeres
distinctly lobed (Telephanini).................... 8

7(6). Tarsal formula 4-4-4; pronotum irregularly toothed
laterally and with anterior angles strongly pro-
duced (fig. 1); males with curved mandibular
processes (fig. 2) ................. Uleiota Latreille
7'. Tarsal formula 5-5-5, basal segment short but
distinct (fig. 5); pronotum simple laterally, an-
terior angles not produced; males without man-
dihular processes ....Dendrophagus Schonherr

8(6'). Head dorsally with longitudinal impressed lines
(fig. 11); apical maxillary palpomeres not se-
curiform; tarsomere III bilobed (fig. 12).........
................................. Cryptamorpha W ollaston
8'. Head dorsally without impressed lines; apical
maxillary palpomeres securiform (fig. 15); tar
somere III simply lobed (fig. 14).....................
........................................ Telephanus Erichson





























3











4 5 6








*17



8







Figure 1-9. 1) Uleiota dubius truncatus Motschulsky, anterior pronotal angle; 2) same, mandible, male; 3) Uleiota d. dubius
(Fabricius), aedeagus; 4) same, pro- and metasternum; 5) Dendrophagus sp., hind tarsus; 6) Cucujus clavipes Fabricius, hind
tarsus, male; 7) same, pro- and metasternum; 8) same, head; 9) Pensus gilae (Casey), anterior pronotal angle.










9(5'). Head produced laterally behind eyes (fig. 8);
antennae not distinctly clubbed; color bright red
...................................... .... Cucujus Fabricius
9'. Head not produced laterally behind eyes; antennae
distinctly clubbed; color not bright red ...........
............................... ......... Pediacus Shuckard

10(4). Sublateral line of pronotum carinulate, obviously
raised above the surface of the pronotum, some-
times with associated inconspicuous medial
groove; pedicel usually longer and much more
massive than antennomere 111; transverse epis-
tomal groove absent, although epistome may be
depressed ................................................. ... 17
10'. Sublateral line of pronotum a groove, sometimes
with a weakly expressed associated ridge; or,
disc of pronotum depressed but without obvious
groove or carinulate line; pedicel usually shorter,
often much shorter, than antennomere III; trans-
verse epistomal groove sometimes present.....
.................................... ... ....................

11(10'). Intercoxal process of sternum III acuminate api-
cally (fig. 69) ................................................ 12
11'. Intercoxal process of sternum III not acuminate
apically ...................... ......................... 14

12(11). Tarsomere I shorter than penultimate tarsomere;
labrum shallowly emarginate apically; elytra
carinate laterally ........... Laemophloeus Dejean
12'. Tarsomere I at least subequal to penultimate tarso-
mere; labrum semicircular, not emarginate
anteriorly; elytra usually not carinate laterally
................................. . ........................... 13

13(12'). Head rostrate..................Metaxyphloeus Thomas
13'. Head not rostrate .............. Charaphloeus Casey

14(11'). Head with distinct transverse groove separating
frons from epistome (fig. 80, 81) ....................
............................ ....... Placonotus M acleay
14'. Head without distinct transverse groove separate
ing frons from epistome, although region of
head corresponding to clypeus may be depres-
sed below level of frons ............................. 15

15(14'). Elytral epipleura well defined, complete to apical
angle; head moderate in size; basal angles of
epistome not foveate ............................ .... 16
15'. Elytral epipleura poorly defined, becoming obso-
lete at midpoint of elytra; head large, almost as
large as pronotum (fig. 83); basal angles of
epistome foveate ............. Parandrita LeConte

16(15'). Elytra usually with only third cell present; sub
lateral line of pronotum composed of a distinct
groove; anterior coxal cavities usually wide
open posteriorly; mandibles of males in some
species expanded laterally (fig. 84) .................
...................................... Phloeolaemus Casey


16'. Elytra with all cells present; sublateral line of
pronotum represented by an abrupt change in
elevation; anterior coxal cavities closed poste-
riorly; clypeal horns present in major males...
........................................ Deinophloeus Sharp

17(10). Lateral margins of pronotum slightly to strongly
undulating (fig. 45, 46); disc sometimes with
paired anterior and posterior depressions (fig.
45, 46), these often faint ............................ 18
17'. Lateral margins of pronotum evenly curved, or, at
most, simply sinuate; disc without paired ante
rior and posterior depressions .................... 19

18(17). Head with lateral lines; lateral margins of pro
notum with irregular undulations; pronotum
and elytra explanate laterally, elytra carinate
laterally and with longitudinal discal costae;
anterior coxal cavities open posteriorly; inter-
coxal process of sternum III narrowly rounded
anteriorly (fig. 46) ........Rhabdophloeus Sharp
18'. Head without lateral lines; lateral margins of
pronotum undulating at most; elytra without
elytral cells, not carinate; intercoxal process of
sternum ITT broadly rounded anteriorly (fig. 45)
.......................................... Lathropus Erichson

19(17'). Intercoxal process of sternum III broadly rounded
anteriorly (fig. 47) ... Cryptolestes Ganglbauer
19'. Intercoxal process of sternum TII narrowly round
ed anteriorly (fig. 65) .................................20

20(19'). Epistome acuminate anteriorly (fig. 67)............
.......... .............................. Narthecius LeConte
20'. Epistome truncate or emarginate anteriorly .... 21

21(20'). Pedicel attached laterally to scape, which is large
and irregularly produced in males (fig. 66);
pronotum quadrate ................Dysmerus Casey
21'. Pedicel attached axially to scape, which is normal
in both sexes (fig. 64); pronotum quadrate to
elongate..........................Lepophloeus Casey

22(1). At least tarsomere III lobed ...........................28
22'. No tarsomeres lobed....................................... 23

23(22'). Lateral margins of pronotum simple; hind femora
in m ales sim ple ........................................... 26
23'. Lateral margins of pronotum dentate or undulat-
ing; hind femora in males toothed............... 24

24(23'). Lateral margins of pronotum undulating (fig. 16,
17) ................................................ ........... 25
24'. Lateral margins of pronotum dentate (fig. 19)....
................................. Oryzaephilus Ganglbauer

25(24). Head ventrally with antennal cavity (fig. 18) .....
..................................... Eunausibius Grouvelle
25'. Head ventrally without antennal cavities ............
...................................Nausibius Redtenbacher










26(23). Anterior angles of pronotum not produced antero-
laterally (fig. 26); femoral lines open (fig. 27)
............................. Cathartosilvanus Grouvelle
26'. Anterior angles of pronotum produced anterolat-
erally (e.g. fig. 23); femoral lines closed (fig.
2 4 ) ........................................ .................. 2 7

27(26'). Anterior angles of pronotum acute, usually pro-
duced more laterally than anteriorly (fig. 23).
......................................... Silvanus Latreille
27'. Anterior angles of pronotum obtuse, produced
more anteriorly than laterally (fig. 9)..............
........................................ .... Pensus Halstead

28(22). Anterior angles of pronotum acute (fig. 29); femo-
ral lines closed (fig. 61) ...................................
_................................Silvanoprus Grouvelle


28'.


29(28').

29'.


Anterior angles of pronotum lobed at most; femo-
ral lines closed or open .............................. 29

Pronotal margins simple; femoral lines open; elytra
immaculate .................................................30
Pronotal margins denticulate (fig. 31); femoral
lines closed; elytra maculate ......................
........................................... M onanus Sharp


30(29). Body elongate, parallel-sided (fig. 32); antenno-
mere XI at its broadest narrower than X (fig.
33); intercoxal process of sternum III pointed
anteriorly ............................ Cathartus Reiche
30'. Body ovate (fig. 34); antennomere XI at its broad-
est equal in width to X (fig. 37, 38); intercoxal
process of sternum III rounded anteriorly .......
................ ..................... ... Ahasverus G ozis


SILVANIDAE


Diagnosis. The combination of the following character
states will distinguish adults of this family from the
others treated in this work: anterior coxal cavities
closed in most genera (open in Uleiota and Den-
drophagus, which are not present in Florida); aedeagus
with articulated parameres; tarsal formula 5-5-5 in
both sexes (4-4-4 in some species of Uleiota); antennae
either clubbed or filiform, not moniliform; mandibles
with dorsal mycangium (a more or less circular cavity
on the dorsal surface of the mandible near the base the
function of which, in at least one silvanid, is the
transport of fungal spores (Crowson and Ellis 1969));
maxillae exposed, not concealed by genal processes;
head and pronotum without sublateral carinae or
grooves; elytra without elytral cells but with scutellary
striole.

Larval diagnosis. Elongate, parallel-sided, somewhat
flattened; mandible with acute rctinaculum, and well-
developed mola; mala acute apically, cardines bipar-
tite; five or six pairs of steimmata; antennae either with
three well-developed antennomcrcs (Uleiotinae) or
with antennomere III reduced and fused to anten-
nomere II (Silvaninae); frontal suture somewhat lyri-
form; frontoclypeal suture absent; dorsal surface of
thoracic and abdominal segments without asperities;
spiracles annular; legs well-developed, two tarsun-
gular setae, close together in Silvaninac, widely sepa-
rated in Uleiotinae; long, whip-like urogomphi present
in some Uleiotinae, absent in all Silvaninae; abdominal
segment X located terminally, produced as pseudopod.

Taxonomic notes. Like the other families treated in
this work, this family has until recently been usually


treated as a subfamily of the Cucujidae. However,
Crowson (1955:104) removed the former subfamilies
Silvaninae and Psammoecinae to the Silvanidac. Crow-
son (1967:211) later expressed doubt, stating "...
Passandrinae and Silvaninae could well be subfamilies
of Cucujidae .. ."; however, Sen Gupta and Crowson
(1966:63; 1969:586-590) and Crowson (1973:62) con-
tinued to treat the Silvanidae, including the subfamily
Uleiotinae, as a full family. Thomas (1984b:47-54)
reviewed the phylogeny and suprageneric classifica-
tion of the Silvanidae and divided it into two subfami-
lies, Uleiotinae and Silvaninae, with the former com-
posed of two tribes, Uleiotini and Telephanini. In a
similar study, Pal et al. (1985:213-217), retained Cryp-
tamorphinae and Psammoecinae as subfamilies, in
addition to Silvaninae and Uleiotinae, which they, like
Thomas (1984b), considered to exhibit the most ances-
tral character states among the Silvanidac.
Hetschko (1930) listed 34 genera and 391 species
worldwide that would now be assigned to Silvanidae.
Genera and species described, and synonymics pro-
posed since then (primarily by Nevermann, Halstead,
Pal, and Sen Gupta), bring the world total to about 47
genera and approximately 470 species.

Biology. The biology and immature stages of the great
majority of species and most genera are unknown, but
the following generalizations can be made (the known
biology of each genus and species occurring in Florida
is reviewed below): Uleiotinae (Uleiotini) are found
primarily under bark, where both adults and larvae
probably feed on ascomycete and other fungi (Crowson
and Ellis 1969; personal observations); Uleiotinac
(Telephanini) are found primarily on plants, especially









withered, pendant leaves, and in plant debris, where
they also probably feed predominantly on fungi;
Silvaninae are found under bark (e.g., Silvanus, Cathar-
tosilvanus) or in leaf litter or soil (e.g., Silvanoprus,
Monanus, some Ahasverus), where they also seem to
feed on fungi. Some silvanines have been reported to
be at least facultatively predaceous.
Several species belonging to Oryzaephilus, Nausi-
bius, Cathartus, and Ahasverus are important pests of
stored grains, grain products, nuts, and spices. Their
taxonomy and biology are the best known of the
Silvanidae.

Distribution. The family is worldwide in distribution,
but is most abundant at both the generic and species
level in the tropics. There are 32 species here recorded
from the United States and 22 from Florida, including
several stored products species. Although the latter
may not be established, they may be introduced repeat-
edly.

Uleiotinae

Diagnosis. Members of the Uleiotinae may be distin-
guished from members of the Silvaninae by the follow-
ing combination of character states: aedeagus inverted
with parameres located on the ventral aspect of the
median lobe; tarsomeres in some genera distinctly
lobed ventrally; antennae elongate and filiform, with-
out a distinct club.

Taxonomic notes. The traditional definition of the
Uleiotinae includes only Uleiota, Dendrophagus, and,
by extension, Brontopriscus. This is the arrangement
followed by Hetschko (1930) and Pal et al. (1985).
Thomas (1984b) grouped both the Uleiotini (composed
of Uleiota, Dendrophagus, Brontopriscus, and
Aplatamus) and the Telephanini (composed of Tele-
phanus, Cryptamorpha, Platamus, Indophanus, and
Psammoecus) in the Uleiotinae. Until recently (Crow-
son 1973), the Uleiotinae had been included in the
Cucujidae rather than the Silvanidae.

Biology. Reviewed above.

Distribution. Worldwide but more abundant in the
tropics. For example, Telephanus is represented by two
species in the United States and about 100 in the
Neotropics. Aplatamus and Platamus are exclusively
Neotropical; Cryptamorpha is confined to the Old
World tropics, except for one pantropical species;
Psammoecus is predominantly Old World tropical, but
with species in Europe, Japan and northern Asia;


Telephanus is almost exclusively Neotropical, with
two U.S. species, and several described from the Old
World tropics; Indophanus is confined to India; and
Brontopriscus is confined to New Zealand. Uleiota
itself seems to be primarily Holarctic, extending south






/ , .
S._- */-
70" --,


.-'


V*4f
L- ;


,.1






'I










*10


Figure 10. Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Gu6rin-M6neville),
habitus.


-1.










in Asia to Australia, but with only one Afrotropical and
no Neotropical species. Dendrophagus also seems to
be primarily Holarctic in distribution. Four genera and
seven species of this subfamily are known to occur in
the U.S.; two of these occur in Florida. Only the tribe
Telephanini is represented in Florida.



Telephanini

Diagnosis. From members of Uleiotini (which is not
known to be represented in Florida), those of Telc-
phanini can be distinguished by the following combi-
nation of character states: anterior coxal cavities closed;
tarsomere I longer than II; antennal scape either very
elongate (fig. 13) and maxillary palpi securiform (fig.
15) or head with longitudinal grooves (fig. 11); pronotum
laterally with spines or stout setae.

Taxonomic notes. Reviewed in this section under the
subfamily.

Biology. Members of this tribe are found on plants or
in leaf litter (see section on biology under subfamily).

Distribution. Worldwide but most abundant in the
tropics (see this section under subfamily).


Figure 11. Cr.,. .... i' .. ..... i u ,r,. M ii ,
head, dorsal view.


Figure 12. Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Gu6rin-Meneville),
hind tarsus.

Genus Cryptamorpha Wollaston

Cryptamorpha Wollaston 1854:156

Pseudophanus LeConte 1860:84; syn. by Waterhouse
1876:122

Parabrontes Redtenbacher 1867:40; syn. by Water-
house 1876:122

Type species. Of Cryptamorpha, Psammoecus desjar-
dinsii Gu6rin-Meneville [by synonymy of Cryptamor-
pha musae Wollaston]; of Pseudophanus, P. signatus
LeConte [by monotypy]; of Parabrontes, P. silvan-
oides Redtenbacher [by monotypy].

Diagnosis. Cryptamorpha most resembles Telephanus
in the New World, but can be distinguished easily by
the longitudinal grooves on the frons, shorter antenna


Map 1. Florida distribution of Cryptamorpha desjardinsii
(Guurin-M6neville).









scape, non-securiform maxillary palpi, and strongly
bilobed tarsomere III.

Taxonomic notes. The generic synonymy was first
proposed by Waterhouse (1876:122) and has been
accepted by most subsequent authors. Hetschko
(1930:88) listed 24 species in this genus; Pal and Sen
Gupta (1979:78-80) described two new species from
India and Bhutan. The genus has never been revised,
nor are there any comprehensive keys to the species.
Most of the original descriptions are brief and without
illustrations, thus specific identifications require, in
most cases, comparisons with types.

Biology. The little information published on the biol-
ogy of this genus (almost entirely on Cryptamorpha
detisrdiiilsh suggests that their biology is similar to
members of Telephanus.

Distribution. Of the species listed by Hetschko
(1930:88-90), only desjardinsii and redtenbacheri
(Reitter) occur in the New World. The former is
pantropical; the latter may be generically distinct
(Thomas 1984b).


Cryptamorpha desjardinsii
(Gu6rin-Meneville)
(fig. 10, 11, 12, map 1)

Psammoecus desjardinsii Gu6rin-M6neville 1829-
44:196

Cryptamorpha musae Wollaston 1854:157; syn. by
Waterhouse 1876:122

Pseudophanus signatus LeConte 1860:85; syn. by
Waterhouse 1876:122

Psammoecus hubbardi Casey 1884:167; syn. by Casey
1890:498

Diagnosis. Length 3.3 4.4mm. Cryptamorpha des-
jardinsii can only be confused with Telephanus velox
in the Florida fauna; the generic diagnoses will dis-
tinguish the two species. According to the key in
Grouvelle (1917:45), it can be distinguished from other
species of Cryptamorpha by possession of prosternal
process not inflexed behind the coxae and elytra less
than three times longer than wide.


/


Si

.4


Figure 13. Telephanus velox (Haldeman), habitus.
Taxonomic notes. Because of its wide distribution,
this species has been described several times in several
genera. Waterhouse (1877:122) proposed most of the
above synonymies. Casey (1890:498) synonymisedhis
own species. Adults appear to be distinct and easily


14


15


Figure 14-15. Telephanus velox (Haldeman),. 14) hind
tarsus; 15) maxillary palpus.










distinguished from adults of the other species of the
genus by the characters given in the diagnosis above.

Biology. Blatchley (1928:67) reported collecting a
specimen at Dunedin, Florida in December ". . by
beating a pile of dead leaves of cabbage palmetto .."
Lbding (1945:79) reported it "At light and in mud on
river bank." Lepesme (1939:62) reported that it was
imported into France on bananas and pineapples ("...
presque exclusivement sur les bananes et les ananas
avec lesquels il est import ..."). He also reported that
adults feed on plant debris, but that the larvae are
predaceous ("L'adulte parait se nourrir de debris d'orig-
ine v6g6tal. La larve, au contraire, est carnassibre ...").
Bowler et al. (1977:452), however, reported that larvae
were abundant in Hawaii beneath leaf sheaths of
sugarcane infected with sugarcane smut (Ustilago
scitaminea Syd.), upon which they feed.

Distribution. Hetschko (1930:88) listed it as "Ko-
smopolit". Blackwelder (1945:423) recorded it from
St. Vincent and Grenada. LeConte's Pseudophanus
signatus was described from Puget Sound, Wash. As
Casey (1884:105) and Hatch (1961:206) pointed out,
this was most likely based on an introduction; it has not
been reported since from the Pacific Northwest. Le-
onard (1928:382) reported it from New York City; this
record also is almost certainly based on an introduced
specimen. Loding (1945:79) recorded it from Ala-
bama.


Map 2. Florida distribution of Telephanus velox (Halde-
man).


Specimens examined. More than 50, of which 28 were
from Florida, representing 11 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).

Genus Telephanus Erichson

Telephanus Erichson 1846:329

Heterodromia Haldeman 1846:127; syn. by Melsheimer
1853:45

Diagnosis. 3.6mm 4.3mm. The laterally spinose
prothorax (fig. 13), elongate antenna scape, securi-
form maxillary palpi (fig. 15), inverted aedeagus, and
approximate mesocoxae are diagnostic for members of
this genus.

Taxonomic notes. This is one of the largest silvanid
genera, with Hetschko (1930) listing 64 species. Nev-
ermann (1931, 1932, 1937) added 47 species from
Central America and the Antilles, and Thomas (1984b,
1991) added a new species each from Jamaica and
Rdunion Island. There are only two species known
from the United States. Although the Central American
and Antillean species are fairly well known because of
Nevermann's revisions, the South American fauna is in
need of revision; South American specimens of are
virtually unidentifiable. Specimens should be handled
carefully, since the easily-broken prothoracic spines
are important in identification.

Biology. Nevermann (1931) presented a detailed rc-
view of the biology of the Neotropical members of this
genus. Like most members of this tribe, these beetles
appear to be associated with withered, pendant leaves
or litter rather than loose bark. I have collected numer-
ous specimens of Telephanus by beating Lobelia
assurgens in the Massif de la Selle mountains in
southeastern Haiti, withered banana leaves in Grenada,
and Heliconia spp. in southern Mexico.

Distribution. This is a predominantly New World
genus, with 105 of the I11 described species occurring
in the New World, where members of the genus range
from southern Canada south to Brazil and throughout
the Antilles. Species also occur in Madagascar and
nearby islands.


Telephanus velox (Haldeman)
(fig. 13, 14, 15, map 2)


Heterodromia velox Haldeman 1846:127










Telephanus velox, Melsheimer 1853:45

Diagnosis. Length 3.6-4.3mm. The generic characters
given in the diagnosis above distinguish it from all
other Florida silvanids.

Taxonomic notes. This is such a distinct species that
there has been no confusion over its identity. Erichson
(1846:329-330) described the genus in a footnote and
proposed the new species name atricapillus. Since
Erichson did not describe the species, this name has
been treated as a nomen nudum in most subsequent
literature (although it was treated as a valid name by
Smith (1851:14)).

Biology. Casey (1884:103) noted that it is ". very
common under rubbish of various sorts . ." Smith
(1910:263) reported that in New Jersey it occurs
"Throughout the State, under stones and old leaves;
rarely under bark; may be sifted out from fall to late
spring." Blatchley (1910:569) wrote that in Indiana it
"Occurs more often beneath stones, chunks and dead
leaves than beneath bark. When exposed it usually
remains quiescent with antennae folded against sides,
but if touched it runs with great swiftness, whence its
specific name." Kirk (1969, 1970) recorded it in South
Carolina from "woodstrash," broomsedge, in hollow
trees, at lights, and on soil. The Florida specimens I
have seen were collected in ultraviolet light traps, in
pitfall traps, and from soybean plants.

Distribution. LeConte (1854:77) reported it from the
"... Middle, Southern and Western States . ." It has
also been recorded from New Jersey (Smith 1910:
263), North Carolina (Brimley 1938), New York
(Leonard 1928), Alabama (Liding 1945), Indiana
(Blatchley 1910), South Carolina (Kirk 1969, 1970),
and Florida (Thomas 1979). I have seen specimens
from Arizona, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Ontario, Tennessee, Virginia, West Vir-
ginia, and Wisconsin. In Florida it has been collected
only in the northern third of the state.

Specimens examined. More than 80, of which 19 were
from Florida, representing five collection records: 1,
Alachua Co., Gainesville, 8-VI- 1977, B.J. Smittle, u.v.
light trap (FSCA); 15, Gadsden Co., Quincy, VIII-IX-
1971, T.M. Neal, D-Vac soybeans (FSCA); 1, Jackson
Co., Florida Caverns St. Pk., 26-IV-1986, R. Turnbow,
blacklight and mercury vapor light (RHTC); 1, Leon
Co., Tall Timbers Res. Sta., 14-21-XII-1970, D.L.


Harris, pitfall trap (FSCA); 1, Marion Co., Ocala, 17-
VIII-1977, M.C. Thomas, blacklight trap (FSCA).

Silvaninae

Diagnosis. Members of this subfamily can be distin-
guished by the following combination of character
states: tarsal formula 5-5-5 in both sexes; tarsomere I
longer than II; mandibular mycangium present, but
reduced in size compared to that found in Uleiotinae;
antennae clubbed; anterior coxal cavities closed;
aedeagus not inverted, parameres located on dorsal
aspect of median lobe.

Taxonomic notes. Although until recently placed as a
subfamily of the Cucujidae, this group of genera is
distinct and easily characterized.

Biology. The biology of the members of this subfamily
was reviewed in this section under the family discus-
sion.

Distribution. Worldwide, but most abundant and
diverse in the tropics.


Genus Nausibius Lentz

Nausibius Lentz 1857:75

Type species. Cucujus clavicornis Kugelann [by syn-
onymy of Corticaria dentata Marsham, type by mono-
typy].

Diagnosis. Most similar in Florida to Oryzaephilus and
Eunausibius. Members of Nausibius can be separated
from those of Oryzaephilus by having tarsomere III
simple (incrassate in Oryzaephilus) and pronotum
laterally undulate instead of toothed. The antennal
club in Nausibius also appears to be composed of four
antennomeres, and pronotum usually with a crescentic
depression at base.

Taxonomic notes. According to Halstead (1980:344)
this genus, as presently composed, is polyphyletic,
with repandus, sahlbergi, and similar species generi-
cally distinct from the group of species related to major
and clavicornis.

Biology. The biology of most species is unknown.
Nausibius clavicornis is a minor pest of stored prod-
ucts, especially raw or yellow crystal sugar (Breese and
Wise 1959); N. major is found under bark of oaks
(Quercus spp.), and N. repandus has been collected on










pine (Pinus spp.) in association with bark beetles
(Scolytidae).

Distribution. Except for the cosmopolitan N. clavicor-
nis, members of this genus are restricted to the New
World.


WI.~
'' *' 4 S
*1 4
' C
S'. *


- a
4 4 4 4



II



i.: :;






*ut i :


Figure 16. Nausibius repandus LeConte, habitus.


Key to the adults of Florida
species of Nausibius

1. Body depressed, slender, parallel-sided; pronotal
margins slightly undulating; pronotum basally
without distinct crescentic depression...........2
1'. Body more convex, more robust, not as parallel-
sided; pronotal margins distinctly undulating;
pronotum basally with distinct crescentic de-
pression .................... ....... ............... 3

2(1). Coarsely, densely punctate and pubescent
dorsally, punctures deep; color piceous ..........
.......................................... repandus (LeConte)
2'. Dorsal surface appearing almost impunctate, punc-
tures very shallow and ill-defined, dorsal sur-
face glabrous; color castaneous ......................
.......................................... sahlbergi G rouvelle

3(1'). Pronotum with a distinctly less densely punctate
area medially (cosmopolitan, stored products
pest) .......................... clavicornis (Kugelann)

3'. Pronotum without a distinctly less densely punc-
tate area medially ............major Zimmermann

Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann)

Cucujus clavicornis Kugelann 1794:511

Nausibius clavicornis, Fauvel 1889:132

Corticaria dentata Marsham 1.802:108; syn. by Fauvel
1889:132

Sylvanus denticulatus Macleay 1825:46; syn. by
Halstead 1980:345

Silvanus intermedius Smith 1851:16; syn. by Gemmin-
ger and Harold 1868:880

Silvanus latus Fairmaire 1850:53; syn. by Fauvel
1884:73

Rhizophagus parallelus Walker 1858:206; Hetschko
1930:73

Diagnosis. Length 3.2mm 4.1mm. Adults of this
species can be distinguished from the very similar
major by the sparser punctation of the pronotal disc.

Taxonomic notes. Halstead (1980:349) noted that
many North American literature records for this spe-
cies actually refer to major, with which it has long been
confused.










Biology. Halstead (1980:349) wrote that it is ". .
undoubtedly subcorticolous in the field . .", and
Ganglbauer (1899:581) reported that it is found in old
nests of bees in South America. Breese and Wise
(1959) reviewed the literature records and reported in
detail on its biology in the laboratory. They list the
following commodities in which clavicornis has been
found: rice, dried apples, ginger, logwood (Haema-
toxylon), and cassia husks. It is most common in sugar,
especially those kinds of unrefined sugars with a high
proportion of molasses, but Breese and Wise (1959:257)
concluded: "It is unlikely that N. clavicornis could
multiply rapidly in raw or unrefined sugar, and any
deterioration in stored sugar directly attributable to it
would probably be small in comparison with that
caused by other factors." Wolcott (1950: 298) reported
it from Puerto Rico and noted it ". .. has repeatedly
been found since in brown sugar."

Distribution. Halstead (1980:347) wrote that "Al-
though indigenous to the Neotropical region, this spe-
cies has been carried to all parts of the world by
commerce and has become established in warmer
regions." He reported specimens from Madeira, Zaire,
Uganda, Zimbabwe, Reunion, Sri Lanka, Burma, China,
Japan, Philippines, Hawaii, Australia, Canada, U.S.A.,
Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Panama, Bra-
zil, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Dominica, St.
Vincent, and Trinidad. In the U.S., he reported it from
California, Texas, New York, Pennsylvania, Mary-
land, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida.


Specimens examined. Only three, and none from
Florida.



Nausibius major Zimmermann
(map 3)

Nausibius major Zimmermann 1869:257

Nausihius dentatus var. major, Crotch 1873:44

Nausibius clavicornis, auctorum (in part), not Kuge-
lann 1794:511

Nausibius major, Halstead 1980:349

Diagnosis. Length 3.9mm 5.1mm. Adults have denser
punctation of the thoracic disc than those of clavicor-
nis. Halstead (1980:349) also stated that antennomere
VIII is less transverse and pronotal teeth less prominent
in major than in clavicornis.

Taxonomic notes. Zimmermann (1869:257) noted
the close resemblance of his species to clavicornis, but
wrote that major is ". . somewhat larger, of black
color, with reddish-brown antennae and legs, and
perceptibly more coarsely punctured." Crotch (1873:
44) treated major as a variety of dentatus. Casey
(1884:75) wrote, after examining specimens of major,
".. that it is simply N. dentatus [=clavicornis] without


Map 3. Florida distribution of Nausibius major Zimmer- Map 4. Florida distribution of Nausibius repandus LeConte.
mann.


-'A-


,-*"










any difference at all, as far as I can discover." After
being treated as a variety or synonym of clavicornis
for nearly a century, this name was revived by Halstead
(1980:349), who stated that "... I am convinced that
the magnitude of difference shown by external charac-
ters warrants specific status for N. major."

Biology. Zimmermann (1869:257) wrote, "... found
only under the bark of old oaks." Halstead (1980:350)
reported one specimen ".. collected on 'Scarlet oak
assoc carpenter worm attack' and two were caught at
light." Although most of the specimens I have seen
were without data or were collected in ultraviolet light
traps, I collected two specimens from an oak (Quercus
sp.) with a slime flux.

Distribution. Zimmermann (1869:257) described it
from "Carolina". Halstead (1980:350) reported speci-
mens from Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Lou-
isiana, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. I have
seen additional specimens from the states of Ohio and
Oklahoma. There is also a specimen in the FSCA with
the following data: MEXICO, Nuevo Leon, 4 mi. S.
Monterrey nr. Siesta Motel, 12-VII-1963 R.H. Amett,
Jr. and E.R. VanTassell. This is the first record from
Mexico and the first from outside the U.S.A.

Specimens examined. More than 30, of which three
were from Florida, representing two collection re-
cords: 2, Liberty Co., Torreya State Park, 14-X-1978,
M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1, Jackson Co., Florida Caverns
St. Pk., 26-IV-1986, R. Turnbow, blacklight & mer-
cury vapor light (RHTC).



Nausibius repandus LeConte
(fig. 16, map 5)

Nausibius repandus LeConte 1866:70

Diagnosis. Length 2.4mm 2.8mm. Adults of this
species are most similar to those of sahlbergi in the
Florida fauna, but differ in their much more coarsely
punctured and distinctly pubescent dorsal surface.
Adults of both repandus and sahlbergi differ from
those of major and clavicornis by their smaller size,
more parallel-sided and flattened body form, and lack
of a basal crescentic depression on the pronotum.

Taxonomic notes. This is a distinctive species with no
specific synonyms. As noted above, Halstead (1980:344


and in litt.) stated that it and several other species,
including sahlbergi, are not congeneric with clavicor-
nis.

Biology. Blatchley (1918:423) reported collecting a
specimen "... at Dunedin while sweeping huckleberry
and other low shrubs . ." and (1928:67) ". beaten
from the tops of recently felled pine." On two occa-
sions, I have collected adults of this species from
beneath outer bark scales of small, cut pines and pine
branches infested with scolytids, and one first instar
silvanid larva from within the bark beetle galleries.

Distribution. LeConte (1866:379) described it from
Washington, D.C. and Schwarz (1878:445) recorded it
from Florida. I have not been able to find any additional
published distribution records. I have seen specimens
from Florida and Alabama.

Specimens examined. Twenty, of which 18 were from
Florida, representing seven collection records: 1,
AlachuaCo.,Gainesville 23-25-VI-1978F. Meadblack-
light trap (FSCA); 1, Alachua Co. Gainesville 17-III-
1984 M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1, Highlands Co. Arch-
bold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 26-III-1986 M. Deyrup
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo (ABSC); 1, Highlands Co.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 10-111-1986 M. Deyrup
window trap bum area (ABSC); 1, Highlands Co.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 20-1-1985 M. Deyrup
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo (ABSC); 1, Highlands Co.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 22-XI-1982 M. Deyrup
small fallen branch ofPinus elliottii (ABSC); 2, Marion
Co. Village of Rainbow Springs 31-V-1982 M.C.
Thomas (FSCA).


Nausibius sahlbergi Grouvelle

Nausibius sahlbergi Grouvelle 1896:206

Diagnosis. Length 3.0mm 3.31mm. Similar to rep-
andus in general body form, but dorsally glabrous and
with very shallow, ill-defined punctures that give the
impression that the surface is almost impunctatc. Ad-
ditionally, all specimens I have seen of sahlbergi have
been castaneous in color, those of repandus piceous.

Taxonomic notes. This species has only been men-
tioned in the literature once since its description, and
that was Halstead's (1980:344) opinion that this and
related species are not congencric with clavicornis and
major.

















































,g 17




Figure 17. Eunausibius salutaris Parsons, habitus.

Biology. Nothing has been published on its biology.
Most specimens I have seen were collected in ul-
traviolet light traps.

Distribution. It was described from Brazil; I have seen
specimens from Panama and Florida.

Specimens examined. More than 50, of which four
were from Florida, with the following label data: 2,
"Dade Co. Fla. v. 1949"/ "Cathartus quadricollis det.
H.F. Strohecker" (FSCA); 2, "[Dade Co.] Royal Palm
Park, 14-II-1951, A.M. Nadler" (AMNH).


Figure 18. Eunausibius salutaris Parsons, antennal cavity.




Genus Eunausibius Grouvelle

Eunausibius Grouvelle 1912a:314

Type species. Grouvelle (1912a:314) described this
genus for Nausibius tenebrionoides Grouvelle and N.
elongatus Grouvelle, without designating a type spe-
cies. Since Halstead is currently revising this group of
genera, I will leave it to him to designate a type species.

Diagnosis. The species are most similar to those of
Nausibius related to repandus, but they possess ventral
antennal grooves on the head (fig. 18).

Taxonomic notes. Except for the assignment of three
additional species by Schwarz and Barber (1921:192)
and Parsons (1974:181-184), there has been little taxo-
nomic activity in this genus. The species appear to be
relatively uncommon in collections.

Biology. Wheeler (1921:88-91) reported on the biol-
ogy of E. wheeleri Schwarz and Barber in Guyana. It
inhabits the hollow petioles of the ant tree, Tachigalia
sp., where all stages feed on the tissue of the inner walls
of the petiole and on honeydew, which the beetles
actively solicit from coccids that also inhabit the
petioles.

Distribution. Except for the single specimen from
Florida, the members of this genus appear to be re-
stricted to South America.









Eunausibius salutaris Parsons
(fig. 17, 18)

Eunausibius salutaris Parsons 1974:182

Diagnosis. Length 3.3mm 4.1mm. The well-marked
antennal grooves (fig. 18) and general habitus (fig. 17)
easily distinguish this species in the Florida fauna.

Taxonomic notes. Parsons (1974:181) noted that it and
E. lophius Parsons key to E. elongatus (Grouvelle) in
Grouvelle's (1912a:314) key, but both can be distin-
guished from that species by their depressed and
laterally carinate elytra (cf. convex and not carinate).
Eunausibius salutaris can be immediately distinguished
from lophius by its much smaller eyes and by the
antennal insertions, which are situated one-third of the
length of an eye in front of the eyes in lophius and the


20

Figure 20. Oryzuephilus acuminatus Halstead, front tarsus.

length of an eye in salutaris. Halstcad (in litt.) ques-
tioned the generic assignment of salutaris.

Biology. Nothing has been published on the biology of
this species. I have examined specimens from Vene-
zuela that were collected in association with Pseu-
dococcidac.

Distribution. It was described from Brazil (Parsons
1974:184) and has not been reported in the literature
since. It is here recorded from Florida and Venezuela
for the first time.

Specimens examined. Four, of which one was from
Florida, with the following data: "FLORIDA: Broward
Co. Ft. Lauderdalc V-1983 Coll. by F.W. Howard"
(FSCA), and three were from Venezuela: "Est. Exb.
Yaritagua Edo Yaracuey 1967 Osorio Coll."/"asociados
con Pseudococcidae en cafa de azicar" (FSCA).




Genus Oryzaephilus Ganglbauer

Silvanus (O. -.,.li',,,, I Ganglbauer 1899:584

Oryzaephilus, Reitter 1911:45


Type species. Silvanus surinamensis (Linnaeus) [by
subsequent designation of Halstead 1980].

Diagnosis. Of Florida silvanids, only members of
Oryzaephilus possess six distinct teeth on the lateral
margin of the prothorax (fig. 19). Additionally, mem-
bers of this genus can be distinguished by the combi-
nation of the following character states (Halstead
1980:276-277): body elongate, more or less parallel-
sided; tarsomere 111 incrassate; head without ventral
grooves; antennae with 11 antennomeres, antenna with
antennomeres IX-XI forming a distinct club, antenno-
mere XI not obviously acuminate; temples present;
femoral lines not produced caudally.


Figure 19. Oryzaephilus acuminatus Halstead, habits.
























21 22


Figure 21-22. Oryzaephilus spp., temples. 21) 0. mercator
(Fauvel); 22) 0. surinamensis (L.).

Taxonomic notes. With Halstead's (1980) revision,
this has become one of the taxonomically best known
of flat bark beetle genera. One of the prime reasons for
this is their economic importance as stored-products
pests, especially O. surinamensis, the saw-toothed
grain beetle, and 0. mercator, the merchant grain
beetle. Described as a subgenus of Silvanus by Gan-
glbauer in 1899, it was raised to generic rank by Reitter
(1911:45). Hetschko (1930:67-70) listed eight species;
Halstead (1980) included 13 species. Major references
to the taxonomy and morphology of members of the
genus include Grouvelle (1912a), Guillebeau (1890),
Honomichl (1978), Howe (1953), Joshi (1976), Pajni
and Bedi (1975), Slow (1958), and Spilman (1960).

Biology. Their natural habitat appears to be under bark
(Halstead 1980:274), although Thomas (1984b: 53)
suggested that their occurrence under bark may be
incidental to other factors. References that deal with
the biology of members of this genus include: Aitken
(1966), Arbogast (1976), Ashman and Higgs (1968),
Back and Cotton (1926), Barnes and Kaloostian (1940),
Blackman (1966), Corbett et al. (1937), Howe (1956),
Jacob (1981), Loschiavo (1976), Pierce et al. (1981),
Saxena and Kaul (1976), Sinha(1965), Surtccs (1963),
White and Sinha (1981), Wojcik (1969).
Oryzaephilus surinamensis and 0. mercator are
common and serious pests of stored products, with
surinamensis being more abundant on cereals and
cereal products, dried fruit, copra, nuts, and carob,
whereas mercatoris more common on oil nuts and their
products (Halstead 1980:290, 309). Two other species,
0. gibbosus Aitken and 0. acuminatus Halstead, have
been intercepted in Great Britain on coconut shells
(Aitken 1965; Halstead 1980). The latter species was


collected in large numbers in Florida in a shipment of
neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juas) seed imported from
India (Thomas and Woodruff 1984).

Distribution. Except for the widely distributed stored
products species, the members of this genus are re-
stricted to the Old World, especially to the warmer
areas. Three species have been collected in Florida.
Although both surinamensis and mercator are
virtually worldwide in distribution, only the former is
capable of surviving temperate zone winters but cannot
complete development at temperatures below 20 de-
grees Celsius (Halstead 1980:290, 309). See Aitken


Figure 23. Silvanus planatus Germar, habitus.
































Figures 24-25. Silvanus muticus Sharp. 24) anteriorpronotal
angle; 25) femoral line.



(1975) for detailed distribution records. Probably none
of the species is established in the wild in Florida.

Key to the adults
of species of Oryzaephilus
collected in Florida

1. Temple at least one-half length of eye (fig. 22), not
sharply angulate behind ...........................
...................... ..... surinamensis (Linnaeus)
I'. Temple less than one-third length of eye (fig. 21),
sharply angulate behind .............................2

2(1'). Anterior pronotal angle moderately developed in
large males, body less elongate (3.6-4.1:1);
pronotum of large males with lateral ridges not
strongly elevated ................... mercator Fauvcl
2'. Anterior pronotal angles strongly developed in
large males (fig. 19); body more elongate (3.9-
4.4:1); pronotum of large males with lateral
ridges strongly produced ...........................
.......................... ....... acuminatus Halstead


Genus Silvanus Latreille


Silvanus Latreille 1804:158

Leptus Duftschmidt 1823:156 [replacement name for
Silvanus]


Type species. Ips unidentata Olivier [by monotypy].

Diagnosis. The species of Silvanus can be distin-
guished in Florida by the following combination of
character states: lateral margins of pronotum simple;
anterior angles produced anterolaterally (fig. 23, 25);
tarsomere III simple.

Taxonomic notes. The taxonomic history of Silvanus
is similar to that of Laemophloeus in the Laemophloe-
idae. As traditionally constituted, it was a highly
polyphyletic assemblage of silvanids sharing little
more than a vague external similarity. Grouvelle(1912a)
recognized this and proposed a number of subgenera,
none of which was accepted until recently.
Hctschko (1930:59-63) included 55 species in
Silvanus. Halstead (1973) adopted three of the four
subgenera proposed by Grouvelle (1912a) and elevated
them to generic rank, in addition to proposing three
new genera. As defined by Halstead (1973), Silvanus
contains 17 species and is a more natural, easily
characterized taxon than it was previously.

Biology. These beetles are generally found under the
bark of logs and dead trees, where they are at least
partly fungivorous (Halstead 1973:42). Eight species
of Silvanus have been recorded from stored products
imported into Great Britain, but none is a serious pest;
Halstead (1973:42) noted that their presence ". .. may
often be due to cross-infestation from dunnage and
timber."


Map 5. Florida distribution of Silvanus lewisi Reitter.










Distribution. This genus is represented throughout the
world except for South America.

Key to adults
of Florida species of Silvanus
(Modified from Halstead 1973)

1. Pronotum more or less parallel-sided, at least in
apical half; anterior angles obtusely lobed, not
at all acute; temples rounded ...................
........................................ ... recticollis Reitter
1'. Pronotum not obviously parallel-sided, more or
less strongly convergent to base; anterior angles
more or less angulate, not lobed; temples toothed
................................................................ 2

2(1'). Anterior angles of pronotum less acute, not strongly
produced laterally (fig. 25) .......................... 3
2'. Anterior angles of pronotum more acute, strongly
produced laterally (e.g. fig. 23) .................4.

3(2). Head and pronotum glossy, punctation of frontal
triangle obviously different from sides of head;
temple extending laterally beyond eye (fig. 25)
(common, widespread species under bark) ....
....................................... planatus Germ ar
3'. Head and pronotum dull; punctation of frontal
triangle not obviously different from sides of
head; temple not extending laterally beyond eye
(single southern Florida record) ....................
........................................ proxim us G rouvelle


Map 6. Florida distribution of Silvanus muticus Sharp.


4(2'). Eyes very large, separated dorsally by 1.5 to 1.7
times their length; pronotum without well-de-
fined lateral depressions............. lewisi Reitter
4'. Eyes not as large, separated dorsally by 1.9 to 2.1
times their length; pronotum with well-defined
lateral depressions ................... muticus Sharp




Silvanus lewisi Reitter
(map 5)

Silvanus lewisi Reitter 1876:57

Diagnosis. Length 2.1mm 2.3mm. The very large
eyes distinguish adults of this species from those of all
other Florida species of Silvanus.

Taxonomic notes. This is a distinctive species with no
recorded synonyms.

Biology. Often imported into Great Britain on stored
products or dunnage from the Oriental region and
Africa, this species has been recorded on desiccated
coconut, tapioca flour, rice, pulses, bark residues, gum
arabic, groundnut kernels, and red beans, as well as
under bark, on freshly fallen coconut palms, and at light
(Halstead 1973).

Distribution. Halstead (1973) listed the distribution of
S. lewisi as India, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, Taiwan,
Japan, West Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Java,
Borneo, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Australia,
Congo, and Ghana. It is likely that this species has
become established in southern Florida.

Specimens examined. Seven, of which five were from
Florida with the following data: 1, "Dade Co., Fla. 19"
(FSCA); 1, "FLA., Broward Co., Davie 24-II-1983 L.
Daigle"/"on book in office" (FSCA); 3, "FLORIDA:
Dade Co. Homestead Baver Rd W. of Redlands 13-III-
1992 M.C. Thomas"/"under bark of burned Brazilian
pepper" (FSCA).



Silvanus muticus Sharp
(fig. 24-25, map 6)

Silvanus muticus Sharp 1899:560

Diagnosis. Length 2.3mm 3.0mm. In Florida, only
adults of S. lewisi could be confused with those of this
species; both have acute, well-developed anterior

































Map 7. Florida distribution of Silvanus planatus Germar.



pronotal angles. However, in S. muticus the eyes are
smaller and the longitudinal pronotal depressions are
distinct.

Taxonomic notes. This is a distinctive species with no
recorded synonyms. However, Halstead (1973:70) noted
that it has often been confused with the similar S.
bidentatus, which also occurs in North America, but
apparently much less frequently that does S. muticus.

Biology. Halstcad (1973:70) recorded it from under
bark of pine, maple, oak, chestnut, and juniper, and at
lights.

Distribution. The type locality is Guatemala. Halstead
(1973:70) recorded it from Canada (Montreal), and in
the United States from Alabama, Arkansas, California,
Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana,
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Penn-
sylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,
West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Specimens examined. More than 120, of which 40
were from Florida, representing 17 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).


Map 8. Florida distribution of Silvanus proximus Grou-
velle.


Silvanus planatus Germar
(fig. 23, map 7)

Silvanus planatus Germar 1824:466

Silvanus zimmermanni Guvrin-Mbneville 1829-44:198

Silvanus cognatus LeConte 1854:77

Diagnosis. Length 2.3mm 2.8nmm. From adults of
other Florida species, those of S. planatus can be
distinguished by the following combination of char-
acter states: Anterior pronotal angles obtuse (fig. 25);
head and pronotum glossy; longitudinal pronotal de-
pressions absent (fig. 25).

Taxonomic notes. Adults of this species are very
similar to the European S. unidentatus (Olivier), which
is established in North America, and S. nitidulus
LeConte. Neither species is known to occur in Florida.
From the former, adults of planatus can be distin-
guished by their glossy dorsal surface and longer
temple, and from the latter by the presence of basal
pronotal angles and generally larger body size.

Biology. Under bark of various hardwoods (Halstead
1973:65).










Distribution. Halstcad (1973:65) recorded it from
Ontario and Quebec in Canada and, in the United
States, from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland,
Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.

Specimens examined. More than 120, of which 77
were from Florida, representing 17 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).


Silvanus proximus Grouvelle
(map 8)

Silvanus proximus Grouvelle 1904:183

Silvanus amabilis Grouvelle 1914:140; syn. by Hal-
stead 1973:61


Diagnosis. Length 1.8mm 2.3mm. The following
combination of character states distinguishes adults of
this species from those of other Florida species: Head
and pronotum dull; anterior pronotal angles gradually
developed, broad and blunt; elytral apex often toothed.

Taxonomic notes. Adults of proximus most resemble
those of planatus in the Florida fauna, but the dorsal
surface is dull rather than glossy as in the latter species.

Biology. "Occurs occasionally in association with
stored products imported into Britain from Africa and
one specimen was found on brazil-nut residues in a ship
carrying nuts from Bclon, Brazil. It has been sifted
from oil-palm fruits, Elaeis ... caught at light and
found in humus and forest-floor litter." (Halstead
1973:63)

Distribution. Widespread in Africa and introduced
into the Neotropics. Halstead (1973:63) recorded it
from Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Cameroun, Gabon, Zaire, South West Africa, Tanza-
nia, Mexico, Venczuela, Brazil, St. Thomas, Marti-
nique, and Grenada. It is here recorded from Florida for
the first time.

Specimens examined. Six, of which five were from
Florida, with the following data: "FLORIDA: Broward
County 1-1984 in a building Collected by Jacques"
(FSCA).


Map 9. Florida distribution of Silvanus recticollis Reitter.





Silvanus recticollis Reitter
(map 9)

Silvanus recticollis Reitter 1876:61

?Leucohimatium breve Wollaston 1873-74:170; see
Halstead 1973:55
Silvanus reflexus Reitter 1880:25; syn. by Halstead
1973:56

Silvanus vitulus Grouvelle 1882:294; syn. by Halstead
1973:56

5, .,;r, i 1i ,... ti. ,;'; ,.ll,,.' ,,ii Grouvelle 1912a:332;
syn. by Halstead 1973:56

Silvanus (Microsilvanus) minimus Grouvelle
1912a:334; syn. by Halstead 1973:56

Diagnosis. Length 1.7mm 2.2mm. Adults of this
species can be distinguished from those of other Flor-
ida species of this genus by the following combination
of character states: Sides of pronotum more or less
parallel to apex; anterior angles obtuse and directed
more anteriorly than laterally; eyes small; dorsal sur-
face dull.






























Figure 27. Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte), femoral
line.


Figure 26. Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte), habitus.

Taxonomic notes. A widespread, variable species, it
was described several times by Reitter and Grouvelle,
whose species were synonymized by Halstead
(1973:56). Grouvelle (1912a:332) described Micro-
silvanus as a subgenus of Silvanus for this species (and
its synonyms). Halstead (1973) did not employ subgen-
era in his revision of Silvanus and related genera, and
the status of Microsilvanus has not been resolved.


S28
Figure 28. Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte), proster-
num.

Halstead (1973:55) wrote that Leucohimatium breve
Wollaston, described from Japan, is ". .. almost cer-
tainly the same species as recticollis...", but was unable
to locate Wollaston's type.

Biology. Nothing is known about the biology of this
species except that it is attracted to light.

Distribution. Widespread in the Old World tropics, it
has been recorded from India, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos,
Sulawesi, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Congo, Zaire, and
Zimbabwe (Halstead 1973:57). Thomas (1979:357)
reported it for the first time from the New World, based


































Map 10. Florida distribution of Cathartosilvanus imbellis
(LeConte).


on a Florida specimen. There was some doubt whether
the specimen was adventitious, but specimens subse-
quently collected in Georgia and Oklahoma (see below)
suggest that this species is established in the United
States.

Specimens examined. Forty-nine, 46 of which were
from the United States with data as follows: 1, Florida,
Indian River Co., Fellsmere 4-IX-1975 M.C. Thomas
blacklight trap (FSCA); 2, Florida, Brevard Co., Hatcliff
St. Pk. 12-IX-1987, Watts, Matthews & Lott, at light
(FSCA); 1, Georgia, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest 21-
VI-1979 R. Turbow blk. light (RHTC); 42, Oklahoma,
Latimer Co., [various dates June-September, 1986,
1988] K. Stephan (FSCA).

Genus Cathartosilvanus Grouvelle

Silvanus (Cathartosilvanus) Grouvelle 1912a:340

Cathartosilvanus, Halstead 1973:81


Type species. Silvanus opaculus LeConte [by synony-
my of Silvanus trivialis Grouvelle, type by monotypy].

Diagnosis. Members of this genus most resemble those
of Silvanus and can be distinguished by the following
combination of character states: different form of


Map 11. Florida distribution of Cathartosilvanus opaculus
(LeConte).


^'"


anterior pronotal angles, which are located posterior to
anterior margin of pronotum, and femoral lines open.

Taxonomic notes. Grouvelle (1912a:340) described
this as a subgenus for trivialis; Halstead (1973:81)
raised it to generic rank.

Biology. Primarily subcortical in habitat.

Distribution. Restricted to the New World, where four
species are primarily Neotropical (one is restricted to
the Galapagos Islands; one penetrates the Nearctic in
the southwestern United States and in Florida), and one
is widespread in the Nearctic.

Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte)
(fig. 26, 27, 28, map 10)

Silvanus imbellis LeConte 1854:77

Cathartosilvanus imbellis, Halstead 1973:82

?Silvanus communis Grouvelle 1878a:75; see Halstead
1973:82

Diagnosis. Length 2.5-2.9mm. The the larger size and
elongate pronotum distinguish individuals of this spe-
cies from those of opaculus.

Taxonomic notes. The synonymy of communis
(Halstead 1973:82) was based on the original de-










scription and illustration (Grouvelle 1878a:75); Hal-
stead was unable to locate the type, which was from
Brazil. Grouvelle (1912a:373) suggested that Gu6rin's
(1829-44:198) description of Silvanus (=Cathartus)
quadricollis applied best to this species, but this has not
been followed by subsequent authors.

Biology. Found almost exclusively under bark in
Florida, especially that of Quercus spp.

Distribution. Halstcad (1973:84) reported it from
"CANADA: Ontario and Quebec. U.S.A.: Oregon,
Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana,
Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, N.
Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, S. Carolina." I have seen
specimens from localities in Florida, Connecticut,
Missouri, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.
If communis is a synonym, then this species also
ranges into the Neotropics; however, neither Halstead
(1973:83) nor I have seen any specimens from south of
the United States.

Specimens examined. More than 180, of which 60
were from Florida representing 13 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).

Cathartosilvanus opaculus (LeConte)
(map 11)

Silvanus opaculus LeConte 1854:78

Cathartosilvanus opaculus, Halstead 1993:168

Silvanus trivialis Grouvelle 1878:75

Silvanus (Cathartosilvanus) trivialis, Grouvelle
1912a:340

Cathartosilvanus trivialis, Halstead 1973:84

Diagnosis. Length 1.7nmm 2.1mm. Adults of this
species can be distinguished from those of imbellis by
their smaller size and strongly transverse pronotum.

Taxonomic notes. Halstead (1993:168) synonymized
Grouvell's name after examining LeConte's types.

Biology. Halstead (1973:84) reported the following
associations: eggplants, pineapple, bananas, cedar and
mahogany logs, Primavera log, dried fruit of Musa
textilis, withered foliage of sugarcane and banana, in
nest of weaver bird, and at light. It occasionally is


transported on produce, but there are no records to my
knowledge of it being of economic importance.

Distribution. The type locality of opaculus is "Colo-
rado River, California" (LcConte 1854:78). Halstead
(1973:84) reported it from Central and South America
south to Brazil and Bolivia, as well as from Jamaica,
Grenada, Guadeloupe, and St. Vincent in the Caribbe-
an, and from California and Arizona. Thomas (1979)
reported it from southern Florida. I have seen speci-
mens from additional localities in Trinidad, U.S. Vir-





\4.-




ie
A I
.
yi


Figure 29. Silvanoprus scuticollis (Walker), habitus.





















Figure 30. Silvanoprus scuticollis (Walker), femoral line.

gin Islands (St. Croix), and the Dominican Republic. In
Florida it has been collected only in Dade and Broward
counties.

Specimens examined. More than 25, of which nine
were from Florida, representing four collection re-
cords: 3, "Dade Co., Goulds 18-IV- 1983 M.C. Thomas
& J.H. Frank" (FSCA); 1, "Dade Co., Miami Springs
14-VI-1962 R.E. Woodruff' (FSCA); 2, "Dade Co.,
Homestead 13-111-1992 M.C. Thomas under bark of
burned Brazilian pepper (FSCA); 3, "Broward Co.,
Oakland Park 5-II-1991 M.C. Thomas under bark"
(FSCA).

Genus Silvanoprus Reitter

Silvanoprus Reitter 1911:45

Type species. Silvanus fagi Gufrin-Meneville [by
monotypy].

Diagnosis. The following combination of character
states will distinguish adults of this genus: tarsomere
III lobed; femoral lines closed (fig. 30); anterior angles
of pronotum acute (fig. 29).

Taxonomic notes. Reitter (1911:45) described this
genus for Silvanusfagi, which does not have produced
temples, to distinguish it from other European Silvanus
which have temples. Grouvelle (1912a:341) pointed
out that the development of the temples is variable in
this genus and is not a good character. He wrote that the
most consistent character is a lobed tarsomere III.
Grouvelle (1912a:341-342) transferred 11 additional
species to Silvanoprus and added a new one. He also
divided the genus into two groups, afagi group of seven
species in which the notostcrnal suture of the prothorax
ends at the lateral edge of the prothorax near the
anterior angles, and a scuticollis group of six species in
which the suture attains the anterior margin of the
prothorax.


Map 12. Florida distribution of Silvanoprus scuticollis
(Walker).

Biology. Horion (1960:162) recordedfagi from vari-
ous European hardwoods and conifers, and Vogt
(1967:92) recorded it from wreaths in cemeteries.

Distribution. Except for one pantropical species (scu-
ticollis) and one species introduced into northeastern
North America (angusticollis), this genus is restricted
to the Old World.

Silvanoprus scuticollis (Walker)
(fig. 29, 30, map 12)

Silvanus scuticollis Walker 1859:53

Silvanoprus scuticollis, Grouvelle 1912a:342

Silvanus triangulus Reitter 1876:60; syn. by Grouvelle
1912a:342

Diagnosis. Length 2.2mm 2.5mm. The combination
of lobed tarsomere 11I, closed femoral lines (fig. 30),
and acute anterior pronotal angles (fig. 29) char-
acterize the adults of this species in the Florida fauna.

Taxonomic notes. This is a distinctive, widespread
species with only the one recorded synonym.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded about the biology
of this widespread species. Most of the specimens I
have seen were collected at ultraviolet light traps. One










Distribution. Hctschko (1930:64) recorded it from
East Africa, France, Guyana, Madagascar, East Indies,
Ceylon, Malay Archipelago, Japan, Sumatra, Antilles,
Grenada, Guadeloupe, and St. Vincent. Thomas
(1979:358) recorded it from Florida, Georgia, and
7- North Carolina. I can add the following U.S. localities:
Alabama, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and West Virginia. I
have also seen specimens from U.S. Virgin Islands (St.
5, Croix), Costa Rica, Taiwan, Dominican Republic,
Panama, Brazil, and Jamaica.

Specimens examined. More than 85, of which 43 were
from Florida, representing 22 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).

Genus Monanus Sharp

Monanus Sharp 1879:85

Emporius Ganglbauer 1899:578; syn. by Sharp and
Scott 1908:429

Type species. Of Monanus, M. crenatus Sharp [by
monotypy]; of Emporius, Monotoma concinnula Walker

S Diagnosis. The combination of lobed tarsomere III,
, closed femoral lines, denticulate, setose pronotal mar-
'. ' 'gins, and elytra with transverse dark fascia charac-
: terizes this genus in the Florida fauna.

S' Taxonomic notes. Sharp and Scott (1908:429) syno-
i nymized Emporius Ganglbauer with Monanus Sharp.
Grouvelle (1912a:344) divided Monanus into two sub-
''? .' genera, Monanus (sens. str.) and M. (Monanops),
S' separating them on the basis of body form, relative
"l ength of elytra, and length of metasternum.
He listed four species in the subgenus Monanops
\ "' i i and 17 in Monanus (sens. str.), of which three are now
considered synonyms of concinnulus. Recently, Pal
(1981) revised the Indian members of the genus, adding
,'1 a new species of M. (Monanops), and describing the
larva of concinnulus. He compared members of this
genus with those of Airaphilus Redtenbacher, which
also is restricted to the Old World.

Figure 31. Monanus concinnulus (Walker), habits. Biology. Pal (1981:241) reviewed the biology of the
species of Monanus, citing earlier records ofM. concin-
nulus in the roots ofLonchocarpus in Peru and in stored
specimen from St. Croix was collected in an ethanol- grain products in Nigeria, as well as recording Indian
baited vane trap. I have never collected it under bark, species from "... haystack, leaf garbage and under ..
even in areas which produced specimens from ultravi- leaf sheath .
olet light traps.


































Map 13. Florida distribution of Monanus concinnulus
(Walker).


Distribution. According to Pal (1981:241-242), the
genus Monanus is ". . restricted to warm climatic
zones, a few species extend to warm temperate zones
but none occur in the cool temperate climate. It is
unrepresented in Europe." Only the pantropical M.
concinnulus occurs in the New World.

Monanus concinnulus (Walker)
(fig. 31, map 13)

Monotoma concinnula Walker 1858:207

Monanus concinnulus, Grouvelle 1912a:371

Silvanus signatus von Frauenfeld 1867:438; syn. by
Grouvelle 1908b:489

Cryptamorphafasciatus Wollaston 1873-74:169; syn.
by Waterhouse 1876:122

C, ,i ,, ,i., ;,, ,..,, R ;i r 1876:129; syn. byGangl-
bauer 1899:586

Diagnosis. Length 1.9-2.2mm. According to Grou-
velle (1912a:370-371) individuals of concinnulus can
be distinguished from those of other species of Monanus
by their poorly developed temples, clytra about two
times longer than wide, antennomeres IV-VIII quad-
rate, clytra with transverse fascia.


'


Figure 32. Ahasverus rectus (LeConte), habitus.


Taxonomic notes. The wide distribution of this spe-
cies has resulted in it being described under several
names. The synonymy listed above was based on that
by Pal (1981:247).

Biology. Little has been published on the biology of
this widespread species. I collected specimens on an
old, moldy palm frond in Port-au-Prince, Haiti; the
only Florida specimens I have seen were collected on
Bambusa vulgaris. Wolcott (1950:298) reported it
from bananas, grapefruit, and pomarrosa (Eugenia
jambos).

















S33 34

Figure 33-34. Ahasverus spp., prothorax. 33) A. advena
(Waltl); 34) A. longulus (Blatchley).
Distribution. Found throughout the warm areas of the
world. In the New World it has been recorded (Black-
welder 1945:421) from Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto
Rico, Guadeloupe, St. Vincent, Mustique, and Grena-
da. I have seen specimens from Taiwan, India, Ja-
maica, Belize, Panama, U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix
and St. John), Haiti, and Florida. It is not known
whether it is established in Florida.

Specimens examined. More than 55, of which two
were from Florida, with the following data: "Coral
Gables Fla."/"C.F. Dowling, Jr. coll. 6-III-59"/"at
Bambusa vulgaris".

Genus Ahasverus Gozis

Ahasverus Gozis 1881:cxxvii


35


d'
k136


Figu re 35-36. Ahasverus spp., antennal club. 35)A. advena
(Waltl); 36) A. rectus (LeConte).


Type species. Cryptophagus advena Waltl [by mon-
otypy].

Diagnosis. Members of this genus can be distinguished
by the following combination of character states: tar-
somere III lobed, lateral margins of pronotum simple,
femoral lines open, body ovate, intercoxal process of
sternum III rounded anteriorly.

Taxonomic notes. Halstead (in litt.) concluded that
this is a polyphyletic genus, with rectus and related
species forming a group deserving of generic status. He
is preparing a revision of this group that will clarify the
supraspecific relationships.

Biology. Based on literature records and my collecting
experience, these are rarely, if ever, found under bark.
Only the biology of A. advena has been studied to any
extent, and it seems to be primarily fungivorous, even
in stored products.

Distribution. Except for the cosmopolitan stored pro-
ducts pest A. advena (and occasionally excisus), mem-
bers of this genus are restricted to the Nearctic and
Neotropical regions. There are three described species
in the United States; all occur in Florida.

Key to the adults
of Florida species of Ahasverus

1. Antennomere XI acuminate apically (fig. 35);
anterior pronotal angles strongly lobed (fig.
33); body ovate, strongly convex dorsally ......
.....................................advena (W altl)
1'. Antennomere XI not acuminate apically (fig. 36);
anterior pronotal angles not strongly lobed (fig.
32, 34); body more parallel-sided; not strongly
convex ....................... ......... ............ .. 2

2(1'). Pronotum transverse, at apex clearly wider than at
base (fig. 32) ....................... rectus (LeConte)
2'. Pronotum quadrate, at base slightly broader than
at apex (fig. 34).............. longulus (Blatchley)


Ahasverus advena (Waltl)
(fig. 33, 35, map 14)

Cryptophagus advena Waltl 1834:169

Ahasverus advena, Gozis 1881:cxxvii


































Map 14. Florida distribution of Ahasverus advena (Waltl).

Latridius musaeorum Ziegler 1844:270; syn. by Fauvel
1889:132

Silvanus guerini Allibert 1847:12; syn. by Ganglbauer
1899:589

Silvanus angustatus Lucas 1847:221; syn. by Gangl-
bauer 1899:132

Cryptophagus striatus Rouget 1876:ccvii; syn. by
Reitter 1880:86

Diagnosis. Length 1.8-2.2mm. The ovate, convex
body shape, produced anterior pronotal angles (fig.
33), and acuminate antennomere XI (fig. 35) distin-
guish this species.

Taxonomic notes. Despite the distinctiveness of this
species, its wide distribution has led to numerous
synonyms. It is most similar to excisus, a Neotropical
species sometimes also found in stored products and
which can be distinguished from advena by the very
deep emarginations behind the anterior pronotal angles.

Biology. Corbett et al. (1937) studied the biology of
this species on copra in Malaya and found that it
preferred copra infested with the surface molds Peni-
cillium glaucum and Aspergillus sp., and they rarely
completed development on good copra. "It is practi-
cally entirely mycetophagous and, after having con-
sumed the surface moulds, has been observed on


several occasions leaving good quality copra" (Corbctt
et al. 1937:85). Wolcott (1950:298) reported that it had
been intercepted in Puerto Rico in lima beans and
pigeon peas, as well as being collected in dry pods of
Inga laurina and under bark of a dead tree. Smith
(1910:262) recorded it in New Jersey as "... rare under
bark; more common in stored grain, fruit, nuts, etc.,
particularly such that are spoiled." Brimley (1938:179)
reported it in North Carolina from ears of corn. Other
records include: Leonard (1928:381) in New York in
dried pears from California; L6ding (1945:77) in Ala-
bama in cereals; Blatchley (1910:563) in Indiana in ".
.. various articles of commerce, especially damp flour,
meal, rice, figs, beans, apples, etc."; Hatch (1961:205)
"in copra, in coffee beans from Colombia; in flour mills
and grain elevators; in aerial trap; in grass pile; in
moldy peas and oats; and in sacked grain"; Kirk (1969,
1970) in South Carolina in cured ham, woods trash,
corn bin, and stored oats. I have collected it at light and
in a pile of decaying soybeans in a mixed hardwood-
pine forest.

Distribution. Virtually worldwide in stored products
and established in many regions. In the United States
it has been recorded from New Jersey (Smith 1910:262),
North Carolina (Brimley 1938:179), New York (Le-
onard 1928:381), Alabama (Lbding 1945:77), Indiana
(Blatchley 1910:563), Washington, Idaho, and Oregon
(Hatch 1961:205), South Carolina (Kirk 1969, 1970),
Florida, southern California, and Arizona (Leng
1920:198). I have seen specimens from Arizona, Ar-


Map 15. Florida distribution ofAhasverus longulus (Blatch-
ley).










kansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa,
Kentucky, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mis-
souri, New York, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Ontario, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and Wiscon-
sin, as well as Cuba and Thailand.

Specimens examined. More than 50, of which 16 were
from Florida, representing 10 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).

Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley)
(fig. 34, map 15)

Cathartus longulus Blatchley 1910:564

Ahasverus longulus, Hetschko 1930:67

Silvanus parviceps Casey 1916:136; syn. by Hal-
stead 1973:40

Diagnosis. Length 2.3-2.5mm. The non-acuminate
antennomere XI, anterior pronotal angles not strongly
produced, and quadrate pronotum which is slightly
broader basally than apically (fig. 34) distinguish
adults of this species.

Taxonomic notes. Except for the original descriptions
and the synonymy proposed by Halstead (1973:40)
nothing has been published on the taxonomy of this
species.

Biology. Blatchley (1910:564) reported that the type(s)
had been sifted from the borders of a sphagnum marsh.
Nothing else has been published on its biology. Speci-
mens in the CNCC bear the data "ex nest of Microtus
pennsylvanicus" and "sifting swamp". The single Flor-
ida specimen was collected in an ultraviolet light trap.

Distribution. The type locality of longulus is Starkc
Co., Indiana; that of parviceps is New York. Thomas
(1979:358) recorded it from Florida. I have seen speci-
mens from Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri,
New York, Ohio, and Ontario and Quebec.

Specimens examined. Twenty, of which one was from
Florida with the following data: "FLA., Alachua Co.,
Gainesville 4-VII-1978 Coll. M.C. Thomas"/"black-
light trap" (MCTC).

Ahasverus rectus (LeConte)
(fig. 32, 36, map 16)


Silvanus rectus LeConte 1854:78


Map 16. Florida distribution of Ahasverus rectus (Ie-
Conte).

Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, North
Carolina, and Texas.

Specimens examined. More than 250, of which 228
were from Florida representing 83 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).

Genus Cathartus Reiche

Cathartus Reiche 1854:77

Type species. Silvanus quadricollis Gu6rin-M6neville
[by synonymy of Cathartus cassiae Reiche, type by
monotypy].

Diagnosis. Members of this genus can be distinguished
by the following combination of character states: tar-
somere III lobed, pronotal margins simple, femoral
lines open, antennomere XI at its broadest narrower
than X, intercoxal process of sternum III pointed
anteriorly.

Taxonomic notes. Many species, not strictly conge-
neric with quadricollis, have been assigned at one time
or another to this genus. Hetschko (1930:70-71) listed
four species, but since the group has never been
completely revised it is uncertain if the other species,
one each from Australia, New Guinea, and Central
America, are properly assigned. Cathartus quadri-

















k.,
v *'

V.


S', Figure 38. Clahartus quadricollis (Guerin-Menev-
ille), antennal club.

It seems to be especially associated with corn, both
stored and in the field, and in the wild, pods of
Tamarindus indica, from which I have collected nu-
merous specimens in southern Dade County, Florida.
Wolcott (1950:298) reported it "in abundance" in
tamarind pods in Puerto Rico. On several occasions I
/ have also collected it from under the bark of Quercus
spp. It is often taken in ultraviolet light traps. Gangl-
1M bauer (1899:588) reported specimens in Germanyfrom
Havana cigars and from Cassia fistula. Kirk (1969,
1970) reported it from corn in the field, in corn bin, corn
mill trash, pea-vine hay, and on plum foliage. Lbding
i (1945:77) reporteditfromcornmeal. Aitken( 1975:127)
S'reported it from maize, cocoa beans, and copra residue,
t and as a field pest of corn in Nigeria and Jamaica.

I Distribution. Cathartus quadricollis is almost cos-
S" mopolitan in distribution. The other three species
currently assigned to Cathartus were described from
,, New Guinea, Australia, and Honduras.

S Cathartus quadricollis Gu6rin-Meneville
37 (fig. 37, 38, map 17)

Silvanus quadricollis Gu6rin-M6neville 1829-44:198

S. Cathartus quadricollis, Ganglbauer 1899:587-588
Figure 37. Cathartus quadricollis (Gu6rin-Meneville), Cathartus quadricollis, Ganglbauer 1899:587588
habitus.
Cathartus cassiae Reiche 1854:78; syn. by Ganglbauer
collins, at least, seems to be most closely related to 1899:587
members of Ahasverus.
Silvanus gemellatus Jacquelin du Val 1857-59:104;
Biology. Only the biology of Cathartus quadricollis, a syn. by Ganglbauer 1899:588
cosmopolitan stored products pest, has been reported.










Diagnosis. Length 2.1-3.2mm. The characters given in
this section under the genus will distinguish indi-
viduals of this species in Florida.

Taxonomic notes. The identity of this species was
disputed for many years, primarily because of the great
sexual dimorphism it exhibits and the fact that Gu6rin' s
type of quadricollis has been lost. Ganglbauer
(1899:587-588) proposed the above synonymy, which
was adopted by Hetschko (1930) for his world cata-
logue and by most modern authorities. Grouvelle
(1912a:373) accepted the synonymy of cassiae with
gemellatus but argued that Gu6rin's description of
quadricollis actually applied to LcConte's Silvanus
(=Cathartosilvanus) imbellis.

Biology. See this section under the genus.

Distribution. Hetschko (1930:70) recorded it merely
as cosmopolitan. Aitken (1975:127) recorded speci-
mens originating in Mexico, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nige-
ria, and Borneo, as well as Jamaica and Alabama. He
suggested that it is native to the southeastern United
States. Sharp (1899:559) recorded it from Mexico,
Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, and Cuba. Wolcott
(1950:298) reported it from Puerto Rico. Casey
(1884:73) recorded it from Florida, Georgia, and New
York. Liding (1945:77) from Alabama; Blatchley
(1910:563) from Pennsylvania and Georgia; Hatch


(1961:205) from Washington and Oregon; Leonard
(1928:381) from New York; Kirk (1969, 1970) from
South Carolina. I have seen specimens from Argentina,
Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, British Honduras, Domini-
can Republic, Ghana, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama,
Trinidad, and, from the United States: California,
District of Columbia, Florida, North Carolina, and
Texas. In Florida it ranges throughout the state.

Specimens examined. More than 170, of which 103
were from Florida, representing 31 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).


Map 17. Florida distribution of Cathartus quadricollis
(Gudrin-M6neville).



















PASSANDRIDAE

Diagnosis. Members of this family can be distin- head and prothorax with system of lines and grooves
guished by the following combination of character (fig. 39, 44) as in Laemophloeidae; elytra with system
states: genae produced anteriorly as rounded plates of elytral cells or remnants thereof; mesocoxal cavity
which conceal maxillae (fig. 42); gular sutures conflu- closed laterally by sterna (fig. 43); hind wing venation
ent; aedeagus inverted, with articulated parameres; well-developed.
tarsal formula 5-5-5 in both sexes; dorsal surface of
Larval diagnosis. Body hypergastric, swollen; head
and abdominal segment IX small; mouthparts reduced,
articulations not evident on maxilla or labium; anten-
nae short, inconspicuous, not articulated; legs short,
stout; spiracles annular; urogomphi short, hook-like.

Taxonomic notes. This group of genera has long been
recognized as distinct, although usually as a subfamily
of Cucujidae. However, Crowson (1955: 102) recog-
nized its distinctiveness and raised it to family rank.
Thomas (1984a:78) considered that Passandridae is
more closely related to Laemophloeidae than to Cu-
cujidae and included it in a monophyletic lineage
including also Propalticidae and Phalacridae. Het-
schko (1930) listed eight genera (in three subfamilies
of the Cucujidae) and 114 species. The largest genus is
the Old World Ancistria Erichson, with 32 species.
Lcfkovitch (1963) reviewed the African species of
Hectarthrum Newman. Slipinski (1983) synonymized
Hectarthrum with Passandra Dalman in a revision of
the genus. Slipinski (1989) revised the New World
genus Catogenus. Burckhardt and Slipinski (1991)
described a new genus, Scalidiopsis, from Brazil, and
revised five other genera, including Taphroscelidia
and Passandrella from the New World. Other impor-
tant works on this family include Grouvelle (1912b,
1916b) and Newman (1839).

Biology. Larvae of these beetles are unusual because
they seem to be exclusively ectoparasites on other
39 wood-inhabiting insects, especially pupae of Ceram-
bycidae. Dimmock (1884) and Fiske (1905) reported
on the habits of the North American Catogenus rufus,
and Gravely (1916) reported similar habits for Hec-
tarthrum (=Passandra) trigeminum (Newman).


Figure 39. Catogenus rufus (Fabricius), habitus.

























Figure 40-41. Hind tarsus. 40) Catogenus rufus (Fabri-
cius); 41)Taphroscelidia linearis (LeConte).

Distribution. Worldwide except for the Palaearctic
and New Zealand. The genus Passandra is found in all
faunal regions in which the family occurs except for the
Nearctic; Ancistria, Anisocerus Westwood, Passan-
drina Rcittter, and Aulonosoma Motschulsky (=Lae-
motmetus Gerstaecker) are restricted to the Old World;
Taphroscelidia, Passandrella, Scalidiopsis, and Cato-
genus are restricted to the New World.



Genus Catogenus Westwood

Catogenus Westwood 1835:221

Scalidia Erichson 1846:305

Type species. Of Catogenus, Cucujus rufus Fabricius
[by original designation]; of Scalidia, Scalidia cylin-
dricollis Lacordaire [by subsequent designation, see
discussion under next genus].

Diagnosis. The following combination of character
states will distinguish adults of this genus from those of
other passandrid genera: antennae with 11 anten-
nomeres; head with deep transverse basal groove (fig.
39); elytra with fully developed elytra cells (fig. 39);
pronotum without lateral lines (fig. 39); tarsomere I
shorter than tibial spur (fig. 40); body form in most
species dorsoventrally compressed (fig. 39).

Taxonomic notes. Hetschko (1930:92-93) listed 19
species in this genus. At the generic level there has been
little taxonomic confusion, but adults of the species are
extremely similar externally and difficult to distin-
guish. That, and the great variation in size exhibited by
most species, led to considerable taxonomic confusion
over the identity of the species found in the United


Figure 42. Catogenus rufus (Fabricius), mouthparts, ven-
tral view.

States. Slipinski's much needed 1989 revision of the
genus clarified the taxonomic and nomenclatural prob-
lems. He considered only two species to occur in the
U.S., one of which he described from Arizona. He
removed the Old World species from Catogenus and
treated 17 species from the New World.

Biology. Dimmock (1884:341-342) reported rearing
Catogenus rufus from a pupa of the cerambycid Elaphid-
ionoides parallelum (Newman) (now Anelaphus par-
allelus). He first noticed a small larva on the pupa in
early March; the larva fed until May 20, when it


srA


Map 18. Florida distribution of Catogenus rufus (Fabri-
cius).





















































Figure 43. Catogenus ..,, F ,r....,.r pro- and mesoster-
num.


pupated, and emerged around July 1. He could not
determine if the larva had hatched from an egg laid
within the cerambycid. Fiske (1905:90-92) gave a
similar account on a species of Goes, and also reported
Catogenus rufus emerging from the cocoons of the
parasite Bracon dorsatus Say. The larva of Catogenus
rufus has not been described, but it is probably similar
to those described for Taphroscelidia linearis (Le-
Conte) (Biving and Craighead 1930:35, pl. 33) and
Passandra trigeminum (Newman) (Gravely 1916:151,
pl. 22).


Distribution. There are two Nearctic species; the
remainder are Neotropical.


Catogenus rufus (Fabricius)
(fig. 39, 40, 42, 43, map 18)

Cucujus rufus Fabricius 1798:123

Catogenus rufus, Westwood 1835:221

Catogenus puncticollis Newman 1839:399; syn. by
Cascy 1884:106

Catogenusmonilicornis Casey 1916:115; syn. by Slipin-
ski 1989:122

Catogenus parvus Casey 1916:116; syn. by Slipinski
1989:122

Catogenus puncticeps Casey 1916:116; syn. by Slipin-
ski 1989:122

Diagnosis. Length 5.3mm -12.3mm. The generic
character states will distinguish individuals of this
species from those of Taphroscelidia, the only other
Nearctic passandrid genus.

Taxonomic notes. LeConte (1854:73) suggested the
synonymy ofNewman's(1839:3a0i .p-i i- .....
but Cascy (1884:106) seems to have been the first to
formally propose it. Casey's (1916:115-117) species
have been treated as varieties of rufus (Hetschko
1930:93; Lcng 1920:199); they are treated as syno-
nyms of rufiis by Slipinski (1989).

Biology. Discussed in this section under the genus.

Distribution. Casey (1884:75) recorded it from Penn-
sylvania, District of Columbia, Arizona, and Nebraska,
and (1916:1 15-116) from Iowa, Maryland, and Florida.
Catogenus monilicornis was described from Lake
Worth, Florida; C. puncticeps from Pennsylvania and
District of Columbia, and C. parvus from Indiana.
Catogenus rufus has been recorded from New Jersey
(Smith 1910:263), North Carolina (Brimley 1938:179),
New York (Leonard, 1928:381), Alabama (Loding
1945:78), Indiana (Blatchley 1910:565), and South
Carolina (Kirk 1969, 1970). Slipinski (1989:125) re-
corded specimens from Florida. Georgia, Illinois, Indi-
ana, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Ontario, and Pennsyl-
vania. Dajoz (1989) recorded it from Texas. I have seen









specimens from Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana,
Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Ontario.

Specimens examined. More than 100, of which 74
were from Florida, representing 38 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).

Genus Taphroscelidia Crotch

Taphroscelidia Crotch 1873:44

Scalidia, auctorum, not Scalidia Erichson 1846:305
(Slipinski 1989:91)


Figure 44. Taphroscelia linearis (LeConte), habitus.


Syssitos Sharp 1899:541; syn. by Grouvelle 1916:24

Type species. See discussion in section on taxonomic
notes.

Diagnosis. From other passandrid genera, members of
this genus can be distinguished by the following com-
bination of character states: antennae with 11 anten-
nomeres; head without deep impressed basal line (fig.
43); tarsomere I about same length as tibial spur (fig.
44); body subcylindrical (fig. 43).

Taxonomic notes. Like several other cucujid genera,
Scalidia was described by Erichson (1846:305) with-
out any included species, a situation that has led to
subsequent confusion. Catogenus linearis LeConte
has been considered the type species of Scalidia since
Grouvelle (1878:263) transferred it to Scalidia. How-
ever, Lacordaire (1854:397) redescribed the genus and
briefly described the species cylindricollis from Brazil,
listed but not described by Dejean (1837:340) as
Passandra cvlindricollis. In his world catalog Het-
schko (1930:91-92) listed 16 species in Scalidia but
included cylindricollis in Catogenus. According to
Slipinski (1989:91) cylindricollis is a species of
Catogenus, thus making Scalidia Erichson a junior
synonym of Catogenus. Taphroscelidia Crotch is the
next available name, with Catogenus linearis Leconte
the type species by monotypy.


Map 19. Florida distribution of Taphroscelia linearis (Le-
Conte).









Biology. Little has been reported on the biology of the
species of this genus except for some notes on linearis
(see below). Presumably the larvae are ectoparasites of
wood-inhabiting insects, possibly of Scolytidae.

Distribution. All described species are restricted to the
New World. The recent revision of the genus by
Burckhardt and Slipinski (1991) listed 14 species; only
one is found in the United States.


Taphroscelidia linearis (LeConte)
(fig. 41, 44, map 19)

Catogenus linearis LeConte 1863:70

Scalidia linearis, Grouvelle 1878:263

Taphroscelidia linearis, Crotch 1873:44

Syssitos longiceps Sharp 1899:542 (syn. by Burckhardt
and Slipinski 1991:475)

Syssitos addendus Sharp 1899:543 (syn. by Burckhardt
and Slipinski 1991:476)

Diagnosis. Length 4.4mm 7.1mm. The characters
given in the generic diagnosis will distinguish indi-
viduals of this species in Florida.


Taxonomic notes. Like those of Catogenus rufus,
individuals of this species range greatly in size, pre-
sumably due to the differing nutritional resources
available from their hosts. There are no recorded
synonyms, but the differences between species in this
genus are slight, and there may be undetected synony-
my among the Neotropical species described by Sharp
and Grouvelle.

Biology. Little has been published on its biology,
except for a report by Schwarz (1890b:165) of a
specimen in the galleries of the scolytid Pityophthorus
concentralis Eichhoff and in poisonwood (Schwarz
1890a:94). The morphology of the larva, illustrated by
Bdving and Craighead (1930:pl. 33), suggests that it
has habits similar to those of Catogenus rufus.

Distribution. The type locality is Mexico, Baja Cali-
fornia, and it was reported by Hetschko (1930:91) from
Florida, California (apparently an erroneous reference
to the type locality), Texas, Cuba, and Brazil. Burck-
hardt and Slipinski (1991) reported it from Florida,
Texas, and California in the United States, south into
Central America and in the Greater Antilles. I have
seen specimens from Florida, Illinois, Texas, and the
Bahamas (Andros Is.)

Specimens examined. More than 30, of which 22 were
from Florida, representing 11 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).


LAEMOPHLOEIDAE


Diagnosis. The members of this family can be distin-
guished from all other Cucujoidea by the combination
of the following character states: body usually dorso-
ventrally compressed; sublateral lines (composed of
either grooves or carinae or a combination of the two)
of the head and pronotum, the possession of elytral
cells (secondarily reduced or absent in some taxa),
anterior legs not modified for jumping; and the in-
verted aedeagus with parameres reduced to tooth-like
processes fused to the basal piece.

Larval diagnosis. Body elongate, somewhat campod-
eiform, dorsoventrally compressed; abdomen usually
with dorsal and ventral asperities arranged in ellipses;
maxillary mala obtuse; maxillary articulating area
reduced; cardines absent; abdominal segment VIII
noticeably longer than VII; urogomphi present.

Taxonomic notes. This taxon is usually treated as a
subfamily (along with Cucujinae) of the family Cucuji-


dae. However, I have argued (Thomas 1984a) that it
forms a monophyletic lineage with the Passandridae,
Propalticidae, and Phalacridae. Since I have been
unable to identify any uniquely derived character
states shared by the laemophlocines and the cucujines,
I am here treating the Laemophloeinae as a family.
In addition to the characters discussed previously
(Thomas 1984a), the internal mandibular structure is
shared by laemophloeids, phalacrids, and propalticids,
thus providing another uniquely derived character state
for this lineage. In a previous paper (Thomas 1984a) I
incorrectly described this structure as a pit and a seta,
which is how the structure appears in slide-mounted
material viewed by transmitted light. Scanning elec-
tron microscopy, however, reveals the only external
feature to be a slit-like opening on the dorsal surface of
the mandible. This opening appears to connect with a
somewhat circular cavity inside of the mandible.
Sen Gupta and Crowson (1969: 589) and Crowson
(in litt.) maintain that the mandibular structure in these









taxa is homologous with the mandibular mycangium
found in Silvanidae, etc. If it is homologous, the
condition of the structure in the laemophloeid assem-
blage is certainly derived relative to the condition of
the structure found in silvanids and thus is still evidence
of the monophyletic nature of the passandrid-propal-
ticid-phalacrid-laemophloeid lineage.

Biology. Little has been published on the biology of the
non-economic laemophloeines, except that they are
subcortical in habitat. They often have been reported to
be predaceous, although this is doubtful in many cases.

Distribution. This family is represented in all forested
areas of the world, but reaches its greatest diversity in
the tropics. ,


Genus Lathropus Erichson

Lathropus Erichson 1846:327 Map 20. Florida distribution of Lathropus pictus Schwarz.

Type species. Trogosita? sepicola Miller [by original
designation].
Diagnosis. This is one of the most distinctive and easily
characterized of the laemophloeine genera. The combi-
nation of lateral lines on head absent, elytral cells
absent, and mesocoxal cavities closed laterally by the
sterna is diagnostic for this genus.

Taxonomic notes. It is easily defined and generally has
not been confused with other laemophloeine taxa. Its
S. affinities are with a group of genera including Micro-
laemus Lefkovitch, Carinophloeus Lefkovitch, Rhab-
dophloeus Sharp, Lepidophloeus Thomas, and Odont-
ophloeus Thomas (Thomas 1984d). Hetschko(1930:44-
45) listed 12 species in this genus, but the three
Australian species he included apparently belong to
fMicrolaemus Lefkovitch. There are several undes-
Scribed Neotropical species, and the genus is badly in
need of revision.

Biology. Lefkovitch (1959a:99) recorded the Euro-
pean L. sepicola from "... the galleries of Scolytus
V" multistriatus (Marsh.), Pteleobius vittatus (F.) and P.
S, kraatzi Eich. under elm bark." Nothing has been re-
"corded concerning the biology of the United States
\;, species. I have collected several specimens of vernalis
in Florida under bark scales of scolytid-infested pine
branches and by beating recently burned pines and
45 hardwoods.


Figure 45. Lathropus pictus Schwarz, habitus.









Distribution. There is only one species recorded from
outside the New World. Within the New World, mem-
bers of Lathropus range from southern Canada to
Brazil and throughout the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
There are two species in Florida.




Lathropus pictus Schwarz
(fig. 45)

Lathropus pictus Schwarz 1878:358

Lathropus costatus Grouvelle 1902:763, new syno-
nym

Diagnosis. Length 1.0mm 1.4mm. The pale body
with maculate elytra (fig. 45) distinguishes adults of
this species from those of all other described species of
Lathropus.

Taxonomic notes. Schwarz' species was described
from four specimens (Schwarz 1878:359). 1 have ex-
amined a single specimen from the type series with the
following data: "type Schwarz"/ "Haulover 4.3 Fla"/
"Coll Hubbard & Schwarz"/"Type No. 4508 U.S.N.M."
I here designate this specimen as lectotype.I have ex-
amined a male specimen in the MNHN with the
following data: "Guadeloupe Vitrac"[?]/ "MUSEUM
PARIS COLL. A. GROUVELLE 1917"/ "TYPE"/
"Lathropus costatus Grouv Ty". Grouvelle (1902:763)
apparently described this species from a single speci-
men, but did not explicitly state so. Therefore, I
designate the specimen above as lectotype. Although
the ground color is darker than usual, the elytral
maculae are evident and I feel this specimen is conspe-
cific with the lectotype of pictus.

Biology. Schwarz (1878:359) wrote, "... found under
bark of a dead Quercus virens." Virtually all the
specimens I have seen were collected in ultraviolet
light traps.

Distribution. Recorded from Guadeloupe ("Pas de
locality precise." [Grouvelle 1902:764]); Mexico (Sharp
1899:531), and Florida. I have seen specimens from
Florida and the U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix).

Specimens examined. More than 60, of which 47 were
from Florida, representing 15 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).


Map 21. Florida distribution of Lathropus vernalis Casey.


Lathropus vernalis Casey

Lathropus vernalis Casey 1884:95

Diagnosis. Length 1.2mm 1.5mm. The dark overall
body color and immaculate elytra distinguish adults of
this species from pictus in Florida.

Taxonomic notes. LeConte (1866:379) reported the
occurrence of Lathropus in North America, based on
specimens collected in Washington, D.C. and Cali-
fornia, but did not describe any species. LeConte (in
Zimmermann 1869:257) pointed out that Zimmer-
mann had used vernalis as a manuscript name, but that
the species was still undescribed. Nevertheless, Crotch
(1873:45) used the name, crediting it to LeConte, and
Hubbard and Schwarz (1878:634, 652) listed "Lath-
ropus vernalis Lec." in their work on the Coleoptera of
Michigan. Casey (1884:95) used the name again in
connection with a detailed description. This was the
first time that vernalis had been used validly and thus
Casey is the actual author of Lathropus vernalis, a fact
to which he later called attention (Casey 1916: 118).
All previous uses are nomina nuda. Despite this, Leng
(1920:200) and Hetschko (1930:45) cited LeConte
(1866:379) as the author of vernalis.
Because of the nomenclatural confusion surround-
ing this species its exact identity is in doubt. Casey
(1884:95) was unaware that he was providing the first
description of this species and did not furnish any










information on the specimens he examined. It will be
difficult to identify with certainty the specimens he
used in drawing up his description. It is likely that he
had access to some, if not all, of LeConte's specimens.
In the MCZ are eight specimens of Lathropus standing
under a LeConte label reading "Lathropus vernalis
Zim." The specimen bearing the identification label
also bears a label reading "Md.", as do two others, and
cannot be the specimen mentioned by LeConte
(1866:379). Two specimens bear the label "Detroit
June"; one, the label "Tyngs Mass"; and one, "D.C.",
which is probably the specimen mentioned by LeConte
(1866:379). A single specimen bears a gold disc (indi-
cating California) and a label reading "656."; it is
probably the holotype of Lathropus pubescens Casey
(1884:96). Except for the California specimen, all are
conspecific and also appear to be conspecific with the
holotype of Lathropus striatus Casey (1916: 120),
described from Detroit, Mich.
Because of the problems discussed above, there is
probably more than one species represented by the
specimens listed in the Appendix; there is certainly
more than one phenotype present in Florida. However,
I am treating all these specimens as belonging to
vernalis and am not proposing either any new species
or new synonyms pending a revision of this most
difficult genus.

Biology. Smith (1910) recorded that it had been col-
lected by beating dead branches, and Lbding (1945)
reported it from a dead fig limb. I have collected
specimens in ultraviolet light traps, under the outer
bark scales of dead pine branches infested with sco-
lytids, and by beating branches of recently burned
pines and hardwoods.

Distribution. As mentioned above, it has been record-
ed from Washington, D.C. (LeConte 1866:379) and
Michigan (Hubbard and Schwarz 1878:634,652). Casey
(1884:96) recorded it from "Atlantic and Mississippi
regions." Other records are for New Jersey (Smith
1910) and Alabama (Ldding 1945). I have seen speci-
mens from Florida, Oklahoma, Indiana, and Ontario.

Specimens examined. More than 80, of which 48 were
from Florida, representing 29 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).



Genus Rhabdophloeus Sharp

Rhabdophloeus Sharp 1899:531


Figure 46. Rhabdophloeus horni (Casey), habitus.

Type species. Laemophloeus costatus Grouvelle [here
designated, see below].

Taxonomic notes. Sharp (1899:531) included three
new species in this genus: Rhabdophloeus concolor
Sharp, Rhabdophloeus dispar Sharp, Rhabdophloeus
chiriquensis Sharp, and transferred Laemophloeus
costatus Grouvelle into it. I here select the latter as type
species of Rhabdophloeus. Hetschko (1930:45) listed
six species in this genus. Thomas (1988:58) transferred
another two species into this genus from Cryptolestes
but, judging from descriptions of Reitter and Grouvelle
species, there are at least several others that probably










should be assigned. The genus is badly in need of
revision.

Biology. Nothing has been published on their biology.
Florida specimens of Rhabdophloeus horni were col-
lected under the bark of gumbo limbo (Bursera si-
maruba (L.) Sarg.). I have seen many specimens of
Neotropical species collected in ultraviolet light traps.

Distribution. Recorded in the United States from
California and Texas. I have also seen specimens from
Arizona and Florida, as well as from Central and South
America south to Argentina. I have not seen any
representatives of this genus from the Antilles.


Rhabdophloeus horni (Casey)
(fig. 46)

Laemophloeus horni Casey 1884:89

Cryptolestes horni, Casey 1916:133

Rhabdophloeus horni, Thomas 1988a:58

Diagnosis. Length 1.5mm 2.0mm. The combination
of costate elytra (fig. 46), carinate sublateral lines of
the pronotum, narrowly rounded intercoxal process of
sternum II, and lack of transverse epistomal groove
distinguishes this species from all others in the Florida
fauna.

Taxonomic notes. Casey (1916:133) transferred this
species to Cryptolestes and wrote that it and Crypto-
lestes disseptus, "... form a distinct subgeneric group
of Cryptolestes." Both species have been transferred
to Rhabdophloeus (Thomas 1988a:58). I have exam-
ined specimens of both species from the Casey Collec-
tion in the USNM and consider the Florida specimens
to be conspecific with horni. However, the species of
this genus are very similar externally and specific
identifications must remain tentative at this point.









47

Figure 47. Cryptolestes sp.. intercoxal process of sternum
III.


Biology. The Florida specimens were collected under
the bark of gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.)
and at light. Nothing else is known about the biology
of this species.

Distribution. Casey (1884:89) described it from Cali-
fornia, and later (1916:133) reported an additional
specimen from Ventura Co., Calif. I have seen speci-
mens from Arizona and Florida. In Florida, it occurs
only in the extreme southern part of the state. Because
of thc taxonomic state of the species in this genus it is
uncertain what the distribution of this species is in the
Neotropics, but it is probably widespread.

Specimens examined. Fifteen, of which seven were
from Florida, as follows: 4, Monroc Co., Upper Key
Largo 30-V-1976 M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank black-
light trap; 1, Monroe Co., Upper Key Largo 3-VI-1976
M.C. Thomas blacklight trap; 2, Monroe Co., Upper
Key Largo 3-IV-1976 M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
under bark of gumbo limbo log (FSCA).

Genus Cryptolestes Ganglbauer

Leptus Thomson 1863:92 (not Latreille, 1796; not
Duftschmid, 1825)

Cryptolestes Ganglbauer 1899:608 (not Tate, 1934;
not Novacek, 1976)

Fractophloeus Kessel 1921:28

Type species. Of Cryptolestes, Cucujus ferrugineus
Stephens [by subsequent designation of Cascy (1916)];
of Fractophloeus, Laemophloeus fractipennis
Motschulsky [by subsequent designation of Lefkovitch
(1959a)].

Diagnosis. The combination of the following character
states is diagnostic for this genus: epistomal suture not
marked with transverse groove; labrum rounded
anteriorly; mandible with additional tooth between
apical teeth and prostheca; sublateral lines of pronotum
carinulate; anterior coxal cavities closed or nearly
closed posteriorly; intercoxal process of prothorax
more or less truncate or emarginate or rounded posteri-
orly; metasternal suture not attaining anterior edge of
sclerite; intercoxal process of sternum III broadly
rounded anteriorly; elytra with three complete cells;
body dorsoventrally compressed.

Taxonomic notes. Thomas (1988a) revised this genus
for the New World. Most U.S. species are readily
















48



49


55
//


/51






^ 52


Figure 48-57. Cr\ptolestes spp. 48-52. genital sclerite. 48) C. pusillus (Schonherr): 49) C. klapperichi Lctkovitch; 50) C.
pusilloides (Steel & Howe); 51) C. ferrugineus (Stephans): 52) C. turcicus (Grouvclle). 53-57, sclerotization of bursa. 53)
C. ferrugineus; 54) C. klapperichi: 55) C. pusilloides; 56) C. pusillus; 57) C. tlrcicus.


identifiable using a combination of external and geni-
talic characters. However, the question of generic
limits remains to be resolved and it is likely that
Cryptolestes as presently constituted is polyphyletic
and further subdivision will he necessary.

Biology. Four species of this genus (ferrugineus (Steph-
ens), turcicus (Grouvelle), pusillus (Schinhcrr). and
pusilloides (Steel and Howe)) are important stored
products pests throughout the world. Three others
capensiss (Waltl), ugandae Steel and Howe, and klap-
perichi Lefkovitch) are also pests, but of more limited
distribution. I did not encounter capensis during a
previous study (Thomas 1988a:44); however, since
then I have seen a few specimens in stored products
imported from Mexico. Thomas (1988a:45) reported
klapperichi from the New World for the first time based
on specimens collected in the wild in the U.S. Virgin
Islands (St. Croix); it is also regularly intercepted in
stored products imported from the Far East into Califor-
nia (Zimmcrman 1987a and pers. comm.). For those
reasons, capensis and klapperichi are included in the
following key. Although the stored products species of
Cryptolestes thrive on grain products of various kinds,
the non-economic species, for the most part, seem to be
fungivorous. However, dissimulatus Thomas, described
from Arizona and California, has been reported to feed


on the red date-palm scale, Phoenicoccus marlatti
Cockerell (Borden 1921:665).

Distribution. The genus is probably worldwide in
distribution. Thomas (1988a) recorded 13 non-econom-
ic species from the New World, six of which occur in
the U.S. Four are found in Florida.

Key to the adults of the Florida
species of Cryptolestes

1. Pronotum with a secondary line between sub-
lateral line and lateral margin .............2
1'. Pronotum without a secondary line between
sublateral line and lateral margin ...........3

2(1). Secondary sublateral line diverging posteri-
orly from sublateral line and attaining basal
angle; male antennal scape without apical
process; male genitalia as in fig. 62 .........
................................. punctatus (LeConte)
2'. Secondary sublateral line paralleling sublateral
line and becoming obsolete at about mid-
point of pronotum; male antenna scape
with hook-shaped apical process; male
genitalia as in fig. 63...........................
...................................uncicornis (Reitter)


r"I










3(1'). Basal angles of pronotum absent .................
...... .................. ....... ... capensis (W altl)
3'. Basal angles of pronotum present ..............4

4(3'). First and second elytral cells enclosing four
rows of setae .............................. ...... 5
4'. First and second elytral cells enclosing three
rows of setae .......................................

5(4). Males with mandibles expanded laterally; pro-
notum strongly constricted posteriorly in
males; abdominal tergites heavily sclerotized
(Arbogast 1991); accessory sclerite of inter-
nal sac as in fig. 48; sclerotization of bursa
in female as in fig. 53 .........................
..................... ........... ferrugineus (Stephan)

































58





59


5'. Males without mandibles expanded laterally;
pronotum not strongly constricted posteri-
orly in males; abdominal sclerites weakly
sclerotized (Arbogast 1991); accessory scle-
rite of internal sac as in fig. 51; sclerotization
of bursa in female as in fig. 56 ..................
..................................pusillus (Schonherr)

6(4'). Mandibles of males expanded laterally; ac-
cessory sclerite of internal sac as in fig. 49;
sclerotization of bursa in female as in fig. 54
.............................. klapperichi Lefkovitch
6'. Mandibles of males not expanded laterally .
.................................................... ............. 7





















i ,




r..i ,
,4y -


61


Figure 58-59. Cryptolestes dybasi Thomas. 58) aedeagus; Figure 60-61. Cryptolestes schwarzi (Casey). 60) habits;
59) sclerotization of bursa. 61) aedeagus.









7(6'). Dorsal surface of head and prothorax coarsely
punctate, more so laterally where punctures
are two or more times the diameter of an eye
facet, almost contiguous and tending to
form longitudinal furrows; antennae mo-
niliform (fig. 60); male genitalia as in fig.
61 .................................schwarzi (Casey)
7'. Punctation of dorsal surface of head and pro-
thorax not as above, punctures laterally not
almost contiguous nor forming longitudinal
furrows; antennae filiform or moniliform
................................................. .............. 8

8(7'). Accessory sclerites of internal sac as in fig.
52; sclerotization of bursa in female as in
fig. 57 .....................turcicus (Grouvelle)
8'. Accessory sclerites of internal sac and scle-
rotization of bursa not as above ..............9

9(8'). Accessory sclerites of internal sac as in fig.
50; sclerotization of bursa in female as in
fig. 55 .........pusilloides (Steel and Howe)
9'. Accessory sclerites of internal sac as in fig.
58; sclerotization of bursa in female as in
fig. 59.............................. dybasi Thomas


Cryptolestes dybasi Thomas
(fig. 58, 59)

Cryptolestes dybasi Thomas, 1988a:48, fig. 15, 16, 17

Diagnosis. Length, 1.3mm 1.5mm. The male genita-
lia (fig. 58) and sclerotization of the bursa in the female
(fig. 59) are diagnostic.

Taxonomic notes. The small, slender body, monili-
form antennae, and genitalia make this species dis-
tinctive in the Florida fauna.

Biology. The type series was collected at blacklight
trap and under the bark of a dead oak (Quercus sp.).

Distribution. All Florida specimens seen were col-
lected at a single locality in Dixie County. Recently,
Throne et al. (1989) reported the collection of a single
specimen near Scotia, Hampton Co., South Carolina.

Specimens examined. Five, including four from Flor-
ida representing two collection records: 2, Dixie Co.,
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349 21-V-1 978 R.E. Woodruff
& S.A. Fragoso blacklight trap; 1, Dixie Co., 3.5mi. N.
Old Town Rt. 349 13-1-1980 M.C. Thomas; 1, Dixie


Co., 3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349 13-1-1980 H.S. Dybas
(FSCA).


Cryptolestes punctatus (LeConte)
(fig. 62, map 22)


Laemophloeus punctatus LeConte 1854:75

Cryptolestes punctatus, Lefkovitch 1958a:93


~; II

It-
j iI


k~


'C,

\1. i v
.7j


Figure 62-63. Aedeagus. 62) Cryptolestes punctatus
(LeConte); 63) Cryptolestes uncicornis (Reitter).
































Map 22. Florida distribution of Cryptolestes punctatus
(LeConte).


Laemophloeus geminatus LeConte 1854:75; syn. by
Casey 1884:108

Laemophloeus extricatus Casey 1884:92, syn. by Tho-
mas 1988a:55

Cryptolestes adumbratus Casey 1916:134, syn. by
Thomas 1988:55

Diagnosis. Length 1.4mm 1.8mm. See corresponding
section under the preceding species.

Taxonomic notes. Sexual dimorphism and allometry
have led to this species being described several times,
and to its confusion in collections and by Lefkovitch
(1958b:93) with uncicornis. Individuals of this species
and uncicornis, plus several other species treated as
Cryptolestes by Thomas (1988a) differ in some struc-
tures from Cryptolestesferrugineus, the type species of
the genus, and may not belong to Cryptolestes.

Biology. What is known of its biology is similar to that
of uncicornis. The larva was characterized briefly by
Thomas (1988b:82) but has not been described.

Distribution. It ranges from New York south to Florida
and west to Texas. In Florida, it has been collected from
Duval County south to Marion County. There are no
records from the Panhandle, although it undoubtedly
occurs there.


i


Specimens examined. More than 150, of which 134
were from Florida representing 23 collection records
(for complete data, see Appendix).



Cryptolestes schwarzi (Casey)
(fig. 60, 61)

Laemophloeus Schwarzii Casey 1884:91

Cryptolestes weisei (Reitter) (in part, sensu Lefkovitch
1967:246)

Cryptolestes schwarzi, Thomas 1988a:51

Diagnosis. Length 1.3 1.4mm. The combination of
pubescent, coarsely punctate dorsal surface of the head
and prothorax; short, moniliform antennae; and con-
spicuous median longitudinal line from vertex to ante-
rior margin of epistome is diagnostic (fig. 60) for the
adults of this species. The male genitalia (fig. 61) are
also diagnostic.

Taxonomic notes. This species was incorrectly syno-
nymized with the European weisei (Reitter) by Lef-
kovitch (1967:246) and was resurrected by Thomas
(1988a:53).

Biology. One specimen was collected beating a dead
branch of live oak (Quercus virginiana L.).

Distribution. It was described from "Fla." and "D.C."
I have seen specimens from Florida and Georgia.

Specimens examined. I have seen only two Florida
specimens: the lectotypc female in the USNM col-
lected by Hubbard and Schwarz at Tampa and a male
with the following data: "FLORIDA: Highlands Co.,
Highlands Hammock St. Pk. 23-IV-1982 M.C. Thom-
as" (FSCA). There also is a specimen in the FSCA from
Georgia (Thomas 1988:51), and another in the Cana-
dian Museum of Nature with the following data: "Ra-
leigh, N.C. Mar. 29 1949 A.E. Thompson"/"under bark
pine log".

Cryptolestes uncicornis (Reitter)
(fig. 63, map 23)

Microbrontes uncicornis Reitter 1876:45

Cryptolestes uncicornis, Lefkovitch 1958b:93


































Map 23. Florida distribution of Cryptolestes uncicornis
(Reitter).

Laemophloeus recticollis Reitter 1876:52; syn. by
Lefkovitch 1958b:93

Laemophloeus denticornis Casey 1884:94; syn. by
Lefkovitch 1958b:93

Laemophloeus iteratus Sharp 1899:528;syn. by Lef-
kovitch 1958b:93

Laemophloeus addendus Sharp 1899:529; syn. by Lefko-
vitch 1958b:93

Laemophloeus quadratus Casey 1884:90, syn. by Tho-
mas 1988a:57

Cryptolestes punctatus, sensu Lefkovitch 1958b:93,
not LeConte 1854

Diagnosis. Length 1.3mm 1.8mm. In Florida in-
dividuals of this species can be confused only with
those of punctatus: both have two lateral pronotal lines
and elongate antenna scapes in the male. Major males
of uncicornis possess an elongate and sinuate antenna
scape, which bears at its apex a hook-shaped process.
The scape of major males of punctatus is not sinuate
and does not bear an apical process. The aedeagus and
internal sac of the two species differ considerably (fig.
62, 63). A pronotal character is useful in distinguishing
both sexes of each species. The secondary sublateral
line of the pronotum in punctatus attains the anterior


Figure 64. Leptophloeus angustulus (LeConte), habitus.

pronotal margin, diverges posteriorly from the sublateral
line and attains the basal angle. In uncicornis the
secondary sublateral line attains the anterior pronotal
margin, parallels the sublateral line to about the mid-
point of the pronotum and then becomes obsolete.

Taxonomic notes. As can be seen from the synonymy,
this species has been the subject of considerable con-
fusion, primarily due to its wide distribution, sexual
dimorphism, and allometry. Lefkovitch (1958b: 93)
examined the type specimens of the species described
by Reitter and Sharp and established their conspeci-
ficity. However, he did not examine the type of the
punctatus and incorrectly synonymized uncicornis
underpunctatus. Thomas (1988a:57), based on exami-
nation of the type specimens of the species described










by Casey and LeConte, revived uncicornis as a valid
species.

Biology. Nothing is known of its biology except that it
is found under the bark of hardwoods, primarily Quer-
cus spp. in Florida, and it has been collected abundantly
in ultraviolet light traps throughout its extensive range.
The larva is unknown.

Distribution. Thomas (1988a:58) reported it as occur-
ring from the Gulf of Mexico states of the United States
south to Argentina and Paraguay, and throughout the
Greater and Lesser Antilles. In Florida it has been
collected from Marion County in the south to Liberty
County in the north.

Specimens examined. More than 700, of which 48
were from Florida, representing 16 collection records
(for complete data, see Appendix).


Genus Leptophloeus Casey

Leptophloeus Casey 1916:119, 135

Truncatophloeus Kessel 1921:28; syn. by Lefkovitch
1959a: 104

Type species. Of Leptophloeus, Laemophloeus angustulus
LeConte (by original designation); of Truncatophloeus,
Laemophloeus mobilis Grouvelle [by subsequent designa-
tion of Lefkovitch 1962c].

Diagnosis. Members of this genus resemble those of
Cryptolestes but can be distinguished by their usually more
elongate and more cylindrical body form and narrow
intercoxalprocessofstemuml. Frommembers ofDysmerus
Casey, those of Leptophloeus can be recognized by the
normal antennal scape in the male and more elongate body
form. From adults ofNarthecius, which also are subcylindrical
in body form, those of Leptophloeus can be distinguished
by their truncate rather than acuminate epistome.

Taxonomic notes. Casey (1916:119, 135) described this
genus for Laemophloeus angustulus and included also the
European L. perrisi Grouvelle. Considered at most a
subgenus of Laemophloeus by most authors, Leptophloeus
was treated as a valid genus by Lefkovitch (1959a, 1962c)
and is so treated here. However, Iablokoff-Khnzorian
(1978) considered it a subgenus of Cryptolestes. Although
the type species ofLeptophloeus, Cryptolestes, andDysmerus
are distinctive and certainly appear to represent separate
genera, other species bridge many of the gaps. Lefkovitch


65

Figure 65. Leptophloeus angustulus (LeConte), intercoxal
process of sternum III.

(1962c) grouped three African species into a species group
distinct from other Leptophloeus because of their variously
modified epistome and 5-5-4 tarsal formula in the males.
However, the type species of the genus, L. angustulus, has
5-5-4 tarsi in the male also and would thus appear to belong
to Lefkovitch's problematicus species group. Illustrative of
the problem of determining generic limits is an undescribed
species from the western U.S., which in most characters
greatly resembles Cryptolestesferrugineus but would have
to be assigned to Leptophloeus because of the narrow
intercoxal process of sternum II.

Biology. Lefkovitch (1959a) recorded several European
species as being predaceous on scolytid larvae. Schedl
(1962) recorded seven African species from the galleries of
various species of Scolytidae. Schwarz (1890a) recorded
L. angustulus in Rhus toxicodendron infested with
Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte.


Map 24. Florida distribution of Leptophloeus angustulus
(LeConte).


.- '.










Distribution. Lefkovitch (1959a) recorded six species
of this genus from Europe, including one African
species sometimes found in stored products, and
(Lefkovitch 1962c) 16 species from Africa. Sasaji
(1986) reported three species from Japan. In addition
to the type species, L. angustulus, the European L.
alternans (Erichson) is also recorded from the U.S.
(LeConte 1869, Casey 1884, Hatch 1961). However,
Casey (1916:132) noted of the records of the latter
species, "... I also have strong doubts concerning the
occurrence of the European alternans Er., in this
country and believe some allied native species has been
mistaken for it." Specimens I have seen that agree with
the description and illustration of alternans in Hatch
(1961) represent an undescribed species, and I believe
the records for alternans are based on misidentifica-
tions of this species. I have seen at least two other
undescnbed species of Leptophloeus from the western
United States. Although no species of Leptophloeus are
recorded from the Neotropics, there are undescribed
species in Mexico and Argentina. I also have seen
specimens apparently referrable to Leptophloeus from
Australia and Southeast Asia.


Leptophloeus angustulus (LeConte)
(fig. 64, 65, map 24)

Laemophloeus angustulus LeConte 1866:379

Leptophloeus angustulus, Casey 1916:119

Diagnosis. Length 1.6mm 2.0mm. Characters useful
for distinguishing this species are given under the
diagnosis of Dysmerus basalis Casey.

Taxonomic notes. Little has been published on it
besides the original description. A female from Flor-
ida, Marion Co., Ocala, has more convex eyes than
other specimens and may represent an undescribed
species.

Biology. The biological notes published by DeLeon
(1934) apparently refer to a species other than angust-
ulus, which was pointed out by Chamberlin (1939),
who, however, mistakenly identified that species as
Leptophloeus alternans, a European species that ap-
parently does not occur in the New World. Schwarz
(1890a) recorded specimens of L. angustulus from
Rhus toxicodendron infested with Pityophthorus con-
similis LeConte and Karl Stephan collected a long
series in Oklahoma on recently cut oaks infested with


Figure 66. Dysmerus hasalis Casey, habits.

Pseudopityophthoruspruinosus. I also have seen speci-
mens with the label data: "under bark of scarlet oak";
"reared from oak"; and "ex galleries of scolytid in bark
of dead scarlet oak".

Distribution. LeConte (1866) described this species
from Washington, D.C. Casey (1884) added Colorado
(although this record also may refer to the undescribed
species discussed above) and Schwarz (1890a) also
recorded it from Washington, D.C. I have seen speci-
mens from Florida, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and Okla-
homa.

Specimens examined. Forty-eight, of which three
were from Florida, representing three collection rec-
ords: 1, Columbia Co., O'Leno State Park 10-V-1981
M.C. Thomas under bark of Quercus sp. log; 1, Marion
Co., Ocala 21-VII-1977 M.C. Thomas blacklight trap;










1, Marion Co., Ocala 13-VI-1977 M.C. Thomas black-
light trap (FSCA).

Genus Dysmerus Casey

Dysmerus Casey 1884:97

Dasymerus, Grouvelle 1908a:56 [misspelling]

Brontophloeus Kessel 1921:28; syn. by Lefkovitch
1958b:97

Type species. Of Dysmerus, D. basalis Casey (by
monotypy); of Brontophloeus, Dysmerus basalis Casey
(by subsequent designation of Lefkovitch (1958b)).

Diagnosis. The species of this genus resemble those of
both Cryptolestes and Leptophloeus; from the former
they can be distinguished by their narrow intercoxal
process of abdominal sternum III, and from the latter by
the curiously modified antennal scape in the male and
the lateral attachment of the pedicel to the scape in both
sexes.

Taxonomic notes. This genus was described by Casey
for the single U.S. species, D. basalis; later, Grouvelle
(1908a) added the Antillean species Dasymerus [sic]
sulcicollis. Lefkovitch (1958b) synonymized both D.
sulcicollis and Laemophloeus caseyi Grouvelle (1898)
under D. basalis. I accept his conclusion that Grou-
velle's species are conspecific, since he examined the
types of both. However, I have compared the type
specimen ofD. caseyi with specimens ofD. basalis and
conclude that D. caseyi is a valid species not especially
closely related to D. basalis. Dysmerus caseyi
(Grouvelle) is here revived as a valid species.
Schwarz (1890a) considered Dysmerus at most as
a subgenus of Laemophloeus. Lefkovitch (1958b)
pointed out the close resemblance of Dysmerus to
Leptophloeus, and wrote, "Upon a female specimen
alone, it is likely that Casey ... would have included
Dysmerus in his genus Leptophloeus. But since the
adaptive radiation of this latter genus is not yet fully
known, and since Dysmerus appears to be quite distinct
from it as at present understood, I consider that Dysmerus
should be kept as a valid genus." Presently, species
with modified scapes in the male are assigned to
Dysmerus, while those without modified scapes in the
male are assigned to Leptophloeus. Obviously, this is
an arbitrary and unsatisfactory situation, but will not be
remedied until both genera are revised.


Map 25. Florida distribution of Dysmerus basalis Casey.

Biology. Schwarz (1890a, 1890b) recorded D. basalis
from the burrows of several species of Scolytidae.
There is no other published information on its biology.
Adults are sometimes collected in ultraviolet light
traps. The function of the modified antennal scape in
the male is unknown.

Distribution. As presently defined this genus appears
to be exclusively New World; the only described
species are from the southern United States and the
Lesser Antilles. I have seen about six undescribed
species from Central and South America and one from
the southeastern U.S.


Dysmerus basalis Casey
(fig. 66, map 25)

Dysmerus basalis Casey 1884:97

Laemophloeus caseyi Grouvelle 1898:42; synonymized
incorrectly by Lefkovitch 1958b:97

Dasymerus [sic] sulcicollis Grouvelle 1908a:56; syn-
onymized incorrectly with basalis by Lefkovitch
1958b:97

Diagnosis. Length 1.6mm 1.8mm. The modified
antennal scape (fig. 66) in the male and lateral at-
tachment of the pedicel to the scape in both sexes will








































Figure 67. Narthectus sp., head, dorsal view.

serve to distinguish it from all other described Florida
species.

Taxonomic notes. Although Lefkovitch (1958b) con
fused this species with D. caseyi (Grouvelle), it is an
easily recognized species with no other recorded syn-
onyms.

Biology. The only information on its biology comes
from Schwarz (1890a, 1890b), who recorded it from
Liquidambar styraciflua (L.) infested with Pitvoph-
thorus annectens LeConte, Rhus toxicodendron in-
fested with P. consimilis LeConte, and from poi
sonwood infested with an undescribed species of Pityo-
phthorus. I have seen several specimens reared from
poisonwood. Adults are sometimes caught in ultravio
let light traps.

Distribution. Casey (1884) described basalis from a
single specimen collected in Florida by Schwarz.
Later, Schwarz (1890b) recorded it from the Florida
localities of Key Biscayne (Dade Co.) and Haw Creek
(Alachua Co.), as well as from Washington, D.C. It is
rarely collected and very uncommon in collections. I
have seen specimens from Florida and Alabama. It
probably ranges throughout the southern United States.


Figure 68. Narthecius grandiceps (LcContc), habitus.



Specimens examined. Twenty-one, of which 15 were
from Florida, representing six collection records: 1,
Alachua Co., Gainesville 23-V-1978 M.C. Thomas










blacklight trap (FSCA); 4, Highlands Co., Highlands
Hammock State Park 5-III-1985 M. Deyrup from dead
twig Rhus toxicodendron (ABSC); 4, Monroe Co., Key
Largo 14-20-V-1977 R. Turnbow emerged ex Metopi-
um toxiferum (TURN); 1, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key 1-
7-VI-86 S. & J. Peck UVlight, hammock-mangrove
transition (PECK); 4, Monroe Co., Key Largo 11-17-
VI-1977 R. Turnbow emerged ex Metopium toxiferum
(TURN); 1, Monroe Co., No Name Key 3-VI-27-VIII-
86 S. & J. Peck hammock malaise-FIT, 86-14 (PECK).


Genus Narthecius LeConte

Narthecius LeConte 1861:95

Paraphloeus Sharp 1899:509; syn. by Lefkovitch
1962c:210
Type species. Of Narthecius, Laemophloeus grandi-
ceps LeConte (by subsequent monotypy); of Para-
phloeus, Paraphloeus crassiceps Sharp (by original
designation).

Diagnosis. The acuminate, bifid epistome (fig. 67)
makes adults of the species of this genus among the
most easily recognized of Florida laemophloeines.

Taxonomic notes. Little has been published on the
New World members of this genus except for the
original descriptions. Lefkovitch (1962c) distinguished


Map 26. Florida distribution of Narthecius grandiceps
(LeConte).


the New World species from those described from the
Orient and suggested that a group of species related to
N. suturalis Grouvelle is generically distinct from the
other members of the genus.

Biology. Like the other genera of Laemophloeinae
with subcylindrical adults, the species of Narthecius
seem to be predaceous on Scolytidae and are found
almost exclusively within their burrows. Schwarz
(1890a) recorded collecting Narthecius grandiceps
from twigs of Liquidambar styraciflua (L.) infested
with Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte. Schedl (1962)
recorded the African N. schedli Lefkovitch from the
galleries of five species of Scolytidae.

Distribution. Hetschko (1930) listed 10 species of this
genus and two of Paraphloeus Sharp (which was
synonymized with Narthecius by Lefkovitch [1962c])
from North and Central America, Madagascar and the
Orient. Since then, Lefkovitch (1962c) added one
species from Africa and Hatch (1961) added another
from the Pacific Northwest. There are six described
species in the United States (one is here considered a
synonym of N. grandiceps, see below), all but one of
which are confined to the western part of the country.


Narthecius grandiceps LeConte
(fig. 68, map 26)

Narthecius grandiceps LeConte 1863:70

Narthecius breviceps Casey 1890:323, new synonym

Diagnosis. Length 1.8mm 2.0mm. The acuminate
epistome (fig. 67) and longitudinally strigose head (fig.
68) characterize this species in the Florida fauna.

Taxonomic notes. LeConte (1863) described it from a
single specimen from York Co., Pennsylvania. Casey
(1884) wrote, "This curious species is of such exces-
sive rarity that as far as my knowledge extends, only
three specimens are known in the collections of the
United States ..." Casey's redescription of this species
was based on a Nevada specimen, which likely be-
longs to a species other than grandiceps. I have
examined the holotype of Narthecius breviceps Casey,
described from Haw Creek, Florida, and consider it
conspecific with grandiceps. Casey (1890) was mis-
taken in reporting the epistomal process of this speci-
men as simply acuminate; it is distinctly bifid, as in
grandiceps. In fact, all species of this genus in the U.S.
have a bifid epistomal process, contrary to Fall (1905).


















Figure 69. Laemophloeus biguttatus (Say), intercoxal proc-
ess of sternum III.


Biology. Except for Schwarz (1890a) reporting this
species from twigs of Liquidambar styraciflua (L.)
infested with Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte, little
is known about its biology. Karl Stephan recently
collected a series in Oklahoma from cut red oak
infested with Pseudopityophthorus pruinosus. It is
likely that it, like other subcylindrical laemophloeines,
is predaceous on scolytids. It occasionally is collected
in ultraviolet light traps.

Distribution. It was described from Pennsylvania
and, as breviceps, from Florida. Except for the type
specimens I have seen specimens only from Florida
and Oklahoma.

Specimens examined. Nineteen, of which five were
from Florida, representing four collection records: 1,
Alachua Co., Gainesville 24-V-1987 R.W. Lundgren
fluorescent light (RWLC); 2, Alachua Co. 29034
1/2'N, 82029'W 6-III-1990 R.W. Lundgren fluores-
cent light (RWLC); 1, Marion Co. Village of Rainbow
Springs 5-V-1982 M.C. Thomas; 1, Marion Co. Ocala
13-VI-1977 M.C. Thomas blacklight trap (FSCA).



Genus Laemophloeus Dejean

Laemophloeus Dejean 1836-37:340

Type species. Cucujus monilis Fabricius [by subse-
quent designation of Lefkovitch 1959:101].

Diagnosis. The following combination of character
states is diagnostic for this genus: transverse groove
marking epistomal suture present (reduced in major
males of some species); humeral carinae of elytra
present; intercoxal process of sternum III acuminate
apically; tarsal formula 5-5-4 in males; tarsomere I
shorter than penultimate tarsomere.

Taxonomic notes. Most laemophloeines were de-
scribed in this genus and many which are not strictly


congeneric with L. monilis are still assigned to it. As
restricted by Lefkovitch (1959), this is a rather small
genus confined to the Holarctic and Neotropical re-
gions. It belongs to a group of genera including
Charaphloeus Casey, Rhinomalus Chevrolat, Rhino-
phloeus Sharp, and Metaxyphloeus Thomas. All are
characterized by their possession of an acuminate
intercoxal process of sternum III (fig. 69) and well-
developed epistomal suture (major males of some
species may have the transverse groove representing
the suture reduced or obliterated by the secondary
sexual development of the head).

Biology. Lefkovitch (1959) recorded L. monilis from
"... the cones of conifers, in the burrows of Taphro-
rhychus bicolor (Herbst) on lime trees and under the
bark of dead lime." lablokoff-Khnzorian (1977) re-
corded it also from "... dead twigs of various deciduous
species occupied by various bark beetle species."
Lawrence (1977) recorded the North American L.
biguttatus from an ascomycete fungus. Gut contents of
specimens of several species which I have examined
consisted of fungal spores and hyphae.

Distribution. Members of this genus appear to be
restricted to the Holarctic and Neotropical regions.
Lefkovitch (1959a) recorded four species from Eu-
rope; Iablokoff-Khnzorian (1977) listed a total of six
species from the Palaearctic. Ten species are here
recorded from the United States. Members of the genus
range south to southern South America, but since most
Neotropical laemophloeines are still assigned to
Laemophloeus (sens. lat.), it is impossible to determine
the total number of Neotropical species without a
generic revision of the fauna.

Key to the adults of Florida
species of Laemophloeus

(Females are difficult to distinguish and are best identified
by association with males.)

1. Antennomeres IX-XI each at least twice length
of any preceding antennomere (fig. 72);
epistomal horns well developed in large
males; pronotum not angulate laterally;
color entirely testaceous (extreme southern
Florida only).............. lecontei Grouvelle
1'. Antennomeres IX-X each much less than
twice length of preceding antennomeres,
although XI may be elongate; epistomal
teeth not well-developed; pronotum angu-
late laterally at about basal third; body
usually bicolored ................................ 2










2(1'). Antennal scape flattened dorsally and with
conspicuous brush of setae in males (fig.
73) ...............l.....meacephalu Grouvelle
2 Antennal scape not flattened dorsally, with-
out rush of setae ............................3

3(2'). Head and pronotum sparsely, finely punctate;
antennal scape carinate posteriorly; color
testaceous, elytra infuscatc along suture
and laterally ................. uturalis Reitter
3 Head and pronotum more densely punctate,
punctures separated by about one diameter,
antenna scape not carnate; color either not
testaceous or elytra not mfuscate along
suture ........................ .... ............. .... 4

4(3) Head and prnotum densely. coarsely punc-
tate; punctures separated by less than one
diameter; dorsal surface usually conspicu
ously pubescent; color usually uniformly
piceous generall individuals may be reddish
brown); each elytron medially with a small,
well-defined, pale spot (fig. 70) .........
........................ ............ iguutilu (Say)





7





Sf/\


Figure 70. liemophloeus bigutatus (Say), habits.


4. Head and pronotum less densely punctate;
punctures separated by at least one diame-
tel; dorsal surface not conspicuously pu-
bescent; color usually not uniformly pce-
ous; elytral maculae not as above...........5

5(4'). Scape shorter than length of eye in males;
dorsal surface of head and prothorax with
punctuaes about the size of an eye facet,
separated mostly by about once their di-
ameter; elytra with well-defined, some-
what triangular iaculae (fig. 71); color
usually testaceous with infuscate head and
pronotum and piceous elytra.....................
........... ..................fasciatus M elsheimer
5'. Scape longer than length of eye n males:
dorsal surface of head and prothorax with
punctures smaller than all eye facet, sepa-
rated by 1-2 diameters; elytra with amor-
phous, pale maculae; color entirely casta-
neous (fig. 74) ....woodruffi Thomas, n.sp.


Laemophloeus biguttatus (Say)
(fig. 69, 70, map 27)

Cucujus higuttatus Say 1827:267

Laemophloeus biguttatus, Smith 1851:5


Map 27. Florida distribution of Laiemophloeus biguttatui
(Say).


































Figure 71. Laemophloeus fasciatus Melsheimer, left ely-
tron.
Laemophloeus bisignatus Gu6rin-M6neville 1829-
44:205; syn. by Smith 1851:5

Diagnosis. Length 1.9mm 3.3mm. The piceous col-
oration of most specimens, the small, oval elytral
maculae (fig. 70), and the densely punctate dorsal
surface will serve to distinguish individuals of this
species from those of most other Florida species of
Laemophloeus.

Taxonomic notes. Laemophloeus californicus Casey
is very similar to this species and may prove to be
conspecific. Individuals seem to differ from those of
biguttatus only in their consistently paler color. Smith
(1851:5) listed bisignatus as a synonym of bigutratus
without any discussion; this has been followed in all
subsequent literature, except forMelsheimer(1853:44).

Biology. Lawrence (1977) reported adults and larvae
on, and reared larvae from, Hypoxylon prob. atro
punctatum (Schweinitz ex Fries) Cooke (Ascomy-
cetes: Xylariaceae). He noted that gut contents con-
sisted almost entirely of conidia (asexual spores). I
have collected numerous specimens on various acomy-
cete fungi and have found only fungal tissue and spores
in their gut.

Distribution. LeConte (1854:74) recorded it from "..
Middle and Southern States, and as far west as Nebras-
ka." Casey (1916:123) reported it from "... Pennsyl-
vania to Arizona." I have seen specimens from Ala-


Map 28. Florida distribution of Laemophloeus fasciatus
Melsheimer.
bama, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, Califor-
nia, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indi-
ana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Mary-
land. Massachussetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Hamp-
shire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Ontario, Pennsylvania, Quebec, Tennessee, Texas,
Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington. Two
specimens in the FSCA represent the first record of this
species from Mexico: "Mexico, Nuevo Leon Hotel
Chipinque Monterey 20-VII-1981 L. Stange" and
"MEXICO S.L.P., Hwy 80, 4mi E. Cd. del Maiz, 4800'
23 July 1982 C.W. & L. O'Brien & G. Wibmer". In
Flonda, it ranges throughout much of the peninsula,
with records from Lee County north to Okaloosa
County in the Panhandle. Records are lacking for the
extreme southeastern coast and the Keys.

Specimens examined. More than 580, of which 280
were from Florida, representing 68 collection records
(for complete data, see Appendix).


Laemophloeusfasciatus Melsheimer
(fig. 71, map 28)

Laemophloeus fasciatus Melshelmer 1846:113

Diagnosis. Length 2.1mm 3.1mm. The following
combination of character states distinguishes adults of










black, with somewhat triangular pale maculae (fig.
71).


iN


/


Figure 72. Laemophloeus lecontei Grouvelle

this species from those of other Florida Laei
antennal scape shorter than length of eye p
head and pronotum about the diameter of a
separated by about one diameter; elytra


Map 29. Florida distribution of Laemophloe
Grouvelle.


S 1 Taxonomic notes. This is a distinctive species with no
S recorded synonyms.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on the biology of
this species except that it is found under bark.

Distribution. I have seen specimens from Connecti-
cut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Ken-
tucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylva
nia, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. In
Flonda it has been collected from Dade County in the
south to Okaloosa County in the north.

Specimens examined. More than 60, of which 18 were
from Florida, representing 14 collection records (for
complete data, see Appendix).




habiius. Laemophloeus lecontei Grouvelle
(fig. 72, map 29)

mophloeus: Laemophloeus lecontei Grouvelle 1876:496
unctures of
n eye facet, Diagnosis. Length 2.0mm 3.5mm This is one of the
piceous or most distinctive species of Florida Laemnophloeus. The
combination of elongate antennomeres IX-XI (fig. 72),
non-angulate pronotal margins, and well-developed
epistomal horns in major males are diagnostic (fig. 72).

Taxonomic notes. Virtually nothing has been pub-
lished on it since its description and the mention by
Casey (1884:84). There are no recorded synonyms, but
Laemophloeus chevrolati Grouvelle, described from
Cuba, probably is a synonym.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on the biology of
this species. Several Florida specimens were collected
under the bark of a log of gumbo limbo (Bursera
simaruba (L.) Sarg.); others were collected in ultravi-
olet light traps.

Distribution. The type locality is "Am6rique boreal"
(Grouvelle 1876:496), and it has only been recorded
from Florida, where it occurs in the extreme southern
part of the state. I have seen specimens of what appear
to be the same species from Mexico, Jamaica, Trinidad,
eus lecontei Costa Rica, and Venezuela.












































Figure 73. Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle, hab-
itus.


Specimens examined. Twenty-nine from Florida.
representing 12 collection records (for complete data,
see Appendix).


Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle
(fig. 73, map 30)

Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle 1876:495

Laemophloeus floridanus Casey 1884:85, new syn-
onym

Diagnosis. Length 2.3mm 3.4mm. A tuft of setae on
the dorsal surface of the antennal scape in the male (fig.
73) distinguishes this from all other Florida species.
Females are indistinguishable from those of suturalis,
but (except for the few specimens with reduced elytral
maculation which resemble specimens of fasciatus)


Map 30. Florida distribution of Laeemophloeus megacepha-
lus Grouvelle.


can be distinguished from other Florida species by the
shape and position of the elytral maculae (fig. 73).

Taxonomic notes. Grouvelle (1876:495) described
megacephalus from "Nouvelle-Grenade. Collection
Chevrolat." I have examined a single male from the
MNHN with the following label data: "Chevrolat. Nlle.
Grenada Magdalena'/"S. nom. megacephalus H.
Deyrolle."/"Type"/ "TYPE"/ "MUSEUM PARIS
COLL. A. GROUVELLE 1917"/"Megacephalus A.
Grouv. Ann. Fr. p.". I accept this specimen as part of
the type series and designate it as lectotype. The type
offloridanus apparently has been lost (Buchanan 1935),
but Casey's (1884:85) description is detailed enough to
permit its identification. Specimens from the southern
U.S. matching Casey's description are conspecific
with megacephalus. Laemophloeus distinguendus
Sharp, described from Guatemala and Panama, is
almost certainly another synonym of megacephalus,
but as I have not examined the types I hesitate to
propose a formal synonymy at this time. There is a
specimen from Jamaica in the FSCA that is very similar
to megacephalus but which has an elongate antennomere
XI and may represent an undescribed species.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on the biology of
this species. Gut contents of Florida specimens indi-
cate it is fungivorous. Based on my collecting experi-
ence in Florida, it appears that individuals of L. meg
acephalus tend to be more abundant on logs in deep










woods rather than in more exposed situations, where
individuals of biguttatus predominate.

Distribution. Except for the original descriptions and
its inclusion in a key by Grouvelle (1896:203), it has
been mentioned in the primary literature only once
since, when Blatchley (1925:165) recorded it at light at
Royal Palm Park (now Royal Palm Hammock in
Everglades National Park, Florida). I have seen U.S.
specimens from Florida, Alabama, North Carolina, /
Louisiana, and Texas, as well as from Mexico and "
Trinidad. I have seen Florida specimens from Dade .
County in the south to Jackson County in the north; I
have not seen any specimens from the Keys.

Specimens examined. More than 260, of which 231
were from Florida, representing 56 collection records
(for complete data, see Appendix).


Laemophloeus suturalis Reitter

Laemophloeus suturalis Reitter 1876:50

Laemophloeus suturalis var. circumdatus Sharp
1899:514 Figure 74. Laemophloeus woodruffi, n.sp, habits.

Diagnosis. Length 1.9mm 3.0mm. Males are similar have also seen specimens from Mexico, British Hondu-
to those of megacephalus but lack the tuft of setae on ras, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Trinidad, and Panama.
the scape and the epistomal emarginations over the
antennal insertions are not as deep. Females of meg-
acephalus and suturalis cannot be distinguished except
by association with males.

Taxonomic notes. Except for the variety circumdatus,
described by Sharp (1899:514) and of doubtful valid-
ity, there are no recorded synonyms of this species.
Adults of suturalis are very similar to adults of termi-
nahs Casey, but those of the latter are larger, more
brightly colored, and with a relatively much longer
antennomere XI in major males.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on its biology.
Most of the Florida specimens were collected on and
under the bark of a dead, standing gumbo-limbo tree
(Rursera simarubra (L.) Sarg.); gut contents consisted
of fungal material. Many specimens from Neotropical
areas were collected m ultraviolet light traps.

Distribution. Sharp (1899) recorded this species from
Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, and Colombia. It has not
been previously recorded from the United States. I
Map 31. Florida distribution of Laemophloeus woodruffi,
n.sp.










Specimens examined. More than 105 (almost entirely
males, since females are inseparable at present from
those of megacephalus and distinguendus), of which
the following were from Florida: 26, Dade Co., Castel-
low Hammock, 17-IV-1982 M.C. Thomas and J.H.
Frank; 1, Dade Co., Goulds, 18-IV-1982 M.C. Thomas
and J.H. Frank (FSCA).


Laemophloeus woodruffi Thomas, n.sp.
(fig. 74, map 31)

Diagnosis. The following combination of character
states distinguishes individuals of this species from
those of other Florida Laemophloeus: sparsely punc-
tate, glabrous dorsal surface of head and prothorax;
antennal scape not flattened dorsally, as long as eye in
male; color pale castaneous, sometimes slightly infus-
cate, with ill-defined paler elytra maculae. Although a
difficult character to quantify, the almost flat dorsal
surface of head and prothorax contrasts with the slightly
convex dorsal surface of the other species of this genus
in Florida.

Description. Holotype male, with following data:
"FLA: Dixie County, 3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349, 21-
V-78 R.E. Woodruff and S.A. Fragoso blacklight trap".
Deposited in FSCA. Length 2.7mm. Dorsoventrally
compressed, dorsal surface of head almost flat; elon-
gate-oblong; color castaneous, elytra darker, each with
a large amorphous pale macula from basal fifth to just
past midpoint, attaining lateral carina laterally but not
sutural stria.
Head. Transverse (1:2.5), epistome with five emar-
ginations; median line impressed, complete from poster-
ior transverse line to epistomal line; dorsal surface
glabrous (at 75x), with punctures smaller than an eye
facet, separated by 1-2 diameters, surface smooth and
glossy between punctures; antennae elongate, filiform,
attaining apical third of elytra; scape elongate, longer
than length of eye, not flattened dorsally or posteriorly.
Thorax. Pronotum transverse (1:1.8), widest just
behind anterior angles; breadth across anterior angles
1.25 times that across basal angles; anterior angles
produced, acute; posterior angles produced slightly,
obtuse; sublateral line represented by a deep groove;
sublateral foveae well-marked; surface sculpture and
pubescence as on head; elytra 1.4 times longer than
broad; elytra appearing glabrous, but elytral cells
enclosing 3-4 rows of minute setae.

Variation. Length of allotype, 2.2mm; proportions as
follows: head, 1:2.4; pronotum, 1:2.2; elytra, 1.41:1.


75


Figure 75-76. Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte). 75)
hind tarsus, male; 76) pro- and mesosternum.

Paratypes range in length from 2.3mm to 2.8mm. The
discs of the pronotum and head in some specimens are
infuscate.

Types. Allotype, (FSCA), same data as holotype;
paratypes (75), as follows: 8, same data as holotype; 1,
"Gainesville, Fla."/"E.M. Collins, Jr. coll. 10-IV-63"/
"in blacklight trap" (FSCA); 1, "ONTARIO: Essex Co.
Wheatley March 1967 K. Stephan leg." (FSCA); 2,
"MISSOURI: Boone Co. Columbia 12 April 1978
Martin E. Rice coll" (FSCA); 1, "TENNESSEE: Oak
Ridge 22-VI-68 R.E. Woodruff'/"in blacklight trap"
(FSCA); 54, "Brooksville Fla I-21-40"/"Van Dyke
Collection"; 4, same except 1-28-40; 4, same except I-
21-40 (CASC).



Genus Charaphloeus Casey

Charaphloeus Casey 1916:127 [as subgenus of Laem-
ophloeus Dejean]

Charaphloeus, Thomas 1984a:75 [elevated to genus]

Type species. Laemophloeus convexulus LeConte [by
original designation]










Diagnosis. The combination of the following character
states are diagnostic for the members of this genus:
body shape generally more convex than in Laemo-
phloeus; pronotum rounded laterally, not angulate (fig.
77); elytra without humeral carinae; elytral cells absent
or poorly expressed; intercoxal process of sternum III
acuminate anteriorly; tarsomere I as long as or longer
than penultimate tarsomere (fig. 75); male tarsal for-
mula 5-5-4 or 5-5-5.

Taxonomic notes. Charaphloeus was described by
Casey (1916:127) as a subgenus of Laemophloeus but
was treated as a full genus by Thomas (1984a:75). Most
species are easily assignable to one genus or another;
however, adults of Charaphloeus flavosignatus
(Schaeffer) possess humeral carinae and are thus inter-
mediate between Charaphloeus and Laemophloeus.
Individuals of that species possess all the other distin-
guishing features of Charaphloeus, and possession of
humeral carinae is here considered to be a retention of
an ancestral character state.

Biology. Little is known about the biology of the
species of Charaphloeus. Blatchley (1910:567) re-
ported that individuals of adustus (probably an unde-
scribed species, see below) are found on beech logs.

Distribution. Restricted to the New World, where the
species range from Canada to southern South America
and through the Antilles.


Key to the adults
of Florida species of Charaphloeus

1. Anterior pronotal angles acutely angulate; males
with elongate mandibles, without prominent
frontal tubercles; color dark brown to piceous
..................... ........... convexulus (LeConte)
1'. Anterior pronotal angles obtusely rounded; males
with or without elongate mandibles and frontal
tubercles; color other than dark brown or pi-
ceous .................................................... 2

2(1'). Punctures of head and pronotum smaller than an
eye facet, separated mostly by about one diam-
eter; color testaceous; males with elongate
mandibles and frontal tubercles (fig. 77) (ex-
treme southern Florida only) ....................
.................................... bituberculatus (Reitter)
2'. Punctures of head and pronotum larger than an eye
facet, nearly contiguous; body usually bicolor-
ed, elytra darker than head and pronotum; males
without elongate mandibles or frontal tubercles
(northern Florida)........... adustus (LeConte)


Charaphloeus adustus (LeConte)
new combination

Laemophloeus adustus LeConte 1854:74

Laemophloeus (Charaphloeus) adustus, Casey 1916:
126

Laemophloeus (Charaphloeus) fraterculus Casey
1916:124, n. syn.

Diagnosis. Length 1.6mm 1.9mm. The bicolored
body, coarse punctation of head and pronotum, small
mandibles, and simple anterior pronotal angles dis-
tinguish individuals of this species from those of other
Florida Charaphloeus.

Taxonomic notes. I have examined LeConte's type of
adustus (type locality, York Co., Penn.) and Casey's
type offraterculus (type locality, Buena Vista Spring,
Franklin Co., Penn.), and conclude that they are con-
specific. Casey's misidentification of adustus (1884:
87) as an even more coarsely punctate, predominantly
northern (and apparently undescribed) species with
very small, abruptly protuberant eyes, led to his de-
scription of fraterculus. The aedeagus of LeConte's
male holotype of adustus is very different from those
of males of the undescribed species.


Map 32. Florida distribution of Charaphloeus convexulus
(LeConte).


.-A
































Map 33. Florida distribution of Charaphloeus bituberculatus
(Reitter).

Biology. Nothing has been published on the biology of
this species except for Blatchley's note (see this section
under the genus), which probably refers to the un-
described species.

Distribution. This species has been recorded from
Virginia, Indiana, Vancouver, Pennsylvania, and New
York (Hetschko 1930:21). Some of these records may
refer to the undescribed species discussed above. I have
seen specimens from Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri, and
Florida.

Specimens examined. Eight, of which four were from
Florida, representing three collection records as fol-
lows: 2, Alachua Co. San Felasco Hammock 11-XI-
1988 M.C. Thomas beating dead branches; 1, Alachua
Co. Gainesville 4-III-1979 M.C. Thomas blacklight
trap; 1, Alachua Co. Gainesville 21-II-1981 M.C.
Thomas (FSCA).

Charaphloeus bituberculatus (Reitter)
new combination
(fig. 77, map 33)

Laemophloeus bituberculatus Reitter 1876:316

Diagnosis. Length 1.7mm 2.1mm. The following
combination of character states is diagnostic for adults


S [77



Figure 77. Charaphloeus bituberculatus (Reitter), habits.

of this species: pale yellow color, elongate mandibles
and epistomal tubercles (fig. 77) of males.

Taxonomic notes. There are no recorded synonyms of
this distinctive species, which possesses the diagnostic
characteristics of Charaphloeus, and is here trans-
ferred to that genus.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded about its biology.

Distribution. It was described from Puerto Rico and
had gone unreported since then until recorded from
Florida (Thomas 1979). I have seen specimens from
Florida, Jamaica, U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix), the
Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas (Exuma).

Specimens examined. Twenty-five, of which 17 were
from Florida, representing 11 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).

Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte)
(fig. 75, 76, map 32)

Laemophloeus convexulus LeConte 1879:2

Laemophloeus (Charaphloeus) convexulus, Casey
1916:126










Charaphloeus convexulus, Thomas 1984a:81
Laemophloeus (Charaphloeus) filiger Casey 1916:
125, n. syn.

Laemophloeus (Charaphloeus) sphaerops Casey
1916:126, n. syn.

Diagnosis. Length 1.7mm 2.4mm. The acutely angu-
late anterior pronotal angles, elongate mandibles in the
male, and piceous coloration characterize adults of this
species.

Taxonomic notes. I have examined LeConte's and
Casey's types and consider that they are conspecific.
Casey's specimens exhibit only the normal intraspe-
cific variation expected in such a strongly sexually
dimorphic species that also is subject to allometry.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on its biology,
except that it is found under bark.

Distribution. It has been recorded from New Jersey,
Iowa, Michigan, New York (Hetschko 1930:26), Mas-
sachusetts, and District of Columbia (Casey 1916:
126), and South Carolina (Kirk 1969, 1970). I have
seen specimens from Ontario, New York, Rhode Is-
land, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, and
Florida.

Specimens examined. Twenty, of which five were
from Florida, with the following data: 2, Highlands Co.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 7-II-1986 M. Deyrup
window trap burn area (ABSC); 1, Highlands Co.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid 21-XII-1987 M.
Deyrup window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo (ABSC); 1, Levy
Co., 3.8mi. SW Archer, 1-10-IV-1988, P. Skelley,
window trap, turkey oak-rosemary scrub (FSCA); 1,
Marion Co., Ocala Nat. Forest Big Scrub Campground
12-III-1977 blacklight D. Platt and E. Riley (FSCA).


Genus Placonotus Macleay

Placonotus Macleay 1871:168

Silvanophloeus Sharp 1899:537; syn. by Lefkovitch
1959:110

Type species. Of Placonotus, P. longicornis Macleay
(by monotypy); of Silvanophloeus, Laemophloeus
testaceus (Fabricius) (by original designation).


Diagnosis. Adults of Placonotus species can be distin-
guished from those of other laemophloeine genera by
the following combination of character states: distinct
transverse line separating frons from epistome; ante-
rior coxal cavities narrowly open posteriorly; inter-
coxal process of first visible abdominal stemite broadly
rounded anteriorly; last visible abdominal segment
usually exposed dorsally beyond elytral apices; tarsal
formula 5-5-5 females, 5-5-4 males; males with genital
claspers. This genus is well-defined, and there usually
is no problem in identifying its members by habitus
alone. However, it is very close to the African Gannes
Lefkovitch, which may be synonymous, and with
Parandrita LeConte and Horn.

Taxonomic notes. Although described by Macleay in
1871, it was not until Lefkovitch (1959) that Placon-
otus was accepted as a taxon distinct from Laemo-
phloeus. The genus has been revised for Europe
(Lefkovitch 1959), Africa (Lefkovitch 1962c), India
(Mukhopadhyay and Sengupta 1977), and the New
World (Thomas 1984c). The numerous species in the
Oriental and Australian regions are unidentifiable,
mostly undescribed, and badly in need of revision.

Distribution. Found throughout the forested areas of
the world, but apparently absent from the oceanic
islands of the Pacific. Lefkovitch (1959) recorded one
species from Europe and 13 species from Africa (1962c).
Mukhopadhyay and Sen Gupta (1977) recorded six
species from India and Thomas (1984c) recorded 13
New World species, including two species also occur-
ring in Africa. Of the 13 New World species, six occur
in the U.S. Two of those, P. nitens (LeConte) and P.
arizonensis Thomas, are restricted to the western U.S.,
and two others, P. politissimus (Wollaston) and P.
macrognathus Thomas, are Neotropical species re-
stricted to Florida in the U.S. Of the remaining two U.S.
species, P. zimmermanni (LeConte) is widespread in
the eastern U.S. west to Texas, while P. modestus (Say)
occupies much of the same range west to Arizona.

Biology. Very little is known about the biology of most
species of Placonotus. Both Iablokoff-Khnzorian (1977)
and Lefkovitch (1959) recorded the European species,
P. testaceus, from under bark of various hardwoods and
in the galleries of several species of Scolytidae. Law-
rence (1977) reported one U.S. species in association
with an ascomycete fungus, and I have collected
specimens of two species, P. zimmermanni and P.
modestus, commonly under the bark of dead hard-
woods, especially Quercus spp., on or near ascomycete
fungi. The larva of P. testaceus has been described and
illustrated (Perris 1877), but the description and illus-










trations are useless for modem taxonomic purposes and
apply equally well to the larvae of many laemophloeine
genera.

Key to the adults of Florida
species of Placonotus

1. First visible abdominal segment with femoral
lines (fig. 84), anterior pronotal angles
rounded, not or little produced anterolater-
ally; third elytra cell impressed basally;
elytra truncate apically, exposing much of
last visible abdominal segment.................
...........................politissimus (W ollaston)
First visible abdominal segment without feno-
ral lines; anterior pronotal angles various;
third elytral cell present or absent; elytra
truncate or entire .....................................2

2(1'). Anterior angles of pronotum with prominent
anteroiaterally directed tooth; elytra entire,
evenly rounded to apices; elytra cells pres-
ent ...................... zimmermanni (LeConte)
2'. Anterior angles ofpronotum rounded, ordecli-
vous to small, blunt tooth; elytra entire or
truncate; elytral cells absent ...................3


3(2'). Elytra truncate aplcally, exposing most of last
visible abdominal segment; elytra with
conspicuous rows of punctures (fig. 81);
head not microreticulate...modestus (Say)
3' Elytra not truncate apically, exposing at most
the tip of last visible abdominal segment;
elytra without conspicuous rows of punc-
tures (fig. 80); head microreticulate........
.............................. macrognathus Thomas

Placonotus macrognathus Thomas
(fig. 78)

Placonotus macrognathus Thomas 1984c:12

Diagnosis. Length 1.6mm 1.8mm. In addition to the
key characters, individuals of this species can be
distinguished from those of other Florida species of
Placonotus by the combination of the following char-
acter states: large, distinctly microreticulate head; and
laterally expanded mandibles in the male.

Taxonomic notes. This is one of the more distinctive
species of the pallentipennis species subgroup (Thom-
as 1984c) and is not likely to be confused with any other
species of Placonotus in the Florida fauna.

Distribution. It is known only from the Florida Keys
and Cuba.


Biology. Part of the type series was collected under
bark of gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.)
. and one was collected in an ultraviolet light trap.
Nothing else is known about the biology of this species.

Specimens examined. I have seen no additional speci-
mens since it was described from four specimens
collected on Upper Key Largo in Monroe County and
one Cuban specimen. One other Cuban specimen (not
part of the type series) was recorded by Thomas
(1984c).


SF
r !





A7 .V


Figure 78. Placonotus macrognathu, Thomas, habitus


Placonotus modestus (Say)
(fig. 79, 80, map 34)

Cucujus modestus Say 1827:268

Laemophloeus modestus, LeConte 1854:75

Silvanophloeus modeslus, Casey 1916:130

Placonotus modestus, Thomas 1984c:8
















79

Figure 79. Placonotus modestus (Say), aedeagus, lateral
view.


Laemophloeus stngularts Smith 1851:7; syn. by Le-
Conte 1854:105

Laemophloeus gundlachi (irouvelle 1876:499; syn. by
Thomas 1984c:8

Silvanophloeus gundlachi, Sharp 1899:538

Silvanophloeus liquids Casey 1916:130; syn. by Tho-
mas 1984c:8

Diagnosis. Length 1,4mm 2.2mm. The combination
of truncate elytral apices exposing most of the last
visible abdominal segment and anteriorpronotal angles
consisting of small, ventrally deflected tubercles (fig.
81) distinguishes adults of this species from those of the
other known Florida species of Placonotus.


Figure 80. Placonotus modestus (Say), habits.


Map 34. Florida distribution of Placonotus modestus (Say).


Taxonomic notes. Say's type material presumably
was lost with most of his collection. Because this is one
of the most widespread New World species of Placon-
otus and the one most commonly confused in collec-
tions with other species, Thomas (1984c) designated a
neotype and provided a detailed redescription of the
species. Casey (1916) described liquids from Texas;
gundlachi was described from "Amerique Ccntrale,"
and singularis was described from "East Florida."

Biology. Wheeler (1921) reported only two references
to the habits of this species, recording it from hemp
seed and from "under bark and in siftings." Lawrence
(1977) reported an association with an ascomyccte
fungus in Texas for a species he tentatively identified
as P. liquids. I have collected it on numerous occa-
sions under the bark of hardwoods, especially Quercus
spp., usually in association with ascomycete fungi or
Fungi Imperfecti. Examination of gut contents sug-
gests that it is fungivorous. It is often collected in
ultraviolet light traps.

Distribution. Thomas (1984c) recorded it from Flor-
ida north to New York and west to Arizona. It ranges
south through Mexico and Central America to Panama
and has also been collected in Cuba, Jamaica and
Trinidad. Florida records range from Dade County in
the South to Taylor County in the North. Although
records are lacking for both the Keys and the Panhandle
it is likely that it occurs throughout the state.














81




Figure 81. Placonotus politissamus (Wollaston), abdomi-
nal sternum III.


Specimens examined. More than 500, of which 334
were from Florida representing 79 collection records
(for complete data, see Appendix).


Placonotus politissimus (Wollaston)
(fig. 81, map 35)

Laemophloeus politissimus Wollaston 1867:67

Placonotus politissimus, Lefkovitch 1962c:183

Laemophloeus (Stlvanophloeus) mirus Grouvelle
1905:142; syn. by Lefkovitch 1962c:183

Laemophloeus commixtus Grouvelle 1912:304; syn.
by Thomas 1984c:6


Map 35. Florida distribution of Placonotus politisvimus
(Wollaston).


Laemophloeus victus Kessel 1926:69; syn. by Thomas
1984c:6

Diagnosis. Length 1.2mm 2.0mm. This is the only
known species of Placonotus with femoral lines (fig
81) on the first visible abdominal sternite; additionally,
the rounded anterior pronotal angles, basally impressed
third elytral cell and truncate elytral apices are diag-
nostic.

Taxonomic notes. Lefkovitch (1962c) examined the
type series of politisinmus and mirus and selected
lectotypes. Thomas (1984c) examined the holotype of
commixtus and established the synonymy of that spe-
cies with politissimus. The type (or types) of victus
have not been identified and the synonymy is based on
the description in Kessel's (1926) key. The type local-
ity of politissirmu is Cape Verde Islands; of mirus,
Madagascar; of commixtus, Guadeloupe, and of victus,
Brazil.

Distribution. Lelkovitch (1962c) recorded it from
"Atlantic islands offAfrica, Congo, Ivory Coast, Mada-
gascar, Seychelles." Thomas (1984c) noted additional
African records from Zimbabwe and Nigeria, as well as
an extensive New World distribution ranging from
Florida south through Mexico and Central America to
Peru and southern Brazil and throughout the Greater
and Lesser Antilles. In Florida it ranges from the Keys
north to Marion County.

Biology. Virtually nothing is known about its biology.
Grouvelle (1912b) wrote in the original description of
commixtus that the holotype was collected "... under
the bark of a freshly fallen Cedrela odorata." Almost
all of the specimens I have seen were collected in
ultraviolet light traps.

Specimens examined. More than 300, of which 55
were from Florida, representing 38 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix)


Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte)
(map 36)

Laemophloeus Zimmermanni LeConte 1854:75

Placonotus zimmermanni, Thomas 1984c:5

Laemophloeus testaceus auctorum, not (Fabricius
1787:168)

































Map 36. Florida distribution of Placonotus zimmermanni
(LeConte).

Silvanophloeus apertus Casey 1916:128; syn. by Tho-
mas 1984c:5

Silvanophloeus illustris Casey 1916:129; syn. by Tho-
mas 1984c:5

Silvanophloeus sobrinus Casey 1916:129; syn. by Tho-
mas 1984c:5

Diagnosis. Length 1.5mm 1.9mm. This is the only
North American Placonotus with conspicuously toothed
anterior pronotal angles and well-developed elytral
cells.

Taxonomic notes. Placonotus zimmermanni was con-
sidered conspecific with P. testaceus (Fabricius) of
Europe (Casey 1884) until recently (Thomas 1984c).
Although superficially similar, the two species differ
considerably in surface sculpture, pubescence, and in
the structure of the male genitalia. I have seen no North
American specimens of P. testaceus. The type locality
of P. zimmermanni is "Middle States." Casey described
apertus from Indiana, illustris from "N. Braunfels,
Tex." and sobrinus from North Carolina.

Distribution. Thomas (1984c) recorded it from Flor-
ida north to Ontario and west to Oklahoma and Kansas,
with a single record from Oregon. In Florida, it seems
to be restricted to the northern half of the state, where
it is collected much less commonly than P. modestus.


Biology. Little is known about its biology, except that
individuals are found under the bark of hardwood logs,
especially those of Quercus spp., and are attracted to
light. Examination of gut contents indicate they are
fungivorous.

Specimens examined. More than 500, of which 27
were from Florida, representing 12 collection records
(for complete data see Appendix).


Genus Parandrita LeConte and Horn

Parandrita LeConte and Horn 1883:133

Type species. Laemophloeus cephalotes LeConte [by
original designation].

Diagnosis. Species of this genus are characterized by
the large head (fig. 83), epistome foveate at basal
angles (fig. 83), and weakly developed elytral epi-
pleuron.

Taxonomic notes. Species of this genus are distinctive
and there are no generic synonyms. Species of Paran-
drita seem to be most closely related to those of
Placonotus Macleay. The Florida species treated be-
low could have been included in Placonotus almost as
well as in Parandrita. Criteria for its provisional
assignment to Parandrita are discussed below. The
New World species of Parandrita are without an
external manifestation of the epistomal suture, while in
Hawaiian species the clypeus is set off from the frons
by an abrupt change in elevation.

Biology. Nothing has been reported about the biology
of the species of this genus, other than they are found
under bark.

Distribution. Confined to the New World and Hawaii.
It is represented in the New World by four species in
California and Central America, and one in Florida and
the Antilles. The six species recorded from the Hawai-
ian Islands seem to be closely related to the New World
species, but probably are deserving of a separate genus.


Parandrita permixtus (Grouvelle)
new combination
(fig. 82, map 37)

Laemophloeus permixtus Grouvelle 1912b:303


















/





















S 82


Figure 82. Parandrita pennixtus (Grouvelle), habits.

Diagnosis. Length 1.2mm 1.5mm. Adults of this
species can be distinguished from all other Florida
Laemophloeinae by the following combination of
character states: closed procoxal cavities; head almost
as large as pronotum, with basal angles of epistome
foveate. From adults of othei described species of
Parandrita, those ofpermixtus can be distinguished by
their elongate and filiform antennae.

Taxonomic notes. Although superficially resembling
adults of Placonotus species, especially those of the
pallentipennis species subgroup (see Thomas 1984c),
I am assigning permixtus to Parandrita LeConte and
Horn. It differs from species previously assigned to that
genus by its elongate, filiform antennae. Like those of
other species of Parandrita, adult permixtus possess a
large head and the basal angles of the epistome are
foveate. As in other New World Parandrita, the
epistomal suture is visible through the cuticle but is not
marked by any external structure except for the foveae,


Map 37. Florida distribution of Parandrita permixtus
(Grouvcllc).

which seem to represent the basal angles of the suture
and are perhaps remnants of an external groove.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded about its biology.
Most specimens I have seen were collected at ultravi-
olet light traps, in flight intercept traps, or in ethanol-
baited vane traps. There are two specimens in the
USNM that were intercepted at Brownsville, Texas
under the bark of mango wood from Cuba.

Distribution. It was described from Guadeloupe, and
I have seen specimens from Cuba, U.S. Virgin Islands
(St. Croix and St. Thomas), Panama, and Florida. In
Florida, it has been collected only in the eastern and
southern part of the state.

Specimens examined. More than 90, of which 66 were
from Florida, representing 38 collection records (for
complete data see Appendix).

Genus Phloeolaemus Casey
new status

Phloeolaemus Casey, 1916:127 [assubgenus ofLaemo
phloeus]
Type species. Laemophloeus immersus Sharp [byorigi-
nal designation and by monotypy].

Diagnosis. The combination of the following character
states is diagnostic for this genus: epistomal suture not










marked with transverse groove; mandibles of males
often with lateral or ventral tooth; procoxal cavities
wide open; sublateral lines of pronotum grooved;
oblique impression often present between sublateral
line and lateral margin; elytra with only third cell
developed; intercoxal process of sternum III broadly
rounded anteriorly.

Taxonomic notes. Cascy (1916) described Phlueo-
laemus as a subgenus of Laemophloeus, and it is here
raised to generic rank. Its relationships are by no means
certain, but Phloeolaemus may be most closely allied
to Placonotus and Parandrtta, with possible affinities
also with the African Mariolaemus Lefkovitch.

Biology. Except for the observations reported below
nothing is known about the biology of the members of
this genus.

Distribution. The type species, P. immersus, is known
only from a single specimen collected in Panama at
Volcin de Chiriqui. Three species occur in the United
States; one is restricted to Florida, one in the Gulf
States, and one in Arizona. Other species, which appear


to be related to either P. immersus or P chamaeropis,
occur throughout the Neotropics.

Phloeolaemus chamaeropis (Schwarz)
new combination
(fig. 83, map 38)

Laemophloeus chamaeropis Schwarz, 1878:127

Diagnosis. Length 1.7mm 2.0mm. The relatively
broad body; bnght orange head and pronotum and pale
elytra; and mandible with a lateroventral tooth in the
male (fig. 83) distinguish this species.

Taxonomic notes. It is one of many laemophloeines
that were described as members of Laemophloeus
(sens. lat.) (many of which are still assigned to that
genus because of the lack of taxonomic interest in this
group in the New World). I have examined the type
specimen of Phloeolaemus immesus (Shaip), and
consider that chamaeropis is more closely related to
that species than to any species ofLaemophloeus (sens.
str.). There appear to be two major groups of species
that would be encompassed by including chamaeropis
in the same genus as immersus: a group of species with
narrow-bodied adults having unmodified mandibles in
the male, but highly complex genital claspers, as in
immersus, and a group of species with relatively broad-
bodied adults having modified mandibles in the male


V.



















Map 38. Florida distribution of Phloeolaemus chamaeropis
Figure 83. Phloeolaemus chamueropiu (Schwarz), habits. (Schwarz).










and sternum VIII not modified as genital claspers in the
male, as in rhamaeropis. Further study may prove that
this latter group is deserving of generic rank.

Biology. Nothing has been recorded on the biology of
this species and the reason for the specific epithet is
unknown; I know of no association of it with palmettos.
I have collected adults and larvae of this species most
commonly on sweet gum (Liquidambarstyraciflua L.),
especially on freshly downed wood where the sap was
still fermenting. I have also collected it on freshly cut
oaks (Quercus spp.) which had a strong odor offermen-
tation about them, and on which the outer surface of the
sapwood had not yet turned dark. Adults are occasion-
ally collected in ultraviolet light traps. The function of
the laterally expanded mandibles in the male is un-
known.




Map 39. Florida distribution of Phloeolaemus
quinquearticulatus (Grouvelle).

L. Distribution. No locahty was given in the description
17W s (Schwarz 1878:359), but it was recorded from Enter-
or, prise (Volusia Co.) later in the same paper (Schwarz
1878:446). Casey (1884) recorded it from the "South-
Sem States." I have seen specimens from Florida, Ala-
' bama, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Texas. In Flor-
ida specimens have been collected from Highlands
County in the south to Columbia County in the north;
it is likely that it occurs throughout the state.

Specimens examined. Thirty-three, of which 28 were
from Florida, representing 18 collection records (for
complete data, see Appendix).


Phloeolaemus quinquearticulatus
I (Grouvelle)
new combination
(fig. 84, map 39)

Laemophloeusquinquearticulatus, Grouvelle 1896:201

Diagnosis. Length, 1.5mm 1.9mm. The following
combination of character states distinguishes this spe-
84 cies from chamaeropis: antennomeres VII-XI broad,
forming a distinct, apparently five-segmented club
(fig. 84); color dark reddish to piceous, elytra often
darker apically; male without tooth-like dorsoventral
Figure 84. Phloeolaemus quinquearticulatus (Grouvelle), structure on mandibles.
habitus.










Taxonomic notes. Nothing has been published on this
species since the original description (Grouvelle 1896)
except for a report on its occurrence in Florida (Thomas
and Peck 1991). Like chamaeropis, this species may
not be strictly congeneric with immersus but it is
certainly closer to immersus than to any members of
Laemophloeus (sens. str.). The specific identity of the
Florida specimens is open to some doubt also, since the
type(s) of Laemophloeus quinquearticulatus could not
be located in the MNHN (N. Berti, pers. comm.).
However, the Florida specimens agree well with the
original description and illustration (Grouvelle 1896).

Biology. Nothing has been reported on the biology of
this species. Florida specimens have been collected at
blacklight, in flight intercept traps, bred from burned
oak, and beaten from burned trees, along with Lathro-
pus spp. and the colydiid, Acolobicus erichsoni. The


very dark coloration of P. quinquearticulatus may be
an adaptation to that particular habitat. I have also
collected it from under the bark of a recently dead
Quercus laevis.

Distribution. Described from "Blumenau, Br6sil (prov-
ince de Rio de Janeiro) [now in the state of Santa
Catarina]". In Florida, it has been collected from Dade
County north to Wakulla County. I have seen a single
specimen in the Mississippi Entomological Museum
with the following data: "ALA. Baldwin Co. Bon
Secour N. W. Refuge T9S,R3E, sec. 19 7 Sept. 1988 L.
Corpus,T. Schieffer"/"Blacklight trap".

Specimens examined. Eighteen, all but one from
Florida, representing 13 collection records (for com-
plete data of Florida specimens, see Appendix).




























REFERENCES CITED


Aitken, A.D. 1965. A new species of Oryzaephilus
(Coleoptera: Silvanidae) from East Africa. Proc. R.
Ent. Soc. London (B) 34: 123-126.

Aitken, A.D. 1966. A strain of small Oryzaephilus
surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) from
the Far East. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2: 45-55.

Aitken, A.D. 1975. Insect travellers I. Coleoptera.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Lon-
don), Technical Bulletin 31: xvi + 191p.

Allibert, A. 1847. Note sur divers Insectes col6opteres
trouv6s dans des graines rapport6s de Canton. Rev.
Zool. 1847: 11-19.

Arbogast, R.T. 1976. Population parameters for
Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Oryzaephilus mer-
cator: Effect of relative humidity. Environ. Ent. 5:
738-742.

Arnett, R. H., Jr. 1963. The beetles of the United States
(A manual for identification). The Catholic Univer-
sity of American Press, Washington, 1112p.

Ashman, F., and G.A. Higgs. 1968. A homed strain of
Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera, Silva-
nidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 4: 203-211.

Back, E.A., and R.T. Cotton. 1926. Biology of the saw-
toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis
Linne. J. Agric. Res. 33: 435-452.

Barnes, D.F., and G.H. Kaloostian. 1940. Flight hab-
its and seasonal abundance of dried-fruit insects. J.
Econ. Ent. 33: 115-119.


Blackman, D.G. 1966. A pearl-eyed mutation in
Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera, Silva-
nidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 2: 167-169.

Blackwelder, R. E. 1945. Checklist of the coleopterous
insects of Mexico, Central America, the West
Indies, and South America. part 3. U.S. Nat. Mus.
Bull. 185: 343-550.

Blatchley, W.S. 1910. An illustrated descriptive cata-
logue of the Coleoptera or beetles (exclusive of the
Rhynchophora) known to occur in Indiana. Nature
Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1386p.

Blatchley, W.S. 1918. Some new or scarce Coleoptera
from western and southern Florida. Canadian Ent.
50: 416-424.

Blatchley, W. S. 1925. Notes on the distribution and
habits of some Florida Coleoptera with description
of new species. Canadian Ent. 57: 160-168.

Blatchley, W.S. 1928. Notes on some Florida Co-
leoptera with descriptions of new species. Cana-
dian Ent. 60: 60-73.

Borden, A.D. 1921. A biological study of the red date-
palm scale, Phoenicoccus marlatti. J. Agric. Res.
21:659-667.

Bioving, A. G., and F.C. Craighead. 1931. An illus-
trated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the
order Coleoptera. Ent. Americana (N.S.) 11:1-351,
125 pis.










Bowler, P.A., Trujillo, E.E., and J.W. Beardsley Jr.
1977. Insect feeding on sugarcane smut in Hawaii,
U.S.A. Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 22: 451-456.

Breese, M.H., and T.E. Wise. 1959. The biology of
Nausibius clavicoris (Kug.)(Col., Cucujidae). Bull.
Ent. Res. 50: 237-258.

Brimley, C.S. 1938. The insects of North Carolina,
being a list of the insects of North Carolina and their
close relatives. North Carolina Dept. Agric., Ra-
leigh, N.C., 560p.

Buchanan, L.L. 1935. Thomas Lincoln Casey and the
Casey collection of Coleoptera. Smithsonian Misc.
Coll. 94: iv + 1-15.

Burckhardt, D., and S.A. Slipinski. 1991. A review of
the Passandridae of the world (Coleoptera,
Cucujoidea). III. Genera Anisocerus, Aulonosoma,
Passandrella, Passandrina, Scalidiopsis, and Ta-
phroscelidia. Rev. Suisse Zool. 98(3):453-497.

Casey, T.L. 1884. Revision of the Cucujidae of America
North of Mexico. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 11: 69-
112.

Casey, T.L. 1890. Coleopterological Notices: Cucujidae.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 5: 321-323, 495-501.

Casey, T.L. 1916. Some random studies among the
Clavicornia. Mem. Col. 7: 35-300.

Chamberlin, W.J. 1939. The bark and timber beetles of
North America. The taxonomy, biology and control
of 575 species belonging to 72 genera of the super
family Scolytoidea. Oregon State College Coop-
erative Assn., Corvallis, Oregon, vi + 513p.

Chittenden, F.H. 1897. Some little-known insects affect-
ing stored vegetable products. A collection of articles
detailing certain original observations made upon
insects of this class. Bur. Ent. USDA, Bull. 8: 1-45.

Corbett, G.H., Yusope, M., and A. Hassan. 1937. Insects
associated with copra in Malaya, In. Insects, fungi and
bacteria associated with copra in Malaya. Dept. Agric.
Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, Sci.
Series 20: 1-91.

Crotch, G.R. 1873. Checklist of the Coleoptera of America,
North of Mexico. Naturalists' Agency, Salem, Massa-
chusetts, 136p.


Crowson, R.A. 1955. The natural classification of the
families of Coleoptera. Nathaniel Lloyd Ltd., London,
187p. p62

Crowson, R.A. 1967. The natural classification of the
families of Coleoptera. Addenda et corrigenda. Ent.
Mon. Mag. 103: 209-214.

Crowson, R.A. 1973. Further observations on Phloeo-
stichidae and Cavognathidae, with definitions of new
genera from Australia and New Zealand. Coleop. Bull.
27: 54-62.

Crowson, R.A., and I. Ellis. 1969. Observations on
Dendrophagus crenatus (Paykull) (Cucujidae) and
some comparisons with piestine Staphylinidae. (Cole-
optera). Ent. Mon. Mag. 104: 161-169.

Dajoz, R. 1989. Uleiota texana (Coleoptera Cucujidae),
une espce nouvelle du Texas. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn.
Lyon 58:198-200.

Dejean, P. F. M. A. 1836-1837. Catalogue des col6optbres
de la collection de M. Le Comte Dejean. Troisibme
edition, revue, corrig6e et augment6e. Mequignon-
Marvis, Paris, 503p.

DeLeon, D. 1934. An annotated list of the parasites,
predators, and other associated fauna of the mountain
pine beetle in western white pine and lodgepole pine.
Canadian Ent. 66: 51-61.

Dimmock, G. 1884. Notes on Catogenus rufus. Psyche 3:
341- 342.

Duftschmid, C. 1825. Fauna Austriae. Oder Beschreibung
der osterreichischen Insecten fur angehende Freunde
der Entomologie. 3. Akad. Buchhandl., Linz, 289p.

Erichson, W.F. 1846. Naturgeschichte der Insecten
Deutschlands, 1. Coleoptera, 3: 321-480.

Fabricius, J.C. 1775. System Entomologia. Korte,
Flensburgi et Lipsiae, xxx + 832p.

Fabricius, J.C. 1781. Species insectorum. Vol. 1.
Bohn, Hamburgi and Kilonii [Flensburg and
Leipzig], viii + 552p.

Fabricius, J.C. 1792. Entomologiae Systematicae
Emendata et Aucta 1. Proft, Hafniae [Copenhagen],
vol. 1, xx + 330p.; vol. 2, 538p.










Fabricius, J.C. 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae
Systematicae. Proft et Storch, Hafniae [Copen-
hagen], ii + 572p.

Fabricius, J.C. 1801. System Eleutheratorum. Secun-
dum. Ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis,
locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Tomus II.
Bibliopol. Acad., Kiliae [Kiel], xxiv + 506p.

Fairmaire, L. 1850. Essai sur les col6opteres de la
Polyn6sie. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et
Appliqu6e 2: 50-64.

Fall, H.C. 1907. Descriptions of new species. Trans.
American Ent. Soc. 33: 218-272.

Fauvel, A. 1884. Rectifications au Catalogus Europae
et Caucasi. Rev. Ent. 3: 70-84.

Fauvel, A. 1889. Liste des col6opteres commons a
l'Europe et a l'Amerique du Nord (et premier
supplement). Rev. Ent. 8: 92-174.

Fiske, W.F. 1905. Catogenus rufus, a coleopterous
parasite. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 7: 90-92.

von Frauenfeld, G. 1867. Zoologische Miscellen. XI.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 17: 425-502, pl. 12.

Ganglbauer, L. 1899. Die Kafer von Mitteleuropa. Die
Kafer der osterreichisch-hungarischen Monarchie,
Deutschlands, der Scweiz, sowie des franzosischen
und italienischen Alpengebietes. Dritter Band.
Familienreihe Staphylinoidea. II. Theil.
Scydmaenidae, Silphidae, Clambidae, Leptinidae,
Platypsillidae, Corylophidae, Sphaeriidae,
Trichopterygidae, Hydroscaphidae, Scaphidiidae,
Histeridae. Familienreihe Clavicornia. Sphaeritidae,
Ostomidae, Byturidae, Nitidulidae, Cucujidae,
Erotylidae, Phalacridae, Thorictidae, Lathridiidae,
Mycetophagidae, Colydiidae, Endomychidae, Coc-
cinellidae. Gerold's Sohn, Wien, iii + 1046p.

Gemminger, M., and von Harold, E. 1868. Catalogus
Coleopterorum hucusque descriptorum synonym-
icus et systematicus. Tom. III. Histeridae,
Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae,
Rhysodidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Derodon-
tidae, Latrididae, Othnidae, Mycetophagidae, Thor-
ictidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Georyssidae, Par-
nidae, Heteroceridae, Lucanidae. E.H. Gummi,
Monachii [Munich], p.753-1346, plus 7p. of un-
numbered index.


Germar, E.F. 1824. Insectorum species novae aut
minus cognitae, descriptionibus illustratae. Cole-
optera. Hendel, Halae, 624p.

Gozis, M. des. 1881. Quelques rectifications syn-
onymiques touchant different genres et espbces de
col6opteres francais (3e parties Bull. Soc. Ent.
France 1881: cxxvi-cxxvii.

Gravely, F.H. 1916. Some lignicolous beetle larvae
from India and Borneo. Rec. Indian Mus. 12: 137-
175.

Green, M. 1979. Cryptolestes klapperichi Lefkovitch
in stored products and its identification. J. Stored
Prod. Res. 15: 71-72.

Grouvelle, A. 1874. [Descriptions of new species].
Bull. Soc. Ent. France 1874: xxvii-xxix.

Grouvelle, A. 1876. Cucujides nouveaux ou peu
connus, 1er m6moire. Ann. Soc. Ent. France (5) 6:
487-504, pl. 8-9.

Grouvelle, A. 1878a. Cucujides nouveaux ou peu
connus, 3e m6moire. Ann. Ent. Soc. France 8: 67-
76.

Grouvelle, A. 1878b. Cucujides nouveaux ou peu
connus, 4e m6moire. Ann. Ent. Soc. France 8: 261-
268.

Grouvelle, A. 1882. Cucujides nouveaux du Mus6e
Civique de Genes. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat.
Giacomo Doria 18: 275-296, pl. 7.

Grouvelle, A. 1896. Nitidulides, Colydiides, Cucujides
et Pamides recolt6s par M.E. Gounelle au Br6sil et
autres clavicornes nouveaux d'Am6rique. Ann.
Soc. Ent. France 65: 187-209, 17 figs.

Grouvelle, A. 1898. Clavicornes de Grenada et St.
Vincent (Antilles) r6colt6s par m. H.-H. Smith
appartenant au Mus6e de Cambridge. Notes Ley-
den Mus. 20:35-50.

Grouvelle, A. 1902. Supplement a la liste des
col6opteres de la Guadeloupe de MM. Fleutiaux
et Sall6. Ann. Soc. Ent. France 71: 756-765.

Grouvelle, A. 1904. Descriptions de clavicornes
nouveau de Mus6e de Bruxelles. Ann. Soc. Ent.
Belgique 48: 181-185.










Grouvelle, A. 1905. Description d'un Laemophloeus
nouveau de Madagascar (Col.). Bull. Soc. Ent.
France 1905: 142.

Grouvelle, A. 1906. Contribution a l'etude des
coleoptbres de Madagascar. Ann. Soc. Ent. France
75: 67-168, pl. 7.

Grouvelle, A. 1908a. Supplement a la liste des
coleoptbres de la Guadeloupe. Ann. Soc. Ent. France
77: 41-64.

Grouvelle, A. 1908b. Col6opteres de la region Indi-
enne. Rhysodidae, Trogositidae, Nitidulidae, Co-
lydiidae, Cucujidae. Ann. Soc. Ent. France 77: 313-
495.

Grouvelle, A. 1912a. Notes sur les Silvanini [Col.
Cucujidae]. Synonymies et descriptions de genres
nouveaux et de nouvelles espbces. Ann. Soc. Ent.
France 81: 313-386.

Grouvelle, A. 1912b. Supplement a la liste des
coleopteres de la Guadeloupe. Ann. Soc. Ent. France
81: 290-312.

Grouvelle, A. 1914. Clavicomes du Mus6e du Congo.
Rev. Zool. Afr. 4: 129-141.

Grouvelle, A. 1916. Etude sur les Passandrella, Scalidia,
et Laemotmetus (Passandridae). Mem. Ent. 1: 5-25.

Grouvelle, A. 1917. Descriptions d'especes nouvelles
du genre Cryptamorpha Woll. Mem. Ent. 2: 39-46.

Guerin-Meneville, F.E. 1829-1844. Iconographie du
Rbgne Animal de G. Cuvier. Insectes. Bailliere,
Paris and London, 576p., 104pls.

Guillebeau, F. 1890. Note sur les Silvanus du group
surinamensis. Rev. Ent. 9: 220-224.

Haldeman, S.S. 1846. On several new genera and
species of insects. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia 3: 124-128.

Halstead, D.G.H. 1973. A revision of the genus Silvanus
Latreille (s.l.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Bull. Brit-
ish Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29: 39-112.

Halstead, D.G.H. 1980. A revision of the genus
Oryzaephilus Ganglbauer, including descriptions
of related genera (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Zool. J.
Linn. Soc. 69: 271-374.


Halstead, D.G.H. 1993. Keys for the identification of
beetles associated with stored products II.
Laemophloeidae, Passandridae and Silvanidae. J.
Stored Prod. Res. 29(2): 99-197.

Hatch, M.H. 1961. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest
3: Pselaphidae and Diversicomia 1. Univ. Wash-
ington Press, Seattle, ix + 503p.

Herbst, J.F.W. 1783. Kritisches Verzeichniss meiner
Insektsammlung. Archiv fur Insektengeschichte 4:
1-72.

Herbst, J.F.W. 1797. Natursystem aller bekannten in-
und auslandischen Insekten. Die Kafer 7. Pauli,
Berlin, xi + 346p.

Hetschko, A. 1930. Cucujidae. Col. Cat. 15(109): 1-93.

Honomichl, K. 1978. Fine structure of 2 proprioceptors
in the head of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Insecta:
Coleoptera). Zoomorphologie 90: 213-226.

Hope, F.W. 1840. The coleopterist's manual, part the
third, containing various families, genera, and spe-
cies, of beetles, recorded by Linnaeus and Fab-
ricius. Also, descriptions of newly discovered and
unpublished insects. J.C. Bridgewater, Bowdery
and Kerby, London, 191p.

Horion, A. 1960. Faunistik der mitteleuropaischen
Kafer. Band VII: Clavicornia. 1. Teil (Sphaeritidae
bis Phalacridae). Kommissionsverlag Buchdruck-
erei Aug. Feyel, Bodensee, viii + 346p.

Howe, R.W. 1953. Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauv.)
(Col., Cucujidae), a valid species. Bull. Ent. Res.
84: 96.

Howe, R.W. 1956. The biology of two common storage
species of Oryzaephilus (Coleoptera, Cucujidae).
Ann. Appl. Biol. 44: 341-355.

Hubbard, H.G., and E.A. Schwarz. 1878. The Co-
leoptera of Michigan. Proc. American Philos. Soc.
17: 593-626.

Iablokoff-Khnzorian, S.M. 1977. Beetles of the tribe
Laemophloeini (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) in the So-
viet fauna. Communication 1. Entomologicheskoye
Obozreniye 56: 610-624.










Iablokoff-Khnzorian, S.M. 1978. Beetles of the tribe
Laemophloeini (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) in the fauna
of the USSR. II. Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye
57: 337-353.

Jacob, T.A. 1981. Observations on the biology of
Oryzaephilus acuminatus Halstead with compara-
tive notes on the common species of Oryzaephilus
(Coleoptera: Silvanidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 17:
17-23.

Jacquelin du Val, P.N.C. 1857-59. Manuel Entomolo-
gique. Genera des col6opteres d'Europe, 2.
Migneaux, Paris, 122p.

Joshi, G.P. 1976. New findings in the endoskeleton of
Oryzaephilus mercator (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).
Dtsch. Ent. Ztschr. 23: 153-156.

Kessel, F. 1921. Neue Monotomiden, Cucujiden u.
Passandriden aus der Sammlung des Deutschen
Entomologischen Museums in Berlin. Archiv fur
Naturgeschichte A6, Heft 6: 25-33.

Kessel, F. 1926. Synopse geral do genero Laemo-
phloeus Cast. (Col.) com a descripcao de algumas
novas species Sul-Americanas. Arch. Mus. Nac.
Rio de Janeiro [Brazil] 26: 59-93.

Kirk, V.M. 1969. A list of beetles of South Carolina.
Part I Northern Coastal Plain. South Carolina
Agric. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bull. 1033: 1-124.

Kirk, V.M. 1970. A list of the beetles of South Carolina.
Part 2 Mountain, Piedmont, and Southern Coastal
Plain. South Carolina Agric. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bull.
1038: 1-117.

Kugelann, J.G. 1794. Verzeichniss der in einigen
Gegenden Preussens bis jetzt entdeckten Kaferar-
ten nebst kurzen Nachichten von denselben.
Schneider's Magazin 1: 477- 582.

Lacordaire, T. 1854. Histoire naturelle des insects.
Genera des coleopteres ou expos m6thodique et
critique de tous les genres proposes jusqu'ici dans
cet ordre d'insectes. Tome deuxieme contenant les
families des Paussides, Staphyliniens, Ps6laphiens,
Scydm6nides, Silphales, Sph6riens, Tricho-
pt6rigiens, Scaphidiles, Hist6riens, Phalacrides,
Nitidulaires, Trogositaires, Colydiens, Rhysodides,
Cucujipes, Cryptophagides, Lathridiens,
Myc6tophagides, Thorictides, Dermestins,


Byrrhiens, G6oryssins, Parnides, H6t6roc6rides.
Roret, Paris, 548p.

Latreille, P.A. 1796. Pr6cis des caracteres g6n6riques
des insects, disposes dans un ordre natural par le
Citoyen Latreille. Bordeaux, Brive, xiv + 215p.

Latreille, P.A. 1804. Histoire naturelle g6n6rale et
particulibre, des crustac6s et des insects. Ouvrage
faisant suit aux ouvres de Leclerc de Buffon, et
parties du course complete d'histoire naturelle r6dig6
par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusiers soci6t6s
savantes. Tome onzieme. F. Dufart, Paris, 422p.

Lawrence, J.F. 1977. Coleoptera associated with an
Hypoxylon species (Ascomycetes: Xylariaceae) on
oak. Coleop. Bull. 31: 309-312.

LeConte, J.L. 1850. General remarks on the Coleoptera
of Lake Superior. In Agassiz, L. Lake Superior: Its
physical character, vegetation, and animals, com-
pared with those of other and similar regions.
Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, Boston, p. 201-242.

LeConte, J.L. 1854. Synopsis of the Cucuiides of the
United States. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7:
73-79.

LeConte, J.L. 1860. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of
Fort Tejon, California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia 11: 69-90.

LeConte, J.L. 1861. Classification of the Coleoptera of
North America. Prepared for the Smithsonian Insti-
tution. Part 1. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 136: 1-208.

LeConte, J.L. 1863. New species of North American
Coleoptera. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institu-
tion. Part 1. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 167: 1-92.

LeConte, J.L. 1866. Additions to the coleopterous
fauna of the United States, No. 1. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia 1866: 361-394.

LeConte, J.F. 1879. New Coleoptera. North American
Ent. 1: 1-5.

LeConte, J.F., and G.H. Horn. 1883. Classification of
Coleoptera of North America. Smithsonian Misc.
Coll. 26: xxxvii + 1-567.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1958a. A new genus and species of
Laemophloeinae (Col., Cucujidae) from Africa.
Ent. Mon. Mag. 93: 271-272.










Lefkovitch, L.P. 1958b. Unusual antennal characters in
some Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and
their taxonomic importance. Proc. R. Ent. Soc.
London (B) 27: 93-100.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1959. A revision of European
Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Trans.
R. Ent. Soc. London 111: 95-118.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1962a. First records and a new species
of Cryptolestes Ganglbauer (Coleoptera: Cucujidae)
from Afghanistan. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat.
Hungarica, Pars Zool. 54: 287-288.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1962c. A revision of African Laemo-
phloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Bull. British
Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.) 12: 167-245.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1963. A new species of African
Hectarthrum Newman (Coleoptera: Passandridae)
with notes and keys. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B)
32: 183- 190.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1964. A review of Laemophloeinae
(Coleoptera: Cucujidae) from Reunion and Mauri-
tius. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 33: 125-130.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1965b. Arabian Laemophloeinae (Co-
leoptera: Cucujidae). Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B)
34: 17-19.

Lefkovitch, L.P. 1967. Two new synonyms of species
of Cryptolestes Ganglbauer (Coleoptera: Cu-
cujidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 2:245-246.

Leng, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of
America, north of Mexico. John D. Sherman, Jr.,
Mount Vernon, N.Y., 470p.

Lentz, F.L. 1857. Neues Verzeichniss der Preussischen
Kifer. K6nigsberge.

Leonard, M.D. 1928. A list of the insects of New York
with a list of the spiders and certain other allied
groups. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 101:
1-1121 (1926).

Lepesme, P. 1939. Etude de la faune entomologique des
denr6es emmagasin6es. I. Cucujides. Rev. Ent.
(France) 6: 58-73.


Linnaeus, C. 1758. System naturae, sive regna tria
naturae systematic proposita per classes, ordines,
genera et species. Vol. 2, 10th ed. Laur. Salvii,
Holmiae [Stockholm], ii + 824p.

Liding, H.P. 1945. Catalogue of the beetles of Ala-
bama. Geol. Surv. Alabama, Monograph 11: 1-172.

Loschiavo, S.R. 1976. Food selection by Oryzaephilus
mercator (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Canadian Ent.
108: 827- 831.

Lucas, P.H. 1846-49. Exploration scientifique de
l'Alg6rie, zoologie. Histoire naturelle des animaux
articul6s, Vol. 2, coleopteres. Imprimerie Nation-
ale, Paris, 590p.

Macleay, W.S. 1825. Annulosa Javanica or an attempt
to illustrate the natural affinities and analogies of
the insects collected in Java by T. Horsfield. [n.p.],
London, iv + 50p.

Macleay, W. 1871. The insects of Gayndah. Trans. Ent.
Soc. New South Wales 2: 79-205.

von Mannerheim. C.G. 1843. Beitrag zur Kaefer-
fauna der Aleutischen Inseln, der Insel Sitka und
Neu- Californiens. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16:
175-314.

von Mannerheim, C.G. 1846. Nachtrag zur Kaefer-
fauna der Aleutischen Inseln und der Insel Sitka.
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 19: 501-516.

von Mannerheim, C.G. 1852. Zweiter Nachtrag zur
Kaefer- fauna der Nord-Amerikanischen Lander
des Russischen Reiches. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou
25: 283-387.

von Mannerheim, C.G. 1853. Dritter Nachtrag zur
Kaefer- fauna der Nord-Amerikanischen Lander
des Russischen Reiches. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou
26: 95-273.

Marsham, T. 1802. Entomologia Britannica, systems
insecta Britannica indigena secundum Linneum
disposita. Vol. 1. White, London, xxxi + 548p.

Melsheimer, F.E. 1846. Descriptions of new species of
Coleoptera of the United States. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sc. Philadelphia 2: 26-43, 98-118, 213-223, 302-
318; 3: 53-66, 158-181.










Melsheimer, F.E. 1853. Catalogue of the described
Coleoptera of the United States. Revised by S.S.
Haldeman and J.L. LeConte. Smithsonian Inst.,
Washington, xvi + 174p.

von Motschulsky, V. 1845. Remarques sur la collection
de col6optbres Russes de M. Article 1. Bull. Soc.
Imp. Nat. Moscou 18: 1-127.

von Motschulsky, V. 1863. Essai d'un catalogue des
insects de l'ile Ceylan. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou
36: 421-532.

Mukhopadhyay, P., and T. Sen Gupta. 1977. Studies
on Placonotus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae: Laemo-
phloeinae) from India. Oriental Insects 11:555-566

Nevermann, F. 1931. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tele-
phanus (Col. Cucujidae). Stettiner Ent. Zeit. 92:
102-160, 161-187, pl. 1-6.

Nevermann, F. 1932. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tele-
phanus (Col. Cucujidae). Stettiner Ent. Zeit. 93: 1-
35, pl. 1-2.

Nevermann, F. 1937. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tele-
phanus (Col. Cucujidae). Stettiner Ent. Zeit. 98: 1-
22.

Novacek, M.J. 1976. Insectivora and Proteutheria of
the later Eocene (Uintan) of San Diego County,
California. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County
Contr. in Science 283:1-52.

Newman, E. 1839. On the synonymy of Passandra,
with descriptions of all the old and of a few new
species. Ann. Nat. Hist. 2: 388-399.

Olivier, A.G. 1790. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle
des insects, avec leurs caractbres g6n6riques et
sp6cifiques, leur description, leur synonymies et
leur figure enlumin6e. Col6optbres. Vol. 18. No.
18. Ips. Baudoin, Paris, 16p.

Olivier, A.G. 1791. Encyclop6die m6thodique. Dic-
tionnaire des insects. Vol. 6. Pankouke, Paris,
704p.

Pajni, H.R., and A. Bedi. 1975. Male genitalia of
Oryzaephilus mercator and Laemophloeus pusillus
with some remarks on these organs in family
Cucujidae (Coleoptera). Indian J. Ent. 36: 28-30
(1974).


Pal, T.K. 1981. On Monanus Sharp (Coleoptera: Silva-
nidae) from India. Oriental Insects 15: 241-255.

Pal, T.K., T. Sen Gupta, and R.A. Crowson. 1985.
Revision of Uleiota (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) from
India and Sri Lanka and its systematic position.
Oriental Insects 18: 213-233 (1984).

Pal, T.K., and T. Sen Gupta. 1979. Ergebnisse der
Bhutan Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen
Museums in Basel. Coleoptera: Fam. Silvanidae.
Entomologica Basiliensia 4: 69-82.

Parsons, C.T. 1974. Two new species of Eunausibius
(Coleoptera: Cucujidae) from Brazil. Papeis Avulsos
Zool., Sao Paulo [Brazil] 28: 181-184.

von Paykull, G. 1800. Fauna Suecica. Insecta 3. Edman,
Upsalinae [Uppsala], 459p.

Perris, E. 1877. Larves de col6opteres. Deyrolle,
Naturaliste, Paris, 590p.

Peterson, A. 1962. Larvae of insects. An introduction
to the Nearctic species. Part I. Lepidoptera and
plant infesting Hymenoptera. By the author, Co-
lumbus, Ohio. 315p.

Pierce, A.M., Oehlschlager, A.C., and J.H. Borden.
1981. Olfactory response to beetle produced vola-
tiles and host food attractants by Oryzaephilus
surinamensis and Oryzaephilus mercator. Cana-
dian J. Zool. 59: 1980-1990.

Redtenbacher, L. 1858. Fauna Austriaca. Die Kafer.
Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Zweite,
ganzlich umgearbeitete, mit mehreren Hunderten
von Arten und mit der Charakteristik sammtlicher
europiischen Kifergattungen vermehrter Auflage.
Carl Gerold's Sohn, Wien, xliv + 1017p.

Redtenbacher, L. 1867. Coleopteren. Bearbeitet. [no
publisher or city of publication given.] iv + 249p.

Reiche, L. 1854. Observations entomologiques. Ann.
Soc. Ent. France 2: 77-81.

Reitter, E. 1874. Beschreibungen neuer Kafer-Arten
nebst synonymischen Notizen. Verh. Zool.-Bot.
Ges. Wien 24: 509-528.

Reitter, E. 1876. Neue Gattungen und Arten aus der
Familie der Cucujidae. Coleopterologische Hefte
15: 37-64.










Reitter, E. 1879. I. Neue Cucujidae des k6nigl. Muse-
ums in Berlin. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Gess. Wien 28:185-
195 (1878).

Reitter, E. 1880. Bestimmungs-Tabellen der europais-
chen Coleopteren. I. Enthaltend die Familien:
Cucujidae, Telmatophilidae, Tritomidae, Myce-
taeidae, Endomychidae, Lictidae und Sphindidae.
Verh. Zool.- Bot. Ges. Wien 29: 71-100 (1879).

Reitter, E. 1887. Neue Coleopteren aus Europa, den
angrenzenden Landern und Sibirien, mit
Bemerkungen uber bekannte Arten. Deutsche Ent.
Ztschr. 31: 241-288.

Reitter, E. 1911. Fauna Germanica. Die Kafer des
Deutschen Reiches. Band III. Nach der analytis-
chen Methode bearbeitet. K.G. Lutz, Stuttgart,
436p.

Rouget, A. 1876. [Description of Cryptophagus ?
striatus]. Bull. Soc. Ent. France 1876: ccvi-ccviii.

Sasaji, H. 1986. A revision of the genus Leptophloeus
(Coleoptera, Cucujidae) of Japan. Kontyu 54:681-
687, fig. 1-3.

Saxena, S.C., and S. Kaul. 1976. Nutritive role of
different carbohydrates for the growth and survival
of Oryzaephilus mercator (Coleoptera). Arch. Int.
Physiol. Biochem. 84: 259-268.

Say, T. 1827. Descriptions of new species of Coleopter-
ous insects, inhabiting the United States. J. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 237-284.

Schaeffer, C. 1904. New genera and species of Coleop-
tera. J. New York Ent. Soc. 12: 197-236.

Schaeffer, C. 1910. New clavicor Coleoptera. J. New
York Ent. Soc. 28: 210-216.

Schaeffer, C. 1931. On a few new and known Coleop-
tera. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 26: 174-176.

Schedl, K.E. 1962. Forstentomologische Beitrage aus
dem Congo. Rauber und Kommensalen. Ento-
mologische Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem
Staatl. Museum fur Tierkunde in Dresden 28: 37-
84.

Schiinherr, C.J. 1809. Entomologiska Anmarkningar
och beskrifningar pa nagra for Svenska Fauna
Insekter. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 30: 48-58.


Schdnherr, C.J. 1817. Synonymia Insectorum oder:
Versuch einer Synonymie aller bisher bekannten
Insecten nach Fabricii Systema Eleutheratorum
and: c. geordnet, Mit Berichtigungen und
Anmerkungen, wie auch Beschreibungen neuer
Arten und illuminirten Kupfern. Erster Band.
Eleutherata oder Kafer. Dritter Theil. Hispa-
Molorchus. Lewerentz, Skara, xi + 506p.

Schwarz, E. A. 1878. The Coleoptera of Florida. Proc.
American Phil. Soc. 17: 353-469.

Schwarz, E.A. 1890a. [Coleoptera of Key West]. Proc.
Ent. Soc. Washington 1: 89-90, 93-94.

Schwarz, E.A. 1890b. Notes on the food habits of some
North American Scolytidae and their coleopterous
enemies. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 1: 163-165.

Schwarz, E.A., and H.S. Barber. 1921. Descriptions
of new species of Coleoptera. Zoologica (New
York) 3: 189-193.

Sen Gupta, T., and R.A. Crowson. 1966. A new family
of cucujoid beetles, based on six Australian and one
New Zealand genera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (13th
Ser.) 9: 61-85.

Sen Gupta, T., and R.A. Crowson. 1969. Further
observations on the family Boganiidae, with defi-
nition of two new families Cavognathidae and
Phloeostichidae. J. Nat. Hist. 3: 571-590.

Sharp, D. 1879. On some Coleoptera from the Hawai-
ian Islands. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1879: 77-105.

Sharp, D. 1899. Cucujiae. in Biol. C. Amer., Col. 2(1):
449-563.

Sharp, D., and H. Scott. 1908. On some Coleoptera
from the Hawaiian Islands. Fauna Hawaiiensis 3:
367-666.

Shuckard, W.E. 1839. The elements of British entomol-
ogy, containing a general introduction to the science,
Vol. I. Balliere, London, 240p.

Sinha, RN. 1961. Insects and mites associated with hot
spots in farm stored grain. Canadian Ent. 93: 609-621.

Sinha, R.N. 1965. Development of Cryptolestes ferrugi-
neus (Stephens) and Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel)
on seed-borne fungi. Ent. Exp. et Appl. 8: 309-313.










Sinha, R.N., E.A.R. Liscombe and H.A.H. Wallace.
1962. Infestation of mites, insects and microorganisms
in large wheat bulk after prolonged storage. Canadian
Ent. 94: 542-555.

Slipinski, S.A. 1983. A review of the Ethiopian species of
Passandra Dalman, with notes on the constitution of
the Cucujidae (Coleoptera). Polskie Pismo Ent. 53: 77-
105.

Slipinski, S.A. 1987. A review of the Passandridae of the
world (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea). I Genus Passandra
Dalman. Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova 86: 553-603.

Slipinski, S.A. 1989. A review of the Passandridae (Co-
leoptera, Cucujoidea) of the world. II. Genus:
Catogenus Westwood. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne
59:85-129.

Slow, J.M. 1958. A morphological comparison of the
adults ofOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and 0.
mercator (Fauv.) (Col., Cucujidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 49:
27-34.

Smith, F. 1851. Catalogue of the Cucujide, and c. List of
the coleopterous insects in the collection of the British
Museum 1: 1-25.

Smith, J.B. 1910. Annual report of the New Jersey State
Museum including a report on the insects of New
Jersey. MacCrellish and Quigley, Trenton, N.J., 888p.

Spilman, TJ. 1960. Some synonymy in Oryzaephilus
(Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington
62: 251.

Steel, W.O., and R.W. Howe. 1952. A new species of
Laemophloeus (Col.: Cucujidae) associated with stored
products. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 21: 86-88, 2
figs.

Stephens, J.F. 1831. Illustrations of British entomol-
ogy; or a synopsis of indigenous insects: containing
their generic and specific distinctions; with an
account of their metamorphoses, times of appear-
ance, localities, food, and economy, as far as
practicable. Mandibulata, vol. 4. Baldwin and
Cradock, London. 414p.

Stierlin, W.G. 1864. Ueber einige neue und wenig
bekannte sicilianische Kaferarten. Beitr. Ent. Z. 8:
143-153.


Surtees, G. 1963. Site of damage to whole wheat grains
by five species of stored-products beetle. Ent. Mon.
Mag. 99: 178-181.

Thomas, M.C. 1979. Flat bark beetles new to Florida
and the U.S. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae s.l.). Coleop.
Bull. 33: 357-358.

Thomas, M.C. 1984a. A new Neotropical genus and
species of rostrate Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera:
Cucujidae), with discussion of the systematic posi-
tion of the subfamily. Coleop. Bull. 38: 67-83.

Thomas, M.C. 1984b. A new species of apterous
Telephanus (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) with a discus-
sion of phylogenetic relationships of the Silva-
nidae. Coleop. Bull. 38: 43-55.

Thomas, M.C. 1984c. A revision of the New World
species of Placonotus Macleay (Coleoptera:
Cacujidae: Laemophloeinae). Occ. Papers Florida
St. Coll. Arthropods 3: vii + 28p.

Thomas, M.C. 1984d. Two new genera of Neotropical
Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Florida
Ent. 67: 438-453.

Thomas, M.C. 1988a. A revision of the New World
species of Cryptolestes Ganglbauer (Coleoptera:
Cucujidae: Laemophloeinae). Insecta Mundi 2:43-
65.

Thomas, M.C. 1988b. Generic key to the known larvae
of the Cucujidae, Passandridae, and Silvanidae of
America North of Mexico (Coleoptera). Insecta
Mundi 2:81-89.

Thomas, M.C., and S.B. Peck. 1991. Survey of insects
of South Florida and the Florida Keys. Flat bark
beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujidae (sens. lat.) [Si-
lvanidae, Passandridae, and Laemophloeidae]). The
Florida Entomologist 74: 536-543.

Thomas, M.C., and R.E. Woodruff. 1984. First rec-
ords of a stored products pest, Oryzaephilus acumi-
natus Halstead, from the Western Hemisphere.
Florida Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 257: 1-4.

Thomson, C.G. 1863. Skandinaviens Coleoptera,
synoptiskt bearbetade. Tom. V. Lundbergska
Boktryckeriet, Lund, 340p.










Throne, J.E., L.D. Cline, and M.C. Thomas. 1989.
First record of Cryptolestes dybasi (Coleoptera:
Cucujidae) outside Florida. Ent. News 100(2): 81-
82.

Vogt, H. 1967. Familie: Cucujidae. In Goecke and
Evers, Die Kafer Mitteleuropas 7: 83-104.


Walker, F. 1858. Characters
undescribed Ceylon insects.
(3) 2: 202-209.

Walker, F. 1859. Characters
undescribed Ceylon insects.
(3) 3: 50-56.


of some apparently
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.


of some apparently
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.


Waltl, J. 1834. Ueber das Sammeln exotischer In-
secten. Faunus 1: 166-171.

Waltl, J. 1839. Verzeichniss der un Passau vorkom-
menden seltenen Kafer nebst Beschreibung der
neuen Arten. Isis 3: 221-227.

Waterhouse, C.O. 1876. Descriptions of new Cu-
cujidae and Cleridae. Ent. Mon. Mag. 13: 118-126.

Westwood, J.O. 1835. On the affinities of the genus
Clinidium of Kirby. J. Zool. 5: 213-237, 328-329.

Wheeler, W.M. 1921. A study of some social beetles in
British Guiana and their relations to the ant-plant
Tachigalia. Zoologica (New York) 3: 35-126.

White, N.D.G., and R.N. Sinha. 1981. Energy budget
for Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cu-
cujidae) feeding on rolled oats. Environ. Ent. 10:
320-326.

Wojcik, D.P. 1969. Mating behavior of 8 stored prod-
ucts beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae, Tenebri-
onidae, Cucujidae, and Curculionidae). Florida
Ent. 52: 171-197.


Wolcott, G.N. 1950. The insects of Puerto Rico, Co-
leoptera. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 32: 225-416
(1948).

Wollaston, T.V. 1854. Insecta Maderensia, being an
account of the insects of the islands of the Madeiran
group. VanVoorst, London, p62 xliii + 634p.

Wollaston, T.V. 1867. Coleoptera Hesperidum, being
an enumeration of the coleopterous insects of the
Cape Verde archipelago. VanVoorst, London, xxxix
+ 285p.

Wollaston, T.V. 1873-74. On new Coleoptera from
Japan. Ent. Mon. Mag. 10: 167-172, 200-203

Wollaston, T.V. 1877. Coleoptera Sanctae-flelenae.
VanVoorst, London. xxv + 256p.

Ziegler, D. 1844. Descriptions of new North American
Coleoptera. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia
2: 43-47, 266-272.

Zimmermann, C.C.A. 1869. Synonymical notes on
Coleoptera of the United States with descriptions
of new species, from the MSS of the late Dr. C.
Zimmermann. Edited by John L. LeConte, M.D.
Trans. American Ent. Soc. 2: 243-259.

Zimmerman, M.L. 1987a. New interception records
of Cryptolestes klapperichi Lefkovitch (Coleop-
tera: Cucujidae) entering the United States.
Coleopt. Bulletin 41(3):257-258.

Zimmerman, M.L. 1987b. Identification ofAhasverus
advena (Waltl) and Ahasverus rectus (LeConte)
(Coleoptera: Cucujidae) by micromorphology of
adult fragments including genitalia. J. Assoc. Off.
Anal. Chem. 70(3):484-495.














APPENDIX



Silvanidae


Uleiotinae


Cryptamorpha desjardinsii (Guerin)


Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Coral Gables
Goulds
Miami
Miami
Delray Beach
Plymouth


27-IV-1983
12-V-1983
5-V-1983
1-VI-1983
6-111-1959
18-IV-1983
29-111-1978
15-VII-1983
2-111-1977
12-VII-1983


M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
C.F. Dowling Jr.
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
P. Chobrda
L. Chang
K. Stolley
D. Phelps


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
Bambusa vulgaris

Saccharum officinarum
orchid
Dracaena marginata
Spathiphyllum


Silvaninae


Silvanus muticus Sharp


Archer
Pierce's Homestead, W. of Gvl.
O'Leno State Park
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
Pine Landing
Highlands Hammock st. Pk.
Highlands Hammock st. Pk.

Manatee Springs State Park
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Juniper Springs
Ocala
Ocala


5-VI-1982
13-111-1977
1-IV-1984
27-V-1983
13-1-1980
3-V-1979
5-V-1979
23-VII-1978
16-IV-1983
20-IV-1983
4-VIll-1954
22-V-1983
4-VII-1965
4-IX-1983
2-X-1977
18-XII-1976
28-XII-1976


M.C. Thomas
W.M. Pierce
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
F.W. Mead
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


under bark of dead Quercus sp.
blacklight trap

blacklight trap






at light

blacklight trap

under bark of hardwood log
under bark of Quercus sp. log


Silvanus planatus Germar


Gainesville
Camp Crystal

O'Leno State Park
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349

Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs


26-1-1958
5-V-1964
31-111--IIV-1982
18-11-1960
1-IV-1984
13-1-1980
27-IV-1979
5-IV-1980
21-V-1978
24-V-1979
7-1-1956
27-X-1977
11-XII-1976
8-XII-1976
14-11-1982
3-VII-7-1982
6-1-1960


H.V. Weems Jr.
R.E. White
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.


under bark of Quercus


under bark of dead Quercus laevis




blacklight trap

under bark of Quercus
under bark of turkey oak
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log


under bark of Quercus


Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte)


Levy Co. line at SR 24
O'Leno State Park
Pine Landing
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Torreya State Park
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs


19-11-1983
10-V-1981
23-VII-1978
10-11-1986
5-11-1986
7-11-1986
4-IX-1983
6-1-1977
18-XII-1976
13-XI-1982
20-XII-1981
24-XII-1983
14-11-1982


M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


under bark of Quercus sp.


window trap burn area
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
window trap burn area


under bark of Quercus sp. log


Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Palm Beach
Volusia


Alachua
Alachua
Columbia
Dade
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Highlands
Highlands
Jackson
Levy
Liberty
Liberty
Marion
Marion
Marion


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


Alachua
Alachua
Clay
Columbia
Columbia
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Duval
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Putnam


12 Alachua
2 Columbia
1 Dixie
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Liberty
2 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
19 Marion
2 Marion
14 Marion


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA















Cathartosilvanus imbellis (LeConte) (continued)

Village of Rainbow Springs 31-V-1982 M.C. Thomas
Village of Rainbow Springs 3-VII-7-1982 M.C. Thomas
4.5mi N Holt, Blackwater R. St. For 15-16-VI-1978 L. Stange



Silvanoprus scuticollis (Walker)


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Matheson Hammock
Perrine
Redlands Fruit & Spice Park
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
South of Vero Beach
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs


12-V-1978
16-VII-1978
30-VII-1978
26-VIII-1978
27-IV-1983
27-IV-1983
12-V-1983
20-V-1983
5-V-1983
15-VI-1983
14-IX-1983
14-VI-1975
24-VII-1976
26-1-1978
14-11-1986
28-VIII-1975
26-VIII-1977
13-IX-1977
7-IX-1977
3-VII-7-1982


M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
R. Clark
M. Deyrup
J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
window trap burn area
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Ahasverus advena (Waltl)


Gainesville
Miami
Miami (intercepted ex Bahamas)
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Stock Is.
Dunedin


30-VII-1978
12-VI-1968
22-VI-1957
24-X-1966
20-VI-1977
13-XI-1982
5-V-1982
3-VII-7-1982
29-IV-1968
27-111-1913


M.C. Thomas
S.E. Simpson
R.A. Buchanan
W.O. Robertson
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
J. Stibbick
W.S. Blatchley


blacklight trap
in lumber warehouse
in straw jackets
in hay
blacklight trap



under debris


Ahasverus rectus (LeConte)


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
San Felasco Hammock
Indialantic
Collier-Seminole State Park

Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Castellow Hammock
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Florida City
Long Pine Key
Matheson Hammock
Miami
Miami


21-VII-1954
15-VIII-1955
27-VIII-1954
6-VIII-1955
25-IX-1955
25-1-1972
4-1-1927
16-11-1979
15-IV-1939
11-V-1978
13-V-1968
19-V-1960
8-V-1939
23-25-VI-1978
30-VI-1978
30-VI-1978
4-VI-1959
5-VI-1959
16-VII-1978
26-VIII-1978
29-111-1983
25-XII-1977
4-IV-1964
V-1949
27-IV-1983
27-IV-1983
20-V-1983
27-V-1983
5-V-1983
16-VII-1983
23-VIII-1983
14-IX-1983
17-IV-1972
31-VII-9-XII-
26-IV-1982
16-111-1977
14-VI-1975
25-V-1960
VI-1957


H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
F.W. Mead
R.E. Woodruff & P.M. Choate
A.N.T.
M.C. Thomas
G.B. Merrill
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff
K.A. Noegel
G.B. Merrill
F. Mead
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.H. Arnett Jr. & E.R. VanTassel

M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas &. L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas &. L. Parker
R.M. Baranowski
S. & J. Peck
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
D. Platt & E. Riley
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
P.E. Briggs
C.F. Dowling Jr.


at light
at light
at light
at light
at light
pig dung traps
Berlese/wire grass


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
at light

blacklight trap


at light
at light

blacklight trap




blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
pineland forest, malaise-FIT
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


1 Marion
1 Marion
3 Okaloosa


1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Dade
4 Dade
1 Dade
2 Dade
10 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Highlands
1 Indian River
2 Marion
2 Marion
1 Marion
2 Marion


Alachua
Dade
Dade
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Monroe
Pinellas


1 Alachua
2 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
5 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Alachua
4 Alachua
12 Alachua
2 Alachua
2 Alachua
27 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Alachua
3 Brevard
1 Collier
2 Dade
4 Dade
1 Dade
12 Dade
1 Dade
5 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
1 Dade
6 Dade
8 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
3 Dade
12 Dade















Ahasverus rectus (LeConte) (continued)


6 Dade
1 Dade
17 Dixie
3 Gadsden
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
2 Highlands
2 Highlands
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
2 Indian River
4 Lee
1 Leon
4 Leon
2 Leon
2 Liberty
1 Liberty
3 Liberty
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
3 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
4 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
4 Marion
1 Marion
9 Marion
3 Marion
1 Monroe
6 Monroe
3 Monroe
8 Monroe
11 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
2 Monroe
1 Monroe
4 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
12 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Orange
2 Polk
7 Polk
1 Santa Rosa
1 Sarasota


Miami
USDA Subtropical Res. Sta.
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
Quincy
Archbold Biol. Sta.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Lake Placid
Lake Placid
Lake Placid
South of Vero Beach
South of Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Ft. Myers
Tall Timbers Res. Sta.
Tall Timbers Res. Sta.
Tall Timbers Res. Sta.
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Juniper Springs
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Bahia Honda State Park
Dry Tortugas (Garden Key)
Fat Deer Key
Key Largo, Pennekamp St. Pk.
Key Largo, Pennekamp State Park
Stock Island
Stock Island
Stock Island
Stock Island
Sugarloaf Key
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Vacas Key, Marathon
Winter Park
Lake Alfred
Winter Haven
Blackwater R. St. For., Lake Carr
Myakka Riv. State Park


3-VIII-1972
9-VI-1974
21-V-1978
23-VIII-1971
14-V-1974
12-111-1986
24-111-1986
2-15-11-1970
19-111-1963
7-VI-1963
19-11-1975
15-Vll-1976
7-1-1976
31-XII-1974
25-V-1964
8-V-1975
8-V-1975
25-VII-1975
27-XI-1968
1-IX-V-1972
9-15-V-1972
4-VII-1965
3-IX-1983
4-IX-1983
25-VII-1960
12-VI-1977
13-VI-1977
20-VI-1977
29-VI-1977
25-VIII-1977
26-VIII-1977
29-VIII-1977
4-VIII-1977
11-IX-1977
13-IX-1977
15-IX-1977
5-V-1982
3-VII-7-1982
1 -IV-VII-1973
10-VII-1963
28-16-XI-1985
16-XI-24-11-8586
2-VI-26-VIII-1986
25-IV-1963
30-IV-1964
11-VI-1964
8-VII-1964
5-VlI-19-XI-1985
31-111-1976
1-IV-1976
23-VII-1976
6-XI-1984
11-VI-1938
7-14-111-1963
5-VIII-1960
16-VIII-1971
23-VI-1965


R.E. Woodruff
J.B. Heppner
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
T.M. Neal
J.E. Carrel et al.
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
V. Roth
M.H. Muma
M.H. Muma
J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
W.L. Bidlingmayer
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
V.W. Yingst
W. Baker
D. Harris
D. Harris
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.A. Denmark
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff
H.A. Denmark
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
S. & J. Peck
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
S. & J. Peck

M.H. Muma
J. Hayward
H.V. Weems Jr.
C.W. O'Brien


Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin)


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Homestead, AREC
Naranja
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
Torreya State Park
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala


1-XI-1954
12-IV-1954
27-VIII-1954
3-VIII-1954
27-1-1979
1-X-1958
6-X-1947
5-XII-1917
30-IV-1964
19-V-1960
25-V-1948
1-VI-1964
10-VI-1964
13-VII-1948
20-VII-1964
23-VII-1958
28-VII-1964
18-IV-1983
19-VIII-1964
21-V-1978
4-VII-1965
17-XI-1977
21-XI-1977
29-VI-1977
11-IX-1977
15-IX-1977


H.A. Denmark
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.M. Van Pelt
G.B. Edwards
R.E. Woodruff
W.E. Stokes
Berger
J.W. Perry
K.A. Noegel
H.V. Weems Jr.
J.W. Perry
J.W. Perry
L.C. Kuitert
J.W. Perry
R.E. Woodruff
J.W. Perry
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
J.H. Knowles
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


on Carya illinoiensis
at light
at light
on Zea mays
fallen hickory nut
at light

corn
blacklight trap
at light
feeding on squash
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap

ex Cattleya mahlor
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


blacklight
blacklight trap
pitfall trap
blacklight trap
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo



blacklight trap
blacklight trap
at light
at light

at light
at light
in light bowl

pitfall
pitfall
blacklight trap


debris under Pinus clausa
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap

blacklight trap
Casuarina sp.
hardwood hammock malaise-FIT
hammock for-FIT
hammock for, malaiseFIT-86-8
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
hardwood hammock malaise-FIT
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
berlese/forest floor litter
hammock litter
in house

blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


12 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Alachua
11 Alachua
30 Alachua
2 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Alachua
9 Dade
2 Dade
1 Dixie
1 Liberty
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion















Cathartus quadricollis (Gu6rin) (continued)


M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
Mrs. Kloos
M.C. Thomas & R. Raymond
W.C. Rhoades


Passandridae


Catogenus rufus (Fabricius)


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville


2 mi. SW of Hallandale
Coral Gables
Everglades NP, 1.5km W Royal Palm
Everglades NP, Long Pine Key, pinelands
Everglades NP, Long Pine Key, pinelands
Perrine
Perrine
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Subtropical Exp. Sta.

Archbold Biol. Sta.
Archbold Biol. Sta.
Highlands Hammock State Park
Highlands Hammock State Park
South of Vero Beach
South of Vero Beach
South of Vero Beach
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Big Pine Key
Big Pine Key, Watson's Hammock
Big Pine Key
Key Largo
Key Largo
Key Largo
Key Largo
Key Largo, Pennekamp St. Pk.
Key Largo, Pennekamp St. Pk.
Little Torch Key
Plantation Key
Stock Island
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Ft. Pierce, N. A1A beachside


-X-1966
30-IV-1947
11-V-1978
2-VI-1978
23-25-VI-1978
28-VIII-1972
1-XII-1955
V-1955
19-VI-1962
14-IV-1948
28-VII-15-XI-1985
8-VI-28-VIII-1986
8-VI-28-VIII-1986
8-IX-V-1977
2-VI-1976
3-XI-1950
10-IV-1948
V-1948
19-VI-1962
10-XI-1952
19-111-1968
13-17-IV-1981
12-1-1958
15-XII-1957
4-XI-1974
6-11-1977
12-IX-1974
1-1-1978
11-XI-1977
22-111-1977
2-V-1963
3-V-3-VIII-1985
1-31-v-1985
1-1-1967
14-1-1962
26-111-1957
7-VI-1960
16-XI-24-11-85-86
22-II-2-VI-1986
7-V-1961
9-IV-1968
11-V-1961
30-V-1976
23-VII-1976
1-111-1983


L.A. Hetrick


M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
F. Mead
J.B. Heppner
H.V. Weems Jr.
D.R. Paulson
H.V. Weems Jr.

S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
Don Urban
M.C. Thomas



H.V. Weems Jr.
D.R. Paulson
C.E. White
N.M. Downie
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
H.V. Weems Jr.
B.K. Dozier
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
R.E. Woodruff
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
K. Hibbard


blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight
under bark of Pinus

under bark of dead Quercus virgin

hardwood hammock for. malaise-FIT
malaise FIT
malaise FIT
blacklight trap
blacklight trap



dead avocado stump



under bark of Pinus
under bark of Pinus

under bark of Pinus elliotti


under bark of Quercus sp. log

under bark
malaise FIT, hardwood hammock
mangrove-hardwood transition, malaise
under bark of dead tree
dead Lysiloma
under bark

hammock for FIT
hammock for malaiseFIT-86-7
under bark
blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
Casuarina sp.


Taphroscelidia linearis (LeConte)


2-111-1978
5-VI-V-1977
28-111-1977
29-111-1977
29-111-1977
31-111-1977
2-IV-1977
4-IV-1977
4-IV-1977
20-VII-1977
28-VII-1977


R.E. Woodruff
Don Urban
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


at light
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Laemophloeinae


S. Miami, Deering Estate Park
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock


Lathropus pictus Schwarz

1-VI-25-VIII-1986 S. & J. Peck
-- M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
27-IV-1983 M.C. Thomas& L. Parker
12-V-1983 M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
20-V-1983 M.C. Thomas & L. Parker


forest, young hammock, malaise-FIT
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Marion
Marion
Osceola
Polk
Washington


Ocala
Ocala
St. Cloud
Lakeland
5mi E. Chipley


24-IX-1977
7-IX-1977
14-XII-1918
29-V-1977
31-VIll-1960


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
citrus

blacklight trap


1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Collier
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
3 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
1 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
2 Dade
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Indian River
2 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Marion
2 Marion
3 Marion
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
32 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
1 Monroe
2 Monroe
1 Monroe
2 St. Lucie


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


Alachua
Dade
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion


Gainesville
Perrine
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA















Lathropus pictus Schwarz (continued)


Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Highlands Ham. State Park
Jupiter


20-V-1983
27-V-1983
27-V-1983
5-V-1983
5-V-1983
15-VI-1983
14-IX-1983
6-IX-1983
5-VII-1975
26-V-1982


M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
Thomas & Frank
D. Harp


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of dying citrus
in dead Acacia auriculiformis


Lathropus veralis Casey


Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Game Commmission Camp, Ocala Nat. For.
Gainesville
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
3.5mi N. Old Town, Rt. 349
Highlands Ham. State Park
Fellsmere
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Plantation Key
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
2mi. SW Interlachen


31-1-1986
14-11-1986
26-11-1987
3-11-1986
4-11-1986
12-111-1986
14-V-1986
24-VIII-1965
7-21-1986
17-111-1984

27-IV-1983
5-V-1983
6-IX-1983
21-V-1978
23-IV-1982
4-VII-1976
2-VI-1977
26-VI-1977
27-VI-1977
29-VI-1977
21-VII-1977
17-VIII-1977
31-V-1982
5-V-1982
8-IV-1966
1-IV-1976
3-IV-1976
5-VI-X-1971


M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
W. Suter
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
F.W. Mead
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M. Graham & R.E. Woodruff


window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
emerged from fire-killed Quercus chapmanii
emerged indoors from twig of Pinus elliottii
window trap near laurel oak main grounds
window trap laurel oak area E of main building
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
on fire killed oak
at light
emerged indoors from twig of Pinus elliottii
Pinus
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Cryptolestes punctatus (LeConte)


Levy Co. line at SR 24
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
Camp Crystal
O'Leno State Park
3.5mi. N. Old Town
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349

Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Lake Como
Lake Como


30-1-1954
19-11-1983
20-11-1983
4-11-1983
25-IX-1983
31-111-1-IV-1982
1-IV-1984
23-VII-1978
13-1-1980
7-1-1956
1-1-1978
1-X-1977
15-X-1977
9-X-1977
11-XII-1976
21-VII-1977
10-IX-1977
25-IX-1977
14-11-1982
4-VII-1982
20-VIII-1983
22-X-1977
24-X-1977


H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


under bark of Pinus
under bark of Quercus sp.
under bark of Quercus sp. log






under bark of Quercus





blacklight trap
under bark of hardwood log


Cryptolestes uncicornis (Reitter)


San Felasco Hammock
Camp Crystal

O'Leno State Park
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349


17-XI-1956
14-111-1982
31-11-1-IV-1982
18-11-1960
10-V-1981
13-1-1980
5-IV-1980
21-V-1978
24-V-1979


H.V. cWeems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
M.C. Thomas


under bark


under bark of dead Quercus laevis



blacklight trap


Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Highlands
Palm Beach


Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Marion
Alachua
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dixie
Highlands
Indian River
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Putnam


ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


3 Alachua
5 Alachua
10 Alachua
2 Alachua
21 Alachua
3 Clay
1 Columbia
1 Dixie
13 Dixie
4 Duval
5 Marion
1 Marion
3 Marion
6 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
6 Marion
1 Marion
18 Marion
2 Marion
1 Marion
25 Putnam
1 Putnam


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


Alachua
Alachua
Clay
Columbia
Columbia
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie















Cryptolestes uncicoris (Reitter) (continued)


3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Torreya State Park
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs


24-V-1979
28-11-1987
13-X-1979
11-XI-1977
18-XII-1976
15-VII-1977
14-11-1982


M.C. Thomas
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


window trap trails 1 & 2


under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap


Laemophloeus biguttatus Say


1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
2 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
5 Alachua
2 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
3 Alachua
2 Alachua
2 Alachua
2 Columbia
97 Dixie
17 Dixie
4 Dixie
24 Dixie
5 Dixie
1 Duval
1 Hernando
2 Hernando
2 Highlands
1 Highlands
4 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Indian River
1 Indian River
1 Lee
3 Levy
1 Liberty
9 Liberty
1 Liberty
1 Liberty
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
2 Marion
14 Marion
3 Marion
3 Marion
2 Marion
1 Marion
2 Marion
4 Marion
1 Marion
4 Marion
5 Marion
7 Marion
2 Marion
2 Okaloosa
1 Polk
1 Polk
1 Putnam
7 Putnam
1 Putnam
1 Volusia


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
O'Leno State Park
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town Rt. 349
Jacksonville
Brooksville
Brooksville
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Oslo area
South of Vero Beach
Ft. Myers
Manatee Springs State Park
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Torreya State Park
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
4.5mi. N. Holt, Blackwater R. St.F.
Winter Haven
Winter Haven, Stone Bridge


26-1-1958
21-VI-1959
3-XII-1978
20-11-1982
21-111-1979
28-111-1939
29-111-1939
30-111-1979
31-111-1960
10-IV-1963
15-IV-1939
23-IV-1978
3-IV-1939
4-IV-1979
13-V-1968
23-V-1960
5-VI-1959
2-VII-1978
20-VIII-1964
15-17-IX-1972
30-1-1983
4-11-1983
6-11-1983
10-V-1982
13-1-1980
27-1V-1979
5-IV-1980
21-V-1978
24-V-1979
8-15-VIII-1958
23-1-1940
27-1-1940
22-1-1986
11-11-1986
14-11-1986
19-11-1986
3-11-1986
9-VI-1964
25-VI-1975
25-VII-1975
22-V-1983
13-X-1979
6-V-1979
4-VII-1965
4-IX-1983
6-1-1978
6-X-1977
21-XI-1977
14-XII-1977
18-XII-1976
28-XII-1976
29-XII-1976
25-111-1978
26-VI-1977
11-IX-1977
13-IX-1977
24-IX-1977
14-11-1982
31-V-1982
5-V-1982
3-VII-7-1982
15-16-VI-1978
5-VIII-1960
20-V-1982
6-1-1960
2-111-1960
18-VI-1960
25-VII-1959


H.V. Weems Jr.
H.A. Denmark
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
G.B. Merrill
G.B. Merrill
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff
E.M. Collins Jr.
G.B. Merrill
M.C. Thomas
G.B. Merrill
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff
R.E. Woodruff
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
J.W. Perry
F.W. Mead
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
M.C. Thomas
D.W. Ribble


M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
W.L. Bidlingmayer
J.H. Frank
V.W. Yingst
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
L. Stange
J. Hayward
H.G. Schmidt
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.V. Weems Jr.
H.A. Denmark


Laemophloeusfasciatus Melsheimer


1 Alachua
1 Alachua Gainesville


24 Dixie
1 Highlands
2 Liberty
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion


under bark of Quercus
at light
blacklight trap

blacklight trap


blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap

blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
at light
at light
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap







blacklight trap




on Quercus chapmanii killed by fire
window trap burn area
emerged from fire killed Quercus chapmanii
window trap burn area
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
truck trap
blacklight trap
in light bowl



blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap





blacklight trap

under bark of Quercus
under bark of dead Quercus laevis
under bark of dead Quercus laevis
at light


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
CASC
CASC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


22-IV-1955
14-XII-1983


R.A. Morse
M.C. Thomas















Laemophloeus fasciatus Melsheimer (continued)


Gainesville
Gainesville
Ocala
Miami
Highlands Hammock State Park
SR 512.5mi. W. 1-95
South of Vero Beach
Ocala
Ocala
4.5mi N Holt, Blackwater R. St. For
Englewood
Suwannee River at Rt. 249


20-111-1979
22-111-1979
13-IX-1977
2-IV-1961
5-VII-1975
16-20-V-1976
23-X-1975
18-XII-1976
28-XII-1976
15-16-VI-1978
11-111-1975
5-VII-1981


M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
P.E. Briggs
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
W.L. Bidlingmayer
J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
L. Stange
N.M. Downie
P.M. Choate Jr.


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
suction trap
blacklight trap
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log


Laemophloeus lecontei Grouvelle


Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Matheson Hammock
Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo
Upper Key Largo


27-V-1983
27-V-1983
1-VI-1983
25-V-1975
15-V-1977
31-111-1976
3-IV-1976
14-V-1977
30-V-1976
5-V-1973
3-VI-1976
23-VII-1976


M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas
R. Turnbow
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
T.M. Neal
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of gumbo limbo log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of gumbo-limbo log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle


Gainesville
Gainesville
O'Leno State Park
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Castellow Hammock
Castellow Hammock
Homestead
Homestead
Miami
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349
Jacksonville
Brooksville
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Highlands Hammock State Park
Highlands Hammock State Park
Highlands Hammock State Park
Oslo area
Manatee Springs State Park
Torreya State Park
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala


2-111-1955
4-VII-1947
18-IX-1972
10-V-1981

27-IV-1983
12-V-1983
20-V-1983
27-V-1983
1-VI-1983
23-VIII-1983
14-IX-1983
6-IX-1983
27-IV-1983
20-V-1983
27-V-1983
5-V-1983
15-VI-1983
16-VIII-1983
23-VIII-1983
17-IV-1972
17-IV-1972
19-XII-1954
30-XII-1954
9-VIII-1964
13-1-1980
21-V-1978
18-24-IV-1958
24-1-1940
31-1-1986
23-111-1988
7-IV-1986
16-IV-1983
20-IV-1983
4-VII-1975
9-VI-1964
22-V-1983
6-V-1980
6-1-1978
24-XI-1977
14-XII-1977
18-XII-1976
28-XII-1976
29-XII-1976
18-V-1977
22-VI-1977
25-VIII-1977
29-VIII-1977
11-IX-1977
11-IX-1977
15-IX-1977
24-IX-1977
29-IX-1977
4-IX-1977


R.A. Morse
H.V. Weems Jr.
F.W. Mead
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
R.M. Baranowski
R.M. Baranowski
D.O. Wolfenbarger
D.O. Wolfenbarger
P.E. Briggs
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
D.W. Ribble

M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
W.L. Bidlingmayer
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


at light
at light
blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap

blacklight trap
at light

window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
window trap w. H20
window trap burn area


blacklight trap
truck trap


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Dade
Highlands
Indian River
Indian River
Marion
Marion
Okaloosa
Sarasota
Suwannee


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe


1 Alachua
1 Alachua
1 Alachua
4 Columbia
5 Dade
2 Dade
9 Dade
1 Dade
2 Dade
24 Dade
3 Dade
6 Dade
9 Dade
3 Dade
1 Dade
22 Dade
3 Dade
24 Dade
12 Dade
14 Dade
2 Dade
3 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
1 Dade
13 Dixie
1 Dixie
1 Duval
1 Hernando
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
1 Highlands
2 Highlands
2 Highlands
2 Highlands
1 Indian River
20 Levy
7 Liberty
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
2 Marion
4 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
2 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion
1 Marion


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
CASC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA















Placonotus modestus (Say)


Marion
Orange
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Clay
Columbia
Columbia
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Dixie
Duval
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Indian River
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Putnam
St. Lucie
Taylor
Volusia
Volusia


Ocala
Apopka
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Levy Co. line at SR 24
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
Camp Crystal
O'Leno State Park
O'Leno State Park
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Castellow Hammock
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Goulds
Miami Springs
South Miami,USDA Subtrop.Res.Sta.
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town,Rt.349
3.5mi. N. Old Town,Rt.349
3.5mi. N. Old Town,Rt.349
Pine Landing

Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
South of Vero Beach
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Lake Como
Indrio
Blue Sprgs. Lake
Enterprise
Ormond Bch.


7-tX-1977
13-IV-1980
14-XII-1983
10-IV-1963
3-IV-1939
11-V-1978
5-V-1978
2-VI-1981
19-11-1983
1-11-1981
4-114983
14-111-1982
31 -Illl-IV-1982
1-IV-1984
10-V-1981
27-V-1983
5-V-1983
17-IV-1983
8-VI-28-VIll-1986
28-V-VIII-VI-1986
18-IV-1983
14-VI-1962
18-IV-1983
r3-1-1980
21-V-1978
24-V-1979
5-V-1979
23-VII-1978
23-VII-1978
7-1-1956
10-11-1986
21-11-1983
21-11-1983
3-11-1986
5-11-1986
7-11-1986
14-VII-1983
1-1-1976
15-X-1977
11-XI-1977
21-XI-1977
21-XI-1977
21-XI-1977
10-XII-1976
11-XII-1976
18-XII-1976
8-XII-1976
9-XII-1976
25-111-1978
18-V-1977
20-VI-1977
22-VI-1977
21-VII-1977
12-VIII-1977
14-VIII-1977
25-VIII-1977
26-VII-1977
4-Vll-1977
6-VII-1977
9-VIII-1977
11-IX-1977
11-IX-1977
13-IX-1977
18-IX-1977
24-IX-1977
25-IX-1977
9-IX-1977
23-24-1-1982
24-XII-1983
14-11-1982
1-V-1982
31-V-1982
5-V-1982
5-V-1982
20-VII-1983
20-VIII-1983
22-X-1977
19-1-1984
6-VI-1972
IV-20


M.C. Thomas
B. Saunders
M.C. Thomas
E.M. Collins Jr.
G.B. Merrill
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
R.E. Woodruff
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
R.E. Woodruff & S.A. Fragoso
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
K. Hibbard
R. Turnbow


Placonotus politissimus (Wollaston)

Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock 27-IV-1983 M.C, Thomas & L. Parker
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock 27-V-1983 M.C. Thomas & L. Parker


1 Dade
1 Dade


blacklight trap
blacklight trap


blacklight trap


blacklight trap

blacklight trap
blacklight trap

under bark of Quercus sp.










pinelands, malaise FIT
pinelands, malaise FIT-s

under bark of Australian pine


blacklight trap




under bark of Quercus
window trap burn area
under bark of dead Quercus laevis
under bark of dead Quercus laevis
window trap trail 1 & 2 SSo
window trap laurel oak area W. of main building
window trap burn area
from bark of Pinus elliottii
under bark of Quercus sp. log

under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap











hickory
blacklight trap


FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
TURN
CASC
CASC















Placonotus politissimus (Wollaston) (continued)


Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Indian River
Indian River
Indian River
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Polk


Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Everglades N.P., Long Pine Key
Goulds
Homestead
Matheson Hammock
Miami, USDA Plant Intro. Gardens
Redlands Fruit & Spice Farm
Archbold Biol. Sta.
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Highlands Hammock State Park
Fellsmere
South of Vero Beach
Vero Beach
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Village of Rainbow Springs
Village of Rainbow Springs
Stock Island
Stock Island
Stock Island
Stock Island
Upper Key Largo
Winter Haven


6-IX-1983
8-VI-28-VIII-1986
28-VIII-V-IX-1986
31-VII-IX-XII-1986
18-IV-1983
9-XII-1954
14-VI-1975
17-11-1977
26-1-1978
2-V-IV-1979
20-XI-1985
4-XII-1985
10-11-1986
17-11-1986
19-11-1986
26-11-1986
4-VII-1975
4-IX-1975
28-VIII-1975
7--1-976
21-XI-1977
9-XI-1977
12-VIII-1977
14-VIII-1977
25-VIII-1977
26-VIII-1977
13-IX-1977
15-IX-1977
31-V-1982
5-V-1982
18-IV-1962
25-IV-1963
3-IV-1963
23-IX-1962
3-IV-1976
5-VIII-1960


M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
S. &J. Peck
S. &J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
D.O. Wolfenbarger
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
R. Clark
R. Clark
L.L. Lampert
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
J.H. Frank
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan
M.C. Thomas & J.H. Frank
J. Hayward


Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte)


San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock
Camp Crystal
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349
3.5mi. N. Old Town, Rt. 349

Ocala
Ocala
Ocala
Ocala


26-1-1958
30-1-1983
4-11-1983
6-11-1983
31-111-1-IV-1982
13-1-1980
5-IV-1980
7-1-1956
11-XII-1976
18-XII-1976
28-XII-1976
13-IX-1977


H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
H.V. Weems Jr.
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas
M.C. Thomas


under bark of Quercus






under bark of Quercus
under bark of Quercus sp. log

under bark of Quercus sp. log
blacklight trap


Charaphloeus bituberculatus (Reitter)


Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid
Plantation Key
Plantation Key
Plantation Key
Stock Island
Stock Island


11-XI-1986
4-11-1986
19-111-1986
21-IV-1986
2-V-1986
5-V-1986
1-1-1967
8-IV-1966
8-IV-1966
22-V-1963
22-V-1963


M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
M. Deyrup
H.V. Weems Jr.
F.W. Mead
F.W. Mead
F.A. Buchanan
F.A. Buchanan


window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
window trap control
window trap burn area
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
window trap on mango
window trap trails 1 & 2 SSo
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


Parandrita permixtus (Grouvelle)


Collier-Seminole State Park
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
Camp Mahachee, nr Matheson Hammock
South Miami, Old Cutler Hammock
Big Pine Key, Cactus Hammock
Big Pine Key, Cactus Hammock
Big Pine Key, Watson's Hammock
Big Pine Key, Cactus Hammock
Big Torch Key
Big Torch Key
Big Torch Key


12-IX-1986
12-V-1983
14-IX-1983
27-IV-1983
5-V-1983
15-XII-1985
30-VII-1711-1985
17-XII-25-11-85-86
28-VIII-13-XII-1986
30-VII-17-XI-1985
1-IX-15-XII-1986
19-XI-26-11-85-86
19-XI-26-II-85-86


M. Deyrup
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
M.C. Thomas & L. Parker
S. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck
S. & J. Peck, 86-92
S.& J. Peck
S. & J. Peck


in morning glory
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
hammock litter
for. malaise-FIT
for. malaise-FIT
forest malaise-FIT 86-76
for. Malaise-FIT
hammock-malaise FIT
hammock for. malaise-FIT
hammock for. malaise-FIT


blacklight trap
pinelands, malaise FIT
pinelands, malaise FIT
pinelands, malaise FIT

blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
on newly killed Pinus clausa
on recently killed Pinus clausa
window trap burn area
window trap burn area
window trap burn area
window trap burn area
blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap
at light
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap
blacklight trap


FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Clay
Dixie
Dixie
Duval
Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion


Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Highlands
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe


Collier
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Dade
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe


ABSC
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
SBPC
SBPC
SBPC
FSCA
FSCA
SBPC
FSCA




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs