Title Page
 Division of plant industry technical...
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of associated plants
 Literature cited
 Index to insect scientific...

Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000092/00001
 Material Information
Title: Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)
Series Title: Contribution Bureau of Entomology ; volume 12
Physical Description: viii, 82 p. : ill., maps ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baranowski, Richard M
Slater, James Alexander
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1986
Subjects / Keywords: Coreidae -- Identification   ( lcsh )
Hemiptera -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 77-80.
General Note: "Release date: October 1986."
General Note: Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility: by Richard M. Baranowski and James A. Slater.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0031
notis - AEV4970
alephbibnum - 000979107
oclc - 15266681
issn - 0066-8036 ;
System ID: UF00000092:00001


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Division of plant industry technical council and administrative staff
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
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        Page 68
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        Page 70
        Page 71
    List of associated plants
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Literature cited
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Index to insect scientific names
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

and Neighboring Land Areas

Volume 12




University of Florida
Tropical Research and Education Center
Homestead, Florida 33031


University of Connecticut
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Storrs, Connecticut 06268

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Doyle Conner, Commissioner

Division of Plant Industry
S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director

\ Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville Florida 32602



Contribution No. 630 Bureau of Entomology

Release Date: October 1986




Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Chairman (Fruit & Vegetable) ........

Joseph Welker, Vice Chairman (Horticulture) ...............

Bill Shearman (Apiary) ............... ......

John W Hornbuckle (Citrus) .......................

Richard M im s (Citrus) ..........................

N. P. Brooks (Tropical Fruits) ................. ... ......

Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower) ...... .... ...

Lewis E. W adsworth, Jr. (Forestry) .................. .

Jim V osters (Foliage) ....................................

Mike Swanson (Turf-grass) ......... ........

Joann Smith (Citizen-at-large) ....................


..... .. ................. Canal Point

...... ...... ........... Jacksonville

................ . W im aum a

.D................... Belleair Beach

................... .... .. Waverly

. ..... .... Homestead

..... .......... ..... Punta Gorda

S....... ................. Bunnell

................. ......... ... M iam i

............. .... St. Petersburg

....... ............ ....... Micanopy


S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director ................... ..... ........ .................... Gainesville

R. D. Gaskalla, Assistant Director ......... .... ................ Gainesville

C. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration ................ ......... Winter Haven

R. E. Brown, Chief of Methods Development ............... ... ................. Gainesville

C. Riherd, Chief of Plant Inspection ...... ................................... . .. Gainesville

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology ............................................... Gainesville

L. Cutts, Chief of Apiary Inspection ................... ........ .... .. ... Gainesville

R. Griffith, Chief of Pest Eradication & Control .................. ... ......... Winter Haven

C. Schoulties, Chief of Plant Pathology ......... ................................ Gainesville

J. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology ......................... .. ................. Gainesville

This public document was promulgated at a cost of $17,996.11 or $12.00 per copy. It
makes available to all interested persons the results of arthropod faunal studies,
emphasizing Florida and the Circum-Caribbean Region. PI86T-7

ISSN: 0066-8036


T itle P ag e .... .... .. ........... ................ i
Division of Plant Industry Technical Council & Administrative Council ....* .... ii
Table of Contents ................................. ...... ..... .......... iii
L ist of F figures . ........................................ . .... ... . . v
L ist of M ap s .......... . ......................... v
F o re w o rd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i
Acknowledgments ......... ....... ............... viii
Introduction ...... ... ..... .................... 1
Definition ....................... .... ..................................... 2
F eeding H abits ................... .......................... ......... .... 2
Composition of the Florida Fauna ............................ ......... 2
Key to Florida Subfamilies of Coreidae ........ ....... ........................ 4
Subfamily M eropachydinae ........ .................................... ...... 4
Genus M erocoris Perty ......... .... ....................... 4
M erocoris typhaeus (Fabricius) ......................... ............... 5
Merocoris distinctus (Dallas) .......................................... 5
Subfamily Coreinae ...... . . ....................................... 7
Key to Florida Tribes of Coreinae ......... .. ...................... 7
Tribe Acanthocephalini Stal ......................... ........................ 8
Genus Acanthocephala Laporte ......... .. .......... ...... .... 8
Key to Florida Species of Acanthocephala .................................... 8
Acanthocephala confraterna (Uhler) .................. ................... 9
Acanthocephala declivis (Say) ...................... ....... .......... 10
Acanthocephala femorata (Fabricius) ..................................... 11
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas) ...................... .......... 13
Tribe Anisocelini Amyot and Serville ......... ......... ........ 14
Key to Florida Genera of Anisocelini ... ......................................... 14
Genus Chondrocera Laporte ............................ ................14
Chondrocera laticornis Laporte ............ ..... .... . .......... 14
Genus Leptoglossus Guerin ....... ..................... ....... 16
Key to Florida Species of Leptoglossus ................................ .... 17
Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann ........ ........... .... . 17
Leptoglossus balteatus (Linnaeus) .................................. 18
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker) ................... ............ 18
Leptoglossus corculus (Say) ................................ .. 19
Leptoglossus fulvicor is (W estwood) ..................................... 20
Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabricius) ........................... ...... 21
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say) ................... ................. 22
Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus) .................................. 23
Genus Narnia Stal ................... ....... .... ..... 27
Narnia femorata Stal .... .................. 27
Tribe Leptocelini Stal ................. ....................................... 29
G enus P hthia Stal ..................................... 29
Phthia picta (Drury) ...... ........ ........... ......... 29
Tribe Acanthocerini ......... .... .... ........................ ........ 31
Key to Florida Genera of Acanthocerini ............. ............. 31
Genus Acanthocerus Palisot de Beauvois ... ............................. 32
Acanthocerus lobatus (Burm eister) .................................... 32
Genus Euthochtha Mayr .............................. ............. 32
Euthochtha galeator (Fabricius) ................. ...... 32
Tribe Nematopini Amyot & Serville ......................... ................ 36

Key to Florida Genera of Nematopini ................... ...
Genus M ozena..................... .. ..
M ozena obesa ....................................
G enus Piezogaster ...................................
Key to Florida Species of Piezogaster ...................
Piezogaster alternatus (Say) .......................
Piezogaster ashmeadi Montandon ..................
Piezogaster calcarator (Fabricius) ...................
Tribe Corecorini Van Duzee .................................
Key to Florida Genera of Corecorini .....................
Genus Corecoris H ahn ................................
Key to Florida Species of Corecoris ......... ..........
Corecoris diffusus (Say) ............ ...............
Corecoris fuscus (Thunberg) ........................
Genus Sephina Amyot & Serville .......................
Sephina gundlachi (Guerin) ...................
Tribe Chariesterini Stal .............. ....................
Genus Chariesterus LaPorte ...........................
Chariesterus alternatus (Fabricius) ..................
Tribe Chelinidini Uhler ..................... ...........
Genus Chelinidea Uhler ...............................
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler ....................... .
T ribe C oreini Stal .........................................
Key to Florida Genera of Coreini ............................
Genus Althos Kirkaldy ................
Althos obscurator (Fabricius) ... ..................
Genus Anasa Amyot & Serville ........................
Key to Florida Species of Anasa ...........
Anasa andresii (Guerin) ............................
Anasa armigera (Say) ................... .........
Anasa scorbutica (Fabricius) ......................
Anasa tristis DeGeer ............ .........

. . . ... . .. . . . 3 6
....... ..... ...... 36

S...... ........ .. 53
. . . . . . . . . . 5 4
. . . . . . . . . 5 4
. . . . . . . . . . 5 5

G enu s C atorhin tha ........................................................
Key to Florida Species of Catorhintha ...................
Catorhintha divergens Barber .................. ........................
Catorhintha guttula (Fabricius) ...... .................
Catorhintha viridipes Blatchley ....................................
Genus Cimolus Stal ...............................................
Cimolus obscurus Stal ................... .........................
Genus Namacus Amyot & Serville ....................... ...............
Namacus annulicornis Stal ............................ .............
G enus Sethenira Spinola ...................................................
Sethenira ferruginea Stal ........................................
Genus Zicca A m yot & Serville ............................. ...............
Zicca taeniola (Dallas) .............. .. ..........................
Subfam ily Pseudophloeinae Stal ........... ......................................
Key to Florida Genera of Pseudophloeinae .................... ...............
Genus Ceraleptus Costa ............ ....................................
Ceraleptus americanus Stal ... .......................................
Genus Coriomeris Westwood ..........................................
Coriomeris humilis (Uhler) .............. .........................
List of A associated Plants ..... ......................................
L literature C ited ........... . ..............................................
Index to Insect Scientific Names .. ..............................

. .................
. . . . . . . . . I
....... ...........
. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . I
I . . . . . .
- . .. . . . . . .


Map I

Map II


Map IV

Map V

Map VI



Map IX

Map X

Map XI




Map XV




Distribution of
Merocoris typhaeus .......
Distribution of
Acanthocephala confraterna
Distribution of
Acanthocephala declivis ...
Distribution of
Acanthocephala femorata ..
Distribution of
Chondrocera laticornis ....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus ashmeadi ....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus concolor .....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus corculus .....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus fulvicornis ...
Distribution of
Lepotoglossus gonagra ....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus oppositus....
Distribution of
Leptoglossus phyllopus . .
Distribution of
Narnia femorata ..........
Distribution of
Phthia picta .............
Distribution of
Euthochtha galeator ......
Distribution of
Mozena obesa ............
Distribution of
Piezogaster alternatus .....
Distribution of
Piezogaster calcarator .....


Map XX


















Sephina gundlachi
Merocoris typhaeus .............. 6
Merocoris distinctus ............. 7
Acanthocephala femorata ......... 13
Acanthocephala terminalis ........ 13
Chondrocera laticornis ............ 15
Leptoglossus phyllopus ........... 24
Narnia femorata ................. 28
Phthia picta .................... 30
Acanthocerus lobatus ............ 33
Euthochtha galeator ............. 34
M ozena obesa ................... 37
Piezogaster alternatus ............ 39
Corecoris fuscus ................. 42


Sephina gundlachi ............... 45
Chariesterus antennator .......... 47
Chelinidea vittiger ............... 49
Althos obscurator ............... 52
Anasa tristis .................... 56
Catorhintha divergens ............ 58
Catorhintha viridipes ............. 60
Cimolus obscurus................ 62
Namacus annulicornis ............ 64
Sethenira ferruginea ............. 66
Zicca taeniola ............... 68
Ceraleptus americanus ............ 69
Coriomeris humilis ............... 71

Distribution of
Corecoris diffusus ........ 41
Distribution of
Corecoris fuscus .......... 41
Distribution of
Sephina gundlachi ........ 46
Distribution of
Chariesterus antennator ... 47
Distribution of
Chelinidea vittiger ........ 49
Distribution of
Althos obscurator ........ 51
Distribution of
Anasa andresii ........... 53
Distribution of
Anasa armigera .......... 54
Distribution of
Anasa scorbutica ......... 55
Distribution of
Anasa tristis ............ 56
Distribution of
Catorhintha divergens..... 57
Distribution of
Catorhintha guttula....... 59
Distribution of
Catorhintha viridipes ..... 61
Distribution of
Cimolus obscurus ......... 61
Distribution of
Namacus annulicornis ..... 63
Distribution of
Sethenira ferruginea ...... 65
Distribution of
Zicca taeniola ............ 67
Distribution of
Ceraleptus americanus .... 70

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13


Thirty-three genera and 120 species of
Hemiptera, family Coreidae, commonly called
the squash bug family, are known to occur in
the United States and Canada. Many of these
are found only in the extreme southern or
southwestern states. Both nymphs and adults
of most Coreidae are sap suckers which feed on
ripe or ripening seeds, fruits, stems, and foliage
of their host plants. The family is a large one
of world-wide distribution which includes some
important pests, such as Amblypelta cocophaga
China on coconuts in the Solomon Islands,
Dasynus piperis China on pepper in Indonesia,
Pseudotheraptus on coconuts in East Africa,
and Anasa tristis DeGeer on squash, pumpkin,
cucumber, and other members of the cucurbit
family in the United States. Leptoglossus
phyllopus (Linnaeus), one of the most common
species of coreids in the southeastern United
States, sometimes damages cotton, various
fruits, and truck crops, while Leptoglossus oc-
cidentalis Heidemann and Leptoglossus cor-
culus (Say) breed on conifers and often are
destructive to the seed crop. Leptoglossus
gonagra (Fabricius) will attack and damage
early varieties of citrus, including tangerines
and oranges.
Coreidae of Florida is the first of several
volumes on Hemiptera currently under prepara-
tion to be published in Arthropods of Florida
and neighboring land areas. It provides a
reference useful both for field identification of
most species and for the accurate identification
in the laboratory of all species known to occur
or which are likely to be found in Florida. Dr.
S. W. Blatchley (1926) reported 33 species of
Coreidae from Florida. In this publication the
authors report on 41 species that have been
recorded for Florida, but Florida specimens of
4 of these species were not seen by the authors,
and the authors believe that at least 2 of these
species do not occur in Florida. An extensive list
of plants with which Florida Coreidae have been
associated, data on parasites, and an extensive
list of references are included.
Dr. Richard Matthew Baranowski, or
"Dick" as he is generally called, was born in
Utica, New York, on 1 March 1928, son of
Agnes and Walter Baranowski. On 16 June
1951 he married Helen B. Venn. They have 3
children: Gena, Alison, and Lisa. Dick was
educated in the public schools of Utica, New
York. He received the Bachelor of Arts degree
in 1951 from Utica College of Syracuse Univer-
sity with a major in biology. In 1953 he received

the Master of Science degree and in 1959 the
Doctor of Philosophy degree, both from the
University of Connecticut with a major in en-
tomology. He served as a Graduate Research
Assistant during 1952-54 and as a Graduate
Teaching Assistant during 1954-56 at the
University of Connecticut. In 1956 Dick joined
the staff of the University of Florida's
Agricultural Research and Education Center at
Homestead (for many years known as the Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station) where he served
as an Assistant Entomologist until 1963, as an
Associate Entomologist from 1963-67, as an En-
tomologist and Professor from 1967-84. In 1984
he became Center Director of the University of
Florida center at Homestead, which is now
known as the Tropical Research and Education
Center, and he continues to serve in this capac-
ity. He also served (half time) during 1979-81
as United States Department of Agriculture,
Plant Pest Quarantine Technical Advisor, Na-
tional Biological Control Program. Dr.
Baranowski has been a Research Associate of
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods since
1969. He is a member of several academic and
professional societies: Florida Entomological
Society (President, 1975), Entomological Soci-
ety of America, International Organization for
Biological Control (Secretary/Treasurer,
1980-84; President, 1984-85), Florida State Hor-
ticultural Society, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Council on
Agricultural Science and Technology, Sigma Xi,
and Gamma Sigma Delta. His biography is in-
cluded in American Men and Women of Science.
In 1971 he was selected as Outstanding Re-
search Faculty Member at AREC-Homestead,
and in 1973 he received the Florida Department
of Agriculture's Plant Protection Award of
Eminence. He has been the recipient of more
than $685,000 in research grants pertaining to
the biology, ecology, mass rearing procedures,
biological control, and detection of fruit flies;
US/Latin American Cooperative Science Pro-
gram; study of phenological relationships be-
tween broad mites, rust mites, and lime trees
and between mirids, avocado trees, and alter-
nate hosts; and other investigations. He is
author of a 1964 volume titled Insects in The
Golden Bookshelf of Natural History series
published by Golden Press, coauthor with Dr.
J. A. Slater of How to know the Hemiptera
published in 1978, and author or coauthor of 64
other scientific publications, with 2 manuscripts
in press. His primary current research areas are

the management of subtropical fruit pests in-
cluding fruit flies and the biology and sys-
tematics of the Hemiptera of Florida and the
Caribbean. His discipline-oriented work has
taken him to Austria, Bahamas, Costa Rica, Do-
minica, England, France, Guadeloupe, Jamaica,
Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, St. Vincent,
and Switzerland. Consultative missions have in-
volved work in Bolivia, El Salvador, Mexico,
and Trinidad. He is a member of Sacred Heart
Catholic Church in Homestead, Florida. His
hobbies include photography and woodworking.
Dr. James Alexander Slater, "Jim" to his
many friends, was born in Belvidere, Illinois, on
10 January 1920, son of Gladys Banks Slater
and Ray Alvin Slater. He and Elizabeth
Thackston were married on 20 February 1943,
and they have 4 children: James Alexander II,
Jacquelyn Rae, Samuel Thackston, and Lydia
Ann. During 1943-46, he served as an officer in
the United States Navy; Deck officer in the
Mediterranean; Malaria Control Officer, North
Carolina and Okinawa. Jim received the
Bachelor of Arts degree in 1942 from the
University of Illinois, graduating with high
honors. He received the Master of Science
degree in 1947 from the University of Illinois
and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1950
from Iowa State University with a major in en-
tomology. He served as an Instructor, then
Assistant Professor at Iowa State University
during 1950-53. At the University of Connect-
icut he served as an Assistant Professor dur-
ing 1953-56; Associate Professor, 1956-61; Pro-
fessor, 1961-date; Department Head:
Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Section,
Biological Sciences Group, 1970-80. During
1960-61 he was a Research Fellow at the British
Museum (Natural History). He was State Or-
nithologist in Connecticut during 1962-81; a
Research Associate of the National Insect Col-
lection, Pretoria, South Africa, 1967-68;
Research Associate, American Museum of
Natural History, 1977-date, and Research
Associate, Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods (1986-date). Academic and profes-
sional societies of which he is a member are: En-
tomological Society of America, New York En-
tomological Society, Kansas Entomological
Society, Washington Entomological Society,
Entomological Society of South Africa, Royal
Entomological Society (London), Society of
Systematic Zoology, Florida Entomological
Society, Association for Tropical Biology, Con-
necticut Entomological Society, Connecticut
Herpetological Society, Connecticut Academy
of Arts and Sciences, Connecticut Academy of

Science and Engineering, American Society of
Zoologists, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Phi Kap-
pa Phi, Gamma Sigma Delta, Association for
Gravestone Studies, and Katchaug Or-
nithological Society. His biography is included
in American Men and Women of Science and in
Who's Who in the East. Dr. Slater received the
University of Connecticut Faculty Research
Award in 1972. He was the Eastern Branch
Nominee for Distinguished Achievement Award
in Teaching, Entomological Society of America,
in 1977. In 1982 he won the Harriett Merriefield
Forbes Award of the Association for
Gravestone Studies. He served on the Selection
Committee of Phi Beta Kappa in 1979; Univer-
sity of Connecticut Retirement Committee
(Chairman, 1982-85), 1982-date; Vice President
of Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences,
1980-date; Connecticut Non-Game Advisory
Committee, 1981-date; Friends of Trail Wood
Committee (Edwin Way Teale Sanctuary),
1981-date. His professional activities include:
Editor, Entomologica Americana, 1957-67;
Editorial Board and Archives Board, Connec-
ticut Entomological Society, 1974-81; National
Science Foundation Advisory Panel,
Systematic Biology, 1963-65; University of Con-
necticut Research Foundation Advisory Board,
1964-67; Task Force on Establishment of an En-
vironmental College, 1958-59; Commissioner,
Connecticut Geological and Natural History
Survey, 1963-73; Commissioner, Accrediting
Education, 1968-71; President, Connecticut
Chapter of Sigma Xi, 1973-74; Alternate, Inter-
national Institute of Ecology, 1970-74; U.S.D.A.
Review Panel; Department of Entomology,
Texas A. & M. University, March 1978;
President-elect, 1979-81, and President,
1981-83, Society of Systematic Zoology; Chair-
man, Nominating Committee, Society of
Systematic Zoology, 1982; Evaluation Commit-
tee, California Academy of Sciences, May 1982;
Evaluation Committee, Department of En-
tomology, Cornell University, April 1984-85.
Biological Sciences Group; Service on national
committees includes: Entomological Society of
America: Undergraduate Scholarship Commit-
tee, 1980, Nominating Committee, Section A,
1980; Committee to Investigate Formation of
a Federation of Systematics, 1980-84; Thomas
Say Foundation Publication Committee,
1977-80 (Chairman, 1979-80); Convenor and
Chairman: Symposium "Present and Future
Trends in Hemipteran Systematics", Interna-
tional Congress of Entomology, Washington,
D.C., 1976. Workshops attended include the
Danforth Foundation Workshop on Educa-

tional Innovation, Colorado Springs, Colorado,
June-July 1966; National Science Foundation
Workshop on "Basic Systematic Biology:
Future Trends", 11-13 June 1980, Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio. Field experience
has included work in South Africa, and
Mauritius Island (1967-68, 1970), Australia
(1970-71), Costa Rica (1965), Panama (1974),
Trinidad (1965, 1973, 1982), and the West In-
dies (1969, 1972, 1973, 1982). Dr. Slater's field
of specialization is Systematic Entomology, in-
cluding research interests in systematics,
biogeography, speciation, plant and animal in-
terrelationships, and faunistics. He is author of
a 2-volume catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the
world published in 1964 and senior author with

Dr. Baranowski of a 1978 Pictured Key Nature
Series volume, How to know the true bugs. He
is author of 6 reviews, coauthor of 1 conference
proceedings, and author or coauthor of 206
publications in scientific journals, with 10 ad-
ditional manuscripts in press. Jim collects milk
glass as a hobby. He is a member of the
Presbyterian Church.

Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
25 April 1986


We want to thank the late Dr. F. A. Wood,
Dean for Research, University of Florida, In-
stitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, for
providing partial funding for the illustrations;
Ms. Mary Jane Spring, University of Connect-
icut, Mr. S. Thurston, formerly University of
Connecticut, Dr. Jack Bacheler, North Carolina
State University for execution of most of the
dorsal illustrations, and Mrs. Helen Baranowski
and Mrs. Elisabeth Slater for considerable help
throughout the development of the manuscript.
We thank Mrs. Holly Glenn, Tropical
Research and Education Center for preparation
of the distribution maps, assistance in collecting
specimens and checking on data; Dr. Carl
Schaefer, University of Connecticut, and Dr.
Paula Levin Mitchell, formerly University of
Texas, for allowing us to use their unpublished

notes on host plants; also Drs. T. Yonke,
University of Missouri, R. I. Sailer, University
of Florida, and F. W. Mead, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division
of Plant Industry for critically reviewing the
manuscript; Dr. R. T. Schuh, American
Museum of Natural History, Dr. R. C.
Froeschner and Mr. T. J. Henry, United States
National Museum of Natural History, Mr.
James Alexander Slater, II, University of Kan-
sas, Dr. D. S. Chandler, U. New Hampshire, and
Dr. M. Deyrup, Archbold Biological Station, for
the loan of specimens and providing some of the
collecting data.
Additionally, we want to thank Dr. and Mrs.
R. C. Froeschner for the loan of some of the



The Hemiptera of Florida have been of much
interest to students of the order for many years.
Although the Hemiptera have never attracted
the number of students as have the Coleoptera,
Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, the fauna of
Florida has been studied as intensively as has
that of any other part of the country, other than
the immediate area where a specialist of a given
family has lived. This is not to say that the
fauna is as well known as that of any other
state. Florida, with its diverse habitats, great
climatic differences from north to south, and
complex geologic history, has an unusually
large and diverse fauna. This requires more
comprehensive collecting and a wider
knowledge of extra-territorial faunas for the
maturity of knowledge of the state fauna to
reach that of many other states. Furthermore,
Hemipterology has never had the number of
devoted amateurs that other orders have had,
and thus life histories, habitats, host plants, etc.
are relatively poorly known.
Although many of the early students of
American Hemiptera described species from
Florida, the first comprehensive publication on
the fauna was that of Barber (1914a). Essen-
tially a list, this publication did have locality
data and is especially important as it brought
together the extensive records from the collec-
ting of Annie Trumbull Slosson and E. P. Van
Duzee. Also included were records of most of
the leading collectors of the period such as
Engelhardt, Sleight, and Johnson as well as
material from the collections of the Florida Ex-
periment Station at Lake City, and those of
Uhler, McAtee, Heidemann, Banks, the United
States National Museum of Natural History
and Barber's own collection. Barber's paper
(which also included the auchenorrhynchus
Homoptera) listed 372 species of Heteroptera
including 29 species of Coreidae. Van Duzee
(1909a) had published previously an extensive
paper detailing the results of his collecting in
the state in which he listed 168 species of
As early as 1911, W. S. Blatchley began to
spend his winters in Florida. In 1926 his famous
"Heteroptera or True Bugs of Eastern North
America" appeared, a work that was to become
the standard reference work on North American
Heteroptera. Students sometimes forget that
this work is subtitled "with especial reference
to the faunas of Indiana and Florida". It is
replete with host plant and distributional data
on Florida species and remains of inestimable

value in working with the Florida fauna. In this
work, 33 species of Coreidae were reported.
Subsequent to Blatchley's work the major
advances in knowledge of the Florida
Hemiptera have been of two kinds. First, much
more extensive knowledge of the systematics
of various taxa by a number of leading tax-
onomists. Second, the development of extensive
collections within the state. Chief among these
have been the collection of R. F. Hussey, most
of which is now at the University of Michigan,
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods at
Gainesville, and the collection of R. M.
Baranowski at Homestead.
R. F. Hussey was a professor first at Florida
Southern University, and later at the Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville. It had been his in-
tention to produce a new "Hemiptera of
Florida", and he had collected extensively and
published a number of papers on the fauna,
some together with his student, Jon Herring.
Two most important events in the history
of Hemipterology in Florida have been: (1) The
expansion of the state collections during recent
decades under the control of the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Division of Plant Industry. Under the direction
of Mr. Harold Denmark, Drs. Howard Weems,
Jr., Robert Woodruff, and Frank Mead, exten-
sive collections from Florida have been brought
together making it possible to understand the
distributions of many species in a much more
mature manner than has been possible previ-
ously. (2) The location of the senior author at
the University of Florida Tropical Research and
Education Center at Homestead which has
enhanced the opportunity to observe the fauna
throughout the seasons. The senior author's col-
lecting in the area has added a number of
species to the North American fauna as well as
the Floridian fauna and enabled him to obtain
life history, ecological, and distributional data
that previously had not been available for
species restricted to southern Florida.
Despite this, knowledge of the Coreidae of
Florida remains fragmentary. For some species
the distribution, host plants, and general life
history are reasonably well known. For others,
only a few collecting records are available.
Ecological, behavioral, and seasonal informa-
tion usually is lacking or are of a very
preliminary nature. This is due in part to the
lack of a coreid specialist working in the state
and due in part to the restricted ranges, relative
scarcity, and host plant specificity of a number

of species. Thus, there is an opportunity for field
naturalists to contribute a great deal by careful
attention to host plant associations (taking par-
ticular care to note when nymphs are present
since this is one of the primary methods of
establishing a "breeding host" as contrasted to
a plant that may merely represent a "sitting
record" or one that an adult is feeding upon
largely by chance). Nymphs of a number of
Florida Coreidae remain neither described nor
illustrated. Behavioral patterns and more
precise ecological associations are needed for
almost all of the species.


The Coreidae once included groups now con-
sidered as the separate families Alydidae and
Rhopalidae (= Corizidae). We treat the family
in the more restricted sense, exclusive of these
latter groups. So restricted, the Coreidae may
be defined as generally medium to large insects
usually elongate-ovoid or elliptical; antennae
4-segmented, inserted above a line drawn
longitudinally through the eye; membrane of
fore wing with numerous veins, these frequently
forked or anastomosing; metathoracic scent
gland auricle distinct, short, and usually
rounded; female ovipositor plates flattened,
"plate-like"; nymphs with dorsal abdominal
scent gland openings between terga 4-5 and 5-6;
eggs with a distinct pseudoperculum.


All species, as far as known, are
phytophagous. While some species live in
ground litter, almost the entire Florida fauna
occurs above the ground both in the nymphal
and adult stages where they may feed upon the
seeds, fruits, stems, and/or leaves of the host
plant. They are, however, predominantly sap
suckers on stems and fruits. In Africa they
often are called "twig wilters". Schaefer and
O'Shea (1979) reported on the host plants of the
Mictini, Acanthocerini, and Nematopodini,
stating 'the members of these tribes, like many
other coreids prefer fruits and/or rapidly grow-
ing parts of plants, that is, those parts rich in
highly concentrated nutrients".
As may be seen by examination of the in-
dividual species accounts, Florida contains
species that appear to breed successfully upon
an astonishing number and variety of plants as
well as others that are restricted to a single
specific host. These differences can be seen even

between members of the same genus. For exam-
ple: Leploglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus), L.
gonagra (Fabricius), and L. balteatus (Linnaeus)
breed upon plants in several different families
and often are reported as abundant enough
(breeding?) to do considerable damage to many
more. By way of contrast, Leptoglossus
ashmeadi Heidemann breeds only on mistletoe,
L. corculus (Say) on species of Pinus, and L.
fulvicornis (Westwood) on magnolias.
This variation in feeding habits causes some
species to become destructive to specific crops
whereas others become destructive because of
the catholicity of their feeding habits. Never-
theless, most Florida Coreidae are not of major
economic importance, and only a few are of any
major significance to crop production in the
The two most injurious species appear to be
the squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer, which is
frequently a serious pest on cultivated cucur-
bits, and Leptoglossus corculus, which can
cause as much as 60-100% conelet abortion and
heavy seed loss in species of Pinus in northern
The other economically important species
tend to be more general feeders, and thus their
injury is more sporadic. Leptoglossusphyllopus
is common and feeds on a great variety of
plants, sometimes damaging citrus and garden
crops. Anasa armigera (Say) occasionally is
destructive to cucurbits and Leptoglossus
fulvicornis to magnolias.
In southern Florida such essentially
Neotropical species as Phthia picta (Drury),
Leptoglossus gonagra, and Leptoglossus
balteatus occur. These species are of con-
siderable economic importance in the
Neotropics, damaging a wide variety of
cultivated plants, but none of these is abundant
or widespread enough in Florida to be con-
sidered a serious problem, although each has the
potential of becoming so.
Schaefer and Mitchell (1983) have publish-
ed a summary of "food plants" in the Coreoidea.
The paper is a valuable summary although only
plant genera, not species, are listed. Schaefer
and Mitchell have made their original notes
available, and plant species are mentioned here
where appropriate.



Only two species are endemic, Merocoris

typhaeus (Fabricius) and Catorhintha viridipes
Blatchley. M typhaeus represents the Floridian
sister species of the widespread northern M
distinctus (Dallas). There are several such Flor-

confused in the literature for many years, and
it is uncertain whether typhaeus will actually
prove to be endemic to Florida, although we
believe that it will.
Catorhintha viridipes is known only from
southern Florida. It is very closely related to
the West Indian Catorhintha borinquensis
Barber. Some authors treat it as a subspecies.
Whether or not it should be considered as an
endemic species is perhaps of lesser importance
tthan that it is representative of the West Indian
element in the Florida fauna.


This element consists of species that are
widely distributed in the eastern and mid-
western states. Within this category two
subgroups can be recognized. First is a
subgroup with a widespread distribution in the
northern states, that becomes relatively scarce
in Florida, or may even be confined, largely or
entirely, to northern Florida. Such species are:
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas), Lep-
toglossus opposites (Say), L. corculus, probably
Anasa armigera and Euthochtha galeator
(Fabricius)- in other words- a subgroup
whose main "center" of distribution seems to
be well north of Florida. Second is a subgroup
with a more southern distributional center. In
this subgroup the distribution of the species
may extend well into the northern states, but
each is scarce in the northern portion of its
range which tends to terminate well south of the
transition zone. Such species as Chariesterus
antennator (Fabricius) and Piezogaster alter-
natus (Say) typify this subgroup.


The range of the species in this group usu-
ally extends at most from Louisiana or eastern
Texas across the Gulf Coast states, sometimes
northward into North Carolina on the coastal
plain. Some of these species seem to be
restricted to northern and central Florida. Ex-
amples are: Acanthocephala confraterma (Uhler),
Leptoglossus ashmeadi, L. fulviconis, Cimolus
obscurus Stal and Piezogaster calcarator


Species in this group frequently have ranges
similar to species in the above group except that
they extend through the arid southwest,
sometimes well into Mexico and even into Cen-
tral America. Examples are: Chelinidea vittiger
Uhler, Acanthocephala femorata (Fabricius), A.
declivis (Say), Leptoglossus phyllopus, and
perhaps Ceraleptus americanus Stal.


This is a particularly interesting element, as
in a number of other animal groups (gopher tor-
toises, burrowing owls, etc.) It seems to repre-
sent the fragmentation of a formerly continuous
range, presumably resulting from a more arid
period in the southern United States. It is not
a strongly marked component of the coreid
fauna and indeed may prove to be due to recent
accidental introduction, or the species may
eventually be found to occur in favorable
habitats in the intervening area. At present
three species appear to represent this faunal
component: Mozena obesa Montandon, Narnia
femorata Stal, and Corecoris fuscus (Thunberg).
In at least t the first two cases the genus is
represented by a number of species in the
southwestern states but by only a single species
in Florida. Namacus annulicomis Stal is known
only from Mexico and Florida and may repre-
sent this element or be essentially a group VI
element not yet taken (or extinct) in the West


This is a particularly interesting component
of the Floridian coreid fauna. It represents a
Neotropical element, but whether the present
distribution is the result of fragmentation of a
formerly continuous range or whether the
presence of the species in Florida is due to
dispersal is an unresolved question. In other
words, do such distributions represent vicariant
events or dispersal events? There has been great
interest in this question in recent years, and a
careful zoogeographic study of these species
and their relatives similar to that undertaken
for certain poeciliid fishes by Rosen (1978) is
most desirable. Species belonging to this group
tend to have south Florida distributions, and

some are rare or local in the state even though
apparently common in parts of their
Neotropical range. Such species are: Lep-
toglossus gonagra, Leptoglossus concolor
(Walker), Phthia picta, Althos obscurator
(Fabricius), Catorhintha guttula (Fabricius),
Catorhintha divergens Barber, Anasa andresii
(Guerin), and Anasa scorbutica (Fabricius).

CIES (16%)

Species belonging to this group often are
confined to the southern part of the state.
Several are found in the Greater Antilles and
southern Florida, a few only in Cuba and
Florida. Here the question arises as to whether
such distributions are the result of vicariance
or of dispersal. The evidence seems to us to sug-
gest that the presence of some, and possibly all,
of these species in Florida is the result of disper-
sal. Zicca taeniola (Dallas) is particularly in-
structive in this regard. It was not taken by any
of the early collectors and was first reported
from Florida by Hussey in 1956. Yet today it
occurs in large numbers in southern Florida in
disturbed habitats. It seems highly unlikely
that it was overlooked by collectors for so many
years. Acanthocerus lobatus (Burmeister), while
said to be abundant in Cuba, is known from
Florida only from a series of 11 old specimens.
If these are not mislabeled it suggests that this
species temporarily established itself but has
not maintained its population.
The whole general thrust of this group of
species (as well as several in group VI) suggests
to us that there is a constant seepage of West
Indian coreids into southern Florida, particu-
larly into the Keys and that occasionally these
find suitable host plants and habitats and
establish themselves. Species of this group, in
addition to those mentioned above, are Chon-
drocera laticornis Laporte, Leptoglossus
balteatus, Sephina gundlachi (Guerin), and
Sethenira ferruginea (Stal) (which, however, may
occur in South America. See text.).
A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular
Flora of the United States, Canada and
Greenland, vol. II was used as the final author-
ity for the names of plants occurring in North
America; the Gray Herbarium Index for New
World plant names not in the preceding; and In-
dex Kewensis for the few Old World plant in-
troductions included.
The following acronyms are used in the text:
AMNH American Museum of Natural
History, FSCA Florida State Qollection of

Arthropods, FSCACC Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods Card Catalog, JAS James
A. Slater collection, KU University of Kan-
sas, NMNH United States National Museum
of Natural History, RMB Richard M.
Baranowski collection, ABS Archbold
Biological Station, and UNH University of
New Hampshire.
Black circles are used on the distribution
maps for known localities within counties. A
triangle is used if specific locality data within
a county are lacking.
All measurements are given in mm.


1. Posterior tibiae with a distinct tooth or
spine at distal ends .........
S. Meropachydinae, p. 4
1'. Posterior tibiae lacking a distinct spine or
tooth at distal ends ... .2
2. Head anterior to eyes with a median
sulcus; tibiae usually sulcate on outer sur-
face ....... ........... Coreinae, p. 7
2'. Head anterior to eyes lacking a median
sulcus; tibiae not sulcate on outer surface
... ........... Pseudophloeinae, p. 69


A small subfamily with species having the
ends of posterior tibiae ending below in a short
projecting spine. Fourth antennal segment
elongate, longer than combined length of
segments 2 and 3; posterior femora curved,
strongly thickened distally with proximal half
slender; posterior coxae far separated, rather
laterally placed.
A Neotropical subfamily consisting of ap-
proximately 14 genera of which only 1 occurs
north of Mexico.

MEROCORIS Perty, 1830

Type Species: Coreus acridioides Fabricius
1803, p. 200. =Lygaeus typhaeus Fabricius
1798, p. 537. By subsequent designation.

Diagnosis: Readily recognized by the short,
stout, thickly pubescent body (7-9); posterior
femora curved, slender on proximal half,
strongly swollen distally with a series of large
ventral spines. Head short, armed with a short
sharp spine at base of each antenna. Pronotum
strongly declivent. Scutellum carinate mesally,
irregularly sculptured laterally.
Schaefer and Mitchell (1983) cited Yonke
(unpub.) as believing Polygala spp. to be the
preferred hosts of members of this genus and
cited Mitchell (unpub.) as taking adults and
nymphs on Baccharis and Solidago.
Three species have been described, one
western and two in the eastern states.

(fig. 1, map I)

Lygaeus typhaeus
Coreus acridioides
Merocoris rugosus

Fabricius 1798, p. 537.
Fabricius 1803, p. 200.
Amyot and Serville 1843, p.

Merocoris typhaeus Dallas 1852, p. 419.


Map I. Distribution of Merocoris typhaeus.

Diagnosis: Thick bodied, oblong ovoid, thickly
clothed with a mat of woolly pubescent hairs;

dark red brown to black; central area of corium
with a group of large black glabrous spots form-
ing an irregular black patch. First 3 antennal
segments reddish brown, 4th blackish. Ocelli set
on tubercles. Lateral margins of pronotum with
3-4 large teeth; humeral angles -* ute, posterior
margin deeply emarginate.
The status of typhaeus is uncertain. Barber
(1914), Blatchley (1926), and Torre-Bueno (1941)
all treated it as a distinct species. However,
McAtee (1919) maintained that it could only be
considered to be a geographic race of distinc-
tus (Dallas). Although limited Florida material
has been available we have dissected the male
genitalia of a specimen from Florida and com-
pared it with material from New York and Il-
linois. The parameres of the Floridian specimen
are quite distinct, particularly in the develop-
ment of a large flange at the base of the distal
"hook" or blade. The shape of and length of
pubescence on the first antennal segment seem
to differ noticeably between Florida and north-
ern material. In typhaeus the first antennal seg-
ment bears only short relatively inconspicuous
hairs and tapers strongly to the base. In distinc-
tus the hairs of the first antennal segment are
elongate, sometimes nearly as long as the anten-
nal diameter, and the segment is nearly as broad
near the base as at the disal end. While an in-
tensive study with series from many localities
may show typhaeus to only represent a
geographic race, we believe that present
evidence supports treatment as a distinct
M. distinctus (fig. 2), despite literature
records, is not known from Florida.
Biology: Little is known of the biology. Blatch-
ley (1926) reported it from avocado and also
from flowers of Polygala lutea L. Interestingly,
the related distinctus has been reported twice
coming in numbers to carrion (Engelhardt 1912,
Parshley 1914).
Distribution: Possibly confined to Florida (see
McAtee 1919). There are literature records for
Alabama, North Carolina, and Virginia.
Because of past confusion with distinctus some
or all of these records probably pertain to the
Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) as Corynocoris distinctus from Crescent
City and Estero; by Barber (1914) in the same
genus from Ft. Myers, Lakeland, and Indian
River District, and by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 23-V-56,
5-IV-78, F. W. Mead; same, 22-X-58, H. V.

Fig. 1. Memcoris typhaeus.

Fig. 2. Memcoris distinctus.

Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 25-III-57, F. W.
Mead, (FSCACC); 2-VI-55, R. A. Morse, (RMB);
HIGHLANDS CO.: Highlands Hammock St.
Pk., 7-VI-69, Slater Schuh, Harrington, (JAS);
Archbold Biological Station, 14-III-73, R. C.
Tampa, 17-VI-fi, J. W. Patton, (FSCACC); IN-
DIAN RIVER CO.: Vero Beach, 21-VII-39, P.
Oman; Indian River Dist. VII-1896; PASCO
CO.: Trilby, 10-XI, G. Green, POLK CO.:
Lakeland, 8-V-12, (NMNH); TAYLOR CO.: 20
mi. E. Steinhatchee, 22-VII-66, R. E. Woodruff,
(FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.: Oak Hill, 29-XI-79, J.
N. Pott, (FSCACC).


This subfamily includes the great majority
of species of North American Coreidae and is
recognized mostly by negative.characters not

possessed by the other two subfamilies. Upper
surface generally not thickly set with small
setae bearing granules. First segment of anten-
nae rarely shorter than head. Hind coxae usu-
ally widely separated. Distal ends of hind tibiae
not possessing a projecting spine. Posterior
femora, although frequently curved and in some
cases flattened, not generally strongly clavate
with proximal half very slender, and the distal
half strongly thickened and club shaped. Head
generally much narrower and shorter than pro-
notum, and bucculae reaching well behind inser-
tion of antennae.
For the most part these are relatively large
species, only rarely being less than 10 mm in
length with some reaching 30 mm or more. The
tribal classification of this enormous subfamily
varies according to different authors, but most
authors recognize nine tribes in North America;
all are represented in Florida.


1. Posterior tibiae dilated on one or both
sides to form thin, leaf-like foliaceouss)
plates .......... . . ......... 2
1'. Posterior tibiae simple, subcylindrical,
terete, or if somewhat flattened, not ex-
panded as leaf-like dilations ........ 3
2. Tylus compressed, projecting upward be-
tween antenniferous tubercles in the form
of a triangular spine... ..........
.... ....... Acanthocephalini, p. 8
2'. Tylus either porrect or deflexed before
distal end of juga but never projecting up-
ward in the form of a triangular spine.
Anisoscelini, p. 14
3. Rostrum relatively elongate, extending
posteriorly to posterior coxae ........
. .... ... ........... .......... 4
3'. Rostrum relatively short, at most extend-
ing posteriorly to middle coxae .......
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 5
4. Antennal segments 2 and 3 3-sided (tri-
quetrous) ... . Chelinidini, p. 48
4'. Antennal segments 2 and 3 cylindrical
teretee), never distinctly 3-sided ....
...... ...... Leptoscelini, p. 29
5. Posterior femora armed below with

numerous teeth, strongly incrassate in
males; anterior portion of lateral pronotal
margins toothed or crenulate ..... .. 6
5'. Posterior femora with at most 2 or 3 small
spines below, frequently mutic, not
strongly incrassate in males; anterior por-
tion of lateral margins of pronotum either
armed with distinct teeth or unarmed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. A distinct spine present on each anten-
niferous tubercle; metathoracic scent
gland auricle with a single disc; ocellar
tubercle large .. ....
......Acanthocerini, p. 31
6'. Antenniferous tubercles lacking a distinct
spine; metathoracic scent gland auricle ter-
minating in a pair of divergent discs;
ocellar tubercle small
.Nematopini, p. 36
7. Neither juga nor tylus strongly deflexed,
head not appearing incised anteriorly;
antenniferous tubercles not prominently
produced ..... .. ..... Coreini, p. 50
7'. Head appearing incised anteriorly with
juga and tylus strongly abruptly deflexed

8. Third antennal segment flattened and
rounded into a leaf-like plate distally;
antenniferous tubercles bearing a distinct
spine ............. Chariesterini, p. 46
8'. Third antennal segment cylindrical, not
dilated distally; antenniferous tubercles
lacking a distinct spine .. .......
.................. .Corecorini, p. 40

p. 149

Generally large species. Head subquadrate,
declivent, not produced anterior to bases of
antennae, tylus compressed, extending upward
as a triangular projection or ridge. Posterior
femora of males greatly enlarged; all femora of
both sexes spinose ventrally. Posterior tibiae
expanded and flattened in both sexes.
This tribe is confined to the Western
Hemisphere where approximately 9 genera are
recognized of which only one occurs north of


Type Species: Lygaeus compressus (Fabricius)
1803 = Cimex latipes (Drury) 1782. By original
Diagnosis: Head short, terminating in an up-
ward bent spine. Antennae long slender terete,
first segment elongate but stouter than re-
mainder and longer than length of head.
Anterior pronotal lobe small, posterior lobe
large, expanded to humeral angles, strongly
declivent. Hind femora swollen, armed below
with sharp spines, much more incrassate in
males than females. Posterior tibiae with
foliaceous dilations, those on the outer surface
widest and longest.
A Neotropical genus, widely distributed
through Central and South America. Five
species occur north of Mexico of which 4 are
present in Florida.


1. Pronotal humeral angles broadly ex-
panded foliaceouss) extending laterally far
beyond maximum lateral abdominal mar-
gins. .. . .......... declivis, p. 10
1'. Pronotal humeri, at most, moderately ex-
panded, extending laterally, at most, only
slightly beyond lateral abdominal margin
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 2
2. All antennal segments uniformly reddish
brown, 4th segment not conspicuously
paler than preceding ... femorata, p. 11
2'. Fourth antennal segment yellowish or red-
dish, always conspicuously paler than
preceding segments .............. 3
3. Dilation of posterior tibiae narrowing
distally, but reaching or almost reaching
distal end; pronotum granulated and at
most weakly tuberculate (see confraterna
discussion) ........... confraterna, p. 9
3'. Posterior tibial dilation occupying only
proximal 2/; pronotum with small but
distinctly differentiated tubercles present
.................. term inalis, p. 13

(map II)
Metopodius confraterna Uhler 1871, p. 99.
Acanthocephala confraterna Van Duzee 1916,
p. 10.

Diagnosis: Elongate oval, dark brown, Body
narrower in appearance than femorata or ter-
minalis. Abdominal connexivum not evident, or
only slightly so, when viewed dorsally, whereas
in terminalis and femorata the connexivum
posterior to the claval commissure extends
laterally beyond the wing, giving the sides a
sinuate appearance. Pronotum granulated, at
times weakly tuberculate. The tuberculate ap-
pearance is similar to that of terminalis, but the
narrow abdomen of confraterna separates the
Biology: Nothing is known of the biology, but
collecting records indicate it has been taken on
Magnolia sp., Cirsium sp. and Clerodendrum sp.
Collected from March through December in
Distribution: A southeastern species known
only from Georgia, Alabama, Texas, and

Map II. Distribution of Acanthoctphala confraterna.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Biscayne Bay, Pablo Beach, Lakeland,
Marco, La Grange, Silver Springs, Daytona,
Lake City and Enterprise. Occurs throughout
the state. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville,
17-IV-59, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same, 9-III-21,
H. E. Bratley, (FSCA); same, 28-IX-75, S. A.
Alfieri, (FSCACC); same, 10-VII-69, E. Mercer;
same, 22-V-69, L. O'Berry; same, 4-VIII-62,
C. I. Ayres; same, 27-IX-39; 23-III-59, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; same, 24-VI-54, H. A. Denmark;
same, 25-V-54, F. W. Mead; 28-IV-23;
Hainesworth, 14-XI-58, W. P. Hunter, (FSCA);
Micanopy, 13-IV-24, E. G. Holt, (NMNH);
BRADFORD CO.: Starke, 8-XII-75, C. Liber-
man, (FSCA); BREVARD CO.: Merritt Is.,
12-III-56; same, 1-V-75, B. Stanley, (FSCA);
COLLIER CO.: 18-III-51, E. L. & N. J. Sleeper,
(NMNH); DADE CO.: Homestead, 24-V-63, C.
J. Fay; same, 13-X-59, C. F. Dowling & J. H.
Knowles; S. Miami, 21-X-58, R. W. Swanson,
(FSCA); TREC, Homestead, VIII-1984, H.
Glenn, (RMB); Miami, 2-VI-28, (NMNH); same,
12-X-53, 0. D. Link; Everglades National Park,
6-V-58, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Goulds, 21-VIII-79,
J. Diesler, (FSCA); DESOTO CO.: Joshua
Creek, 18-IX-63, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC);
DUVAL CO.: Mandarin, 11-V-72, W. B. Wikel,
(FSCACC); GADSDEN CO.: Quincy, 19-V-09,
W. A. Hooker, (NMNH); GULF CO.: 25-V-54,
F. W. Mead, (FSCA); HARDEE CO.: Wauchula
17-1-64, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC); HIGH-
LANDS CO.: Archbold Biological Station,
30-V-67, (FSCACC); same, 25-V-83, 6-VI-84, M.
Deyrup; same, 30-III-59, 22-VI-65, R. Archbold;
same, 21-III-83, A. Schreffler, (ABS); INDIAN
RIVER CO.: 21-III-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
25-III-57, R. L. Blickle; same, 28-III-57; same,
12-IV-57; same, 3-VI-57; Sebastian, 21-III-72,
W.B.C., (UNH); JACKSON CO.: 43 mi. N.
Butler, 2-VI-55, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); JEF-
FERSON CO.: Monticello, 28-X-69, J. T. Raese;
same 16-IX-69; same, 9-XI-69, W. H. Whitcomb;
same, 4-XI-69; LEE CO.: Sanibel, 12-VI-75;
LEON CO.: Tallahassee, 11-XII-62, R. H.
Miller, (FSCACC); LEVY CO.: 30-VI-56, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; same, 6-IV-59, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
MARION CO.: Juniper Springs, 12-24-V-54, L.
H. Krombein, (NMNH); PALM BEACH CO.:
Lake Worth, 28-II-38, R. Hoag, (JAS); same,
11-1-29; same, 13-1-29; Pahokee, 13-IV-44; Canal
Point, 1-XII-27, (NMNH); Hypoluxo, 30-IV-68,
R. A. Long & W. E. Wyles; PINELLAS CO.:
Dunedin, 14-V-59, O. L. Cartwright; same,
18-III-27, W.S.B., (NMNH); Gulfport, 1916,
(UNH); POLK CO.: Lake Alfred, 26-VII-60, P.
Pettigrew; Lakeland, 29-IV-57, R. R. Snell,

21-VI-71, S. V. Hyatt, (FSCA); same, 14-VI-66,
(FSCACC); SEMINOLE CO.: Casselberry,
6-IV-59, C. O. Youtsey, (FSCACC); SUWAN-
NEE CO.: 29-VI-54, F. W. Mead; ST. LUCIE
CO.: St. Lucie, 29-VI-55, G. W. Campbell,
(FSCACC); VOLUSIA CO.: Enterprise, ?-
IV-1887, (NMNH).

(map III)

Rhinuchus declivis Say 1832, p. 10. (Leconte
edit. p. 327) in V.D. 1917 as "Complete
? Diactor alatus Burmeister 1835, p. 334.
? Metopodius thoracicus Dallas 1852, p. 428.
Acanthocephala declivis Stal 1870, p. 150.

Diagnosis: Large, robust, chocolate brown with
humeral angles of pronotum extremely strongly
and broadly expanded laterally, usually up-
curved, coarsely dentate. Anterior pronotal lobe
usually with 2 small shining blunt projections
along midline. Antennae with 1st 3 segments
dark chocolate brown, 4th segment strongly
contrasting pale orange yellow; hind tibiae with
outer foliaceous dilation strongly notched in
middle, very broad on distal half, the breadth
only slightly narrowing until before apex of
tibiae, then curving in at right angles to shaft
of tibiae. Pronotal surface with scattered small
tubercles present; area around scent gland auri-
cle usually contrastingly red brown.
This species is similar to A. femorata, but
readily separable, in addition to the color of the
4th antennal segment, by the extremely broadly
expanded humeral angles as noted in the
preceding key. Specimens are variable in the
degree to which these humeral angles project
outward, sometimes only slightly above the sur-
face of the pronotum or sometimes curved up-
ward in a strongly elevated arc.
Biology: Little seems to be known of the biology
of this large species. Mitchell (unpub.) has taken
adult aggregations on Celtis laevigata Willd.,
Baccharis neglecta Britt., and Fraxinus texen-
sis (Gray) Sarg. Blatchley (1926) reported
specimens on the foliage of red bay, Persea bor-
bonia L. Spreng. Schaefer and Mitchell (1983)
cited an unpublished record of T. P. Friedlander
on Celtis. Arnaud (1978) reported it as being
parasitized by Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius).

Distribution: Occurs from Raleigh,
Carolina through the southeastern


westward to Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, and
southward into Central America.

Map III. Distribution of Acanthocephala declivis.

Florida Distribution: Barber (1914) reported it
from Chokoloskee and Blatchley (1926) reported
it from Utopia, Lake Okeechobee and Dunedin.
It probably occurs throughout the state but ap-
pears to be scarce and local. ALACHUA CO.:
Gainesville, 15-VII-57, E. W. Holder; same
27-VI-74, F. W. Mead; same 6-V-54; same
25-IV-55, C. N. Patton; same, 18-1-73, C. Fink,
(FSCA); same, 4-1-74, KWK, (RMB); same, 27-
VI-79, D. Culbert; same, 27-IV-71, C. Bird;
same, 14-IV-60, R. P. Esser, (FSCACC); same,
12-VI-54, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same,
26-1-76, 25-1-76, 7-111-76, P. Choate, (UNH);
same, 20-IV-59, R. A. Morse; same, 3-V-53, H.
A. Denmark; Paynes Prairie, 7-XII-24, T. H.
Hubbell, (FSCA); Fairbanks, 12-V-75, E. Collins,
(RMB); COLLIER CO.: Ochopee, 14-VI-79, C.
Stieger & R. Larkin; Big Cypress, 24-IV-46, P.
M. Miller; CITRUS CO.: Inverness, 21-IV-72,
K. C. Lawry, (FSCA); DADE CO.: Miami,
Tampa, 4-VI-75, E. R. Simmons, (FSCACC); IN-

DIAN RIVER CO.: 21-VIII-53, G. W. Dekle;
JACKSON CO.: Florida Caverns St. Pk.,
1-XII-57, F. W. Mead; same, 7-XII-57, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; Marianna, 23-IV-39, A. N. Tissot;
(FSCA); LEON CO.: Tallahassee, 25-VII-59,
J. Glover, (FSCACC); LEVY CO.: Manatee
Spgs. St. Pk., 5-VI-63, C. E. Zeiger; LIBERTY
CO.: Torreya St. Pk., 17-V-63, B. Weems,
(RMB); MANATEE CO.: Parrish, 25-VII-62,
n. of, 4-VI-56, F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); PALM
BEACH CO.: Lake Worth, 17-1-24, (NMNH);
SUMPTER CO.: Wildwood, 14-VIII-80, R.
Driggers, (FSCA).

(fig. 3, map IV)

Cimex femorata Fabricius 1775, p. 708.
Rhinuchus nasulus Say 1832, p. 10. (Leconte ed.
p. 327) in V.D. 1917 as "Complete Writings".
Metapodius bispinus Westwood 1842, p. 15.
Metapodius obscurus Westwood 1842, p. 15.
Acanthocephala femorata Stal 1870, p. 150.

Diagnosis: Dark brown to almost black. Pro-
notum with numerous tubercles. All femora
rather stout, hind ones of male extremely so,
curved and armed below with 2 rows of sharp
tubercles or spines. Tibial dilations extend
almost to the distal end of segment. This is one
of the largest of North American hemipterans
Biology: Despite being a common, large, and
conspicuous species, relatively little is known
of the biology. We have examined specimens
collected on Abelmoschus (as Hibiscus) esculen-
tus (L.) Moench and Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Mitchell (unpub.) has taken adults and nymphs
on Verbascum thapsus L. and Ambrosia trifida
L. and adult aggregations on Chenopodium
album L., Ratibida columnifera (as columnaris)
(Nutt.) Woot. & Standl., Fraxinus texensis
(Gray) Sarg., Cirsium texanum Buckl., and
Baccharis neglecta Britt. Schaefer and Mitchell
(1983) reported it from Xanthium and Parthen-
ium. Mitchell (1980b) found that males defend
flower heads of Helianthus annuus L. (also a
host plant previously cited by Adams and
Gaines, 1950) and fight one another by use of

the huge posterior femora. Arnaud (1978)
reported it as being parasitized by Trichopoda
pennipes and T. lanipes (Fabricius).
Distribution: Ranges from North Carolina
through Florida west to Oklahoma, Texas, and


Map IV. Distribution of Acanthocephala femorata.
Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Ft. Myers, Lakeland, Miami, Key Largo,
Sanford, St. Petersburg, Everglade,
Chokoloskee, Punta Gorda, Biscayne Bay,
Bellair, Atlantic Beach, Lake City, St.
Augustine, Jacksonville, Pablo Beach and
Enterprise, and by Blatchley (1926) from Or-
mond, Sarasota, Royal Palm Park and Dunedin.
A common species in Florida, collected
throughout the State. ALACHUA CO.:
Gainesville, 17-111-48, R. Capelouto; same,
19-IV-47, 12-IV-47, 18-III-47, 4-X-46, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; same, 17-IV-69, 27-IV-70, F. W.
Mead; same, 20-1-72, E. Mercer; same, 25-II-56,
J. B. Morrison; same, 6-V-34, 6-IV-34, 14-IV-54,
11-X-40, student collections; same 15-1-25, T. H.
Hubbell; same, 9-VII-59, L. Berner; same
6-III-37, G. Swank; same 21-III-37, C. F. Lauf-
fer; same, 12-IV-40, G. E. Ritchey; same,
16-IV-37, J. H. Wilkins; same, 20-XI-29, M.

Howell; same, 20-VI-28; same, 2-1-30, H. E.
Bratley; same, 5-X-25, A. N. Tissot; same,
20-1-72, E. Mercer; same, 28-X-71, G. McIlveen,
(FSCA); same, 7-IV-65, same, NW of, 11-XII-63,
F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); same, 20-XI-28, same,
M. C. Hall, (NMNH); same, 14-II-56, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; 3-III-55, R. A. Morse; same,
3-IV-55, H. A. Denmark; same, 27-X-51, student
collection; Poe Spring, 3-IV-55, R. F. Hussey;
same, 17-V-52, 3-XII-51, 18-X-51, student col-
lection; 3 mi. N. Newberry, 22-IV-48, E. D.
McRae; Paradise, 19-III-48, D. J. Downes,
(FSCA); 31-III-29, 25-III-23; Archer, 7-V-74, B.
Wojcik; Newberry, 12-IV-79, N. Rodgers;
BREVARD CO.: Merritt Island, 11-V-75, B.
Stanley, (FSCACC); BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lau-
derdale, VI-22, D. M. Batta, (FSCA); same,
27-VIII-80, K. Tyson; Deerfield, 24,26, 29-II-44,
H. C. Secrest, (FSCACC); COLLIER CO.:
Chokoloskee, 8-IV-12, (NMNH); COLUMBIA
CO.: Lake City, (FSCA); DADE CO.: Richmond,
X-70; Everglades Nat. Pk., 29-1-59, H. A. Den-
mark; Homestead, 30-V-79, P. Chobrda; same,
5-V-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same,
9-VII-69, 11-VII-69, 12-IX-68, 20-X-58,
20-VI-59, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Naranja,
21-V-79, P. Chobrda, (FSCA); Miami, 21-1-60,
R. W. Swanson & P. E. Briggs; same, 1-VI-58,
R. W. Swanson; same, III; same, 27-XII-18;
same, 10-VIII-18; Homestead, 16-IV-59, R. W.
Swanson; same, 19-IV-57; same, 2-VII, R. W.
Swanson & L. J. Daigle; same, 17-III-46, C. O.
Esselbaugh, (JAS); Kendall, 31-1-44, W. R. May;
S. Miami, 24-1-44, W. R. May, (FSCACC); same,
2-VI-28, H. Wolfe, (NMNH); ESCAMBIA CO.:
5-VIII-55, F. W. Mead; GADSDEN CO.:
14-VI-54, F. W. Mead; Quincy, 13-VII-54, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); same 31-VIII-56, (FSCACC);
30-VII-54, F. W. Mead; HARDEE CO.: Ona,
23-IX-69, R. H. Rhodes; HENDRY CO.:
Clewiston, 29-XII-50, F. W. Mead; HIGH-
LANDS CO.: Archbold Biol. Sta., 2-XII-61;
same, 20-III-55, R. A. Morse, (FSCA); same,
30-III-59, R. Archbold, (ABS); Highlands Ham-
mock St. Pk., 24-111-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
Sebring, 8-III-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., same,
20-III-55, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); same,
20-VIII-63, B. H. Strickland, (FSCACC); Childs
Station, 5 mi. SSW Lake Placid, 2-VIII-62, T.
Pliske, (ABS); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa,
17-VIII-77, K. C. Lawry; same, 8--0, 8-0C. W.
Aoff; same, 20-V-70, E. R. Simmons; same,
29-VIII-66, T. J. Faberoso; same, 9-111-61, J. W.
Patton; Branchton, 30-VI-60, L. B. Hill & E. W.
Miller, (FSCACC); Sulfur Springs, 31-1-26, I. J.
Milne, (UNH); INDIAN RIVER CO.: 16-111-54,
F. W. Mead, (FSCA); same, 10-II-57,15-VII-57,

R. L. Blickle, (UNH); JACKSON CO.: Marian-
na, 3-VIII-54, F. W. Mead; 14-VII-54, F. W.
Mead; 10-VI-53, T. H. Hubbell; Swinging
Bridge, 12-VI-53, T. H. Hubbell, (FSCA); Chat-
tahoochee, 1-VIII-56, F. W. Mead; JEFFER-
SON CO.: Monticello, 21-VII-54, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); LAKE CO.: Leesburg, 16-III-33, C. C.
Goff, (FSCA); Groveland, 13-IV-60, W. P.
Henderson; Killarney, 14-IV-44, H. C. Secrest,
(FSCACC); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers, 26-1-44, C. S.
Tuthill; same 20-III-12, 7-IV-12, (FSCACC);
MANATEE CO.: Palmetto, 24-X-60, D. C.
Chancey; same, 8-11-44, H. C. Secrest; Oneco,
25-IV-60, D. C. Chancey; Terra Ceia, 21-II-44,
H. C. Secrest, (FSCACC); MARION CO.: Ocala
Nat. Forest, 8-IV-56, R. A. Morse, (FSCA);
Ocala, 8-X-62, R. Parker; MARTIN CO.: Stuart,
4-IV-78, G. W. Campbell; (FSCACC); MONROE
CO.: N. Key Largo, 4-VII-69, R. M. Baranowski;
Everglades National Park, Flamingo Prairie,
27-1-70, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Key Largo,
same, 111-1898, C. L. Pollard; Everglades,
7-IV-12, W. T. Davis, (NMNH); Everglades Nat.
Pk., 26-XI-61, J. A. Slater, T. Woodward, M.
Sweet; same, Snake Bight Trail, 20-VI-69, R. M.
Baranowski, J. A. Slater, T. Schuh, J. Har-
rington, (JAS); ORANGE CO.: Orlando,
21-II-25; Winter Park, 7-XI-29, H T. Fernald,
(FSCA); Windemere, 24-III-78, F. L. Ware;
Winter Garden, 27-IV-44, H. C. Secrest;
Zellwood, 22-III-44, 24-III-44; same, (FSCACC);
Orlando, 2-IV-24, 24-III-27, 20-IV-?, 7-III-28,
5-VII-29, W. A. Biers, (NMNH); PALM
BEACH CO.: Delray Beach, 14-VI-76, K.
Stolley; Delray, 14-II-79, J. S. Bennett; (FSCA);
W. Palm Beach, 2-V-60, R. A. Long; Pahokee,
26-1-44; (FSCACC); Lake Worth, 10-1-24,
15-1-24, 17-1-24; Palm Beach, J. W. Green,
(NMNH); PASCO CO.: Dade City, 30-III-60,
J. C. Sellars; PINELLAS CO.: Largo, 17-IV-71,
K. Hickman & G. T. Williams, (FSCA); same,
11-VI-63, C. E. Bingaman, (FSCACC); Gulfport,
1916, (UNH); St. Petersburg, (NMNH); POLK
CO.: Lakeland, 28-VI-61, J. Haywood; same,
13-VII-60, B. E. Tyner; (FSCACC); same
9-XI-11, W. T. Davis, (NMNH); PUTNAM CO.:
5-11I-50, student collection; ST. JOHNS CO.:
St. Augustine, W. J. Gerhard, (FSCA);
Hastings, 111-27, VII-27, J. L. Scribner; same
16-111-27, M. D. Leonard; St. Augustine, 8-XI-
11, (NMNH); ST. LUCIE CO.: N. of Ft. Pierce,
30-X-57, G. W. Campbell, (FSCACC); 1-IX-55,
G. W. Campbell, (FSCA); SANTA ROSA CO.:
ll-VIII-55, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Brownsville,
10-X-63, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC); SARASOTA
CO.: Sarasota, 8-XI-63, C. L. Yax; S. Venice,
23-III-66, S. V. Hiatt, (FSCACC); Sarasota,

20-1-27, WSB, (NMNH); SEMINOLE CO.: San-
ford, 20-IV-60, G. W. Desin; same, 9-IV-58,
C. O. Youtsey, (FSCACC); same, 5-V-08, 6-V-08,
Van Duzee; Sanford, 2-IV-27, WSB; same, 8-III-
27, F. M. Uhler, (NMNH); SUWANNEE CO.:
28-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.:
New Smyrna, 31-VIII-71, G. W. Rosen; Port
Orange, 16-III-61, E. B. Smith, (FSCACC);
Enterprise, IV-1887, (NMNH).


Fig. 3. Acanthocephala femorata.

(fig. 4)

Metapodius terminalis Dallas 1852, p. 431.
Acanthocephala terminalis Stal 1870, p. 151.
Diagnosis: Almost uniformly dark chocolate
brown or reddish brown, tibiae frequently pale
yellow. First 3 antennal segments also reddish
brown, but 4th a strongly contrasting pale
yellow orange, or sometimes nearly white.
Humeral angles of pronotum obtusely rounded
with tubercles poorly developed or absent; dor-
sal surface of pronotal disc usually prominently
tuberculate. Outer dilation of hind tibiae well

developed, but strongly tapered on distal '/ so
that this area does not appear to have an outer
This species is much smaller than either
declivis or femorata, and the hind femora of the
males are less strongly incrassate. It is very
closely related to confratena, and individuals of
the 2 species are very difficult to separate in
areas where the ranges overlap (see confraterna

Fig. 4. Acanthocephala terminalis.

Biology: A common species in the northern
states found on many trees and shrubs along
woodland margins as well as in weedy fields.
Yonke and Medler (1969a, c) described all of the
immature stages and studied the biology in
Wisconsin where there is one generation a year
with adults overwintering. Adults and nymphs
were taken on Rhus typhina L., Vitis riparia
Michx., Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.,
Fraxinus sp., Rubus (Eubatus) sp., Tilia
americana L., Desmodium glutinosum (as
acuminatum) (Muhl. ex Wild.) Wood, and Ulmus
rubra Muhl., and definite feeding observed on
the first 3 species. Yonke and Medler (1969d)
described the egg and 5 nymphal instars and il-
lustrated the latter. Hussey (1922) found
nymphs in Michigan abundant on Fraxinus

americana L. and described the 1st, 2nd, 3rd,
and 5th instars. Mitchell (unpub.) reported adult
aggregations on Celtis laevigata Willd. and Bac-
charis neglecta Britt. Blatchley (1926) men-
tioned goldenrod, boneset, and Joe-Pye weed.
Drew and Schaefer (1962) listed it on Carya sp.
Arnaud (1978) reported it being parasitized by
Trichopoda plumipes and Trichopoda sp.
Distribution: The known distribution is more
northern than that of other members of the
genus and extends over most of the United
States from New England south perhaps to
Florida and west at least to Texas and Colorado.
Florida Distribution: Although Uhler (1886) and
Van Duzee (1917) reported terminalis from
"Florida", we have not seen specimens from the

ANISOCELINI Amyot and Serville
1843, p. 217.

Medium sized, elongate. Head non-declivent,
produced in front of head much beyond bases
of antennae; tylus not compressed nor curved
upward as a spine. Pronotum strongly decli-
vent, humeri produced laterally and acutely to
obtusely angled. Posterior femora straight, only
slightly thicker than other femora. Posterior
tibiae widely dilated (foliaceus).
The tribe is confined almost entirely to the
Western Hemisphere (see discussion under
Leptoglossus gonagra) and is chiefly
Neotropical. Three genera occur north of Mex-
ico, and all are represented in Florida.


1. Antennal segments 2 and 3 dilated and
flattened on both sides ..............
.................. Chondrocera, p. 14
1'. Antennal segments 2 and 3 cylindrical
teretee) ................ ........ 2
2. Length of antennal segment 1 nearly equal
to distance from anterior margin of eye to
end of tylus ............. Narnia, p. 27

2'. Length of antennal segment 1 greater than
distance from posterior margin of eye to
end of tylus ....... Leptoglossus, p. 16

CHONDROCERA Laporte, 1832

Type Species: Chondrocera laticornis Laporte
1832, p. 45. Fixed by original designation.
Diagnosis: Resembles Leptoglossus in having
strongly expanded and flattened posterior
tibiae and a nondeclivent head that extends for-
ward beyond the bases of the antennae. Read-
ily distinguished by the prominently expanded
and flattened first 3 antennal segments. A
single species is known.

(fig. 5, map V)

Chondrocera laticornis Laporte 1832, p. 45.
Petalotoma unicolor Guerin 1857, p. 389.

Map V. Distribution of Chondrocera laticornis.

/ l\'


Diagnosis: Head, pronotum, legs, and ventral
surface tan to yellowish. Hemelytra reddish
brown. Antennae and tarsi dull reddish. Lateral
pronotal margins finely crenulate, humeral
angles acute. Hind tibiae greatly enlarged, flat-
tened, and leaf-like. Moderately large (16-18)
with parallel-sided body.

Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) reported that
in Cuba it breeds on Turnera ulmifolia Sesse' &
Moc. and that it feeds on the fruits of Passiflora
sp. Breeding populations have been observed
and collected in Florida on many occasions on
both native and cultivated species of Passiflora,
which are apparently the only host plants.
Distribution: Known only from the West Indies
and Florida.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Palm Beach, Georgianna, Key Largo, and
Lignumvitae Key. In Florida it is almost en-
tirely restricted to the extreme southern coun-
ties, although there are a few coastal records as
far north as Brevard Co. BREVARD CO.: Mer-
ritt Island, E. of Titusville, 7-X-45, A. B. Klots,
(AMNH); Georgianna, Whittfield, (NMNH),
(UK); DADE CO.: Matheson Hammock. 21-V-
58, R. F. Hussey; Homestead, 21-V-54, G. W.
Dekle; same 22-XI-36; same, 2-X-79, P. Chobrda,
(FSCA); same, 6-X-61, R. M. Baranowski; same,
16-VIII-67, J. Bacheler, (RMB); Miami, 8-IV-54,
O. D. Link, (FSCA); same, 20-VIII-67, B.
Knight; same 2-XI-60, R. W. Swanson; S.
Miami, 20-XI-60, R. W. Swanson, (FSCA); Ever-
glades Nat. Pk. 30-XII-53, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Naranja, 30-VII-67, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS);
same, 30-VII-67, 18-V-68, 30-VII-68, R. M.
Baranowski; Fuch's Hammock, 7-1-79, L. A.
Stange, (RMB); MONROE CO.: Key Largo,
3-1-67, 27-III-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., same, 14-II-
64, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); same 14-11-64, H. S.
Creamer; same, 26-11-56, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCACC); same, 26-111-54, K. V. Krombein;
same, 111-1898, G. N. Collins; same 5-III, H.
Barber, (NMNH); same, 7-V-57, F. WMead;
same, C. B. Weems, (RMB); N. Key Largo,
4-VIII-77, 20-IX-69, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS);
same, 29-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
Windley Key, 23-II-29, Siepmann; Matecumbe,
31-XI; (UK); Tavernier, 4-XII-12, F. Knab,
(NMNH); Lignum Vitae Key, 11-07, V-09,
(AMNH); Everglades Nat. Pk., 29-1-59, H. A.
Denmark; Stock Island, 3-VI-64, H. V. Weems,
Jr.; Long Key, 28-111-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Plantation Key, 19-X-54, 27-XI-55, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; Key Vaca, 28-XII-55, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); PALM BEACH CO.: Palm Beach,

1-1914; same 18-VII-39, P. W. Oman, (NMNH);
W. Palm Beach, 5-III-62, C. F. Dowling & R. A.
Long, (FSCACC).


Type Species: Leptoglossus dilaticollis Guerin
1831. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Medium to large, elongate species.
Head porrect, longer than wide, shorter than
length of pronotum, prolonged anterior to an-
tenniferous tubercles. Tylus slightly exceeding
juga. Pronotum subhexagonal with anterior
lobe depressed below the strongly declivent
posterior lobe; humeral angles usually expanded
into acute points or rounded flange-like obtuse
projections. Posterior pronotal margin concave.
First antennal segment thickest, curved, usu-
ally subequal to or longer than head, at least
longer than anteocular distance; second seg-
ment longer than third, fourth terete and equal
to or longer than third segment. Femora armed
below with two rows of distally directed teeth,
tuberculate laterally and above. Hind femora
swollen, usually thicker in males. Hind tibiae
dilated, frequently strongly so and leaf-like;
outer dilation variable in size and shape, usu-
ally wider than interocular distance.
Distribution: Leptoglossus is primarily a
Neotropical genus. Twenty-six of the 38 known
species are found in, or are restricted to, South
America. There are several species in North and
Central America and the Caribbean, all clearly
related to South American groups within the
genus. Leptoglossus extends northward almost
throughout the United States, but the number
of species declines drastically when one moves
northward from the southeastern portion of the
A single species, known previously in the
literature as australis (Fabricius), occurs in the
Eastern Hemisphere. This species is extremely
widely distributed throughout the tropical por-
tions of Africa, the Orient, the Australasian,
and Pacific Islands. We believe that it is
synonymous with gonagra. Allen (1969) pointed
out that the genitalia of the two species are iden-
tical and that most of the variation found in
australiss" can be found also in gonagra. L.
gonagra is primarily a pest of cultivated garden
crops in the Eastern Hemisphere and possibly
has been introduced several times. A situation
such as this would produce precisely the situa-

tion that we find, in that populations in dif-
ferent parts of the range would be rather dif-
ferent in appearance from those in other parts.
This would result from a restricted gene pool
being introduced into one area, and in addition
to this, genetic drift would come into play
quickly in these isolated populations. It seems
highly unlikely that a species such as gonagra,
which is a pest in the Western Hemisphere,
would be specifically distinct from a congener
in the Eastern Hemisphere from which it is
essentially indistinguishable.
Allen (1969) while noting the similarity, re-
tained australis as distinct. However, it is in-
teresting that specimens in the authors collec-
tions labeled by Allen as australis from Natal
(S. Africa) are actually from Natal, Brazil.
Biology: For a genus whose members are mor-
phologically so similar, the feeding habits are
remarkedly diverse. Some of the species appear
to be quite host specific on one or on a limited
number of plants. Others are extremely general,
feeding on an enormous variety of both wild and
cultivatedplants. Some species tend to be pests
of garden, fruit, and vegetable crops, while
others feed upon such dissimilar hosts as the
seeds of coniferous trees where they may
become very serious pests.


1. Pronotum with distinct yellow or yellow-
orange markings (never with entire dorsal
surface dark) 2
1'. Pronotum without brightly contrasting
yellow or yellow-orange markings present
. . . I . . . . . .. . . . . .. 4
2. Second and 3rd antennal segments uni-
formly dark .. ....... ashmeadi, p. 17
2'. Second and 3rd antennal segments en-
tirely pale or with pale markings ..... 3
3. Pronotum with a narrow arcuate yellow
fascia on disc ...... .gonagra, p. 21
3'. Pronotum with yellow areas in the form of
distinctly separated oval spots or larger
quadrate spots partially fused medially
.................. balteatus, p. 18
4. Head uniformly reddish brown; lateral

margins of pronotum serrate or dentate,
lacking a transverse fascia ......
.................. fulvicornis, p. 20
4'. Head black with a reddish longitudinal
stripe; lateral margins of pronotum, im-
mediately anterior to humeral angles,
usually smooth, not dentate, but if so
hemelytra with an even, pale, transverse
fascia ............. ... ........ 5
5. Dilations of tibiae lacking deep scalloped
emarginations along outer edge .......
.......... .. ........corculus, p. 19
5'. Tibial dilations broad, scalloped with at
least 1 deep emargination ........... 6
6. First antennal segment unicolorous;
transverse hemelytral fascia reduced to a
short oblique mark on median vein ...
....... . oppositus, p. 22
6'. First antennal segment bicolorous;
transverse hemelytral fascia not reduced
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. Transverse hemelytral fascia straight .
. ..... ..... phyllopus, p. 23
7'. Transverse hemelytral fascia wavy ....
........ ...... concolor, p. 18

(map VI)

Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidema-nn 1909, p.

Diagnosis: Pronotum with broad orange-yellow
margins, at times so extensive that the greater
part of the pronotum is yellow, leaving the call
dark and a dark brown patch on the posterior
pronotal lobe. The broad, complete, transverse
hemelytral fascia, anterior V2 of each connexival
segment, and the venter are also yellow-orange
with the remainder of the body and appendages
contrastingly black. Pronotal humeral angles
acutely pointed. Hind tibial dilations broad and
conspicuously scalloped.
This brightly colored handsome species is
quite distinctive as no other Leptoglossus in
Florida has such extensive orange-yellow pro-
notal markings.
Biology: As far as is known this species only
breeds on the mistletoe, Phoradendron tomen-

tosum (DC.) Engelm. ex Gray. Blatchley (1926)
reported taking adults and nymphs on this
plant and Allen (1969) reported Mississippi
specimens from the same host (as flavescens).
Distribution: Known only from Alabama,
Mississippi, and Florida.

dp -'

Map VI. Distribution ot Leptoglossus ashmeadi.
Florida Distribution: Originally described from
St. Nicholas and reported from Green Springs
by Van Duzee (1909), from Dunedin by Blatch-
ley (1926) and from Seven Oaks and Orlando by
Allen (1969). Only a few records, almost all from
the central part of the state. ALACHUA CO.:
Gainesville, 25-XI-47, A. N. Tissot; same, 21-
XII-55, M. J. Westfall, Jr., HILLSBOROUGH
CO.: Plant City, 11-V-47, G. W. Dekle; LAKE
CO.: 22-III-62, Felshaw; ORANGE CO.: Aug.-
Sept. 36, 0. D. Link, (FSCA); Orlando,
26-XII-08, A. W. Morrill, (NMNH); same, 29-IV,
D. M. Delong, (UK); PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin,
1-IV-21, W.S.B., (NMNH).


Cimex balteatus Linnaeus 1771, p. 534.

Cimex auctus Fabricius 1781, p. 351.
Anisoscelis fasciatus Herrich-Schaeffer 1851, p.
Anisoscelis thoracicus Guerin 1857, p. 386
Theognis schaefferi Mayr 1866, p. 102.
Anisoscelis select Walker 1871, p. 127.
Leptoglossus balteatus Stal 1870, p. 161.

Diagnosis: Bright reddish brown, a pair of large
yellow spots on disc of pronotum, sometimes ex-
tensive and coalescing mesally; at other times
discrete and well separated. Posterior margin
of pronotum usually narrowly yellow.
Hemelytra with complete, non-zigzagged pale
transverse fascia. Second and 3rd antennal
segments pale yellow mesally becoming reddish
brown at proximal and distal ends. First anten-
nal segment uniformly dark red brown, lacking
black longitudinal striping. Hind tibiae with
outer dilation broad, deeply scalloped, edges of
scallops with sharp black-tipped spines.
Resembles phyllopus in that both have a
complete, straight, pale transverse hemelytral
fascia, but balteatus is readily recognizable by
the prominent oval spots on the pronotal disc.
Occasional specimens of phyllopus may show
pale pronotal spots, but when present, these ap-
pear diffuse with poorly defined margins. The
posterior tibial dilation in balteatus occupies
63-70% of the tibial length whereas in phyllopus
it occupies 76-87%.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) and Mead
(1971 a) reported it breeding on Psidium guajava
L. and Luffa sp. Allen (1969) stated that
balteatus breeds on a number of cultivated
plants in the tropics including cotton, tomato,
various legumes, oranges, cow peas, etc.
Distribution: Known only from the Greater An-
tilles, the Bahamas, St. Thomas, and Florida.

Florida Distribution: Barber (1914a) listed it
from Florida without definite locality, and
Blatchley (1926) reported a specimen in the
United States National Museum from
"Florida". We have not seen any specimens
from Florida.

(map VII)

Anisoscelis concolor Walker 1871, p.128.
Leptoglossus concolor Distant 1881, p. 124.

Diagnosis: Dark red with suffused black mark-
ings laterally on pronotum, clavus, and corium.
Hemelytra with a complete and conspicuous
zigzag white transverse fascia. Humeral angles
obtuse, smooth, or at most very finely dentate
laterally anterior to humeral angles, but ob-
tusely dentate posteriorly. Head prominently
striped with alternating black and reddish
brown. Hind tibial dilations conspicuous, the
outer dilation very broad with deep wide
scalloping. First antennal segment striped with
red and black, succeeding segments nearly
uniformly reddish brown, the 4th segment often
Hussey (1956) reported Leptoglossus stigma
(Herbst) from a single female taken on lychee
at the plant introduction station near South
Miami, June 7, 1956. We have examined this
specimen and believe it to represent a female of
L. concolor. The data on the specimen is not
precisely as given by Hussey in his description,
but rather says "Dade County, Florida" and
"taken on Litchi chinensis Sonner". Mead
(1971a) noted that the specimen was collected
in approximately 20 sweeps of Litchi foliage by
D. DeLeon and F. W. Mead. He further stated
that Allen had seen a photograph of this
specimen but could not confirm its identifica-
tion and indicated that female specimens of
stigma and concolor are very difficult to
separate. He suggested that several published
host records of stigma for the Greater Antilles
presumably pertain to concolor. We believe that
this specimen represents concolor and that
stigma should be eliminated from the Florida
and United States lists.

Biology: Little is known of the biology. Mead
(1971a) reported a specimen taken at Vero
Beach on Comptonia sp. and (1974) an infesta-
tion on orange trees in Broward Co. We have
examined 2 females, one from Broward Co.,
Dania, 24-VII-75, taken on Coccolobis uvifera
(L.) L. and one at Davie on citrus. We have col-
lected breeding populations on crabwood (Gym-
nanthes lucida Sw.), snowberry (Chiococca alba
(L.) A. S. Hitch.), and guava (Psidium guajava
Distribution: Distributed widely in Mexico, Cen-
tral America, throughout the Greater Antilles,
and Florida.
Florida Distribution: Apparently uncommon.
BROWARD CO.: Davie, 20-IX-74, 2-X-74, R. L.
Chavez; same, 24-VII-75, D.* C. Clinton; Ft.

Lauderdale, 29-XII-78, R. Gaskalla, (FSCA);
Dania, 24-VII-75, D. C. Clinton; DADE CO.:
AREC, Homestead, 1-XII-74, J. A. Slater;
3-VI-56, F. W. Mead & D. DeLeon; TREC,
Homestead, 7-XII-1983, H. Glenn, (RMB); IN-
DIAN RIVER CO.: Vero Beach, 7-1-54,
Burnett, Campbell, & Jones; LEE CO.: Ft.
Myers, 20-II-75, S. L. Kitto, (FSCA); MONROE
CO.: Lignum Vitae Key, 13-XI-79; 30-VII-80,
R. W. Baranowski; same, 1-VII-80, P. Veno,

Map VII. Distribution of Leptoglossus concolor.

(map VIII)

Anisoscelis corculus Say 1832, p. 12. Leconte
Rep. 1859, p. 326.
Theognis excellent Mayr 1865, p. 434.
Leptoglossus corculus Stal 1870, p. 165.

Diagnosis: Ground color varies from light to
dark brown with pronotum prominently mot-
tled with small black spots. Transverse
hemelytral fascia pale yellow, irregular and con-
fined to veins, sometimes reduced or completely
absent. Pronotal margins entire. Hind tibial
dilations lack conspicuous scallops.

Biology: DeBarr (1967, 1970) attributed heavy
seed loss of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and P.
palustris P. Mill. in northern Florida to L. cor-
culus feeding. Eggs are deposited in a row along
a pine needle. First instars apparently feed on
the needles. Second instar nymphs are most
commonly found on the conelets in natural field
populations. DeBarr and Ebel (1974) discussed
conelet abortion and seed damage to P. echinata
P. Mill. and P. taeda L. resulting from feeding
by this species. In their experimental studies
feeding by nymphs caused 60-100% of the con-
elets to abort. DeBarr and Kormanik (1975)
discussed the anatomical basis for conelet abor-
tion of P. echinata P. Mill. following feeding by
L. corculus nymphs. The second instar also is
figured in this paper. DeBarr (1967) also men-
tioned Pinus virginiana Mill., P. strobus L., and
P. pungens Lamb. as hosts. Mead (1971a)
reported a Miami specimen on Artocarpus in-
tegrifolia L. Yoshimoto (1977) reported the en-
cyrtid wasp, Oencyrtus leptoglossi Yoshimoto
as parasitizing the eggs of L. corculus.

4 op
f-rn1 di-

Map VIII. Distribution of Leptoglossus corculus.

Distribution: Essentially eastern United States,
being found from New York south into Florida,
west to Missouri, and southwest to Texas.
Published records include New Mexicow Arizona,

Colorado, and California (Van Duzee 1917,
Blatchley 1926), but Allen (1969) had not seen
a specimen from farther west than Texas and
speculated that the western records were of L.
occidentalis Heidemann.

Florida Distribution: Originally described from
"St. Johns River" and reported by Barber
(1914) from Ft. Myers and Miami. Appears to
be most common in the north, but occasional
specimens have been collected in the southern
part of the state. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville,
24-VIII-58, J. Whitmore; same, 15-16-VIII-69,
22-V-71, F. W. Mead; same 31-1-73, G. W. Dekle;
same VII-55, (FSCA); same 20-23-VII-73, 11-
VII-73, F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); same, W. E.
Pennington, (NMNH); same, Doyle Conner
Bldg., 18-VII-70, 29-VII-70, F. W. Mead; same,
Pine Hills Estate, 12-VII-69, 16-VII-69, 17-VII-
69, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); BROWARD CO.:
Pompano Beach, 5-XII-59; DADE CO.: Miami,
23-II-58, C. F. Dowling, (FSCA); DUVAL CO.:
Jacksonville, 22-V-80, J. Garbark, (FSCACC);
same, 2-XII-73, S. L. Zieger, (RMB); Santa
Rosa, 17-VII-55, F. W. Mead, (RMB); TAYLOR
CO.: XI-58, L. A. Hetrick, (FSCA).

(map IX)

Anisoscelis fulvicornis Westwood 1842, p. 17.
Leptoglossus magnoliae Heidemann 1910, p.
Leptoglossus fulvicornis Stal 1870, p. 161.

Diagnosis: Hemelytra completely lacking a
transverse fascia. Humeral area of pronotum
strongly expanded and flared outward and up-
ward, bearing coarse obtuse teeth anterior and
posterior to humeral angles. Head nearly
uniformly brown, lacking alternating dark and
light stripes. Tibial dilations relatively slender;
outer dilation with shallow scalloping.
This species can be mistaken easily for op-
positus because of the absence of a transverse
hemelytral fascia, but is readily recognizable by
the flaring, dentate pronotal margins, uniformly
brown head, and much less deeply scalloped
outer hind tibial dilation.

Biology: Heidemann (1910) writing of this
species under the name magnoliae, a junior
synonym, reported breeding on the leaves and
fruits of several species of magnolia and that

considerable injury to the fruit occurred. He
gave descriptive notes and figures of the
nymphs and stated that eggs were laid in long
"strings" on the undersides of magnolia leaves.
Mitchell (unpub.) found breeding populations on
Magnolia grandiflora L. in Texas.
Distribution: Reported from as far north as
Massachusetts and New York in the east and
south into Florida and west to Texas. It is a rare
species, and the northern records need

Map IX. Distribution of Leptoglossus fulvicornis.

Florida Distribution: Blatchley (1926) reported
it from Dunedin and (1928) from Gainesville.
Primarily northern. ALACHUA CO.: Gaines-
ville, 18-XII-57, 7-VII-57, 5-X-54, R. F. Hussey;
same, 6-XII-36, K. Wherley, (FSCA); same,
2-IX-73, F. W. Mead, (RMB); HARDEE CO.:
Zolfo Springs, 23-IX-63, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCA);
HIGHLANDS CO.: 5-11-56, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); JACKSON CO.: 29-X-69, J. T. Raese,
(FSCA); Fla. Cav. St. Pk., 7-XII-57, F. W. Mead,
(RMB); JEFFERSON CO.: Monticello, 24-X-69,
J. T. Raese, (FSCA); LIBERTY CO.: 27-III-54,
R. F. Hussey; VOLUSIA CO.: Ormond Beach,
15-III-63, J. N. Pott; WAKULLA CO.:
16-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); E. Fla. (labeled
L. magnoliae n. sp.), Ashmead, (NMNH).

(map X)

Cimex gonagra Fabricius 1775, p. 708.
Cimex australis Fabricius 1775, p. 708.
Cimex grallator Herbst 1784, p. 259.
Anisoscelis antica Herrich-Schaeffer 1836, p.
Anisoscelis praecipua Walker 1871, p. 128.
Leptoglossus gonagra Stal 1868, p. 51.

Diagnosis: Bright reddish brown with a lunate
yellow vitta extending transversely across
anterior portion of hind lobe of pronotum. Sharp
dentate spines present on lateral pronotal
margins anterior and posterior to acutely
spinose humeral angles. Transverse hemelytral
fascia reduced to 2 small pale yellow spots
similarly placed as those of oppositus. Anten-
nae variegated, chiefly bright orange yellow
with proximal and distal ends of 2nd and 3rd
segments black to dark chocolate brown, basal
/3 of 4th segment dark with distal portion pale
yellow to white, 1st segment with alternating
red and black stripes. Hind femora also with
prominent alternating red and black stripes.
Tibial dilations moderate in width, outer dila-
tion shallowly but broadly scalloped.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) reported it
breeding in abundance on Luffa cylindrica (L.)
Roemer and feeding on Ternstromia (as
Taonabo) parviflora Krug & Urb. in Cuba. Mead
(1971a) stated that it is often called the "citron
bug" of Florida because of its frequent presence
on citron melons growing in citrus groves or in
old watermelon fields. When these food sources
are gone, gonagra often will attack and damage
early varieties of citrus, including tangerines
and oranges. Mead also indicated a number of
cucurbits such as squash, pumpkins, and
watermelons as food plants as well as wild
balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.),
Solanum sp., Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebin-
thefolia Raddi), guava, and Passiflora sp. Allen
(1969) also indicated that gonagra attacks a
number of cultivated plants in the Neotropics.
Mitchell (unpub.) found adult aggregations on
Citrullus lanatus (as vulgaris) (Thunb.) Mat-
sumara & Naki. Hussey (1952) recorded
gonagra on foliage and berries of S. terebin-
thefolia. Amaral and Storti (1976) reported
gonagra as attacking: Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita
pepo L., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Momordica
charantia L., Citrullus lanatus Matsumara &
Naki (as vulgaris), Cucumis sativus L.; Myr-

taceae: Psidium grandiflorum Aubl., P. guajava
L.; Compositae: Helianthus annuus L.; Anacar-
diaceae: Mangifera indica L.; Cariaceae: Carica
papaya L.; Capparidaceae: Cleome spinosa
Jacq.; Bixaceae: Bixa orellana L.;
Passifloraceae: Passiflora sp; Punicaceae:
Punica granatum L.; Rutaceae: Citrus sp;
Typhaceae: Typha domingensis Pers. Mitchell
(unpub.) collected it on Helianthus annuus L.
and on Sicyos sp. and found it feeding and
breeding on watermelon.
As mentioned in the generic discussion, we
believe that Eastern Hemisphere specimens of
australiss" are synonymous with gonagra.
Allen (1969) discussed the variability at
length. Since gonagra and australis were
described on the same page by Fabricius, we are
exercising the right of first revisor in selecting
gonagra as the appropriate name. The Eastern
Hemisphere populations have a rather exten-
sive literature indicating the species injures
many vegetable and other cultivated plants
almost throughout the tropics of the Old World.

4 'V-

Map X. Distribution of Leptoglossus gonagra.

Distribution: Known from the United States
only in the southern states from Florida to
Texas. Occurs almost throughout the Neo-
tropical Region including the West Indies where
it is widespread. In the Eastern Hemisphere,
almost throughout the tropics and subtropics
including many Pacific islands (see Allen 1969).

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Daytona and Cutler, and by Hussey (1952)
from Lakeland. Recorded as far north as
Alachua Co., but it is common only in the
southern part of the state. ALACHUA CO.:
Gainesville, 15-X-39, J. R. Watson; BROWARD
CO.: Davie, 20-IX-74, R. L. Chavez; Pompano
Beach, 28-VIII-75, K. L. Tyson; same, 3-X-79,
C. Culbreth; Ft. Lauderdale, 9-XI-78, F. Garry;
same, 17-1-78, S. C. Poling, (FSCA); same,
9-XI-78, R. P. Gary; same, 8-XI-73, B. D.
Perkins; same, 29-IX-65, D. C. Clinton; Pom-
pano Beach, 28-VII-75, C. F. Dowling & K. L.
Tyson; Davie, 28-IV-78, D. Martinelli,
(FSCACC); DADE CO.: Homestead, 3-IX-68, R.
M. Baranowski; TREC, Homestead, 10-X-1983,
14-X-1983, 16-XII-1983, H. Glenn; (RMB);
same, 1-XII-74, 6-XII-74, 15-XII-74, J. A.
Slater, (JAS); Miami, 20-VII-62, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 4-VI-80, C. Stieger;
same, C. Mosier; same, IX-X-49, O. D. Link;
same, 12-IX-38, J. S. Haeger; same, 14-VI-55,
F. G. Butcher; S. Miami, 12-VII-57, C. F. Dowl-
ing; Hialeah, 28-IX-67, W. T. Rowan; Coral
Gables, 26-XI-36; N. Miami, 26-XI-78, M.
Sugley; same, XII-62, Moore, (FSCA); Miami,
15-IX-80, L. W. Howerton; S. Miami, 12-VII-57,
R. W. Swanson & C. F. Dowling, (FSCACC);
Cutler, 5-V-08, Russell, (NMNH); HENDRY
CO.: 1950; HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold
Biological Station, Lake Placid, 28-XI-83, M.
Deyrup; same, 8 mi. S., M. Deyrup, (ABS);
HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Plant City, 14-X-57, V.
E. Lowe; Seffner, 10-X-50; INDIAN RIVER
CO.: Vero Beach, 18-XI-39, J. R. Watson,
(FSCA); Gifford, 12-V-55, H. C. Burnett; LAKE
CO.: Leesburg, 25-VII-46; MARION CO.:
Weirsdale, 17-X-46, (FSCACC); MONROE
CO.: Key Largo, 26-X-77, R. E. Woodruff,
(FSCA); Key West, 8-VII-23, (NMNH); PALM
BEACH CO.: Delray Beach, 14-II-79, J. E. Ben-
nett & C. F. Dowling, (FSCACC); same, 26-IX-
77, 14-II-79, J. C. Bennett; Boynton, 18-V-25,
H. M. Betts, (FSCA); same, 17-XII-28; Lake
Worth 10-1-24, 15-1-29; Palm Beach, 13-III-80,
W. T. Rowan, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland,
8-XII-49, R. F. Hussey; ST. LUCIE CO.: Ft.
Pierce, 30-X-57, (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.:
Daytona, 11-XI-11, (NMNH).

(map XI)

Anisoscelis oppositus Say 1832, p. 12.

(Leconte edit. p. 327) in V. D. 1917 as "Complete
Anisoscelis tibialis Herrich-Schaeffer 1842, p.
Leptoglossus oppositus Stal 1870, p. 163.

Diagnosis: Nearly uniformly bright or dark red-
dish brown. Whitish yellow transverse
hemelytral fascia reduced to a spot or dash on
medial vein anterior to origin of cross vein.
Lateral pronotal margins non-serrate, humeral
angles obtuse with outer hind tibial dilations
deeply scalloped.
Biology: The biology has been summarized by
Chittenden (1902) who called it the "northern
leaf-footed plant bug". He described all 5 nym-
phal instars. It feeds on a wide variety of crops
including peaches, apricots, tomatoes, melons,
squash, cucumbers, and cotton. The eggs are
deposited in single rows on the stems of host
plants. Blatchley (1926) stated that Garman
had taken nymphs on Yucca filamentosa L.
Mitchell (unpub.) reported breeding on Camp-
sis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau, Helianthus
annus L., Morus rubra L., Catalpa sp., aggrega-
tions on Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill., and
occasional feeding on Carya illinoensis (Wang.)
K. Koch. Arnaud (1978) reported it being
parasitized by Trichopoda pennipes.

Map XI. Distribution of Leptoglossus oppositus.

Distribution: Widely distributed from New
York into Florida, west to Iowa and Wisconsin,
southwest to Arizona, Texas, and into Mexico.
Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Lake Worth, by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin and Ft. Myers, and by Mead (1971a)
from Florida Cavern State Park, Jackson
County and Hernando, DeSoto, Liberty,
Alachua, Marion, Pinellas, Lee, Collier, and
Dade counties. Appears to occur throughout the
state, but it is generally uncommon.
ALACHUA CO.: 23-VII-56, F. W. Mead;
Devil's Millhopper, 8-XII-61, F. W. Mead;
Gainesville, 13-IX-61, 21-VI-65, F. W. Mead;
same 23-III-78, R. E. Woodruff; same, 20-II-48,
W. L. Jennings, (FSCA); same, 20-V-76, (UNH);
same, 19-VII-72, J. B. Heppner, (RMB); same,
21-VII-65, M. Morrison; same, C. Garcia; same,
5-VIII-61, J. W. Platt; Hawthorne, 23-VII-56,
F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); DADE CO.: Miami,
8-III-34, W. L. Nanney; Princeton, 28-X-39,
(FSCA); Miami, 13-VII-59, C. F. Dowling; S.
Miami, 20-VI-59, R. W. Swanson, (FSCACC);
Miami, 13-XI-18, (NMNH); HERNANDO CO.:
Spring Lake, 10-VI-70; K. C. Lowery;
JACKSON CO.: Fla. Cav. St. Pk., 1-XII-57, H.
V. Weems, Jr.; same, 7-XII-57, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); JEFFERSON CO.: Monticello, 29-1-14,
H. B. Scammell; (NMNH); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers,
29-VI-79, P. Gambill, (FSCA); LIBERTY CO.:
Torreya St. Pk., 4-VII-65, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); MARION CO.: Ocala Nat. Forest,
3-XII-61, F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); MARTIN
CO.: V-VI-36, O. D. Link; ORANGE CO.:
Winter Park, 21-VIII-44, 22-VIII-45, H. T. Fer-
nald; PALM BEACH CO.: X-XI-36, O. D. Link,
(FSCA); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 8-XI-11, W. T.
Davis; Citrus City, 6 mi. N Paradise Key, 23-II,
Schwartz & Barber, (NMNH).

(fig. 6, map XII)

Cimex phyllopus Linnaeus 1767, p. 731.
Anisoscelis albicinctus Say 1831, p. 326.
Anisoscelis fraterna Westwood 1842, p. 16.
Anisoscelis confusa Dallas 1852, p. 453.
Leptoglossus phyllopus Stal 1870, p. 161.

Diagnosis: Dark chocolate brown. Occasionally
with yellowish spots on pronotal disc. Lateral

pronotal margins variable, either dentate or
smooth anterior to humeral angles, usually den-
tate behind angles. Hind tibiae broadly dilated,
outer dilation usually with 2 deep scallops.
This species resembles oppositus in size and
general habitus, but it is easily recognizable by
the presence of a complete straight whitish-
yellow fascia extending completely across the

Fig. 6. Leptoglossus phyllopus.

Biology: Feeds on a wide variety of plants and
has been reported as a pest of a number of
cultivated crops. It has been reported as feeding
on citrus (Ebling 1959), peaches (Snapp 1948),
potato, tomato, sunflower, bean, cowpea, egg-
plant, bell pepper, okra, cucurbits, grain
sorghum, blueberry, blackberry, plum, peach,
lychee, pomegranate, loquat, pear, apple, per-
simmon, oat, and to a lesser extent rye, barley,
wheat, and soybean (Mead 1971b). Blatchley
(1926) listed it as common on yellow-flowered
thistle, Cirsium horridulum Michx. Hussey
(1952) reported collecting it on Schinus terebin-
thefolia but stated it is not a preferred host.
Wiseman and McMillan (1971) noted nymphs
and adults damaging late sorghum in south
Georgia. Injury is accomplished not only by
feeding, but by large quantities of feces which
are deposited and create a favorable habitat for
microorganisms in the developing seed heads.
Mitchell (unpub.) reported definite breeding on
Yucca sp., Abelmoschus (as Hibiscus) esculen-
tus (L.) Moench, Gaura parviflora Dougl.,
Callicarpa americana L., Lycopersicon esculen-

tum P. Mill., Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.,
Agalinis sp., Verbascum thapsus L., Campsis
radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau, Cephalanthus oc-
cidentalis L., Baccharis neglecta Britt., Cirsium
texanum Buckl., Helianthus annuus L.,
Heterotheca latifolia Buckl., Solidago altissima
L., Amphiachyris dracunculoides (DC.) Nutt.,
Rhus sp., Datura sp., Achillea millefolium L.,
Aster sp., and Gutierrezia texana (DC.) Torr. &
Gray. She also reported aggregations on Zea
mays L., Chenopodium album L., Solanum
dimidiatum Raf., S. tuberosum L., Cirsium hor-
ridulum Michx., and Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.
Frost (1979) reported it from December to
March on Sambucus simpsonii Rehd. in Florida.
Arnaud (1978) reported it being parasitized
by Trichopoda pennipes (F.), T. plumipes (F.)
and a species in the T. pennipes complex.
Distribution: A common species in the
southeast, ranging as far north as New York,
west to Iowa and Kansas, and southwest to
Texas and Baja California. It extends
southward at least to Costa Rica, but it has not
been reported from the West Indies.

W0 .0.

Map XII. Distribution of Leptoglossus phyllopus.

Florida Distribution: Hussey (1952) reported it
from Lakeland, and Barber (1914) and Blatch-

ley (1926) reported it at all of their collecting sta-
tions. One of the most common coreids in
Florida. Distributed throughout the state.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 1-V-37, K.
Wheeler; same, 12-IV-40, J. R. Watson; same,
24-XI-58; same, 29-IX-36, P. T. Rieherd; same,
1-III-37, C. H. Lauffer; same, 25-X-58, 25-III-47,
13-X-47, 5-XI-46, 13-III-47, 6-V-55, 7-X-47,
22-IV-68, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same, III-56, F. W.
Mead; same, 11-III-67, D. Mays; same, 20-IV-68,
R. E. Woodruff; same, 19-VII-64, R. E. White;
same 13-XI-37, 7-XII-32, 7-X-47; same, 15-1-25,
T. H. Hubbell; same 25-II-56, 1-VII-55, J. B.
Morrison; same, 25-X-47, R. Capelouto; same,
1-VII-54, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); same,
26-IX-2-X-14; same 11-IV-35; same, 27-111-57,
Forster & Gertsch, (AMNH); same, 4-V-79,
28-IV-79, C. Garcia; same, 5-IV-78, 19-III-77,
2-IV-71, 14-III-70, 17-VIII-70, 17-IV-69,
17-IV-67, 19-IV-67, 5-IV-67, 2-V-66, 20-IV-65,
28-IV-65, 31-III-64, 23-VIII-58, 30-IV-58,
24-IV-58, 6-III-56, 23-IV-57, l1-IV-57, 8-IV-57,
15-III-57, 25-IV-56, F. W. Mead; same 16-IV-76,
C. B. Lieberman; same 13-X-74, J. B. Randall;
same, 20-1-72; same 27-X-70, P. Bannister;
same, 27-IV-63, 8-VIII-57, R. P. Esser; same,
10-VII-69, E. Mercer, (FSCACC); same, W. E.
Pennington; Micanopy, 13-IV-24, E. G. Holt,
(NMNH); same, 28-III-40, J. R. Watson; same,
14-III-54, 24-III-59, 15-XI-53, 3-IV-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; same, 3-V-63, H. A. Denmark;
same, X-60, C. Cabler; same, 29-XI-51,12-X-51,
student collection; same, 11-51, W. C. Sloan,
(FSCA); Newberry, 19-XI-11, (AMNH); Archer,
1-IV-80, C. Riherd; Hague, 2-VII-58, W. P.
Hunter, (FSCACC); BAKER CO.: Glen St.
Mary, 27-VIII-54; same, 3-IV-64, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (FSCA); same, 28-IV-59, E. W. Holder,
(FSCACC); same 27-XI-53, R. F. Hussey,
(FSCA); BREVARD CO.: Titusville, 8-XI-11,
(AMNH); BROWARD CO.: Hollywood,
27-XI-40, 1-XII-54, O. D. Link, (FSCA); Ft.
Lauderdale, 24-VII-80, K. Tyson; same,
19-IV-79, R. Berry, (FSCACC); same, 6-VII-33,
M. Bates; Hallandale, 16-VIII-39, H. Ruckes,
(AMNH); Davie, 14-II-75, R. L. Chavez;
CALHOUN CO.: Scotts Ferry, 19-IV-69,
13-XI-11, 17-XI-11, (AMNH); same, 20-V-80, A.
Gambel & W. T. Walsh, (FSCACC); same,
16-XI-11, W. T. Davis; Burmont, 9-IV-37, J. G.
Franclemont, (NMNH); CITRUS CO.: Crystal
River, 20-XII-79, R. Phillips, (FSCACC); 2-V-12,
W. T. Davis, (NMNH); COLLIER CO.:
27-IV-12, H. G. Barber, (NMNH); Naples,
19-1-46,1, 2-11-46,11-46, R. Rounds; Allen River
to Deep Lake, 14-IV-12; Everglade, 6-IV-12,
7-IV-12, 11-IV-12,19-XI-11, (AMNH); COLUM-

BIA CO.: 21-XI-53, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA);
DADE CO.: Everglades Nat. Pk., 29-1-59, H. A.
Denmark; Miami, XI-36; same, 22-X-54, H. A.
Denmark; same, 9-IX-34, F. N. Young; same,
18-XII-48, O. D. Link, (FSCA); same, 7-11-80, C.
Steiger; same, 10-VIII-79, S. Yocum & J.
Deisler; same, 7-11-75, C. B. Lieberman; same,
20-VII-61, R. W. Swanson; same, 23-III-60,
J. R. McFarland; same, 29-X-57, G. C. Butler,
(FSCACC); same, A. E. Wight; same, 5-XI-11,
(AMNH); same, 12-XI-32, C. F. Bainwater;
same, II-09, (NMNH); Miami Springs, 13-II-80,
L. Howerton & W. Brewton; N. Miami,
22-IV-77, J. DeBaby; same, 5-III-76, D. Phelps,
(FSCACC); Coral Gables, 5-XII-17, (FSCA);
same, 5-III-27, (NMNH); S. Miami, 23-II-46, T.
Bayer; Cutler, 2-III-46, H. Montgomery;
Redlands, 16-III-46, H. Montgomery; S.
Allapattah, 29-IV-38, Pollett; Homestead,
27-II-56, R. A. Morse; (FSCA); same, 22-XI-74,
J. A. Slater, (JAS); same, 17-XII-56, 27-X-56,
28-II-57,15-VI-69, 31-X-69, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); same, 29-1-59, 27-V-58, R. W. Swanson;
same, 31-V-63, C. J. Fay; N. Miami Beach,
11-1-63, D. DeHaven, (FSCACC); 3 mi. S.
Florida City, 1-IV-57, Forster & Gertsch,
(AMNH); Royal Palm Park, 23-VII-27, M.
Leonard; Tims Hammock, 24-II-19, H. S.
Barber, (NMNH); DESOTO CO.: Arcadia,
26-1-70, 15-VII-63, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC);
DIXIE CO.: 6-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
DUVAL CO.: Jacksonville, 19-VIII-54, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); same, 3-XI-11, 5-XI-11, 7-V-22,
IV, Allen, (AMNH); same, ll-VII-80, J. Gar-
bark, (FSCACC); same, 11-XI, (NMNH); S.
Jacksonville, 6-III-21, Allen, (AMNH); same,
27-XI-60, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); ESCAMBIA
CO.: 20-VII-56, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Pensacola,
19-IV-56, R. W. Halberton, (FSCACC); same,
11-14-X-14, (AMNH); nr. Century, 21-VII-55, F.
W. Mead, (FSCACC); GADSDEN CO.: Quincy,
13-V-64, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); same,
5-15-VII-40, H. Ruckes, (AMNH); Oak Grove,
17-1-64, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC); GILCRIST
CO.: 6-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
HAMILTON CO.: 30-VII-54, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); HARDEE CO.: nr. Ona, 31-III-38, W.
J. Gertsch, (AMNH); HENDRY CO.: LaBelle,
27-IV-12, 28-IV-12, (AMNH); HIGHLANDS
CO.: Sebring, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same
24-III-38, F. Lutz, (AMNH); same, 20-III-55, R.
A. Morse; Highlands Hammock St. Pk.,
15-IV-68, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Archbold
Biol. Sta. 14-IV-63, J. G. & B. L. Rosen; same,
26-1-43, 5-11-43, M. Cazier, (AMNH); same,
27-XII-58, S. W. Frost; same, 11-XI-62, R.
Archbold; same, Lake Placid, 27-XI-83, M.
Deyrup; same, 8 mi. S, 29-VIII-82, 6-X-82, M.

pa, 11-27, (AMNH); same, 30-VII-70, 10-XI-69,
T. Faberoso; same 20-V-70, E. R. Simmons; Pic-
nic, 20-VII-73, K. C. Laurie & A. L. Baker;
Valrico, 8-XI-71, E. R. Simmons; Brandon,
8-XII-66, T. Faberoso; Riverview, 7-1-66, T.
Faberoso; HOLMES CO.: Bonifay, 13-IV-68, E.
T. Boggs; same, 20-TV-67, I. C. Whitehead,
IV, G. Nelson; Sebastian, III, IV, G. Nelson,
(AMNH); same, 21-III-72, W.B.C. (UNH); Vero
Beach, 1-VI-67, F. S. Saba, (FSCACC); Indian
River District; VI-1896; (NMNH); JACKSON
CO.: 5-VIII-54, F. W. Mead; Fla. Cav. St. Pk.,
9-VII-54, F. W. Mead; 4 mi N Butler, 2-VI-55,
R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Greenwood, 12-IV-67, D.
R. Scott; same, 31-VII-63, 10-VII-63, E. L. Tip-
ton; Sneads, 19-VII-63, A. R. Gary, (FSCACC);
JEFFERSON CO.: Monticello, 4-8-X-14,
(AMNH); same, 7-X-69, 3-XI-69, J. T. Raese;
Quincy, 13-IV-64, 31-VII-56, 30-IV-56, F. W.
Mead, (FSCACC); LAKE CO.: Wiersdale,
17-X-46; 12-VIII-58, A. L. Bentley; Leesburg,
23-IX-61, 7-V-61, C. H. Curran, (FSCA); same,
1907, Morton, (JAS); same, 1-11-III-54, M.
Statham; same, 1-XI-53, 20-VII-60, 18-VI-61,
20-VI-60, 18-VII-61, 10-IX-61, C. H. Curran,
(AMNH); same, 3-V-63, C. L. Felshaw; same,
10-XI-60, M. G. Howard & H. F. Haas;
Mascotte, 21-X-71, A. L. Bentley, (FSCACC);
same, 11-IX-39, Oman, (NMNH); Grand Island,
20-III-65, A. L. Bentley; Clairmont, 22-V-63, D.
L. Brown; Eustis, 4-V-61, C. L. Felshaw,
(FSCACC); LEE CO.: Sanibel Is., 9-VI-69,
Slater, Schuh, Harrington, (JAS); Ft. Myers,
13-XI-11, 19-XI-11, 12-XI-11, 2-IV-12, 22-IV-12,
25-IV-12, 23-IV-12, (AMNH); same, 26-1-44;
10-XI, (NMNH); same, 11-VI-75, V. W. Yingst;
Naples, 25-VI-79, K. Delate; same, 4-11-75, S. L.
Kitto, (FSCACC); LEON CO.: Tallahassee,
8-VIII-03, (AMNH); same, 28-VI-78, 2-VI-77, M.
A. Altieri; same, XI-68, F. Kellog, (FSCACC);
LEVY CO.: 4-VII-57, 6-V-55, F. W. Mead;
10-IX-55, R. A. Morse; 5-VI-55, H. A. Denmark;
1-XI-51, N. Anderson; Bronson, 2-X-68, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Williston, 11-X-57, J. C.
Denmark, (FSCACC); LIBERTY CO.: 20-IX-54,
R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); MANATEE CO.:
Bradenton, 20-IV-72, S. Schrieber, (FSCACC);
same, 30-1-23, F. M. Craighead; Duette,
9-XII-60, D. C. Chancy, (FSCACC); MARION
CO.: Ocala, 9-V-40; same, 7-XII-57; same,
7-XII-56, 27-III-54, H. B. Wesson, (FSCA);
Largo, 20-IV-78, K. Wells; Lowell, 12-XI-63, T.
R. Adkins; same, 23-IV-57, W. P. Hunter;
Fellowship, 22-V-56, J. Condo, (FSCACC);
MARTIN CO.: 4-XT-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA);
Port Sewall, 1-II-41, L. J. Sanford; same,

21-XII-38, L. C. & L. J. Sanford, (AMNH);
Stuart, 4-IV-78, E. W. Campbell; Indiantown,
20-IV-62, E. W. Campbell, (FSCACC);
MONROE CO.: N. Key Largo, 6-11-70, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Stock Island, 12-VII-57,
W. W. Warner; Key West, 4-VII-71, W. Pierce,
(FSCA); same, 9-VII-71, T. H. Cartwright,
(FSCACC); NASSAU CO.: N. Amelia City,
8-XII-62, W. Ivie, (AMNH); 17-IV-74, H.
31-VII-55, F. W. Mead; 29-III-78, A. Semago,
(FSCA); Valparaiso, VI-43, G. A. Edwards;
Crestview, 15, 16-X-14, (AMNH); ORANGE
CO.: Winter Park, 21-XI-39, H. T. Fernald,
(FSCA); same, 1-12-VIII-39, H. Ruckes; same,
6-IV, E. M. Davis; same, 9-IV, C. H. Paige,
(AMNH); Orlando, 7-III-28,18-1V-21, 21-IV-31,
(FSCA); same, 12-1-10, (NMNH); same, 2-VI-61,
J. R. Woodley; Apopka, 4-IV-80, D. Remington;
same, 21-II-65, H. van Pelt; same, 14-XII-59, J.
R. Woodley; Pine Castle, 8-IX-59, J. Fulford;
Maitland, 10-II-71, W. S. Deott, (FSCACC);
OSCEOLA CO.: 5 mi. W. Yeehaw Jet., 6-VI-69,
Slater, Schuh, Harrington, (JAS); Kissimmee,
18-IX-63, R. A. Vild, (FSCACC); PALM
BEACH CO.: South Bay, 28-III-12, 1-V-12,
2-V-12, (AMNH); Delray Beach, 29-V-80, D.
Clinton & D. Sanders, (FSCACC); Palm Beach,
H. G. Dyar; Canal Point, 1-XII-27, (NMNH);
Lake Worth, 17-1-24, col. of S. W. Bromley;
same, 19-1-24, 6-XI-26; Boynton, 26-1-09,
Russell; same, 31-XII-28, (NMNH); PASCO
CO.: Dade City, 28-VIII-63, J. C. Sellars & C.
B. Williams; same, 29-III-60, J. C. Sellars; same,
10-X-61, J. C. Sellars, same, 22-IV-64, G. Barber
& C. Williams; Lacoochee, 12-VII-69, L.
O'Berry, (FSCACC); PINELLAS CO.: Safety
Harbor, 13-IV-65, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Clear-
water, 15-23-VII-40, H. Ruckes, (AMNH);
Seminole; 12-IV-78, D. R. McNeil; Dellwood,
13-IV-67, D. R. Scott, (FSCACC); St.
Petersburg; Dunedin; 7-X-38, P. Oman; same,
17-III-27, W.S.B.: (NMNH); Gulfport, 1916;
(UNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 14-IV-49,
Hussey; Griffen, 20-XII-54; W. B. Tappan,
(FSCA); same, 7-XI-11, 5-XI-12, (AMNH); same,
7-XI-ll, W. T. Davis; same, 22-VIII-23; same,
27-III-23, E. M. Craighead, (NMNH); Ft.
Meade, 22-VII-66, H. G. Schmidt; Bartow,
8-XII-61, 21-II-62, R. A. Vild; Alturas, 6-XII-63,
R. A. Vild; E. Lake Wales, 30-VII-63, R. A. Vild;
Laughman, 23-V-62, K. Hickman; Auburndale,
26-IV-61, J. Hayward & P. Pettigrew,
(FSCACC); PUTNAM CO.: 7-XI-54, G. B. Mer-
rill, (FSCA); Crescent City, 21-IV-08, 24-IV-08,
Van Duzee; Palatka; Georgetown, C. T. Brues,
(AMNH); SARASOTA CO.: 26-1-55, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); Sarasota, II-11, Blatchley,

(AMNH); Venice, 24-VIII-60, E. L. Yax;
Nokomis, 13-X-58, W. Miller & L. B. Hill,
(FSCACC); SEMINOLE CO.: Sanford; same,
28-IV-08, 26-IV-08, 3-V-08, 5-V-08, 6-V-08, Van
Duzee, (AMNH); same, 14-VIII-58, 8-IV-58, C.
O. Youtsey, (FSCACC); same 18-III-27, M.
Leonard, (NMNH); Longwood, 12-III-37,
(AMNH); SUMPTER CO.: Fruitland Pk.,
20-VI-69, A. L. Bentley, (FSCACC); ST. JOHNS
CO.: 17-VII-54, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); Ponte
Vedra Beach, 7-III-45, 8-III-45, 9-III-45,
10-III-45, 12-III-45, 14-III-45, 15-III-45,
19-III-45, L. Lacey, (AMNH); Hastings,
10-III-27, M. Leonard; same, VII-27, Scribner,
(NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.: 25-VII-54, 17-XI-56,
H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); Ormond, 19-III-15,
same, (AMNH); Daytona Beach, 3-XII-77, J. W.
Bennett; Edgewater, 28-II-39, C. A. Frost;
Enterprise, IV-1887; Lake Helen, 3-VII-07;
Daytona, 10-XI-11, G. Engelhardt, (NMNH);
Port Orange, 16-III-61, L. W. Holly & E. B.
Smith; New Smyrna, 15-VIII-60, E. B. Smith;
New Smyrna Beach, 5-VIII-59, E. B. Smith; Os-
teen, 18-V-59, L. W. Holly & E. B. Smith;
DeLand, 1-IX-58, C. R. Roberts; Debary,
19-V-80, C. Roberts, (FSCACC); ST. LUCIE
CO.: Ft. Pierce, 1-V-63, N. C. Hayslip,
(FSCACC); WAKULLA CO.: Shell Point Beach,
3-VI-69, Slater, Schuh, Harrington, (JAS); St.
Marks, 16-XI-69, F. W. Mead; WALTON CO.:
8-VII-53, 28-V-47; (FSCA); DeFuniak Spgs.,
17-19-X-14, (AMNH); same, 18-VI-69, J.
Kimper; WASHINGTON CO.: Vernon
20-IV-67, I. C. Whitehead, (FSCACC);
UNKNOWN COUNTY: Everglades, 11-IV-12,
col. of H. G. Barber, (NMNH); same, 6-1-78, P.
LaScala, (UNH); Everglades Nat. Pk., 26-XI-61,
Slater, Woodward, Sweet, (JAS); Paradise Key,
29-XII, Fairchild; (AMNH).

NARNIA Stal, 1862

Type Species: Narnia femorata Stal 1862, p.
296. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Very closely related to Leptoglossus.
Elongate, with subhexagonal pronotum. Head
and pronotum subequal in length. Basal seg-
ment of antennae about equal to the anteocular
portion of the head. Fourth segment of rostrum
at least 2.5 times the length of the third.
Posterior femora somewhat swollen.
According to Mann (1969) the several
species are primarily prickly pear fruit feeders,
but will also feed on the joints. They have been
recorded from both Platyopuntia and Cylin-
dropuntia spp.

(fig. 7, map XIII)

Narnia femorata Stal 1862, p. 296.
Narnia pallidicornis Stal 1870, p. 166.
Diagnosis: Elongate, uniformly brown, occa-
sionally with a pale transverse fascia across
hemelytra. Hind femora moderately swollen,
bearing spines on the ventral surface and
smaller spines or tubercles on other surfaces.
Tibiae somewhat dilated, the flattened portion
extending over proximal two thirds of the

Map XIII. Distribution of Narnia femorata.

Biology: As early as 1912, Hunter, Pratt,
and Mitchell reported it as breeding on Opun-
tia sp. and other cacti. According to Mann
(1969), adults and nymphs feed primarily on
fruit of prickly pear cactus (both Platyopuntia
and Cylindropuntia spp., the former being
favored. They have also been observed feeding
on the joints. Mitchell (unpub.) listed Opuntia
lindheimeri Engelm. as a breeding host. Ap-
parently the feeding causes little damage in the
field or caged in the laboratory. Eggs are
deposited in rows along the spines. There are
2 generations per year in the Southwest. Over-
wintering adults oviposit in March and April,




.Fig. 7. Narnia femorata


and the first generation reaches maturity in
May and June. Hunter, Pratt, and Mitchell
(1912) described the 5 nymphal instars.
According to Arnaud (1978) it is parasitized
by Trichopoda pennipes. Gryon (as Hadronotus)
atriscapus Gahan, an egg parasite, also was
recorded by Gahan (1927) in Texas.

Distribution: Essentially southwestern, known
from New Mexico, California, Arizona, Texas,
Florida, and south in Central America to Costa

Florida Distribution: One specimen was col-
lected in Florida, presumably an introduction
on nursery stock. LAKE CO.: Astatula,
23-VII-63, Holly, (FSCA); MARION CO.:
Recently 1 adult and 1 5th instar nymph were
collected on Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. on Rt.
40, 12 mi. E. of Lynne, 24-IV-84, T. J. Henry
and A. G. Wheeler, Jr., indicating that the
species is established.

LEPTOSCELINI Stal 1867, p. 545.

Medium sized, elongate; head porrect and pro-
duced forward between bases of antennae.
Labium extending beyond hind coxae. Femora
armed beneath, but spines on middle and fore
femora very small. Tibiae simple, terete, lack-
ing foliaceous dilations.
A small Neotropical group of 4 genera, only
1 occurring north of Mexico.

PHTHIA Stal, 1862

Type Species: Cimex lunatus (Fabricius). Fixed
by subsequent designation.

Diagnosis: Medium sized species with width
across eyes exceeding width across anterior
margin of pronotum. First antennal segment
slightly more thickened than succeeding and
only slightly curving. Head nondeclivent. Pro-
notum markedly declivent, antero-lateral angles
with a distinct tooth. Hemelytra with lateral
margins straight, covering most of abdominal
connexivum. Fore and middle femora slender;
hind femora moderately incrassate, armed
below; hind tibiae not dilated.
The members of this genus qre distributed

widely in the Neotropics. One species reaches
the southern United States.

(fig. 8, map XIV)

Cimex picta Drury 1770, p. 107.
Cimex ciliatus Fabricius 1775, p. 706.
Cimex leprosus Fabricius 1775, p. 719.
Cimex candelabrum Goeze 1778, p. 254.
Cimex renulatus Fabricius 1781, p. 353.
Lygaeus dispar Fabricius 1803, p. 214.
Anisoscelis divisus Herrich-Schaeffer 1844, p. 9.
Anisoscelis pulverulentus Herrich-Schaeffer
1844, p. 9.
Leptoscelis obscure Dallas 1852, p. 458.
Anisoscelis annulipes Guerin 1857, p. 388.
Phthia picta Stal 1862, p. 296.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (14-16) with nearly
parallel sides. Body usually black or bluish
black with an orange stripe behind each eye.
Anterior and lateral margins of pronotum
orange. Color extremely variable, orange mark-
ings frequently more extensive, sometimes
predominating (see McAtee 1919) so that the
black coloration is reduced to a series of spots.
Lateral pronotal margins conspicuously spinose
(occasionally reduced).

Biology: Commonly breeds on Solanum nigrum
L. and almost seems restricted to this host even
when related species of Solanum are present.
Wilson (1923) reported serious injury by adults
and nymphs to tomatoes in the Virgin Islands
and noted egg deposition on Datura metel L.
and stated that kingbirds destroy both adults
and nymphs. Riley and Howard (1893) reported
damage to tomatoes. Blatchley (1926) reported
it on Solanum and (1928) the presence of adults
and nymphs on squash vines. Barber and
Bruner (1947) reported it breeding on tomatoes
and that it also has been taken on squash and
cow peas. Amaral (unpub.) reported it attack-
ing the following plants: SOLANACEAE:
Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill., Solanum
sisymbrifolium Lam., S. chacoense Bitter., S.
tuberosum L., S. melongena L., S. gracile
Herter, S. pseudocapsicum L. Salpichroa
origanifolia (Lam.) Baill., Cestrum pargui
L'Her., Capsicum annuum L., Datura ferox L.,
D. stramonium L., Nicotiana tabacum L.;
CUCURBITACEAE: Cucurbita pepo L., C


Fi. 8 Phthia picta
Fig. 8. Phthia picta.

moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Poir., C.
maxima Duchesne, Cucumis melo L., Citrullus
lanatus (as vulgaris) Matsumara & Nakai,
Momordica charantia L., Sechium edule (Jacq.)
Sw.; LEGUMINOSAE: Pisum sativum L.,
Phaseolus vulgaris L., Trifolium repens L., Vicia
faba L., Vigna unguiculata (as sinensis) (L.)
Walp; CARYOPHYLLACEAE: Stellaria media
(L.) Vill.; PEDALIACEAE: Sesamum indicum
L.; COMPOSITAE: Helianthus annuus L.;
CONVOLVULACEAE: Ipomoea batatas (L.)
Lam., I. cairica (L.) Sweet; MALVACEAE:
Gossypium hirsutum L., Sida rhombifolia L.;
GRAMINEAE: Oryza sativa L.;
PASSIFLORACEAE: Passiflora coerula
Masters; PUNICACEAE: Punica granatum L.
Distribution: Ranges nearly throughout the
Neotropical Region and also reported from
California, Texas and Florida.


Map XIV. Distribution of Phthia picta.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Punta Gorda, Big Pine Key, Biscayne Bay,
and Miami, and by Blatchely (1926) from
Dunedin, Gainesville, and Ft. Lauderdale.
Essentially southern but extends northward
along the coasts. BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lauder-
dale, VI-21, O. M. Bates, (FSCA); Hallandale,
30-VII-?-VIII-40, H. Ruckes;, CHARLOTTE

CO.: Punta Gorda, 15-XI-11, (AMNH); COL-
LIER CO.: Royal Palm Park, 23-1-29; same,
23-1-32, A. L. Melander, (UK); same,
12-18-IV-23; Everglade, 20-VI-29, (AMNH);
DADE CO.: Miami, 27-IV-44, 25-IV-44,
24-IV-44; same, 19-XI-11, G. P. Englehardt,
(NMNH); same, 5-IV-11, W. T. Bather,
(AMNH); same, 5-XI-57, C. F. Dowling;
Coconut Grove, 26-IV-46; Redlands, 14-II-46, N.
Mason, (FSCA); Biscayne Bay, Slosson,
(AMNH); N. Miami, 20-V-76, D. Phelps,
(FSCACC); Coral Gables, 5-III-27, S. Miami,
17-III-44, (NMNH); HENDRY CO.: Clewiston,
15-X-49, 25-XI-49; HILLSBOROUGH CO.:
Brandon, 16-X-65, J. W. Patton; Tampa,
16-V-65, J. W. Patton; Riverview, 6-VII-76, F.
J. Moore, (FSCA); INDIAN RIVER CO.: Sebas-
tian, XI, G. Nelson, (AMNH); LEE CO.: Ft.
Myers, 30-V-80, K. Delate; MONROE CO.:
26-X-77, R. E. Woodruff; Key Largo, 26-X-77,
R. E. Woodruff, (FSCACC); Tavernier, 12-IV-44;
(NMNH); N. Key Largo, 14-III-77, R. M.
Baranowski, (JAS); same, 14-III-77, 20-XII-77,
18-III-83, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB);
OKEECHOBEE CO.: Okeechobee,
23-30-VII-40, H. Ruckes, (AMNH); PALM
BEACH CO.: Boynton, 17-III-44; PINELLAS
CO.: St. Petersburg, 14-VI-38; POLK CO.:
Lakeland, 19-IV-45, (NMNH).

ACANTHOCERINI Bergroth 1913,
p. 144.

Diagnosis: Head quadrate, prominent
postocular tubercles present with ocelli on
distinct tubercles. Antenniferous tubercles
armed with a prominent spine. Fourth antennal
segment relatively short, robust. Femora at
least moderately incrassate, usually armed
below subdistally on ventral surface. Posterior
femora markedly incrassate, especially in males.
This is a Western Hemisphere tribe con-
sisting of 13 genera, one of which reaches the
United States.
Schaefer and O'Shea (1979) stated that
members of this tribe feed chiefly on species of


1. Humeral angles of pronotum rounded,
non-spinose. ....... .Euthochtha, p. 32

1'. Humeral angles of pronotum, produced
into an elongate acute spine ...... .
........ ...... Acanthocerus, p. 32

Palisot de Beauvois, 1805

Type Species: Acanthocerus crucifer Palisot de
Beauvois. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Head with tylus strongly declivent,

Pronotum strongly declivent, lateral margins
coarsely toothed, humeral angles acutely pro-
duced laterad into an elongate spine. Abdomen
with connexivum projecting conspicuously
beyond hemelytra. Labium short, barely
reaching mesosternum. All femora armed below
distally. Hind femora strongly incrassate,
especially in males. Antennae slender with only
short inconspicuous hairs present.
Two species are known, both of which are
West Indian.

(fig. 9)

Crinocerus lobatus Burmeister 1835, p. 318.
Acanthocerus lobatus Distant 1900, p. 375.

Diagnosis: Robust, moderate sized (13-15).
General coloration reddish brown. Scutellum
black with a median and two lateral stripes con-
trastingly yellow. Apical corial margin yellow-
ish, strongly contrasting with black membrane.
Abdominal connexivum yellow, posterior one-
half partly or entirely reddish brown. Posterior
lobe of metapleuron calloused with yellowish in
females. In males this area produced backward
into a prominent spatulate projection.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) stated that
lobatus is common in Cuba on woody plants
that occur up to 3,000 ft. elevation. They listed
as definite hosts Byrsonima spicata Ndz. (as
Banisteria laurifolia) and Myroxylon balsamum
Harms. and state that it is commonly seen on
Tournefortia hirsutissima L. andEupatorium sp.
Distribution: Described from Cuba and subse-
quently reported in error from St. Vincent and
Grenada. O'Shea (1975) stated that Barber
(1914a) reported it from "Southern Florida".
However, this is incorrect as there ip no men-

tion of the species in Barber's Florida paper.
Barber, in another paper (1914b), did report it
from New Mexico and said that he had carefully
compared this material with Cuban specimens.
O'Shea credited this New Mexican record to
Van Duzee (1917) and Torre-Bueno (1941) and
said the record seems questionable. Both of
these authors were, however, merely following
Thus, despite O'Shea's comment, we have
been unable to find a published Florida record.
However, there is, in the Torre-Bueno collection
(University of Kansas), a series of 11 specimens
labeled "Fla.", so the species appears to have
at least once been established in Florida. The
possibility of label error exists, but the Kansas
coreid collection contains a number of other
southern Florida coreids with identical labels.
Label error thus seems unlikely.


Type Species: Coreus galeator (Fabricius).
Diagnosis: Head with tylus strongly declivent,
not projecting forward of bases of antennae.
Antenniferous tubercles with a strongly project-
ing blunt spine laterad. Eyes set well away from
antero-lateral pronotal angles, area of head
immediately behind eye tuberculate. Pronotum
strongly declivent, lateral margins toothed,
antero-lateral angles produced into a short
tooth. Humeri rounded, crenulate. Body robust,
abdomen elliptical, usually with connexivum
projecting conspicuously laterad of lateral
margins of hemelytra. All femora prominently
armed below, hind femora curved, tuberculate
above. Tibiae straight with small spines on
inner margin, nondilated. Antennae slender
with only short inconspicuous hairs present.

(fig. 10, map XV)

Coreus galeator Fabricius 1803, p. 191.
Crinocerus tibialis Herrich-Schaeffer 1842, p. 21.
Euthochtha galeator Mayr 1865, p. 431.

Diagnosis: Robust, moderate size (15-17). Dull
reddish brown to dull yellowish with numerous
dark punctures over pronotum and hemelytra.
Connexivum usually marked with pale and dark
alternating patches.

Fig. 9. Acanthocerus lobatus.

adults overwintering. Mitchell (unpub.) reported
breeding populations on Gaura parviflora
Dougl., Ambrosia trifida L., Cirsium texanum
Buckl. and Heterotheca latifolia Buckl. She also
reported adult aggregations on Baccharis
neglecta Britt. and Ratibida columnifera (as
columnaris) (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. and adult
feeding on Rudbeckia hirta L., Solidago altis-
sima L., and Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Mitchell (1980b) has observed males on flower
heads of Cirsium texanum Buckl. fighting with
their hind legs presumably as territorial defense
similar to that observed in Acanthocephala
Eggs are parasitized by the hymenopteran
Ooencyrtus anasae (Ashmead), 0. clisiocampae
(Ashmead), and Anastatus pearsalli (Ashmead),
and adults are reported by Arnaud (1978) to be
parasitized by Trichopoda pennipes. Death
feigning and nymphal aggregating occurs.
Distribution: Occurs from New England west
to Iowa and south to Texas and Florida.

Biology: Feeds on a variety of plants. Yonke
and Medler (1969a) took adults in Wisconsin on
Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr., Achillea
millifolium L., Aster pilosus Willd., Monarda
fistulosa L., Desmodium glutinosum (as acu-
minatus) (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood, and Quercus
ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill, the first of these appar-
ently being preferred. Nymphs and adults also
were collected on Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.)
Fern., Aureolaris glandiflora var. pulchra
(Benth.) Pennell, Carya sp., and Ulmus rubra
Muhl., eggs and first instar nymphs on Aster
ericoides L., and eggs on Urtica dioica L.,
Prunus americana Marsh., and Rhus glabra L.
Hussey (1922) reported collecting specimens on
ragweed. Froeschner (1942) reported adults and
nymphs breeding on Monarda sp. in Missouri.
Torre-Bueno (1908) reported it occurring on
bush beans and described the 5th instar nymph.
Yonke and Medler (1969b) described and illus-
trated all of the immature stages. Mead (1981)
reported various sized nymphs and adults
feeding on and damaging roses. Hubbard (1885)
reported it destructive on oranges. Ebling
(1959) reported it responsible for defoliation of
potted lychee plants. Griffiths and Thompson
(1957) stated it caused wilting and dieback of
tender young citrus twigs. Collecting records in
Florida are on Solanum sp., Bidens sp., Flaveria
linearis Lag., and Lyonia marianna Parks.
There is one generation a year in the north with

Map XV. Distribution of Euthochtha galeator.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Jacksonville, Biscayne Bay, Key Largo,
Miami, Everglade, Lakeland, Ft. Myers, Marco,
La Grange, Key West, Big Pine Key,.Marathon,




Fig. 10. Euthochtha galeator.

Leon Co., Indian River District, and Chokolos-
kee. Common, widely distributed throughout
the state. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 30-
III-39, A. N. Tissot; same, 11-VIII-41; same,
6-III-37, S. Swank; same 6-IX-80, F.W. Mead;
same, 6-XI-32, G. B. Merrill; same, 15-IV-36,
27-III-24, T. H. Hubbell; same, 11-VIII-55,
C. N. Patton; same 18-III-48, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
same, (FSCA); same, 20-IX-2-X-14 (AMNH);
same, 13-VIII-80, D. Wojcik; same 11-V-80,
F. W. Mead; same 8-X-79, J. C. Traitor; same
11-VI-79, 7-VII-79, F. W. Mead; same, 7-VIII-66,
28-VII-66,12-VII-66, L. O Berry; same, 4-IV-63,
R. P. Esser, (FSCACC); same, 7-VII-55,14-III-
54, H. V. Weems, Jr.; San Felasco Hammock,
9-VI-77, 2-VI-77, H. V. Weems, Jr. & G. B. Fair-
child; same, 11-X-35, student col.; Paradise,
19-III-48, T. J. Downes, same 6-III-46, student
col., (FSCA); Archer, 7-VIII-79, C. Riherd & H.
Collins; High Springs, 4-IV-76, C. V. Lieberman,
(FSCACC); BAKER CO.: MacClenny, 26-XI-58,
E. W. Holder, (FSCACC); BREVARD CO.:
Merritt Island, 7-13-VIII-40, H. Ruckes,
(AMNH); BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lauderdale,
VI-22, S. M. Bates; same, 15-V-48; same, 24-
VII-27, G. B. Merrill, (FSCA); same, 23-VIII-32,
D. M. Bates, (AMNH); Hallandale, 16-VIII-39,
H. Ruckes, (AMNH); CLAY CO.: Penney Farms,
26-VI-40, (FSCA); CHARLOTTE CO.: Punta
Gorda, VIII-61, W. T. Walsh & H. Collins,
(FSCACC); COLLIER CO.: Naples, 18-III-75,
V. W. Yingst, (FSCA); same 18-III-75, V. W.
Yingst & S. L. Kittle, (FSCACC); same, 29-
XI-55, H. A. Denmark; same, 6-IV-59, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Immokalee, 1-V-75, V. W.
Yingst & S. L. Kittle, (FSCACC); DADE CO.:
Miami, 19-VI-80, P. Larkins; same, 10-V-32,
L.S. Light, (FSCA); same, 5-XI-11, II-09,
(AMNH); same,19-VI-80, A. P. Larkins; same,
2-XI-72,19-X-55, L. Daigle; same, 30-X-62, J. N.
Todd, (FSCACC); same, 19-XI-ll; same, 18-XI-
11, G. P. Englehardt, (NMNH); Key Biscayne,
23-VIII-60, C. F. Dowling; Everglades Nat. Pk.
20-X-54, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Fuchs Hammock,
2-XI-79, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); Royal Palm
St. Pk., 25-III-37, Mrs. F. E. Lutz; Biscayne
Bay, (AMNH); Goulds, 16-X-75, P. Stansbery;
ll-XII-56, R. W. Swanson, (FSCACC); Home-
stead, 15-X-58, 9-VII-69, 25-X-69, R. M. Bara-
nowski; Naranja, 23-V-62, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); DUVAL CO.: Jacksonville, Allen,
(AMNH); GADSDEN CO.: 12-VII-54, F. W.
Mead, (FSCA); Quincy, 5-15-VII-40, H. Ruckes,
(AMNH); HIGHLAND CO.: Archbold Biol.
Sta., 23-25-XI-79, 25-VI-79, T. A. Webber & H.
V. Weems, Jr.; same, 30-IX-79, K. W. Harris &
H. V. Weems, Jr.; (FSCA); same, 15-31-VII-48,
A. B. Klots, (AMNH); same, Lake Placid,

15-VI-83, 3-V-83, M. Deyrup; same, 30-III-59,
R. Archbold; same, 8 mi. S., 9-X-82, M. Deyrup,
(ABS); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 111-18,
(AMNH); Lutz, 6-IX-61, R. E. Stokes, (FSCACC);
N. of Picnic, 8-IX-38, P. Oman, (NMNH);
INDIAN RIVER CO.: Indian River, (AMNH);
JACKSON CO.: 3-VIII-53, H. B. Wesson,
(FSCA); JEFFERSON CO.: Monticello, 4-8-
X-14, (AMNH); same, 29-IV-57, R. H. Miller,
(FSCACC); same, 21-VII-54, F. W. Mead;
LAKE CO.: Groveland, 26-VIII-60, W. P.
Henderson, (FSCA); Grand Island, 5-V-61, A. L.
Bentley; Clermont, 14-VIII-58, A. L. Bentley,
(FSCACC); LEON CO.: Tallahassee, 8-VIII-03,
(AMNH); same, 14-VI-77, M. Altieri, (FSCACC);
LEVY CO.: Cedar Key, 27-VII-25; 13-VII-54,
22-VI-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.; MARION CO.:
Ocala Nat. For., nr. Hopkins Prairie, 11-18-V-79,
G. B. Fairchild, (FSCA); Ft. McCoy, 19-VII-64,
R. E. Vild; MARTIN CO.: Stuart, 25-VII-77,
E. W. Campbell, (FSCACC); MONROE CO.:
Key Vaca, 28-XII-55, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Big
Pine Key, 28-III-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same,
23-VI-71, 30-VII-71, W. Pierce; Key Largo,
27-III-57, 2-V-57, 11-IV-59, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); same, 11-VI-69, 9-VI-69, Slater, Schuh,
Harrington, (JAS); same, 6-XI-11; Flamingo,
13-IV-23, (AMNH); Stock Island, 27-XII-54,
H. V. Weems, Jr.; Long Key, IV-55, H. A.
Denmark; same, 28-III-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Upper Matecumbe, 27-XI-55, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Key West, 12-VI-53, O. D. Link, (FSCA); same,
(AMNH); same, 29-III-61, C. A. Bennett,
(FSCACC); No Name Key, 21-1-72, 29-II-72,
W. Pierce, (FSCA); same, 9-VII-71, W. Pierce;
Tavernier, 8-VIII-58, C. F. Dowling & R. W.
Swanson, (FSCACC); N. Key Largo, 21-VII-67,
29-VI-69, 4-VII-69, 6-XI-79; R. M. Baranowski;
same, 14-V-81, P Veno; (RMB); OKEECHOBEE
CO.: Okeechobee, 23-30-VII-40, H. Ruckes,
(AMNH); ORANGE CO.: Windermere, 3-VI-48,
O. D. Link; same, 25-VIII-56, H. A. Denmark;
Winter Park, 19-XI-41, 28-IV-42, H. T. Fernald,
(FSCA); same, 14-VI, E. M. Davis; Fairvilla,
14-23-VIII-40, H. Ruckes, (AMNH); Orlando,
23-III-28, 26-IV-31, 15-III-27, 9-IV-31,19-XI-31,
(FSCA); same, IV, Paige, (AMNH); same, 15-
III-08,14-X-08, 6-IV-06, Russell; same, 20-V-29,
C. Nelson, (NMNH); PALM BEACH CO.:
Boynton, 18-IV-25, H. N. Betts; Loxahatchee,
29-30-X-34, T. H. Hubbell, (FSCA); PASCO CO.:
Jessamine, 17-IV-17, (AMNH); Blanton, 21-
XI-63, L. B. Hill & C. B. Williams, (FSCA);
POLK CO.: 22-VI-57, 28-IV-55, H. A. Denmark;
Lakeland, 28-III-12, (AMNH); Bartow, 4-VII-
72, T. Neal & J. Purdy; Babson Park, 21-IV-64,
R. E. Vild, (FSCACC); PUTNAM CO.: Crescent
City, 24-IV-08, Van Duzee; Palatka, (AMNH);

SANTA ROSA CO.: Avalon, 25-II-48, O. D.
Link; SARASOTA CO.: Nokomis, 11-1-53, G. C.
Groff, (FSCA); same, 13-X-58, D. E. Stokes;
Sarasota, 22-VIII-74, H. J. Von Doch; same,
4-VIII-62, B. Hoffman, (FSCACC); SEMINOLE
CO.: Sanford; same, 26-IV-08, 28-IV-08, Van
Duzee, (AMNH); SUWANNEE CO.: Suwannee,
12-V-78, C. Lieberman; 30-VII-54, F. W. Mead,
(FSCA); Live Oak, 10-VIII-03, (AMNH); UNION
CO.: Lake Butler, 4-IV-31, (FSCA); VOLUSIA
CO.: Port Orange, 16-III-61, E. B. Smith;
Deland, 19-VIII-58, L. W. Holly & C. R. Roberts,
28-VIII-67, H. G. Schmidt, (FSCACC); Ever-
glade, 5-IV-12, 7-IV-12, St. Johns River,
(AMNH); Everglades; 5-IV-12, coll. of W. T.
Davis, (NMNH); Pleasant Grove, 7-VII-57,
C. W. Hale & D. Stokes, (FSCACC).

Head subquadrate. Labium short, stout, apex
fitting into a sulcate tubercle on anterior margin
of mesosternum. Pronotum strongly declivent,
lateral margins nodulose, humeri produced
laterally. Femora armed at least distally with
spines on ventral surface. Posterior femora
McCullough (1974) stated that the mesquite
tree (Prosopis sp.) is host to at least 2 species,
lunata Burmeister and obtusa Uhler, both often
found on the same tree at the same time.
Twenty three species are known, with the
majority found in Central America and Mexico
and 1 species known from Colombia, 1 from
Cuba, and 8 occurring north of Mexico.


11, map


Mozena obesa Montandon 1899, p.190.

Amyot & Serville 1843, p. 191.

Large to very large species. Head subquadrate.
Femora at least slightly incrassate, posterior
femora markedly incrassate, especially in males.
Anterior femora armed distally on ventral sur-
face with 2 spines. Abdominal venter unarmed.
A Western Hemisphere tribe consisting of
16 genera, 3 of which reach the United States
and 2 occur in Florida.
Schaefer and O'Shea (1979) commented that
species of Leguminosae frequently are preferred


1. Mesosternum anteriorly behind anterior
coxae with a distinct longitudinal groove
or sulcus; margins elevated...........
...................... Mozena, p. 36
1'. Mesosternum behind anterior coxae not,
or at most very shallowly and indistinctly,
grooved or sulcate, margins not elevated
.................. Piezogaster, p. 38

MOZENA Amyot and Serville, 1843

Type Species: Mozena spinifrons Amyot and
Serville 1843, p. 192. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Large, elongate to elongate oval.

Map XVI. Distribution of Mozena obesa.

Diagnosis: Large, uniformly brown to dark red-
dish brown. Membrane chocolate brown.
Scutellum transversely rugose, coarsely punc-
tate, yellowish. Connexivum broadly exposed,
reflexed, with each segment marked with alter-
nating brown and yellow. Antennae reddish






brown with distal half to two-thirds of segment
four darker. Legs similar in color to body.
Biology: Froeschner (1942) reported taking
adults and nymphs commonly on Schrankia
uncinata Willd., and Schaefer and O'Shea (1979)
stated that this is the only known host plant.
However, Mitchell (unpub) reported collecting
adults and nymphs on Prosopis glandulosa
Torr. (as juliflora).
Distribution: Known from South Carolina west
to Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, south to
Florida Distribution: Described from Florida
without definite locality, reported by Barber
(1914) from Jacksonville and Enterprise and by
Blatchley (1926) from Lakeland. Uncommon,
not known from the southern part of the state.
HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold Biological Sta-
tion, 28-VI-63, 23-VIII-59, T. Pliske, (ABS);
ORANGE CO.: Orlando, 4-IX-04, F. W. Walker,
(UM); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 25-X-25, I. J. Milne
collection, (UNH); ST. JOHNS CO.: IV, (FSCA).

PIEZOGASTER Amyot & Serville, 1843

Type Species: Piezogaster albonotatus Amyot
& Serville 1843, p.197. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Medium to large species. Head rela-
tively triangular, postocular tubercles distinct,
not forming a smooth curve with eye. Anten-
niferous tubercles lacking an outward directed
spine. Pronotum variable, but humeral angles
obtuse in North American species. All femora
armed below, at least distally, with conspicuous
spines. Posterior femora markedly incrassate in
males, less so in females. Posterior tibiae
rounded or slightly flattened in females; curved
and flattened, but not dilated in males.
All previous American literature treated this
genus under the name Archimerus Stal. O'Shea
(1975) showed this name to be a replacement
name of Burmeister and not validly used in the
sense used by Stal so that the North American
species pertain to the genus Piezogaster.
Twenty-four species are recognized, all occur-
ring in the Neotropical Region except for the
two and questionably three that are found north
of Mexico.


1. Antennae relatively slender, rpore than 1

length of body. Anterolateral angles of ab-
dominal connexival segments 2 & 3 with
a small pale spot present............
.................... .ashm eadi, p. 39
1'. Antennae relatively stout, not more than
V2 as long as body. Abdominal connexival
segments either conspicuously alternated
with yellow and fuscus or nearly unicolor-
ous reddish brown ................. 2
2. Femora bearing numerous black erect
bristly hairs. Connexivum alternated with
yellow and fuscous . alternatess, p. 38
2'. Femora lacking erect bristly black hairs,
hairs pale and semidecumbent. Connexi-
vum uniformly reddish brown or suffused
with black, but never with alternating pale
and dark markings .... calcarator, p. 39

(fig. 12, map XVII)

Coreus alternates Say 1825, p. 317. (Leconte
edit. p. 327) in V.D. 1917 as "Complete
Archimerus squalus Burmeister 1835, p. 321.
?Archimerus rubiginosus Herrich-Schaeffer
1843, p. 52.
Archimerus muticus Herrich-Schaeffer 1843, p.
Piezogaster albonotatus Amyot & Serville 1843,
p. 197.

Diagnosis: A robust species, of moderately large
size (16-21); generally light brown with mem-
brane somewhat darker. Connexivum marked
with alternating yellow and brown. Femora with
numerous erect dark bristle-like hairs. Hind
femora of males strongly incrassate, those of
females markedly less so.
Biology: Yonke and Medler (1969a) reported
this species develops in Wisconsin chiefly on
Desmodium glutinosum (as acuminatum)
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood. The first four instars
feed only on this plant whereas the fifth instar
nymphs and adults feed on a variety of un-
related plants. Numerous adults were found
copulating on Ambrosia trifida L., Solidago
gigantea Ait., and S. altissima L., with feeding
occurring on the latter. Adults were taken on
Aster sagittifolius Wedemeyer ex Willd.,
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., Symplocarpus
foetidus (L.) Nutt., and Robinia pseudoacacia L.
Fifth instar nymphs occurred on Ambrosia

artemisiifolia L., A. trifida L., Cryptotaenia
canadensis (L.) D.C., Desmodium canadense (D.)
D.C., and Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. Morrill
(1910) reported it from golden rod. Adults ex-
hibit death feigning when disturbed, dropping
from the plants and remaining motionless in the
litter for as long as five minutes. Two Hymenop-
tera, Ooencyrtus clisiocampae and Anastatus
pearsalli, parasitize the eggs, and both Yonke
and Medler (1969a) and Patton (1958) reported
adults and nymphs parasitized by Trichopoda
pennipes. Yonke and Medler (1969c) described
and illustrated the egg and nymphal instars.
They reported a single generation per year with
adults overwintering. Arnaud (1978) reported it
as being parasitized by Trichopoda lanipes and
Distribution: Ranges from New Jersey south
into Florida and west to Wisconsin, Colorado,
and Oklahoma.

Fig. 12. Piezogaster alternatus.

1*4" *

Map XVII. Distribution of Piezogaster alternatus.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Royal Palm Park. Uncommon.
HIGHLANDS CO.: Highlands Hammock St.
Pk., 24-III-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.; LEE CO.: Ft.
Myers, 20-IX-76, C. Olson, (FSCA); same,
8-11-44, C. S. Tuthill, (FSCACC).

New Combination

Archimerus ashmeadi Montandon 1899, p. 194.

A questionably distinct species. It was differen-
tiated by the characters given in the preceding
key, but apparently it has not been recognized
since the original description when it was des-
cribed from "Florida" without definite location.

New Combination
(map XVIII)

Coreus calcarator Fabricius 1803, p. 192.

Diagnosis: Large, robust, very similar in most
respects to alternatus, but tending to be slightly
lighter in color and lacks the alternating color
markings on the connexivum and the black
bristly femoral spines.
Biology: Blatchley (1926) noted adult hiberna-
tion and its occurrence on the flowers of
Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal. Drake (1920)
reported parasitization by Trichopoda pennipes.
Distribution: Originally described from

"Carolina", but all subsequent records are from

drPS P

Map XVIII. Distribution of Piezogaster calcarator.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Crescent City, Tampa, Ft. Myers,
and Estero, by Barber (1914) from Lakeland,
Biscayne Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Sanford, and
Pablo Beach, and by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin. Appears to be generally distributed
throughout the state. ALACHUA CO.: Gaines-
ville. 17-IV-58, L. C. Kuitert, (FSCA); same,
19-X-36, student coll., (RMB); BREVARD CO.:
Rockledge, 29-III-28, (FSCA); DUVAL CO.:
(NMNH); St. Johns Bluff, 16-VII-57, F. W.
8-IV-48, D. J. Downes, (FSCA); JACKSON CO.:
Greenwood, 3-VIII-55, H. B. Wesson,
(FSCACC); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers, 20-III-12,
21-III-12, (NMNH); MARION CO.: Dunellon,
10-VIII-68, C. F. Zeiger, (RMB); PASCO CO.:
New Port Richey, 7-X-38, P. Oman; Trilby,
12-IX; PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 17-III-27,
Blatchley; St. Petersburg, (NMNH); PUTNAM
CO.: Welaka, 16-VII-40, J. J. Friauf, (RMB);
VOLUSIA CO.: Sanford, 11-VII-51, Price,
Beamer, Wood, (UK).

CORECORINI Van Duzee 1916, p. 12.

Diagnosis: Large, broadly oval, head.quadrate,

wider than long. Antenniferous tubercles promi-
nent and lacking spines at the sides. Labium
short, extending posteriorly only slightly
beyond fore coxae. Abdomen usually very broad
with connexivum widely exposed and somewhat
reflexed to give dorsal surface of abdomen a
concave appearance. Legs short, slender, all
femora and tibiae unarmed.
Five genera are known, all from the Western
Hemisphere, of which two occur north of


1. Veins of membrane distinctly and irregu-
larly anastomosing. Pronotal humeri pro-
jected upward. Fourth antennal segment
not longer than 3rd... Corecoris, p. 40
1'. Veins of membrane sometimes forked, but
not with numerous anastomosing veins.
Pronotal humeri not prominently pro-
duced upward. Fourth antenna segment
longer than 3rd ....... .Sephina, p. 44

CORECORIS Hahn, 1833

Type Species: Corecoris cinnamomeus Hahn
1833, fig. 124. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Large (17-24), broad, ovoid species
with numerous anastomosing veins in the mem-
brane of the fore wing. Antennae short. Lateral
pronotal margins not toothed nor serrate.
Humeri prominent, rounded and tilted some-
what upward. Femora unarmed.
The genus is chiefly Neotropical. Two
species occur north of Mexico, both occurring
in the southeastern states.


1. Pronotum with a pair of black longitudinal
lines ................. fuscus, p. 41
1'. Pronotum without black longitudinal lines
...................... diffusus, p. 41

(map XIX)

Coreus diffusus Say 1832, p. 11.
Corecoris diffusus Van Duzee 1916, p. 12.

Diagnosis: A slightly smaller (17-20) species
than fuscus, lacking the black longitudinal pro-
notal stripes and alternating black and orange
areas on the connexivum, although small black
spots may be present.
Biology: Unknown.
Distribution: From North Carolina to Texas,
New Mexico, and Florida.

Reduvius moestus Fabricius 1794, p. 198.
Coreus confluentus Say 1832, p. 11.
Spartocerus geniculatus Burmeister 1835, p.
Spartocerus serrulatus Herrich-Schaeffer 1842,
p. 12.
Spartocerus lateritus Westwood 1842, p. 7.
Spartocerus affinis Westwood 1842, p. 7.
Corecoris fuscus Van Duzee 1916, p. 12.

Diagnosis: A large (20-24) robust, bright orange
to yellow insect having a pair of longitudinal
black lines on the posterior lobe of the pro-
notum, one on either side midway between
meson and lateral margin that converge on
meson just behind calli. Anterior area of pro-
notum black, extending posteriorly along entire
lateral margins of anterior pronotal lobe. Con-
nexiva black laterally on anterior half. Anten-
nae completely black, legs chiefly so, but with
coxae, trochanters, proximal and distal ends of
femora, and proximal ends of tibiae contrast-
ingly orange or yellow.

.000 .

Map XIX. Distribution of Corecoris diffusus.

Florida Distribution: Previously reported by
Van Duzee (1917) and by Uhler (1886) as Sparto-
cera cinnamomea without definite station and
by Riley (1892) from Waldo, Florida. ST.
JOHNS CO.: Anastasia St. Pk., 12-III-77, L. R.
Davis, (UNH); ST. LUCIE CO.: 1-VIII-58,
E. W. Campbell, (FSCA).

(fig. 13, map XX)

Cimex fuscus Thunberg 1783, p. 44.


Map XX. Distribution of Corecoris fuscus.

Biology: Breeds on Solanum americanum P.
Mill. Early instar nymphs tend to be gregarious.
It also has been taken in cultivated fields,
orange groves, and gardens and has been col-


F'' 3.C-


elected feeding on Physalis sp. Barber and
Bruner (1947) reported it breeding on Solanum
nigrum L. Schaefer and Mitchell (1983) cited a
record from Basso et al. (1974) on Solanum sp.
Drake (1920) reported nymphs of this species,
under the name confluenta, parasitized by Sar-
cophaga sternodontis Townsend at Homestead.

Distribution: Known from Mexico, southwest-
ern United States, and Florida.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) as Spartocera confluenta (Say), a
synonym, from Crescent City and Clearwater,
by Barber (1914) under the same name from
Biscayne Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Key Largo,
Miami, Lake Okeechobee, Everglade, Lee
County, Lake City, Lake Worth and Chokolos-
kee and by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin, Gulf-
port, Ft. Myers and Sarasota. Barber (1914)
believes Uhler's (1886) record of C. diffusus from
"Florida" should be referred here. Primarily
throughout the southern part of the state, but
occasional records as far north as Walton Co.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 22-X-37, E. D.
Morse; same 4-11-27, H. Sterling; same, 20-X-25,
A. N. Tissot; same, 8-III-37, G. Swank; same,
XII-68, XI-52, L. A. Hetrick; same, IX-48, E.
Dickson, (FSCA); Waldo, 23-XI-1889, (NMNH);
BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lauderdale, VII-22, D. M.
Bates; same, 7-VI-78, K. L. Tyson; Davie,
7-VII-77, R. Schimmel, (FSCA); same 1-V-78,
R. Gaskalla, (FSCACC); Dania, 17-1-78, (FSCA);
Pompano, 2-III-45, L. V. France; Oakland Park,
27-IV-64, G. McLean; COLLIER CO.: Naples,
28-VI-78, 10-V-77, R. E. Driggers; same,
10-X-77, W. T. Walsh, (FSCACC); Chokoloskee,
(UK); DADE CO.: Miami. 1-VI-78, D. C. Phelps;
same, 16-IV-35, P. Heinrich; same, 9-III-58,
C. F. Dowling; same, 21-VIII-80, C. Steiger,
(FSCA); same, 3-V-77, H. Glenn; same, 6-IV-77,
D. Culbert; same, 28-V-70, 27-VIII-69, W. S.
Brewton; same, 20-IV-67, L. P. Meyer; same
16-1-59, L.J. Daigle; same, 10-1-56, C. F.
Dowling; same, 26-VII-78, D. Phelps; same,
7-VI-78, R. E. Driggers, (FSCACC); same
31-V-10, 3-V-10, E. R. Sasser; same, 29-IV-28,
F. Muser, (NMNH); Homestead, 20-IV-59, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); same, 30-VI-80, same,
8-VI-61, J. H. Knowles; G. Webster; Coral
Gables, 17-V-46; Naranja, 10-VI-54, 0. D. Link;
Miami Beach, 6-X-80, W. James; Opalocka,
25-III-75, D. Steger; N. Miami, 27-VII-71, J. R.
Halsted; W. Miami, 14-VI-60, R. W. Swanson;
Hialeah, 10-VII-80, Pena (FSCACC); Allapattah,
30-IX-18; S. Miami, 19-V-28; Paradise Key,
C.A. Mosier; Larkin, 20-VII-18, (NMNH);
Royal Palm Park, 21-VII-48,,L. D. Beamer,

(UK); DUVAL CO.: Mayport, 2-VII-73, G.
Foster; GULF CO.: White City, 19-VI-80, E.
Gambill; HARDEE CO.: Wachulla, 16-VI-18,
B. E. Melendy, (FSCA); Ft. Green, 30-V-62,
R. H. Rhodes; HERNANDO CO.: Brooksville,
30-III-62, C. E. Harper, (FSCACC); HIGH-
LANDS CO.: Highlands Hammock St. Pk.,
14-III-77, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); HILLS-
BOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 3-X-73, E. R. Sim-
mons; same 30-IX-69, A. Krause; same,
22-III-61, J. W. Patton, (FSCACC); same,
10-II-27, C. 0. Bare, (NMNH); INDIAN RIVER
CO.: Vero Beach, 23-VI-67, P. Araoz,
(FSCACC); same, IV-41, J. R. Malloch,
(NMNH): same, 31-V-57, L. R. Blickle, (UNH);
LEVY CO.: IX-51, L. A. Hetrick, (FSCA);
Chiefland, 26-V-76, W. Littleton, (FSCACC);
MANATEE CO.: Bradenton, 8-XII-69, J. R.
McFarland, (FSCA); same, 21-VI-63, D. C.
Chancy; Palmetto, 24-V-44, 18-II-44, H. C.
Secrest, (FSCACC); same, 18-1-44, 24-V-44,
(NMNH); MARION CO.: Weirsdale, 14-VII-25,
(FSCA); MARTIN CO.: Bluefield, 6-V-80,
Campbell; MONROE CO.: N. Key Largo, 6-IX-
68, 19-XII-69, 14-1-77, 19-XII-77, 20-XII-77,
R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same, 14-1-77, 20-IX-
69, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS); Key Vaca, 4-IV-57,
C. F. Dowling; Stock Island, 1-VII-57, W. B.
Warner, (FSCA); Tavernier, 12-IV-44, C. S.
Tuthill; Key Largo, 24-II-60, H. Creamer,
(FSCACC); same, III-1898, 9-III, G. N. Collins;
Big Pine Key, 6-III, H. Barber, (NMNH); Vaca
Key, 29-III-57, C. F. Dowling & G. W. Dekle,
(FSCACC); ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 29-V-
44, 17-V-42, 2-X-40, 5-VIII-40, H. T. Fernald,
(FSCA); Plymouth, 7-IX-77, D. A. Graddy;
Orlando, 27-IX-61, J. R. Woodley; same,
3-VIII-07, 1-VIII-07, 23-VIII-07, 11-VII-08,
5-VII-07, Russell, (NMNH); Gotha, F.
Rauterberg; same, F. R., (UK); PALM BEACH
CO.: Belle Glade, 18-VII-39, P. Oman; Pahokee,
25-IV-19, (NMNH); PASCO CO.: Dade City,
29-IX-59, J. C. Sellars; PINELLAS CO.: Tarpon
Springs, 4-X-76, K. C. Lawrey, (FSCACC);
Gulfport, 1919, (UNH); POLK CO.: Winter
Haven, 27-XII-66, W. A. Wyles; Lakeland,
3-V-57, R. R. Snell, (FSCACC); PUTNAM CO.:
Lake Como, VII-21, (NMNH); SARASOTA
CO.: Sarasota, 8-VI-55, E. G. Kelsheimer,
(FSCA); SEMINOLE CO.: 10-VIII-29, H. Clark,
(NMNH); ST. LUCIE CO.: Ft. Pierce, 12-IX-55,
E. Campbell, (FSCACC); VOLUSIA CO.:
18-VII-58, C. O. Youtsey, (FSCA); Daytona
Beach, 10-IX-45, G. T. Riegel, (NMNH); Pier-
son, 18-VII-58, C. O. Youtsey, C. R. Roberts;
WALTON CO.: Iona, 24-X-75, S. Kitto,
Sharkeys P. O., (FSCA).

SEPHINA Amyot & Serville, 1843

Type Species: Lygaeus pestulata Fabricius
1803, p. 205. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Robust, ovoid, moderate sized. Head
very short, tylus declivent, not projecting for-
ward of antenniferous tubercles, the latter
prominent, elevated above head surface and
directed forward. Eyes small, projecting,
globose, set well away from antero-lateral pro-
notal angles. Pronotum with distinct ring-like
punctate collar; ellipsoidal in shape; call
depressed; convexly swollen immediately
behind call. Lateral pronotal margins nearly
straight, humeral angles acute but not spinose.
Lateral and posterior pronotal margins smooth.
Antennae slender, terete. Legs not incrassate,
unarmed or weakly armed below. Tibiae lack-
ing flattened dilations. Veins of membrane fork-
ed but not conspicuously anastomosing.

(cover, fig. 14, map XXI)

Coreus gundlachi Guerin 1857, p. 377.
Sephina gundlachi Stal 1870, p. 177.
Sephina gray Van Duzee 1909b, p. 232. NEW
Diagnosis: Moderate sized (16-18); striking
black and yellow color. Head, antennae, legs,
scutellum, area of calli, and a very large ovoid
spot mesally on posterior pronotal lobe all black.
Remainder of body mostly yellow, but connex-
ivum with alternating yellow and black patches.
Van Duzee (1909b) described Sephina grayi as
a new species from Florida which he differen-
tiated from gundlachi by the lack of the dark
spot in the central area of the corium and the
nearly flat scutellum. We have examined 165
specimens from Sanibel Island and 17 from
various localities from Miami north to Gaines-
ville. The Sanibel population shows very little
variation, none having black corial markings,
except for a faint darkening along the margin
adjacent to the membrane in some specimens;
10 specimens had a large black area covering
most of the pronotal disc that on some speci-
mens reached the posterior edge of the pro-
notum; 9 specimens showed a faint trace along
the midline of the pronotum and 14 had a small
but distinct black mark on the midline that
varied from elongate to round to semi-circular.
The corium of the 17 specimens from other
areas was either unmarked or the black mark-
ing was present and varied from large and

triangular to faint and elongate. The black area
along the membrane varied from being faint and
narrow to large, triangular. Pronotal markings
varied from specimens having most of the disc
black and humeral angles black to only a large
black area in the middle of the disc to a faint
central mark to no mark. Included in this
material were 4 specimens collected by Dr.
H. V. Weems, Jr. in Highlands Hammock State
Park, 28-VII-49, on Hamelia patens. In this
series 1 specimen had an elongate black spot on
the corium and the apex black. The pronotum
had a large black spot and the humeral angles
were black. A 2nd specimen had the apex of the
corium darkened, but no spot and only a faint
small dark area along the midline of the pro-
notum. The 3rd specimen had a large dark spot
on the pronotum but no corial marks and the
4th had a large dark spot on the pronotal disc
with dark humeral angles but no dark markings
on the corium. In the Sanibel material, as well
as in the other material, there is variation in the
scutellum from a very distinct ridge being pres-
ent to a scutellum that is nearly flat. We have
examined the male genitalia of 4 specimens, one
from Sanibel without pronotal or corial spots,
one from "S. Fla." having a dark pronotal area
but no corial spot, one from Highlands Ham-
mock having both pronotal and corial black
spots and one from "Paradise Key" having
both. We could find no structural differences.
We believe that a single species is represented
and thus synonymize grayi with gundlachi.
In the American Museum of Natural His-
tory are two specimens without a central black
corial spot that appear to be the type series of
Sephina grayi Van Duzee. One is a female bear-
ing a small uncolored printed label saying
"type" and a second handwritten label reading
"Florida alcoholic". The second specimen is a
male bearing three labels as follows: (1) a small
uncolored printed label saying "Cotype"; (2) an
inked label saying "Sephina grayi V. D.", and
(3) a small red label saying "Cotype". Van
Duzee (1909b) did not designate a holotype. Ac-
cordingly we take this opportunity to designate
the female specimen noted above as lectotype
of Sephina grayi Van Duzee. An appropriate
label has been placed on this specimen and a
paratype label on the male noted above.
Biology: We believe this species is confined to
the climbing milkweed, Cynanchum scoparium
Nutt. as a breeding host. Blatchley (1926, 1928)
reported Aymphs and adults of both gundlachi
and grayi from this host (as Metastelma
scoparium) and suggested that the 2 are only
color variations of one another. We have exam-


ined specimens reported as being taken on
Hamelia repens Jacq. and on Citrus aurantium
L. The climbing milkweed typically grows over
other plants, and it seems probable that these
specimens were actually on milkweed. Of par-
ticular interest is the observation that this
species deposits its eggs on the leaves of the
plant that the milkweed climbs on, rather than
on the milkweed itself.
Distribution: West Indies and Florida.

Map XXI. Distribution of Sephina gundlachi..

Florida Distribution: Reported as S. grayi by
Barber (1914) from Miami and Georgianna and
by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin and as S.
gundlachi by Blatchley (1928) from Paradise
Key and Gulfport and by Banks (1910) without
definite locality. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville,
2-IX-54, (FSCA); BREVARD CO.: Georgianna,
17-VII-02, Wiltfeld; DADE CO.: Paradise Key,
19-III, H. G. Barber; Miami, 22-IX-13, W. T.
Davis, (NMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: 28-VII-49,
H. V. Weems, Jr.; Highlands Hammock State
Park, 15-IV-68, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Parker Is., rt
29, 1.9 mi N. rt 70, 7-VI-66, R. G. Beard, (ABS);
LEE CO.: Sanibel Island, 19-VII-80, 2-X-82,
9-X-82, 1-II-83, 24-IV-83, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); PALM BEACH CO.: Palm Beach, 12-X-
35, (FSCA); PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 19-III-
25, Blatchley, (NMNH); same, 17-III-27, W.S.B.

coll., (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.: Deland, 18-V-62,
"Florida"labeled type; "Florida "labeled cotype,
(AMNH); "S. Fla.': P. R. Uhler; "Fla.", (NMNH).

CHARIESTERINI Stal 1867, p. 546.

Slender, elongate. Head short, quadrate,
with antenniferous tubercles spined above.
Third antennal segment widely dilated and flat-
tened, leaf-like. Pronotal humeri spinose. All
femora armed below with a short spine near
distal end. Tibiae terete.
Three genera are known, all occurring in the
Neotropical Region with one in the United

CHARIESTERUS Laporte, 1832

Type Species: Chariesterus gracilis Laporte
1832, p. 44. = Pendulinus armatus Thunberg
1835. Fixed by original designation.
Diagnosis: Slender, elongate, rather small
(11-13) species. Head subquadrate, deeply cleft
medially with a visible pit in front of each
ocellus. Antenniferous tubercles prominent with
a sharp acute forward projecting spine. Anten-
nal segment one, three-sided; two, rounded or
only slightly three-sided; third segment on
distal % to V2 strongly dilated and flattened.
Pronotum with prominent spinose humeri and
lacking an anterior collar. Hemelytral mem-
brane fuscous to bronze-black, veins more or
less parallel, sometimes anastomosing. Meso-
and metasterna deeply sulcate.
This genus (Ruckes, 1955) contains 11
described species and occurs throughout the
United States, south through the West Indies,
the Bahamas, Central America, and well into
tropical South America.

(fig. 15, map XXII)

Coreus antennator Fabricius 1803, p. 198.
Gonocerus dubius Say 1832, p. 10. (Leconte edit.
p. 327) in V. D. 1917 as "Complete Writings".
Chariesterus antennator Blanchard 1840, p. 120.
Diagnosis: Small, very slender, gray or reddish
brown. Surface covered with a thick coating of

grayish or brownish flattened scale-like (tomen-
tose) hairs. Readily recognizable by the strongly
flattened dilated third antennal segment which
is usually black and contrasting with the red-
dish brown of the other segments. Head with
conspicuous black spines before ocelli and
behind eyes. Three-sided antennal segments
bearing numerous black spines. Femora armed
below distally with a single prominent small
black spine.

phorbia corollata L., Ceanothus sp., Apocynum
sp., Plantago sp., Rhus sp., and Castanea
pumila (L.) P. Mill.
Kurczewski (1967) reported it as being found
as prey in the cells of the sphecid wasp,
Solierella inermis (Cresson).
Distribution: Widespread almost throughout
the United States east of the Rocky Mountains,
but relatively uncommon in the northern states
of New England, Wisconsin, Minnesota, etc.

Fig. 15. Chariesterus antennator.

Biology: Frequently found in open fields. Hus-
sey (1922) found it to be a characteristic species
of the Michigan dunes where it was restricted
to a single food plant, Euphorbia corollata L.,
upon which nymphs and adults fed and adults
oviposited. Blatchley (1926) stated that it
occurs on Jersey tea, Ceanothus americanus
Torr. & Gray, Euphorbia sp., Asclepias sp.,
grasses, dwarf willows, bushes of various sorts,
and goldenrod. Hart (1907) supported the record
of Hussey as finding it to have as its principal
host plant, flowering spurge, Euphorbia corol-
lata L. Ashmead (1895), calling it the "flat
horned coreid", listed it as common on cotton.
Hoffman (1975) listed it also as tqken on Eu-

Map XXII. Distribution of Chariesterus antennator.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Estero, by Barber (1914) from Key
Largo, Punta Gorda, Charlotte Harbor, Lake
Worth, Biscayne Bay, Atlantic Beach, Lake-
land, Miami, Big Pine Key and Indian River
District and by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin,
Caxambus and Cape Sable. Throughout the
State. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 11-VI-54,
G. B. Merrill; same, 26-VIII-55, R. A. Morse;
same, 8-V-55, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA);
BREVARD CO.: Melbourne, 26-III-80, F.
Smith, (FSCACC); Merritt Island, 7-13-VII-40,
H. Ruckes, (AMNH); BROWARD CO.: Dania,
17-XI-54, O. D. Link, (FSCA); N. Lauderdale,
29-V-80, K. Tyson; Pompano Beach, 3-X-79, C.
Culbreth & D. Clinton, (FSCACC); CHAR-
LOTTE CO.: Punta Gorda, 17-XI-11 (AMNH);

CITRUS CO.: Inverness, 8-VII-80, Siedenburg,
(FSCACC); DADE CO.: Miami, 11-21-IV-23,
(AMNH); same, 11-V-32, O. D. Link; same, 21-
VIII-46, (FSCA); same, 6-VI-78, D. Martinelli,
(FSCACC); same, 17-X-61, J. N. Todd; same,
4-IV-11, (NMNH); Homestead, 20-VIII-59, 25-
X-61, 26-X-61, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); same,
8-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same, 5-IV-45,
L. V. France, (FSCACC); same, 18-IV-23; Bis-
cayne Bay, Slosson, (AMNH); Hialeah, 20-VII-
27, G. B. Merrill; Coral Gables, 13-VIII-46, L. V.
Isham; Coconut Grove, 3-IV-44, C. S. Tuthill;
same, 12-1-38, 10-III-25, (FSCA); Elliot Key,
14-VI-58, G. W. Butler & R. W. Swanson,
(FSCACC); DESOTO CO.: Arcadia, 10-XI,
(NMNH); DUVAL CO.: Atlantic Beach,
(AMNH); ESCAMBIA CO.: Pensacola, 11-14-X-
14, (AMNH); GADSDEN CO.: 26-VIII-55,
1-VIII-56, F. W. Mead; HAMILTON CO.:
29-VII-54, H. B. Wesson; HENDRY CO.:
Clewiston, 18-X-54; same, 8-X-54, H. A. Den-
mark, (FSCA); La Belle, 16-VII-39, P. Oman,
(NMNH); HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold Biolog-
ical Station, Lake Placid, 6-XII-82, M. Deyrup,
(ABS); HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 8-IV-48,
D. J. Downes, (FSCA); same, 24-IV-44,
(NMNH); same, 26-V-44, 24-V-44, C. S. Tuthill;
same, 20-XI-62, J. W. Patton; Port Tampa,
2-VII-63, J. W. Patton, (FSCACC); INDIAN
RIVER CO.: Sebastian, IV,XI, G. Nelson;
Wabasso, G. Nelson, (AMNH); 19-III-57, R. L.
Blickle, (UNH); JACKSON CO.: 4.3 mi N.
Butler, 2-VT-56, R. F. Hussey; Marianna,
22-IV-38, A. N. Tissot, (FSCA); LAKE CO.:
Tavares, 18-IX-61, J. R. Hay, (FSCACC);
Mascotte, ll-IX-38, P. Oman, (NMNH); LEE
CO.: Sanibel Island, 18-VI-57, R. L. Blickle,
(UNH); Ft. Myers, 16-II-44, C. S. Tuthill,
(FSCACC); MARTIN CO.: 3-XI-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); MONROE CO.: Ever-
glades Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie, 26-IX-69,
R. M. Baranowski; same, 5-XII-74, J. A. Slater,
(JAS); N. Key Largo, 29-VI-69, 4-VII-69, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB); Matecumbe Key, 9-IV-28;
Upper Matecumbe Key, 30-VI, M. Bates; same,
III, Brooks, (AMNH); same, 30-XII-45, C. O.
Esselbaugh, (JAS); Lower Matecumbe Key,
30-VI, M. Bates; Key Largo, (AMNH); same,
26-II-56, 27-III-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., same,
23-VII-53, G. W. Dekle; same, 21-IX-56, H. A.
Denmark: same, 27-II-56, R. A. Morse; same,
13-V-58, C. F. Dowling, (FSCA); same, 16-II-46,
C. O. Esselbaugh, (JAS); Big Pine Key, 8-VIII-
71, W. H. Pierce; same, 19-XI-57, C. F. Dowling,
R. W. Swanson, (FSCACC); same, X-1913,
(NMNH); same, 13-XII-57, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
Plantation Key, X-54, H. A. Denmark; Key
West, 14-IV-55, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same,

17-V-28, S. D. Kerr, (FSCA); Islamorada,
28-XII-61, J. H. Knowles; Flamingo, 30-V-58,
C. F. Dowling & R. W. Swanson; Boca Chica,
13-VI-71, W. H. Pierce, (FSCACC); ORANGE
CO.: Winter Park, 1-12-VIII-39, H. Ruckes;
same, 7-IV-37, F. E. Lutz, (AMNH); same,
4-XII-31, (FSCA); Orlando, 20-IX-61, J. R.
Woodley; same, 10-VIII-07, Russell, (NMNH);
Apopka, 18-X-72, G. T. Smith; OSCEOLA CO.:
Kissimmee, 31-VII-78, Pope & Stone,
(FSCACC); PALM BEACH CO.: Belle Glade,
18-VII-39, (NMNH); Delray Beach, 18-VIT-78,
J. E. Bennett & W. C. Churchill, (FSCACC);
23-VII-53, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); PASCO
CO.: Elfers, 14-VII-39, P. Oman; PINELLAS
CO.: Clearwater, 7-XI-38, P. Oman; Dunedin,
7-X-38, Andre, (NMNH); POLK CO.: Winter
Haven, 26-IX-40, H. T. Fernald; 24-V-55, R. A.
Morse, (FSCA); SANTA ROSA CO.: Santa
Rosa Island, 15-VI-44, H. C. Secrest, (FSCACC);
SEMINOLE CO.: nr. Wagner, 10-IV-41, H. T.
Fernald, (FSCA); Sanford, 12-VIII-60, B.
Talmadge, (FSCA); ST. LUCIE CO.: Ft. Pierce
Inlet, 15-V-83, M. Deyrup; VOLUSIA CO.: Day-
tona Beach, 30-VI-58, L. W. Holley; Daytona,
19-XI-42, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same, 10-VIII-56,
24-VII-54, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); same, 21-
VII-71, T. L. Kipp & J. N. Pott; Pierson, 25-VII-
58, C. R. Roberts, (FSCACC); New Smyrna,
III-38, Mrs. C. F. Frost, (NMNH); UNKNOWN
COUNTY: Lake Okeechobee, 29-II-38, Gertsch,

CHELINIDINI Uhler 1863, p. 365.

Body oblong, oval. Head porrect, juga with
subconical rather subacute apices with tylus
deflexed between them. Pronotal humeri
rounded, not prominent; lateral margins of pro-
notum slightly explanate. Femora with a double
row of spines on distal half; hind femora some-
what swollen. Second and third antennal seg-
ments and tibiae three-sided.
A single genus is known, confined in dis-
tribution to the southern United States and

CHELINIDEA Uhler, 1863

Type Species: Chelinidea vittiger Uhler 1863, p.
366. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Moderate sized with body short,
broad, oblong-oval. Antennal segments 1, 2, and

3 flattened, three-sided. Head porrect, juga pro-
duced as conical subacute processes. Pronotum
broadly rounded, margins entire, slightly ex-
planate; posterior margin not emarginate.
Femora spinose distally below.
The genus, recently reviewed by Herring
(1980), contains 5 species, 1 known only from
Mexico, 3 occur in Mexico and the southwestern
states, one of which ranges into northern South
America. The range of 1 coincides with the
distribution of prickly pear cactus in the United
States and Mexico. Several of the species were
introduced into Australia in an attempt to con-
trol prickly pear cactus.

(fig. 16, map XXIII)

Chelinidea vittiger Uhler 1863, p. 366.
Diagnosis: A short, stout species (13-15), chiefly
yellow orange to dull orange in color. Head,
except for an orange medium stripe, legs and
antennae, brown. Hemelytra varying from
uniform brown to brown with distinct orange
or yellow veins and lateral margins. Posterior
margin of pronotum may or may not be brown.
Post ocular spine reduced to a small tubercle or
absent. Body densely punctate. Eastern popula-
tions belong to the subspecies aequoris McAtee.
Biology: Hamlin (1924) reported its native host
to be the prickly pear cactus, Opuntia humifusa
(as 0. lata) (Raf.) Raf. It also has been found on
0. stricta (Haw.) Haw. (reported as 0. dilleni)
and has been reared successfully on 0. austrina
Small and 0. pusilla (Haw.) Haw. (reported as
0. drummondii). In Texas it was found to live
upon 0. lindheimeri Engelm. and 0. ficus-indica
(L.) P. Mill. (as 0. engelmanni) and upon O. in-
ermis DC, 0. stricta (Haw.) Haw., and 0. ficus-
indica (as megacantha) in Australia. The Texan
and Australian species of Opuntia were not as
good hosts as the Florida species. Mitchell
(unpub) also reported 0. humifusa (Raf.) Raf. (as
compressa) as a breeding host in Texas. Adults
hibernate on the underside of the cactus joints
from about December through February, ap-
pearing on the surface of the plants to feed
during warm periods. The adults emerge from
hibernation in north Florida during February.
Oviposition begins in March, and four genera-
tions develop annually in the Gainesville area.
The nymphs were first described by Hunter,
Pratt, and Mitchell (1912) and more fully by
Hamlin (1924). Mead and Herring (1974) pro-
vided a short review of the Florida subspecies

and a photograph showing an adult and a
nymph on Opuntia. Arnaud (1978) reported it
being parasitized by Trichopoda pennipes.

Fig. 16. Chelinidea vittiger.

Distribution: Widely distributed in the Western
States. It also has been reported from Virginia,
North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee,
and Florida.

Map XXIII. Distribution of Chelinidea vittiger.

Florida Distribution: Hussey (1952) reported it
from Rock Bluff, Liberty County and Alachua
County. More common in the central and north-
ern counties. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 15
VII-59, P. Weems; same, 8-11-49, G. W. Dekle;
same, IX-55, X-62, L. A. Hetrick; same 18-lV-38,
K. Wheeler; same 14-VII-37, 30-IV-37, 17-V-37,
4-VIII-37, A. N. Tissot; same, 24-IV-75; same,
29-X-36, (FSCA); same, 27-VI-79, D. Culbert;
same, 3-X-75, C. B. Lieberman; same, 24-IV-75,
K. R. Langdon, (FSCACC); same, 2-VII-56,
F. W. Mead; same, 14-VII-61, J. Q. Platt, (RMB);
same, 26-IV-48, R. Capelouto; same, 27-VI-79,
H. W. Collins; same, 12-VII-55, H. A. Denmark;
same, 4-IV-58, R. P. Esser; BRADFORD CO.:
2-V-59, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 1-V-59,
2-V-59, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); CLAY CO.:
Penney Farms, 13-VII-36, K. Wheeler, (FSCA);
Camp Crystal, 6-V-67, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same,
14-V-60, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); DADE CO.:
Miami, E. Mortenson, (NMNH); DIXIE CO.:
Cross City, 24-IV-38, A. N. Tissot; (FSCA);
DUVAL CO.: Ft. George, 18-II-67, C. E. Zeiger,
(RMB); HIGHLANDS CO.: 23-IV-62; Sebring,
10-VI-60, L. J. Bottimer; same, 24-XII-60, H. V.
Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 10-VI-60, 23-XII-61,
14-IV-66, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Archbold Biol. Sta.,
27-III-63, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, Lake
Placid, 11-XI-82, M. Deyrup, (ABS); HILLS-
BOROUGH CO.: Brandon, 15-VIII-80, E. R.
Simmons; same, 8-IV-64, J. W. Patton; Picnic,
7-X-65, B. Damel & A. Baker; JACKSON CO.:
1-X-68, W. H. Whitcomb, (FSCACC); JEFFER-
SON CO.: 2-V-57, R. H. Miller, (RMB); Cody,
2-V-57, R. H. Miller, LAKE CO.: Paisley,
26-IV-65, A. L. Bentley; LEVY CO.: Cedar Key,
ll1-VIII-74, F. N. Young; MARION CO.: Weirs-
dale, 2-V-78, F. J. McHenry; ORANGE CO.:
Apopka, 13-VIII-71, P. Gibson; POLK CO.: E.
Lake Wales, 9-IV-59, W. P. Henderson; SANTA
CO.: Fern Park, 24-VIII-62, C. 0. Youtsey,

COREINI Stal 1867, p. 547.

Relatively small to moderate sized. Body
elongate to oblong-oval. Head porrect, sub-
quadrate, or subtriangular, produced slightly to
considerably forward in front of bases of anten-
nae. Pronotum somewhat hexagonal, margins
usually simple, non-spinose. Femora usually
unarmed or with one or two small spines. Tibiae
simple, cylindrical.

A large tribe represented in all major zoogeo-
graphic regions of the world, containing about
30 genera, seven of which occur in Florida.


1. Posterior femora armed below with one or
more spines .................. 2
1'. Posterior femora mutic ..........4
2. Body lengthless than 10 m; humeri pro-
duced into long, sharp, outwardly directed
spines ............. .. Zicca, p. 67
2'. Body length generally 14 mm or more;
humeri not acutely spined 3
3. Head lacking spines or tubercles either
behind bases of antennae or laterally .
......... .. . Namacus, p. 63
3'. Head with prominent spine behind anten-
nae (not laterad of antenniferous tubercle)
............... ... A nasa, p. 51
4. Tylus elevated and compressed above juga
to form carina between antennal bases;
veins of membrane numerous, irregularly
anastomosing, or almost reticulated 5
4'. Veins of membrane less numerous, simple
or at most slightly branched or furcate;
tylus not compressed and elevated above
juga (tylus somewhat elevated in Catorhin-
tha divergens) ..... .......... 6
5. Second and 3rd antennal segments com-
pressed .......... . Sethenira, p. 65
5'. Second and 3rd antennal segments cylin-
drical . . .. .. Althos, p. 51
6. Labium very short, scarcely extending
posteriorly beyond fore coxae .........
.......... . Cimolus, p. 61
6'. Labium attaining or extending beyond
middle of mesosternum (labium on some
specimens of Catorhintha divergens does
not reach mesocoxae) ......... ..7
7. A shelf-like plate present beneath anten-
niferous tubercle extending over lower rim
of antennal articulation orifice ........
.. ........... Catorhintha, p. 56
7'. Head below antenniferous tubercle lacking
a raised shelf-like plate .. Anasa, p. 51

ALTHOS Kirkaldy, 1904

Type Species: Margus pectoralis Dallas 1852.
By subsequent designation.
Diagnosis: Relatively small (9-11) with
numerous anastomosing veins in the mem-
brane. Tylus elevated and compressed. Pro-
notum nearly flat, antero-lateral angles sharply
carinate, acutely produced anteriorly into a
short tooth. Legs slender, all femora unarmed.
Essentially a Neotropical genus containing
approximately 13 species of which 3 occur in the
United States. Two of these are western, the
third occurring in Florida. Much of the litera-
ture concerning the North American species is
under the name of Margus Dallas.
(fig. 17, map XXIV)
Coreus obscurator Fabricius 1803, p. 200.
Margus impudens Stal 1860, p. 37.
Althos obscurator Van Duzee 1909, p. 160.

Diagnosis: Small (9-11); grayish yellow to pale
brown with numerous dark punctures. Anten-
niferous tubercles with outer side of distal ends
acutely produced. Antennae with basal segment
stout, curved. Granulose connexivum alternat-
ing yellowish and black. Legs pale brown.
Biology: Blatchley (1902) reported specimens on
flowers of thistle and Senecio sp. Van Duzee
(1909a) took it on sedges and grasses in marshy
meadows. Blatchley (1926) noted its occurrence
in old fields and open pine woodlands and that
it comes to light.
Distribution: Widely distributed in the
Neotropical and known in this country only
from Florida and South Carolina (Sherman,
Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1902) as Margus inornatus Stal from Ormond,
by Van Duzee (1909) from Sanford, Crescent
City and St. Petersburg, by Barber (1914) in the
genus Margus from Lakeland and South
Jacksonville and by Blatchley (1926) from
Moore Haven, Sarasota and Dunedin.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 4-IX-55, R. A.
Morse; same, 25-VI-39, J. R. Watson, (FSCA);
same, 14-VIII-76, G. B. Edwards; same,
4-IV-72, F. W. Mead, (FSCACC); same,
15-IX-18, J. R. Watson, (NMNH); same,
29-III-58, R. E. Woodruff; same 13-IX-61,
4-IV-72, F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, 20-IX-55,
F. W. Mead; same, 6-V-34, student coll.; same,
14-II-49, F. N. Young; DUVAL CO.: St. John's

Bluff, 11-IX-56, F. W. Mead; ESCAMBIA CO.:
5-VIII-55, F. W. Mead, (FSCA); GADSDEN
CO.: Quincy, 1-IX-21, G. L. Garrison, (NMNH);
HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold Biol. Sta., 22-II-
59, S. W. Frost, (RMB); Parker Island, Lake
Placid, 29-III-67, M. Deyrup, (ABS); Sebring,
8-III-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); HILLS-
BOROUGH CO.: Port Tampa, 17-VI-61, J. W.
Patton, (FSCACC); JACKSON CO.: Fla. Cav.
St. Pk., 13-IV-60, H. V. Weems, Jr.; JEFFER-
SON CO.: Aucilla Wild. Mgt. Area, 14 mi. S.
Wacissa, 16-III-74, J. B. Heppner, (RMB);
ORANGE CO.: Orlando, 10-V-09, Russell; same
30-III-08; PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 6-III-27,
W. S. Blatchley; POLK CO.: Lakeland, 7-V-12,
8-V-12, W. T. Davis, (NMNH); same, 19-IV-49,
R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); Winter Haven, 4-11-48,
O. D. Link, (RMB); PUTNAM CO.: Pomona
Park, 21-V-72, D. H. Habeck; SARASOTA CO.:
Lake Myakka, 4-VI-39, J. R. Watson, (FSCA);
SEMINOLE CO.: Fern Park 7-IV-59, C. O.
Youtsey, (FSCACC); Sanford, 1925, E. Ball;
same, 22-VII-39, P. W. Oman; same, 8-V-08,
28-IV-08, Van Duzee; ST. JOHNS CO.:
Hastings, 27-VII, J. L. Scribner, (NMNH).

Map XXIV. Distribution of Althos obscurator.

ANASA Amyot and Serville, 1843

Type Species: Anasa cornuta Amyot and
Serville 1843. Monobasic.

( 'y

^ *

".. 'i1' v^^ ..

Diagnosis: Medium size, robust, elongate oval.
Head subquadrate, not strongly declivent, pro-
jecting noticeably beyond bases of antennae,
calloused and swollen laterally behind eyes.
Labium extending to or beyond middle coxae.
Pronotum strongly declivent, anterolateral
margins finely serrate or nodulose, markedly
narrowing anteriorly; humeri obtuse. Connex-
ivum usually widely exposed. Femora slender,
unarmed or with one or two small spines distally
on ventral surface.
Distribution: A large genus of over 50 species,
chiefly Central and South American in distribu-
tion. Seven species occur north of Mexico, one
into Canada, and four in Florida.


1. Head spines present or absent, but if
present short, not reaching bases of anten-
nae; humeral angles of pronotum not
reflexed .......... .............. 2
1'. Head spines arising behind base of anten-
niferous tubercles and extending dorso-
laterad to reach beyond bases of antennae;
humeral angles of pronotum produced and
reflexed upward ................... 3
2. Fourth antennal segment yellowish or
orange, at least distally. A short stout
spine present dorsally on head posterior to
each antenniferous tubercle. Scutellum
lacking black punctures along median line
(body distinctly more slender than tristis)
....................... andresii, p. 53
2'. Fourth antennal segment chiefly black. No
spine on head posterior to antenniferous
tubercle. Scutellum without a pale midline
....................... tristis, p. 55
3. First antennal segment unicolorous....
................... scorbutica, p. 54
3'. First antennal segment with large black or
dark brown spots ...... armigera, p. 54

(map XXV)

Coreus andresii Guerin 1857, p. 383.
Anasa lugens Stal 1862, p. 301.
Anasa andresii Stal 1865, p. 186.

Diagnosis: Relatively elongate and parallel

sided, moderate in size (13-15). Dull yellowish
brown or greenish brown with numerous black
punctures over entire dorsal surface, these be-
ing most dense on posterior pronotal lobe.
Fourth antennal segment chiefly orange or
yellow, especially distally, contrasting with
dark chocolate brown to black of preceding
segments. Membrane brown; connexivum with
alternating dark brown and yellow patches, but
with central portion of brown area suffused with
yellow. Legs yellowish with black dots. Head
spines above bases of antenniferous tubercles
short and stout.
Very similar in appearance to the ubiquitous
A. tristis, but a more slender species. The for-
ward projection of the antero-lateral pronotal
angles with a tooth in tristis traditionally used
in many keys is of questionable value.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) stated that
it is a pest on squash and also has been taken
on tomato in Cuba. Jones (1916) reported it as
a pest of cucurbits in Louisiana and described
the nymphs and life cycle. We have collecting
records from cotton and corn.

4 .
- '

Map XXV. Distribution of Anasa andresii.

Distribution: Widespread in the Neotropical
Region. In the United States reported from

Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, California, and
Florida Distribution: Reported by Uhler (1875)
from southern Florida without definite locality.
Only known from 2 specimens. "E. Fla." Ash-
mead, (NMNH); ALACHUA CO.: Newberry,
14-V-75, R. Beuttell, (FSCA).

(map XXVI)

Coreus armigera Say 1825, p. 319.
Anasa terminalis Dallas 1852, p. 506.
Anasa armigera Stal 1868, p. 57.

Diagnosis: Dark to yellowish brown with
numerous dark punctures over the surface.
Membrane uniformly dark brown. Connexivum
dark brown with anterior border of each seg-
ment and a small dot on middle of lateral edge
yellow. Legs yellow with numerous conspicuous
black dots. Fourth antennal segment orange or
yellow. Pronotum strongly declivent.
Biology: Blatchley (1926) reported armigera on
Sicyos angulatus L. in company with A. repetita
Heidemann. Hoffman (1975) reported Sicyos
angulatus L. as the native host and also com-
mented on occasional damage to cultivated
cucurbits. Chittenden (1898) discussed the life
history, described the 5 nymphal instars, and
also reported it as occasionally injurious to
cultivated cucurbits. It apparently has 1 genera-
tion a year, at least in the North. Arnaud (1978)
reported it as being parasitized by Trichopoda
Distribution: Ranges from New England south
into Florida and Texas and west to Iowa and
Florida Distribution: Reported by Blatchley
(1926) from Dunedin, Lake Okeechobee, Royal
Palm Park and Cape Sable. ALACHUA CO.:
Gainesville, 23-VIII-61, G. Q. Platt; same,
31-V-60, B. Platt; same 18-VIII-58, (RMB);
same, 18-X-47, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same, 11-VIII-
55, R. A. Morse; same, 11-VII-59, F. W. Mead;
same, 15-VI-57, R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); same,
22-V-79, M. A. Altieri; same 4-VI-74, D. Mays,
(FSCACC); same, 22-XI-22, (RMB); DADE CO.:
Homestead, 8-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS);
Miami, 20-IV-44, C. S. Tuthill; HILLSBOR-
OUGH CO.: Brandon, 6-IX-64, 6-X-65, J. W.
Patton, (FSCACC); LEON CO.: Tallahassee,
6-VII-78, M. A. Altieri, (FSCACC); MADISON
CO.: Madison, 12-V-54, H. Van Pelt, (FSCA);

MARION CO.: E. Lake Weir, 23-VI-60, T. R.
Adkins; (FSCACC); ORANGE CO.: Windemere,
3-V-48, 0. D. Link, (FSCA); PALM BEACH
CO.: Lake Worth, IV-45, G. M. Anderson; Belle
Glade, 20-V-44, H. C. Secrest, (FSCACC);
PINELLAS CO.: 18-IV-58, C. E. Bingaman,
(FSCA), (RMB); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 22-XI-54,
W. B. Tappan, (FSCA); Bartow, 28-V-63, R. E.
Vild; SEMINOLE CO.: 18-IV-58, C. E.
Bingaman, (FSCACC).

Map XXVI. Distribution of Anasa armigera.

(map XXVII)

Cimex scorbutica Fabricius 1775, p. 706.
Acanthocerus nebulosa Palisot Beauvois 1805,
p. 205.
Anasa moesta Dallas 1852, p. 505.
Anasa spiniceps Stal 1862, p. 300.
Anasa scorbutica Stal 1868, p. 56.

Diagnosis: Moderate sized (12-14), stout bodied.
Dull yellow to dark red-brown with numerous
dark punctures over the dorsal surface. Mem-
brane uniformly dark brown. Legs yellowish
with brown spots especially conspicuous on
femora, the distal halves of which are infuscated
with brown. Antennae nearly uniformly yellow-

ish, unspotted. Head with elongate outwardly
curving spines behind bases of antenniferous
tubercles. Head laterally strongly tuberculate,
swollen behind eyes. Pronotum strongly decli-
vent, bearing numerous upstanding setigerous
hairs that contrast strongly with pale yellow
semi-decumbent hairs of hemelytra. All femora
armed below distally with a sharp spine.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) stated that
it breeds on squash and Luffa cylindrica (L.)
Roemer and has been taken on tomato in Cuba.
At Homestead we have taken adults and
nymphs on Momordica charantia (L.), wild
balsam apple.
Distribution: West Indies, Mexico, southwest-
ern states, and Florida.

o0 "

Map XXVII. Distribution of Anasa scorbutica.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Biscayne Bay. More common in southern
counties. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 30-VIII-
60, T. R. Adkins; BROWARD CO.: Ft. Lauder-
dale, 8-XI-73, B. D. Perkins, (FSCACC); COL-
LIER CO.: Naples, 28-VI-79, K. Delate; DADE
CO.: Miami, 14-X-57, J. C. Butler; same, 27-II-
58, 12-XII-56, C. F. Dowling; same, 4-VIII-33,
F. N. Young; same 12-VIII-48, O. D. Link; same,
9-III-79, P. Chobrda, (FSCA); same, 30-X-63,

J. F. Richter; same, 22-X-61, B. K. Dozier,
(RMB); same 30-X-63, J. F. Richter; same, 24-
IX-58, L. J. Daigle; same, 27-II-58, L. J. Daigle
& C. F. Dowling; same 23-V-44, C. S. Tuthill,
(FSCACC); same, 23-III-44, (NMNH); Home-
stead, 23-II-46, 19-1-46, C. O. Esselbaugh, (JAS);
same, 16-X-61, D. O. Wolfenbarger; same, 8-
IV-57, R. M. Baranowski; same, 4-IV-58, C. F.
Dowling; same, 14-IV-58, R. W. Swanson &
C. F. Dowling; same, 5-XI-58, R. W. Swanson;
same, 12-VII-62, S. Goldweber; same, 12-V-76,
V. Waddill; same 30-VI-80, G. Webster,
(FSCACC); same, 16-X-61, D. O. Wolfenbarger;
same, 11-II-48, O. D. Link; same, 9-III-49,
Calkins & Link; same, 10-1-38, J. S. Haeger,
(FSCA); Coral Gables, 12-XII-56, C. F. Dowling;
N. Miami, XII-62, Moore, (FSCACC); 26000 SW
197 Av., 3-1-80, R. M. Baranowski; Ross &
Castellow Hammock, 12-IV-66, H. V. Weems,
Jr., (RMB); HARDEE CO.: Bowling Green,
14-X-77, J. T. Felty, (FSCACC); HIGHLANDS
CO.: Sebring, 1-IX-57, 7-VIII-49, H. V. Weems,
R. L. Blickle, (UNH); LEE CO.: Ft. Myers,
26-III-75, V. W. Yingst, (FSCA); same, 22-XI-74,
J. Crane, (RMB); same, 8-X-75, 26-III-75, V. W.
Yingst; same, 22-XI-74, J. Crane; MARTIN
CO.: Hobe Sound, 13-IV-74, T. Fair; PALM
BEACH CO.: Lake Worth, 6-VI-78, J. E. Ben-
nett, (FSCACC); same, 7-VIII-78, 4-VI-78, J. E.
Bennett, (FSCA); same, 19-IV-45, (NMNH);
Boynton, 7-11-51, G. C. Costner, (FSCA); W.
Palm Beach, 15-III-75, P. Duplease, (UNH).

(fig. 18, map XXVIII)

Cimex tristis DeGeer 1773, p. 340.
Cimex moestus Gmelin 1778, p. 2168.
Coreus rugator Fabricius 1803, p. 192.
Coreus ordinatus Say 1825, p. 318.
Oriterus destructor Hahn 1831, p. 8.
Anasa tristis Stal 1868, p. 56.

Diagnosis: Robust, oblong-oval, ranging from
dull yellow to dark brown; densely covered with
dark punctures. The presence of small irregular
yellow areas frequently gives it a mottled ap-
pearance. Head brownish with a narrow pale
yellow median line and a shorter yellow stripe
on each side. Lateral margins of pronotum and
tip of scutellum yellow. Membrane brown to
black. Legs yellow, densely covered with dark
on dorsal surface, less so on ventral surface.
Biology: Commonly known as the Squash Bug,
it was one of the first insects to be described

from North America. It has been recorded from
several kinds of plants but is especially in-
jurious to squash and melons. Chittenden (1899,
1908) figured all stages, discussed its damage
and reported Trichopoda pennipes as a parasite
of the adult and Hadronotus anasa Ashmead,
Ooencyrtus anasae Ashmead, and Eupelmus
reduvii Howard as egg parasites. Arnaud (1978)
also reported it as being parasitized by T.
Distribution: Throughout the United States and
southern Canada south into Mexico and Brazil.

Map XXVIII. Distribution of Anasa tristis.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Lake Okeechobee, Everglade, Jackson-
ville, Lee Co., Big Pine Key, Miami and Silver
Springs and by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin.
ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 21-VII-36, 6-X-37,
A. N. Tissot; same, 18-X-47, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); same, 29-IV-63, R. P. Esser; nr.
Gainesville, 14-V-57, R. P. Esser; BAKER CO.:
23-VIII-55, H. B. Wesson, (FSCACC); BROW-
ARD CO.: Hollywood, 6-IX-36; Ft. Lauderdale,
VI-22, D. M. Bates, (FSCA); DADE CO.: Miami,
23-IV-44, 24-IV-44, C. S. Tuthill; same, 7-X-80,
G. Webster, (FSCACC); Univ. of Fla., AREC,
1-IX-77, R. M. Baranowski, (RMB); Paradise
Key, 8-III-19, H. G. Barber (NMNH);,DUVAL

CO.: Jacksonville, 29-IV-19, H. A. Daniels,
(NMNH); HARDEE CO.: Wauchula, 16-VII-18,
B. E. Melendy, (FSCA); HOLMES CO.: 24-V-56,
Monticello, 6-VII-37, A. N. Tissot, (FSCA);
same, 29-1-40, H. B. Scammell; LAKE CO.:
Leesburg, 2-IV-54, J. M. Crall, (FSCACC); same,
25-VII-46, (FSCA); MARION CO.: Orange
Lake, 7-V-45, (FSCA); MONROE CO.: Stock
Island, 10-IV-44, C. S. Tuthill, (FSCACC);
OKALOOSA CO.: 13-VIII-55, H. B. Wesson;
ORANGE CO.: Winter Park, 4-X-43, H. T.
Fernald, (FSCA); Orlovista, 1-IV-44, H. C.
Secrest, (FSCACC); Orlando, 14-V-07, 17-VI-07,
(NMNH); POLK CO.: Lakeland, 22-XII-52,
R. F. Hussey, (FSCA); PUTNAM CO.: 5-IX-60,
F. W. Mead, (RMB); SUMTER CO.: Wildwood,
18-IV-52, W. Hunter; (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.:
Deland, 9-IX-58, C. R. Roberts, (FSCA);
WASHINGTON CO.: Chipley, 25-VI-56, A. L.
Baker, (FSCA).

Fig. 18. Anasa tristis.


Type Species: Lygaeus guttula Fabricius 1794,
p. 162. Fixed by subsequent designation.

Diagnosis: Small to moderate sized (8-12),
oblong elongate. Dull grayish brown to yellow-
ish. Head broad, somewhat flattened. Anten-
niferous tubercles usually small, with or without
a prominent spine. First antennal segment
slightly thickened, slightly curved, one-half or

more length of head. Humeri obtusely rounded,
not prominent. Connexivum narrowly exposed.
Nearctic and Neotropical. Eight species are
known, four occurring north of Mexico with
three in Florida.


1. Antenniferous tubercle not spinose nor
with conical tubercles, at most with an
indication of a small tubercle........
................... divergens, p. 57
1'. Antenniferous tubercle produced into an
anterolaterally directed spine or conical
tubercle ......................... .2
2. Legs having numerous black spots ....
.............. ..... . guttula, p. 57
2'. Legs without numerous black spots ...
.................... viridipes, p. 59

(fig. 19, map XXIX)

Catorhintha divergens Barber 1926, p. 214.

Diagnosis: Medium sized (12), elongate, almost
uniformly pale yellow or greenish yellow.
Corium irregularly suffused with dull reddish.
Antennae yellowish-brown, segment one with
two black longitudinal stripes, segment four
reddish, distal half often lighter than proximal
half. Legs uniformly yellow. Antenniferous
tubercles with spines present. Abdominal dor-
sum with two broad vivid red stripes.
Biology: Barber and Bruner (1947) reported it
from guava in Cuba (probably a sitting record).
We have examined adults collected on Coc-
coloba diversifolia Jacq. At times it is relatively
common in blacklight catches from hammocks
in southern Florida.
Distribution: Mexico, Cuba and Florida.
Florida Distribution: The holotype was des-
cribed from Paradise Key. Restricted to the ex-
treme southern part of the State. DADE CO.:
Matheson Hammock, 26-XI-55, H. A. Denmark;
same, 31-X-57, F. W. Mead; Homestead,
12-VI-62, C. F. Dowling, (FSCA); Newton Road,
Orchid Jungle, 1-X-69, R. M. Baranowski,

(JAS); same, 17-VI-69, 1-VII-69, 9-VII-69,
1-VIII-69, 29-VIII-69, 5-IX-69, 11-IX-69, 23-IX-
69, 30-IX-69, 1-X-69, 7-X-69, 9-X-69, 14-X-69,
R. M. Baranowski; Ross & Castellow Hammock,
2-VII-69, 9-VII-69, 5-IX-69, 11-IX-69, 23-IX-69,
30-IX-69, 1-X-69, 2-X-69, 7-X-69, 9-X-69,
10-X-69, 16-X-69, 20-X-69, 22-X-69, R. M.
Baranowski; Homestead, 1962, C. F. Dowling;
Naranja, 21-VI-54, O. D. Link; MONROE CO.:
Key Largo, 2-V-57, F. W. Mead; Everglades
Nat. Pk., 5-IV-58, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB).

Map XXIX. Distribution of Catorhintha divergens.

(map XXX)

Lygaeus guttula Fabricius 1794, p. 162.
Gonocerus dorsiger Westwood 1842, p. 25.
Catorhintha guttula Stal 1859, p. 471.

Diagnosis: Elongate oblong, small (8-9), grayish
yellow with numerous dark punctures on dorsal
surface. Antennae largely black with area be-
tween second and third segments and distal
ends of third and fourth yellow. Abdominal con-
nexivum alternating yellow and black. Dorsum
of abdomen black except for area around scent


,/ ..

', f /.'.\,;.,

7*> t*
', -,, ,. / .

!; f l . '
'v^ /

gland openings. Legs yellow with black spots.
Inner surface of proximal half of femora of
males flattened and covered with long hairs, the
same area in females flattened but only a few
short hairs present. This structure is apparently
unique to this species and may be a mating
Biology: Blatchley (1926) reported it "espe-
cially" on the flowers and foliage of Lyonia (as
Xolisma) ferruginea (Walt.) Nutt. Mitchell
(unpub.) reported breeding populations on
Boerhaavia diffusa L. (as B. coccinea) and adults
on Heterotheca sp., Cirsium sp., and Ludwigia
sp. Barber and Bruner (1947) reported speci-
mens on Urena sinuata L. and Mirabilis jalapa
L. in Cuba.
Distribution: West Indies, Colorado, Texas,
Arizona, North Carolina, and Florida.

'OP 4'A

Map XXX. Distribution of Catorhintha guttula.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Van Duzee
(1909) from Crescent City and Seven Oaks, by
Barber (1914) from Biscayne Bay, Miami and
Jacksonville and by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 7-VI-26,
G. B. Merrill; same, 30-IV-79, M. Altieri; same,
28-VII-33, (FSCA); DADE CO.: Miami, 8-IV-19,
(NMNH); ORANGE CO.: Orlapdo, 30-IV-26;

PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 1-IV-22, W. S.
Blatchley, (NMNH); VOLUSIA CO.: Deland,
13-XII-71, C. R. Roberts, (FSCA); Edgewater,
18-II-39, C. A. Frost, (NMNH).
Catorhintha mendica Stal was listed by
Barber (1914) as occurring in Florida, based on
material collected by Mrs. A. Slosson at Bis-
cayne Bay and by W. T. Davis at Miami.
Fracker (1923) also stated that this species
occurs in Florida, but very likely this was based
on Barber's records. Balduf (1942, 1957) showed
conclusively that mendica is a western species
that has been extending its range northeast-
ward in historical times following its only host
plant, Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. It
certainly is not a member of the Florida fauna.
We suggest that the Barber and Fracker
references are based on mistaken identifications
of guttula. However, as pointed out by Hoffman
(1975) the host plant and the insect are steadily
expanding their ranges, and he cited a record
for Virginia.

(fig. 20, map XXXI)

Catorhintha borinquensis viridipes Blatchley
1926, p. 247.
Diagnosis: Moderate sized (10-12), elongate, dull
yellow to dark reddish brown. Head dull yellow
with numerous black punctures coalescing to
form two irregular stripes. First antennal seg-
ment, distal ends of segments two and three,
middle of segment four black, the remainder of
antennae yellow. Antenniferous tubercles pro-
duced into sharp prominent black spines.
Pleurites and mediolateral area of each ventral
abdominal segment with a prominent black
spot. (The original description indicates that the
legs are dull yellow except for the distal third
of the femora and the entire tibiae bluish green).
One specimen examined from Key West has the
legs entirely yellow except for a small brownish
area of the distal end of the femora.
Biology: Eggs are deposited in clusters in the
flowers of Pisonia rotundata Griseb. Nymphs
remain feeding on the flowering parts until they
molt to adults. We have only collected them on
this plant during the spring months when it is
in flower. The habitat during other times of the
year is unknown.
The type was beaten from fallen leaves of
royal palm on Paradise Key (Everglades Na-
tional Park). Blatchley (1926) described
viridipes as a subspecies of the Puerto Rican





borinquensis. Torre-Bueno (1941) treated it as
a species. We have compared Florida material
with borinquensis and believe it to be a distinct
species, thus we follow Torre-Bueno in his
Distribution: Endemic to Florida.

short, barely reaching posterior margin of fore
coxae. Legs at most slightly enlarged with no
more than a few scattered spines or tubercles
ventrally on femora.
Distribution: Two species are known, one
occurring from Panama into Mexico, the other
ranging from Texas, and South Carolina into

(fig. 21, map XXXII)

Cimolus obscurus Stal 1870, p. 189.

Diagnosis: Medium sized (13-18), body yellow
brown to dark brown, dorsum covered with
coarse black punctures (very similar in size,
shape, and color to Anasa tristis). Antennae
dark brown, first segment with irregular light
spots. Pronotum subtrapezoidal, antero-lateral
angles ending in a short blunt spine, humeral
angles broadly rounded. Connexivum widely
exposed. Legs same as body color, but heavily
mottled with darker brown to black.


Map XXXI. Distribution of Catorhintha viridipes.

Florida Distribution: MONROE CO.: Key West,
18-VII-62, F. A. Buchanan, (FSCACC); Upper
Matecumbe Key, 1 mi. SW Islamorada,
18-VI-1974, J. B. Heppner, (FSCA); Big Pine
Key, 12-III-1984, 17-III-1984, R. M.
Baranowski, (RMB).

CIMOLUS Stal, 1862

Type Species: Cimolus vitticeps Stal 1862,
p. 302. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Body robust, ovoid. Head strongly
declivent anteriorly, not extending appreciably
forward of antenniferous tubercles. A small
spine present dorsally on head behind base of
each antenniferous tubercle. Head produced
laterally behind eye. Pronotum strongly decli-
vent, collar distinct, lateral margins irregularly
and obscurely crenulate and serrate. Abdominal
connexivum broad, ovoid-elliptical. Labium

Map XXXII. Distribution of Cimolus obscurus.



Biology: Jones (1924) reported that in Louisiana
the only known host is the creeping cucumber,
Melothria pendula L. He examined other wild
and cultivated cucurbits, but never found C.
obscurus on them. Eggs are deposited in
clusters of 7-23 on the underside of the leaves
and hatch in about 10 days. The adult stage is
reached in about 4 weeks under summer condi-
tions. The adults overwinter and have been
noted in the field from April through November.
The 5 nymphal instars are also described.
Distribution: Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina
into Florida.
Florida Distribution: ALACHUA CO.: Gaines-
ville, 24-V-25, IV-25, (RMB); same, 11-X-36;
Newnan's Lake, 22-II-25, T. H. Hubbell; Ag.
Expt. Sta., 9-III-26, H. E. Bratley, (FSCA);
SARASOTA CO.: Sarasota, 3-XI-55, C. J.
Bickner, (RMB).

NAMACUS Amyot and Serville, 1843

Type Species: Namacus transvirgatus Amyot
and Serville 1843, p. 243. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Elongate, relatively slender, nearly
parallel-sided. Eyes large, occupying most of the
lateral surface of the head. Head slightly
swollen behind eyes. Ocelli large. First antennal
segment elongate, curved, slightly thickened,
and greatly exceeding apex of tylus. Tylus com-
pressed, elevated above juga. Pronotum not
strongly declivent, lateral margins evenly nar-
rowing anteriorly, entire, humeral angles round-
ed. Mesosternum deeply sulcate. Labium
reaching middle coxae. Front wing membrane
venation simple or slightly branched. All femora
slender, spined below distally; hind femora
slightly enlarged.
Distribution: Three species are known, two
Neotropical and one occurring in Florida.

(fig. 22, map XXXIII)

Namacus annulicornis Stal 1870, p.186.

Diagnosis: Moderately large (13-15), elongate,
slender, parallel-sided; dull red with numerous
conspicuous dark punctures. Hemelytra of some
specimens light brown or dull yellow with a
(sometimes obscure) dark fascia. Ventral surface
and legs reddish. Antennae dark chocolate
brown with a strikingly contrasting pale an-

nulus at proximal ends of segments two and
three (sometimes obsolete on segment two). All
tibiae grooved along entire dorsal surface.
Biology: The only known host is Thalia genicu-
lata L. Eggs are deposited end to end along the
flower stems. Nymphs feed on the flowering
parts. In the laboratory they are not able to sur-
vive without the flowers.
Distribution: Mexico and Florida.

Map XXXIII. Distribution of Namacus annulicornis.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Ft. Myers and Enterprise and by Blatchley
from Ft. Myers, Enterprise and St. Petersburg.
ALACHUA CO.: 27-VIII-54, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(FSCA); 28-VI-60, J. W. Perry; Gainesville, 15-
VIII-60, G. Q. Plah, (RMB); BREVARD CO.: In-
dian River City, 14-VI-32, (FSCA); BROWARD
CO: Pompano, 18-IV-58, C. F. Dowling &
R. W. Swanson; COLLIER CO.: V-52; Immo-
kalee, 21-IX-56, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same,
2-XII-55, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); DADE CO.:
Homestead, 28-IX-68, R. M. Baranowski,
(RMB); GLADES CO.: SW of Palmdale, 19-IX-
80, D. Habeck; HARDEE CO.: Ona, 17-XI-67,
R. H. Rhodes; HENDRY CO.: Labelle, 20-VII-
60, W. W. Smith & C. F. Dowling; HILLSBOR-
OUGH CO.: Brandon, 18-VI-62, J. W. Patton,


F-% N,

J .~9St

Fl+2. ',,usnnuiomr

(FSCACC); Tampa, 1-X-83, J. E. Eger, (RMB);
HIGHLANDS CO.: Archbold Biological Sta-
tion, L. Placid, 29-IX-84, M. Deyrup; same,
27-VI-67, F. W. Mead, (RMB); same, [8 mi. S.]
30-IX-82, 3-IX-82, M. Deyrup; same, 14-VI-82,
28-V-82, W. C. Packer, (ABS); Highlands Ham-
mock St. Pk., 11-VII-64, C. E. Stegmaier (RMB);
same, 11-VII-64, C. E. Stegmaier, (FSCACC);
Lake Placid, 13-VII-48, H. W. Crowder; same,
13-VII-48, R. H. Beamer; same, 13-VII-48, B. T.
McDermott; Sebring, 20-VI-51, Price, Wood,
Beamer, (UK); INDIAN RIVER CO.: Vero
Beach, 12-VII-67, R. A. Morse, (FSCACC);
same, 12-VII-67, F. S. Saba, (RMB); LEE CO.:
Ft. Myers, 21-VI-51, Wood, Price, Beamer,
(UK); LEVY CO.: 19-IX-59, H. V. Weems, Jr.,
(RMB); MANATEE CO.: Oneco, 19-VI-28,
G. B. Merrill, (FSCA); OKEECHOBEE CO.: N.
of Okeechobee, 31-X-58, (FSCACC); PALM
BEACH CO.: Lake Park, 23-X-78, J. E. Bennett
& D. C. Clinton; Belle Glade area, 25-V-72, C. E.
Nelson; Belle Glade, 5-XI-54, H. V. Weems, Jr.;
12-V-58, H. A. Denmark, (FSCA); WAKULLA
CO.: Wakulla, 17-XI-57, R. H. Rhodes,

SETHENIRA Spinola, 1837

Type Species: Sethenira testacea Spinola 1837,
p. 198. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Moderately large, yellowish brown.
Head nondeclivent, tylus compressed, elevated
above juga. First antenna segment thickened,
curved, oval to 3-sided in cross-section; second
and third segments flattened, not dilated,
fourth rounded. Humeral angles broadly pro-
duced laterally and toothed. Femora unarmed.
Distribution: A small genus, but represented
throughout the Neotropics. Only one species
occurs in the United States where it is known
only from Florida.

(fig. 23, map XXXIV)

Sethenira ferruginea Stal 1870, p. 182.

Diagnosis: Moderately large (15-20), uniformly
reddish or yellowish to dark brown. Antennae
with first segment concolorous with body, sec-
ond and third segments chocolate brown to
nearly black; terminal half of fourth segment
light yellow. Lateral pronotal margins deeply

concave. Anterolateral margins of pronotum
tuberculate or irregular. Humeral angles pro-
duced laterally, posterolateral margin scalloped.
Labium reaching to or beyond middle coxae.
Connexivum moderately to broadly exposed.
Femora not swollen, tibiae with irregular black
The only known host is crabwood, Gymnan-
thes lucida Sw. Eggs are deposited in late
spring after the plants flower. Feeding by the
nymphs appears to be confined largely to the
developing seeds. There is only one generation
a year.
Distribution: Recorded from Cuba and Florida.
We also have examined specimens from Mexico
and Paraguay in the JAS collection that appear
to be conspecific.

Map XXXIV. Distribution of Sethenira ferruginea.

Florida Distribution: Known only from the
Florida Keys. MONROE CO.: Key Largo, 3-VI-
55, 13-VI-55, W. W. Warner; same, 27-III-57, 2-
V-57, H. V. Weems, Jr., (FSCA); same, 27-III-57,
H. V. Weems, Jr., (JAS); same, 29-V-27, John
D.; same, 6-VI-60, 7-VI-60, H. V. Weems, Jr.; N.
Key Largo, 4-VII-77, 16-VI-74, R. M. Baranow-
ski, (RMB); same, 16-VI-74, 14-VI-74, 4-VII-77,
R. M. Baranowski, (NMNH); same, 1-1-69, R. M.

Fi -3 Sodcnh, ft-i-cu


Baranowski, J. A. Slater; same, 4-V-77,
21-VII-67, 16-VI-74, R. M. Baranowski, (JAS).

ZICCA Amyot and Serville, 1843

Type Species: Zicca nassulata Amyot and Ser-
ville 1843 = Cimex nigropunctatus DeGeer
1773. Monobasic.
Diagnosis: Small (10), body stout. Anten-
niferous tubercles with a short spine. Tylus pro-
jecting well forward of bases of antennae, not
compressed. Eyes large, globular. Pronotum
strongly declivent, antero-lateral margins with
a few coarse blunt teeth or elongate tubercles;
humeral angles spinose. Posterior femora
clavate, swollen, and bearing ventral spines on
distal half.
Distribution: Primarily Neotropical, containing
about 13 species, most of which are confined to
South America.

(fig. 24, map XXXV)

Clavigralla taeniola Dallas 1852, p. 514.
Gonocerus obsoletus Herrich-Schaeffer 1842,
p. 10.
Coreus delicatus Guerin 1857, p. 384.
Zicca taeniola Stal 1862, p. 299.

Diagnosis: Uniformly brown or yellowish brown
with membrane somewhat darker. A small
white spot present in thacenter of the corium.
Antero-lateral margins of pronotum with a
series of large white teeth. Two small white
teeth or tubercles present on disc of anterior
lobe of pronotum. Ventral abdominal segments
with a row of black dots on each side. Legs
yellowish with black dots. Coxae with two black
spots on outer sides.
Biology: Breeds on Amaranthus sp. Eggs are
deposited singly on the seed heads. Early
instars tend to remain on the seed heads, but
later instars and adults also are found on the
foliage. A large series in the FSCA was collected
in Homestead on Phytolacca americana L.,
Distribution: West Indies and Florida.
Florida Distribution: Hussey (1956) first re-
corded it as occurring in the United States from
specimens collected in Dade Co. (Miami, 1954,
Matheson Hammock, 1954, and Homestead,
1956). We have seen specimens collected at

Lake Worth, 4-VI-49, indicating an even wider
and earlier establishment, thus the "N. Amer."
record in the Van Duzee 1917 catalog Hussey
referred to as doubtful, may well have been cor-
rect. ALACHUA CO.: Gainesville, 18-X-72, J.
Brown, (FSCA); same, 5-III-56, F. W. Mead,
(FSCACC); BROWARD CO.: Davie, 25-X-78,
R. Garry, (FSCA); same, 11-XII-78, D. C.
Clinton, (FSCACC); CITRUS CO.: Homosassa,
2-XII-65, T. Faberoso, (FSCACC); DADE CO.:
Homestead, 16-X-69, 12-V-69, 31-X-69, 20-X-69,
18-XI-69, ll-VII-69, R. M. Baranowski; same,
1-III-56, H. V. Weems, Jr., (RMB); same, 31-X-
69, 20-X-69, X-69, R. M. Baranowski; same,
22-XI-74, 8-XII-74, J. A. Slater, (JAS); same,
1-III-56, H. V. Weems, Jr.; same, 6-III-61, J. H.
Knowles; Matheson Hammock, 22-X-54, H. V.
Weems, Jr.; Perrine, 31-1-61, R. W. Swanson;
Miami, 15-II-56, C. F. Dowling; same, 30-IV-54,
O. D. Link, (FSCA); N. Miami, 10-II-61, D. A.
Palmer, (FSCACC); HARDEE CO.: Zolfo, 21-
1-65, R. H. Rhodes, (FSCACC); HERNANDO
CO.: Brooksville, 6-IX-79, R. Phillips, (FSCA);
HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Tampa, 27-IX-66, T.
Faberoso; Brandon, 3-IX-66, J. W. Patton; LEE


Map XXXV. Distribution of Zicca taeniola.


Fig 24 Zia aemola

CO.: Ft. Myers, 27-II-75, S. L. Kitto; ORANGE
CO.: Apopka, 18-X-77, J. Pott; MANATEE
CO.: 15-IX-61, D. C. Chancy, (FSCACC); PALM
BEACH CO.: Belle Glade, 3-1-72, G. W.
Genung, (FSCA); PASCO CO.: Zephyrhills,
9-XI-65, C. V. Williams; Zephyr, 21-X-63, E. R.
Simmons; PINELLAS CO.: Dunedin, 14-VIII-
63, W. C. Carroll, (FSCACC); POLK CO.: Ft.
Meade, 28-VIII-62, R. E. Vild, (RMB);
Lakeland, 9-XII-60, J. H. Maynard & C. W.
Smith; Bartow, 5-X-61, R. E. Vild; ST. JOHNS
CO.: Switzerland, 19-IV-79, R. Hill, (FSCA);
SARASOTA CO.: Sarasota, 8-VII-63, J. T.
Holden, (FSCA); Sarasota Bee Ridge Rd. orange
grove, 19-VII-66, R. Allen, (JAS); SUMTER
CO.: Wildwood, 26-X-71, T. L. Kipp & L. W.
Holly, (FSCA); VOLUSIA CO.: Ormond Beach,
9-XI-77, J. N. Pott, Samsula, 21-IX-79, J. N.
Pott; (FSCA).


Small, generally dull colored. Head produced
anteriorly in front of bases of antennae. Pro-
notum declivent. Pronotum, scutellum, and
hemelytra roughly granulate with each granule
bearing a small adpressed seta. Scent gland
auricle with margins reduced. Fore wing mem-
brane with a curved vein remote from margin
and having numerous small veins arising from
it anastomosing anteriorly and becoming forked
near apex.
A widespread but small group containing
about 20 genera of which two occur in the
United States and Florida.


1. Humeri rounded, unarmed ...........
.......... .. Ceraleptus, p. 69
1'. Humeri with an acute spine present ...
S. ............. Coriomeris, p. 70

CERALEPTUS Costa, 1847

Type Species: Coreus gracilicornis Herrich-
Schaeffer, Faun. Germ. p. 135. By "subsequent

Diagnosis: Moderate sized. Dull brownish or
grayish yellow. Humeral pronotal angles
rounded. Antenniferous tubercles armed with
a small blunt spine. Antennae short and stout.
Posterior femora subclavate, armed with
several small spines below near distal ends.
Distribution: A Holarctic genus containing four
North American species (Froeschner, 1963).
Three species are western or southwestern, the
other, widely distributed in the southern states.

(fig. 25, map XXXVI)

Ceraleptus americanus Stal 1870, p. 219.

Diagnosis: Small (10-13), dull yellowish with
numerous dark punctures scattered over the
body. Head brown with a medium yellow stripe.
Obscure yellowish markings present on mem-
brane of front wing.
Froeschner (1963) separated americanus
from related species by the evenly rounded
humeral angles, lack of explanate lateral pro-
notal margins, the latter "rounding smoothly
into the propleura". This latter is somewhat
misleading as in at least some Florida
specimens the lateral pronotal margins anteri-
orly are dentate and tuberculate.

Fig. 25. Ceraleptus americanus.

Biology: Little is known, but it appears to
chiefly inhabit dry sandy areas. Froeschner
(1963) believes it overwinters as an adult and
reported a collecting record on eggplant.
Distribution: The range is poorly understood
but is chiefly southern from Texas into Florida,
although there are records from New York,
Indiana, Missouri, North Carolina, and
Washington, D.C.


Map XXXVI. Distribution of Ceraleptus americanus.

Florida Distribution: Reported by Barber (1914)
from Lake Worth and by Blatchley (1926) from
Dunedin. ALACHUA CO.: 12-V-55, R. A.
Morse, (FSCA); PALM BEACH CO.: Lake
Worth, (AMNH).

CORIOMERIS Westwood, 1842

Type Species: Cimex denticulatus Scopoli 1763.
Fixed by subsequent designation.

Diagnosis: Small, clothed with dense woolly
pubescence. Head subquadrate. First antennal
segment hairy and granulate, second antennal
segment distinctly shorter than third. Pro-
notum narrowed anteriorly, strongly declivent.
Posterior femora armed below distally with a
curved spine and several small teeth. Metacoxae
widely separated.
Distribution: A Holarctic genus, four species
occurring in North America.

(fig. 26)

Dasycoris humilis Uhler 1871, p. 403.
Coriomeris humilis Van Duzee 1916, p. 14.

Diagnosis: Small (8-9), grayish or brown with
dorsal surface hirsute and granulose. Eyes
small, set at middle of lateral surface of head.
Lateral pronotal margins bearing a series of
white tubercles, each terminating in a sharp
spine. Femora slender, hind femora below armed
distally with three or four conspicuous sharp
spines. Connexivum marked with alternating
brown and yellow patches, Veins of membrane
anastomosing. Antennae large, hirsute, appear-
ing "spiny".
Biology: Unknown. It appears to inhabit dry
areas. Hussey (1922) reported taking a specimen
on willow in a Michigan gravel pit.
Distribution: The status of this species as a
member of the Florida fauna is uncertain. Torre-
Bueno (1921) reported it from St. Petersburg,
but he does not include Florida in his 1941
"Synopsis". There do not appear to be any other
records from the southeastern states. The
distribution is chiefly west of the Mississippi,
but it does occur in the north (Michigan) and
east (Connecticut). In view of the "western ele-
ment" in Florida, Torre-Bueno's record cannot
be totally disregarded, however its occurrence
in Florida is improbable. Dolling and Yonke
(1976) attempted to find the specimen and
failed. They consider humilis to have an essen-
tially "Boreo-Montane" distribution.

<^ i, -s

f\ 'r'

*/ H
^*ess r ^^ ^*Sisi
/ y
" i /^^^imrirhmii


Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Zicca taeniola (Dallas)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Piezogaster ashmeadi Montandon
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
(Benth.) Pennell
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Merocoris sp.
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Anasa scorbutica (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)

Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocerus lobatus (Burmeister)
Narnia femorata Stal
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
CAMPSIS RADICANS (L.) Seem. ex Bureau
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocephala confraterna (Uhler)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)

Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Sephina gundlachi (Guerin)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Catorhintha divergens Barber
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Anasa andresii (Guerin)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Anasa andresii (Guerin)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Sethenira ferruginea Stal
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Anasa andresii (Guerin)
Anasa armigera (Say)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Duchense ex. Poir.
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Narnia sp.
Narnia femorata Stal

Sephina gundlachi (Guerin)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Ceraleptus americanus Stal
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Acanthocerus lobatus (Burmeister)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Catorhintha divergens Barber
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Sethenira ferruginea Stal
Sephina gundlachi (Guerin)

Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Anasa scorbutica (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood)
Acanthocephala confraterna (Uhler)
Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Cimolus obscurus Stal
Mozena sp.
Catorhintha mendica Stal
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann

Anasa scorbutica (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Acanthocerus lobatus (Burmeister)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Narnia femorata Stal
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Narnia femorata Stal
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Narnia femorata Stal
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Chelinidea vittiger Uhler
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Chondrocera laticornis Laporte
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Engelm. ex Gray
Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann
Corecoris fuscus (Thunberg)

Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Zicca taeniola (Dallas)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Leptoglossus corculus (Say)
Catorhintha viridipes Blatchley
Phthia picta (Drury)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Narnia sp.
Narnia femorata Stal
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Zicca taeniola (Dallas)
Merocoris sp.
Merocoris typhaeus Dallas
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Chelinidea sp.
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Mozena sp.
Mozena obesa Montandon
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)

Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocephala declivis (Say)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Catorhintha viridipes Blatchley
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Mozena obesa Montandon
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Althos obscurator (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Anasa armigera (Say)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Corecoris fuscus (Thunberg)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)

Phthia picta (Drury)
Corecoris fuscus (Thunberg)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Merocoris sp.
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus concolor (Walker)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Piezogaster alternatus (Say)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Namacus annulicornis Stal
Althos obscurator (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)

Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Leptoglossus balteatus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocerus lobatus (Burmeister)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocephala confraterna (Uhler)
Chondrocerus laticornis Laporte
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Catorhintha guttula (F.)
Euthochtha galeator (F.)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Phthia picta (Drury)
Acanthocephala terminalis (Dallas)
Leptoglossus gonagra (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Coriomeris humilis (Uhler)
Chariesterus antennator (F.)
Acanthocephala femorata (F.)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)
Leptoglossus oppositus (Say)
Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.)


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Boldface numbers indicate the page where the taxon is described.

Acanthocephala, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 34
Acanthocephalini, 7, 8
Acanthocerini, 2, 8, 31
Acanthocerus, 4, 32, 33, 54
acridioides, Coreus, 4, 5
affinis, Spartocerus, 41
alatus, Diactor, 10
albicinctus, Anisoscelis, 23
albonotatus, Piezogaster, 38
alternatus, Coreus, 38
alternatus, Piezogaster, 3, 38, 39
Althos, 4, 50, 51, 52
Alydidae, 2
americanus, Ceraleptus, 3, 69, 70
Anasa, 2, 3, 4, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56
anasa, Hadronotus, 56
anasae, Oencyrtus, 34, 56
Anastatus, 39
andresii, Anasa, 4, 53
andresii, Coreus, 53
Anisocelini, 7, 14
Anisoscelis, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 29
annulicornis, Namacus, 3, 63, 64
annulipes, Anisoscelis, 29
antennator, Chariesterus, 3, 46, 47
antennator, Coreus, 46
antica, Anisoscelis, 21
Archimerus, 38, 39
armigera, Anasa, 2, 3, 53, 54
armigera, Coreus, 54
arnatus, Pendulinus, 46
ashmeadi, Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 17, 18
ashmeadi, Piezogaster, 38, 39
ashmeadi, Archimeris, 39
atriscapus, Gyron, 29
auctus, Cimex, 18
australis, Cimex, 21
australis, Leptoglossus, 16, 17, 22
balteatus, Cimex, 18
balteatus, Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 17, 18
bispinus, Metapodius, 11
borinquensis, Catorhintha, 61
borinquensis viridipes, Catorhintha, 3, 59
calcarator, Coreus, 39
calcarator, Piezogaster, 3, 38, 39, 40
candelabrum, Cimex, 29
Catorhintha, 3, 4, 50, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
Ceraleptus, 3, 69, 70
Chariesterini, 8, 46
Chariesterus, 3, 46, 47
Chelinidea, 3, 48, 49
Chelinidini, 7, 48
Chondrocera, 4, 14, 15
ciliatus, Cimex, 29
Cimex, 8, 11, 18, 21, 23, 29, 41, 54, 55, 67, 70
Cimolus, 3, 50, 61, 62
cinnamomea, Spartocera, 41
cinnamomeus, Corecoris, 40

Clavigralla, 67
clisiocampae, Oencyrtus, 34, 39
compressus, Lygaeus, 8
concolor, Anisoscelis, 18
concolor, Leptoglossus, 4, 17, 18, 19
confluenta, Corecoris, 43
confluentus, Coreus, 41
confraterna, Acanthocephala, 3, 8, 9, 13
confraterna, Metopodius, 9
confusa, Anisoscelis, 23
corculus, Anisoscelis, 19
corculus, Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 17, 19, 20
Corecorini, 8, 40
Corecoris, 3, 40, 41, 42
Coreinae, 4, 7
Coreini, 8, 50
Coreus, 4, 5, 32, 38, 39, 41, 44, 46, 51, 53, 54, 55,
67, 69
Coriomeris, 69, 70, 71
Corynocoris, 5
crenulatus, Cimex, 29
Crinocerus, 32
crucifer, Acanthocerus, 32
Dasycoris, 70
declivis, Acanthocephala, 3, 8, 10, 13
declivis, Rhinuchus, 10
delicatus, Coreus, 67
denticulatus, Cimex, 70
destructor, Oriterus, 55
Diactor, 10
diffusus, Corecoris, 40, 41
diffusus, Coreus, 41
dilaticollis, Leptoglossus, 16
dispar, Lygaeus, 29
distinctus, Corynocoris, 5
distinctus, Merocoris, 3, 5, 7
divergens, Catorhintha, 4, 50, 57, 58
divisus, Anisoscelis, 29
dorsiger, Gonocerus, 57
dubius, Gonocerus, 46
Eupelmus, 56
Euthochtha, 3, 32, 34
excellent, Theognis, 19
fasciatus, Anisoscelis, 18
femorata, Acanthocephala, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 34
femorata, Cimex, 11
femorata, Narnia, 3, 27, 28
ferruginea, Sethenira, 4, 65, 66
flauescens, 18
fraterna, Anisoscelis, 23
fulvicornis, Anisoscelis, 20
fulvicornis, Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 17, 20
fuscus, Cimex, 41
fuscus, Corecoris, 3, 40, 41, 42
galeator, Coreus, 32
galeator, Euthochtha, 3, 32, 34
geniculatus, Spartocerus, 41
gonagra, Cimex, 21

gonagra, Leptoglossus, 2, 4, 14, 16, 17, 21, 22
Gonocerus, 46, 57, 67
gracilis, Chariesterus, 46
gracillicornis, Coreus, 69
grallator, Cimex, 21
grayi, Sephina, 44
gundlachi, Coreus, 44
gundlachi, Sephina, 44, 45, 46
guttula, Catorhintha, 4, 57, 59
guttula, Lygaeus, 56, 57
Gyron, 29
Hadronotus, 29, 56
humilis, Corecoris, 70, 71
humilis, Dasycoris, 70
impudens, Margus, 51
inermis, Solierella, 47
lanipes, Trichopoda, 11, 39
lateritus, Spartocerus, 41
laticornis, Chondrocera, 4, 14, 15
latipes, Cimex, 8
leprosus, Cimex, 29
Leptoscelini, 7, 29
leptoglossi, Oencyrtus, 20
Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 4, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24
Leptoscelis, 29
lobatus, Acanthocerus, 4, 32, 33
lobatus, Crinocerus, 32
lugens, Anasa, 53
lunatus, Cimex, 29
Lygaeus, 4, 5, 8, 29, 44, 56, 57
magnolia, Leptoglossus, 20
Margus, 51
mendica, Catorhintha, 59
Merocoris, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7
Meropachydinae, 4
Metopodius, 9, 10, 11, 13
Mictini, 2
moesta, Anasa, 54
moestus, Cimex, 55
moestus, Reduvius, 41
Mozena, 3, 36, 37
muticus, Archimerus, 38
Namacus, 3, 50, 63, 64
Narnia, 3, 14, 27, 28
nassulata, Zicca, 67
nasulus, Rhinuchus, 11
nebulosa, Acanthocerus, 54
Nematopodini, 2, 8, 36
nigropunctatus, Cimex, 67
obesa, Mozena, 3, 36, 37
obscure, Leptoscelis, 29
obscurator, Althos, 4, 51, 52
obscurator, Coreus, 51
obscurus, Cimolus, 3, 61, 62
obscurus, Metapodius, 11
obsoletus, Gonocerus, 67
Oencyrtus, 20, 34, 39, 56
oppositus, Anisoscelis, 22
oppositus, Leptoglossus, 3, 17, 22, 23, 24
ordinatus, Coreus, 55
Oriterus, 55
pallidicornis, Narnia, 27

pectoralis, Margus, 51
Pendulinus, 46
pennipes, Trichopoda, 10, 11, 23, 24, 29, 34, 39, 49,
54, 56
persalli, Anastatus, 34, 39
Petalotoma, 14
Phthia, 2, 4, 29, 30
phyllopus, Cimex, 23
phyllopus, Leptoglossus, 2, 3, 17, 18, 23, 24
picta, Cimex, 29
picta, Phthia, 2, 4, 29, 30, 31
Piezogaster, 3, 36, 38, 39, 40
plumipes, Trichopoda, 14, 24
praecipua, Anisoscelis, 21
Pseudophloeinae, 4, 69
pulverulentus, Anisoscelis, 29
pustulata, Lygaeus, 44
reduvii, Eupelmus, 56
Reduvius, 41
Rhinuchus, 10, 11
Rhopalidae, 2
rubignosus, Archimerus, 38
rugator, Coreus, 55
rugosus, Merocoris, 5
Sarcophaga, 43
schaefferi, Theognis, 18
scorbutica, Anasa, 4, 53, 54, 55
scorbutica, Cimex, 54
select, Anisoscelis, 18
Sephina, 4, 40, 44, 45, 46
serrulatus, Spartocerus, 41
Sethenira, 4, 50, 65, 66
Solierella, 47
Spartocera, 41
Spartocerus, 41
spinifrons, Mozena, 36
spiniceps, Anasa, 54
squalus, Archimerus, 38
sternodontis, Sarcophaga, 43
stigma, Leptoglossus, 19
taeniola, Clavigralla, 67
taeniola, Zicca, 4, 67, 68
terminalis, Acanthocephala, 3, 8, 13, 14
terminalis, Anasa, 54
terminalis, Metapodius, 13
testacea, Sethenira, 65
Theognis, 18, 19
thoracicus, Anisoscelis, 18
thoracicus, Metopodius, 10
tibialis, Anisoscelis, 23
tibialis, Crinocerus, 32
transvirgatus, Namacus, 63
Trichopoda, 10, 11, 14, 23, 24, 34, 39, 49, 54, 56
tristis, Anasa, 2, 53, 55, 56
tristis, Cimex, 55
typhaeus, Lygaeus, 4, 5
typhaeus, Merocoris, 3, 5, 6
unicolor, Petalotoma, 14
viridipes, Catorhintha, 3, 57, 59, 60, 61
viticeps, Cimolus, 61
vittiger, Chelinidea, 3, 48, 49
Zicca, 4, 50, 67, 68

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