• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of maps
 Foreword
 List of color plates
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Descriptions
 index to host plants of soft scales...
 Bibliography
 index to common names & scientific...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Contribution Bureau of Entomology
Title: The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera Coccoidea Coccidae)
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000091/00001
 Material Information
Title: The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera Coccoidea Coccidae)
Series Title: Contribution Bureau of Entomology
Physical Description: xi, 194 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hamon, Avas B
Williams, Michael L
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. (P.O. Box 1269 Gainesville 32602)
Publication Date: <1984>
 Subjects
Subject: Scale insects -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Identification   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 188-191.
Statement of Responsibility: by Avas B. Hamon and Michael L. Williams.
General Note: "December 15, 1984."
General Note: Includes indexes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000091
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0029
notis - ADA1465
alephbibnum - 000574102
oclc - 11831397
lccn - 85621691

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Figures
        Page vi
    List of maps
        Page vii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of color plates
        Page viii
    Acknowledgement
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Descriptions
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
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    index to host plants of soft scales of Florida
        Page 135
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    Bibliography
        Page 188
        Page 189
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    index to common names & scientific names
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Back Cover
        Page 195
        Page 196
Full Text

ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA


and Neighboring Land


Areas


Volume 11


THE SOFT SCALE


NSECTS


OF FLORIDA
(HOMOPTERA: COCCOIDEA: COCCIDAE)


by Avas B.


Hamon and Michael L. Williams


Florida Department of Agriculture &


Consumer Services







I







ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA


and Neighboring Land


Areas


Volume 11


THE SOFT


SCALE


INSECTS


OF FLORIDA


(HOMOPTERA:


COCCOIDEA:


COCCIDAE)


Avas B. Hamon


Taxonomic Entomologist,


P.O. Box 1269, Gainesville,


Division of Plant Industry


Florida


32602


and

Michael L. Williams


Professor and Entomology


Department
Auburn Univers


Chairman


of Zoology Entomology
ity, Auburn, Alabama 36


830


FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER
Doyle Conner, Commissioner


SERVICES


DIVISION


OF PLANT INDUSTRY


S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry


Post Office Box 1269


Gainesville, Florida 32602


Contribution No. 600. Bureau of Entomology


Associate


Release Date: December 15, 1984









FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY

PLANT INDUSTRY TECHNICAL COUNCIL


Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Chairman (Fruit & Vegetable) ..................... .............. Canal Point

Joseph Welker, Vice Chairman (Horticulture) .............. ......................... Jacksonville

Law rence C utts (A piary) .................................................................. C hipley

John W. Hornbuckle (Citrus) ............. ................................... Belleair Beach

R ichard M im s (C itrus) ................................................................... W averly

Edward F. Mitchell (Tropical Fruits) ................ ................................. . Miami

Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower) ..................... .................. . .Punta Gorda


Lewis E. Wadsworth, Jr. (Forestry) ..

Jim Vosters (Foliage) ..............

Joann Smith (Citizen-at-large) .......


... . . . .. Bunnell

. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. M ia m i

...................................... M canopy


ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF


S. A. Alfieri, Jr., D director ...................

R. D. Gaskalla, Assistant Director ...........

C. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration ....

R. E. Brown, Chief of Methods Development ..

E. Graham, Chief of Plant Inspection .........

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology .........

L. Putnal, Chief of Apiary Inspection .........

C. Poucher, Chief of Pest Eradication & Control

C. Schoulties, Chief of Plant Pathology ........

J. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology ..........


. Gainesville

. Gainesville

Winter Haven

. Gainesville

. Gainesville

.Gainesville

.. Gainesville

Winter Haven

. Gainesville

.. Gainesville


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $26,860.54 or $13.43 per copy. It
makes available to all interested persons the results of arthropod faunal studies, em-
phasizing Florida and the Circum-Caribbean Region.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Title Page ................... ........... .........

Division of Plant Industry Technical Council & Administrative S

Table of Contents .....................................

List of Figures .....................................

List of Maps ...........................................

List of Color Plates ...................................

Foreword................... ....................

Acknowledgments .............. ........................

Introduction ........... ........................

The Family Coccidae ...............................
General Biology ....................................
Economic Importance ................. .............
Associated Insects ................................
Natural Enem ies ................................
Classification ................ ....... ...............
General Morphology of Adult Females .................
Key to Genera of Coccidae in Southeastern United States ..


Page

.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . i

taff ...................... .. ii

. . . . . . . . . . . . iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . v i

. . . . . . . . . . . . v ii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v iii

.. . . . . . . . .. . . ... ix

S. . . . .. . . . . . .. . x

.............................
. . . . . . . . . . .. I . . 1
S. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . . . 16
1









16


Descriptions

Genus Ceroplastes Gray ..........................
Key to the species of Ceroplastes ...................
Ceroplastes brachyurus Cockerell ................
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) .................
Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock .............
Ceroplastes dugesii Lichtenstein .................
Ceroplastesfloridensis Comstock .................
Ceroplastes nakaharai Gimpel ...................
Ceroplastes rubens Maskell .....................
Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio .................
Ceroplastes utilis Cockerell .....................
Genus Coccus Linnaeus ..........................
Key to the species of Coccus .......................
Coccus acutissimus (Green) .....................
Coccus capparidis (Green) ......................
Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus ....................
Coccus longulus (Douglas) ............... ......
Coccus pseudohesperidum (Cockerell) ............
Coccus viridis (Green) .........................
Genus Eucalymnatus Cockerell ....................
Eucalymnatus tessellatus Signoret ................


. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8
. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 4 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6
.. .. . .. . .. .. . . . .. 4 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0
. . . . . . . . 50









Genus Eulecanium Cockerell ............................................... ...... 52
Eulecanium caryae (Fitch) .................................................... .. 54
Genus Inglisia Maskell ..................................................... ...... 56
Inglisia vitrea Cockerell ........................................ ............... 56
Genus Kilifia DeLotto ..... ........................ ............................. 58
Kilifia acuminata (Signoret) .................................................... 59
Genus Luzulaspis Cockerell ........................................ .............. 61
Luzulaspis americana Koteja and Howell .......................................... 61
Genus Mesolecanium Cockerell ...................................... .......... 63
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Pergande) ................ .......... ........... 63
Genus Neolecanium Parrott ....................................................... 65
Neolecanium cornuparvum (Thro) .............................................. 66
Genus Parasaissetia Takahashi ..................................................... 68
Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) .................................................... 68
Genus Parthenolecanium Sulc ..................................................... 70
Key to the species of Parthenolecanium ........................................ 71
Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) ............................. ... ........... 71
Parthenolecaniumfletcheri (Cockerell) ................ ......................... 73
Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius) ................................... ...... 75
Parthenolecanium quercifex (Fitch) ............................................. 77
Genus Protopulvinaria Cockerell ................................................. 78
Key to the species of Protopulvinaria .............................................. 78
Protopulvinaria mangiferae (Green) ............................................. 80
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) ........................................... 82
Genus Pseudophilippia Cockerell ................................................. 84
Pseudophilippia quaintancii Cockerell ........................................... 84
Genus Pulvinaria Targioni-Tozzetti ............................................... 85
Key to the species of Pulvinaria ................................................... 87
Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley) ............................................. 87
Pulvinaria citricola Kuwana ................................................... 90
Pulvinaria elongata Newstead ................................................. 90
Pulvinaria ericicola McConnell ................................................. 92
Pulvinara floccifera (Westwood) ............................................... 96
Pulvinaria hydrangeae Steinweden .............................................. 98
Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon) .............................................. 100
Pulvinaria psidii Maskell ................................................. 102
Pulvinaria urbicola Cockerell .................................................. 105
Genus Saissetia Deplanche ...................................................... 106
Key to the species of Saissetia ...................................................... 106
Saissetia coffee (Walker) ................................. ................... 108
Saissetia miranda (Cockerell & Parrott) ........................................... 110
Saissetia neglect DeLotto .................................................... 112
Saissetia oleae (Olivier) ....................................................... 114
Genus Toumeyella Cockerell ................... ................................. 115
Key to the species of Toumeyella ................... ........................ . 117
Toumeyella cerifera Ferris ........................................................ 117
Toumeyella liriodendri (Gmelin) ............................................... 119
Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) .............................................. 122
Toumeyella pini (King) ...................................................... 124
Toumeyella virginiana Williams & Kosztarab .................................... 126
Genus Vinsonia Signoret ........ .......... ............ ........... 128
Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood) ............................... ...... 128








Index to Host Plants .......................................................... 135
Literature Cited .... ......... ....................................... .......... 188
Index to Common Names ............................................... 192
Index to Scientific Names ............................................................. 193


















LIST OF FIGURES


Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 19.
Fig. 20.
Fig. 21.
Fig. 22.
Fig. 23.
Fig. 24.
Fig. 25.
Fig. 26.
Fig. 27.
Fig. 28.
Fig. 29.
Fig. 30.
Fig. 31.
Fig. 32.
Fig. 33.
Fig. 34.
Fig. 35.
Fig. 36.
Fig. 37.
Fig. 38.
Fig. 39.
Fig. 40.
Fig. 41.
Fig. 42.
Fig. 43.
Fig. 44.
Fig. 45.
Fig. 46.
Fig. 47.
Fig. 48.
Fig. 49.
Fig. 50.
Fig. 51.


Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Ant tent over a soft scale ...........
General morphology of adult female ..
Morphological details of Coccidae ....
Morphological details of Coccidae ....
Ceroplastes brachyurus .............
Ceroplastes ceriferus ...............
Ceroplastes ceriferus ...............
Ceroplastes cirripediformis ..........
Ceroplastes cirripediformis ..........
Ceroplastes dugesii .................
Ceroplastes dugesii .................
Ceroplastesfloridensis ..............
Ceroplastesfloridensis ............
Ceroplastes nakaharai ..............
Ceroplastes nakaharai ..............
Ceroplastes rubens .................
Ceroplastes rubens .................
Ceroplastes sinensis ................
Ceroplastes sinensis ................
Ceroplastes utilis ..................
Ceroplastes utilis ..................
Coccus acutissimus .................
Coccus acutissimus .................
Coccus capparidis ................
Coccus capparidis .................
Coccus hesperidum ...............
Coccus hesperidum ................
Coccus hesperidum ................
Coccus longulus ...................
Coccus longulus ...................
Coccus pseudohesperidum ..........
Coccus viridis ..................
Coccus viridis .................. ..
Eucalymnatus tessellatus ............
Eucalymnatus tessellatus ............
Eulecanium caryae ................
Eulecanium caryae ................
Inglisia vitrea .................. ..
Inglisia vitrea .................. ..
Kilifia acuminata ..................
Kilifia acuminata ..................
Luzulaspis americana ..............
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum .......
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum .......
Neolecanium cornuparvum ..... ....


Fig. 52.
Fig. 53.
Fig. 54.
Fig. 55.
Fig. 56.
Fig. 57.
Fig. 58.
Fig. 59.
Fig. 60.
Fig. 61.
Fig. 62.
Fig. 63.
Fig. 64.
Fig. 65.
Fig. 66.
Fig. 67.
Fig. 68.
Fig. 69.
Fig. 70.
Fig. 71.
Fig. 72.
Fig. 73.
Fig. 74.
Fig. 75.
Fig. 76.
Fig. 77.
Fig. 78.
Fig. 79.
Fig. 80.
Fig. 81.
Fig. 82.
Fig. 83.
Fig. 84.
Fig. 85.
Fig. 86.
Fig. 87.
Fig. 88.
Fig. 89.
Fig. 90.
Fig. 91.
Fig. 92.
Fig. 93.
Fig. 94.
Fig. 95.
Fig. 96.
Fig. 97.
Fig. 98.
Fig. 99.
Fig. 100.
Fig. 101.
Fig. 102.


Neolecanium cornuparvum ..........
Parasaissetia nigra .................
Parasaissetia nigra .................
Parthenolecanium corni ............
Parthenolecanium corni ............
Parthenolecanium fletcheri ..........
Parthenolecanium persicae ..........
Parthenolecanium persicae ..........
Parthenolecanium quercifex .........
Parthenolecanium quercifex .........
Protopulvinaria mangiferae .........
Protopulvinaria mangiferae .........
Protopulvinaria pyriformis ..........
Protopulvinaria pyriformis ..........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii .........
Pseudophilippia quaintancii ........
Pulvinaria acericola ................
Pulvinaria acericola ...............
Pulvinaria citricola ................
Pulvinaria elongata ................
Pulvinaria elongata ................
Pulvinaria ericicola ................
Pulvinaria ericicola ................
Pulvinariafloccifera ...............
Pulvinaria hydrangeae ............
Pulvinaria innumerabilis ............
Pulvinaria innumerabilis ............
Pulvinaria psidii ......... .........
Pulvinaria psidii ...................
Pulvinaria urbicola ................
Pulvinaria urbicola ................
Saissetia coffee ...................
Saissetia coffeae ...................
Saissetia miranda ..................
Saissetia miranda ..................
Saissetia neglecta ..................
Saissetia neglecta ..................
Saissetia oleae .....................
Saissetia oleae ................... ..
Toumeyella cerifera ................
Toumeyella cerifera ................
Toumeyella liriodendri .............
Toumeyella liriodendri .............
Toumeyella parvicornis .............
Toumeyella parvicornis .............
Toumeyella pini ...................
Toumeyella pini ...................
Toumeyella virginiana .............
Toumeyella virginiana .............
Vinsonia stellifera .................
Vinsonia stellifera .................


67
68
69
71
72
74
75
76
78
79
80
81
82
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
93
94
95
97
99
100
101
103
104
105
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
115
116
117
118
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
129
130


















LIST OF MAPS


Map I. Distribution of Ceroplastes ceriferus ....
Map II. Distribution of Ceroplastes
cirripediformis ............... ...
Map III. Distribution of Ceroplastes dugesii...
Map IV. Distribution of Ceroplastes
floridensis .....................
Map V. Distribution of Ceroplastes nakaharai .
Map VI. Distribution of Ceroplastes rubens ...
Map VII. Distribution of Ceroplastes utilis ....
Map VIII. Distribution of Coccus acutissimus..
Map IX. Distribution of Coccus capparidis ....
Map X. Distribution of Coccus hesperidum ....
Map XI. Distribution of Coccus longulus ......
Map XII. Distribution of Coccus
pseudohesperidum ................
Map XIII. Distribution of Coccus viridis ......
Map XIV. Distribution of Eucalymnatus
tessellatus ...................
Map XV. Distribution of Eulecanium caryae ..
Map XVI. Distribution of Inglisia vitrea ......
Map XVII. Distribution of Kilifia acuminata ..
Map XVIII. Distribution of Mesolecanium
nigrofasciatum..............
Map XIX. Distribution of Neolecanium
cornuparvum ...................
Map XX. Distribution of Parasaissetia nigra ...
Map XXI. Distribution of Parthenolecanium
corni ............... ..........
Map XXII. Distribution of Parthenolecanium
quercifex ......................
Map XXIII. Distribution of Protopulvinaria
mangiferae ...................
Map XXIV. Distribution of Protopulvinaria
pyriformis ...................


Map XXV. Distribution of Pseudophilippia
quaintancii .................
Map XXVI. Distribution of Pulvinaria
acericola ...................
Map XXVII. Distribution of Pulvinaria
elongata ..................
Map XXVIII. Distribution of Pulvinaria
ericicola .................
Map XXIX. Distribution of Pulvinaria
floccifera ..................
Map XXX. Distribution of Pulvinaria
hydrangeae .................
Map XXXI. Distribution of Pulvinaria
innumerabilis ...............


73

78

80


... 85

... 88

... 92

. 94

... 98

... 98

. .. 102


Map XXXII. Distribution of Pulvinaria
psidii .............. ..... 105
Map XXXIII. Distribution of Pulvinaria
urbicola. ................... 106
Map XXXIV. Distribution of Saissetia coffeae.. 110
Map XXXV. Distribution of Saissetia miranda 112
Map XXXVI. Distribution of Saissetia neglecta. 114
Map XXXVII. Distribution of Saissetia oleae .. 115
Map XXXVIII. Distribution of Toumeyella
cerifera .................... 119
Map XXXIX. Distribution of Toumeyella
liriodendri ................... 120
Map XL. Distribution of Toumeyella
parvicornis ...................... 124
Map XLI. Distribution of Toumeyella pini .... 126
Map XLII. Distribution of Toumeyella
virginiana ..................... 128
Map XLIII. Distribution of Vinsonia stellifera 129















FOREWORD


This scholarly treatment of the soft scales of
Florida by Hamon and Williams fulfills a need
which has grown over a period of many years. It
provides a reference useful both for field iden-
tification of some species of soft scales and for the
accurate identification in the laboratory of all
species known to occur or which are likely to be
found in Florida. This publication should be
useful in the identification of soft scales over an
area much greater than Florida, as the
dichotomous keys are not restricted to those
species known to occur in Florida. This is the first
definitive treatment of the soft scales of Florida
and neighboring parts of the United States.
The extensive host list, containing more than
1,500 plant names, provides a place to begin for
field identifications, and the diagnoses and
photographs will facilitate greatly the making of
field identifications. However, only properly
prepared microscope slides of scale insects are
definitive for accurate specific identifications.
The highly detailed line drawings of all species of
soft scales known to occur in Florida should
facilitate identification. The distribution maps
include all states of the United States except
Alaska and Hawaii. Information included on
parasites and predators will be pertinent to the
increasing emphasis placed on biological control
of scale insects and other insect pests as an alter-
native to excessive use of pesticides.
Dr. Avas B. Hamon was born in Ripley, West
Virginia, on 8 March 1940, son of O. M. and
Lucy F. Hamon. One of 6 children, he has 4
sisters and a brother. In 1965 he married Donna
F. Newhouse of Sissonville, West Virginia. Avas
was educated in the public schools of Jackson
County, West Virginia and graduated from
Ripley High School. He received the Bachelor of
Science degree in Biology from Morris Harvey
College, Charleston, West Virginia (now Univer-
sity of Charleston) and the Master of Science
degree in Biological Sciences from Marshall
University, Huntington, West Virginia. He
served in the United States Air Force from 1962
to 1966 as a member of a missile launch crew for
advanced ballistics and re-entry systems. From
1969 to 1973 he was employed by the Virginia
Department of Agriculture and Commerce as a


Regulatory Inspector in Harrisonburg, Virginia.
In 1973 he began working toward the Doctor of
Philosophy degree in Entomology at Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia, where he studied under
Dr. Michael Kosztarab, a recognized world
authority on the biosystematics of scale insects.
The degree requirements were completed in Oc-
tober 1976. Since then he has been employed as a
Taxonomic Entomologist with the Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, in
Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Hamon is an Associate
Curator of the Florida State Collection of Arth-
ropods, an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the
Department of Entomology and Nematology of
the University of Florida, and a Courtesy
Associate Professor in the Department of En-
tomology and Structural Pest Control of Florida
A & M University. He is a member of the En-
tomological Society of America, the Florida En-
tomological Society, American Registry of Pro-
fessional Entomologists, and has been listed in
American Men and Women of Science and in
Who's Who in the South. He is a member of
Sigma Xi honorary society. He is author or
coauthor of 29 scientific publications.
Dr. Michael L. Williams, or "Mike" as he is
generally called, was born in Paragould, Arkan-
sas, 11 September 1943. In 1962 he married
Carolyn Grace Mack. They have 2 children,
Michael Gregory and Kathryn Grace, and a
granddaughter, Toni Michelle. Mike received his
Bachelor of Science degree in 1967 from Arkan-
sas State University with a major in Biology and
a minor in Chemistry; Master of Science (1969)
and Doctor of Philosophy degrees (1972) from
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univer-
sity with majors in Entomology and minors in
Botany. Like Avas, Mike studied under Dr.
Michael Kosztarab. While at VPI, Mike held a
National Science Foundation traineeship, Na-
tional Defense Education Act fellowship, and
both teaching and research assistantships in the
Department of Entomology. In 1969 he was
awarded the Sigma Xi Outstanding Graduate
Student Research Award from the VPI Chapter
for his work on the "Morphology and Systematics








of the First Instar Nymphs of Scale Insects in the
Genus Lecanodiaspis". Mike was hired by the
Maryland Department of Agriculture as Assistant
State Entomologist before completing his Ph.D.
requirements, and he finished writing his disser-
tation while on the job. He worked out of the
University of Maryland from March 1971 to
March 1973, when he took a position with the
Department of Zoology-Entomology at Auburn
University in Alabama. Since that time Mike has
been teaching systematics and morphology of in-
sects and conducting research on scale insects
and other pests of ornamental plants at Auburn.
He currently holds the position of Associate Pro-
fessor and Entomology Section Chairman in the
Department of Zoology-Entomology.
Dr. Williams is a member of the En-
tomological Society of America, Entomological
Society of Washington, Florida Entomological
Society, Georgia Entomological Society, and
Alabama Academy of Science. He is a Research
Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arth-
ropods. He is a member of several national honor
societies: Beta Beta Beta, Gamma Sigma Delta,
Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Sigma, and Sigma Xi and has
been selected for inclusion in American Men and
Women of Science, Personalities of the South,


and Who's Who in America. In 1980 Mike was a
visiting professor at the University of Guayaquil,
Ecuador, and in 1981 he was awarded the
Southeastern Branch ESA Distinguished
Achievement Award in Teaching.
Dr. Williams is author or coauthor of 68
scientific papers and popular articles. He has
given numerous invitational papers and par-
ticipated in symposia at national and interna-
tional professional society meetings. Mike's
specialty is the soft scale insect group, and he
currently provides identification services to
various state and federal agencies as well as to
other entomologists and the general public. He is
interested also in the scale insects of the
Galapagos Islands and other areas of South
America and has collected and studied scale in-
sects on trips to these islands and the Amazon
Basin in Ecuador during 1973, 1975, and 1980.
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Editor
Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
1 October 1984

















LIST OF COLOR PLATES


PLATE I ..................... ..........131
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius)
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius), infestation on
Podocarpus
Ceroplastes dugusii Lichtenstein
Ceroplastes nakaharai Gimpel
Ceroplastes rubens Maskell
Coccus acutissimus (Green)
Coccus capparidis (Green)
Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus

PLATE II .................. ............ 132
Coccus longulus (Douglas)
Coccus viridis (Green)
Inglisia vitrea Cockerell, with parasite exit holes
Kilifia acuminata (Signoret)
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Pergande)
Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner)
Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche)
Protopulvinaria mangiferae (Green)



COVER -Parthenolecanium quercifex (Fitch)


PLATE III ................................. 133
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell)
Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh & Riley)
Pulvinaria elongata Newstead
Pulvinaria ericicola McConnell
Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), before ovisac
formation
Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), after ovisac
formation
Pulvinaria psidii Maskell
Pulvinaria urbicola Cockerell
PLATE IV ............... ............ 134
Saissetia coffeae (Walker)
Saissetia neglecta DeLotto
Saissetia oleae (Olivier)
Toumeyella cerifera Ferris
Toumeyella liriodendri (Gmelin)
Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell), leaf form
Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell), stem form
Vinsonia stellifera Westwood
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This project was initiated in 1978 and has
survived through the encouragement and efforts
of many individuals. Premier among these is
Darlene Cannon who has persevered with ex-
cellence through the original typing and several
revisions. Our special thanks and respect are ex-
tended to her.
The host list portion of the manuscript was
begun with the efforts of Pamela Zwerski and
continued by Elaine Sims, Joan Ortagus,
Elizabeth Manning, and Pamela Exon. We thank
them for their efforts and expertise. For the final
corrections we wish to thank Janet Temple and
Darlene Cannon.
Our heartfelt respect and admiration are ex-
tended to G. W. "Wally" Dekle for his en-
couragement, smiling face, enthusiasm, and
legacy of excellence in scale insect identifica-
tions.
Thanks are extended to Ernestine Ostanik,
Ladonia Fields, and Scott Yocom for their
technical help and expertise in slide preparation.
Technical graphics assistance was received from
Linda Writer. For expertise in taking many of
the photographs and photo reproductions we
thank Jane Windsor, the DPI photographer.
Special thanks are due Ray Gill, Bill Gimpel,
Jim Howell, and Charles Ray for the use of their
original and previously published drawings.
For encouragement, technical material,
photos, and the loan of slides, a special thanks is
extended to our former major professor and
friend, Dr. Michael Kosztarab, Professor of
Systematic Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic In-
stitute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
We are grateful for the support of ad-


ministrators of the Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, particularly the
Honorable Doyle E. Conner, Commissioner of
Agriculture and Consumer Services; H. L. Jones,
Director, retired; Dr. S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director;
and H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology, of the
Division of Plant Industry.
A considerable amount of assistance with
plant identifications and host names was re-
ceived from Dr. Kenneth Langdon. Carlos Ar-
taud reviewed the host list botanical names
several times. To them we extend our apprecia-
tion.
For review of the manuscript and many
helpful suggestions, we extend our thanks to
Steve Nakahara, Research Entomologist, USDA,
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville,
MD, and Raymond J. Gill, Systematic En-
tomologist, California Dept. of Food and
Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry,
Sacramento, CA.
We wish to thank the Agriculture Products
Specialists, of the Division of Plant Industry, for
their diligent collections of most of the material,
and their cooperation when additional material
was requested.
We thank our entomology colleagues at the
Division of Plant Industry, Drs. Frank Mead,
G. B. Edwards, Robert Woodruff, Lionel
Stange, John Heppner, and Howard Weems,
Jr. for their encouragement and many helpful
suggestions.
Last, but not least, the senior author wishes
to thank his wife, Donna, for her encourage-
ment and dedication throughout this entire
study.









INTRODUCTION


THE FAMILY COCCIDAE

Early entomologists assigned all scale insects
to the family Coccidae. Current workers
recognize up to 21 families of scale insects and
restrict the family Coccidae to scale insects
resembling Coccus hesperidum, the type species.
Members of the family are commonly referred to
as "soft scales".
Soft scales occur in all zoogeographic regions
of the world, but most species are native to
temperate, subtropical, and tropical en-
vironments. Such species as the brown soft scale
(Coccus hesperidum) and hemispherical scale
(Saissetia coffeae) have been moved by man to
the extent that they are cosmopolitan in distribu-
tion.
The family Coccidae is the third largest fam-
ily of scale insects after the armored scales
(Diaspididae) and mealybugs (Pseudococcidae)
respectively. Worldwide there are about 1,000
species in approximately 100 genera. In the
United States the Coccidae comprise about 85
species in 25 genera. Of these 85 species, 33 have
been reported as pests in one or more states.
In this study 49 species in 17 genera are
treated from the Southeastern United States.
Forty of these species have been reported from
Florida. Undescribed species in the genera
Ceroplastes, Philephedra, Pulvinaria, and
Toumeyella are not included.
Soft scales feed on a wide variety of host
plants. They may be found on all parts of the
plant: leaves (including grass sheaths), stems,
bark, crowns and roots. The Virginia pine scale
(Toumeyella virginiana) has even been found in
ant galleries 1.5 inches beneath loblolly pine
bark. Some species, such as the brown soft scale
and the European fruit lecanium (Par-
thenolecanium corni), attack many different
hosts, while others, like the woolly pine scale
(Pseudophilippia quaintancii) and magnolia
scale (Neolecanium cornuparvum), are restricted
to a few species of plants.


GENERAL BIOLOGY

Most species of soft scales occur outdoors and
have one generation per year, but some species,
such as pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella parvicor-
nis) and brown soft scale, have multiple genera-
tions in the warmer southern areas. Under
greenhouse conditions, overlapping generations


often occur and several developmental stages
may be found at any one time. Soft scales
reproduce sexually or parthenogenetically, and
some species have both bisexual and par-
thenogenetic strains. Nur (1971) studied the
cytology of 33 parthenogenetic scale insects and
identified and characterized 7 different types of
parthenogenesis. Most species of soft scale are
capable of reproducing parthenogenetically.
The females have a simple metamorphosis,
whereas the males have a complete metamor-
phosis. There are 3 or 4 instars in the female and
5 instars in the male. Females are either
oviparous or ovoviviparous. The developmental
stages can be characterized as follows:
First Instar (male and female) (Fig. 1): The first
instar or "crawler" stage is the most active
developmental stage in soft scales. Both sexes are
similar and share the following characters: eyes
present; anal plates present (Fig. 1,H), each
plate with a long apical seta; legs well developed
and 5 segmented; well-developed 5 or
6-segmented antennae; spiracular setae (Fig.
1,D) usually differentiated from marginal setae;
6 anal ring setae; multilocular pores and tubular
ducts absent from abdominal region.
Most soft scale crawlers prefer to feed on the
leaves of their host and will usually settle there
after hatching. Crawlers feed by inserting their
stylet-like mouthparts directly into cells and suck
out the cell contents. For those species which
feed on deciduous hosts, this requires them to
move from the leaves to the twigs or stems of
their host before leaf drop in the fall. Some
species of Pulvinaria begin their development on
the leaves, move to the twigs to overwinter, and
return to the leaves as adult females in the
spring. Most soft scales overwinter as second in-
stars, but some of the wax scales (Ceroplastes
spp.) overwinter as fertilized adult females
which produce eggs very early in the spring. The
biology of most species of soft scale has not been
studied. Information on the biology of the
economically important species is critically
needed.
Second Instar Female: Sexual dimorphism is ap-
parent in the 2nd instar. The female lacks the
tubular ducts present on the dorsum of 2nd instar
males (Fig. 3,G); body shape is oval to nearly cir-
cular instead of elongate oval as in the male.
Eyes are present, as are anal plates but without
the long apical seta. An anal cleft is evident, and
the legs and antennae are reduced or well
developed. Multilocular pores and tubular ducts






























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Fig. 2. Pseudophilippia qualianicti, 3rd instar female, from Ray and Williams 1980.


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are always absent from the venter of the ab-
domen. Spiracular setae are usually differen-
tiated from the marginal setae.
Third Instar Female: The 3rd instar can either be
the adult instar or the last immature instar,
depending on the species. The last immature
female instar (Fig. 2) resembles the adult female,
but has fewer setae and pores, and may have
fewer anal ring setae and antenna segments.
Multilocular pores are absent from the venter of
the abdomen.
The adult female stage (Fig. 8) has more setae
and pores. Tubular ducts may be present or ab-
sent, but usually present. Multilocular pores are
present on the venter of the abdomen. Additional
characters of the adult female, whether it be 3rd
or 4th instar, are discussed under General Mor-
phology of the Adult Female.
Second Instar Male (Fig. 3): Sexual dimorphism
is apparent in the 2nd instar. The male is
elongate oval in shape, eyes are present, anal
plates are present, but the long apical setae are
absent. The presence of dorsal tubular ducts
(Fig. 3,G) readily distinguishes the 2nd instar
male from the 2nd instar female, which lacks
dorsal tubular ducts. This stage produces the
characteristic glassy wax cover of male soft
scales.
Third Instar Male (Prepupa) (Fig. 4): The
prepupa is found under the glassy wax cover
secreted by the 2nd instar male. In general, the
derm is membranous. The anal plates are re-
placed by 2 quadrate sclerotized lobes, and the
anal ring, spiracular setae, eyes, pores, and ducts
are absent. The anal opening is near the
sclerotized base of the penial sheath, and the
penial sheath is short and rounded. Wing buds
are present. The legs and antennae are about 1/4
body length and have poorly defined segments.
Fourth Instar Male (Pupa) (Fig. 5): The pupa is
similar in appearance to the prepupa male, but
the development of the antennae, legs, wings,
and genital structures have progressed to a more
definable state. The eyes are still absent. The
penial sheath is elongate and triangular. The
antennae and legs are greater than 1/3 the body
length, and segmentation is more distinct.
Fifth Instar Male: The adult male instar is shown
in Fig. 6. For detailed information about the
morphology and taxonomy of adult male Coc-
cidae, see Giliomee (1967). The body is divided
into a head, thorax, and abdomen, with a dis-
tinct neck region behind the head. The head is
well sclerotized, has 2-5 pairs of simple eyes and
a pair of lateral ocelli. The mouthparts are ab-
sent. Legs are well developed, usually long,


slender, and 5 segmented. The penial sheath is
long and generally about 1/4 the body length.
The adult male remains under the wax cover
produced by the second instar male until fully
developed. It then backs out from beneath the
cover and begins to actively search for a female.
The adult males are short lived and do not feed;
their sole purpose is to mate with the females.



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
OF THE COCCIDAE

The family Coccidae represents an
economically important group of insects. Many
species attack agricultural, ornamental, and
greenhouse plantings throughout the world. The
economic importance of the group is perhaps
considerably underestimated. Isolated infesta-
tions in ornamental plantings are usually
overlooked, and often the death of the plant is at-
tributed to some other cause.
Soft scales remove plant sap by their feeding,
and excrete a large amount of honeydew, which
is a liquid excretion rich in sugars and
nitrogenous compounds. Honeydew adheres to
plant surfaces and serves as a medium for the
growth of sooty mold fungi. Sooty mold fungi,
which are dirty or sooty in appearance, not only
inhibit photosynthesis by the plant, but also
greatly reduces the aesthetic qualities of the
plant.
Most soft scale species of economic impor-
tance in the United States belong to the following
genera: Ceroplastes Gray, Coccus Linnaeus, and
Saissetia Deplanche. Where records are
available, the economic importance is discussed
under the treatment of each species.



ASSOCIATED INSECTS

Soft scale insects are often found in associa-
tion with other insects, particularly ants, wasps,
and bees. These associations are usually
beneficial to both soft scale and associate insects.
The ants provide protection to the scale insects
by warding off parasites and predators, and in
turn are provided with a food source in the form
of honeydew excreted by the scale insects. In ad-
dition, some species of ants build cartons or tents
over colonies of soft scale insects (Fig. 7). These
ant tents are generally constructed of soil or
debris collected in the vicinity of the colony and
are cemented together to form a covering over

















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Fig. 5. Pseudophilippia quaintancli, pupal male, from Ray and Williams 1980.












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Fig. 6. Pseudophilippia quaintancii, adult male, from Ray and Williams 1980.


the scale-infested stem or twig. The ant tent pro-
vides some protection from the weather, but
more importantly, shields the colony from attack
by parasites and predators. In the southeastern
United States, fire ants commonly tend soft scale
colonies in this fashion.
A more direct benefit of ant tending is the
removal of honeydew from the soft scale colony.
Honeydew serves as a medium for the growth of


sooty mold which often contaminates the colony
and can cause a reduction in numbers within the
colony. Ants and other hymenopterous insects
are often seen feeding on droplets of honeydew
excreted by soft scale insects. Ants have been
observed "fondling" the soft scale in the area of
the anal plates with their antennae. The soft
scale reacts to this fondling by slowly extruding a
droplet of honeydew from its rectum which the


/ocs

, vhs


























Fig. 7. Ant tent over a soft scale, DPI Photo 702822-6.


ant consumes. Soft scale colonies which are
tended by ants have the problem of sooty mold
contamination eliminated in this fashion. In
fact, ant-tended soft scale colonies are often
larger than colonies of the same soft scale species
on the same host that are not ant-tended.



NATURAL ENEMIES

Since the classical success in California of the
vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant),
against the cottony cushion scale, Icerya pur-
chasi Maskell, entomologists have looked
favorably upon biological control as a valid pest
control method (DeBach, 1964). No attempt will
be made here to discuss biological control, but
rather a list of natural enemies is given for each
soft scale where possible. The primary sources for
such information have been Peck 1963, DeBach
1964, Clausen 1940, Bartett in Clausen ed.
1978, and Krombein et al. 1979, but many other
sources are also available. The greatest number
of scale insect natural enemies occurs in the Hy-
menoptera with lesser numbers in the Lepidop-
tera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Neuroptera. In
general, only natural enemies occurring in Flor-
ida or the southeast United States are listed.




CLASSIFICATION

The family Coccidae is a difficult group to


classify, because of the lack of literature and ade-
quate species keys. Many species are polyphagous
and often exhibit a wide range of morphological
differences from host to host. Such variability led
many early workers to describe the same entity
from different hosts as separate species. For ex-
ample, the European fruit lecanium alone has
over 130 synonyms.
Borchsenius (1957) divided the family Coc-
cidae into three subfamilies and two tribes based
on studies of the adult females. His classification
is as follows:
1. Subfamily Filippinae-mature females
completely enclosed in an egg sac.
2. Subfamily Ceroplastinae-body of the fe-
male covered with a thick layer of dense,
opaque, colored wax.
3. Subfamily Coccinae -female not enclosed
in an egg sac; if an egg sac is present, it is
found behind or under the body of the fe-
male. Borchsenius subdivided the Coc-
cinae into the tribes Pulvinariini (eggs
deposited in an ovisac behind or beneath
the body) and Coccini (eggs deposited
under the abdomen which retracts as the
eggs are laid, or give birth to living young
ovoviviparously.
Giliomee (1967) studied the adult males of 23
species in 19 genera. His work indicated the need
for reevaluation of Borchsenius' classification.
He identified four natural groups:
1. The Eriopeltis Group including the genera
Eriopeltis and Luzulaspis.
2. The Coccus Group containing Coccus,
Ceroplastes, Parthenolecanium, and Pul-
vinaria.
3. The Eulecanium Group containing
Sphaerolecanium, Ctenochiton, Filippia,
Physokermes, and Eulecanium.
4. The Inglisia Group of the single genus
Inglisia.
Ray and Williams (1983) added a fifth
natural group, the Toumeyella Group, which in,
eludes the genera Toumeyella, Pseudophilippia,
and Neolecanium.
It appears that information from the study of
all developmental stages needs to be consolidated
to form a classification that will be workable for
the entire family.
Very few comprehensive studies have been
published on the Coccidae in North America.
Thro (1903), in his "Distinctive characteristics of
the Species of the Genus Lecanium", included 12
species of soft scales which are now placed in 6
different genera. Steinweden (1946) revised the
genus Pulvinaria (13 spp.) in the United States.
Richards (1958) published on the Lecanium (5








spp.) species of Canada. Williams and Kosztarab
(1972) studied 32 species in 11 genera in their
"Coccidae of Virginia". In recent years some
good revisionary works have been published.
These include: Gimpel et al. (1974) on the
Ceroplastes of the United States (11 spp.); Cill et
al. (1977) presented a review of the genus Coccus
in North America north of Panama (8 spp.); Ray
and Williams (1980, 1981, 1982, 1983) published
comprehensive descriptions of all developmental
stages for species in the genera Eucalymnatus,
Neolecanium, Protopulvinaria, and
Pseudophilippia; and Nakahara (1981) presented
a discussion on the placement of 12 species of soft
scales assigned to the genus Lecanium which are
today placed in the genera Eulecanium,
Mesolecanium, Parthenolecanium, and Sphaero-
lecanium.
Classification of soft scales by early workers
was based largely 'on the adult females, and
chiefly on the gross appearance of the fully
mature female. Because of this practice, many
species and genera are poorly defined, and
therefore, some genera include an assemblage of
unrelated species. Using modern microscopic
techniques, most species and genera in the
United States have been redefined; however,
revisionary studies of genera such as Par-
thenolecanium and Pulvinaria are urgently
needed.




GENERAL MORPHOLOGY
OF THE ADULT FEMALE

Body shape: The body as it appears on a
prepared microscope slide (Fig. 8) is usually sub-
circular, elliptical, or pyriform, varying both
with the species and the age of the specimens
studied. At the posterior end of the body is the
anal cleft which extends into the body as far as
the anal plates (Fig. 8, Gi, G2). Usually the anal
cleft is only about 1/6 the body length, but in the
genus Protopulvinaria, the anal cleft extends
almost to the center of the body (Fig. 65).
Spiracular depressions are usually found on the
margin at the spiracular setae. Spiracular setae
may be well developed and numerous as in the
genus Ceroplastes (Fig. 23) or absent as in some
species of Toumeyella (Fig. 96).
Derm: The derm in immature specimens and
young adult females is usually membranous. The
dorsal derm of many species becomes heavily
sclerotized with age, particularly after oviposi-
tion. The appendages, mouth-parts, and anal
plates of all species studied were sclerotized in all


stages. Often the sclerotized dorsal derm has
clear areas around some of the dorsal pores, giv-
ing the derm a cell-like appearance (Fig. 84).
This character is especially developed in the
genus Saissetia. In the genera Eucalymnatus and
Parasaissetia, the derm is divided into plate-like
areas (Fig. 41) or polygonal reticulations (Fig.
54).
Segmentation: No indication of segmentation
is found on the dorsal derm of the Coccidae (Fig.
8). In most species, ventral segmentation is
obscure, but usually can be detected in the mid-
abdominal and mid-thoracic regions.
Head and thoracic segments of the Coccidae
are closely fused. However, certain structures are
present which indicate segmentation. The anten-
nae and mouthparts are on the head, and in
many species, eyes are also present. The legs,
spiracles, spiracular pore bands, and spiracular
setae mark the thoracic segments.
The abdominal segments are indicated in the
mid-ventral region of most species and are evi-
dent except near the anal area.
In the Coccidae the anal opening is found on
the 11th abdominal segment, and usually the
11th as well as the 10th segment is reduced. The
only fixed abdominal structure is the gonopore
(Ferris 1955); therefore the vulva of the Coccidae
lies on the 8th abdominal segment. As for the rest
of the segmentation, we agree with Sulc (1932),
that the 9th segment is composed of the anal
plates, the 10th segment is the anal ring and fold,
and the 11th segment is the membrane covering
the anal opening. Counting forward from the
anal ring to the metathorax, segment 2 is the first
visible abdominal segment. Apparently segments
1 and 2 are fused.




DORSAL SURFACE AND MARGIN

Setae: Marginal setae (Fig. 8, 0) occur in all
Coccidae, although they are difficult to observe
in some species. Marginal setae in most species
are slender and acute, but in others they are ex-
tremely variable (Fig. 9, A), being conical, stout,
hair-like, curved or straight, bifid, fringed, or
dentate, with apex acute, blunt, or expanded.
The numbers of marginal setae around the head
between the anterior spiracular setae, and also
between the anterior and posterior spiracular
setae are of taxonomic value. Body setae (Fig. 8)
are normally scattered randomly over the body,
but occasionally, as in Parthenolecanium corni
(Fig. 56), form 1 or 2 longitudinal, mid-dorsal
rows. Usually body setae are spine-like, hair-like,














/ ANTENNA


b F
< / /V MULT LO UL R PORE \


SUBMARGINAL o
sG \TUBULAR DUCT U
ANAL OPERCULA H
DORSAL VIEW
Fig. 8. General morphology of adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


\"I G2
ANAL OPERCULA
VENTRAL VIEW









or cylindrical with apices pointed, blunt, or
capitate (Fig. 9, B).
Spiracular setae (Fig. 8, M): All species
studied, except Pseudophilippia quaintancii and
Toumeyella parvicornis, had spiracular setae
which could be differentiated from marginal
setae. Spiracular setae in most species are in
groups of 3, terminating each spiracular pore
band, but in the genus Ceroplastes (Fig. 11, E),
they may number 90 or more. There are various
shapes and sizes (Fig. 9, D) throughout the fam-
ily Coccidae. The shape and number of
spiracular setae are of taxonomic importance in
separating genera and species.
Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 8, L): These are
round tubercles surrounding a central in-
vaginated tube; they occur in the dorsal sub-
marginal area around the body. These tubercles
are present in some genera and species, and ab-
sent in others. They are usually quite large and
vary in number, even within the same species.
Parthenolecanium persicae (Fig. 59, B) may have
up to 20 pairs. The number of submarginal
tubercless serves as a good character to separate
some species.
Pores: Dorsal pores (Fig. 8, T) are numerous
and quite variable. Usually pores are scattered
over the entire dorsum; however, in the genus
Ceroplastes, there is a varying number of large,
clear areas on the derm in which pores are ap-
parently absent (Fig. 11). In addition to the
pores which occur generally over the dorsum,
many species possess discoidal pores in the area
around or anterior to the anal plates. Discoidal
pores are usually much larger than dorsal pores,
and may be simple and rather flat, convex, or
even conical (Fig. 9, G). Various types of dorsal
pores are illustrated in (Fig. 9, E, F). Types of
dorsal pores include: monolecular ring pores
(Fig. 13, I), bilocular pores (Fig. 8, N), barred
bilocular pores (Fig. 19, G), irregular bilocular
pores (Fig. 19, H), 8-shaped pores (Fig. 52, E),
triangular trilocular pores (Fig. 13, E), oval or
irregular trilocular pores (Fig. 25, F),
quadrilocular pores (Fig. 13, F), cruciform pores
(Fig. 33, G), quinquelocular pores (Fig. 8, C),
simple disc pores (Fig. 33, F), thick rimmed disc
pores (Fig. 13, I), and conical disc pores (Fig. 13,
J). Specialized types of invaginated pores were
found in two species of Coccidae studied: in
Pseudophilippia quaintancii, the derm is covered
with numerous large invaginated bilocular pores
(Fig. 67, Ei), and in Toumeyella parvicornis,
small bilocular pores are invaginated and tend to
aggregate into groups or form pore pirates (Fig.
96, D) on the derm. The arrangement, number,
and types of pores are taxonomic characters used


to separate some genera and many species of
Coccidae.
Ducts: Tubular ducts (Fig. 8, H) with slender
inner filaments are scattered over the dorsum of
several species of Eulecanium, Par-
thenolecanium, Luzulaspis, and Pulvinaria.
They are occasionally found in limited numbers
around the margin of Coccus hesperidum.
Filamentous ducts (Fig. 13, K) are found around
the margin of Ceroplastes ceriferus and on the
dorsum and margin of Vinsonia stellifera.

Anal plates (Fig. 8, G1, Ga): The anal plates
are located at the anterior end of the anal cleft
above the opening of the anal tube. They vary in
shape but are most often triangular. They are
generally supported by two sclerotic, internal
processes termed the ventral thickenings. These
plates are present in all adult female Coccidae
except the genus Physokermes.
Setae are found on various parts of the anal
plates (Fig. 10, K, L); as apical setae at, or near,
the apices; subdiscal setae on the caudolateral
margin anterior of the apex; discal setae on the
mid-dorsal surface; subapical setae on the ven-
tral surface and ventral thickening; fringe setae
along the margin of the fold made by the in-
vagination of the anal tube; and hypopygial setae
on the ventral surface of the body just anterior to
this fold. Several genera have anal plates or
associated setae which are distinctive.
Pseudophilippia (Fig. 67) has nearly semicircular
anal plates. In Protopulvinaria (Fig. 65) the anal
plates are at least 4 times longer than wide. The
anal plates of Ceroplastes are borne at the apex
of a sclerotized and usually elevated process (Fig.
11). Anal plates in the genus Saissetia possess a
single large discal seta on each plate.
Anal ring (Fig. 8, U): The anal ring is borne
at the inner end of the anal tube which is
retracted into te a he abdomen. The anal tube is
eversible and is extended out past the anal plates
for waste removal to avoid contamination of the
anal area. The anal ring has 6 to 12 setae and
numerous translucent wax pores (Fig. 10, H).
The setae may all be of th same e size, or one pair
may be smaller than the others. Generally there
are 8 setae, but members of Neolecanium and
Toumeyella have 10. In the genus Ceroplastes,
the second pair of anal ring setae is near the third
pair; thus, only 6 setae are seen on the anal ring,
when there are actually 8.
The vulva is located at the 8th abdominal
segment, on the ventral side of the body anterior
to the anal cleft. In most species, it is very dif-
ficult to detect.























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A MARGINAL SETAE





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Fig. 9. Morphological details of Coccidae, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


CA
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VENTRAL SURFACE

Setae: Ventral submarginal setae (Fig. 8, P)
are arranged in an even or irregular row around
the submargin of body. Although there is some
variation in shape and number (Fig. 9, C), most
of them are slender and acute; therefore, they
are not important as taxonomic characters. Body
setae (Fig. 8, D) numerous in some species,
sparse in others, usually resemble ventral sub-
marginal setae, and are scattered randomly over
the body. However, sometimes several setae are
found clustered near the coxa. A varying number
of interantennal setae is not normally used as a
primary character except for a few taxa such as
Pulvinaria citricola (Fig. 70, K) which has inter-
antennal setae that often have bulbous expan-
sions near the apex. Interantennal setae, how-
ever, are occasionally used as secondary
characters. Usually 3 pairs of large setae, termed
prevulvar setae, are found anterior to the vulva
on abdominal segments 6, 7, and 8; but, in Cero-
plastes, Kilifia, and Protopulvinaria there is only
one pair. In Toumeyella, the prevulvar setae are
variable.
Eyes: Eyes were detected in many of the
species studied. They occur on or near the
margin anterior to the antennae. They are ap-
parently of no taxonomic importance.
Antennae (Fig. 8, A): In most Coccidae, the
antennae are long, fairly slender, 6 to
8-segmented, with the third segment usually
longest. The second antenna segment in all
species seen has a sensory pore. The terminal or
apical segment has several fleshy and several
more slender, hair-like setae. The 2 subapical
segments usually possess 1 fleshy sensory seta
each, which extends toward the antenna apex.
Occasionally, the 3rd and 4th segments are par-
tially or completely fused, in 1 or both antennae.
Antennae of the Coccidae may be well developed
(Fig. 8, A), slightly reduced (Fig. 23, F), or
greatly reduced (Fig. 92, K). In Inglisia vitrea,
the antennae are reduced to 1 segment. The size
and number of antennal segments is useful in
separating some genera and species.
Clypeolabral shield: Located on the head,
between the bases of the anterior legs; often
possessing a pair of slender setae.
Labium: Cone-shaped, appears I-segmented,
usually with 3 to 5 setae on each side.
Legs: The legs are 5-segmented and generally
well developed in most genera of Coccidae. The
trochanter of all species studied had 2 sensory
pores on each face, and each tarsus 'was fitted
with a claw. Legs may be well developed, as in
Ceroplastes floridensis (Fig. 19); slightly re-


duced, as in Eulecanium caryae (Fig. 43);
greatly reduced, as in Toumeyella cerifera (Fig.
92), or entirely absent, as in Inglisia vitrea (Fig.
45). The tibia and tarsus may articulate and have
an articulatory sclerosis (Fig. 10, A); the tibia
and tarsus may be fused, without a sclerosis (Fig.
10, B); or the tibiotarsal sclerosis may be present,
without free articulation (Fig. 10, C). The tarsus
and claw of each leg possess a pair of digitules.
The tarsal digitules are equal, slender, apically
knobbed; the claw digitules may be unequal in
shape (Fig. 10, D) or equal in shape (Fig. 10, E).
The claw may have a denticle (Fig. 10, D), or
may be simple without a denticle (Fig. 10, E).
The reduction of legs, the presence or absence of
tibiotarsal sclerosis and free articulation, shape
of the claw digitules, and presence or absence of
a claw denticle are useful taxonomic characters.
Spiracles: The two pairs of spiracles are
located on the thorax; the anterior pair believed
to be on the borderline between the prothorax
and mesothorax, the posterior pair between the
mesothorax and metathorax. The posterior pair
is normally larger. In most species studied, the
spiracles are similar in structure and do not ap-
pear to be of use in classification. However, in
Pulvinaria psidii, each spiracle is surrounded by
a sclerotic plate (Fig. 10, F), a character which
immediately separates it from other members of
the genus. In the genus Toumeyella, the spiracles
are larger in proportion to the body size than in
most other genera. In the genus Eulecanium, the
peritreme of the thoracic spiracles is longer than
the length of the coxae (Fig. 43) and is used as a
generic character.
Pores: Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 8, C) are
found in the spiracular pore bands and around
the spiracles in most species. In the genera In-
glisia, Toumeyella, Pseudophilippia, and
Neolecanium, they are also found in the ab-
dominal region (Fig. 94, K) where they replace
the mqltilocular pores found in most species. In
Eulecanium caryae, quinquelocular pores are
also located on the inner margin of the anal cleft
(Fig. 43, F). Multilocular pores, most of which
are 10-loculed (Fig. 8, F), occur in the anal area,
in transverse bands on the abdomen, and occa-
sionally on the thorax near the coxae; sometimes
a few occur in the spiracular furrows of some
species, but are numerous in Toumeyella cerifera
(Fig. 92, M). In Pulvinariafloccifera (Fig. 75, P)
the multilocular pores in the anal area are mostly
7-loculed, and in P. citricola (Fig. 70, N), most
are 8-loculed. Various types of ventral pores are
illustrated in Fig. 10, G. The type, position, and
number of pores are useful taxonomic characters.
Ducts: Microducts (Fig. 8, B) were detected









































C)
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Ln


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CAUDOLATERAL
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K ANAL PLATES DORSAL VIEW


J OTHER DUCTS




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ANAL FOLD- SETAE


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THICKENING

SUBAPICAL SETAE


L ANAL PLATES VENTRAL VIEW


Fig. 10. Morphological details of Coccidae, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


A B


g










in all species studied. They are scattered over the
entire ventral surface but are most numerous in
the submarginal area of the body. The ducts
open to the surface through round, oval, square-
shaped, or cruciform orifices. Filamentous ducts
(Fig. 13, K) are found in Ceroplastes ceriferus in
a dorsal and ventral marginal row, and in C.
sinensis in a ventral marginal row around the
body. Tubular ducts (Fig. 8, E) were found in all
species studied except Mesolecanium
nigrofasciatum. Many types of tubular ducts
occur in the Coccidae. Three main types can be
recognized: tubular ducts with slender, knobbed
inner filaments (Fig. 13, T); tubular ducts with
flowery tipped inner filaments which are one-


fourth to one-half times as wide as the duct itself
(Fig. 8, E); and tubular ducts with expanded
inner filaments which are as wide as the ducts
themselves (Fig. 19, S, and Fig. 84, E). Various
types of ducts are illustrated in Fig. 10, I and J.
The position or arrangement of the tubular ducts
varies between genera and between species. The
shape and position of the tubular ducts are im-
portant taxonomic characters.
Microspines (Fig. 8, S): Small spine-like pro-
jections of the derm occur in all species of Coc-
cidae studied. They are in various patterns on the
thorax, abdomen, and along the margin of the
anal cleft.


KEY TO THE GENERA OF COCCIDAE IN THE
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
(BASED ON SLIDE MOUNTED ADULT FEMALES)


1. Anal plates 1.5 to 4 times as long as wide
(part anterior to lateral angles longer
than posterior part); body shape pyri-
form or triangular ................. 2
1'. Anal plates less than 1.5 times as long as
wide (plates somewhat quadrate or part
posterior to lateral angles longer than
anterior part); body shape variable ... 3
2(1). Mesothoracic and metathoracic coxae
different in shape than prothoracic
coxae (Fig 47); ventral tubular ducts
absent ................. Kilifia, p. 58
2'. Mesothoracic and metathoracic coxae
similar in shape to prothoracic coxae;
ventral tubular ducts present..........
............... Protopulvinaria, p. 78
3(1). Spiracular setae numerous, stout, coni-
cal, hemispherical, or bullet-shaped;
derm around anal plates sclerotized or
anal plates on a sclerotized anal process
(Fig. 11) .......... ........... 4
3'. Spiracular setae usually 0-3 per group,
spine-like, occasionally undifferentiated
from marginal setae; derm around anal
plates membranous or sclerotized, anal
process absent .................. .. 5
4(3). One pair of long setae between anten-
nae. Dorsum with triangular trilocular
pores, often with quinquelocular pores .
................... Ceroplastes, p. 18


4'. More than 1 pair of long satae between
antennae. Dorsum with simple pores ...
................... Vinsonia*, p. 128
5(3). Legs absent, vestigial or greatly re-
duced ................... ....... 6
5'. Legs well developed, at least two times
longer than length of thoracic spiracles .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
6(5). Antennae vestigial (one segment); legs
absent; with a median band of pores ex-
tending from anterior of anal plates to
head .................. Inglisia, p. 56

6'. Antennae reduced (4-6 segments); legs
present, reduced; without median band
of pores ........................ 7
7(6). Dorsum with dense pattern of invagi-
nated bilocular pores (Fig. 67, E), each
locule containing a quinquelocular pore;
spiracular setae absent; anal ring with 8
setae .......... Pseudophilippia, p. 84
7'. Dorsum without dense pattern of in-
vaginated bilocular pores as above,
spiracular setae present (except Tou-
meyella parvicornis**); anal ring with
10setae ................... .... 8
8(7). Dorsum with dense pattern of small 8-
shaped pores (Fig. 52, F); abdominal
quinquelocular pores confined to area
around vulva ...... Neolecanium, p. 65










8'. Dorsum without dense pattern of small
8-shaped pores; abdominal quinque-
locular or multilocular pores occurring
on anterior segments Toumeyella, p. 115
9(5). Anal plate with a large discal seta (Fig.
84, D); dorsal derm with polygonal
reticulations or cell-like oval areas,
membranous or heavily sclerotized; dor-
sal setae conical....... Saissetia, p. 106
9'. Without this combination of charac-
ters ......................... 10
10(9). Dorsum strongly sclerotized with poly-
gonal reticulations (Fig. 54) or divided
into plate-like areas (Fig. 41) ........ 11
10'. Dorsum membranous or sclerotized,
without polygonal reticulations or plate-
like areas ................... .... 12
11(10). Each polygonal section with a pale area
(cell-like); dorsal setae cylindrical or
capitate; marginal setae stout and fim-
briate ............ Parasaissetia, p. 68
11'. Each plate without a pale area; dorsal
setae slender, curved; marginal setae
slender, simple, or bifid ..............
................. Eucalymnatus, p. 50
12(10). Ventral submargin with numerous tubu-
lar ducts, often in a band ........... 14
12'. Ventral submargin without tubular
ducts or only a few present ......... 13
13(12). Ventral tubular ducts present; dorsal
setae spine-like, cylindrical, capitate, or
clavate; submarginal tubercles present
or absent .............. Coccus, p. 36

13'. Ventral tubular ducts absent; dorsal
setae slender, slightly curved, pointed;
submarginal tubercles absent .........
................ Mesolecanium, p. 63
14(12). Legs with tibiotarsal sclerosis and free
articulation (Fig. 10, A) .......... 15

14'. Legs without tibiotarsal sclerosis and
free articulation (Fig. 10, B) ....... 17
15(14). Spiracular setae in groups of 2 .........
....... ....... ... Luzulaspis, p. 61
15'. Spiracular setae in groups of 3 ....... 16
16(15). With 12-20 pairs of submarginal tuber-
cles; ventral submarginal,tubular ducts
with inner filaments as wide or wider
than the ducts (Fig. 59, Q) ............
............ Parthenolecanium, p. 70


16'. Less than 12 pairs of submarginal tu-
bercles; ventral submarginal tubular
ducts with slender inner filaments (Fig.
69, R) .............. Pulvinaria, p. 85
17(14). Dorsal setae cylindrical or capitate;
marginal setae stout, fimbriate ........
................. Parasaissetia, p. 68
17'. Dorsal setae slender, hair-like, or spine-
like; marginal setae bristle-like, spine-
like, or conical, not fimbriate ....... 18
18(17). Submarginal ventral tubular ducts ab-
sent on head, many on median region
of abdomen; large discoidal pores ex-
tending from anterior of anal plates to
head (Fig. 74, H)..... Pulvinaria, p. 85
18'. Submarginal ventral tubular ducts pres-
ent on head; absent or few present in
median region of abdomen; large dis-
coidal pores, if present, confined to ab-
dom en ................... ..... 19
19(18). Peritreme of thoracic spiracles longer
than length of coxae (Fig. 43); spiracu-
lar setae subequal to or shorter than
marginal setae; dorsal setae slender or
spine-like .......... Eulecanium, p. 52
19'. Peritreme of thoracic spiracles equal to
or shorter than length of coxae; one
spiracular seta in each group longer
than others and longer than marginal
setae (Fig. 56, E) ...................
............ Parthenolecanium, p. 70


*Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood) is a
monotypic species which is very similar
to members of the genus Ceroplastes,
particularly C. rubens Maskell. It differs
in having a distinctive star-shaped wax
covering (Fig. 101).

Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell)
normally does not have spiracular setae
which differ from marginal setae, but
in a very few specimens, 1 or 2 spiracu-
lar setae in each group may be stouter
than the marginal setae.










Genus CEROPLASTES Gray, 1828

TYPE SPECIES: Coccus (Ceroplastes) janeiren-
sis Gray, 1828.
DESCRIPTION: Body round, oval, or irregular
in outline, usually convex. Females covered with
dense amorphous wax, usually white, and may
or may not be divided into plates. Derm heavily
sclerotized in adults. Numerous types trilocular
pores present. Body setae variable in size, shape,
and distribution. Submarginal tubercles absent.
Anal plates usually longer than wide, normally
at apex of cone-like elevated sclerotized caudal
process. Anal plate setae variable. Hypopygial
setae present or absent. Anal ring with 8 setae.
Antennae 6 to 8-segmented. Legs usually well
developed, tibiotarsal sclerosis present or absent.
Quinquelocular pores in spiracular furrows.
Multilocular pores variable, present in vulvar
area, and abdomen. Tubular ducts variable.
Marginal setae variable in size, shape, and
distribution. Spiracular setae numerous, conical,
hemispherical, or bullet-shaped.
NOTES: The eggs are protected by the body of
the adult female until they hatch. Species
reported in the southeastern United States: C.
brachyurus, C. ceriferus, C. cirripediformis, C.
dugesii, C. floridensis, C. nakaharai, C. rubens,
C. sinensis, and C. utilis.



KEY TO SPECIES OF CEROPLASTES

1. Tibiotarsal scleroses present; antennae
normally 7-segmented ............. 2
1'. Tibiotarsal scleroses absent; antennae
normally 6-segmented ............. 5
2. Spiracular setae present around entire
body margin ....... ......... dugesii
2'. Spiracular setae confined to margin
laterad of spiracular furrows ........ .3
3. Filamentous ducts present on ventral
submargin; anal plates each with 2 ven-
tral subapical setae .......... sinensis
3'. Filamentous ducts absent; anal plates
each with 1 ventral subapical seta..... 4
4. Multilocular pores present on thorax;
capitate dorsal body setae present ......
..................... .cirripediformis
4'. Multilocular pores absent from thorax;
capitate dorsal body setae absent ......
........................ brachyurus


5. Spiracular setae predominantly with
truncate apices ................... 6
5'. Spiracular setae predominantly with
rounded or pointed apices ........... 7
6. With 6-9 spiracular setae laterad of each
spiracular furrow; with 3 ventral sub-
apical setae on each anal plate; medio-
dorsal clear area with several setae ....
........................ nakaharai
6'. With 18-32 spiracular setae laterad of
each spiracular furrow; with 1 ventral
subapical seta on each anal plate; medi-
odorsal clear area without setae .......
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .u tilis
7. Mediodorsal clear area present; ventral
tubular ducts absent; legs reduced .....
........................ .... rubens
7'. Mediodorsal clear area absent; ventral
tubular ducts present; legs well devel-
oped ...................... ... 8
8. Claw digitules unequal; spiracular setae
arranged in 6 irregular rows; ventral
tubular ducts with narrow inner fila-
ments; filamentous ducts present on
submargin ............... ceriferus
8'. Claw digitules equal; spiracular setae
arranged in 3 irregular rows; ventral
tubular ducts with broad inner fila-
ments; filamentous ducts absent on sub-
margin .................. floridensis




CEROPLASTES BRACHYURUS Cockerell

SYNONYMS: Ceroplastes brachyurus Cocker-
ell 1903b:157, Gimpel et al.
1974:20
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: brachyuran
wax scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: According to Gimpel et
al. (1974), the wet wax is oval in dorsal view,
hemispherical laterally, without horn, grayish
white, and not divided into plates. Length 2-5
mm; width 1.5-3.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 11) Adult females ellip-
tical, 1.0-4.5 mm long, 1.0-3.5 mm wide. DOR-
suM-Derm membranous in young females to
sclerotized in older adult females. Numerous
triangular trilocular (Fig. 11, A) and oval
trilocular pores (Fig. 11, B) scattered over dor-
sum. Cylindrical and conical setae scattered over













A

-.


Fig. 11. Ceroplastes brachyurus, adult female, from Gimpel, Miller, and Davidson 1974.









dorsum, with the exception of 6 lateral, 1
cephalic, and 1 mediodorsal clear areas. Tubular
ducts absent. Anal plates each with 4 dorsal
setae, 1 ventral seta. VENTER- Membranous with
well developed legs. Antennae 7-segmented, oc-
casionally 6-segmented. Quinquelocular pores in
spiracular furrows number 30-90. Tubular ducts
(Fig. 11, C) in vulvar area and in cephalic re-
gion. Filamentous ducts absent. MARGIN Spi-
racular setae hemispherical to bullet-shaped
with rounded or truncate apices, ca. 16 in 4 or
5 irregular rows. Marginal setae bristle-shaped,
sparse.
DISTRIBUTION: AL, AZ. Foreign: Mexico.
BIOLOGY: It is only known that specimens are
found on stems.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Unknown. Pos-
sibly a pest of ornamentals according to Gimpel
et al. (1974).
REMARKS: Ceroplastes brachyurus resembles
C. sinensis Del Guercio; however, C. sinensis has
2 ventral anal plate setae, C. brachyurus has 1 on
each anal plate, C. sinensis has filamentous ducts
on the ventral submargin, and they are absent
from C. brachyurus.



CEROPLASTES CERIFERUS (Fabricius)


Coccus ceriferus Fabricius 1798:
546
Coccus chilensis Gray, Green
1899:190, Fernald 1903:149
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius),
Walker 1852:1087, DeLotto
1971:133, Gimpel et al. 1974:
23
Ceroplastes australiae Walker,
Green 1899:190
Columnea cerifera (Fabricius),
Targioni-Tozzetti 1866:144
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Anderson),
Signoret 1869:848
Lacca alba Signoret 1869:848.
Gascardia cerifera (Anderson),
DeLotto 1965:198


SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: Indian wax
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Body covered by thick
white or pinkish-white wet wax, convex, circular
or irregular in outline, normally with an
anteriorly projecting horn (Fig. 12). Plates visi-
ble only on older females, without*nuclei. Wax
bands near both spiracles, anterior bands
directed dorsally. Dry wax with filaments as


Fig. 12. Ceroplastes ceriferus, A) old female, DPI Photo 1381, B)
young female, DPI Photo 702263-5.

follows: cephalic filament trifurcate;
anterolateral and mediolateral simple;
posterolateral bifurcate; caudal simple. Length
3.0-12.0 mm, width 3.0-10.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 13) Adult female ovate,
dark reddish brown, derm heavily sclerotized in
old females. Anal process in old females elongate.
Length 3.0-5.0 mm, width 2.0-4.0 mm. DOR-
UM -Membranous in young adult females,
sclerotized in old females. Eleven clear areas in
submedian band around body. Dorsal setae (Fig.
13, C) variable in shape, ca. 200 cylindrical
setae. Dorsal pores numerous, with ca. 20
biloculars (Fig. 13, H), 420 oval triloculars (Fig.
13, G) evenly distributed, numerous triangular
trilocular pores (Fig. 13, E) evenly distributed.
Tubular ducts absent. Anal plates (Fig. 13, Li)
each with 1 ventral, 4 dorsal setae.
VENTER-Membranous with many cruciform
pores (Fig. 13, S) concentrated around the sub-
margin and scattered over other parts of the


SYNONYMS:



















B


E


G



I `


\\


L2


Fig. 13. Ceroplastes ceriferus, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


Ir:41-


P~


\*
S,, + o

\ 4o n "
\ a oo o a



So4 o4 *
S a o a o
.4


.e 4 4

c o a n
S. o D e






-4 a 4 a
4o
S 0 +
. 4 4 4 t







1 44444& .4
94 ~ h Pg


~1


H


I p
N\








7 '. .
r rl" ,.
4'"'A"









venter, less numerous near meson. Quin-
quelocular pores (Fig. 13, Q) in irregular bands
of 80-150 pores in each spiracular furrow; several
pores with more than 5 loculi present.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 13, R) on 7th abdominal
segment around vulva, fewer on each preceding
abdominal segment. Tubular ducts (Fig. 13, T)
with inner filament nearly as long and much nar-
rower than basal part of the duct, located in
cephalic region, and near vulva. Legs, well
developed without tibiotarsal scleroses, unequal
claw digitules, claws with denticles. Antennae
6-segmented. MARGIN Marginal bristle-shaped
setae (Fig. 13, B) evenly spaced except where in-
terrupted by spiracular setae. Spiracular setae
(Fig. 13, D) bullet-shaped to lanceolate with
pointed apices, in 6 irregular rows. Filamentous
ducts (Fig. 13, K) in 2 marginal rows.
DISTRIBUTION: Map I. AL, AR, DC, GA, IL,
LA, MS, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OK, SC, TX, VA.
Foreign: Australia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan,
Panama, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.


population when they occur (Gimpel et al.
1974).
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Ceroplastes
ceriferus is an economic pest of ornamental
plants in Florida and throughout its U.S.
distribution. It secretes large quantities of
honeydew which provides a medium for sooty
mold. The sooty mold may become so dense that
it interferes with photosynthesis.
REMARKS: The anteriorly projecting wax horn
(Fig. 12, A) has a tendency to fall over (Fig. 12,
B) on old female specimens; however, its
presence is always evident on close examination.
This horn will separate this species from all other
Ceroplastes species in Florida. When compared
on a world-wide basis, C. pseudoceriferus has a
similar appearance, but C. ceriferus has about 10
marginal setae between the anterior stigmatic
furrows and about 3 such setae between each
anterior and posterior stigmatic furrow, whereas
C. pseudoceriferus has 40 between anterior fur-
rows and about 10 between posterior and
anterior furrows (Gimpel et al. 1974).
MATERIAL STUDIED: MARYLAND: College
Park, 2(2), Pyracantha coccinea, 18-VIII-1970,
G. W. Dekle; ALABAMA: Auburn, 1(1),
Camellia sasanqua, 4-XI-1970, H. F. McQueen;
FLORIDA: Eustis, 1(1), Viburnum sp.,
26-11-1970, A. L. Bentley; Leesburg, 2(2),
Platanus sp., 26-VI-1969, A. L. Bentley;
Palatka, 1(1), Salix sp., 29-VII-1980, K. Elliott;
Winter Haven, 1(1), Magnolia virginiana, 28-I-
1976, Training Class #32.



CEROPLASTES CIRRIPEDIFORMIS
COMSTOCK


Ceroplastes cirripediformis
Comstock 1881:333
Ceroplastes euphorbiae Cocker-
ell, Gimpel et al. 1974:29
Ceroplastes mexicanus Cocker-
ell, Gimpel et al. 1974:29
Ceroplastes plumbaginis Cock-
erell, Gimpel et al. 1974:29


Map I. Distribution of Ceroplastes ceriferus.

BIOLOGY: In colder areas, Indian wax scale
overwinters as an adult female. In early spring, a
thousand or more eggs are laid and hatch in 2 to
3 weeks (Williams & Kosztarab 1972). The first
instar nymphs settle on the stems or twigs, and
the females develop through 4 instars (Williams
& Kosztarab 1972) while the males go through
5. Males are rare and comprise only 2% of the


COMMON NAME: barnacle scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax rectangular to
oval in dorsal view (Fig. 14), without horn, beige
to grayish white, divided into 1 dorsal and 6
lateral plates with nuclei. Dry wax with
filaments as follows: cephalic trifurcate, with
acute apices; anterolateral bifurcate; caudal
with weakly divided bifurcate apices. Spiracular
wax bands visible. Length 1.0-7.0 mm, width
1.0-5.0 mm.


SYNONYMS:


CD
4~P~









DISTRIBUTION: Map II. AL, AZ, CA, DC,
GA, HI, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OH, PA, SC,
TX.
Foreign: Bermuda, Colombia, Galapagos
Islands, Italy, Jamaica, Marshall Islands, Mex-
ico, Philippines, Trinidad, Virgin Islands, and
Wake Island.


DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 15) Adult female ovate,
spiracular depressions distinct. Length 1.0-6.0
mm, width 0.5-5.0 mm. DoRsvM-Derm mem-
branous in young adult females, sclerotized in
older females. Seven clear areas around sub-
margin, with 1 mid-dorsal clear area. Dorsal
setae variable in shape, ca. 35 cylindrical setae
with pointed or blunt apices, ca. 45 capitate
setae. Dorsal pores numerous, bilocular pores
(Fig. 15, D), triangular trilocular pores (Fig. 15,
E) evenly distributed. Anal plates with 1 ventral
and 3 or 4 dorsal setae. VENTER-Membranous,
with numerous cruciform pores (Fig. 15, H) con-
centrated on submargin, scattered on remainder
of venter. Antennae 7-segmented. Quii-
quelocular pores (Fig. 15, I) in each spiracular
furrow number ca. 47. Many multilocular pores
(Fig. 15, C) surround vulva, several occur on 7th
abdominal segment, decreasing in number on
other abdominal segments. Tubular ducts (Fig.
15, J) with slightly asymmetrical cups, each with
an inner filament nearly as long and much nar-
rower than basal part of duct. Legs well
developed, with tibiotarsal scleroses, equal claw
digitules, claws with denticles. MARGIN-Mar-
ginal bristle-shaped setae (Fig. 15, G) placed as
follows: 6 between eyes, 2 between eye and
spiracular furrow, 3 between anterior and pos-
terior spiracular furrows, 10 between posterior
spiracular furrow and anal cleft. Spiracular setae
(Fig. 15, B) mainly isosceles, occasionally cylin-
drical with apical 3rd tapering, pointed or
slightly rounded, ca. 30 in 3 or 4 rows. Filamen-
tous ducts absent.


SII. D on of ol fo
Map II. Distribution of Ceroplastes cirripediformis.


BIOLOGY: Overwinter as adult females. Males
are known but are very rare. The 1st instar
nymphs settle on the leaves of host plants and
migrate to the woody tissue soon after molting to
the 3rd instar.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Ceroplastes cir-
ripediformis is a minor pest of Citrus and many
ornamentals in Florida. Heavy populations
create an unsightly appearance on ornamental
plants in addition to the damage from removal of
large quantities of plant sap.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Peck (1963) listed the
cosmopolitan parasitoid Scutellista cyanea
Motschulsky from Florida, and Metaphycas mex-
icanus Howard from Louisiana. According to
Bartlett (in Clausen ed. 1978), S. cyanea was im-
ported into Louisiana from Italy, but it eventu-
ally declined because of hyperparasites.
However, Krombein et al. (1979) indicated it is
so common in North America that it is sometimes
assumed to be native. Scutellista cyanea is an ex-
ternal egg parasite and is only effective against



















D


K/


\ -\ -
i. \ -


~9>




I.



-d A




2 - 9
I
U-A-O *
2 2





A -X

,\~ ,, 22 S~


-\ 2






YI 2



/ ,~ 2


Fig. 15. Ceroplastes cirripediformis, adult female, from Gimpel, Miller, and Davidson 1974.


/ o
-.





.




-V I 9 -
\ 9 A .











SI -





I \
I I


1



o Il li e


/~









species that produce 500 or less eggs (Clausen
1940).
In Hawaii, the coccinellid predators Orcus
chalybeus (Boisduval) and Azya luteipes Mulsant
are reported as feeding on C. cirripediformis
(Bartlett in Clausen, ed. 1978).
REMARKS: In the United States, C. cir-
ripediformis most nearly resembles C. cistudifor-
mis and C. sinensis. In C. cistudiformis, the
spiracular setae have bluntly rounded or trun-
cate apices in 5 or 6 irregular rows, while in C.
cirripediformis, they are pointed and in 2 or 3
irregular rows. Ceroplastes sinensis differs by
lacking capitate dorsal setae, possess a ventral
submarginal band of filamentous ducts and lacks
multilocular pores on abdominal segments 2 and
3.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Archer,
1(1), Viburnum suspensum, 7-II-1978, C.
Lieberman; Astor, 1(1), Eupatorium
capillifolium, 13-VI-1980, C. R. Roberts; Ft.
Lauderdale, 1(1), Carissa carandas, 2-V-1974, J.
A. Reinert; Key West, 1(1), Passiflora sp.,
9-X-1974, G. W. Dekle & W. E. Wyles; Lake
Park, 1(1), Parkinsonia aculeate, 8-XII-1975, G.
Swan; Plant City, 2(2), Ulmus parvifolia,
17-11-1975, S. A. Fuller; Winter Haven, 1(1),
Agave americana 'Marginata', 27-1-1976, C. R.
Roberts, 1(1), Ulmus sp., 28-1-1976, C. R.
Roberts, 1(1), Ulmus pumila, 3-IV-1981, Train-
ing Class #44.




CEROPLASTES DUGESII Lichtenstein


FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax oval in dorsal
view (Fig. 16, A), hemispherical when viewed
laterally (Fig. 16, B), without horn, white,
without a marginal flange, plates, and nuclei.
Dorsal dry wax tilted anteriorly (Gimpel et al.
1974). Spiracular wax bands present near both
pairs of spiracles. Length 4.0-12.0 mm, width
3.0-12.0 mm.


Ceroplastes dugesii Lichtenstein
1885:141
Ceroplastes dugesii Townsend,
Cockerell 1893a:100
Ceroplastes dugesii "Lichten-
stein m.s, Townsend", Cock-
erell 1893b:373
Ceroplastes roseatus Townsend
& Cockerell, Gimpel et al.
1974:39
Ceroplastes dugesii Lichtenstein,
Maxwell-Lefroy 1902:257
Ceroplastes roseatus var. B.
Cockerell, Gimpel et al. 1974:
39
Ceroplastes townsendi var. per-
crassus Cockerell, Gimpel et
al. 1974:39
COMMON NAME: Duges wax


Fig. 16. Ceroplastes dugesii, A) dorsal view of adult and nymph,
B) lateral view of adult female, DPI Photo 700378.

DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 17) Adult female oval,
3.0-8.0 mm long, 1.0-7.0 mm wide. Body light
brown, anal process long. DonsUM Derm mem-
branous in young adult females, sclerotized in
old females; with 1 cephalic, 1 mediodorsal, and
6 lateral clear areas. About 180 cylindrical setae
(Fig. 17, A), with bluntly rounded to slightly ex-
panded apices. Each anal plate with 3 ventral, 4
dorsal setae. Oval trilocular pores (Fig. 17, E)
numerous, prominent. VENTER: Derm mem-


SYNONYMS:

















SUGGESTED
scale




















S\ .

I I / /

I I
/"
"Ni \ T K \ /
\ \ / / -""


i I . --
I \ + "
\ +



I


Fg 17 / \i a
. I-
S I \b
a I o. i \ ,
- -- \. / o / \"

/\ *" /" *






Fg .. 1lr and D o 1


~4~1









branous with various setae and pores scattered
over surface. About 140 pores (Fig. 17, B) in each
spiracular furrow, most pores 4-locular, some
with more than 5-loculi. Legs well developed
with tibiotarsal scleroses. MARGIN Spiracular
setae (Fig. 17, C) lanceolate to bullet-shaped
with pointed apices, length 1-2.5X greater than
width at base, in 5-7 irregular rows at each
spiracular furrow, and single row around the en-
tire margin. Marginal bristle-shaped setae (Fig.
17, D) located just ventrad of spiracular setae
around body margin. Eye tubercles slightly pro-
truding. Filamentous ducts absent from margin.
DISTRIBUTION: Map III. Foreign: Cuba, Mex-
ico, Panama, Virgin Islands, and West Indies.


Bursera simaruba, 28-V-1980, E. W. Campbell;
3(3), Bursera simaruba, 14-VII-1972, E. W.
Campbell; Walton, 2(2), Torrubia bracei,
5-V-1980, E. W. Campbell.

CEROPLASTES FLORIDENSIS Comstock


SYNONYM!


S: Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock
1881:331
Cerostegia floridensis (Com-
stock), DeLotto 1969b:211,
Gimpel et al. 1974:44


COMMON NAME: Florida wax scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax oval in dorsal
view (Fig. 18), nearly flat in young females,
hemispherical in older specimens if viewed
laterally. Without a horn. Color grayish to
pinkish-white, without plates and nuclei. Dry
wax with cephalic filaments appearing trifurcate
with acute apices; anterolateral and
mediolateral filaments simple; posterolateral
filaments bifurcate; caudal filaments weakly
divided with bifurcate apices. Length 2.0-4.0
mm, width 1.0-3.5 mm.


Map III, Distribution of Ceroplastes dugesii.


BIOLOGY: According to Gimpel et al. (1974),
no biological information is available.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: In Florida, C.
dugesii is important as an occasional ornamental
pest, particularly on Bursera simaruba (L.) Sar.
REMARKS: This wax scale was first reported in
Florida in 1972. It was collected as early as 1908,
but was misidentified as C. ceriferus (Gimpel et
al. 1974). In the U.S., C. dugesii is the only
species of Ceroplastes with spiracular setae
around the entire body margin.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Ft. Pierce,
4(4), Bursera simaruba, 25-VI-1980, E. W.
Campbell, E. Collins, & A. B. Hamon; 1(1),


Fig. 18. Ceroplastesfloridensis, adult female, DPI Photo 783.

DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 19) Adult female ellip-
tical, reddish brown with short anal process.
Definite spiracular constrictions at margin.
Length 1.0-3.5 mm, width 1.0-2.0 mm. DOR-
suM-Derm membranous, covered with numer-
ous trilocular (Fig. 19, E) and barred bilocular
pores (Fig. 19, G) except for 1 cephalic and 6 lat-
eral clear areas. Each anal plate with 1 ventral









and 3 or 4 dorsal setae. Anal process short, coni-
cal, and heavily sclerotized. VENTER--Mem-
branous with cruciform pores concentrated on
submargin. Legs well developed. Antennae 6-
segmented. About 65 quinquelocular pores (Fig.
19, P) in each spiracular furrow. Tubular ducts
(Fig. 19, S) with asymmetrical cups, each duct
with the basal portion of filament greatly ex-
panded, in submarginal band, ending anterior
to anal cleft and just posterior of eyes. MARGIN -
With 20-30 pointed, conical spiracular setae
(Fig. 19, D) in 2-3 rows. Marginal setae (Fig.
19, B) bristle shaped, numerous.
DISTRIBUTION: Map IV. AL, DC, GA, LA,
MD, MO, MS, NC, NM, NY, SC, TX, VA.
Foreign: Bermuda, British Honduras, Curacao,
Ecuador, Hong Kong, Mexico, Montserrat,
Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad.


Map IV. Distribution of Ceroplastes floridensis.

BIOLOGY: All stages are found on stems,
branches, and leaves of host plants. Males have
not been recorded for this species.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Ceroplastes
floridensis is an economic pest on many or-
namental plants in Florida and throughout its U.
S. distribution. When large populations occur,
sooty mold may become a problem because large
quantities of honeydew are excreted. This scale
insect is also a potential economic pest of Citrus.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Coccophagus lycimnia


(Walker) is a cosmopolitan parasite of many Coc-
coidea (Peck, 1963). Scutellista cyanea was in-
troduced into Florida in 1898 against C.
floridensis, but little is known about its effec-
tiveness (Bartlett in Clausen, ed. 1978). Accord-
ing to Krombein et al. (1979), it was successful
and is now very common from Delaware south to
Florida and west to California. Metaphycus
eruptor (Howard) also occurs from Virginia
south to Florida (Krombein, et al., 1979).
REMARKS: Florida wax scale is without a
mediodorsal clear area. The spiracular setae are
lanceolate with pointed apices and number
about 25. In the U. S. this is the only Ceroplastes
species which has tubular ducts with an ex-
panded inner filament.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Delray
Beach, 2(2), Bursera simaruba, 31-111-1981, R.
Garry; Gainesville, 1(1), Pinus elliottii,
9-11-1970, A. E. Graham; Key West, 1(1), Coc-
coloba diversifolia, 5-IV-1971, W. H. Pierce;
Lake City, 1(1), Tsuga canadensis, 7-IX-1978, A.
E. Graham; Miami, 1(1), Ficus sp., 16-III-1970,
J. Halstead; Panama City, 2(2), Elaeagnus sp.,
30-X-1973, R. Osterlag; Stuart, 1(1), Eugenia
sp., 31-1-1978, E. W. Campbell; Tampa, 1(1),
Eugenia compact, 13-XI-1973, C. W. Hale.



CEROPLASTES NAKAHARAI Gimpel

SYNONYMS: Ceroplastes nakaharai Gimpel
1974:52 (in Gimpel et al.
1974)
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: Nakahara
wax scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax (Fig. 20) oval
in young females, rectangular in old specimens in
dorsal view, nearly flat laterally, ca. 2 mm high.
Wax yellowish brown without marginal flange,
plate or nuclei. Cephalic dry wax filaments sim-
ple, unusually broad, smooth apically on young
females, fringed apically on old females. Other
filaments apically fringed. Length 2.0-7.0 mm,
width 1.0-6.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 21) Adult female oval,
dark purplish brown, anal process short extend-
ing forward to mesothorax in old females.
Length 5.0 mm, width 4.5 mm. DoRSUM Derm
membranous with 1 cephalic, 1 mediodorsal, 6
lateral clear areas. Dorsal setae (Fig. 21, A)
variable in shape, scattered over derm with the
exception of clear areas. Anal plates each with 3
ventral and 4 dorsal setae. VENTER-Legs well
developed, without tibiotarsal scleroses; claw











I G


I


Dm

















F





H






C


\ *. *
\ \ y"".
..

'Ya




4 &"
4, I J


/ Q "I. "


.. .9

O 4
/ .. : .
",* f : .*.' v ". "

..
T; ', *" 1 * ." *



\a 4
: .. ; .
" "- -- . .








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.: .. .



." .4 A
",I',-'fr 9 .



-. : :'^ '. .*
^ ./ *.,

P


R
R


P


4
N


*-:'-oo

so
..
O-o ooeo. ,
g _=
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Fig. 19. Ceroplastes floridensis, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


D
o
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PARATYPE, Tavares, 1(1), Phoradendron
flavescens, 5-X-1970, H. T. Davis; Floral City,
3(3), Phoradendron flavescens, 7-VII-1980, R.
H. Phillips; Miami, 1(1), Coccoloba floridana,
6-XI-1973, W. H. Pierce; Monroe County, 1(2),
Eugenia myrtoides, 7-IV-1974, D. R. Miller and
R. F. Denno; Tavares, 4(4), Phoradendron fla-
vescens, 21-IX-1971, H. T. Davis.


Fig. 20. Ceroplastes nakaharai, adult female, DPI Photo 700619.

digitules unequal in size. Antennae 6-segmented,
sometimes with segmentation indistinct.
Spiracular furrows with ca. 65 quinquelocular
pores (Fig. 21, B). Tubular ducts (Fig. 21, C, R)
with slightly asymmetrical cups, each duct with
filament nearly as long as basal part of duct; ca.
16 ducts in cephalic region and 30 in vulvar
region. MARGIN- Spiracular setae (Fig. 21, D)
cylindrical or barrel-shaped, with smooth or
wrinkled truncate apices, in 2 or 3 irregular
rows. Filamentous ducts absent.
DISTRIBUTION: Map V. Foreign: Cuba.
BIOLOGY: Little is known about the biology of
this species. Males are not known, and all stages
are found on branches and stems.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Ceroplastes
nakaharai is apparently not economically impor-
tant in Florida (Gimpel et al. 1974).
REMARKS: According to Gimpel et al. (1974),
this scale insect was first collected in 1895 in
Florida and was identified as Ceroplastes sp.
The mediodorsal clear area has several setae.
The anal process is truncate anteriorly and ex-
tends anteriorly to the mesothorax. The
spiracular setae are cylindrical with smooth or
wrinkled truncate apices. Filamentous ducts are
absent from margin. The legs are without
tibiotarsal scleroses, and the claw has unequal
digitules. The aforementioned characters will
separate C. nakaharai from other *species of
Ceroplastes in Florida.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA:


Map V. Distribution of Ceroplastes nakaharai.


CEROPLASTES RUBENS Maskell

SYNONYMS: Ceroplastes rubens Maskell 1893:
214
Ceroplastes rubens var, minor
Maskell, Gimpel ot al. 1974:
57
COMMON NAME: red wax scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax pentagonal in
dorsal view, without horn (Fig. 22), pink to red-
dish brown. Spiracular wax bands very distinct,
anterior bands directed forward, nearly touching
anteriorly, posterior bands directed dorsad.
Length 2.0-5.0 mm, width 1.0-4.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 23) Adult female elliptical
with short anal process, ca. 2.0 mm long, 1.5 mm
wide. DoasuM-Membranous in young adult
females, becoming sclerotized in old females.









One cephalic, 1 mediodorsal, and 6 lateral clear mainder of dorsum. VENTER -Membranous with
areas without setae, tubular ducts or pores, ex- bristle-shaped setae (Fig. 23, B), largest number
cept 4 cylindrical setae in cephalic area and in cephalic area. Ca. 60 quinquelocular pores
several in mediodorsal area. Many tubular ducts (Fig. 23, C) in each spiracular furrow. Ca. 200
(Fig. 23, A), bilocular and trilocular pores on re- multilocular pores (Fig. 23, D) in vulvar area,

SR





/ ,

i. '- o" . "-



0 ', l *"" "L' ""^ / //
Ai . .. l














/ i. / .. a l f. i M n
K\ c







4
H G



Fig". 21. Cerp' ,, st.- .-...kh Lrai--alfm ef -r-oG e M ra aids 17.
l <, ... -^ -.'i.". \ -























Fig. 21. Ceroplastes nakaharai, adult female, from Gimpel, Miller, and Davidson 1974.
Fig.21.Cerplat akahrai adlt emae, fom impl, illr, ad Dvidon 974









rarely on other abdominal segments. Tubular
ducts absent. Legs poorly developed, distorted,
with unequal claw digitules. Antennae usually
6-segmented. MARGIN Marginal setae clustered
on posterior end of anal cleft. Spiracular setae
(Fig. 23, E) in 3 or 4 irregular rows, usually
hemispherical, large setae of outer row bullet-
shaped.
DISTRIBUTION: Map VI. HI. Foreign:
Australia, China, Fiji Islands, Guam, Hong
Kong, India, Japan, Java, Malaysia, Philippines,
Puerto Rico, Rota, Saipan, Samoa, Tahiti, and
Taiwan.


Map VI. Distribution of Ceroplastes rubens.


BIOLOGY: Found on stems, branches, and
leaves of host. Once crawlers have settled all
future instars remain at that location on the
plant. In Florida, the most common hosts in the
nursery are Aglaonema spp., and recent
dooryard discoveries in the Miami area have'
been on mango and sapodilla. They seem to
prefer the upper leaf surface. Adult females over-
winter, and males have been reported in Japan.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: According to
Ebeling (1959), C. rubens is a major pest of
Citrus in Australia, Hawaii, and Japan. It also
attacks several ornamental plants. Local infesta-
tions in Florida have been discovered recently,
but populations have been relatively small, and
apparently it is a minor pest. It has not been


Fig. 22. Ceroplastes rubens, adult female, DPI Photo 700760.

discovered in commercial citrus groves. Current
studies indicate it may feed on southern pines.
NATURAL ENEMIES: A parasite known to feed
on C. rubens in Florida is the cosmopolitan
species Scutellista cyanea (Bartlett in Clausen ed.
1978). Microterys kotinskyi Fullaway is present
in Bermuda. Anicetus beneficus Ishii and Tasu-
matsy has been reported in Japan by Bartlett
(in Clausen, ed. 1978).
REMARKS: Red wax scale is not likely to be con-
fused with other species of Ceroplastes in
Florida. The distinct red color and arrangement
of the spiracular wax bands make it very distinct.
This is also the only species of Ceroplastes in the
United States with reduced and distorted legs
(Gimpel et al. 1974).
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Boynton
Beach, 2(2), Aglaonema modestum, 30-X-1978,
J. Bennett and K. Stolley; Miami, 1(3), Aralia
elegantissima, 5-XII-1955, L. J. Daigle; Or-
lando, 1(5), Aglaonema tricolor, 17-X-1955, A.
C. Crews; 1(1), Viburnum sp., 15-V-1970, F. L.
Ware; Samsula, 1(1), Brassaia actinophylla,
8-IX-1975, J. N. Pott.



CEROPLASTES SINENSIS Del Guercio

SYNONYMS: Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guer-
cio 1900:232, Gimpel et al.
1974:62































E~' 'N,

A 4


4 4 +~


N




0*,

~.A


6 ,
4


F


'.


/




.4.~


E


p


Fig. 23. Ceroplastes rubens, adult female, from Gimpel, Miller, and Davidson 1974.


M











L
















A -


'N


*/4


r/



\.


E


.-'o.-:-
bE::
C
o

c.
e.
~


.
r


p..


.
~ cr



.~
o
o,

II
acll~









SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: Chinese wax
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax of adult
females rectangular in dorsal view,
hemispherical in lateral view (Fig. 24), pink or
reddish brown in old females, white in young
females. Marginal flange small in young females,
large in older females. Plates normally absent
from old females, present in young females.
Length 2.0-7.0 mm, width 2.0-6.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 25) Adult females ovate,
1.5-4.5 mm long, 1.0-4.0 mm wide. DonsUM-
Derm membranous in young adult females,
becoming heavily sclerotized with age.
Numerous bilocular and trilocular pores (Fig. 25,
E, F) on dorsum, absent from 1 cephalic, 6
lateral, and 1 mediodorsal clear areas. Setae
stout with rounded apex, (Fig. 25, C) capitate,
more numerous near margin. Each anal plate
with 4 dorsal and 2 ventral setae. VENTER--Legs
well developed, with tibiotarsal scleroses, equal
claw digitules, claw with small denticle. Anten-
nae 7-segmented. About 60 quinquelocular pores
(Fig. 25, P) in each spiracular furrow.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 25, Q) in vulvar area
only. Tubular ducts (Fig. 25, T) in head and
vulvar region. Long filamentous ducts (Fig. 25,
S) in submarginal band around body.
MARGIN -Marginal setae bristle-shaped, curved
apex. Spiracular setae hemispherical, bullet-
shaped, or lanceolate, larger setae sometimes
bent, in 3 or 4 irregular rows (Fig. 25, D).
DISTRIBUTION: CA, NC, VA. Foreign:
Australia, France, Italy, Madeira Islands, Mex-
ico, Morocco, New Zealand, and Spain.


after the 2nd molt, the young adult females
migrate to stems and complete development.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: This scale insect
is a pest of Citrus spp. and ornamental plants
outside the U.S. (Gimpel et al. 1974). Therefore,
citrus growers should be aware of its potential
pest status, if introduced into Florida.
REMARKS: In the U.S., C. sinensis resembles C.
brachyurus Cockerell which occurs in the
southwest U.S. and Mexico. These 2 species can
be separated on the presence of filamentous ducts
in C. sinensis, and the larger number of
spiracular setae (18-43) in C. sinensis to 13-22 in
C. brachyurus. Ceroplastes sinensis resembles
C. cirripediformis, but the absence of filamen-
tous ducts from C. cirripediformis will separate
the 2 species.
MATERIAL STUDIED: VIRGINIA: Franklin,
3(3), Ilex crenata microphyllaa', 16-XII-1970, D.
R. Gillet; Franklin, 5(5), Ilex crenata
microphyllaa', ?-?-1972, J. Pierce.




CEROPLASTES UTILIS Cockerell


SYNONYMS:






SUGGESTED
scale


Ceroplastes utilis Riley and
Howard 1892:139 (Nomen
nudum), Fernald 1903:158
Ceroplastes utilis Cockerell
1893c:83.
Ceroplastes dozieri Cockerell &
Bucker, Gimpel et al. 1974:67.
COMMON NAME: candle wax


BIOLOGY: According to Williams and
Kosztarab (1972), only 1 generation per year oc-
curred in Virginia. Nymphs feed on leaves and


FIELD DESCRIPTION: Wet wax (Fig. 26) oval
in dorsal view, hemispherical when viewed
laterally, and without horn, translucent green or
yellowish in young females and slate gray in old
specimens. Length ca. 4.0 mm, width 3.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 27) Adult female ellip-
tical, reddish brown, with short anal process, ca.
3.5 mm long, 3.0 mm wide. DORSUM-Mem-
branous when young, becoming slightly
sclerotized in old females; with 1 mediodorsal, 1
cephalic, and 6 lateral clear areas. Tubular ducts
absent. Dorsal pores include bilocular pores near
submargin, irregular trilocular pores scattered
and trilocular pores scattered. Anal plates each
with 1 ventral and 4 dorsal setae.
VENTER- Membranous with bristle-shaped setae
(Fig. 27, A) of 2 sizes. Many cruciform pores
(Fig. 27, B) concentrated on submargin. Pores in
spiracular furrows (Fig. 27, C) 5 to 10 loculi.
Four multilocular pores near base of meso- and













." M
... @too



















-- - - -A --
Ko L













SK1 .. L
Fig. 25. Ceroplastes sinensis, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.
V';" "<*^ l., '/ .*'


^"-N f i
I os



K! O.
Fig, ~ ~ L 2.Crpatssnniautfmefo mWli san ozrb192


K2









metacoxae, absent from prothorax. Tubular
ducts (Fig. 27, D) with asymmetrical cups, with
inner filament narrow and nearly as long as basal
part of duct, in cephalic and vulvar areas. Legs
well developed, with unequal claw-digitules,
without tibiotarsal scleroses. Antennae
6-segmented. MARGIN- Marginal bristle-shaped
setae (Fig. 27, E) similar in length to ventral sub-
marginal setae. Spiracular setae (Fig. 27, F)
cylindrical with bluntly rounded to truncate
apices, in 2 to 4 irregular rows. Filamentous
ducts absent.


DISTRIBUTION:
West Indies.


James: Monroe Co. 1(1), Eugenia myrtoides,
7-IV-1974, R. F. Denno and D. R. Miller; Taver-
nier, 4(4), Eugenia myrtoides, 10-X-1974, G. W.
Dekle and W. E. Wyles.


Map VII. Foreign: Haiti and


Fig. 26. Ceroplastes utilis, adult female, DPI Photo 700777.


Map VII. Distribution of Ceroplastes utilis.


BIOLOGY: Occurs on the stems and branches,
tends to congregate and completely surround
stems when populations are high. Males have not
been reported (Gimpel et al. 1974).
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Not known to be
economically important in Florida.
REMARKS: According to Gimpel et al. (1974),
this species was collected as early as 1940 in
Florida, but was identified only as Ceroplastes
sp. In Florida, C. utilis resembles C. nakaharai
but C. utilis has 18-31 spiracular setae in each
furrow and C. nakaharai has only 5-12
spiracular setae in each furrow.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Miami,
4(4), Eugenia sp., 17-IV-1980, J. West and W.


Genus COCCUS Linnaeus, 1758

TYPE SPECIES: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus,
1758.
DESCRIPTION: Body form variable, usually
flat or only slightly convex. Body of adult female
naked or with a mere film of wax, derm mem-
branous or sclerotized. Dorsal body setae sparse,
spine-like, cylindrical, capitate or clavate. Anal
plates usually triangular with varying numbers
of apical and subapical setae. Anal ring with
numerous wax pores and 8 anal ring setae.
Antennae 3 to 8-segmented, reduced or well
developed. Legs reduced or well developed
without tibiotarsal sclerotization. Multilocular
pores not numerous in vulvar area and few on
abdomen; quinquelocular pores in spiracular
pore bands. Ventral tubular ducts present or ab-
sent, never arranged in distinct submarginal
zone. Marginal and spiracular setae variable.
NOTES: The eggs or young are protected by the
body of the adult female. Species reported in the
southeastern United States: C. acutissimus, C.
capparidis, C. hesperidum, C. longulus, C.
pseudohesperidum, and C. viridis. Gill et al.
(1977) reviewed the genus Coccus for America
north of Panama.
























-I




/I~ N


I\
*-,




'.4 I


* I.* o




\-C .I.'



~.1 I \' '
4\ ,II_ 6





/L
/ ,

/ "


AA
'1W
4


aL


.4 .
J.. I
4 -

$/
II9

4


Fig. 27. Ceroplates utilis, adult female, from Gimpel, Miller, and Davidson 1972.


t E





40


qbD









KEY TO SPECIES OF COCCUS


1. Dorsal body setae curved, apices pointed
or blunt ......................... .2
1'. Dorsal body setae straight, spine-like,
cylindrical, clavate or capitate ....... 3
2. Legs well developed; anal plates with
subdiscal setae; with 7-8 fringe setae ...
................... ........ longulus
2'. Legs greatly reduced; anal plates with-
out subdiscal setae; with 4 fringe setae ..
.................. pseudohesperidum
3. Legs greatly reduced; body slender, ex-
tremities pointed; antennae 3-segmented
(sometimes appearing 5-segmented) ....
....................... acutissimus
3'. Legs well developed; body oval, elon-
gate oval, or pyriform; antennae 6, 7 or
8-segmented .................... 4
4. Dorsal body setae spine-like, apically
pointed; dorsal submarginal tubular
ducts present or absent .....hesperidum
4'. Dorsal body setae cylindrical, clavate,
or capitate; dorsal submarginal tubular
ducts absent ......................5
5. Ventral thoracic tubular ducts present;
tibiotarsal articulatory scleroses pres-
ent ............ ........... .. viridis
5'. Ventral thoracic tubular ducts absent;
tibiotarsal articulatory scleroses absent .
........................ capparidis




COCCUS ACUTISSIMUS (Green)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium acutissimum Green
1896:10, Green 1904:218
Coccus acutissimus (Green),
Fernald 1903:168, Stein-
weden 1929:223, Takahashi
1942:17, Gill et al. 1977:12
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: banana-
shaped scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Females elongate,
pointed at both ends. Old adult females dark
brown (Fig. 28), young females creamy-white to
yellowish green. Individuals tend tb be located
along a major leaf vein and to become asym-
metrical.


DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 29) Adult female long and
slender, 2.5-5.5 mm long, 1.0-2.0 mm wide (Gill
et al. 1977). DORsUM Derm strongly sclerotized
in old females and riembranous in young adult
females. Small round or oval clear areas usually
present. Setae (Fig. 29, K) spine-like with


Fig. 28. Coccus acutissimus, adult female, DPI Photo by Frank
Mead.

pointed or blunt apices. Submarginal tubercles
(Fig. 29, L) number 8-19. Pores (Fig. 29, J)
anterior to anal plates with sclerotized rims
number 8-13. Each anal plate with 2 subapical, 3
apical, and 1 subdiscal setae. VENTER Mem-
branous, in old females a submarginal thickening
around body (Gill et al. 1977). Antennae re-
duced, 3 to 5 segments. Interantennal setae
usually 4 with medial pair longest. Legs reduced
with the tibia and tarsus fused or articulated.
Spiracular quinquelocular pores (Fig. 29, C)
usually in a single row from spiracle to margin.
Tubular ducts absent. Multilocular pores (Fig.
29, F) usually 7-loculed, few in vulvar region
and preceding 2 or 3 abdominal segments.
Prevulvar setae 3 pairs. MARGIN Marginal setae
(Fig. 29, 0) slender, pointed, sparse. Spiracular
setae (Fig. 29, M) 3 with median seta ca. 4X
longer than laterals.






















C

I~-
/
/
/
/


-
i.^ 5
it A /^


\%/ '02


Fig. 29. Coccus acutissimus, adult female, from Gill, Nakahara, and Williams 1977.


\T


A


Kq
M









DISTRIBUTION: Map VIII. HI, TX. Foreign:
India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius,
Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,
Thailand, and Vietnam.
BIOLOGY: Usually found on the undersides of
leaves along major veins. Live young are born.
The male is unknown.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Apparently not
economically important in Florida.
REMARKS: Gill et al. (1977) agreed with
Steinweden (1929) that C. acutissimus did not
belong in Coccus but were uncertain of the
generic placement. The distinctive body shape,
color, placement on leaf, and reduced append-
ages usually distinguish this species from all
others in Florida.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Cypress
Gardens, 2(2), Cycas circinalis, 5-XII-1969,
Training Class; Homestead, 1(1), Licaria trian-
dra, 2-1-1973, J. Knowles; Miami, 2(2),
Magnolia grandiflora, 4-III-1969, J. Dillon;
1(1), Cycas revoluta, 9-II-1973, P. Pullara;
Riviera Beach, 1(1), Cycas circinalis,
24-IX-1973, K. Geyer; Winter Haven, 2(2),
Erydrissia sp., 5-XII-1969, W. P. Henderson.




COCCUS CAPPARIDIS (Green)


SYNONYMS:


Lecanium capparidis Green
1904:187
Lecanium (Coccus) capparidis
Green 1937:229
Coccus capparidis (Green), Full-
away 1938:46, Beardsley
1972:142, Anon. 1975:416,
Gill et al. 1977:16


Map VIII. Distribution of Coccus acutissimus.


developed without tibiotarsal scleroses; claw
digitules of equal size; claw with small denticle.
Antennae (Fig. 31, A) 6 to 7-segmented, when
6-segmented 3rd segment longest. Few tubular
ducts (Fig. 31, E) on submarginal area of ab-
domen. Spiracular quinquelocular pores (Fig.
31, C) in single or double irregular row from
spiracle to body margin. Multilocular pores (Fig.


SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: capparis soft
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Body broadly oval to
deltoid, flat or slightly convex, pale green (Fig.
30) (Gill et al. 1977).
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 31) Adult female broadly
oval to deltoid, ca. 3.0 mm long, 2.0 mm wide.
DoRsuM-Derm membranous or slightly
sclerotized. Eye spots on lateral margin of head.
Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 31, L) number
10-16. Dorsal setae (Fig. 31, K) small, clavate to
almost capitate, randomly distributed.
Microducts usually surrounded by clear area.
Preopercular pores (Fig. 31, J) small, number
5-18. Anal plates (Fig. 31, Gi) withpaudolateral
margin longer than cephalolateral margin.
VENTER--Derm membranous. Legs well


Fig. 30. Coccus capparidis, adult female,









31, F) in vulvar area with 7-8 loculi, few on
preceding segments. MARGIN-Marginal setae
(Fig. 31, 0) slender, pointed, bifid, or slightly
fimbriate. Spiracular setae (Fig. 31, M) 3 with
median seta about 3X longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map IX. HI. Foreign:
Bahama Islands, Honduras, India, and Sri
Lanka.


Map IX. Distribution of Coccus capparidis.

BIOLOGY: The only available information is
that C. capparidis occurs on the underside of
leaves.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Apparently not
economically important in Florida.
REMARKS: This species can be separated from
other Florida species of Coccus because of the
shape of anal plates, clavate dorsal setae, the
absence of ventral tubular ducts on mid-region of
thorax, and the absence of tibiotarsal scleroses.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA:
Homestead, 1(1), Aralia balfouriana,
15-11-1978, A. Hamon and H. von Wald; Miami,
2(2), Citrus sp., 9-VII-1974, D. Sager; 1(1),
Nerium oleander, 7-V-1980, W. P. Henderson
and R. E. Burns; St. Lucie Co., 1(1), Diospyros
virginiana, 29-VII-1980, E. W. Campbell;
Stuart, 2(2), Acrostichum aureum,
23-VIII-1976, S. P. Beidler; Titusville, 1(1),
Citrus sinensis, 4-III-1981, R. E. Birns; Walton,
1(1), Diospyros virginiana, 22-IX-1980, E. W.
Campbell.


COCCUS HESPERIDUM LINNAEUS

SYNONYMS: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus
1758:455.
For a complete list of synonyms
see Gill et al. 1977:18
COMMON NAME: brown soft scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Females (Fig. 32) oval
and slightly convex. Pale yellowish-green to
yellowish-brown, often mottled with brown
spots.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 33) Adult female elongate
oval, 1.5-4.0 mm long, 1.0-2.5 mm wide. DOR-
SUM Derm membranous or at most very slightly
sclerotized with small clear areas. Dorsal setae
(Fig. 33, C) spine-like with sharply pointed to
blunt apices. Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 33, E)
number 2-12 around body. Submarginal tubular
ducts (Fig. 33, I) present or absent. Preopercular
pores (Fig. 33, H) 6-33, often in close groups, in-
discernible in sclerotized specimens. Each anal
plate (Fig. 33, Ji) with 4 apical setae, with 2 or 3
subapical setae. VENTER--Derm membranous.
Antennae 7-segmented. Legs well developed
with tibiotarsal scleroses. Tubular ducts (Fig. 33,
Q) between mesothoracic and metathoracic legs,
sometimes at base of prothoracic legs, always
present near attachment of mesothoracic legs.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 33, 0) usually with 10
loculi, confined generally to vulvar area, very
few on preceding abdominal segments.
MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig. 33, B) slender,
simple with few setae fimbriate, often curved.
Spiracular setae (Fig. 33, D) 3, median seta 2-4X
longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map X. Cosmopolitan in
tropical and subtropical regions and in
greenhouses in northern regions (Gill et al.
1977). In North America, brown soft scale occurs
out of doors in the southern states, north to the
eastern seaboard of Virginia (Williams &
Kosztarab 1972).
BIOLOGY: All stages are found throughout the
year in warm areas of Florida in greenhouses.
The females are ovoviviparous, and males are
rare. They attack leaves and twigs. Young
females excrete large amounts of honeydew.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Talhouk (1975)
listed C. hesperidum as a major pest of Citrus in
Peru and Cyprus, and economically important in
China, Brazil, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Republic of
South Africa, Rhodesia, and the United States
(Texas). Only in unusual circumstances is brown
soft scale an economic pest of Citrus in Florida.
It is more often a pest of ornamentals but is
usually controlled by natural enemies (Fig. 34).















B


N '---- A







A .4
.4 p.


. t
1 /


-----V-
- 1


t -


'N
N


1t *



4



- V


0


\
\
)


E




N" F^T
N


V I
S Trn-r P


Fig. 31. Coccus capparidis, adult female, from Gill, Nakahara, and Williams 1977.


L


r
r
J I r









-- .. those occurring in this area are as follows:
Aneristus ceroplastae Howard, LA; A. young
Girault, LA, TX; Aspidiotiphagus citrinus
citrinus (Craw), cosmopolitan; Coccophagus
S* fraternus Howard, NY to FL; C. immaculatus
Ar- Howard, FL; C. lycimnia (Walker),
Cosmopolitan; C. scutellaris (Dalman), FL;
Eupelmus coccidis Girault, TX; Metaphycus
eriococci (Timberlake), FL; M. flavus (Howard),
FL; Microterys flavus (Howard), FL; Scutellista
S\ cyanea Motschulsky, cosmopolitan.
S.According to Bartlett (in Clausen, ed. 1978)
S brown soft scale is now completely controlled by
L* E Metaphycus luteolus Timberlake in California.
t Also, Krombein et al. (1979) indicated S. cyanea
SP, was a common parasite of brown soft scale. Ad-
S,, ditionally, Krombein et al. (1979) listed Char-
Stocerus niger (Ashmead), Encyrtus albicoxa
(Ashmead), and Gahaniella saissetia Timberlake
Sas occurring in Florida.
REMARKS: Coccus hesperidum is one of the
most polyphagous species in the Coccidae (Gill et
i," al. 1977). This species is near C. gymnospori
from India, but C. hesperidum has 7-segmented
Map X. Distribution of Coccus hesperidum. antennae and C. gymnospori has 8-segmented
antennae. Coccus hesperidum somewhat
resembles C. moestus, but C. moestus has clavate
dorsal setae and C. hesperidum has acute dorsal
setae.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Apopka,
1(1), Dizygotheca elegantissima, 13-VII-1978,
D. Remington; Bushnell, 1(1), Senecio radicans,
1-VIII-1977, A. L. Bentley; Gainesville, 1(1),
Ilex sp., 3-1-1977, R. I. Sailer; Homestead, 1(1),
Carica papaya, 26-IV-1978, R. M. Baranowski;
Killarney, 1(1), Dieffenbachia sp., 28-IV-1978,
F. L. Ware; Lake Park, 2(2), Tillandsia sp.,
21-111-1977, M. Tiriolo; Suwannee, 1(1), Citrus
limon, 22-V-1978, F. McHenry.




COCCUS LONGULUS (Douglas)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium longulum Douglas
1887b:97
Lecanium chirimoliae Maskell,
1890:137
Lecanium ficus Maskell, Ferris
in Zimmerman 1948:300
Fig. 32. Coccus hesperidum, adult female and nymphs, DPI Photo Lecanium wistariae Brain, Gill
2120. et al. 1977:24, Ben-Dov 1977:
92
Coccus longulus (Douglas), Fer-
NATURAL ENEMIES: Numerous parasites are nald 1903:171, Ben-Dov 1977:
listed for brown soft scale in Peck (1963). Some of 89, Gill et al. 1977:24











LzCH~


A


b

i K
Fig. 33. Coccus hesperidum, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


n0el)



































Lecanium frontal Green, Ben-
Dov 1977:92, Gill et al. 1977:
24
Lecanium (Coccus) celtium Ku-
wana, Gill et al. 1977:24
Coccus elongatus (Signoret),
Sanders 1909:438, Zimmer-
man 1948:300, Merrill 1953:
89, DeLotto 1965:192, Ben-
Dov 1977:91
Lecanium kraunhiarum Lindin-
ger, DeLotto 1957:301
Parthenolecanium wistaricola
Borchsenius, DeLotto 1965:
192
COMMON NAME: long brown scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female (Fig. 35)
elongate-oval, moderately convex and smooth.
Color yellowish to grayish-brown (Merrill 1953).
Eyes usually visible.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 36) Adult female
elongate, 2.0-6.0 mm long, 1.0-3.0 mm wide
(Gill et al. 1977). DoasuM-Derm membranous
or slightly sclerotized with many clear areas.
Eyespots surrounded by oval pale areas. Sub-
marginal tubercles (Fig. 36, L) number 9-19.
Dorsal setae (Fig. 36, K) short, curved, pointed,
scattered over surface. Microducts few, usually
associated with small clear area.' Anal plates
(Fig. 36, G1) with cephalolateral margins usually
concave, shorter than caudolateral margins,


each plate with 3 subapical, 3 apical, 1 subdiscal
setae. VENTER-Derm membranous. Antennae
8-segmented. Legs well developed with tibiotar-
sal scleroses. Tubular ducts absent. Microducts
(Fig. 36, B) sparse, slight concentration
alongside mouthparts. Multilocular pores (Fig.
36, F) in vulvar area only, mostly with 6-7 loculi.
MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig. 36, 0) slender,
curved, set far apart, mostly acute, few bifur-
cate, 3-4 fimbriate near anal cleft (Gill et al.
1977). Spiracular setae (Fig. 36, M) 3, with me-
dian seta 2-3X longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XI. AL, CA, DC, DE,
GA, HI, IL, LA, MA, MD, MO, NY, OH, PA,
TX. Foreign: China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hon-
duras, Lebanon, Mexico, Oceania, Philippines,
Puerto Rico, Samoa, Taiwan, and Virgin Is-
lands. Widespread in the tropics and semi-
tropical areas of the world (Gill et al. 1977).

BIOLOGY: According to Gill et al. (1977), little
is known about the life history of this species. It is
found on the branches, leaves, and stems of host
plants.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Not considered
an economic pest in Florida (Merrill, 1953). Only
light infestations have been observed during the
last few years in Florida.
REMARKS: According to Gill et al. (1977), C.
longulus may resemble Eucalymnatus tesselatus
(Signoret) before E. tesselatus becomes sclero-
tized. Coccus longulus is less convex and more
elongate than brown soft scale (C. hesperidum).


Fig. 35. Cocu longulus, adult females, DPI Photo 966.

































Map XI. Distribution of Coccus longulus.


MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Cortez,
1(1), Spathiphyllum cannaefolium, 11-II-1977,
C. J. Bickner; Dunedin, 1(1), Anthurium
scherzerianum, 15-X-1980, P. Pullara; Honduras
via Opa Locka, 1(1), Spathiphyllum cv. 'Mauna
Loa', 5-XI-1979, D. E. Stokes; Lake Buena
Vista, 1(1), Myrtus sp., 8-XI-1979, D. Clinton
and H. Collins; Lockhart, 1(1), Spathiphyllum
sp. 'Mauna Loa', 27-V-1971, F. L. Ware;
Orange Co., Disney World, 1(1), Ulmus par-
vifolia 'Sempervirens', 7-XI-1972, W. H. Pierce;
Palm City, 1(1), Myrica cerifera, 14-11-1979, E.
W. Campbell; Punta Gorda, 1(1), Ficus sp.,
13-VI-1972, L. Skipper; Stuart, 1(1), Myrica
cerifera, 13-VI-1978, E. W. Campbell; Tampa,
1(1), Citrus paradise, 9-X-1972, A. L. Baker.




COCCUS PSEUDOHESPERIDUM (Cockerell)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium pseudohesperidum
Cockerell 1895a:380
Coccus pseudohesperidum
(Cockerell), Fernald 1903:
173, Ferris in Zimmerman
1948:310, Steinweden 1945:
264, Borschsenius 1957:305,
Dekle and Kuitert 1968:24,
Gill et al. 1977:30


SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: orchid soft
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female elongate-
oval to broadly oval, slightly convex; light to
dark brown (Gill et al. 1977).
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 37) Adult females
elongate oval, 4.0-7.0 mm long, 2.0-4.0 mm
wide (Gill et al. 1977). DRSUM Derm strongly
sclerotized at maturity, with many pale areas.
Microducts in small clear areas. Submarginal
tubercles (Fig. 37, L) number 6-17 around body.
Setae (Fig. 37, K) bluntly pointed curved, ran-
domly distributed. Discoidal pores (Fig. 37, J)
numerous in a longitudinal row extending from
anterior of anal plates to prothorax. Anal plates
(Fig. 37, G1, G2) with 3 subapical, 3 apical setae.
VENTER--Derm membranous or only slightly
sclerotized. Antennae (Fig. 37, A) reduced to 5 or
6 segments. Legs reduced, tibia and tarsus ar-
ticulated, partially fused or completely fused.
Tubular ducts absent. Multilocular pores (Fig.
37, F) confined to vulvar area, each with 5-8
loculi. MARGIN -Marginal setae simple, curved,
set far apart, 7-12 between anterior and posterior
spiracular furrows (Gill et al. 1977). Spiracular
setae 3, (Fig. 37, M), with median seta 2-3X
longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XII. CA, DC, HI, IN,
MA, MD, MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA. Foreign:
Brazil, Canada, England, France, Guatemala,
Java, and Latvia.


Map XII. Distribution of Coccus pseudohesperidum.

































J


F / -
G 1




Fig. 36. Coccus longulus, adult female, from Gill, Nakahara, and Williams 1977.


B.


.74


*o "^ "\ GA


^*k 0-









BIOLOGY: No information about the biology of
this species is known.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Previously
reported as a pest of orchids in California
(Steinweden 1945). It has not been collected in
California for a number of years (Gill et al.
1977). Dekle and Kuitert (1968) did not consider
it an economic pest of orchids in Florida.
REMARKS: According to Gill et al. (1977), this
species is not congeneric with C. hesperidum but
is closely related to members of the New World
genus Mesolecanium Cockerell.
The strongly sclerotized dorsum, curved dor-
sal setae, and reduced appendages will separate
this species from other Florida soft scale species.
Frequently, marginal setae appear to be nearly
hooked at the apex.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Oneco,
3(3), Cattleyae trianca, 14-VIII-1922, P. F.
Robertson; NEW YORK: Mamaroneck, 1(1), or-
chid, 2-X-1920, H. Mowry; Jenio, Long Island,
1(1), Cattleya M. (orchid), 15-11-1921, A. C.
Brown.



COCCUS VIRIDIS (Green)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium viride Green 1889:
248.
Coccus viridis (Green), Fernald
1903:174, Miller 1931:18,
Fredrick 1943:12, Ferris in
Zimmerman 1948:311, Wol-
cott 1948:171, Merrill 1953:
93, Ebeling 1959:227, De-
Lotto 1960:397, Talhouk
1975:21, Gill et al. 1977:37.
Lecanium (Trechocoris) hesperi-
dum africanum Newstead
1906:73, (nomen nudum) De-
Lotto 1960:397, Gill et al.
1977:37.
COMMON NAME: green scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female (Fig. 38)
oval to elongate oval, pale green, slightly
transparent, flat to slightly convex; usually with
an irregular internal U-shaped gut with black
spots (Gill et al. 1977). Eye spots visible on
anterolateral margins.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 39) Adult female oval to
elongate oval, 1.5-3.7 mm long, 1.0-2.2 mm
wide. DoRsuM-Derm membranous or only
slightly sclerotized, with round or oval clear
areas. Setae (Fig. 39, K) short, cylindrical to
clavate, scattered. Four to 11 submarginal


tubercles (Fig. 39, L) around body. Tubular
ducts absent. Microducts (Fig. 39, N) usually
associated with clear areas. Anal plates (Fig. 39,
Gi) each with 2 subapical and 4 short apical
setae. VENTER-Derm membranous. Antennae
7-segmented. Legs well developed with tibiotar-
sal scleroses. Ventral tubular ducts (Fig. 39, E)
between meso- and metathoracic legs and across
body in mid-region of first abdominal segment.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 39, F) with 7 loculi on
all abdominal segments. MARGIN -Marginal
setae (Fig. 39, 0) short, fimbriated, 6-16 between
anterior and posterior spiracular setae.
Spiracular setae (Fig. 39, M) 3, with medial seta
2X longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XIII. HI (DC, NY, in
greenhouses). Foreign: Nearly cosmopolitan in
tropical and subtropical areas.


Map XIII. Distribution of Coccus viridis.


BIOLOGY: Multiple generations per year are
produced (Gill et al. 1977). In Florida, one
generation is completed in 50-70 days in the late
summer months (Fredrick 1943). On leaves they
are usually found on the under surfaces and fre-
quently along the midveins (Gill et al. 1977).
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: C. viridis is a
serious pest of coffee, citrus, and other crops in
many tropical areas (Gill et al. 1977). Talhouk
(1975) reported it as a pest of Citrus in Bolivia,
Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Ebeling (1959) lists it as a minor pest of Citrus in










Florida. The fungus, Cephalosporium lecanii
Zimmerman, apparently keeps the species under
control in Florida (Merrill 1953).


L

.^ I /
' --;t =_ r


K


J


NATURAL ENEMIES:
been made in the biological
(Bartlett in Clausen ed. 1



B

I A


; :N ., ., I; ''
T -' 6 ---. .1'\ ^
S//
I.
i






A '7

-'^~ ~ [ ''* 5 ', "::!-
-^ ~ ~ /^ ''5^ ..***




". I i .
\ .

;-,o 1.









- -*** '
O ""'. 1
I









- -V ,*r -..,' -
r . .. ,'** *<. ., k. -



o o
I I







0- -






: r, |., r
~ ~ r~ ,". '
."' :.... '. ,;'




i~ "", : ,,


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t. -

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Very little effort has
I control of green scale
978). Krombein et al.












M




P

\o




C't
p"



c


Fig. 37. Coccus pseudohesperidum, adult female, from Gill, Nakahara, and Williams 1977.


F









(1979) listed Chartocerus fasciatus (Girault) as
occurring in Texas. In Hawaii, the coccinellid
Azya luteipes Muls. exerts substantial control
(Bartlett in Clausen ed. 1978).


REMARKS: Coccus viridis is one of the few scale
insect species that can be identified with cer-
tainty in the field because of the pale green color
and the dark internal U-shaped gut. However,
the U-shaped gut is not visible when specimens
are dead.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Apopka,
1(1), Dizygotheca elegantissima, 28-X-1974, R.
A. Hamlen; Ft. Lauderdale, 1(1), Coffea sp.,
2-V-1974, J. A. Reinert; Miami, 1(1), Citrus sp.,
17-V-1977, T. D. Goodman; 1(1), Schinus
terebinthifolius, 19-IX-1978, G. Gwin and W. S.
Brewton; 1(1), Ixora sp., 2-X-1979, E. Pena and
R. Ramirez; Stuart, 1(1), Simaruba glauca,
15-III-1974, E. W. Campbell; Venice, 1(1),
Citrus paradise, 18-VI-1981, D. Culbert;
VIRGIN ISLANDS: ST. CROIX: Kipgshill, 1(1),
Citrus sp., 23-III-1973, G. W. Dekle; PUERTO
RICO: ISLAVERDE: Santuree, 1(1), Ixora coc-
cinea, 18-III-1974, L. F. Martorell.


Genus EUCALYMNATUS Cockerell, 1901

TYPE SPECIES: Lecanium tessellatum Signoret,
1873.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female flat or
slightly convex, ovoid or pyriform in outline.
Derm heavily sclerotized and divided into plate-
like regions. Legs well developed, with tibiotar-
sal sclerotization and free articulation. Antennae
7 to 8-segmented. Marginal setae numerous,
blunt to slightly fringed, usually bent posteri-
orly. Spiracular setae in groups of 3, median seta
longest. Dorsal body setae thick throughout their
length, usually bent and with blunt apices. Sub-
marginal tubercles present. Multilocular pores
confined to vulvar area. Quinquelocular pores in
spiracular furrows and occasionally in vulvar
area. Tubular ducts absent. Anal ring with 8
setae.
NOTES: The derm of nymphs and young adults
of Eucalymnatus is not heavily selerotized or
divided into plates, and they resemble members
of the genus Coccus. Ray and Williams (1981)
described all developmental stages of the
tessellated scale. The only species of Eucalym-
natus in North America is the tessellated scale, E.
tessellatus. Several other species are known from
South America, and one is known from Africa.



EUCALYMNATUS TESSELLATUS
(Signoret)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium tessellatum Signoret
1873:401.
Lecanium perforatum New-
stead, Borchsenius 1957:306
Coccus tessellatus (Signoret),
Steinweden 1929:224.
Lecanium (Eucalymnatus) tes-
sellatus (Signoret), Cockerell
& Parrott 1901:57
COMMON NAME: tessellated scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female (Fig. 40)
dark brown, flat, ovate outline, asymmetrical,
strongly sclerotized; large triangular, square,
and multiangular cells form a reticulate pattern
(Borchsenius 1957).
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 41) Adult females ovate to
asymmetrical, 2.5-5.0 mm long, 2.0-3.0 mm
wide. DonsuM-Derm heavily sclerotized in
older mature females, tessellated with plates
separated by membranous derm. Setae slender,
curved, with blunt apices. Submarginal

















































'.

*\ /

*r / 0


/ N,
.. --
/


0 -







// /" /


o /
6 B ""










Fig. 39. Coccus viridis, adult female, from Gill, Nakahara, and Williams 1977.



51


6


1
, /


J

ox


N~


N


II ,


ii. .


S' ..


r
1 .


, i









(1963) and Krombein et al. (1979) for the
tessellated scale.
REMARKS: Young females of this scale insect
can be confused with brown soft scale. However,
the tessellations appear early in the last instar,
and this is distinctive (Ferris in Zimmerman
1948). According to Gill et al. (1977), the curved
dorsal setae of E. tessellatus are distinctive from
those of C. hesperidum, which are spinelike.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA:
Brooksville, 1(1), Caryota urens, 8-1-1970, C. B.
Williams; Cedar Key, 1(1), Persea sp.,
25-IV-1975, R. F. Denno, J. A. Davidson, and
D. R. Miller; Crystal River, 1(1), Baccharis
halimifolia, 1-XII-1980, R. H. Phillips;
Everglades Nat. Park, 1(1), Ilex cassine,
26-III-1969, D. H. Habeck; Miami, 1(1),
Neodypsis decaryi, 6-VI-1972, W. H. Pierce;
Monticello, 1(1), Cocos nucifera, 13-III-1964, R.
H. Miller.


Fig. 40. Eucalymnatus tessellatus, adult female, DPI Photo 700681.

tubercles (Fig. 41, E) number 10-12. A small
cluster of disc pores (Fig. 41, G) anterior to anal
plates. The combined anal plates nearly form a
square. VENTER-Derm membranous. Antennae
(Fig. 41, K) normally 7 or 8-segmented. Legs
well developed with tibiotarsal scleroses.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 41, N) in vulvar area,
each with 5-8 loculi. Spiracular furrows narrow,
usually one pore wide, occasionally 2 pores wide.
MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig. 41, B) small,
slender, sometimes bifid apically, longer at
posterior end of abdomen. Spiracular setae (Fig.
41, D) 3 at each spiracular cleft with median seta
ca. 2X length of laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XIV. AL, AR, CA, DC,
HI, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NJ, NY,
OH, PA, SC, TN, TX. Foreign: A tropical species
whose original home was probably the
Neotropical' region (Borchsenius 1957).
Australia, Ecuador, Europe (western), India,
Madeira, Mauritius, North Africa, Samoa,
Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,
and Turkey.
BIOLOGY: Qne or 2 generations occur per year
and in greenhouses generations will overlap.
Found on leaves and stems. On leaves, in-
dividuals 'will frequently be asymmetrical
because of their position near leaf veins. This
species isovoviviparous.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: A minor pest in
south Florida when commercial nurseries neglect
control programs (Dekle 1973). *
NATURAL ENEMIES: Metaphycus stanleyi
Compere is the only parasite listed by both Peck


Map XIV. Distribution of Eucalymnatus tessellatus.


Genus EULECANIUM Cockerell, 1893d

TYPE SPECIES: Coccus tiliae Linnaeus, 1758
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female convex to
almost spherical, naked, with a thin flaky wax or
with powdery pubescence. Derm becoming
heavily sclerotized with age. Legs well
developed, without tibiotarsal sclerosis. Anten-















\ B\








SK0
1 ,. .















/ J
i, t,





























I;"^r I. i
\ /le/
0 I























HI H2
Fig. 41. Eucalymnats tessellats, adult female, from Ray and Williams 1981.
H2.
H!.
Fi.4.E~lm stlt dlt[ml,[I a :=nd Wilas19.









nae 6 to 7-segmented. Marginal setae spinelike,
almost conical in some species. In E. tiliae and E.
kunoensis the spinelike marginal setae become
more slender near the ends of the body.
Spiracular setae variable, in groups of 2 or 3,
subequal, sometimes shorter than marginal
setae. Submarginal tubercles absent.
Multilocular pores in vulvar area, in transverse
bands on abdomen and scattered on thorax.
Quinquelocular pores in spiracular furrows and
in some species on inner face of anal cleft.
Tubular ducts occurring on both dorsum and
venter, forming a dense submarginal band on
venter. Anal plates with varying numbers of
apical and subapical setae. Anal ring with 0 or 8
setae.
NOTES: The genus Eulecanium needs revision,
because in North America, E. tiliae and E. ku-
noense are not congeneric with E. cerasorum and
E. caryae. Members of the genus Eulecanium
characteristically have the peritreme of the
spiracles greater in diameter than the length of
the coxae. The eggs are protected by the body of
the female until hatching.
The only species of Eulecanium in the
southeastern United States is E. caryae, the large
hickory lecanium.




EULECANIUM CARYAE (Fitch)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium caryae Fitch 1857:443
Lecanium cockerelli Hunter,
Williams & Kosztarab 1972:
70
Lecanium (Eulecanium) caryae
Fitch, Cockerell 1896a:332
Eulecanium caryae (Fitch), King
1902c:160, Nakahara 1981:
283
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: large hickory
lecanium
FIELD DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 42) The following
statement is taken from Williams & Kosztarab
(1972): "Lecanium caryae is the largest in size,
among the Lecanium in the United States,
sometimes reaching a length of 15 mm. When on
large limbs it is rather flat, but on small limbs it
may be more convex and of a smaller size. The
cephalic third of the coccid is usually broader
than the rear two-thirds. Anal cleft conspicuous.
Color usually uniformly brown,, although
sometimes an orange tint may be noticed. The
derm is usually dusted with a waxy pruinose
coat."


DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 43) Adult female usually
ovate, 7.5-12.0 mm long, 4.0-11.0 mm wide.
DoRnsM-Derm becoming sclerotized after egg
deposition. Body setae (Fig. 43, C) sparse,
slender, curved or straight, acute. Numerous
small disc pores (Fig. 43, E) scattered over dor-
sum, absent from 2 clear spots above antennae.
Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 43, F) few on inner
margin of anal cleft, extending up to dorsum.
Tubular ducts (Fig. 43, G), short, evenly scat-
tered over dorsum except absent from 2 clear
areas above antennae and anterior to anal plates.
Anal plates (Fig. 43, H1) trapezoidal in outline,
lateral and caudal angles rounded, cephalic
margin concave, with 4 apical setae, 3 of which
are on the inner margin of each plate, 3-4
subapical setae, 3 pair fringe setae.
VENTER-Body setae (Fig. 43, K) slender,
straight, acute, with a large base. Antennae
7-segmented, slightly reduced in size. Legs well
developed, not large, without tibiotarsal
sclerosis. Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 43, M)
widely spaced in spiracular furrows, 30-40 in
each furrow. Multilocular pores (Fig. 43, N)
with 10 loculi, in vulvar area, in transverse
bands on abdomen, few near coxae. Tubular
ducts (Fig. 43, P) in a marginal to submarginal





































4. *

4
4


4
1' *
I *4 r


"- . . .o





*. = ,. .If^,,E

1
























S* H2

Fig. 43. Eulecanium caryae, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.
\ -\.. [

ru r 2
Fi.43 ue~n caae adl eae romWlim n ozaa 9


4,



*l *


* V

r.7


5' ,4


K


I~

(M


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h



4
t


k


:' :: ,









band. MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig. 43, B)
stout, straight, tapering to acute apex.
Spiracular setae (Fig. 43, D) shorter and stouter
than marginal setae, and usually separated from
each other by a single marginal seta.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XV. CT, IN, KS, MA,
MD, ME, MI, MS, NJ, NY, OH, PA, VA, WV.
Foreign: Apparently, large hickory lecanium
does not occur outside the U. S.


Map XV. Distribution of Eulecanium caryae.

BIOLOGY: Nymphs overwinter on twigs and
branches and mature during the spring. Each
female lays 100 + eggs beneath her body. The
eggs hatch by late June, and the nymphs migrate
to the undersides of leaves to feed. In the fall,
they return to twigs and branches to overwinter
(Wallner 1969).
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Apparently not
economically important because of natural con-
trols (Williams & Kosztarab 1972).
NATURAL ENEMIES: Cheiloneurus albicornis
Howard is listed by both Peck (1963) and Krom-
bein et al. (1979) for Louisiana.
REMARKS: The presence of quinquelocular
pores on the inner margin of the anal cleft will
separate E. caryae from all other Eulecanium
species in the U. S. In Florida, this scale insect
has been reported only on four recent occasions.
Only 1 microscope slide of a 1st insthr collected
at Sanford, Florida, is available to confirm the
presence of this scale insect in Florida.


MATERIAL STUDIED: VIRGINIA:
Blacksburg, 1(1), Platanus occidentalis,
13-V-1969, A. D'Ascoli; Blacksburg, 1(1), Quer-
cus sp., 13-V-1969, D. K. Pollet, VPI.



Genus INGLISIA Maskell, 1879

TYPE SPECIES: Inglisia patella Maskell, 1879.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female somewhat
circular in outline, often irregular. Derm in
older females sclerotized in median area and ex-
treme margin on dorsum. A longitudinal row or
furrow of pores extending from anal plates to
cephalothorax on dorsum. Dorsal body setae ab-
sent. Anal plates triangular with a large discal
seta, 3 apical setae, 10-12 fringe setae. Anal ring
with 6 setae. Ventral derm membranous
throughout. Antennae reduced to 1 segment.
Legs absent in adult female. Quinquelocular
pores in spiracular furrows and in small groups
posterolateral to vulva on each side. Tubular
ducts in a narrow submarginal band around en-
tire venter. Marginal setae stout, tapering to
acute apex. Spiracular setae not well differen-
tiated from marginal setae; longer, more slender,
usually slightly curved, often with rounded apex;
1 on margin at apex of each spiracular furrow.
NOTES: The above generic description refers
only to I. vitrea as it is the only species of the
genus which occurs in the United States. Many
other species included in the genus are not con-
generic with the type species and appear to be
closer to the genus Cardiococcus Cockerell
(1903b:155).



INGLISIA VITREA Cockerell

SYNONYMS: Inglisia vitrea Cockerell 1894:
308
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: glassy scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Possesses a glassy wax
covering with a conspicuous median longitudinal
ridge (Fig. 44A, B). According to Merrill (1953),
the female cover is circular or ovate, irregular,
moderately convex, sometimes indented from
margin, surface roughened. The glassy wax has
radiating striations and also concentric striations
giving this scale insect a very distinctive ap-
pearance.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 45) Female body shiny
red-brown with wax covering removed; 3.0 mm
long, 1.5 mm wide. DORSUM Membranous









often obscured by dorsal sclerotization.
MARGIN Marginal setae (Fig. 45, A) stout,
gradually tapering to an acute apex, about 60L
long. Spiracular setae not well differentiated
from marginal setae; usually longer, more
slender, and slightly curved.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XVI. Foreign: Cuba,
Dominican Republic, Panama, Puerto Rico, and
Trinidad.


Map XVI. Distribution of Inglisia vitrea.


Fig. 44. Inglisia vitrea, adult female, A) glassy wax intact, DPI
Photo 680757, B) section of glassy wax removed, DPI Photo 701507.
around submargin only; medial dorsal area
heavily sclerotized, with many pores, extending
from anal plates to cephalothorax. Each anal
plate (Fig. 45, B) with a large discal seta.
VENTER- Membranous throughout. Antennae
1-segmented (Fig. 45, C), with 4 or 5 setae.
Tubular ducts (Fig. 45, D) sparse, in a narrow
submarginal band. Spiracular furrows not prom-
inent, small quinquelocular pores ca. 2.5
microns in diameter (Fig. 45, *F) in furrows.
Small group of quinquelocular pores
posterolateral to vulva on each side (Fig. 45, E),


BIOLOGY: No information is known except that
it occurs on the leaves and is ovoviviparous.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Apparently not of
economic importance in Florida.
NATURAL ENEMIES: No parasite of this scale
is reported in the literature, but an unidentified
species of hymenopteran parasite is present in
Florida.
REMARKS: The glassy wax cover, with radial
and circular striations, absence of legs and dorsal
setae and vestigial antennae will separate this
species from all other soft scale insects in Florida.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Naples,
2(2), Calliandra sp., 15-11-1972, W. A. Padgett;
Palm City, 1(1), Persea borbonia, 11-IV-1978,
E. W. Campbell; Plant City, 2(2), Myrica
cerifera, 8-VII-1969, 0. J. Custead; 2(2) Myrica
cerifera, 6-X-1970, 0. J. Custead; Stuart, 1(1),
Persea borbonia, 4-XII-1978, E. W. Campbell.











"/C -
//c


D


E
\




E


Fig. 45. Inglisia vitrea, adult female, original by A. B. Hamon.


Genus KILIFIA DeLotto, 1965
TYPE SPECIES: Lecanium acuminatum Sig-
noret, 1873.
DESCRIPTION: Adult female flat, broad,
pyriform, and often asymmetrical. Dorsal derm
membranous in young adult females. Old adult


females often with tessellated appearance. Dor-
sal body setae rod-like or clavate. Submarginal
tubercles present. Anal plates elongate. Anal ring
with 10 setae. Antennae 5 to 8-segmented. Legs
well developed, meso- and metathoracic coxae
enlarged and different in shape than prothoracic
coxae; tibiotarsal sclerotization and free articula-










tion present. Tubular ducts absent. Quin-
quelocular pores in spiracular furrows and in
vulvar area. Only 1 pair of prevulvar setae.
Marginal setae numerous, fimbriate, except for a
few near anal cleft; simple in K. sinensis Ben-
Dov. Spiracular setae in groups of 3, median seta
longest.
NOTES: The genus Kilifia is a small genus com-
posed of 5 species. The only species found in
Florida is the acuminate scale, K. acuminata
(Signoret); however, K. americana Ben-Dov
occurs in Texas and Mexico.


KILIFIA ACUMINATA (Signoret)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium acuminatum Sig-
noret 1873:397
Coccus acuminatus (Signoret),
Kirkaldy 1902:105
Protopulvinaria acuminata (Sig-
noret), Steinweden 1929:223
Platycoccus acuminatus (Sig-
noret), Takahashi 1959:76
Kilifia acuminata (Signoret), De-
Lotto 1965:208, Gill et al.
1977:11
COMMON NAME: acuminate scale


FIELD DESCRIPTION: Female
shaped like an irregular triangle with


(Fig. 46)
front angle


bluntly pointed (Merrill 1953). Flat and rela-
tively thin in profile. Living females pale green
to yellowish green.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 47) Adult female about
3.0 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. DoRSUM-Derm
may be slightly sclerotized in females: Dorsal
setae (Fig. 47, C) clavate, in reticulate pattern.
Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 47, E) number 8-11.
Disc pores (Fig. 47, G) in small group anterior of
anal plates. Minute bilocular pores in reticulate
pattern with dorsal setae. Anal plates (Fig. 47,
Hi) situated about one-third body length from
posterior margin; anterolateral margins nearly
2X as long as posterolateral margins; each plate
with 4 apical setae, 3 subapical setae, anal fold
with 4 fringe setae. VENTER- Membranous
throughout. Legs well developed; prothoracic
legs of normal shape, shorter than mesothoracic
and metathoracic legs with peculiarly shaped
coxae, parallel-sided femur and very short tarsus.
Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 47, N) in spiracular
furrows; larger quinquelocular pores (Fig. 47, 0)
in vulvar area. Antennae (Fig. 47, L)
8-segmented, occasionally 6 or 7-segmented.
MARGIN -Marginal setae (Fig. 47, B) fimbriate,
set close together. Spiracular setae (Fig. 47, D)
with very short laterals and a long curved medial
seta.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XVII. DC, GA, HI, MO,
NY, TX. Foreign: Antigua, Bahama Islands,
Barbados, China, Cuba, England, Fiji, France,


Fig. 46. Kilifia acuminata, adult female, DPI Photo 701618.


Map XVII. Distribution of Kilifia acuminata.














F p


F \ \\ M


B --


Sr


I'
I,,
a .



r


I


I


ir
9


,"
o


I
F .)
I. -


II. *


,- ,-
St








g I














H1 I

Fig. 47. Kilifia acuminata, adult female, original by C. H. Ray, Jr.


D











C


H2









Grenada, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Mexico,
New Zealand, Puerto Rico, and Sri Lanka.
BIOLOGY: Occurs on the leaves. Overlapping
generations are produced in south Florida.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: According to
Merrill (1953), this was a serious pest of or-
namentals in Florida. In recent times, it appears
to be less economically important with only an
occasional heavy infestation observed.
REMARKS: This scale insect appears very
similar to mango shield scale, Protopulvinaria
mangiferae (Green), and the two cannot be
separated by field characters. Young females of
tessellated scale, Eucalymnatus tessellatus,
closely resemble K. acuminata. A microscope
slide is needed to separate K. acuminata from P.
mangiferae and young E. tessellatus. The
peculiar shape of the meso- and metacoxa and
absence of ventral tubular ducts differentiates K.
acuminata from P. pyriformis which has normal
coxae and ventral tubular ducts. Normal coxae
and quadrate shaped anal plates will separate E.
tessellatus from K. acuminata.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Alachua
Co., 1(1), Gardenia sp., 10-IX-1979, F. R.
Lawson; Clewiston, 1(1), Schinus terebin-
thifolius, 24-VI-1977, C. E. Nelson; Gainesville,
1(1), Gordonia lasianthus, 7-IV-1980, C.
Riherd; Homestead, 1(1), Bischofia sp.,
26-VIII-1975, D. O. Wolfenbarger; Naples,
1(1), Gardenia jasminoides, 14-1-1980, K.
Delate; Orlando, 1(1), Gardenia jasminoides,
14-1-1980, K. Delate; Orlando, 1(1), Gardenia
jasminoides 'Radicans', 28-VI-1974, G. W. Dekle
and D. Graddy; St. Petersburg, 1(1), Anthurium
sp., 25-X-1978, K. Hickman; Steinhatchee, 1(1),
Ilex sp., 11-V-1973, A. E. Graham; Suwannee,
1(1), Ilex vomitoria, 9-V-1978, F. J. McHenry.




Genus LUZULASPIS Cockerell, 1902a

TYPE SPECIES: Aspidiotus luzulae Dufour,
1864.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female elongate,
narrow and convex. Derm membranous except
older specimens becoming lightly sclerotized dor-
sally. Antennae well developed, 8 or
9-segmented. Legs well developed with tibiotar-
sal sclerotization and free articulation. Marginal
and dorsal setae stout and spinelike or conical
with rounded or pointed apices. Spiracular setae
in groups of 2; subequal, sickle-like, dorso-
ventrally flattened, larger than marginal setae.


Submarginal tubercles absent. Dorsal discoidal
pores in series of medial clusters on abdominal
segments anterior to anal plates. Multilocular
pores of abdominal segments. Quinquelocular
pores in spiracular pore bands. Tubular ducts
numerous on dorsum and venter. Anal plates
triangular with 3-4 apical setae. Fringe setae
variable. Well developed anal ring with 6 setae.
NOTES: The eggs are protected by a flocculent
white ovisac produced by the adult female.
Koteja and Howell (1979) described and il-
lustrated the four North American Luzulaspis
spp. Only L. americana is recorded from the
southeastern United States.





LUZULASPIS AMERICANA
Koteja and Howell

SYNONYMS: Luzulaspis americana Koteja
and Howell 1979:335
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: grass soft
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: According to Koteja
and Howell (1979), adult females are dark pink
and protrude from a white flocculent ovisac.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 48) Adult female
elongate, sides nearly parallel, about 4.8 mm
long, 2.0 mm wide (Koteja and Howell 1979).
DossuM-Older specimens have a lightly
sclerotized derm. Dorsal setae (Fig. 48, B) con-
ical, sharp pointed, randomly scattered. Anal
plates with 4 apical setae. Discoidal pores (Fig.
48, J) in groups near middle of abdominal
segments. Numerous tubular ducts on dorsum,
except absent from longitudinal submedial areas
on head. VENTER-Antennae well developed,
8-segmented; located distinctly nearer
clypeolabral shield than to anterior body
margin. Quinquelocular pores in spiracular fur-
rows. Multilocular pores (Fig. 48, H) with 8
loculi on abdominal segments 7 and 8 in vulvar
region. Infrequently, 2 multilocular pores be-
tween posterior coxae. MARGIN- Marginal setae
(Fig. 48, D, F) spinelike in well defined row on
anterior and posterior margins, less defined on
lateral margins. Setae along lateral margins
somewhat smaller than those at anterior and
posterior. Spiracular setae (Fig. 48, C) as stated
for genus.
DISTRIBUTION: Not known in FL; presently,
known only from Echols and Clinch counties,
GA.





















L -
K -

Is.:;


NJ


E


M


0--


0.5 mm


Fig. 48. Luzulaspis americana, adult female, from Koteja and Howell 1979.
0









BIOLOGY: According to Koteja and Howell
(1979), adult females are usually found on the
underside of leaves, and no more than 5 em
above the soil surface. Possibly 2 generations per
year occur in Georgia.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Of no known
economic importance.
REMARKS: Luzulaspis americana can be
separated from the other American species of
Luzulaspis by the antennae which are distinctly
nearer the front coxae than the anterior end of
the body. Known only from unknown grass,
unknown sedge, and water pennywort
(Hydrocotyle sp.) in Georgia.



Genus MESOLECANIUM Cockerell, 1902b

TYPE SPECIES: Lecanium nocturnum Cocker-
ell and Parrott, 1899.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female convex.
Derm becoming heavily sclerotized at maturity.
Discoidal pores on mid-dorsum, extending from
anal plates to above rostrum. Submarginal
tubercles absent. Anal ring with 8 setae. Anten-
nae 5 to 7-segmented. Legs with tibia and tarsus
articulated, partially fused, or completely fused.
Quinquelocular pores in spiracular furrows.
Multilocular pores in vulvar area. Marginal setae
slender, sharply bent near apex. Spiracular setae
in groups of 3, median seta longer than laterals.
NOTES: The only species of Mesolecanium
recorded from the southeastern United States is
M. nigrofasciatum. This is a viviparous species.
The young remain under the female for a short
period of time before moving to the leaves of
their host to settle and feed.



MESOLECANIUM NIGROFASCIATUM
(Pergande)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium nigrofasciatum Per-
gande 1898:26
L. (Eulecanium) nigrofasciatum
Pergande, Cockerell & Parrott
1899:234
Eulecanium nigrofoasciatum
(Pergande), King 1902c:160
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum
(Pergande), Nak'ahara 1981:
284
COMMON NAME: terrapin scale


FIELD DESCRIPTION: This scale appears as a
reddish hemispherical insect (Fig. 49) about 2
mm in length, mottled with about 24 radiating
streaks of black which are conspicuous near the
margin. Sometimes the streaks coalesce, forming
a sub-dorsal dark band surrounding a central red
area. Sometimes entirely red or black individuals
are found (Williams and Kosztarab 1972).




















Fig. 49. Meolecantum ntgrofjoastum, adult female, DPI Photo
701496.

DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 50) Adult females nearly
circular, 1.2 mm to 4.2 mm in diameter. DoR-
suMi-Derm becoming heavily sclerotized in
older adult females. Body setae (Fig. 50, C)
sparse, mostly in submarginal area, slender,
slightly curved, apex pointed. Small bilocular
pores (Fig. 50, E) with inner filament scattered
over dorsum. Crown-shaped discoidal pores
(Fig. 50, G) in median row of 9-17 pores extend-
ing from anterior of anal plates, to above
rostrum. Each anal plate (Fig. 50, Hi) triangular
with sclerotized and thickened caudolateral
margin. Derm surrounding anal plates usually
heavily sclerotized. VENTER-Membranous.
Antennae well developed, 6-segmented, (Fig. 50,
L) segment III longest. Submarginal setae (Fig.
50, J) slender, acute, curved, with large base.
Body setae very similar to submarginal setae.
Legs well developed without tibiotarsal scleroses
and free articulation. Spiracular furrows each
with 12 to 47 quinquelocular pores in rows 1 or 2
pores wide, rows may be 3 or4 pores wide near
margin. Multilocular pores (Fig. 50, N) mostly
with 8 loculi. Small microducts (Fig. 50, 0) scat-
tered over venter. MAR.nN- Marginal setae (Fig.
50, B) slender, straight at'base but curved from
about midway to apex. Spiracular setae (Fig. 50,














L


--
t


p 7/


* A


*r


A Ir





G A








N

H2
H1 I
Fig. 50. Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


EE


r
1
.


* p


r


p,


!\
w!









D) in groups of 3 with medial seta 2.5 to 3X
longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XVIII. Recorded from
every state east of the Mississippi River except
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Also
recorded from AR, IA, LA, MN, MO, NM, OK,
TX. Foreign: There is no indication that this
scale occurs outside of North America (Williams
& Kosztarab 1972).


Map XVIII. Distribution of Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum.


BIOLOGY: According to Williams and
Kosztarab (1972) the female terrapin scale
reaches maturity in early spring and is
viviparous. The 1st instar nymphs remain under
the female for 1-3 days, then migrate to leaves
where they feed. After about 18 days they molt
into a 2nd instar and 18 days later become adult
females and move back to twigs. Meanwhile, the
males pass through 5 stages, emerge, mate, and
then die. Mated females "hibernate" during the
winter.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Simanton (1916)
ranked terrapin scale as second among scale in-
sects as a pest of peaches. Symons & Corey (1910)
state that the greatest damage was caused to fruit
and leaves by fungi growing in the large amounts
of honeydew. Although frequently encountered
in Florida, it is apparently of little economic con-
sequence.


NATURAL ENEMIES: Numerous parasites are
listed by Peck (1963) and Krombein et al. (1979).
Some of those are as follows: Aphycus annulipes
(Ashmead), FL; Cheiloneurus albicornis
(Howard), LA; Coccophagus fraternus Howard,
NY to FL; C. lycimnia (Walker), cosmopolitan
pest of many Coccoidea; Encyrtus fuscus
(Howard), AL; Eunotus lividus Ashmead, FL;
Metaphycus pulvinariae Howard, cosmopolitan;
Phycus varicornis (Howard), Canada to FL;
Prospaltella aurantii Howard, cosmopolitan;
Tetrastichus minutus (Howard), FL; Char-
tocerus pulcher (Girault), NC, AR.
REMARKS: Terrapin scale is a native North
American species and was observed as early as
1872 by Theodore Pergande (Williams &
Kosztarab 1972). It was then believed to be
European peach scale Parthenolecanium per-
sicae (Fab.). Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum is
likely to be confused with Parthenolecanium spp.
in Florida.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA; Esterno,
2(2), Vaccinium sp., 6-1-1979, W. T. Walsh;
Fernandina Beach, 1(1), Persea borbonia,
13-11-1979, G. T. Smith and W. H. Shirley; Ft.
Drum, 1(1), Liquidambar styraciflua,
27-X-1980, S. P. Beidler; Inverness, 1(1), Vac-
cinium darrowi, 1-II-1980, R. Phillips; In-
verness, 2(2), bay tree, 8-11-1980, R. H. Phillips;
St. Augustine, 2(2), Magnolia virginiana,
21-IV-1981, K. Miller.



Genus NEOLECANIUM Parrott, 1901
(in Cockerell and Parrott 1901)

TYPE SPECIES: Lecanium imbricatum
Cockerell, 1896c.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female convex,
naked or dusted with a white powdery wax
bloom. Derm sclerotized at maturity. Dorsum
with a dense pattern of bilocular pores. Sub-
marginal tubercles absent. Large discoidal pores
around anal plates. Anal plates with varying
number of apical, subapical, and fringe setae.
Anal ring with 10 setae. Antennae 6-segmented.
Legs reduced, without tibiotarsal sclerotization.
Quinquelocular pores in spiracular furrows, in
vulvar area, and on abdomen. Multilocular pores
absent. Tubular ducts confined to vulvar area.
Marginal setae slender and non-fimbriate.
Spiracular setae in groups of 3, short, stout, sub-
equal.
NOTES: The eggs are protected by the body of
the adult female. The genus Neolecanium was










first proposed as a subgenus of Lecanium.
Steinweden (1929) concluded that Neolecanium,
Pseudophilippia, and Toumeyella constituted a
single genus. The generic characters given here
refer only to Neolecanium cornuparvum (Thro)
because it is the only species of the genus which
occurs in the United States. The genus
Neolecanium must be revised before its true rela-
tionship to the genus Toumeyella can be
understood. For a description of the immature
stages and adult male of N. cornuparvum see Ray
and Williams (1982).



NEOLECANIUM CORNUPARVUM
(Thro)


SYNONYMS:


Lecanium cornuparvum Thro
1903:216


Neolecanium cornuparvum
(Thro), Fernald 1903:176,
Ray and Williams 1983:161
COMMON NAME: magnolia scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Williams & Kosztarab
(1972) indicated that females are very large,
reaching a length of 12.5 mm. The shape is ellip-
tical and flat to convex. Younger, developing
females are pink-orange and darker around the
margin. Old females are usually covered with a
white bloom or mealy wax (Fig. 51); very old
females are brown.


(Williams & Kosztarab 1972). DORSM -Older
females have slightly sclerotized derm, heavier
sclerotization around anal plates. Numerous
small 8-shaped pores (Fig. 52, E. F), each in a
clear area on dorsal surface. Body setae (Fig. 52,
C) short, stout, pointed, randomly scattered.
Many small disc pores scattered over dorsum.
Large discoidal pores (Fig. 52, H) scattered over
derm anterior to anal plates and extending to just
above mouthparts. Anal plates (Fig. 52, Ii)
triangular with all angles rounded.
VENTER-Submarginal setae short, slender,
pointed, 9 between spiracular furrows. Antennae
short, stout, 6-segmented, segmentation often
obscure. Legs short, stout, segmentation fre-
quently obscure. Spiracles longer than legs.
Spiracular furrows with band of quinquelocular
pores (Fig. 52, N), 15-20 pores wide near
margin, becoming narrower near spiracles.
Tubular ducts (Fig. 52, P) numerous in vulvar
area. Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 52, N)
numerous in vulvar area. MARGIN Marginal
setae (Fig. 52, B) slender, pointed, straight or
curved at apex, about 16 between anterior and
posterior spiracular furrows. Spiracular setae
(Fig. 52, D) 3 at apex of each spiracular furrow,
each short, stout, conical, sometimes notched at
apex; median seta slightly larger than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XIX. AL, CT, GA, IN,
KY, LA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC,
VA, WI, WV.


Fig. 51. Neolecanium cornuparvum, adult female, DPI Photo
702950-6.


DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 52) Adult
irregular, slightly narrower at
length 4.3-12.4 mm, width


female oval to
anterior end;
4.0-10.0 mm


Map XIX. Distribution of Neolecanium cornuparvum.








F


Yr
B


ig. 5. Ia
Fig. 52. Neolecankum cornuparvum, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.







BIOLOGY: The magnolia scale is viviparous,
and produces one generation a year in Virginia
(Williams & Kosztarab 1972).
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Magnolia scale
may cause localized damage, and large amounts
of honeydew may attract other noxious insects
and promotes the growth of sooty fungus
(Williams & Kosztarab 1972).
REMARKS: According to Williams and
Kosztarab (1972), magnolia scale is one of the
largest scale insects in the United States. The
dense pattern of small 8-shaped pores on the dor-
sum, reduced legs, and reduced antennae will
separate this species from all others in Florida.
MATERIAL STUDIED: VIRGINIA;
Blacksburg, 1(1), Magnolia stellata,
13-VIII-1969, M. Williams, VPI; Pulaska
County, 1(1), unknown host, 16-VII-1972, E.
Harris, VPI. FLORIDA: Jefferson County, 6(6),
Magnolia grandiflora, 7-V-1968, W. H. Whit-
comb.




Genus PARASAISSETIA Takahashi, 1955a

TYPE SPECIES: Saissetia nigra Nietner, 1861.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female
moderately convex and broad when on leaves,
highly convex and elongate when on stems.
Derm heavily sclerotized, divided into polygonal
cell-like reticulations. Dorsal body setae cylin-
drical or capitate. Submarginal tubercles pres-
ent. Anal plates without discal setae. Anal ring
with 8 setae. Antennae well developed, 7 to
8-segmented. Legs well developed without
tibiotarsal sclerosis or free articulation. Quin-
quelocular pores in spiracular furrows.
Multilocular pores in vulvar area and transverse
rows on abdomen. Tubular ducts in ventral sub-
marginal band. Marginal setae pointed, blunt,
variously frayed, or fringed. Spiracular setae in
groups of 3, median seta longest.
NOTES: The eggs are protected by the body of
the adult female until hatching. The only species
of Parasaissetia occurring in North America is the
nigra scale, P. nigra. Two other species are
known from Africa.



PARASAISSETIA NIGRA (Nietner)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium ntgrum Nietner 1861:
9


Lecanium depressum Targioni,
Smith 1944:235.
Lecanium simulans Douglas,
Smith 1944:235.
Lecanium depressum Signoret,
Douglas 1887a:21
Lecanium begoniae Douglas,
Smith 1944:235.
Lecanium (Saissetia) nigrum
Nietner, Cockerell & Parrott
1899:163
Lecanium (Saissetia) nigrum
var. begoniae (Douglas),
Cockerell & Parrott 1899:163.
Saissetia nigra (Nietner), King
1902:296
Saissetia depressa (Targioni),
King 1902a:296
Saissetia begoniae (Douglas),
King 1902a:296
Coccus nigrum (Nietner), Kirk-
aldy 1902:105
Saissetia depressa var. simulans
(Douglas), Fernald 1903:201,
Smith 1944:235
Lecanium pseudonigrum Ku-
wana, Smith 1944:235
Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner),
Takahashi 1955a:26


Fig. 53. Parasaissetia nigra, adult females, DPI Photo 700497.






























i~I,



B / -
/%




0
I ,






























Fig. 54. sParam~etia nigra, adult female orginalbyA. B. Ha m







COMMON NAME: nigra scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult females
elongate-oval, somewhat narrowed in front,
moderately convex or flat, and sometimes hump-
backed at middle (Fig. 53). Length 3.5-4.0 mm.
Unsclerotized females opaque white; brown to
shiny black in sclerotized females. Dorsal surface
smooth or slightly wrinkled transversely.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 54) Adult females may
reach 5.0 mm in length, usually less (Ferris in
Zimmerman 1948). DoRsuM-Derm heavily
sclerotized in old females, with closely set
polygonal cell-like reticulations (Fig. 54, E).
Dorsal setae (Fig. 54, A) cylindrical or apices
swollen. Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 54, B)
variable in number. Combined anal plates
quadrate (Fig. 54, C). Few discoidal pores (Fig.
54, D) anterior of anal plates. VENTER-Anten-
nae well developed, 8-segmented. Tubular ducts
(Fig. 54, I) around submargin, absent from me-
dian region. Multilocular pores (Fig. 54, J) most
numerous around vulva with few on each ab-
dominal segment. Quinquelocular pores in
spiracular furrows. MARGIN-Marginal setae
(Fig. 54, K) stout with apex flattened, expanded,
clavate, or variously fimbriate. Spiracular setae
(Fig. 54, G) in groups of 3, median seta 2.5 to 3X
longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XX. AL, CA, DC, KS,
LA, MD, MO, NY, OH, OK, PA, TX, VA.
Foreign: Cosmopolitan.
BIOLOGY: Nigra scale has one generation per
year outdoors in California. Eggs were laid over
a very long period of time, from mid-May to
February (Smith 1944). Reproduction is by par-
thenogenesis. They feed on leaves, twigs,
branches, and fruits. The life cycle is very similar
under Florida conditions.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: A pest of many
ornamental plants in tropical countries. In the
U. S., it is usually not a serious pest, but Merrill
(1953) reported nigra scale as an occasional
economic pest on hibiscus in Florida.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Some of the parasites
listed in Peck (1963) and Krombein et al. (1979)
are as follow: Chartocerus fasciatus (Girault),
TX; Coccophagus cowperi Girault, TX; C.
lycimnia Walker, cosmopolitan; C. ochraceus
Howard, TX; Lecaniobius capitatus Gahan, TX;
L. cockerellii Ashmead, FL; Scutellista cyanea
Motschulsky, cosmopolitan. In southern Califor-
nia, Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) has effec-
tively controlled P. nigra (Bartlett in Clausen ed.
1978).


REMARKS: In the field nigra scale may be con-
fused with the black scales (Saissetia spp.), but
the dorsal surface is much smoother and the
shape is more elongate in nigra scale than in any
of the black scales. Specimens mounted on a
microscope slide can be separated from black
scales because of the distinctive dorsal setae, dor-
sal reticulations, and lack of discal setae on the
anal plates of nigra scale.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA; Apopka,
1(1), Monstera deliciosa, 8-III-1979, D. Rem-
ington; Groveland, 1(1), Hibiscus sp.,
23-VI-1970, W. P. Henderson; High Point, 1(1),
Homalocladium platycladum, 17-XI-1978, P.
Pullara; Lake City, 1(1), Pilea cadierei,
6-X-1970, H. W. Collins; Miami, 1(1), Aralia
elegantissima, 8-II-1972, F. J. McHenry; Pom-
pano, 1(1), Ficus sp., 7-III-1977, R. Schimmel;
Seffner, 1(1), Hibiscus sp., 23-II-1970, E. R.
Simmons; Seffner, 1(1), Hibiscus sp.,
18-VIII-1971, D. A. Vaughan.


Map XX. Distribution of Parasaissetia nigra.


Genus PARTHENOLECANIUM Sulc, 1908

TYPE SPECIES: Lecanium corni Bouch6, 1844.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female usually
strongly convex, naked, with a thin flaky wax, or
with powdery pubescence. Derm becoming







heavily slerotzed th age, Submarnal







.I r p t. .t T, I, d, ,ts
bya, ".r ab,'nt 0tr 1y ial 8 f ,,b ,










slerokd, dult fm. in p,, r , ti-.


OF andP N. q NIUfM3kyth881mpl,
b ,diL- h h, .-b, ....t
. ... -., pr '.








prsnt ore pot irn dt ed a enlth ra U ab-
,, 8, 1 3 P. ,- 0' 1, 1n'. ', 0, P,,



OF PARTHENOLECANIUM





laterals hlas tan 1 o a s o m,
2 .















b2. ns thetwo sp3i mut be consistently, p




PATHOFLPARTHENOLECANI (UM










SYNONYMS; L-n.ium oral Boueh6 1844;
298


Leca num orylitf Fitch, Com-
-t1l 1883:133
Lec ..um cnosbati Fitch, Com-
stock 1883:13 8


Le c.niu iuglandif0 Fitch,
Com..-k 1883JI33
Eulecainum corn (Bouch6),
Frmald 1903:185


For a mo extensive list s Ka-
weeki 1958:135
COMMON NAME: Euop..n fruit lecanium

rwI v rTO ,,


tied. Body setae spine oronal, tout, ape






































































K1 LK

Fig, 56. Parthenolcanium corn, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


* * t







area; larger setae in medial area from anterior
anal plates (Fig. 56, D) to head. Submarginal
tubercles (Fig. 56, F) present or absent. Thick
rimmed disc pores (Fig. 56, I) anterior of anal
plates. Anal plates (Fig. 56, Ki) triangular with
the caudal angle rounded, each plate with 4
apical, 2 subapical setae. VENTER-Antennae 6
or 7-segmented (Fig. 56, 0). Legs without
tibiotarsal scleroses; Claw digitules unequal.
Spiracular furrows 2 or 3 quinquelocular pores
(Fig. 56, P) wide, pores widely spaced.
Multilocular pores (Fig. 56, Q) in transverse
rows on abdomen and in central area of thorax,
most with 10 loculi. Tubular ducts (Fig. 56, S)
sparse on submargin of abdomen, thorax, and
medial area of thorax. MARGIN- Marginal setae,
(Fig. 56, B) straight or slightly curved, with
blunt apices, some thicker than others.
Spiracular setae 3 (Fig. 56, E), median seta 1.5X
longer than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XXI. Found throughout
the U. S. Foreign: Holarctic, plus Argentina and
Australia.


Map XXI. Distribution of Parthenolecanium corni.


BIOLOGY: According to Williams and
Kosztarab (1972), European fruit lecanium over-
winters in the second nymphal instar on the
twigs and branches and matures in early spring.
In early summer, adult females lay large
numbers of eggs beneath their bodies. After the
eggs hatch, the nymphs migratelo the underside


of leaves where they feed, but before leaf drop
they migrate back to twigs and branches where
they overwinter.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Economically im-
portant in many situations, especially on or-
namentals where the balance of natural controls
has been hampered by chemical controls.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Numerous parasites are
listed in Peck (1963) and Krombein et al. (1979)
for this scale insect. Some of those common to
this area are as follows: Aphycus annulipes
(Ashmead), FL; Metaphycus pulvinariae
(Howard), cosmopolitan; Cheiloneurus albicor-
nis Howard, LA; Coccophagus lycimnia
(Walker), cosmopolitan; C. scutellaris
(Dalman), FL; Encyrtus bicolor Howard, LA; E.
fuscus (Howard), AL; Eunotus lividus Ashmead,
FL; Microterys flavus (Howard), FL; Pros-
paltella aurantii (Howard), cosmopolitan;
Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky, cosmopolitan;
Tetrastichus minutus (Howard), FL. In northern
California and British Columbia, the parasite
Blastothrix sericea (Dalman) has contributed to a
decline in the economic importance of P. corni
(Bartlett in Clausen ed. 1978). It is likely that
because of taxonomic confusion in the genus Par-
thenolecanium this list of parasites may not be
accurate.
REMARKS: This is one of the most common and
widespread scale insects in the U. S. Because it
exhibits extreme morphological variation from
host to host, many of its host-induced forms have
been described as separate species. It is not possi-
ble to consistently separate P. corni from P.
fletcheri (Cockerell) and P. quercifex (Fitch).
Therefore, these 3 species are referred to as the
"corni complex" (Williams & Kosztarab 1972).
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA;
Gainesville, 1(1), Diospyros sp., 3-IV-1923, G.
B. Merrill; Jacksonville, 1(1), Liquidambar
styraciflua, 3-III-1981, J. Garbark; Lakeland,
2(2), Pinus sp., 2-IV-1981, Training Class #44;
Live Oak, 1(1), Prunus sp., 28-III-1977, O. P.
Hatch; Port St. Lucie, 1(1), Carya sp.,
28-II-1980, E. W. Campbell; Tavares, 1(1),
Quercus nigra, 2-IV-1981, L. J. Chambliss;
White Springs, 2(2), Myrica cerifera,
21-III-1980, C. Webb.




PARTHENOLECANIUM FLETCHERI
(Cockerell)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium fletcheri Cockerell
1893f:221






















-.- \


: .* ' o " .* :" : :.c


.. .. -: -- /o: \ .








B/





D
Fig. 57. Parthenolecanium fletcheri, adult female, original by R. J. Gill, California Dept. of Food and Agric., Div. of Plant Industry.















COMMON NAME: Fletcher scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female body
ovl, strongly convex, nearly hemiphercal,
sid. bulging, slightly bent under below: the



maranal mdentatlons (Borch~ius 1957).





















DIST RU Ns o os s rd i F', .d. ..
E. .. 'ONO DORT E Dm n
, , , 7, L






, :a a ir r an d e ...h.
rat, ,,ity May
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, D',- gi, g t'
T ,', ,' ", ,,i i," .,- "



t. . .. Chalere.- lbk o H-ard,
LT' oli pha ,. lyei... .. (Waler),
mmopahtut peat of M .-y C-id-, E."y


bicolo Howard, LA; M7cr17ery1 fl....
fislbd), FL.
REMAIIKS: P-h-l-i.. fl-AHrhr and R.





I ssssyDIsD Is)k Flcrida




FARTHENOLECANIUM FERSICAE
(Fltbrioiu-

SYNONYMS: Ch-..e p-i-co FabrWWu
1778 304
COMMON AM peral (Fpb.), CI.
,,.rk 1883:134




P,thorolacnn.W. pe,.ieoe
FFb,) ReeelL b.. 1957-350,
Nalkahera 1981.284
COMMON NAME: E,,op,,n p ...h wcal,.



















c . ?
I'g I r
.i
1 /*
r P
~
4rvr


r 'i
L



..----
1
,



.. .
I ~' '''
.
.
~ ..

II
----lr
_-r-

r I r2s
' ~ 'o
''


L
a
'''
c'

; i.
~
P
'"'
Ir ,






~r~ A


/T


Fig. 59. Parthenolecanum persicae, adult female, from Williams and Koztarab 1972.


D


11
K4

Ij


12


Z11-
R,' -


--



$`





r`u,
~







spiracular furrows. Donsu--Derm mem-
branous to slightly sclerotized. Body setae (Fig.
59, D) stout, conical, pointed and of 2 sizes:
larger ones located mid-dorsally from anterior of
anal plates to near anterior margin; smaller ones
randomly scattered over body surface. Sub-
marginal tubercles (Fig. 59, B) number 24-34
around submargin. Numerous bilocular (Fig. 59,
F) and disc pores (Fig. 59, G) randomly scat-
tered. Tubular ducts absent. Larger discoidal
pores (Fig. 59, H) confined to area anterior of
anal plates. Anal plates triangular with caudal

4 subapital setae. VENT Membranous.
Antennae 8-segmented. Legs with tibiotarsal
sclerosis and free articulation; claw with denti-
cle near apex. Submarginal setae in double row
with a group of 4-7 setae near posterior end of
anal cleft. Spiracular furrows 3 or 4 quin-
quelocular pores wide (Fig. 59, N). Multilocular
pores (Fig. 59, 0) in vulvar area, in transverse
rows on abdomen, in clusters mesad of each
coxa. Tubular ducts with broad inner filament

cephalothorax (Fig. 59, Q); ducts with slender
filaments (Fig. 59, R) in submargin and medial
area of abdomen. MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig.
59, C) long, slender, slightly curved, pointed.
Spiracular setae (Fig. 59, E) in groups of 3, about
same length as marginal setae, laterals slightly
shorter than medial seta.
DISTRIBUTION: Not reported from Florida.
AL, CA, DC, ID, IN, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC,
NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, TX, UT, VA.
Foreign: Algeria, Argentina, Australia,
Bulgaria, Corsica, Czechoslovakia, Egypt,
France, India, Iran, Italy, Korea, Morocco, New
Zealand, Portugal, Sicily, Spain, Switzerland,
Turkey, USSR, and Yugoslavia.
BIOLOGY: Polyphagous on leaves, stems, and
twigs. According to Williams and Kosztarab
(1972), 2nd instars overwinter and mature
females begin laying eggs in May. The crawlers
hatch and migrate to the underside of leaves and
new growth.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: European peach
scale is primarily a pest of ornamentals in the U.
S. and will kill the host if not controlled
(Williams & Kosztarab 1972). Borchsenius
(1957) indicated this scale insect was a pest of
grapes, fruit crops, and ornamentals in the
USSR.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Some of those parasites
listed by Peck (1963) and Krombein et al. (1979)
are as follows: Coccophagus fraternus Howard,
FL; C. lycimniae (Walker), cosmopolitan; En-


cyrtus fuscu (Howard), AL; Pospaltella auran-
tii (Howard), cosmopolitan; Tetrastichus
minutes (Howard), FL. In Australia the encyrtid
Metaphycus timberlakei controlled P. perseae
(Bartlett in Clausen ed. 1978).
REMARKS: This scale insect has been reported
in Florida by Merrill and Chaffin (1923) and
Merrill (1953); however, we have been unable to
confirm these records. The 24-34 submarginal
tubercles around the dorsal submargin is a
distinguishing character of this scale and will
separate it from related species in the U. S.
MATERIAL STUDIED: No Florida material
available for study. VIRGINIA: Blacksburg,
1(1), barberry, 22-IV-1969, M. Williams;
Blacksburg, 1(2), barberry, 5-V-1969, M.
Williams.




PARTHENOLECANIUM QUERCIFEX
(Fitch)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium quercifex Fitch 1859:
805
L. quercitronis Fitch, Signoret
1873:426, Williams & Kosz-
tarab 1972:97
L. quercitronis var. kermoides
Tyrell, Williams & Kosztarab
1972:97
L. (Eulecanium) quercitronis
(Fitch), Williams & Kosztarab
1972:97
Eulecanium quercifex (Fitch),
Williams & Kosztarab 1972:97
Parthenolecanium quercifex
(Fitch), Nakahara 1981:285
COMMON NAME: oak lecanium
FIELD DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 60) According to
Merrill (1953), this soft scale is elliptical, quite
convex, and more or less tapering at the ends.
The color is light to dark brown and nearly
always has 2 large lateral humps. In Florida, it is
found only on oak trees. Length 4.0-7.0 mm,
width 3.0-5.0 mm.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 61) Williams and
Kosztarab (1972) were unable to consistently
separate P. quercifex from P. corni and because
of this placed it in the "corni complex". For a
description of L. quercifex refer to the descrip-
tion of Parthenolecanium corni.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XXII. Probably occurs
in most of eastern U. S. and Canada (Merrill
1953).






















,--- I





0 ,
Map XXII Dtribtion of
Map XXII. Distribution of Parthenolecanium quercfex.


Fig. 60. Parthenolecanium quercifex, adult female with charac-
teristic humps, DPI Photo 701918-14.


BIOLOGY: Apparently very similar to P. corni.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Not known to be
economically important in Florida.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Some of the parasites
listed by Peck (1963) and Krombein et al. (1979)
include Aenasioidea trimblei Dozier, PA; Coc-
cophagus lycimnia (Walker), cosmopolitan; and
Encyrtus peckhamii (Ashmead), NC.
REMARKS: Infrequently encountered in very
small numbers in FL. Because of the similarity of
this species to P. corni, only a pictorial separa-
tion is possible at this time. Future biosystematic
studies may change this.
MATERIAL STUDIED: Authentic material not
studied.


Genus PROTOPULVINARIA
Cockerell, 1894

TYPE SPECIES: Pulvinaria (Protopulvinaria)
pyriformis Cockerell, 1894.
DESCRIPTION: Body pyriform, more or less
acuminate in front, naked or with narrow fringe
of cottony secretion. Derm becoming sclerotized
at maturity. Dorsal body setae capitate. Sub-
marginal tubercles present. Anal plates ex-
tremely long. Anal ring with 10 setae. Anal cleft
extending to near center of body. Antennae well
developed, 7 or 8-segmented. Legs well
developed, with tibiotarsal sclerotization and
free articulation. Quinquelocular pores in
spiracular furrows. Multilocular pores in vulvar
area and in transverse rows on abdomen.
Tubular ducts scattered over most of venter,
most numerous in submarginal band around
body. One pair of large prevulvar setae.
Marginal setae fimbriate except few pointed near
anal cleft. Spiracular setae in groups of 3, medial
seta longer than laterals.
NOTES: Eggs are protected by a short ovisac or
under the body of the female until hatching.
Two species of Protopulvinaria are known from
the southeastern United States: P. mangiferae
and P. pyriformis.

KEY TO SPECIES
OF PROTOPUL VINARIA

1. Anal plates at least 4 times longer than
wide; tubular ducts of 2 types, numer-
ous submarginally.......... pyriformis
1'. Anal plates less than 3 times longer than
wide; tubular ducts of 1 type, few sub-
marginally ............... mangiferae










































K2
K1 L
Fig. 61. Parthenolecaning quercifex, adult female, modified from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.

79


J` t
1







PROTOPULVINARIA MANGIFERAE
(Green)

SYNONYMS: Lecanium mangiferae Green
1889:249
Coccus mangiferae (Green), Fer-
nald 1903:172
Protopulvinaria mangiferae
(Green), Steinweden 1929:223
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: mango shield
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Somewhat triangular
in shape, irregular, bluntly pointed in front,
broadly rounded behind, flat, thin, and


Fig. 62. Protopulvinaria mangiferae, adult female, DPI Photo
701678.

yellowish green (Merrill 1953) (Fig. 62). Wrin-
kling of dead specimens causes formation of little
ridges that seem to define polygonal areas (Ferris
in Zimmerman 1948).
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 63) Adult female 2.5-4.0
mm long, 2.2-3.5 mm wide. Body broadly
pyriform. DoRsuM-Derm membranous in
young adult females, becoming more sclerotized
with age. Scattered clear areas, each with a dark
rim; submargin sectioned with membranous
lines. Submarginal tubercles (Fig. 63, E) number
9-15 around body. Dorsal setae with swollen
apices (Fig. 63, C). Few discoidal pores (Fig. 63,
H) anterior to anal plates. Anal plates (Fig. 63,


Ii) ca. one-third length of body from posterior
margin. Anterolateral margins of anal plates ca.
2X longer than posterolateral margins.
VENTER-Ventral tubular ducts (Fig. 63, P) on
thorax between legs and on abdominal sub-
margin. Legs normally developed. Multilocular
pores (Fig. 63, 0) confined to vulvar region.
Quinquelocular pores (Fig. 63, N) in spiracular
furrows, in single row. Antennae 8-segmented.
MARGIN Marginal setae (Fig. 63, B) closely set,
evenly spaced in single row, each seta variously
branched or fimbriate at apex. Spiracular setae
in groups of 3, with medial seta ca. 3X longer
than laterals.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XXIII. HI, TX. Foreign:
Antigua, Barbados, Burma, Cuba, Egypt, El
Salvador, Grenada, Guyana, Israel, Jamaica,
Kenya, Madagascar, Martinique, Mauritius,
Mexico, Panama, Philippines, St. Lucia,
Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Africa,
Trinidad, Virgin Islands, and Zanzibar.


'-' _






Map XXIII. Distribution of Protopulvinaria mangiferae.

BIOLOGY: According to Avidov and Harpaz
(1969), 3 generations are produced each year in
the coastal plains of Israel. Larvae of the first
generation appeared in late March and early
May, larvae of the 2nd generation in early June,
and the 3rd generation in early September. The
spring generation lived an average of 74 days, the
summer generation 91 days, and the 3rd genera-
tion 194 days. The 2nd generation is the most im-
















I .
C'~ :~:



HB

//'
.,/ A
//:


I. D

A - i
' " :
I'P
t r



44.





/ ?6.,4 -
II /w
,- Q
- ',/ IA




o LA
S'' Q
^/ --. / '

A ^// '/ i


I I \
/ I
I I \
! I \


2


J


Fig. 63. Protolvinaria mangiferae, adult female, original by M. L. Williams.













ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: At time, this





EMARKS Mango hield scale is vey similar to







have a pular shape The- two sp-leS have
Pb- nfud at times, and reords are probably









AERJL STUDyEiD: FLOrIDal Mi-i


















PROTOPULVINARIA PYRIFORMIS
(Chkodil)

SYNONYMS. PulN N A oao (P, .-,,.








COMMON NAME: py.it.n -l
_jE U .TE : .. .. F. .


1 o 2 poo., id.
A.naiAIoA,, (CFg 65, N) ,,a n oood
-1-v and W.-n.vre os nadosa





arud p, .irpotonu.Bt,


II 111111 111 11

1111
LC~CI'II~.' i~.



I '
II

I' I - I II
L I
























r% r *




-~ 4c.
I ~ -- -

''I-A

%


0 oo
I* )

/** -~
I

E~~ :\ N

I'(











I 12
Fig. 65. Protopuivina ia pyrijormis adult female, from Williams and Katatarab 1972.







DISTRIBUTION: Map XXIV. AL, CA, DC,
GA, LA, MS, NH, NM, NY, SC, TX, VA.
Foreign: Bermuda, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guyana, Jamaica, Madeira, Mex-
ico, Panama, Puerto Rico, South Africa, Hon-
duras, Tobago, Trinidad, and Venezuela.


Map XXIV. Distribution of Protopulvinaria pyrijormis.

BIOLOGY: In Florida, several overlapping
generations occur. Eggs are deposited under the
female, and the white wax fringe around the
posterior is a short ovisac. Pyriform scales prefer
the underside of leaves.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Merrill (1953)
reported this scale insect as economically impor-
tant on avocado, gardenia, guava, and some or-
namentals in Florida.
REMARKS: In Florida, Protopulvinaria
mangiferae and Kilifia acuminata resemble
pyriform scale in the field. However, the longer
anal plates, when they can be observed, readily
separate pyriform scale from these species. Pro-
topulvinaria longivalvata Green in the Carib-
bean Islands and Central America can be con-
fused with P. pyriformis, but the longer marginal
and dorsal setae of P. pyriformis will separate
them.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA: Apopka,
1(1), Hedera helix, 19-XI-1971, F. L. Ware,
1(1), Hedera helix, 29-VI-1972, G. T. Smith;
Coral Gables, 1(1) Brassaia actinophylla,


23-III-1973, K. Bedat; Miami Beach, 1(1),
Brassaia actinophylla, 21-XII-1973, W. S.
Brewton; Monticello, 1(1), Gardenia sp.,
5-XII-1972, R. H. Miller; Naples, 1(1), Fatsia
japonica, 10-II-1977, R. Driggers; Pine Hill,
1(1), Trachelospermum jasminoides,
24-VII-1972, F. L. Ware; Port Salerno, 1(1),
Bauhinia sp., 27-III-1979, E. W. Campbell.


Genus PSEUDOPHILIPPIA Cockerell, 1897

TYPE SPECIES: Pseudophilippia quaintancii
Cockerell, 1897.
DESCRIPTION: Body of adult female convex to
globular, often distorted because of crowding at
needle bases; with white cottony secretion cover-
ing body. Derm heavily sclerotized at maturity.
Dorsum with dense pattern of large invaginated
8-shaped tubercles and small monolocular ring
pores. Submarginal tubercles absent. Anal plates
with 4 apical setae, 3 subapical setae, anal fold
with 6 fringe setae. Anal ring with 8 setae.
Antennae greatly reduced, 6-segmented. Legs
greatly reduced without tibiotarsal sclerotiza-
tion. Quinquelocular pores in spiracular furrows
and vulvar area. Multilocular pores usually ab-
sent. Tubular ducts, if present, confined to anal
area. Hypopygial setae present. Marginal setae
short, bluntly pointed, indistinct. Spiracular
setae, if present, not different from marginal
setae.
NOTES: The only North American represent-
ative of this genus is Pseudophilippia quaintancii
Cockerell which is only found on pines. A discus-
sion of the generic status of Pseudophilippia as
well as descriptions of the immature stages and
adult male are presented in Ray and Williams
(1980).



PSEUDOPHILIPPIA QUAINTANCII
Cockerell

SYNONYMS: Pseudophilippia quaintancii
Cockerell 1897:89
SUGGESTED COMMON NAME: woolly pine
scale
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Adult female oval to
hemispherical, 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter. Body
yellowish or light brown but covered with a pro-
fusion of fluffy, snow white wax (Fig. 66). Usu-
ally clustered at the base of pine needles.
DESCRIPTION: (Fig. 67) Adult females sub-
circular, 1.5-2.5 mm in diameter. DOR-

































uM- Derm sclerotized in older females, young
females membranous with sclerotized area sur-
rounding anal plates. Body setae (Fig. 67, C)
scattered over dorsum, short, stout, pointed,
thickest near center. Invaginated 8-shaped
tubercles (Fig. 67, E, Ei) densely scattered over
dorsum. Lateral angles of anal plates not well
defined. Anal cleft extends to about one-sixth of
body length. VENTER- Legs greatly reduced, oc-
casional specimens with normal segmentation.
Antennae reduced to short, stout, 6-segmented
stubs; often segmentation not visible. Spiracular
furrows with several rows of 2-6-locular pores
(Fig. 67, K). About five 3- or 4-locular pores near
each antenna base (Fig. 67, L). Few tubular
ducts (Fig. 67, 0) with slender filaments around
vulva. MARGIN-Marginal setae (Fig. 67, B)
number 25-30 around entire margin, stout,
rather slender, straight, sharp pointed.
Spiracular setae absent or not differentiated from
marginal setae.
DISTRIBUTION: Map XXV. AL, GA, LA,
MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, SC, TN, VA.
Foreign: Apparently does not occur outside the
eastern United States.
BIOLOGY: The biology of woolly pine scale has
not been studied. April, May, and June are the
typical months when large amounts of woolly
wax are present in Florida.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: Merrill (1953) did
not consider woolly pine scale economically im-


Map XXV. Distribution of Pseudophilippia quaintancii.

portant in Florida; however, in recent years, it
has been an occasional problem to ornamental
plantings in Florida. Apparently, it is kept under
control by parasites and predators.
REMARKS: Pseudophilippia quaintancii is
similar to Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell)
because both have invaginated 8-shaped pores
and lack differentiated spiracular setae;
however, in T. parvicornis, the invaginated
8-shaped pores are congregated into pore clusters
and are randomly scattered in P. quaintancii.
Also, only P. quaintancii has the large profusion
of fluffy, snow white, cottony wax.
MATERIAL STUDIED: FLORIDA:
Gainesville, 2(2), Pinus taeda, 19-IV-1967, G.
W. Dekle; 2(2), Pinus elliottii, 27-IV-1970, G.
W. Dekle; Jacksonville, 1(2), Pinus, 22-IV-1922,
H. Mowry; 4(4), Pinus elliottii, 20-IV-1981, J.
Garbark.




Genus PULVINARIA Targioni-Tozzetti,
1866

TYPE SPECIES: Coccus vitis Linnaeus, 1758.
DESCRIPTION: Body of young female slightly
convex, naked or with thin coating of clear, flaky
wax. Derm becoming lightly sclerotized with
age. Body setae variable. Dorsal pores of variable





























1 F2
Fig. 67. Pseudophiliplia quaintandi, adult female, from Williams and Kosztarab 1972.


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