• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Division of plant industry technical...
 Table of Contents
 List of maps
 List of Figures
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Main
 Literature cited
 Index to insect scientific...
















Lygaeidae of Florida (Hemiptera Heteroptera)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000094/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lygaeidae of Florida (Hemiptera Heteroptera)
Series Title: Contribution Bureau of Entomology
Alternate title: Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
Physical Description: xv, 211 p. : ill., maps ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Slater, James Alexander
Baranowski, Richard M
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Lygaeidae -- Identification   ( lcsh )
Hemiptera -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 194-203) and index.
General Note: "Release date: June 1990."
Statement of Responsibility: by James A. Slater and Richard M. Baranowski.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0032
notis - AHE4231
alephbibnum - 001530845
oclc - 22123837
issn - 0066-8036 ;
Classification:
System ID: UF00000094:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Division of plant industry technical council and administrative staff
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of maps
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
        Page xi
    Foreword
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Acknowledgement
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Main
        Page 1
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    Literature cited
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    Index to insect scientific names
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Full Text
fLt+/ r VOLUME 14
v ^ zARTIROPODS-~OF FLORID-A
and Neighboring Land Areas


LYGAEIDAE
(HEMIPTERA:


OF FLORIDA
HETEROPTERA)


by
James A. Slater
and
Richard M. Baranowski


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner





VOLUME 14
ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
and Neighboring Land Areas


LYGAEIDAE OF FLORIDA

(HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA)



by

JAMES A. SLATER
University of Connecticut
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Storrs, Connecticut 06268

and

RICHARD M. BARANOWSKI
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Tropical Research and Education Center
Homestead, Florida 33031




DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
P.O. Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32602
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner


Contribution No. 725


Release Date: June 1990






FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY


Plant Industry Technical Council


Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Chairman (Vegetable) ............................................................................................ Canal Point
Joseph Welker, Vice Chairman (Horticulture) .................................................................................. Jacksonville
Dr. Thomas Latta (Turfgrass) .......................................... ......................................... Deerfield Beach
Michael O. Hunt (Tropical Fruit) ............................ ................................................. Homestead
Ed Holt (Member-at-Large) ............................................................... ........................... Jacksonville
John W Hornbuckle (Citrus) ................................................................... ................................ Belleair Beach
Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower) ........................................................................................ Punta Gorda
Elliot Maguire (Forestry) ..................................................... Green Cove Springs
Richard M im s (Citrus) ...................................................... ... ...... .............................................. Orlando
Owen W. Conner, III (Foliage) ............................ .............. ..... ....................................... Mt. Dora
Bill Shearman (Apiary) ........................................ ....... ..... ...... .... ..... ..............................W imauma
Richard D. Gaskalla, Secretary




Administrative


R D Gaskalla, Director ....................................................................................................................... Gainesville
C. C. Riherd, Assistant Director ...................................................... .............................. Gainesville
D. L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development ........................................... .... ............................ Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology ............................................................................................... Gainesville
L. P. Cutts, Chier of Apiary Inspection .............................................................................................. Gainesville
R. J. Griffith, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control ................................................................ Winter Haven
R. A. Clark, Chief of Plant Inspection ........................................ ..................................................... Gainesville
T. S. Schubert, Chiet of Plant Pathology ................................ ...... .................................. Gainesville
J. H. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology .................................................................................................. Gainesville
C. O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration .......................... .. .......... ............. ... Winter Haven




This publication was produced at an annual cost of $27,996.75 or $28.00 per copy. It makes available to all
interested persons the results of arthropod faunal studies, emphasizing Florida and the Circum-Caribbean
Region. PI90T-18

ISSN: 0066-8036






TABLE OF CONTENTS




Title page ......................................................... .............................. i
Division of Plant Industry Technical Council and Administration..................................... ii
Table of Contents ................ .............................. ................... iii
List of Maps ............................................. ......................... .... viii
List of Figures ........................... ............................................... x
Foreword ....................... ...... ............................................... xii
Acknowledgements .................................. ... ........ ...................... xv
Introduction............ .............. .............................................. ....... 1
Economic Importance ................................................. ....................... 2
Zoogeography ................. .......................... .................................. 2
W ork on Florida Lygaeidae ................................................ ........ ....... .... ....4
Publications on Florida Lygaeidae................................. ... ........................ .5
Key to Subfamilies of Florida Lygaeidae................... ..........................................5
Subfam ily Lygaeinae .................... ......... ............................................ 6
Key to Florida Genera of Lygaeinae...............................................................6
Genus Oncopeltus Stal.............. ......... ... ..... ... ............ . ............ .7
Key to Florida Species of Oncopeltus............ .......... .......................... 7
Oncopeltus aulicus (Fabricius) ................... ...............................8
Oncopeltus cayensis Torre-Bueno..................................................9
Oncopeltus cingulifer Stal ................. ...... ........................ 10
Oncopeltus fasciatus ....................................... ...................... 11
Oncopeltus sexmaculatus .......................................................... 14
Key to Florida Species of Lygaeus ................ ....................................... 14
Lygaeus formosus Blanchard ......................................................15
Lygaeus kalmii Stal ...................................................... ........ 15
Genus Neacoryphus Scudder....................................................... 17
Neacoryphus bicrucis (Say) ........................................................17
Genus Melacoryphus A. Slater ............................. ............................... 19
Key to Possible Florida Species og Melacoryphus .......................................19
Melacoryphus facetus (Say) ............................. ......................... 19
Melacoryphus admirabilis (Say) .................................................... 20
Genus Lygaeospilus (Barber) ............ ............... ....... .......................20
Lygaeospilus tripunctatus (Dallas) ................................................ 20
Genus Ochrimnus Stal ........................................ ........................... 21
Key to Florida Species of Ochrimnus ..................... ............................ ..... 22
Ochrimnus lineoloides (Slater) ........................................ .......... 22
Ochrimnus mimulus (Stal)........................................................24
Ochrimnus tripligatus .(Barber)................. ...................................27
Genus Craspeduchus Stal ............................................................ .... .28
Craspeduchus pulchellus (Fabricius)..............................................28
Subfamily Orsillinae ........... ............................... ......... ... .. .................. 28
Key to Florida Tribes of Orsillinae ...................................................... .........29
Tribe Orsillini ...........................................................................29
Key to Florida Genera of Orsillinae......................... .................................29
Genus Neortholomus Hamilton............................................................29
Key to Florida Species of Neortholomus .................................................. 30
Neortholomus koreshanus (Van Duzee)............................................ 30
Neortholomus jamaicensis (Dallas)................................................. 31
Neortholomus scolopax (Say) ................. ....................................32
Genus Belonochilus Uhler ............................................................... 33
Belonochilus numenius Say ................... .... ................................. 33



iii









Tribe M etrargini Kirkaldy ... ........ ............ .... ...... ....................................34
Genus Xyonysius ............... .......... ................................................ 34
Key to Florida Species ofXyonysius.............................................. ....... 34
Xyonysius califoricus (Stal) ....................................................... 35
Xyonysius basalis (Dallas)..... ....... ................. .......................... 36
Tribe Nysiini Uhler........ ........ ................. ...................................... 37
Genus Nysius Dallas ............................................ ......................... 37
Key to Males of Florida Species of Nysius ................. ............................... 38
Nysius raphanus Howard...................................... ................... 38
Nysius tenellus Barber............................................................ 40
Nysius scutellatus Dallas.......................................................... 41
Subfamily Ischnorhynchinae Stal....................................... .............................41
Genus Kleidocerys Stephens.............................................................. 41
Key to Florida Species of Kleidocerys................................................................ 42
Kleidocerys resedae Panzer.................... ............... ....................42
Kleidocerys virescens .(Fabricius) ................ ................................ 43
Subfamily Cyminae Stal....................... ........................ ....... ..............42
Key to the Tribes of Florida Cyminae........................................................... 45
Tribe Cymini Stal.............................................. ................................ 45
Key to Florida Genera of Cymini........ ......................................................... 45
Genus Cymus Hahn ...................................... .. .............................. 45
Key to Southeastern Species of Cymus.....................................................45
Cymus bellus Van Duzee......................................................... 46
Cymus angustatus Stal...........................................................46
Cymus luridus Stal............................. .......... ....................... 47
Cymus discors Horvath .. ........ ............................................. 48
Genus Cymodema Spinola.................................... .......................... 48
Cymodema breviceps (Stal) ......................... .............................. 48
Tribe Ninini Barber........ ....... .. ................................. .................... 50
Genus Cymoninus Breddin.................. ........... ..... .............................. 50
Cymoninus notabilis (Distant).......................... .........................50
Subfamily Blissinae Stal..... ...................................... ....... .. ... ............ .. ... 52
Key to Florida Genera of Blissinae............................................................... 52
Genus Blissus Burmeister................................................................52
Key to Florida Species of Blissus ........................................................52
Blissus minutus (Blatchley) ............................. ..................... 53
Blissus arenarius maritimus Leonard.................................................... 54
Blissus insularis Barber............................ ........................ ...55
Blissus leucopterus (Say) .................. ................. ......................57
Genus Ischnodemus Fieber ......................... ...............................57
Key to Florida Species of Ischnodemus .......................................... ...... 58
Ischnodemus badius Van Duzee......................................................... 59
Ischnodemus conicus Van Duzee.............................. ............. ....... 61
Ischnodemus brunnipennis (Germar)..............................................62
Ischnodemus slossonae Van Duzee.... .............................. ........... 64
Ischnodemus lobatus Van Duzee.................................................65
Ischnodemuspraecultus Distant.................................. .................. 66
Ischnodemus robustus Blatchley......... ..... .......... ..................... 67
Ischnodemusfulvipes (De Geer).................................... ........ ....... 69
Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee....................................................69
Subfamily Geocorinae... ............... ..................... .................................. 71
Key to Florida Genera of Geocorinae................................................. ............71










Genus Isthmocoris McAtee ............. ... .. .... .......... ................. ........... 72
Key to Florida Species of Isthmocoris............................ .......................... 72
Isthmocorispiceus (Say).......................................................... 72
Isthmocoris imperialism (Distant)..................................................... 73
Genus Geocoris Fallen... ...................................................................... 73
Key to Florida Species of Geocoris.... ................................................... 74
Geocorispunctipes (Say) ........................................................ .74
Geocorisfloridanus Blatchley...................................................... 75
Geocoris bullatus (Say).............. ....... ...................................... 77
Geocoris uliginosus (Say)...................................................... 77
Subfamily Pachygronthinae Stal................. ......................... ........................ 78
Key to Florida Tribes and Genera of Pachygronthinae.................................... ......... 78
Tribe Pachygronthini Stal...................................................................... 79
Genus Oedancala Amyot & Serville .................................... ............ ...... 79
Key to Florida Species of Oedancala ..................................................... 79
Oedancala crassimana (Fabricius)............................................ 79
Oedancala dorsalis (Say) ....................................................... .. 81
Oedancala cubana Stal ............ ... ............ .. .... ......... ...............82
Oedancala cladiumicola Baranowski & Slater ........................................84
Tribe Teracriini Stal ............................................................................. 84
Genus Phlegyas Stal ................................................................. 84
Key to Florida Species of Phlegyas................ ..... ................................. ... 84
Phlegyas abbreviatus (Uhler)............... .................................... 86
Phlegyas annulicrus Stal... ..................................................... .86
Subfamily Rhyparochrominae Amyot & Serville............................................ ....... 87
Key to Tribes of Florida Rhyparochrominae............................................... ....... 87
Tribe Lethaeini Stal ..................... ............ .... .......... ........................ 88
Key to Florida Genera of Lethaeini.................................... ............................ 89
Genus Cistalia Stal ................................................ ......... 89
Cistalia signoreti (Guerin) ...................................................... 89
Genus Cryphula Stal .................................. .......................... 91
Cryphula trimaculata (Distant) .................................................. 91
Genus Paragonatas Barber............................................................... 92
Key to Florida Species of Paragonatas ..... ..................................... .........92
Paragonatas costaricensis (Distant)....................................................93
Paragonatas divergens (Distant).................. ................................. 93
Tribe Antillicorini Ashlock...................... .............................................. 94
Key to Florida Genera of Antillicorini............................................................ 94
Genus Antillicoris Kirkaldy .........................................................94
Key to Florida Species ofAntillicoris .. .... ............................................. ........ 95
Antillicorispilosulus (Stal) ........ ........... ............................... 95
Antillicoris discretus Barber........................................................... 95
Antillicorispallidus (Uhler) ... ........... ................................... ..... 98
Genus Cligenes Distant...................... ............................................ 98
Cligenes distinctus Distant ................ .................... ............... 98
Genus Paurocoris Slater ....................... ............................. ........ 101
Paurocorispunctatus (Distant)...................................................101
Tribe Drym ini Stal..................................... ........................................ 101
Key to Florida Genera of Drymini....................................................... ...... 101
Genus Eremocoris Fieber.................................................................... 101
Key to Florida Species of Eremocoris..................................................... 103
Eremocoris setosus Blatchley..................................................... 103










Eremocoris depressus Barber....................................................103
Genus Drymus Fieber................................................................104
Drymus crassus Van Duzee..................................................... 104
Tribe Ozophorini Sweet.......................................................................... 106
Genus Ozophora ........................... .............. ........................ 106
Key to Florida Species of Ozophora ..................................................... 107
Ozophora burmeisteri (Guerin-Meneville)......................................... 108
Ozophora caroli Slater & Baranowski............................................. 109
Ozophora divaricata Barber ......................................................111
Ozophorafloridana Slater & Baranowski.......................................... 112
Ozophora gilva Slater & Baranowski.............................................114
Ozophora laticephala Slater & O'Donnell......................................... 116
Ozophora levis Slater & Baranowski.............................................. 118
Ozophora picturata Uhler...................................................... 118
Ozophora reperta Blatchley........................ ........ .. ................. 119
Ozophora trinotata Barber................................................... 120
Tribe Myodochini Stal................................................................ .122
Key to the Genera of Florida Myodochini....................................................... 122
Genus Carpilis Stal ................................................................ 124
Carpilis barber (Blatchley) ...... .......................................... 124
Genus Cnemodus Herrich-Schaeffer................ ................................... 127
Key to Florida Species of Cnemodus.................................................... 127
Cnemodus hirtipes Blatchley .................................................... 127
Cnemodus mavortius (Say)..................................................... 128
Genus Heraeus Stal ................................................................... 130
Key to Florida Species of Heraeus ................ .......................................130
Heraeusplebejus Stal ............................................................ 130
Heraeus triguttatus (Guerin) .................................................... 132
Genus Ligyrocoris Stal ............... ...................... .......................... 134
Key to Florida Species of Ligyrocoris............... ................................ 134
Ligyrocoris litigiosus (Stal) .................................. .......... 134
Ligyrocoris slossonae Barber ................. .............................. 136
Ligyrocoris barber Sweet ........................................................ 137
Genus Froeschneria Harrington .......................................... .............. 137
Key to Florida Species of Froeschneria ....................................................137
Froeschneria multispinus (Stal) ..................................................138
Froeschneriapiligera (Stal) ..................................................... 140
Genus Pseudopamera Distant.......................................................... 140
Pseudopamera aurivilliana Distant................................................141
Genus Myodocha Latrielle.................. ..... ..................... ................141
Key to Florida Species of Myodocha ...................................................... 141
Myodocha annulicornis Blatcley................... ..............................142
Myodocha serripes (Olivier) ........................... ...............................143
Genus Neopamera Harrington................... .......................................... 144
Key to Florida Species of Neopamera .................... .................................144
Neopamera albocincta.......................................................... 144
Neopamera bilobata................. .......................................... 148
Neopamera neotropicalis (Kirkaldy)................ ..... .....................153
Genus Pseudopachybrachius Malipatil....................................................154
Key to Florida Species of Pseudopachybrachyius........................................... 155
Pseudopachybrachyius basalis (Dallas)............................................ 155
Pseudopachybrachyius vincta.....................................................158



vi










Genus Paromius Fieber ........................................................... 163
Paromius longulus (Dallas)..................................................... 163
Genus Perigenes Barber................. .............................................. 167
Perigenes similis Barber................. ....................................... 167
Genus Prytanes Distant ...................................... ........................... 170
Key to Florida Species of Prytanes ..................................................... 170
Prytanes dissimilis (Barber) ................. .................................... 170
Prytanes intercisa (Barber) .......................................................172
Prytanes minima (Guerin) ................................. .................... 174
Prytanes confusa (Barber) ....................................................... 176
Genus Pseudocnemodus Barber.........................................................177
Pseudocnemodus canadensis (Provancher) .........................................177
Genus Ptochiomera Say.................................................. ............... 178
Ptochiomera nodosa Say.........................................................178
Genus Sisamnes Distant ....................................... .......................... 180
Sisamnes contracts Distant ..................................................... 180
Tribe Rhyparochromini Stal.............................................. ......... ...... ... 181
Genus Peritrechus Fieber ................ ............. ............... ........ 181
Peritrechuspaludemaris Barber....... ........ ....... .................182
Tribe Gonianotini Stal .............................. .... ............................ 182
Key to Florida Genera of Gonianotini .................... .. ........................... 184
Genus Emblethis Fieber ......................................... ........................... 184
Emblethis vicarius Horvath .............. ................................... 184
GenusAtrazonatus Slater & Ashlock....... .........................................185
Atrazonatus umbrosus (Distant) .................................................185
Genus Delochilocoris Bergroth .............. ... .................................... 185
Delochilocoris illuminatus (Distant)...........................................188
List of Associated Plants .................................................................... 189
Literature Cited ............................................ ............................194
Index to Insect Scientific Names .................. ...........................................204




























vii






LIST OF MAPS


Map I

Map II

Map III

Map IV

Map V

Map VI

Map VII

Map VIII

Map IX

Map X

Map XI

Map XII

Map XIII

Map XIV

Map XV

Map XVI

Map XVII

Map XVIII

Map XIX

Map XX

Map XXI

Map XXII

Map XXIII

Map XXIV

Map XXV

Map XXVI


Distribution of
Oncopeltus aulicus ...... .....7
Distribution of
Oncopeltus cayensis ........... 9
Distribution of
Oncopeltus cingulifer ......... 11
Distribution of
Oncopeltus fasciaus ..........13
Distribution of
Lygaeusformosus ............ 15
Distribution of
Lygaeus kalmii...............16
Distribution of
Neacoryphus bicrucis ......... 18
Distribution of
Melacoryphusfacetus ......... 20
Distribution of
Lygaeospilus tripunctatus ......21
Distribution of
Ochrimnus lineoloides........ 22
Distribution of
Ochrimnus mimulis .......... 25
Distribution of
Ochrimnus tripligatus .........27
Distribution of
Craspeduchuspulchellus ...... 28
Distribution of
Neortholomus koreshanus .... 31
Distribution of
Neortholomus jamaicensis .... 32
Distribution of
Neortholomus scolopax....... 33
Distribution of
Belonochilus numenius ....... 33
Distribution of
Xyonysius califoricus ........ 35
Distribution of
Xyonysius basalis .............37
Distribution of
Nysius raphanus ............. 39
Distribution of
Nysius tenellus ...............40
Distribution of
Nysius scutellatus ............ 41
Distribution of
Kleidocerys resedae ...........43
Distribution of
Kleidocerys virescens ..........44
Distribution of
Cymus bellus ..............46
Distribution of
Cymus angustatus ............ 47


Map XXVII

Map XXVIII

Map XXIX

Map XXX

Map XXXI

Map XXXII

Map XXXIII

Map XXXIV

Map XXXV

Map XXXVI

Map XXXVII

Map XXXVIII

Map XXXIX

Map XXXX

Map XXXXI

Map XXXXII

Map XXXXIII

Map XXXXIV

Map XXXXV

Map XXXXVI

Map XXXXVII

Map XXXXVIII

Map XXXXIX

Map L

Map LI

Map LII


Distribution of
Cymus discors .............. 48
Distribution of
Cymodema breviceps......... 49
Distribution of
Cymus notabilis ..............50
Distribution of
Blissus minutus .............. 53
Distribution of
Blissus arenarius martimus ... 54
Distribution of
Blissus insularis ..............55
Distribution of
Blissus leucopterus ........... 57
Distribution of
Ischnodemus badius ..........61
Distribution of
Ischnodemus conicus .........62
Distribution of
Ischnodemus brunnipennis .... 62
Distribution of
Ischnodemus slossonae ....... 65
Distribution of
Ischnodemus lobatus......... 66
Distribution of
Ischnodemus praecultus .......66
Distribution of
Ischnodemus robustus ........ 67
Distribution of
Ischnodemus fulvipes ......... 69
Distribution of
Ischnodemus rufipes ..........71
Distribution of
Isthmocoris imperialis ........ 73
Distribution of
Geocoris punctipes ........... 74
Distribution of
Geocoris floridanus .......... 76
Distribution of
Geocoris uliginosus ...........78
Distribution of
Oedancala crassimana ........80
Distribution of
Oedancala dorsalis ...........81
Distribution of
Oedancala cubana ........... 82
Distribution of
Oedancala cladiumicola ...... 84
Distribution of
Phlegyas abbreviatus ..........86
Distribution of
Phlegyas annulicrus .......... 87


viii










Map LIII

Map LIV

Map LV

Map LVI

Map LVII

Map LVIII

Map LIX

Map LX

Map LXI

Map LXII

Map LXIII

Map LXIV

Map LXV

Map LXVI

Map LXVII

Map LXVIII

Map LXIX

Map LXX

Map LXXI

Map LXXII

Map LXXIII

Map LXXIV

Map LXXV

Map LXXVI


Distribution of
Cistalia signoreti ............. 89
Distribution of
Cryphula trimaculata ......... 92
Distribution of
Paragonatas costaricensis ..... 93
Distribution of
Antillocorispilosulus ......... 95
Distribution of
Antillocorisdiscretus .......... 97
Distribution of
Antillocoris pallidus .......... 98
Distribution of
Cligenes distinctus ............99
Distribution of
Eremocoris setosus ......... 103
Distribution of
Eremocoris depressus ........104
Distribution of
Drymus crassus ............. 106
Distribution of
Ozophora burmeisteri....... 108
Distribution of
Ozophora caroli ............ 111
Distribution of
Ozophora divaricata .........111
Distribution of
Ozophorafloridana ......... 112
Distribution of
Ozophora gilva ............. 114
Distribution of
Ozophora laticephala ........116
Distribution of
Ozophora levis..............118
Distribution of
Ozophora picturata ..........119
Distribution of
Ozophora reperta ........... 120
Distribution of
Ozophora trinotata .......... 122
Distribution of
Carpilis barber ............. 124
Distribution of
Cnemodus hirtipes .......... 128
Distribution of
Heraeus plejebus ............131
Distribution of
Heraeus riguttatus .......... 132


Map LXXVII

Map LXXVIII

Map LXXIX

Map LXXX

Map LXXXI

Map LXXXII

Map LXXXIII

Map LXXXIV

Map LXXXV

Map LXXXVI

Map LXXXVII

Map LXXXVIII

Map LXXXIX

Map LXXXX

Map LXXXXI

Map LXXXXII

Map LXXXXIII

Map LXXXXIV

Map LXXXXV

Map LXXXXVI

Map LXXXXVII

Map LXXXXVIII

Map LXXXXIX


Distribution of
Ligyrocoris litigiosus........ 136
Distribution of
Ligyrocoris slossonae........ 136
Distribution of
Ligyrocoris barberi.......... 137
Distribution of
Froeschneria multispinus .... 138
Distribution of
Froeschneria piligera .........140
Distribution of
Myodocha annulicomis ...... 142
Distribution of
Myodocha serripes .......... 143
Distribution of
Neopamera albocincta .......144
Distribution of
Neopamera bilobata .........148
Distribution of
Neopamera neotropicalis .... 154
Distribution of
Pseudopachybrachius basalis 155
Distribution of
Pseudopachybrachius vincta.. 158
Distribution of
Paromius longulus.......... 163
Distribution of
Perigenes similis ............ 169
Distribution of
Prytanes dissimilis ...........172
Distribution of
Prytanes intercisa ........... 174
Distribution of
Prytanes minima............ 176
Distribution of
Pseudocnemodus canadensis 177
Distribution of
Ptochiomera nodosa .........178
Distribution of
Sisamnes contracts ......... 181
Distribution of
Peritrechuspaludemaris ......182
Distribution of
Emblethis vicarius ...........185
Distribution of
Delochilocoris illuminates .... 188






LIST OF FIGURES


COVER

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

Fig. 8.

Fig. 9A.

Fig. 9B.

Fig. 10.

Fig. 11.

Fig. 12.

Fig. 13.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

Fig. 16.

Fig. 17.

Fig. 18.

Fig. 19.

Fig. 20.

Fig. 21.

Fig. 22A.

Fig. 22B.

Fig. 23.


Craspeduchus pulchellus,
adult and fifth instar nymph
Oncopeltus fasciatus,
scutellum, dorsal view ............... 6
Lygaeus kalmii,
scutellum, dorsal view ................ 6
Craspeduchus sp.,
pronotum, dorsal view...............6
Ochrimnus sp.,
pronotum, dorsal view................6
Melacoryphus sp.,
callar impressions...................7
Neacoryphus sp.,
callar impressions...................7
Oncopeltus aulicus,
dorsal view........................ 8
Oncopeltus cayensis,
dorsal view.........................9
Oncopeltus cingulifer,
dorsal view........................ 10
Oncopeltus antillensis,
dorsal view........................10
Oncopeltus fasciatus,
dorsal view.......................12
Lygaeusformosus,
fifth instar nymph..................15
Lygaeus kalmii,
dorsal view....................... 16
Neacoryphus bicrucis,
dorsalview.......................18
Lygaeospilus tripunctatus,
dorsal view....................21
Ochrimnus lineoloides,
dorsal view.......................23
Ochrimnus mimulus,
dorsal view.......................26
Xyonysius califomicus,
stridulitrum .......................29
Neortholomus nevadensis,
evaporative area...................30
Neortholomus procerodorus,
evaporative area..................30
Neortholomus koreshanus,
head, lateral view................... 30
Neortholomus jamaicensis,
head, lateral view ................. 30
Neortholomus jamaicensis,
scutellum........................ 32
Neortholomus scolopax,
scutellum ..........................32
Xyonysius basalis
pronotum ........................34


Fig. 24.

Fig. 25.

Fig. 26.

Fig. 27.

Fig. 28.

Fig. 29.

Fig. 30.

Fig. 31.

Fig. 32.

Fig. 33.

Fig. 34.

Fig. 35.

Fig. 36.

Fig. 37.

Fig. 38.

Fig. 39.

Fig. 40.

Fig. 41.

Fig. 42.

Fig. 43.

Fig. 44.

Fig. 45.

Fig. 46.

Fig. 47.

Fig. 48.

Fig. 49.


Xyonysius califomicus,
pronotum........................34
Xyonysius califomicus,
dorsal view......................36
Nysius raphanus,
head, lateral view ................. 38
Nysius tenellus,
head, lateral view................ 38
leidocerys virescens,
dorsal view ....................... 43
Cymus angustatus
dorsal view.......................47
Ischnodemus,
coxal cavities......................52
Blissus,
coxal cavities......................52
Blissus insularis,
dorsal view.......................55
Ischnodemus,
pronotum.........................58
Ischnodemus,
pronotum....................... 58
Ischnodemus,
pronotum........................58
Ischnodemus,
prothorax, lateral view...............59
Ischnodemus,
prothorax, lateral view..............59
Ischnodemus badius,
dorsal view .......................60
Ischnodemus brunnipemmis,
dorsal view ....................... 63
Ischnodemuspraecultus,
dorsal view ........................68
Ischnodemus fulvipes,
dorsal view ....................70
Isthmocoris piceus,
head.............................. 71
Geocoris uliginosus,
head ............................. 72
Isthmocoris piceus,
dorsal view....................... 72
Geocoris punctipes,
dorsal view ..................... 74
Oedancala cubana
fifth instar nymph ..................82
Oedancala cubana
dorsal view......................... 83
Oedancala cladiumicola,
dorsal view......................85
Phlegyas abbreviatus,
dorsal view ......................86


~_











Fig. 50.

Fig. 51.

Fig. 52.

Fig. 53.

Fig. 54.

Fig. 55.

Fig. 56.

Fig. 57.

Fig. 58.

Fig. 59.

Fig. 60.

Fig. 61.

Fig. 62.

Fig. 63.

Fig. 64.

Fig. 65.

Fig. 66.

Fig. 67.

Fig. 68.

Fig. 69.

Fig. 70.

Fig. 71.

Fig. 72.

Fig. 73.

Fig. 74.

Fig. 75.


Myodocha serripes,
abdomen, dorsal view.............. 88
Lethaeus sp.,
abdomen, lateral view.............. 88
Ozophora sp.,
abdomen, lateral view.............. 88
Antillocoris sp.,
abdomen, lateral view.............. 88
Drymus sp.,
abdomen, lateral view.............. 88
Cistalia signoreti,
dorsal view.......................90
Cryphula trimaculata,
dorsal view.......................91
Cligenes sp.,
abdomen, lateral view.............. 94
Cligenes distinctus,
dorsal view......................100
Paurocoris punctatus,
dorsal view......................102
Drymus crassus,
dorsal view......................105
Ozophora trinotata,
metatibia................. ...... 107
Ozophora burmeisteri,
metatibia........................107
Ozophora caroli,
dorsalview......................110
Ozophora floridana,
dorsal view......................113
Ozophora gilva,
dorsal view......................115
Ozophora laticephala,
dorsal view......................117
Pseudocnemodus canadensis,
propleuron.......................122
Ligyrocoris sylvestris
abdomen........................123
Neopamera sp.,
"emergent" mesepimeron .........123
Perigenes sp.,
"emclosed" mesepimeron .........123
Carpilis barber
dorsal view......................125
Carpilis barber
fifth instar ...................... 126
Cnemodus hirtipes,
dorsal view......................129
Heraeus plebejus,
dorsal view......................130
Heraeus triguttatus
dorsal view......................133


Fig. 76.

Fig. 77.

Fig. 78.

Fig. 79.

Fig. 80.

Fig. 81.

Fig. 82.

Fig. 83.

Fig. 84.

Fig. 85.

Fig. 86.

Fig. 87.

Fig. 88.

Fig. 89.

Fig. 90.

Fig. 91.

Fig. 92.

Fig. 93.

Fig. 94.

Fig. 95.

Fig. 96.

Fig. 97.

Fig. 98.

Fig. 99.

Fig. 100.


Ligyrocoris litigiosus,
dorsal view......................135
Froeschneria multispinus
dorsal view......................139
Pseudopamera aurivilliana,
dorsal view......................141
Myodocha serripes,
dorsal view......................142
Neopamera albocincta,
dorsal view......................145
Neopamera albocincta,
fifth instar nymph .................146
Neopamera bilobata,
dorsal view......................149
Neopamera bilobata,
fifth instar nymph.................150
Neopamera neotropicalis,
dorsal view......................154
Pseudopachybrachius basalis,
dorsal view....................156
Pseudopachybrachius basalis,
fifth instar nymph.................157
Pseudopachybrachius vincta,
dorsal view......................159
Pseudopachybrachius vincta
fifth instar nymph.................160
Paromius longulus,
dorsal view......................165
Perigenes similis,
dorsal view ...................... 168
Prytanes intercisa,
pronotum.....................170
Prytanes dissimilis,
pronotum .......................170
Prytanes dissimilis,
fifth instar nymph.................171
Prytanes intercisa
dorsal view.....................173
Prytanes minima,
dorsal view......................175
Pseudocnemodus canadensis,
dorsal view .......................178
Ptochiomera nodosa,
dorsal view......................179
Peritrechus paludemaris,
dorsal view ..................... 183
Atrazonotus umbrosus,
dorsal view.....................186
Delochilocoris illuminatus,
dorsal view......................187






FOREWORD


Lygaeidae of Florida is the second volume
by Drs. Richard M. Baranowski and James A.
Slater on the Hemiptera of Florida, following
Coreidae ofFlorida, which was published in 1986 in
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas.
It provides a reference useful both for field
identification of most species and for the accurate
identification in the laboratory of all species
known to occur or which are likely to be found in
Florida. Dr. W. S. Blatchley (1926) treated 29
genera and 105 species that have been recorded for
Florida. This volume lists 47 genera and 105
species (plus 3 additional questionable species).
An extensive list of plants with which Florida
Lygaeidae have been associated and an extensive
list of references are included. The keys, illustra-
tions, distributional data, and discussions will be
invaluable aids to all of those who are interested in
the Lygaeidae.
The authors mention that the Heteroptera
ofEastern North America by W. S. Blatchley still is
the most important source of information on the
fauna even though it was published in 1926.
Unquestionably, the Lygaeidae of Florida will
supplant Blatchley and become the baseline on
which all further work on the Lygaeidae of the
Eastern United States will be based. Whereas
their work on other groups such as the Coreidae
has resulted in handsome and important volumes,
the Lygaeidae offered a challenge by virtue of the
size and diversity of the group that goes well
beyond what they have done heretofore.
Dr. James Alexander Slater, "Jim" to his
many friends was born in Belvidere, Illinois, on 10
January 1920, son of Gladys Banks Slater and Ray
Alvin Slater. He and Elizabeth Thackston were
married on 20 February 1943, and they have 4
children: James Alexander II, Jacquelyn Rae,
Samuel Thackston, and Lydia Ann. During 1943-
46, he served as an officer in the United States
Navy; Deck Officer in the Mediterranean; Malaria
Control Officer, North Carolina and Okinawa.
Jim received the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1942
from the University of Illinois, graduating with
high honors. He received the Master of Science
degree in 1947 from the University of Illinois and
the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1950 from
Iowa State University with a major in entomology.
He served as an Instructor, then Assistant Profes-
sor at Iowa State University during 1950-53. At
the University of Connecticut he served as an As-
sistant Professor during 1953-56; Associate Profes-


sor, 1956-61; Professor, 1961-date; Department
Head: Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Sec-
tion, Biological Sciences Group, 1970-80. During
1960-61 he was a Research Fellow at the British
Museum (Natural History). He was State Or-
nithologist in Connecticut during 1962-81; a Re-
search Associate of the National Insect Collection,
Pretoria, South Africa, 1967-68; Research Associ-
ate, American Museum of Natural History, 1977-
date, and Research Associate, Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods (1986-date). Academic and
professional societies of which he is a member are:
Entomological Society of America, New York En-
tomological Society, Kansas Entomological Soci-
ety, Washington Entomological Society, Entomo-
logical Society of South Africa, Royal Entomo-
logical Society (London), Society of Systematic
Zoology, Florida Entomological Society, Associa-
tion for Tropical Biology, Connecticut Entomo-
logical Society, Connecticut Herpetological Soci-
ety, Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences,
Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering,
American Society of Zoologists, Phi Beta Kappa,
Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, Gamma Sigma Delta,
Association for Gravestone Studies, and Natchaug
Ornithological Society. His biography is included
in American Men and Women of Science and in
Who's Who in the East. Dr. Slater received the
University of Connecticut Faculty Research
Award in 1972. He was the Eastern Branch
Nominee for Distinguished Achievement Award in
Teaching, Entomological Society of America, in
1977. In 1982 he won the Harriett Merriefield
Forbes Award of the Association for Gravestone
Studies. He served on the Selection Committee of
Phi Beta Kappa in 1979; President, Phi Beta
Kappa, Connecticut Chapter, 1987. University of
Connecticut Retirement Committee (Chairman,
1982-85), 1982-1989; Vice President of
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1980-
date; Connecticut Non-Game Advisory
Committee, 1981-1988; Friends of Trail Wood
Committee (Edwin Way Teale Sanctuary), 1981-
date. His professional activities include: Editor,
Entomologica Americana, 1957-67; Editorial
Board and Archives Board, Connecticut
Entomological Society, 1974-81; Editorial Board,
Revue Zoology Africaine, 1989-date; National
Science Foundation Advisory Panel, Systematic
Biology, 1963-65; University of Connecticut
Research Foundation Advisory Board, 1964-67;
Task Force on Establishment of an Environmental









College, 1958-59; Commissioner, Connecticut
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1963-73;
State of Connecticut Commissioner, Accrediting
Education, 1968-71; President, Connecticut
Chapter of Sigma Xi, 1973-74; Alternate,
International Institute of Ecology, 1970-74;
U.S.D.A. Review Panel; Department of
Entomology, Texas A. & M. University, March
1978; President-elect, 1979-81, and President,
1981-83, Society of Systematic Zoology; Chairman,
Nominating Committee, Society of Systematic
Zoology, 1984; Evaluation Committee, California
Academy of Sciences, May 1982; Evaluation
Committee, Department of Entomology, Cornell
University, April 1984-85. Service on national
committees includes: Entomological Society of
America: Undergraduate Scholarship Committee,
1980; Nominating Committee, Section A, 1980;
Committee to Investigate Formation of a
Federation of Systematics, 1980-84; Thomas Say
Foundation Publication Committee, 1977-80
(Chairman, 1979-80); Convenor and Chairman:
Symposium "Present and Future Trends in
Hemipteran Systematics", International Congress
of Entomology, Washington, D.C., 1976.
Workshops attended include the Danforth
Foundation Workshop on Educational
Innovation, Colorado Springs, Colorado, June-
July 1966; National Science Foundation Work-
shop on "Basic Systematic Biology: Future
Trends", 11-13 June 1980, Ohio State University,
Columbus, Ohio. Field experience has included
work in South Africa, and Mauritius Island (1967-
68, 1970), Australia (1970-71), Costa Rica (1965),
Panama (1974), Trinidad (1965, 1973, 1982), and
the West Indies (1969, 1972, 1973, 1982). Dr.
Slater's field of specialization is Systematic Ento-
mology, including research interests in systematics,
biogeography, speciation, plant and animal inter-
relationships, and faunistics. He is author of a 2-
volume catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the world
published in 1964 and senior author with Dr.
Baranowski of a 1978 Pictured Key Nature Series
volume, How to know the true bugs. He is author
of 6 reviews, coauthor of 1 conference proceed-
ings, and author or coauthor of 228 publications in
scientific journals, with 15 additional manuscripts
in press. Jim collects milk glass as a hobby. He is
a member of the Presbyterian Church.
Dr. Richard Matthew Baranowski, or
"Dick" as he is generally called, was born in Utica,
New York on 1 March 1928, son of Agnes and


Walter Baranowski. On 16 June 1951 he married
Helen B. Venn. They have 3 children: Gena, Ali-
son, and Lisa. Dick was educated in the public
schools of Utica, New York. He received the
Bachelor of Arts degree in 1951 from Utica Col-
lege of Syracuse University with a major in biol-
ogy. In 1953 he received the Master of Science de-
gree and in 1959 the Doctor of Philosophy degree,
both from the University of Connecticut with a
major in entomology. He served as a Graduate
Research Assistant during 1952-54 and as a Grad-
uate Teaching Assistant during 1954-56 at the
University of Connecticut. In 1956 Dick joined
the staff of the University of Florida's Agricultural
Research and Education Center at Homestead
(for many years known as the Subtropical Experi-
ment Station) where he served as an Assistant En-
tomologist until 1963, as an Associate Entomolo-
gist from 1963-67, as an Entomologist and Profes-
sor from 1967-84. In 1984 he became the Center
Director of the University of Florida Center at
Homestead, which is now known as the Tropical
Research and Education Center, and he continues
to serve in this capacity. He also served (half time)
during 1979-81 as United States Department of
Agriculture, Plant Pest Quarantine Technical Ad-
visor, National Biological Control Program. Dr.
Baranowski has been a Research Associate of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods since 1969.
He is a member of several academic and profes-
sional societies: Florida Entomological Society
(President, 1975), Entomological Society of
America, International Organization for Biologi-
cal Control (Secretary/Treasurer, 1980-84; Presi-
dent, 1984-85), Florida State Horticultural Soci-
ety, American Association for the Advancement of
Science, Council on Agricultural Science and
Technology, Sigma Xi, and Gamma Sigma Delta.
His biography is included in American Men and
Women of Science. In 1971 he was selected as
Outstanding Research Faculty Member at AREC-
Homestead, and in 1973 he received the Florida
Department of Agriculture's Plant Protection
Award of Eminence. He has been the recipient of
more than $1,000,000 in research grants pertaining
to the biology, ecology, mass rearing procedures,
biological control, and detection of fruit flies;
US/Latin American Cooperative Science Program;
study of phenological relationships between broad
mites, rust mites, and lime trees and between
mirids, avocado trees, and alternate hosts; and
other investigations. He is the author of a 1964









volume titled Insects in The Golden Bookshelf of
Natural History series published by Golden Press,
coauthor with Dr. J. A. Slater of How to know the
Hemiptera published in 1978, and author or coau-
thor of more than 80 other scientific publications,
with 3 manuscripts in press. His primary current
research areas are the management of subtropical
fruit pests including fruit flies and the biology and
systematics of the Hemiptera of Florida and the
Caribbean. His discipline-oriented work has taken
him to Antigua, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados,
Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominica, England, France,
Guadeloupe, Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Mar-
tinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vin-


cent, Saba, South Africa and Switzerland. Consul-
tative missions have involved work in Bolivia, El
Salvador, Mexico, and Trinidad and Tobago. He is
a member of Sacred Heart Catholic Church in
Homestead, Florida. His hobbies include photog-
raphy and woodworking.

Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Editor
Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
30 April 1990






ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We want to thank Mrs. Helen Baranowski
and Mrs. Elisabeth Stater for considerable help
throughout the development of the manuscript;
Ms. Mary Jane Spring, University of Connecticut,
Mr. S. Thurston, formerly University of
Connecticut for execution of many of the
illustrations; McGraw Hill Publishing Co. for
permission to use figure 90, the American
Museum of Natural History for permission to use
figures 33-37, 39-41, 67-70, 75. Figures 13, 14, 25,
29, 30, 31, 56, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, 85, 87, 89 and 96
are: "From J. A. Slater and R. M. Baranowski,
HOW TO KNOW THE TRUE BUGS. Pictured
Key Nature Series. Copyright (c) 1978 Wm. C.
Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa. All Rights
Reserved. Reprinted by special permission."
We thank Dr. Frank Mead, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer


Services for critically reviewing the manuscript and
for access to the FSCA collection, Dr. J. E. Eger,
Dow Chemical Co. for critically reviewing the
manuscript, Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. and Mrs. Phyllis
Habeck, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, for editorial help, Dr. R. C.
Froeschner, National Museum of Natural History
for critically reviewing the manuscript, for access
to the NMNH collection and for the loan of figure
12, and Dr. Randall T. Schuh for critically
reviewing the manuscript and for access to the
AMNH collection.
We especially want to thank Mrs. Holly
Glenn, University of Florida Tropical Research
and Education Center, for all of her help during
the development of the manuscript including
preparation of the distribution maps, collecting
specimens and compiling data.









INTRODUCTION


The Lygaeidae constitute one of the
largest and most varied families of Heteroptera.
Most species are small, dull colored insects, but
included in the family are also numerous brightly
colored (often aposematic) red, black and orange
species. Even the small, cryptic, litter living
species, which superficially appear to be dull in
appearance, take on beautiful patterns of stripes,
spots and patches of yellow, black, brown and
white under the microscope. The family is unusu-
ally varied in appearance for Heteroptera, but may
be characterized by the 4-segmented antennae lo-
cated below an imaginary line through the middle
of the eye (giving rise to the old classification of
"Infericornia"), membrane of the forewing with 4-5
simple veins, 4-segmented labium, geniculate
ovipositor, symmetrical male parameres and lat-
eral abdominal trichobothria.
Recent phylogenetic studies indicate that
the Lygaeidae may be a "stem group" from whose
various ancestral lines other pentatomomorph
hemipterans have arisen such as the Pent-
atomoidea, Coreoidea, Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae,
Berytidae etc. If this proves to be the case, the
family is thus paraphyletic. Most Lygaeidae are
known to feed upon mature seeds which led Sweet
(1960) to use the term "seed bug" as a common
name for the family. However, species of
Blissinae, and some Lygaeinae at least, are sap
suckers and many Geocorinae are, at least in part,
entomophagous. Members of the tribe Cleradini
feed upon vertebrate blood. However, none of the
latter is found in Florida.
Many lygaeids have strongly incrassate
fore femora with ventral spines, which led early
workers to believe that these insects were preda-
ceous. It is instructive to students of anatomy,
who believe that morphological examination can
ascertain function without corroborative field evi-
dence, to examine the powerful appearing toothed
fore legs of rhyparocromine lygaeids, all of which
are seed feeders, relative to the frequently slender
legs of many actively predaceous Reduviidae.
Lygaeid habitats are at least as varied as is
their morphology. Slater (1977) recognizes three
major habitats: Arboreal, Geophilic and
Laminophilic.


(1.) Arboreals: Many species live on herbs
well above the ground level. These species are al-
ways fully winged and usually fly readily when dis-
turbed. A few species live in trees where they feed
on seeds. Actually both herb and tree feeding
species are similar in their habits and can properly
be considered ecologically as a single arboreal
element.

(2.) Geophiles: The majority of Florida
Lygaeidae are ground litter-living species, occur-
ring among seed litter below plants. These habits
preadapt them in Florida to live in relatively dry
microhabitats where seeds may remain viable
without germinating or molding for a period of
time. A number of these geophilous species do
occasionally climb plants when mature seeds are
present but, with rare exceptions, spend most of
their lives on the ground. While most geophilous
lygaeids belong to the Rhyparochrominae,
Floridian Geocorinae are also geophilous as are
some species of Lygaeinae, Orsillinae and
Blissinae. Species of Rhyparochrominae are
usually cryptically colored and frequently have
deflective coloration such as white annulations on
the fourth antennal segments and white spots
distally on the corium which serve to "fool" a
potential vertebrate predator into misdirecting its
attack.
In long time stable habitats geophilous
lygaeids often develop a flightless morph.
(3.) Laminaphiles: These are species that
live closely adpressed between the leaves and
stems of grasses, sedges and rushes. In Florida
they are chiefly species of Ischnodemus. They dif-
fer from arboreal species in often showing flight-
less morphs.
Aposematically colored Lygaeidae are
commonly those species that feed on milkweeds,
senecios and other plants containing toxic sub-
stances. Some of these species, such as Oncopeltus
fasciatus (Dallas), are parts of fascinating Mulle-
rian and Batesian mimicry associations involving
other Hemiptera, beetles and moths.
Ant mimicry is common in geophilous
Lygaeidae. The Floridian species are not as highly
modified morphologically as are many tropical
species, but in the field, adults and especially
nymphs of several species of Neopamera, Pseudo-
pachybrachius, Heraeus and nymphs of Paromius
longulus (Dallas) are very ant-like in their move-
ments. Heraeus triguttatus (Guerin) is a striking









reddish species that is common in southern
Florida and closely resembles a species in Cuba,
Myodocha fulvipes (DeGeer), where a large red ant
also occurs.
Many lygaeid groups have specialized
upon certain plant taxa, for example many
Lygaeinae on Asclepiadaceae, the Blissinae and
Teracrini on Gramineae, and the Pachygronthini
and Cyminae on Cyperaceae and Juncaceae. The
latter two groups, particularly the Cyminae are
highly specialized to feed in the seed heads of
sedges, both adults and nymphs closely resembling
the seeds.
Lygaeid nymphs live in the same habitat
and usually feed in the same way as the adults.
Species which tend to be somewhat oligophagous
in feeding habits will generally have a wider host
range as adults than they do as nymphs. Thus, it is
important in establishing "breeding" hosts, to be
sure that feeding by nymphs has been ascertained.
Almost all Lygaeidae have 5 nymphal in-
stars with mesothoracic wing pads appearing in the
third instar.
Some of the older specimens that we have
examined, have "Everglade" listed on the labels as
the locality. We have interpreted this to mean Ev-
erglades City and accordingly listed these speci-
mens under Collier County. Labels having only
Everglades National Park, or Lake Okeechobee,
without more precise identification of locality, and
those localities not found in the Rand McNally
Commercial Reference Map and Guide for
Florida are listed under UNKNOWN COUNTY.




ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE



Entomologists in Florida, and in fact the
public at large, are usually familiar with the major
damage done to lawn and turf grasses by the
Southern Chinch Bug, Blissus insularis Barber. A
large literature has developed concerning the
damage and control measures used to reduce the
damage caused by this extremely destructive insect.
Species of the genus Geocoris, especially
Geocoris punctipes (Say), are to a large extent
predatory. The habits of these big-eyed bugs, of
living in early succession type habitats, which of


course are those where many crops are grown, has
led to numerous studies of the effect of these
predators in controlling populations of a number
of serious agricultural pests.
The seed feeding habits of most lygaeids
has resulted in several of them damaging culti-
vated plants. This is particularly true of such
oligophagous species as Neopamera bilobata
(Say), Pseudopachybrachius vincta (Say), and their
relatives which have been reported as sporadically
damaging crops, especially strawberries.
Several species of Nysius are agricultural
pests, but these seem not to build up sufficiently
large populations in Florida to be of more than lo-
cal importance. This is probably an interesting
corollary of Florida being a high summer rainfall
region for most destructive Nysius species seem
generally to cause major problems in the western
United States, Australia, and South Africa where
they migrate to cultivated crops after their wild
host plants dry up and no longer offer an attractive
food source.
What the overall ecological effect of most
of the lygaeid "seed predators" has on the envi-
ronment is unknown. In some cases, populations
may build up to enormous numbers. In such cases
the entire seed crop of a given plant or group of
plants may be destroyed. This must have a definite
effect on the spread and abundance of both unde-
sirable weeds and desirable wild plants. It offers a
most attractive research field for future ecological
studies.

One should not leave the subject of eco-
nomic importance without reference to the
widespread use of the Large Milkweed Bug as an
experimental laboratory animal. An immense lit-
erature has developed through the use of this in-
sect in studies of chemical toxicity, resistance, and
a host of physiological and biochemical analyses of
general significance for our understanding of how
insects really function.




ZOOGEOGRAPHY


COMPOSITION OF THE
FLORIDA FAUNA









I. ENDEMIC SPECIES (10%)


At least 9 species of Lygaeidae appear to
be endemic in Florida. Of these, Cnemodus hir-
tipes Blatchley, Myodocha annulicornis Blatchley
and Carpilis barber (Blatchley) represent the
Floridian sister species of widespread northern
species. Ligyrocoris slossonae Barber probably
represents a similar phenomenon which is isola-
tion of a Floridian population and subsequent
speciation. In contrast to those previously men-
tioned, L. slossonae appears now to be restricted
to north Florida. This is a most unusual lygaeid
distribution and may be an example of disjunction
following a former xeric period which resulted in
east-west separation of a number of plant and
animal species. In this case, differentiation has
reached the specific level from the western L.
barber Sweet which apparently is the sister species
(see Sweet 1986). Blissus minutus (Blatchley) may
also represent an east-west disjunction although
minutes is found in southern Florida. Its apparent
closest relative occurs in the southwestern states.
The other endemics include two species of
Ozophora and two of Ischnodemus.


II. WIDESPREAD
AMERICAN SPECIES (23%)


NORTH


Interestingly, this element contains almost
the same percentage of lygaeid species as it does of
Coreidae (21%).
As in the Coreidae (Baranowski and
Slater 1986), two subgroups are distinguishable.
One, which contains the majority of the species,
consists of taxa that are widespread in the north-
ern states but which become scarce to rare in the
southern parts of their ranges, and are sometimes
confined to extreme northern Florida. Examples
of such species are Drymus crassus Van Duzee,
Oedancala dorsalis (Say) and Lygaeus kalmii Stal.
A second subgroup has a more southern distribu-
tional center. Such species often have a wide
range in the central and northern states and be-
come increasingly scarce in the northern parts of
their ranges. This group is poorly represented in
the Lygaeidae but, Ischnodemus slossonae Van
Duzee, Antillocoris pilosulus (Stal), and
Neacoryphus bicrucis (Say) are probably examples.


III. SOUTHEASTERN OR GULF
COAST (CAROLINEAN) SPECIES
(13%)


The ranges of species in this group usually
extend from Louisiana or eastern Texas across the
gulf coast states, and sometimes into North Car-
olina along the coastal plain. There is an element
of this fauna in the Lygaeidae that is largely, but
not entirely, restricted to salt marshes.
Ischnodemus conicus Van Duzee, and I. badius
Van Duzee are typical examples. More wide
ranging species on the coastal plain appear to be
the sedge feeding Oedancala crassimana
(Fabricius), Cymus bellus Van Duzee and
Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee, and perhaps such
species as Antillocoris discretus Barber, Ligyrocoris
barber, Ochrimnus mimulus (Stal), and Geocoris
floridanus Blatchley.



IV. SOUTHERN U. S. SPECIES,
INCLUDING THE SOUTHWEST (6%)


Only a relatively few Floridian Lygaeidae
have a distribution of this type, but they include
some common species such as Nysius raphanus
Howard, Phlegyas annulicrus Stal, Perigenes similis
Barber, and probably Geocoris punctipes (Say),
Ochrimnus lineoloides (Slater) and Melacoryphus
facetus (Say).


V. DISJUNCT FLORIDA
WESTERN U. S. SPECIES (4%)


AND


As noted in the discussion of The Florida
Coreidae (Baranowski and Slater, 1986), this is a
particularly interesting feature of the distribution
of a number of animal groups. However, it is
scarcely evident in the lygaeid fauna. Ligyrocoris
litigiosus (Stal), Nysius tenellus Barber and proba-
bly Sisamnes contracts Distant and Ischnodemus
brunnipennis (Germar) are the only species that at
present appear to have such a distribution, and
even in some of these cases, the distributional evi-









dence may be due to lack of collecting as much as
to actual disjunction of ranges.

VI. NEOTROPICAL SPECIES (44%)


Slater (1974) has pointed out that a large
proportion of the Hemipterous fauna of North
America is Neotropical in origin, and more closely
resembles the composition of the passerine bird
fauna than it does the mammals. Thus, it is not
surprising that a considerable proportion of the
Lygaeidae of Florida should be derived from
Neotropical sources. Indeed, the southern Florida
lygaeid fauna is, as stated by Slater (1988), actually
in large part an element of the Caribbean fauna.
For example, 18% of the lygaeid fauna of Florida
is otherwise found only on islands of the West In-
dies and, as might be expected, these species are
largely confined to extreme southern Florida. It is
important to realize that 48 West Indian species
also occur in Florida. This is 29% of the entire
West Indian Fauna. Indeed, Slater (1988) stated
that even today there is a slow but steady accumu-
lation of Caribbean species into south Florida that
reach the mainland by overwater dispersal. The
mimetic association noted earlier is strong
evidence that Heraeus triguttatus evolved in Cuba
and has reached Florida relatively recently by
overwater dispersal since the rest of its mimetic
associates and the model are not present on the
mainland. Slater (1988) states that of the 48
species common to the two areas only 9 can be
considered to have reached the West Indies from
Florida, whereas approximately 24 appear to have
reached Florida from the Islands.
While the south Florida-West Indian rela-
tionships are relatively easy to understand, there
are other Neotropical elements whose elements
are more obscure. These involve species found in
Florida and Central America but not in the
Caribbean. It is tempting to think of such taxa as
representing old elements of the fauna, in fact
remnants of a much more widespread tropical
North American fauna which we know existed
during interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. Ex-
amples of such species are Delochilocoris illumi-
natus (Distant) and Paurocorispunctatus (Distant)
Far more common are Florida species
that also occur in both the West Indies and in Cen-
tral America. A number of these species also oc-
cur in South America. Some ubiquitous species


belong here, such as Pseudopachybrachius vincta,
Neopamera bilobata, Paromius longulus (Dallas),
Neortholomus jamaicensis (Dallas), Cymoninus
notabilis (Distant), and Oncopeltusfasciatus.
Unfortunately, we do not know enough
about mainland tropical distributions to clearly es-
tablish which of these latter type taxa represent old
North American tropical elements and which
South American ones, but present indications sug-
gest the former to be the most important compo-
nent.


WORK ON FLORIDA LYGAEIDAE


Until recently little specialized work has
been carried out on Florida Lygaeidae other than
on species of direct economic importance. Knowl-
edge of distribution and habits has come from the
work of general collectors and those interested in
Hemiptera in general.
Florida has always been considered an
area of special interest to naturalists because of its
unusual flora and fauna, particularly the Neotropi-
cal and West Indian components otherwise absent
in much of the United States.
Many early entomologists such as Thomas
Say collected in the state. In the late 19th century
Annie Trumbull Slosson spent considerable time
collecting in Florida and her collections of
Hemiptera were studied and reported on by E. P.
Van Duzee and H. G. Barber in particular. In the
1880's E. A. Schwartz spent a season collecting in
southern Florida. The early volumes of the Pro-
ceedings of the Washington Entomological Society
are filled with comments on the Hemiptera col-
lected, by Uhler, Heidemann, Howard, and
Schwartz himself. His comments on chinch bugs
are of great significance as they indicate where the
original populations may have been present. In
1909, E. P. Van Duzee published the results of a
trip through Florida devoted to collecting
Hemiptera. W. S. Blatchley spent many years in
the first quarter of this century collecting and ob-
serving Florida Hemiptera and his work still is of
fundamental importance. R. F. Hussey lived from
1947 to 1967 in Florida where he taught biology at
Florida Southern at Lakeland and the University
of Florida in Gainesville. He collected widely and
accumulated a large and important collection. In
his later years he was joined by Jon Herring who









specialized chiefly on the aquatic and semi-aquatic
groups.
In 1953 H. V. Weems, Jr and F. W. Mead
joined the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
Collecting was strongly supported and their efforts
resulted in a great increase in the Hemiptera ma-
terial in the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods.
In 1956 the junior author located at
Homestead, Florida and has collected extensively
in southern Florida and has been joined on several
occasions by the senior author, who in addition
spent a concentrated period with R. T. Schuh and
J. Harrington in 1969 devoted largely to observa-
tions on, and collecting of, the more cryptic ele-
ments in the Florida lygaeid fauna.
C. W. O'Brien joined the staff of Florida
A & M. University in 1972 and has contributed a
large amount of valuable material.


work to treat with full descriptions, keys, and bio-
logical data, all of the Hemiptera of the Eastern
United States. You will find to this day that
Blatchley's book is usually the most used book on
every American Hemipterist's shelf. Blatchley
notes that the study had particular reference to the
faunas of Indiana and Florida, where he lived and
worked. Thus, it is particularly important for
students of Florida Hemiptera, and is the base
point for all future work.
Blatchley's work, which treated 29 genera
and 73 species of Lygaeidae, was the last complete
faunal study of the Florida Hemiptera fauna. Sub-
quently papers dealing with the Floridian lygaeid
fauna have been published by Barber, Hussey,
Torre Bueno, Baranowski, Slater and Leonard,
among others.
Slater (1988) compared the lygaeid fauna
of Florida with that of the West Indies. He
reported 46 genera and 97 Florida species. In the
present paper we list 47 genera and 105 Florida
species (plus 3 additional questionable species).


PUBLICATIONS ON FLORIDA
LYGAEIDAE


Early publications on Florida Lygaeidae
were limited largely to descriptions of new species
and the casual mention of a few species in general
notes on collecting Florida insects. P. R. Uhler,
the Dean of American Hemipterists, frequently
mentioned species of Lygaeidae as occurring in
Florida, but usually without specific locality data.
The Van Duzee (1909) list of Hemiptera is the
first paper devoted specifically to the Florida
Hemiptera fauna, wherein 16 genera and 29
species of Lygaeidae are mentioned, 6 of them de-
scribed as new.
The most important early paper on the
Florida Hemiptera is that of H. G. Barber (1914).
In this contribution Barber not only gave a list of
25 genera and 54 species of Lygaeidae, but specific
locality for most as well. Barber also attempted a
quantitative analysis of the origin and composi-
tion of the fauna. Since Barber was, for many
years, the leading lygaeid authority, his analysis of
this fauna was of special importance.
W. S. Blatchley published his monumental
"Heteroptera of Eastern North America" in 1926.
This work was of uneven quality but despite con-
troversy and later criticism, it remains the only


KEY TO SUBFAMILIES OF FLORIDA
LYGAEIDAE


1. Suture between abdominal sterna 4 and 5
curving forward laterally and not attaining
lateral margins of abdomen (figs. 51-54,
57, 68) ..............................
....... RHYPAROCHROMINAE, p. 87
1'. Suture between abdominal sterna 4 and 5
straight or nearly so and attaining lateral
margins of abdomen (fig. 17).......... .2
2. Abdominal spiracles on segments 2
through 7 all placed dorsally...........3
2'. At least one pair of spiracles on segments
2 through 7 located ventrally ........ 5
3. Clavus punctate; posterior pronotal mar-
gin not depressed laterad of base of
scutellum. ISCHNORYNCHINAE, p 41
3'. Clavus impunctate; posterior pronotal
margin depressed laterad of base of
scutellum ............... .......... 4
4. Generally with red or orange coloration
present; apical corial margin straight; hind
wing possessing a subcosta and lacking in-
tervannals .......... LYGAEINAE, p. 5










4'. General coloration dull yellowish brown,
never with bright red or orange markings;
apical corial margin sinuate on mesal half;
hind wing lacking a subcosta and pos-
sessing intervannals. .ORSILLINAE p. 28
5. Abdominal spiracles of segments 2 to 6
located dorsally, spiracles of segment 7
located ventrally.................. 6
5'. Abdominal spiracles on at least segments
6 and 7 located ventrally ........... 7
6. Hemelytra coarsely punctate............
..................... CYMINAE, p. 44
6'. Hemelytra impunctate, or at most with a
few scattered inconspicuous punctures....
.................. BLISSINAE, p. 52
7. Abdominal spiracles on segments 3 and 4
located dorsally; eyes protruding and
reniform; (figs. 42, 43) fore femora not
greatly incrassate and not armed below
with numerous spines ................
............... GEOCORINAE, p. 71
7'. All abdominal spiracles located ventrally;
eyes not unusually large and reniform;
fore femora greatly incrassate and armed
below with numerous spines............
......... PACHYGRONTHINAE, p. 78



LYGAEINAE Stal


The members of this subfamily are usually
moderate sized to very large lygaeids. Most
species are easily recognizable by their contrasting
red and black or orange and black coloration. All
of the abdominal spiracles are located dorsally.
The hemelytra are impunctate. The membrane of
the front wing usually possesses a distinct cell and
the hind wing possesses a hamus and subcostal
vein. The nymphs possess two pairs of dorsal ab-
dominal scent gland openings located between
terga 4-5 and 5-6.
This is a large subfamily found in all of the
major zoogeographic regions of the world. Fifty
eight genera are currently recognized; of these 10
are found north of Mexico, 7 of which are repre-
sented in Florida.


KEY TO FLORIDA GENERA OF
LYGAEINAE


1. Scutellum tumid and swollen with a weak
median longitudinal carina (fig. 1), but
never with adjacent lateral areas exca-
vated; lacking a subbasal transverse carina
....................... Oncopeltus, p. 7



I-


Fig. 1. Oncopeltusfasciatus
Scutellum, dorsal view

1'. Scutellum not tumid and swollen with a
longitudinal median carina, and adjacent
areas flat or excavated (fig. 2). A subbasal
transverse carina usually present........2



S/

Fig. 2. Lygaeus kalmii
Scutellum, dorsal view

2. Pronotum with shining impressed calli
lines, near meson with a short branch pre-
sent extending caudo-laterad from main
impressed line (figs. 3, 4)..............3
2'. Pronotal calli lines unbranched ........5
3. Pronotum often punctate behind calli, but
without 4 transverse impressions (fig 3)...
....................................4


Fig. 3. Craspeduchus sp.
Pronotum, dorsal View


Fig. 4. Ochrimnus sp.
Pronotum, dorsal view









3'. Pronotum with 4 short deep transverse
impressions present behind calli (fig. 4)...
..................... Ochrimnus, p. 21
4. Lateral and apical corial margins pale
yellow to white; apical corial pale stripe
and stripe on clavus forming a distinct X
(St. Andrew Cross) when wings folded
(Frontis) ............Craspeduchus, p. 28
4. Lateral and apical corial margins either
red or black; not forming a distinct pale X
when wings folded, although clavus may
possess a pale stripe (formosus)..........
...................... Lygaeus, p. 14
5. Small (5mm or less) heavily pilose, chiefly
black or very dark species; membrane with
a median white spot..................
.................... Lygaeospilus, p. 20
5'. Larger (well over 5mm), not heavily
pilose, membrane lacking a white median
spot................................ 6
6. Dorsal body surface throughout with a
sparse covering of short silvery hairs;
Callar impressions oblique throughout
not becoming almost transverse mesally
(fig. 5); propleuron produced anteriorly
below eye; posterior pronotal lobe and
corium fuscous or blackish..............
..................... Melacoryphus, 19


Fig. 5. Melacoryphus sp.
Callar impressions


Fig. 6. Neacoryphus sp.
Callar impressions


6' Dorsal body surface almost glabrous;
callar impressions almost transverse
immediately adjacent to coarse post-callar
punctures (fig. 6); propleuron not con-
spicuously produced anteriorly; posterior
pronotal lobe and corium red............
...................... Neacoryphus,p.17



ONCOPELTUS Stal 1868


Lygaeus sg. Oncopeltus Stal 1868: p. 70, 75.

Type Species: Cimex famelicus Fabricius 1781.
Fixed by Distant 1904.

This genus includes many species of large
to medium size, the majority of which are red or
orange and black in color and feed primarily on
various species of milkweeds. The genus is recog-
nizable by the convex scutellum which lacks the
excavated depressed lateral areas so characteristic
of most genera in the subfamily Lygaeinae, by the
posteriorly produced lobes along the posterior
margin of the pronotum laterad of the base of the
scutellum, and generally by a weakly carinate me-
dian line on the pronotum.
The genus is widely distributed in the
tropical and subtropical areas of both hemi-
spheres, but with diversity centers in the Aus-
tralian and Neotropical regions. Forty-two species
are currently recognized, of which 8 occur north of
Mexico, most of them southwestern and southern
in distribution. Four or possibly 5 species occur in
Florida.



KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
ONCOPELTUS


1. Membrane with a conspicuous white spot
or stripe present; if white area reduced,
then pronotum red with a very large ovoid
black macula covering most of posterior
lobe (fig. 7)......................... 2
1'. Membrane completely dark; or if with a
minute pale spot present on proximal 1/3,
then pronotum orange or yellow with or









without a large black macula occupying
most of posterior lobe .............. 3
2. Dorsal surface with conspicuous up-
standing hairs present; pronotum chiefly
yellow or orange with completely black
lateral margins and a black median stripe.
.................. sexmaculatus, p. 14
2'. Dorsal surface almost glabrous, at most
with extremely short inconspicuous hairs
present; pronotum red with central area
of posterior lobe with a large ovoid black
macula (fig. 7)............. aulicus, p. 8
3. Posterior 1/2 of lateral pronotal mar-gins
black 9 (fig. 8) ........... cayensis p. 9
3'. Lateral pronotal margins entirely orange
or red (figs. 9, 10)................ 4
4. Smaller species, usually not over 10 mm in
length.................. cingulifer, p. 10
4'. Larger species, over 12 mm in length.....
........................ fasciatus, p. 11



ONCOPELTUS AULICUS (Fabricius)
(fig. 7, map I)


Cimex aulicus Fabricius 1775:718.
Lygaeus hamatus Herrich-Schaeffer 1843:22-23.
Oncopeltus (Erythrischius) aulicus Stal 1874:103.

Diagnosis: Small, red and black easily rec-
ognizable by large black macula covering most of
posterior pronotal lobe. Usually a conspicuous
white bar on forewing membrane.

Biology: O'Rourke (1976) reported collection
records on Cryptostepia grandiflora, R. Brown,
Nerium oleander Linnaeus and blossoms of Pisso-
nia alba. We have collected breeding populations,
together with cayensis, on the climbing milkweed
vine Sarcostoma clausa (Jacq.) R. & S.

Distribution: This species is widespread in the
West Indies south at least to Martinique. (Some of
O'Rourke's 1976 records, listed as from the Virgin
Islands are actually not from those islands ie. Nas-
sau, Abaco Cay, (Bahamas), St. Martin, etc.)

Florida Distribution: O'Rourke (1976) reports a
specimen from Lignum Vitae Key. We have ex-
amined and verified the identity of this specimen.


MONROE CO.: Key Largo, 31-XII-79, R. M.
Baranowski & J. A. Slater, (JAS); Lignum Vitae
Key, 12-XI-79, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); N. Key
Largo, 12-X-79, R. M. Baranowski, (NMNH);
same, 19-IV-77, (RMB); same, 12-X-79, (RMB).


!_410


Fig. 7. Oncopeltus aulicus


Map I. Distribution of Oncopeltus aulicus


.0004 .0 .










ONCOPELTUS CAYENSIS
Torre-Bueno
(fig. 8, map II)


Oncopeltus cayensis Torre-Bueno 1944:135-136.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (11-13 mm) with entire
lateral corial margins, head and lateral margins of
posterior pronotal lobe black. Strongly developed
black areas giving appearance of an insect with 3
pairs of orange or bright yellow spots. Closely re-
lated to sexmaculatus in color and shape of
paramere (O'Rourke, 1976). It may eventually
prove to be a geographic race of the latter, lacking
a white membranal spot.

Biology: We have found this species commonly
breeding on the climbing milkweed, Sarcostemma
clausa, (Jacq.) R. & S. on Key Largo.


referred here. The Blatchley (1926) and McGhee
& McGhee (1971) records may belong here. The
Torre-Bueno (1933) record of sexmaculatus from
Matecumbe is the type series of cayensis.
O'Rourke (1976) reports it from Homestead, Fort
Meyers, Palm Beach, Royal Palm Park (Paradise
Key), Cape Sable, Elliot Key, Long Key and St.
Lucie Co. BROWARD CO.: Hollywood, 21-V-80,
F. Garry, (FSCA); Parkland, 18-III-80, C.
Culbreth, (FSCA); West Hollywood, D. A.
Phillips, (FSCA); COLLIER CO.: 14-V -49,
(RMB); Copeland Rec. Area, 28-III-73, C. W.
O'Brien & Kaplan, (JAS); Everglade, 8-1-46,
(AMNH); DADE CO.: Everglades National
Park, 13-III-55, H. A. Denmark, (RMB); same,
26-XII-54, H. V. Weems, Jr, (FSCA); Homestead,
23-III-61, J. H. Knowles, (RMB); Naranja, 7-V-61,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 5-VI-62,
(RMB); Paradise Key, (AMNH); DE SOTO CO.:


Fig. 8. Oncopeltus cayensis


Distribution: Known only from Florida and the
Bahamas.

Florida Distribution: Originally described by
Torre-Bueno (1944) from Matecumbe Key. The
Barber (1914) records of sexmaculatus from Lake
Worth and Miami have been reexamined and are


Map II. Distribution of Oncopeltus cayensis

17-II-65, (in a Steiner trap), R. H. Rhodes,
(RMB); HARDEE CO.: Wauchula, 29-X-86, G.
Johnson, (FSCA); same, 11-VII-67, blacklightt
trap), J. H. Knowles, (RMB); LEE CO.: Ft. My-









ers, 16-IV-49, B. W. Cooper, (FSCA); 12 mi E.
Webster, Rt. 94 Loop Rd., X-76, A. Wachtell,
(JAS); MONROE CO.: Everglades National
Park, 5-IV-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same,
10-IV-55, (RMB); Key Largo, 31-XII-79, J. A.
Slater, (JAS); Key Vaca, 28-XII-55, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); Lignum Vitae Key, 8-III-79, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 13-XI-79, (RMB);
Long Key, 26-111-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
same, 28-III-57, (RMB); Lower Matecumbe Key,
VI-30, M. Bates, (AMNH); same, 7-VI-48, Rubin
Capeluto, (RMB); Marathon Key, 18-XII-77,
Robert A. Belmont, (RMB); N. Key Largo, 23-X-
79, R. M. Baranowski, (NMNH); same, 20-X-79,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 14-1-77, (RMB);
same, 12-1-76, (RMB); same, 19-IV-77, (RMB);
same, 14-1-77, (RMB); OSCEOLA CO.:
Kissimmee River, 3-VI-64, Ed Morris, (JAS);
PALM BEACH CO.: Lake Worth, A. S. Packard,
(AMNH); Lake Worth, A T. Slossen, (AMNH);
West Palm Beach, 8-VIII-67, (in Steiner trap), W.
E. Wyles, (FSCA).


ONCOPELTUS CINGULIFER Stal
(fig. 9A, map III)

Oncopeltus (Erythrischius) cingulifer Stal 1874:103.

Diagnosis: Florida material, very closely re-
sembling 0. fasciatus, but smaller (O'Rourke,
1976, separates cingulifer from fasciatus by the
former not exceeding 10 mm. in length, however
Florida females often exceed 11 mm.) and with a
distinctive paramere. O'Rourke (1976) recognized
2 subspecies, the nominate subspecies
characterized by having a relatively narrow dark
area on the posterior pronotal lobe which widens
along the posterior margin to usually reach the
lateral margins. She described a new subspecies
antillensis (fig. 9B) which is characterized by
having a large ovoid dark area on the posterior
pronotal lobe, but which leaves the entire lateral
pronotal margins broadly pale (as it is in
fasciatus). O'Rourke's treatment of the species
and subspecies presents some difficulties. Her
discussion of the subspecies hardly conforms to
the generally accepted concept of a subspecies
since she states that antillensis is a West Indian
subspecies that occurs with the nominate form in
Yucatan and Trinidad and also occurs in south


Florida. However, she also says that nominal
cingulifer "occurs to a lesser extent in the Lesser
Antilles". She mentions Guadeloupe and St.
Vincent specifically. This, in itself, presents
distributional questions, but in addition we have
examined a series of what appear, to be typical
antillensis from the state of Nuevo Leon in north-
ern Mexico, suggesting that it maybe widespread in
Mexico. Obviously much more study of these
populations is required. O'Rourke's distributional
data however certainly do not support the idea of a
definable geographic entity. The problem is com-
plicated in the Neotropics by O'Rourke's belief
that hybridization with sandarachatus and
unifasciatellus is common and that it interbreeds
with aulicus in Jamaica. As noted in the discussion
offasciatus, Leslie & Dingle (1983) were not able
to duplicate O'Rourke's finding of gynogenesis,
hybridogenesis or androgenesis in the reproduc-
tive biology of any of the hybrids produced. They
concluded that, despite the relatively high fre-
quency of interspecific matings observed in nature
between cingulifer and especially sandarachatus,
introgressive hybridization did not appear to be a
significant problem for the maintenance of
discrete species in Oncopeltus. They noted that
although hybrids were occasionally found in
nature, there was a strong conspecific mating
preference.


4


4


Fig. 9A Oncopeltus cingulifer
Fig. 9B. 0. cingulifer antillensis










There is also the question of whether
antillensis is a validly established subspecies since
it has been only described in a doctoral thesis, al-
though mentioned in the published literature sub-
sequently. Finally, to further complicate the situa-
tion, there appear, to be two distinct color morphs
of cingulifer, one in which the pale color is light
yellow and the second in which it is bright orange.
The Florida populations that we have examined
are all referable to antillensis. This subspecies was
described by O'Rourke based on a type series only
from Jamaica and Cuba. O'Rourke states that
antillensis occurs in southern Florida, but does not
give definite locality data. Since the two
"subspecies" occur together in northern Mexico,
the Yucatan, the Lesser Antilles and Trinidad, we
do not feel that they can be recognized as al-
lopatric populations and thus here formally syn-
onymize antillensis if it indeed has been formally
described. The recognition of the morph may be
important for hybridization and population stud-
ies, but does not merit recognition as a subspecies
as defined by the International Rules of Zoologi-
cal Nomenclature. O'Rourke reports the host
plant to be Asclepias curassavica L., and A. pro-
cera in Trinidad and Venezuela. In Florida it has
been taken breeding only on the former.
0. cingulifer is apparently an obligate
milkweed specialist, although like 0. fasciatus it
may breed on other closely related plants.
Root and Chaplin (1976) have studied the
biology in Colombia where it coexists, sometimes
on the same plants of Asclepias curassavica, with
the closely related Oncopeltus unifasciatellus. The
two species remain distinct in nature although
viable hybrids can be produced in the laboratory.
This is a striking example of differences in food
utilization allowing closely related taxa to co-exist
sympatrically. 0. cingulifer is capable of existing
on its milkweed host in the absence of seeds
whereas 0. unifasciatellus is an obligatory seed
feeder. This results in greater mobility in the lat-
ter and allows 0. cingulifer to continue to exist on
plants that in the absence of seeds are un-
satisfactory for 0. unifasciatellus.
In southern Florida McGhee (1972) has
taken 0. cingulifer on its tropical food plant, A.
curassavica.

Distribution: Widespread in the West Indies, Cen-
tral America and northern South America. Known


in the United States only from the southeastern
states.


4


Map III. Distribution of Oncopeltus cingulifer

Florida Distribution: O'Rourke (1976) records it
from south Florida without definite locality. We
refer McGhee's (1972) record of sandarachatus
from the eastern United States, including his Palm
Beach, Hendry Co. records, here (we have exam-
ined his material). Dade Co. 24-111-69, B.
McGhee, (on A. curvassivica culture), (JAS).



ONCOPELTUS FASCIATUS (Dallas)
(fig. 10, map IV)


Lygaeusfasciatus Dallas 1852:538.
Oncopeltus (Erythrischius) fasciatus Stal 1874:103.

Diagnosis: The largest (13-18 mm) species of ly-
gaeid occurring in Florida. Orange-red and black
in color. Central area of pronotum, a broad trans-









verse hemelytral fascia, most of membrane and
appendages black.

a.


Fig. 10. Oncopeltus fasciatus


Biology: This is often a common species on various
milkweeds where it feeds on the tissues and
mature seeds. It is capable of reproducing on dry
milkweed seeds and thus is a commonly used labo-
ratory animal. Consequently there is an extensive
literature dealing with aspects of its physiology,
morphology, reproduction, behavior, biochem-
istry,etc. (see Slater, 1964 for literature to that
date). Hussey (1952) says that in Floridafasciatus
is usually found on Oleander upon which it breeds.
We have collected breeding populations at Home-
stead on the introduced Calotropis procera It has
also been taken on Asclepias curassavica. Klaus-
ner, Miller and Dingle (1980) give an interesting
summary of its host adaptations in south Florida.
It is obvious that this species is capable of feeding
successfully on a variety of milkweeds and related
plants. O'Rourke (1976) lists 28 species of plants


from which fasciatus has been taken. Eight of
these are "sitting" records and 14 are species ofAs-
clepias. Palmer (1987) reports it on Baccharis ne-
glecta Britton in Texas. But, like several other
members of the genus, it appears to be chiefly an
obligatory phytophage on milkweeds and related
plants.
Blakley (1980), studying species of
Oncopeltus in the West Indies, reported that
fasciatus, utilizing chiefly Asclepias curassavica, is
found to a much greater extent on fruiting plants
than is its close relative 0. cingulifer. This he be-
lieves indicates greater mobility and better colo-
nizing ability on the part offasciatus.
O'Rourke (1976) indicated wide-spread
hybridization in some species of Oncopeltus but
Leslie & Dingle (1983) found only very limited hy-
bridization with cingulifer or with sandarachatus
and were not able to duplicate O'Rourke's claim
that gynogenesis, hybridogenesis or androgenesis
occurred in any of these species crosses.
The recent literature on this widely used
laboratory animal is immense and much beyond
the scope of this volume. The work of Dingle
(1968) and subsequently he and his associates is
particularly important for an understanding of the
life history in the northern United States. Briefly
summarized it can be stated that fasciatus is not
capable of overwintering in the north, but that the
populations that occur there in late summer and
fall have migrated northward coincident with the
growth of seed pods of milkweeds. The species
tends to develop flight muscles in response to
limited food resources, but when food is abundant
the females at least reduce these muscles and
become flightless. This phenomenon is discussed
further under Neacoryphus bicrucis and is an
adaptation for dispersal or for increased egg
production in situ depending upon time of year
and available food resources.
Feir (1974) has reviewed the use of
fasciatus as an experimental laboratory animal.
There is also an extensive subsequent literature.
It is now well established that Oncopeltus
fasciatus and several other lygaeids that feed on
milkweed plants are able to sequester cardenolides
produced by the milkweed plants. These cardeno-
lides have both an emetic and toxic effect on verte-
brates that ingest them (Duffey and Scudder 1972).
The aposematic coloration of many lygaeine Ly-
gaeidae presumably has evolved as a warning to
potential vertebrate predators. Berenbaum and









Miliczky (1984) have recently shown that this
aposematic coloration is also effective against
mantids and thus presumably against other
invertebrate predators as well. This finding has
important implications for the role that inverte-
brate predators may play in the development and
refinement of Mullerian mimicry associations.
McGhee and McGhee (1971) discuss the
role played by 0. fasciatus in the distribution of
Phytomonas elmassiani in the eastern United
States.
Aller and Caldwell (1979) discuss the sig-
nificance of a possible aggregation pheromone in
nymphs of this species. This pheromone which
keeps nymphs close together in groups appears to
have the following advantages: it enhances the
aposematic effect against potential predators; it
may increase the efficiency of food intake by the
cumulative action of many insects feeding adjacent
to one another; it may afford protection for ten-
eral adults. Since many other lygaeid species show
aggregating tendencies (not always obvious in
cryptic species except to the experienced field col-
lector), some of these advantages may be present
in non-aposematic species. Ralph (1976) also dis-
cusses gregariousness in fasciatus relative to the
natural food requirements of the species.
Reference to the above will lead one to
the further extensive and important recent
literature on this species.

Distribution: 0. fasciatus has been reported
through most of the Western Hemisphere from
southern Canada to Argentina. O'Rourke (1976)
however, believed that it does not occur in South
America and that records from there are probably
referable to sandarachatus or miles. It does occur
over much of the United States east of the Rocky
Mountains and south well into Central America
annd the West Indies.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Dallas (1852),
Walker (1872), Uhler (1878), Distant (1882), and
Barber (1939) from Florida without definite lo-
cality; by Van Duzee (1909) from Sanford and
Seven Oaks; by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin
and Live Oak (Feir 1974 amusingly refers to these
localities as host plants!); by Hussey (1952) from
Lakeland, Gainesville; by Butcher (1957) Miami;
Barber (1914) Biscayne Bay, Charlotte Harbor,
Jacksonville, Ft. Myers, Key West, Big Pine Key;
by McGhee (1972) Dade Co., Hendry Co., Palm


Beach, Highlands Co., Clay Co.; Torre-Bueno
(1921) St. Petersburg and (1933) from Matecumbe
and by Klausner, Miller and Dingle (1980) from
Pennsuco and Century Village. ALACHUA CO.:
10-20-46, (FSCA); 5-V-50, S. R. Young, (FSCA);


WOM .0 0


Map IV. Distribution of Oncopeltusfasciatus

3-IV-48, W. L. Jennings, (FSCA); 7-1-59, H. A.
Denmark, (RMB); V-52, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA);
Gainesville, 5-14-47, H. V. WeemsJr., (FSCA);
BAKER CO.: Olustee, 10-III-59, E. P. Maple,
(RMB); BAY CO.: St. Andrews State Park, 4-IX-
78, L. A Stange, (RMB); BAY CO: Southport,
77-A East of dam, 27-X-88, (on Baccharis
halimifolia) L. Smith, (FSCA); COLLIER CO.:
Naples, 11-IX-75, V. Yingst, (FSCA); DADE
CO.: 24-IV-61, B. K. Dozier, (RMB); Coconut
Grove, 17-111-32, (NMNH); Everglades National
Park, 2-IV-58, R. E. Woodruff, (RMB);
Homestead, 1-111-71, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
same, 13-XII-70, Baranowski & Slater, (JAS);
same, 27-VI-61, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same,
13-XII-71, J. A. Slater, (JAS); Miami, 14-XII-79,
R. Ramirez, (FSCA); same, 23-XI-17, (NMNH);
Naranja, 23-V-60, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
Subtropical Experiment Station, Waldin Drive, 2-









VI-71, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); HIGHLANDS
CO.: Port Hill, 6-VII-54, R. Goslin, (FSCA);
Archbold Biological Station, 27-VI-67, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); Sebring, 4-10-48, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); LEVY CO.: 10-IX-55, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); Cedar Key; 7-V-55, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 2-V-63,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); Key West, 3-6-06, Fred
Knab, (NMNH); North Key Largo Key, 19-IV-77,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Stock Island, 12-V-61,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); OKALOOSA CO.:
Eglin Air Force Base, 18-X-64, H. O. Hilton,
(RMB); Santa Rosa Island, 22-V-66, H. O.
Hilton, (RMB); ORANGE CO.: Fairvilla, 14-23-
VIII-40, H. Ruckes, (AMNH); PALM BEACH
CO.: 27-XII-52, Camilla Weems, (FSCA);
PINELLAS CO.: Clearwater, 14-X-54, (FSCA);
St. Petersburg, 16-XII-49, C. V. Reichart, (JAS);
POLK CO.: Lake Hamilton, 14-XI-74, W. E.
Wynn, (FSCA); Dundee, 13-V-63, R. E. Veld,
(RMB); Ft. Meade, 29-XII-12, (AMNH); same,
24-IV-12, (AMNH); same, 29-III, (AMNH); same
19-III, (AMNH); Winter Haven, 24-VIII-42, H. T.
Fernald, (FSCA); SARASOTA CO.: 11-V-54, F.
W. Mead, (FSCA); same, 12-IV-57, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); same, 13-IV-54, H. M. Van Pelt, (FSCA);
SEMINOLE CO.: 23-111-54, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); ST. JOHNS CO.: Ponte Vedra Beach, 9-
III-45, L. Lacey, (AMNH); ST. LUCIE CO.: Ft.
Pierce, 15-VII-60, E. W. Campbell, (FSCA);
TAYLOR CO.: 5-X-60, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
VOLUSIA CO.: Daytona, 13-IX-42, (FSCA).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Alfred Keys,(NMNH);
Near Sharlies, 28-X-35, (FSCA).



ONCOPELTUS SEXMACULATUS Stal


Oncopeltus sexmaculatus Stal 1874:102.

Diagnosis: Smaller than fasciatus with head and
pronotum conspicuously pilose. Pronotum pos-
sessing a pair of subtriangular orange-yellow spots.
Hemelytra with anterior and posterior macula on
each wing. Length 10-12mm.

Biology: Nothing appears to be known of its biol-
ogy other than the report of Palmer (1987) who
took it on Baccharis neglecta in Texas.


Distribution: A Neotropical species found in
Mexico, Central America and the West Indies and
possibly Texas and Florida. The Barber (1914)
records from Lake Worth and Miami, the Torre-
Bueno (1933) record from Matecumbe Key and
the McGhee & McGhee (1971) records from
Clewiston, Palm Beach and the Anhinga Trail
belong to cayensis. Blatchley (1926) reported it
from Moore Haven, Caxambus, Chokoloskee and
Cape Sable. We have not examined the Blatchley
material, but the records probably also belong to
cayensis. We have not seen an authentic specimen
ofsexmaculatus from Florida..



LYGAEUS Fabricius 1794


Lygaeus Fabricius 1794, p. 133.

Type Species: Cimex equestris Linnaeus 1758.
Fixed by Curtis 1833.

The members of this genus are usually
rather large (10 mm), brightly colored, red and
black insects with the scutellum deeply excavated
on either side of the median longitudinal carina.
The posterior margin of the pronotum without
posteriorly expanded lobes laterad of the scutel-
lum. The femora are mutic.
This is a large genus containing 24 de-
scribed species distributed in all of the major zoo-
geographic regions of the world except the Aus-
tralian. Six species occur north of Mexico, of
which two are found in Florida. Six additional
species occur in the Neotropical region, 4 in the
Ethiopian and 2 in the Oriental.



KEY TO THE FLORIDA SPECIES OF
LYGAEUS


1. Clavus with inner margin pale; abdominal
sternum completely black.............
.......................formosus, p. 15
1'. Clavus completely black; abdominal ster-
num chiefly red with black spots .........
.......................... kalm ii, p. 15









LYGAEUS FORMOSUS Blanchard
(fig. 11, map V)

Lygaeusformosus Blanchard 1840:130.
Lygaeus elatus Stal 1862:308.

Diagnosis: Brightly colored, 10-11 mm. in length.
Posterior pronotal lobe red with dark rays or
spots, often in a quadrate pattern. Corium with
red or yellowish lateral and inner margins and red
band just within black apical margin. Clavus with
broad yellow inner stripe. Membrane white or
hyaline, but dark anteriorly. Ventral surface and
appendages black.


Fig. 11. Lygaeusformosus, fifth instar nymph

Biology: Ballou (1937) reports this species on
Canna indica and Citrus sinensis in Costa Rica and
Gibson and Carrillo (1959) on maguey in Mexico.
We have collected it and observed adults and
nymphs (fig. 11) feeding on the seeds of Ipomea
sp.

Distribution: A Neotropical species found in the
West Indies, Mexico and Central America south to


Venezuela. North of Mexico it is known only from
Texas, Calif. and Florida.

Flurida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Biscayne Bay and Miami and by Blatchley
(1926) from Cape Sable. BROWARD CO.: Ft.
Lauderdale, VIII-21, D. M. Bates, (FSCA);
DADE CO.: Miami, 27-VII-17, J. C. Lutz
collection, (NMNH); MONROE CO.: North Key
Largo Key, 16-1-76, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
same, 5-VIII-77, (RMB); same, 8-VIII-77, (RMB);
same, 10-VIII-77, (RMB); same, 13-VIII-77,
(RMB); same, 14-1-77, (RMB); same, 13-VIII-77,
(NMNH); same, 14-1-77, (NMNH).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: S.W. 8th St. & 5th Ave.
29-III-46, H. Montgomery, (FSCA); Everglades
National Park, 20-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS).


Map V. Distribution of Lygaeusformosus


LYGAEUS KALMII Stal
(fig. 12, map VI)


Lygaeus (Graptolomus) kalmii Stal 1874:107.









Diagnosis: Predominantly black and red. Head
spot, postmedian pronotal fascia, broad red band
forming an X along apical corial margin and area
of corium adjacent to clavus red. Clavus, legs, an-
tennae black.
Two subspecies are recognized, an eastern
population extending from the Atlantic coast to
the 100th meridian and known as L. kalmii
angustomarginatus Parshley and the nominal
subspecies that extends from the 100th meridian
west to California and south into Mexico. Florida
material is very scarce but presumably is referable
to angustomarginatus (See Slater & Knop 1969 for
details).

Biology: Until recently kalmii has been thought to
be an almost obligatory breeder on several species
of milkweeds, particularly Asclepias syriaca L.
However, recent studies have shown this to be only
partially true.
























Fig. 12. Lygaeus kalmii

Wheeler (1983) has admirably sum-
marized the recent literature. He notes that
studies, of adults taken on species of Asclepias in
California, varied greatly in their cardenolide
content suggesting that some of the adults might
have developed on hosts lacking these compounds.
He notes that Hunt (1979) working in Michigan
thought that kalmii was actually an "opportunist"


and fed on various food sources especially when
milkweed pods were unavailable. Wheeler cites
many examples of nymphs and adults feeding on
various composites including yarrow (Achillea sp.),
Senecio vulgaris L. and a number of other species.
He also found evidence of breeding (nymphs
present on species of several additional plant
families). Wheeler states, as Hunt had previously
suggested, that kalmii thus cannot be considered a
milkweed specialist in the same sense as can
Oncopeltus fasciatus. Our current understanding
of the feeding strategies of this insect is that it
does appear to prefer milkweeds especially when
pods are available, but is capable of breeding
successfully upon a number of different hosts and
does so particularly when the milkweed plant is
not in a suitable condition for maximum
utilization. Several authors have noted that during
part of its life kalmii is more of a ground litter
feeder than is Oncopeltus fasciatus (see Caldwell
1969). This is supported by Aller, Hirai and
Caldwell's (1979) study that demonstrated much
greater "correcting behavior" (ie. ability to turn at
a choice point) in L. kalmii than in 0. fasciatus.


deev~~P


Map VI. Distribution of Lygaeus kalmii









This, they believe, is characteristic of
ground dwelling insects where a dispersed food
source is important. In the north kalmii overwin-
ters in the adult stage, frequently in large aggrega-
tions. This feature is interesting in view of Aller
and Caldwell (1979) not finding an aggregating
pheromone in adults of this species. Hunt (1979)
reported it to be non-diapausing and multivoltine.
Previously one generation a year had been re-
ported in the early life history by Townsend (1887)
under the name turcicus. Root (1986) carefully
studied a population in California and came to
similar conclusions concerning the variability in
feeding habits, noting the importance of non-
milkweed hosts for the first generation (he found
the population there to be bivoltine). Root also
noted feeding upon dead insects, cannabalism and
attacks on the pupae of the Monarch butterfly and
egg masses of the milkweed beetle Chrysochus
cobaltinus. Root also noted the reduviid
Rhynocoris ventralis as a predator on kalmii adults.
Palmer (1987) supports the more generalist feed-
ing habits reporting it on Baccharis neglecta Brit-
ton in Texas. We know nothing of the life cycle or
feeding habits in Florida.
Duarte and Calabrese (1982) note
differences in chromosome numbers between
Texas and Florida populations and suggest the
possibility of sibling species. Unfortunately
eastern and northern populations were not
considered.

Distribution: Common over much of the United
States but rare in Florida.

Florida Distribution: Barber (1914) reports a
specimen bearing a "Florida" label from the Ash-
mead collection. We have examined a single fe-
male in the Yale collection from Lake Worth,
Palm Beach Co. 3 Dec. 1935 (M. B. Bishop).




NEACORYPHUS Scudder 1965


Neacoryphus Scudder 1965:pp 34-37.

Type Species: Lygaeus bicrucis Say 1825. Fixed by
original designation.


The members of this genus are generally
smaller insects than Lygaeus species and lack the
post-median red fascia on the pronotum. The
head is completely black as is the metathoracic
scent gland auricle. The dorsal surface is almost
glabrous and the membrane is usually black
without a white discal spot. Until recently most of
the Western Hemisphere species which had pre-
viously been placed in Melanocoryphus were placed
here by Scudder when he described Neacoryphus in
1965. Alex Slater (1988) removed many of these
species to his new genus Melacoryphus and
indicated that a number of other species were not
congeneric with the type species of N. bicrucis.


NEACORYPHUS BICRUCIS (Say)
(fig. 13, map VII)

Lygaeus bicrucis Say 1825:322-323.
Lygaeus rubescens Stal 1858:37-38.
Lygaeusflavomarginellus Stal 1859:241.
Lygaeus bitransversus Signoret 1860:947.
Neacoryphus bicrucis Scudder 1965:37.

Diagnosis: Brightly colored, moderate sized (7.5-
9). Posterior pronotal lobe and almost entire
corium uniformly dull red. Anterior pronotal
margin, clavus and apical corial margins light yel-
low to nearly white. Anterior pronotal lobe, head,
scutellum, membrane, and appendages black.

Biology: The biology, dispersal ability and
reproductive strategies of this species have been
studied recently by Solbreck (1978,1979), Solbreck
& Pehrson (1979) and in a series of papers by
McLain, and McLain and Shure (see below). The
latter authors summarize earlier literature records.
Overwintering is in the adult stage and unlike
Oncopeltusfasciatus, N. bicrucis appears to be able
to overwinter in the northern part of its range. It
occurs in early succession stages such as weedy
fields and roadsides, but also in more permanent
habitats such as beaches and sand prairies.
Solbreck and Pehrson ibidd) quote Sulli-
van's extensive feeding habit studies from Mis-
souri. Sullivan found bicrucis developing primarily
on Senecio glabellus Poir. and considered Cacalia
atriplicifolia Land Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf.
ex DC as probable breeding hosts. McLain and
Shure (1987) believe that bicrucis is a host plant









gan soon after mating. A third strategy employed
late in the season is a facultative diapause trig-
gered by photoperiod, in which egg laying is de-
layed until the following season. An interesting
adaptation to the fluctuations of food supply in
temporary habitats is the ability to redevelop flight
muscles and migrate after degeneration of these
muscles and the production of eggs has occurred.


Fig. 13. Neacoryphus bicrucis


specialist in the tribe Senecioneae. McLain (1981,
1982) found it to breed in Georgia only on species
of Senecio, chiefly S. tomentosus Michx.. He dis-
cusses oviposition behavior, territory, mating and
unpalatability. Like a number of other lygaeines it
is unplatable to some vertebrates due to its ability
to sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (McLain and
Shure 1985). McLain and Shure (1987) have
demonstrated that the aggressive courtship activi-
ties of bicrucis males extends to other species on
the plants and significantly reduces their popula-
tions which the authors refer to as "pseudo-compe-
tition through misdirected courtship." McLain
(1984) has demonstrated effective Mullerian
mimicry between bicrucis and the mirid Lopidia in-
stabile.
Solbreck (1978, 1979) analyzed egg laying
and dispersal strategies of bicrucis, a species that is
partially adapted to temporary habitats. He noted
that when food sources were inadequate dispersal
occurred in females and egg laying was delayed,
whereas when the food supply was abundant the
wing muscles histolyzed quickly and egg laying be-


Map VII. Distribution ofNeacoryphus bicrucis


Distribution: From southern Canada, New Eng-
land and New York south to Florida and west to
California, Colorado and Texas. It is also
widespread in the Neotropical region. It appar-
ently has recently established itself successfully in
Hawaii (Gagne 1972).

Florida Distribution: Walker (1872), Provancher
(1886). Barber (1906,1921a), Uhler (1872,1876),
Distant (1882) report bicrucis without definite lo-
cality; Barber (1914) from Charlotte Harbor,
Atlantic Beach; Torre Bueno (1921) from St. Pe-
tersburg and Blatchley (1926) from Ormond and
Dunedin. ALACHUA CO.: 3-V-53, H. A. Den-









mark, (FSCA); 4-11-36, H. G. Barber, (FSCA);
Gainesville, 12-V-63, (at light), R. P. Esser,
(RMB); same, 24-V-66, blacklightt trap), J. W.
Perry, (RMB); same, 6-IV-64, (RMB); same, 25-
V-47, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 29-IX-61,
(at light), G. Q. Platt, (RMB); same, 4-8-53,
(FSCA); same, 9-VII-56, (at light) R. A Morse,
(RMB); same, 13-VI-56, blacklightt trap), H. A
Denmark, (RMB); BAKER CO.: Olustee, 9-10-
VII-66, blacklightt trap), E. P. Merkel, (RMB);
BROWARD CO.: Hwy 275, Sawgrass Recreation
Area, 2 mi NW Fort Lauderdale, 21-V-76, (JAS);
COLLIER CO.: Ochopee, 26-V-76, (UV Trap), C.
W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); GADSDEN CO.:
Chattahoochee, 10-IX-54, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
same, 2-VI-55, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); same, 4-VI-
55, R. H. Hussey, (FSCA); HIGHLANDS CO.:
Archbold Biological Station, 27-VI-67, (at light),
F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, VII-64, L. R. Penner,
(JAS); same, 7-8-VI-69, (at light), J. Harrington,
T. Schuh, J. Slater, (JAS); INDIAN RIVER CO.:
Vero Beach, (on goldenrod), E. W. Campbell,
(FSCA); JACKSON CO.: Swinging Bridge,
Riverbank Forest,18-VI-53, T. H. Hubbell,
(FSCA); LAKE CO.: Astatula, 19-V-72, C. R.
Roberts, (FSCA); MARION CO.: Sharpes Ferry
Field Station, 15-V-75, blacklightt trap), P. C.
Drummond, (RMB); same, 27-VII-75, blacklightt
trap), Drummond & Wiley, (RMB); same, 30-X-
75, blacklightt trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); Silver
Springs, 4-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington,
(JAS); MONROE CO.: Key Largo, 6-1-69, Bara-
nowski & Slater, (JAS); ORANGE CO.: Winter
Park, 27-VIII-45, (at light), H. T. Fernald,
(FSCA); PALM BEACH CO.: 4 mi SE Canal
Point, 16-VII-73, (UV trap), C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); TAYLOR CO.: 20-IV-55, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA).


MELACORYPHUS A. Slater 1988

Melacoryphus A Slater 1988:309

Type species: Lygaeus lateralis Dallas 1852. By
original designation.

This genus is characterized by the black
head, pronotum also chiefly black with orange or
red humeral angles, anterior margin and median
fascia of posterior lobe; by the silvery declivent
pubescence of the dorsal surface; the shape of the


unbranched pronotal calli; the anteriorly produced
propleura and the distinctive genitalia.
Eleven species are currently recognized.
The distribution of most of the North American
species is western and southward into northern
South America.
Only a single species occurs in the south-
eastern states but as noted below a second species
has been reported from the east and included in
the following key.

KEY TO POSSIBLE FLORIDA
SPECIES OF MELACORYPHUS


1. All pronotal margins and scutellar carina
dull yellow or reddish yellow...........
......................... facetus, p. 19
1' Humeral red fascia present, extending
anteriorly at most only to middle of
pronotum; distal scutellar carina not red
or yellow..............admirabilis, p. 20


MELA CORYPHUS FACETUS (Say)
(map VIII)


Lygaeusfacetus Say 1831:328-329, (LeConte Ed.).
Neacoryphusfacetus Scudder 1965:37.
Melacoryphusfacetus A. Slater 1988:308.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (8-10), easily recogniz-
able by completely yellowish or reddish margins of
pronotum, median pronotal stripe, distal end of
scutellum and lateral corial margins. Anterior
pronotal lobe distinctly punctate.

Biology: Torre Bueno (1946) reported it on yucca.

Distribution: The range is southern from Georgia
and South Carolina and Florida west to Arizona
and Colorado and south into Mexico. Some west-
ern records are questionable.

Florida Distribution: Originally described by Say
(1831) from Florida without definite locality and
reported by Van Duzee (1909) from Tampa, by
Barber (1914) from Orange Grove, Lake Worth,
Charlotte Harbour and Lakeland, by Blatchley
(1926) from Kissimmee, Moore Haven, Sarasota
and Dunedin, and by Uhler (1872, 1876) without









definite locality.. ALACHUA CO.: 27-IX-54, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); 27-IX-54, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); Gainesville, 10-VIII-73, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); same, 14-III-59, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
same, 16-X-36, (FSCA); DADE CO.: Hialeah, 14-
VII-27, G. D. Merrill, (FSCA); Homestead, 27-
VII-57, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS); ORANGE CO.:
Winter Park, 4-VII-41, H. T. Fernald, (FSCA);
POLK CO.: Lakeland, 24-IX-48, R. F. Hussey,
(FSCA); SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford, 18-VII-27,
E. D. Ball, (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.: New
Smyrna Beach, 2-XI-71, Holley and Kipp, (FSCA).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: "H", Florida P. R. Uhler
collection, (NMNH); Florida without definite lo-
cality, "VI", P. R. Uhler collection, (NMNH).


Map VIII. Distribution ofMelacoryphusfacetus



Melacoryphus admirabilis (Uhler) was
reported by Torre Bueno (1946) from Florida and
Maryland without definite locality. All of the
other distribution records for this species are from
far western states and authentication of these
eastern records is necessary.


LYGAEOSPILUS Barber 1921a


Lygaeus sg. Lygaeospilus Barber 1921a:65, 68.

Type Species:Aphanus tripunctatus Dallas 1852. By
original designation.

The members of this genus are small (less
than 5), dull black or dark brown insects with
strongly pubescent bodies and a conspicuous white
membranal spot. The head and metathoracic scent
gland auricles are black.
This genus is confined to North and Cen-
tral America where 3 species are recognized, 2 of
which are southern and western in distribution.
Two species have been reported from Florida.
However, these have been confused in the litera-
ture. We are not convinced that 2 distinct species
occur in Florida and refer all Florida records to
tripunctatus.




LYGAEOSPILUS TRIPUNCTATUS
(Dallas)
(fig. 14, map IX)



Aphanus tripunctatus Dallas 1852:559-560.
Melanocoryphus (Melanocoryphus) obscuripennis
Stal 1874:112.
Lygaeospilus tripunctatus Torre Bueno 1946:18.

Diagnosis: Small (3.5-4.5), dark brown to blackish
with short grayish pubescence. Pronotum pale
along anterior margin with 3 small pale spots
along posterior pronotal margin. Lateral corial
margins dull reddish.

Biology: Little is known of its biology other than
that, in contrast to many members of the subfam-
ily, it is a ground, litter living species. Specimens
from Lake and Alachua Counties were taken on
Erigeron quercifolius.

Distribution: The range is from New England
south to Florida and west to Mexico. The western
limits of the range in the north are poorly
understood.


,p'004 '.









Florida Distribution: Originally described by
Dallas (1852) from St. Johns Bluff and sub-
sequently reported by Van Duzee (1909) (as
Lygaeus albulus) from Crescent City, by Blatchley
(1926) from Dunedin, and by Barber (1914) (as
Lygaeus albulus) from Newberry. ALACHUA


CO.: Wakulla Springs, 3-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh,
J. Harrington, (JAS); Shell Point Beach, 3-VI-69,
J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS).


Fig. 14. Lygaeospilus tipunctatus


OCHRIMNUS Stal 1874


Map IX. Distribution of Lygaeospilus tipunctatus


CO.: 2-VII-56, (at Erigeron), R. A. Morse, (RMB);
27-VIII-55, R. A. Morse, (FSCA); Gainesville, 6-
VIII-55, R. A. Morse, (RMB); LAKE CO.: 6-IV-
56, (at Erigeron), R. A. Morse, (RMB); LEVY
CO.: 13-IV-55, (at Erigeron), H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); Fannin Springs, 1-VI-79, (on Erigeron),
D. Colbert, (FSCA); LIBERTY CO.: 24-IV-61, H.
V. Weems Jr., (JAS); MONROE CO.: North Key
Largo Key, 10-5-81, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
same. 18-VI-81, (RMB); PUTNAM CO.: 18-VI-
60, (under bark of Quercus laevis Walt.), H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); same 6-VI-56, (RMB);
Fruitland, 30-VII-63, (on crab grass), A. E. Gra-
ham, (RMB); SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford, 4-III-55,
J. W. Wilson, (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.: Edgewa-
ter, 20-II-39, C. A Frost, (NMNH); WAKULLA


Melanocoryphus sg. Ochrimnus Stal 1874:114.
Ochrimnus Slater 1964:152.

Type Species: Lygaeus collaris Fabricius 1803.
Fixed by Slater, 1964.

This genus contains small to moderate
sized species with 4 transverse impressions on the
pronotum immediately behind the calli. The
shining impressed lines on the calli possess a short
branch extending caudo-laterally from the main
shining line. The impunctate scutellum is de-
pressed on either side of the median elevation and
has a transverse subbasal elevation. This concept
brings a number of Neotropical species previously
placed in Ochrostomus into Ochrimnus including 3
species found in Florida.


'004 ".









KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
OCHRIMNUS


1. Pronotal calli red or orange lacking dark
coloration (fig. 15); base of vertex lacking
a pale spot.............. mimulus, p. 24
1' Pronotal calli entirely or in large part
brown or blackish (fig. 14); base of vertex
with a pale spot present ...............2
2. Membrane of forewing with a conspicuous
white margin; lateral margins of corium
completely yellow or orange without an
enlarged orange macula at apex of corium
.................... lineoloides, p. 22
2' Membrane of forewing including marginal
area uniformly black; lateral margins of
corium dark brown to black except poste-
riorly where apical area of corium pos-
sesses a large orange macula...........
........................ tripligatus, p. 27

Ochrimnus collaris (F.), widespread in the West
Indies, has been intercepted in Miami (Oct 1942
C.B. Spencer, USNM). It will key to lineoloides,
but is a larger species and readily distinguishable
in that the anterior pronotal lobe with the excep-
tion of the anterior collar is completely dark
brown whereas in lineoloides the mesal area of the
anterior pronotal lobe is pale. Furthermore, in
collaris, the posterior pronotal lobe is uniformly
orange or yellow whereas in lineoloides a dark ray
(sometimes somewhat reduced) extends longitudi-
nally back from the dark collar midway between
the meson and lateral margins.



OCHRIMNUS LINEOLOIDES (Slater)
(fig 15, map X)


Lygaeus lineola Dallas 1852:549, (preocc.).
Ochrostomus lineoloides Slater 1964:156.
Ochrimnus lineoloides Ashlock 1975:30.

Diagnosis: Small (4-6), densely, finely pubescent
with 2 large dark brown T-shaped stripes on poste-
rior lobe of pronotum (sometimes coalescing on
anterior lobe). Calli in large part brown, remain-
der of pronotum, distal end of scutellum and all
corial margins and margin of claval commissure


yellow, often tinged with reddish. Scent gland au-
ricle, bucculae and coxae pale. A small pale mark
present on base of head vertex.

Biology: Palmer and Bennett (1988) report breed-
ing in Florida on Baccharis halimifolia. Blatchley
(1926) found this species in Florida on thistle
flowers and grasses and stated that it hibernates in
Spanish moss, cabbage palmetto and rubbish. In
the Everglades National Park we took nymphs and
breeding adults on Pluchea foetida. It occasionally
is collected at lights.

Distribution: The range is from Virginia to
Florida and west to Texas and New Mexico. It has
also been reported from Guadeloupe, W. I. by
Lethierry (1881), perhaps in error.


Map X. Distribution of Ochrimnus lineoloides

Florida Distribution: Originally described by Dal-
las (1852) from Florida. Reported by Walker
(1872), Provancher (1886), Uhler (1876) without


,~J, P'









































































Fig. 15. Ochrimnus lineoloides

23









definite locality, by Barber (1914) as Lygaeus
lineola from Jacksonville, Marco, Everglade,
Biscayne Bay, Lake Worth and Ormond, by Van
Duzee (1909) as Lygaeus lineola from Crescent
City, Sanford, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Ft.
Meyers and Estero and by Blatchley (1926) from
Sanford, Moore Haven, Royal Palm Park and Ft.
Meyers. ALACHUA CO.: 25-111-50, (RMB); 6-
VIII-54, H. V. Weems, Jr, (FSCA); Gainesville,
13-VII-55, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); same, 17-VIII-
61, G. O. Plat, (RMB); same, 8-6-37, A. N. Tissot,
(FSCA); same, 6-VII-55, R. A. Morse, (FSCA);
same, 27-111-27, G. B. Merrill, (FSCA);
BROWARD CO.: Andytown, Rt. 84, 5 mi E., 30-
111-66, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); CLAY CO.:
Gold Head Branch State Park, 19-VIII-79, H.
Greenbaum, (RMB); COLLIER CO.: 6 mi E.
Ochopee, 21-VII-73, (at night), (C. W. O'Brien),
(JAS); Copeland Rec. Area, 28-111-73, C. & L.
O'Brien & Kaplan, (JAS); Marco 17-IV-12,
William T. Davis collection, (NMNH); DADE
CO.: Everglades Nat. Pk., 25-111-73, O'Brien &
Kaplan, (JAS); Florida City, 29-VII-62, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); Homestead, 20-VII-62, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, 8-IX-30, R. H. Beamer,
(NMNH); same, 15-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS);
same, 16-XII-74, (JAS); same, 5-V-57, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); same, 28-11-57, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 28-IX-57, (JAS); same, 28-IX-68,
(RMB); same, 5-VIII-68, (RMB); same, 26-VIII-
68, (RMB); same, 3-XI-56, (RMB); same, 5-VIII-
68, (JAS); same, 26-VIII-68, (JAS); same, 20-
VIII-68, (JAS); same, 23-VIII-68, blacklightt
trap), R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 22-VIII-
68, (RMB); Paradise Key, 24-11-19, H. Bar-
ber,(NMNH); Princeton, 4-V-61, J. H. Knowles,
(RMB); Royal Palm Park, 17-VII-27, G. B.
Merrill, (FSCA); South Miami, 2-VI-
28,(NMNH); Everglades Nat. Pk. Nr. Royal Palm
Hammock, 10-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski, J. Slater,
T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); DUVAL CO.: St.
Johns Bluff, 16-VIII-57, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
Jacksonville, 8-XI-11, William T. Davis collection,
(NMNH); FLAGLER CO.: Flagler Beach, 23-X-
65, F. W. Mead, (RMB); FRANKLIN CO.:
Alligator Point, 26-IX-79, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS);
HILLSBOROUGH CO: Tampa, 25-V-44, SS
#16115. On Vigna sp., (NMNH); INDIAN
RIVER CO.: Fellsmere, 27-11-87, G. Johnson,
(FSCA); 5 mi S. Vero Beach, 27-111-76, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); LAKE CO.: LEE
CO: Ft. Myers, 3-5-V-08, Van Duzee, (NMNH);


MANATEE CO.: 16-III-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 11-VI-69, R. M.
Baranowski, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington,
(JAS); Everglades Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie, 25-
III-73, (at night), C. W. & L. B. O'Brien, (JAS);
same, 5-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); North Key
Largo Key, Rd. 26, 25-111-70, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); NASSAU CO.: 20-VIII-54, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 16-VII-38,
(FSCA); Apopka, 15-IV-44, (NMNH); PASCO
CO.: Elfers, 14-VII-39, Oman, (NMNH);
PINELLAS CO: Dunedin, 1927, W.S.B.,
(NMNH); POLK CO.: Bartow, 16-IV-49, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); Lakeland, 23-X-48, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); PUTNAM CO.: 2 mi NW Or-
ange Springs 27-VIII-10-X-75, (malaise trap), J.
Wiley, (RMB); SARASOTA CO.: Myakka River
State Park, 24-VII-56, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
Sarasota, 6-11-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
SEMINOLE CO: Sanford, IX-XII- 25, E. D. Ball,
(NMNH); Sanford, 26-IV-08, Van Duzee collec-
tion; (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO: Edgewater, 5-III-
39, C. A. Frost, (NMNH); same, 6-111-39,
(NMNH); same, 24-11-39, (NMNH).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Lake Naggorie 4-V-23,
E. M. Craighead, (NMNH); Everglades Nat. Pk.,
,20-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Lake Harris, 20-
IV-31, (FSCA).



OCHRIMNUS MIMULUS (Stal)
(fig. 16, map XI)


Melanocoryphus (Ochrimnus) mimulus Stal
1874:114.
Ochrimnus mimulus Slater 1964:153.

Diagnosis: Small (5.5-6.5), dull grayish with gray-
ish yellow pubescence. Calli red, entire pronotum
with yellow margins. Central part of posterior
pronotal lobe, all corial margins and distal end of
scutellum pale yellow. Scent gland auricle pale.
Two large dark rays present on posterior pronotal
lobe.

Biology: The principal host plants are Baccharis
halimifolia and B. neglecta (Palmer 1986). The
latter author studied the feeding habits of this
species carefully to determine its suitability for in-
troduction into Australia as a possible control for










Baccharis halimifolia, a serious weed pest in
southeastern Queensland and northeastern New
South Wales. He found that in Texas adults oc-
curred throughout the year, mating occurring on
the plant and eggs laid in the female inflores-
cences. Overwintering apparently is by both
nymphs and adults. Palmer found that while Bac-
charis is the preferred host mimulus also breeds in
the field on Solidago altissima L and laboratory
tests suggested that it might also succeed in
breeding on Conyza canadensis L. Brailovsky
(1982) reported it on B. halimifolia and also Tar-
odium dictichum L Blatchley (1926) reported nu-
merous nymphs and breeding adults on thistles in
damp habitats.

Distribution: The range is through the eastern
coastal states from Virginia south to Florida and
west to Texas.


COO4a


Map. XI. Ochrimnus mimulus

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Crescent City, St. Petersburg, Estero;
by Barber (1914) from Miami, Ft. Meyers, Or-
mond, Daytona, La Grange and Big Pine Key; by


Torre Bueno (1931a) Royal Palm Park and by
Blatchley (1926) Sanford, Ft. Meyers, Royal Palm
Park, Sanibel and Dunedin. ALACHUA CO.: Ag.
Experiment Station, Gainesville, 6-93, J.R.W.,
(FSCA); same, 19-IX-67, blacklightt trap), J. W.
Perry, (RMB); BREVARD CO.: Merritt Island,
12-III-40, H. V. Weems.Jr., (FSCA); Merritt Is-
land, 12-III-56, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same,
(RMB); BROWARD CO.: Andytown, Route 184
5 mi E Andytown, 30-III-66, H. V. Weems Jr.,
(JAS); COLLIER CO.: Ochopee, 26-V-76, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Seminole St. Pk., 13-
XI-72, C. W. & L B. O'Brien; (JAS); Copeland
Rec. Area, 28-III-73, C. & L. B. O'Brien & Kaplan,
(JAS); DADE CO.: 12-V-39, D. J. and J. N. Knull,
(NMNH); 26-XII-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
V-51, (FSCA); VI-49, (FSCA); 26000 SW 197
Ave., 6-V-77, blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); 4 mi S. Homestead, 25-III-73, C. W.
O'Brien & R. D. Kaplan, (JAS); Everglades
National Park, 20-X-54, H. A. Denmark,
(AMNH); same, (FSCA); same, 6-IV-58, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); same, Long Pine Key Rd., 10-
XI-80, (breeding on Baccharis), R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); Homestead, 3-1-44, (NMNH); same, 12-
XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same, 8-XII-74, (JAS);
same, 8-XII-74, (JAS); same, 16-XII-74, (JAS);
same, 26-XI-74, (JAS); same, 24-XI-74, J. A.
Slater, (JAS); same, 20-XI-74, (JAS); Matheson
Hammock, 8-IV-55, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); same,
(RMB); Miami, 1-III-56, C. F. Dowling, (FSCA);
same, 5-XI-11, H. T. Barber collection, (NMNH);
same, 14-IV-61, B. K. Dozier, (RMB); Paradise
Key, 19-III, H. Barber, (NMNH); Tamiami Trail,
5-XI-81, (on Baccharis), R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); GULF CO.: Port St. Joe, 25-X-54, G. R.
Ferguson, (AMNH); HENDRY CO.: La Belle,
10-11-III-74, (uv in Oak Grove), J. Reynolds,
(JAS); same, 16-VII-39, Oman, (NMNH);
HIGHLANDS CO.: Lake Placid, Archbold Bi-
ological Station, 2-V-83, (u.v. light trap), M.
Deyrup, (RMB); same, 1-4-VII-66, L. Penner,
(JAS); Sebring, 20-III-55, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 18-X-
45, R. C. Froeschner, (JAS); JEFFERSON Co.: 1
mi SW Wacissa, 7-X-73, C. W. O'Brien & G. B.
Marshall, (JAS); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers, 29-III-28,
F. M. Mueller, (NMNH); LEVY CO.: Bronson,
26-III-76, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS);
MARION CO.: 9 mi SSW Ocala, 28-V-75,
blacklightt trap), P. C. Drummond, (RMB);
Sharps Ferry Field Station, 2-X-75, blacklightt













































































Fig. 16. Ochrimnur mipnulus










trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); MONROE CO.: North
Key Largo Key, Rd. 26, 25-III-70, R. M. Bara-
nowski, (RMB); Everglades Nat. Pk., Flamingo
Prairie, 27-III-73, (night), O'Brien & Kaplan,
(JAS); Flamingo Prairie, 10-XI-72, (night), C. W.
& L. B. O'Brien, (JAS); same, 25-III-73, (JAS);
ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 27-IX-39, H. T.
Fernald, (FSCA); same, 27-VII-39, (at light),
(FSCA); same, 22-VII-48, (FSCA); same, 30-VI-
45, (FSCA); PALM BEACH CO.:1 mi SE Canal
Point, 16-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Lake
Worth, (NMNH); PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 11-
III-27, W.S.B.; (NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland,
16-VII-38, Oman, (NMNH); Lake Meggiorie, St.
Petersburg, 5-IV-29, (NMNH); same, 27-III-23, E.
M. Craighead, (NMNH); PUTNAM CO: 1.7 miles
NE Satsuma, 30-VII-36, Hubbell & Friauf,
(NMNH); SEMINOLE CO: Sanford, 21-IV-08,
Van Duzee collection, (NMNH); Sanford, IX-
XII-1925, E. D. Ball, (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.:
Daytona, 16-XI-11, G.P.E, (NMNH).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Brainard, (NMNH);
Buck Key, (NMNH).




OCHRIMNUS TRIPLIGATUS (Barber)
(map XII)

Lygaeus (Ohrostomus) tripligatus Barber 1914:510.
Lygaeus(Ochrostomus) moa Barber 1947:59-60.
Ochrostomus tripligatus Slater 1964:162.
Ochrimnus tripligatus Ashlock 1975:30.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (6-7), dark brown to
nearly black, with 3 large spots on posterior
pronotal lobe. Large spot near corial apex and
spot on head vertex red or yellowish. Distal end of
scutellum pale yellow. Membrane uniformly black
lacking pale margins.

Biology: Blatchley (1926) reports specimens in
clumps of dead air plants and along the borders of
hammocks.

Distribution: Known only from Florida.

Florida Distribution: Described by Barber (1914)
from Lake Worth and Punta Gorda and reported
by Blatchley from Cape Sable, Royal Palm Park
and Chokoloskee. DADE CO.: Cotton Key, 5-
VIII-58, (at Solanum), R. W. Swanson, (FSCA);


Everglades Nat. Pk., Gumbo Limbo Trail, 18-II-75,
(at night, beating), C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Miami
17-IV-18, J. C. Lutz collection, (NMNH);
Naranja, 11-11-60, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Par-
adise Key, 9-111-19, E. A. Shorts, (NMNH); Royal
Palm Park, 2-IV-27 W. S. B, (NMNH); same, 4-
IV, (NMNH); MONROE CO.: 27-XI-55, H. A.
Denmark, (FSCA); John Pennekamp St. Pk., 23-
V-76, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Key
Largo Key, 7-XII-66, R. E. Woodruff, (RMB);
same, 1-1-69, R. M. Baranowski & J. A. Slater,
(JAS); same, 26-XI-55, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA);
same, 27 XI-55, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same,
27-II-57, (FSCA); same, 27-111-57, (FSCA);
Marathon, 7-8-III, Shorts, (NMNH); North Key
Largo Key, 31-1-59, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
same, 9-X-7?, L. O'Brien, (RMB); same, 19-IV-77,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 25-VII-68, (in
pack-rat nest), (RMB); Upper Key Largo, 11-XI-
72, C. W. & L. B. O'Brien, (JAS); PALM BEACH
CO.: Lake Worth, 2-7-1887 P. R. Uhler,
collection, (NMNH); Palm Beach 19-VII-39,
Oman, (NMNH).


Map XII. Distribution of Ochrimnus tripligatus


..4










CRASPEDUCHUS Stal 1874


Lygaeus sg. Craspeduchus Stal 1874 pp.105,109.
Craspeduchus Slater, 1964 p. 47.

Type Species: Lygaeus xanthostaurus Herrich-
Schaeffer, 1847. Fixed by Van Duzee 1916.



CRASPEDUCHUS PULCHELLUS (F.)
(frontispiece, map XIII)

Lygaeuspulchellus Fabricius 1794, p. 159.
Lygaeus bimarginatus Herrich-Schaeffer 1847, p.
105.
Lygaeus (Ochrostomus) pulchellus Stal 1874, p.
111.
Lygaeus (Craspeduchus) pulchellus Barber 1939,
pp. 336-337.
Ochrostomus pulchellus Barber and Ashlock 1960,
p. 118.
Craspeduchuspulchellus Ashlock 1975, p. 29.

Diagnosis: Strikingly marked with dark brown
head having pale basal spot. Pronotal calli and 2
broad rays on posterior pronotal lobe dark brown.
Area anterior to calli white, lateral areas red. In-
ner 1/2 of clavus white, outer 1/2 dark brown.
Corium dark brown with lateral and apical mar-
gins broadly white, banded with red stripe just
within pale margin. Membrane black with white
margin.

Biology: Baranowski and Slater (1975) discuss the
life history on Key Largo where it feeds exclusively
upon the seeds of Corchorus siliquosus L., a weed
growing in open roadside sites in full sunlight.
Eggs are deposited on the ground in loose clusters.
Nymphs and egg are described.

Distribution: A widespread Neotropical species
that appears to have only recently reached the
United States.

Florida Distribution: It is at present known only
from Monroe County (Baranowski and Slater,
1975). MONROE CO.: North Key Largo, 3-XII-
69, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same 19-XII-69,
(RMB); same 8-XII-69, (RMB); same 4-XI-69,
(RMB); same 7-1-71, (RMB); same, 19-XII-69,


(NMNH); same, 3-XII-69, (JAS); same, 4-XI-69,
(NMNH); Tavernier, 2-11-70, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); Upper Key Largo, 22-1-70, R. M. Bara-
nowski, (RMB); Key Largo, 2-V-61, B. K. Dozier,
(RMB).


Map XIII. Distribution of Craspeduchus pulchellus


ORSILLINAE Stal


Orsillaria Stal, 1872:43-44.
Nysiina Uhler 1876:304.
Nysiinae Uhler 1877:409.
Orsillinae Scudder 1958:xix.

This subfamily is composed of small to
medium sized lygaeids generally of a dull brown,
gray or yellow color and characterized by having
all of the abdominal spiracles dorsal and the
presence of inner latero-tergites on abdominal
segments 2-6. The hind wing lacks a subcostal vein
and a hamus is present. The hemelytra are im-
punctate or nearly so. Nymphs have abdominal
scent glands present between terga 4-5 and 5-6.
Representatives of the subfamily are
found nearly throughout the world. There is re-









markable speciation and radiation in the Hawaiian
Islands.
Four tribes are recognized, 3 of which
have representatives in Florida. The 4th is con-
fined to Australia.



KEY TO FLORIDA TRIBES OF
ORSILLINAE


1. Costal margins of corium straight for
greater part of length, at least to level of
distal end of claval commissure; connex-
ivum often exposed laterad of corium ....
.....................Orsillini, p. 29
1'. Costal margin of corium often expanded
from base, never straight for distance fur-
ther than level of posterior end of
scutellum; connexivum not exposed lat-
erad of corium .....................2
2. Stridulatory structure consisting of a row
of fine grooves and ridges present on lat-
eral corial margins (fig. 17).............
.....................Metrargini, p. 34
2'. Lateral margins of corium lacking stridu-
latory structure............Nysiini, p. 37


Fig. 17. Xyonysius califomicus, stridulitrum



ORSILLINI Stal


This distinctive tribe is recognizable by
the straight lateral corial margins and exposed
connexiva. Most genera possess 1 or 2 spines on
the fore femora, carinae on the vertex, and a flat-
tened apical lobe on the vesica of the phallus.
Ten genera are currently recognized of
which 1 occurs in the Palearctic, Oriental and


Ethiopian regions, 1 in the Palearctic, Nearctic
and Neotropical regions, 2 confined to the
Palearctic, 1 Ethiopian, 1 North American, 1
South American, 2 Australian and 1 New Zealand.



KEY TO FLORIDA GENERA OF
ORSILLINI


1. Vertex with carina present running from
each ocellus, paralleling margin of eye and
extending to antenniferous tubercle; pro-
pleuron and mesopleuron appearing to
butt against one another ...............
................... Neortholomus, p. 29
1'. Vertex lacking a carina running from each
ocellus forward to antenniferous tubercle;
mesopleuron appearing to overlap
propleuron .......... Belonochilus, p. 33



NEORTHOLOMUS Hamilton 1983


Type Species: Lygaeus scolopax Say 1831. By
original designation.

Diagnosis: The members of this genus are moder-
ately elongate to elongate insects with straight
sided lateral corial margins. The body is covered
with short, pale, appressed pubescence. The head
varies from stout to elongate and tapering. The
bucculae are impunctate, high anteriorly tapering
to or near base of head. The labium is elongate
reaching at least to the hind coxae and sometimes
almost attaining the end of the abdomen. The eyes
are prominent but sessile. The scutellum has a Y-
shaped elevation, with apex acute and slight up-
turned.
Nine species are recognized of which
three occur in Florida.
The genus is confined to the Western
Hemisphere. Most of the North American records
are under the genus Ortholomus Stal. However,
Hamilton (1983) separated the Western Hemi-
sphere species from Old World Ortholomus on the
basis of synapomorphy in the genitalia. His excel-
lent revision should be consulted for additional de-
tails.









KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
NEORTHOLOMUS


1. Evaporative area small, height of area
from apex of scent gland auricle to margin
of evaporative area directly above less
than one-half distance from apex of auri-
cle to metapleural callosity (fig. 18) .....
....................... scolopax, p.32


2' Third labial segment not extending poste-
riorly beyond metacoxae; head relatively
short, width of head across eyes at least
1.2 times as great as length of head ante-
rior to ocelli (fig. 21)....jamaicensis, p. 31


Fig. 21. N.jamaicensis, head, lateral view


Fig. 18. N. nevadensis, evaporative area


1' Evaporative area much larger, height of
evaporative area from apex of auricle to
margin of evaporative area directly above,
at least one-half distance from apex of au-
ricle to metapleural callosity (fig. 19)... 2.


Fig. 19. N.procerodorus, evaporative area


2. Third labial segment extending posteriorly
beyond metacoxae; head very elongate
and tapering (fig. 20), length of head
before ocelli subequal to width of head
across eyes............ Joreshanus, p. 30


Fig. 20. N. koreshanus, head, lateral view


NEORTHOLOMUS KORESHANUS
(Van Duzee)
(fig. 20, map XIV)

Belonchilus koreshanus Van Duzee 1909:165-166.
Neortholomus koreshanus Hamilton 1983:215.

Diagnosis: Elongate slender (4.5-5), reddish
brown or grayish brown. Usually a conspicuous
white median stripe extending through entire
pronotum and scutellum. Fourth antennal seg-
ment noticeably darker than preceding segments.
Corium usually with reddish blotch near apex.
Tylus extremely elongate and strongly tapered.
Labium extending posteriorly beyond metacoxae.

Biology: Van Duzee (1909) took the type series as
well as many nymphs in the seed heads of penny-
royal (Piloblephis rigida (Bart. ex Benth.) Raf. as
Pycnothymus rigidus) which appears to be the
preferred host. Needham (1948) reared it on
Bidens pilosa and Blatchley (1926) took "small
numbers" on Quercus nigra L. and associated vege-
tation.

Distribution: Known only from Florida and the
Isle of Pines (Alayo 1973).

Florida Distribution: Originally described by Van
Duzee (1909) from Estero. Reported by Barber
(1914) from Biscayne Bay, Charlotte Harbor,
Lakeland, Jacksonville, Punta Gorda and Miami;
by Blatchley (1926) from Sanford, Coxambus,
Royal Palm Park and Dunedin and by Hamilton









(1983) from Pensacola and Key Largo. BRE-
VARD CO.: 5 mi N. Eau Gallie, 13-VI-69, J.
Slater, J. Harrington, (JAS); CHARLOTTE CO.:


Map XIV. Distribution of N. koreshanus


Punta Gorda, 12-XIll, (AMNH); COLLIER
CO.: Naples, 12-XII-49, C. W. Sabrosky,
(NMNH); Ochopee, (UV trap), 26-V-76, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Seminole St. Pk., 13-
XI-72, C. W. & L. B. O'Brien, (JAS); DADE CO.:
Biscayne Bay, A. T. Slosson, (AMNH); Everglades
Nat. Pk., Palm Vista, 26-XI-63, Slater, Woodward,
& Sweet, (JAS); Everglades Nat. Pk., Pine Glade,
1-XII-61, J. A. Slater, (JAS); Homestead 19-VII-
39, P. B. Lawson, (NMNH); same, 21-X-58, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Miami 10-IX-38, Oman,
(NMNH); same, 5-XI-11, H. G. Barber collection,
(NMNH); Paradise Key, II, Brooks, (AMNH);
DUVAL CO.: Jacksonville, 3-XI-11, (AMNH);
same, 3-XI, H. G. Barber, (NMNH); ESCAMBIA
CO.: Pensacola, 11-14-X-14,p (AMNH);


HENDRY CO.: La Belle, 16-VII-39, Oman,
(NMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold Bio.
Sta., 7-8-VII-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington,
(at light), (JAS); same, Sebring, 13-VIII, C. T.
Parsons, (AMNH); same, 14-IV-63, J. G. and B. L.
Rozen, (AMNH); HILLSBOROUGH CO.:
Hillsborough State Park, 13-1-57, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); INDIAN RIVER CO.: 5 mi S. Vero
Beach, 29-XII-77, C. W. & L. O'Brien & J.
Wibmer, (JAS); LEE CO.: Estero, 6-12-V-08,
Van Duzee,(NMNH); LEVY CO.:14-III-58, R. E.
Woodruff, (JAS); 6-V-65, F. W. Mead, (JAS); 13-
IV-55, R. A. Morse, (FSCA); 14-III-58, R. E.
Woodruff, (JAS); 6-V-55, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
MONROE CO.: N. L. H. Krauss, (NMNH); Big
Pine Key, 1-XII-74, J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski,
(JAS); Everglades Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie, 5-
XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); ORANGE CO.: Or-
lando, 30-VI-55, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA);
PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 21-III-17, W. S. B.
collection, (NMNH); same, 21-XI-25, Blatchley,
(NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 10-XI-11,
(AMNH); same, 10-XI-11, H. G. Barber,
(NMNH); SARASOTA CO.: Myakka River State
Park, 5-VI-54 H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 5-
VI-54, (RMB); SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford, 1925,
E. D. Ball, (NMNH).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: "C. H. Hbr", A. T. Slos-
son, (AMNH).



NEORTHOLOMUS JAMAICENSIS
(Dallas)
(figs. 21, 22A, map XV)


Nysiusjamaicensis Dallas 1852:555-556.
Nysius spurcus Stal 1859:243.
Nysiusprovidus Uhler 1894:182-183.
Nysiusjamaicensis Hamilton 1983:208.

Diagnosis: Small (4-5), narrow, elongate. Dull
yellowish gray with numerous brown spots on
head, pronotum, and hemelytra. Scutellum dark
anteriorly with a broad pale Y-shaped callosity
(fig. 22) which will distinguish it from the northern
scolopax (fig. 23). Tibiae and tarsi dull yellow.
Color variable.
The short head and large metapleural
evaporative area will distinguish jamaicensis from
the other Florida species.


oerlP, ~










4j 0







A B

Fig. 22A N.jamaicensis, scutellum
Fig. 22B N. scolopar, scutellum

Biology: Nothing other than scattered collecting
notes are in the literature.

Distribution: A widespread Neotropical species
found in South and Central America and almost
throughout the West Indies.


WO*


Map XV. Distribution of N.jamaicensis

Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Key West. DADE CO.: Florida City,
19-VII-73, G. B. Marshall, (JAS); Homestead, 8-


XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same, 5-X-68,
blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Sub-
tropical Experiment Station, Waldin Drive, 10-
VIII-68, blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 8-VI-60,
R. E. Woodruff, (RMB).


NEORTHOLOMUS SCOLOPAX
(Say)
(fig. 22B, map XVI)

Lygaeus scolopax Say 1831: (LeConte Ed.): 330-
331
Nysius Saint-Cyri Provancher 1872:77.
Nysius (Ortholomus) longiceps Stal 1874:120.
Ortholomus uhleri Baker 1906:139.
Ortholomus longiceps var. cookii Baker 1906:139.
Neortholomus scolopax Hamilton 1983:222.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (5-6), grayish to grayish
brown, sometimes dull yellowish, with short gray
pubescence. Apex of corium usually dull reddish.
Membrane pale hyaline. Labium variable in
length, at most extending posteriorly to second
abdominal segment.

Biology: Common in weedy fields where it may be
a general feeder. Hamilton (1983) discusses the
host plants and says that plants in 13 families have
been listed as hosts.

Distribution: Hamilton (1983) states that it
ranges throughout the continental United States
and southern Canada to Mexico and Guatemala.

Florida Distribution: Although common
throughout the northern states, it appears to be a
rare species in Florida. The only previous record
(which needs confirmation) being that of Barber
(1914), as Nysius longiceps, from Biscayne Bay.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 27-X-38, A. N. Tis-
sot, (FSCA); BAKER CO.: Olustee, 2-4-VII-66,
blacklightt trap), E. P. Merkle, (RMB); COL-
LIER CO.: Marco, Marco Island, 28-VI-84, P.
Hornby, (FSCA); DADE CO.: 7-VII-54, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); Homestead, 12-VI-79, Paul
Choborda, (FSCA); same, 9-IX-68, blacklightt
trap), R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); INDIAN
RIVER CO.: Wabasso, 24-II-87, G. Johnson,
(FSCA); JACKSON CO.: Florida Caverns State
Park, 9-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); LEON CO.:









Tall Timbers, 5-V-77, M. Altieri, (FSCA); PALM
BEACH CO.: 14-III-54, R. A. Long, (RMB).


Map XVI. Distribution of Neortholomus scolopax



BELONOCHILUS Uhler 1871

Type Species: Lygaeus numenius Say 1831.
Monobasic.

This genus has an elongate, slender,
parallel-sided body. The head is extremely
elongate and tapering, produced anterior to the
eyes by a distance more than twice the length of
the eye. The vertex lacks carinae. The lateral
corial margins are straight. The mesopleuron
appears to overlap the propleuron.
Only a single species is known.



BELONOCHILUS NUMENIUS Say
(map XVII)


Lygaeus numenius Say 1831: 775.
Belonochilus numenius Uhler 1871: 104.

Diagnosis: Elongate, parallel-sided; pale yellow-
brown over most of body surface with an elevated
median yellow stripe running longitudinally
through the pronotum and scutellum; corium with
a large red or brown apical macula; head very
elongate and tapering; labium extremely elongate,
reaching well onto and sometimes beyond sixth
abdominal sternum.


6
arP


Map. XVII. Distribution of Belonochilus numenius


Biology: This is one of the few North American
orsillines that spends most of the life cycle in trees.
As early as 1902 Heidemann reported breeding on
sycamore and this was later reported by several
other authors. Despite this, little was known of
the life cycle until Wheeler (1984) reported the re-
sults of his studies on the species in Pennsylvania.
Wheeler summarized previous information on
host plants, discussed the life cycle in detail and
described the egg and nymphs.









B. numenius breeds upon several species
of Platanus. Heidemann (1902) reported nymphs
and adults on the American sycamore or plane
tree (Platanus occidentalis L.). It was later re-
ported on the western Platnus racemosa Nutt. and
P. wright S. Wats. Wheeler (1984) notes records
of nymphs on other hosts, but these are probably
sitting records or temporary colonies.
Wheeler conducted his work on
populations on the London Plane Tree (Platanus x
acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.) The insect overwinters in
the egg stage within fallen fruit heads and the first
generation of nymphs occurred in these fallen
heads. Adults then fly to the developing fruit
heads on the tree and lay eggs over a considerable
period of time so that several generations are
produced during the season.
Nothing is known of the biology in
Florida, but a multivoltine insect with a life cycle
of this type might continue to breed throughout
most of the year.

Distribution: Although B. numenius has not previ-
ously been reported from Florida, it has an exten-
sive range in North America from New England
south to Louisiana and west to California. It also
occurs in Mexico.

Florida Distribution: Orange Co.: Disney World,
23-V-89, (on Plantanus occidentalis), M. Sconyers,
(FSCA).




METRARGINI Kirkaldy


This tribe is very closely related to the
Nysiini and separable chiefly by the combination
of characters given in the preceding key. The most
reliable, but difficult to use character is the ab-
sence of a dorsal lobe apically on the conjunctiva
of the phallus in the Metrargini. North American
representatives of the tribe can be distinguished by
the presence of stridulatory structures on the edge
of the corium.
The tribe at present contains 11 genera, 6
of which are confined to Hawaii, 2 South America,
1 Juan Fernandez Islands and the Galapagos and 1
widely distributed in North and South America.


XYONYSIUS Ashlock and Lattin 1963


Xyonysius Ashlock & Lattin 1963:708.

Type Species: Nysius califoricus Stal 1859. By
original designation.
The members of this genus closely resem-
ble large specimens of Nysius, but may be distin-
guished by the presence of a series of fine stridula-
tory grooves on the edge of the corium.
The genus is confined to the Western
Hemisphere where it occurs from Chile and the
Galapagos north to southern Canada. Nine
species are recognized of which 3 occur north of
Mexico. Two species occur in Florida.



KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
XYONYSIUS


1. Corium not or scarcely constricted at
base; pronotum distinctly longitudinally
calloused on each side of midline (fig. 23);
color pale testaceous; veins of corium
unspotted or at most very faintly spotted .
.......................... basalis, p. 37



"



Fig. 23. X basalis, pronotum

1'. Corium conspicuously contracted at base;
pronotum not distinctly longitudinally
calloused on either side of midline (fig.
24); color cinereus or fuscous; veins of
corium more or less heavily spotted with
fuscous...............califomicus, p. 35


Cc
". C r e < ' .**

r
S * , ` -
a. .. 'i
r t "M r "* jj iT

: ;, c ;; ; :; r "^ ', .

' . ." C.,i,, '. , "iM 'j
Fig. 24. X. califomicus, pronotum









XYONYSIUS CALIFORNICUS (Stal)
(figs. 17,24,25, map XVIII)

Nysius califomicus Stal 1859:242.
Xyonysius califoricus Ashlock & Lattin 1963:702.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (4.7-7), dull yellowish
to brownish gray. Bucculae very short, scarcely ex-
tending midway to base of head. Head and prono-
tum subequal in length. Male genital capsule black
with broad pale yellow margin.

Biology: X. californicus occurs upon a variety of
wild and cultivated plants usually in open fields,
but the biology has not been studied in detail.
Florida specimens have been taken on Medicago
lopulina L., Flaveria linearis Lag., and Erigeron
quercifolius Lam.

Distribution: Occurs throughout southern Canada
and the United States and in the West Indies and
south to Argentina.

Florida Distribution: Florida specimens are refer-
able to the subspecies alabamensis Baker.


Map XVIII. Distribution ofXyonysius califoricus


Reported by Barber (1914) from Sanford, Crescent
City, Punta Gorda, Titusville, Key Largo,
Lakeland, Biscayne Bay, Jacksonville, Atlantic
Beach, Newberry and St. Augustine; by Blatchley
(1926) from Lakeland, Moore Haven, Miami,
Royal Palm Park, Ft. Meyers and Dunedin.
ALACHUA CO.: 12-IV-55, H. V. Weems, Jr,
(RMB); same, 24-IX-54, (RMB); same, 4-VII-55,
(RMB); 13-V-55, R. A. Morse, (RMB); 25-IV-55,
H. A. Denmark, (RMB); 30-X-51, W. C. Sloan,
(FSCA); Gainesville 13-V-24, T. H. Hubbell,
(NMNH); same, 14-111-59, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
same, 11-IV-57, F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, 27-V-
62, (RMB); same, 9-V-67, (RMB); same, 28-V-
64, (FSCA); same, 2-VII-55, R. A. Morse, (RMB);
same, 28-VI-55, (RMB); same, 6-VII-55, (RMB);
same, 26-V-47, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same,
Lake Alice, 14-VI-74, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Mi-
canopy, 6-111-27, Leonard,(NMNH); San Felasco
Hammock, 29-IV-48, E. D. McRae, (FSCA);
BREVARD CO.: Eau Gallie, 5-XII-70, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Merritt Island, 12-III-56, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); COLLIER CO.: 1-XII-55,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, 29-XI-55,
(RMB); 6 mi E. Ochopee, 21-VII-73, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Ochopee, 26-V-76,
(UV trap), C. W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS);
COLUMBIA CO.: 21-XI-53, R. F. Hussey,
(FSCA); DADE CO.: 26000 SW 197 Ave., 6-VI-
77, blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
Everglades National Park, 10-111-55, H. A.
Denmark, (RMB); same, 11-1-55. same, Pine
Glade, 1-XII-61, J. A. Slater, (JAS); Grossman
Hammock State Park, 24-V-72, blacklightt trap),
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Homestead, 1-111-56,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, 14-1-56, C. O.
Esselbaugh, (AMNH); same, 8-XII-74, J. A. Slater,
(JAS); same, 21-X-58, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
same, 23-XII-56, (RMB); same, 28-11-57, (RMB);
same, 6-XI-64, (RMB); Paradise Key, H. G.
Barber, (NMNH); DIXIE CO.: 2 mi W. Fannin
Springs, 4-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington,
(JAS); ESCAMBIA CO.: 23-VI-55, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); FRANKLIN CO.: Alligator Point, 26-IX-
75, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); GILCHRIST CO.: Blue
Spring, 3-IV-55, (taken in Spanish moss), R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); HIGHLANDS CO.: 28-11-29, B.
P. Moora, (NMNH); Lake Placid, Archbold
Biological Station, 20-111-83, (malaise trap), M.
Deyrup, (RMB); Sebring, 20-111-55, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (RMB); same, 20-IV-50, (FSCA);
HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 6-VI-44,


0001"b .0









(NMNH); same, 7-IX-38, Oman, (NMNH);
JACKSON CO.: Florida Caverns State Park, 9-
VII-54, F. W. Mead, (RMB); T5H, R7W, Section
8, 9-VI-53, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Marianna, 3-
VIII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); LAKE CO.: 14-III-


Fig. 25.Xyonysius califomicus


56, R. A Morse, (RMB); Leesburg, 8-VI-55, L.
H. Stover, (RMB); 14-1-56, R. A. Morse,
(AMNH); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers, 3-5-V-08, Van
Duzee, (NMNH); Sanibel Is., 9-VI-69, J. Slater, T.
Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); LEVY CO.: 14-IV-
55, H. V. Weems, Jr, (RMB); 13-IV-55, H. A.
Denmark, (RMB); 13-IV-55, R. A. Morse,
(RMB); 14-IV-55, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); 6-
V-55, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Cedar Key, 27-VII-25,
R. H. Hussey, (RMB); MADISON CO.: 27-VII-
54, F. W. Mead, (RMB); 28-VII-54, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); MARION CO.: Ocala Nat. Forest, 3 mi
N. Hwy. 40 at Zay Prairie, 26-1-74, (at night), G. B.
Marshall, (JAS); 22-28-II-30, B. L. Smith,
(NMNH); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 1-XII-
74, J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS); same,
11-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.


Harrington, (JAS); Everglades National Park,
Flamingo Prairie, 4-V-70, blacklightt trap), R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Fiesta Key, 19-VIII-66, R.
Allen, (JAS); Key Largo, 10-IV-55, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); same, 18-VI-53, O. D. Link, (FSCA);
same, 30-XI-61, (JAS); Key West, 27-XII-53, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); Long Key, 1-XII-55, H. A
Denmark, (RMB); N.Key Largo Key, 4-V-77, R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 9-1-82, R. M. Bara-
nowski, (RMB); NASSAU CO.: 7 mi SW
Boulogne, 14-VI-69, J. A Slater, J. Harrington,
(JAS); ORANGE CO.: Conway, 9-XI-34,,
(RMB); Orlando, 6-VI-08, Russell, (NMNH);
Winter Park, 12-IX-44, H. T. Fernald, (RMB);
same, 12-VIII-44, R. H. Hussy, (RMB); OSCE-
OLA CO.: Shingle Creek, 2 mi W. Kissimmee, 5-
VI-69, T. Schuh, J. Slater, J. Harrington, (JAS);
15-III-56, H. A Denmark, (RMB); PINELLAS
CO.: Clearwater, 7-X-34, Oman, (NMNH);
Dunedin Beach, 21-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS);
Dunedin, 30-III-17, W.S.B. collection, (NMNH);
Pasadena, 3-8-23, E. N. Craighead, (NMNH);
POLK CO.: 26-IV-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Lake
Wales, 24-III-23, E. N. Craighead, (NMNH);
Lakeland, 16-IV-51, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); same,
7-V-12, William T. Davis collection, (NMNH);
Winter Haven, 29-VI-56, H. B. Wesson, (RMB);
PUTNAM CO.: 6-1-60, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
2 mi NW of Orange Springs, 13-X-5-XI-75,
(malaise trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); same, 27-VIII-
10-X-75, (RMB); Crescent City, 22-IV-08, Van
Duzee collection, (NMNH); same, IV-08, Van
Duzee, (NMNH); SARASOTA CO.: 8-V-60, H.
A. Denmark, (RMB); Orange Grove, B Ridge
Rd., Sarasota, 17-VII-64, R. Allen, (JAS); Venice,
9-V-60, R. E. Woodruff, (RMB); SEMINOLE
CO.: Sanford, XI-25, E. D. Ball, (NMNH); Semi-
nole St. Pk., 13-XI-72, C. W. & L. B. O'Brien,
(JAS); ST. JOHNS CO.: Ponte Vedra Beach, 4-
VII-61, F. W. Mead, (RMB); SUMPTER CO:
Fruitland Park, 20-VI-69, ( at Helianthus), A. L.
Bentley, (FSCA); SUWANEE CO.: C. H. Webb,
(FSCA); Live Oak, 15-1-80, (FSCA); TAYLOR
CO.:15 mi W. Perry, 8-VI-69, Slater, Harrington,
Schuh, (JAS); VOLUSIA CO.: 24-VII-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Deland, 27-III-67, M. A
Dayrup, (AMNH); Edgewater, 5-III-39, C. A.
Frost, (NMNH); Ormond Beach, 22-VI-38,
Oman, (NMNH); WAKULLA CO.:Shell Point
Beach, 3-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington,
(JAS); WALTON CO.: Argyle, 31-XII-31, P. W.
Oman, (NMNH).










XYONYSIUS BASALIS (Dallas)
(fig. 23, map XIX)

Nysius basalis Dallas 1852:553.
Nysius callifer Stal 1874:120-121.
Nysius? ementitus Distant 1893:385.
Xyonysius basalis Ashlock and Lattin 1963:702.

Diagnosis: Subequal in size to califoricus
alabamensis, but paler ("yellowish testaceous
rather than cinereus"). Lateral corial margins
scarcely contracted basally, entire lateral corial
margins slightly convex rather than straight. Male
genital capsule either completely pale yellow or
slightly fuscous basally.
The difference in the condition of the
pronotal callosities between the two Florida
species are very difficult to use in practice.


Map XIX. Distribution ofXyonysius basalis


Biology: We have examined one specimen that
appears to represent this species from the Ever-
glades National Park that was taken on Flaveria
linearis Lag.


Distribution: Primarily a Neotropical species
known from South and Central America and the
West Indies. It is known in this country only from
Florida and the Gulf States.

Florida Distribution: Reported from Florida as
Nysius inaequalis Uhler without definite location
by Uhler (1894) and by Barber (1914) from S.
Jacksonville. Florida without definite locality,
(NMNH); DADE CO.: Miami Beach, 10-IX-39,
Oman, (NMNH); BROWARD CO.: Ft.
Lauderdale 18-II-19, A. Wetmore, (NMNH);
MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 20-12-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); Everglades National Park,
Flamingo Prairie, 4-V-70, blacklightt trap), R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB).



NYSIINI Uhler 1876


This tribe is recognizable chiefly by the
combination of characters given in the preceding
key and by usually having the lateral corial margins
straight and parallelling the R+M vein for only a
short distance and by having the dorsal lobe pre-
sent on the conjunctiva of the male phallus.
The tribe contains 5 genera, 1 Palearctic, 1
Ethiopian, 1 Hawaiian, 1 New Zealand and the
genus Nysius which is nearly cosmopolitan in dis-
tribution.


NYSIUS Dallas 1852

Nysius Dallas 1852:551-552.
Macroparius Stal 1872:43.
Anorthus Horvath 1890:190-191.
Anorthuna Strand 1928:46.
Brachynysius Usinger 1942:44.
Tropinysius Wagner 1958:15-16, 45-46,47-48.

Type Species: Lygaeus thymi Wolff 1804. By action
of International Commission on Zoological
Nomenclature, Opinion 319.
This genus is characterized by having the
lateral corial margins constricted basally and dis-
tad of the constriction arcuately curved to the co-
rial apex. The pronotum is wider than the head
width across the eyes. The bucculae are impunc-


37


,
,,lsBPI P









tate. The fore femora are unarmed and there is no
stridulatory area along the lateral corial margins.
This is a very large genus with 104 species
currently recognized. Members of the genus are
found in all of the major faunal areas of the world.
Most species live in temporary ruderal habitats
and are often extremely abundant, sometimes
causing considerable damage to cultivated plants.
Eleven species are known to occur north
of Mexico, 2 or 3 of which occur in Florida.



KEY TO MALES OF FLORIDA
SPECIES OF NYSIUS


1. Bucculae low, gradually tapering posteri-
orly, fading out gradually near base of
head (fig. 26)............ raphanus, p. 38


Fig. 26. Nysius raphanus, head, lateral view


1'. Bucculae high anteriorly, slightly nar-
rowing posteriorly, ending abruptly at or
near base of head (fig. 27)..............2


Fig. 27. Nysius tenellus, head, lateral view


2. Basal portion of lateral corial margins
with prominent hairs ...................
..................... scutellatus, p. 41
2'. Basal portion of lateral corial margins de-
void of hairs, or at most, with minute, ex-


tremely small hairs present ............
.......................... tenellus, p. 40


NYSIUS RAPHANUS Howard
(fig. 26, map XX)



Nysius raphanus Howard 1872:507 (see Can. Ent.
vol 4, p. 219-220).
Nysius destructor Riley 1873:113.
Nysius strigosus Uhler 1894:238-239.
Nysius minutus Uhler 1895:22.

Diagnosis: Very small (3.1-4), yellowish brown.
Scutellum black, except at extreme distal end.
Pronotum short, often nearly twice as wide as long.
Male genital capsule usually black.
This species resembles the more northern
niger Baker (ericae of American authors) very
closely, but the first segment of the antennae
barely exceeds the apex of the tylus.

Biology: Like the northern niger, this species is of-
ten destructive to cultivated crops. The literature
is badly confused but presumably most of the
southern records of economic injury by Nysius eni-
cae are referable to this species. Breeding popula-
tions were collected at TREC, Homestead on
Gnaphilium purpureum L. Palmer (1987) reported
it on Baccharis neglecta Britton in Texas. Boldt,
Woods and Robbins (1988) report it (nymph) in
the southwest on Baccharis sarothroides (Gray) B.
neglecta and B. halimifolia.
Milliken (1918) considered overwintering
to be as eggs and nymphs. However, at least in the
midwest, this does not appear to be true as Byers
(1973) reports a large aggregation of adults in
Kansas in early April. This aggregation phe-
nomenon has been observed in overwintering
populations of several species of Lygaeidae. Byers
probably correctly believes it to be a mating aggre-
gation. He found 60 to 100 individuals in an ap-
proximately 4 inch square area on a fragment of
tile whereas no specimens were present in similar
habitats in the same area. Lanham (1975) re-
ported amazing numbers of raphanus near the
summit of Capulin Mountain National Monument
in Mexico in April and May. He states "they were
so numerous that they pelted one's face like grains
in a sandstorm". He also mentions that "a blow









with the net handle on a tree produced a thick gray
cloud of insects ---each pass of the net through
such a cloud captured a few hundred of the
insects". The insects were in these numbers for
about 1/2 mile of the trail. Clancy and Pierce
(1966) report parasitization of adults by the ta-
chinid Hyalomya aldrichii Townsend in California.


Map XX. Distribution ofNysius raphanus


Distribution: The range is throughout the south-
ern states from Virginia west to southern Califor-
nia into Mexico. Ashlock & Slater (1988) list
northern locality records for raphanus and
southern records (including Florida for niger.
Moreover, they also note that literature records
for these two species are irrecoverably confused.
We believe raphanus has essentially the above
distribution and that niger does not occur in
Florida.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Torre Bueno
(1933) (as strigosus) from Matecumbe. Presum-
ably the records ofN. ericae by Barber (1914) from
Miami and by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin,


Sanford and Caxambus belong here. ALACHUA
CO.: 13-III-54, H. V. Weems Jr., (FSCA); 30-VII-
55, W. P. Hunter, (RMB); 6-VIII-55, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); Gainesville, 1-VII-54, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); same, 28-VI-55, R. A. Morse,
(RMB); same, 6-VII-55, (RMB); same, 9-V-67, F.
W. Mead, (RMB); same, Doyle Conner Bldg., 17-
VI-74, blacklightt trap), F. W. Mead, (RMB);
same, 25-VI-74, (RMB); Gainesville, Lake
Alice,14-VI-74, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Alachua, 6-
27-55, (FSCA); High Springs, 7-54, (FSCA);
BAKER CO.: Macclenny, 6-VII-55, (FSCA);
same, 5-55, (FSCA); Olustee, 12-VII-66,
blacklightt trap), E. P. Merkle, (RMB); same, 2-4-
VII-66, (RMB); BAY CO.: Panama City, 29-VI-
55, J. Brogden, (FSCA); Panama City, 29-VI-55, J.
E. Brogdon, (RMB); BROWARD CO.: Pompano
Park, 19-IX-73, D. C. Clinton and W. H. Pierce,
(RMB); COLLIER CO.: Royal Palm Hammock,
Collier-Seminole St. Pk., 15-VI-77, C. W. O'Brien
& G. Widmer, (JAS); DADE CO.: 26000 SW 197
Ave. 24-V-77, blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 31-V-77, (RMB); Agricultural Re-
search & Education Center, Homestead, 12-IV-69,
blacklightt trap), R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
same, 29-VI-69, (RMB); Bernecker's Nursery, 11-
14-IX-86, blacklightt trap), H. B. Glenn, (RMB);
Homestead, 10-11-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); same, 4-V-56, D. O. Wolfen-
barger, (FSCA); same, 12-V-69, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 9-IX-68, (RMB); same, 4-VI-59,
(RMB); same, 9-IV-57, (NMNH); same, 22-IV-57,
(RMB); same, 18-V-69, blacklightt trap), R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 11-IV-69, (NMNH);
same, 2-VI-69, (RMB); same, 31-VIII-68, (RMB);
Miami, 8-VI-70, L. J. Daigle, (FSCA); Naranja, 20-
IV-60, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 3-VI-64,
(RMB); same, 6-IV-69, (NMNH); Naranja, V-62,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Orchid Jungle Ham-
mock, Newton Rd., 23-1-70, blacklightt trap), R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); Richmond, University of
Miami, South Campus, 27-V-62, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); Ross and Castellow Hammock, 27-V-62,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); Subtropical Experiment
Station, Waldin Dr., 17-IV-7?, blacklightt trap), R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); DUVAL CO.: St. Johns
Bluff, 11-IX-56, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); ESCAM-
BIA CO.: Station 86, 23-VI-55, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); FLAGLER CO.: H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(NMNH); GADSDEN CO.: 31-VII-56, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); Chattahoochee, 3-VI-55, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); Quincy, 6-VI-67, W. B. Tappan,


39









(FSCA); HENDRY CO.: 25-VII-56, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); HIGHLANDS CO.: Arch-
bold Bio. Sta., 7-8-VI-69, (at light), J. Slater, J.
Harrington, T. Schuh, (JAS); Hicotea, 18-V-65,
A. C. McCallay, (RMB); JACKSON CO.: Mari-
anna, 10-VI-69, (on Arachis hypogaea), C. W.
Laughlin, (FSCA); LEE CO.: Sanibel Island, 9-
VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS);
MANATEE CO.: Bradenton, 23-V-55, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); MARION CO.: 14 SW Ocala,
Ross Prairie, 12-VI-75, blacklightt trap), P. C.
Drummond, 9 mi SSW Ocala, 27-VIII-75, Drum-
mond & Wiley, (RMB); same, 9 mi SSW Ocala,
28-VI-75, blacklightt trap) P. C. Drummond,
(RMB); same, 25-VI-75, (RMB); same 28-VI-75,
(RMB); Sharpes Ferry Field Station, 30-IV-75,
blacklightt trap), N. Holler, (RMB); same, 30-X-
75, blacklightt trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); MONROE
CO.: Everglades Nat. Pk., Snake Bight Trail, 10-
VI-69, R. M. Baranowski, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); Everglades Nat. Pk., Middle
Cape Sable, 8-IV-66, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
Key Largo, 11-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski, J. Slater,
T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); North Key Largo
Key, 11-V-77, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 5-
III-72, J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
Plantation Key, 19-X-54, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA);
same, 19-X-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Stock
Island, 2-8-VII-84, blacklightt trap), J. Bunch,
(RMB); same, 26-29-VI-84, (RMB); same, 8-9-
VII-85, (RMB); same 13-17-VII-84, (RMB);
same, 2-5-VII-84, (RMB); same, 9-13-VII-84,
(RMB); Torch Key, 8-VI-60, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 15-V-44, H.
T. Fernald, (FSCA); OSCEOLA CO.: Kissimmee,
5-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS);
PALM BEACH CO.: Belle Glade, 26-VII-27, G.
B. Merrill, (FSCA); PINELLAS CO.: Cabbage
Key, 24-X-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB); POLK CO.:
23-VI-58, W. P. Henderson, (FSCA); 23-VI-58,
W. P. Henderson, (FSCA); SANTA ROSA CO.:
12-VIII-55, F. W. Mead, (RMB); SARASOTA
CO.: Myakka River State Park, 5-VI-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Venice, 4-V-61, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); VOLUSIA CO.: 5-VIII-56,
H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); WAKULLA CO.:
Spring Creek, 31-V-73, C. W. O'Brien & E. F.
Riek, (UV trap), (JAS); Wakulla Springs, 3-VI-69,
J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); WASH-
INGTON CO.: 5 mi. E. of Chipley, 31-VIII-60,
blacklightt trap), W. C. Rhodes, (RMB).


DRY TORTUGAS, Loggerhead Key, 13-VII-63,
H. A Denmark, (RMB); same, 2-IX-61, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB).



NYSIUS TENELLUS Barber
(fig. 27, map XXI)


Nysius tenellus Barber 1947:361.

Diagnosis: Small (3.6-4), pale yellowish testa-
ceous, bucculae strongly elevated throughout.
Pronotum only 1/3 wider than long. Corial veins
usually unspotted. Scutellum and male genital
capsule either bicolored or entirely black.

Biology: Barber (1947) reported tenellus on
Sphaeralcea sp, peaches, Chrysothamnus speciosus
Nutt., shasta daisies, chrysanthemums, lilies,
feverfew, Eysotrium adenophorum, Pluchea pur-
purascens (Sw.) DC, Beta vulgaris L., Helianthus
sp., Erigeron canadensis L., Artemisia tridentata
Nutt., Poa leibergii Scribn., and Parthenium argen-
tatum Gray, all from western states. It is apparent
that, like many other species of Nysius, it has a
wide range of host plants.


4(


Map XXI. Distribution ofNysius tenellus









Distribution: In western North America tenellus
ranges from British Columbia south to Arizona,
Texas and Mexico. It also is reported by Barber
(1947) to occur in Central America, the West In-
dies and Florida.

Florida Distribution: Although Barber (1947)
says that tenellus occurs in Florida, he does not list
Florida locality records in his long list of
paratypes. Blatchley's (1926) record ofN. strigosus
Uhler from Miami may belong here. N. tenellus
does occur in the Caribbean area as we have ex-
amined many specimens of tenellus from the West
Indies. MONROE CO.: North Key Largo Key, 11-
V-77, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 4-V-77,
(RMB); same, 11-V-77, (NMNH); Everglades
Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie, 25-III-73, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS).



NYSIUS SCUTELLATUS Dallas
(map XXII)


Nysius scutellatus Dallas 1852:553.

Diagnosis: Bucculae high anteriorly, ending
abruptly at or near base of head. Basal portion of
lateral corial margins with prominent hairs.
This species has the high abruptly termi-
nated bucculae of tenellus but is generally a darker
species. It is very similar in habitus to ericae
(Schilling) of which it has sometimes been consid-
ered a synonym. The conspicuous hairs basally
along the lateral corial margins will readily sepa-
rate it from tenellus.

Biology: Nothing is known of its biology.

Distribution: Widespread in the West Indies, but
apparently has not previously been reported from
the United States.

Florida Distribution: ALACHUA CO.: High
Springs 31-V-51, O. D. Link (on love grass),
(NMNH); FRANKLIN CO.: Alligator Point, 26-
IX-75, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); MONROE CO.:
Marathon Key, 19-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS);
OSCEOLA CO.: Kissimmee, 5-VI-69, J. Slater, T.
Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); WAKULLA CO.:
Wakulla Springs, 3-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.


Harrington, (JAS).UNKNOWN COUNTY:
Everglades Nat. Pk., 26-XI-61, Slater, Woodward,
Sweet, (JAS).


~pD Y6'


Map XXII. Distribution ofNysius scutellatus



ISCHNORHYNCHINAE Stal


This subfamily is closely related to the Or-
sillinae agreeing with the latter in the presence of
dorsal spiracles, and usually (except Kleidocerys)
with 2 nymphal abdominal scent glands between
terga 4-5 and 5-6. It is distinguishable by the punc-
tate clavus, non-depressed posterior margin of the
pronotum, the symmetrical phallus and generally
the translucent nature of the corium.
Representatives are found in all of the
major zoogeographic regions. Fourteen genera
are currently recognized of which only a single one
occurs in North America.

KLEIDOCERYS Stephens 1829









Ischnorhynchus Fieber 1860:51.
Kleidocerys Stephens 1829:342.

Type Species: Lygaeus resedae Panzer 1797. Fixed
by Barber 1953.

The members of this genus are hyaline
rather glassy winged insects of an ovoid form, ta-
pering anteriorly. The head, pronotum and
scutellum are deeply punctate. The hemelytra are
very large, extending both laterally and posteriorly
beyond the abdomen. The apex of the corium
generally nearly attains the end of the abdomen.
The fore femora are mutic. The clavus has 3 reg-
ular rows of punctures. The nymphs are unusual
in the subfamily in possessing 3 pairs of dorsal ab-
dominal scent glands.

Distribution: Primarily Holarctic, although 1
species extends into Central America and the West
Indies. Seven species are recognized in North
America, 2 of which occur in Florida.




KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
KLEIDOCERYS

1. Larger (4.5-5); preocular region of head
longer than length of eye ... .resedae p. 42
1'. Smaller (<3); preocular region of head
subequal to or only very slightly longer
than length of eye........ virescens, p. 43



KLEIDOCERYS RESEDAE Panzer
(map XXIII)


Kleidocerys resedae Panzer 1797:20.
Lygaeus didymus Zetterstedt 1819:71.
Phytocorispuncticollis Fallen 1829:37,95.
Ischnorhynchusprivignus Horvath 1894:173.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (4.5-5.1), bright red-
dish brown with corium largely hyaline with irreg-
ular punctures. Base of head, interocular area,
pronotal cicatrices and anterior portion of scutel-
lum, a spot at posterior end of clavus and 4 vague
spots along apical corial margin dark brown to


black. Labium reaching onto first abdominal seg-
ment.

Biology: K. resedae breeds commonly upon such
unrelated plants as Betula, Spiraea, and Rhododen-
dron. We have taken a breeding population in
Illinois on morning glory and on Rubus alleghe-
niensis Porter ex Bailey. Wheeler (1976a, b) has
admirably summarized the life history and should
be consulted for early literature records. Actually,
while the species does show marked host prefer-
ences, it also is capable of breeding on many dif-
ferent plants including cattails (Typha sp.) alder,
willow etc. Wheeler lists 43 species of plants, in 14
different families, upon which this insect has been
found, and on many of these with nymphs. There
is a definite preference for birch and spirea in our
experience. This species merits careful investiga-
tion to see if there might be a complex of sibling
species involved.
K. resedae has a stridulatory mechanism
(Leston 1957) that can be heard when the insect is
placed in a tube and the latter held to the ear.
Heinrich (in litt.) has discovered a remarkable case
in Maine where hundreds of adults of K. resedae
stridulated in synchrony when disturbed. These in-
sects were apparently ready to hibernate in debris
in leaves below birch trees. It seems probable that
this is a form of warning to small potential preda-
tors.
Distribution: The range is almost throughout
North America. It is also widespread in the
Palearctic Region. Although a common species in
the northern states, it is scarce and local in
Florida. Florida material is referable to the sub-
species geminatus (Say).

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
as Ischnorhynchus geminatus from Jacksonville
(true resedae) and by Blatchley (1926) from
Basinger, Cape Sable and Dunedin. Some, at least,
of these latter records are questionable.
ALACHUA CO.: 16-X-51, (FSCA); Gainesville,
25-IX-2-X-14,(AMNH); same, 3-1-64, D. H.
Habeck, (FSCA); same, 4-IV-47, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); same, 3-IV-79, (adults and nymphs on
Liquidambar styraciflua L.) D. Culbert, (FSCA);
same, Ag. Experiment Station, J.E.W, (NMNH),
CLAY CO.: Goldhead Branch State Park, 10-XII-
55, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); DUVAL CO.:
Jacksonville, 3-XI-11, (AMNH); same, 3-XI-11,
H. G. Barber collection, (NMNH); FRANKLIN









CO.:3 mi NW Alligator Point, 7-III-76, (beating
Lyonia lucida), G. B. Marshall, (JAS); LAKE
CO.: Mascotte, 11-IX-38, Oman, (NMNH);
Mascotte, 11-X-28, Andre, (NMNH); LIBERTY
CO.: 27-III-54, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); PASCO
CO.: Newport Richy, 7-XI-38, Oman, (NMNH);
PINELLAS CO.: Clearwater, 7-XI-38, Oman,
(NMNH); Dunedin, 15-XII-20, W.S.B, (NMNH);
same, 17-X-38, Oman, (NMNH); same, 7-X-38,
Floyd Andre, (NMNH); same, 7-X-38, Oman,
(NMNH); WALTON CO: Argyle, 31-XII-31, (on
Hypericum aspalathoides Willd.), P. W. Oman,
(NMNH).


Map XXIII. Distribution of Kleidocerys resedae


KLEIDOCERYS VIRESCENS (Fabricius)
(fig. 28, map XXIV)

Acanthia virescens Fabricius 1794:70.
Ischnorhynchus pictipes Stal 1874:124-125.
Ischnorhynchus champion Distant 1882:193.
Ischnorhynchus thoracicus Ashlock 1960: 235-236.


Fig. 28. Kleidocerys virescens


Diagnosis: Relatively small, with head, pronotum
and scutellum ochraceous with fuscous punctures.
Scutellum usually dark anteriorly with distal end
pale. Labium exceeding posterior coxae.
Most records are under the name
champion Dist., a junior synonym.

Biology: Hussey (1952) and Barber (1953) report
specimens breeding on Scoparia dulcis L., an in-
troduced plant and Barber also says it occurs on
eggplant. We took breeding populations on Mar-
tinique on Lobelia viridiflora McVaugh.

Distribution: Primarily Neotropical, reported in
the United States only from Texas, California and
Florida. It is widespread in the West Indies.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Ft. Meyers and Dunedin, by Hussey
(1952) from Lakeland and by Barber (1953) from
Ft. Pierce, Vero Beach, Sanford, Lakeland and
Tampa. DADE CO.: Miami, 7-VI-84, M. Thur-









mond, (FSCA); INDIAN RIVER CO.: Vero
Beach, 9-XII-42, (on eggplant), (NMNH); MON-
ROE CO.: Bahia Honda Key, 11-VI-69, Slater,
Schuh, Harrington, (JAS); Key Largo, 26-II-56, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); ORANGE CO.: Orlando,
19-XII-56, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); PINELLAS CO.:
Dunedin, 19-III-27, W. S. B. collection, (NMNH);
same, 19-III, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 10-
XI-50, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); SEMINOLE CO.:
Sanford, XI-XII-45, E. D. Ball, (NMNH); ST.
LUCIE CO.: Ft. Pierce, 28-VII-83, K L. Hibbard,
(FSCA); Ft. Pierce, 7-XII-43, Tuthill, (NMNH).


Map XXIV. Distribution ofKleidocerys virescens



CYMINAE Stal 1862


The members of this subfamily are gener-
ally small dull testaceous to reddish brown
coarsely punctate insects. Many of our species re-
semble (= mimic) seeds of the host plants (Carex,
Scirpus, Juncus). The abdominal spiracles on seg-
ments 2 through 6 are dorsal, but usually ventral


on segment 7, although in some species all spira-
cles are dorsal (Hamid 1975). The bucculae are
small, not extending caudad of the antenniferous
tubercles. The posterior margin of the pronotum
is usually not depressed.
Hamid's (1975) extensive world study il-
lustrates well the dangers of defining groups on
the basis of a few representatives. For example,
the nymphal scent glands, which have usually been
considered constant for most higher lygaeid taxa
(and to be two in number located between ab-
dominal terga 3-4 and 4-5 in the Cyminae), actu-
ally vary from three pairs to a single pair!
Actually, the systematic position of the
subfamily is one involving not only relationships
but systematic philosophy. Those who insist that
all taxonomic groups must be monophyletic
(holophyletic) probably would consider the Ly-
gaeidae a paraphyletic taxon. In any event, the
high chromosome number (20 to 28 autosomes +
XY), the side by side method of copulation, and
the short uncoiled gonoporal process suggests that
the sister taxon may not lie within the Lygaeidae.
Indeed, the Cyminae have been recently placed in
three separate families vis: Berytidae (Southwood
& Leston (1959), Malcidae (Stys 1967) and most
closely related to the Piesmatidae (Drake & Davis
1958). All of which suggests isolation from other
Lygaeidae and lack of definitive studies on the
higher classification of the Pentatomomorpha.
For the present the prudent course appears to be
to retain the Cyminae within the Lygaeidae as has
been done by Hamid (1975), whether or not one
ultimately agrees with the recognition of
paraphyletic taxa.
The majority of species, including all of
those from North America, occur on rushes and
sedges in damp areas. The biology of the species
has not been carefully studied in Florida. How-
ever, Hamid (1971) studied the phenology of three
species of Cymus in Connecticut and found that
while adults occurred and fed upon host plants of
three different genera of sedges and rushes,
nymphs of a given species developed only upon a
single host and where two species developed upon
the same host plant there was a difference in the
time of year when the developing nymphs were
present. Thus, while one may find several species
of Cyminae on a single host plant, there neverth-
less appears to be a definite partitioning of re-
sources both as breeding populations and in the
time of year when development takes place.









Fourteen genera are known, segregated
into 3 tribes containing 68 species. The subfamily
is represented in all of the major zoogeographic
regions of the world. Two of the three tribes occur
in the Western Hemisphere, both with Florida
representatives.
Three genera representing 2 tribes and 6
species occur in the southeastern states.



KEY TO THE TRIBES OF FLORIDA
CYMINAE


1. Head strongly deflexed in front; eyes
somewhat stalked and produced away
from antero-lateral margins of pronotum;
corium chiefly hyaline with only a few
mesally located punctures, 3 pairs of
nymphal scent glands present ( visible as
scars in adults), posterior pair sometimes
rudimentary; 9th abdominal spiracles pre-
sent...................... Ninini, p. 50
i'. Head not strongly declivent anteriorly;
eyes usually in contact with or nearly in
contact with antero-lateral pronotal an-
gles; corium not hyaline, densely punctate
over almost entire surface; 2 pairs of
nymphal scent glands present; 9th ab-
dominal spiracles absent.... Cymini, p. 45


CYMINI Stal 1872


This tribe as defined by Hamid (1975)
contains 4 genera. It may readily be recognized by
the characters given in the preceding key. Of the 4
genera comprising the tribe, one is confined to
islands in the Pacific Ocean and one is Australian
and Oriental. The other 2 genera occur in most of
the faunal regions of both the new and the old
worlds and are represented in Florida.



KEY TO FLORIDA GENERA OF
CYMINI

1. Seventh abdominal spiracle dorsal; 1st an-
tennal segment considerably exceeding


apex of tylus; 3rd antennal segment more
than twice the length of 2nd.............
...................... Cymodema, p. 48
1'. Seventh abdominal spiracle ventral; 1st
antennal segment usually not surpassing
apex of tylus (surpassing tylus in bellus);
3rd antennal segment less than twice the
length of segment 2 ......... Cymus, p. 45



CYMUS Hahn 1831


Cymus Hahn 1831:76-77.
Arphanus Stal 1874:125.

Type Species: Lygaeus claviculus Fallen 1807.
Fixed by Distant 1904.

The members of this genus are dull yel-
lowish brown, coarsely punctate species of elon-
gate oval shape with sessile eyes and with the tylus
usually exceeding the distal end of the first
antennal segment. Nymphs have a pair of ab-
dominal scent gland openings, between terga 3-4
and a pair between terga 4-5.
This genus contains 33 species and is rep-
resented in all of the major zoogeographic regions
of the world, but most species are found in the
Holarctic and Ethiopian regions. Nine species oc-
cur north of Mexico of which one is northern, 4
western with three of the other 4 species
widespread and occurring in the southeastern
states. A fourth species is southeast coastal.



KEY TO SOUTHEASTERN SPECIES
OF CYMUS


1. Head and 1st antennal segment in large
part black; 1st antennal segment distinctly
surpassing apex of tylus................
........................... bellus, p.46
1'. Head and 1st antennal segment testaceous
brown or reddish, never in large part
black; 1st antennal segment not distinctly
surpassing apex of tylus ............. 2
2. Third antennal segment 1.5 times length
of segment 2........... angustatus, p. 46









2'. Third antennal segment less than 1.5
times length of segment 2, usually shorter
than or subequal in length to segment 2..3
3. Second antennal segment slightly longer
than segment 3; size smaller (3.5 or less);
scutellar carina usually indistinct ........
......................... discors, p. 48
3'. Second and 3rd antennal segments sube-
qual in length; size larger (4.0 or greater);
scutellar carina usually distinct ..........
........................ luridus, p. 47



CYMUS BELLUS Van Duzee
(map XXV)


Cymus bellus Van Duzee 1909:167.


Map XXV. Distribution of Cymus bellus

Diagnosis: Very small (3-3.2), oblong oval, dark
brownish yellow with head and proximal three-
fourths of first antennal segment and sometimes
posterior lobe of pronotum black. Apex of clavus


and apical margins of corium usually fuscous.
Membrane hyaline, with fuscous streak near apex.
Pronotum distinctly elevated posterior to calli and
markedly narrowed anteriorly. Median carina
rather low, lateral carinae absent.

Biology: Van Duzee (1909) reports it as occurring
apparently on Juncus in the pine barrens.

Distribution: Known only from Florida and
Louisiana.

Florida Distribution: The Van Duzee types (1909)
were from Seven Oaks (near Clearwater) and St.
Augustine. It was subsequently reported by Bar-
ber (1914) from Jacksonville, and by Blatchley
(1926, 1928) from Dunedin and Moore Haven,
respectively. DUVAL CO.: Jacksonville, A T.
Slosson, (AMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: High-
lands Hammock State Park, 20 III-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 3-IV-55, R. A Morse,
(FSCA); INDIAN RIVER CO.: Indian River, 6-
III-30, J. R. Barass, (NMNH); PINELLAS CO.:
Dunedin, 24-IV-27, W.S.B., (NMNH); Seven
Oaks, 1-V-08, Van Duzee, (NMNH); ST. JOHNS
CO.: St. Augustine, 12-III-01, W. J Gerhard,
(JAS).



CYMUSANGUSTATUS Stal
(fig. 29, map XXVI)


Cymus angustatus Stal 1874:126.

Diagnosis: Slender, elongate, nearly uniformly
pale testaceous or light brown, with 4th antennal
segment, posterior 1/2 of pronotum and scutellum
often darker. Pronotum elevated posteriorly, with
inconspicuous median and lateral carinae.
Scutellum lacking carina.

Biology: A common and widespread species oc-
curring on Carex, Scirpus, and Juncus. Slater
(1952) described the nymphs and the copulation
method. Blatchley (1926) notes hibernation in the
adult stage. Hamid (1971) studied the biology in
Connecticut where it occurs with luridus and
discors. He found that adults fed upon Carex vesi-
caria L, Scirpus (L.) and Juncus brachycephalus
(E.) B. However, nymphs developed only upon









Carex vesicaria. Interestingly, although adults that
had overwintered were found on the above plant
about the same time as adults of C. luridus and
mating and oviposition of both species occurred
contemporaneously, the first instar nymphs of
angustatus did not appear until early July in con-
trast to luridus whose nymphs were abundant near
the end of May. Thus the two species were not in
direct competition although development of the
nymphs occurred on the same host plant.
Since both species reach the southern
limits of their ranges in or just north of Florida, it
is not known if this situation exists this far south.


00004 .0


Fig. 29. Cymus angustatus


Distribution: Ranges across southern Canada and
much of the United States west to Alberta, Col-
orado and Arizona. It is a very scarce and local
species in the southeastern states.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Lake Worth. ALACHUA CO.: Waldo Road,
11-XI-27, H. E. Bratley, (FSCA); DUVAL CO.:
(NMNH); GADSDEN CO.: 1-VIII-56, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); LEON CO.:Tall Timbers Res.
Sta., 25-VII-72, (swept at night), C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); WAKULLA CO.: Wakulla, 20-IV-55, F.
W. Mead, (FSCA); Shell Point Beach, 3-VI-69, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS).


Map XXVI. Distribution of Cymus angustatus




CYMUS LURIDUS Stal

Cymus luridus Stal 1874:126.

Diagnosis: Relatively large (4.8-5), yellowish
brown color with dark streak on either side of long
median carina. Posterior end of clavus and an area
near apical corial margin red. Corial apex with
dark brown spot. Pronotum with distinct median
and lateral carinae.

Biology: Hamid (1971) has studied the biology in
Connecticut. As noted above it occurs with C. an-
gustatus and breeds on Carex vesicaria. Unlike
angustatus, this species occurs, according to
Hamid, both as adults and nymphs only on the
above host. Slater (1952) described the fourth and
fifth instars and figured the latter. Hamid (1971)
described the egg and first three instars.









fifth instars and figured the latter. Hamid (1971)
described the egg and first three instars.

Distribution: Chiefly northern across Canada
from Nova Scotia west to British Columbia and in
the United States from New England to Califor-
nia. It is known to occur as far south as Georgia,
Arkansas, and New Mexico.

Florida Distribution: Although not reported, it
may occur in the northern part of the state.


CYMUS DISCORS Horvath
(map XXVII)


Cymus discors Horvath 1908:559.

Diagnosis: Small (3.4), generally testaceous with
head, calli, scutellum, and 4th antennal segment
reddish brown. Apices of clavus and corium
darker than remainder of hemelytra. Median and
lateral pronotal carinae distinct.


Map XXVII. Distribution of Cymus discors


Biology: Hamid (1971) studied the life history of
this species in Connecticut along with those of
angustatus and luridus. He found adults on all
three of the host plants discussed above under
angustatus. However, in contrast to angustatus and
luridus, this species breeds only late in the season
on the seed heads of Scirpus cyprinus. Like the
other species, it overwinters in the adult stage us-
ing Carex vesicaria and Juncus brachycephalus suc-
cessively as food plants. Blatchley (1926) had pre-
viously reported discors on S. cyperinus and Torre-
Bueno (1921b) reported the food plant as Scirpus
polyphyllus Vahl. Slater (1952) described and fig-
ured the fifth instar nymph. Hamid (1971) de-
scribed the egg and first four instars.

Distribution: The reported range is northern, but
appears to not extend as far west as does that of
luridus. It has been reported from Nova Scotia,
Quebec and Ontario in Canada, west in the United
States to Minnesota and Iowa and south to Geor-
gia. Not previously known from Florida.

Florida Distribution: WAKULLA CO.: Shell
Point Beach, 3-vi-69, Slater, Schuh, Harrington,
(JAS).

CYMODEMA Spinola 1937


Cymodema Spinola 1837:213-215.

Type Species: Cymodema tabida Spinola 1837.
Monobasic.

The members of this genus are light
brown or greenish brown, sometimes with red
streaks present. The body form is elongate and the
dorsal surface is coarsely punctate. Cymodema
species are very closely related to species of Cymus
but differ as indicated in the key by the elongate
1st antennal segment and by the dorsal position of
abdominal spiracle seven. The genus contains 5
species, 2 Nearctic; with representation also in the
Oriental, Ethiopian, Australian and Neotropical
regions. Only a single species has been taken
north of Mexico.



CYMODEMA BREVICEPS (Stal)
(map XXVIII)









Cymus breviceps Stal 1874:127.
Cymodema exiguum Horvath 1908:559.
Cymodema breviceps Hamid 1975:59-60.



Diagnosis: Moderate sized (3.6), light brown,with
1st 3 antennal segments concolorous, head and 4th
segment darker. Pronotum with yellow line
mesally on anterior half. Scutellum also with me-
dian yellow line. Corium and clavus rather trans-
parent or translucent with apex of clavus and api-
cal margin of corium darker.
This species is very closely related to
species of Cymus and distinguishable primarily by
the characters given in the generic key. Most of
the early American literature is under the name
Cymus virescens (F.).

Biology: Feeds on rushes and sedges in damp ar-
eas. Davis and Gray (1966), in a study of the oc-
currence of insects in the salt marshes of North
Carolina, found it to be abundant on Spartina
patens (Ait.) Muhl. and also to occur on Distichlis
spicata L Green and Juncus roemerianus Scheele.
It seems likely that the grass mentioned is not an
actual breeding host.

Distribution: Southern in the United States from
New York and Indiana south to Florida and
Louisiana. It occurs throughout the Neotropics
including the West Indies to Argentina and Chile.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Sanford, Crescent City, St. Petersburg,
Tampa and Biscayne Bay, by Blatchley (1926) from
Pahokee, Dunedin, Canal Point, Royal Palm Park,
Istokpoga and Lake Okeechobee and by 'Hamid
(1975) from Everglades National Park,and Palm
Vista. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 2-V-56, R.
A. Morse, (RMB); DADE CO.: Biscayne Bay, A.
T. Slosson, (AMNH); Everglades Nat. Pk., Palm
Vista, 26-XI-61, J. A. Slater, (JAS); Homestead,
16-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same, 8-XII-74,
(JAS); same, 20-XI-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same,
24-XI-74, (JAS); Matheson Hammock, 22-X-54,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); ESCAMBIA CO.: Pen-
sacola, 31-V-78, E. N. Bishop, (FSCA); GULF
CO.: 25-III-54, T. H. Hubbell, (RMB); JACKSON
CO.: 3 mi. SW Butlers, 12-IV-54, R. F. Hussey,
(FSCA); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 18-VII.73,
C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); same, 1-XII-74, J. A. Slater,


R. M. Baranowski, (JAS); Stock Island, 31-VII-85,
blacklightt trap), J. Bunch, (RMB); SEMINOLE
CO.: Sanford, 21-IV-68, Van Duzee collection,
(AMNH); WAKULLA CO.: 20-IV-55, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); 1 mi N. Spring Creek, 7-VII-73,
(uv trap), G. B. Marshall, R. D. Kaplan, (JAS);
Shell Point Beach, 3-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); WASHINGTON CO.: 5 mi
east of Chipley, 3-VIII-60, W. C. Rhoads, (RMB).


Map XXVIII.Distribution of Cymodema breviceps





NININI Barber 1956


This tribe is quite dissimilar from the
Cymini in having rather protrudent, often stalked
eyes, a largely hyaline hemelytron, the apex of the
scutellum bifid, and with a pair of nymphal scent
glands, between abdominal terga 3-4, 4-5 and 5-6.
The tribe contains 5 genera. Of these, 3
occur in the Western Hemisphere, all of which are









primarily Neotropical. One genus has a represen-
tative in the southern United States.



CYMONINUS Breddin 1907


Cymoninus Breddin 1907:38.

Type Species: Cymoninus subunicolor Breddin
1907 = Ninus sechellensis Bergroth 1893. By origi-
nal designation.

A genus of elongate slender species hav-
ing a strongly declivent head with the clavus
widened posteriorly. The corium is hyaline with a
single median row of punctures and the costal
margin strongly sinuate or concave and narrowed
anteriorly.
The distribution of this genus is in-
teresting as members are tropical or subtropical,
but found in both the Eastern and Westen Hemi-
spheres. Four species are recognized. A single
species occurs in Florida.


04


CYMONINUS NOTABILIS (Distant)
(map XXIX)


Ninus notabilis Distant 1882:191.
Cymoninus notabilis Van Duzee, 1917:163.

Diagnosis: Small (3-3.3), elongate, slender. Head,
pronotum and scutellum somewhat pubescent,
dark reddish brown. Corium yellowish with ex-
treme apex darkened. Legs dull yellow. Abdomen
usually brownish or yellowish, sometimes, partic-
ularly in females, green. Apex of labium, distal
tarsal segment fuscous. Second antennal segment
1.5 times length of segment 3.

Biology: Breeds upon sedges and rushes, but the
degree of possible host plant specificity is un-
known.

Distribution: Distinctly southern in this country,
occurring only in Florida and probably along the
Gulf Coast. It is widespread in the Neotropical
Region including the West Indies.


Map XXIX. Distribution of Cymus notabilis


Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Belleair; by Barber (1914) from Or-
mond, Biscayne Bay, Lakeland, Titusville and
Punta Gorda; by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin
and by Scudder (1957) from Loughman, La-
coochee, Homestead, Venice, Everglade, Ft.
Mead, Ft. Pierce, Childs, Davenport, Hibernia, La
Belle, Palatka, Zolfo Springs, Lake Placid, South
Bay, Cocoa, Marianna, Royal Palm St. Pk, and
Plant City. ALACHUA CO.: 15-XI-53, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); 27-VIII-54, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); same, (RMB); Gainesville, 19-III-38,
D. M. DeLong, (NMNH); same, 23-X-67, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); same, 6-III-55, (RMB); same, 26-
IV-25, T. H. Hubbell, (FSCA); same, 4-IV-39, G.
B. Merrill, (RMB); Wauberg Lake, 2-III-24, T. H.
Huttle, (NMNH); BREVARD CO.: 24-III-54, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); CHARLOTTE CO.:
Punta Gorda, 28-III-73, C. & L. O'Brien &









Kaplan, (JAS); DADE CO.: Everglades Nat. Pk.,
Pine Glade, 1-XII-61, J. A. Slater, (JAS);
Grossman Hammock State Park, 24-V-72, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Homestead, 7-X-68, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 22-VIII-68, (RMB);
same, 5-X-68, (RMB); same, 9-IX-68, (RMB);
Paradise Key, 1-III-19, Barber, (NMNH); same, 3-
11-19, Schwartzenberger, (NMNH); Royal Palm
Park, 9-X-38, Oman, (NMNH); FRANKLIN CO.:
Alligator Point, 26-IX-75, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS);
GADSDEN CO.: Chattahoochee, 12-VIII-54, (at
light), R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); GLADES CO.: 11
mi S.W. Palmdale, 22-VII-73, O'Brien & Marshall,
(JAS); HENDRY CO.: La Belle, 1-IV-38, F. N.
and D. M. DeLong, (NMNH); HIGHLANDS
CO.: Archbold Biological Station, 25-V-57, A. N.
Laesale, (FSCA); Highlands Hammock State Park,
20-III-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Lake Placid,
13-VII-18, B. T. McDermott, (NMNH); Sebring,
11-XII-53, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 20-
III-55, (AMNH); same, 20-III-55, (RMB); same,
8-III-58, (RMB); same, 13 VIII, C. T. Parsons,
(AMNH); same, 1-IX 16, (AMNH); HILLS-
BOROUGH CO.: Plant City, 24-1-44, (NMNH);
INDIAN RIVER CO.: Sebastian, IV, G. Nelson,
(AMNH); Vero Beach, 21-VII-39, P. W. Oman,
(NMNH); JACKSON CO.: 4-VIII-54, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); JEFFERSON CO.: 1 mi SW
Wacissa, 7-X-73, C. W. O'Brien & G. B. Marshall,
(JAS); Monticello, Big Bend Horticultural Labo-
ratory, 19-IX-68, W. H. Whitcomb, (RMB); LAKE
CO.: 12 mi N. Minneola, 16-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien
& Marshall, (JAS); Astor, 11-VIII-87, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); LEE CO.: Sanibel Island, 9-VI-69,
J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); MANA-
TEE CO.: 27-II-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Braden-
ton 17-III-44, (NMNH); Bradenton Beach, 16-III-
63, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Lake Manatee Recre-
ation Area, 14 mi. East Bradenton, Highway 64, 6-
IX-87, K E. Jenkins, (FSCA); Parrish, 8-X-38,
Oman, (NMNH); MARION CO.: 9 SSW Ocala,
10-19-IX-75, (malaise trap), Wiley and Holler,
(RMB); same, 19-IX-2-X-75, (RMB); Sharpes
Ferry Field Station, 2-X-75, J. Wiley, (RMB);
same, 27-VII-75, Drummond and Wiley, (RMB);
Silver Springs, 4-VI-69, (at light), J. Slater, T.
Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); MARTIN CO.: 21-
VI-65, F. W. Mead, (RMB); 5-XI-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); MONROE CO.: Big Pine
Key, 1-XII-74, J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski,
(JAS); same, Key Deer Refuge, 5-XI-82, F. Klett,
(RMB); same, Watson Hammock, 4-XI-82, R. M.


Baranowski, (RMB); Key West, 29-XII-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); Stock Island, 12-X-66, F. A
Buchanan, (RMB); same, 9-X-63, blacklightt
trap), F. A. Buchanan, (RMB); Stock Island, 9-X-
63, F. A Buchanan, (RMB); NASSAU CO.: 20-
VIII-54, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Hilliard, 5-X-38,
Oman, (NMNH); ORANGE CO.: Orlando, 2-7-
18, G. G. Ainslie, (NMNH); PINELLAS CO.:
Clearwater, 7-X-38, Oman, (NMNH); Dunedin,
10-III-27, W.S.B., (NMNH); same, 25-II-21,
W.S.B collection, (NMNH); same, 7-X-38, Floyd
Andre, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Bartow, Kissengen
Springs, 24-VII-48, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Haines
City, 17-IX-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); Lake
Wales, 24-111-73, O'Brien & Kaplan, (JAS); 26-
III-54, F. W Mead, (FSCA); Lakeland, 10-XI-11,
H. G. Barber, (NMNH); PUTNAM CO.: 31-1-57,
F. W. Mead, (RMB); 2 mi N.W. Orange Springs
13-X-5-XI-75, (malaise trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); 2
mi NW Orange Springs, 27-VIII-10-X-75, (malaise
trap), J. Wiley, (RMB); SARASOTA CO.:
Myakka River State Park, 3-IX-54, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); same, (RMB); Sarasota, 16-1-87, G.
Johnson, (FSCA); Sarasota, 21-1-44, (NMNH);
Venice, 4-V-61, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same,
8-X-38, Oman,(NMNH); SEMINOLE CO.: 3 mi
W. Sanford, 26-1-74, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall,
(JAS); Junct. Hwy. 46, Wekiwa R., 26-1-74, C. W.
O'Brien & G. B. Marshall, (JAS); Sanford, 1925,
E. D. Ball, (NMNH); same, 7-VII-28, (NMNH);
same, IX-XII-25, (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.:
Deland, 27-III-67, M. A Deyrup, (AMNH);
Edgewater, 2-11-39, C. A. Frost, (NMNH);
WAKULLA CO. 20-IV-55, F. W. Mead,
(AMNH); 20-IV-55, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
WASHINGTON CO.: 5 mi E Chipley, 31-VIII-60,
W. C. Rhodes, (RMB).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Hart City, 24-1-44,
(NMNH); Everglades National Park, 29-1-59, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (RMB).



BLISSINAE Stal


The members of this subfamily, which in-
cludes the chinch bugs and their relatives, are un-
usual in the Lygaeidae in that they feed by sucking
sap from plant tissues rather than by feeding pri-
marily on seeds. It is a large subfamily and is
represented in all major zoogeographic areas. The









subfamily is characterized by the position of the
abdominal spiracles which are located dorsally on
segments 2 through 6, and ventrally on segment 7;
the abdominal sutures straight and complete to
the margins of the abdomen; nymphal dorsal scent
gland openings present between terga 4-5 and 5-6;
hemelytra impunctate with rounded lateral prono-
tal margins.
Slater (1979) should be consulted for a
world perspective of the systematics, phylogeny
and zoogeography of the subfamily.



KEY TO FLORIDA GENERA OF
BLISSINAE


1. Fore coxal cavities closed posteriorly (fig.
30); body relatively elongate and slender .
.................... Jschnodemus, p. 57


Fig. 30. Ischnodemus, coxal cavities


1'. Fore coxal cavities open posteriorly (fig
31); body relatively short and straight ....
.... ........ ...........Blissus, p. 52


Fig. 31. Blissus, coxal cavities



BLISSUS Burmeister 1835


Blissus Burmeister 1835:290.
Neoblissus Bergroth 1903:253.

Type Species: see Slater 1979:73-74. (Lygaeus leu-
copterus Say 1831).


A large genus of pruinose dark gray to
black species with strongly contrasting white areas
on the hemelytra. Fifteen species are known from
north of Mexico and there are 9 additional species
distributed widely throughout the Western Hemi-
sphere. Old World species listed as Blissus are not
congeneric with Western Hemisphere taxa. There
probably are a number of undescribed species.
Some of the members of this genus are of
great economic importance because of their at-
tacks on corn, wheat, oats and lawn grasses. They
are generally called "Chinch Bugs".
The Florida species have been carefully
analyzed by Leonard (1966, 1968) whose valuable
papers should be studied for details of the biology,
cytology and taxonomy of American species of this
genus.




KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
BLISSUS


1. Length of abdomen and scutellum more
than 4.2 times the median length of
pronotum; metasternum without a dis-
tinct, median longitudinal groove........
......................... Jninutus, p.53
1'. Length of abdomen and scutellum less
than 4 times median length of pronotum;
metasternum with a distinct, median lon-
gitudinal groove.....................2
2. Length of labial segment 2 exceeding
width of interocular space; labium usually
surpassing mid-portion of metasternum..
......................... insularis, p.55
2'. Length of labial segment 2 subequal to
width of interocular space; labium
generally not surpassing middle of
metasternum .......................3
3. Pronotum nearly unicolorous gray, poste-
rior lobe of pronotum not conspicuously
black, nor strongly contrasting with gray
coloration of anterior lobe .............
.............. .naritimus arenarius, p. 54
3'. Pronotum with posterior lobe black,
strongly contrasting with gray color of an-
terior lobe............. leucopterus, p. 57









BLISSUS MINUTES (Blatchley)
(map XXX)


Ischnodemus pusillus Blatchley 1925a:45-46.
(preocc.)
Ischnodemus minutes Blatchley 1925:45.
Blissus minutes Leonard 1966:18-20.

Diagnosis: Small (3.4), slender, parallel sided, su-
perficially resembling a small species of
Ischnodemus (in which genus it was originally de-
scribed).
The open front coxal cavities definitely
place it as a member of the genus Blissus.

Biology: Leonard (1968) reports it as occurring on
coastal beaches and dunes where it breeds on sea
oats, Uniola paniculata L., however it probably is
not monophagous as we have taken it on Big Pine
Key in Watson Hammock where no sea oats occur.
It apparently overwinters in the adult stage.

Distribution: Known only from Florida. This is
probably the species that Schwarz (1888) and Hei-
demann (1889) were referring to. However, it is
important to consider the possibility that B. insu-
laris may be involved. Schwarz (1888) makes the
following interesting statement in all my travels
in central and southern Florida, I do not remem-
ber having found the chinch bug in considerable
numbers in the interior of the country; in fact, I
never found a single specimen in the valley of the
St. John's River". Heidemann (1889) quotes
Howard as saying that all of Schwarz' chinch bugs
were peculiar in having quite sharply pointed ely-
tra and as being always from the seashore in Dade
Co.

Florida Distribution: According to Leonard
(1966) known only from the Florida Keys and the
west coast of Florida. On the east coast it appears
to be replaced on the same host by Blissus arenar-
ius maritimus Leonard. Originally described by
Blatchley (1925a) as Ischnodemus pusillus from
Dunedin and reported by Blatchley (1926) from
Royal Palm Park and by Leonard (1968) from
Bahia Honda Key. BROWARD CO.: Pompano
Beach, 21-II-84, D. M. Leone, (FSCA); Pompano,
10-IX-38, Oman, (NMNH); DADE CO.: Home-
stead, 20-VII-48, B. T. McDermott, (JAS); Opa-
locka, 13-XI-59, L. J. Daigle, (FSCA);


FRANKLIN CO.: Alligator Point, (on Sesuvium
portulacastrum(L.) L.), 18-VII-76, G. B. Marshall,
(JAS); Alligator Point, 12-III-76, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); HILLSBOROUGH Co.: South of Picnic,
8-X-38, Oman, (NMNH); LEVY CO.: Cedar Key,
16-V-79, Nell G. Bachus, (FSCA); Cedar Key, 12-
VI-39, Oman, (NMNH); MONROE CO.: Big
Pine Key, 26-III-73, (at night), O'Briens & Ca-
plan, (JAS); same, 17-II-75, (at night), L. B.
O'Brien, (JAS); same, 18-VII-73, (night), O'Brien
& Marshall, (JAS); same, 26-III-73, C. W. & L. B.
O'Brien, (JAS); same, Watson Hammock, 10-IV-
81, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, (NMNH);
same, 5-XI-80, (RMB); Key Largo, 19-VII-39,
Oman, (NMNH); Long Key, 14-III-47, R. H.
Beamer, (NMNH); PALM BEACH CO., Boca
Raton, 28-III-84, D. M. Leone, (FSCA); PASCO
CO.: Hudson, 13-VII-39, Oman, (NMNH);
PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 10-III-27 W. S. B.,
(NMNH); same, 4-XII-25, W. S. B, (NMNH);
same, 7-X-38, Floyd Andre, (NMNH); ST. LU-
CIE CO.: Ft. Pierce, 29-1-79, (on bamboo), E. W.
Campbell, (FSCA); Pt. St. Lucie, 23-V-79, E. W.
Campbell, (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.: Edgewater,
14-III-39, C. A. Cross, (NMNH).


Map XXX. Distribution of Blissus minutes


53









BLISSUS ARENARIUS MARITIMUS
Leonard
(map XXXI)


Blissus arenarius maritimus Leonard 1966:18-20.

Diagnosis: Relatively large (3.8). Pronotum al-
most uniformly gray, not conspicuously black on
posterior lobe. Second labial segment longer than
interocular space.

Biology: Like minutus, this is a coastal dune and
beach inhabiting species and breeds only on sea
oats, Uniola paniculata.


-~d~P


Map XXXI. Distribution of Blissus arenarius maritimus


Distribution: Occurs along the coast in the south-
eastern states from North Carolina south at least
to Jupiter, Florida. Within Florida it appears to


be restricted to the northern two thirds of the east
coast. Northward it is replaced by the typical sub-
species which breeds on Ammophila brevigulata
Fernald, which extends northward into the Cana-
dian Maritime Provinces.

Florida Distribution: Apparently reported by
Schwartz (1888) as leucopterus from southeastern
Florida (record perhaps of minutus?). The type
series was described by Leonard (1966) from Fer-
nandina Beach, Ft. Clinche Park, Jupiter and Ft.
George. COLLIER CO.: 6 mi E. Ochopee, 21-
VII-73, (night), C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); LAKE
CO.: Leesburg, 25-VIII-61, C. H. Kern, (AMNH);
MARTIN CO.: Stuart, 17-19-III-39, F. E. Lutz,
(AMNH); MONROE CO.: N. Key Largo, 3-1-69,
R. M. Baranowski, (NMNH); PALM BEACH
CO.: Jupiter, V-48, M. Cazier, (AMNH); Lake
Worth, A. T. Slosson, (AMNH); Riviera Beach, 6-
VII-70, C. V. Reichart, (on sea oats),(JAS);
PINELLAS CO.: 8-VIII-86, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
VOLUSIA CO.; Ponce City, 11-VI-75, L. W.
Holly, (FSCA).



BLISSUS INSULARIS Barber
(fig. 32, map XXXII)


Blissus leucopterus insularis Barber 1918b:38-39.
Blissus insularis Barber 1937:82.

Diagnosis: Posterior pronotal lobe black, strongly
contrasting with gray color of anterior lobe. Sec-
ond labial segment longer than interocular space.
Labium frequently extending posteriorly beyond
middle of mesosternum.

Biology: Leonard (1966, 1968) described the
nymphs and analyzed the biology and taxonomy.
In southern Florida breeding appears to continue
sporadically throughout the winter whereas fur-
ther north there is some hibernation and only
adults are present. In addition to feeding on St.
Augustine grass, Stenotaphrum secundatum
(Walt.) it has also been reported feeding on Pan-
icum repens L., Digitaria decumbens Stent., and oc-
casionally on Eremochola ophiuroides (Munro)
Hack, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Oryza sativa
L. Slater (1976) believes that the records of
leucopterus on sugar cane refer to this species.









Reinert and Kerr (1973) reported that insularis has
3 and a partial 4th generation in northern Florida
while there are 6-7 generations a year in south
Florida. Adults and nymphs are usually active the
year round in Florida, although in the winter the
majority of the population consists of adults.


and the nodes of the runners. The species is pre-
dominently brachypterous. It is parasitized by the
hymenopteran egg parasite, Eumicrosoma benefica
Gahan. The most important predators appear to
be another lygaeid, Geocoris uliginosus (Say) and
an anthocorid, Lasiochilus sp.


0.06 0


Fig. 32. Blissus insularis


Map XXXII. Distribution ofBlissus insularis


Populations decrease drastically in the winter and
damage to grass is reduced. During late March
and early April in northern Florida and in Febru-
ary in south Florida, there is first, a large increase
in the number of first instar nymphs, then a de-
cline in adults, followed by a rapid increase in
overall populations. These authors reported that
the chinch bug prefers sunny open areas of lawns
where they can be found in concentrations that
frequently number 500-1000/ft2. As many as
2,300/ft2 have been collected. The eggs are in-
serted into protected places and are often found in
crevices at the grass nodes or nearly hidden be-
tween overlapping grass blade bases. On St. Au-
gustine grass, the feeding is largely limited to the
tender basal growing portion of the grass blades


Distribution: Distributed from southern North
Carolina throughout Florida including the Keys
(at least to Big Pine) and westward through the
Gulf States into Texas and probably Mexico. Ac-
cording to Leonard ibidd.) the West Indian records
do not pertain to insularis, however further study is
indicated as the habits of a chinch bug on many of
the islands is very similar. Wolcott (1936) in fact
reported insularis injuring Panicum maximum
Jacq. in the Greater Antilles and Slater (1976) re-
ports breeding on Panicum bartowense Scribn. &
Merr. and occurring on Axonopus compressus
(Sw.) Beauv. in the Lesser Antilles.

Florida Distribution: Reported as leucopterus by
Van Duzee (1909) from Ft. Meyers and Sanford;


55









by Barber (1914) from Miami, Punta Gorda, Lake
Worth, Biscayne Bay, Belleair, Ormond, Jack-
sonville and Everglade; by Blatchley (1926) from
Lakeland, Moore Haven and Dunedin and as
variety insularis from Royal Palm Park and
Dunedin and by Leonard (1966) from Miami,
Everglades National Park, and (1968) Homestead.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 12-VI-81, M.
Luhrman, (FSCA); same, 18-VII-16, R. N. Wil-
son, (NMNH); same, 19-X-66, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); same, 21-II-79, (FSCA); same, 25-IX-55,
(on Stenotaphrum secondatum H. A. Denmark,
(AMNH); same, 25-IX-55, H. A. Denmark,
(RMB); same, 8-VII-16, R. N. Wilson, (NMNH);
BREVARD CO.; Cocoa Beach, 5-VI-81, F. A.
Smith, (FSCA); Lake Washington, 16-VII-76, R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 5-XII-70, J. A.
Slater, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); BROWARD
CO.; Ft. Lauderdale X-51, F. P. Clements,
(NMNH); same, 18-IX-86, T. Phillips, (FSCA);
same, 26-11-57, J. M. Soowal, (RMB); same, 6-1-
53, (NMNH); CHARLOTTE CO.; Punta Gorda,
4-VIII-80, Z. S. Smith, (FSCA); COLLIER CO.:
East of Ochopee, 9-X-38, Oman, (NMNH);
Ochopee 14-VI-77, (at night), C. W. O'Brien & G.
J. Wilmer, (JAS); DADE CO.; Coral Gables, 29-
V-53, (NMNH); same, 19-VII-61, J. M. McQuaide,
(RMB); Everglades National Park, 17-111-62, R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 22-111-62, (RMB);
same, 22-111-62, (RMB); same, Palm Vista, 26-XI-
61, Slater, Woodward, Sweet, (JAS); Florida City,
25-V-53, (NMNH); Homestead, 5-X-68, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Miami Beach, 10-IX-38,
Oman, (NMNH); Miami, 10-X-38,P. W. Oman,
(NMNH); same, 29-VII-54, O. D. Link, (FSCA),
same, 29-XI-61, D. E. Leonard, (NMNH); same, 5-
XI-11, (AMNH); Belleair, A. T. Slosson,
(AMNH); Royal Palm Park, 22-VII-48, R. H.
Beamer, (NMNH); same, W.S.B. 16-XII-29, H. G.
Barber (ex Blatchley collection), (NMNH); S. Mi-
ami, 20-XX-52, F. Butcher, (NMNH); DUVAL
CO.: Jacksonville, 13-VII-54, H. S. Mayeux,
(NMNH); same, 6-VIII-63, T. S. Josie, (RMB);
HENDRY CO.: Clewiston, 4-11-44, M. Wright,
(NMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: Sebring, 17-VII-
58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 8-111-58,
(RMB); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 25-V-
44, (NMNH); Tampa, 25-V-44, (NMNH); PALM
BEACH CO.: West Palm Beach, 18-II-44,
(NMNH); INDIAN RIVER CO.: Sebastian, 20-
XI-86, R. H. Kendrick, (FSCA); JEFFERSON
CO.: 1 mi S. Wacissa, 18-IV-86, C. W. O'Brien,


(JAS); 2 mi N. Wacissa, 7-IX-73, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); LEE CO.: Ft. Meyers, 28-V-88, K Jenkins,
(FSCA); LEON CO.: Tallahassee, 28-VI-76, G. B.
Marshall & Justice, (JAS); MANATEE CO.:
Bradenton, 22-1-44, (NMNH); Myakka St. Park,
15-VII-66, R. Allen, (JAS); MARTIN CO., 21-VI-
65, F. W. Mead, (RMB); 5-XI-54, H. V. Weems,
Jr. (AMNH); 25-30-VIII-61, C. H. Kern
(AMNH); Hobe Sound, 3-III-44, (NMNH);
MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 2-XII-61, D. E.
Leonard, (NMNH); same, 30-XI-61, (JAS); Key
Largo, 19-VII-39, Oman, (NMNH); same, 19-VII-
39, R. H. Beamer, (NMNH); same, 2-XII-61, D. E.
Leonard, (NMNH); Lower Matecumbe Key, 29-
VII-62, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Marathon Shores,
23-VI-62, C. Nafager, (RMB); Middle Cape Sable,
Everglades National Park, 8-IV-66, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (RMB); North Key Largo Key, 16-V-77, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 11-V-77, (RMB);
Stock Island, 27-XII-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
ORANGE CO.: 20-V-54, G. B. Merrill, (RMB);
Orlando, 10-V-54, H. A. Denmark, (RMB);
PALM BEACH CO.: Boynton Beach Kenlawn
R&D Center, 8-X-81, M. K Kennedy, (NMNH);
Boynton Beach, 31-VII-72, W. H. Pierce, (FSCA);
Loxahatchee, 1-VIII-72; W. H. Pierce, (FSCA);
Palm Beach, (NMNH); PINELLAS CO.: Cabbage
Key, 24-X-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB); Tarpon
Springs, 22-VII-51, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Gulf-
port, 11-IX-63, W. C. Carroll, (FSCA); POLK
CO.: Lakeland, 12-VII-48, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
same, 25-VII-48, (NMNH); 18-VII-63, B. E. Tyner,
(RMB); Polk City, 11-IX-38, Oman,(NMNH);
SANTA ROSA CO.: 16-VIII-55, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); SARASOTA CO.: 31 mi SE Sarasota,
Hwy. 72, 27-VII-76, (at night), C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); Orange Grove B, Ridge Road Sarasota, 17-
VII-66, R. Allen, (JAS); Venice, 4-V-61, H.
V.Weems, Jr., (RMB); SEMINOLE CO.: San-
ford, 1925, E. D. Ball, (NMNH); same, 27-III-26,
(NMNH); same, 26- IV-08, Van Duzee collection
(AMNH); ST. LUCIE CO.: 22-XI-55, N. C.
Hayslip, (RMB); Ft. Pierce, 7-XII-43, (NMNH);
same, 11-VIII-71, A. Kretchmer, (FSCA); TAY-
LOR CO.: 5 mi S. Salem, 26-111-76, G. B. Mar-
shall, (JAS); VOLUSIA CO.: Edgewater, 20-I1-
39, C. A. Frost, (NMNH).



BLISSUS LEUCOPTERUS (Say)
(map XXXIII)










Lygaeus leucopterus Say 1831:329 (LeConte Edit.).
Rhyparochromus devastator Le Baron 1850:280.
Blissus albipennis Dallas 1852:583.
Blissus leucopterus Stal 1874:133.



Diagnosis: Pronotum with posterior lobe black,
conspicuously contrasting with gray anterior lobe.
Second labial segment longer than interocular
space. Labium usually not extending posteriorly
beyond middle of mesosternum.


Biology: This in the infamous "Chinch Bug" that
has frequently caused extensive damage to small
grains and corn in the midwestern states. There is
an enormous literature on the species, much of
which is listed in Slater (1964). Leonard (1966)
should be consulted for a summary of the life his-
tory, wild and cultivated food plants, parasites,
predators, diseases and cytogenetics.


MAP XXXIII. Distribution of Blissus leucopterus


Distribution: The true chinch bug has not previ-
ously been authoritatively reported from Florida.
Leonard (1966) gave the range as chiefly midwest-
ern from South Dakota southeast to Virginia and
North Carolina and south to Texas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Car-
olina. Leonard's (1966) distribution maps show a
broad area in these southern states where
leucopterus and insularis overlap. In the north and
northeast a subspecies of leucopterus (hirtus) re-
places the nominal taxon and is a serious pest of
lawn grasses.

Florida Distribution: Although previously unrec-
ognized in Florida, Leonard's (1966) maps indi-
cates its presence in the southern part of the Gulf
States. The records fron northern Florida on
Sorhgum bicolor ssp. drummondii (as vulgare) and
Panicum miliaceum L are therefore not unex-
pected. ESCAMBIA CO.: 3-VIII-55, (on Zea
mays), F. W. Mead, (FSCA); HOLMES CO.:
Westville, 10-VIII-81, (on Panicum miliaceum),
H. McKeown, (FSCA); ST. JOHNS CO.: Hast-
ings, 26-VII-77, (at Sorghum vulgare), R. Work-
man, (FSCA).




ISCHNODEMUS Fieber 1837


Ischnodemus Fieber 1837:337-338.
Micropus Spinola 1837:218-221.
Thops Gistel 1848:X.
Romicpus Reed 1900:66-67.


Type Species: Ischnodemus quadratus Fieber 1837.
Monobasic.

The members of this genus are elongate,
slender bodied lygaeids with slender terete anten-
nae, a straight apical corial margin, distinctly
closed fore coxal cavities, and with the dorsal sur-
face of the head, pronotum, and scutellum either
shining or covered with pruinose hairs.
The genus is very large with repre-
sentation in all of the major zoogeographic re-
gions of the world. Most species occur in the
Neotropical and Ethiopian regions with 8 or 9 oc-
curring in Florida.


57









KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
ISCHNODEMUS


1. Dorsal surface of head and pronotum
largely pruinose (fig. 33)...............2


Fig. 35. Pronotum


Fig. 33. Pronotum

1'. Dorsal surface of head and pronotum with
little or no pruinosity (at most a narrow
strip present along posterior margin of
pronotum (fig. 34) .................5


Fig. 34. Pronotum

2. Antennal segment II longer than IV;
membrane sordid......... fulvipes, p. 69
2'. Antennal segment II not longer than IV;
membrane pale ......................3
3. Sub-basal shining pronotal areas consist-
ing of 3 separate areas, a pair of lateral
ovoid spots and a separate median bar
(fig. 33); a dark spot present at corial
apex; ratio of total length to interocular
distance usually less than 10.5 ..........4
3'. Sub-basal band of pronotum unbroken,
completely shining from one lateral mar-
gin to another (fig. 35); no dark spot pre-
sent at corial apex; ratio of total length to
interocular distance generally greater than
11.0 .................. robustus, p. 67


4. A distinct small dark area present in
membrane adjacent to apical corial spot;
first 3 antennal segments usually pale
sepia to dark chestnut or blackish brown;
veins often concolorous with membrane,
or only slightly contrasting.. rufipes, p. 69
4'. No dark area present in membrane adja-
cent to apical corial spot; first 3 antennal
segments usually tawny to buffy yellow;
veins buffy brown to sepia, noticeably con-
trasting with pale membrane ............
.......................praecultus,p. 66
5. A distinct median longitudinal groove
present on anterior lobe of pronotum ...
....................................6
5'. No median groove (at most, an indistinct,
broad, shallow, median, longitudinal de-
pression) present on anterior lobe of
pronotum ........................... 7
6. Head and quadrate patches on anterior
pronotal lobe concolorous (or if pronotal
patches lighter than part of head, then
vertex of head also lighter); total labial
length less than 2.75 times length of sec-
ond antennal segment; length of second
antennal segment usually more than
interocular distance; connexivum, if show-
ing yellow, then only along extreme lateral
margin ..................conicus, p. 61
6'. Head darker than, and contrasting with,
large quadrate patches on anterior prono-
tal lobe (fig. 38); total labial length more
than 2.75 times length of second antennal
segment; usually length of second anten-
nal segment subequal to or less than inte-
rocular distance; connexivum usually en-
tirely yellow from lateral to median mar-
gin.......................badius, p. 59
7. Total labial length equal to or exceeding
total antennal length; a narrow strip of
pruinosity present across extreme










posterior margin of pronotum (fig. 35 );
ventral prothoracic pruinosity pattern
bordered by sinuous longitudinal lines at
level of lateral margins of coxal cavities
(fig. 36 ).................. lobatuss, p. 65


Fig. 36. Prothorax, lateral view

7'. Total labial length appreciably less than
total antennal length; no narrow strip of
pruinosity present across pronotal base
(or, if present, then pruinosity also pre-
sent covering most of ventral surface of
prothorax (fig. 37 ), rather than following
the pattern of fig. 36).................. 8


Fig. 37. Prothorax, lateral view


8. Pruinosity covering most of ventral sur-
face of prothorax; a narrow strip of
pruinosity present across posterior margin
of pronotum (fig. 35). ................
.................... brunnipennis, p. 62
8'. Ventral prothoracic pruinosity pattern
confined to median portion of prothorax
and bordered by sinuous longitudinal
lines at level of lateral margins of coxal
cavities (fig. 36).......... slossonae, p. 64




ISCHNODEMUS BADIUS Van Duzee
(fig. 38, map XXXIV)


Ischnodemus badius Van Duzee 1909:168-169.

Diagnosis: Large (5-7), elongate, pale yellowish to
brown shining species. Head dark, contrasting
with largely yellowish brown pronotal calli.
L badius is almost always micropterous
with the wings reduced to minute pads. Although
macropterous individuals are known, none is
represented among the many specimens we have
examined from Florida.


Biology: Davis and Gray (1966) have studied the
biology of badius which they state is one of the
characteristic insects of Spartina altemiflora Loisel
associations in North Carolina salt marshes. The
species only occurs upon S. alterniflora. Over win-
tering is in the adult stage beneath the bases of
leaves of the host plant. These authors note that
flightless individuals (the bulk of all populations)
which cannot escape high water in the marsh by
flying are capable of swimming to new host plants.
Rey (1981) in an extensive study of Spartina
islands in northwest Florida also indicates that this
is an abundant species on Spartina alterniflora.
These studies illustrate well the necessity for
voucher specimens as there appears to be a
possible problem of identification and the above
authors may actually have been working with
Lconicus. Harrington (1972) says that the host
plant of badius in North Carolina is Spartina
patens. This statement is based upon collections
of I. conicus and I. badius where L conicus was on
Spartina alterniflora and L badius adjacent to it,
only on S. patens (Ait.) Muhl. It would be
interesting to know if this is displacement of one
species from its natural host plant by the other in
view of the findings of Davis and Gray (1966) who
do not recognize I. conicus in the North Carolina
fauna. We took nymphs and adults in Florida on
Spartina baker Merr.
While this species is distributed along the
coast throughout most of its range in Florida, it
occurs inland along what are possibly old beach
terraces.

Distribution: Primarily a coastal species, occur-
ring on the damp margins of sandy beaches as well
as in marshy areas. Across central Florida, it is a
very common species on its host plant inland as
well as along the coast. It is found from southeast-








NJ,
8.1


Fig. 38. Ischnodemus badius
60









ern Maryland south along the Atlantic and Gulf
Coasts west to Texas.


Map XXXIV. Distribution oflschnodemus badius

Florida Distribution: Originally described by Van
Duzee (1909) from Tampa Bay, and St. Peters-
burg; reported by Barber (1914) from Clearwater;
by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin and St. Peters-
burg; by Harrington (1972) from Lake Washing-
ton, 5 miles W. of Eau Gallie, Lake Placid, Arch-
bold Biological Station, 13 miles S. of Kenansville
and 5 mi. W of Yeehaw Junction, and by Rey
(1981) from small islands west of Spring Creek in
Oyster Bay. BREVARD CO.: Lake Washington,
12-VII-71, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 16-
VII-76, (RMB); same, 5-XII-70, J. A. Slater, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); CLAY CO.: Hibemia, 7-
VIII-39, R. H. Beamer, (NMNH); COLLIER
CO.: Seminole St. Park, 13-XI-72, C. W. & L B.
O'Brien, (JAS); West of Ochopee, 9-IX-38,
Oman, (NMNH); HARDEE CO.: Zolfo Springs,
22-XII-50, L D. Beamer, (NMNH); HIGH-
LANDS CO.: Highlands Hammock St. Park, 7-VI-
69, J. Slater, J. Harrington, T. Schuh, (JAS);
LEVY CO.: Cedar Key, 14-VI-65, C. W. & L. B.


O'Brien, (JAS); MONROE CO.: Ohio Key, 18-
VI-65, L & C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); OSCEOLA
CO.: 5 mi W. Yeehaw Jet., 6-VI-69, J. Slater, T.
Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); PINELLAS CO.:
Clearwater, 29-IV-08, Van Duzee collection,
(AMNH); St. Petersburg, 28-IV-08, Van Duzee,
(NMNH); SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford, 8-VIII-39,
R. H. Hilliard, (NMNH); WAKULLA CO.: Shell
Point, 19-VI-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS).



ISCHNODEMUS CONICUS Van Duzee
(map XXXV)


Ischnodemus conicus Van Duzee 1909:234.

Diagnosis: Larger than badius, readily distin-
guishable by nearly concolorous head and anterior
pronotal lobe. Connexivum dark, yellowish along
extreme lateral margin.

Biology: Harrington (1972) reported it breeding
on Spartina altemiflora Loisel in North Carolina.
Wood (pers. comm.) reports adults and nymphs in
the seed head of the same host at Cedar Key and
that both adults and nymphs occur in the diets of
nestling seaside sparrows. It appears to be primar-
ily a coastal species. Harrington (1972) stated that
all of her records were from coastal localities, al-
though little other than the host plant noted above
has been reported of its biology. As discussed
above under I. badius, some of the records of the
latter on Spartina altemiflora may belong here.

Distribution: Originally described from Texas and
reported by Harrington (1972) from Florida,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina and Virginia.

Florida Distribution: Reported from Florida for
the first time by Harrington (1972) without defi-
nite locality. BREVARD CO.: Cocoa Beach, 15-
VIII-62, J. T. Polhemus, (JAS); GULF CO.: St.
Joseph State Park, 1-3-V-70, W. W. Worth,
(NMNH); HOLMES CO.: North Smyrna,
(NMNH); LEVY CO.: 14-III-58, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (JAS); same, (RMB); Cedar Key, 10-VIII-39,
J. D. Beamer, (NMNH); same, 12-VII-39, Oman,
(NMNH); same, 14-VI-65, C. W. & L. B. O'Brien,
(JAS); same, 28-V-79, Lois Wood, (RMB); same,


.,4-









3-VII-38, Hubbell & Friauf, (NMNH); Sea Horse
Key, 7-IX-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., (JAS); same,
(RMB).


Map XXXV. Distribution of schnodemus conicus



ISCHNODEMUS BRUNNIPENNIS
(Germar)
(figs. 37, 39, map XXXVI)


Pachymerus brunnipennis Germar 1837:140-141.
Ischnodemus brunnipennis Walker 1872:129.

Diagnosis: Smaller than preceding two species.
Shining black with prominent silvery dorsal
pubescence. Recognized by reddish tan to yellow-
ish posterior pronotal lobe contrasting strongly
with black anterior lobe.
It may, of course, be recognized by the dis-
tinctive pruinosity pattern as noted in the preced-
ing key.


Biology: Harrington (1972) reports it breeding in
Florida on Panicum hemitomon Schult. and C. W.
O'Brien collected a long series of adults and
nymphs on Sacciolepis striata L. Nash. These host
plants appear to be confined largely to the eastern
and southern coastal plain. Harrington (1972)
states however, that the distribution of
brunnipennis is much greater than this, so other
host plants must be utilized. Slater's (1976) quote
of Harrington as questionably breeding .on
Spartina pectinata Link is in error.
While it is primarily found in the
brachypterous and micropterous condition,
macropters are not rare.


,004 '"


Map XXXVI. Distribution of brunnipennis

Distribution: I. brunnipennis apparently has a
disjunct distribution being found in Florida and
with scattered populations in Kansas, Texas, Iowa,
Oklahoma, Indiana, Nebraska, South Carolina,
Arizona, California, Louisiana and Mississippi.

Florida Distribution: The type series of Van
Duzee (1909) of Ischnodemus rufipes was mixed
and paratypes from this series are specimens of








































































































I


brunnipennis


'
1.1 '

r,
rr
`
'
t
-









brunnipennis. Harrington (1972) reported it from
Kenansville. BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lauderdale,
18-11-19, A. Wetmore; (this is a morphotype, J.
Harrington), (NMNH); DADE CO: 20 mi S.W.
Hialeah, on Hwy. 27, 17-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); CHARLOTTE CO.: 7 mi S. Punta Gorda,
23-VI-65, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); COLLIER CO.:
9 mi E. Monroe Station, 21-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); GLADES CO.: 11 mi SW Palmdale, 22-
VII-73, O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); HENDRY
CO.: 13 mi S. LaBelle, 23-VII-73, O'Brien &
Marshall, (JAS); HERNANDO CO.: 2 mi. S.
Spring Hill, 23-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall,
(JAS) Weekiwachee, 23-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien &
Marshall, (JAS); HIGHLANDS CO.: Hammock
State Park, 14-IV-66, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
same, 20-111-54, (RMB); same, 19-111-55, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); Lake Placid, 12-8-59, A. N.
Nadler, (AMNH); same,13-VII-48, R. H. Beemer,
(NMNH); same, Archbold Biological Station, 2-
111-83, N. Deyrup, (RMB); same, 18-11-83,
(RMB);Sebring, 8-1-58, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 9-11-
29, E. D. Ball, (NMNH). INDIAN RIVER CO.:
Sebastian, Nelson, (JAS); same, XI, G. Nelson,
(AMNH); LAKE CO.: 11 mi N. Altoona, 26-III-
76, C. W. O'Brien & G. B. Marshall, (JAS); 12 mi
N. Minneola, 16-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien & Mar-
shall, (JAS); Leesburg, 1-11-III-54, N. Statham,
(JAS); same, 1-11-54, N. Stathan, (AMNH); LEE
CO.: 19 mi SE Ft. Myers, 23-111-73, C. W. & L. B.
O'Brien, (JAS); LEON CO.: Lake lamonia, 8-
VII-76, G. B. Marshall, (JAS); Tall Timbers Res.
Sta., 5-VII-72, (swept at night), C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); same, 26-V-73, (bird window on
Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pavon), C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); same, Sheep Island, 20-11-72, C.
W. O'Brien, (damaging Sacciolepis striata (L.)),
Nask, (JAS); same, Gay's Island, 12-VI-73, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); Tallahassee, 24-1-74, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); LEVY CO.: 8 mi SE Chiefland,
23-111-76, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS);
MANATEE CO.: Myakka St. Park, 15-VII-66, R.
Allen, (JAS); Myakka St. Park, 16-VII-66, R.
Allen, (JAS); MARION CO.: Ocala Nat. Forest, 3
mi N. Hwy. 40, Zay Prairie, 26-1-74, (at night), G.
B. Marshall, (JAS); same, 20-V-76, L. & C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); NASSAU CO.: 7 mi
SW Boulogne, 14-VI-69, J. A. Slater, J. Harring-
ton, (JAS); ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 4-1, E.
N. Davis, (AMNH); OSCEOLA CO.: 13 mi N.
Kennansville, 6-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Har-


rington, (JAS); 3 mi N. Kennansville, 6-VI-69, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); 7 mi N.
Yeehaw Jet., 29-III-76 C. W. O'Brien & Marshall,
(JAS); PASCO CO.: 4 mi N. Land O' Lakes, 23-
VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); TAYLOR CO.: 14
mi E. Perry, Hwy. 27, 1-VI-77, C. W. O'Brien &
Marshall, (JAS); VOLUSIA CO.: Samsula, 21-IX-
79, J. N. Pott, (RMB); WAKULLA CO.: 3 mi N.
Live Oak Point, 19-VI-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS);
WASHINGTON CO.: 21-IV-77, G. B. Marshall,
(JAS).



ISCHNODEMUS SLOSSONAE
Van Duzee
(fig. 36, map XXXVII)


Ischnodemus slossoni Van Duzee 1909:233-234.
Ischnodemus intermedius Blatchley 1926:365.

Diagnosis: Small (4.5-5), head, anterior
two thirds of pronotum, scutellum black. Eyes
large, protrudent. Calli generally more prominent
and swollen than in other small species of
Ischnodemus. Ventral prothoracic pruinosity con-
fined to center of sternum.
Actually, this represents a very difficult
taxonomic problem, for populations of
Ischnodemus that occur in such widely separated
areas as Connecticut and Texas appear to be quite
different from the Florida populations, but are
connected by intermediates. For the moment one
must consider that a single highly variable species
is involved.
This species occurs both in macropterous
and brachypterous conditions.

Biology: Harrington (1972) studied the biology
extensively in Connecticut, where the host plant,
Panicum agrostoides Spreng, occurs in damp
meadow habitats. Overwintering is in the adult
stage. There is one generation a year in Connecti-
cut, and eggs are deposited within the leaf sheaths
of the host plant's new growth in June. Females
lay from three to seven eggs at a time. The eggs
are placed tight against the stems with the long
axes parallel to one another. Harrington ibidd)
notes predation by a syrphid larva. Slater (1976)
reports numbers on Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.)
Torr. and breeding on Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash.








































Map XXXVII. Distribution of I. slossonae


Distribution: As noted above, the species as cur-
rently understood, is widespread ranging from
southern New England west to Illinois and south
to Texas and Florida. However, Florida popula-
tions are quite distinct in appearance from those
from the periphery of the range.

Florida Distribution: Described by Van Duzee
(1909) from Jacksonville and subsequently re-
ported by Barber (1914) from Little River and by
Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin and Royal Palm
Park. DADE CO.: 20 mi SW Hialeah, on Hwy 27,
17-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); JEFFERSON
CO.: 1 mi SW Wacissa, 16-IX-76, G. B. Mar-
shall,(JAS); 1 mi SW Wacissa, 18-IV-76, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); LEE CO.:1, 4 mi N. Bonita
Springs, U.S. 41, 15-VII-51, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
4 mi. N. Bonita Springs, U.S. 41, 15-VII-51, R. F.


Hussy, (NMNH); 4 mi N. Bonita Springs, US 41,
15-VII-51, R. F. Hussey, (JAS); Estero, 21-VII-
34, P. McKinstry, (NMNH); LEON CO.: Talla-
hassee, 27-X-76, (Berlese hard wood litter), L. D.
Justice, (JAS); LEVY CO.: Cedar Key, 14-VI-65,
C .W. & L. B. O'Brien, (JAS); OKEECHOBEE
Co.: 5 mi W. Okeechobee. 16-VII-73, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); SARASOTA CO.:
Venice, 8-X-38, Oman, (NMNH); SEMINOLE
CO.: Sanford, 1925, E. D. Ball, (JAS);
WAKULLA CO.: 1 mi N. Spring Creek, 25-V-73,
C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); 1 mi S. Panacea, 29-IV-76,
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS).




ISCHNODEMUS LOBA TUS
Van Duzee
(map XXVIII)


Ischnodenus lobatus Van Duzee 1909:169.


Diagnosis: Similar to slossonae, but lacking
prominent swollen calli.
It is readily recognizable by the characters
given in the key, particularly the long labium, and
also by having much more strongly developed
pubescence on the dorsal surface.

Biology: Nothing is known of its biology.

Distribution: Known only from southern Florida.

Florida Distribution: Originally described by Van
Duzee (1909) from Estero and subsequently re-
ported by Blatchley (1926) from Royal Palm Park
and by Harrington (1972) from Homestead and
Tims Hammock, Dade Co. COLLIER CO.: 6 mi
E. Ochopee, 21-VII-73, (night),C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); Collier-Seminole St. Park, 22-VII-73, C.
W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); DADE CO.:
Tims Hammock, 24-II-19, H. S. Barber, (NMNH);
Everglades Nat. Park, 19-VII-73, O'Brien & Mar-
shall, (JAS); Homestead, 19-VI-39, Oman,
(NMNH); same, 10-VI-39 Oman, (JAS);
WAKULLA CO.: 1 mi N. Spring Creek, 16-V-73,
C. W. O'Brien, (JAS).


,b"iP~ P









numbers, with both nymphs and adults clustered
close together in the leaf sheaths of the host plant.
Anonymous (1982) reports adult "infestation* on
leaves of 25 umbrella plants, Cyperus alternifolius
L., at a nursery in Apopka and scattered adults on
Chinese fan palms, Livistonia chinensis R. Br. at
the same locality. The life history has not been
studied in detail.


-P pO


Map XXXVIII. Distribution of lobatus



ISCHNODEMUS PRAECULTUS Distant
(fig. 40, map XXXIX)


Ischnodemuspraecultus Distant 1882:196.
Ischnodemus atramedius Blatchley 1926:366.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (5-5.5). Hemelytra
smoky colored with pale white to dull testaceous
membrane. Surface of head, pronotum and
scutellum predominantly or entirely dull grayish or
reddish brown pruinose.
Slater & Wilcox (1969) treated rufipes
V.D. as a junior synonym, but Harrington (1972)
believes that the two populations in Florida are
distinct and we follow her conclusions.

Biology: Harrington (1972) reported this species
as breeding in the leaf sheaths of the sedge Cyperus
flavus (Vahl) Nees that grows in relatively dry
places. I praecultus is often found in very large


Map XXXIX. Distribution of I.praecultus


Distribution: Primarily Neotropical, distributed
from South America through Central America and
into the southern United States.

Florida Distribution: A common species in suit-
able habitats in southern Florida. Reported by
Harrington (1972) from Sanibel Island, Big Pine
Key, Flamingo Prairie, and Everglades National
Park. Some of the earlier records of rufipes by Van
Duzee (1909), Barber (1914), and Blatchley (1926)
probably belong here. BROWARD CO.: Coconut
Creek, 20-1-84, D. Leone; COLLIER CO.: Col-
lier-Seminole St. Park, 22-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien
& Marshall, (JAS); DADE CO.: 20 mi SW









Hialeah on Hwy 27, 17-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); Homestead, 14-III-47, L. D. Beamer,
(NMNH); 35 mi N. Miami Springs, 28-111-73, C.
W. & L. B. O'Brien, (JAS); GADSDEN CO.: 1-
VIII-56, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); INDIAN RIVER
CO.: 2 mi W. Wabasso, Hwy. 510, 28-III-76, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); LAKE CO.: Lees-
burg, 12-1-56, F. W. Mead, (RMB); MANATEE
CO.: Bradenton, Perrico Island, 18-III-72, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); MARTIN CO.: Stuart, 11-V-79,
(on Carex), E. W. Campbell, (FSCA); MONROE
CO.: Big Pine Key, 18-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); same, Watson Hammock, 4-XI-82, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Everglades National Park,
14-VII-70, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same,
Snake Bight Trail, 6-X-69, R. M. Baranowski, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); same,
Flamingo Prairie, 12-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 25-III-70, (RMB); same, 12-VI-69,
(RMB); same, 10-VI-69, (RMB); same, 25-III-70,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); ORANGE CO.:
Apopka, 28-IV-82, (on Cyperus alternifolius), B.
Slongers, (FSCA); ST. LUCIE CO.: Port St. Lu-
cie, 23-11-79, (adults and nymphs on Cladium), E.
W. Campbell, (FSCA); PALM BEACH CO.:
Jupiter, 31-V-88, (on Cyperus odoratus L.),K. B.
Nicholson, (FSCA); TAYLOR CO.: 20-IV-55, F.
W. Mead, (FSCA).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Everglades National
Park, 20-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); same, 29-
1-59, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); Oscar Sherrer
State Park, 13-IV-66, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB).



ISCHNODEMUS ROBUSTUS Blatchley
(map XXXX)


Ischnodemus robustus Blatchley 1926 p. 366.

Diagnosis: Closely related to praecultus, but
somewhat larger (6-8), and distinguished by the
characters given in the preceding key. In contrast
to praecultus, this species is almost always
macropterous or submacropterous.

Biology: Harrington (1972) reported this species
breeding in numbers on what Slater (1976), subse-
quent to her paper, determined to be Echinochloa
sp. in a large marshy area west of Eau Gallie,


where it was also taken on Panicum geminatum
Forsk. The biology has not been studied in detail.

Distribution: Known only from Florida.

Florida Distribution: Originally described by
Blatchley (1926) from Royal Palm Park and subse-
quently reported by Harrington (1972) from Lake
Washington, west of Eau Gallie. BREVARD CO.:
Lake Washington, 12-VIII-71, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 5-XII-70, R. M. Baranowski, J. A.
Slater, (RMB); 5 mi W. Eau Gallie 13-VI-69, J. A.
Slater, J. Harrington, (JAS); Eau Gallie, 5-XII-70,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); DADE CO.: Hialeah,
14-VII-27, G. B. Merrill, (FSCA); Paradise Key
21-II-19, T. E. Snyder, (NMNH); same, 5-V-?, J.
Know, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 29-III-
49, R. F. Hussey, (NMNH); GLADES CO.:
Moore Haven, 17-IV-?, J. Know, (NMNH);
SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford, 26-1-74, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS).


~ao~ ''4


Map XXXX. Distribution of Ischnodemus robustus






















ig


Fig. 40. Ischnodemus praecultus









ISCHNODEMUS FUL VIPES
(De Geer)
(fig. 41, map XXXXI)


Cimexfulvipes De Geer 1773:355.
Micropes sallei Signoret 1857:25.
Ischnodemusfuilvipes Walker 1872:127.

Diagnosis: Large, robust, dorsally pruinose with
elongate labium. Usually smoky brown in color.
This species is highly variable. Some of
the South American and Mexican specimens have
the hemelytra pale testaceous to almost white.
Florida material examined also has a smoky brown
membrane to the fore wing.


Map XXXXI. Distribution oflschnodemus fulvipes


Biology: Slater and Wilcox (1969) report it on
Canna indica L bromeliads, bamboo and Thalia
geniculata L. and its occurrence on Musa paradisi-
aca var. sapientum L. in the Neotropics. The host
plants appear to be quite different from the other
Florida species. C. W. & L. B. O'Brien took adults


and nymphs at Highlands Hammock on Thalia
geniculata.

Distribution: Widely distributed occurring in
South America, Central America, the West Indies,
Florida and possibly Texas.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Slater and
Wilcox (1969) from Highlands Hammock State
Park. COLLIER CO.: 4 mi. west of Immokolee,
State Road 486, 3-VIII-81, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); DADE CO.: 10 mi. west of Homestead
airport, 4-VII-81, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); DE
SOTO CO.: 6 mi S. Arcadia, Hwy. 31, 22-VII-73,
C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); GLADES CO.: Palmdale,
24-IX-80; (on Thalia geniculata), D. H. Habeck,
(FSCA); S.W. Palmdale, 24-IX-80, D. H. Habeck,
(RMB); 11 mi SW Palmdale, 22-VII-73, O'Brien
& Marshall, (JAS); HENDRY CO.: 13 mi S. La-
Belle, 22-VII-73, O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS);
HIGHLANDS CO.: Highlands Hammock 15-
VI-55, H. S. Dybas, (NMNH); Highlands Ham-
mock St. Park, 15-VI-65, L. & C. W. O'Brien,
(JAS); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 18-VII-73,
C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); PALM BEACH CO.: Lake
Worth, 15-X-86, D. M. Leone, (FSCA); Loxa-
hatchee, 7-IX-87, (on Thalia geniculata), E. W.
Campbell, (FSCA).



ISCHNODEMUS RUFIPES Van Duzee
(map XXXXII)


Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee 1909:167-168.
Ischnodemus atramedius Blatchley 1926:365.

Diagnosis: Dorsal surface of head and pronotum
largely pruinose. A distinct small dark area in
membrane adjacent to apical corial spot. First 3
antennal segments usually pale sepia to dark
chestnut or blackish brown. Veins slightly con-
trasting or concolorous with membrane.
Slater and Wilcox (1969) synonymized
this species with praecultus, but Harrington (1972)
indicated that in Florida there appear to be two
populations that are quite distinct in their host
plants and in the habitats that they occupy. We
accept Harrington's conclusions pending more
detailed analysis and treat them here as distinct
species.


69









I 1 /


Fig. 41. lschnodemus fulvipes


A


Pk&~









Biology: Harrington (1972) reported nymphs and
adults taken on Cyperus odoratus L at Sebring,
Florida in a wet habitat at the edge of a lake.

Distribution: Known from the southeastern
states, occurring north to Virginia and southwest
to Texas, primarily through the Gulf Coast states
and also known from Mexico.


Map XXXXII. Distribution oflschnodemus rufipes

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Crescent City, Clearwater, Estero and
Lake Worth; by Barber (1914) from Lakeland and
South Bay; by Blatchley (1926) from Fort Myers,
Royal Palm Park, Moore Haven, Istokpoga, Or-
mond and Dunedin and as I atramedius from
Dunedin and by Torre-Bueno (1933) from Mate-
cumbe. Some of these records probably are refer-
able topraecultus. DADE CO.: Homestead, 22-II-
44, (NMNH); same, 28-II-18, A. Wetmore (at
light), (NMNH); Little River, 1-XII-12, Fred
Knab, (NMNH); Paradise Key, 3-III-19, H. S.
Barber, (NMNH); ORANGE CO.:Apopka, 1-X-


64, R. E. Woodruff, (RMB); PALM BEACH CO.:
Boynton Beach, 23-II-44, (NMNH); Lakeworth,
(NMNH); PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 1-III-27,
W.S.B. collection, (NMNH); same, 17-1-18, W. S.
B. collection, (NMNH); St. Petersburg, 26-III-20,
E. Craighead, (NMNH); Seven Oaks, 1-V-08, Van
Duzee, (NMNH); POLK CO.: 6-V-57, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); WAKULLA CO.: 20-IV-55, F. W.
Mead, (RMB).



GEOCORINAE Stal


The members of this subfamily are readily recog-
nizable by the large kidney shaped protrudent eyes
that project backward and usually appear to over-
lap or nearly overlap the antero-lateral pronotal
angles. The body is stout and ovoid, the pronotum
broad and without a transverse furrow. In our
species the clavus narrows to a point posteriorly so
that no claval commissure is developed. The spir-
acles are dorsal on abdominal segments 2, 3 and 4
and ventral on segments 5, 6 and 7. The sutures
between abdominal terga 4-5 and 5-6 curve
strongly backward to the meson.
Many, if not all, of the species are in part
or entirely predaceous.
This is a large subfamily containing 13
genera. It is represented in all of the major
zoogeographic regions of the world. Two genera
and 5 species occur in Florida.


KEY TO FLORIDA GENERA OF
GEOCORINAE

1. Labial segment 2 longer than segment 3;
eyes strongly stylate (fig. 42)............
...................... Isthmocoris, p. 72


Fig. 42. Isthmocoris piceus, head


,dlP~ PO









1. Labial segment 2 shorter than segment 3;
eyes usually not strongly stylate but large
and reniform (fig. 43)..................
.........................Geocoris, p. 73


Diagnosis: Medium sized (4-4.2), shining black
with contrasting reddish or yellowish head. Legs,
labium and at least base of 1st and 4th antennal
segments reddish, yellowish or pale tan.
Both macropters and brachypters occur
but the latter are more abundant and have the
hemelytra somewhat coleopteroid.


Fig. 43. Geocoris uliginosus, head


ISTHMOCORIS McAtee 1914


Isthmocoris McAtee 1914, p.217.

Type Species: Salda picea Say 1831. By original
designation.

The strongly produced eyes and smooth
shining vertex will separate this genus from other
members of the subfamily. The genus, as presently
considered contains 4 species and occurs in the
Nearctic and Neotropical regions.
All four species occur north of Mexico of
which 2 are southwestern and 2 occur in Florida.



KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
ISTHMOCORIS


1. Dorsal surface chiefly black or piceus....
.......................... .piceus, p. 72
1'. Dorsal surface in large part reddish yellow
or testaceus .............imperialis, p. 73



ISTHMOCORIS PICEUS
(Say) 1831
(figs. 42, 44)


Saldapicea Say 1831:336.
Isthmocorispiceus McAtee 1914:127.


Fig. 44. Isthmocorispiceus


Biology: Little is known of the biology. It is
chiefly a ground inhabiting species and almost cer-
tainly predaceous. Torre-Bueno (1935) took
specimens by sweeping Potentilla canadensis L.
Readio and Sweet (1982) report that in New Eng-
land it is a typical inhabitant of old fields with
dense grass litter between grass clumps.

Distribution: Reported from New England west to
Colorado and south to Florida. However, Readio
and Sweet (1982) limit the distribution to the
northeastern and midwestern states, but do in-
clude a record from southern Mississippi; thus,
while probably not a member of the Florida fauna,
the Barber record cannot be dismissed.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Biscayne Bay.


t









ISTHMOCORIS IMPERIALISM (Distant)
(map XXXXIII)


Geocoris imperialis Distant 1882:197-198.
Isthmocoris imperialis McAtee 1914:127, 129.

Diagnosis: Size similar to piceus. Chiefly reddish
yellow to orange to testaceus in color with 1 or 2
dark spots posteriorly on pronotum. Scutellum,
2nd and 3rd antennal segments, thoracic and
abdominal sterna blackish or at least infuscated
with contrasting dark brown.


Map XXXXIII. Distribution of. imperialism


Biology: Blatchley (1926) took specimens from
beneath gunny sacks near an orange grove. We
took this species in a slightly elevated grassy area
together with an assemblage of rhyparochromines
near the roadside at the edge of Flamingo Prairie
in Everglades National Park. Readio and Sweet
(1982) report it in Texas as usually taken in climax


grasslands and old fields. It is not found in the
open where other geocorines occur.

Distribution: Readio and Sweet (1982) suggest a
disjunct distribution in the southwestern states
and Florida, but raise questions concerning the
taxonomic status of several of the populations.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Dunedin and by Readio and Sweet
(1982) from Everglades National Park. MON-
ROE CO.: Everglades Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie,
10-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS);
same, 8-IV-70, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB).




GEOCORIS Fallen 1814


Geocoris Fallen 1814, p. 10.
Ophthalmicus Schilling 1829, pp. 37,62.

Type Species: Cimex grylloides Linnaeus 1761.
Fixed by Oshanin 1912.

The members of this genus are dis-
tinguishable from Isthmocoris primarily by the non
stalked eyes which are nevertheless very large,
reniform, and curved backward adjacent to the an-
tero-lateral pronotal angles.
This is a very large genus containing ap-
proximately 127 species and distributed in all of
the major zoogeographic regions of the world.
There are a number of evident subgroups present,
some of which will probably ultimately be recog-
nized as genera or subgenera and until these have
been carefully segregated, it is premature to at-
tempt detailed geographic interpretation.
Species of Geocoris are predators on small
arthropods although they do feed upon plants to
some extent. Several species have recently been
intensively studied as possible biological control
factors of destructive insects and there is a very
extensive recent literature, particularly of the
western species. Crocker (1978) reviews feeding
niches, variety of insects attacked and potential
value. Readio and Sweet (1982) should be
consulted for an extensive survey of the taxonomy,
biology and distribution of members of this genus
occurring in Florida.









KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF Teleonemus reynoldsi G. & C. as an egg parasite in
GEOCORIS California. Atim and Graham (1983) reported
adult parasitization by the tachinid Hyalomya
aldrichii Townsend in Arizona (see also Clancy and
1. Head smooth, shining, with a distinct me-
dian groove extending onto the vertex ....
........................punctipes, p. 74
1'. Head pebbled or rugulose, lacking a dis-
tinct median sulcus on the vertex.......2
2. Scutellum with length and width equal or. .
subequal, usually unicolorous .......... '...
....................... uliginosus, p. 77
2'. Scutellum distinctly longer than wide,
usually bicolored.................. 3
3. General color grayish; antennae reddish .
brown or dark brown with distal ends of
segments not strongly contrasting or ap- .';-
pearing banded; corial punctures near
center of surface obsolete; larger, females
3.89-4.21 mm., males 3.26-3.68 ..........
........................ bullatus, p. 77 r
3'. General color ivory to parchment white;
antennae of females red with distal ends
of segments banded with white; segments Fig. 45. Geocorispunctipes
1-3 of antennae of males with dorsal sur-
face white, bluish green or pink, con-
trasting with red proximal ends; punctures
on corium uniformly dark and conspicu-
ous over entire surface; smaller, females
3.26-3.79, males 3.05-3.37..............
....................... floridanus, p. 75
S* .



GEOCORIS PUNCTIPES (Say)
(fig 45, map XXXXIV)


Salda bullata var.punctipes Say 1831:336.
Ophthalmicus luniger Fieber 1861:268-269.
Geocorispunctipes Montandon 1913:55.
Geocoris sonoraensis Van Duzee 1923:138.

Diagnosis: Dull yellowish to grayish over most of
body with scutellum black with a yellow subbasal
lateral spot. First and 2nd antennal segments
dark, distal 2 segments pale. Legs yellow with dark
spots on femora. Head shining, sulcate. .4 *.

Biology: Blatchley (1926) reported adults over-
wintering. Gordh and Coker (1973) noted Map XXXXIV Distribution of Geocorispunctipes










Pierce 1966) Altieri and Whitcomb (1979,1980)
state that it is commonly associated with
Chenopodium amberosoides L, where it is
predaceous on the aphid Ureleucon sp. and the
cicadellid, Graphocephala versuta (Say). Dunbar
(1972) described the courtship and mating ritual in
detail and noted that light and dark variation did
not affect mating and commented upon the
frequency of mating and adult longevity.

There is an extensive recent literature that
investigates this species as a possible control
predator against soybean, sorghum, cotton insects
as well as other insects. Readio and Sweet (1982)
summarize the general ecological habitat prefer-
ences.

Distribution: The range is southern, north to New
Jersey and Long Island, New York southern Indi-
ana through Illinois and west to California. It also
occurs in Mexico.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Dunedin and Sarasota; by Barber
(1914) from Jacksonville, Crescent City, Clearwa-
ter, Tampa, Sanford, Belleair, Biscayne Bay, Punta
Gorda and Lakeland, and by Altieri and Whit-
comb (1979) from Tall Timbers Research Station.
ALACHUA CO.: 5-III-56, R. A. Morse, (RMB);
Gainesville, 15-1-47, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
same, 18-1-64, F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, 21-V-
64, (FSCA); same, 24-XII-65, (RMB); same, 30-
IV-64, (JAS); same, 9-V-67, (RMB); same, 30-
IV-64, (RMB); BROWARD CO.: Pompano Park,
19-IX-73, D. C. Clinton, W. H. Pierce, (RMB);
COLLIER CO.: 6 mi E. Ochopee, 21-VII-73, C.
W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Seminole St. Pk.,
13-XI-72, C. W. & L B. O'Brien, (JAS); DADE
CO.: Homestead, 6-XI-59, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 20-VII-59, (RMB); same, 10-XI-
75, O. Corrigan, (JAS); Miami, 20-VIII-62, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 30-IV-54, O. D. Link,
(FSCA); DUVAL CO.: St. Johns Bluff, 11-IX-56,
F. W. Mead, (RMB); St. Johns Bluff, 11-IX-56, F.
W. Mead, (RMB); FLAGLER CO.: 6-VII-56, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); HIGHLANDS CO.: Se-
bring, 20-1-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Plant City, 24-XI-41, J.
O. Lewis, (RMB); JACKSON CO.: 4.3 mi. N. of
Butler, 2-VI-55, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Florida
Swinging Bridge, 6-VI-54, F. N. Young, (FSCA);
LAKE CO.: Leesburg, 8-VI-59, L. H. Stover,


(RMB); LEE CO.: Sanibel Island, 9-VI-69, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); LEON
CO.:Tall Timbers Res Sta., 5-VII-72, (swept at
night), C. W. O'Brien,, (JAS); same, 19-VIII-68,
W. H. Whitcomb, (FSCA); same, 28-VIII-68,
(FSCA); same, 24-IX-68, (FSCA); MARION CO.:
mi. SSW of Ocala, 18-IX-2-X-75, (malaise trap), J.
R. Wiley, (RMB); MONROE CO.: Conch Key, 9-
IV-66, F. W. Mead, (JAS); Key Largo, 11-VI-69,
R. M. Baranowski, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harring-
ton, (JAS); same, 30-XI-70, J. A. Slater, (JAS);
Marathon, Marathon Key, 19-VII-73, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); North Key Largo Key, 18-VI-81,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 16-V-77,
(RMB); same 19-V-77, (RMB); same, 19-V-77,
(RMB); Plantation Key, 14-X-54, H. A. Denmark,
(FSCA); NASSAU CO.: 20-VIII-54, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); PALM BEACH CO.: 27-VII-53, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Belle Glade, 19-VI-39,
Oman, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Ft. Mead, 12-II-87,
J. Hughes, (FSCA); PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin,
Dunedin Beach, 23-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien,(JAS);
Cabbage Key, 24-X-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
Clearwater ; 29-IV-08, Van Duzee collection,
(NMNH); SANTA ROSA CO.: 12-VIII-55, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); VOLUSIA CO.: 25-VII-54, H. A.
Denmark, (FSCA); 26-VII-54, R. F. Hussey,
(FSCA); WAKULLA CO.: Shell Point Beach, 3-
VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS).
DRY TORTUGAS, Garden Key, 9-VII-63, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, Hospital Key, 7-VI-62,
(RMB); same, (JAS).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Dartan, E. G.
Kelscheimer, (NMNH); Duval Co., (NMNH).
Pomosula, 3-1-41, W. C. Nanney, (RMB).




GEOCORIS FLORIDANUS Blatchley
(map XXXXV)


Geocoris bullatus floridanus Blatchley 1926:375-
376.
Geocorisfloridanus Readio & Sweet 1982:37-40.

Diagnosis: Similar to bullatus, but dorsal surface
ivory white, corial punctures dark and distinct over
entire surface, smaller, narrower and with differ-
ently colored antennae, as given in the preceding
key.










Until recently floridanus has been consid-
ered a "variety" of bullatus. Readio and Sweet
(1982) argue persuasively that it should be ac-
corded specific status. They noted differences in
the spermathecal duct in addition to external char-
acters given above. We follow this treatment, but
point out that as considered the two taxa are
allopatric and the Readio and Sweet (1982) distri-
bution maps (p. 75) indicate a lack of specimens of
either species from Tennessee, Kentucky, West
Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, and from southern
Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio the very areas were in-
tegradation might be expected to occur were the
two taxa to represent subspecies. For this reason
we have retained bullatus in the key although Rea-
dio and Sweet refer all Florida records of bullatus
to floridana.


Map XXXXV. Distribution of Geocorisfloridanus


Biology: Readio and Sweet (1982) state that
floridanus is usually found in sandy areas running
among plants and quote Crocker (pers. comm.) as


finding it commonly in Florida in sandy areas un-
der debris, beneath Bermuda grass, sand spurs, on
beaches above the high tide lines on Sesuvium por-
tulacastrum and Cakile constricta Rodman. Rea-
dio and Sweet ibidd) describe the nymphs and note
that there are dark and light types with dark
nymphs being correlated with the winter season.

Distribution: Southern from Florida west to
Texas and north to Washington D. C. Readio and
Sweet (1982) note that the center of distribution is
in Florida and Georgia with very few specimens
being known from the extremes of the range. Al-
though many specimens listed below have been
identified as bullatus we are referring all records to
floridanus.

Florida Distribution: Reported as bullatus by Van
Duzee (1909) from Crescent City, Tampa and Es-
tero; by Barber (1914) from Biscayne Bay, Lake
Worth and Lakeland and by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin and Key West. ALACHUA CO.: 6-V-55,
R. A. Morse; Gainesville, 23-VIII-55, R. A.
Morse; Gainesville, 19-1-19, G. B. Merrill, (RMB);
same, 26-VII-56, H. A. Denmark, (RMB); DADE
CO.: Miami, 20-VIII-62, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); Everglades National Park, 16-VIII-62, R.
M. Baranowski, (RMB); DIXIE CO.:2 mi W.
Fannin Springs, 4-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); DUVAL CO.: St. Johns Bluff,
11-IX-56, F. W. Mead, (RMB); HIGHLANDS
CO.: Sebring, 17-VII-50, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); LEE CO.: Sanibel Is., 9-VI-69, J. Slater,
T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); LEON CO.: Tall
Timbers Research Station, 30-VII-69, W. H. Whit-
comb, (FSCA); same, 19-VII-69, (FSCA); same,
23-VII-69, (FSCA); same, 31-VII-69, (FSCA);
MONROE CO.:Marathon Key, 19-VII-73, C. W.
O'Brien, (JAS); Duck Key, 29-VII-62, F. W.
Mead, (RMB); Key Largo Key, 4-VII-64, R. E.
White, (RMB); North Key Largo Key, 11-VI-69,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Stock Island, 7-VII-
59, W. W. Warner, (RMB); ORANGE CO.: Win-
ter Park, 26-IX-45, H. T. Fernald, (FSCA); POLK
CO.: 23-VI-58, W. P. Henderson, (FSCA); ST.
JOHNS CO.: 22-VII-58, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); ST.
LUCIE CO.: Port St. Lucie, 18-V-82, K Hebbard,
(FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.: Daytona Beach, 14-IX-
87, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Ormond Beach, 4-XI-60,
R. E. Woodruff, (RMB); WAKULLA CO.:Shell
Point Beach, 3-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Har-
rington, (JAS).









DRY TORTUGAS, Loggerhead Key, 2-IX-61, H.
V. Weems, Jr., (RMB).



GEOCORIS BULLATUS (Say)


Salda bullata Say 1831:336.
Ophthalmicus griseus Dallas 1852:585.
Geocoris bullata Uhler 1876:306.

Diagnosis: Small (3-3.5), ovoid, chiefly grayish or
yellowish. Vertex, anterior portion of scutellum, a
median spot along apical corial margins black.
Pronotal calli smooth, yellow or bright fuscous.
Antennae usually reddish brown, sometimes black.
Readio and Sweet (1982) believefloridanus, which
has previously been considered a variety of
bullatus, is the only one of the two species that oc-
curs in Florida. We list bullatus in the preceding
key pending future study.

Biology: Blatchley (1926) reports overwintering in
the adult stage and says it occurs principally in
sandy locations along the margins of lakes and
ponds. Readio and Sweet (1982) also indicate
sandy areas. They characterize it as a species of
open disturbed areas such as roadsides, waste lots,
etc, but also in more permanent habitats along
streams, beaches, dunes and open gravelly alpine
areas. Despite the preferences for seemingly
relatively temporary habitats, the high percentage
of non-macropters (82%) suggests relative perma-
nency of many of the habitats.

Distribution: Prior to Readio and Sweet (1982)
bullatus was considered to be widely distributed in
Florida. These authors refer those records to
floridana and restrict the distribution of bullatus to
the northern states. We include it here pending
further study.




GEOCORIS ULIGINOSUS (Say)
(fig. 43, map XXXXVI)


Salda uliginosus Say 1831:337.
Ophthalmicus niger Dallas 1852:586.


Ophthalmicus lateralis Fieber 1861:270-271.
Geocoris ater Lethierry & Severin (nec Fabricius)
1894:169.
Geocoris uliginosus speculator Montandon
1908:227-228.
Geocoris uliginosus lateralis McAtee 1914:135.

Diagnosis: Subequal to bullatus in size, extremely
variable in color. Distinguishable by relatively
shorter uniformly black scutellum.
The typical "variety" is almost uniformly
black, at most with very narrow pale costal mar-
gins. The legs are black in the female and reddish-
yellow in the male. Two "varieties" probably are
not of geographic significance. The variety
speculator Montadon has brownish yellow legs in
the female and the pronotum and hemelytra
broadly pale laterad; variety lateralis (Fieber) has a
completely black pronotum but broadly pale
hemelytra laterally.

Biology: Blatchley (1926) stated that it overwin-
ters in the adult stage and in the south sometimes
comes to lights. Altieri and Whitcomb (1979,
1980) reported it associated with Chenopodium
ambrosoides L where it feeds on the cicadellid
Graphocephala versuta (Say). Wheeler (1981) re-
ports it under mats of Euphorbia maculata L.
where it fed on other lygaeids. Crocker and Whit-
comb (1980) found it feeding on Neopamera bilo-
bata. Readio and Sweet (1982) found uliginosus to
be a species typically found in disturbed habitats,
especially in shaded and moist areas. "Thus it is
often found in agricultural fields, roadside margins
and around homes". It winters as adults entering
reproductive diapause in the fall. Readio and
Sweet (1982) describe the nymphs.

Distribution: Distributed over almost the entire
United States and southern Canada.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Crescent City, Sanford, Fort Meyers
and Belleair; by Barber (1914) from Charlotte
Harbor; Lakeland and LaGrange, by Blatchley
(1926) from Ormond, Lakeland, Istokpoga, Ft.
Meyers and Dunedin, and by Altieri and Whit-
comb (1979, 1980) from Tall Timbers Research
Station. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 16-III-56,
J. W. Perry, (RMB); Gainesville, 14-VII-55 R. A.
Morse, (FSCA); same, 6-VII-66, (FSCA); same,
6-IV-55, (FSCA); same, 27-V-62, F. W. Mead









(RMB); BROWARD CO.: 20 mi SW Hialeah on
Hwy. 27, 17-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Ft.
Lauderdale 2-VII-57, J. M. Sewell, (RMB); Pom-
pano Park, 19-IX-73, D. C. Clinton, W. H. Pierce,
(RMB); COLLIER CO.:12 mi SW Immokalee,
22-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS);


Map XXXXVI. Distribution of Geocoris uliginosus


DADE CO.:4 mi NW junct. 41 & 98, 21-VII-73, C.
W. O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Everglades Nat.
Pk., Pine Glade, 1-XII-61, J. A. Slater, (JAS);
Kendall, 20-VI-67, R. W. Swanson, (RMB); Mi-
ami, 20-VIII-62, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); DU-
VAL CO.: St. Johns Bluff, 11-IX-56, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); GADSDEN CO.: Chattahoochee, 5-X-
60, R. E. Woodruff, (RMB); HAMILTON CO.:
21-XI-53, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); HIGHLANDS
CO.: 10 mi. north of Lake Placid, 26-V-62, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (RMB); INDIAN RIVER CO.:
Wabasso, 12-1-87, K. L. Hibbard, (FSCA); LEE
CO.: Sanibel Island, 9-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); LEON CO.:3 mi S. Tallahas-
see, 16-X-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Tallahassee,
11-X-73, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); Tall Timbers Re-


search Station, 30-VII-69, W. H. Whitcomb,
(FSCA); MARION CO.:3 mi NW Blichton, 30-
VII-76, C. W O'Brien, (JAS); Ocala Nat. Forest 3
mi N. Altoon, 5-VI-69, Slater, Schuh, Harrington,
(JAS); same, N. Half Moon Lake, 5-VI-69, (JAS);
MONROE CO.: Lower Matecumbe Key, 29-VII-
62 F. W. Mead, (RMB); North Key Largo Key, 14-
1-69, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 4-V-77,
(RMB); same 11-VI-69, (RMB); Upper Mate-
cumbe Key, 16-VI-53, O. D. Link, (RMB); NAS-
SAU CO.: 7 mi SW Boulogne, 14-VI-69, J. A.
Slater, J. Harrington, (JAS); ORANGE CO.: 14-
VIII-54, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); PASCO CO.: 6
mi N. Land O'Lakes, 23-VII-73, C. W. O'Brien &
Marshall,(JAS); SARASOTA CO.: Myakka R. St.
Park, 25-VII-76, (at night), O'Brien & Marshall,
(JAS); VOLUSIA CO.: Edgewater, 5-111-39, C. A.
Frost, (NMNH); same, 28-II-39, (NMNH); same,
24-11-39, (NMNH).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Everglades National
Park, 16-VIII-62, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB).




PACHYGRONTHINAE Stal


The members of this subfamily are stout
bodied insects with heavily incrassate multispinose
fore femora, ventrally placed abdominal spiracles
on all abdominal segments and an elongate tubu-
lar vesica.
The subfamily is of moderate size and
chiefly tropical and subtropical but with represen-
tatives in all major faunal regions.
Two tribes are recognized, one of our two
Florida genera belonging to each.



KEY TO FLORIDA TRIBES AND
GENERA OF PACHYGRONTHINAE


1. First antennal segment elongate, greatly
exceeding apex of tylus (Pachygronthini).
....................... Oedancala, p. 79
1'. First antennal segment short, not or
barely attaining apex of tylus and shorter
than any other antennal segment
(Teracriini) ............. Phlegyas, p. 84









PACHYGRONTHINI Stal


OEDANCALA Amyot & Serville 1843


Oedancala Amyot & Serville 1843:258.

Type Species: Oedancala dorsilinea Amyot &
Serville 1843 = Lygaeus crassimana Fabricius
1803. Monobasic.

The members of this genus are rather ro-
bust, elongate insects, having the head slightly de-
clivent and the outer margins of the juga are dis-
tinctly raised into an upright carinate ridge. The
antennae are relatively stout, but elongate, with
the first segment usually as long as or longer than
the head. The fore femora are very strongly in-
crassate and armed below with a number of sharp
spines.
The genus is composed of thirteen species
and is confined to the Western Hemisphere. Four
species occur north of Mexico, all of which have
been taken in Florida.



KEY TO FLORIDA SPECIES OF
OEDANCALA


1. Apical corial margin with a distinct dark
spot (may be faint) along margin ........
..................... crassimana, p. 79
1'. Apical corial margin immaculate, lacking
a distinct dark spot................... 2
2. First antennal segment elongate, longer
than length of pronotum and longer than
combined length of antennal segments II
and III (fig. 46) ............cubana, p. 82
2'. First antennal segment shorter than
pronotal length and shorter than com-
bined length of antennal segments II & III
(fig. 48).......................... 3
3. Labium short, not reaching midpoint of
mesostenum, color reddish .............
.................. cladiumicola, p. 84
3'. Labium longer, extending posterior to
midpoint of mesosternum, color yellow
brown, (northern Florida)..............
....................... dorsalisis, p. 81


OEDANCALA CRASSIMANA
(Fabricius)
(map XXXXVII)


Lygaeus crassimana Fabricius 1803:233.
Oedancala dorsilinea Amyot & Serville 1843:258-
259.
Oedancala crassimanus Stal 1868:122.

Diagnosis: Bright yellowish tan, often marked
with reddish and brown. Apical corial margin with
a dark spot midway along margin (in some speci-
mens, very much obscured). Antennae much more
elongate than in dorsalis. First antennal segment
almost as long as second and third combined.
Scutellum usually not black adjacent to pale cal-
loused areas. First labial segment extending only
to bases of antennae.
As in most species of this and related gen-
era, the sexes are dimorphic in antennal length,
those of the males being proportionally much
longer than those of the females.
Most literature records prior to Slater
(1952) are under the name dorsilinea which is a
synonym.

Biology: Reported by Slater (1952) breeding on
Scirpus sp. in Louisiana. Little is known of the life
cycle. It is a very common species in damp marshy
habitats in Florida where Carex, Scirpus and Cype-
rus grow. In the Kissimmee prairie area it has
been swept from grazed fields in large numbers.

Distribution: The range in the United States is
primarily southern from Florida west to Texas. It
has been reported from as far north as New York
but is extremely rare in the northern portions of
the range.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Punta Gorda, Titusville, Lakeland, Jack-
sonville, LaBelle, Ft. Meyers, Crescent City and La
Grange. Blatchley (1926) mentions taking it at
nearly all collecting stations, but gives no locality
data. ALACHUA CO.: 13-VII-54, H. A. Den-
mark, (FSCA); 16-X-35, (FSCA); Fla. Ag. Exp.
Sta., (NMNH); Gainesville, 20-X-37, (FSCA);
same, 14-VI-67, F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, 16-V-
64, (RMB); same, 16-V-64, (RMB); same, 10-XI-
57, (RMB); same, 29-111-65, (RMB); same, 24-IV-
64, (RMB); same, 27-V-67, (RMB); same, 4-V-









64, (RMB); same, 26-IV-64, (RMB); same, 10-V-
66, (RMB); same, 19-IV-64, (RMB); same, 8-5, A.
N. Tissot, (FSCA); Waldo, 18-VIII-30, R. H.


Map XXXXVII. Distribution of 0. crassimana

Beamer, (NMNH); BAKER CO Olustee, 12-VII-
66, E. P. Merkel, (RMB); BAY CO.: St. Andrews
State Park, 19-VIII-60, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB);
BREVARD CO.: 5 mi N. Eau Gallie, 3-VI-69, J.
Slater, J. Harrington, (JAS); Titusville, 8-XI-11,
(AMNH); CHARLOTTE CO.: Punta Gorda, 12-
XI-11, (AMNH); Punta Gorda, 13-XI-11;
(AMNH); CLAY CO.: 1 mi SE Lake Geneva, 29-
III-76, C. W. O'Brien, (JAS); COLLIER CO.:
Corkscrew Swamp, 9-IV-58, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); 6 mi E. Ochopee, 21-VII-73, (night), C.
W. O'Brien, (JAS); DADE CO.: 4 mi S. Home-
stead, 25-III-83, C. W. O'Brien, R. D. Kaplan,
(JAS); Crestview, 15-16-X-14, (AMNH); Ev-
erglades National Park, Palm Vista, 26-XI-61, J. A.
Slater, (JAS); DUVAL CO.: Jacksonville, 24-
VIII-66, C. F. Zeiger, (RMB); same, 3-XI-11,
(AMNH); same, Slosson, (AMNH); same, 21-
VII-67, C. F. Zeiger, (RMB); same, Pebbly Beach,
9-V-08, (AMNH); ESCAMBIA CO.: Pensacola


11-14-X-11, (AMNH); FLAGLER CO.: Haw
Creek, (NMNH); HENDRY CO.: La Belle, 27-
IV-12, (AMNH); same, 16-VII-39, T. B. Lawson,
(NMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: 20-111-55, R. A.
Morse, (RMB); Archbold Bio. Sta., 11-VII-66, L.
Penner, (JAS); same, 15-31-VII-48, A. B. Klotz,
(AMNH); same, 3-V-61, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); same, 7-8-VI-69, (at light), J. Harrington,
T. Schuh, J. Slater, (JAS); Avon Park, 11-IV-66,
F. W. Mead, (RMB); Highlands Hammock State
Park, 12-VII-83, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same,
3-IV-55, R. A. Morse, (RMB); same, 7-VI-69, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); Sebring 10-
15-IV-, C. T. Parsons, (AMNH); same, 25-31 VI,
(AMNH); same, Lake Jackson, 7-VI-69, J. Slater,
T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); INDIAN RIVER
CO.: Sebastian, IV, G. Nelson, (AMNH); JACK-
SON CO.: 3 mi SW Butlers, 12-IX-54, R. F.
Hussey, (FSCA); 5 mi. East of Mariana on US
Hwy 90, 24-111-54, T. H. Hubbell, (RMB); JEF-
FERSON CO.: 2 mi N. Wacissa, (UV Trap), 3-
VII-73, Marshall & Kaplan, (JAS); 1 mi SW
Wacissa, 7-X-73, C. W. O'Brien & G. B. Marshall,
(JAS); Monticello 4-X-14, (AMNH); LAKE CO.:
Aster, 11-VIII-87, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); LEE
CO.: Estero, 6-12-V-08, Van Duzee, (JAS); Sani-
bel Island, 9-VI-69, J. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Har-
ington, (JAS), LEVY CO.: 6-V-55, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); same, 30-VI-86, (RMB); Yankeetown,
31-VII-30, L. D. Tuthill, (NMNH); same, 31-VII-
30, R. H. Beamer, (NMNH); LIBERTY CO.:
Flatwoods by Fla #65, .6 mi. N of Vilas Road, 31-
V-54, P. B. Kinowski, (RMB); MANATEE CO.:
Myakka River State Park, 13-IX-54, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); same, 5-VI-54, H. V. Weems,
(AMNH); Parrish, 8-X-38, Oman, (NMNH);
MARION CO.: Ocala Nat. Forest, Zay Prairie, 3
mi N. Highway 40, 20-V-76, O'Briens & Marshall,
(JAS); same, 20-IV-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
same, R-26 E TWP 17 S-19 5-VI-38, T. E. Hubbell,
(NMNH); Weirsdale 29-IV, C. H. Paige,
(AMNH); MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 1-XII-
74, J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS); North
Key Largo Key, 25-III-78, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); NASSAU CO.: Amelia Island, 10-VIII-
06, (NMNH); Hilliard, 8-6-39, E. G. Wegenek,
(NMNH); same, 5-X-38, Oman, (NMNH);
OSCEOLA CO.:3 mi N. Kennansville, 6-VI-69, J.
Slater, T. Schuh, J. Harrington, (JAS); 5 mi W.
Yeehaw Jct., 6-VI-69 J. Slater, T. Schuh, J.
Harrington, (JAS); OKALOOSA CO.: Crestview,
15-16-X-14, (AMNH); ORANGE CO.: Winter


"0"b'









Park, 14- IV, E. M. Davis, (AMNH); PALM
BEACH CO.: North of Canal Point, 14-VI-58, T.
E. Moore, (RMB); PINELLAS CO.: Tarpon
Springs, 9-VIII-70, (RMB); St. Petersburg, 28-IV-
08, Van Duzee, (AMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland,
10-XI-11, William P. Davis, (NMNH); same, 10-
XI-11, H. G. Barber collection, (NMNH); same,
10-XI-11, (AMNH); same, 26-III-23, E. M. Craig-
head, (NMNH); Loughman 8-11-30, J. Naughting-
ham, (JAS); same, 8-2-30, L D. Tuthill, (NMNH);
PUTMAN CO.: Crescent City, (AMNH); same,
19-IV-08, Van Duzee, (NMNH); same, 21-IV-08,
Van Duzee, (AMNH); same, 23-IV-08, Van Duzee
collection, (AMNH); SANTA ROSA CO.: 15-
VII-35, R. J. Cantrell, (NMNH); SARASOTA
CO.: Siesta Key, 19-III-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB);
SEMINOLE CO.: 3 mi W. Sanford, 26-1-74, C. W.
O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); Sanford, 21-IV-08,
Van Duzee, (AMNH); same, 5-V-08, (AMNH);
same, 9-4-30, L. D. Tuthill, (NMNH); TAYLOR
CO.: 24-V-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); 6-VII-54, F.
W. Mead, (RMB); VOLUSIA CO.: 23-VII-54, H.
A. Denmark, (FSCA); Deland, 3-7-30, L. E.
Geeslin, Jr, (NMNH); WAKULLA CO.: 1 mi S.
Panacea, 29-IV-76, O'Brien & Marshall, (JAS); 2
mi N. Live Oak Point, 7-VIII-73, Marshall & Ca-
plan, (JAS); WALTON CO.: DeFuniak Springs,
17-19-X-14, (AMNH); WASHINGTON CO.: 5
mi East of Chipley, 3-VIII-60, W. C. Wodes,
(RMB).
UNKNOWN COUNTY: St. Vincent Island, 1-XI-
10, (NMNH); St. Vincent Isle, 1-XI-10, W. L
McAtee, (NMNH).



OEDANCALA DORSALIS (Say)
(map XXXXVIII)


Pamera dorsalis Say 1831:335 (Leconte Ed.).
Oedancala dorsalis Walker 1873:52.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (6-6.5), predominantly
bright yellowish tinged with brown. Median and
lateral pronotal lines, elongate raised calloused
spot on either side of midline of scutellum, pale
yellowish to almost white. Scutellar surface and
claval commissure black. Apical corial margin
sometimes infuscated near apex, lacking a dark
spot midway along margin. First labial segment


extending posteriorly at least to anterior margin of
eye.

Biology: Lives on the seed heads of species of
Carex and Cyperus both as nymphs and adults.
Van Duzee (1888) reported it from the fox sedge
Carex vulpinoidea Michx., but it occurs on other
species as well. Both adults and nymphs are
extremely cryptic in the seed heads. The life cycle
has not been studied in detail.


Map XXXXVIII. Distribution of 0. dorsalis


Distribution: A wide range extending from
Quebec and New England west at least to the
Dakotas and Colorado and south to Florida and
Texas. Although a common species in the
northern United States, it is apparently rare in
Florida.

Florida Distribution: Uhler (1876) listed it from
Florida without definite locality; reported by
Hussey (1955) from Chattahoochee. ALACHUA
CO.:Gainesville, 18-IV-63, F. W. Mead, (RMB);









UNION CO.: Lake Butler, 11-V-83, (on Caret
lupulina), C. Riherd, (FSCA).



OEDANCALA CUBANA Stal
(figs. 46, 47, map XXXXIX)


Oedancala cubana Stal 1874:139.

Diagnosis: Very elongate, slender. Antennal
segments extremely elongate and show striking
sexual dimorphism.
In addition to the elongate slender body
and very elongate antennae, cubana may readily be
distinguished by the characters given in the
preceding key.


Flugge, Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br., Eragrostis
ciliaris (L) R. Br. and Cendrus incertus N. A.
Curtis as breeding hosts. Baranowski and Slater
(1989) discuss habitat and biology and describe the
immature stages (fig. 46).

Distribution: Known only from Cuba and Florida.

Florida Distribution: Uhler (1876) reported
cubana from Florida without definite locality.
Slater (1955) believed that this record was
probably in error. However, there is a female
specimen labeled "Homestead, Florida, April 18,
1923 F. D. 4673" in the American Museum of
Natural History and as noted below it definitely
does occurs on the Keys, so the Uhler record may
be correct. MONROE CO.: Big Pine Key, 2-XII-
75, R. M. Baranowski, J. A. Slater, (RMB); same,
8-VI-60, H. V. Weems, Jr., (JAS); same, (RMB);
same, Watson Hammock, 19-VII-83, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 29-VI-83, (RMB);
same, 6-VII-85, (RMB); same, 4-XI-82, (RMB);
same,6-VIII-80, (RMB); same, 9-VIII-80, (RMB);
same, 23-IX-80, (NMNH); Key West, 20-VII-39, P.
B. Lawson, (NMNH).


Map XXXXIX. Distribution of 0. cuba:ma


Biology: Unlike other members of the genus,
cubana breeds on grasses rather than on sedges. It
utilizes Paspalum blodgettii Chapm., P. caespitosus


Fig. 46. 0. cubana, 5th instar




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