• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Division of plant industry technical...
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Illustrations
 List of Maps
 Foreword
 Main
 Plates
 Reference
 Host index
 General index to ichneumonid...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Contribution - Bureau of Entomology no. 400
Title: Ichneumoninae of Florida and neighboring states
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000089/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ichneumoninae of Florida and neighboring states (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, subfamily Ichneumoniae)
Series Title: Contribution - Bureau of Entomology ; 400
Physical Description: x, 350 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Heinrich, Gerd H., 1896-
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: December 23, 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Ichneumonidae -- Classification   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Classification   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Classification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Classification -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 333-337.
General Note: "Release date: December 23, 1977."
General Note: Includes indexes.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gerd H. Heinrich.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000089
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0027
notis - ACU1660
alephbibnum - 000520172
oclc - 06734682
lccn - 79621086 //r81

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Division of plant industry technical council and administrative staff
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
    List of Maps
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    Main
        Page 1
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    Plates
        Page 325
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    Reference
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
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    Host index
        Page 339
        Page 340
    General index to ichneumonid names
        Page 341
        Page 342
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    Back Matter
        Page 351
        Page 352
    Back Cover
        Page 353
        Page 354
Full Text

ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS
VOLUME 9


Ichneumoninae


of Florida and Neighboring States
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, subfamily Ichneumoninae)


by
Gerd H. Heinrich
C"\..<


Plate 6. Cprinodes havanensis Cameron, female

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner


4\'



























SEX,_ LIB:.IS
-UNIVEPISITY of TFLORIDA







ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
And Neighboring Land Areas



Volume 9





Ichneumoninae
of Florida and Neighboring States



(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, subfamily Ichneumoninae)

by
Gerd H. Heinrich
Research Associate: Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Dryden, Maine, U.S.A.




FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Halwin L. Jones, Director
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant industry
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32602


Contribution No. 400. Bureau of Entomology.


Release Date: December 23,1977














FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES



DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY



Plant Industry Technical Council


Vernon Conner, Chairman (Citrus) ..........................
Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Vice Chairman (Vegetable)..............
Colin English, Sr. (Citizen-at-Large) .........................
Lawrence Cutts (Apiary) ....................................
John W. Hornbuckle (Citrus) ..............................
T. Rankin Terry (Commercial Flower) .......................
Lewis E. Wadsworth (Forestry) .............................
Joseph Welker (Ornamental Horticulture)....................
Stanley F. Cruse (Turfgrass) .................................
Halwin L. Jones, Secretary ................................


Mount Dora
Canal Point
Tallahassee
Chipley
Dade City
Fort Myers
Bunnell
Jacksonville
Palmetto
Gainesville


Administrative Staff


Halwin L. Jones, Director .......................... ...
S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Assistant Director ..........................
G. D. Bridges, Chief of Budwood Registration ................
R. E. Brown, Chief of Methods Development .................
J. K. Condo, Chief of Plant Inspection .......................
H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology ........................
J. C. Herndon, Chief of Apiary Inspection ...................
C. Poucher, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control ...........
C. P. Seymour, Chief of Plant Pathology .....................
D. E. Stokes, Chief of Nematology ............................


Gainesville
Gainesville
Winter Haven
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Winter Haven
Gainesville
Gainesville


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $14,706.57 or $9.80 per
copy. It makes available to all interested persons the results of arthropod
faunal studies, emphasizing Florida and the Circum-Caribbean Region.
PI-78-S-1











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Division of Plant Industry Technical Council & Administrative Staff ................ i
Table of contents ................................................... ............. ii
List of figures ................................................................... iv
List of color plates (color plates will be at end of text) ........................... v
List of m aps..................................................................... vi
Foreword................ ..... ..................................... ix

Introduction ..................................................................... 1
Zoogeographical and distributional notes ....................................... 2
Biological notes ......................... ........ . ............... 4
Sexual dimorphism and dichromatism .......................................... 5
Term inology .................................................................... 6
Quotations .................................................... ............. 8
A abbreviations ................................................................... 9
Systematic Account ............................................................. 10
Key to tribes of Ichneumoninae of Florida and neighboring states .............. 10
Tribe Protichneum onini ......................................... ............. 10
Genus Protichneumon Thomson .............................................. 11
Genus Coelichneumon Thomson ............................................. 27
Tribe Ichneumonini ........................................................... 57
Key to the North American subtribes of the tribe Ichneumonini .............. 57
Subtribe Ichneumonina ...................................................... 57
Key to genera of Ichneumonina recorded from Florida
and neighboring land areas................................................. 57
Genus Ichneumon Linnaeus ............................... .................. 58
Genus Chasmias Ashmead ................................................. 75
Genus Orgichneumon Heinrich ............................................. 78
Genus Hemihoplis Heinrich ................................................ 81
Genus Menkokia Heinrich .................................................. 84
Genus Trogomorpha Ashmead.............................................. 85
Subtribe Amblytelina ....................................................... 88
Key to genera of Amblytelina from Florida and
neighboring land areas ................................................... 88
Genus Protopelmus Heinrich ............................................... 90
Genus Tricholabus Thomson ............................................... 93
Genus Setanta Cameron ............................ ... .............. 96
Genus Netanyacra Heinrich ................................................ 99
Genus Eutanyacra Cameron................................................ 103
Genus Ctenichneumon Thomson............................................ 107
Genus Spilichneumon Thomson ............................................ 109
Genus Diphyus Kriechbaumer .............................................. 113
Genus Neodiphyus, new genus.............................................. 116
Genus Ectopimorpha Viereck ............................................... 119
Genus Probolus Wesmael ................................................... 120
Subtribe Hoplismenina ...................................................... 122
Genus Hoplismenus Gravenhorst ........................................... 122
Subtribe Cratichneumonina................................................. 124
Key to genera of Cratichneumonina recorded from
the southeastern states ...................................................... 125
Genus Cratichneumon Thomson ............................................ 127
Genus Homotherus Foersten ................................................ 188
Genus Barichneumon Thomson............................................. 190
Genus Stenobarichneumon Heinrich ........................................ 212











Genus Vulgichneumon Heinrich ............................................... 214
Genus Virgichneumon, new genus ............................................ 222
Genus Rubicundiella Heinrich .......................................... ...... 229
Genus Melanichneumon Thomson ............................................ 235
Genus Rictichneumon Heinrich ............................................... 253
Genus Aoplus Tischbein........................ ......................... 255
Genus Limonethe Townes .................................................... 257
Genus Carinodes Hancock..................................................... 260
Genus Paraditremops, new genus ............................................. 263
Genus Plagiotrypes Ashmead................ .............................. 266
Tribe Joppocryptini ...................... ...................................... 268
Genus Lobaegis Townes ....................................................... 269
Tribe Listrodromini .......................................................... 270
Genus Anisobas W esmael ................................................. ... 271
Tribe Platylabini............................................................. 272
Key to genera of Platylabini of Florida and neighboring
land areas................................................................... 272
Genus Platylabus Wesmael ................................................... 273
Genus Ambloplisus Heinrich ................................................. 276
Genus Linycus Cameron...................................................... 278
Genus Neolinycus Heinrich.................................................. 280
Genus Apaeleticus Wesmael .................................................. 282
Tribe Trogini ................................................................ 283
Subtribe Callajoppina........................................... .............. 283
Genus Gnamptopelta Hopper ................................................. 284
Genus Conocalama Hopper................................................... 287
Genus Tricyphus Kriechbaumer .............................................. 288
Subtribe Trogina ............................................. ................. 294
Genus Trogus Panzer.......................................................... 294
Tribe Phaeogenini ................................ ....... ...................... 298
Key to genera of Phaeogenini of the southeastern states ....................... 299
Genus Phaeogenes Wesmael .................................................. 299
Genus Colpognathus Wesmael................................................ 309
Genus Centeterus Wesmael ................................................... 311
Genus Diadromus W esmael.................................... ............... 312
Genus Dicaelotus Wesmael ................................................... 314
Genus Terebraella Heinrich................................................... 318
A ddenda .......................................................................... 320
The Fattig list.................................................................... 320
R. Duffield specimens collected hibernating in Georgia ........................... 324
C olor plates ....................................................................... 325
Literature cited .................................................................... 333
H ost index ........................................................................ 339
Index to ichneumonid names .................................................... 341















iii







LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. a. & b. Morphology of head.
Fig. c. Morphology of propodeum.
Fig. d. Morphology of thorax,
lateral view.
Fig. 1. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich
(female). Flagellum, basal segments.
Fig. 2. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich
(female). Femur III, side view.
Fig. 3. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich
(female). Head, dorsal view.
Fig. 4. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich
(female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 5. Protichneumon ambiguus (Cresson)
(female). Abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 6. Protichneumon ambiguus (Cresson)
(female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 7. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brull6 (female). Abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 8. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brulle (female). Head, dorsal view.
Fig. 9. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brull6 (female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 10. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brulle (female). Flagellum, basal seg-
ments.
Fig. 11. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brull6 (female). Femur III, lateral view.
Fig. 12. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson)
(female). Head, lateral view.
Fig. 13. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson)
(female). Head, posterior view.
Fig. 14. Coelichneumon orpheus (Cresson)
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 15. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
(female). Head, lateral view.
Fig. 16. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
(female). Head, posterior view.
Fig. 17. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
(female). Mandible, frontal view.
Fig. 18. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson)
(female). Clypeus, frontal view.
Fig. 19. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson)
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 20. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson) (male).
Clypeus, frontal view.
Fig. 21.0rgichneumon calcatorius (Thun-
berg) (female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 22. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cresson)
(female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 23. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Ciesson)


(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 24. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cresson)
(female). Abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 25. Netanyacra leucopus Heinrich
(male). Hypopygium, ventral view.
Fig. 26. Netanyacra leucopus Heinrich
(female). Mandible, frontal view.
Fig. 27. Netanyacra leucopus Heinrich
(male). Thorax, lateral view.
Fig. 28. Eutanyacra (male). Hypopygium,
ventral view.
Fig. 29. Eutanyacra (male). Basal tergites of
abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 30. Neodiphyus (male). Mandible,
frontal view.
Fig. 31. Neodiphyus (male). Thorax, lateral
view.
Fig. 32. Neodiphyus (male). Hypopygium,
ventral view.
Fig. 33. Cratichneumon variegatus fusco-
variegator Heinrich (male). Tyloids of
flagellar segments 10-15.
Fig. 34. Cratichneumon variegatus fusco-
variegator Heinrich (male). Head, frontal
view.
Fig. 35. Cratichneumon anisotae Heinrich
(male). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 36. Cratichneumon anisotae Heinrich
(male). Head, lateral view.
Fig. 37. Cratichneumon anisotae Heinrich
(male). Tyloids of flagellar segments 9-15.
Fig. 38. Cratichneumon volens volens
Cresson (female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 39. Homotherus townesi Heinrich
(female). Second tergite, dorsal view.
Fig. 40. Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich
(male). Tyloids on flagellar segments 4-12..
Fig. 41. Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 42. Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich
(female). Abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 43. Barichneumon archboldi Heinrich
(male). Tyloids on flagellar segments.
Fig. 44. Barichneumon peramoenus pera-
;noenus Heinrich (female). Head, dorsal
view.
Fig. 45. Barichneumon peramoenus calli-
andros Heinrich (female). Propodeum,
dorsal view.

Fig. 46. Barichneumon peramoenus calli-
andros Heinrich (male). Tyloids on flagel-
lar segments.







%ig. 47. Barichneumon fuscosignatus Hein-
rich (female). Head, dorsal view.
Fig. 48. Barichneumon fuscosignatus Hein-
rich (female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 49. Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Say
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 50. Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Say
(male). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 51. Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Say
(female). Abdominal tergites 1-2, dorsal
view.
Fig. 52. Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Say
(male). Abdominal tergites 1-2, dorsal view.
Fig. 53. Rubicundiella mucronata (Pro-
vancher) (male). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 54. Rubicundiella annulicornis (Ash-
mead) (female). Head, lateral view.
Fig. 55 Rubicundiella annulicornis (Ash-
mead) (female). Head, frontal view.
Fig. 56. Melanichneumon disparilis dis-
parilis (Cresson) (female). Propodeum,
dorsal view.
Fig. 57. Limonethe maurator Brull6 (male).
Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 58. Limonethe maurator BruNll
(female). Abdominal tergites 1-2, dorsal
view.
Fig. 59. Carinodes havanensis Cameron
(female). Face, frontal view.
Fig. 60. Carinodes havanensis Cameron
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 61. Paraditremops albipectus (Brulle)
(female). Face, frontal view.
Fig. 62. Paraditremops albipectus (Brulle)
(female). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 63. Plagiotrypes concinnus (Say) (fe-
male). Mandible, dorsal view.
Fig. 64. Plagiotrypes concinnus (Say) (fe-
male). Mandible, frontal view.
Fig. 65. Plagiotrypes concinnus (Say) (fe-
male). Propodeum, dorsal view.
Fig. 66. Plagiotrypes concinnus (Say) (fe-
male). Abdomen, ventral view.
Fig. 67. Troguspennator (Fabricius) (female).
Flagellar segments 1-6.
Fig. 68. Trogus pennator (Fabricius) (male).
Flagellar segments 1-6.
Fig. 69. Troguspennator (Fabricius) (female).
Head, dorsal view. *
Fig. 70. Troguspennator (Fabricius) (female).
Abdomen, dorsal view.


Fig. 71. Trogus pennator (Fabricius) (male).
Abdomen, dorsal view.
Fig. 72. Phaeogenes hebrus (Cresson) (fe-
male). Coxa III, inner view.
Fig. 73. Terebraella culiciops Heinrich
(female). Dorsal view.




LIST OF COLOR PLATES

1. Protopelmus atrocaeruleus (Cresson),
male
2. Cratichneumon floridensis Heinrich,
male
3. Barichneumon archboldi Heinrich,
male
4. Barichneumon peramoenus calliandros
Heinrich, male
5. Melanichneumon honestus miller Hein-
rich, female
6. Carinodes havanensis Cameron, female
(cover illustration)
7. Gnamptopelta obsidianator austrina
(Cresson), male
8. Tricyphus elegans (Cresson), male
9. Tricyphus floridanus Heinrich, male







LIST OF MAPS

Map 1. Protichneumon radtkeorum
Heinrich
Map 2. Protichneumon grandis grandis
Brull6
Map 3. Protichneumon grandis inornatior
n. subsp.
Map 4. Protichneumon sartoris Heinrich
Map 5. Protichneumon glabricoxalis n. sp.
Map 6. Coelichneumon pulcher (Brull6)
Map 7. Coelichneumon eximius (Stephens)
Map 8. Coelichneumon sassacus (Viereck)
Map 9. Coelichneumon nudus Heinrich
Map 10. Coelichneumon magniscopa
Heinrich
Map 11. Coelichneumon maurus (Cresson)
Map 12. Coelichneumon histricus (Cresson)
Map 13. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson)
Map 14. Coelichneumon orpheus (Cresson)
Map 15. Coelichneumon navus albidior
n. subsp.
Map 16. Coelichneumon vitalis (Cresson)
Map 17. Coelichneumon lisae n. sp.
Map 18. Coelichneumon azotus (Cresson)
Map 19. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
Map 20. Coelichneumon punctifer Heinrich
Map 21. Coelichneumon pseudowalleyi
n. sp.
Map 22. Coelichneumon delirops n. sp.
Map 23. Ichneumon weemsi Heinrich
Map 24. Ichneumon tritus Heinrich
Map 25. Ichneumon fuscifrons torreyae
n. subsp.
Map 26. Ichneumon lewisii Cresson
Map 27. Ichneumon mendax Cresson
Map 28. Ichneumon ambulatorius Fabricius
Map 29. Ichneumon versabilis Cresson
Map 30. Ichneumon grandisops Heinrich
Map 31. Ichneumon pumiliops Heinrich
Map 32. Ichneumon anonymous Heinrich
Map 33. Ichneumon heterocampae
Cushman
Map 34. Ichneumon devinctor Say
Map 35. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson)
Map 36. Orgichneumon calcatorius albidior
n. subsp.
Map 37. Hemihoplis teres (Swift)
Map 38. Hemihoplis porpitius (Cresson)
Map 39. Menkokia blandii (Cresson)
Map 40. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cresson)
Map 41. Protopelmus atrocaeruleus
(Cresson)
Map 42. Tricholabus adventicus (Hopper)
Map 43. Tricholabus mitchelli Heinrich
Map 44. Setanta compta compta (Say)
Map 45. Netanyacra leucopus Heinrich
Map 46. Eutanyacra melanotarsis Heinrich
Map 47. Eutanyacra pycnopus Heinrich
Map 48. Eutanyacra succincta Brull6


Map 49. Ctenichneumon (?) punctiscuta
Heinrich
Map 50. Spilichneumon provancheri flavi-
dior, n. subsp.
Map 51. Diphyus comes Cresson
Map 52. Diphyus distinctipes Heinrich
Map 53. Neodiphyus flavovarius (Cresson)
Map 54. Ectopimorpha wilsoni (Cresson)
Map 55. Probolus detritus (Brull6)
Map 56. Hoplismenus praeruptus Swift
Map 57. Cratichneumon unifasciatorius
unifascitorius (Say)
Map 58. Cratichneumon sublatus (Cresson)
Map 59. Cratichneumon proximus (Cresson)
Map 60. Cratichneumon tyloidifer Heinrich
Map 61. Cratichneumon variegatus
insignitus Heinrich
Map 62. Cratichneumon variegatus
fuscovariegator n. subsp.
Map 63. Cratichneumon anisotae Heinrich
Map 64. Cratichneumon georgius Heinrich
Map 65. Cratichneumon pseudanisotae
Heinrich
Map 66. Cratichneumon subfilatus
Heinrich
Map 67. Cratichneumon austropiceipes
Heinrich
Map 68. Cratichneumon w-album fuscior
Heinrich
Map 69. Cratichneumon louisianae, n. sp.
Map 70. Cratichneumon excors, n. sp.
Map 71. Cratichneumon ritus Heinrich
Map 72. Cratichneumon insulae Heinrich
Map 73. Cratichneumon vinnulus (Cresson)
Map 74. Cratichneumon horani Heinrich
Map 75. Cratichneumon erythroscuta
Heinrich
Map 76. Cratichneumon naumanni
Heinrich
Map 77. Cratichneumon carolinae Heinrich
Map 78. Cratichneumon paraparatus
Heinrich
Map 79. Cratichneumon paratus pseudo-
vinnulus Heinrich
Map 80. Cratichneumon floridensis
Heinrich
Map 81. Cratichneumon vescus
(Provancher)
Map 82. Cratichneumon flavipectus
mississippi Heinrich
Map 83. Cratichneumon facetus austro-
riparius, n. subsp.
Map 84. Cratichneumon scitulus (Cresson)
Map 85. Cratichneumon volens volens
(Cresson)
Map 86. Cratichneumon annulatipes face-
tops Heinrich
Map 87. Homotherus townesi Heinrich
Map 88. Barichneumon flaviscuta Heinrich
Map 89. Barichneumon sphageti crassi-
punctatus Heinrich







Map 90. Barichneumon libens (Cresson)
Map 91. Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich
Map 92. Barichneumon archboldi Heinrich
Map 93. Barichneumon peramoenus pera-
moenus Heinrich
Map 94. Barichneumon peramoenus calli-
andros Heinrich
Map 95. Barichneumon floridanus Heinrich
Map 96. Barichneumon carolinensis
Heinrich
Map 97. Barichneumon fuscosignatus
Heinrich
Map 98. Stenobarichneumon agitatorops,
n. sp.
Map 99. Vulgichneumon brevicinctor Say
Map 100. Vulgichneumon terminalis
carolinensis Heinrich
Map 101. Vulgichneumon phaeogenops
Heinrich
Map 102. Virgichneumon zebratus
zebratus Cresson
Map 103. Virgichneumon seticornutus
Heinrich
Map 104. Virgichneumon texanus (Cresson)
Map 105. Rubicundiella mucronata
(Provancher)
Map 106. Rubicundiella annulicornis
(Ashmead)
Map 107. Rubicundiella perturbatrix
Heinrich
Map 108. Melanichneumon disparilis
flavidops Heinrich
Map 109. Melanichneumon heiligbrodtii
(Cresson)
Map 110. Melanichneumon honestus
honestus (Cresson)
Map 111. Melanichneumon honestus
miller Heinrich
Map 112. Melanichneumon mystificans
Heinrich
Map 113. Melanichneumon margaritae
Heinrich
Map 114. Melanichneumon leviculus
(Cresson)
Map 115. Melanichneumon complicatus,
n. sp.
Map 116. Rictichneumon belfragei (Cresson)
Map 117. Aoplus confirmatus insignitior,
n. subsp.
Map 118. Limonethe maurator BrullI
Map 119. Carinodes havanensis Cameron
Map 120. Paraditremops albipectus (Brull6)
Map 121. Plagiotrypes concinnus (Say)
Map 122. Lobaegis septentrionalis Heinrich
Map 123. Anisobas texensis (Ashmead)
Map 124. Platylabus clarus (Cresson)
Map 125. Platylabus flavidoclarus, n. sp.
Map 126. Platylabus hyperetis Heinrich
Map 127. Ambloplisus ornatlis (Cresson)
Map 128. Linycus exhortator thoracicus
(Cresson)


Map 129. Neolinycus michaelis michaelis
Heinrich
Map 130. Neolinycus michaelis georgianus
Heinrich
Map 131. Neolinycus michaelis arkansae,
n. subsp.
Map 132. Apaeleticus americanus Cushman
Map 133. Gnamptopelta obsidianator obsid-
ianator (Brull6)
Map 134. Gnamptopelta obsidianator aus-
trina (Cresson)
Map 135. Conocalama brullei (Cresson)
Map 136. Tricyphus apicalis (Cresson)
Map 137. Tricyphus ater Hopper
Map 138. Tricyphus elegans (Cresson)
Map 139. Tricyphus floridanus Heinrich
Map 140. Trogus pennator pennator
(Fabricius)
Map 141. Phaeogenes hebrus floridae,
n. subsp.
Map 142. Phaeogenes walshiae australis
(Cushman)
Map 143. Phaeogenes trianguliferens, n. sp.
Map 144. Phaeogenes brevior, n. sp.
Map 145. Phaeogenes parvus (Provancher)
Map 146. Phaeogenes gilvilabris Allen
Map 147. Phaeogenes ater Cresson
Map 148. Colpognathus helvus (Cresson)
Map 149. Centeterus tuberculifrons
(Provancher)
Map 150. Diadromus helvolus (Cresson)
Map 151. Dicaelotus clypeatus (Cresson)
Map 152. Dicaelotus attenuatus
(Provancher)
Map 153. Dicaelotus auranticolor, n. sp.
Map 154. Dicaelotus coriaccus, n. sp.
Map 155. Terebraella culiciops Heinrich







FOREWORD


"Ichneumoninae of Florida and neighoor-
ing states" encompasses all of Florida except
the southern tip of the peninsula, most of
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, eastern Texas,
eastern North Carolina, and smaller parts of
western Tennessee, southeastern Missouri
and southwestern Kentucky. This work
contains keys for identification and full
structural and chromatic descriptions of 50
genera and 135 species and subspecies of the
subfamily Ichneumoninae. Of the 135 forms
treated in this publication, 47 previously
were not known to science. All known
Ichneumoninae are specialized parasites of
Lepidoptera. The female deposits a single egg
in the body of the host, either in the larva or
pupa. Adults are rovers and may travel fairly
long distances in the course of their random
flight. While most aculeate Hymenoptera
occur in open, dry, and hot habitats, and do
not avoid the direct radiation of the sun,
Ichneumoninae are, in general, confined to
the shade of forests and to areas with
comparatively high humidity. Few species
have adapted to drier locations, and in
semiarid regions Ichneumoninae are almost
entirely absent. Most species are active only
during early morning and late afternoon,
except on cloudy, overcast days. Presence of
host species is not the only limiting eco-
logical factor; climate and biotype appear to
be of equal, if not greater, importance.
Globally the Ichneumoninae have prolifer-
ated in speciation only in the moderate and
cool climates, diminishing as one approaches
the tropics, except at higher elevations. In
Ichneumoninae differences between the
sexes are extraordinarily great in morph-
ology as well as, sometimes, in coloration,
affecting almost every part of the body. Often
many specimens of 1 sex may be found before
a single specimen of the opposite sex is
discovered. Individual variations which
occur within both sexes of a species further
complicate an understanding of the taxon-
omy of the group.
The author, Gerd Herrmann Heinrich, is
recognized as the world's leading authority
on the subfamily Ichneumoninae, family
Ichneumonidae. He is the author of 4 major
publications on Ichneumonidae, 4 popular
travelogs, 93 smaller but significant publi-
cations on Ichneumoninae, 3 publications on
European mammals, 3 publications on the
biology of the birds of Angbla, and 2
publications on the systematics of the birds
of Angola coauthored with Dr. S. Dillon


Ripley, formerly of Yale University and
currently Secretary of the Smithsonian
Institution. In print is a publication (in
Russian) on the Siberian Ichneumoninae
being published in Moscow by the Russian
Academy of Sciences.
Heinrich's major publications were "The
Ichneumoninae of Celebes" (German lan-
guage, 1943, 265 pages, 7 plates of figures);
"Les Ichneumonides de Madagascar"
(French language, 1938, 139 pages, 6 plates);
"Synopsis of Nearctic Ichneumoninae Steno-
pneusticae with particular reference to the
Northeastern Region (Hymenoptera)" (Eng-
lish language, 1961-1962, 7 volumes, 886
pages, numerous illustrations); "Synopsis
and reclassification of the Ichneumoninae of
Africa south of the Sahara" (English
language, 5 volumes, 1,258 pages, numerous
text figures). Heinrich has described 1,383
species and subspecies of Ichneumoninae
(Nearctic:334, Africa:408, Madagascar:87,
Celebes 156, Palearctic:398). Travelog books
were about Heinrich expeditions, including 1
on the Celebes Island (1932), 1 on Burma
(1940), and 1 on Persia (1933).

Gerd Heinrich was born in Berlin, Ger-
many on 7 November 1896, son of a phys-
ician, Dr. Herrmann Heinrich and Mar-
garethe von Tepper-Ferguson Heinrich, heir
of a large agricultural estate in the German
province (since 1918, Polish) of West Prussia.
He was educated at home by a tutor until his
9th year, graduated "primus omnium" from
the Askanische Gymnasium in Berlin in
1914, at the age of 17, planning, like his
father before him, toward a career in
medicine. His education was interrupted by
the declaration of war between Germany and
Russia. He entered the German Army in the
cavalry and subsequently became a pilot in
the German Air Force. Following World War
I, the family estate became a part of Poland
where Gerd married and lived with his
family. Poland was invaded by Germany in
1939 and World War II began. A series of
bizarre incidences followed, during which
both he and his wife were, for a time, on the
"death list" of the Gestapo, but through the
aid of a close friend from World War I, who,
meanwhile, had become a General in the
German Air Force, he and his wife were
rescued. Gerd, in an effort to survive,
reentered the German Air Force over which
the Gestapo had no authority. Near the end of
World War II, leaving all that they owned in







Russian-occupied Poland, he and his family
escaped to West Germany under extremely
dangerous circumstances. In 1951 they
moved to the United States, and with the aid
of Dr. Henry Townes, himself a world
authority on ichneumonid wasps, became
American citizens and settled on a little farm
in Maine where Gerd and Hildegarde have
continued to reside and where Gerd, assisted
by his wife, has continued his dedicated
studies of Ichneumoninae of the world.
Heinrich made a series of expeditions
between 1927 and 1963, partly to collectbirds
and mammals for several European and
North American museums, but extensive
collections of Ichneumoninae were made on
all of these field trips, which included the
following: 1927, Northern Persia, Elburs
Mountains (provinces of Ghilan, Masan-
deran, and Astarabad); 1930-1932, Celebes
(Latimodjong Mountains, Menkoka Moun-
tains, and Minahasa); 1931, Molucca Islands
(Halmahera and Batjan); 1935, southeastern
Europe (Balkan and Rhodope Mountains);
1937, Burma (Chin Hills with Mt. Victoria
and Shan Plateau); 1952-1953, Mexico; 1953-
1955, West Africa: Angola (northeastern and
southeastern provinces, Mt. Moco, Mt. Soke);
1957-1958, West Africa: Angola (northern
and northwestern provinces); 1961-1963,


East Africa: Tanganyika (Mt. Meru, Usam-
bara Mountains, Uluguru Mountains, Liv-
ingston Mountains, Rungwe Mountains,
Ufipa Plateau), Northern Rhodesia; 1963,
South Africa.
At the age of 81, Gerd continues his studies
of Ichneumonidae, studies which began with
an early childhood interest in natural
history. At the early age of 15, through the
influence of Professor Heymons, 1 of the
Custodians of Entomology at the Museum
fur Naturkunde, this interest became con-
centrated on parasitic wasps of the family
Ichneumonidae, a large, diverse, and at that
time taxonomically poorly known group of
insects. This lifelong interest has been one of
virtually total commitment and dedication.


Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Editor



Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services
23 November 1977








ICHNEUMONINAE OF FLORIDA AND NEIGHBORING STATES
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Subfamily Ichneumoninae)
by
Gerd H. Heinrich


Having completed the Synopsis of the
Ichneumoninae of Africa (Heinrich, 1967-
1968), I became interested in the fauna of the
southeastern United States, which was
poorly known. I decided to work out a
comprehensive treatment of the Ichneu-
moninae of the southeastern states, thus
complementing the Synopsis of the Nearctic
Ichneumoninae Stenopneusticae with parti-
cular reference to the Northeastern States
(Heinrich, 1961-1962).
The preliminary work of making field
studies and collecting material in Florida
was begun at the Archbold Biological Station
during parts of 1967 and 1968 at personal
expense. These first probes into the fauna of
the peninsula revealed that a considerable
part of the Ichneumoninae, even of this best
known of all southeastern states, was as yet
unrecorded. At about this time, Dr. Howard
V. Weems, Jr., Curator of the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, suggested the
possibility of publishing a monographic
treatment of the Ichneumoninae of Florida in
the series titled Arthropods of Florida and
Neighboring Land Areas, utilizing the
investigations I had already conducted. It
was his initiative and encouragement, and
his efforts in obtaining financial support
which made the writing and publication of
this book possible. I am therefore bound in
gratitude to him most of all.
At the beginning the scope of the planned
publication was geographically limited to the
State of Florida. Further extensive collec-
tions were made by me in Florida during
parts of 1969, 1970, and 1971. As the work
proceeded it became clear that the fauna of
the peninsula could not be thoroughly
understood and evaluated without the
inclusion of the fauna characteristic of the
adjacent parts of the Austroriparian Zone.1
Consequently, the scope of this work was
broadened, and parts of the years 1970-1972
were used for comprehensive exploration of
the Austroriparian lowlands of the
neighboring southeastern states, westward


'See map of "Faunal Zones of America North of
Mexico" on the first page of "Hymenoptera of
America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog,"
1951, by C. F. W. Muesebeck, Karl V. Krombein,
Henry K. Townes, et al.


including Georgia. A number of newly found
species and older records of species from the
Carolinian Zone, from the mountainous,
most northern parts of Georgia, Alabama,
Tennessee, and Arkansas have been
included, but no attempt has been made to
explore the fauna of these areas
exhaustively.
Extremely valuable was the help given to
me through the loans of types or other
material by Dr. Henry K. Townes, by Mr.
Robert T. Mitchell, and by the curators of the
collections of the Smithsonian Institution,
the Academy of Natural Sciences, in Phila-
delphia, the Museo es Instituto di Zoologia
Sistematica dell' Universaria di Torino, in
Italy, and the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, in Gainesville. I also wish to
express my thanks for the kind hospitality
which I enjoyed during all my collecting
activities in the southeastern states: in
Florida particularly to the late Richard
Archbold (Archbold Biological Station, Lake
Placid), Dr. Edward V. and Roy Komarek
(Tall Timbers Research Station), Captain R.
Baylor (Highlands Hammock State Park),
Dr. Herbert S. Zim (Plantation Key), Dr.
Howard V. Weems, Jr. (Red Water Lake and
Gainesville), Dieter Radtke (Fort Myers), and
Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger (Homestead); in
Louisiana particularly to the Superintendent
of Lake Bistineau State Park, L. T. Brown,
Jr.; in Arkansas to Superintendent J. V. Ford
of Lake Quachita State Park.
Great aid in my work was given to me
through the assistance in collecting speci-
mens and/or running insect flight traps for
me for considerable periods of time by the
following persons: in Florida by Dieter
Radtke, Ft. Myers and W. R. Miller, High-
lands Hammock State Park; in Georgia by
the late Fred Naumann, Forsyth; and Dr. H.
and Mrs. Lisa Herman, Athens; in
Mississippi by Dr. Clyde Sartor, Starkville
and Michael Horan, Water Valley; in
Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee by
Dwight Shaneck, Bayou Chicot, Louisiana.
The efforts of all these dedicated helpers have
produced decisive contributions for the now
almost exhaustive registration of the
southeastern fauna of Ichneumoninae. I
express my sincere gratitude to all of them.
Special acknowledgment is due Drs. Robert
W. Carlson, Charles C. Porter, and E. Eric








Grissell for reviewing the manuscript and
offering numerous helpful suggestions, to Dr.
Frank W. Mead for verifying names of hosts
of Ichneumoninae included in this treatment,
to Mrs. Barbara Webb who prepared the color
illustrations, to Mrs. Janet C. Williams who
typed the final version of the manuscript,
and to Harold A. Denmark who provided
encouragement and support throughout
most of this study. The line drawings were
prepared by Erich Diller at the Zollogische
Staatsammlung in Munich, Germany, and
Miss M. Platek in Ottawa, Canada.
The continuation of the project to its
planned conclusion in 1973 was made
possible through the greatly appreciated
financial support by grants of the Tall
Timbers Research Station and by the
American Philosophical Society. Financial
support for the project was provided by the
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services during parts of 1969-
1972.
Last, but not least, I feel bound in gratitude
to my wife, Hildegarde, who has managed to
read and type, with exemplary patience, all of
my almost illegible handwritten manu-
scripts, who has done the 1st editorial work
on them and who worked out the general
index and the bibliographic index.
This work contains keys for identification
and full structural and chromatic descrip-
tions of 50 genera and 135 species and
subspecies of the subfamily Ichneumoninae,
representing a synopsis of virtually every-
thing known about this group from the States
of Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Tennessee. Several addition-
al species probably will be discovered in the
area covered by this publication during
coming decades. I am convinced, however,
that the above mentioned number of forms
represents the overwhelming majority of the
fauna.
Of the 135 forms treated in this publication,
47 previously were not known to science. If, in
the entomologically most thoroughly ex-
plored eastern part of our country, more than
1/3 of the forms of 1 of the economically most
important groups of parasitic Hymenoptera
collected was unrecorded and unclassified, it
indicates that specialized taxonomy still has
a significant place in the spectrum of
scientific endeavor.
Zoogeographical'and
distributional notes
The land area which represents the subject
of this publication, is not at all homogenous.


Florida particularly differs markedly, and in
more than 1 aspect, from all other states
taken under consideration. The character-
istic features of the geology, geography,
climate, and vegetation of the peninsula
have been discussed in detail by C. P.
Kimball (1965) in the introduction to the 1st
volume of the Arthropods of Florida and
Neighboring Land Areas and by Dr. Robert
E. Woodruff (1973) in the 8th volume of this
series. I shall discuss briefly the composition
of Florida's Ichneumoninae and relate them
to the geographical and climatic peculiarities
of the peninsula. Fundamentally we must
keep in mind that geologically Florida
represents a recent addition to the North
American continent, originating from coral
reefs long after the lands of North America
and Cuba were covered with vegetation and
their fauna established. This, however, does
not apply to the total territory of the State of
Florida: the elevated, northern belt from the
Georgia borderline southward to about 60
miles is part of the ancient North American
continent, a fact reflected also by the
distribution of the Ichneumoninae (discussed
below).
All'Ichneumoninae are specialized para-
sites of Lepidoptera. The Ichneumoninae,
therefore, could not become established in the
geologically new territory of Florida before
their hosts, the moths and butterflies, had
succeeded in establishing themselves in
sufficient numbers and varieties of species.
(The Ichneumoninae thus must be con-
sidered 1 of the latest groups of immi-
grants.) The overwhelming majority of their
species obviously has immigrated from the
north. Only 3 species of Neotropical origin
have invaded Florida from Cuba and the
Bahamas over the sea (Carinodes havanen-
sis (Cameron), Paraditremops albipectus
(Brulle), and Neodiphyus flavicornis (Cres-
son); none of these tropical elements was able
to expand its range into the ancient, northern
.art of Florida; on the other hand, 25 species
(out of a total of 75 forms recorded below from
the entire State of Florida), all representa-
tives of the east American, continental
fauna, are found only in northern Florida,
but not in Florida's "new territory;" 3 of these
species, however, did enter southern Florida
early enough to evolve distinguishable,
endemic subspecies (Cratichneumon varie-
gatus (Provancher) subspecies fuscouar-
iegator Heinrich, Melanichneumon honestus
(Cresson) subspecies miller (Heinrich), and
Gnamptopelta obsidianator (Brulle) sub-
species austrina (Cresson).
The 75 forms (species and subspecies) in








Florida treated in this paper, can be assigned
to 4 distributional groups as follows:
(1) Endemic forms, known only from
Florida ........................... 12
(6 of these forms associated as
subspecies with east American species).
(2) Species of confirmed Neotropical origin,
confined to central and southern Flori-
da ................................. 3
(3) Species and subspecies occurring only
in the continental, northern part of
Florida but widely distributed in eastern
North America, approximately..... 25
(4) Species and subspecies recorded over
most of Florida (southward at least to
and including Highlands County) and
widely distributed also over eastern
North America, approximately ..... 35
The range of about 3/4 of the number of
species listed under category (3) and 1/2 of
the number listed under (4) reaches north-
ward into the northeastern states and into
southeastern Canada (in some cases repre-
sented there by distinct subspecies); the
range of the rest of the species listed under
categories (1) and (2) extends only over the
neighboring states in the Carolinian and the
Austroriparian Zones.
A startling feature of the Florida Ichneu-
moninae is the small number of forms. The 75
species and subspecies known from this state
comprise little more than 1/3 of the approxi-
mately 220 forms recorded for New England
by Heinrich (1961-1962). It might seem
reasonable to assume a causal relation
between the scarcity of species and the late
appearance of the peninsula of Florida, but I
prefer an ecological, particularly climatic
explanation. Globally the Ichneumoninae
have proliferated in speciation only in
moderate and cool climates. In the hot
tropical and subtropical belt the number of
species is considerable only in the moun-
tains. Starting with moderate numbers from
about 1,500 ft. above sea level, the quantity of
species increases markedly as the elevation
rises to about 6,000 or even to 9,000 ft.,
according to the presence of suitable vegeta-
tion. The tropical lowland jungles are always
poorly populated by Ichneumoninae, as is
true of all coastal lowlands in the tropical
and subtropical belt. Florida is no exception,
and it shares the comparatively small
number of forms of Ichneumoninae with all
neighboring states.
The faunas of Georgia, Alabama, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee
have been included in this publication. In


preparation for the latter, most compre-
hensive collecting, extended over several
years, has been conducted in Georgia,
Mississippi, and Louisiana. InArkansas and
Tennessee collecting was limited to 1 season
only, but carried out extensively by hand as
well as by application of 5 Malaise and
Mason traps. The fauna of Alabama, only
superficially explored, was restricted to the
most northern part of the state.
Most of the territory of the 6 states
mentioned above belongs, together with the
northernmost part of Florida, to the Austro-
riparian Zone and is zoogeographically
rather homogenous. Only in the extreme
northern part of Georgia and Alabama and
in northern Tennessee, the range of a number
of northeastern American elements projects
into the territories of these 3 states, following
the most southern spurs and canyons of the
Appalachian chains (for example: Ichneu-
mon versabilis Cresson and Ichneumon
ambulatorius Fabricius in Georgia, Ichneu-
mon tritus Heinrich and Aoplus confirmatus
(Cresson) in Tennessee, and Linycus ex-
hortator thoracicus (Cresson) and Spilich-
neumon provancheri (Cushman) in Georgia
as well as in Tennessee).
One geological factor seems to be espec-
ially vital for the Ichneumoninae of all
faunal zones: in strong contrast to the
aculeate Hymenoptera, almost all Ichneu-
moninae avoid continuous exposure to direct
sunlight. With the exception of a few species
especially adapted to open country (in the
southeastern states only Trogomorpha
trogiformis (Cresson) and Limonethe maura-
tor (Brull6)) the great majority of Ichneu-
moninae is confined to the shade and shelter
of wooded areas. In the lowlands of Florida
and the neighboring states of the Austro-
riparian Zone, forests are restricted for the
most part to a limited number of relatively
small state parks and reservations, except for
the more extensive but botanically monoto-
nous semi-open stands of pines. This is
probably another factor responsible for the
restricted number of species of Ichneumon-
inae. Some species may have been lost
through destruction of many of the ham-
mocks and mixed forests throughout the
southeastern states.
The composition of tribes and genera
occurring in Florida and neighboring states
shows certain characteristics worth mention-
ing and discussing. Particularly striking in
this connection is the almost complete
absence of the Platylabini and of the genera
Ichneumon Linnaeus. Stenichneumon Thom-
son, Patrocloides Heinrich, Thyrateles









Perkins, Hoplismenus Gravenhorst, Diphy-
us Kriechbaumer, and Aoplus Tischbein, all
of the tribe Ichneumonini.
The tribe Platylabini, a group specialized
as parasites of Geometridae, is represented
by many species in the northeastern states.
As Kimball (1965) listed more than 250
species of Geometridae from Florida, certain-
ly no lack of hosts has prevented the
Platylabini from invading the southeastern
states. Here, too, the climate very likely was
the decisive limiting factor. This hypothesis
is supported by observations made on
tropical mountains (in equatorial Celebes,
Africa, and elsewhere) where Platylabus
species were found only from 3,500 ft. up to
about 9,000 ft.
The absence of the genera of Ichneumonini
mentioned above, has another reason. The
species of all these genera are specialized for
a life cycle including hibernation of the
fertilized female during a cold to very cold
winter season. There are 67 species of the
genus Ichneumon alone recorded for New
England by Heinrich (1961), but only 1 of
them and 1 endemic species have been found
in Florida and 2 other species in the
Austroriparian parts of Mississippi and
Louisiana. In the above-mentioned genera of
Ichneumonini as well as in the Platylabini
(although the latter do not hibernate as
adults), the high degree of adaptation to cold
latitudes appears to preclude survival in hot,
subtropical regions. Characteristically the
only species of the genus Ichneumon I found
in Celebes (at the Equator) lived at the
summit of Mt. Latimodjong at about 10,000
ft. It would be interesting to learn more about
the life cycle, host, and general biology of the
only Ichneumon species endemic in Florida.
On the other hand, only a group with
nonhibernating females, the genus Barich-
neumon Thomson, shows a higher degree of
speciation in Florida and the neighboring
states than in the cool northeastern climate.
In summary, with particular reference to
the tribe Platylabini, I conclude that, at least
in the Ichneumoninae, the presence of host
species is not the only decisive ecological
factor but that the climate and biotope are
apparently of equal, if not greater, impor-
tance.

Biological Notes
All known Ichneumoninae are parasites of
Lepidoptera. The female deposits a single egg
in the body of the host, either in the larva or
pupa. Recent unpublished research by Rolf
Hinz in Germany revealed that species with


oxypygous2 females parasitize the pupa,
amblypygous3 species the caterpillar. Ex-
ceptions to this rule are not known to me, but
they may exist. In the Holarctic Zone, the
hibernating species usually produce only 1
generation per year, the nonhibernating
species often 2. In Florida, the periodically
fluctuating populations of many species (all
of nonhibernating genera) suggest that 2 or
more generations are the rule.
During 1967-1969, I visited Florida in all
months of the year collecting Ichneumoninae
methodically by hand and in traps in order to
gain an understanding of the seasonal
distribution of these insects. These, briefly,
are the results: Ichneumoninae fly actively
from April through November in central
Florida. From December through March a
few specimens have been seen or caught.
Nearly all were 3 common species (Cratich-
neumon floridensis Heinrich, Melanich-
neumon heiligbrodti (Cresson), and Barich-
neumon peramoenus calliandros Heinrich). I
suspected that further south insect life would
start earlier than in central Florida. I spent
the last half of March 1968 on the Florida
Keys, running 3 traps on Key Largo and
collecting by hand net on Plantation Key and
Big Pine Key. I was unable to collect even 1
specimen of Ichneumoninae during this time.
Returning to Lee County, I found that the
season had just started there with the
appearance of 2 small Barichneumon spe-
cies. Within a few days the numbers of the
species and individuals increased rapidly
and remained at the maximum level of the
year from mid-April to about mid-July. This
agreed with observations of the previous year
and probably can be considered the norm.
During July, the numbers of species and
individuals apparently drop markedly,
increasing once more from late July to
November, although the 2nd generation does
not reach the volume of the 1st.
As the Ichneumoninae differ considerably
from the aculeate Hymenoptera in their
ecological requirements and seasonal ap-
pearance, so they also follow a distinct daily
schedule of their own. In consequence of their

2 and 3 The terms "oxypygous" and "amblypy-
gous" refer to the end of the abdomen of
the female, "oxypygous" describing a
pointed structure with a short hypopy-
gium, not covering the ovipositor ven-
trally (the latter often slightly pro-
jecting); "amblypygous" refers to a
bluntly rounded end of the abdomen of
the female, with long hypopygium,
covering the entire ovipositor ventrally.







apparent general intolerance of great heat
and intense sunlight, they nearly disappear
from sight on sunny days during the middle
of the day. During a drought period in 1968,
which began in late April and lasted for
several weeks, Ichneumoninae could only be
seen between 7:30 and 10:30 a.m., with the
peak of flight between 8:00 and 9:00 a.m.
After 10:30 a.m., when many Aculeata were
around in great numbers, Ichneumoninae
had disappeared completely. Only late in the
afternoon between 5 and 6 o'clock did they
make a second appearance. This schedule or
a similar 1 applies to all hot regions, and it is
1 of the many reasons why Ichneumoninae
had been so poorly collected and investigated
before the Malaise trap came into use.

Adult Ichneumoninae feed on honey dew
secreted by scales and aphids on foliage of
certain plants. They also visit the blossoms
of several species of umbelliferous plants,
particularly species of the genera Sium,
Peucedanum, Heracleum, and Daucus. In
Florida, I have seen very few of these
Umbelliferae and never Ichneumoninae on
them, although they were visited by great
numbers of Aculeata. I once found a parti-
cular group of cabbage palms, Sabal palm-
etto (Walter) Loddiges, in blossom, which
attracted a number of the most interesting
Ichneumoninae for several days, but only
during the hours mentioned in the previous
paragraph. The greatest concentration of
Ichneumoninae I ever found in Florida was
attracted, day after day for a few weeks, by a
large stand of bryophyllum, Kalanchoe
pinnata Persoon, in a forest relict near Ft.
Myers.

Certain young and small magnolia trees,
with blackish or greyish discolored leaves,
have great attraction for Ichneumoninae in
Florida. Probably the discoloration is sooty
mold growing on honey dew. Not all leaves
with such symptoms attract Ichneumoninae,
however. Those which do usually are
indicated by visiting Diptera or various
Hymenoptera, particularly ants. It is worth-
while to wait at such a tree for 1/2 hour or
longer, as often there is a continual arrival at
short intervals of a variety of species. Also a
carpet of wild grapevines occasionally may
be infested by aphids and may be attractive
to Ichneumoninae. To be visited by Ichneu-
moninae, such places must be situated in
shade or partial shade of large trees; if they
are fully exposed to sunshine only Aculeata
will be attracted in numbers or occasionally a
Limonethe maurator (Brulle) or a Trogo-
morpha trogiformis (Cresson).


Sexual Dimorphism and Dichromatism
In the Ichneumoninae sexual differences
are extraordinarily great in morphology as
well as in coloration. As the Greek word
"morph-" refers to the shape only and not to
the color, the term sexual dimorphism will be
reserved for structural differences while
sexual dichromatism will be used only for
differences in color.
Sexual dimorphism-Sexual dimorphism
affects almost every part of the body and
follows certain general rules in most Ichneu-
moninae tribes. It shows a high degree of
development throughout the subfamily, so
that practically no structural features are
ever exactly congruent in both sexes.
Among the morphological characters used
in taxonomy of Ichneumoninae, the structure
of gastrocoeli and of the mandibles varies the
least between sexes, the shape of the flagella,
scutellum, propodeum, and the head vary
most.
The flagella are constructed completely
differently in the sexes. The female flagellum
usually is flattened ventrally beyond the
middle and more or less widened; neither of
these 2 features occurs in the male. Instead,
the male flagellum usually is distinctly
nodose, and specifically varying numbers of
flagellar segments bear tyloids, protrusions
of so far unexplained function, which vary in
size and shape for different species.
The scutellum usually is somewhat more
raised above the postscutellum in males than
in females; the propodeum is, as a rule,
shorter in males than in females with the
consequence that the area superomedia also
is shorter in males than in females.
The abdomen of females usually is shorter,
wider, and more oval shaped than in males.
The legs usually are more slender than in
males.
The heads of females may be characterized
by wider temples and cheeks, an adaptive
character usually connected with the para-
sitization of stem-boring larvae or their
pupae, and consequently usually more
developed in females than in males.
Sexual dichromatism-Sexual dichro-
matism is evident in nearly all species of the
subfamily, but is most strikingly developed
in the tribe Ichneumonini, and with reference
to the fauna of Florida, particularly in the
genera Ichneumon Linnaeus, Cratichneu-
mon Thomson, Barichneumon Thomson,
and Melanichneumon Thomson. Like sexual
dimorphism, dichromatism also follows
certain rules: white or yellow patterns tend to







be more extensive in males than in females
and are sometimes even subobsolete or
absent in associated females except on the
abdomen, where white anal markings often
are more restricted in males than in females.
The white or yellow bands on the anterior
abdominal tergites tend to be more extensive
in males than in females, or to be altogether
absent in females associated with heavily
banded males (genus Ichneumon). In the
latter genus often little or no similarity is
apparent between the sexes of the same
species.
In groups with highly developed sexual
dimorphism and dichromatism, the correct
association of sexes often is extremely
difficult or even impossible, particularly
where several closely related species occur in
the same region. Under such circumstances
associations remain hypothetical and can
only be proven by raising the 2 sexes in
captivity from the same host, by raising from
the eggs of 1 female, or by making field
observations over many years. Until this is
achieved, a dual nomenclature for females
and males cannot be avoided completely.


Terminology


The terminology used in this publication is
discussed in Heinrich (1961:6-9; 1967-1968:8-
13). In case of doubt either work may be
consulted. (See fig. a, b for diagrams showing
morphology of the head and c, d showing
morphology of the propodeum and a lateral
view of the thorax.) Three minor additional
items are explained here, as follows:


In the terms verticall marks" or "vertical
orbits," repeatedly used in the description of
species, the word "vertical" is not meant in
contrast to "horizontal" but refers to the
situation of these marks or orbits on the
vertex.

The plural "scutella" is used in reference to
scutellum and postscutellum together.
In descriptions of wing venation, the term
"radius" refers only to the exterior section,
from areolet to anterior border of wing. This
is equal to section L-F in Townes (1969:42).


Fig. a & b. Morphology of head.






































Fig. c. Morphology of propodeum.


scutellum
post cute llum
carinal
3 i- triangle


Fig. d. Morphology of thorax, lateral view.







A term "neallotype" is used in this and the
author's former publications; the term is not
internationally introduced. It is applied to
the specimen on which the 1st description of
the other sex of a species is based; it concerns
a species already named and described, but
known in one sex only. In a group of insects of
such high degree of sexual dimorphism and
dichromatism as the Ichneumoninae, where
the associated sexes often do not show even a
slight similarity, a taxonomic term for the
type, chosen and designated for the repre-
sentation of a newly discovered and des-
cribed sex, seems necessary.
Quotations
No attempt has been made to compile a
complete catalogue of all printed references
to each taxonomic unit treated in this
publication. The treatment of every tribe,
genus, species, and subspecies is introduced
by a selection of quotations, all chosen by the
following guide line: (1) original description;
(2) synonymizations; (3) alterations of the
generic positions of species; (4) descriptions
of the other sex; (5) amendations or comple-
mentations of descriptions.
As a rule, for all genera, species, and
subspecies, 2 fundamental publications are
quoted: Townes and Townes (1951) and
Heinrich (1961, 1962). For the tribe Phae-
ogenini, which was not included in Heinrich
(1961, 1962), a 3rd publication is consistently
quoted: Townes (1944). This catalog has
compiled all quotations until 1944, while
Townes and Townes (1951) contains selected
quotations only.








COLLECTIONS


ABS -Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Highlands Co., Florida

ANS -Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

BM(NH) -British Museum (Natural History).

CGH II. -Second Collection Gerd Heinrich, Dryden, Maine.

CHT -Collection Henry Townes, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

CNC -Canadian National Collection, Ottowa, Canada.

DBUL -Department de Biologie, Faculte des Siences, Universite Laval, Quebec.

EUM -Emory University Museum, Atlanta, Georgia.

FSCA -Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida.

LACM -Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, California.

MCZ -Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts.

MNHN -Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

PMQ -Provincial Museum Quebec, Quebec, Canada.

UGA -University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

USNM -(United States) National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.








SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT
Key to tribes of Ichneumoninae of Florida
and Neighboring States


1. Propodeum abbreviated, with a smooth
culminating boss or arch and steeply
declivous before and beyond the culmi-
nating point; areolet large, obliquely
trapezoidal, with prolonged 2nd inter-
cubitus and abbreviated 2nd abscissa of
cubitus; scutellum usually strongly
gibbose or pyramidal. (Medium sized to
very large forms) .................
VI. Tribe Trogini (Foerster) (p. 283)
- Propodeum without culminating boss or
arch; areolet pentagonal or rhomboidal;
scutellum flat to moderately convex ...
................................ ...... 2
2. Spiracles of propodeum circular and
very small. (Small to very small
form s) ....... ...................... 3
- Spiracles of propodeum not circular,
usually fairly large and elongate, slit
shaped, sometimes small but oval .... 4
3. Scutellum with complete and strongly
developed lateral carinae; abdomen of
femals amblypygous; coxae III of fe-
males never with protruding elevation
on ventral side; petiole often wider than
high. (Flagellum of females always long
and slender) ..........................
................. V. Tribe Platylabini
Berthoumieu (partim.)
(p.272)
- Scutellum laterally not or incompletely
carinate; abdomen of females oxypy-
gous; coxae III of females often with
short protruding carina or other eleva-
tion on ventral side; petiole never wider
than high. (Flagellum of females usually
short, only exceptionally long and
slender) ..............................
................. VII Tribe Phaeogenini
(Foerster) (p. 298)
4. Petiole wider than high; clypeus dis-
tinctly convex. (Abdomen of females
amblypygous; scutellum raised and
laterally carinate; flagellum of females
always long, slender and bristle shaped)

................. V. Tribe Platylabini
Berthoumieu (p. 272)
- Petiole not wider than high; clypeus not
distinctly convex .................... 5
5. Mandibles of sickle-shaped appearance:
curved, with long, sharply pointed apical
tooth, the short, subapical tooth hidden


in vertical view, bent out of the normal,
horizontal level with the apical tooth,
and instead situated in a nearly vertical
plane with it; clypeus apically leaf-like
thinned, its apical margin either medi-
ally projecting or broadly curved, its
base usually slightly convex ..........
............. III. Tribe Joppocryptini
(Viereck)(p. 268)
Mandibles and clypeus of different
structure ............................ 6
6. Face, clypeus, and malar space together
forming a continuous, slightly convex
plane, without sutures, elevations or
depressions; mandibles short and wide,
with a deep gap between sub-equal teeth
............. IV. Tribe Listrodromini
(Foerster) (p. 270)
- Face, clypeus and malar space do not
form a continuous, slightly convex
plane, or if they nearly do, mandibles
differently shaped ................... 7
7. Areae dentiparae curving down gradu-
ally, usually close to the base of coxae
III, their apices not at all projecting but
flush with the surface of the slope.
(Gastrocoeli large and deep, with pro-
nounced thyridia; postpetiole usually
aciculate, sometimes punctate; medium-
sized to large species) .................
........... I. Tribe Protichneumonini
Heinrich (p. 10)
- Propodeum of the broken type, with a
differentiated horizontal-part and decliv-
ity; the apices of areae dentiparae
usually, though not always, forming
sharp corners. (Gastrocoeli varying from
fairly deep and large with distinct
thyridia to obsolete; postpetiole aciculate
or punctured, or irregularly rugose, or
smooth; rarely very large, usually
medium-sized, often small species) ....
............... II Tribe Ichneumonini
.Ashmead (p. 57)

I. Tribe Protichneumonini Heinrich

Protichneumonini Heinrich, 1934:64, 84
Type genus: Protichneumon Thomson
The structure of the propodeum distin-
guishes this tribe from the Ichneumonini.
The propodeum is somewhat abbreviated
and apically rounded, the areae dentiparae








sloping down toward the base of coxae III in
a more or less steeply arched curve, their
apices never forming apophyses or even
slight projections; the area superomedia
shows a tendency to be narrowed toward area
basalis, sometimes forming a Gothic or
Roman arch, or approximately a horseshoe
shape, often not clearly limited in front and
confluent with area basalis. Additional
characters are: deep gastrocoeli with distinct
thyridia, coarse or (usually) striate sculpture
of median field of postpetiole and interspace
of gastrocoeli, and pentagonal areolet.
DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide. Only 3
genera of this tribe occur in the Nearctic
Zone, 2 of them, Protichneumon Thomson
and Coelichneumon Thomson in Florida and
neighboring land areas represented by a fair
number of species.
1. Genus Protichneumon Thomson
Fig. 1-11
Protichneumon Thomson, 1893:1899. Town-
es and Townes, 1951:304 (1 Nearctic species).
Heinrich, 1961:22 (3 Nearctic species).
Townes, et al., 1965:530, 601.
(Metopichneumon Uchida as synonym; 9
eastern Palearctic species). Heinrich 1966:
184-185 (treatment of genus; 2 species from
Burma).
Type species: Ichneumon fusorius Lin-
naeus; designated by Ashmead, 1900.


SYSTEMATICS: Morphologically the
genus Protichneumon Thomson is extremely
close to Coelichneumon Thomson. The
structure of the propodeum exhibits the only
tangible difference between the 2 genera,
inasmuch as the basal furrow is more
pronounced and the anterior part of the area
superomedia is slightly raised above the
areae superoexternae, which slant down
somewhat toward the sides, and at the same
time toward the basal furrow of propodeum.
In this character Protichneumon approaches
the Oriental genus Aglaojoppa Cameron
which is distinguished by strikingly different
color pattern, by head structure, and by
smaller size. It is indeed the extraordinary
size of Protichneumon species which separ-
ates them at 1st glance from the bulk of
Coelichneumon and Aglaojoppa species, a
character, in this particular case, not without
taxonomic importance, as if is the conse-
quence of a biological peculiarity of this
group: its specialization on Sphingidae as
hosts.


In a parallel to the metallic-blue group of
species of the closely related genus Coelich-
neumon we are inProtichneumon confronted
with a number of forms of practically
congruent coloration, distinguishable only
by subtle structural differences. For the
specific distinction of the females the
proportions of the basal flagellar segments,
the structure of temples and cheeks, and the
shape of femora III offer useful differential
characters. Males are, as usually, more
difficult to distinguish than females. The
structure of their temples and cheeks is only
slightly, if at all, differentiated, and specific
differences in the shape of femora III are
much less distinct than in females. This
leaves the shape and number of tyloids as the
relatively best specific character, though also
only of restricted value.
The taxonomic difficulty of this genus is
aggravated by geographical, and in some
cases also by slight individual variability in
structure. A group of species of such
complexity hardly can be classified specifi-
cally and subspecifically to full satisfaction
by the morphological approach alone,
particularly with regard to the association of
sexes. Unfortunately next to nothing is
known about the biology of the Nearactic
Protichneumon species. I hope that my
attempt to reclassify this interesting group
will, in spite of the merely morphological
approach, advance our knowledge of this
genus. I am, however, aware of the fact that it
has not yet achieved a complete and definite
solution of all problems involved. (See in this
connection also preamble to the species
grandis.)
Townes and Townes (1951) listed only 1
species of this genus for North America,
grandis (Brulle), with 2 synonyms: regnatrix
(Cresson) and ambiguous (Cresson). Ten years
later I added 2 further Nearctic species and 1
subspecies to the genus, and at the same time
I retrieved regnatrix (Cresson) from synon-
ymy and gave it subspecific status (Hein-
rich, 1961). Recent research on the fauna of
Florida and the neighboring states has
revealed that these additions still were not
sufficient. It became evident that Florida was
inhabited by at least 2 different (though very
similar) sympatric species of the genus
Protichneumon, and 2 further new species
were found in the neighboring states;
obviously this was a group of much greater
diversity of forms (concealed by their almost
complete chromatic uniformity) and of
greater complexity than so far anticipated.
The following revision of the Nearctic species
of the genus was a necessary consequence.








The revision has been based on material from
the USNM, CHT, FSCA, CGH II, CNC, and
LACM (altogether approximately 300 speci-
mens); all types involved have been reexam-
ined.
The following summary report on the basic
facts I found and on the conclusions I drew
may precede the descriptions of the species
involved:
Excluding the species effigies Heinrich
and polytropus Heinrich which are well
distinguished by structure or color, the rest of
the Protichneumon populations inhabiting
North America are separable into 2 groups: 1
with strongly sclerotized, very coarsely
sculptured, laterally and dorsally more or
less distinctly bulging tergites, the other with
normally sclerotized, more finely sculptured
and not at all bulging tergites(e.g. fig. 5). The
former group of populations (so far believed
to be represented by 1 species) apparently is
confined to the southeastern part of the
states from Delaware and West Virginia
south to southern Florida and west to
Kansas. The latter group inhabits the entire
rest of moderate North America from Quebec
and Ontario south to about Pennsylvania
and from Colorado west to the Pacific coast.
So far, I have not seen a single specimen of
the "sclerotized" group west of Kansas
(Lawrence) and north of New York. This
distributional pattern looks, of course, like a
paradigm of geographical subspeciation,
and this consequently was my 1st concept of
the situation, the more so as the occurrence of
intergrades, reported from the area where the
ranges of southern, highly sclerotized
populations meet with those of the northern
ones, seemed to support this hypothesis. As
the name grandis was generally introduced
for the normally sclerotized northern form,
while the type of regnatrix obviously
represented the strongly sclerotized southern
form, I associated the latter form as a
subspecies with the former; this hypothesis
turned out to be a double error: 1st from the
taxonomic point of view when the examina-
tion of the southeastern populations proved
the existence of at least 3 highly sclerotized
sympatric species, and 2nd it became
obsolete also from the point of view of
nomenclature, when a recent examination of
the lectotype of grandis revealed it as an
unmistakably highly sclerotized south-
eastern specimen, a fact excluding the use of
this name for the northern, normally
sclerotized population.
The revisional treatment of the Protich-
neumon species is based on the following


changes: (1) The holotype of ambiguous
represents without doubt the northeastern
population so far known under the name
grandis; the former name, therefore, is
introduced in replacement of the latter. (2)
The name grandis is transferred to 1 of the
highly sclerotized, southeastern forms (3) P.
grandis and ambiguus are not considered as
subspecies but as distinct species, as the
morphological differences between the 2
forms not only in degree ofsclerotization and
in coarseness of sculpture, but also in
structure of head (see fig. 6,9) and of femora
III are too considerable to permit the
assumption of merely a subspecific differen-
tiation. (4) Two additional strongly sclero-
tized southeastern forms, sartoris and
radtkeorum, have been recognized and
treated as distinct new species. (5) The red-
legged subspecies victoriae Heinrich, origi-
nally associated with grandis belongs to the
group with normally sclerotized tergites; it is
now treated as a full species. (6) The status of
regnatrix remains problematic. As there is no
sufficient proof that the type represents a
mere mutation of grandis, regnatrix is
tentatively maintained as a species; a
southeastern, apparently distinct form,
distinguished (like regnatrix) by the lack of a
scopa, is treated tentatively as a full species
and will be described below under the name
glabricoxalis, new species; the relationship
between the 2 forms needs further investiga-
tion.

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped, of
moderate length, ventrally flattened beyond
middle and more or less, usually consider-
ably, widened, apically strongly attenuated;
of males slightly nodose, with inconspicuous
subapical bristle ridges on ventral side and
with a row of very distinct tyloids.
HEAD: Mandibles strong, fairly wide, the
upper tooth not very much longer than the
subapical.
THORAX: Mesoscutum moderately convex,
anterior part of notauli usually more or less
distinct; scutellum flat to moderately convex,
laterally not carinate, except sometimes
weakly at base; propodeum fairly short, with
pronounced basal furrow percurrent from
side to side; area dentiparae rather steeply
arching downward toward base of coxae III,
the carinae dentiparae exteriores slightly
curved outward; area superomedia horseshoe
shaped, semi elliptic, or in the shape of a
Gothic arch, usually longer than wide, its
anterior part more or less distinctly raised
above level of adjacent areae superoexternae,








the latter slightly slanting from area
superomedia sideways and also toward basal
furrow of propodeum; area basalis steeply
declivous toward basal furrow; costulae and
carinae coxales sometimes indistinct; edge
between mesopleura and mesosternum
before coxae II slightly emarginate and
usually with a small protuberance before
emargination.

LEGS: Fairly stout and strong; coxae III of
females as a rule with scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal; areolet regu-
larly pentagonal, moderately narrowed in
front; radius sinuate.

ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous, post-
petiole with clearly defined median field,
which is longitudinally striate or striate
punctate; gastrocoeli large and deep, with
distinct thyridia, their interspace usually
narrower than 1 of them and aciculate; the
following tergites more or less densely and
coarsely sculptured, in southeastern species


more or less distinctly bulging dorsally and
laterally.
CHROMATIC CHARACTERS: Abdomen
in great majority of Holarctic species entirely
or predominantly red in various shades, from
dark chestnut-red-brown to light red, usually
the 1st segment, in Palearctic species
sometimes also some of the posterior tergites,
black; head and thorax black without or with
restricted white markings in females, usually
more extensively white marked in males; legs
in Nearctic species usually predominantly
black in females, or, more rarely red; in males
sometimes extensively white marked.
DISTRIBUTION: The genus is repre-
sented by a moderate number of species in the
Nearctic and Palearctic Zones, the latter
including the high mountains of the Oriental
Region; it is lacking in Africa south of the
Sahara and also not recorded yet from
Central and South America.
HOSTS: Sphingidae (apparently with few
exceptions).


Key to the Nearctic species of Protichneumon Thomson
FEMALES


1. Coxae III without scopa ............. 2 4.
- Coxae III with distinct scopa ........ 3
2. Tergites 2 and 3 very strongly sclero-
tized, laterally (particularly the 3rd)
distinctly bulging (fig. 7); apex of
abdomen clearly oxypygous, the oviposi-
tor distinctly projecting; sculpture of 2nd
and, particularly of 3rd tergite markedly
coarser and denser, tarsi III less slender -
and less elongate than in alternative
species (Delaware) ....................
................ 8. regnatrix (Cresson)
- Tergites 2 and 3 strongly sclerotized,
with straight sides (fig. 5); apex of
abdomen blunt, ovipositor almost entire-
ly hidden; sculpture of tergites 2 and 5.
particularly of tergite 3 less coarse and
dense, tarsi III more elongate and
slender than in alternative species
(Tennessee) ................ .....
.......... 9. glabricoxalis, new species
3. Femora III uniformly deep black .... 4
- Femora III extensively or entirely light
red ................................ 10


Tergites 2-4 particularly strongly sclero-
tized and particularly densely and
coarsely sculptured, separated from each
other by pronounced sutures, dorsally
convex, laterally often more or less
distinctly bulging (fig. 7); color of
tergites a dark brown red. (Wings evenly
and very deeply infuscated)
................................... 5
Tergites 2-4 not particularly strongly
sclerotized and not densely and coarsely
sculptured, not separated from each
other by deep sutures (fig. 5); color of
tergites a pale, close to orange-tinged
red. (Wings moderately deeply infuscat-
ed) ................................. 9
Flagellum shorter andt stouter than in
the 2 alternative species, the basal
segments shorter and a trifle swollen at
the extreme apex, the first not quite twice
as long as apically wide (fig. 10); femora
III stout and rather short (fig. 11).
(Scutellum often white marked apically;
temple profile and cheek profile slightly
or not narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandible base respectively)......... 6









- Flagellum fairly long and slender, the
basal segments more elongate and not at
all swollen apically, the first approxi-
mately 2.5 times as long as apically wide
(fig. 1); femora III markedly more
elongate and slender (fig. 2)......... 8
6. Scutellum apically more or less exten-
sively white; marks on vertical orbits
and the frontal orbits narrowly, white
(Length 24-27 mm) (about Maryland and
Pennsylvania south to central Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama)
... 3 a. grandis grandis (Brull4)
Scutellum and vertical orbits not white
marked ............................. 7
7. Very large form, 28-29mm long; 5th
tergite and mesoscutum denser and
coarser punctured than in alternative
forms; cheeks and temples slightly
swollen (southern Florida, Lee Co.)
.............. 3 b. grandis inornatior,
new subspecies
Smaller forms; 5th tergite and mesoscu-
tum less densely and less coarsely
punctured; cheeks and temples not
sw ollen ...............................
.. 3 a. grandis grandis (Brulle) varia-
tions and unclassified
specimens of grandis-com-
plex)
8. Postpetiole uniformly black; coxae III
with fairly small scopa, composed by
long, not very dense pilosity; cheeks, in
lateral view, only slightly convex, cheek
profile, in frontal view, straight (fig. 4);
much larger than the alternative species,
25-26mm long (Pennsylvania and New
York south to central Florida and west to
Kansas) .......... ...................
............. 1. radtkeorum Heinrich
Postpetiole predominantly or entirely
red; coxae III with very large scopa,
formed by brush-like complex of evenly
trimmed, very dense hair; cheeks, in
lateral view, strongly convex, cheek
profile, in frontal view, somewhat
curved; much smaller than alternative
species, 19-20mm long (Georgia, Miss-
issippi, Tennessee, Arkansas) .........
................. 7. sartoris Heinrich
9. Flagellum fairly long, slender, and only
slightly widened beyond middle, the 1st
segment more than twice as long as
apically wide, the widest on the flat side
only about twice as wide as long; coxae
III with large, usually evenly trimmed
scopa; postpetiole red; smaller species,
17-20mm long. (Scutellum never white


marked) (Transcontinental, from New-
foundland, Ontario, Saskatchewan,
Alberta, and British Columbia to Col-
orado, Kansas, and Arkansas) .........
.................... 4.effigies Heinrich
- Flagellum fairly short and stouter,
markedly widened beyond middle, the
1st segment slightly less than twice as
long as apically wide, the widest, on the
flat side, about 3 times as wide as long;
coxae III with small, loose scopa;
postpetiole black; somewhat larger
species, 20-25mm long. (Scutellum often
white marked) (Quebec, Ontario, Michi-
gan south to New York, Pennsylvania
and Colorado; specimens from Colorado
in CHT) ..............................
.............. 2. ambiguus (Cresson)
10. Tergites 2-4 strongly sclerotized and
coarsely and densely sculptured, sepa-
rated from each other by pronounced
sutures, bulging slightly laterally to-
ward apex. (Length about 20mm) (North
Carolina) .............................
.............. 6. polytropus Heinrich
Tergites 2-4 normally sclerotized, finely
sculptured, neither separated from each
other by deep sutures nor laterally
bulging. (Length 23-26mm) (Western
North America, from Vancouver Island
south to California) ...................
................ 5. victoria Heinrich

MALES
1. Femora and tibiae III extensively to
entirely red. (Postpetiole also red) ... 2
Femora and tibiae III black. (Postpetiole
black, rarely red in part) ............ 3
2. Femora and tibiae I and II black, except
anterior side of tibiae I white; tergites 2-4
strongly sclerotized and separated by
pronounced sutures, coarsely and dense-
ly sculptured. (Length 19mm)
.............. 6. polytropus Heinrich
Femora and tibiae I and II predomi-
nantly red; tergites 2-4 not particularly
strongly sclerotized and not separated
by pronounced sutures, less coarsely
sculptured. (Length 23-26mm) .........
................ 5. victoria Heinrich
3. Postpetiole extensively red; small species,
17-20mm long. (Tergites 2-5 not particu-
larly strongly sclerotized and strongly
sculptured; abdomen light red; coxae,
pronotal ridge, and scutellum not white
marked; clypeus and face sometimes
predominantly black) .................
.................. 4. effigies Heinrich








Postpetiole black; larger species, 20-
29mm long ........................ 4
4. Tergites 2-5 not particularly strongly
sclerotized, not separated by pronounced
sutures, not dorsally convex or laterally
bulging, and not extremely densely and
coarsely sculptured; color of abdomen, as
a rule, Jight, close to orange-tinged red;
wings moderately infuscated. (Coxae,
pronotol ridge, and scutellum usually
white marked; length 20-25 mm) ......
.............. 2. ambiguus (Cresson)
Tergites 2-5 particularly strongly sclero-
tized, separated by pronounced sutures,
dorsally convex and usually laterally
somewhat bulging, very densely and
coarsely sculptured; color of abdomen a
dark brown red; wings very deeply
infuscated. (Length 23-29mm)
................ ........... 5
5. Tyloids conspicuous, elliptical and
rather wide. (Longest tyloids, on seg-
ments about 10-18, reaching from bases
to apices of segments; scutellum and
pronotal ridge not white marked; tarsi
III usually black, sometimes with
restricted or indistinct white lines on
anterior side; length 25-29mm) ........
............. 1. radtkeorum Heinrich
Tyloids less conspicuous, much narrow-
er than in alternative species and
approaching a lanceolate .or elongate-
oval shape. (Scutellum and pronotal
ridge often white marked)........... 6
6. 1Thorax uniformly black; tibiae II and
femora II black with only a small apical
white spot on anterior side; legs III and
coxae I and II uniformly black; tyloids
narrow, elongate oval, the longest on
segments 13-17 almost reaching bases
and apices of segments; length 30mm
(southern Florida, Lee Co.).............
.............. 3 b. grandis inornatior,
new subspecies
- Scutellum, often also pronotal ridge,
white marked; tibiae and femora II
predominantly white on anterior side,
tarsi III usually extensively white, coxae
I or I and II white marked on ventral
side; length 25-28mm .................
......... 3 a. grandis grandis (Brullg)



1 The couplet of 6 of the above kdy is provisional.
It does not guarantee a sure identification of all
specimens leading to it, as it probably also
includes the so far unidentified males of sartoris,
glabricoxalis and regnatrix.


1. Protichneumon radtheorum Heinrich
Fig. 1-4, Map 1

Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich, 1972:
174-175, female/male.
Holotype: female, Fort Myers, Florida, 1-V-
1968. CGH II. Allotype: male, same locality,
2-VII-1967. CGH II. Paratypes: 7 females, 52
males, same locality, 2-IV-9-VIII-1967 and
1968. CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: A large species with dark,
chestnut-red abdomen, and with very deeply
infuscated wings with purplish reflection. In
appearance and size extremely similar to
grandis Brull6, sharing with that species the
very strong sclerotization and coarse and
dense sculpture of tergites 2-4. Distinguished
in females by the combination of the
following 4 characters: (1) basal segments, of
flagellum (fig. 1) perfectly cylindrical (that is,
apically not in the least swollen) and slightly
more elongate than in most other species
(except sartoris Heinrich and effigies Hein-
rich); (2) the widest segment of flagellum on
the flat side only somewhat more than twice
as wide as long (instead of more than 3 times
as wide as long as in grandis); (3) femora III
(fig. 2) considerably more slender and more
elongate than in grandis (fig. 11); (4) temple
profile markedly narrowed behind eyes, with
nearly straight outline (fig. 3). In proportions





Fig. 1. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich (female).
Flagellum, basal segments.






Fig. 2. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich (female).
Femur III, side view.


Fig. 3. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich (female).
Head, dorsal view.









of flagellar segments more similar to sartoris
and effigies than to any other North
American species, but strikingly different in
appearance from both by almost double their
size and besides, by not large and flat
trimmed but rather small and inconspicuous
scopa.
The isolated occurrence of the species in a
small relic of woodland (see type locality)
where females and males were collected
during the entire season of 1968 in broad
series, makes the association of sexes
practically indubitable.

The male shows the same dark color as the
female, with always entirely black scutellum
and usually entirely black legs III; it is
distinguished by the tyloids being elliptic,
rather long, and somewhat broader than in
most other species.

FEMALE: Length 25-26mm. Black, in-
cluding legs and 1st segment of abdomen;
rest of abdomen dark brown red; wings
uniformly and very deeply infuscated; white
are: anterior side of tibiae I, minute marks on
vertical orbits and usually indications of
small marks on upper frontal orbits, level
with lower ocellus, rarely (in northern
specimens) a small mark on upper facial
orbits; marks on orbits varying sometimes
from white to dull reddish; flagellum black
with white annulus usually on segments 7-15,
rarely on 6-16; coxae III with scopa.

FLAGELLUM: As described for the genus,
moderately widened beyond middle, apically
very strongly attenuated and pointed, with
usually 47-49, exceptionally only 44, seg-
ments; basal segments more elongate than in
most other Nearctic species (except sartoris
and effigies), the 1st segment (fig. 1) about 2.5
times as long as wide, in dorsal view the 9th
or 10th, in lateral view the 7th square, the
widest, seen from the flat side, more than
twice as wide as long.

HEAD: Temple profile, in vertical view,
slightly more narrowed behind eyes than in
grandis, cheek profile in frontal view (fig. 4)
distinctly more narrowed toward mandible
base, lower cheeks slightly less convex;
carina occipitalis, in vertical view, showing a
narrower and distinctly deeper arch, often
nearly forming an angle in the middle.

THORAX: Trough behind collare medially
with 1 or 2 longitudinal short rugae; anterior
1/3 of notauli distinct, sternauli obsolete;


Fig. 4. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich (female).
Head, frontal view.

scutellum more convex and higher raised
above postscutellum than in grandis, with
fairly steep apical slope; area superomedia
usually about as long as apically wide,
surrounded all around by strongly prominent
carinae, approximately horseshoe shaped or
narrowed in front almost to a point; area
basalis and areae superoexternae steeply
sloping down from anterior border of area
superomedia; lateral carinae of area pos-
teromedia distinct.

LEGS: Coxae III with fairly small scopa;
femora III (fig. 2) not quite as stout and in
lateral view longer (compared to the median
width) than in the 2 following species (fig. 2,
11).

ABDOMEN: Tergites 2-4, as in the other
southeastern forms, very strongly sclerotized
and very coarsely and densely sculptured,
subopaque, separated from each other by
deep sutures (as in fig. 7); the 5th tergite also
very densely and fairly coarsely punctured.


MALE: Length 25-29mm. Black, tergite 1
rarely obscure reddish, tergites 2-7 dark
brown red; the following always white: face
and clypeus, lower part of frontal orbits (from
face up to nearly middle of frons) stripe on
outer orbits (between temples and malar
space), mandibles (except inferior edge
black), scape ventrally, small spots on
vertical orbits, anterior side of femora I and
of apex of femora II, anterior side of tibiae I
and II, anterior side of tarsi I and II more or
less extensively, apical margins of tro-
chanters I and II and (in majority of
specimens) marks on ventral side of coxae II
or I and II; for additional, occasional white
marks see Table 1 of distribution of white of
54 males; postpetiole rarely obscure reddish








toward apex; flagellum without annulus, but
exceptionally with minute white lines on
some of the median segments or on inner side
of the basal segments; wings uniformly
deeply infuscated with purplish reflections.

FLAGELLUM: With 44-46 segments, and
with broad, elliptical tyloids on segments 7-
22, the longest, on about segments 10-18,
reaching from bases to apices of segments.

HEAD: Temple profile slightly more curved
than in female; malar space only about 1.3 as
long as width of mandible base.


THORAX: Scutellum considerably more
raised above postscutellum than in grandis,
more convex, and more coarsely punctured,
laterally weakly carinate to almost middle;
area superomedia on the average larger and
wider than in female, more raised above level
of horizontal part of propodeum; otherwise as
in female, including short median rugae in
furrow behind collare.

ABDOMEN: Tergites 2-5 very strongly
sclerotized and very densely and coarsely
sculptured, subopaque, separated from each
other by pronounced constrictions; the 6th
tergite somewhat less coarsely but also
distinctly and very densely punctured, about
twice as wide as long; even the 7th tergite
wider than long.

DISTRIBUTION (map 1): From central
Florida north to Virginia and Maryland
(CHT), and west to Kansas (CGH II);
sporadic records from Pennsylvania (Greens-
burg) and New York (Ithaca) (CHT) FLORI-
DA. Ft. Myers, Orange River, Lee Co.: 8
females, 53 males, 2-IV-9-VII-1967 and 1968,
G. Heinrich and D. R. Radtke; 2 females, 17-
IX-1969, 2 females, 2-XI-1969, 3 females, 25-
30-X-1971, 1 female, 20-XI-1971, 2 males, 30-
III-1972, all D. Radtke. (All in CGH II);
Highlands Hammock State Park, Highlands
Co.: 1 female, 2 males, 26-27-IV-1968, G.
Heinrich; 5 females, 1 male, 3-VIII-2-IX-1969,
D. Radtke. (CGH II); 1 male, Torreya State
Park, Liberty Co., 11-V-1968, G. Heinrich.
(CGH II); 1 female, Gainesville, 17-IV-1959,
H. V. Weems, Jr.; 1 male, Torreya State Park,
Liberty Co., 15-V-1964, H. A. Denmark. (Both
FSCA) GEORGIA. Forsyth, Monroe Co., 1
female, 9-IX-1969, G. Heinrich; 2 males, 28-V-
4-VI-1970, G. Heinrich; 1 male, 1-9-VIII-1970
and 1 male, 10-21-VII-1971, F'Naumann. (All
in CGH II). LOUISIANA. 1 female, Pow-
hatan, Natchitoches Co., 11-VI-1971, G.
Heinrich. (CGH II)


TABLE 1. Distribution of white
on 54 males of Protichneumon
radtkeorum from Florida

(52 from Ft. Myers,
2 from Highlands Co.)


No. specimens


Distribution of white


54 small marks on vertical orbits
54 narrow stripe on outer orbits
54 frontal orbits up to about
middle
54 face and clypeus
54 mandibles extensively or
predominantly
54 scape below
54 inner side of femora I except
base
54 inner side of apex of femora II
54 inner side of tibiae I
54 outer side of tibiae II
54 dorsal side of tarsi I
predominantly (usually except
4th segment)
50 dorsal side of at least
segments 1-3 of
tarsi II extensively
4 dorsal side of only segments
1-2 of tarsi II extensively
54 apical margin of trochanters
narrowly on dorsal side
6 indistinct line on
outer side of metatarsus III
(brownish or whitish)
3 also anterior side of
2nd segment of tarsi III more
or less distinctly whitish
20 exterior side of tibiae III
at base only, or more
extensively, sometimes pre-
dominantly brownish
to obscure whitish
6 dot on apex of pronotal
ridge
46 mark on ventral side
of coxae I
51 mark on ventral side
of coxae II
1 spot on apex of scutellum
3 some of the median
segments of flagellum dorsally
with minute white markings
3 1st flagellar segment white
marked on inner side

































Map 1. Protichneumon radtkeorum Heinrich

2. Protichneumon ambiguus (Cresson)
Fig. 5-6
Ichneumon ambiguus Cresson, 1864:161,
male.
Protichneumon grandis, Townes and Town-
es, 1951:304, partim; (Ichneumon ambiguus
Cresson as synonym). Heinrich, 1961:25,
partim; (Ichneumon ambiguus Cresson male
as synonym).
Holotype: male, Pennsylvania; ANS (no.
1436). Neallotype: female, "Dryden, Maine,
U.S.A., 25-VII-52." CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: The holotype of this
species has been reexamined. It represents,
without doubt, the northeastern form, the 1
with normal or moderate sclerotization and
normal sculpture of tergites. Females of this


form differ from grandis (as represented by
the lectotype) not only in structure and
sculpture of tergites, but also in head
structure, proportions of femora III, average
size and color: the temple profile and cheek
profile (fig. 6) are slightly more narrowed
behind eyes and toward mandible base
respectively, femora III are more slender, the
size is smaller, and in most specimens the
color of the abdomen is lighter, slightly
orange tinged red. On account of these
differences ambiguous is treated here as a
distinct species, although it seemingly
replaces grandis Brull6 geographically.
The decisive characters of ambiguous are
the normal sclerotization of tergites and their
finer and less dense sculpture (fig. 5), as
compared with radtkeorum and grandis (fig.
7).
FEMALE: Length 20-25 mm. Black,
including legs and 1st segment of abdomen;
rest of abdomen light, usually close to
orange-tinged red; wings uniformly but less
strongly infuscated than in radtkeorum and
grandis; scutellum varying from entirely
white to entirely black; the following white
also: anterior side of tibiae I, often also apex
of femora I, usually marks on anterior sides
of segments 1 or 1 and 2 of tarsi I, facial orbits
narrowly, usually also small vertical marks,
often a mark on upper part of facial orbits,


Fig. 6. Protichneumon
Head, frontal view.


ambiguus (Cresson) (female).


Fig. 5. Protichneumon ambiguus (Cresson) (female). Abdomen, dorsal view.








and apical margin of 1st trochanters I;
flagellum with dorsal white annulus on
segments 6 or (usually) 7 or (rarely) 8 to 13 or
(usually) 14 or 15 or 16.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, fairly short,
ventrally flattened and strongly widened
beyond middle, apically strongly attenuated
and pointed, with 48-53 segments, the 1st
nearly twice as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 6th square, seen from the flat
side the widest about 3 times as wide as long.
MALE: Length 20-25 mm. Black, tergites
2-7 light red; the following white: face,
clypeus, frontal orbits up to level with lower
ocellus, vertical marks, stripe on outer orbits
(between temple region and malar space),
mandibles (except inferior edge black), scape
ventrally, usually mark on collare, mark on
subalarum, and apical part of pronotal ridge,
sometimes entire length of pronotal ridge,
usually scutellum apically to entirely, rarely
mark on exterior part of prepectus, some-
times mark on tegulae, coxae I and II
ventrally more or less extensively, femora I
on ventral side, femora II on ventral side
except basally, ventral side of tibiae I and II,
all tarsi extensively to entirely, apical
margin of 1st trochanters I, and rarely mark
on trochanters II.
FLAGELLUM: With 46-50 segments and
with broadly-oval, fairly short tyloids on
segments 6 or 7 or 8 to 20 or 21, those on about
segments 12-19 reaching from bases to apices
of segments. The shape of tyloids seems to be
somewhat variable, but is on the average
shorter in relation to its width as in
radtkeorum.
DISTRIBUTION: From Quebec, Ontario,
and Michigan south to New York, Pennsyl-
vania, and Colorado (specimens from Colo-
rado in CHT).


3a. Protichneumon grandis
grandis (Brulle)
Fig. 7-11, Map 2
Ichneumon grandis Brull6, 1846:300, female
(published type locality: Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania)
Protichneumon grandis, Townes and Town-
es, 1951:304, partim.
Lectotype: female, without locality label;
Museo ed Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica
dela Universita di Torino (ini collection
Spinola), Torino, Italy; designated by
Townes (1961:108) Neallotype: male, Arch-
bold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida,
11-V-1967. CGH II.


SYSTEMA TICS: The lectotype of grandis
was sent to me from Turin for examination
by courtesy of professor Umberto Parenti. I
express here my appreciation for this
decisive support of my work.
The examination of the lectotype has
proven that the name grandis has to be
applied to 1 of the southeastern forms with
strongly sclerotized and coarsely and dense-
ly sculptured tergites (fig. 7), with short
femora III, with rather broad temples and
cheeks, and with dark, brown-red abdomen.
The lectotype displays the following white
marks: apical half of scutellum, mark on
apex of pronotal ridge, small vertical marks
and narrow line on frontal orbits.
The holotype of Ichneumon regnatrix also
has been reexamined; no tangible structural
difference has been found between regnatrix
and grandis, except for the complete lack of a
scopa in the former; see also treatment of
regnatrix.
The classification of the southeastern,
strongly sclerotized forms of the genus
Protichneumon represents 1 of the most
difficult problems of North American ichneu-
monology. Females and males of the recently
distinguished species, radtkeorum and
females of sartoris are rather easily identi-
fiable. The remaining populations (dis-
tinguished by a scopa on coxae III) are not
homogenous enough to establish convincing-
ly the image of only 1 specific unit; on the
other hand, their structural distinctions are
too subtle to permit, at this point, a specific
division.
There is 1 marked chromatic differentia-
tion splitting the females of the grandis
complex into 2 categories: (a) specimens
sharing with the holotype the white apex of
scutellum, white vertical marks and white
lines on frontal orbits; (b) specimens without
all these white markings. At the present time
I consider the identity of the species grandis
as fully established only for the former
category. The records given below for
grandis are based, therefore, only on speci-
mens displaying the white pattern of the
holotype. The specific identity of specimens
of the 2nd category remains uncertain; some
of them represent most likely only individual
variations of grandis, others geographical
subspecies or perhaps even distinct species.
Six females from Florida, Lee Co., which
all lack the white markings of the grandis
type and also show some additional, though
subtle, differences from the latter are
tentatively treated below as representatives
of a geographical new subspecies of grandis.






















Fig. 7. Protichneumon grandis grandis Brulle (female). Abdomen, dorsal view.


This hypothesis is supported by the fact that
typical white-marked specimens of grandis
have not been found so far in Lee Co. but are
common further north in Highlands Co.
Two other females, from Mississippi, also
belonging apparently to the grandis complex
and also lacking the white pattern of the
grandis type, are considerably smaller than
the specimens from Lee Co. mentioned above
and have exactly the same head structure
and sculpture as grandis; they are considered
to be, in all probability, individual variations
of the typical form and are provisionally
included in its distributional records.
FEMALE: Length 24-27 mm. Black,
including legs and 1st segment of abdomen
(the latter exceptionally obscurely reddish in
part); rest of abdomen dark brown red;
postpetiole sometimes apically to entirely
obscure red; wings uniformly and very deeply
infuscated; white are only: anterior side of
tibiae I, usually minute marks on vertical
orbits, a narrow line on frontal orbits, and (in
type and most specimens) apex or apical 1/2
of scutellum; often also white mark on apex of
pronotal ridge; flagellum with white annulus
on segments 6 or (usually) 7 or 8 to 14 or
(usually) 15 or 16; coxae III with scopa.
FLAGELLUM (fig. 10): Bristle shaped, fairly
short, ventrally flattened and strongly
widened beyond middle, apically strongly
attenuated and pointed, with 50-53 segments,
the 1st less than twice as long as apically
wide, in lateral view the 7tl square, the
widest, seen on the flat side, about 3 times as
wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile (fig. 8) in vertical
view slightly or scarcely narrowed behind
eyes and slightly curved, always less
narrowed than in radtkeorum; cheek profile
(fig. 9) in frontal view likewise only slightly
or scarcely narrowed toward mandible base;
lower cheeks moderately convex; carina


Fig. 8. Protichneumon grandis grandis Brulle (female).
Head, dorsal view.


Fig. 9. Protichneumon grandis grandis Brulle (female).
Head, frontal view.





Fig. 10. Protichneumon grandis grandis Brulle (female).
Flagellum, basal segments.

occipitalis in vertical view forming a broad
arch of moderate depth.
THORAX: Trough behind collare medially
without distinct rugosity; anterior 1/3 of
notauli distinct; sternauli obsolete; scutellum








slightly to moderately convex, gradually
slanting toward postscutellum; area supero-
media narrow, usually longer than wide,
gradually narrowed in front (sometimes
forming a Gothic arch) and not clearly
delimited apically by a carina; lateral
carinae of area posteromedia also indistinct;
areae superoexternae and basalis more
gently sloping downward from anterior
border of area superomedia than in radtkeo-
rum.

LEGS: Fairly stout, femora III (fig. 11)
considerably shorter and thicker than in
radtkeorum, slightly thicker than in ambigu-
us also; coxae III with scopa.

ABDOMEN: (fig. 7) Tergites 2-4, as in
radtkeorum, very strongly sclerotized and
very coarsely and densely sculptured,
subopaque or opaque, the 3rd tergite sepa-
rated by pronounced sutures from the 2nd
and from the 4th tergite.







Fig. 11. Protichneumon grandis grandis Brulle'(female).
Femur III, lateral view.


MALE: (Description based on-specimens
from Florida); at once distinguishable from
males of radtkeorum by white markings on
scutellum, pronotal ridge, subalarum, and
sometimes on collare and by white tarsi I and
II, the tarsi III sometimes also being
extensively white marked; temple profile
more strongly narrowed behind eyes, tyloids
on the average narrower. White marks on
thorax variable (table 2) and perhaps
sometimes lacking; such melanistic speci-
mens are difficult to distinguish from
radtkeorum. Length 26-28 mm. Black,
tergites 2-7 brown red, the following white:
clypeus, face, scape ventrally, mandibles
(except teeth and inferior margin) frontal
orbits (up to level with lower ocellus), vertical
marks, stripe on outer orbits (between
temples and malar space), apex or entire
length or pronotal ridge, sometimes mark on
collare, almost always on subalarum, some-
times mark on tegulae, scutellum apically to
predominantly (except base), usually marks
on ventral side of coxae I and II, apical
margin of 1st trochanters I, sometimes mark
on ventral side of 1st trochanters II, entire
anterior side of tibiae I and II, anterior side of


TABLE 2. Distribution of white color
on 15 males of Protichneumon grandis
(Brull6) from Highlands Co. (14 males
from Highlands Hammock State Park)


No. specimens Distribution of white
13 Face and clypeus uniformly
2 face and clypeus except black
median mark on the former
15 narrow stripe of variable length
on outer orbits
15 frontal orbits up to lower ocellus
15 small marks on vertical orbits
15 mandibles except inferior side
15 scape ventrally
11 pronotal ridge from tegulae
to middle or beyond
4 pronotal ridge only apically
7 subalarum predominantly
8 subalarum only medially
4 restricted mark on collare
5 scutellum predominantly (except
base)
10 scutellum apically only
(more or less extensively)
15 femora I ventally at apex
more or less extensively
15 femora II ventrally at apex
more or less extensively
12 more or less extensive mark
on ventral side of coxae II
5 more or less extensive mark
on ventral side of coxae II
15 apical margin of 1st trochanters I
5 mark on 1st trochanters II
(on ventral or dorsal side)
15 tibiae I and II on interior
side for entire length
15 tarsi I nearly entirely
at least dorsally
15 tarsi II predominantly on
dorsal side
5 tarsi III with faint indication of
whitish stripe on 1 or 2 segments
10 tarsi III uniformly black



femora I and II except basally, tarsi I and II
almost entirely (except tips of all segments of
tarsi II and of metatarsus of tarsi I),
sometimes more or less distinct stripes on
anterior side of segments of tarsi III, rarely
tarsi III predominantly white; apical part of
postpetiole often obscure red; flagellum
without annulus.







FLAGELLUM: With 50-51 segments, and
with narrowly-lanceolate tyloids on seg-
ments 9 or 10 to 22, those on segments about
15-20 more or less distinctly widened, longish
oval, and reaching close to bases and apices
of segments.
HEAD: Temple profile more narrowed
behind eyes than in radtkeorum, not curved;
lower cheeks more distinctly receding toward
carina genalis, nearly from margin of eyes
on; clypeus a trifle more depressed.
THORAX: Mesoscutum not quite as densely
and coarsely sculptured as in radtkeorum,
somewhat shiny between punctures; scutell-
um less raised above postscutellum, moder-
ately, convex, laterally usually carinate at
base; area superomedia on the average
smaller and narrower than in radtkeorum,
usually longer than wide and narrowed
toward area basalis, often into a point.
LEGS: Femora slightly more slender than
in radtkeorum. Femora II on anterior side
and all tarsi more extensively white than in
the latter species, particularly tarsi III in
contrast to radtkeorum usually extensively
white.
ABDOMEN: Tergites somewhat less strong-
ly sclerotized and less coarsely sculptured
than in radtkeorum, this is particularly
noticeable on tergites 5-7, which are not
markedly convex and not at all bulging
laterally. Basic color of abdomen a shade
lighter than in radtkeorum.
DISTRIBUTION (map 2): The south-
eastern lowlands from Pennsylvania and
Maryland south to Florida, Georgia, and
Alabama. ALABAMA. Dekalb Co.: 1 female,
Rainsville, 9-VII-1970, G. Heinrich (CGH II).
FLORIDA. Highlands Co.: 6 females, 1 male,
Archbold Biological Station, 29-III-11-V-
1967, G. Heinrich (CGH II); Highlands
Hammock State Park; 1 intersex, 27-IV-1968,
G. Heinrich; 5 females, 14 males, 2-VIII-1-IX-
1969, G. Heinrich, D. Radtke; 2 females, 1-X-3-
XI-1969, R. W. Miller (all CGH II). GEOR-
GIA. Monroe Co.: 2 females, Forsyth, 6-VII-
1969 and 23-31-VII-1969, G. Heinrich (CGH
II). MISSISSIPPI. Oktibbeha Co.: 1 female,
Starkville, 12-18-VI-1971, C. Sartor. Yalo-
busha Co.: 1 female, Water Valley, 1-VII-
1970, G. Heinrich (CGH II).


3b. Protichneumon grandis inornatior
new subspecies
Map 3 0
SYSTEMATICS: A very large, strongly
sclerotized and coarsely sculptured form,


Map 2. Protichneumon grandis grandis BrullM
most similar to radtkeorum in color and
appearance; clearly distinguished from
radtkeorum by structure of femora III, head,
and flagellum which all agree with, or closely
approach grandis grandis. Temple profile
and cheek profile more swollen than in
grandis, the sculpture of mesoscutum and 5th
tergite denser and coarser, the scutellum
more raised, area superomedia on the
average more narrowed and pointed toward
the base, approaching the shape of a Gothic
arch; all these differences from grandis are
very subtle, but they are complemented by
chromatic characters such as the total lack of
white markings, in both sexes, on the thorax
and the reduction of white on the anterior
pairs of legs in males. The form is treated
tentatively as a subspecies ofgrandis, but the
possibility that it represents a very similar
but distinct species, more widely distributed
than known at present, can not be precluded;
a hint in favor of this hypothesis can be
found in the female from northern Florida,
Liberty Co.; this specimen is considerably
smaller (24mm long) than all specimens of
the type series, but agrees with them
otherwise.
Decisive for the tentative subspecific
association of this form with grandis was the
fact that typical specimens ofgrandis though
abundant further north (Highlands Co.),
have not been found in Lee Co. so far; this
fact supports the hypothesis that inornatior
replaces grandis geographically.








FEMALE: Length 28-29 mm. Differs from
grandis grandis by lack of white markings on
scutellum, vertical orbits, and frontal orbits
(these orbits being ferruginous tinged
instead); postpetiole often partially dark
ferruginous; color otherwise as in grandis
grandis.
MALE: Length 30 mm. Extremely similar
to the sympatric radtkeorum, but at once
distinguishable by the considerably nar-
rower, more elongate tyloids; differs from
grandis grandis by reduction of white
markings, on head, thorax and legs as
follows: head black, with the following white
parts: face, clypeus, lower part of frontal
orbits, a short and narrow line on the middle
of outer orbits, and upper part of basal 1/2 of
mandibles; no white mark on vertical orbits;
thorax uniformly black; abdomen dark
brown red, except black 1st segment; legs
black, white are only: anterior side of tibiae I
and of femora I, tarsi I and II partially, and a
small apical spot on the inner side of femora
II and of tibiae II; all coxae uniformly black.
FLAGELLUM: Narrow, elongate-elliptic
tyloids on segments 8-20, the 1st punctiform,
the longest, on segments 13-17 almost
reaching bases and apices of segments.
Black, scape ventrally white.
Holotype: female, Florida, Lee Co., Orange
River, Ft. Myers, 14-IV-1968 (CGH II).
Allotype: male, same locality, 24-XII-1971
(CGH II). Paratypes: 5 females, same
locality, 14-IV-1968, 29-V-1970, 20-IX and 22-
XII-1971, 27-1-1972 (CGH II).
DISTRIBUTION (map 3): In addition to
the type material, 1 other tentative Florida
record is known: Liberty Co.: 1 female,
Torreya State Park, 14-V-1969, H. V. Weems,
Jr. (CGH II).

4. Protichneumon effigies Heinrich
Protichneumon effigies Heinrich, 1961:26-7,
females/males.
Holotype: female, Maine, CGH II. Allotype:
male, USNM.
SYSTEMA TICS: The smallest of the North
American species of the genus, well dis-
tinguished in females by the slender flagel-
lum, with the 1st segment more than twice as
long as wide, and by the large, evenly
trimmed scopa; in both sexes by the light red,
close to orange-tinged color of the abdomen
(similar to ambiguus, but including the 1st
segment or at least the postpetiole). Flagellar
proportions similar only to radtkeorum,
which is strikingly distinguished by almost
twice the size of effigies, by dark chesnut-


Map 3. Protichneumon grandis inornatior, n. subspecies

brown color of the abdomen (excluding the
black 1st tergite) and by a smaller scopa.
The species has not been recorded yet from
the southeastern states, but may well occur
south of the so-far-known southern limits of
its distribution.
FEMALE: Length 17-20 mm. Black,
including legs and usually petiole; abdomen,
including postpetiole light, close to orange-
tinged red; wings uniformly, but only
moderately deeply infuscated; scutellum
always entirely black; frontal orbits and
vertical marks narrowly white; anterior side
of tibiae I and of tip of femora I ivory;
flagellum with dorsal white annulus on
segments 7 or 8 to 14, 15, or 16.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, fairly long,
ventrally flattened and slightly widened
beyond middle, apically strongly attenuated
and pointed, with 47-49 segments; basal
segments elongate, the 1st about 2.5 times as
long as apically wide, in lateral view the 8th
or 9th square, the widest, seen from the flat
side, slightly more than twice as wide as long.
MALE: (Specimen from Idaho): Length 19
mm. Color as in female, with the following
additional white marks: bands on facial
orbits, narrow bands on median part of outer
orbits, apical margin of 1st trochanters I, and
anterior side of femora and tarsi I (legs II
lacking); in this male, in contrast to all other
males of the genus, face and clypeus (the








former except facial orbits) black; flagellum
without annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With moderately narrow,
elongate-elliptic tyloids on segments 7-18 or
19, or (Idaho) 21.
DISTRIBUTION: Transcontinental,
from Newfoundland, Ontario, Saskatche-
wan, Alberta, and British Columbia south to
Colorado and Kansas. New record: IDAHO. 1
female, 1 male, Craters of the Moon, VIII-
1965, D. S. Homing (CGH II).

5. Protichneumon victoria Heinrich,
new status
Protichneumon grandis victoria Heinrich,
1961:25-26, female, male.
Holotype: female, British Columbia; CNC
(No. 6996). Allotype: male, CNC.
SYSTEMATICS: This form shares with
ambiguus the only normally sclerotized
structure, and neither very dense nor coarse
sculpture of tergites, and thus could be
associated as a subspecies rather with
ambiguus than with grandis. On account of
its strong chromatic differentiation and the
complexity of the entire genus it is now
considered as a distinct species.
Distinctive characters are the extensively
to entirely light ochreous-tinged red color of
femora, tibiae, and tarsi in both sexes, in
combination with weakly sclerotized and
sculptured tergites.
FEMALE: Length 23-26 mm. Black;
femora and tibiae predominantly or entirely,
the postpetiole and tergites 2-7 entirely light
ochreous-tinged red; frontal and vertical
orbits narrowly white, in specimen from
California broadly ferruginous; clypeus in
specimen from California ferruginous, in
holotype faintly obscure-red tinged medially;
wings moderately infuscated; flagellum with
dorsal white annulus on segments 6 or 7 to 13
or 14, scape in specimen from California
ventrally ferruginous.
MALE: Length 25 mm. Black, including
coxae and trochanters; postpetiole, tergites 2-
7, and basic color of rest of legs light
ochreous-tinged red; the following white:
mandibles partially, clypeus, sides of face
broadly, frontal and vertical orbits narrowly
(red tinged), apex of scutellum (white or
ferruginous), anterior side of tibiae I and
tarsi I and II predominantly; wings mod-
erately deeply infuscated; flagellum without
annulus.
FLAGELLUM: (specimen from California):
with 49 segments, and with elongate-elliptic
tyloids on segments 8-22, the longest on


segments 12-19, practically reaching from
bases to apices of segments. Black, ventrally
brownish, scape ventrally white.
DISTRIBUTION: The few records at hand
until now suggest a distribution restricted to
a comparatively narrow strip along the west
coast of North America, eastward not beyond
1200; known so far from Vancouver Island in
the north, close to Sacramento, California in
the south. New record. CALIFORNIA.
Plumas Co.: 1 female, 1 male, west of Quincy,
6-VII-1949 (CHT, CGH II).
6. Protichneumon polytropus Heinrich
Protichneumon polytropus Heinrich, 1961:
27, male.
Holotype: male, North Carolina; USNM.
SYSTEMATICS: The holotype has been
reexamined. I am still convinced that it
represents a distinct species, although
during the 8 years since the original
description no 2nd specimen has been found.
The species shares with grandis and
radtkeorum the strong sclerotization and
coarse and dense sculpture of tergites 2-4, and
with the western species victoria the red
color of femora and tibiae III. It is chromati-
cally furthermore distinguished by entirely
light-red abdomen, only laterally white
clypeus and face, and uniformly black
femora and tibiae II.
The distribution of the species may include
the southeastern states rather than the
northeastern, as hinted by the structure and
sculpture of tergites.
MALE: Length 19 mm. Black, tergites 1-7
and femora and tibiae III light ferruginous
red; the following white: sides of clypeus and
face, frontal orbits narrowly up to lower
ocellus, small marks on vertical orbits,
narrow stripe on middle of outer orbits,
mandibles predominantly, scape ventrally,
anterior side of tibiae I, and segments 1-5 of
tarsi I and II (all except infuscated apices);
wings strongly infuscated; flagellum without
annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With 45 segments and small,
rather narrow tyloids (between bacilliform
and elongate elliptic) on segments 7-22.
HEAD: Temple profile distinctly narrowed
behind eyes, with almost straight outline;
malar space less than 1/2 as long as width of
mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum moderately convex,
coarsely and moderately densely punctured,
polished between punctures; anterior section
of notauli distinct; scutellum rather strongly
convex, somewhat more finely punctured









than the mesoscutum; area superomedia
distinctly longer than wide and distinctly
narrowed toward area basalis, not clearly
separated from areae posteromedia.
LEGS: Femora III moderately slender.
ABDOMEN: Gastrocoeli large and deep,
their interspace narrower than 1 of them,
strongly longitudinally striate, as is also the
median field of postpetiole; tergites 2-5
coarsely and densely irregularly striate
punctate, separated by pronounced sutures
and laterally somewhat bulging toward
apices.
DISTRIBUTION: North Carolina.
7. Protichneumon sartoris Heinrich
Map 4
Protichneumon sartoris Heinrich, 1971:961-
962, female.
Holotype: female, Starkville, Mississippi;
CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: Females of this species
are clearly distinguished from grandis and
ambiguous by a combination of the following
characters: (1) femora III considerably more
slender; (2) flagellum more slender, less
widened beyond middle, with more elongate
basal segments; (3) scopa on coxae III
considerably larger and denser; (4) opost-
petiolus red; (5) size considerably smaller
than grandis.
Agrees in characters (1) and (2) with
radtkeorum; differs from radtkeorum most
decisively by characters (4), (5) and parti-
cularly (3), and in addition by more convex
temples and cheeks.
Apparently more closely related to effigies
than to any other species of the genus, as
indicated by the unusually large scopa,
relatively small size, and red color of the
postpetiole; differs from effigies by coarser
and denser sculpture of tergites, by the dark
chestnut-red (instead of light orange-ferru-
ginous) color of the abdomen, and by the
cheek profile less narrowed toward mandible
base.
FEMALE: Length 20 mm. Black, in-
cluding nearly entire legs and base or most of
petiole; postpetiole and rest of abdomen dark
chestnut red; wings uniformly and deeply
infuscated; white are: small marks on orbits
of vertex, frontal orbits narrowly, and
anterior side of tibiae I; flagellum with dorsal
white annulus on segments 6 or*7 or 8 to 13 or
14 or 15.

FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, moderately
long, ventrally flattened beyond middle and


moderately widened, apically strongly
attenuated and pointed, with 46 (2 specimens
from Mississippi and Tennessee) or 49 (2
specimens from Georgia) segments, the 1st
about 2.5 times as long as apically wide, the
8th or 9th square in lateral view, the widest
on the flat side nearly 2.5 times as wide as
long.

HEAD: Temple profile, in vertical view,
scarcely narrowed behind eyes and distinctly
more curved than ingrandis; cheek profile, in
frontal view, as in grandis slightly narrowed
toward mandible base; cheeks in lateral view
comparatively wider than in grandis and
distinctly more convex (= "swollen"); carina
occipitalis, in vertical view, forming a deeper
arch than in grandis; frons at and immedi-
ately below lower ocellus less concave.

THORAX: Mesoscutum and particularly
scutellum more strongly convex than in
grandis, both stronger and more densely
punctured all over; otherwise as in grandis.

LEGS: Rather slender; femora III consider-
ably more slender than in grandis, in lateral
view their dorsal outline nearly straight, not
curving down tangibly toward base or
toward apex; coxae III very densely punc-
tured all over, with very large and dense,
fairly evenly trimmed scopa.
ABDOMEN: Tergites 2-4 as in grandis and
radtkeorum coarsely and very densely
sculptured and strongly sclerotized, sepa-
rated from each other by distinct, but less
pronounced, sutures.

MALE: So far no male could be definitely
associated with this species; I suspect that
the male is represented in the broad series of
grandiss" males collected in all localities
where the sartoris females have been found;
but, several attempts to separate another
species from these series by structural and/or
chromatic characters have failed.

DISTRIBUTION (map 4): Known from
Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Ar-
kansas. ARKANSAS. Washington Co.: I
female, county only, 1-X-1939 (USNM).
GEORGIA. Bartow Co.: 1 female, Stamp
Creek, 28-VII-1969, H. V. Weems, Jr. Monroe
Co.: 1 female, Forsyth, 28-V-4-VI-1970, F.
Naumann (both, CGH II). MISSISSIPPI.
Oktibbeha Co.: 1 female, Starkville, 14-20-
VII-1970, C. F. Sartor (CGH II). TEN-
NESSEE. Henderson Co.: 1 female, Natchez
Trail State Park, 2-7-VI-1972, G. Heinrich
(CGH II).
































Map 4. Protichneumon sartoris Heinrich


8. Protichneumon regnatrix (Cresson)

Ichneumon regnatrix Cresson, 1864:178,
female.
Protichneumon grandis, Townes and Town-
es, 1951:304, partim (Ichneumon regnatrix
Cresson as synonym).
Protichneumon grandis regnatrix, Heinrich,
1961:25, female.
Holotype: female, Delaware; ANS (no. 1437).
SYSTEMATICS: The species name gran-
dis has been restricted, in this revision, to the
strongly sclerotized southeastern form as the
result of a recent examination of the type; as
consequently grandis and regnatrix are now
sympatric, the hypothesis that the 2 forms
are subspecifically associated (Heinrich
1961, 1962) can not be maintained. Only 2
alternative are left now: either regnatrix
represents a mere mutation and thus a
synonym of grandis, or it is a distinct species.
The type of regnatrix agrees in all struc-
tural characters with grandis, except for the
lack of scopa on coxae III. As a rule, the
presence or absence of the brush-like complex
of dense hair on the inner, apical surface of
the hind coxa of female (= scopa) represents a
reliable, specific distinction, particularly
within the tribe Protichneumonini; however,
abnormal individual mutations breaking the
rule of specific structures are known to occur
occasionally, particularly in cases of sex-
ually confined characteristics.


I am inclined to lean toward the hypothesis
that regnatrix represents such individual
mutation; however, there is no conclusive
proof for this theory yet. The synonymization
of any already described and named species,
I believe, should not be pronounced before it
can be convincingly explained and supported
by factual evidence; therefore, regnatrix is
treated here, tentatively, as a full species in
order to keep the matter "in the spotlight" for
further research.
Among the more than 100 Protichneumon
females from the eastern states which I
examined between 1960 and 1971, not a
single specimen without scopa has been
found. At last, in Tennessee 18 June 1972, I
collected the first Protichneumon female
with hairless coxae III; the locality where
this specimen without scopa had been found
obviously was holding the key to the solution
of the regnatrix problem. If the lack of scopa
in the regnatrix type, in fact, indicated a
specific character, then it should be possible
to find another, congruent specimen in the
same area where the 1st one was collected; if,
on the other hand, the lack of scopa
represented nothing but a very rare indivi-
dual mutation, then the chances of finding a
duplicate during the following days would be
close to nil. The greatest effort was made,
therefore, to get another female in the same
area; I found the 2nd specimen 3 days later; it
was a complete replica of the 1st not only in
the lack of scopa but also in all other
characters, to be mentioned later.

A direct comparison with the holotype of
regnatrix, however, revealed the surprising
fact that the 2 females from Tennessee,
although sharing with regnatrix the lack of
scopa, are different in several other charac-
ters from regnatrix and grandis as well; that
they represent a distinct species, different
from grandis appears indubitable; a sub-
specific association with regnatrix seems
unlikely, though not impossible; the form will
be described and named tentatively as a full
species further on, while the problem of the
species regnatrix still remains unsolved.

FEMALE: Agrees in structure with
grandis, except for the lack of scopa; differs
chromatically from the type ofgrandis by the
lack of white markings on scutellum and on
vertical orbits; the extreme end of scutellum
and the apical part of the postpetiole are
faintly reddish tinged in the holotype
(perhaps caused by fading).

DISTRIBUTION: Delaware.









9. Protichneumon glabricoxalis,
new species
Map 5
SYS TEMA TICS: This species shares with
the type of regnatrix the complete lack of
scopa on coxae III, but differs from regnatrix
and also from grandis by: (1) the almost
entirely hidden ovipositor, the 7th tergite
being in both types somewhat flattened and
apically a trifle truncate, the apex of
abdomen approaching thus a semi-ambly-
pygous shape; (2) less strongly sclerotized
and somewhat finer sculptured tergites 2-4,
the 2nd and 3rd tergite not at all bulging
laterally and being separated by a less
pronounced suture; (3) slightly more widened
beyond middle flagellum, the widest seg-
ments on the flat side being about 3.5 times as
wide as long.
As compared with grandis, this form
shows also a smaller size and more slender
and nearly parallel-sided abdomen. It may
perhaps be considered as a southern sub-
species of regnatrix, should future research
confirm the specific status of the latter (see
also preamble to regnatrix); glabricoxalis is
treated here tentatively as a full species:
FEMALE: Length 23 mm. Black, includ-
ing legs and 1st segment of abdomen; rest of
abdomen red brown; wings uniformly and
very strongly infuscated; white are: fontal
orbits narrowly, anterior side of tibiae I, and
anterior side of segments 1 and 2 of tarsi I


Map 5. Protichneumon glabricoxalis n. sp.


partially; scutellum uniformly black; fla-
gellum with dorsal white annulus on seg-
ments 7-14; coxae III without trace of scopa.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, moderately
long, ventrally flattened and strongly
widened beyond middle, with 50 segments,
the 1st less than twice as long as apically
wide, in lateral view the 6th approximately
square, the widest, seen on the flat side, about
3.5 times as wide as long.
HEAD and THORAX: As in grandis.
LEGS: Slightly more slender than in
grandis; tarsi III more elongate and slender;
coxae III without trace of a scopa.
ABDOMEN: As described in systematics.
Holotype: female, Tennessee, Henderson
Co., Natchez Trail State Park, 18-VI-1972, G.
Heinrich (CGH II). Paratype: 1 female, same
data as above except collected 21-VI-1972
(CGH II).
DISTRIBUTION (map 5): Known only
from the type locality in Tennessee.

2. Genus Coelichneumon Thomson
Coelichneumon Thomson, 1893:1901. Hein-
rich, 1961:28-86. Heinrich, 1966:188-247.
Heinrich, 1967:1-10. Type species: Ichneu-
mon lineator Gravenhorst; designated by
Ashmead, 1900.
Cyanojoppa Cameron, 1902:398. Type spe-
cies: Cyanojoppa rufofemorata Cameron;
designated by Viereck, 1914.
Spilojoppa Cameron, 1904a:208. Type spe-
cies: Spilojoppa fulvipes Cameron; mono-
basic.
Shalisha Cameron, 1904b:221. Type species:
Shalisha fulvipes Cameron; monobasic.
Lodryca Cameron, 1904b:223. Type species:
Lodryca lineatipes Cameron; monobasic.
Eugyrus Townes, 1946:57. Type species:
Ichneumon alvarado Cresson; original
designation.
Ichneumon, Townes and Townes, 1951:301.
Townes, et al., 1961:403-409. Townes, et al.,
1965:520-530. Townes and Townes, 1966:284-
286.
SYSTEMATICS: Since 1951 (see Townes
and Townes, 1951:302), there has been
controversy about the valid name of this
genus (Coelichneumon Thomson versus
Ichneumon Linnaeus). For the essence of this
controversy see Townes (1969:15-18) and
Heinrich (1961:11, nomenclature). This
controversy has a merely judicial character
without morphological implications. Mor-









phological considerations, however, are
decisive for the limitation and definition of
this genus in relation to various other generic
names introduced mainly by Cameron at the
beginning of this century. For detailed
discussion of these problems, see Heinrich
(1966:189-190).

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped,
ventrally flattened beyond middle and, as a
rule more or less, rarely not at all, sometimes
very strongly widened, apically usually
strongly, sometimes only moderately attenu-
ated; of males always with row of distinct
tyloids, and slightly nodose, with transverse,
inconspicuous bristle ridges on ventral side.
HEAD: Normal; temple profile in vertical
view as a rule more or less narrowed behind
eyes and more or less curved, exceptionally
inflated; malar space short, usually mark-
edly shorter than width of mandible base;
mandibles usually normal, fairly broad, the
apical tooth not very much longer than the
subapical, exceptionally with specific pecul-
iarities (azotus group); apical margin of
clypeus straight or with minute projection in
the middle.
THORAX: Mesoscutum moderately convex,
anterior part of notauli usually indicated to
distinct; sternauli obsolete; scutellum flat to
moderately raised above postscutellum,
laterally not carinate, sometimes basally
with lateral edges; propodeum moderately to
distinctly abbreviated, with distinct basal
furrow, areae dentiparae more or less steeply
arched downward from costulae fairly close
to bases of coxae III, their apices never
prominent; area basalis and area supero-
media as a rule not separated by a prominent
carina, often fused, the latter more or less
narrowed in front; area basalis usually not
deepened, except often its anterior part.
LEGS: Moderately long, femora moderately
stout to fairly slender; coxae III of females
often with scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal; areolet as a
rule pentagonal, although more or less
narrowed in front; sometimes intercubiti
coalescent in front; radius slightly sinuate.
ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous; gastro-
coeli always large and deep, their interspace
somewhat to considerably narrower than 1 of
them; postpetiole usually with distinct
median field, which is, as a rulb, longitudinal-
ly striate, as is usually also the interspace of
the gastrocoeli and the base of 3rd tergite
medially; in some Nearctic species post-
petiole regularly and coarsely punctured


(azotus group), in a few species rugose and
coriaceus; ovipositor as a rule only slightly,
exceptionally considerably projecting.
CHROMATIC CHARACTERS: Basic col-
or in vast majority of Nearctic species black
or metallic blue, with, as a rule, more or less
restricted white markings on head, thorax,
and sometimes legs in females; abdomen
never apically white marked, but sometimes
the postpetiole apically white; apico-lateral
white marks on anterior tergites beyond the
1st occur very frequently in Oriental and also
in 4 European species, but are known so far
only in 1, very rare Nearctic species; white
marks on head, thorax, and legs are, as a rule,
more extended in males than in females.
DISTRIBUTION: Distributed over the
entire Holarctic and Oriental Regions, with
the peak of speciation apparently in the
mountain forests of the latter; lacking in
Africa, south of the Sahara, and apparently
also in the Australian zone; reaching with a
few species from the Nearctic zone into
Central America south to Panama (Townes
and Townes, 1966); according to information
received from C. C. Porter, at least 4 or 5
typical Coelichneumon species have been
found in N. W. Argentina.
HOSTS: Various groups of Heterocera.

Key to species of
Coelichneumon Thomson
of the Southeastern States

FEMALES
1. All femora medially on both sides
extensively white marked; mesopleura,
metapleura and mesosternum white
marked. (Abdomen bluish black; scutel-
lum laterally white, with longitudinal
median black band; length 17-18 mm)
................. 1. pulcher (Brullg)
- Femora, pleura, and mesosternum not
white marked .................... 2
2. Basic color of at least abdomen, usually
also of thorax clearly bright metallic
blue. (Scutellum medially black, lateral-
ly white or ivory) ................... 3
- Basic color of body black, at most
abdomen in strong light, with a faint
bluish tinge in a few species. ....... 6
3. Basic color of mesoscutum black, as a
rule with 2 short median white lines.
(Basic color of head and femora also
black, without metallic-blue tinge; coxae
III with distinct scopa; length 14-17 mm.

............... 2. eximius (Stephens)








- Basic color of mesoscutum metallic blue,
as a rule without median white mark-
ings. ............................. 4
4. Coxae III without a trace of scopa.
(Pronotal ridge entirely or extensively
ivory, as are also collar and subalarum;
length 16 mm .................. . .
.................. 4. nudus Heinrich
Coxae III with distinct scopa. ...... 5
5. Pronotal ridge broadly ivory; coxae III
with extremely large evenly trimmed
scopa; temple profile not much narrowed
behind eyes, with curved outline; length
19 m m .. .........................
...........5. 5. magniscopa Heinrich
Pronotal ridge not, or barely ivory
marked; coxae III with distinct but not
unusually large scopa; temple profile
strongly narrowed behind eyes, with
almost straight outline; length 13-17
mm. ................................
............... 3. sassacus (Viereck)
6. Scutellum with median longitudinal
black band and wedge-shaped lateral
white marks; all tibiae and metatarsi
with conspicuous basal white annulus.
(Orbits broadly white around eyes,
except on malar space; length 8-12 mm).
................................... 7
- Scutellum apically to predominantly
white, or entirely black, but not with
longitudinal median black band and
white sides; never all tibiae and meta-
tarsi with basal white bands. ....... 8
7. All coxae and trochanters black, at most
coxae I with small apical white mark.
............ 10 a. navus navus (Say)
- Coxae I and II apically and all tro-
chanters ventrally white.
10 b. navus albidior, new subspecies
8. Wings uniformly and very deeply,
exceptionally only moderately (orpheus
Cresson) infuscated. (Large species, 16-
22 mm long). ....................
.................. (maurus group) 9
- Wings not markedly infuscated. (Species
usually smaller, less than 17 mm long)
................................. 12
9. Carina oralis laminately elevated and
sloping away from the mouth; post-
petiole coarsely punctured, without
striation. (Scutellum with sharp lateral
edges at base, never marked with white;
length 16-18 mm) ................ . .
................... 8. viola (Cresson)


- Carina oralis not laminately raised;
postpetiole either longitudinal striate or
irregularly rugose. (Length 18-22 mm).
.................................. 10
10. Postpetiole irregularly coriaceous ru-
gose, without longitudinal striation;
mesosternum forming with mesopleuron
a continuous rather sharp edge; 3rd
tergite on each side of the not depressed
median section with a transverse,
narrow, smooth furrow. (Scutellum
always black; length 19-22 mm). ......
................ 6. maurus (Cresson)
Median field of postpetiole longitu-
dinally striate, at least on basal part;
borderline between mesosternum and
mesopleura rounded, not forming a
rather sharp edge; 3rd tergite without a
smooth, transverse furrow on each side
of base. (Scutellum black, or apically
white; length 18-22 mm).
................. ................ 1 1
11. Coxae III with distinct scopa; flagellum
markedly widened beyond middle, the
widest segment twice to slightly more
than twice as wide as long on flat side;
wings very deeply infuscated. (Length
18-20 mm) .... ................
............... 7. histricus (Cresson)
Coxae III without scopa; flagellum
barely widened beyond middle, the
widest segment about 1.3 times as wide
as long on the flat side; wings moderate-
ly infuscated. (Length 20 mm).
................ 9. orpheus (Cresson)
12. Mandibles with subapical tooth small
and separated from the distinctly longer
apical tooth by a distinct notch only, but
not by a wide and deep gap. (Median field
of postpetiole striate or irregularly
punctured; coxae III without scopa). 13
- Mandibles with strongly developed
subapical tooth, often of almost equal
length with apical tooth, and separated
from the latter by a wide and deep gap
(fig. 17). (Median field of postpetiole
never aciculate, but more or less densely
punctured instead). ...................
...... ......... (azotus group) 15
13. Median field of postpetiole irregularly
punctured; flagellum lanceolate, the
widest segment on the flat side nearly 4
times as wide as long; white on scutellum
covering only its apical margin and its
lateral margin either toward apex only
or nearly for its entire length. (Coxae III
without scopa; tibiae III basally on









exterior side with white mark; length 13-
14 mm). .......... .......... ....
........... 12. lisae, new species
- Median field of postpetiole regularly
longitudinally striate; flagellum more or
less strongly attenuated toward apex,
but much less widened beyond middle;
scutellum entirely white or basally more
or less extensively black. ......... 14
14. Tibiae II and III entirely black; coxae III.
without scopa; abdomen uniformly
black; smaller species; length 11-12 mm.

... ............. 11. vitalis (Cresson)
- Tibiae II and III broadly white banded
basally; coxae III with distinct scopa;
7th tergite with white mark; larger
species; length 14-16 mm ...........
............. deliratorius (Linnaeus)
(for generic position see Heinrich,
1971:967) .............................
15. Coxae III without trace of scopa. .. 16
- Coxae III with distinct scopa ...... 17
16. Junction of carinae oralis and genalis
slightly elevated and triangularly pro-
jecting; apical margin of clypeus dis-
tinctly emarginate; upper mandible
tooth clearly longer than the lower;
cheeks considerably swollen; scutellum
black, sometimes apically restrictedly
white. (Length 13-15 mm) ..........
............... 14. jejunus (Cresson)
- Junction of carinae oralis and genalis
not elevated and not at all projecting;
apical margin of clypeus straight; lower
mandible tooth subequal with upper;
cheeks only slightly swollen; scutellum
entirely white. (Length 12-13 mm). ....
...... 16. pseudowalleyi, new species
17. Prescutellar carinae black; white mark
on scutellum medially in a gradual curve
approaching the basal furrow. (Length
15-16 mm) .........................
................ 13. azotus (Cresson)
- Prescutellar carinae extensively white;
white mark on scutellum restricted to its
apical part and emarginate medially in a
gradual curve toward apex of scutellum.
(Length 14-17 mm) ...............
.............. 15. punctifer Heinrich
MALES
1. Mesosternum predominantly to entirely
white; mesopleura with 2 large white
marks (sometimes confluent); all femora
on interior and exterior side extensively
white. (Length 16-18 mm.). ..........
.................. 1. pulcher (Brull6)


- Mesosternum, mesopleura, and femora
not or much less extensively white
m arked. ............................ 2
2. Basic color at least of abdomen, usually
also of thorax, clearly and bright
metallic blue. (Scutellum medially black,
laterally white). .................... 3
- Basic color of abdomen and thorax
black, the former at the most with a faint
bluish tinge. ....................... 6
3. Mesoscutum black, without metallic-
blue tinge, with 2 short median white
lines; femora III in southern populations
with conspicuous white mark on exterior
side. (Tibiae III on exterior side pre-
dominantly white; tarsi III white except
black apices of segments; length 15-18
mm). ............. ...................
............... 2. eximius (Stephens)
- Mesoscutum metallic blue, without
median white lines. ................ 4
4. Temples strongly narrowed behind eyes,
with straight outlines; tibiae III black,
with short, basal ivory mark on exterior
side; prescutellar carinae not ivory
marked. (Length 15-17 mm). ..........
............... 3. sassacus (Viereck)
- Temples less narrowed behind eyes, with
somewhat curved outline; either tibiae
III more extensively ivory marked or
prescutellar carinae ivory. .......... 5
5. Prescutellar carinae ivory; tibiae III and
tarsi III usually uniformly black, the
former rarely with indication of small
ivory marks on exterior side at or near
the base. (Length 16-17 mm). .........
.................. 4. nudus Heinrich
- Prescutellar carinae not ivory; exterior
side of tibiae III to beyond middle and
the tarsi III except black apices of
segments, ivory. (Length 19 mm) .....
............ 5.magniscopa Heinrich
6. Wings more or less deeply infuscated.
(Large species; length 16-22 mm). ... 7
- Wings not infuscated. ............. 10
7. Carina oralis strongly, laminately
elevated and slanting away from the
mouth; tibiae and tarsi II and III
extensively white. (Prescutellar carinae
white marked; postpetiole coarsely
punctured, not striate; length 16-21mm).

................... 8. viola (Cresson)
- Carina oralis not elevated; tibiae and
tarsi III black. ..................... 8









8. Median field of postpetiole coriaceous
rugose, without aciculation and punctur-
ation; mesosternum and mesopleura
forming a continuous, rather sharp edge.
(Flagellum without annulus; length 18-
22mm). ........................
...................... .. 6. maurus (Say)
- Median field of postpetiole at least on
basal part aciculate, apically sometimes
coarsely punctured; mesosternum and
mesopleura not forming a sharp, but a
gradually rounded edge. ............ 9
9. Flagellum with white annulus; cheeks
almost flat, receding toward carina
genalis, entirely black; 3rd tergite
basally on each side of (not depressed)
median part with transverse, smooth
depression; wings deeply infuscated.
(Length 18 mm) ..................
............... 7. histricus (Cresson)
- Flagellum without annulus; cheeks
distinctly convex, their lower section
ivory to mandible base; 3rd tergite
without transverse, smooth depression
on each side of base; wings moderately
infuscated. (Length 20-22 mm) .......
................ 9. orpheus (Cresson)
10. Median field of postpetiole longitudinal-
ly striate. (Mandibles narrower, the
subapical tooth separated from the
apical tooth only by a relatively small
notch). ........................... 11
- Median field of postpetiole punctured.
(Mandibles wider, the subapical tooth
separated from 'the apical tooth by a
fairly wide and deep gap and sometimes
subequal in length with the apical).. 15
11. Scutellum with longitudinal, median
black band, only laterally white. (Basal
1/3 or more of tibiae III and at least 1st,
sometimes 1st to 3rd segment of tarsi III
white, except black apices. (Length 8-12
m m ). .................... ............
....................... (navus Say)
- Scutellum without longitudinal, median
black band, either apically or entirely
white. ............................ 13
12. Sterna and pleura uniformly black; only
the 1st segment of tarsi II and III basally
white; white basal ring on tibiae III
restricted to about basal 1/3; coxae III
always uniformly black ...........
............ 10 a. navus navus (Say)
- Sterna and mesopleura 'more or less
extensively white marked; 2 or more
segments of tarsi II and III basally
white; tibiae III usually white to or


beyond the middle; coxae III sometimes
white marked. ....................
10 b. navus albidior, new subspecies
13. Tibiae III with only a short basal white
mark; tarsi III uniformly black. (Scu-
tellum basally more or less extensively
black, apically white; femora slenderer
than in alternative species; length 11-12
m m ). .................................
................ 11. vitalis (Cresson)
- Tibiae III basally extensively to pre-
dominantly white; tarsi III white mark-
ed. ............................... 14
14. Tyloids very conspicuous, large, on
segments 5-10; mesoscutum with 2 short,
diverging, median white lines; tibiae III
all around white almost from base to
beyond middle; tarsi III black except 1st
segment, which is white with narrowly
black apex; scutellum rather strongly
convex, laterally carinate at the base;
length 12 mm....................
............... 12. lisae, new species
- Tyloids inconspicuous, small, on seg-
ments 5-16 or 17; mesoscutum never
white marked; tibiae III white, except
black apex and black band on interior
side, reaching from apex close to base; all
segments of tarsi III basally white;
scutellum barely convex, not laterally
carinate at base; length 13-14 mm. ....
............ 17. delirops, new species
15. Face and clypeus white, with broad,
median, continuous, longitudinal black
band; carina oralis strongly, laminately
elevated and slanting away from mouth;
wings moderately infuscated. (Pre-
scutellar carinae with white mark;
apices of femora III narrowly white;
postpetiole not white marked; length 16-
21m m ) ................................
................... 8. viola (Cresson)
- Face and clypeus entirely white; carina
oralis differently structured; wings not
infuscated. ...................... 16
16. Junction of carina oralis and canna
genalis somewhat elevated, forming a
tiny, triangular projection, visible in
lateral view of the slightly toward
mandible tilted head; apical margin of
clypeus not completely straight, but very
slightly emarginate. (Mandibles neither
particular short, nor very wide, the
lower tooth markedly shorter than the
upper, postpetiole apically not white
marked; tibiae III basally on exterior
side usually with a short white line,









sometimes entirely black; tarsi III
always black; length 11-16 mm).
............... 14. jejunus (Cresson)
- Junction of carina oralis and genalis not
at all elevated and not forming a small
projection; apical margin of clypeus
completely straight. ............... 17
17. Prescutellar carinae extensively white;
hypopygium medially strongly pro-
duced, apically blunted, recalling the
structure of some Spilichneumon spe-
cies; mandibles moderately stout, the
upper tooth distinctly longer than the
lower; apex of femora III not white
marked. (Postpetiole with 3 large,
sometimes confluent, apical white
marks; tarsi III black; length 14-18 mm).

........... 15. punctifer Heinrich
- Prescutellar carina black; hypopygium
medially not elongate; mandibles rather
short and broad, with subequal teeth;
apex of femora III white on dorsal side.
................................. 18
18. Postpetiole apically extensively white;
tibiae and tarsi III white for entire
length or almost so; scutellum laterally
carinate at base, basally more or less
extensively black; mesoscutum usually
with 2 short, median white lines; length
14-18 m m ............................
............... 13. azotus (Cresson)
- Postpetiole uniformly black; tibiae III
with only a short, basal white band on
exterior side, tarsi III uniformly black;
scutellum not carinate laterally at base,
uniformly white; mesoscutum uniformly
black; length 13 mm. .................
...... 16. pseudowalleyi, new species
1. Coelichneumon pulcher (Brulle)
Map 6
Ichneumon pulcher Brulle, 1846:304, female.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female.
Townes and Townes. 1966:285
Coelichneumon pulcher, Morley, 1915:127,
female, male (records from Mexico). Hein-
rich, 1961:46-47, female, male.
Holotype: female, Mus. Nat. d'Histoire
Naturelle,'Paris. Neallotype: male, CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: Among the numerous
North American species of the genus with
metallic-blue basic color of the abdomen (or
of the entire body), pulcher is uniquely
distinguished by extremely rich white
markings on thorax and legs, the white
including parts (or all) of mesosternum,
conspicuous marks on meso pleura, on the


middle of all femora, and on all tibiae.
Tergites 2-5 are more strongly sclerotized and
separated from each other than in most other
species of this genus.
FEMALE:Length 17-18 mm. Abdomen
dark metallic blue; head and thorax black,
without metallic tinge, with exceptionally
rich white pattern; pronotal ridge and sides
of scutellum broadly white; mesoscutum with
long white longitudinal median stripes;
sterna, pleura, prepectus, and all femora and
tibiae with white pattern; postpetiole with
apico-lateral white marks, coxae and tro-
chanters I and II entirely, III predominantly
white, coxae III with indistinct white scopa;
flagellum medially only slightly widened, the
widest segment on ventral side distinctly less
than twice as wide as long.
MALE:Length 16-18 mm. Face and cly-
.peus uniformly white; mesosternum entirely
white, or with only a narrow oblique black
band along sternauli; the 2 white marks on
mesopleura usually confluent, forming a
white diagonal band which extends from
lower apical corner of mesopleura (where it is
confluent with the white of mesosternum) to
shortly below subalarum; tarsi I and II
extensively white; flagellum without annu-
lus, with narrow, short tyloids on segments 8
or 9 to 20 or 21; scape ventrally white;
otherwise as in female.
DISTRIBUTION (map 6): Ontario and
Maine south to Louisiana, southern Florida,


Map 6. Coelickneumon pulcher (Brulle)








and Mexico (Omiltemi, 8,000 ft., Xucuma-
natlan in Guerrero, 7,000 ft.). FLORIDA.
Dade Co.: 1 female, Homestead, 0. D. Link
(FSCA); 2 females, Paradise Key, 6-7-IV
(CHT). Highlands Co.: 1 male, Highlands
Hammock State Park, 2-IX-1969, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). Lee Co.: Ft. Myers, 12 males, 12-III-
9-IV-1968; 1 female, 23-1-1969; 4 males, 21-IV-
19-V-1970; 2 females, 9-23-VII-1971; 1 male,
30-X-1971; 1 male, IX-1972, D. Radtke (CGH
II). Leon Co.: 1 female, Tall Timbers
Research Station, 12-VI-1970, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). LOUISIANA. Evangeline Co.: 2
males, Chilcot State Park, 22-28-VII-1971, G.
Heinrich (CGH II). MISSISSIPPI. Lafayette
Co.: 1 female, IX-X-1967, P. R. Chalaron
(CGH II). Yalobusha Co.: 1 female, 10-20-VII-
1971, M. Horan (CGH II).
ECOLOGY: Apparently confined to forests
with stands of oaks; males appear in Florida
about the middle of March and disappear
around the middle of April; renewed collect-
ing data during June suggest a 2nd genera-
tion.
2. Coelichneumon eximius (Stephens)
Map 7
Ichneumon eximius Stephens, 1835:186,
female.
Ichneumon caeruleus Cresson, 1864:149,
female. Townes and Townes, 1951:303,
female.
Coelichneumon eximius, Perkins, 1953:107
(I. caeruleus as synonym). Heinrich, 1961:47-
48, female, male. Heinrich, 1969:939, female,
male (variation).
Holotypes: Ichneumon eximius, female,
London; BM(NH) (No. 3b 1817). Ichneumon
caeruleus, female, Illinois; ANS. Neallotype:
male, (Heinrich, 1961) Dryden, Maine; CGH
II.
SYSTEMATICS: Within the group of
species with metallic-blue abdomen, this 1 is
characterized by a combination of the
following characters: (1) basic color of
mesoscutum black, without metallic-blue
tinge; (2) pleura without white marks; (3)
propodeum with distinct blue tinge; (4)
mesoscutum almost always with 2 abbrevi-
ated, median white lines; (5) coxae III with
scopa.
In rare variations, the scopa on coxae III of
females can be absent, but, if so, the region of
the scopa is nevertheless indicated by fine
sculpture and by somewhat flattened surface
of the coxa.
In males the exterior side of femora III is
more or less extensively white, and the


postpetiole always has 2 apico-lateral white
marks which sometimes occur also in
females (rarely in northern populations, but
in majority of specimens of southern popula-
tions).
Southern populations, in both sexes, on the
average somewhat more extensively white
marked than northern populations.

FEMALE: Length 14-17 mm. Abdomen
dark metallic blue; basic color of head and
thorax black, the pleura with a slight,
propodeum with a more distinct bluish tint;
white are: mark on mandible base, small
lateral marks on clypeus, and orbits in
individually varying extent, on the average
more extensively in southern, less in north-
ern populations; white on orbits always
interrupted on malar space, often also on
facial orbits and, particularly in northern
populations, on temples; in northern speci-
mens white often almost entirely lacking on
outer orbits; 2 abbreviated median lines on
mesoscutum, sides of scutellum, pronotal
ridge, subalarum more or less extensively,
usually the postscutellum and marks on
tegulae, and sometimes apico-lateral marks
on postpetiole; legs I and II white marked as
follows: apices of femora I and II and anterior
side of tibiae I, sometimes in northern,
usually in southern populations also anterior
side of tibiae II more or less extensively,
exceptionally also a stripe on anterior side of
tibiae III, in southern populations usually
small mark on ventral side of coxae I;
flagellum with dorsal white annulus on
segments 7-12 or 13 or 14.

FLAGELLUM: With 36-41 segments, the first
slightly more than twice as long as apically
wide, in lateral view the 9th approximately
square, the widest the dest on the flat side twice to
somewhat more than twice as wide as long.

HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
only slightly narrowed behind eyes and
toward mandible base, respectively, both
with curved outlines; cheeks in lateral view
broad and distinctly convex; malar space
considerably shorter than width of mandible
base; face and clypeus densely and coarsely
punctured, the median field of face somewhat
protruding; clypeus broad and short, the
apical margin a trifle projecting toward the
middle.
THORAX: Mesoscutum slightly convex,
densely punctured, the median lobe finely
coriaceous between punctures, anterior 1/3 of
notauli fairly distinct; scutellum barely

33








convex, sparsely punctured, shiny between
punctures; area basalis and area supero-
media confluent, impunctate; lateral carinae
of area posteromedia obsolete.
LEGS: Moderately stout; coxae III densely
punctured on ventral side, finely coriaceous
between punctures, with scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole at
least basally longitudinally striate, apically
coarsely and densely punctured, as are also
the lateral fields; interspace of gastrocoeli
coarsely longitudinally striate to about
middle of 2nd tergite; base of 3rd tergite
medially with some finer, longitudinal
striation; rest of 2nd and 3rd tergites coarsely
and densely punctured, 4th tergite also
rather densely but somewhat finer punc-
tuied, the following tergites with extremely
fine, coriaceous sculpture, shiny and almost
impunctate; ovipositor somewhat projecting.
MALE: Length 15-18 mm. Basic color of
body and white markings on thorax as in
female, except for usually an additional
white mark on upper exterior part of
prepectus; white on head and particularly on
legs much more extensive than in female;
femora III often white marked on exterior
side in southern populations; scape ventrally
white, flagellum without annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With 36-41 segments, slightly
nodose, with distinct, transverse bristle
ridges on ventral side of segments and with
bacilliform tyloids on segments 6 or (usually)
7 or 8 to 17 or 18 or 19.
HEAD: Black, the following white: face and
clypeus uniformly, mandibles except teeth,
orbits around eyes narrowly interrupted only
on malar space and including entire width of
cheeks near mandible base.
THORAX: As described for female. Tegulae
usually entirely white; white mark on
exterior upper section of prepectus and on
apex of prosternum.
LEGS: White are: anterior side of femora I
and II and of tibiae I and II, exterior side of
tibiae III usually predominantly to entirely,
except apically, usually mark on exterior side
of femora III in northern populations, most of
exterior side of femora III in southern
populations; all tarsi dorsally predominantly
white except in northern specimens some-
times tarsi III black; coxae I and II and
trochanters I and II ventrally (except base of
coxae II) and apical margins of trochanters
III, exceptionally also a white mark on apex
of ventral side of coxae III.
ABDOMEN: Metallic blue, the postpetiole
with apico-lateral white marks.


Map 7. Coelichneumon eximius (Stephens)

DISTRIBUTION (map 7): Atlantic to
Continental Divide in Canadian, Transition
and Upper Austral Zones, south to northern
Florida and Louisiana. ARKANSAS. Gar-
land Co.: 5 females, 3 males, Ouachita State
Park, 9-28-V-1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck
(CGH II). FLORIDA: Clay Co.: 1 male, Gold
Head Branch State Park, 29-IV-1971, D.
Radtke (CGH II). GEORGIA. Banks Co.: 2
females, Homer, 11-12-V-1970, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). LOUISIANA. 1 male, Bistineau
State Park, near Doyline, 16-18-IV-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II). TEN-
NESSEE. Henderson Co.: 4.males, Natchez
Trail State Park, 1-13-VI-1972, G. Heinrich,
D. Shaneck (CGH II).
HOSTS: Paraphia piniata Pack. and
Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. Smith), and Isia
isabella (J. E. Smith) (Townes and Townes),
1951); Abagrotis placida Grote (Heinrich,
1961).

3. Coelichneumon sassacus (Viereck)
Map 8
Amblyteles (Coelichneumon) sassacus Vier-
eck, 1917:349, 360, female.
Ichneumon sassacus, Townes and Townes,
1951:303, female.
Coelichneumon sassacus, Heinrich, 1961:40-
41, female, male.
Holotype: female, Connecticut, Westville;
Connecticut Agricultural Experimental








Station, New Haven, Conn. Neallotype:
male, Dryden, Maine; CGH II.
SYS TEMATICS: In this species, as well as
in the following, the basic bright steel blue
color is not restricted to the abdomen (as in
the preceding species) but includes thorax,
head, and femora. Females are characterized
by a rather large and dense, evenly trimmed
scopa, by distinctly narrowed temple profile
and cheek profile, and by medially strongly
widened flagellum. In both sexes the meso-
scutum is always uniformly metallic blue,
without median mark.
Females have not been collected in the
southeastern states, but the 3 males recorded
below from Arkansas match northern
specimens of this species so well, that specific
identity seems unquestionable.

FEMALE: Length 13-17 mm. Basic color
bright steel blue, including head, thorax, and
femora with restricted ivory markings;
always ivory are: frontal orbits narrowly,
line on outer orbits, vertical marks and
collar, usually also wedge-shaped lateral
marks on basal 1/2 of scutellum; rarely ivory
are: apical mark or line on pronotal ridge, a
mark on subalarum, upper facial orbits
narrowly, and small lateral spots on clypeus;
extreme apex of femora I and II ventrally and
the anterior side of tibiae I ivory; flagellum
with dorsal white annulus on segments 7 or 8
to 12 or 13.
FLAGELLUM: With 38-42 segments, the 1st
fully twice as long as wide, the 8th square, the
widest on the flat side twice as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
strongly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandibles respectively, both with almost
straight outlines; cheeks not swollen, almost
flat, malar space almost as long as width of
mandible base; mandible fairly slender,
narrowed toward apex; face and clypeus
coarsely and densely punctured, median field
of the former somewhat protruding, apical
margin of the latter medially a trifle
protruding.
THORAX: Mesoscutum very coarsely and
densely punctured, coriaceous between
punctures; notauli indicated only at the base;
scutellum slightly convex, smooth and shiny,
with scattered punctures; area superomedia
and basalis confluent, the latter deepened in
front; lateral carinae of area posteromedia
obsolete.
LEGS: Coxae III ventrally densely and
coarsely punctured, coriaceous between


punctures, with large, dense, evenly trimmed
scopa.
ABDOMEN: As described for eximius
(Stephens).

MALE: Length 15-17 mm. Basic color
bright steel blue, including head, thorax, and
femora; mesoscutum, postpetiole, and femora
III never ivory marked; collare, pronotal
ridge, subalarum, and sides of scutellum
ivory, sometimes an ivory mark on exterior
part of prepectus; head and legs I and II
extensively ivory, middle of face and of
clypeus more or less extensively black; legs
III metallic blue, except only a small basal
ivory mark on exterior side of tibiae III and
black tarsi III; scape ventrally ivory,
flagellum without annulus.

FLAGELLUM: Structure as in preceding
species; with 41-43 segments and with
narrow, bacilliform tyloids on segments 8 or
9 to 18 or 19.
HEAD: As in female, temple profile marked-
ly narrowed behind eyes and more strongly
than in the following and the preceding
species, with straight outline; malar space
about 1/2 as long as width of mandible base.
Ivory are: triangular vertical marks con-
fluent with or narrowly separated from ivory
frontal orbits, outer orbits from below temple
region down not quite to mandible base
(widened below over nearly entire width of
cheeks), face, and clypeus (except median
black mark on both), and mandibles exceptt
teeth and lower margin).
THORAX: As described for female; area
superomedia often more clearly separated
from area basalis.
LEGS: Basic color of femora and coxae
metallic blue, of tibiae and tarsi black; ivory
are: anterior side of femora, tibiae,and tarsi I
and II (except base of femora II), ventral side
of trochanters I and II, coxae I predomi-
nantly, coxae II ventrally except base, and a
small basal mark, sometimes fairly indis-
tinct, on exterior side of tibiae III.
ABDOMEN: All tergites coarsely and
densely punctured except the 7th; tergites 1-5
coarsely longitudinally striate in the middle
and separated from each other by fairly deep
sutures.

DISTRIBUTION (map 8): Quebec, Ontar-
io, and Maine south to Maryland (Townes,
1951) and Arkansas. ARKANSAS. Garland
Co.: 3 males, Ouachita State Park, 15-18-V-'
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).





























4
4'


Map 8. Coelichneumon sassacus (Viereck)


4. Coelichneumon nudus Heinrich
Map 9
Coelichneumon nudus Heinrich, 1961:43-44,
female. Heinrich, 1969:937-939, male.
Holotype: female, Georgia, Summerville;
USNM. Neallotype: male, North Berwick,
Maine; CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: Among the North Ameri-
can species with metallic-blue basic color of
the entire body, this 1 is uniquely dis-
tinguished by the complete lack of a scopa on
coxae III in females. The female is chroma-
tically characterized by entirely or ex-
tensively ivory pronotal ridge, subalarum,
collare, and sides of scutellum, combined
with lack of ivory marks on the mesoscutum;
it is similar to leucographus Heinrich, which
differs clearly by presence of scopa (of
moderate size), and particularly by con-
siderably stouter femora. The male is
particularly characterized by uniformly
ivory prescutellar carinae combined with
lack of ivory marks on mesoscutum, and with
almost complete absence of ivory color on
legs III. Similar in structure to sassacus
which differs by narrower, less convex
temples and cheeks.
The male associated with this species
(Heinrich, 1969) was collected in southern
Maine in a series of 4 specimens at the same
locality and at the same time with 1 female. It


has not been found so far in the southeastern
states. The association needs further con-
firmation.
FEMALE: Length 16 mm. Basic color
bright metallic blue, including head, thorax,
and femora, with extensive ivory markings;
ivory are: mark on base of mandible, small
lateral marks on clypeus, frontal and facial
orbits, outer orbits below temple regions,
triangular marks on vertex, collare, pronotal
ridge, subalarum, wedge-shaped lateral
marks on scutellum, apical mark on ventral
side of femora I And II, anterior side of tibiae
I, sometimes also a small apical mark on
tibiae II and on coxae I; flagellum with dorsal
white annulus on segments 7 or 8 to 13.
FLAGELLUM: With 39-43 segments, the 1st
nearly 2.5 times as long as wide, the 9th
square, the widest on the flat side twice as
wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
distinctly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandible base respectively, with almost
straight outlines; cheeks not swollen; almost
flat; malar space about as long as width of
mandible base, comparatively longer than in
sassacus Viereck; clypeus and face coarsely
and densely punctured; median field of face
somewhat protruding; apical margin of
clypeus practically straight.
THORAX: As in the preceding species; area
superomedia distinctly wider than long.
LEGS: Coxae III densely and strongly
punctured, nearly smooth between punc-
tures, without trace of scopa.
ABDOMEN: Puncturation of tergites 2-4
strong and very dense, but not quite as coarse
as in sassacus, the striae in the middle of
bases of these tergites finer and shorter.
MALE: Length 16-17 mm. Basic color
metallic blue, including head, thorax, and
legs; ivory are: mandibles (except lower
border and teeth), clypeus, face (except
partially to entirely black median field),
frontal orbits up to vertex, large triangular
marks on vertical orbits, outer orbits below
temple region (the ivory band gradually
widening below over the entire width of
cheeks before mandible base), collare, entire
pronotal ridge, subalarum, tegulae, pre-
scutellar carinae entirely, sides of scutellum,
mark on exterior part of prepectus, dot on
apex of prosternum, ventral side of coxae I,
apex of coxae II, apical margin of all 1st
trochanters partially, anterior side of femora
I and of tibiae I and II, anterior side of femora
II (except about basal 1/3), anterior side of
segments 1-4 of tarsi I and 1-3 of tarsi II,








rarely a small dorsal mark on base of tibiae
III or an indistinct mark on their exterior side
beyond base; flagellum black, scape ventral-
ly ivory.
FLAGELLUM: With 44-45 segments and
with small, narrow-oval tyloids on segments
8 or 9 to 20.
DISTRIBUTION (map 9): Georgia (type
locality) and Maine.


5. Coelichneumon magniscopa Heinrich
Map 10
Coelichneumon magniscopa Heinrich, 1961:
37-38, female, male.
Holotype: female, Ontario, Great Bend; CNC.
Allotype: male, Ontario, Pt. Pelee; CNC.

SYSTEMATICS: The female of this species
is rather similar in color pattern to the
preceding, nudus Heinrich, but is well
distinguished by its unusually large, dense,
and evenly trimmed scopa, combined with
markedly larger size, more strongly widened
flagellum, and more convex temples and
cheeks.
The male differs from all similar species of
the group with metallic-blue basic color of the
entire body by having extensively ivory-
marked tibiae and tarsi III, combined with
the lack of an ivory mark on the mesoscutum.
The temples and cheeks are more convex
than in nudus.


Map 9. Coelichneumon nudus Heinrich


The only male recorded (with question
mark) from Florida agrees in color pattern
best with magniscopa, but differs by stronger
sclerotization and coarser sculpture of
tergites and mesoscutum; it may represent a
distinct form, either subspecies or species.
FEMALE: Length 19 mm. Basic color
bright metallic blue, including head, thorax,
and femora, with extensive ivory markings;
ivory are: mark on base of mandibles, small
lateral spots on clypeus, facial, frontal, and
vertical orbits (the ivory band widened
triangularly on vertex), lower 2/3 of outer
orbits, collare, pronotal ridge broadly,
subalarum, tegulae in part, wedge-shaped
lateral marks on scutellum, apical mark on
ventral side of femora I and II, anterior side
of tibiae I, anterior side of tibiae II partially,
and apical margin of 1st trochanters I;
flagellum with dorsal white annulus on
segments 8-14.
FLAGELLUM: With 43-44 segments, the 1st
about twice as long as wide, the 9th square,
the widest on the flat side nearly 3 times as
wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile not much narrowed
behind eyes, with curved outline: cheek
profile moderately narrowed toward mandi-
ble base, with slightly curved outline: malar
space nearly 2/3 as long as width of
mandible base; apical margin of clypeus
medially a trifle projecting; median field of
face somewhat protruding.
THORAX: Mesoscutum strongly and dense-
ly punctured, very finely coriaceous between
punctures, notauli indicated only at base;
scutellum smooth and shiny, with sparse
punctures: area basalis and superomedia
confluent, with partially indicated sepa-
rating carina.
LEGS: Femora fairly stout; coxae III
ventrally very densely punctured, coriaceous
between punctures, with unusually large,
dense, and evenly trimmed scopa.
ABDOMEN: Tergites 1-4 coarsely and fairly
densely punctured and strongly longitudi-
nally striate over entire length of middle of
2nd tergite and to beyond middle of median
section of 3rd tergite; the middle of the base of
4th tergite finely striate.
MALE: Length 19 mm. Basic color metal-
lic blue including head, thorax, and legs;
ivory are: mandibles (except teeth and lower
margin), clypeus and face (except median
field of both partially to entirely black),
frontal orbits up to vertex, large triangular
marks on vertical orbits, outer orbits from
below temple region down almost to base of








clypeus (widened below over nearly entire
width of cheeks), collare, entire pronotal
ridge, subalarum, tegulae, sides of scutellum,
mark on exterior part of prepectus, ventral
side of coxae I, apex of coxae II, apical
margin of 1st trochanters I, entire anterior
side of tibiae I and II, anterior side offemora I
and II except bases, exterior side of tibiae III
except apically, all tarsi dorsally except
apices of tarsi II and III narrowly infuscated
or black; flagellum black, scape ventrally
ivory.
FLAGELLUM: With 41 segments and with
narrow, fairly short tyloids on segments 9 or
10 to 20 or 21.
DISTRIBUTION:(map 10): Ontario, Mas-
sachusetts, Long Island, North Carolina,
Florida (Heinrich, 1961), Maine and Louisi-
ana. (CGH II) FLORIDA. Heinrich (1961) no
data; ? Lee Co.: 1 male, Ft. Myers, 18-V-1971,
G. Heinrich (CGH II). LOUISIANA. 1 male,
Bistineau State Park, near Doyline, 18-21-IV-
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).
6. Coelichneumon maurus (Cresson)
Map 11
Ichneumon maurus Cresson, 1864:135,
female. Townes and Townes, 1951:303,
female.
Coelichneumon maurus, Heinrich, 1961:68-
70, female, male.
Holotype: female, Virginia; ANS. Neallo-
type: male, Pennsylvania, Spring Brook;
CGH II.


Map 10. Coelichneumon magniscopa Heinrich


SYSTEMATICS: This species, the largest
of all North American Coelichneumon
belongs to a group of forms with almost
entirely black basic color of the entire body
with deeply and uniformly infuscated wings.
It may be distinguished from the rather
similar and almost equally large species,
histricus by the flagellum markedly more
widened beyond middle and by 3 other
indicative, though unobtrusive characters in
females: (1) The mesosternum forms with the
mesopleuron a rather sharp, continuous
edge, with a narrow and very shallow
depression immediately above and along this
edge. (2) The base of 3rd tergite is medially
usually finely and shortly longitudinally
striate, and basally not depressed; on each
side of this median part, however, the base of
the 3rd tergite shows a narrow, transverse,
smooth depression, comparable to a pair of
narrow thyridia. (3) Postpetiole not regularly
longitudinally striate as in most species of
the genus, but irregularly rugose and
reticulate.
Males share the characters (2) and (3) with
the females and show also a faint indication
of character (1); they differ from females
particularly by usually having partially to
predominantly white scutellum, collare,
pronotal ridge, and subalarum, and by lack
of flagellar annulus; temples more strongly
narrowed than in females.
FEMALE: Length 19-22 mm. Thorax and
abdomen uniformly black; head and legs
black with the following white: frontal orbits
narrowly in the middle, often small marks on
vertical orbits, ventral mark on apex of
femora I, sometimes also of femora II, and
anterior side of tibiae I; flagellum with dorsal
white annulus on segments 7 or 8 to 15 or 16
(in eastern populations).
FLAGELLUM: With 52-55 segments, the 1st
nearly 2.5 times as long as wide, in lateral
view the 10th or 11th square, the widest on
the flat side about 3 times as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
moderately narrowed behind eyes and
toward mandible base, respectively, the
former slightly curved, the latter almost
straight; cheeks and temples slightly convex;
frons (in contrast to the following, similar
species, histricus) immediately below lower
ocellus barely concave, fairly coarse rugose
punctate; malar space somewhat shorter
than width of mandible base; median field of
face slightly protruding.
THORAX: Mesoscutum finely and densely
punctured, coriaceous between punctures,
subopaque; anterior 1/3 of notauli well








developed; scutellum fairly long, gradually
narrowed toward apex, raised above post-
scutellum, sparsely punctured and smooth
between punctures; area superomedia varia-
ble in shape, usually about as long as wide,
sometimes longer than wide, always nar-
rowed in front, clearly separated by a carina
from the deepened area basalis; costulae
varying from fairly distinct to obsolete; lower
part of mesopleura coarsely irregularly
rugose punctate, with a slight and narrow
depression along edge of mesosternum;
mesosternum apically strongly concave, its
posterior border strongly raised.
LEGS: Long and slender; coxae III ven-
trally finely and fairly densely punctured,
coriaceous between punctures, subopaque,
with large and dense scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
without regular striation, instead irregularly
reticulate rugose; tergites 2-7 finely coria-
ceous and subopaque, 2-5 with fine punctura-
tion, gradually decreasing in strength and
density from tergite to tergite; space between
gastrocoeli longitudinally striate; base of 3rd
tergite in the middle usually with short, very
fine striation, always with a narrow, smooth,
transverse depression on each side; ovi-
positor slightly projecting.
MALE: Length 18-22 mm. Black, the
following white: mandibles (except base,
lower section, and teeth), labrum, clypeus
(except broadly black median part), face
(except black mark covering about lower 1/2
of median field and parts of its upper 1/2),
frontal orbits up to level with lower ocellus,
marks on vertical orbits, line on middle of
outer orbits, collare, pronotal ridge extensive-
ly to entirely, small marks on tegulae, mark
on subalarum, scutellum except base, and
postscutellum (in specimens from Georgia),
or only apical marks on scutellum (in
northeastern specimens); marks on coxae I or
I and II, anterior side of femora I or I and II
except bases, anterior side of tibiae I or I and
II, basal segments of tarsi I partially, and
scape below; flagellum without annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With 47-50 segments and
small, bacilliform tyloids on segments 9 or 10
to 23 or 24, the longest covering about median
1/2 of length of segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 11): Quebec, On-
tario, Alberta, British Columbia south to
Georgia and California. ARKANSAS. Gar-
land Co.: 1 male, Ouachita State Park, 15-18-
V-1972, G. Heinrich (CGH II). GEORGIA.
Cobb Co.: 1 male, Marietta, 24-IV-1969, G.
Heinrich (CGH II). Monroe Co.: 1 male,


Map 11. Coeichneumon maurus (Cresson)
Map 11. Coelichneumon maurus (Cresson)


Forsyth, 20-IV-5-V-1969, G. Heinrich (CGH
II).

7. Coelichneumon histricus (Cresson)
Map 12
Ichneumon histricus Cresson, 1867:294,
male. Townes and Townes, 1951:303, male.
Ichneumon germanus Cresson, 1877:143,
female. Townes and Townes, 1951:303,
female.
Coelichneumon histricus, Heinrich, 1961:66-
68, female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon histricus, male, West
Virginia; ANS. Ichneumon germanus, fe-
male, Massachusetts; ANS.
SYSTEMATICS: Another large species of
the maurus group, with uniformly and deeply
infuscated wings; rather similar to maurus.
Females can be distinguished from maurus
by the characters discussed in the preamble
to that species; males differ by a white
flagellar annulus, combined with aciculate
median field of postpetiole and a denser and
coarser sculpture of the following tergites.
A comparatively high degree of individual
variability of females in flagellar pro-
portions, head structure, and shape of areolet
suggests, that perhaps 2 extremely similar
species may be found under the name of
histricus, but no conclusive evidence to
support such hypothesis has been found so
far.








FEMALE: Length 18-20 mm. Black, wings
uniformly and deeply infuscated; white are: a
narrow, sometimes indistinct, line on middle
of frontal orbits, small marks on vertical
orbits, rarely a mark on apex of scutellum
and/or on subalarum, apex of femora I, and
the tibiae I on anterior side; flagellum with
dorsal white annulus on segments 6 or 7 to 14
or 15.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, somewhat
widened beyond middle, strongly attenuated
at apex, with 51-54 segments, the 1st 2.5 times
as long as wide, in lateral view the 10th or
11th square, the widest twice to slightly more
than twice as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
distinctly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandibles respectively, the latter with
almost straight outline, the former with
somewhat curved outline in specimens from
Tennessee, with practically straight outline
in holotype and most northern specimens;
frons distinctly concave up to level with
lower ocellus;' malar space slightly longer
than 1/2 the width of mandible base.
THORAX: Anterior 1/3 of notauli fairly
distinct; mesoscutum densely punctured,
extremely finely coriaceous between punc-
tures, somewhat shiny; scutellum considera-
bly raised above postscutellum, with steep
apical slope and with sharp lateral edges at
the base; border between mesopleuron and
mesosternum, as usually, rounded, not
forming an almost sharp angle asin maurus.
LEGS: Coxae III with a fairly small, loosely-
haired scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus somewhat postfurcal;
areolet pentagonal to almost rhomboidal;
radius slightly sinuate.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
longitudinally striate; interspace of gastro-
coeli slightly narrower than 1 of them,
striate; 2nd tergite very densely and mod-
erately coarsely punctured, 3rd and 4th
tergites also very densely but more finely
punctured, the 4th more finely than the 3rd;
the 5th tergite extremely finely and more
sparsely punctured.
MALE: Length 18 mm. Black; the follow-
ing white: base to nearly all of mandible, face
and clypeus (except a longitudinal percurrent
or interrupted, median black band), more
than lower 1/2 of frontal orbits, marks on
vertical orbits, sometimes line on lower part
of outer orbits, collare, pfonotal ridge
partially or entirely, subalarum, marks on
tegulae, usually scutellum (either predomi-
nantly or apically only), usually apical mar-


gin of prosternum, sometimes a line on outer
part of prepectus, apex of coxae I more or less
extensively, sometimes apical marks on
coxae II, sometimes trochanters I and II
ventrally in part, anterior side of tibiae I and
II, femora I and II on ventral side femoraa I
more extensively than II); flagellum with
almost complete or dorsal white annulus (in
northern specimens usually of lesser extent
than in southern) on segments 10 or 12 or 13
to 15, 16 or 17, the subsequent 2-4 segments
usually restrictedly white marked; scape
ventrally white.
FLAGELLUM: With long, attenuated, and
extremely fine apical section; with 46-51
segments and with narrow, elongate-elliptic,
rather small tyloids on segments 7 or 8 to 21
or 24, the longest (on about segments 12-18)
not reaching close to bases and apices of
segments.
HEAD: Malar space nearly 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base; temple profile
distinctly narrowed behind eyes, slightly
curved; frons densely, irregularly rugose and
finely coriaceous; cheeks fairly densely
punctured.
THORAX: Area superomedia transverse;
structure otherwise as described for female.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole and
interspace of gastrocoeli striate; tergites 2-7
densely punctured, the 2nd coarsely, each
subsequent tergite finer than the preceding.
DISTRIBUTION: (map 12): From Prince
Edward Island, Ontario, and British Colum-


'"",-- -. (_ :.


Map 1 oon
Map 1
Map 12. Coelichneumon histricus (Cresson)








bia south to Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas,
and South Dakota. ARKANSAS. Garland
Co.: 1 male, Ouachita State Park, 18-24-V-
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).
FLORIDA. Clay Co.: 1 male, Gold Head
Branch State Park, 29-IV-1971, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). Liberty Co.: 1 male, Torreya State
Park, 11-V-1968, H. V. Weems, Jr. (CGH II).
TENNESSEE. Henderson Co.: 3 females,
Natchez Trail State Park, 3-26-VI-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).


8. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson)
Fig. 12-13, Map 13
Ichneumon viola Cresson, 1864:137, female.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female, male.
Ichneumon vittifrons Cresson, 1864:143,
male.
Ichneumon recens Cresson, 1877:153, male.
Amblyteles viola, Schaffner and Griswold,
1934:140 (host: Catocala sp.)
Coelichneumon viola, Heinrich, 1961:65-66,
female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon viola, female, Penn-
sylvania; ANS. Ichneumon vittifrons, male,
Delaware; ANS. Ichneumon recens, male;
ANS.
SYSTEMA TICS: A 3rd large species of the
maurus group, black with deeply infuscated
wings. Uniquely distinguished in both sexes
by the laminately elevated carina oralis (fig.
12-13) which slopes away from the mouth,
and also by the coarsely punctured, not
striate, sculpture of the postpetiole. Males
can be recognized also by white dorsal side of
all tibiae, in combination with white marked
prescutellar carinae.
FEMALE: Length variable, usually 16-18
mm. Black; wings uniformly and deeply
infuscated; the following white: narrow
(usually continuous, sometimes narrowly
interrupted before vertex) band on frontal
and vertical orbits, outer orbits narrowly
from temple region down to usually beyond
middle of eyes, collare, and tibiae I and apex
of femora I on inner side; flagellum with
dorsal white annulus on segments 8 or 9 to 16
or 17; scutellum never white marked; post-
scutellum usually obsure-reddish tinged,
scutellum rarely so marked.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, moderately
widened beyond middle, strongly attenuated
at apex, with 48-49 segments, the 1st more
than twice as long as apically wide, in lateral
view the 11th square, the widest, on the flat
side, about twice as wide as long.


Fig. 12. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson) (female). Head,
lateral view.


Fig. 13. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson) (female). Head,
posterior view.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
only slightly narrowed behind eyes and
toward mandibles respectively, with dis-
tinctly curved outlines; cheeks in lateral view
(fig. 12) rather wide and strongly convex;
malar space about 3/4 as long as width of
mandible base; frons at and shortly below,
level of lower ocellus not concave but flat,
densely and moderately coarsely punctured.
THORAX: Anterior 1/3 of notauli distinct;
mesoscutum moderately densely punctured,
polished between punctures, shiny; scu-









tellum markedly raised above postscutellum,
with sharp lateral edges at base, gradually
sloping toward postscutellum, smooth and
shiny with a few scattered punctures; area,
superomedia longer than wide, narrowed in
front, with costulae usually in or behind
middle; speculum polished.
LEGS: Femora III somewhat stouter than in
the other dark-winged species, and less
densely punctured; coxae III moderately
densely punctured, with large, flat-trimmed
scopa; coxae II polished with a few, scattered
punctures.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal; areolet pen-
tagonal, strongly narrowed in front; radius
slightly sinuate.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole without distinct
median field, fairly densely and coarsely
punctured all over; interspace of gastrocoeli
narrower than 1 of them and densely
punctured, not striate; tergites 2-4 fairly
densely punctured, the 3rd slightly more
finely than the 2nd, the 4th more finely than
the 3rd.
MALE: Length 16-21 mm. Black; wings
slightly less strongly infuscated than in
female, particularly their basal part; the
following white: mandible except apices, face
and clypeus (except a longitudinal percurrent
median black band), frontal orbits broadly
up to vertex (usually connected with vertical
marks), marks on vertical orbits, outer orbits
(white band gradually widening close to apex
of cheeks), collare, pronotal ridge, sub-
alarum, scutellum, (except narrowly black
base), postscutellum, prescutellar carinae,
tegulae (partially or entirely), sometimes 2
median longitudinal short stripes on meso-
scutum, apex of prosternum, coxae I except
base, apex of coxae II, apices of all femora
dorsally, all tibiae dorsally for their total
length, segments 1-4 of tarsi I and II and
usually metatarsus III, all dorsally except
their narrow apices; flagellum without
annulus; scape ventrally white, rarely
postpetiole with median apical white mark.
FLAGELLUM: With 45 to (usually) 50, or 51
segments, and with narrow, elongate-elliptic
tyloids on segments 10-23, extremely small,
bacilliform ones usually recognizable also on
the 9th and 24th to 25th segments, the
longest (about on segments 14-20) reaching
rather close to bases but not to apices of
segments; tyloids beyond the 20th segment
gradually becoming smaller, narrower and
more bacilliform from segment to segment.
HEAD: Malar space nearly 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base; cheeks and temples
somewhat narrower than in female.


THORAX: Area superomedia usually trans-
verse, scutellum on the average, somewhat
more raised above postscutellum than in
female.
ABDOMEN: Interspace of gastrocoeli and
also base of 3rd tergite medially aciculate;
median field of postpetiole more distinct than
in female; the 5th tergite also distinctly and
fairly densely punctured.
DISTRIBUTION (map 13): From Ontario
south to Florida and Texas (USNM), west to
1000 W. ARKANSAS. Garland Co.: 1 male,
Ouachita State Park, 22-25-V-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shaneck. FLORIDA. Clay Co.: 1
female, Gold Head Branch State Park, 24-VI-
1971, D. Radtke (CGH II). Palm Beach Co.: 3
males, V-1936, in McPhail trap, 0. D. Link
(FSCA).

9. Coelichneumon orpheus (Cresson)
Fig. 14, Map 14
Ichneumon orpheus Cresson, 1864:136,
female. Townes and Townes, 1951:303,
female.
Coelichneumon orpheus, Heinrich, 1961:61-
63 (fig. 11, temple profile), female, male.
Holotype: female, ANS. Neallotype: male,
CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: One of the 6 largest
species of the genus in North America;
distinguished by moderately infuscated


Map 13. Coelichneumon viola (Cresson)








wings; in males scutellum predominantly
and pronotal ridge white, in females only
about 50% of specimens with apically white-
marked pronotum and scutellum; coxae III of
females without scopa.
The 2 males recorded from Florida agree
completely in structure as well as in color
with the neallotype from Maine; they were
collected on palmetto blossoms.
FEMALE: Length 20 mm. Black; the
following white: frontal orbits narrowly,
mark on vertical orbits, small spot on
mandible base, collare partially, mark on
subalarum, in about 50% of specimens apex
of pronotal ridge and of scutellum, extreme
apex of femora I and II, and the tibiae I
ventrally; flagellum with dorsal white
annulus on segments 8 or 9 to 15 or 16.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, slightly
widened beyond middle, attenuated at apex,
with 43-44 segments, the 1st somewhat more
than twice as long as apically wide, in lateral
view about the 11th square, the widest, on the
flat side, about 1.3 times as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
slightly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandibles, respectively, with curved out-
lines; malar space slightly less than 1/2 as
long as width of mandible base; cheeks and
temples convex.
THORAX: Anterior 1/3 of notauli distinct;
scutellum slightly convex; area superomedia
(fig. 14) nearly as long as wide, slightly
narrowed toward area basalis, the anterior
bordering carina more or less distinct.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal; areolet penta-
gonal, narrowed in front; radius slightly
sinuate. Moderately infuscated, less strongly
basally than toward the apex.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
fairly distinct, striate, apically more or less


Fig. 14. Coelichneumon orpheus (Cresson) (female).
Propodeum, dorsal view.


- . .. > "



Map 14. Coelichneumon orpheus (Cresson)
densely punctured; interspace of gastrocoeli
narrower than 1 of them, sharply striate; rest
of median part of 2nd tergite densely rugose
punctate; middle of 3rd tergite likewise
striate at base, rugose punctate further on.
MALE: Length 20-22 mm. Black; the
following'white: mandibles except apex, face
and clypeus except longitudinal black
median line or median mark on both, lower
part of outer orbits, frontal orbits, vertical
marks, scape below, collare, pronotal ridge,
subalarum, tegulae in part or entirely,
scutellum except base, sometimes post-
scutellum, often -a mark on prepectus
laterally, coxae I and II apically, femora I
and II ventrally except base, tibiae I and II
ventrally, usually basal segments of tarsi I
below, scape ventrally.
FLAGELLUM: With 40-44 segments, and
with elongate tyloids on segments 8 or 9 to 19
or 20, the longest, on segments 12-18 not quite
reaching to bases and apices of segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 14): Quebec and
Maine, south to Florida, west to British
Columbia. FLORIDA. Highlands Co.: 2
males, Highlands Hammock State Park, 27-
28-IV-1968, G. Heinrich (CGH II).
HOS-TS: "Notodontidae pupa" (CNC).
Ecpantheria scribonia (Stoll).
10 a. Coelichneumon navus navus (Say)
Ichneumon navus Say, 1836:229, female,
male. Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female,
male. Heinrich, 1961:58-59, female, male.









Ichneumon cinctipes Provancher, 1875:22,
51, female. (Synonym according to Townes
and Townes 1951:303). Name preoccupied by
Retzius, 1783.
Neotype: female, Dryden, Maine, U.S.A., 22-
VIII-52; USNM. Neallotype: male, same
locality, 30-VIII-1960. USNM.
SYSTEMATICS: The holotype of the
species described 142 years ago has been lost
and reported so by Heinrich (1961); a neotype
is designated here.
One of the smallest species of the genus,
only 8-12 mm long; chromatically dis-
tinguished by basal white annulus on all
tibiae and tarsi, in both sexes, and by black
scutellum with lateral white bands.
The southernmost populations of this
species display considerably more extensive
white markings on head, thorax, and legs in
males than northern populations; this
geographical variation is much less con-
spicuous in females which in southe-n
specimens usually show only a slight
increase of white on head and on coxae and
trochanters I and II.
FEMALE: Length 8-12 mm. White band
on orbits narrow and broadly interrupted on
temples and on malar space, usually nar-
rowly interrupted also on vertex, sometimes
entirely lacking on exterior orbits; clypeus
laterally not or very restrictedly marked with
white, mandibles black; all femora black,
except white apical mark on anterior side of
femora I and II; all tibiae with conspicuous
basal white annulus, tibiae I white on
anterior side; tarsi black, only 1st segment of
all tarsi basally extensively white; coxae I
and II black, coxae I sometimes restrictedly
white marked apically; all 1st trochanters
black with whitish apical margin; abdomen
uniformly black; flagellum with dorsal white
annulus on segments 7-12 or 14.
FLAGELLUM: Moderately long, subbristle
shaped, only slightly attenuated apically,
somewhat widened beyond middle, with 31-
34 segments, the 1st slightly more than twice
as long as apically wide, the 9th square, the
widest on the flat side nearly twice as wide as
long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
somewhat narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandibles respectively, with slightly curved
outlines; malar space nearly 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum densely punctured,
finely coriaceous between punctures; scu-
tellum barely convex, less densely punctured,
also coriaceous between punctures; anterior


1/4 of notauli fairly distinct; area supero-
media usually slightly wider than long and
usually confluent with area basalis.
LEGS: Fairly stout; coxae III ventrally
finely and very densely punctured, coria-
ceous between punctures, opaque, with
distinct scopa.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole with well defined
median field, which is longitudinally striate,
as is also the interspace of gastrocoeli, the
middle of 2nd tergite, and medially the base
of the 3rd and 4th tergites.
MALE: Length 8-13 mm. Face and clypeus
uniformly white, base of mandibles exten-
sively; white band on orbits more extensive
than in female, not interrupted, widened over
almost entire width of lower section of
cheeks; femora black, femora I and II white
on anterior side, the latter not completely so;
tibiae and tarsi nearly as in female; coxae I
and II and all trochanters almost entirely
white; flagellum black, scape ventrally
white.
FLAGELLUM: With 31-34 segments and
with narrow, elongate-bacilliform tyloids on
segments 6 or 7 to 15 or 16, the longest not
reaching close to bases and apices of
segments.
HEAD: Malar space very short, almost 1/4
as long as width of mandible base.
DISTRIBUTION: From Maine, Quebec,
and Ontario west to Illinois, south at least to
Virginia, probably further.
HOST: Hyphantria cunea (Drury).
10b. Coelichneumon navus albidior,
new subspecies
Map 15
SYSTEMATICS: The majority of speci-
mens of southeastern populations differs
from the nominate form in females only
slightly; in males, however, considerably by
more extensive white markings on head, legs,
and on pleura and stern. The scopa on coxae
III of females is denser and more conspicuous
in the southern subspecies than in the
northern. This subspecies displays a rather
wide individual variability, and specimens
which approach the nominate form chrom-
atically occur occasionally.
FEMALE: Length 8-12 mm. Black, prono-
tal ridge, subalarum, and sides of scutellum
white; all tibiae and metatarsi with con-
spicuous white annulus at base, bases of
segments 2 or 2 and 3 of all tarsi also
narrowly white; white are also: broad band
around orbits (narrowly interrupted at malar
space only, rarely very narrowly also on








vertex), lateral marks on clypeus, base of
mandibles, extreme apices of femora I and II
on ventral side, tibiae I ventrally, coxae I and
II apically, and all trochanters I, II, and III
ventrally (always more extensively than in
nominate form); flagellum with white
annulus.
MALE: Length 8-13 mm. Black, with very
rich white markings on head, thorax, and
legs; the following white: clypeus, face,
cheeks, orbits broadly around eyes (narrowed
on temples), mandibles except teeth, collare,
pronotal ridge broadly, pronotal base (except
apical part), tegulae, subalarum, scutellum
(except apically usually not complete longi-
tudinal median black band), usually post-
scutellum, prosternum predominantly, broad
longitudinal band or mark on lower 1/2 of
mesopleura (extending in front onto pre-
pectus and usually below more or less
extensively onto mesosternum), all tro-
chanters and coxae I and II entirely, coxae
III partially to entirely, anterior side of
femora I and II (the latter except basally),
tibiae I and II (except black stripe on
posterior side from beyond base to apex),
more than basal 1/3 of tibiae III, segments 1-
2 of tarsi III and 1-3 of tarsi I and II (all except
apices), and all spurs; flagellum without
annulus.
Holotype: male, Florida, Highlands Co.:
Lake Placid, Archbold Biological Station, 16-
V-1967, G. Heinrich. Allotype: female, same
data except 3-IV-1968. Paratypes: 3 females,
3 males, same locality, 21-III-26-V-1968; Lee
Co.: 1 male, Ft. Myers, 30-III-1968, D. Radtke.
KANSAS. 1 female, 1 male, Lawrence, 13-X-
1952. All specimens CGH II.
DISTRIBUTION (map 15): From Kansas
to Florida. In addition to the type specimens,
the following material has been seen:
ARKANSAS. Garland Co.: 1 female, Oua-
chita State Park, 18-26-V-1971, G. Heinrich,
D. Shaneck. FLORIDA. Lee Co.: Ft. Myers, 1
male, 30-X-1971, 1 female, VI-1972, D.
Radtke. LOUISIANA. Evangeline Co.: 1
male, Eola, 26-III-1972, D. Shaneck. MISSIS-
SIPPI. Yalobusha Co.: 1 female, Water
Valley, 15-22-V-1971, M. Horan. All speci-
mens CGH II.
11. Coelichneumon vitalis (Cresson)
Map 16
Ichneumon vitalis Cresson, 1877:149, female.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female.
Coelichneumon vitalis, Heinrich, 1961:53-54,
female, male.
Holotype: female, New York; ANS. Neallo-
type: male, Dryden, Maine; CGH II.


Map 15. Coelichneumon navus albidior n. subspecies


SYSTEMA TICS: One of the smallest black
species of the, genus, chromatically dis-
tinguished, in both sexes, by the more or less
extensively white (except base) scutellum
and, in females, by lack of scopa on coxae III
and by white orbits almost around eyes.
Males have a small dorsal white mark on
base of tibiae III. Abdomen usually with
slight metallic-blue tinge. This characteristic
tinge is, as a rule, distinct in freshly collected
specimens, but usually indistinct or absent in
old specimens in collections, apparently a
matter of gradual fading, possibly also of
individual variation.
FEMALE: Length 11-12 mm. Black, ab-
domen slightly metallic-blue tinged; scu-
tellum white except base; pronotal ridge
white; mesoscutum usually with 2 short
median white stripes; orbits white almost
around eyes; usually also clypeus laterally
white marked; white are also: subalarum,
collare, and mark on prepectus; coxae III
without scopa; flagellum slender, with long
basal segments, only moderately widened
beyond middle, with white annulus on
segments 7-11.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, distinctly
widened beyond middle, moderately attenu-
ated at apex, with 34-35 segments, the 1st
barely 2.5 times as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 10th square, the widest, on
the flat side, a little more than twice as wide
as long.









HEAD: Temple profile distinctly narrowed
behind eyes, with curved outline; malar space
about 1/2 as long as width of mandible base.
Black; the following white: small marks on
sides of clypeus, orbits broadly around eyes
(narrowly interrupted usually at vertex,
always at malar space, rarely also at temples,
widened distinctly on cheeks and lower part
of face), and small mark on mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum fairly densely punc-
tured, coriaceous between punctures, sub-
opaque; anterior 1/4 of notauli distinct,
sternauli lacking; area superomedia wider
than long, usually weakly bordered in front.
Black, the following white: collare, pronotal
ridge broadly, subalarum, scutellum except
base, usually 2 short longitudinal median
lines on mesoscutum, and a lateral mark on
prepectus.
LEGS: Fairly slender; coxae III without
scopa. Black; white are: apices of coxae I, the
tibiae I, and apex of femora Ion anterior side;
sometimes also apices of coxae II, and
trochanters I, or I and II, ventrally in part.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole,
interspace of gastrocoeli, and base of 3rd
tergite in the middle longitudinally aciculate,
the apex and lateral fields of postpetiole
punctured; interspace of gastrocoeli about as
wide as 1 of them, or slightly narrower.
MALE: (Specimens from Florida not yet
known); as female, except white markings
more extensive; in addition to white mark-
ings as in female, white are: face, clypeus,
mandibles, cheeks extensively, scape ven-
trally, narrow apical border of femora III,
small dorsal mark on base of tibiae III,
ventral side of femora I and of apical part of
femora II, apical 1/2 or apex of coxae I and II,
trochanters I and II ventrally, tibiae II
ventrally, extreme base of tibiae I and II also
dorsally, and all spurs.
FLAGELLUM: With 35-36 segments and
with narrow bacilliform tyloids on segments
7 or 8 to 18 or 19, the longest not reaching to
bases or apices of segments.
HEAD: Malar space about 1/3 as long as
width of mandible base. Black, the following
white: mandible except teeth, face and
clypeus entirely or except longitudinal
median black band, orbits broadly around
eyes, interrupted only at malar space,
strongly narrowed or interrupted at temples;
malar space, apex of cheeks atxmandible base
and their posterior belt black.
THORAX: Black, the following white:
collare, pronotal ridge, tegulae, subalarum,
usually 2 median lines on mesoscutum,


>
Map 16. Coelichneumon vitalis (Cresson)


scutellum except base, sometimes post-
scutellum, apex of prosternum, often a mark
on exterior part of prepectus, and sometimes
in southern specimens (2 specimens from
Alabama and Georgia in USNM) a longi-
tudinal band on lower 1/2 of propleura.
ABDOMEN: Interspace of gastrocoeli con-
siderably narrower than 1 of them; acicula-
tion of median field of postpetiole and of
middle of tergites 2 and 3 coarser and more
extensive than in female; also the 4th tergite
medially to about middle aciculate. Color as
in female.
DISTRIBUTION (map 16): Maine and
New Hampshire south to Florida and
Mississippi, west to Utah. FLORIDA.
Alachua Co.: 1 female, Gainesville, 4-V-1968,
G. Heinrich (CGH II). MISSISSIPPI. Yalo-
busha Co.: 1 female, Water Valley, 5-VIII-
1970, G. Heinrich (CGH II).

12. Coelichneumon lisae,
new species
Map 17
SYSTEMATICS: A small species, similar
in size and appearance and by the lack of
scopa to vitalis, but, strikingly different by
the lanceolate flagellum very strongly
widened beyond middle with shorter basal
segments.
The color of the abdomen is black, but
sometimes in strong light shows a faint








bluish tinge. If the abdominal color is
considered as bluish tinged, the species runs
in the key for Coelichneumon females
(Heinrich, 1961) to neocretatus, otherwise to
pumilionobilis; lisae differs from these
considerably in structure by (1) much shorter
basal segments of the flagellum; (2) narrow
and considerably longer than wide area
superomedian; and (3) by the sculpture of
tergites 3 and 4 which are much denser
punctured but completely without longi-
tudinal striation in the middle.
Distinguished chromatically by a white
mark on exterior side of the base of tibia III
and by the white pattern of the scutellum, the
white covering its lateral margins (toward
apex only or for the entire length) and also
the apical margin.
The species is named in appreciation of
Mrs. Lisa Hermann's collecting activity
which contributed valuable additions to our
distributional records.
FEMALE: Length 13-14 mm. Black, the
following white: frontal orbits with major
part of facial orbits, marks on vertical orbits,
medially interrupted mark on collare,
extreme apex of pronotal ridge, sometimes
mark on subalarum, apical margin of
scutellum together with apical part or entire
length of lateral margins, anterior side of
tibiae and tarsi I, anterior side of tibiae and
tarsi II more or less extensively, extreme
apex of femora I and II, and a basal mark on
exterior side of tibiae III; flagellum with
dorsal (nearly complete) white annulus on
segments 4 (apex) or 5 to 12, or 13 or 14 (base).
FLAGELLUM: Short, lanceolate, very
strongly widened beyond middle, sharply
attenuated toward apex, with 38-39 seg-
ments, the 1st 1.5 times as long as apically
wide, in lateral view the 5th square, the
widest on the flat side about 4 times as wide
as long.
HEAD: Temple profile moderately nar-
rowed behind eyes, slightly curved; cheek
profile only slightly narrowed toward
mandible base; malar space shorter than
width of mandible base; cheeks fairly
strongly convex, smooth and shiny, with
scattered, coarse punctures; carina oralis a
trifle raised; median field of face slightly
protruding; face and clypeus coarsely and
fairly densely punctured, coriaceous between
punctures; apical margin of clypeus straight;
mandibles normal, fairly broad, the upper
tooth longer than the lower.
THORAX: Mesoscutum longer than wide,
very densely punctured, coriaceous between
punctures, slightly shiny; anterior 1/4 of


notauli indicated; scutellum flat, smooth and
shiny, moderately densely punctured; pro-
podeum fairly long, the area dentiparae
gently curving downward toward coxae III;
carination complete; area superomedia
clearly longer than wide, with costulae
nearly in the middle, narrowed from costulae
toward area basalis, lateral carinae of the
latter long and diverging strongly toward
narrow basal furrow; densely and coarsely
punctate or rugose punctate, the space of area
superomedia, area basalis and anterior part
of areae superoexternae nearly impunctate;
propleura and mesopleura densely punc-
tured, speculum smooth.
LEGS: Femora fairly short; coxae III fairly
densely punctured, without scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
fairly distinct, flat, with irregular, scattered
puncturation, not longitudinally striate;
gastrocoeli moderately deep, much narrower
than their interspace, the latter longi-
tudinally striate, at the most to the middle of
2nd tergite, usually less extensively; rest of
the surface of the 2nd tergite and the entire
3rd or 4th tergite very densely and moderate-
ly strongly punctured, without striae;
ovipositor slightly projecting.
MALE: The male described below is the
only 1 representing undoubtedly an un-
known species; it was found sympatric with
lisae, female, in Tennessee, and it matches
lisae in size; these facts suggest the associa-
tion of the sexes; against this can be held that
the median field of the postpetiole of the male
under discussion is longitudinally striate
instead of irregularly punctured (as in the
holotype) and that the white markings are
much more extensive than in the female; both
types of differences are within the limits of
sexual dimorphism occurring in the genus
Coelichneumon. The association, however,
still needs further confirmation. The male is
uniquely characterized by a short row of
unusually large tyloids.
Length 12 mm. Black; head, thorax, and
legs with rich white markings, abdomen and
flagellum uniformly black; the following
white: face, clypeus, mandibles, frontal
orbits up to vertex (the white band widened
below level with lower ocellus), cheeks
(except malar space and black band along
mandible base), collare, pronotal ridge,
pronotal base, subalarum, tegulae, 2 short,
apically converging median lines on meso-
scutum, scutellum (except base laterally), all
trochanters I, II and III (except 1st tro-
chanters III basally black), coxae I and II
apically extensively, apices and anterior side
of femora I and II (except black base of









femora II), tibiae I basally all around and
entire length of anterior side, tibiae II all
around to about middle and on anterior side
close to apex, tibiae III all around slightly to
beyond middle, metatarsi I-III except black
apices, and scape below.
FLAGELLUM: With 31 segments and with
conspicuous, unusually large, elongate-oval
tyloids on segments 5-10, reaching from
bases to apices of segments; segments 3 and 4
also with indication of elongate tyloids.
HEAD: Temple profile moderately nar-
rowed behind eyes, with nearly straight
outline; cheek profile narrowed toward
mandible base; mandibles narrow, the
subapical tooth short.
THORAX: Mesoscutum densely and fairly
coarsely punctured, longer than wide,
convex; anterior 1/3 of notauli indicated;
scutellum convex, laterally carinate at base;
carination of propodeum complete; area
superomedia about as long as wide, with
costulae in the middle.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole and
interspace of gastrocoeli longitudinally
striate; gastrocoeli rather narrow, each
considerably narrower than the interspace;,
hypopygium short and blunt.
Holotype: female, Arkansas, Garland Co.,
Ouachita State Park, 22-V-1972, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). Allotype: male, Tennessee, Hen-
derson Co., Natchez Trail State Park, 18-23-
VI-1972 (CGH II). Paratypes: 1 female, same
data as holotype except collected 17-22-V-
1972; 1 female, Louisiana, Bistineau State
Park, 3-6-V-1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (all
CGH II).
DISTRIBUTION (map 17): Arkansas,
Louisiana, and Tennessee, as outlined above.
13. Coelichneumon azotus (Cresson)
Map 18
Ichneumon azotus Cresson, 1864:150, male.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female, male.
Ichneumon agnitus Cresson, 1864:151,
female.
Coelichneumon azotus, Heinrich, 1961:62, 74,
76-77, female, male, fig. 18.
Holotype: Ichneumon azotus, male, Dela-
ware; ANS. Ichneumon agnitus, female,
Delaware, ANS.
S YS TEMA TICS: The species azotus typi-
fies a group of at least 6 North American
species of the genus, all of which are clearly
distinguished by: (1) reduction of striate
sculpture on tergites with the postpetiole
being punctured instead of aciculate (as is the
rule) and (2) broad mandibles, with strongly
developed subapical tooth, the 2 teeth being


Map 17. Co6t6'neWnon lisae n. sp.
separated from each other by a wide gap. The
group could well be considered as a distinct
genus. Four species of the azotus group are
recorded from Florida; the decisive differ-
ences from azotus of each of these 4 species
will be discussed in their respective systema-
tic treatments.
The short series of specimens from Florida
shows no tangible individual variation nor
geographical differentiation from a series
from Maine. Canadian males often are
known to have strongly reduced or even to
lack white pattern on tibiae and tarsi III.
FEMALE: Length 15-16 mm. Black;
head, thorax, legs I, and sometimes post-
petiole with restricted white pattern; the
following white: small lateral marks on
clypeus, orbits around eyes (the white band
narrowly interrupted on vertex, more widely
on lower end of eyes), collare, subalarum,
pronotal ridge, at least apical 1/2 of
scutellum, anterior side of tibiae I, tip of
femora I or I and II, and sometimes an apical
mark on postpetiole; flagellum with dorsal
white annulus on segments 7-14.
FLAGELLUM: Moderately long, bristle
shaped, ventrally flattened and slightly
widened beyond middle, moderately attenu-
ated toward apex, with 39-41 segments, the
1st fully twice as long as wide, in lateral view
the 9th square, the widest on the flat side not
quite twice as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile in vertical view
scarcely narrowed behind eyes, strongly
curved; cheek profile in frontal view as in
jejunus Cresson, scarcely narrowed toward








mandible base, distinctly curved; cheeks in
lateral view wide and strongly convex;
carina genalis subparallel, with posterior
margin of eye to cardinal junction, which is
very close to mandible base; cardinal junction
not at all elevated and not forming a small,
triangular projection as it does in jejunus;
apical margin of clypeus, in contrast to
jejunus, completely normal and straight,
without a trace of emargination or bi-
sinuation; mandibles as described in syste-
matics.
THORAX: About anterior 1/4 of notauli
fairly distinct; mesoscutum moderately
densely punctured, finely coriaceous between
punctures, the scutellum more glossy, with
only a few scattered punctures, a trifle
convex, with sharp lateral edges at the
extreme base; area superomedia, more often
than not, separated from area basalis, either
square or slightly wider than long, some-
times approaching horseshoe shape, with
costulae beyond middle; lateral carinae of
area Dosteromedia indistinct.
LEGS: Femora moderately stout, coxae III
coarsely and rather densely punctured, with
conspicuous gray scopa.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole usually coarsely
and densely punctured all over, without trace
of striation or rugosity on the median field,
which is fairly clearly delimited; interspace
of gastrocoeli striate; tergites 2 and 3
moderately densely and fairly coarsely
punctured, extremely finely coriaceous
between punctures, and distinctly shiny; 4th
tergite less densely and markedly finer
punctured.
MALE: Length 14-18 mm. Rather similar
to jejunus; black; the following white:
mandibles oredominantlv. face. clyvpeus,
orbits around eyes broadly (interrupted at
malar space and usually at vertex), collar,
pronotal ridge, subalarum, tegulae, scu-
tellum, postscutellum, usually 2 short
median lines on mesoscutum, broad apical
band on postpetiole, legs I and II on anterior,
coxae and trochanters I and II on ventral side
for almost the whole length, apices of femora
III dorsally, tibiae and tarsi III dorsally for
entire length or almost so; scape ventrally
white, flagellum without annulus, toward
ventral apex usually dull brownish tinged.
FLAGELLUM: With 39-40 segments; with
very small, short, narrowly-oval tyloids on
segments 8-16, the longest on about segments
12-15 covering only slightly more than the
median 1/3 of segments; a punctiform tyloid
on segments 7 and 17 sometimes recogniz-
able.


HEAD: Structure generally as in female, but
mandibles still wider, and markedly stouter
and wider than in jejunus males; malar space
very short, about 1/4 as long as width of
mandible base; in contrast to jejunus no
angular projection at cardinal iunction.
THORAX: Structure generally as in female;
scutellum more raised above postscutellum
than in female, markedly more so and more
convex than in jejunus male, laterally
carinate at the very base; area superomedia
wider than long, distinctly 'wider than in
jejunus, usually separated from area basalis;
in contrast to jejunus postscutellum appar-
ently always white.
LEGS: White markings much more ex-
tensive than in jejunus, particularly on legs
III; the following white: coxae I and II except
bases, 1st trochanters I and II except dorsal
black stripe, all femora dorsally at apex,
femora I and II also on entire anterior side
except narrowly black bases, all tibiae and
tarsi dorsally, except usually black apex to
sometimes apical 1/3 of tibiae III and usually
segments 5 or 4 and 5 of tarsi III; coxae,
trochanters, and (except apices) femora III,
always entirely black; apices of dorsally
white tarsal segments narrowly blackish.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
clearly defined, coarsely (more or less
densely) punctured, without aciculation or
rugosity; interspace of gastrocoeli shortly
and strongly aciculate; sculpture of tergites 2
and 3 similar to jejunus although slightly
coarser and denser, the sculpture of tergites 4
and 5, however, markedly coarser than in
jejunus, coarsely and rather densely punc-
tured
DISTRIBUTION (map 18): From Quebec,
Maine, and Ontario south to Florida,
Mississippi, and Kansas. ARKANSAS.
Garland Co.: 1 male, 2 females, Ouachita
State Park, 9-28-V-1972, G. Heinrich, D.
Shaneck (CGH II). FLORIDA. Duval Co.: 1
female, Jacksonville, 8-V-1971, C. F. Zeiger.
Highlands Co.: 1 female, 4 males, Archbold
Biological Station, ?-V-20-VI-1967, G. Hein-
rich. 2 males, Highland Hammock State
Park, VIII-1969, G. Heinrich. Hillsborough
Co.: 1 male, Hillsborough River State Park, 7-
VI-1970, G. Heinrich (all CGH II). Lake Co.: 1
female, 10-V-1956 (CHT). Lee Co.: Ft. Myers,
1 male, 20-VIII-1969, 7 males, IV-V-1970, D.
Radtke (CGH II). MISSISSIPPI. Yalobusha
Co.: 3 males, Water Valley, 11-27-V-1971, M.
Horan (CGH II). TENNESSEE. Henderson
Co.: 2 females, Natchez Trail State Park, 1-12-
VI-1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).

ECOLOGY: Deciduous forests.
































Map 18. Coelichneumon azotus (Cresson)
14. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
Fig. 15-17, Map 19
Ischnus jejunus Cresson, 1864:186, male.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female, male.
Ichneumon apertus Cresson, 1867:293,
female.
Coelichneumon jejunus, Heinrich, 1961:73-
74, female, male, and figs. 26, 28, 30.
Coelichneumon duffieldi Heinrich, 1971:965-
966, female (new synonymy).
Holotypes: Ischnus jejunus, male, Illinois;
ANS. Ichneumon apertus, female, Illinois;
ANS. Coelichneumon duffieldi, female; CGH
II.
SYSTEMA TICS: In Florida, at least
during the years 1967-1970, the only common
species of this genus. In color similar to
azotus Cresson, but unmistakably dis-
tinguished in both sexes by the combination
of 2 characters: (1) junction of carina oralis
and carina genalis somewhat elevated,
forming a small, triangular projection, well
visible in lateral view of the slightly toward
mandibles tilted head (fig. 15-16); (2) mandi-
bles stout, the teeth separated by a wide gap,
the upper tooth, however, markedly longer
than the lower (fig. 17). Coxae III of females
without trace of scopa.
A recent reexamination of the holotype of
Coelichneumon duffieldi has revealed that
the wide gap between the mandible teeth was
covered with some sticky material and so
hidden from view; the specimen described as
a new species belongs to jejunus.


Fig. 15. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson) (female). Head,
lateral view.


Fig. 16. Coelichneumonjejunus (Cresson) (female). Head,
posterior view.


Fig. 17. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson) (female).
Mandible, frontal view.








The species jejunus displays a rather wide
range of individual variability in structure of
the cheeks as well as in the extent of white
pattern. Tables 3 and 4 illustrate the
chromatic variability of both sexes. A female
collected near Ft. Myers, Florida, shows
unusually strongly swollen cheeks, but also
seems, nevertheless, to represent jejunus.
FEMALE: Length 13-15 mm. Black, head,
thorax and legs I with restricted white
markings as follows: orbits from upper end of
face or slightly above level of antennal
sockets up to vertex and down again on
posterior side of eyes to about or beyond their
middle, with or without narrow interruption
on vertex and/or on temples, collare, mark on
subalarum, pronotal ridge (varying in extent
from apically only to entire length), usually
apical 1/3 of scutellum or less (sometimes
scutellum entirely black), anterior side of
tibiae I; flagellum with dorsal white annulus
on segment 6, or (more often) apex of 6 to 13 or
14.
FLAGELLUM: Moderately long, bristle
shaped, ventrally flattened and and widened
beyond middle, moderately attenuated
toward apex, with 3841 segments, the 1st
nearly 2.5 times as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 9th square, the widest on the
flat side more than twice as wide as long.
HEAD (fig. 15,16): Temple profile, in dorsal
view, slightly widened beyond eyes rather
than narrowed, with strongly curved outline;
cheek profile in frontal view wide and
strongly convex; carina genalis gradually
slightly diverging from posterior margin of
eyes toward cardinal junction (which is
situated at a distance nearly equal to the
width of mandible base before the latter) then
turns in an angle abruptly toward base of
mandibles; cardinal junction elevated and
projecting as described in systematics;
clypeus with very slightly bisinuate apical
margin and with rounded sides; mandibles
as shown in fig. 17.
THORAX: About anterior 1/4 of notauli
fairly distinct; mesoscutum coarsely and not
very densely punctured, shiny between
punctures; scutellum flat, slightly less
coarsely punctured than mesoscutum; areae
dentiparae long and rather narrow, more
than twice as long as costulae; area supero-
media distinctly longer than wide, usually
confluent with area basalis, with costulae
beyond middle; lateral carinae of area
posteromedia usually obsolete, sometimes
also lateral carinae of area basalis and of
anterior part of area superomedia.


LEGS: Femora moderately stout, densely
punctured; coxae III coarsely and rather
densely punctured, without scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus strongly postfurcal.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole not
densely and strongly aciculate as usually in
this genus, but finely, irregularly rugose,
with some coarse puncturation, the lateral
fields and the petiole usually more densely,
coarsely punctured; gastrocoeli fairly deep,
with large thyridia, their interspace not quite
as wide as 1 of them, irregularly longitu-
dinally rugose punctate; tergites 2 and 3
coarsely and moderately densely punctured,
extremely finely coriaceous, and distinctly
shiny between punctures, the 4th tergite
slightly less densely and less coarsely
punctured.
M1ALE: Length 11-16 mm. Black; the
following white: always face and clypeus,
orbits around eyes extensively except inter-
rupted on malar space, often also narrowly
on vertex, rarely on temples, collar, pronotal
ridge, subalarum, tegulae, scutellum, legs I
and II more or less extensively, and (in
majority of specimens) 2 short, median lines
on mesoscutum and the base of tibiae III
dorsally more or less extensively; rarely
white are: a lateral mark on prepectus, marks
on prescutellar carinae, and postscutellum;
flagellum without annulus, ventrally toward
apex usually dull brownish tinged; scape
ventrally white; (see also table for the
distribution of white markings on 30 males
from Florida).
FLAGELLUM: With 35-39 segments and
with approximately bacilliform tyloids on
segments 7 to 18 or 19, the longest on
segments 11-16, reaching fairly close to the
apices but not close to the bases of segments.
HEAD: Structure generally as in female
including mandibles; malar space very short,
about 1/3 as long as width of mandible base;
the small, triangular projection at cardinal
junction as distinct as in female.
THORAX: Structure generally as in female;
scutellum slightly convex.
LEGS: Legs III always black including
coxae and trochanters, with only base to
about median 1/2 of tibiae III dorsally white,
sometimes mark on base of tibiae III very
restricted or not quite distinct; all parts of
legs I and II usually more or less extensively
white marked including coxae, 1st tro-
chanters, and tarsi, the tibiae I and II always
entirely white, except ventrally; extent of
white on dorsal side of tarsi I and II and on

































Map 19. Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)


ventral side of coxae, trochanters, and
femora II and III variable, rarely coxae and
trochanters II entirely black; for further
details see table 3 for distribution of white on
30 males from Florida.
ABDOMEN: Sculpture of tergites coarser
and denser than in female; median field of
postpetiole, and particularly interspace of
gastrocoeli, more distinctly aciculate.
DISTRIBUTION (map 19): Atlantic to
1000 W from Ontario and Quebec, south to
Florida; rare in the most northern parts of the
range, common in Florida. FLORIDA Clay
Co.: 2 males, 2 females, Gold Head Branch
State Park, 21-27-IV-1971, G Heinrich, D.
Radtke (CGH II). Dade Co.: 2 females, 5
males, Paradise Key, 6-12-IV.(CHT). High-
lands Co.: Archbold Biological Station,. 9
males. V-1967, 41 males, 6 females,. III-V-
1968, 1 female, VI-1970, G. Heinrich (CGH II).
Highlands Hammock State Park, 5 males,
IV-1968, 1970, G. Heinrich, 8 males, 1-8-IV-
1970, R. W. Miller (CGH II). Lee Co.: 30
females, 54 males, 14-VI, G. Heinrich, D.
Radtke (CGH II). Manatee Co.: 1 male,
Bradenton, 10-IV-1964 (FSCA). Martin Co.: 1
male, VI. Monroe Co.: 1 male, XII. Palm
Beach Co.: 1 male, Palm Beadh, V (all FSCA).
Pinellas Co.: 1 male, Tarpon Springs, III.
TENNESSEE. Henderson Co.: 1 male,
Natchez Trail State Park, 5-10-VI-1972, G
Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).


ECOLOGY: Deciduous, dry forest, appar-
ently with preference for stands of oak trees.

Table 3. Distribution of white
markings on 30 males of
Coelichneumon jejunus (Cresson)
from Ft. Myers and Lake Placid

No. specimens Distribution of white
30 mandible base more or
less extensively
30 clypeus
30 face
4 black transverse stripe
between face and clypeus
17 orbits around eyes broadly,
except only on malar space
13 white on orbits also
narrowly interrupted on
vertex
3 white on orbits also narrowly
interrupted on temples
30 scape ventrally
30 collare
30 pronotal ridge
30 subalarum
30 tegulae
30 scutellum
28 2 short median lines
on mesoscutum
10 postscutellum
1 marks on prescutellar
carinae
1 lateral marks on
prepectus
30 tibiae I and II except
on ventral side
22 about basal 1/2 or 1/3 of
tibiae III dorsally
4 only extreme base of
tibiae III dorsally
4 white on base of
tibiae III only faintly
indicated
20 anterior side of femora I
and II except base
10 less than apical 1/2 of
femora I and II anteriorly
14 coxae I and II ventrally
extensively
2 coxae I ventrally only
very restrictedly
14 coxae II ventrally only
very restrictedly
2 coxae II entirely black

(continued next page)







Table 3 continued
No. specimens Distribution of white

20 1st trochanters I and II
ventrally predominantly
2 1st trochanters I ventrally
only restrictedly
6 1st trochanters II ventrally
only restrictedly
2 1st trochanters II entirely
black
2 more than segments 1-3 of
tarsi I dorsally
4 segments 1-3 of tarsi I
dorsally
23 segments 1-2 of tarsi I
dorsally
1 only segment I of tarsi I
dorsally
6 segments 1-2 of tarsi II


Table 4. Distribution of white marks
on 24 females of Coelichneumonjejunus
(Cresson) from Ft. Myers
and Lake Placid
No. specimens Distribution of white
24 orbits narrowly from shortly
below or shortly above level
with antennal sockets up to
vertex and down beyond to
about middle or beyond
middle of outer margins of
eyes, with or without
narrow interruption on vertex
and/or on temples
21 white on orbits narrowly
interrupted on vertex
19 white on orbits narrowly
interrupted on temples
24 collare
24 subalarum more or less
extensively
15 pronotal ridge in whole
length or nearly so
9 apex of pronotal ridge
only
5 about apical 1/3 of scutellum
14 only extreme apex of
scutellum
5 scutellum entirely black
24 anterior side of
tibiae I
18 dorsal annulus of flagellum
on segments 6 (or apex of 6)
to 13 or 14 ,
6 dorsal annulus of flagellum
on segments 7 to 13 or 14


15. Coelichneumon punctifer Heinrich
Map 20
Coelichneumon punctifier Heinrich, 1961:77-
78, female, male.
Holotype: female, Maryland, Mayo Beach;
USNM. Allotype: male, Virginia, Nelson Co.;
CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: A 3rd species of the
azotus group, agreeing with azotus in the
stout mandibles with gaping, subequal teeth,
in the punctured postpetiole, and in the
distinct scopa on coxae III.
Distinguished uniquely in males by a
strongly elongate hypopygium, approaching
the structure of some Spilichneumon species;
characterized in both sexes by uniformly
white prescutellar carinae; flagellum of
females less widened than in azotus.
FEMALE: Length 14-17 mm. Black, the
following white: frontal orbits (the white
band markedly widened at level with lower
ocellus), orbits of temples and vertex, collare,
pronotal ridge broadly, subalarum, pre-
scutellar carinae, apex of scutellum, post-
scutellum, usually 2 narrow, parallel, short
lines on mesoscutum, apical mark on ventral
side of femora I, usually also of femora II,
anterior side of tibiae I, and sometimes
lateral marks on apex of postpetiole; flagel-
lum with dorsal white annulus on segments
7-12 or 13.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, slightly
widened beyond middle and attenuated at
apex, with 38-42 segments, the 1st slightly
more than twice as long as apically wide and
a little longer than the 2nd, in lateral view the
11th square, the widest on the flat side 1.3 to
nearly twice as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile not narrowed behind
eyes, strongly curved, cheek profile slightly
narrowed toward mandible base, slightly
curved; malar space about 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base; cheeks in lateral
view broad, convex, almost smooth, with
only a few, scattered punctures; face and
clypeus very finely coriaceous, with sparse
puncturation; mandibles short and broad,
with strong teeth, separated by a wide gap,
upper tooth somewhat longer than the lower.
THORAX: Notauli indicated only at the
extreme base; mesoscutum moderately
densely and fairly strongly punctured, finely
coriaceous between punctures; scutellum
sparsely punctured, shiny, with sharp lateral
edges at base; area superomedia not clearly
separated from area basalis, the latter not
deepened, except the narrow basal furrow.
Apical white mark on scutellum medially








emarginate along anterior border, not
protruding anteriorly as in azotus.
LEGS: Femora stout; coxae III ventrally
coarsely and very densely punctured, with
conspicuous, pale gray scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
fairly well defined, without striation, more or
less densely punctured; interspace of gastro-
coeli longitudinally striate; tergites 2 and 3
coarsely punctured, the middle densely, the
sides more sparsely; 4th tergite finely
punctured.
MALE: (Description based on south-
eastern material). Length 14-18 mm. Black,
the following white: base of mandibles
extensively, face and clypeus entirely, broad
band on orbits around eyes (always inter-
rupted on malar space, usually also narrowly
on vertex, strongly widened on upper frons at
level of lower ocellus, and also widened on
lower outer orbits over entire width of cheeks,
(except black band on mandible base) collare,
pronotal ridge broadly, subalarum, tegulae, 2
short, apically converging, median lines on
mesoscutum, scutellum except base, post-
scutellum, prescutellar carinae entirely,
apico-lateral marks on postpetiole, often also
apical mark on its median field, sometimes
also apico-lateral marks on 2nd tergite, coxae
I and II extensively on ventral side, rarely a
small apical mark on ventral side of coxae
III, ventral side of femora I and II except
basally, anterior side of tibiae I and II, tibiae
III on exterior side, at least the basal 1/3,
usually to middle or beyond, tarsi I and II
laterally more or less extensively, rarely also
tarsi III on exterior side in part; flagellum
without annulus; scape ventrally white.
FLAGELLUM: With narrow, nearly bacilli-
form tyloids on segments 7 or 8 to 17 or 18, the
longest not reaching close to bases and
apices of segments but covering more than
their median 1/2.
HEAD: Malar space nearly 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base; frons very coarsely
rugose punctate; cheeks broad and strongly
convex.
THORAX: Anterior 1/4 of notauli rather
distinct; area superomedia wider than long,
narrowed toward area basalis.
ABDOMEN: Hypopygium strongly pro
duced medially, with blunted apex, finely
coriaceous, pilose, and densely punctured all
over; median field of postpetiole coarsely
punctured and, somewhat irregularly, longi-
tudinally rugose striate. *
DISTRIBUTION (map 20): From New
York and Virginia south to Florida, west to
Texas. FLORIDA. Clay Co.: Gold Head


Map 20. Coelichneumon punctifer Heinrich
Branch State Park, 1 female, 6-V-1971, 2
males, 24-VI-1971, 1 female, 2 males, 3-5-VIII-
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Radtke (CGH II). Leon
Co.: 1 female, Tall Timbers Research Station,
Tallahassee, 11-VI-1970, G. Heinrich (CGH
II). LOUISIANA. Evangeline Co.: 1 male,
Bayou Chicot, 23-III-5-IV-1972, D. Shaneck
(CGH II). MISSISSIPPI. Lafayette Co.: 1
female, Oxford (CGH II). Yalobusha Co.: 1
male, Water Valley, 13-27-VII-1970, M.
Horan (CGH II). TENNESSEE. Henderson
Co.: 1 male, Natchez Trail State Park, 1-6-VI-
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).
TEXAS. 1 male, Paris, 1904 (USNM).

16. Coelichneumon pseudowalleyi,
new species
Map 21
SYSTEMA TICS: This species, the 4th of
the azotus group, is closely related to azotus,
but markedly smaller; in females readily
recognizable by the complete lack of a scopa
on coxae III, by the uniformly white
scutellum, and by the lack of indication of
sharp lateral edges at the base of the
scutellum. Extremely similar to walleyi
Heinrich in the small size and lack of a scopa;
differing from that species in females mainly
by the completely white scutellum and, in
direct comparison, by markedly wider
mandibles with longer apical teeth, sep-
arated from each other by a wider and deeper
gap; distinguished from walleyi in addition
by distinct anterior bordering carina of area








superomedia, a trifle wider temple profile,
and somewhat stouter femora III. The males
differ from walleyi by black tarsi III and
entirely or predominantly black trochanters
I and II, also, in direct comparison, by
slightly stouter femora III.
The male collected at the same locality as
the female and in all probability associated
with it, differs from azotus by: (1) entirely
white scutellum, without a trace of lateral
edges at the base; (2) comparatively slightly
shorter and wider mesoscutum; (3) lack of
white marks on postpetiole and on meso-
scutum; (4) comparatively shorter femora III;
(5) much smaller size. The white markings on
legs III are reduced to apical margin of
femora III and to a short line on base of
exterior side of tibiae III, which covers only
about 1/4 of the total length of the tibia; the
tarsi III are black.
FEMALE: Length 12-13 mm. Black; the
following are white: orbits around eyes
(interrupted on malar space and narrowly on
vertex), small lateral spots on clypeus,
collare, pronotal ridge, subalarum, scu-
tellum, sometimes postscutellum, the an-
terior side of tibiae I, and small apical marks
on anterior side of femora I; flagellum with
dorsal white annulus on segments 7-13.
FLAGELLUM: Moderately long, bristle
shaped, ventrally flattened and somewhat
widened beyond middle, moderately attenu-
ated toward apex, with 35-36 segments, the
1st fully twice as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 7th square, the widest on the
flat side nearly 2.5 times as wide as long.
HEAD: Puncturation of frons and cheeks
sparser and finer than in azotus, the lower
cheeks polished between punctures.
THORAX: Mesoscutum and scutellum com-
paratively somewhat wider and shorter than
in azotus; scutellum laterally at base without
a trace of sharp edges and entirely white.
Otherwise structure, sculpture, and color as
in azotus.
LEGS: Femora III somewhat shorter and
thicker than in azotus, the coxae III without
trace of scopa. Otherwise as in azotus.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole more sparsely
punctured than in azotus, its base smooth
and impunctate, its apex without white
marks. Otherwise as in azotus.
MALE: Length 13 mm. Black, the follow-
ing white: mandibles predominantly, orbits
around eyes broadly (the white band inter-
rupted at malar space and on vertex, widened
on cheeks, but not reaching carina'genalis or
mandible base), collare, pronotal ridge,
subalarum, tegulae, scutellum, sometimes
postscutellum, legs I and II on anterior side


(except black bases of femora), apex of
femora III dorsally, basal 1/4 of tibiae III on
exterior side, coxae I and II extensively, mark
on ventral side of 1st trochanters I, and
ventral side of scape.
FLAGELLUM: With 38 segments and with
narrow, short tyloids on segments 7-16, the
longest on segments 9-13, covering nearly
median 1/2 of segments.
Holotype: female, Florida, Highlands Co.,
Highlands Hammock State Park, 13-IV-1970,
G. Heinrich. Allotype: male, same data.
Paratypes: 1 female, same data except 13-20-
IV-1970. All specimens in CGH II.
DISTRIBUTION (map 21): Central Flori-
da as outlined above.
17. Coelichneumon delirops,
new species
Map 22
SYSTEMATICS: A sympatric female
possibly associated with the males recorded
below has not been found so far. These males
represent without doubt 1 and the same quite
distinct form, which is similar chromatically
and in structure to Ichneumon deliratorius
cinctitarsis Provancher (the Nearctic sub-
species of the Palaearctic species deliratorius
Linnaeus). There are, however, several
important and constant differences from
deliratorius in color pattern as well as in
morphology, which render a subspecific
relation with the latter species unlikely. The
new form is treated, therefore, as a distinct
species, but the definite confirmation of its
status will depend upon discovery of the
female.








Males are, on the average, smaller than
deliratorius cinctitarsis and differing in
structure by (1) shorter and a little wider
tyloids; (2) comparatively shorter, less
narrowed toward apex and apically broadly
truncate scutellum; (3) less densely and less
coarsely sculptured tergites 3 and 4, which
are not opaque but, particularly on lateral
areas, shiny between punctures; and (4) by
practically rhomboidal areolet, with inter-
cubiti almost coalescent in front. The
chromatic differences are even more marked;
the most important ones are: (1) orbits
broadly white almost all around eyes
(instead of black, except only face white); (2)
collare and apical part of pronotal base white
(instead of black); (3) tibiae III white close to
apex on exterior side, black except basally on
interior side (instead of white all around to
beyond middle, the rest black all around).
MALE: Length 13-14 mm. Black, with very
rich white pattern; abdomen uniformly
black; the following white: orbits broadly
around eyes (interrupted more often than not
narrowly on malar space and more broadly
on temples, widened on lower part of cheeks
usually to carina genalis and also somewhat
widened usually on vertex and below ocellar
region), collare, pronotal ridge, lower 2/3 (or
less) of pronotal base, subalarum, tegulae,
scutellum, postscutellum, usually apex of
prosternum, always 2 median marks on apex
of mesosternum, often a band or mark on
prepectus, sometimes a line along area of
sternauli and another line or irregular mark
on mesopleura, usually hind upper corner of
mesopleura, coxae, trochanters and tarsi I
and II entirely, apical mark on ventral side of
coxae III, almost always also a narrow basal
mark on ventral side of coxae III (rarely a
continuous band from base to apex of ventral
side of coxae III or a mark on their dorsal
side), ventral side of 1st trochanters 111, 2nd
trochanters III entirely or only ventrally,
entire anterior side and apices of femora I
and 11, tibiae I and 11 except long, wedge-
shaped black line on their posterior side
reaching from apex to or beyond middle,
tibiae III except black apex and except black
posterior side from apex close to base, and
segments of tarsi III basally in from segment
to segment decreasing extent; scape ventral-
ly to predominantly white.
FLAGELLUM: With 38 segments and with
short, narrowly-oval tyloids on segments 5-
16 or 17, the longest covering less than
median 1/2 of length of segments.
HEAD: Temple profile moderately nar-
rowed behind eyes, with (in contrast to
deliratorius cinctitarsis) slightly curved


outline; malar space very short, about 1/3 as
long as width of mandible base; mandibles
fairly narrow, with short subapical tooth,
separated from the apical tooth only by a
notch.
THORAX: Mesoscutum convex, densely
punctured, finely coriaceous between punc-
tures; about anterior 1/3 of notauli fairly
distinct; scutellum slightly raised above
postscutellum, short, apically broadly trun-
cate, laterally not carinate; propodeum with
complete carination.
LEGS: Femora moderately stout.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
fairly finely and somewhat irregularly
longitudinally striate; interspace of gastro-
coeli slightly wider than 1 of them, and
strongly longitudinally striate; base of 3rd
tergite in the middle also with short striation;
rest of median part of 2nd or 3rd tergites
densely rugose punctate, the lateral parts of
tergites 2 and 3 moderately strongly and not
very densely punctured, very finely coria-
ceous and somewhat shiny between punc-
tures.
Holotype. male, Mississippi, Lafayette Co.,
Water Valley, 11-27-V-1971, M. Horan.
Paratypes: 6 males, same data as holotype
except 6-27-V-1971; 1 male, same state,
Oktibbeha Co., 1-7-V-1971, C. Sartor. GEOR-
GIA. 1 male, Chattahoochee State Park, 19-V-
1970. All specimens in CGH II.
DISTRIBUTION (map 22): Georgia and
Mississippi as detailed above.


Map 22. Coelichneumon delirops n. sp.









II. Tribe Ichneumonini Ashmead
Ichneumonini Berthoumieu, 1894:245.
(Partim; name used for the entire
subfamily Ichneumoninae)
Ichneumonini Ashmead, 1895:279.
Amblytelini (Viereck), Townes, 1944:319.
Type genus: Amblyteles Wesmael.
Joppini (Kriechbaumer), Townes et al.
Type genus: Joppa Fabricius.
Ichneumonini, Heinrich, 1967:485; Walkley,
1967:138.
Type genus: Ichneumon Linnaeus
(= Pterocormus Townes).
The tribe is distinguished from the Protich-
neumonini and from the Trogini by the
structure of the propodeum, which is of the
"broken" type, that is: divided into clearly
separated horizontal and declivous parts,
meeting at an angle at the carinae dentiparae
interiores and the posterior carina of the area
superomedia, the areae dentiparae thus not
arching downward close to the base of coxae
III, their apices tending to be pointed,
sometimes even forming apophyses. The
Ichneumonini differ by the petiole not being
wider than high from the Platylabini; from
the Listrodromini by face, clypeus, and
malar space not forming together a single
continuous, slightly convex plane, without
sutures, depressions or elevations; from the
Phaeogenini by the spiracles of the propo-
deum not being circular but longer than wide,
usually slit shaped.
DISTRIBUTION: World-wide. The rather
heterogenous multitude of genera assembled
under this tribe has been subdivided by
Heinrich (1967-1968) for the African and
Holarctic fauna in 5 subtribes, of which 4
occur in North America, but only 3 are
recorded so far from Florida.
Key to the North American subtribes
of the tribe Ichneumonini (Ashmead)
1. Apex of abdomen of females ambly-
pygous; thyridia obsolete or incon-
spicuous and gastrocoeli indistinctly, or,
at the most, moderately impressed.
(Areolet pentagonal, the intercubiti
widely separated in front; median field of
postpetiole aciculate, or sometimes
punctured or rugose; sternites tend to be
strongly sclerotized in most genera, plica
consequently often restricted to 2nd or
2nd and 3rd sternites, sometimes lack-
ing; hypopygium of males often pro-
jecting; clypeus always normal) ......
..... B. Amblytelina (Viereck) (p. )
- Apex of abdomen of females oxypygous
or thyridia conspicuous alid gastrocoeli
distinct ............................. 2


2. Clypeus distinctly convex in longitu-
dinal and in transverse direction;
scutellum extremely raised above post-
scutellum but not, or indistinctly,
laterally carinate. (Propodeum with very
strong apophyses; areolet pentagonal,
the intercubiti widely separated in front)
(so far no species recorded from Florida).
.... C. Hoplismenina Heinrich (p. 122)
- Clypeus not or scarcely convex; scutel-
lum not extremely raised, or if so, then
with high lateral carinae ........... 3
3. Gastrocoeli distinctly, sometimes deeply
impressed, sometimes very large and
transverse; postpetiole and usually 1 or 2
of the following tergites strongly sculp-
tured, often medially aciculate or coarse-
ly rugose-punctate. (Areolet usually
pentagonal, with intercubiti widely, or at
least somewhat separated in front;
thyridia distinct, sometimes very con-
spicuous) .............................
..... A. Ichneumonina Heinrich (p. 57)
- Gastrocoeli only slightly impressed,
inconspicuous, sometimes superficial or
absent; sculpture of anterior tergites
finer than in the Ichneumonina, usually
punctured, often coriaceous or finely
rugose, rarely the median field of
postpetiole finely longitudinally striate.
(Areolet usually pentagonal, but with
intercubiti tending to be narrowed, often
even coalescent in front; thyridia usually
distinct, but tending to become incon-
spicuous or even obsolete, often removed
from base of 2nd tergite) .............
D. Cratichneumonina Heinrich (p. 124)
II. A. Subtribe Ichneumonina Heinrich
Ichneumonina Heinrich, 1967-1968:487-489.
Type genus: Ichneumon Linnaeus.
S YSTEMA TICS: The decisive characters
of this subtribe are the fairly large and
distinctly impressed gastrocoeli with distinct
thyridia, in combination with oxypygous
abdomen of females and with comparatively
coarse, usually aciculate or longitudinally
rugose (exceptionally punctate) sculpture of
postpetiole and/or anterior tergites. Areolet
usually pentagonal, but narrowed in front;
structure of head and mandibles normal;
clypeus not convex.
Key to genera of Ichneumonina
recorded from Florida and neighboring
land areas
1. Propodeum with strong apophyses as in
Hoplismenus Gravenhorst. (The only
known species ferruginous with restrict-









ed yellow and almost without black mark-
in g s) .................................
............. 6. Hemihoplis Heinrich
- Propodeum without strong apophyses
................ ................. 2
2. Mandibles short and wide, with sub-
equal teeth, separated by a deep and
wide gap;, areolet with intercubiti un-
usually widely separated in front;
anterior tergites strongly sclerotized and
coarsely punctured, separated by deep
sutures. (The only species occurring in
Florida ferruginous, dark winged) ....
.......... 8. Trogomorpha Ashmead
- Mandibles and areolet normal; anterior
tergites less coarsely sculptured ..... 3
3. Clypeus with very coarse and rather
dense punctures, usually confluent and
forming irregular, longitudinal, short
rugae toward its apical border; in
females, clypeus apically in the middle
slightly protruding and a trifle raised.
(The only American species is medium
sized, black, with dark wings; females
with apical white mark .. 4. Chasmias
Ashmead
- Clypeus with normal sculpture, apico-
medially neither protruding nor raised
.. o .. .. ......o............... .. 4
4. Median field of postpetiole aciculate. 5
Median field of postpetiole punctate or
nearly smooth, sometimes with irregular
rugosity ..............................
..... see Cratichneumonina Heinrich
(Melanichneumon group)
5. Clypeus apically not truncate, but
forming a flat bow percurrent from side
to side. (Area superomedia unusually
large, arched in front, in females
approximately horseshoe shaped, in
males abbreviated, much wider than
long, often sickle shaped; the only
American species black, with rich white
m arks) ................. .............
......... 5. Orgichneumon Heinrich
Clypeus with truncate, straight apical
border .............................. 6
6. Scutellum laterally carinate for entire
length and distinctly raised above
postscutellum; area superomedia dis-
tinctly narrowed toward area basalis,
arched in front; costulae distinct. (The
only North American species has apical
white bands on all tergites and rich
white markings on head and thorax)
.............. 7. Menkokia Heinrich
Scutellum laterally never carinate and,


as a rule, not raised above postscutellum;
area superomedia not arched in front,
usually approximately parallel sided, in
females often longer than wide and
nearly rectangular, in males usually
about square or somewhat wider than
long; costulae usually indistinct, often
obsolete. (Basic color of females often
ferruginous, sometimes black, often with
apical white marks on last tergites,
rarely with white apical bands on a few
tergites; males of many species strongly
sexually dimorphic, with black- and
yellow-banded abdomen) ..............
............ 3. Ichneumon Linnaeus

3. Genus Ichneumon Linnaeus
Ichneumon Linnaeus, 1758:343, 560. Hein-
rich, 1961:211-214. Heinrich, 1965a:79-81 (9
new species from Burma). Heinrich, 1967-
1968:490-492 (treatment of genus and 4
species from Africa, Madagascar, and the
Seychelles).
Type species: Ichneumon extensorius
Linnaeus; designated by Int. Comm.
Zool. Nomencl., opin. 159, 1945.
Brachypterus Gravenhorst, 1829:673 (name
preoccupied).
Type species: Brachypterus means
Gravenhorst.
Pterocormus Foerster, 1850:71. Townes, et
al., 1961:382 (genera Colobacis Cameron,
1900, Tyanites Cameron, 1903, Vabsaris
Cameron, 1903, Matsumuraius Ashmead,
1906, and Coreojoppa Uchida, 1926 as
synonyms; 14 species listed). Townes, et al.,
1965:459 (genera Bureschias Heinrich and
Thyrateles Perkins as further synonyms; 142
species listed). Townes and Townes, 1966:263
(12 species listed).
Colobacis Cameron, 1900:110.
Type species: (Colobacis forticornis
Cameron) = lotatorius Fabricius.
Monobasic.
Tyanites Cameron, 1903b:95.
Type species: Tyanites rufipes Cam-
eron; monobasic.
Vabsaris Cameron, 1903b:96.
Type species: (Vabsaris forticornis
Cameron), monobasic = Tyanites
rufipes Cameron (according to Town-
es, et al., 1961:382).
Euichneumon Berthoumieu, 1904:33.
Type species: Ichneumon sarcitorius
Linnaeus, designated by Townes,
1944.









Matsumuraius Ashmead, 1906:169.
Type species: Matsumuraius grandis
Ashmead, monobasic.
Coreojoppa Uchida, 1926:63.
Type species: Coreojoppa flavoma-
culata Uchida, original designation.
SYSTEMATICS: The genus Ichneumon is
a comparatively well defined unit in spite of
its great number of species. I disagree with
the synonymization of the 2 genera, Bures-
chias and Thyrateles with Ichneumon
(Townes, et al., 1965). The case of Thyrateles
is somewhat arbitrary inasmuch as the
males of this genus cannot be distinguished
morphologically from Ichneumon. However,
the genus Thyrateles is biologically well
characterized by its specialization on Nym-
phalidae as hosts, and the females are also
distinguishable in structure. The case of
Bureschias is altogether different; I have
reexamined the type species recently, and I
am convinced more than ever that Bures
chias is not even closely related to Ichneu
mon. Its morphology would indicate a
relationship to Spilichneumon Thomson
rather than to Ichneumon, but the structural
differences from Spilichneumon are rather
striking, too, and obviously of generic nature.
As to Colobacis as a synonym of Ichneumon I
cannot comment here as I have not yet had
the opportunity to examine the type species.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females stout and filiform
to slender, long and bristle shaped; of males
with a row of bacilliform to oval tyloids and
with moderately distinct subapical bristle
ridges on ventral side.
HEAD: Temples and cheeks usually neither
considerably swollen nor very strongly
narrowed; clypeus always normal, flat, with
straight apical border; mandibles in majority
of species, including the type species, normal,
with distinct subapical tooth; in another
group of species, represented by the Nearctic
species creperus Cresson, ambulatorius
Fabricius, and weemsi Heinrich from Flori-
da, the subapical tooth is rudimentary.
THORAX: Mesoscutum about as long as
medially wide, or slightly longer, rather flat;
notauli usually subobsolete or distinct at the
base only; scutellum flat to moderately
convex, not laterally carinate; horizontal
part of propodeum in females usually nearly
as long as declivity, in mates always
relatively shorter than in females; area
superomedia spearated from area basalis,
usually parallel sided, sometimes slightly
narrowed from base to apex, usually quad-


rangular, either square or rectangular, often
longer than wide; costulae obsolete or
subobsolete in majority of species, less so in
males than in females; sculpture of entire
thorax usually rather coarse, strongly
punctured.
LEGS: Moderately stout; coxae III of
females often with scopa that is usually not
very distinct or dense.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal and oblique;
areolet clearly pentagonal; radius usually
nearly straight; usually clear, sometimes
moderately to strongly infuscated; infusca-
tion of wings not always shared by males.
ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous, oviposi-
tor usually slightly projecting; postpetiole
with more or less clearly defined median
field, which is more or less clearly longitu-
dinally striate, never punctured; gastrocoeli
of medium size, more or less deeply im-
pressed, always with distinct thyridia;
hypopygium of males neither sharply
pointed nor projecting, but forming an obtuse
angle apically.
CHROMATIC CHARACTERS: White
marks on apical tergites of females are
common, sometimes combined with white
apical bands or margins on anterior tergites;
often abdomen uniformly red (or ferru-
ginous), black, or both colors in combination.
Sexual dichromatism sometimes only slight,
more often very pronounced; in the latter case
abdomen of males is usually black and
yellow banded.
DISTRIBUTION: World-wide. A genus
with enormous speciation in the Holarctic
Region. Represented in the arctic regions as
in Greenland, Baffin Island, and the Aleu-
tian Islands as well, as on the highest
elevations of the subtropical and tropical belt
(as in the Himalayas and Latimodjong Mts.
in Celebes). Very few species have adapted to
the life in regions without real winter. Until
now only 2 species are recorded from Florida,
an amazingly small number as compared to
the nearly 100 species listed from north-
eastern North America (Heinrich, 1961).
Throughout the lowlands of the neighbor-
ing southeastern States, the recorded number
of Ichneumon species is correspondingly low;
however, in the most northern, mountainous
areas of Georgia, it increases suddenly and
markedly (species found in hibernation by R.
Duffield, among others). No doubt, many
further species still can be found there. Most,
if not all of these species, actually do not
belong to the ecosystem of the southeastern
lowlands (the "Austroriparian Zone"), but








are part of the northeastern fauna (the
"Alleghanian Zone"; see map, Townes and
Townes, 1951). Being adapted to hibernation
and consequently depending upon seasonal
changes to low temperatures close to the
freezing point and below, they were able to
follow the Appalachian chains southward to
their most southern spurs into Georgia (and
most likely also into the mountains of
northernmost Alabama), but not further into
the lowlands.
HOSTS: A broad spectrum of Heterocera,
mainly Noctuidae and Arctiidae. Also
Pyralidoidea, Tortricoidea, Sesiidae, Hepia-
lidae, and the genus Ctenucha (Ctenuchi-
dae).
ECOLOGY: Many species are forest
dwellers, but probably even more inhabit
open and semi-open habitats such as over-
grown fields, meadows, alpine meadows, and
tundras. The genus is, with few exceptions,
confined to climates with a marked seasonal
change of warm and cold weather, in other
words to regions with summer and winter.
Fertilized females hibernate in a variety of
quarters which offer a certain degree of
protection against extremely low tempera-
tures and at the same time against desicca-
tion. They also are adapted biochemically to
survive very low temperatures in a state of
torpidity.
Key to the species of Ichneumon
Linnaeus of Florida
and the neighboring states
FEMALES
1. All tibiae and at least tarsi I and II
extensively white banded. (Large spe-
cies, 19-20 mm long; wings moderately
infuscated; flagellum short, subfiliform;
abdomen light red, except 1st segment.)
... ... ...... ..... 12. devinctor Say
- Tibiae and tarsi not white banded. (In 1
species, heterocampae Cushman, how-
ever, the tibiae medially yellowish.)
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2. Abdomen uniformly black. (Scutellum
extensively white; coxae III without
scopa. Length 10-13 mm)..............
............ 5. mendax Cresson
- Abdomen red, or black and red (ferru-
ginous) in combination, sometimes with
white markings. .................... 3
3. Wings deeply infuscated, large species,
14-19 mm long. (Flagellbm bristle
shaped; coxae III without scopa.).... 4
- Wings, at the most, slightly infuscated;
smaller species, 5-14 mm long ....... 5


4. Legs (except tibiae I ventrally), mesoscu-
tum, and the basic color of head, black.
Tergites 2-7 uniformly dark red. Length
16-17 mm .......................
............. 8. grandisops Heinrich
- Legs, mesoscutum, and head pale ferru-
ginous. Tergites 2-7 also ferruginous, the
3rd tergite with extensive, sometimes
also the 2nd tergite with a narrow, basal
black band. Length 14-19 mm .........
.................. 4. lewisii Cresson
5. Mandibles tapering into 1 long apical
tooth, the subapical tooth indicated by a
notch only. (Coxae III with more or less
distinct scopa. 7th tergite without dorsal,
apical white (or yellowish) mark, but
sometimes with a transverse, apical
white band.) ........................ 6
- Mandibles with distinct, subapical
tooth. (Coxae III without distinct scopa.
7th tergite sometimes with dorsal, apical
m ark) .............................. 7
6. At least the 6th tergite, usually also the
3rd and 4th, exceptionally even the 7th,
with apical white bands. Basic color of
mesoscutum and of the apical tergites
black, scutellum white. (Length 10-13
mm) ...... 6. ambulatorius Fabricius
- Abdomen without white bands. Meso-
scutum, scutellum, and apical tergites
ferruginous. (Length 11-14 mm) .......
................. 1. weemsi Heinrich
7. Mesosternum and most of mesopleura
ivory. Tergites 2 and 3 with large,
irregular, latero-apical ivory marks.
Mesoscutum densely sculptured and
opaque. (Tergites 6 and 7 with dorso-
apical ivory marks. Length 14 mm)....
.............. 3b. fuscifrons torreyae,
new subspecies
- Mesosternum and mesopleura black.
Tergites 2 and 3 without ivory marks.
Mesoscutum not opaque............. 8
8. Very small species, 5-6 mm long. Flagel-
lum with, at the most, 24 segments,
usually with 23. (Mesoscutum, scu-
tellum, and abdomen ferruginous)
............... 9 pumiliops Heinrich
- Markedly larger species, 9-13 mm long.
Flagellum with 30-38 segments. (Ab-
domen red, except petiole or entire 1st
tergite; scutellum white or yellow.) .. 9
9. Gastrocoeli large and very wide, their
interspace much narrower than 1 of
them. Flagellum bristle shaped, strongly
attenuated toward apex. Coxae III with
weak scopa. (Mesoscutum entirely or at









least predominantly ferruginous red,
abdomen except petiole so colored also.
Length 10-12 mm) ................
............... 7. versabilis Cresson
- Gastrocoeli less wide, their interspace, at
the most, subequal to the width of 1
gastrocoelus. Flagellum subfiliform,
only slightly attenuated toward apex.
Coxae III without a trace of scopa .10
10. Mesoscutum predominantly to entirely
ferruginous red. Coxae III ventrally
beyond base smooth and glossy, with a
few, scattered punctures. All tibiae
dorsally beyond base with yellowish
section. (7th tergite never yellow mark-
ed. Length 12-13 mm) .................
......... 11. heterocampae Cushman
- Mesoscutum predominantly or entirely
black. Coxae III ventrally very densely
punctured, subopaque. Tibiae III dorsal-
ly red or blackish, without yellowish
section. (7th tergite sometimes yellow
marked. Length 9-13 mm) ........... 11
11. Temple profile strongly narrowed be-
hind eyes, very slightly curved. First
segment of flagellum almost 3 times as
long as apically wide, th or 13th
approximately square. (Clypeus usually
black. Length 9-13 mm) ...............
............. 10. anonymous Heinrich
- Temple profile less narrowed behind
eyes, slightly curved. First segment of
flagellum barely 2 times as long as
apically wide, the 8th approximately
square. (Clypeus usually red. Length 10-
12 mm) .............. 2. tritus Heinrich
MALES
(Males of the species heterocampae Cush-
man, anonymous Heinrich, and pumiliops
Heinrich are unknown.)
1. Wings strongly infuscated. Large spe-
cies, 17-18 mm long ................. 2
- Wings not, or only slightly infuscated.
Smaller species, 6-14 mm long ....... 4
2. All femora, tibiae, and tarsi almost
entirely black. (Abdomen dark red,
except black 1st segment. Thorax black,
including scutellum) ..................
............. 8. grandisops Heinrich
At least tibiae and tarsi I and II
extensively white on dorsal side, some-
times all tibiae and tarsi predominantly
or entirely orange or orange and yellow
dorsally ............................ 3
3. At least tibiae and tarsi I and II
extensively white dorsally, usually all


tibiae and tarsi extensively white on
dorsal side; all femora predominantly
black. Abdomen light red, except black
1st segment... .................
.................... 12. devinctor Say
- All tibiae and tarsi predominantly
yellow on dorsal side. All femora pale
ferruginous. Abdomen black, with ferru-
ginous bands of varying extent; at least
tergites 6 and 7 entirely ferruginous;
postpetiole sometimes with apical ivory
m arks or band ..................... 4.
...................... lewisii Cresson
4. Abdomen uniformly black. (Scutellum
extensively white; mesoscutum often
with 2 short median white bands; legs
extensively white marked; length 11-13
m m ) ..................................
................. 5. mendax Cresson
- Abdomen black, with extensive ivory or
yellow bands or lateral marks on some to
all tergites .......................... 5
5. Flagellum with complete white annulus;
mesosternum uniformly ivory. (Meso-
pleura predominantly ivory; tergites 2-4
with latero-apical ivory marks, some-
times confluent on 2nd tergite, post-
petiole with apical ivory band; length 14
m m ) ..................................
............. 3b. fuscifrons torreyae,
new subspecies
- Flagellum without white annulus; meso-
sternum black ...................... 6
6. Gastrocoeli large, transverse, their
interspace much narrower than 1 of
them; postpetiole often restrictedly ivory
marked, tergites 2 and 3 always more or
less extensively ivory; tergites 4-7
uniformly black. (Length 12-14 mm) ...
............... 7. versabilis Cresson
- Gastrocoeli of smaller size, their inter-
space distinctly wider than 1 of them; at
least tergites 1-4 with apical ivory or
yellow bands; tergites 4-7 never uni-
form ly black ........................ 7
7. Outer orbits and cheeks uniformly black;
abdomen black with apical white bands
on all tergites, except, as a rule, the 5th;
femora III yellow or pale orange with
black apex. (Pleura and mesosternum
always uniformly black; apical white
bands on tergites tending to be narrowed
in the middle; length 14-17 mm).......
.......... 6. ambulatorius Fabricius
- Outer orbits and cheeks extensively
yellow or ivory; abdomen black with
apical yellow bands on tergites 1-4 only,









or black with ferruginous last tergite and
yellow bands on tergites 1-5; femora III
more extensively to predominantly
black. (Pleura sometimes yellow marked;
propodeum extensively to predomin-
antly yellow) ....................... 8
8. Tergites 1-4 yellow with basal black
bands, 5-7 uniformly black; lower 1/2 of
mesopleura yellow marked to predomi-
nantly yellow, usually also mesoster-
num with some yellow markings; meso-
scutum as a rule with 2 short median
yellow bands or marks. (Length
13-14 mm) .......... 2. tritus Heinrich
- Tergites 1-5 black with apical yellow
bands, the 6th apically, the 7th entirely
ferruginous brown; mesopleura, meso-
sternum, and mesoscutum uniformly
black. (Length 13-15 mm) .............
................. 1. weemsi Heinrich

1. Ichneumon weemsi Heinrich
Map 23
Ichneumon weemsi Heinrich, 1972:175-176,
female, male.
Holotype: female, St. Johns Co., Florida;
FSCA. Allotype: male, Dade Co., Florida;
FSCA.
SYSTEMATICS: Females of this species
are closely related, in structure of mandibles
and otherwise, to creperus; they differ from
creperus as follows: coxae III with distinct
scopa; basal segments of flagellum distinctly
less abbreviated; tergites more densely
punctured, the 3rd completely opaque;
femora III less stout; wings distinctly,
though not strongly infuscated.
'Males also show structural and chromatic
similarity to creperus, particularly in color,
by the entirely pale yellow apical part of
propodeum. They differ in structure by the
more rounded (behind eyes) and somewhat
less narrowed temple profile, and more
densely punctured mesoscutum with obsolete
notauli; they differ chromatically from
creperus as follows: flagellum with ferru-
ginous basal segments and most of its
ventral side; outer orbits with cheeks and
malar space not entirely black but pre-
dominantly yellow; apical segments of tarsi
III infuscated; basic color of abdomen not
orange-tinged ferruginous but black, with
apical yellow bands of tergites J-5 (often on
the 5th ferruginous tinged), the 6th tergite
apically and the 7th entirely ferruginous.
FEMALE: Length 11-14 mm. Ferruginous;
the following black: prosternum, sometimes


also mesosternum, base of propodeum
(particularly laterally), all coxae and tro-
chanters ventrally extensively to entirely,
broad basal bands on tergites 3 and 4, usually
petiole, apex of tibiae III broadly, and the
tarsi III predominantly; scutellum faintly
yellow tinged; wings somewhat infuscated;
flagellum tricolored, coxae III with distinct
scopa. Segments 7 or 8 to 12 or 14 dorsally
whitish, section beyond annulus black,
section before annulus, ventral side of
annulus, and scape pale ferruginous.
FLAGELLUM: Subbristle shaped, distinctly,
though not strongly attenuated toward apex,
barely widened beyond middle, with 35-38
segments, the 1st fully 1.5 times as long as
apically wide, in lateral view the 7th square,
the widest, seen on the flat side, nearly 1.5
times as wide as long.
HEAD: Transverse, temple profile and
cheek profile slightly narrowed behind eyes
and toward mandible base respectively, the
former with slightly curved, the latter with
practically straight outline; malar space
somewhat shorter than width of mandible
base; mandibles as in creperus, with long and
strong apical and rudimentary, removed
from tip, subapical tooth; frons very densely
and coarsely punctured, face also densely
rugose punctate, clypeus and cheeks with
sparse punctures.
THORAX: Mesoscutum coarsely and very
densely punctured; notauli obsolete; scutel-
lum flat, less densely punctured, shiny; area
posteromedia slightly longer than horizontal
part medially; carination of propodeum
complete, including costulae; area supero-
media longer than wide, approximately
rectangular; mesopleura, including specu-
lum, coarsely and densely rugose punctate;
metapleura densely and more coarsely
reticulate rugose. Ferruginous, collare,
scutellunt, and subalarum faintly yellow
tinged; the following black: basal furrow of
horizontal part of propodeum, including area
basalis, basal part of sides of propodeum
more extensively (including areae coxales,
carinal triangle, and space before spiracles),
prosternum, middle of prepectus and of
mesosternum, sometimes entire mesoster-
num.
LEGS: moderately stout; coxae III coarsely
and densely punctured, with distinct scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus oblique, interstitial or a
trifle postfurcal; areolet clearly pentagonal;
radius very slightly sinuate.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole with sharply de-
limited, irregularly longitudinally striate








median field and coarsely punctured lateral
fields; gastrocoeli normal, moderately im-
pressed, with distinct thyridia; 2nd and 3rd
tergites moderately coarsely but very densely
punctured, the 2nd slightly less densely than
the 3rd, slightly shiny, the 3rd opaque, both
extremely finely coriaceous between punc-
tures; 4th tergite extremely finely punctured
and coriaceous, also opaque.
MALE: Length 13-15 mm. Head black,
with frontal orbits narrowly, outer orbits
broadly, mandibles except teeth, and face
and clypeus entirely yellow; malar space
ferruginous-tinged yellow, thorax black,
including entire mesosternum, mesopleura,
and mesoscutum (the latter sometimes with
short, lateral, yellow stripes at tegulae);
propodeum with entire declivity yellow,
including most of area superomedia and of
areae dentiparae and parts of areae spira-
culiferae; yellow also are collare, pronotal
ridge and base, subalarum, tegulae, apex of
prosternum, and scutella; legs I and II almost
entirely yellow and light ferruginous, with
only coxae basally restrictedly black; legs III
with most of coxae and femora and broad
apices of tibiae black, their tarsi infuscated
toward apex; femora I and II orange,
ventrally yellow, femora III black, narrowly
orange at base; all tibiae and tarsi yellow,
apical 1/3 of tibiae III black, as are also
apices of segments 1 and 2 of tarsi III and
segments 3-5 of tarsi III almost entirely;
abdomen black, with apical yellow bands on
tergites 1-5, the 6th tergite apically and the
7th entirely ferruginous; flagellum black, the
basal 3 segments entirely, the following
segments ventrally ferruginous, the latter
color gradually shading into black toward
apices of flagella; scape ferruginous, ventral-
ly yellow.
FLAGELLUM: All apices lacking; with
bacilliform tyloids on segments 5 or 6 to 14 or
15, the longest not reaching to bases and
apices of segments.
HEAD: Temple profile barely narrowed
behind eyes, distinctly curved; malar space
about 1/2 as long as width of mandible base;
mandibles similar to female, but subapical
tooth somewhat more developed.
THORAX: Mesoscutum coarsely and very
densely punctured; scutellum slightly con-
vex, less densely and coarsely punctured
than the mesoscutum; propodeum more
abbreviated than in female, the area supero-
media approximately square,' or slightly
wider than long.
DISTRIBUTION (map 23): Known only
from Florida. Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1


Map 23. Ichneumon weemsi Heinrich


female, 13-XI-1961, 1 male, 24-IV-1958, F. W.
Mead (CHT). Dade Co.: 1 male, Everglades
National Park, 10-IV-1955, F. W. Mead
(FSCA). Hardee Co.: 1 female, Wauchula, 8-
III-1965, R. H. Rhodes, in Steiner trap (CGH
II). St. Johns Co.: 1 female, South Bay, 3
females, 3 males, 14-IV-1961, ex Leucania
latiuscula H.-S., Gifford (USNM).
HOST: Leucania latiuscula (H.-S.).
2. Ichneumon tritus Heinrich
Map 24
Ichneumon tritus Heinrich, 1961:256-257,
female. Heinrich, 1969:942, female (vari-
ability)
Holotype: female, Quebec, Mt. Oxford; CNC
(No. 7090). Neallotype: male, Maine, North
Berwick; CGH II. (present designation).
SYSTEMATICS: The female is rather
similar to anonymous Heinrich and vivax
Cresson; easily distinguished from anony-
mus by shorter basal segments of flagellum
and by distinctly less narrowed temple
profile; more difficult to distinguish from
vivax by: (1) slightly shorter first flagellar
segment; (2) apically less slender and less
attenuated flagellum; (3) basally fairly
distinct notauli; (4) only the 7th tergite
marked with white. The color of mesoscutum
of the female varies (Heinrich 1969) from
entirely black to black with lateral lobes
extensively ferruginous; the Tennessee
specimen belongs to the former variety.








A series of 6 males, all collected in
Tennessee at the same locality and time,
together with 1 female of tritus represent in
all probability the associated sex of the latter,
a hypothesis also supported by the fact that
during 1 month of intensive collecting (by
hand and 6 Malaise traps) no other, even
remotely similar, species of the genus
Ichneumon was found in this area. The
following description of the male of tritus is
based on the series from Tennessee; these
males are distinguished by extremely rich
yellow markings of the entire body; particu-
larly characteristic is the yellow pattern on
the mesoscutum, propodeum, and meso-
pleura (the latter in contrast to the always
predominantly or entirely black meso-
sternum), and the nearly entirely yellow
coxae and trochanters. Broad series of males
from Maine and New York in CGH II show
quite analogous yellow pattern, but under
general reduction of.the extent of the various
yellow markings, particularly on coxae III
(See note at end of treatment.).
FEMALE: Length 10-12 mm. Head black,
with ferruginous clypeus and interior orbits,
often with a whitish spot at level with
antennal sockets; mesoscutum black, often
with ferruginous lateral lobes; pleura, sterna,
and propodeum black, the latter sometimes
partially ferruginous; scutellum and sub-
alarum, usually also postscutellum, white;
abdomen red, except black petiole and small
apical yellowish mark on 7th tergite; rarely
black basal band on 3rd tergite; legs black,
tibiae and tarsi ferruginous, except apex of
tibiae III; 2nd trochanters III and extreme
base of femora III also ferruginous; flagellum
black, with complete white annulus on
segments 6 or 7 to 12 or 13.
FLAGELLUM: Subfiliform, moderately
slender, slightly attenuated toward apex,
ventrally flattened and a trifle widened
beyond middle, with 32-34 segments, the 1st
nearly 2 times as long as apically wide, the
8th square, the widest about 1.3 times as wide
as long.
HEAD: Temple profile moderately nar-
rowed behind eyes, with slightly curved
outline; cheek profile moderately narrowed
toward mandible base, with almost straight
outline; malar space slightly shorter than
width of mandible base. In addition to
clypeus, frontal and vertical orbits, some-
times also facial orbits and mark on middle of
outer orbits ferruginous, rarely also middle of
face.
THORAX: Mesoscutum moderately convex;
fairly densely punctured and extremely


finely coriaceous between punctures, shiny;
notauli basally distinct; area superomedia
square. Apex of pronotal ridge, tegulae, and
usually collare ferruginous.
LEGS: Coxae III ventrally fairly finely and
very densely punctured, particularly on inner
side, subopaque, without scopa; femora III
rather stout, finely coriaceous and densely
and finely punctured on dorsal side.
ABDOMEN: Gastrocoeli roughly quad-
rangular, each considerably narrower than
its interspace, the latter longitudinally
striate; tergites 2 and 3 with finely coriaceous
undersculpture and very densely punctured,
close to subopaque.
MALE: Length 13-14 mm. Black, with very
extensive lemon-yellow markings; the follow-
ing yellow: mandibles (except teeth), face and
clypeus entirely, inner orbits broadly up onto
vertex, outer orbits from below temple region
down to mandible base, gradually widening
over entire width of cheeks and including
malar space (the latter rarely with black
spot), collar, pronotal ridge and pronotal
base broadly, subalarum, tegulae, a bipartite
median mark on mesoscutum, usually also
short and narrow lateral bands on meso-
scutum near tegulae, often marks on pre-
scutellar carinae, scutellum, postscutellum,
usually apex of prosternum more or less
extensively, a large mark or band on lower
1/2 of mesopleura, often a line along
sternauli and 2 apico-median marks on the
always predominantly black mesosternum,
propodeum except black metapleura and
usually partially or entirely black area
basalis, area superomedia and postero-
media (sometimes entire propodeum yellow
except only metapleura), postpetiole, tergites
2-4 except black basal bands, and often also
some irregular band on apical margin of 5th
tergite; legs yellow, except the following
black parts: posterior side of femora I and II
more or less extensively, femora III, except
usually orange extreme base and a longi-
tudinal, narrow ivory line or apical mark on
ventral side, sometimes also a yellow,
longitudinal band on dorsal side, base and
both sides of coxae III more or less extensive-
ly, sometimes coxae III almost entirely,
broad apex of tibiae III, and at least the
apical segment of tarsi II and III; flagellum
black, without annulus, ventrally pale
brownish, scape ventrally yellow.
FLAGELLUM: With 35-36 segments and
with elongate, bacilliform tyloids on seg-
ments 6-15, the longest on segments 9-12,
reaching close to bases and apices of
segments.








HEAD: Malar space extremely short, about
1/4 as long as width of mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum densely punctured
and coriaceous on anterior part, more
sparsely punctured and shiny between
punctures towards middle and beyond;
anterior 1/3 of notauli distinct; scutellum
slightly raised above postscutellum, slightly
convex, sparsely and finely punctured,
shiny; carination of propodeum complete,
area superomedia approximately square,
usually slightly narrowed toward apex.
Note: In northeastern populations of males
the yellow mark on mesopleura and the
bipartite mark on mesoscutum usually are
more or less strongly reduced, but very rarely
entirely lacking; more strongly reduced are
the yellow markings on coxae III and femora
III, which often are lacking entirely, as are
often also the lateral yellow lines on
mesoscutum; the coloration of head, legs I
and II, propodeum, and abdomen agrees
generally with the southeastern males.
DISTRIBUTION (map 24): Quebec, On-
tario, New York, Maine, Tennessee. TEN-
NESSEE. Henderson Co.: 1 female, 6 males,
Natchez Trail State Park, 1-13-VII-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shanek (CGH II).


Map 24. Ichneumon tritus Heinrich


3a. Ichneumon fuscifrons fuscifrons
Cresson
Pterocormus fuscifrons, Townes and Town-
es, 1951:298, female.
Holotype: female, Illinois. ANS. Neallotype:
male, Maine. CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: In structure and color a
somewhat aberrant species of the genus.
Distinguished in both sexes by the extremely
densely punctured and finely coriaceous
opaque mesoscutum, rather strongly raised
scutellum, and by the head structure of
female, with long, strongly narrowed toward
mandibles, cheek profile and, in both sexes,
concave frons.
Males display in northern populations the
yellow-banded color pattern of the abdomen
characteristic for many species of this genus,
but, in this chromatic group are uniquely
distinguished by a white annulus on flag-
ellum and also by the unusually long malar
space.
The wide range of this species is divided
between 2 subspecies, strikingly different in
color but congruent in sculpture and struc-
ture.
FEMALE: Length 13-14 mm. Head black,
cheeks, face, and clypeus varying between
black and ferruginous, frontal and vertical
orbits ferruginous or ivory; mesoscutum
usually black, the median lobe sometimes
dark ferruginous, or with 2 short, median,
obscure-ferruginous stripes, exceptionally
replaced by yellow ones; subalarum and
scutella always white; collare reddish or
white, pronotal ridge entirely or apically
ferruginous, sometimes apically white;
tegulae ferruginous, sometimes blackish;
propodeum black, the lateral areae of the
horizontal part sometimes ferruginous,
rarely also metapleura in part; areae denti-
parae sometimes with small, apical white
spot; mesopleura rarely obscure reddish
medially, exceptionally with an ivory mark;
sterna uniformly black; abdomen rufous,
with apical ivory marks usually on 6th and
7th tergite, rarely on the 7th only, and
usually with ivory latero-apical marks on
postpetiole, sometimes also on 2nd and 3rd
tergite; petiole black; legs predominantly
rufous, basic color of coxae varying from
rufous to black, coxae II always extensively
ivory marked, coxae III usually with dorsal
ivory patch, coxae I sometimes apically
restrictedly ivory; tibiae III and femora III
usually apically more or less extensively
black, the femora III sometimes predomi-
nantly black; flagellum with segments 1-6 or
to 7 usually entirely or predominantly ferru-
ginous sometimes dorsally black, rarely


65








entirely black, segments 7 or 8 to 12, 13 or 14
with complete white annulus, black or brown
beyond annulus; scape ferruginous, dorsally
black.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, long and
slender, ventrally flattened but barely
widened beyond middle, extremely attenu-
ated toward apex, with 37-39 segments, the
1st fully 4 times as long as apically wide, the
13th approximately square.
HEAD: Temple profile strongly narrowed
behind eyes, with straight outline; occipital
region steeply and immediately declivous
from ocelli and eyes; cheek profile long,
strongly narrowed toward mandible base,
with straight outline; malar space markedly
longer than width of mandible base; cheeks
in lateral view fairly narrow and barely
convex; frons concave; mandibles slender,
the upper tooth long and sharply pointed.
THORAX: Mesoscutum distinctly longer
than wide, very densely punctured and
coriaceous, opaque; notauli basally indi-
cated; scutellum distinctly raised above
postscutellum, dorsally convex, shiny;
carination of propodeum distinct and com-
plete, area superomedia usually slightly
wider than long and slightly narrowed in
front; areae dentiparae distinctly slanting
downward.
LEGS: Long and slender; coxae III densely
punctured, without scopa.
ABDOMEN: Fairly slender, strongly oxypy-
gous, ovipositor somewhat projecting; gas-
trocoeli moderately deepened, quadrangular,
each distinctly narrower than interspace;
postpetiole with distinct, aciculate median
field; tergites 2 and 3 rather densely
punctured.
MALE: Length 12-15 mm. Black, with
extensive ivory markings; the following
ivory: mandibles except teeth, clypeus, face,
frontal and vertical orbits, outer orbits
broadly below temple region (except black
apex of cheeks and malar space), scutellum,
postscutellum, 2 short median lines on
mesoscutum, rarely 2 short lateral lines on
mesoscutum, prescutellar carinae, collare,
pronotal ridge and base, usually 1 or 2 marks
on mesopleura, often mark on metapleura,
areae superoexternae, dentiparae, postero-
externae, and spiraculiferae, postpetiole,
tergites 2 and 3 (except black basal bands),
often lateral marks on 4th tergite, all
trochanters (except bases of trochanters III),
coxae I and II entirely or exrcept bases,
usually dorsal patch on coxae III, all tibiae
and tarsi (except broadly black apex of tibiae
III), posterior side of femora I and II; femora


III rufous, shading gradually into black
toward apex, or predominantly black,
narrowly rufous and yellow basally; flagel-
lum wih complete white annulus on segments
12, 13 or 14 to 18 or 19; dorsally black,
ventrally pale brown; scape ventrally ivory.
FLAGELLUM: With bacilliform, very nar-
row tyloids on segments 8 or 9 to 14 or 15; 1st
segment long, about 4 times as long as
apically wide.
HEAD: Malar space about 1/2 as long as
width of mandible base; temple profile less
strongly narrowed than in female and not
quite straight.
DISTRIBUTION: Maine, Quebec, Ontario
west to Illinois and Iowa, and south to
Arkansas. ARKANSAS. Garland Co.: 1
male, Ouachita State Park, 13-V-1972, D.
Shaneck (CGH II).

3b. Ichneumon fuscifrons torreyae,
new subspecies
Map 25
FEMALE: Length 14 mm. Head white,
with black antennal cavity, black middle of
frons, ocellar and occipital regions; thorax
black, pleura and propodeum predominantly
white, the following white: collare, pronotal
ridge and base broadly, subalarum, tegulae, 2
long, convergent and apically confluent,
longitudinal median bands and 2 short
lateral lines on mesoscutum, scutellum,
postscutellum, mesopleura almost entirely
(except restricted black marks on area of
speculum and below subalarum), propodeum
(except black area basalis, superomedia,
posteromedia, coxalis, and base of meta-
pleura), about apical 1/3 of prosternum, a
band along sternauli, sometimes longi-
tudinal median band on mesosternum, and
margin of prepectus more or less extensively;
abdomen pale orange, petiole black, the
following pale yellow: very large, not clearly
defined, apico-lateral marks on tergites 1-3
and dorsal marks on tergites 6 and 7; all
coxae and trochanters white, except pre-
dominantly ferruginous or blackish ventral
and interior side of coxae III, all tarsi pale
yellowish, all tibiae and tarsi ferruginous
orange; flagellum black, with complete white
annulus on segments 6 (apex) to 14; scape
ventrally white.
MALE: Length 13-15 mm. Head andthorax
almost as in female, except mesosternum
completely white, prosternum and prepectus
predominantly so; basic color of abdomen, in
contrast to female, black as in the nominate
form, but, in contrast to the latter, the apical
ivory bands on the 2nd and 3rd tergites









medially interrupted; 4th tergite with small
ivory latero-apical marks; legs similar to
nominate form, except basal 1/2 of femora III
yellowish or pale orange and coxae III
predominantly ivory (allotype) or black only
on ventral side (paratype).
FLAGELLUM: With tyloids on segments 7 or
8 to 15 or 16 and with complete white annulus
on segments 11-20; black, ventrally brownish
(allotype) or black all around (specimen from
Tennessee); scape ventrally white.
Holotype: Female: Georgia, Monroe Co.
Forsyth, 20-V-5-VI-1971, F. Naumann.
Allotype: Male: Florida, Liberty Co., Torreya
State Park, 11-V-1968, G. Heinrich.
Paratypes: 1 female, Georgia, Clark Co.,
Athens, 26-28-V-1969, G. Heinrich.
1 male, Tennessee, Henderson Co., Natchez
Trail State Park, 5-10-VI-1972, G. Heinrich,
D. Shaneck. All specimens in CGH II.
DISTRIBUTION (map 25): Known only
from the type specimens as outlined above.
4. Ichneumon lewisii Cresson
Map 26
Ichneumon lewisii Cresson, 1864:177, female.
Heinrich, 1959b:207, female. Heinrich,
1961:300-302, female, male.
?Ichneumon fulvopictus Ashmead, 1890:
391, male.
Pseudamblyteles lewisii, Townes and Town-
es, 1951:293, female, male.


Map 25. Ichneumon fuscifrons torreyae n. subsp.


Holotypes: Ichneumon lewisii, female,
Illinois; ANS. Ichneumon fulvopictus, male,
Montana; USNM.
S YSTEMA TICS: Another aberrant species
of the genus, distinguished by dense, opaque
sculpture of mesoscutum and tergites 2 and 3
in both sexes, and in males by a row of
broadly oval tyloids extending over 16
segments. A large species with strongly
infuscated wings and with black and
ferruginous basic colors of great individual
variability in the ratio of their combination.
The correctness of the synonymy of
fulvopictus seems questionable (Heinrich,
1961). Consequently the occurrence of the
species as far west as Montana still needs
confirmation.
FEMALE: Length 14-19 mm. Basic color
of entire body, including legs, ferruginous;
the following black: propodeum, pleura, and
usually sterna entirely to predominantly, 3rd
tergite basally extensively, sometimes base
of 2nd tergite partially, usually also the 1st
tergite; wings strongly and evenly infusca-
ted; flagellum ferruginous, black apically,
ivory medially.
FLAGELLUM: Slender, bristle shaped, not
widened beyond middle, extremely attenu-
ated toward apex, with 45-47 segments, the
1st more than twice as long as apically wide,
the 9th or 10th square.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
strongly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandibles respectively, with almost straight
outlines.
THORAX: Mesoscutum coarsely and dense-
ly punctured, nearly opaque; only about
anterior 1/5 of notauli fairly distinct;
scutellum somewhat raised above post-
scutellum, dorsally flattened; sculpture of
pleura and entire propodeum very coarse,
reticulate wrinkled; arena superomedia ap-
proximately square, sometimes wider than
long or narrowed toward apex; carinae
coxales lacking.
LEGS: Slender and elongate; coxae III
ventrally densely and fairly coarsely punc-
tured, shiny between punctures, without
scopa.
ABDOMEN: Postpetiole markedly wider
than long, longitudinally striate including
lateral fields; gastrocoeli moderately deepen-
ed, distinctly wider than long, their inter-
space about as wide as or somewhat wider
than 1 of them; tergites 2 and 3 fairly strongly
and very densely punctured, medially rugose
punctate, without space between punctures,
opaque; hypopygium triangular.








MALE (Louisiana population): Length 17-
18 mm. Head ferruginous, always with pale
yellow face, clypeus and part of mandibles,
more often than not with black middle of
frons, ocellar and occipital regions; thorax
black, rarely with longitudinal ferruginous
lines, the following ivory: scutellum usually
entirely or apically (rarely entirely black),
often marks on prescutellar carinae, the
subalarum, collare, often apex of pronotal
ridge (the latter usually narrowly ferru-
ginous), rarely marks on areae dentiparae
and posteroexternae; abdomen black and
ferruginous with usually apical ivory band or
2 ivory latero-apical marks on postpetiole;
tergites 7 or 6 and 7 always ferruginous, the
2nd tergite sometimes predominantly to
entirely ferruginous, tergites 3-5 usually
predominantly black, apically more or less
extensively ferruginous; coxae and tro-
chanters black, coxae II or I and II usually
ivory marked, all 2nd trochanters entirely,
sometimes also 1st trochanters partially,
ivory or pale orange, tibiae and tarsi
yellowish, the former gradually shading into
orange toward apex, the apex of tibiae III
usually blackish at the extreme end; femora
III sometimes partially blackish toward
apex.
FLAGELLUM: With 45-47 segments and
with broadly-oval tyloids on segments 4 or 5
to 20, the longest reaching from bases to
apices of segments, without transverse
bristle ridges on ventral side. Basal segments
predominantly or entirely and ventral side to
beyond middle brownish or ferruginous,
dorsal side and apex black, scape ferru-
ginous, sometimes ventrally yellowish in
part.
NOTE: One male from northern Missis-
sippi differs from all specimens from
Louisiana by considerably more extensive
melanism: flagellum and femora III pre-
dominantly black, abdomen black, except
only tergits 6 and 7 ferruginous and the
apical margin of the 5th; scutellum, pronotal
ridge, and coxae I and II also entirely black.
Structure and sculpture leave no doubt that
this specinien belongs to lewisii.
DISTRIBUTION (map 26): Atlantic to
1000 west in Upper Austral Zone (Townes
and Townes, 1951), Louisiana, Mississippi.
LOUISIANA. 2 males, Bistineau State Park
(near Doyline), 29-IV-4-V-1972, G. Heinrich,
D. Shaneck. Evangeline Co.: 2 males, 28-VI-5-
VIII-1971, G. Heinrich. Natchitoches Co.: 2
males, College Forest, 14-17-VI-1971, G.
Heinrich. MISSISSIPPI. Yalobusha Co.: 1
male, Water Valley, M. Horan. GEORGIA.


Map 26. Ichneumon lewisii Cresson


Enotah Bald, 28-VI-1935, P. W. Fattig
(USNM).
HOST: Apantesis sp. (Townes and Townes,
1951).

5. Ichneumon mendax Cresson
Map 27
Ichneumon mendax Cresson, 1877, 6:149,
female. Heinrich, 1961:334-335, female, male.
Heinrich, 1969:947, female, male (vari-
ability).
Phygadeuon guignardi Provancher, 1886:50,
female.
Pterocormus mendax, Townes and Townes,
1951:299, female.
Holotypes: Ichneumon mendax, female,
Canada; ANS. Phygadeuon guignardli,
female, Canada; PMQ. Neallotype: male,
Quebec; CGH II.
FEMALE: Length 10-13 mm. Black,
including legs; the following white: upper
part of facial orbits, the frontal and vertical
orbits broadly, sometimes lateral marks on
clypeus, collare, pronotal ridge broadly,
subalarum, scutellum except base, apex of
femora I, and the tibiae I on anterior side;
flagellum with white annulus on segments 7
or 8 to 12.
FLAGELLUM: Filiform, ventrally some-
what flattened beyond middle but barely
widened, and barely attenuated apically,








with 28-31 segments, the 1st about 2.3 times
as long as wide, the 7th square.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
moderately narrowed, the former with
curved, the latter with almost straight
outline; malar space distinctly shorter than
width of mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum slightly convex,
finely, and on the anterior part fairly densely
punctured, posterior part shiny, notauli
basally distinct; scutellum slightly raised
above postscutellum; carination of pro-
podeum strong and complete, including
costulae; area superomedia about as long as
wide, usually a trifle widened at costulae,
sometimes slightly narrowed toward base.
LEGS: Coxae III finely and very densely
punctured, without scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
finely and densely aciculate; gastrocoeli
moderately deepened; 2nd tergite finely and
fairly densely, the 3rd tergite still finer and
less densely punctured.
MALE: Length 11-13 mm. Black; the
following white: mandibles except teeth,
clypeus, face, frontal and vertical orbits
broadly, lower 1/2 of outer orbits broadly (not
including apical margin of cheeks and malar
space), venter of scape, collare, pronotal ridge
and base, subalarum, tegulae, often 2 short
median lines on mesoscutum, coxae I and II
except basally, 1st trochanters I and II, 1st
trochanters III apically, all 2nd trochanters,
anterior side of femora I, anterior side of
femora II except basally, entire dorsal side of
tibiae I, dorsal side of tibiae II except
apically, dorsal or full annulus beyond base
of tibiae III, more or less extensively bases of
all 1st segments of tarsi I and II.
FLAGELLUM: With narrow, elongate-oval
tyloids on segments 5-10, the longest reach-
ing nearly from bases to apices of segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 27): Atlantic to
100' west in Transition and Upper Austral
Zones (Townes, 1961). GEORGIA. Monroe
Co.: 1 female, Forsyth, 1-9-VIII-1970, F.
Naumann. LOUISIANA. Natchitoches Co.:
1 female, Powhatan, 13-17-VI-1971, G.
Heinrich. MISSISSIPPI. Oktibbeha Co.: 1
female, Starkville, 9-15-VIII-1970, C. Sartor.
All in CGH II.
6. Ichneumon ambulatorius Fabricius
Map 28
Ichneumon ambulatorius Fabricius, 1775:
329, female. Perkins, 1952:66,67, female.
Walkley, 1958:51, female. Heinrich, 1961:242,
female, male.


Map 27. Ichneumon mendax Cresson
Ichneumon- jucundus Brullg, 1846:305, fe-
male.
Ichneumon flavizonatus Cresson, 1864:156,
male.
? Ichneumon multor Cresson, 1867:299,
male.
Pterocormus jucundus, Townes and Townes,
1951:299, female, male.
Ichneumon sarcitorius ssp., Heinrich, 1953:
149, female.
Holotypes: Ichneumon ambulatorius, male,
without data; BM(NH). Ichneumon jucun-
dus, female, Inst. of Zoology, Univ. of Torino,
Italy. Ichneumon flavizonatus, male, Virgin-
ia; ANS. Ichneumon multor, male, Canada;
ANS.
SYSTEMATICS: This probably is the
American vicarious form of the Paleartic
species sarcitorius Linnaeus. Although both
sexes of the American population are, as a
rule, rather different in color from the latter
species, sporadically individual females, as
well as males, are found which barely can be
distinguished from sarcitorius. See also
preamble in Heinrich, 1961:242.
Females are distinguished by black basic
color of thorax (with white scutellum) and
black basic color of abdomen except red 2nd
tergite (exceptionally also 3rd tergite) and
apical white bands on tergites 3, 4 and 6
(exceptionally also 7th), males by apical
white bands on all tergites, except sometimes
the 5th.


69








FEMALE: Length 10-13 mm. Head black,
with ferruginous frontal and vertical orbits,
often also malar space, apex of cheeks, and
clypeus in part; thorax black, subalarum and
scutellum white; abdomen tricolored, its
basic color black, the 2nd tergite always, the
3rd exceptionally red; tergites 3, 4 and 6,
rarely also the postpetiole and 5th tergite,
exceptionally the 7th, with apical white
bands; legs red, all coxae black, apically more
or less ferruginous; scape and segments 1-5 or
6 of flagellum pale ferruginous, the latter
with white annulus on segments 7-13 or 14,
apex blackish infuscated.
FLAGELLUM: Filiform, stout, ventrally
distinctly flattened and slightly widened
beyond middle, barely narrowed at apex,
with usually 39-40 segments in eastern
populations, the first 1.3 times as long as
apically wide, the 6th square, the widest
about 1.5 times as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
slightly narrowed with slightly curved
outlines; malar space a little shorter than
width of mandible base; cheeks in lateral
view rather wide and moderately convex;
upper mandible tooth long and pointed, the
lower indicated only by a small notch.
THORAX: Mesoscutum rather flat, densely
punctured; notauli basally slightly indicated;
area superomedia square or slightly longer
than wide.
LEGS: Stout, short; coxae III ventrally
finely and fairly densely punctured, with
thin, indistinct scopa.
ABDOMEN: Gastrocoeli slightly deepened,
fairly small; 2nd and 3rd tergites very
densely and rather strongly punctured,
opaque.

MALE: Length 14-17 mm. Head and
thorax black, the following white: mandibles
except teeth, face, clypeus, collare, pronotal
ridge (apically or entirely), subalarum,
tegulae, scutellum, sometimes postscutellum,
usually marks on propodeum (covering areae
dentiparae and sometimes also apical 1/2 of
areae spiraculiferae and the areae postero-
externae), exceptionally marks on pre-
scutellar carinae; abdomen black, with api-
cal bands on all tergites, as a rule except on
the 5th, the bands on tergites 2 and 3 tending
to be wider than on all others, all tending to
be narrowed toward the middle, often inter-
rupted medially on the postpetiole and on the
6th and 7th tergites, exceptionally interrup-
ted medially on all tergites; basal part of 2nd
tergite sometimes orange instead of black;
coxae and trochanters black, coxae I and II


apically, coxae III dorsally, more or less
extensively white, trochanters varying from
entirely black (sometimes in northern
specimens) to entirely white (in southern
specimens); femora, tibiae, and tarsi pale
yellow, the femora usually orange tinged,
apices of femora III and of tibiae III often
more or less extensively black; last segments
of tarsi III usually infuscated; flagellum
dorsally more or less extensively black,
ventrally pale ochreous; scape ventrally
white, dorsally black, varying to extensively
ferruginous.
FLAGELLUM: With longish-oval tyloids on
segments 15-22 or 23, the longest reaching
close to bases and apices of segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 28): Newfoundland
and Quebec west to British Columbia, south
to Georgia and Kansas (CGH II). GEORGIA.
Banks Co.: 3 males, Homer, 13-14-V-1970, G.
Heinrich (CGH II).
HOSTS: Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth);
Crymodes devastator (Brace); Luperina
stipata (Morr.); Macronoctua onusta Grote;
Papaipema- circumlucens (Sm.); Papaipema
nebris (Gn.); Faronta diffusa (Walker);
Hydroecia immanis (Gn.)

7. Ichneumon versabilis Cresson
Map 29
Ichneumon versabilis Cresson, 1877:161,
male. Heinrich, 1959b:208, male. Heinrich,
1961:281-283, female, male.


-F


M amblat Faric,, iu "
Map 28. Ichneumon ambulatorius Fabricius








Amblyteles (Pterocormus) brittoni Viereck,
1917:347, 348, 358, female.
Pterocormus maius, Townes and Townes,
1951:299, female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon versabilis, male, New
York; ANS. Amblyteles brittoni, female,
Connecticut, Torrington; Connecticut Agric.
Experimental Station, New Haven.
SYS TEMA TICS: A species of the gracili
cornis group, combining bristle shaped,
slender, apically strongly attentuated struc-
ture of the flagellum of female, with trans-
verse, large gastrocoeli and thyridia, with the
interspace much narrower than 1 of them in
both sexes. Size somewhat below average of
the genus. Chromatically distinguished in
females by uniformly red color of meso-
scutum and abdomen (except black petiole),
combined with white scutellum and tri-
colored flagellum. The abdomen of males is
black, with only tergites 2 and 3 extensively
yellow, the postpetiole sometimes yellow
marked. The male from Georgia displays
more extensively ivory coxae than north-
eastern males, the coxae I and II being
predominantly ivory, coxae III on dorsal side
entirely and ventrally at apex; there is also a
yellow mark on mesopleura.
FEMALE: Length 10-12mm. Head black,
usually with entire frons and vertex includ-
ing temple orbits, or at least the frontal and
vertical orbits ferruginous; sometimes also
facial orbits and cheeks partially, always
mesoscutum entirely or predominantly
ferruginous; scutellum white; pleura, sterna,
and propodeum uniformly black; the follow-
ing parts of thorax ferruginous: usually apex
of pronotal ridge, usually tegulae, sometimes
collar and subalarum; abdomen uniformly
ferruginous except black petiole; coxae and
femora black, tibiae and tarsi ferruginous,
apices of tibiae III black; flagellum tri-
colored; basal segments usually 1-6 or 7
(rarely only 1-3) pale ferruginous, with dorsal
white annulus on segments 7 or 8 to 12,13 or
14, black beyond annulus; scape usually
ferruginous, sometimes blackish.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, moderately
long and slender, distinctly flattened on
ventral side beyond middle and a trifle
widened, fairly strongly attentuated toward
apex, with 35-38 segments, the 1st about 2.3
times as long as apically wide, the 7th square,
the widest barely 1.5 times as wide as long.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
considerably narrowed, the former with very
slightly curved, the latter with straight
outline; malar space slightly longer than
width of mandible base.


THORAX: Mesoscutum slightly convex,
distinctly and fairly densely punctured,
shiny; notauli basally indicated; scutellum
somewhat raised above postscutellum,
dorsally nearly flat.
LEGS: Moderately stout; coxae III ventrally
densely and finely punctured, with thin,
somewhat indistinct scopa.
ABDOMEN: Fairly broad, 2nd tergite
apically wider than medially long, the 3rd
usually more than twice as wide as long;
gastrocoeli large, rather deep, with strongly
narrowed interspace and with pronounced
thyridia.
MALE: Length 12-14mm. Black, the
following ivory: mandibles except teeth, face,
clypeus, frontal orbits (usually up to level
with lower ocellus only), usually collar,
subalarum, apex or entire length of pronotal
ridge, scutellum, rarely postscutellum,
tegulae in part or entirely, almost always
marks on coxae I, usually also on coxae II,
usually all trochanters, always all tibiae and
tarsi (except broadly black apex of tibiae III
and usually more or less infuscated apex of
tarsi III), femora I and II usually on anterior
side toward apex; abdomen black, postpetiole
often with apical ivory band or apico-lateral
marks; 2nd and 3rd tergites extensively
ivory, each basally and apically, usually also
laterally narrowly either reddish or blackish
infuscated, and tending to develop a longi-
tudinal, infuscated median line of variable
width and shape; all infuscations less
extensive and intensive on 2nd tergite than
on 3rd, the latter sometimes predominantly
blackish, with only a yellowish patch on each
side; flagellum black, ventrally brown to pale
ochreous, scape ventrally ivory.
FLAGELLUM: With elongate-oval, narrow
tyloids on segments 6 or 7 to 16 or 17, the
longest reaching from bases to apices of
segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 29): Atlantic to
Continental Divide in Canadian Zone and
cooler part of Transition Zone (Townes and
Townes, 1951). GEORGIA. 1 male, Mt. Blood,
Chattahoochie State Park, 19-V-1970, L.
Dondero (CGH II).
HOSTS: Euphydryas phaeton (Drury),
Polygonia faunus (Edw.), Lycaena hypo-
phlaeas (Bdvl.) (Townes and Townes, 1951,
records for Ichneumon maius). (As the
diagnosis of the parasite species was not yet
clearly defined and understood at the time of
the publication of the host records mentioned
above, their authenticity remains question-
able and needs further confirmation.)
































Map 29. Ichneumon versabilis Cresson

8. Ichneumon grandisops Heinrich
Map 30
Ichneumon grandisops Heinrich, 1961:305-
306, female.
Ichneumon grandisops Heinrich, 1971:970-
971, male.
Holotype: female, New York, Ithaca, CNC.
Allotype: male, New Concord, Ohio; CGH II.
SYSTEMA TICS: One of the largest species
of the genus, distinguished by deeply
infuscated wings, black legs, and red tergites
2-7.
FEMALE: Length 16-18mm. Head black;
ferruginous are: at least frontal and vertical
orbits, sometimes also sides of the face and
the clypeus partially, rarely entire face and
cheeks. Thorax including scutellum black.
Abdomen dark red, except black 1st segment.
Legs black, tibiae I ventrally ivory or
reddish. Flagellum black, with white annu-
lus on segments 6 or 7 to 15, 16 or 17; scape
ventrally more or less extensively ferru-
ginous.
FLAGELLUM: Bristle shaped, moderately
slender, ventrally distinctly flattened and
somewhat widened beyond middle, consider-
ably attenuated toward apex; with 45-46
segments, the 1st twice as long as apically
wide, the 9th or 10th square, the widest about
1.3 times as wide as long on the flat side.
MALE: (Specimen from Ohio). Length
18mm. Abdomen dark red, except black 1st


segment. Head, thorax, and legs black,
except the following white: lateral fields of
face, sides of clypeus, mandibles extensively,
apical margins of 1st trochanters, 2nd
trochanters I and II, 2nd trochanters III
ventrally, tibiae and tarsi I and II ventrally,
apices of femora I and II ventrally, base of
tibiae III ventrally, and scape ventrally.
Flagellum uniformly black.
DISTIBUTION (map 30): Connecticut,
New York, Ohio, North Carolina, Georgia.
GEORGIA: Mountains of northern Georgia:
1 female, hibernating, R. Duffield (EUM).

9. Ichneumon pumiliops Heinrich
Map 31
Ichneumon pumiliops Heinrich, 1961:276-
277, female.
Holotype: female, Quebec, Gatineau; CNC.
SYSTEMATICS: One of the smallest species
of the genus. In structure of flagellum and
femora closely related to nigrovariegatus
Provancher, but distinctly smaller, with
comparatively wider gastrocoeli, less el-
ongate abdomen and thorax, and with
narrower head. More constant in color
pattern.
FEMALE: Length 5-6mm. Head pre-
dominantly or entirely black, often apex of
clypeus and a small, median mark on face
obscure ferruginous, sometimes also a
ferruginous or whitish spot on facial orbits,
level with antennal sockets. Thorax black,


Map 30. Ichneumon grandisops Heinrich








the mesoscutum and scutellum ferruginous,
as are also collare, tegulae, apex of pronotal
ridge, postscutellum, and exceptionally
subalarum; rarely, the mesoscutum partially
infuscated. Legs predominantly light rufous;
usually more or less infuscated are: all coxae
ventrally to entirely, trochanters partially,
and femora I and II dorsally; apex of tibiae
III and sometimes of femora III black, the
latter usually predominantly black; tarsi III
usually slightly infuscated apically. Ab-
domen usually uniformly light rufous,
sometimes the apical tergites indistinctly
infuscated; no apical mark. Flagellum
usually black, with apically brown basal
segments and with white annulus on seg-
ments 7 (rarely 6 or 8) to 10 or 11, ex-
ceptionally segments 1-6 ferruginous; scape
black, sometimes ventrally brown.
FLAGELLUM: Short, subfiliform, ventrally
neither widened nor flattened beyond middle,
usually with 23, sometimes with 22 or 24
segments, the 1st 1.3 times as long as apically
wide, the 6th square.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profile strongly
narrowed behind eyes and toward mandible
base, respectively, slightly curved; malar
space shorter than width of mandible base;
mandibles narrow, with small teeth.
THORAX: Mesoscutum slightly longer than
wide, finely and not densely punctured,
glossy; notauli obsolete; area superomedia
usually about as wide as long.
LEGS: Femora short and thick; coxae III
ventrally glossy, rather densely punctured,
without scopa.
ABDOMEN: Comparatively shorter than in
nigrovariegatus. Gastrocoeli shallow, trans-
verse, their interspace slightly narrower
than 1 gastrocoelus; 2nd tergite rather finely
and not very densely punctured.
DISTRIBUTION (map 31): Quebec, On-
tario, Massachusetts, New York, Georgia.
GEORGIA. Mountains of northern Georgia:
1 female, hibernating, R. Duffield (EUM).


10. Ichneumon anonymous Heinrich
Map 32
Ichneumon anonymous Heinrich, 1961:255-
256, female.
Holotype: female, Maine, Dryden; CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: Closely related and
similar to tritus Heinrich, but distinguished
from the latter by more elongate and more
slender basal segments of flagellum and by
more narrowed temple profile.


Map 31. Ichneumon pumiliops Heinrich


FEMALE: Length 9-13mm. Head black,
vertical and frontal orbits down to level with
antenna sockets pale ferruginous, usually
with a white spot on vertex and another level
with antennal sockets, rarely frontal and
vertical orbits altogether white, exception-
ally ferruginous color extending over cly-
peus, cheeks and parts of face. Thorax black,
scutellum white, subalarum white marked or
white, exceptionally postscutellum also
white; collare usually ferruginous or white
marked. Legs black, the following ferru-
ginous: trochantelli, apex of femor I vent-
rally, and all tibiae and tarsi, the tibiae,
particularly tibiae III, usually apically more
or less strongly and extensively blackish
infuscated, tibiae III often entirely blackish,
the tarsi III sometimes also more or less
strongly infuscated. Abdomen red, except
black petiole, sometimes also the postpetiole
predominantly black, rarely the 3rd tergite
with basal black band, the 7th tergite often
with more or less distinct apical yellowish
mark. Flagellum black, with complete white
annulus on segments 6 or 7 to 12; scape black.
FLAGELLUM: Filiform, but very slender,
barely attenuated toward apex, ventrally
flattened, but not widened beyond middle,
with 30-31 segments, the 1st almost 3 times as
long as apically wide, the 12th or 13th
approximately square.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profile strongly
narrowed behind eyes and toward mandibles








respectively, the former slightly curved, the
latter straight.
THORAX: Mesoscutum distinctly convex,
densely punctured, nearly opaque, anterior
1/3 of notauli distinct; area superomedia
square or slightly longer than wide.
LEGS: Moderately slender, femora III fairly
stout; coxae III ventrally very densely
punctured, without scopa.
ABDOMEN: Gastrocoeli not (as is usual)
triangular or transverse, but rather quad-
rangular, their interspace considerably
wider than 1 gastrocoelus.
DISTRIBUTION (map 32): Quebec and
Ontario, south to west Virginia and Georgia.
GEORGIA. Mountains of northern Georgia,
1 female, hibernating, R. Duffield (EUM).
11. Ichneumon heterocampae Cushman
Map 33
Amblyteles heterocampae Cushman, 1933:2,
female.
Pterocormus heterocampae, Townes and
Townes, 1951:298, female.
Ichneumon heterocampae Heinrich, 1961:
251, female.
Holotype: Amblyteles heterocampae, female,
Massachusetts; USNM.
SYSTEMATICS: The female is similar to
annulatorius Fabricius, the most common
species in the northeastern states, but is


Map 32. Ichneumon anon Heinrich
Map 32. Ichneumon anon ymus Heinrich


distinguished by the structure of the flagel-
lum, which is slightly more widened beyond
middle and slightly more attenuated toward
apex. Distinguished in color by a yellowish
median section on dorsal side of all tibiae.
FEMALE: Length 12-13 mm. Head ferru-
ginous, usually with the following black
parts: lateral fields of face, antennal cavities,
ocellar and occipital regions. Thorax black,
the following ferruginous: mesoscutum,
pronotal ridge apically or entirely, meso-
pleura extensively, rarely the horizontal part
of propodeum; scutellum and postscutellum
white, collare and subalarum varying from
white to ferruginous. Legs black, trochan-
telli, tibiae, and tarsi ferruginous, the tibiae
medially on dorsal side more or less distinctly
yellow, tibiae III or II and III apically and
sometimes narrowly also at base, blackish
infuscated, as are usually also apices of
tarsal segments III; exceptionally femora III
basally and dorsally, femora I and II
predominantly, ferruginous. Abdomen ferru-
ginous, except black petiole or, exceptionally,
entire 1st segment. Flagellum black, with
white annulus on segments 7 or 8 to 13 or 14;
scape sometimes ventrally, rarely entirely,
ferruginous.
FLAGELLUM: Subfiliform, fairly stout,
ventrally flattened and distinctly widened
beyond middle, moderately attenuated
toward apex, with 35-36 segments, the 1st 1.5
times as long as apically wide, the 6th or 7th
square, the widest about twice as wide as long
on the flat side.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profile a little
more narrowed, behind eyes and toward
mandibles respectively, than in annula-
torius, the former slightly curved, the latter
almost straight; malar space nearly as long
as the width of mandible base.
THORAX: Mesoscutum moderately densely
punctured, glossy, notauli basally slightly
indicated; area superomedia usually square.
LEGS: Rather stout, femora III thick but
slightly longer than in annulatorius; ventral
side of coxae III polished, with scattered
punctures, without trace of scopa.
ABDOMEN: Gastrocoeli triangular, mod-
erately deep, their interspace somewhat
wider than 1 of them.

DISTRIBUTION (map 33): Quebec and
Ontario, south to northern Georgia, west to
Ohio. GEORGIA. Bartow Co: 1 female,
hibernating, R. Duffield (EUM).
HOST: Heterocampa guttivitta (Walker);
holotype.































Map 33. Ichneumon heterocampae Cushman

12. Ichneumon devinctor Say
Map 34
Ichneumon devinctor Say, 1825:248, female.
Heinrich, 1961:262-264, female, male, varia-
bility-tables.
Ichneumon tibialis Brulle, 1846:300, female.
Ichneumon montivagans Cresson, 1865b:
255, male.
Pterocormus devinctor, Townes and Townes,
1951, 4:298, female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon devinctor, female;
lost. Ichneumon tibialis, male, Colorado;
ANS.
FEMALE: Length 19-20mm. Black, ter-
gites 2-7 light red. Wings moderately in-
fuscated. The following white: frontal orbits
more or less extensively, collare, scutellum
(usually except base), broad annulus on all
tibiae, on the segments 1 of tarsi I and on
segment 1 or 1 and 2 of tarsi II and III, and
segments 8-16 or 17 of flagellum. 7th tergite
often with small apical yellowish mark.
FLAGELLUM: Relatively short, subfiliform,
ventrally not distinctly flattened and not
widened beyond middle, little attenuated
toward apex, with 37-39 segments; the 1st
twice as long as wide, the 7th square.
HEAD: Temple profile and cheek profile
barely narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandible base, respectively, the former with
strongly, the latter with slightly curved
outline. Head in front view approximately


square; cheeks distinctly inflated, con-
stricted toward carinal junction which forms
an almost right angle and is raised into a
distinct projection.
THORAX: Mesoscutum finely and sparsely
punctured, glossy. Scutellum flat. Area
superomedia large, approximately quad-
rangular, usually slightly narrowed toward
area posteromedia. Lower part of pleura
transversely wrinkled.
LEGS: Fairly stout. Coxae III ventrally
moderately densely punctured, without
scopa.
ABDOMEN: Somewhat elongate and fairly
narrow. Median field of postpetiole well
defined and finely, longitudinally striate.
Gastrocoeli triangular, moderately deep-
ened. 2nd and 3rd tergite moderately strong-
ly and densely punctured.
MALE: Length 20-21mm. Black, abdomen
light red, except 1st segment. Wings mod-
erately to strongly infuscated. The extent of
white markings unusually variable: white on
scutellum more reduced than in female,
sometimes absent; tibiae I and tarsi I and II
always white banded; white on tibiae III and
tarsi III usually reduced, often absent;
trochanters usually white marked; usually
white marks on apex of femora I and II, on
mandibles and on subalarum. The following
are white: face entirely or predominantly,
clypeus, frontal orbits, and collare.
FLAGELLUM: With very small, narrow,
short-oval tyloids on segments 8 or 9 to 17 or
18, the longest scarcely covering 1/2 of the
length of segments and reaching neither
their base nor their apex.
DISTRIBUTION (map 34): Ontario, west
to North West Territories and Alberta, south
to Georgia. GEORGIA. Bartow Co.: 1 female,
hibernating, R. Duffield (EUM); Atlanta,
Gainesville, Neel Gap, Ringgold, Tiger: no
specimens, P. W. Fattig, 1950.
HOST: Sthenopis thule (Str.).

4. Genus Chasmias Ashmead
Chasmodes Wesmael, 1844:13,15 (name
preoccupied).
Chasmias Ashmead, 1900:17 (new name).
Townes and Townes, 1951:292. Heinrich,
1961:373. Townes, et al. 1961:381, 382, 466.
Townes, et al., 1965:458.
Type species: Ichneumon motatorius
Fabricius.
SYSTEMATICS: Rather closely related to
the genus Ichneumon Linnaeus (= Ptero-
cormus Foerster). Males can scarcely be































Map 34. Ichneumon devinctor Say


distinguished from the latter genus, while
females differ more clearly, particularly by
the structure of clypeus, which is apically
truncate in Ichneumon, but more or less
distinctly emarginate in Chasmias. Females
also differ from Ichneumon by narrower,
more elongate abdomen and stronger head,
with short filiform flagellum, all these being
evidently adaptive characters, connected
with the host specialization (see below) and
not shared by the males. In the latter sex the
clypeus is not tangibly emarginate but more
coarsely punctured than in Ichneumon, the
punctures showing the tendency to run into
irregular longitudinal striae toward the apex
of clypeus.
The 2 species, lugens Gravenhorst (Europe)
and saucius Crepson (North America) often
included in the genus Chasmias are not
parasites of stem-boring Noctuidae, but of
Aegeriidae, and their females do not show the
characteristic features of that genus. I prefer
to attribute them to the genus Ichneumon
rather than to Chasmias, but they may
deserve generic distinction.
The genus Ogulnia Cameron (Himalayan
Zone) synonymized by Townes, et. al. (1961)
with Chasmias I prefer to maintain, with at
present 4 species (Heinrich, 1965b:159-163).
Nor do I see an urgent need to synonymize
the genus Pseudochasmias Uchida, which
differs in an extraordinary genal structure,
though otherwise obviously related to


Chasmias, as already indicated by the
author's choice of name. As to Thascia
Cameron, I have no comment, as I have not
seen the type yet; the genus is based on a
species sympatric with the type of Ogulnia
Cameron, both from Darjeeling, Himalaya.
Another group related closely to Chasmias
inhabits Africa (Procerochasmias Heinrich)
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females filiform, fairly
short and slender, not attenuated toward
apex, not tangibly widened beyond middle; of
males likewise fairly short, with short row of
small nearly bacilliform tyloids, slightly
nodose beyond middle.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profiles not or
moderately narrowed behind eyes and
toward mandible base, respectively, the
former distinctly curved; cheeks in lateral
view broad, strongly convex, the carina
genalis straight and parallel to posterior
margin of eyes, down to cardinal junction,
then abruptly curving forward to mandible
base; mandibles robust, rather wide, with
fairly short;, strong teeth, the upper not much
longer than the lower; malar space distinctly
shorter than width of mandible base; apical
margin of clypeus in females slightly and
gradually emarginate from side to side, not
bisinuate, that is: not tangibly projecting in
the middle, of males practically straight, but
coarsely punctured, the punctures tending to
be confluent toward apex of clypeus, some-
times into longitudinal irregular furrows;
median field of face distinctly protruding and
laterally clearly defined.
THORAX: Mesoscutum distinctly longer
than wide; anterior third of notauli rather
distinct, sternauli indicated; scutellum
somewhat raised above postscutellum,
laterally not carinate; areae posteromedia
somewhat longer than horizonal part of
propodeum medially; carination of pro-
podeum complete and distinct, only costulae
sometimes indistinct; area superomedia in
both sexes usually distinctly longer than
wide, with costulae before middle, usually
approximately parallel sided or slightly
narrowed toward apex; areae dentiparae
elongate and, in American species, distinctly
slanting toward coxae III; all pleura coarsely
and densely punctured, excluding small area
of speculum, which is more sparsely punc-
tured, sometimes smooth.
LEGS: Moderately short; coxae III in
females (American species) with scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus slightly postfurcal;
areolet pentagonal, strongly narrowed in
front; radius practically straight.








ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous, fairly
long and narrow; ovipositor usually slightly
projecting; postpetiole with distinct median
field, which is finely, often indistinctly
longitudinally striate and/or sometimes
sparsely and finely punctured, the lateral
fields coarsely and densely punctured;
gastrocoeli triangular, of moderate size and
depth, with distinct thyridia, their inter-
space, particularly in males, sometimes
striate; 2nd and 3rd tergites more or less
finely and densely punctured, in males
usually more coarsely than in females.
CHROMATIC CHARACTER Basic color
of body black, or (in European species)
anterior tergites sometimes red; tergites 7 or 6
and 7 in females white marked, not so as a
rule in males. Wings in American species
strongly and evenly infuscated; head and
thorax without white markings, except
usually scutellum, and in males sides of face.
DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Zone: 1 species
in North America, 2 in Europe, and 5 in the
eastern Palearctic Zone.
HOSTS: Cryptophagous larvae of Noctui-
dae, boring in stems of Gramineae, as in
Europe the genus Nonagria, in North
America the genera Papaipema, Achatodes,
and Parapamea.
1. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson)
Fig. 18-20, Map 35
Ichneumon scelestus Cresson, 1864:148,
female.
Chasmias scelestus, Townes and Townes,
1951:292, female. Heinrich, 1961:374-375,
female, male.
Holotype: female, Illinois; ANS. Neallotype:
male, Maine; CGH II.
SYSTEMATICS: In structure a quite
typical species of the genus; larger than the 2
European species, and particularly dis-
tinguished by the strongly and evenly
irnfuscated wings in both sexes. All speci-
mens known from Florida are markedly
larger than northern specimens, have more
restrictedly (or not at all) white-marked
scutella, slightly coarser sculpture of tergite
4, and a few more flagellar segments.
FEMALE: Length 13-17mm. Uniformly
deep black, including legs; white are only:
anterior side of tibiae I, apex of femora I on
interior side, longitudinal median mark on
the 7th tergite, usually a media, narrow,
transverse apical band on the 6th, and a more
or less extensive mark on the scutellum
(reduced to a small apical dot in both
specimens from Florida); wings uniformly


deeply infuscated; coxae III with distinct
brown scopa; flagellum with white dorsal
annulus on segments 6 or 7 or (rarely) 8 to 11
or 12; scape entirely black.
FLAGELLUM: With 26-28 segments, the 1st
about 3 times as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 9th or 10th square, none
wider than long.
HEAD: Temple profile rather strongly
curved, cheek profile only slightly so; malar
space distinctly shorter than width of
mandible base; apical border of clypeus (fig.
18) slightly emarginate from side to side
(seen best when head is tilted somewhat
backward); face and clypeus coarsely and
fairly densely punctured, frons above an-
tennal cavities very densely rugose punctate,
cheeks sparsely punctured.
THORAX: Mesoscutum densely punctured,
finely coriaceous between punctures, sub-
opaque, scutellum more sparsely punctured;
costulae usually indistinct (fig. 19); areae
dentiparae more slanting toward coxae III
than in type species.
LEGS: Coxae III with scopa.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole in
northern populations usually nearly smooth,
in specimens from Florida with some fine
longitudinal rugosity and with scattered


Fig. 18. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson) (female). Clypeus,
frontal view.


Fig. 19. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson) (female). Pro-
podeum,, dorsal view.









punctures; 2nd and 3rd tergites moderately
strongly and rather densely punctured;
puncturation on basal 1/2 of the 4th tergite
extremely fine in northern populations,
somewhat more distinct in Flonda speci-
mens.
MALE: Length 16-17mm (northern popu-
lations); 17-19mm (southern populations).
Uniformly deep black including legs; tergites
6 and 7, in contrast to female, without white
marks; white on legs I and on scutellum as in
female, the scutellum in specimens from
Florida sometimes entirely or almost entirely
black; facial orbits in contrast to female
broadly white; wings uniformly and deeply
infuscated; flagellum with dorsal white
annulus on segments 10-14 (in all specimens
at hand from Canada as well as from
Florida); scape entirely black.
FLAGELLUM: With 27-28 segments in
northern specimens, 30-31 in the 3 specimens
from Florida, and with short, narrowly oval
tyloids on segments 6-11, the longest, on
segments 7-9, covering only the median 1/2
of length of segments.
HEAD: Malar space slightly less than 1/2
as long as width of mandible base; apical
margin of clypeus practically straight,
imperceptibly projecting medially; clypeus
coarsely punctured, the punctures toward
apical margin usually running into irregular
longitudinal striae (fig. 20).
THORAX: Area superomedia on the average
shorter than in female; costulae usually more
distinct.
ABDOMEN: Space between gastrocoeli with
short striation, the striae from both sides
converging toward middle; puncturation on
4th tergite, as in females, somewhat coarser
than in northern specimens.
DISTRIBUTION (map 35): Atlantic west
to Illinois and Wisconsin, from Ontario and
Quebec south to Florida. FLORIDA. Clay
Co.: 1 male, Green Cove Springs, 17-V-1967,
C. F. Zeiger, ex pupa Arzama species on
spadderdock, Nuphar luteum (Linnaeus)
Sibthorp and Smith, (FSCA). Collier Co.: 1



.: e.-





Fig. 20. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson) (male). Clypeus,
frontal view.


Map 35. Chasmias scelestus (Cresson)


male, 1 female, Copeland, 6-18-VI-1967, G.
Heinrich. Highlands Co.: 1 female, High-
lands Hammock State Park, 25-IV-1968, G.
Heinrich. Lee Co.: 1 male, Fort Myers, 21-IV-
1968, D. Radkte (all specimens CGH II).
HOSTS: All Noctuidae: Papaipema cata-
phracta (Grote), P. impecuniosa (Grote);
Parapamea buffaloensis (Grote); Achatodes
zeae (Harris); Arzama species.
ECOLOGY: Low, rank vegetation, particu-
larly in humid, wooded lowlands.


5. Genus Orgichneumon Heinrich
Fig. 21
Orgichneumon Heinrich, 1961:15, 95. Hein-
rich, 1965a:128-130 (2 new species from
Burma). Townes, et al. 1965:429 (2 species
from Japan and Korea).
Type species: Ichneumon calcatorius
Thunberg; original designation.
SYSTEMATICS: In general appearance,
color pattern, and structure similar to
Coelichneumon Thomson, but decisively
distinguished from the latter genus and the
entire tribe Protichneumonini by structure of
propodeum; the propodeum shows the clearly
broken type of the tribe Ichneumonini, with
the areae dentiparae not curved downward.
Within the tribe Ichneumonini this genus
comes closest to Steinichneumon Thomson,
differing from it mainly by the peculiar shape






















Fig. 21.Orgichneumon calcatorius (Thunberg) (female).
Propodeum, dorsal view.


of the carination (fig. 21) of the propodeum as
described below, the slightly arched apical
margin of the clypeus, and the strongly
aciculate middle of 2nd tergite. Nearctic
females have been found hibernating, a
biological character which confirms the
tribal position of the genus.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped,
slender, strongly attenuated toward apex,
ventrally flattened beyond middle, but barely
widened; of males moderately nodose,
segments with distinct, transverse, sub-
apical bristle ridges on ventral side, with row
of distinct narrow tyloids.
HEAD: Normal, temple and cheek profiles
moderately narrowed behind eyes and
toward mandible base, respectively; apical
margin of clypeus not, as usually, straight
cut or emarginate, but forming a continuous,
flat bow; mandibles gradually narrowed
from the base to the pointed apex, with small,
almost rudimental subapical tooth.
THORAX: Mesoscutum distinctly longer
than medially wide, very densely punctured,
subopaque; anterior 1/3 of notauli moderatly
distinct; scutellum raised above postscu-
tellum, dorsally convex, apically declivous
toward postscutellum, laterally slightly
carinate at the extreme base; area supero-
media large (fig. 21), arched in front, in
females approaching usually a horseshoe
shaped outline, in males strongly abbrevi-
ated, 2-4 times as wide apically as medially
long and thus often sickle shaped; areae
dentiparae obliquely declivous but not
curved downward as in Coelichneumon.
LEGS: Moderately long; coxae III of females
without scopa.
WINGS: Nervulus interstitial or slightly
postfurcal, areolet strongly narrowed in


front, the intercubiti almost coalescent;
radius sinuate.
ABDOMEN: Median field of postpetiole
clearly delimited, basally more or less
strongly raised, particularly in males,
coarsely aciculate; gastrocoeli large and
deep, with pronounced thyridia, their inter-
space narrower than 1 of them, coarsely
longitudinally striate; in females also the
middle of tergites 2 and 3, in males of tergites
2-4 with longitudinal striation.
CHROMATIC CHARACTERS: Basic col-
or black, with moderate to very rich white or
yellow markings on head, thorax, and legs;
usually postpetiole with so colored apical
band.
DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region.
HOSTS: In North America, Heterocampa
species (Notodontidae).
la. Orgichneumon calcatorius
calcatorius (Thunberg)
Ichneumon calcatorius Thunberg, 1822:254,
female.
Ichneumon otiosus Say, 1828:69, female.
Townes and Townes, 1951:303, female.
Ichneumon infidelis Cresson 1867:296, male.
Ichneumon sylvanus Holmgren, 1880:27,
female (nec male). Berthoumieu, 1894-
1896:44, female.
Ichneumon (Stenichneumon) calcatorius,
Schmiedeknecht, 1928:218.
Ichneumon burkei Viereck, 1910:383, male.
Pterocormus burkei, Townes and Townes,
1951:297, male.
Pterocormus infidelis, Townes and Townes,
1951:299, male.
Coelichneumon calcatorus, Heinrich, 1953:
148, female, male.
Intermedichneumon calcatorius, Heinrich,
1956:647-648, female, male. Heinrich, 1959b:
211, male.
Orgichneumon calcatorius, Heinrich, 1961:
95-98, female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon calcatorius, female,
Sweden; University of Upsala, Sweden.
Ichneumon otiosus; lost. Ichneumon burkei,
male, Wisconsin, USNM. Ichneumon in-
fidelis, male, Connecticut; ANS. Ichneumon
sylvanus, male, NRMS.
SYSTEMATICS: The species is extremely
rare in Europe and the European male is not
known at all; the few European females I had
the opportunity to examine, show a narrower
white band on frontal orbits than specimens









from northeastern North America, and the
white on pronotal ridge is more restricted;
these differences seem too subtle for sub-
specific separation, especially since the small
number of specimens known from Europe
does not reflect the width of individual
variability of the population.
A handsome species, ll-19mm long, black,
with rich white markings (of geographically
widely varying extent) on head, thorax, and
legs. All tibiae always with broad, white ring
beyond base; almost always white are also
scutellum entirely or in part, pronotal ridge
entirely or apically, subalarum, and frontal
orbits.
Populations from southeastern North
America are marked with much more white
than the northeastern specimens which
approach the darker, Palearctic pattern; the
latter are therefore attributed below to the
nominate form, while the population of
southeastern North America is treated as a
new subspecies.
FEMALE: Length ll-17mm. Black, the
following white: frontal orbits more or less
broadly, stripe on temple orbits, collare,
pronotal ridge entirely or toward apex only,
subalarum, scutellum except basally,
postscutellum, apical mark on postpetiole,
and dorsal or complete annulus on all tibiae
beyond base; sometimes also white: facial
orbits, mark on lower outer orbits, mark on
metapleura, small marks on coxae II and III,
and dorsal stripes on anterior segments of
tarsi III; flagellum with white, nearly
complete annulus on segments 7 to 12 or 13;
coxae I and mesoscutum not white marked.
FLAGELLUM: With 38-42 segments, the 1st
about 3 times as long as apically wide, in
lateral view the 12th square.
MALE (Description based on North
American specimens only): Length 13-16mm.
White pattern generally as in female, but
more extensive; face and clypeus predomi-
nantly white, both with longitudinal median
black band or mark; white band on temples
extended over entire length of exterior orbits
and widened below before mandible base
over width of cheeks; white are, in addition to
white marking described for female: mark on
mandible base, marks on tegulae, mark on
exterior side of prepectus, marks on meta-
pleura, coxae I and II apically, dorsal mark
on coxae III, anterior segments of tarsi
(usually of segments 1-3 of tarsi III, 1-2 of
tarsi II, and 1 of tarsi I) dorsally except bases
and apices; sometimes a small mark on
posterior part of mesopleuron, and 2 small
median spots on mesoscutum; postpetiole


usually with broad apical white band;
flagellum usually without, sometimes with
narrow, dorsal, white annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With elongate, narrowly-oval
tyloids on segments 8 or 9 to 18 or 19, the
longest covering more than median 1/2 of
segments.
DISTRIBUTION: Europe. Sweden (type
locality), Croatia (var. nigritarsis Schmi-
edeknecht), eastern Alps (CGH II); Eastern
North America. Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick west to British Columbia, south to
the Carolinas.
HOSTS: Orgyia antique (Linnaeus) (Que-
bec) and Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. Smith)
(Nova Scotia and New Brunswick).

lb. Orgichneumon calcatorius
albidior, new subspecies
Map 36
SYSTEMATICS: Differs from the nominate
form by considerably greater extent of white
marks on thorax, head, and legs, as especi-
ally apparent in both sexes on the meso-
pleura.
One male from Tennessee is, in the white
color pattern, intermediate between albidior
and the nominate form.
Orgichneumon mirus Heinrich (1965a:128-
129) described from Northeastern Burma,
7000 ft., shows a striking similarity in color
pattern and structure with calcatorius
albidior, differing from the latter by mark-
edly finer sculpture of tergites and in color by
a broad, white crossband on exterior side of
femora III and by white areae dentiparae.
FEMALE: Length 14-18mm. Orbits white
around eyes, white band widened below
lower ocellus, on face and also over almost
entire width of cheeks, very narrowly
interrupted only on malar space; meso-
pleuron with 2 large, white marks together
covering more than 1/2 of its surface, the
anterior mark including exterior section of
prepectus; metapleuron extensively to nearly
entirely white; mesoscutum with 2 short,
apically confluent, median white bands;
coxae I and II extensively to predominantly
white, as is also dorsal surface, or more, of
coxae III; femora I and II with apical white
mark on anterior side; white on dorsal side of
tibiae II and III extending to beyond middle
or close to their apices, and on tibiae I
occupying entire length of anterior side;
segments 1-3 of tarsi III and 1-2 of tarsi I and
II dorsally white, except black bases and
apices; flagellum with complete white







annulus on segments 6 or 7 to 13 or 14;
otherwise as in nominate form.
FLAGELLUM: With 40-43 segments.
MALE: Length 16-19mm. Face and cly-
peus uniformly white, or almost so; white
band around orbits not, or narrowly in-
terrupted on vertex, widened below over en-
tire width of cheeks; mesopleura usually pre-
dominantly white, with only area of specu-
lum and band below subalarum black, the
white color also including exterior section of
prepectus and often emitting a band onto
mesosternum along sternauli; sometimes, as
in female, white on mesopleuron divided into
2 large, separated patches by a narrow black
crossband; also white are: base of mandibles,
collare, subalarum, tegulae, entire pronotal
ridge, usually apex of pronotal base, 2
median, short, apically confluent bands on
mesoscutum, usually also a narrow band on
exterior side of mesoscutum near tegulae,
apex of mesosternum, metapleura predomi-
nantly or entirely, scutellum, postscutellum,
exceptionally marks on areae spiraculiferae,
areae posteroxternae, and on area postero-
media, broad apical band on postpetiole,
coxae I and II nearly entirely, coxae III
dorsally entirely and often apically on
ventral side, dorsal marks on 1st trochanters
I and II, sometimes also on 1st trochanters
III, femora I and II on anterior side except
basally, apico-lateral mark on femora III or
(in specimens from Tennessee and Arkan-
sas) long, longitudinal, dorsal band on
femora III, dorsal side of all tibiae entirely
except narrowly black bases and sometimes
black apex of tibiae III, segments 1-3 or
sometimes to 4 of tarsi I-III dorsally (except
black bases and apices), and flagellum with
dorsal or complete white annulus on seg-
ments 7 or 8 to 15 or 16; scape sometimes with
apical white mark on ventral side.
FLAGELLUM: With elongate, narrowly-oval
tyloids on segments 7 or 8 to 17 or 18.
Holotype: female, Florida, Highlands Co.,
Highlands Hammock State Park, I-IV-1970,
D. Radtke. Allotype: male, Florida, High-
lands Co., Archbold Biological Station,
7-V-1967, G. Heinrich. Paratypes: FLORIDA.
Clay Co.: 1 female, Gold Head Branch State
Park, 3-5-VII-1972, D. Radtke. Lee Co.: 1
male, Ft. Myers, 25-IV-1968, D. Radtke.
GEORGIA. Monroe Co.: 2 females, 28-V-24-
VI-1970, Forsyth, F. Naumann. TENNES-
SEE. Henderson Co.: 3 males, Natchez Trail
State Park, 17-22-V-1972, G. Heinrich, D.
Shaneck. (All types in CGH II.) '
DISTRIBUTION (map 26): Florida, Geor-
gia, Tennesse, and Arkansas. In addition


Map 36. Orgichneumon calcatorius albidior n. subsp.
to the type specimens, I have seen the
following: ARKANSAS. Garland Co.: 1 male,
Ouachita State Park, 17-22-V-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).
6. Genus Hemihoplis Heinrich
Hemihoplis Heinrich, 1961:15. Heinrich
1962:660. Townes and Townes, 1966:265
Type species: Hoplismenus teres Swift;
original designation.
SYSTEMATICS: This genus is similar in
appearance and in the presence of apophyses
on the areae dentiparae to the subtribe
Hoplismenina, but differs decisively by not
convex but completely flat clypeus and in
addition by less delicate and less narrowed
mandibles, and by larger and deeper gastro-
coeli.
It is apparently most closely related to the
gracilicornis group of the genus Ichneumon
from which it differs mainly by the more or
less conspicuous propodeal apophyses and
also by a long ovipositor.
The species propitius (Cresson) differs
from the type species teres (Swift) by
somewhat less conspicuous apophyses, less
narrowed and not quite straight temple
profile and cheek profile, and also slightly in
structure of mandibles; it is intermediate
between the genus Hemihoplis and the
gracilicornis group of the genus Ichneumon
and has been attributed to the latter genus by
Heinrich (1961). Under consideration of the
otherwise striking congruity of the 2 species
in structure, sculpture, color, and even








biology it has been transferred here to the
genus Hemihoplis. The combination of the
following 2 characters is considered as
decisive for the determination of the latter
genus: (1) propodeum with distinct apophy-
ses which vary in length, (2) tergites 2 and 3
with coarse and dense sculpture, separated
from each other by a distinct suture, the 2nd
tergite with a smooth and shiny, declivous,
apico-marginal band.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped,
long and very slender, not the least widened
beyond middle, with very elongate basal
segments; of males with basal segments
overlapping one another unusually far on
outer side, with short row of indistinct,
bacilliform, very narrow tyloids, and without
distinct transverse bristle ridges on ventral
side.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profiles strongly
narrowed behind eyes and toward mandible
base, with straight or slightly curved
outlines; malar space long, in males slightly
longer than width of mandible base, in
females nearly twice as long; clypeus flat;
mandibles more or less slender, in the type
species the subapical tooth considerably
shorter than the apical tooth and not
completely level with the latter.
THORAX: Mesoscutum longer than medi-
ally wide, densely and moderately coarsely
punctured, finely coriaceous between punc-
tures, subopaque; notauli barely indicated at
base; scutellum laterally not carinate,
moderately raised above postscutellum and
moderately convex in females, strongly
raised and strongly convex in males,
carination of propodeum complete and
prominent, including costulae, only carinae
coxales not quite distinct; apophyses of
propodeum more or less conspicuous, moder-
ately long; area superomedia usually longer
than wide, with costulae before middle,
narrowed from costulae toward area basalis,
in males, on the average, somewhat shorter
than in females.
LEGS: Long and slender.
WINGS: Nervulus postfurcal and oblique;
areolet clearly pentagonal; radius almost
straight.
ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous, the
ovipositor markedly projecting; median field
of postpetiole clearly defined, usually
longitudinally striate; gastrocoeli quad-
rangular, rather large, rather deeply im-
pressed, with large thyridia, their interspace
about as wide as one of them, or slightly


narrower, shortly aciculate; tergites 2 and 3
very coarsely and densely rugose punctate,
barely shiny, separated from each other by a
marked suture; the 4th tergite in females very
finely punctured and extremely finely
coriaceous, in males rather coarsely and
densely punctured, though slightly less so
than the 2nd and 3rd tergites.
DISTRIBUTION: From Maryland, Vir-
ginia, and Ohio south to Florida, Georgia,
Louisiana, and Tennessee.
HOSTS: Precis evarete zonalis (Felder &
Felder) (Nymphalidae).
1. Hemihoplis teres Swift
Map 37
Hoplismenus teres Swift, 1946:409, 410,
female, male. Townes and Townes, 1951:284.
Hemihoplis teres, Heinrich, 1962:661, female,
male.
Holotype: female, Great Falls, Virginia;
CHT. Allotype: male, same data; CHT.
SYSTEMATICS: The similarity of this
species with the following, propitius, is
startling. The apophyses of the propodeum
are more strongly developed in teres than in
propitius as a rule, but their length is subject
to some individual variability, and the
opposite extremes of the 2 species approach 1
another. The best character for their distinc-
tion is offered in the structure of mandibles,
with the subapical tooth being slightly
twisted out of level with the apical 1 in teres,
in normal level with the apical tooth in
propitius; this difference is more marked in
females than in males. Besides, in propitius
the temples and cheeks are a trifle convex
and more curved in profile, in both sexes. In
color and sculpture both species are practi-
cally identical.
FEMALE (description based on Florida
population): Length 9-11mm. Ferruginous,
pale yellow are: collare, usually dorsal side of
subalarum, and the scutellum; coxae I and II
apically faintly yellow tinged; apical mar-
gins of 2nd and usually 3rd tergite narrowly
blackish infuscated; extreme tip of tibiae III
and 5th segment of tarsi III slightly
infuscated; flagellum ferruginous, including
scape, with yellowish-white annulus on
segments 5 or 6 to 11 or 12 (base), section
beyond annulus usually more or less distinct-
ly infuscated.
FLAGELLUM: With 35-38 segments, the 1st
fully 4 times as long as apically wide, all
segments longer than wide.
MALE (description based on Florida
population): Length 9-12 mm. Ferruginous:








pale yellow are mandibles except teeth,
clypeus and face entirely (or with ferru-
ginous-tinged middle), frontal orbits nar-
rowly (not quite up to level with lower
ocellus), collare, subalarum, scutellum, coxae
I and II except bases, trochanters I and II,
rarely 2nd trochanters III ventrally, about
'basal 1/2 of tibiae III, and segments 1-2 or 3
of tarsi III except blackish tips; extreme base
of tibiae III ferruginous tinged, the apical 1/2
ferruginous shading gradually into black on
dorsal side, the apex entirely black, as is
often also the apex of femora III; tibiae II
often yellow tinged toward base, exception-
ally entirely yellow; segments 4 and 5 of tarsi
III and the 5th segment of tarsi II more or less
distinctly infuscated; flagellum ferruginous,
with complete pale yellow annulus on
segments 8 or 9 or 10 to 15, 16, or 17, dorsally
brown or, more often, blackish; scape
ventrally yellow tinged, usually toward apex
only.
FLAGELLUM: With 34-41 segments; with
bacilliform, very narrow, sometimes in-
distinct tyloids on segments 9 or 10 to 16 or
17.
DISTRIBUTION (map 37): Ohio, Mary-
land, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, Louisiana (Townes, 1951). Material
pertinent to the study: FLORIDA. Alachua
Co.: 1 female, 18-II-1950 (FSCA). Collier Co.: 6
males, 1 female, Copeland, 12-VI and 18-VII-
1967, G. Heinrich (CGH II). Duval Co.: 1
male, Jacksonville, 12-II-1965 (FSCA).


Map 37. Hemihoplis teres (Swift)


Hernando Co.: 1 female, 1 male, March
(FSCA). Highlands Co.: Archbold Biological
Station, 2 females, 12 and 16-V-1967, 2
females, 3-III and 11-IV-1968, 1 male, 16-1I-
1968, G. Heinrich (CGH II). Lake Co.: 2
females, 4 and 23-III (FSCA). Lee Co.: 2
males, Ft. Myers, 7-VIII-1967 and 25-IV-1968,
D. Radtke (CGH II). Liberty Co.: 1 male,
Torreya State Park, 11-V-1968, G. Heinrich
(CGH II). GEORGIA. Monroe Co.: Forsyth, 1
female, 20-IV-5-V-1969, 2 males, 14-22-V-
1971, 1 male, 3-10-VII-1971, F. Naumann; 1
female, 22-V-1970, G. Heinrich (CGH II).
TENNESSEE. Henderson Co.: 2 females,
Natchez Trail State Park, 2-20-VI-1972, G.
Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).

2. Hemihoplis propitius Cresson,
new combination
Map 38
Ichneumon propitius Cresson, 1872:156,
male. Heinrich, 1959b:207-208. Heinrich,
1961:297-299, female, male.
Ichneumon tharotis Packard, 1881:22, fe-
male.
Hoplismenus propitius, Swift, 1946:407-409,
female, male. Townes and Townes, 1951:289,
female, male.
Holotypes: Ichneumon propitius, male,
Texas, Boxque Co.; ANS. Ichneumon tharo-
tis, female, ex Phyciodes tharos (Drury);
USNM.
SYSTEMATICS: Extremely similar in
color and appearance to the preceding
species, teres; for the differences see system-
atics to the latter. The generic position of this
species is arbitrary, as the structure of head
and mandibles approaches the genus Ichneu-
mon Linnaeus, while all the rest agrees with
the type species of Hemihoplis.
FEMALE: Length 11-13mm. Almost
uniformly ferruginous, scutellum usually
yellowish; black are usually: base of pro-
sternum, prepectus partially, and some
scutellar sutures; extreme apices of femora
III and tibiae III infuscated usually, or black;
flagellum tricolored, scape and basal seg-
ments pale ferruginous, shading into black-
ish before annulus, the latter white on
segments 6 or 7 to 12 or 14, brownish
infuscated on ventral side, apex of flagellum
black beyond annulus.
FLAGELLUM: With 37-40 segments; struc-
ture as in teres.
HEAD: Temple and cheek profiles less
strongly narrowed behind eyes and toward
mandible base, respectively, than in teres,
slightly curved, cheeks in lateral view more








convex; mandibles somewhat wider than in
teres, the subapical tooth stronger developed
and level with apical tooth.
THORAX: Apophyses of propodeum shorter
than in teres.
ABDOMEN: Comparatively broader than in
teres, the 2nd tergite apically usually wider
than medially long.
MALE: Extremely similar to the male of
teres and hardly recognizable except by
direct comparison with the latter. Temple
profile in vertical view slightly wider and
more curved; clypeus in frontal view com-
paratively wider; tyloids more distinct,
elongate oval.
Chromatically also very similar to teres,
but in northeastern and in 1 Mexican
specimen (males from the southeastern
states are not recorded yet), on the average,
more extensively black marked. The follow-
ing are usually more or less extensively
black: mesosternum, prepectus, areae cox-
ales, scutellar sutures and axillary troughs,
ventral side of coxae III, and apical part of
femora III.
DISTRIBUTION (map 38): Atlantic to
100 West in Transition and Upper Austral
Zones; also Southern Mexico (Townes, 1951;
Ontario, Quebec, Maine (Heinrich, 1961).
New records: GEORGIA. Clarke Co.: Athens
(Nicholson), 1 female, 27-VII-5-VIII, and 2
females, 31-VIII-7-IX-1970, H. R. Hermann
(CGH II). TENNESSEE. Henderson Co.: 1
female, Natchez Trail State Park, 14-20-VI-
1972, G. Heinrich, D. Shaneck (CGH II).
HOSTS: Phyciodes tharos (Drury) (Pack-
ard, 1881); Chlosyne harrisii (Scudder)
(Townes, 1951); Anemeca ehrenbergii (Hbn.)
in Mexico (Swift, 1946).

7. Genus Menkokia Heinrich
Melanichneumon subgenus Menkokia Hein-
rich, 1934:209-211.
Type species: Melanichneumon (Men-
kokia) major Heinrich; original designation.
Bystra Townes, et al., 1961:357 (partim;
Menkokia Heinrich as synonym).
Menkokia Heinrich, 1971:971-973.
In the key to the subtribes of the tribe
Ichneumonini this genus runs clearly to the
subtribe Ichneumonina, where it is dis-
tinguished by (1) a moderately raised,
dorsally convex and laterally distinctly
carinate scutellum and (2) by the type of
carination of propodeum (see below) which
approaches the carination of the Melanich-


Map 38. Hemihoplis propitius (Cresson)


neumon group of the subtribe Cratich-
neumonina.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped,
fairly long, with elongate basal segments,
ventrally flattened and usually widened
beyond middle, strongly attenuated toward
apex; of males moderately nodose, with
distinct, transverse bristle ridges and with a
row of distinct tyloids.
HEAD: Occiput and temples declivous from
margin of eyes and from ocelli; temple profile
more or less strongly narrowed behind eyes;
cheek profile distinctly narrowed toward
mandible base, straight; malar space some-
what shorter than width of mandible base,
mandibles normal, moderately slender.
THORAX: Mesoscutum somewhat longer
than wide, fairly convex; notauli obsolete;
scutellum moderately raised above post-
scutellum, dorsally convex, laterally dis-
tinctly carinate; propodeum of the clearly
broken type, the horizontal part medially
slightly shorter than the area posteromedia;
carination complete and prominent; area
superomedia somewhat longer than wide,
hexagonal or semi-elliptic, with costulae
approximately in the middle, narrowed from
costulae toward area basalis, the latter
sometimes indistinct; areae dentiparae with
pointed apices; mesopleura with distinct
speculum.








LEGS: Fairly slender; coxae III of females
without scopa.
WINGS: Areolet pentagonal, strongly
narrowed in front, the intercubiti nearly
coalescent; nervulus interstitial.
ABDOMEN: Of females oxypygous, the
ovipositor usually somewhat projecting;
median field of postpetiole more or less
distinct, longitudinally striate or rugose;
gastrocoeli fairly deep, with distinct thyridia,
their interspace wider than 1 of them, and
longitudinally striate; rest of tergite 2, and at
least the 3rd tergite coarsely and densely
sculptured (punctate or rugose punctate).
CHROMATIC CHARACTERS: Basic col-
or black, or red and black; scutellum white,
often medially black; tergites 6 and 7 always
with apical white marks; anterior tergites, at
least the 1st, either with apical white
margins or apical bands or latero-apical
marks; prescutellar carinae white, usually
also mesoscutum with short, median white
lines.
DISTRIBUTION Celebes (type locality);
Burma (CGH II); North America.
1. Menkokia blandii (Cresson)
Map 39
Ichneumon blandii Cresson, 1864:188, male.
Melanichneumon blandii, Townes and
Townes, 1951:285, male.
Melanichneumon (Vulgichneumon) blandii,
Heinrich, 1962:612-614, female, male.
Menkokia blandii, Heinrich, 1971:972.
Holotype: male, Pennsylvania; ANS. Neallo-
type: female, North Carolina; CGH II.
FEMALE: Length 10-11mm. Basic colorof
head, prothorax, mesoscutum, scutellum,
and tergites 4 or 5 to 7 black, with rich white
pattern; basic color of the rest light red; the
following white: entire face and clypeus,
orbits broadly around eyes (including malar
space and most of cheeks), mandibles except
teeth, collare, pronotal ridge and base
broadly, subalarum, marks on tegulae, 2
short, median lines on mesoscutum, pre-
scutellar carinae, sides and apex of scutel-
lum, postscutellum, cardinal triangle, pro-
sternum except base, exterior belt of pre-
pectus with adjacent area of mesopleura,
area on lower, posterior part of mesopleura,
apical bands on tergites 1-5, apical marks on
tergites 6 and 7, segments 2-4 or 5 of tarsi III;
coxae and trochanters I and II extensively to
predominantly whitish; tips of' femora III
and of tibiae III, sometimes also base of
tibiae III, narrowly blackish infuscated;
metatarsus III, usually except apex, and 5th


segment of tarsi III, usually except base,
blackish; metatarsus II also slightly in-
fuscated; flagellum with dorsal white annu-
lus on segments 7-15; scape ventrally orange.
FLAGELLUM: With 37-38 segments, the 1st
fully 3 times as long as apically wide, the 9th
approximately square, the widest, on the flat
side, fully twice as wide as long.
MALE: Length 11mm. Basic color of head,
prothorax, mesoscutum, and scutellum
black, as in female, and with the white
pattern also as in female; in contrast to
female basic color of tergites 1-3 black, as is
the basic color of the following tergites,
rarely tergites 1-2 partially red (particularly
in northern specimens); all tergites with
apical white bands, the 7th tergite almost
entirely white; in contrast to female, as a rule,
the 3 basal areae of propodeum and the area
superomedia and area posteromedia black-
ish infuscated or black and the prepectus
black except white exterior belt; meso-
sternum entirely white; coxae and tro-
chanters I and II and trochanters III usually
entirely white in southern specimens (only
partially white in northern populations); all
tibiae blackish infuscated on dorsal side
except a restricted brownish area beyond
base on tibiae III, the ventral side of tibiae I
and II whitish; all tarsi whitish, all metatarsi
basally more or less extensively blackish
infuscated, the metatarsi III basally black;
tips of all femora blackish on dorsal side;
flagellum with complete white annulus on
segments 14 or 15-26 or 27; scape ventrally
white.
FLAGELLUM: With 35-38 segments and
with longish-oval, fairly conspicuous tyloids
on segments 9-15 or 17, the longest (on
segments 11 or 12-14 or 15) almost reaching
from bases to apices of segments.
DISTRIBUTION (map 39): Eastern North
America from Ontario south to Georgia, west
to Arkansas. ARKANSAS. Garland Co.: 6
females, 1 male, Ouachita State Park and
Crystal Springs, 16-27-V-1972, G. Heinrich,
D. Shaneck (CGH II). GEORGIA. Banks Co.:
1 female, 1 male, Homer, 11-12-V-1970, G.
Heinrich, R. Duffield (CGH II). TENNES-
SEE. Henderson Co.: 2 males, Natchez Trail
State Park, 10-26-VI-1972, G. Heinrich, D.
Shaneck (CGH II).
8. Genus Trogomorpha Ashmead
Fig. 22-24
Trogomorpha Ashmead, 1900:15. Heinrich,
1962:661-662. Townes and Townes, 1966:259
(4 species).































Map 39. Menkokia blandii (Cresson)

Type species: Ichneumon trogiformis
Cresson; original designation.
SYSTEMATICS: The genus apparently
does not belong in the tribe Ichneumonini. It
is listed here only provisionally and follow-
ing my previous arrangement (Heinrich,
1962). I am now convinced that Trogomorpha
is more closely related to the Listrodromini
than to the Ichneumonini, a hypothesis also
supported by the originally overlooked shape
of the areolet, with intercubiti very widely
separated in front. On the other hand the
area superomedia shows a rather remarkable
peculiarity which suggests the possibility of
a separate tribal position, possibly in
association with Conopyge and some other
Neotropical genera; the question can be
answered only by comprehensive studies of
all the genera of the Neotropical Region.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
FLAGELLUM: Of females bristle shaped,
fairly short, ventrally flattened beyond
middle and somewhat widened, moderately
attenuated apically; of males strongly
nodose by pronounced transverse bristle-
ridges medially on ventral side of segments,
the basal segments overlapping each other
distinctly on exterior side, with a row of
small, short, inobtrusive, narrowly-elliptic
tyloids. ,
HEAD (fig. 22): Temple profile not narrowed
behind eyes, broadly curved; cheek profile


Fig. 22. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cresson) (female).
Head, frontal view.

slightly narrowed toward mandibles, slight-
ly curved; malar space in females slightly
longer than width of mandible base; cheeks
in lateral view wide and strongly convex;
mandibles short and very wide, not tapering
toward apex, with 2 subequal teeth, separ-
ated by a wide deep gap; malar space not
longitudinally depressed and thus not clearly
separated from face: clypeus flat, with
straight apical border; median field of face
barely indicated.
THORAX: Mesoscutum slightly longer than
medially wide, moderately convex; notauli
basally indicated; scutellum distinctly raised
above postscutellum in females, consider-
ably so in males; propodeum (fig. 23)


Fig. 23. Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cresson) (female).
Propodeum, dorsal view.




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