• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Florida department of agriculture...
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Biology
 World distribution
 Relationships of Florida agrom...
 Economic importance
 Rearing agromyzidae
 Key to genera of Florida agrom...
 Subfamily agromyzinae
 Subfamily Phytomyzinae
 Leaf mines of unidentified...
 Known host plants of Florida...
 Supplement: Agromyzidae from the...
 Reference
 Index








Agromyzidae of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000087/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agromyzidae of Florida with a supplement on species from the Caribbean
Series Title: Contribution Florida Bureau of Entomology
Alternate title: Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
Physical Description: iv, 205 p. : ill., maps ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spencer, Kenneth A
Stegmaier, Carl Edward
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agromyzidae -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Diptera -- Identification -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agromyzidae -- Identification. -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Diptera -- Identification -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Florida -- 12000   ( ceeus )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: Eighty-six species of the Agromyzidae family from Florida in 14 genera are discussed. Of these, 25 are described as new and 17 are new to the state. Two new genera and an additional 38 new species from the Caribbean area also described.
Bibliography: Includes Bibliographical references (p. 193-197) and index.
Funding: Contribution (Florida. Bureau of Entomology) ;
Statement of Responsibility: Kenneth A. Spencer, Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0025
oclc - 50396023
System ID: UF00000087:00001
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Related Items: Alternate version (PALMM)
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Florida department of agriculture and consumer services
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Materials and methods
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Biology
        Page 7
    World distribution
        Page 8
    Relationships of Florida agromyzidae
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Economic importance
        Page 15
    Rearing agromyzidae
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Key to genera of Florida agromyzidae
        Page 17
    Subfamily agromyzinae
        Page 18
        Genus Agromyza Fallen
            Page 18
            Key to Florida species of agromyza
                Page 18
            Agromyza parvicornis Loew
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
        Genus Japanagromyza Sasakawa
            Page 22
            Key to Florida Japanagromyza species
                Page 23
                Page 24
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Page 29
        Genus Melanagromyza Hendel
            Page 30
            Key to Florida Melanagromyza species
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Unidentified melanagromyza species
                Page 55
        Genus Ophiomyia Braschnikov
            Page 55
            Key to Florida Ophiomyia species
                Page 55
            Ophiomyia Camarae spencer
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
    Subfamily Phytomyzinae
        Page 64
        Genus Phytobia Lioy
            Page 64
        Genus Cerodontha Rondani
            Page 64
            Key to Florida Cerodontha species
                Page 65
            Subgenus Dizygomyza Hendel
                Page 65
            Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) frosti
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Subgenus Icteromyza Hendel
                    Page 69
                Subgenus Cerodontha Rondani
                    Page 70
        Genus Calycomyza Hendel
            Page 71
            Key to Florida Calycomyza species
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
                Page 82
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
                Page 89
                Page 90
                Page 91
                Page 92
        Genus Amauromyza Hendel
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Genus Nemorimyza Frey
            Page 95
        Genus Liriomyza Mik
            Page 96
            Key to Florida Liriomyza species
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Page 105
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
                Page 109
        Genus Pteriodomyza Nowakowski
            Page 110
        Genus Haplomyza Hendel
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
        Genus Phytoliriomyza Hendel
            Page 114
            Key to Florida Phytoliriomyza species
                Page 114
            Phytoliriomyza floridana Spencer
                Page 114
                Page 115
                Page 116
        Genus Phytomyza Fallen
            Page 117
            Key to Florida Phytomyza species
                Page 117
            Phytomyza ilicicola Loew
                Page 117
                Page 118
                Page 119
                Page 120
                Page 121
                Page 122
                Page 123
                Page 124
    Leaf mines of unidentified species
        Page 125
    Known host plants of Florida Agromyzidae
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Supplement: Agromyzidae from the Caribbean
        Page 133
        Introduction
            Page 133
        Species from Costa Rica
            Page 134
        Species from the Bahamas Islands
            Page 134
            Page 135
        Species from Dominica
            Page 136
        Species from other Caribbean Islands
            Page 136
        Species from the Caribbean and also South America
            Page 137
            Key to genera of Neotropical Agromyzidae
                Page 137
                Page 138
        Genus Agromyza Fallen
            Page 139
        Geratomyza Spencer, gen. nov.
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
        Genus Japanagromyza Sasakawa
            Page 144
            Key to Neotropical Japanagromyza species
                Page 144
                Page 145
                Page 146
                Page 147
                Page 148
                Page 149
        Genus Melanagromyza Hendel
            Page 150
            Key to Neotropical Melanagromyza species
                Page 150
                Page 151
                Page 152
                Page 153
                Page 154
                Page 155
                Page 156
                Page 157
                Page 158
                Page 159
                Page 160
                Page 161
                Page 162
                Page 163
                Page 164
                Page 165
                Page 166
                Page 167
        Genus Ophiomyia Braschnikov
            Page 168
            Key to Neotropical Ophiomyia species
                Page 168
                Page 169
                Page 170
                Page 171
                Page 172
                Page 173
        Genus Phytobia Lioy
            Page 174
            Key to Neotropical Phytobia species
                Page 174
                Page 175
                Page 176
                Page 177
                Page 178
                Page 179
        Genus Cerodontha Rondani
            Page 180
        Genus Calycomyza Hendel
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
        Genus Amauromyza Hendel
            Page 186
        Genus Liriomyza Mik
            Page 187
        Genus Lemurimyza Spencer
            Page 188
        Genus Phytoliriomyza Hendel
            Page 189
        Nesomyza Spencer, gen. nov.
            Page 190
            Page 191
        Genus Phytomyza Fallen
            Page 192
    Reference
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Index
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
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ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA


AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS
VOLUME 7


Agromyzidae


of Florida

With a
Supplement
on Species
from the
Caribbean


CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES


DOYLE CONNER, COMMISSIONER








ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA
AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS

VOLUME 7


Agromyzidae
of Florida


With a Supplement
on Species from the
Caribbean


DR. KENNETH A. SPENCER
J 10 Willow Road
London N.W. 3, England


CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue
Hialeah, Florida 33012


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Halwin L. Jones, Director

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601


Contribution No. 171 Bureau of Entomology


Release Date: March 30, 1973
















































































cr







FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

Doyle Conner, Commissioner


DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY




Plant Industry Technical Council


Vernon Conner, Chairman ....................................................... Mount Dora
Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Vice Chairman............................................Canal Point
Colin English, Sr. ........................................................................ Tallahassee
Lawrence W Clements ........................................................................ Bartow
Joseph W elker .............................................................................. Jacksonville
Fred J. Wesemeyer -----------...................................................... Fort Myers
Foster Shi Sm ith ................................................................................ Starke
Felix H U zzell ...................................................................................... Sebring
Halwin L. Jones, Secretary ............................................................ Gainesville


Administrative Staff



Halwin L. Jones, Division Director ............................................ Gainesville
S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Assistant Director .......................--.-- ..--- Gainesville
Vernon W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer ..................--- ....--- ............ Gainesville
Naomi P. Bullett, Division Personnel Officer ............................ Gainesville
Jerry M. Roberts, Information Officer ...................................... Gainesville
Gerald G. Norman, Methods Development Coordinator ........ Gainesville
G. Don Bridges, Chief,
Citrus Budwood Registration Bureau ................................ Winter Haven
Jesse K. Condo, Chief, Plant Inspection Bureau .........-...... Gainesville
Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Bureau .................... Gainesville
Philip M. Packard, Chief, Apiary Inspection Bureau....................Gainesville
Charles Poucher, Chief,
Pest Eradication and Control Bureau ............................ Winter Haven
Carter P. Seymour, Chief, Plant Pathology Bureau....................Gainesville
A. L. Taylor, Chief, Nematology Bureau ................................ Gainesville








CONTENTS



F orew ord ................................................................................................................................. i
Introduction ........ ........ ................................................................................................... 1
M materials and m methods .................................................................................................. 3
B biology ............................................. ............................................................................... 7
W world distribution ....................................................................................................... 8
Relationships of Florida Agromyzidae .............................................. ................ 9
Economy ic im portance ..................................................... ............................................. 15
Rearing A grom yzidae ..................................................................................................... 15
Key to genera of Florida Agromyzidae ...................................... ............. 17
Subfamily Agromyzinae ..................................................... ............. .... 17
Genus Agrom yza Falln .................................................... ................................ 17
Key to Florida species of Agromyza .............................................................. 18
Genus Japanagromyza Sasakawa ...................................................................... 22
Key to Florida Japanagromyza species ............................................................ 23
Genus Melanagromyza Hendel ......................................................... 30
Key to Florida Melanagromyza species ............................................. 31
Genus Ophiomyia Braschnikov ........ ................. .... .................... 55
Key to Florida Ophiomyia species ....................... ................................ 55
Subfamily Phytomyzinae ................................................................................... ........... 64
Genus Phytobia Lioy .......................................................................................... 64
Genus Cerodontha Rondani .......................................................... 64
Key to Florida Cerodontha species ........................................ ............ 65
Subgenus Dizygomya Hendel ...................................................... ........ 65
Subgenus Icteromyza Hendel ............................................................... 69
Subgenus Cerodontha Rondani .............................................................. 70
Genus Calycomyza Hendel ..................................... ........................................... 71
Key to Florida Calycomyza species ...................................... ............ 71
Genus Amauromyza Hendel .............................................................. ................... 93
Genus Nemorimyza Frey ..................... ............................................. 95
Genus Liriomyza M ik ...................................................................... ...................... 96
Key to Florida Liriomyza species ...................... .... ..... ........ 96
Genus Pteridomyza Nowakowski .......................................................... .... 110
Genus Haplomyza Hendel .......................................... .......................... .................. 111
Genus Phytoliriomyza Hendel .......................................... ............... 114
Key to Florida Phytoliriomyza species .............................................. .. 114
Genus Phytomyza Fallen ....................................... ................................................ 117
Key to Florida Phytomyza species ...................................... 117
Leaf mines of unidentified species ................................ .... ..... ....... 125
Known host plants of Florida Agromyzidae ................................................................ 126


SUPPLEMENT: AGROMYZIDAE FROM THE CARIBBEAN ............................ 133
Introduction ................................... ................... ..................... ................... 133
Species from Costa Rica ... ..................................................................................... 134
Species from the Bahama Islands ........................................ 134
Species from Dom inica .............................................................. ........................... 136
Species from other Caribbean Islands .. .............................. ...... ...... 136
Species from the Caribbean and also South America ..................................... 137
Key to genera of Neotropical Agromyzidae .................................................................. 137
Genus Agromyza Fallen ........... ............................. 139
Geratomyza Spencer, gen. nov. .................................... ............................................... 140
Genus Japanagromyza Sasakawa ........................................ 144
Key to Neotropical Japanagromyza species .............................. ........ 144
Genus Melanagromyza Hendel .............................. ............................................ 150
Key to Neotropical Melanagromyza species .................................... ...... 150
Genus Ophiomyia Braschnikov .................................................... 168
Key to Neotropical Ophiomyia species ............................ ............ 168








Genus Phytobia Lioy ................................................ .......................... 174
Key to Neotropical Phytobia species ................................................. 174
Genus Cerodontha Rondani .................................--........... .. 180
Genus Calycomyza Hendel ................... ............... ..... .................. 181
Genus Amauromyza Hendel ...................... ............................ 186
Genus Liriomyza M ik .................................... ....... ....................... 187
Genus Lemurimyza Spencer .......................... ... ............. ............. ........ 188
Genus Phytoliriomyza Hendel ............................................... ......................... 189
Nesomyza Spencer, gen. nov. ...................................................... 190
Genus Phytomyza Falln ............................................................................... 192
R references .......................................................................................................... ............ 193
Index ........................................................................................................................................ 199


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $7,586.35 or $2.528
per copy. It makes available to all interested persons the results of
arthropod faunal studies, emphasizing Florida and the Circum-Carib-
bean Region.










FOREWORD


The family Agromyzidae consists of small
to minute flies whose larvae are stem, seed,
and leaf miners of a wide assortment of
plants. Some species may cause moderate
to serious damage to plants of economic im-
portance. In Florida leaf mining agromy-
zids have caused substantial economic loss
in commercial fields of tomatoes and corn.
Commercial plantings of melons, beans, and
chrysanthemums in southern Florida may be
significantly damaged by agromyzid leaf
miners in some years. Many other crop
plants, ornamentals and flowering annuals
are damaged to a lesser extent in Florida.
An ornamental plant widely used in land-
scaping, Ilex vomitoria, frequently is made
so unsightly by agromyzid leaf miners as to
be virtually unsaleable. The authors of this
bulletin have stated that at least 150 species
of Agromyzidae are known to feed on plants
of economic importance.
Experimental work done over many years
at Florida agricultural experiment stations
to develop effective controls for agromyzid
miners on various crops yielded erratic, in-
consistent data which were puzzling to the
investigators. The taxonomic, ecological,
and life history studies over the past several
years by Spencer and Stegmaier have pro-
vided an explanation for experimental and
applied control studies which had produced
confusing results. Their studies have shown
that often what had been thought to be a
single species attacking a wide variety of
host plants actually was a complex of several
species, some of which are highly specific to
a particular group of plants. In some in-
stances the species attacking a host plant in
one part of Florida proved to be different
from the species attacking the same host in
another part of the state, and controls effec-
tive on one might prove to be ineffective
against the other. The authors have noted
that "Sudden mass outbreaks of leaf-mining


activity by relatively unknown species may
occur at any time on plants which have not
been known to suffer substantial damage...
their potential to cause serious damage to a
number of cultivated plants is ever present
and, with favorable conditions, one or an-
other species may at any time develop as a
serious pest Damage from leaf-mining
activity can be severe, frequently reaching
destructive levels, or at least weakening
younger plants and causing an appreciable
reduction in crop yields." A notable example
is the alfalfa blotch-miner, Agromyza fron-
tella (Rondani), a European species which,
in its native land, has been of little economic
importance. Introduced accidentally into the
eastern United States a few years ago, this
species, unchecked by its natural enemies,
has rapidly developed into a major pest of
alfalfa. Heavily infested fields of alfalfa
appear almost whitish due to the heavy min-
ing of the foliage by the alfalfa blotch-miner.
Prior to the work by Spencer and Steg-
maier, less than a dozen species of agromy-
zids were recorded from Florida, and virtu-
ally all of those which produced a serpertine
trail in foliage of various kinds of plants had
been considered to be caused by a single
species, Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen). As re-
cently as 1959, Frick, in his synopsis of
North American species, specifically men-
tioned only two species as occurring in Flor-
ida. More than 80 species of agromyzids now
have been recorded from Florida by Spencer
and Stegmaier. Liriomyza pusilla has not
been found to occur in Florida! In fact it
has been shown that this is a European
species that does not even occur in North
America.
Often there is a direct relationship be-
tween economic crops and some of their
weed relatives. These weed plants may serve
as reservoirs for the agromyzids which at-
tack commercial crops and ornamentals, so








that the control of these insect pests may in-
volve the control of their weed hosts. Field
studies by the junior author have shown that
agromyzid populations have been maintained
on weed hosts, although usually at lower
levels, during seasons when preferred crop
hosts were not being grown. Also related to
this is the important consideration that par-
asites of the agromyzids may be maintained
on agromyzid populations attacking weed
hosts, whereas these parasites may be inad-
vertently destroyed in commercial crops by
systematic spraying for control of agromy-
zids and other insect pests. Experimental
work is needed to determine whether certain
weeds are more harmful as reservoirs of
agromyzid crop pests than beneficial as res-
ervoirs for the parasites which attack the
agromyzids.
A generalization can be made concerning
the Agromyzidae and about problems which
they cause that is true of many other groups
of insects and the problems associated with
them. In many ways Florida's insect prob-
lems are unique. We in Florida cannot rely
on the work done by investigators in other
states to solve our problems to the same de-
gree that is true in, say, Indiana, Illinois, or
Ohio. Many of the economic insects which
occur in Florida react differently here than
in other areas where they occur. When
farther north some might have only a single
generation a year. Under Florida conditions,
they may have two to several generations a
year, with resulting differences in what
would be required to control them. Length
and timing of the life cycle of many species
are different in Florida from what they are
in other parts of the range of the species,
and they may differ in one part of Florida
from another. Florida's insect fauna is de-
rived in part from the more northern parts
of the Nearctic Region and in part from the
subtropical regions of Central America and
the West Indies. As a result Florida often
must solve its own problems with little re-
liance upon the work done in other states.
Basic information is still very meager for
many groups of Florida arthropods. This
was certainly true of the Agromyzidae until
the studies made by Spencer and Stegmaier,


which were partially supported by the Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture and Consum-
er Services. The need for a comprehensive
reference dealing specifically with Florida
agromyzids has become apparent to those
concerned with the problems which they
cause. Pertinent information relevant to
Florida is virtually absent in the literature.
The only recent extensive treatment of the
Agromyzidae of any part of North America
is Spencer's 1969 bulletin on the Agromy-
zidae of Canada. This study, financed by the
Canada Department of Agriculture, more
than doubled the number of species known to
occur in Canada and yielded considerable
valuable data on host relationships, biology,
and life histories. Since little of this is di-
rectly applicable to Florida, the prime need
for this publication is obvious.
It is our hope that this bulletin will stim-
ulate further careful studies of the Agromy-
zidae of Florida. Despite the good work
done by Spencer and Stegmaier, much re-
mains to be learned about leaf, stem, and
seed mining agromyzids of our state, espec-
ially in the central and northern areas.
The senior author, Dr. Kenneth Angus
Spencer, is the world's foremost authority on
the family Agromyzidae. Like many others
who have made noteworthy contributions to
arthropod taxonomy and have earned reputa-
tions as leading authorities on various
groups, Spencer's interest in insects began
as an avocation rather than as a vocation.
Born in Cheam, Surrey, England on 15 March
1916, he obtained his early education at Whit-
gift School, Croydon and later graduated with
honors in German and French from London
University. In September 1939 he volun-
teered for Field Service Corps as a Proba-
tionary Private, was commissioned in light
infantry in 1940. From 1941 to 1945 he was
attached to the Intelligence Corps and served
at Divisional and Corps Headquarters in the
Middle East, Italy and Germany. During
1945-7 he was a Political Adviser with the
Military Government in Berlin with the rank
of Major.
From 1948 through 1951 he held various
short-term positions in education and trans-
lation, including some time in Greece with







the United Nations Balkans Commission.
From 1952 to 1957 he was employed as Ex-
port Manager by Crosfield Electronics Ltd.,
working with electronic controls for the
printing industry. He was on the Board as
Sales Director from 1957 through 1969. Dur-
ing this period he traveled throughout the
world, appointing and controlling agents in
some 30 countries.
During much of this period Spencer was
developing as an avocation his interest in
Agromyzidae, and during 1949-50 he trans-
lated from German into English Professor
E. M. Hering's famous work, Biology of Leaf
Miners. From 1951 through 1969 he col-
lected and studied Agromyzidae in Africa,
India, Philippines, Ceylon, Australia, Brazil,
Colombia, Canada, Florida and throughout
Europe. During this period he published
some 70 papers, including regional and ge-
neric revisions and finally a major bulletin,
The Agromyzidae of Canada and Alaska.
During 1966 he held a temporary appoint-
ment as Visiting Professor in the Depart-
ment of Entomology, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, and during 1966-67 he served as
a Research Associate of the Canada Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa. In 1968 he
was appointed a Research Associate of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Gainesville. He is a member of several pro-
fessional organizations including the British
Entomological and Natural History Society
and the Royal Entomological Society, Lon-
don. During 1968-70 he presented seminars
on Agromyzidae at the University of Florida,
Harvard University, Cornell University
Wayne State University, and the University
of Alberta. He received the Doctor of Sci-
ence degree in 1970 from London University
and became attached to the Department of
Entomology, Oxford with a Natural En-
vironment Research Council grant to prepare
an Identification Handbook of the British Ag-
romyzidae. He recently completed a book on
world species of Agromyzidae of economic
importance and spent five weeks in Venezu-
ela during April and May 1972 studying
agromyzid pests of commercial crops.
The junior author, Carl Edward Steg-
maier, Jr., like the senior author, began his


interest in the Agromyzidae as an extracur-
ricular activity on his personal time. For
many years he has served as a Plant Quar-
antine Inspector with the U. S. Plant Quar-
antine Service in Miami, helping to safe-
guard the U. S. from the introduction of
plant pests from foreign countries. During
his off-duty hours, as a Research Associate
of the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods, Mr. Stegmaier has made extensive col-
lections of leaf, stem, and seed mining Ag-
romyzidae throughout all seasons in recent
years, primarily in southern Florida. From
many wild and domestic plant hosts he has
made numerous hearings of agromyzids,
keeping careful records of all of his findings.
This bulletin is based in large part on the
field and laboratory work done by Mr. Steg-
maier, while the taxonomic work is primar-
ily that of the senior author. Virtually all
of our present knowledge of the life histories
and of the parasites of Florida agromyzids
is based upon the collections and hearings of
Mr. Stegmaier.
Carl was born 18 January 1921 in Kansas
City, Kansas. He attended Kansas Junior
College during 1946-47, received his B. Sc. in
Entomology from Kansas State University
in 1949 and the M. Sc. in Entomology from
the same university in 1950. He is a mem-
ber of Gamma Sigma Delta honorary fra-
ternity, Kansas Entomological Society, Flor-
ida Entomological Society, Georgia Entomo-
logical Society, and the Entomological So-
ciety of Washington. He served in the Med-
ical Detachment, 161st Field Artillery, Kan-
sas National Guard during 1938-40 and in
the U. S. Marine Corps from 1940 to early
1946, receiving the Wake Island Expedition-
ary Medal and an Asiatic-Pacific Ribbon
Presidential Unit Citation. He was captured
on Wake Island, for 45 months was a Jap-
anese prisoner of war, and eventually was
discharged as a Disabled American Veteran.
While a prisoner he studied the Japanese
language, self taught, and was used as an
interpreter to liberate Chinese prisoners on
Hokkaido, Japan after the end of World War
II. He is a Trustee of the Miami Museum
of Science and Natural History, and during
1965-66 he served as Chairman of the Sub-








tropical Branch of the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society. For many years he has been an
active Boy Scout counsellor. His current en-
tomological interests cover all leaf, stem, and
seed mining insects, their life history and
ecology, and in recent years he has discov-
ered many species new to Florida, new to
North America, and new to science, notably
in the orders Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hy-
menoptera.
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Editor
Bureau of Entomology
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture
28 April 1972









THE AGROMYZIDAE OF FLORIDA

WITH A SUPPLEMENT ON SPECIES

FROM THE CARIBBEAN'

by
Kenneth A. Spencer
and Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr.


Introduction


American literature prior to 1966 contains
only a few scattered records of Agromyzidae
in Florida, and these identifications are in
most cases doubtful. Even Frick (1959) in
his valuable synopsis of North American spe-
cies specifically mentions only two species as
occurring in Florida.
Near the end of 1962 the junior author
commenced a detailed program of rearing
Agromyzidae from leaf mines, stems and
flower heads, mainly in the greater Miami
area. Thousands of specimens were obtained
from many hundreds of separate rear-
ings and from identified host plants. Most
of this material was sent to the senior author
in London for identification, and over 250
letters were exchanged between the two au-
thors between 1962 and 1968.
A preliminary paper describing 13 new
species discovered by Stegmaier was pub-
lished by Spencer (1966c). Ten shorter pa-
pers, mainly giving new information on host
plants and parasites, were published by Steg-
maier in 1966 and 1967. Forty-six species
were confirmed in Florida from the material
collected by Stegmaier in this period.
Following an invitation from the Division
of Plant Industry, Gainesville, and with ad-

1Manuscript completed June 1969 and slightly re-
vised at a later date.


ditional financial support from the Univer-
sity of Florida. the senior author spent three
weeks in Florida in October 1968, mainly in
field work, accompanied most of the time by
the junior author. Several collecting trips
were made in the Gainesville area and also to
Cedar Key to the west and Torreya State
Park in the northwest. Collections were
made by the authors in the Orlando and
Okeechobee areas and also along the keys as
far as Big Pine Key. Finally, some useful
collecting was done in the Homestead area,
with one visit through the Everglades to Fla-
mingo in the company of Dr. D. O. Wolfen-
barger, of the University of Florida Sub-
tropical Experiment Station. The additional
knowledge of the geography, climate and
flora of Florida obtained during this visit has
proved invaluable in the preparation of this
paper, and the senior author wishes to ex-
press his deepest gratitude to everyone who
provided such generous assistance and hos-
pitality during his stay in Florida. Particu-
lar thanks are due to Mr. H. A. Denmark
and Dr. H. V. Weems Jr. who formally spon-
sored his visit and general support for the
entire study.
The basis for this paper has been provided
by the detailed, patient and time-consuming
field work and hearings carried out by the
junior author. Without this foundation a







paper of this scope would not have been pos-
sible. The taxonomic work, including the
descriptions of new species and genera, was
done by the senior author. Personal opinions
expressed are his, and the responsibility is
his for any inaccuracies the paper may con-
tain.
At an early stage in the study of the Flor-
ida Agromyzidae, the Neotropical affiliations
of many species became apparent. The ad-
ditional material now examined and the more
detailed study which has been possible have
confirmed the southern origin of a substan-
tial part of the Florida agromyzid fauna. In
order to obtain a clearer understanding of
this southern element, the original concep-
tion of this paper has been expanded, and all
available material from the Caribbean area,
including an important collection from Costa


Rica, has been studied. For convenience the
Caribbean species are treated separately in a
Supplement on p. 133. However, an equally, if
not more, important part of the fauna clearly
has reached Florida from the north; further
collecting in northern Florida, particularly
in the panhandle, will be necessary before
the full extent of this northern element can
be established. The origin of the Florida
Agromyzidae is analyzed in further detail
below.
Eighty-six species from Florida in 14 gen-
era are discussed. Of these, 25 are described
as new and 17 are new to the state; five spe-
cies are characterized briefly but are not
formally described due to the lack of ade-
quate material. Two new genera and an ad-
ditional 38 new species from the Caribbean
are described. The distribution of Florida
Agromyzidae by genera is shown in Table 1.


Table 1. Genera of Florida Agromyzidae

aa PS


Agromyzinae
Agromyza 2 1 1 4
Japanagromyza 3 1 1 5
Melanagromyza 12 6 2 1 21
Ophiomyia 3 4 1 8
Sub-total 20 11 4 3 38

Phytomyzinae
Phytobia 1 1
Cerodontha 5
Dizygomyza 3 (3)
leteromyza 1 (1)
Cerodontha 1 (1)
Calycomyza 9 5 3 1 18
Amauromyza 1 1
Nemorimyza 1 1
Liriomyza 6 2 1 9
Pteridomyza 1 1
Haplomyza 1 1 2
Phytoliriomyza 2 1 3
Phytomyza 1 6 7
Sub-total 19 14 13 2 48
Total 39 25 17 5 86






Materials and Methods

1. MATERIAL EXAMINED
Material has been studied from the fol-
lowing sources: Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr.:
Mostly reared specimens from the
greater Miami area but including some
material collected by other entomolo-
gists at various localities throughout the
state and submitted to the junior author
for rearing.

American Museum of Natural History,
New York (Dr. P. Wygodzinsky) : An
important collection from the Bahamas
made by the Van Voast A.M.N.H. Ex-
pedition to the Bahama Islands in 1953.
The collectors were E. B. Hayden, L.
Giovannoli and G. B. Rabb.

British Museum (Natural History),
London (Mr. B. Cogan) : Some undeter-
mined material from St. Vincent; also
lectotype of Liriomyza sorosis (Willis-
ton).

Canadian National Collection, Ot-
tawa (Dr. J. F. McAlpine, Mr. G. Shew-
ell) : Valuable material from Florida,
Jamaica, the Cayman Islands and the
Dominican Republic, collected during
several expeditions between 1952 and
1966.

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology,
London (Dr. R. W. Crosskey) : Material
from Antigua, Barbados and Trinidad,
collected mainly by Dr. F. D. Bennett of
the Commonwealth Institute of Biologi-
cal Control.

Deutsches Entomologisches Institut,
Eberswalde, D.D.R. (Dr. habil. G.
Morge) : A large and important collec-
tion from Costa Rica made by H.
Schmidt in 1933.

Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Gainesville (Dr. H. V. Weems
Jr.): Unidentified material from Flor-
ida and Puerto Rico.


Prof. S. W. Frost: Personal collections
made at the Archbold Biological Station,
Highlands County, Florida, in the win-
ter and spring of several seasons be-
tween 1959 and 1969.
Dr. E. Rohdendorf, Prague: A small but
interesting collection made in Cuba in
1968.
(United States) National Museum of
Natural History, Washington, D.C. (Mr.
G. C. Steyskal) : An important collection
from the island of Dominica made by
Dr. W. W. Wirth in 1965, participating
in the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Bi-
ologi-al Survey of Dominica; also uni-
dentified material from Florida, Cuba
and Puerto Rico. Further species from
the USNM collection requiring special
study were made available through the
kindness of Mr. Steyskal, Systematic
Entomology Laboratory, U.S.D.A.
Our thanks are due the institutions and
entomologists cited above who provided such
generous assistance, not only with material
but also with valuable supplementary infor-
mation.
Fresh material collected by the authors in
October 1968 throughout Florida from Tor-
reya State Park to the keys, although some-
what limited owing to the lateness of the
season has proven to be of considerable value.

2. DESCRIPTIONS

The descriptions of new species and the
diagnosis given in all cases for previously
described species have been kept brief. For
all species, except where males are unknown,
illustrations have been provided of the male
genitalia, and it is considered that these,
rather than lengthy, detailed descriptions,
will be more important to future workers for
purposes of identification, particularly in the
critical cases in which the adults cannot be
separated reliably on the basis of external
characters alone. All illustrations have been
drawn by the senior author's wife, to whom
thanks are due for the great care taken in
the preparation of these accurate drawings.






Host plants and brief biological details are
given when known. Authorities for plants
are not cited in the general text but are in-
cluded in the host list. The distribution both
within Florida and throughout the range of
the species is cited for each species. Affilia-
tions and relationships are discussed where
relevant.
Under "Material examined," the material
cited is normally limited to that seen from
Florida and the Caribbean, but in a few cases
additional material is mentioned, where this
is of some special significance.

3. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS (Fig. 1-3)

(a) External morphology. The terms re-
ferred to in the descriptions will be famil-
iar to any dipterist. However, for the
benefit of other entomologists who may not
be fully conversant with the terminology
used and who may be encouraged to take
an interest in the Agromyzidae, a brief
glossary is given below, and most charac-
ters referred to are indicated in figures 1-3.
Abbreviations used are shown in brackets.

acrostichals (acr) : minute hairs lying be-
tween the two lines of dorso-central
bristles (Fig. 1J).
arista: slender, bristle-like process arising
from dorsal surface of third antennal
segment (Fig. 1-A).
cheek: membranous area immediately
below eye, not always clearly separable
from the jowl which extends below to
the margin of the head (Fig. 1-B).
coxa (e) : first or basal section of leg (Fig.
1-V).
dorso-central bristles (dc) : paired bristles
lying along center of mesonotum, vary-
ing in number from two to six; the
strongest, at the rear, are considered
here as the first (Fig. 1-K).
face: area from just above antennae to
margin of mouth (Fig. 3-B).
facial keel: raised ridge dividing base of
antennae, frequently strongly developed
in genus Ophiomyia (Fig. 2-B).
femur: third section of leg (the color fre-
quently is important). (Fig. 1-W).


fore-tibial bristle: lateral bristle on fore
tibia sometimes occurring in Japanag-
romyza and Melanagromyza, and in
male of Nemorimyza posticata.
frons: rectangular area between rear of
head (vertex) and the lunule and lat-
erally between the orbits (Fig. 3-A).
haltere: knoblike, modified hind wing,
functioning as a balancing organ, only
found in Diptera (the color can be of
significance). (Fig. 1-P).
humerus (pl. humeri): the shoulders or
anterior angles of the mesonotum anter-
ior to the notopleural triangle (Fig.
1-M).
jowl: membranous area below the eye
(the width and shape frequently are of
importance). (Fig. 1-C)
lunule: semicircular sclerite above anten-
nae and adjoining lower margin of
frons.
mesonotum: dorsal area of the thorax,
bearing the important dorso-central
bristles and acrostichals (the color is
important in many species) (Fig. 1-L).
mesopleuron: large rectangular area below
the notopleural area (the color is im-
portant in most genera of the Phyto-
myzinae). (Fig. 1-N).
notopleural area: triangular area on side
of thorax immediately below the trans-
verse suture of the mesonotum (Fig.
1-0).
ocellar triangle: triangular plate on the
upper half of frons bearing the three
ocelli above and with the apex some-
times greatly extended toward the mar-
gin of the lunule (Fig. 1-C).
orbital bristles (Fig. 1-D).
upper(ors): one to three strong, nor-
mally reclinate bristles on upper half
of orbits.
lower (ori) : one to four partially in-
curved or reclinate bristles on lower
half of orbits.
orbital setulae: row(s) of minute hairs
on orbits normally between eye margin
and orbital bristles (Fig. 1-E).
orbit(s) : narrow plates between eye mar-
gin and frons bearing the orbital bristles
and orbital setulae; varying in width

















N9 L K


A 1P
H
IU
F
W V



X

Y




Fig. 1. Side view of typical Agromyza sp. (After Sasakawa, 1961: Fig. 7)


Legend:
A arista
B cheek
C jowl
D orbital bristles
E orbital setulae
F palp
G proboscis
H third antennal segment
I vibrissa
J acrostichals
K dorso-central bristles
L mesonotum


humerus
mesopleuron
notopleuron
haltere
ovipositor sheath
scutellum
squamae
squamal fringe
tergites
coxa
femur
tibia
tarsi


costa
second costal section
fourth costal section
first cross-vein
second cross-vein
R 1
R 4+5
M 1+2
M 3+4
sub-costa


Figs. 2, 3. 2A, vibrissal fasciculus in Ophiomyia sp.; 2B, facial keel in Ophiomyia sp.; 3, head from
above showing: A, frons; B, lunule; C, ocellar triangle; D, orbits.





and sometimes raised or broadened (Fig.
3-D).
ovipositor sheath: cylindrical structure
into which the retractable ovipositor is
withdrawn (Fig. 1-Q).
palps: paired processes adjoining mouth-
parts (Fig. 1-F).
pre-scutellar bristles (prsc): pair of
bristles present in some genera lying at
center rear of mesonotum.
proboscis: feeding organ, greatly elon-
gated in some species (cf. Ophiomyia
haydeni, Fig. 130). (Fig. 1-G).
scutellar bristles: normally two pairs of
strong bristles on scutellum (one pair
only in subgenus Cerodontha).
scutellum: hind, dorsal section of the tho-
rax (Fig. 1-R).
squama (pl. squamae) : inner lobe of wing
membrane behind the wing base (the
color is frequently of significance).
(Fig. 1-S).
squamal fringe: fringe of hairs on the
squamae (the color is an important spe-
cific character). (Fig. 1-T).
tarsus: fifth section of the leg (itself di-
vided into five sections). (Fig. 1-Y).
tergite (s) : membranous dorsal sclerites of
abdomen (Fig. 1-V).
tibia: fourth section of the leg (Fig. 1-X).
trochanter: second segment of the leg, be-
tween the coxa and femur.
vibrissa: usually strong bristle at lower,
inner corner of jowl (Fig. 1-I).
vibrissal fasciculus: fused group of vibris-
sal bristles found in males of most spe-
cies of Ophiomyia (Fig. 2A).
wing (Fig. 1:1-10)
costa: first longitudinal vein, forming
upper margin of wing and normally
conspicuously thickened, either to the
termination of vein R4+5 or M1+2,
(Fig. 1:1).
second coastal section: section of costa
lying between apex of veins R1 and
R2+3, (Fig. 1:2).
fourth costal section: section of costa
lying between apex of veins R4+5
and M1+2, (Fig. 1:3).


first cross-vein
second cross-vein
vein R1
vein R2+3
vein R4+5
vein M1+2
vein M3+4 (M4)
sub-costa


(b) Male genitalia. No attempt has been
made to include full and detailed descrip-
tions of genitalia. Owing to the complex
nature of these structures descriptions
which will be meaningful to subsequent
workers are difficult to prepare. Illustra-
tions of significant characters are of
greater value, and these have been in-
cluded for all species.

The aedeagus itself, particularly the distal
section or distiphallus, shows an immense
variety of form and remarkably little spe-
cific variation. In most cases a positive
identification can be made from the
aedeagus alone, but other structures of di-
agnostic importance are the ninth sternite
(Fig. 25, 285), the surstyli and general
configuration of the epandrium (particu-
larly in Japanagromyza, cf. Fig. 37, 40)
and the cerci (Fig. 249, 477).

Frick (1952) and Nowakowski (1962)
have given detailed descriptions of male
genitalia.

aedeagus: the intromittent organ or penis,
consisting basically of four sections, the
basiphallus, mesophallus, hypophallus
and distiphallus.
aedeagal apodeme: long, rod-like structure
to which the more flexible aedeagus is
articulated (Fig. 264).
basiphallus: basal section of aedeagus,
which may be entire (Fig. 107) or di-
vided into two asymmetrical arms (Fig.
157, 317).
cerci: paired, external appendages of the
epandrium, sometimes bearing stout
bristles (Fig. 37B, 357) or one or more
long hairs (Fig. 249, 477).
distiphallus: distal section of the aedeagus,






normally consisting of paired tubules of
varying size and shape (Fig. 161, 317)
which sometimes may be partially fused
(Fig. 269, 453) or, in Ophiomyia, highly
asymmetrical (Fig. 136, 144).
epandrium: ninth tergite, frequently of
distinctive shape (Fig. 32).
hypandrial apodeme: elongate extension
sometimes found at apex of ninth ster-
nite (Fig. 96, 339).
hypophallus: ventrally directed, mem-
branous appendages articulated to meso-
phallus which can be minute (Fig. 321),
absent or greatly enlarged (Fig. 317).
mesonhallus: median section of aedeagus
(Fig. 161, 206), of relatively secondary
importance diagnostically.
ninth sternite: highly modified, terminal,
ventral sclerite of abdomen, lying inter-
nally between the aedeagal apodeme and
the aedeagus (Fig. 71, 333).
sperm sac: membranous structure lying
within the abdomen, connected by long
seminal duct to the distiphallus (Fig.
335).
surstylus: external structure at lower cor-
ners of epandrium, frequently of charac-
teristic shape and bearing distinctive
hairs or bristles (Fig. 19, 334).

4. HOLOTYPE LOCATIONS

Where known the location of holotypes is
cited for all species. The abbreviations used
are as follows:

AMNH-American Museum of Natural His-
tory, New York.
BM-British Museum (Natural History),
London.
CNC-Canadian National Collection, Ottawa
DEI-Deutsches Entomologisches Institut,
Eberswalde, German Democratic Republic
FSCA-Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Gainesville
MCZ-Museum of Comparative Zoology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Paris-Mus6e d 'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
USNM-(United States) National Mu-


seum of Natural History, Washington,
D.C.
Vienna-Naturhistorisches Museum, Vi-
enna.
Holotypes of new species described by the
senior author from material collected by
Stegmaier or personally will be retained tem-
porarily in the senior author's collection, but
eventually will be deposited in the USNM.

Biology

All Agromvzidae are feeders on plant tis-
sue, and the few records suggesting other-
wise can only be the result of inaccurate ob-
servation. The egg is laid beneath the epi-
dermis at the appropriate oviposition site,
and normally the young larva emerges within
some days and instinctively feeds to form a
channel or mine within the plant which, in
most cases, will be entirely characteristic of
the species concerned. The period of larval
feeding can vary from about one week to sev-
eral months. This feeding period is depen-
dent in part on temperature, which can cause
minor variations, but is essentially a funda-
mental aspect of the life cycle. Species
which have a number of generations in quick
succession will feed rapidly, while those with
only a single generation per year normally
feed more slowly and in some cases inter-
mittently throughout the colder winter
months.
Pupation normally takes place on the
ground, the larva either falling from the
plant and transforming after some hours or
transforming immediately on leaving the
leaf and falling to the ground as a puparium.
A few leaf miners pupate within the leaf
at the end of the mine, and most seed feeders
and stem borers pupate within the plant at
the feeding site. The duration of pupation
varies greatly with the species and may be
as short as 10 days or as long as 6-10 months.
The Agromyzidae are well known as leaf
miners. However, all parts of the plant are
attacked, including stems, seeds and more
rarely roots and in the case of trees, young
twigs. Of the 86 species recorded in Florida,
at least some of the host plants of 66 species
are known. Of these, 45 are leaf miners, 12







are feeders in seed heads or seed pods, eight
are internal stem borers and one forms stem
galls.
Host selection has been discussed by Spen-
cer (1965d). Most Agromyzidae are either
monophagous, that is, limited in their choice
of host to a single plant or more often sev-
eral species within the same genus, or they
are oligophagous, feeding on a number of
genera within a single family or on several
related families of the same order. Very few
species are truly polyphagous, feeding on a
wide range of unrelated hosts. An example
of a strictly monophagous species is Phyto-
myza vomitoriae Kulp which is restricted to
the single host, Ilex vomitoria; Japanagro-
myza viridula (Coq.) feeds only on Quercus,
but on a number of different species. Typi-
cal oligophagous species are Liriomyza com-
melinae (Frost) on Commelina and Trades-
cantia; Melanagromyza ruelliae on Blechum,
Ruellia and Stroebilanthes, all genera of the
Acanthaceae; and Amauromyza maculosa
(Malloch) on a number of genera of Com-
positae. Of the 66 species in Florida of which
the host plant or host plants are known, 34
are monophagous and 28 oligophagous. Only
four species are truly polyphagous-Lirio-
myza blechi sp.n., L. munda Frick,
L. schmidti (Aldrich) and L. trifolii (Bur-
gess).
The characteristic form of the leaf mine
is a substantial aid in identifying Agromyzi-
dae. Although individual mines may show
considerable variation, the essential pattern
remains constant for each species. The main
types of mines are linear or serpentine (Fig.
274, 307) or blotchlike, approximately circu-
lar (Fig. 231) or more irregular, with short
offshoots (Fig. 183). In many cases the
larva forms a short linear mine in the first
instar, and after the first moult the feeding
instinct changes and it then forms a blotch
mine, which may completely envelop the ear-
lier linear section. The part of the leaf which
is mined frequently is of significance. Most
mines are formed on the upper surface, in
the area of the palisade parenchyma; more
rarely, very shallow mines are made immedi-
ately beneath the epidermis of the leaf, as in
Liriomyza schmidti (Aldrich), or in a few


species the larva feeds exclusively on the
lower leaf surface, in the spongy paren-
chyma. Some mines are invariably associated
with the margin of the leaf; others occur ex-
clusively along the midrib or possibly one of
the stronger lateral veins, as in Ophiomyia
camarae Spencer (Fig. 124). Ophiomyia sp.
(Lantana) is obviously a distinct species,
also feeding on Lantana camera, forming a
long, narrow, serpentine mine which winds
irregularly across the leaf (Fig. 151). The
arrangement of frass in the mine frequently
is characteristic; this may be deposited in
single, widely-spaced pellets, it may be in
more or less continuous strips or all frass
may be excreted immediately prior to pupa-
tion at the end of the mine, to which the pu-
parium is sometimes firmly glued (Fig. 220).
World Distribution
Over 1700 species of Agromyzidae are
known in 32 genera. The family is distribu-
ted throughout the world, and the habitats
range from Arctic tundra to the tropics. The
greatest proliferation of species occurs in
temperate areas of the northern hemisphere
where approximately 70% of the described
species are found. The family is well repre-
sented also in subtropical areas, particularly
of South America, but in the Old World trop-
ics the number of species is reduced radi-
cally. There is a total lack of knowledge
about Agromyzidae in equatorial areas of the
Amazon basin, and it will be of interest to
establish whether the pattern there conforms
with that found in the tropics elsewhere.
The distribution of the main genera varies
significantly between temperate and tropical
areas. Phytomyza, the largest genus with
400 species, which is dominant in the Palae-
arctic and Nearctic Regions, is reduced to
only a few species in the tropics and the
southern hemisphere. Liriomyza, which is
the third largest world genus with 230 spe-
cies, is similarly reduced in the Ethiopian,
Oriental and Australian regions, but is bet-
ter represented in the Neotropical region.
The dominant genus in the tropics is Melan-
agromyza with some 300 species, and it is in-
teresting to note that this is the largest genus
in Florida.







Relationships of Florida Agromyzidae

1. BACKGROUND

Before attempting to analyze the present
distribution of the Florida Agromyzidae, it
is necessary to discuss briefly the geological
past of Florida, since the various changes in
sea level and climate which have occurred in
the peninsula since the end of the Pliocene
have been the main determining factors in
forming the existing pattern of distribution.
Although the Agromyzidae almost cer-
tainly have existed as a family since the
Eocene (Spencer, 1969a: 13) and early Ter-
tiary distribution must be considered in any
discussion of the family on a worldwide
basis, in the case of Florida the end of the
Pliocene can be conveniently taken as the
starting point. In the past the transition
from Pliocene to Pleistocene has been placed
at one million years ago; however, latest re-
search (Hopkins, 1967: 460) indicates that
the major climatic fluctuations which
marked the beginning of the Pleistocene
started at least three million years ago. Flor-
ida existed throughout most of the Pliocene
as a somewhat abbreviated peninsula lying
slightly to the west of its present position
(Cooke, 1945). The climate would have been
temperate and there may have been elements
of tropical flora in the south as found today,
surviving from the very much warmer cli-
mate of the early Tertiary. Agromyzidae
would have been present, with all the main
genera and probably some modern species
represented. Throughout the Pleistocene,
with the advances and subsequent retreats
of ice over large parts of North America and
accompanying falls and rises in sea level, the
land area and climate of Florida underwent
major changes which dramatically influenced
its flora and fauna. The greatest rises in sea
level occurred in the earlier periods of the
Pleistocene, and a high water terrace-the
Brandywine-270 feet above sea level has
been detected. On at least four occasions,
sea level has risen 100 feet or more above its
present level. It is generally accepted, on
the basis of both geological and biogeo-
graphical evidence, that although a consid-


erable part of the land area of Florida was
submerged at these times, a number of sub-
stantial islands, corresponding approxi-
mately to the high ground in central Flor-
ida, existed throughout the Pleistocene.
Many endemic species of both animals and
plants are found today in areas believed to
be the sites of these former Pleistocene is-
lands.
The last, or Wisconsin, glaciation com-
menced about 100,000 years ago. Recent
temperature measurements, based on fossil
Foraminifera obtained from deep sea sedi-
ments from a number of Caribbean and At-
lantic cores (Suess, 1956) indicate that cool-
ing began about 85,000 years ago and reached
a minimum 15,000 years ago. This tempera-
ture minimum corresponds with the furthest
advance of the Wisconsin ice sheet, which
covered the whole of Canada and northern
parts of the United States. Although the
ice was remote from Florida, there was with-
out question a significant cooling of the cli-
mate and apparently also (Dillon, 1956) an
appreciably higher rainfall. Evidence of the
cooler climate is provided by the discovery
of pollen of cold weather plants, such as fir,
spruce and larch in a bog in Marion County,
Florida (Neill, 1957: 178), and pollen analy-
sis from a number of other Pleistocene local-
ities in North Carolina and Texas indicates
similar more northerly vegetation. Fossil
Pleistocene mammals include many species,
either now extinct but with definite northern
affiliations or still living but with the south-
ern limit of their range far to the north of
Florida (Simpson, 1931).
The retreat of the entire flora and fauna
of North America before the Wisconsin ice
sheet would have resulted in crowding to-
wards the south, which must inevitably have
affected even Florida. The cooler and wetter
climate of Florida would have been entirely
suitable for the numerous temperate ele-
ments previously based some hundreds of
miles to the north and it is certain that many
such species of Agromyzidae, together with
their host plants, would have been present in
Florida at the peak of the Wisconsin glacia-
tion 15,000 years ago.
Neill (1957), in his admirably lucid ac-







count of the historical biogeography of Flor-
ida, discusses four main patterns of present-
day distribution which appear to be the di-
rect result of conditions prevailing during
the Pleistocene.
First, endemism in Central Florida: the
Brandywine sea, although inundating most
of the peninsula, almost certainly left a sub-
stantial island in Polk County with several
smaller islands extending northward to Mar-
ion County. Further islands may have ex-
isted also on the high ground to the north
and west of the central Florida region. Many
central Florida endemics occur in areas of
Rosemary scrub and high pine which form
the normal succession to coastal dunes; such
species include lizards, skinks, snakes, the
Florida jay, beetles, crickets, flies and many
plants. Some endemics are closely related to
mainland forms, others appear not to be re-
lated to anything now living in North Amer-
ica. It remains an open question whether
these species reflect rapid speciation in their
isolated island environment or whether they
are relicts, with the populations elsewhere
now extinct.
Secondly, isolated colonies of northern
species in the panhandle: it is postulated
that such populations are relicts, surviving
in suitable areas far south of the present
range of species which, having moved south
during Wisconsin time, have subsequently
retreated again to the north. Such species
include a number of plants, many of which,
like Aquilegia, Caltha and Thalictrum, are
favored hosts of Agromyzidae in more tem-
perate areas to the north.
Thirdly, species present on the southern
mainland and lower Keys but not on the
upper Keys: owing to subsidence of the west
coast, the lower Keys became isolated from
the mainland, probably before the Key Largo
coral islands developed. Today, species of
rats, snakes, lizards, turtles, toads and also
the white-tailed deer occur on the lower Keys
and the mainland but not on the upper Keys.
Fourthly, extension of western grassland
to the east: during a past period of low rain-
fall a prairie type flora, such as is found
today in Texas and Arizona, was able to ex-
tend its range to the east, and remnants of


this flora reflecting dry conditions still exist
on parts of the west coast and the lower
Keys, such as Big Pine Key. Cactus thicket
is the typical plant association of these areas,
with many characteristic species of animals
and insects. Agromyzidae are not numerous
in such conditions, but I have seen an un-
described species mining Opuntia in Brazil,
and it is possible that some specialized spe-
cies might occur on plants characteristic of
these dry areas.
In general, in view of the high degree of
mobility of small, light insects such as
Agromyzidae, which can easily be windborne
over long distances, even though their power
of active flight may be limited, the old Pleis-
tocene barriers which are still detectable in
the distribution of less mobile animals, prob-
ably have little direct influence on the distri-
bution of the Agromyzidae in Florida today,
which rather will largely reflect local eco-
logical conditions. The degree of frost is a
critical factor preventing the spread of many
plants of West Indian origin, and their as-
sociated agromyzids, further northward in
Florida than their present limits. Neverthe-
less, this brief review of distribution pat-
terns still reflecting Pleistocene conditions
seems desirable, since isolated instances in-
volving Agromyzidae still may be detectable.
A glance at the substantial list of central
Florida endemic plants (Harper, 1949),
which includes no less than 427 species (as
understood by Small, 1933), shows that nu-
merous genera are represented which provide
known hosts for Agromyzidae. These in-
clude Ageratum, Asclepias, Baptisia, Clino-
podium, Croton, Erythrina, Indigofera, Lu-
pinus, Physalis, Quercus, Salix, Slum, Vicia
and Viola. One cannot help wondering
whether any pre- or early Pleistocene agro-
myzids occur on the endemics in these gen-
eral
The noticeable lack of endemics among
the tropical flora present in the southern tip
of the peninsula strongly supports the view
that the tropical element was entirely elimi-
nated during the peak of the Wisconsin. A
gradual warming followed the cold peak, but
a number of minor advances in the ice also
occurred subsequently. It is therefore prob-







able that the tropical element in southern
Florida succeeded in establishing itself-or
re-establishing itself-since it was certainly
present during long periods of the Eocene
and later Tertiary-only during the past
2,000 to 3,000 years. It is during this rela-
tively short period, geologically speaking,
that the flora and fauna of Florida as we
know them today have taken shape.
Ledin (1951) has analyzed the composi-
tion of the Compositae of southern Florida.
No less than 66% of the 125 species recorded
also occur to the north of Florida, either in
the southeastern or northeastern United
States. However, 46% occur in the West
Indies, and it is interesting to reproduce the
detailed breakdown of tropical Florida Com-
positae in the various islands and areas to
the south, as given by Ledin:

West Indies 46%
Cuba 38%
Bahamas 32%
Dominican Republic 25%
Haiti 21%
Puerto Rico 18%
Jamaica 18%
Virgin Islands 14%
Trinidad 16%
Mexico 22%
Central America 27%
South America 16%
It is noteworthy that more species occur in
Cuba than in the Bahamas. Seeds of many
tropical plants from the West Indies are car-
ried by birds to Florida which lies on their
regular migration route. Many seeds are
windborne, and apparently following hurri-
canes it is not uncommon to discover previ-
ously unrecorded plants of West Indian ori-
gin. A few plants also will have reached
Florida from the south by sea. Once a sub-
tropical flora became established in southern
Florida, it is not difficult to conceive its grad-
ual colonization by the constant influx of
windborne agromyzids. Darlington (1936)
gives an interesting account of the potential
of hurricanes to sweep up and carry rela-
tively large and heavy animals over long dis-
tances. Certainly every hurricane reaching
Florida from island areas to the south must
bring with it a multitude of seeds and small
insects, including Agromyzidae. It seems


certain that virtually all species of plants
and insects of southern origin which have
reached southern Florida without man's aid
have arrived in this way over water, rather
than overland via the coastal strip of the
Gulf States. The actual source area of these
southern species is discussed further below.
The 86 species of Agromyzidae now recorded
in Florida can be conveniently split into four
distinct groups: 1. Species of northern ori-
gin; 2. Species of southern origin; 3. Species
occurring both to the North and South; and
4. Species restricted to Florida. These groups
are shown in detail in Table 2.
2. SPECIES OF NORTHERN ORIGIN (GROUP 1)
There are 23 species present both in Flor-
ida and in areas to the north which are cer-
tainly of northern origin, representing 27%
of the total. However, in the opinion of the
authors this figure does not accurately reflect
the actual numbers of such northern species
which are almost certainly present on a far
greater scale and will quickly be revealed by
further collecting. Fourteen of the species
listed in Groups 3 and 4 of Table 2 are also
probably of northern origin.
Nemorimyza posticata (Meigen) and Phy-
tomyza plantaginis Robineau-Desvoidy,
which are present in the Miami area, are
far to the south of their normal range. They
presumably reached southern Florida during
the Wisconsin and have managed to adapt
themselves to sub-tropical conditions, when
other less tolerant species have retreated to
the north.
Pteridomyza hilarella (Zetterstedt), re-
corded from Duval County and Gadsden
County, is an essentially northern species and
is clearly at the extreme southern limit of its
range in northern Florida. Phytomyza tha-
lictrivora Spencer recorded from Jackson
County, hitherto has been known only from
Alberta. It probably occurs continuously to
the north together with its food plant, Tha-
lictrum spp., but, as previously mentioned
(p. 10), Thalictrum occurs in isolated relict
patches in the panhandle, and it is possible
that P. thalictrivora has survived in Florida
in the same way.
Most of the other northern species need







Table 2. Florida Agromyzidae grouped by origin and present distribution


Group 1
Northern origin
(occurring also in North)
Agromyza parvicornis Loew
A. proxima Spencer
A. varifrons Coquillett
Japanagromyza iridula (Coquillett)
Melanagromyza virens (Loew)
Cerodontha (Icteromyza)
longipennis (Loew)
Calycomyza ambrosia Frick
C. majuscula Frick
C. menthae Spencer
C. promissa Frick
C. solidaginis (Kaltenbach)
Nemorimyza posticata (Meigen)
Liriomyza brassicae (Riley)
L. trifolii (Burgess)
L. trifoliearum sp.n.
Pteridomyza hilarella
(Zetterstedt)
Haplomyza minute (Frost)
Phytomyza ilicicola Loew
P. opacae Kulp
P. plantaginis Robineau-Desvoidy
P. thalictrivora Spencer
P. verticillatae Kulp
P. vomitorias Kulp


Group 2
Southern origin
(occurring also in South)
Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer
J. inaequalis (Malloch)
J. perpetual sp.n.
Melanagromyza bidentis Spencer
M. caerulea (Malloch)
M. caribbea sp.n.
M. floridensis Spencer
M. floris Spencer
M. lippivora Spencer
M. marellii (Brbthes)
M. minima (Malloch)
M. parvella sp.n.
M. ruelliae Spencer
M. splendida Frick
M. vectabilis sp.n.
M. wedeliae sp.n.
Ophiomyia camarae Spencer
0. gentilis sp.n.
0. haydeni sp.n.
0. lippiae Spencer
Ophiomyia sp. (Lantana)
Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer
C. melantherae Spencer
C. mikaniae sp.n.
C. obseura sp.n.
C. side sp.n.
Liriomyza archboldi Frost
L. commelinae (Frost)
L. marginalis (Malloch)
L. schmidti (Aldrich)
Phytoliriomyza pilosella sp.n.


Group 3
species occurring
both in North and South
Melanagromyza minimoides
Spencer
M. viridis (Frost)
Ophiomyia lantana (Froggatt)
Cerodontha (Cerodontha)
dorsalis (Loew)
Calycomyza ipomaeae (Frost)
C. jucunda (Wulp)
C. lantanae Frick
C. malvae (Burgess)
Amauromyza maculosa (Malloch)
Liriomyza munda Frick
Phytoliriomyza imperfect
(Malloch)


Group 4
species limited
to Florida
Agromyza sp.-N.
Japanagromyza desmodivora
Spencer-S.
Melanagromyza chaptaliae
Spencer-S.
M. erechtitidis Spencer-S.
M. heliotropii sp.n.-S.
M. miamensis sp.n.-S.
Melanagromyza sp. (Sida)-S.
Ophiomyia lacertosa sp.n.-N.
0. obstipa sp.n.-N.
Phytobia sp.-N.
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza)
frosti sp.n.-N.
C. (Dizygomyza) iridophors
sp.n.-N.
C. (Dizygomyza) pecki sp.n.-N.
Calycomyza durantae sp.n.-S.
C. minor sp.n.-N.
C. stegmaieri Spencer-S.
Calycomyza sp. (Elephantopus)
-N.
Liriomyza blechi sp.n.-S.
Haplomyza philoxeri sp.n.-S.
Phytoliriomyza floridana sp.n.-N.
Phytomyza orlandensis sp.n.-N.


23 (27%) 31 (86%) 11 (13%) 21 (24%)


23 (27%)


31 (3601) 11 (13C/0


21 (24%)






no special comment. Many range far to the
north, in some cases reaching Canada.
3. SPECIES OF SOUTHERN ORIGIN (GROUP 2)
Thirty-one species, representing 36% of
the total, can be placed in this group, in
which the known distribution is limited to
Florida and one or other areas to the south.
Of species limited to Florida probably nine
can be added to the list of southern species
which would increase the percentage to 44%.
This high percentage is certainly somewhat
artificial and reflects the intensive collecting
of Stegmaier in southern Florida and the rel-
ative lack of collecting in the north.
The immediate source areas of these south-
ern species would appear to be Cuba and the
Bahamas. Twenty-one species of the 31 con-


Florida, Dominica


Florida, Bahamas, Dominica
Florida, Jamaica
Florida, Bahamas, Jamaica
Florida, Puerto Rico
Florida, Trinidad
Florida, Grand Cayman
Florida, Venezuela
Florida, Caribbean
(generally distributed)


The random nature of the distribution of
these southern Florida species on islands
throughout the Caribbean suggests that
most, if not all, are present on all of the
larger islands. Collecting in the Caribbean
has been extremely fragmentary and in no
case undertaken by specialists on the family.
A picture, nevertheless, emerges of a num-
ber of species of wide distribution on islands
throughout the area which also have reached
southern Florida. The study of Costa Rican
material (together with the few other avail-
able records from Central America) reveals
the highly significant fact that no less than
12 of the 17 species cited above are known
from Central America. This clearly points


firmed as being of southern origin are re-
corded also in the Bahamas (Table 4), and
represent 70% of the southern Florida spe-
cies and 56% of the Bahamas species; only
six of the southern Florida species are known
also in Cuba. However, this again certainly
reflects lack of collecting in Cuba and does
not necessarily indicate that these species
have reached Florida only from the Bahamas
and not directly from Cuba. In view of its
substantially greater land area, it seems
probable that more species have reached
Florida from Cuba than from the Bahamas.
Seventeen species present both in Flor-
ida and in other areas of the Caribbean, in-
cluding also Costa Rica or Venezuela (indi-
cated in brackets) are as follows:


Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer
Melanagromyza caribbea sp.n. (C.R.)
Ophiomyia gentilis sp.n. (C.R.)
Japanagromyza perpetual sp.n. (C.R.)
Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer
Calyeomyza obscura sp.n. (C.R.)
Melanagromyza splendid Frick
Phytoliriomyza pilosella sp.n. (C.R.)
Melanagromyza bidentis Spencer (C.R.)
Melanagromyza lippivora Spencer
Ophiomyia sp. (Lantana) (V.)
Melanagromyza caerulea (Malloch) (C.R.)
Melanagromyza floris Spencer (C.R.)
Melanagromyza minima (Malloch) (C.R.)
Cerodontha (Cerodontha) dorsalis LOEW (C.R.)
Amauromyza maculosa (Malloch) (C.R.)
Liriomyza schmidti (Aldrich) (C.R.)


to Central America as the ultimate source
area not only of species populating the Car-
ibbean islands but also of the species of
southern origin now established in Florida.
This question is discussed further below (p.
133).
4. SPECIES OCCURRING BOTH TO THE NORTH
AND SOUTH OF FLORIDA (GROUP 3)
It will be seen from Table 2 that 11 spe-
cies fall into this category. This does not
represent a homogeneous group, and there is
no single explanation for the unusually wide
distribution of some of these species.
One species, Melanagromyza minimoides
Spencer, is common in southern Florida as
a seed feeder on a number of Compositae.





Two of the main hosts, Borrichia frutescens
and Melanthera deltoidea are of West Indian
origin, and it also occurs on Aster simmond-
sii, a Florida endemic; further hosts in Flor-
ida are Helenium nudiflorum and Verbesina
laciniata, both of which are of wide distribu-
tion further north. On this evidence the
species be considered to be of southern origin,
and its affinities definitely support this. Two
females also have been identified tentatively
from British Guiana (Spencer, 1966c: 13).
The one puzzling record is from Ohio where
it has been reared from seed heads of Rud-
beckia laciniata. This plant frequently is
cultivated, and the most plausible explana-
tion appears to be that it has been introduced
into this northern locality.
Phytoliriomyza imperfecta (Malloch) was
described from Chile, subsequently has been
reported in California and now is recorded
in Florida. Another species in this genus,
P. arctica (Lundbeck), is semi-cosmopolitan
and is almost certainly of Tertiary origin,
occurring from Greenland to Brazil and from
the Canary Islands to Formosa (Spencer,
1969a: 23). It therefore seems probable
that imperfecta crossed the water gap into
South America in the late Tertiary and
reached Florida from the north at an early
date. Although it is widely distributed, the
species is uncommon, and only three speci-
mens are known. Cerodontha (Cerodontha)
dorsalis (Loew), feeding on Gramineae, is
also clearly an old species. It doubtless
reached Florida from the North and has
spread via Central America both into South
America and also via Cuba or Jamaica to
Puerto Rico and Dominica where it is also
now recorded.
Melanagromyza splendid Frick and M.
viridis (Frost) occur widely in the Carib-
bean, in Florida and also in California. Both
are typically southern species which might
well have been introduced into California on
cultivated composites. Liriomyza munda
Frick has a similar distribution, but it also
is known from the Gulf States. It occurs on
a wide range of cultivated and other hosts
and could also represent an introduction into
California. It has not been recorded in the
eastern United States north of Florida.


Calycomyza jucunda (Wulp) and C. mal-
vae (Burgess) are known from Cuba and Ja-
maica, Florida and the northern part of the
United States, malvae even reaching Toron-
to. Calycomyza ipomaeae (Frost) has an ex-
tensive range from Brazil, through the Car-
ibbean to Florida and northward to southern
Ontario; Amauromyza maculosa (Malloch)
is similar, but its distribution appears not
to extend north of New York. It would be
remarkable if these species had only reached
southern Florida after the peak of the Wis-
consin and still managed to extend their
range so far to the north. It seems more
plausible that such species, with an obviously
wide climatic tolerance, were present in
southern Florida throughout much, if not the
whole, of the Pleistocene, survived the Wis-
consin in the tip of the peninsula and, as
warmer conditions developed, were thus able
to extend their range 1000 miles to the north
relatively rapidly.
Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt) hitherto
has been considered as a native of Mexico.
However, it occurs widely throughout the
Caribbean and is now recorded for the first
time in Brazil. It is apparently common in
the Gulf States in association with its main
host, Lantana camera. It is a species which
easily could have reached Florida from the
south. Whether its present distribution ex-
tends continuously from Central America,
Mexico and the Gulf States to northern Flor-
ida can only be established by further col-
lecting.
5. SPECIES LIMITED TO FLORIDA (GROUP 4)
Twenty-one species are recorded which are
only known from Florida. It would be mis-
leading even provisionally to treat these as
endemic. The great majority, if not all, will
be found with further collecting to occur ei-
ther to the north or in the West Indies to the
south. The probable affiliations are indicated
by N. or S. in the list in Table 2.
At most three of the species conceivably
might prove to be endemics. Melanagromyza
heliotropii sp.n. was reared from Heliotro-
pium leavenworthii, itself a Florida endemic.
Phytoliriomyza floridana sp.n., although
showing clear affiliations with other species
in the genus, is recorded from a locality in







Pasco County which might have been the site
of a postulated Pleistocene island. Phyto-
myza orlandensis sp.n. also might have been
collected from a former Pleistocene island
site. Its nearest known relative is from the
Canadian Rockies, and there now might well
be a relict population which has speciated
in Central Florida. However, the great mo-
bility of the Agromyzidae is a major factor
diminishing the probability of such endemic
species in Florida. The answer can be pro-
vided only by further collecting.
Assuming that in fact no Florida Agromy-
zidae are truly endemic, a final summary of
species of probable northern and southern
origin is as follows:


Northern origin
Southern origin


Number
37
49


Percentage
43%
57%


Economic Importance

At least 150 species of Agromyzidae are
known to feed on plants of economic impor-
tance. Damage from leaf-mining activity
can be severe, frequently reaching destruc-
tive levels, or at least weakening younger
plants and causing an appreciable reduction
in crop yields. Probably the most serious
pest is the stemboring species, Melanagro-
myza phaseoli (Tryon), which causes severe
economic loss in bean crops throughout the
Old World tropics from Africa to northern
Australia and the Pacific islands. This spe-
cies is not known in the Neotropical region.
Cultivated plants in California, particu-
larly melons, beans, alfalfa and tomato suf-
fer serious damage from the leaf miner, Liri-
omyza munda Frick, which was misidenti-
fied originally as L. pictella Thomson (Oat-
man and Michelbacher, 1958). L. munda
has caused similar damage to truck crops in
Florida, particularly in the Homestead area,
Dade County.
Plants of horticultural importance fre-
quently can be severely disfigured by leaf
miners, resulting in a considerable reduction
in their market value. Ilex vomitoria, which
is cultivated in many nurseries in Central
Florida, is often severely infested by the


host-specific leaf miner, Phytomyza vomi-
toriae Kulp.
Sudden mass outbreaks of leaf-mining ac-
tivity by relatively unknown species may oc-
cur at any time on plants which have not
been known previously to suffer substantial
damage. The barley crop was recently at-
tacked in this way over wide areas of south-
ern Germany by a species which had hither-
to only been known from isolated individuals
(Geigenmtiller, 1966).
Thus, although the Agromyzidae in most
years are not of major economic importance
in Florida, their potential to cause serious
damage to a number of cultivated plants is
ever present, and, with favorable conditions,
one or other species may at times develop as
a serious pest.

Rearing Agromyzidae

Although the basic elements of the ag-
romyzid fauna of Florida are now known,
many other species await discovery in all
parts of the state, particularly in counties in
the north. It is hoped that this paper will
increase interest in the family among ento-
mologists in general, and that at least some
workers will be encouraged to collect leaf
mines which will certainly be found during
the course of any field work and which now
can be identified more readily. In this con-
text it is felt that a few brief remarks on col-
lecting and rearing techniques may prove
helpful.
Leaf mines. Even empty leaf mines fre-
quently will permit identification of the spe-
cies concerned, provided the host plant can
be identified reliably. With a hand lens it
is easy to establish whether or not a leaf
mine contains a larva or puparium. If it is
empty, a representative sample of mines
should be pressed and dried between sheets
of newspaper, preferably together with the
flower, so that the identification of the plant
can be confirmed readily.
If mines still contain living larvae, a por-
tion of the stem containing mined leaves
should be kept in a sealed polyethylene bag
or glass tube, until the larvae have pupated.
It is better not to pick individual leaves, as







Pasco County which might have been the site
of a postulated Pleistocene island. Phyto-
myza orlandensis sp.n. also might have been
collected from a former Pleistocene island
site. Its nearest known relative is from the
Canadian Rockies, and there now might well
be a relict population which has speciated
in Central Florida. However, the great mo-
bility of the Agromyzidae is a major factor
diminishing the probability of such endemic
species in Florida. The answer can be pro-
vided only by further collecting.
Assuming that in fact no Florida Agromy-
zidae are truly endemic, a final summary of
species of probable northern and southern
origin is as follows:


Northern origin
Southern origin


Number
37
49


Percentage
43%
57%


Economic Importance

At least 150 species of Agromyzidae are
known to feed on plants of economic impor-
tance. Damage from leaf-mining activity
can be severe, frequently reaching destruc-
tive levels, or at least weakening younger
plants and causing an appreciable reduction
in crop yields. Probably the most serious
pest is the stemboring species, Melanagro-
myza phaseoli (Tryon), which causes severe
economic loss in bean crops throughout the
Old World tropics from Africa to northern
Australia and the Pacific islands. This spe-
cies is not known in the Neotropical region.
Cultivated plants in California, particu-
larly melons, beans, alfalfa and tomato suf-
fer serious damage from the leaf miner, Liri-
omyza munda Frick, which was misidenti-
fied originally as L. pictella Thomson (Oat-
man and Michelbacher, 1958). L. munda
has caused similar damage to truck crops in
Florida, particularly in the Homestead area,
Dade County.
Plants of horticultural importance fre-
quently can be severely disfigured by leaf
miners, resulting in a considerable reduction
in their market value. Ilex vomitoria, which
is cultivated in many nurseries in Central
Florida, is often severely infested by the


host-specific leaf miner, Phytomyza vomi-
toriae Kulp.
Sudden mass outbreaks of leaf-mining ac-
tivity by relatively unknown species may oc-
cur at any time on plants which have not
been known previously to suffer substantial
damage. The barley crop was recently at-
tacked in this way over wide areas of south-
ern Germany by a species which had hither-
to only been known from isolated individuals
(Geigenmtiller, 1966).
Thus, although the Agromyzidae in most
years are not of major economic importance
in Florida, their potential to cause serious
damage to a number of cultivated plants is
ever present, and, with favorable conditions,
one or other species may at times develop as
a serious pest.

Rearing Agromyzidae

Although the basic elements of the ag-
romyzid fauna of Florida are now known,
many other species await discovery in all
parts of the state, particularly in counties in
the north. It is hoped that this paper will
increase interest in the family among ento-
mologists in general, and that at least some
workers will be encouraged to collect leaf
mines which will certainly be found during
the course of any field work and which now
can be identified more readily. In this con-
text it is felt that a few brief remarks on col-
lecting and rearing techniques may prove
helpful.
Leaf mines. Even empty leaf mines fre-
quently will permit identification of the spe-
cies concerned, provided the host plant can
be identified reliably. With a hand lens it
is easy to establish whether or not a leaf
mine contains a larva or puparium. If it is
empty, a representative sample of mines
should be pressed and dried between sheets
of newspaper, preferably together with the
flower, so that the identification of the plant
can be confirmed readily.
If mines still contain living larvae, a por-
tion of the stem containing mined leaves
should be kept in a sealed polyethylene bag
or glass tube, until the larvae have pupated.
It is better not to pick individual leaves, as





these desiccate more rapidly than if still at-
tached to the stem, frequently preventing lar-
vae from completing their feeding and pu-
pating normally.
Puparia obtained in this way should be
transferred with a slightly moistened camel-
hair brush to the actual rearing container.
Glass tubes about 1 inch in diameter and 2
to 3 inches long containing a small layer of
dampened sand have been found entirely sat-
isfactory. These require attention every few
days, adding a few drops of water when nec-
essary as the sand dries out, or alternatively
removing any excess moisture on the sides
of the tube which can damage emerging flies.
In my experience healthy puparia are not
normally attacked by mold, but a number in-
variably die from other causes, and mold
then rapidly develops. When this is seen to
be happening, the dead puparia should be
removed, before the mold spreads throughout
the tube.
Species which pupate in the leaves present
a problem, as if the entire leaf or even a
small section of it containing the puparium
is kept for more than a few days in an en-
closed moist atmosphere, mold will develop
rapidly on the dead plant tissue, ultimately
killing the transforming larva. It is there-
fore necessary in such cases to remove such
puparia from the mines before rearing the
adults as described above. This is not al-
ways an easy operation, but with experience
the puparia normally can be removed with-
out causing them any damage.
Mined leaves from which the larvae have
pupated or from which puparia have been
removed, should, of course, be pressed in the
normal way. Empty pupal cases should be
retained together with the adults which have
emerged from them or should be appropri-
ately labelled so that later the two can be
associated correctly.
The necessity for careful and accurate la-
belling throughout the rearing process can-
not be too strongly emphasized. Whatever
system of serial numbering is used, the same
reference number or label can be used at six
separate stages: 1. the host plant; 2. the
polyethylene bag or tube containing the


mines in the field or the laboratory; 3. the
actual rearing container; 4. pressed mines;
5. emerging adults and empty puparia; 6.
any parasites obtained. Mistakes can be
made, however carefully one works, particu-
larly when dealing with large amounts of
material, but the labelling procedure outlined
above, if faithfully carried out, largely elimi-
nates the possibility of incorrectly associat-
ing adults and host plants, which can be so
misleading for future workers.
Stems and flower heads. When checking
stems, larval feeding activity readily can be
detected either if the stem is cut across or
split lengthwise. By following the feeding
track of the larva either down or up the
stem, the puparium normally can be found
without great difficulty and should then be
reared out, as described above. Once it has
been established in the field that a given host
contains agromyzid puparia, time can be
saved by making a random selection of stems,
which can be examined in more detail later
in the laboratory.
With flower heads and seed pods it is also
desirable first to establish that Agromyzidae
are present, and a suitably large quantity
can be collected for later detailed examina-
tion. If time permits, it is desirable to re-
move the individual puparia from flower
heads to prevent their destruction by any
developing mold (or desiccation, if kept dry).
Also, this procedure ensures correct associa-
tion of adults with their puparia, as in a
number of cases two species may be present
in a single flower head (i.e., Melanagromyza
minima and M. wedeliae in Wedelia).
Preserving adults. Emerging flies should
not be killed too rapidly and should be al-
lowed to live for at least 24 hours to ensure
complete hardening and full development of
their color. Ideally they should be pinned
using micro pins, although gluing either to a
stronger pin or a card point can be satisfac-
tory. If time or facilities do not permit this,
the specimens should be kept dry in layers
of cellulose acetate, either in tubes or pill
boxes, containing all relevant data, including
locality and date of collection, host plant and
emergence date. The greatest care is called
for in handling dry specimens to prevent







damage to antennae, bristles, legs, etc. which
may all be vital for accurate identification.
Preservation in alcohol is not recom-
mended. Although satisfactory techniques


now exist for drying out such specimens, it
is a time-consuming process which can be
avoided if the necessary attention is given to
preserving specimens dry.


Key to Genera of Florida Agromyzidae


1 Subcosta developed throughout its
length, coalescing with R1 before reach-
ing costa (Subfamily Agromyzinae) ....
.............................................................. 2
1' Subcosta becoming a fold distally and
ending in costa separately and basad of
R1 (Subfamily Phytomyzinae) ........ 5
2 2 pairs of dorso-centrals; if 3 or 4 pairs,
halteres black .............................. 3
2' At least 3 pairs of dorso-centrals, pre-
scutellars always present; halteres white
or yellow ........ Agromyza Fall6n (p. 18)
3 Either pre-scutellars or fore-tibial
bristle present or halteres yellowish ....
........ Japanagromyza Sasakawa (p. 23)
3' Halteres black, pre-scutellars lacking ..4
4 Distinct, frequently bulbous, keel be-
tween bases of antennae; male normally
with vibrissal fasciculus ...................
............ Ophiomyia Braschnikov (p. 55)
4' Antennal bases virtually approxi-
mate; vibrissa in male normal ............
............ Melanagromyza Hendel (p. 30)
5 Orbital setulae erect or reclinate, or ab-
sent .................................. ......... 6
5' Orbital setulae distinctly proclinate ..13
6 Scutellum dark, concolorous with meso-
notum ..................................... ..... 7
6' Scutellum yellow; vein M 1+2 ending
nearest wing tip ............................ 12
7 Halteres with knob white or yellow .. 8
7' Halteres with knob black or at least
partially darkened ............................
..............Amauromyza Hendel (p. 93)


8 Vein R 4+5 ending nearest wing tip....
............................ Phytobia Lioy (p. 64)
8' Vein M 1+2 ending nearest wing tip..9
9 Third antennal segment with a spine,
scutellum with only 2 bristles; or lunule
conspicuously higher than a semicircle,
either narrow or triangular; or lunule
conspicuously large and broad, antennal
bases widely separated and third anten-
nal segment in male normally greatly
enlarged .... Cerodontha Rondani (p. 64)
9Y Not so ............................... .......... 10
10 Fore-tibia with lateral bristle; abdomen
in male conspicuously yellow ................
...................... Nemorimyza Frey (p. 95)
10' Only mid-tibia sometimes with lateral
bristles, fore-tibia never ................. 11
11 No pre-sutural dc; mesopleura and
femora largely black ......................
.................. Calycomyza Hendel (p. 71)
11' Pre-sutural dc present; antennae and
legs yellow ...............................-----
........Pteridomyza Nowakowski (p. 110)
12 Second cross-vein lacking; single ors ......
.................... Haplomyza Hendel (p. 111)
12' Second cross-vein present; two ors ......
............................ Liriomyza Mik (p. 96)
13 Costa extending to vein M 1+2; second
cross-vein present ..................................
..............Phytoliriomyza Hendel (p. 114)
13' Costa ending at vein R 4+5; second
cross-vein absent .........................
.................... Phytomyza Fallen (p. 117)








SUBFAMILY AGROMYZINAE


GENUS AGROMZA FALLEN
GENUS AGROMYZA FALLEN


Agromyza Fallen, 1810:21. Type of genus:
Agromyza nigripes Meigen, 1830.
The genus Agromyza is distributed
throughout the world and includes approxi-
mately 160 species, but it occurs predomi-
nantly in temperate areas of the northern
hemisphere. Only a single species is known
in Australia and seven in the Neotropical
Region. It is not surprising therefore that
only four species are recorded in Florida,
with a further three from the Caribbean
area. In the Nearctic Region to the north
28 species are recorded (Spencer, 1969a).
American workers in the past have in-
cluded species in Agromyza which now are
placed in Japanagromyza. The five species
in couplets 11 to 13 of Frick's (1959) key
to Agromyza species are in this category.
Agromyza species invariably have more than
two pairs of dorso-centrals, while in Japan-
agromyza (with the single exception of J.
brooks Spencer, 1969a from Canada) only
two occur.


Key to Florida species of Agromysa

1 Third antennal segment reddish orange,
frons reddish in front, black behind ......
................................ varifrons Coquillett
1' Third antennal segment and frons
darker, black or at most brown ........ 2
2 Third antennal segment black; large spe-
cies, wing length 3.1 mm .... sp. (Florida)
2' Third antennal segment paler, at least
partially brownish .............................. 3
3 Aedeagus as in Figs. 4, 5 ......................
--... ...................-- ........ parvicornis Loew
3' Aedeagus as in Figs. 8, 9.....................
.-.................................. proxima Spencer

Agromyza parvicornis Loew
Fig. 4-7
Agromyza parvicornis Loew, 1869: 49;
Spencer, 1869a: 51. Lectotype male from
District of Columbia, designated by Frick
(1957), in MCZ.
Adult: frons brown, broad, almost twice
width of eye, distinctly projecting above eye


IT <




4
^f^^s^

Z' '
lr N7


Figs. 4-6. Agromyza parvicornis: 4, aedeagus, side view; 5, same, ventral view; 6, surstylus.








SUBFAMILY AGROMYZINAE


GENUS AGROMZA FALLEN
GENUS AGROMYZA FALLEN


Agromyza Fallen, 1810:21. Type of genus:
Agromyza nigripes Meigen, 1830.
The genus Agromyza is distributed
throughout the world and includes approxi-
mately 160 species, but it occurs predomi-
nantly in temperate areas of the northern
hemisphere. Only a single species is known
in Australia and seven in the Neotropical
Region. It is not surprising therefore that
only four species are recorded in Florida,
with a further three from the Caribbean
area. In the Nearctic Region to the north
28 species are recorded (Spencer, 1969a).
American workers in the past have in-
cluded species in Agromyza which now are
placed in Japanagromyza. The five species
in couplets 11 to 13 of Frick's (1959) key
to Agromyza species are in this category.
Agromyza species invariably have more than
two pairs of dorso-centrals, while in Japan-
agromyza (with the single exception of J.
brooks Spencer, 1969a from Canada) only
two occur.


Key to Florida species of Agromysa

1 Third antennal segment reddish orange,
frons reddish in front, black behind ......
................................ varifrons Coquillett
1' Third antennal segment and frons
darker, black or at most brown ........ 2
2 Third antennal segment black; large spe-
cies, wing length 3.1 mm .... sp. (Florida)
2' Third antennal segment paler, at least
partially brownish .............................. 3
3 Aedeagus as in Figs. 4, 5 ......................
--... ...................-- ........ parvicornis Loew
3' Aedeagus as in Figs. 8, 9.....................
.-.................................. proxima Spencer

Agromyza parvicornis Loew
Fig. 4-7
Agromyza parvicornis Loew, 1869: 49;
Spencer, 1869a: 51. Lectotype male from
District of Columbia, designated by Frick
(1957), in MCZ.
Adult: frons brown, broad, almost twice
width of eye, distinctly projecting above eye


IT <




4
^f^^s^

Z' '
lr N7


Figs. 4-6. Agromyza parvicornis: 4, aedeagus, side view; 5, same, ventral view; 6, surstylus.








SUBFAMILY AGROMYZINAE


GENUS AGROMZA FALLEN
GENUS AGROMYZA FALLEN


Agromyza Fallen, 1810:21. Type of genus:
Agromyza nigripes Meigen, 1830.
The genus Agromyza is distributed
throughout the world and includes approxi-
mately 160 species, but it occurs predomi-
nantly in temperate areas of the northern
hemisphere. Only a single species is known
in Australia and seven in the Neotropical
Region. It is not surprising therefore that
only four species are recorded in Florida,
with a further three from the Caribbean
area. In the Nearctic Region to the north
28 species are recorded (Spencer, 1969a).
American workers in the past have in-
cluded species in Agromyza which now are
placed in Japanagromyza. The five species
in couplets 11 to 13 of Frick's (1959) key
to Agromyza species are in this category.
Agromyza species invariably have more than
two pairs of dorso-centrals, while in Japan-
agromyza (with the single exception of J.
brooks Spencer, 1969a from Canada) only
two occur.


Key to Florida species of Agromysa

1 Third antennal segment reddish orange,
frons reddish in front, black behind ......
................................ varifrons Coquillett
1' Third antennal segment and frons
darker, black or at most brown ........ 2
2 Third antennal segment black; large spe-
cies, wing length 3.1 mm .... sp. (Florida)
2' Third antennal segment paler, at least
partially brownish .............................. 3
3 Aedeagus as in Figs. 4, 5 ......................
--... ...................-- ........ parvicornis Loew
3' Aedeagus as in Figs. 8, 9.....................
.-.................................. proxima Spencer

Agromyza parvicornis Loew
Fig. 4-7
Agromyza parvicornis Loew, 1869: 49;
Spencer, 1869a: 51. Lectotype male from
District of Columbia, designated by Frick
(1957), in MCZ.
Adult: frons brown, broad, almost twice
width of eye, distinctly projecting above eye


IT <




4
^f^^s^

Z' '
lr N7


Figs. 4-6. Agromyza parvicornis: 4, aedeagus, side view; 5, same, ventral view; 6, surstylus.








SUBFAMILY AGROMYZINAE


GENUS AGROMZA FALLEN
GENUS AGROMYZA FALLEN


Agromyza Fallen, 1810:21. Type of genus:
Agromyza nigripes Meigen, 1830.
The genus Agromyza is distributed
throughout the world and includes approxi-
mately 160 species, but it occurs predomi-
nantly in temperate areas of the northern
hemisphere. Only a single species is known
in Australia and seven in the Neotropical
Region. It is not surprising therefore that
only four species are recorded in Florida,
with a further three from the Caribbean
area. In the Nearctic Region to the north
28 species are recorded (Spencer, 1969a).
American workers in the past have in-
cluded species in Agromyza which now are
placed in Japanagromyza. The five species
in couplets 11 to 13 of Frick's (1959) key
to Agromyza species are in this category.
Agromyza species invariably have more than
two pairs of dorso-centrals, while in Japan-
agromyza (with the single exception of J.
brooks Spencer, 1969a from Canada) only
two occur.


Key to Florida species of Agromysa

1 Third antennal segment reddish orange,
frons reddish in front, black behind ......
................................ varifrons Coquillett
1' Third antennal segment and frons
darker, black or at most brown ........ 2
2 Third antennal segment black; large spe-
cies, wing length 3.1 mm .... sp. (Florida)
2' Third antennal segment paler, at least
partially brownish .............................. 3
3 Aedeagus as in Figs. 4, 5 ......................
--... ...................-- ........ parvicornis Loew
3' Aedeagus as in Figs. 8, 9.....................
.-.................................. proxima Spencer

Agromyza parvicornis Loew
Fig. 4-7
Agromyza parvicornis Loew, 1869: 49;
Spencer, 1869a: 51. Lectotype male from
District of Columbia, designated by Frick
(1957), in MCZ.
Adult: frons brown, broad, almost twice
width of eye, distinctly projecting above eye


IT <




4
^f^^s^

Z' '
lr N7


Figs. 4-6. Agromyza parvicornis: 4, aedeagus, side view; 5, same, ventral view; 6, surstylus.






anteriorly; jowls deeply extended at rear,
one-third vertical height of eye; third an-
tennal segment rounded, virtually bare, pale
brown, arista distinctly pubescent; mesono-
tum shining black, with four or five dc,
greatly decreasing in size (not two as stated
by Frick, 1959: 357); legs black, fore-knees
paler, all tibiae distinctly brownish; wing
length from 2.5 mm in male to 3.1 mm in fe-
male; squamae and margin yellowish-white,
fringe either entirely white or slightly dark-
er, ochrous brown.
Male genitalia: aedeagus (Fig. 4, 5) with
conspicuously short and broad distiphallus,
surstyli (Fig. 6) with a group of some 15
bristles on inner margin.
Host plant/Biology: Zea mays and prob-
ably other Gramineae.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., High-
lands Co., Polk Co.; Washington, DC; Can-
ada: British Columbia, Ontario.
Remarks: A. parvicornis belongs to a
closely-related group of grass feeders and is
well known in the literature as the "corn
leaf miner." It is probable that several other


Fig. 7. Distribution of Agromyza parvicornis.


species have been confused in the past with
the true parvicornis.
Examination of the types confirms that
one is largely destroyed, but the male lecto-
type is in perfect condition. The aedeagus
is entirely distinctive, and the short, broad
distiphallus will permit immediate identifica-
tion of this species.
The species in Florida feeding on Echino-
chloa walteri, discussed by Spencer (1966c:
1) as parvicornis, in fact represented a new
species, which was described by Spencer,
1969a:52 as A. proxima (cf. p. 19).
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, three
males, one female, 9 May 1959, ex leaf mines
on Zea mays (G.W. Dekle); Highlands Co.,
Archbold Biological Station, one female, 15
April 1969 (S.W. Frost); Polk Co., Lake-
land, one female, no date (G.G. Ainslie).
District of Columbia: Washington, one
male (Osten-Sacken), lectotype.


Agromyza proxima Spencer

Fig. 8-12

Agromyza proxima Spencer, 1969a: 52.
Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co., in
USNM.
Adult: wing length 2.4 2.7 mm, costa ex-
tending strongly to vein M1+2, frons
slightly projecting above eye near antennae,
jowls deeply extended at rear, 1/4 vertical
height of eye; third antenna segment roun-
ded, slightly longer than broad, with normal
pubescence; frons black or blackish brown;
antennae largely black, but first and second
segments and third segment on inside more
brownish; mesonotum shining black; legs:
femora black, tibiae and tarsi only slightly
paler, dark brown; squamae pale gray, fringe
ochrous brown.
Male genitalia: aedeagus with long, rela-
tively narrow distiphallus, as in Figs. 8, 9.
Puparium: reddish brown, posterior spir-
acles each with three bulbs, the two processes
closely adjoining and on a conspicuous pro-
tuberance (Fig. 10); puparium reddish
brown, larval mouth parts as in Fig. 11.







Host plant/Biology: Echinochloa crusgalli,
E. walteri, Panicum dichotomiflorum, larva
forming large yellowish leaf mine, many lar-
vae feeding together; pupation externally.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Sweet-
water; New York, Kennedy Airport; Can-
ada; Manitoba.
Remarks: This species previously had
been confused with A. parvicornis Loew
(Spencer, 1966c: 1). Only after establish-
ing the true identity of parvicornis by exam-
ination of the genitalia of the lectotype did
it become apparent that the specimens from
Sweetwater represented a distinct species. A.
proxima is extremely close to parvicornis,
but the third antennal segment is slightly


smaller and somewhat darker, and the ae-
deagus is substantially longer and narrower.
The male genitalia normally will provide the
only certain means of identification of these
species.

Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Sweetwater, Tamiami
Canal, four males, four females, emerged 3
Aug. 1963 ex leaf mines on Echinochloa, col-
lected 24 July 1963 (C.E.S.); New York:
Kennedy Airport, leaf mine with dead larvae
in Panicum dichotomiflorum, 25 Oct. 1965
(K.A.S.).
Canada: Manitoba, 2 mi. East of Forrest,
one male, 19 July 1958 (J.G. Chillcott).










I )


Figs. 8-11. Agromyza proxima: 8, aedeagus, side view; 9, same, ventral view; 10, posterior spiracles of
puparium; 11, larval mouth-parts.




























Fig. 12. Distribution of Agromyza proxima.

Agromyza varifrons Coquillett

Fig. 13-15

Agromyza varifrons Coquillett, 1902: 189;
Spencer, 1966c: 2; 1969a: 59. Holotype fe-
male from District of Columbia in USNM.
Adult: frons reddish in front, black be-
hind, all antennal segments conspicuously
reddish orange; three pairs of differentiated
dc; femora black, knees, tibiae and tarsi dis-
tinctly paler; mesonotum moderately shining
black; wing length 2.3 mm.


ii~ii/


Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 13,
cerci distinctive, bearing group of stout bris-
tles at end (Fig. 14).
Host plant/Biology: Celtis laevigata and
C. occidentalis, larva forming conspicuous
blotch mine, pupating externally.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Hialeah;
widespread in Eastern United States; Can-
ada; S. Ontario.
Remarks: The distinctive coloration makes
this species readily recognizable. It appears
to be widespread with its food plant and no
doubt occurs continuously from Florida to S.
Ontario where it was found by the senior
author at Point Pelee in July 1967, represent-
ing the northern limit of its distribution.
A. varifrons is closely related to A. trebin-
jensis Strobl occurring on C. australis L. in
Europe (Spencer, 1966c: 2).
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, one fe-
male, 24 March 1966 (F.W. Mead); Dade
Co., Hialeah, 6 exx., emerged 5 Oct. 1963
from leaf mines on Celtis laevigata collected
22 Sept. (C.E.S.).
Canada: Point Pelee, S. Ontario, one fe-
male, 15 July 1966; one female, emerged 4
Apr. 1968 from leaf mine on Celtis collected
15 July 1966 (Both K.A.S.).


Figs. 13, 14. Agromyza varifrona: 13, aedeagus; 14, cercus.
21


































Fig. 15. Distribution of Agromyza varifrons.

Agromyza sp. (Florida)

Fig. 16

Highlands Co., Highland Hammock State
Park, one female, 10 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.).
This specimen almost certainly represents
an undescribed species, but it seems prefer-
able not to describe it formally until males
are available. The essential characters are
as follows:
Frons narrow, equal to width of eye, not
projecting above eye; jowls narrow, slightly
less than one-sixth vertical height of eye;
third antennal segment small, round, with
distinct patch of short pubescence at end;
three dc, greatly decreasing in size; frons
and antennae black, mesonotum shining
black, all legs black; squamae and fringe sil-
very white; wing length 3.1 mm.
The only Neotropical species with which
this specimen can be compared is A. vene-
zolana, but Agromyza sp. is substantially
larger. In the author's key to Canadian spe-
cies it would run to A. albipennis Meigen


(squamal fringe white, all legs entirely
black), but it clearly does not represent this
species in view of the differently shaped an-
tennae.

GENUS JAPANAGROMYZA
SASAKAWA

Japanagromyza Sasakawa, 1958: 140. Type
of genus: Agromyza duchesneae Sasa-
kawa, 1954: 106.
This genus was erected for a small group
of species in Japan but also occurs widely in
the Oriental-Pacific Region. Later it was
found to be present in southern Florida and
also widespread in the Neotropical Region
(Spencer, 1963a; 1966c). One new species
from Florida and four from the Caribbean
are described in this paper.
Japanagromyza appears to occupy an in-
termediate position between Agromyza and
Melanagromyza. The halteres are invariably
white or yellow and pre-scutellars are fre-
quently present as in Agromyza, but there
invariably are only two pairs of dorso-
centrals as in Melanagromyza. The six spe-
cies now known in Florida can be distin-
guished readily on external characters, but


Fig. 16. Distribution of Agromyza sp. (Florida).
Fig. 16. Distribution of Agromyza sp. (Florida).






J. perpetua, which occurs from Costa Rica
throughout the Caribbean to southern Flor-
ida, cannot be satisfactorily separated from
J. bennetti, which is known from Antigua,
Barbados and Puerto Rico, except by the
male genitalia. Several other species groups
found both in the Neotropical and Oriental
Regions show significant differentiation only
in the genitalia.
Species in this genus feeding on cultivated
crops such as Phaseolus and Vigna must be
considered as of potential economic impor-
tance. Young plants will be weakened, if
not destroyed, by the large blotch mines pro-
duced by the larvae.

Key to Florida Japanagromyza species

1 Pre-scutellars lacking .......................... 2
1' Pre-scutellars present ............................ 3
2 Mesonotum distinctly greenish ..................
.................................... perpetual Spencer
2' Mesonotum primarily mat grayish black,
only faintly greenish ..............................
........................... desmodivora Spencer
3 Mesonotum predominantly black; large
species, wing length 2.8 3 mm ..............
-............................ viridula (Coquillett)
3' Mesonotum greenish ............................ 4
4 Upper orbital bristle shorter than lower
................................ inaequalis (Malloch)
4' Upper orbital bristles equal .............. 5
5 Frons brown ........... aequalis Spencer
5' Frons mat black .... perpetual Spencer


18


17

17


Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer

Fig. 17-23


Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer, 1966c: 3.
Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co. in
USNM.
Adult: two strong, equal ors; jowls nar-
row, one-twelfth vertical height of eye; third
antennal segment distinctly covered with
short, white pilosity, arista only slightly pu-
bescent; two strong dc, frequently short third
also present; pre-scutellars well developed;
wing length 2 2.4 mm; fore-tibia with one,
mid-tibia with two lateral bristles; frons uni-
formly brown, ocellar triangle and orbits dis-
tinctly shining black, mesonotum greenish
or coppery black, moderately shining; squa-
mae and fringe, also halteres entirely white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus membranous
basally, chitinized at sides towards distiphal-
lus, this short, extending only slightly be-
yond end of chitinization (Fig. 17); ninth
sternite rounded, without apodeme, as in J.
desmodivora (Fig. 25), side arms unusually
broad, upcurved at end (Fig. 18), surstyli
curving inward, not downward, without
bristles (Fig. 19); cerci without internal
bristles but with 5 or 6 short black teeth
grouped at end (Fig. 20); epandrium with
distinctive narrow extension toward cerci
(Fig. 21); sperm sac very small, blade lin-
ear.


'ii


/
S


Fig. 17-19. Japanagromyza aequalis: 17, aedeagus, side view; 18, ninth sternite, side view; 19 surstylus.
23







Puparium: pale, straw coloured, posterior
spiracles each with three bulbs on widely-
separated, well-defined protuberances (Fig.
22).
Host plant/Biology: Vigna luteola (=re-
pens), larva forming whitish blotch mine,
pupating externally.
Distribution: Florida, Hialeah; Bahama
Is.; Dominica.
Remarks: This species is readily distin-
guishable from J. inaequalis, which occurs
on the same food plant, by the stronger dor-
sal orbital bristle, the paler brown frons and
the distinctive pilosity on the third antennal
segment; the male genitalia and pupal char-
acters also are entirely distinct.


The distribution of this species clearly in-
dicates its West Indian origin; it almost cer-
tainly will be found to occur elsewhere in
the Caribbean area.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, two males, one
female, 10 Oct. 1963 ex leaf mines on Vigna
luteola leg. 30 Sept. 1963; four males, two
females, 12 Nov. 1963 ex leaf mines leg. 25
Oct. 1963 (all C.E.S.).
Bahamas: Berry Is., Little Harbour Cay,
one female, 1 May 1953; Darby Is., Exuma
Cay, one female, 18 Jan. 1953 (E.B. Hayden
and L. Giovannoli).
Dominica: Layou River mouth, one male,
6 Feb., one female, 9 Jan. 1953 (W.W.
Wirth).








---- -- 22


7


Fig. 20-22. Japanagromyza aequalis: 20, cercus; 21,
epandrium; 22, posterior spiracles of puparium.


Fig. 23. Distribution of Japanagromyza aequalis.
Fig. 23. Distribution of Japanagromyza aequalis.






Japanagromyza desmodivora Spencer

Fig. 24-30

Japanagromyza desmodivora Spencer, 1966:
4. Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co.
in USNM.
Adult: two strong, equal ors, jowls nar-
row, one-tenth vertical height of eye; third
antennal segment rounded above, flatter be-
low; arista largely bare; two dc, pre-scutel-
lars lacking; wing length from 1.9 mm in
male to 2.2 mm in female; fore-tibia with
one, mid-tibia with two lateral bristles; frons
mat, brownish black, orbits darker black,
slightly shining; mesonotum largely mat,
grayish black, occasionally faintly greenish,
abdomen more obviously gray green; squa-
mae and fringe silvery white, halteres white.


) 24


Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 24,
basiphallus and base of distiphallus
chitinized but area between entirely mem-
branous, distal tubule short, also membra-
nous; ninth sternite as in Fig. 25, without
apodeme; surstyli (Fig. 26) short but stout,
with some 12 spines; cerci (Fig. 27) with
some 20-25 strong spines and unusually long
hairs at end; sperm sac as in Fig. 28.
Host plant/Biology: Desmodium tor-
tuosum, larva forming irregular blotch mine,
greenish when fresh, becoming white or
brownish with age; puparium orange brown,
deeply segmented, posterior spiracles each
with three slightly raised bulbs (Fig. 29)
lying immediately adjacent to the anal de-
pression.
Distribution: Florida, Miami; ?Colombia,
Bogota.


C'


2


Figs. 24-29. Japanagromyza desmodivora: 24, aedea-
gus, side view; 25, ninth sternite; 26, surstyli;
27, cercus; 28, sperm sac; 29, posterior spiracles
of puparium.


~































Fig. 30. Distribution of Japanagromyza desmodivora.

Remarks: This species consistently lacks
pre-scutellars and the very long hairs on the
cerci are distinctive. J. propinqua (cf. Fig.
353) has similarly long hairs on the cerci
but pre-scutellars are in this species well de-
veloped.
Empty leaf mines found on Desmodium
near Bogota are possibly referable to J. des-
modivora.


Material examined:
Dade Co., Miami, four males, eight fe-
males, early Nov. 1963 ex leaf mines on Des-
modium tortuosum collected 17 Oct. 1963;
five males, three females, 13 Oct. 1963 ex
leaf mines collected 26 Sept. 1963 (all
C.E.S.).

Japanagromyza inaequalis (Malloch)

Fig. 31-35

Agromyza inaequalis Malloch, 1914a: 89;
Shewell, 1953: 463; Frick, 1957: 199;
1959: 355. Holotype female from Puerto
Rico in USNM.
Japanagromyza inaequalis, Spencer, 1963a:
302; 1966c: 5.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
normally 2.3 2.4 mm; upper orbital bristle
always distinctly shorter than lower; frons
mat black, more rarely brownish; lunule
whitish gray; third antennal segment large,
distinctly longer than broad, arista slightly
pubescent; mesonotum mat greenish gray,
more -rarely faintly bluish, more shining
from behind, with two strong dc and nor-
mally a pair of well-developed pre-scutellars
(sometimes weak, present on one side or


t.~-: I


Fig. 31, 32. Japanagromyza inaequalis:
B, cercus.


31, aedeagus (Dominica); 32, epandrium with A, surstylus and






greatly reduced, similar to acr) ; legs black,
fore-tibia with one weak lateral bristle, mid-
tibia with two stronger ones; abdomen shin-
ing greenish or faintly bluish; squamae and
fringe white; halteres white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 31,
mesophallus strongly chitinized, distiphallus
pale, paired tubules forming a regular coil
lying below aedeagal apodeme; distinct but
irregularly chitinized hypophallus pres-
ent; ninth sternite with distinct hypandrial
apodeme; surstyli (Fig. 32A) elongate, di-
rected ventrally (not projecting inward),
bearing from two to five strong spines; cerci
with 20 or more internally-directed spines
(Fig. 32B).
Host plant/Biology: Vigna luteola (=re-
pens), larva forming conspicuous greenish
white blotch mine (Fig. 33), pupating ex-
ternally; puparium oval, dark brown, poster-
ior spiracles each with three bulbs (Fig. 34).
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., High-
lands Co.; Dominica, Puerto Rico.
Remarks: This species is readily distin-
guishable by the shorter upper orbital
bristle. In the larval and pupal stages it is
immediately separable from J. aequalis
which forms similar mines on the same host
by the differently arranged posterior spira-
cles and pale, straw-colored puparium in ae-
qualis (cf. Fig. 22). The distinctive char-
acter of the male genitalia is the well-chitin-
ized hypophallus, which is not present in any
other species in this region.
The new record of this species from Do-
minica suggests that it probably is wide-
spread throughout the Caribbean area.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, two females,
17 April and 8 Dec. 1963, one male, Nov.
1965, all ex leaf mines on Vigna luteola
(C.E.S.) ; Miami, Fairchild Tropical Garden,
two males caught on host plant, 17 Oct. 1968;
two males emerged 8 Nov. from leaf mines
leg. 17 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.); High-
lands Co., Archbold Biological Station,
one female, 28 Jan. 1965, ex Vigna sp. (S.W.
Frost).
Dominica: Layou River mouth, one male,
two females, 18-24 March 1965 (W.W.
Wirth).


Fig. 33, 34. Japanagromyza inaequalis: 33, leaf
mine on Vigna luteola; 34, posterior spiracles
of puparium.


Fig. 35. Distribution of Japanagromyza inaequalis.


~r" ':






Japanagromyza perpetua Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 36-38

Head: frons equal to width of eye; two
equal ors, two similar ori, the lower in-
curved; orbital setulae sparse, reclinate;
jowls narrow, one-tenth vertical height of
eye; arista with distinct pubescence (detect-
able at magnification X38).
Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr in some
ten rows; pre-scutellars present (though
sometimes weak).
Legs: fore-tibia with one, mid-tibia with
two lateral bristles.
Wing: length from 1.9 to 2.4 mm, last
section of vein M4 two-thirds penultimate,
first cross-vein before midpoint of discal cell.
Color: frons mat black, orbits slightly
more shining, lunule silvery; mesonotum
greenish black, only moderately shining; ab-
domen more strongly shining green; veins
dark brown to black, wing base yellowish,
squamae and fringe whitish yellow; halteres
white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 36A,
basiphallus and mesophallus uniformly but
weakly chitinized, distiphallus entirely mem-
branous, forming coil below aedeagal apo-
deme, ninth sternite rounded, without hy-
pandrial apodeme (Fig. 36B.); surstyli and
cerci as in Fig. 37A, B, cerci with numerous
stout bristles internally, surstyli extending
downward, not inward.
Holotype male, Dominica, Cabrit Swamp,
one male, 23 Feb. 1965, light trap (W.W.
Wirth) ; paratypes: Dominica, one female,
same data as holotype; Florida, Alachua Co.,
Gainesville, one male, 10 Dec. 1949 (G.S.
Walley); Monroe Co., Key Largo, one male,








36 A
36A


Fig. 38. Distribution of Japanagromyza perpetual.

one female, 4 Sept. 1955 (F.W. Mead); Ba-
hamas, Eleuthera Is., Hatchet Bay (nr. Alice-
town), one male, 2 April 1953 (E.B. Hay-
den & L. Giovannoli); Costa Rica, La Caja,
8 km W. of San Jos6, seven males, 1930
(Schmidt); Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, two
males, 15-16 Feb. 1914. Holotype and one
paratype in USNM, further paratypes in
AMNH, CNC, DEI, FSCA and senior au-
thor's collection. There is a further long









B


? r^^~


Figs. 36, 37. Japanagromyza perpetua: 36 A, aedeagus, B, ninth sternite; 37, epandrium with A, surstylus
and B, cercus.






series of both males and females with the
same data as the paratypes from Costa Rica,
but these are in poor condition and are not
formally being treated as paratypes.
Remarks: This species is very close to J.
bennetti, known from Antigua and Barba-
dos, but the longer distiphallus, the lack of a
hypandrial apodeme in the ninth sternite
and the more pubescent arista represent
slight but constant differences.
Although the only record from Florida is
from Gainesville, it seems certain that the
species eventually will be found in southern
Florida.
J. perpetual is immediately recognizable
from J. inaequalis (Mall.) by the two equal
ors.
The male from Puerto Rico, Loiza, 13
March 1933 (Faxon, Mills, Anderson)
briefly discussed by Spencer (1963a: 305
and Fig. 15A-D) clearly represents perpetual.
This particular specimen apparently entirely
lacked pre-scutellars but the male genitalia
as illustrated agree exactly with those of
the additional material now examined. J.
perpetua is therefore included also in couplet
5 to cover such cases where the pre-scutellars
may be absent.
A male from Puerto Rico, San Juan, Guay-
ama, 11 June 1933 (A.S. Mills) was origi-
nally considered to represent perpetual. How-
ever, the pair of internal bristles in the
epandrium present in all specimens of per-
petua which have been examined, are re-
placed by a group of six bristles, the chiti-
nization of the distiphallus does not end
abruptly before dividing into the apical tu-
bules, and other minor differences in the gen-
italia indicate that this specimen represents
a distinct species. Additional material is
awaited before this will be formally de-
scribed.


-

Japanagromyza viridula (Coquillett)

Fig. 39-41

Agromyza viridula Coquillett, 1902: 190.
Type series in USNM.
Japanagromyza viridula, Spencer, 1966c: 3;
1969a: 63.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
2.8 3.0 mm, costa extending strongly to vein
M1+2, first cross-vein well before midpoint
of discal cell; frons not projecting above eye,
mat black, lunule conspicuously silvery; or-
bital bristles strong, third antennal segment
large; two dc, a strong pair of pre-scutellars;
fore-tibia with one strong lateral bristle,
mid-tibia with two; mesonotum moderately
shining blackish, abdomen conspicuously
green; squamae and fringe silvery; halteres
white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 39,
with long straight distiphallus and well de-
veloped hypophallus; ninth sternite with
elongated hypandrial apodeme; surstyli
(Fig. 40A) projecting downward, long,
straight, with about ten strong bristles to-
ward end and another group at upper corner;
cerci (Fig. 40B) without bristles.
















40 B


39


Fig. 39, 40. Japanagromyza viridula: 39, aedeagus; 40, epandrium with A, surstylus and B, cercus.
29


'llft






Host plant/Biology: Quercus rubra and
probably other Quercus spp., larva forming
an upper-surface blotch, pupating externally.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co.; wide-
spread in Eastern U.S. to Gulf of Mexico;
Canada: Ontario, Nova Scotia. New to Flor-
ida.
Remarks: In his description Coquillett re-
fers to five specimens from District of Co-
lumbia, Massachusetts, Georgia and two
from Puerto Rico. The specimens from the
first three localities almost certainly are con-
specific and represent viridula. It is virtu-
ally certain, however, that the two specimens
from Puerto Rico represent one of the other
closely related species now known to occur
on that island.
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, one
male, 20 April 1967 (W.W. Wirth).


GENUS MELANAGROMYZA HENDEL

Melanagromyza Hendel, 1920: 120; Spencer,
1966a: 3-60; 1969a: 64. Type of genus
Agromyza aeneoventris Fallen, 1823a: 4.


WAg. 41. D n ol.

Fig. 41. Distribution of Japanagromyza viridula.


This is the second largest genus of the
Agromyzidae with 280 described species. It
is the dominant genus in both the Old and
New World tropics but is also well repre-
sented in more temperate areas of both
northern and southern hemispheres (South
Africa); it does not penetrate into the Arc-
tic. With 21 species it is the largest genus
in Florida. The entire Nearctic Region has
only 27 species.
The majority of world species are internal
stem borers, and this group is well repre-
sented in Florida with seven species. The
largest group in Florida, however, are the
feeders in seed heads, with nine species. The
biology of two species, M. caribbea and M.
parvella, has not been definitely established,
but they are almost certainly leaf miners re-
lated to M. crotonis (p. 153). This difference
in feeding habit, supported by differences in
male genitalia, suggests that these species
may not be monophyletic with the stem bor-
ers and seed feeders (which certainly are)
but further study will be required before a
new genus can justifiably be erected for this
group. M. marelli is an isolated species form-
ing stem galls on Alternanthera.
Six new species are described below and
two further species are new to Florida.
There are many complexes in this genus
in which it is impossible to separate individ-
ual species on external characters. The male
genitalia, however, provide a reliable means
of identification, and the larval/puparial
spiracles are also normally distinctive. Most
species are host specific, but many are oligo-
phagous and occur on closely related genera
in the same family. One such species in
Florida is M. bidentis feeding in seed heads
of Bidens and Verbesina. M. splendid is
truly polyphagous, being a stem borer in Am-
brosia, Bidens, Erechtites, Flaveria, Gailar-
dia, Helianthus and Lactuca in the Composi-
tae and in Apium and Daucus in the Um-
belliferae.
In the past M. virens has been considered
as a polyphagous species occurring on a wide
range of hosts, but it now seems clear that
such records refer to other species, and the
confirmed hosts are only Eupatorium and
Heterotheca.






Key to Florida Melanagromyza species


1 Squamal fringe pale, whitish ............ 2
1' Squamal fringe dark, brownish or ......
black ..................................-- ....---.-- 13
2 Ocellar triangle brilliantly shining .... 3
2' Ocellar triangle at most moderately ....
shining .........................-.................-- 5
3 Jowls deep, one-quarter eye height ......
.............................. viridis (Frost)
3' Jowls narrower, one-seventh to one-
twelfth eye height ............................ 4
4 Ocellar triangle black, mesonotum bril-
liantly shining blackish green ................
-.............---...--. heliotropii Spencer
4' Ocellar triangle greenish blue, mesono-
tum strongly shining green, blue or
greenish blue ............ ruelliae Spencer
5 Arista bare ..........-----.................-------- 6
5' Arista appearing at least slightly pu-
bescent ...----. ....-- --......--------.-- 10
6 Orbits conspicuously widened, orbi-
tal setulae in numerous rows ............ 7
6' Orbits narrow, normal .................... 8
7 Orbits exceptionally wide, each up to
one-third width of frons; orbital setulae
conspicuously proclinate above, more
reclinate below; mesonotum distinctly
mat viewed from front .. virens (Loew)
7' Orbits less pronounced; orbital setulae
shorter, less numerous; mesonotum
more shining ................ splendid Frick
8 Jowls narrow, one-eighth height of eye;
small species, wing length 2 mm ...... 9
8' Jowls broader, one-quarter to one-fifth
height of eye .......... lippivora Spencer
9 Orbital setulae entirely reclinate; eye
bare in both sexes ........ floris Spencer
9' Orbital setulae proclinate on inner row;
eye pilose in male .... chaptaliae Spencer
10 Fore-tibial bristle strongly developed,
large species, wing length 2.6 3.4 mm..
.................................... caerulea (M all.)
10' Fore-tibial bristle weak or absent .. 11
11 Eye in male bare ............................ 12
11' Eye in male pilose .... vectabilis Spencer


12 Orbital setulae minute, similar to pu-
bescence of arista .... foridensis Spencer
12' Orbital setulae long, substantially
longer than pubescence of arista ......
.............................. miamensis Spencer
13 Mesonotum or abdomen greenish or cop-
pery ............-...................--------..... 14
13' Mesonotum and abdomen black ...... 18
14 Orbital setulae in two rows, inner row
proclinate, outer reclinate; eye slightly
pilose in male; wing length 2.3 mm .. 15
14' Orbital setulae in single row, recli-
nate .................................................. 16
15 Jowls broad, one-fifth height of eye; or-
bital setulae relatively long; aedeagus as
in Fig. 55, 56 ........ erechtitidis Spencer
15' Jowls narrow, one-tenth height of eye;
orbital setulae conspicuously short; ae-
deagus as in Fig. 117, 118 ..............
................... ............ wedeliae Spencer
16 Very small species, wing length not
more than 1.9 mm .......................... 17
16' Slightly larger species, wing length up
to 2.2 mm; mesonotum more mat, green-
ish; aedeagus with slight gap between
basiphallus and distiphallus complex
(Fig. 86) ; ovipositor slightly elongated
................................ minimoides Spencer
17 Mesonotum predominantly bluish black;
long gap between basiphallus and disti-
phallus (Fig. 84), ovipositor greatly
elongated (Fig. 83) .. minima (Mall.)
17' Mesonotum predominantly greenish
black; basiphallus and distiphallus ad-
joining (Fig. 42); ovipositor not elon-
gated ...................... bidentis Spencer
18 Jowls exceptionally broad, one-quarter.
vertical height of eye ..............................
.................................... marellii (Brethes)
18' Jowls narrower, at most one-fifth eye
height .............................................. 19
19 Frons relatively broad, one and a half
times width of eye; mesonotum appear-
ing mat viewed from front, moderately
shining from behind .. caribbea Spencer
19' Frons narrower, equal to width of eye;
mesonotum brilliantly shining black ......
.................................. parvella Spencer






Melanagromyza bidentis Spencer

Fig. 42-44

Melanagromyza bidentis Spencer, 1966c: 7.
Holotype male from Dade Co. in USNM.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.6
to 1.9 mm; orbital setulae in single row, rec-
linate; jowls narrow, one-eighth height of
eye; eye bare in both sexes; arista long, bare;
mesonotum shining blackish green, abdomen
greenish coppery; squamae gray, fringe
black; in female ovipositor sheath not sig-
nificantly elongated.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 42, 43,
basiphallus adjoining distiphallus.
Host plant/Biology: Bidens pilosa, Verbe-
sina, larva feeding and pupating in seed
heads; puparium whitish yellow, posterior





-- ~ -

42

spiracles black, strongly chitinized, sepa-
rated by about three times own diameter,
each with an ellipse of about ten bulbs around
a strong black horn, essentially as in M. mini-
moides (cf. Fig. 89).
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Monroe
Co.; Costa Rica, Guyana, Trinidad.
Remarks: This very small species is im-
mediately distinguishable from M. floris,
which also feeds in Bidens seed heads, by
the dark squamal fringe. It is perhaps sur-
prising to find two such very similar species
feeding in the same way on the same host.
More detailed study is necessary to estab-
lish any possible differences in the ecology
of the two species.
M. bidentis most closely resembles M. min-
ima and M. minimoides which also have the
squamal fringe dark. It is generally slightly
smaller. In the female the ovipositor sheath
is slightly less elongate than in minimoides;
it is immediately distinguishable from min-
ima in which the ovipositor is conspicuously


elongate (Fig. 83). The larval spiracles are
generally similar in all three species.
M. bidentis is common in southern Flor-
ida, and with records from Costa Rica, Guy-
ana and Trinidad, it will be surprising if it
does not occur generally throughout the Car-
ibbean area.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Miami area, many spec-
imens reared from seed heads of Bidens pi-
losa, Sept. 1963 and 1964 (C.E.S.) ; Hialeah,
one male, two females, 28 Sept. 1963 ex seeds
Verbesina laciniata leg. 20 Sept. 1963
(C.E.S.) ; Homestead, three males, two fe-
males, 12 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.) ; Monroe Co.,
Key West, one female, 9 May 1967 (B.V.
Petersen).
Costa Rica: San Jose, one male, one fe-
male, 5 July 1915 (H. Schmidt).




43
Fig. 42, 43. Melanagromyza biden-
tis: 42, aedeagus, side view
(Homestead); 43, same, ven-
tral view.


Fig. 44. Distribution of Managromya bidntis.
Fig. 44. Distribution of Melanagromyza bidentis.





Guyana: Mazaruni, two males, 14 Aug.
and 15 Sept. 1937 (Richards & Smart).
Trinidad: St. Augustine, one female, on
flowers Bidens pilosa, No. 136 (F.D. Ben-
nett); Balandra, one male, one female, 25
Aug. 1968 (C.I.B.C.).


Melanagromyza caerulea (Malloch)

Fig. 45-47

Agromyza caerulea Malloch, 1913: 322. Holo-
type female from Mexico in USNM.
Melanagromyza caerulea, Frick, 1952a: 378;
1959: 363; Spencer, 1963a: 307.
Adult: large, greenish blue species, wing
length from 2.6 mm in male to 3.4 mm in fe-
male; frons equal to width of eye, not pro-
jecting above eye in profile; jowls narrow,
eye in male conspicuously pilose; third an-
tennal segment with conspicuous pubescence;
mesonotum shining bluish green, sometimes
entirely greenish; fore-tibia with strong lat-
eral bristle; abdomen green; squamae and
fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 45, 46,
distiphallus with conspicuous chitinized proc-
ess at end.
Host plant/Biology: Ipomoea spp., larva
feeding in seeds; posterior spiracular proc-
esses separated by two to three times own
diameter, each with an ellipse of nine bulbs,
without central horn.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co.; Costa
Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Grand Cayman, Ja-
maica, Mexico, Puerto Rico. New to Florida.
Remarks: This is a large, distinctive spe-
cies which is widespread throughout the Car-
ibbean area, occurring locally in great num-
bers. The life history has been discussed in
some detail by Bailey and Plank (1940) on







45


Puerto Rico. The only record from Florida
is the single puparium found at Miami, but
the identity of this is not in doubt. There
has been doubt in the past about the locality
of the holotype. Malloch mentions in his
description that the specimen bears a label
reading "S.J. Allende" and states that he was
unable to find this locality on available maps.
Frick (1957: 200) refers to the collector as
S.J. Allende. There is a Villa Allende im-
mediately east of the Isthmus of Tehuante-
pec, and I suggest that this is the locality re-
ferred to, and S.J. are the initials of the col-
lector.
Frick in the same paper synonymises M.
plumiseta (Malloch) from Puerto Rico with
M. caerulea. In his description Malloch
(1913: 324) gives the wing length of plu-
miseta as 2 mm which is substantially
smaller than any known specimens of caeru-
lea. Frick also mentions that the pubescence
of the arista is significantly shorter than in
the type of caerulea. I therefore cannot
now accept this synonymy, and the exact
identity of plumiseta must remain in abey-
ance pending further study.
The specimen from Okeechobee has the
eye entirely bare (normally weakly pilose in
female, strongly so in male) but it agrees in
all other respects so exactly with typical
caerulea that I feel its identity is not in
doubt.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Miami, puparium ex
seed of Ipomoea triloba, autumn 1967 (F.D.
Matthews) ; Okeechobee Co., Okeechobee, one
female, 11 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. & C.E.S.).
Dominica (W.I.) : Clarke Hall, ten males,
seven females, in Malaise trap, 21-31 Jan.
1965 (W.W. Wirth).
Grand Cayman: George Town, 53 speci-
mens, 5-30 March 1965 (J.R. McLintock).


Figs. 45, 46. Melanagromyza caerulea: 45, aedeagus, side view; 46, same, ventral view.
33































Fig. 47. Distribution of Melanagromyza caerulea.


Melanagromyza caribbea Spencer, sp.n.


Fig. 48-50

Head: frons relatively broad, one and a
half times width of eye, not projecting above
eye in profile; orbits inconspicuous, with two
equal ors and two slightly more slender ori,
partially incurved; orbital setulae minute,
sparse, reclinate; jowls narrow, rounded,
one-eighth vertical height of eye; eye large,
oval, upright; third antennal segment small,
round, arista long, bare.







48


Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr somewhat
sparse, in about six rows, extending slightly
beyond level of second dc.
Wing: length 1.7 mm in male, last section
of vein M3 + 4 short, in ratio 13:20 with pen-
ultimate in holotype, 12:19 in paratype, first
cross-vein slightly beyond midpoint of discal
cell.
Color: frons sooty black, ocellar triangle
and orbits normally only weakly shining,
rarely more so; mesonotum appearing mat
viewed from front, more shining from be-
hind; squamae gray, fringe black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 48, 49;
surstyli with a row of fine bristles along
inner margin and some longer hairs at lower
corner.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Florida, Pinellas Co., Tar-
pon Springs, 14 April 1952 (0. Peck); para-
types: Costa Rica, Higuito, San Mateo, one
male, no date (Pablo Schild); Dominica,
Clarke Hall, two males, one female, 11-20
Jan. 1965; one male, 21-31 March 1965;
Grande Savane, one male, 1 Feb. 1965 (all
W.W. Wirth). Holotype in CNC, paratypes
in USNM, A.M.N.H. and senior author's col-
lection.
Remarks: This is a small leaf-mining spe-
cies in the crotonis (Frost) group, and a
positive identification of individual spec-
imens will normally only be possible from
the examination of male genitalia. It is
clearly widespread throughout the Caribbean
area and has almost certainly reached south-
ern Florida from Cuba. The specimen re-
ferred to by Spencer (1963a: 311) as dis-
tinct from crotonis (Frost) now is included
above as a paratype of caribbea.
A female from Paradise Key, 23 Jan. 1931
(S.W. Frost) is tentatively referred to this
species but is not included as a paratype.






49
49


Figs. 48, 49. Melanagromyza caribbea: 48, aedeagus, side view; 49, same, ventral view.
34






Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 51, 52;
ninth sternite essentially triangular, hypan-
drial apodeme slightly extended; surstyli
rounded at end, with a fringe of short hairs;
sperm sac unusually large, as long as ninth
sternite.
Puparium: pale orange yellow, not deeply
segmented, with relatively broad bands of
minute black tubercles at segment borders;
posterior spiracles (Fig. 53) on long projec-
tions, each with a strongly chitinized ellipse
of nine regular bulbs around the stout but
short, black central horn.
Host plant/Biology: Chaptalia dentata,
larva feeding as internal stem-borer, pupat-
ing in stem.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co.


.0A -


Fig. 50. Distribution of Melanagromyza caribbea.


Melanagromyza chaptaliae Spencer


Fig. 51-54

Melanagromyza chaptaliae Spencer, 1966c:
8. Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co.
in USNM.
Adult: frons equal to width of eye, not
projecting above eye in profile; four orbital
bristles, the lower slightly weaker; orbital
setulae well developed, mainly reclinate, but
a partial, second, inner row present in front,
incurved or proclinate; lunule small but
slightly higher than semicircle; jowls nar-
row, about one-tenth vertical height of eye,
deepest in center; eye distinctly pilose in
male; third antennal segment small, round,
with distinct whitish pubescence, arista ap-
pearing almost bare; mesonotum, with two
dc, acr rather sparse, in only six rows, shin-
ing greenish coppery, abdomen more mat;
squamae and fringe silvery white, margin
slightly differentiated, yellowish brown.


52










53

Figs. 51-53. Melanagromyza chaptaliae: 51, aedea-
gus, side view; 52, same, ventral view; 53, pos-
terior spiracles of puparium.






Remarks: The distinctive characters of
this species are the narrow jowls, bare arista,
second row of partially proclinate orbital
setulae and pilose eye in the male. However,
a reliable identification may not be possible
without confirmation from the male geni-
talia.
Although M. chaptaliae is so far only
known from southern Florida, it probably oc-
curs elsewhere to the south.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Homestead, six males,
two females, 3 Nov. 1964 ex seed heads of
Chaptalia dentata collected 22 Jan. 1964
(C.E.S.).


. -O


Fig. 54. Distribution of Melanagromyza chaptaliae.


Melanagromyza erechtitidis Spencer

Fig. 55-57

Melanagromyza erechtitidis Spencer, 1966c:
10. Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co.,
in USNM.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
2.1 2.3 mm; frons not projecting above
eye, two ors, two weaker ori; orbital setulae
in two rows, rather long, outer row reclinate,
inner largely proclinate; jowls broad, one-
fifth vertical eye height; eye in male with
slight pilosity at level of ors; third antennal
segment small, arista scarcely pubescent; or-
bits and ocellar triangle only weakly shining;
mesonotum blackish, weakly shining, green-
ish or coppery; squamae gray, fringe black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 55, 56.
Puparium: yellowish orange, posterior
spiracles scarcely raised above anal segment,
each process with a ring of 12 bulbs around
the rudimentary central horn, the two proc-
esses separated by three times their own di-
ameter.
Host plant/Biology: Erechtites hieracifo-
lia, larva feeding in flower-heads.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Hialeah.
Remarks: This species closely resembles
M. wedeliae but is distinguishable by the
broader jowls, longer orbital setulae and the
male genitalia, which although of the same
general form as in wedeliae, are distinctively
different.
The larval characters are very similar to
those found in M. viridis.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, three males,
two females, 15 April 1964, ex seeds of
Erechtites hieracifolia; nine males, six fe-
males, 6-10 Feb. 1964 ex same host, leg. 31
Jan. 1964 (all C.E.S.).


55 56
Figs. 55, 56. Melanagromyza erechtitidis: 55, aedeagus, side view; 56, same, ventral view.
36











58






59










Fig. 57. Distribution of Melanagromyza erechtitidis. Figs. 58-60. Melanagromyza floridensis: 58, aedea-
gus, side view; 59, same, ventral view; 60, pos-
terior spiracles of puparium.
Melanagromyza floridensis Spencer
Fig. 58-61
Melanagromyza floridensis Spencer, 1963a:
312. Holotype male from Dominican Re-
public, in USNM.
Adult: medium sized, shining greenish
species, wing length 2.2 mm; frons little
wider than eye, not projecting above eye in -
profile; jowls narrow, one-tenth vertical
height of eye; eye bare in both sexes, arista
distinctly pubescent.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 58, 59;
ninth sternite with broad side arms and
greatly elongated hypandrial apodeme.
Host plant/Biology: Desmodium tortuo-
sum and probably other spp., larva feeding
and pupating in single seed within the pod;
puparium pale orange, posterior spiracular
processes separated by slightly more than J,
own diameter, each with an ellipse of 10-12 -
irregular bulbs surrounding the small central
scar (Fig. 60).
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co. and High-
lands Co.; Bahamas, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Guyana. Fig. 61. Distribution of Melanagromyza floridensis.






Remarks: This species closely resembles
M. floris but is immediately distinguishable
by the more pubescent arista.
The new records from the Bahamas and
Dominica cited below further confirm the
probability that this species occurs through-
out the Caribbean area. It doubtless has
reached southern Florida from Cuba, al-
though it has not yet been recorded there.
Material examined:
Bahamas: New Providence Is., Nassau,
one male, 3 Jan. 1953 (L. Giovannoli).
Dominica: Grande Savane, one male, 1
Feb. 1965 (W.W. Wirth).
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, many speci-
mens, 11 July 1963, ex seeds Desmodium tor-
tuosum (C.E.S.); Highlands Co., Highlands
Hammock State Park, six males, ten females,
11 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.).


Melanagromyza floris Spencer

Fig. 62-64

Melanagromyza floris Spencer, 1963a: 313;
1966c; 10. Holotype male from Mexico in
USNM.
Adult: small greenish species, wing length
1.75 to 2mm; frons equal to width of eye,
not projecting above eye in profile, mat
black; orbits not conspicuously differenti-
ated; four equal orbital bristles, the ors rec-
linate, the ori somewhat incurved; orbital
setulae in regular row, reclinate; ocellar tri-
angle large, apex extending to level of lower
ors, weakly shining, lunule distinctly higher


^ w ^ /


63 --- ---^
63
Figs. 62, 63. Melanagromyza floris: 62, aedeagus,
side view; 63, ninth sternite.


than semicircle; jowls narrow, one-eighth
vertical height of eye; eye in both sexes bare;
third antennal segment with slight pubes-
cence, arista fine, bare; mesonotum distinctly
mat greenish viewed from front, more shin-
ing from behind; abdomen shining green;
squamae and fringe white; halteres dark
brown.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 62;
ninth sternite distinctively elongated (Fig.
63) ; surstylus large, semicircular, with row
of short spines in front and longer hairs be-
hind.
Host plant/Biology: Bidens pilosa, Calen-
dula sp., larva feeding and pupating in seed
head; puparium whitish.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Hendry
Co., Highlands Co., Martin Co., Monroe Co.,
Sarasota Co.; Bahamas, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Trinidad.
Remarks: The distinctive characters of
this species are the narrow jowls, bare arista
and eye bare in both sexes.
It is widespread throughout the Caribbean
area,'and the species was found in great num-
bers in southern Florida in October 1968 in
association with Bidens, particularly on the
Keys.


Fig. 64. Distribution of Melanagromyza florist.





Material examined:
Bahamas: Abaco Cays, Andros Is., Berry
Is., Eleuthera Is., Grand Bahama Is., Great
Abaco Is., Long Is., Mayaguana Is., New
Providence Is., North Bimini Is., Rum Cay,
44 males, 46 females.
Florida: Alachua Co., Hawthorne, one fe-
male, 8 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.) ; Dade Co., Miami
area, Sept. to Dec. 1962-1967, many speci-
mens reared from seed heads of Bidens pilosa
(C.E.S.) ; Homestead, four males, fourteen
females, 12-14 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and
C.E.C.); Hendry Co., Clewiston, one female,
29 Dec. 1950 (H. V. Weems, Jr.) ; Highlands
Co., Highlands Hammock State Park, eight
females, 11 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.);
Sebring, one male, 11 Dec. 1953 (H. V.
Weems, Jr.); Lake Co., Leesburg, one male,
two females, 10 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and
C.E.S.) ; Lake Louisa, south of Clermont, one
male, 10 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.); Martin Co.,
Port Mayaca, three males, 11 Oct. 1968
(K.A.S. and C.E.S.) ; Monroe Co., Key Largo
to Bahia Honda Key, eleven males, nine fe-
males, 14-15 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.);
Key West, two males, 9 May 1967 (B. V.
Petersen), Okeechobee Co., Okeechobee, two
males, 11 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.).
Jamaica: Duncans, one male, 23 Aug. 1966
(H.F. Howden & E.C. Becker).
Trinidad: St. Augustine, one male, Oct.
1959; Manzanilla, one female, Oct. 1959.


Melanagromyza heliotropii Spencer,
sp.n.

Fig. 65-67

Head: frons relatively broad, one and a
half times width of eye, not projecting above
eye in profile; two equal ors, two slightly
weaker ori, orbital setulae short, sparse, rec-
linate; ocellar triangle large, apex extending
to level of upper ors; jowls narrow, about
one-seventh height of eye, eye bare in both
sexes; third antennal segment and arista ap-
pearing virtually bare.
Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr in about
eight rows, some extending behind level of
first dc.


Legs: mid-tibiae with two lateral bristles.
Wing: length from 2.2 to 2.3 mm, last
section of vein M3 + 4 somewhat variable but
generally only slightly shorter than penulti-
mate.
Color: frons mat black, ocellar triangle
brilliantly shining black, orbits moderately
so; mesonotum strongly shining blackish
with distinct greenish tinge, abdomen from
moderately to brilliantly shining green;
squamae and fringe white.


Kr~


66
Figs. 65, 66. Melanagromyza heliotropii: 65, aedea-
gus, side view; 66, same, ventral view.

Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 65, 66;
surstyli strongly projecting inward, fringed
with short bristles and a few hairs.
Host plant/Biology: Heliotropium lea-
venworthii, larva feeding as internal stem
borer and pupating in stem; puparium whit-
ish, posterior spiracles weakly chitinized,
each with an ellipse of four or five large
bulbs around a weak black horn, separated by
almost three times their own diameter.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Hialeah,
emerged 23 Jan. to 1 Feb. 1967 ex stem of
Heliotropium leg. 11 Jan. 1967; paratypes:
four females, same data; Hialeah, one male,
one female, 13 Nov. 1964 ex stem same host
leg. 2 Nov. 1964 (all C.E.S.). Holotype in
USNM, paratypes in senior author's collec-
tion.


--"",. :~"_~;s~;


L,/


;~.































Fig. 67. Distribution of Melanagromyza heliotropii.

Remarks: This species is readily distin-
guishable by the shining, black ocellar tri-
angle and the narrow jowls. The small num-
ber of bulbs on the larval posterior spiracles
is unusual but the species is otherwise en-
tirely typical of the genus.

Melanagromyza lippivora Spencer

Fig. 68-74

Melanagromyza lippivora Spencer, 1966c:
11. Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co.
in USNM.
Adult: small black species, wing length
from 1.75 to 2.2 mm; frons slightly wider
than eye, not projecting above eye in profile;
two equal ors, three equal, inclined ori; or-
bits pronounced, occasionally slightly raised
at level of antennae; jowls broad, one-quarter
vertical height of eye, cheeks forming con-
spicuous ring below eye; eye bare in both
sexes; third antennal segment small, without
distinctive pubescence, arista swollen at base,
fine beyond, bare; mesonotum with two
strong dc, with two or three substantially


smaller bristles between second dc and su-
ture; mid-tibia with one weak bristle; costa
extending to vein M1+2, first cross-vein just
beyond midpoint of discal cell; last section
of vein M4 variable, either equal to or two-
thirds length of penultimate; color: frons
mat black; ocellar triangle only weakly, or-
bits and cheeks more strongly shining; meso-
notum largely mat black, only faintly shin-
ing; abdomen variable, either entirely black
or with very faint greenish or coppery re-
flections but never obviously shining green;
squamae and fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 68-70;
ninth sternite somewhat square, with short
hypandrial apodeme (Fig. 71); surstyli
(Fig. 72) with a few short teeth on inner
margin.
Puparium: entirely white or faintly red-
dish, anal segments conspicuously bending
ventrally (Fig. 73); posterior spiracular
processes separated by own diameter, each
with a ring of nine well-defined bulbs, with-
out trace of central horn or scar.


4, <-0
.'


69







70
Fig. 68-70. Melanagromyza lippivora: 68, aedeagus,
side view (Florida); 69, same, ventral view;
70, aedeagus, side view (Grand Cayman).


---r.:...

u





Host plant/Biology: Lippia nodiflora,
larva feeding and pupating in stem.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co. and Levy
Co.; Grand Cayman.
Remarks: The distinctive characters of
this species are the broad jowls, entirely
black coloration and white squamae and
fringe. It has hitherto only been known from
the type series from Hialeah, and the new
records given below from Levy Co. and from
Grand Cayman are of considerable interest.
It seems certain that the species has reached
Dade Co. from the south, and there is almost L
certainly continuity of distribution north- .
ward to Levy Co.









\ Fig. 74. Distribution of Melanagromyza lippivora.

\.. ^ _- Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, three males,
71 one female, 10 June 1963; two females, 18
June and 29 July 1963 ex stems Lippia nodi-
flora (all C.E.S.); Homestead, one male, 4
Apr. 1952 (J. R. Vockeroth); Levy Co., Gulf
SHammock, one male, 25 April 1952 (0.
Peck); Otter Creek, two males, 2 Oct. 1968
(K.A.S.).
Grand Cayman: Georgetown, two males,
15-30 March 1965 (J.R. McLintock).

72








73

Fig. 71-73. Melanagromyza lippivora: 71, ninth
sternite; 72, surstylus; 73, puparium.






Melanagromyza marellii (Brethes)

Fig. 75-78

Agromyza marellii Brethes, 1920. Type ser-
ies from Brazil, location not known.
Melanagromyza marellii, Spencer, 1963a:
317.
Adult: medium-sized black species, wing
length from 2.3 to 2.7 mm; frons not signifi-
cantly projecting above eye, orbital setulae
numerous, in two rows; jowls deep, one-
quarter vertical height of eye; eye bare in
both sexes; frons mat black, ocellar triangle
and orbits only weakly shining; mesonotum
and abdomen mat black; squamae pale gray,
fringe dark, ochrous to black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 75,
with a conspicuous chitinized process dis-
tally.
Host plant/Biology: Achyranthes (=Al-
ternanthera) philoxeroides, larva forming
conspicuous stem galls (Fig. 76); posterior
spiracles of puparium as in Fig. 77.


N,


Figs. 75-77. Melanagromyza marellii: 75, aedeagus,
side view (Key West); 76, stem-gall on Achy-
ranthes philoxeroides; 77, posterior spiracles of
puparium (76 and 77, Brazil).


Fig. 78. Distribution of Melanagromyza marellii.

Distribution: Florida, Monroe Co.; Argen-
tina, Brazil, Bahama Is. New to Florida.
Remarks: The series from the Bahamas
and the two specimens from Florida are sub-
stantially smaller than the specimens previ-
ously examined from Argentina and Brazil
(Spencer, 1963a: 317), in which the wing
length of the male was 2.7 mm. None of the
long series from the Bahamas has the wing
length greater than 2.3 mm. It is also now
apparent that the squamal fringe is not con-
sistently entirely black. In some cases it is
paler ochrous brown, and the squamae are
pale gray. However, the very deep jowls,
uniformly black coloration, and the entirely
distinctive genitalia confirm the identity of
these specimens.
Material examined:
Bahama Islands: Andros, Mangrove Cay,
five males, thirteen females, 26 April 1953;
Eleuthera, New Portsmouth, Rock Sound,
one male, 28 March 1953 (all E.B. Hayden).
Florida: Monroe Co., Key West, one male,
Nov. 1950 (N.L.H. Krauss); Vaca Key, one
male, 26 Nov. 1961 (J. G. Chillcott).


,






Melanagromyza miamensis Spencer,
sp.n.

Fig. 79-82

Head: frons equal to width of eye, not pro-
jecting above eye in profile; orbits narrow,
with two ors and two ori, lower ori incurved
(others broken, strength and inclination not
detectable); orbital setulae long, all recli-
nate; lunule small, narrow; jowls deepest in
center but very narrow, one-eleventh vertical
height of eye; eye bare in male; third an-
tennal segment small, rounded, arista dis-
tinctly pubescent.
Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr in some
10 rows, rather long.
Wing: length in male 2.4 mm, last section
of vein M3+4 half length of penultimate,
first cross-vein just beyond midpoint of dis-
cal cell.
Legs: fore-tibia without lateral bristle,
mid-tibia with two.




S79
79,


IJJ,


81
Figs. 79-81. Melanagromyza miamensis: 79, aedea-
gus, side view; 80, same, ventral view; 81, sur-
stylus.


.00 .


Fig. 82. Distribution of Melanagromyza miamensis.
Color: frons mat black, orbits and ocellar
triangle only moderately shining; mesono-
tum largely shining black, but with faint
greenish tinge, abdomen green; squamae and
fringe silvery white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 79, 80;
surstyli narrow, with about six spines, also
a distinctive row of spines along inner mar-
gin of epandrium (Fig. 81); ninth sternite
with broad side-arms and extended hypan-
drial apodeme, exactly as in M. floris (Fig.
63).
Host plant/Biology: apparently seed
feeder in orchid, specimen labelled "orchid-
larva destroys bloom."
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Miami,
ex flower head of orchid, 192?, (G. Moz-
nette), in USNM.
Remarks: Although this species very
closely resembles M. floridensis on external
characters, the genitalia of the two species
are entirely distinct.
Exact details of the biology of M. miamen-
sis are not available. Over 30 genera of Or-
chidaceae occur in southern Florida, and fur-
ther study of this family as potential hosts
of Agromyzidae is clearly desirable.






Melanagromyza minima (Malloch)

Fig. 83-85

Agromyza minima Malloch, 1913: 328. Holo-
type male from Trinidad in USNM.
Melanagromyza minima, Shewell, 1953: 468;
Frick, 1957: 200; 1959: 364; Spencer,
1963a: 317; 1966c: 12.
Melanagromyza longicaudalis Spencer,
1963a: 316; Spencer, 1966c: 12. Holo-
type female from Jamaica in author's col-
lection.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.9
to 2 mm; male essentially as in M. bidentis,
mesonotum appearing slightly more blackish,
faintly greenish or bluish viewed from be-
hind; squamae gray, fringe black; female
distinctive, with abnormally elongated ovi-
positor sheath (Fig. 83).
Male genitalia: aedeagus (Fig. 84) with
exceptionally long gap between basiphallus
and distiphallus complex, with small, vari-
able area of chitinization beyond.
Host plant/Biology: Wedelia paludosa and
W. trilobata, possibly Eupatorium odoratum,
larva feeding and pupating in seed heads.
Fifty flower heads of W. paludosa from
Miami contained more than 50 larvae or pu-
paria, from which 13 adults were obtained.
Puparium essentially as in M. minimoides
(cf. Fig. 89).





84


"7.\

/f


I !, \ I-
I /
,^ L' 0/
I-J
J P *5


Figs. 83, 84. Melanagromyza minima: 83, ovipositor
sheath of female; 84, aedeagus, side view.


A.. A2,0 -.

Fig. 85. Distribution of Melanagromyza minima.

Distribution: Florida, Dade Co.; Antigua,
Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Jamaica, Trinidad.
Remarks: This small species is closely re-
lated to M. bidentis and M. minimoides. In
the male a reliable identification normally
will be possible only from the male genitalia;
the extended aedeagus reflects the unusually
long ovipositor, which makes the females im-
mediately distinguishable from the other two
species in this group.
The only confirmed host is Wedelia. The
females obtained on Jamaica were showing
great interest in the flowers of Eupatorium
odoratum, and this must be considered as a
possible host. However, experience shows
that catching flies on foliage or flowers of a
plant is not a reliable indication that this is
the host.
With confirmed records now known from
Antigua, Costa Rica, Dominica, Jamaica,
Florida and Trinidad, this species no doubt
occurs widely throughout the Caribbean
area.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Miami, three males,
three females, 26 Aug. 1964 ex seed heads


~---`
---__






of Wedelia trilobata leg. 18 Aug. 1964
(C.E.S.); Fairchild Tropical Garden, six
males, seven females, 17 Oct. to 10 Nov. ex
seed heads of W. paludosa leg. 16 Oct. 1968
(K.A.S. & C.E.S.).
Antigua: two females, Feb. 1964 (F.D.
Bennett).
Costa Rica: La Caja, 8 km. W. of San
Jose, one male, one female, 1930 (Schmidt).
Dominica: Clarke Hall, four males, six fe-
males, 11-20 Jan. 1965, Malaise trap (W.W.
Wirth).
Dominican Republic: Dist. Nacional, one
female, 7 Aug. 1967; San Cristobal Prov., one
male, 8 Aug. 1967 (both L.H. Rolston).
Jamaica: Mount Diavolo, two females, 13
Dec. 1958, on flowers of Eupatorium odo-
ratum (K.A.S.).


Melanagromyza minimoides Spencer

Fig. 86-90

Melanagromyza minimoides Spencer, 1966c:
13. Holotype male from Dade Co. in
USNM.
Adult: small greenish species, wing length
1.9 to 2.2 mm; frons approximately equal to
width of eye, not projecting above eye in pro-
file; four orbital bristles, normally equal, or-
bital setulae reclinate; ocellar triangle large,
moderately shining, apex extending slightly






86








87


beyond level of lower ors; jowls one-sixth
vertical height of eye; eyes bare in both
sexes; arista only minutely pubescent; head
black, mesonotum blackish-green, slightly
shining particularly when viewed from rear,
abdomen more brilliantly shining green;
squamae gray, margin and fringe blackish
brown.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 86, 87,
with small but distinct gap between U-shaped
basiphallus and chitinized distiphallus com-
plex; ovipositor only slightly elongated, as
in Fig. 88.
Host plant/Biology: Aster simmondsii,
Borrichia frutescens, Helenium nudiflorum,
Melanthera deltoidea, Rudbeckia laciniata,
Verbesina laciniata, larva feeding and pupat-
ing in seed head; puparium whitish yellow,
posterior spiracular processes (Fig. 89)
strongly chitinized, black, appreciably pro-
jecting beyond anal segment, separated by
three times own diameter, each consisting of
a ring of nine bulbs around a well-developed
horn.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Bre-
vard Co., Dade Co. and Seminole Co.; Ohio,
Kent.
Remarks: This species closely resembles
M. bidentis and M. minima, particularly in
the dark squamae and fringe; in the female
it is readily distinguishable from M. minima
by the shorter ovipositor sheath (cf. Fig.
83). In the male genitalia there is a small


. : 89


88


Figs. 86-89. Melanagromyza minimoides: 86, aedeagus, side view; 87, same, ventral view; 88, ovipositor
sheath of female; 89, posterior spiracles of puparium.
45





























Fig. 90. Distribution of Melanagromyza minimoides.

but consistent gap between the basiphallus
and distiphallus complex which provides the
only satisfactory means of identifying the
males.
Some of the main hosts of this species,
such as Borrichia and Melanthera, are of
West Indian origin. It is also closely related
to the two southern species M. bidentis and
M. minima and is almost certainly itself of
southern origin. The series reared from
Rudbeckia in Ohio may well represent an in-
troduction, as this host is widely cultivated
as an ornamental.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, 26 Nov. and 2
Dec. 1963, many specimens ex seeds of Aster
simmondsii (C.E.S.); Miami, Dodge Is., 15
specimens, 4-19 March ex seed heads of Bor-
richia frutescens leg. 2 March 1966 (C.E.S.);
Miami, Watson Is., two males, 21-24 Feb.
1963 ex seeds Melanthera deltoidea leg. 18
Feb. 1964 (E.W. Golsen); Hialeah, three
males, 10-14 Feb. 1964 ex seeds Verbesina
laciniata leg. 2 Feb. 1964 (C.E.S.); Brevard
Co., Rockledge, one male, one female, 29 Jan.
1964, ex seeds Melanthera deltoidea (G.W.
Desin); Seminole Co., Geneva, one male, 9


March 1964 ex seeds of Helenium nudiflorum
(G.W. Desin).
Ohio: 7 miles N. of Kent, one male, four
females, 17 Sep. 1965 ex seeds of Rudbeckia
laciniata (K.R. Valley).

Melanagromysa parvella Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 91-93

Head: frons equal to width of eye, not pro-
jecting above eye in profile; orbits narrow
but shining, with two equal ors and two
slightly weaker ori, the lower incurved; orbi-
tal setulae sparse but long, in single row, all
reclinate; jowls rounded, deepest in center
below eye, not extended at rear, one-sixth
vertical height of eye; eye large, oval, up-
right; third antennal segment small, round,
arista long, bare.
Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr numerous,
in about eight rows, not extending beyond
second dc.
Wing: length in male 2 mm, last section
of vein M3+4 shorter than penultimate, in
ratio 17: 22; first cross-vein just beyond mid-
point of discal cell.
Color: frons sooty black, orbits distinctly,
ocellar triangle brilliantly shining black;


Q3


91








92

Figs. 91, 92: Melanagromyza parvella: 91, aedeagus,
side view; 92, same, ventral view (Homestead).


..., -;"






mesonotum and abdomen brilliantly shining
black; squamae dark gray, margin and fringe
black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus distinctive, as in
Fig. 91, 92, ninth sternite with rounded side
arms and fine, extended hypandrial apo-
deme, surstyli with a row of fine bristles
along inner margin and some longer hairs at
lower corner.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Home-
stead, University of Florida Sub-tropical Ex-
periment Station, 2 May 1967 (B.V. Peter-
sen) ; paratypes: Bahama Is., New Provi-
dence, Nassau, four males, 16 April 1953
(E.B. Hayden). Holotype in CNC, paratypes
in AMNH and senior author's collection.
Remarks: This small species has the meso-
notum distinctly more shining than in the
related species crotonis (Frost), alternan-
therae Spencer and caribbea sp.n. However,
completely reliable identification will only be
possible from the male genitalia, which are
entirely distinctive.
This species probably has reached the Ba-
hamas and southern Florida from Cuba.


as ''


Fig. 93. Distribution of Melanagromyza parvella.


Melanagromyza ruelliae Spencer

Fig. 94-99

Melanagromyza ruelliae Spencer, 1966c: 14.
Holotype male from Florida, Dade Co., in
USNM.
Adult: small to medium-sized greenish spe-
cies, wing length from 1.9 to 2.4 mm; frons
not projecting above eye, jowls narrow, one-
twelfth vertical height of eye; orbital setu-
lae numerous, partially in two rows, those
nearest eye margin reclinate, the inner row
proclinate; eye with conspicuous patch of pi-
losity above; ocellar triangle enlarged, con-
spicuous, shining, greenish or bluish; meso-
notum strongly shining, greenish or bluish,
abdomen shining green; squamae and fringe
white; halteres black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus pale, weakly chit-
inized, as in Fig. 94, 95; ninth sternite (Fig.
96) with greatly elongated hypandrial apo-
deme; surstyli (Fig. 97) not greatly extend-
ing inward, with up to 20 spines along inner
margin.
Puparium: bright orange; posterior spir-
acles separated by slightly more than own
diameter, each with an ellipse of seven ir-
regular bulbs around a small central scar
(Fig. 98), distinctly protruding above anal
segment.
Host plant/Biology: Ruellia brittoniana,
R. caroliniensis, Blechum pyramidatum,
Stroebilanthes sp., larva feeding and pupat-
ing in seed head.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Miami
area; Bahamas, New Providence Is.
Remarks: The conspicuously shining
greenish or bluish ocellar triangle makes this
a distinctive species.
Material examined:
Florida: Miami, nine males, three females,
26 Aug. and 28 Sept. 1963, ex Ruellia brit-
toniana; Hialeah, one male, one female, 15
Nov. 1964 ex R. caroliniensis; three males,
five females, 28 April to 7 May 1964 ex Ble-
chum pyramidatum; two males, 8 Aug. 1964
ex Stroebilanthes sp. (all C.E.S.); Ever-
glades, nr. Mahogany Hammock, one male,
2 Dec. 1961 (J.G. Chillcott).
Bahamas: New Providence Is., Nassau,













94


97


Figs. 94-98. Melanagromyza ruelliae: 94, aedeagus, sid
97, surstylus; 98, posterior spiracles of puparium


two males, one female, 16 April 1953 (E.B.
Hayden).


-a-*


Fig. 99. Distribution of Melanagromyza ruelliae.


Ie view;


98
95, same, ventral view; 96, ninth sternite;


Melanagromyza splendid Frick

Fig. 100-105

Melanagromyza splendid Frick, 1953b: 207.
Holotype male from Hawaii ex Apium
graveolens in USNM.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
from 2.2 mm in male to 2.7 mm in female;
mesonotum shining blackish green, not mat
even viewed from front; orbits conspicuously
widening at midpoint, but always less than
one-third width of frons, with several rows
of short setulae, the inner rows erect or par-
tially proclinate, those nearest eye margin
reclinate; ocellar triangle and orbits dis-
tinctly shining; eye in male pilose above;
arista bare; squamae and fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 100,
101, tubular process of mesophallus adjoin-
ing and not extending behind main process
above; surstyli bending inwards fringed with
short hairs or weak bristles which lie at right
angles to aedeagal apodeme (Fig. 102).
Host plant/Biology: In Florida Ambrosia,
Bidens, Erechtites, Flaveria, Gaillardia,


~~






Gnaphalium, Tagetes; in California Helian-
thus; in Hawaii Apium, Lactuca; in Mexico
"carrot"; larva feeding as internal borer in
stem or base of large leaves; puparium yel-
lowish, posterior spiracles separated by twice
own diameter, pale, weakly chitinized, each
with an ellipse of seven to nine bulbs around
a central scar representing a rudimentary
horn (Fig. 103, 104).
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Dade
Co., Highlands Co., Lake Co., Okeechobee
Co.; California, Michigan; Bahamas; Ha-
waii; Jamaica; Mexico.
Remarks: This species has in the past been
confused with M. virens (Loew). It was
synonymized with virens by Spencer (1963a:
322) but was resurrected following study of
additional material by Spencer (1969a: 76).
The characteristic feature of both species
is the conspicuous widening of the orbits,
which bear numerous rows of setulae, some
being proclinate and others reclinate. The
two species are very similar, but the widen-
ing of the orbits is less pronounced, and the
orbital setulae are generally shorter and less
numerous in splendid. Furthermore, the
mesonotum is more distinctly shining in


splendid. Small but constant differences in
male genitalia and also in the posterior spir-
acles of the puparium confirm the distinct-
ness of the two species (cf. Fig. 100-104 and
109-113).
The only known hosts in Florida are Com-
positae, but M. splendid has been recorded
in Mexico on Umbelliferae (Daucus sp.), and
the type series from Hawaii is also from Um-
belliferae (Apium graveolens). Frick
(1953b: 208) refers specimens from Cucur-
bita and Ipomoea to splendid, but these rec-
ords require confirmation.
M. splendid is common in Florida and
the Bahamas, and the records from Mexico,
California and Michigan suggest that it oc-
curs widely throughout the United States.
The specimen recorded below from Michigan
had been identified by American workers as
virens, and there is little doubt specimens
from other localities have been similarly mis-
identified. The species presumably has been
introduced into Hawaii.
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, two fe-
males, 2 and 9 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.) ; Dade Co.,
Hialeah, one male, 21 Apr. 1964 ex stem of


101


',1 100


Figs. 100-104. Melanagromyza splendid: 100, aedeagus, side view; 101,
stylus; 103, 104, posterior spiracles of puparium.


same, ventral view; 102, sur-


~;;;
































Fig. 105. Distribution of Melanagromyza splendid.

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (C.E.S.); same lo-
cality and host, three males, four females, 21
Feb. 1966; one female, emerged 2 March
1966 ex stem of Gnaphalium spathulatum
leg. 21 Feb. 1966 (C.E.S.) ; two females, 13
June and 18 Oct. 1963 ex stems of Tagetes
sp. (C.E.S.); Miami, empty pupal case in
stem of Bidens pilosa, 6 July 1963 (C.E.S.) ;
Hialeah, one male, 22 March 1963, ex stem
of Flaveria linearis (C.E.S.) ; Hialeah, empty
pupal cases in stems of Gaillardia pulchella,
14 Apr. 1964 (C.E.S.); Hialeah, one female,
20 Apr. 1964 ex stem of Erechtites hieraci-
folia (C.E.S.); Homestead, two males, one
female, 12-13 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.) ; Highlands
Co., Archbold Biological Station, one male,
two females, 24 Apr. 1967 (B.V. Petersen);
Lake Co., Lake Louisa, S. of Clermont, one
male, 10 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.), Lees-
burg, three females, 10 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.
and C.E.S.); Okeechobee Co., one female, on
Bidens, 11 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.).
California: Santa Paula, one male, 8 Aug.
1966, ex stem of Helianthus.
Michigan: Detroit, one male, 7 Sept. 1933
(G.C. Steyskal).


Bahamas: Abaco Cays, Andros Is., Berry
Is., Eleuthera Is., Great Abaco Is., Long Is.,
Mayaguana Is., New Providence Is., North
Bimini Is., 16 males, 21 females, 30 Dec.
1952 9 May 1953 (E.B. Hayden & L. Gio-
vannoli); Bimini Is., two males, 22-31 Jan.
1968, light trap (G.M. Stokes).
Hawaii: Kamuela, one male, 5 Dec. 1950
ex celery (Apium graveolens), paratype;
Oahu, Kumia, one male, Sept. 1951 (D.E.
Hardy).
Jamaica: Rio Cobre Gorge, one male, two
females, 21-26 Dec. 1958, ex stem of uniden-
tified composite (K.A.S.); Duncans, one fe-
male, 23 Aug. 1966 (H.F. Howden & E.C.
Becker) ; Good Hope, one female, 8 Aug. 1966
(H.F. Howden).


Melanagromyza vectabilis Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 106-108

Adult: small, green species, wing length
2.3 mm; frons only slightly wider than eye,
jowls narrow, one-tenth height of eye; eye in
male with conspicuous pilosity above; arista
distinctly pubescent; mesonotum shining
green, with faint coppery reflections, abdo-
men green or coppery; squamae and fringe
white.


/' *'' \ r _^*"^-<


107

Figs. 106, 107. Melanagromyza vectabilis: 106, ae-
deagus, side view; 107, same, ventral view (New
Providence).





Melanagromyza virens (Loew)


Fig. 108. Distribution of Melanagromyza vectabilis.

Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 106,
107; ninth sternite broadly fused at apex,
with slightly extending hypandrial apodeme;
surstyli conspicuously projecting inwards,
with slender bristles at end, no bristles along
inner margin.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Home-
stead, 12 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.); Bahamas, New
Providence Is., 2 miles E. of Nassau, one
male, one female, 14 April 1953 (E.B. Hay-
den). Holotype in USNM, paratypes in
AMNH.
Remarks: This is one of the complex group
of shining green species which can only sat-
isfactorily be identified by the male genitalia.
The range of this species extending from
S. Florida to the Bahamas suggests a south-
ern origin.


Fig. 109-114

Agromyza virens Loew, 1869: 46. Lectotype
female from District of Columbia, desig-
nated by Frick, 1957: 200, in MCZ.
Melanagromyza virens, Frick, 1952a: 380;
1957: 200; 1959: 367; Shewell, 1953: 465;
Spencer, 1963a: 322; 1969a: 76.
Melanagromyza heterothecae Spencer, 1966c:
10. Holotype male from Florida, Dade
Co., in USNM.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
from 2.2 to 3 mm; mesonotum blackish
green, distinctly mat viewed from front,
more shining greenish from behind; orbits
unusually broad, each up to one-third width
of frons, thickly covered in setulae in several
rows, the inner rows proclinate, those near-
est eye margin reclinate; eye in male con-
spicuously pilose above; arista appearing
bare; squamae and fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 109,
110, tubular process of mesophallus separate
from and extending behind main process
above; surstyli (Fig. 111) conspicuously pro-
jecting inward, with a group of three to six


Fig. 109-111. Melanagromyza virens: 109, aedeagus, side view; 110, same, ventral view; 111, surstylus.
51





bristles at end, lying parallel to base of ae-
deagal apodeme; ninth sternite as in Fig. 112.
Host plant/Biology: Eupatorium capillifo-
lium, Heterotheca subaxillaris only confirmed
hosts, larva feeding as internal stem-borer,
pupating in stem; puparium whitish yellow,
posterior spiracles pale, weakly chitinized,
separated by slightly more than own diam-
eter, each with an ellipse of about eight well-
defined bulbs around a minute black horn
(Fig. 113).
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Dade
Co., Leon Co., Monroe Co.; District of Colum-
bia; Canada: British Columbia, Ontario,
Quebec.
Remarks: M. virens belongs to the large
and difficult group of medium-sized greenish
species. The exceptionally broad orbits with
several rows of both proclinate and reclinate
setulae producing a typical criss-cross effect,
make this a distinctive species. However,
confusion can arise with M. splendid which
also has these characters but to a lesser de-
gree. It can now also for the first time be re-
corded that the orbits may be broader and
the orbital setulae longer and more numer-
ous in the male than in the female. This is
clearly apparent in the series containing both
sexes reared from Eupatorium capillifolium
listed below. In view of this sexual dimor-


phism a reliable identification of individual
caught females may be problematic.
The name virens has been widely used in
American literature in the past, but it is
now clear that all such records must be
treated as doubtful and requiring confirma-
tion. Malloch (1913: 321) records specimens
reared from Ambrosia which almost cer-
tainly refer to splendid. Frick (1959: 367)
casts doubt on Malloch's identifications and
further states that no reared specimens are
known. The conception of virens as a highly
polyphagous species must therefore now be
treated with reserve. The only confirmed
hosts are Eupatorium capillifolium and Het-
erotheca subazillaris, both southern species.
Specimens from farther north in the United
States and from Canada obviously have dif-
ferent hosts, but it now seems probable that
these also will be Compositae.
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, two fe-
males, 5 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.); Dade Co., Hia-
leah, one male, 18 July 1962, ex stem of Het-
erotheca subaillaris (C.E.S.); four males,
two females, 22 June 1963 ex stems of Eupa-
torium capillifolium leg. 1 June 1963
(C.E.S.); Leon Co., Havana, one female, 4
Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.); Monroe Co., Cape Sable,
two males; three females, 31 March 1953
(W.R.M. Mason).


". !'": ..::
! *:' :: 0-

/^- 113


Fig. 112, 113. Melanagromyza virens: 112, ninth sternite; 113, posterior spiracles of puparium (Eupa-
torium capillifolium).


. -'; -`





























Fig. 114. Distribution of Melanagromyza virens.

Melanagromyza viridis (Frost)

Fig. 115-116

Agromyza viridis Frost, 1931: 277. Holo-
type male from California in USNM.
Melanagromyza viridis, Frick, 1952a: 380;
Spencer, 1966c: 15.
Melanagromyza helianthi Spencer, 1963a:
314; 1966c: 15.
Adult: medium-sized species, wing length
2.4 mm; frons relatively broad, one and a
half times width of eye; two ors, two in-
curved ori; orbital setulae slender, in single
row, reclinate; jowls conspicuous, deepest in
front, almost one-quarter vertical height of
eye; eye with patch of short hairs in male,






115

Fig. 115. Melanagromyza viridis: 115, aedeagus.


bare in female; lunule distinctive, broad,
higher than semicircle; orbits and ocellar tri-
angle brilliantly shining, black; mesonotum
shining, greenish or coppery, abdomen simi-
lar; squamae and fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 115;
ninth sternite triangular, with narrow, ex-
tended hypandrial apodeme (essentially as in
M. floris, cf. Fig. 63) ; surstyli with row of
fine hairs along inner margin.
Puparium: pale, straw colored, posterior
spiracular processes scarcely raised, widely
separated, by two or three times own diam-
eter, with an ellipse of about 10 well-defined
bulbs around a well-developed central horn.
Host plant/Biology: Calendula, Helian-
thus, Tithonia, Zinnia, larva feeding in
flower heads.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Miami
area; California, Mexico, Cuba.
Remarks: The deep, forwardly-project-
ing jowls, high lunule and shining black ocel-
lar triangle and orbits make this a distinc-
tive species.
It seems probable that the population in
the Miami area has reached Florida from


.-A "


Fig. 116. Distribution of Melanagromyza viridis.





Cuba, rather than via the Gulf states from
Mexico and California.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, two males, two
females, emerged 4 May 1964 ex flowers of
Calendula officinalis leg. 27 April 1964
(C.E.S.); four males, two females, 31 July
1963, ex seeds of Tithonia rotundifolia leg.
3 July 1964 (C.E.S.); North Miami, one
male, one female, 22 March 1967, ex seeds of
Helianthus debilis (C.E.S.).



Melanagromyza wedeliae Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 117-119

Head: frons narrow, equal to width of eye,
not projecting above eye in profile; two equal,
reclinate ors, two slightly weaker, incurved
ori; orbital setulae fine but numerous, in two
rows, those nearest eye margin reclinate, the
inner row largely proclinate; lunule semi-
circular, normal; eye in male with patch of
white hairs at level of ors; jowls narrow,
deepest in center below eye, one-tenth verti-
cal height of eye; third antennal segment
small, rounded, with fine, normal pubescence,
arista long, appearing bare.
Mesonotum: two strong dc, acr numerous,
in about 12 rows.
Wing: length in male 2.2 mm, last section
of vein M3+4 short, half length of penulti-
mate, first cross-vein just beyond midpoint
of discal cell.


118

Figs. 117, 118. Melanagromyza wedeliae: 117, ae-
deagus, side view; 118, same, ventral view.


Color: frons mat black, orbits and ocellar
triangle moderately shining; mesonotum ap-
pearing mat when viewed from front but
more shining, blackish with a faint greenish
tinge, viewed from rear; abdomen shining
greenish; squamae gray, margin and fringe
black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Figs. 117,
118, ninth sternite with greatly elongated hy-
pandrial apodeme, surstyli with row of fine
hairs along inner margin.
Host plant/Biology: Wedelia paludosa, Se-
necio confusus, larva feeding in flower heads.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Miami,
Fairchild Tropical Garden, emerged 17 Oct.
ex flower heads of Wedelia paludosa collected
16 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.); paratypes: Miami In-
ternational Airport, one male, one female, 10
Jan. 1969, ex flower heads of Senecio con-
fusus (C.E.S.); Monroe Co., Marathon Key,
five males, five females, 22 March 1967 "ex
stems" Senecio confusus (det. Langdon) leg.
21 March (J. Novak, K. Valley and D. Trel-
ka). Twenty further specimens in the same
series from Marathon can be treated as para-
types but have not been mounted or so la-
belled.


Fig. 119. Distribution of Melanagromyza wedeliae.





Remarks: This species very closely resem-
bles M. erechtitidis, but differences in the
depth of the jowls and of the length of the
orbital setulae, together with differences in
the genitalia, satisfy me that the two are dis-
tinct, though certainly sister species. The
most distinctive character is the coloration
of the squamae, which are pale gray with a
black margin and fringe.

Unidentified Melanagromyza species

1. Hialeah, one unemerged male, leg. 2 April
1964 ex stem of Verbena scabra (C.E.S.).
This appears to represent an undescribed
species. The posterior spiracles of the pu-
parium each bear ten bulbs, without a cen-
tral horn; the two processes are separated
by twice their own diameter.
2. Hialeah, one female, 4 Feb. 1963, ex stem
(?) of Sida sp. (C.E.S.).
This is an entirely black species, with a
conspicuously black squamal fringe; the wing
length is 1.9 mm. It runs to couplet 18 in the
key on p. 31 but is clearly distinct both from
marellii and also from parvella and caribbea.
However, it is not considered desirable to
describe this species until additional material
is available.


GENUS OPHIOMYIA BRASCHNIKOV

Agromyza Fallen, subgenus Ophiomyia
Braschnikov, 1897. Type of subgenus:
maura Meigen (misidentified as pulicaria
Meigen).
Ophiomyia Braschnikov, Hendel, 1920: 128.
Seven species have been known in this
genus from the Neotropical Region, includ-
ing southern Florida. Nine further species
are now described, four from Florida and five
from Dominica and the Bahamas. The genus
occurs throughout the world and now com-
prises 115 species. The Nearctic Region has
24 species, but with further collecting the
genus will probably be found to have an even
greater number of species in the Neotropical
Region.
Distinctive characters of the genus are the
characteristic vibrissal fasciculus in the male


(present in all species in Florida except hay-
deni) and the conspicuous facial keel di-
viding the base of the antennae. The hal-
teres are normally brown or black. The ma-
jority of species form external stem mines,
pupating in the mine, but some are leaf
miners.

Key to Florida Ophiomyia species

1 Squamal fringe white ...................... 2
1' Squamal fringe black ......................... 3
2 Jowls narrow, one eighth height of eye;
last section of vein M3+4 short, two
thirds penultimate; proboscis conspicu-
ously elongated ............ haydeni Spencer
2' Jowls broader, one fifth eye height; last
M3+4 section only slightly shorter than
penultimate; proboscis short, normal .....
.......................... .----- lippiae Spencer
3 Vibrissal corner acute, forming angle of
at m ost 600 .......................................... 4
3' Vibrissal corner approximately 800 to
900; facial keel broad, conspicuously
raised; vibrissal fasciculus long, not sub-
stantially tapering (Fig. 138) ................
................................ lantanae (Froggatt)
4 Facial keel conspicuously raised ........ 5
4' Facial keel flatter, only slightly raised ..6
5 Squamal fringe black; large species, wing
length 2.4 mm ............ lacertosa Spencer
5' Squamal fringe paler, brownish; smaller
species, wing length 2 mm ....................
........................................ obstipa Spencer
6 Vibrissal fasciculus long, uniformly curv-
ing (Fig. 120) ............ camarae Spencer
6' Vibrissal fasciculus shorter, with distinct
bend at end (Fig. 126) .. gentilis Spencer


Ophiomyia camarae Spencer

Fig. 120-125

Ophiomyia camarae Spencer, 1963a: 326;
1966c: 6. Holotype male from Trinidad
in BM.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.6
mm, last section of vein M3 +4 only slightly
shorter than penultimate; ocellar triangle
and orbits only moderately shining; jowls in





Remarks: This species very closely resem-
bles M. erechtitidis, but differences in the
depth of the jowls and of the length of the
orbital setulae, together with differences in
the genitalia, satisfy me that the two are dis-
tinct, though certainly sister species. The
most distinctive character is the coloration
of the squamae, which are pale gray with a
black margin and fringe.

Unidentified Melanagromyza species

1. Hialeah, one unemerged male, leg. 2 April
1964 ex stem of Verbena scabra (C.E.S.).
This appears to represent an undescribed
species. The posterior spiracles of the pu-
parium each bear ten bulbs, without a cen-
tral horn; the two processes are separated
by twice their own diameter.
2. Hialeah, one female, 4 Feb. 1963, ex stem
(?) of Sida sp. (C.E.S.).
This is an entirely black species, with a
conspicuously black squamal fringe; the wing
length is 1.9 mm. It runs to couplet 18 in the
key on p. 31 but is clearly distinct both from
marellii and also from parvella and caribbea.
However, it is not considered desirable to
describe this species until additional material
is available.


GENUS OPHIOMYIA BRASCHNIKOV

Agromyza Fallen, subgenus Ophiomyia
Braschnikov, 1897. Type of subgenus:
maura Meigen (misidentified as pulicaria
Meigen).
Ophiomyia Braschnikov, Hendel, 1920: 128.
Seven species have been known in this
genus from the Neotropical Region, includ-
ing southern Florida. Nine further species
are now described, four from Florida and five
from Dominica and the Bahamas. The genus
occurs throughout the world and now com-
prises 115 species. The Nearctic Region has
24 species, but with further collecting the
genus will probably be found to have an even
greater number of species in the Neotropical
Region.
Distinctive characters of the genus are the
characteristic vibrissal fasciculus in the male


(present in all species in Florida except hay-
deni) and the conspicuous facial keel di-
viding the base of the antennae. The hal-
teres are normally brown or black. The ma-
jority of species form external stem mines,
pupating in the mine, but some are leaf
miners.

Key to Florida Ophiomyia species

1 Squamal fringe white ...................... 2
1' Squamal fringe black ......................... 3
2 Jowls narrow, one eighth height of eye;
last section of vein M3+4 short, two
thirds penultimate; proboscis conspicu-
ously elongated ............ haydeni Spencer
2' Jowls broader, one fifth eye height; last
M3+4 section only slightly shorter than
penultimate; proboscis short, normal .....
.......................... .----- lippiae Spencer
3 Vibrissal corner acute, forming angle of
at m ost 600 .......................................... 4
3' Vibrissal corner approximately 800 to
900; facial keel broad, conspicuously
raised; vibrissal fasciculus long, not sub-
stantially tapering (Fig. 138) ................
................................ lantanae (Froggatt)
4 Facial keel conspicuously raised ........ 5
4' Facial keel flatter, only slightly raised ..6
5 Squamal fringe black; large species, wing
length 2.4 mm ............ lacertosa Spencer
5' Squamal fringe paler, brownish; smaller
species, wing length 2 mm ....................
........................................ obstipa Spencer
6 Vibrissal fasciculus long, uniformly curv-
ing (Fig. 120) ............ camarae Spencer
6' Vibrissal fasciculus shorter, with distinct
bend at end (Fig. 126) .. gentilis Spencer


Ophiomyia camarae Spencer

Fig. 120-125

Ophiomyia camarae Spencer, 1963a: 326;
1966c: 6. Holotype male from Trinidad
in BM.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.6
mm, last section of vein M3 +4 only slightly
shorter than penultimate; ocellar triangle
and orbits only moderately shining; jowls in





Remarks: This species very closely resem-
bles M. erechtitidis, but differences in the
depth of the jowls and of the length of the
orbital setulae, together with differences in
the genitalia, satisfy me that the two are dis-
tinct, though certainly sister species. The
most distinctive character is the coloration
of the squamae, which are pale gray with a
black margin and fringe.

Unidentified Melanagromyza species

1. Hialeah, one unemerged male, leg. 2 April
1964 ex stem of Verbena scabra (C.E.S.).
This appears to represent an undescribed
species. The posterior spiracles of the pu-
parium each bear ten bulbs, without a cen-
tral horn; the two processes are separated
by twice their own diameter.
2. Hialeah, one female, 4 Feb. 1963, ex stem
(?) of Sida sp. (C.E.S.).
This is an entirely black species, with a
conspicuously black squamal fringe; the wing
length is 1.9 mm. It runs to couplet 18 in the
key on p. 31 but is clearly distinct both from
marellii and also from parvella and caribbea.
However, it is not considered desirable to
describe this species until additional material
is available.


GENUS OPHIOMYIA BRASCHNIKOV

Agromyza Fallen, subgenus Ophiomyia
Braschnikov, 1897. Type of subgenus:
maura Meigen (misidentified as pulicaria
Meigen).
Ophiomyia Braschnikov, Hendel, 1920: 128.
Seven species have been known in this
genus from the Neotropical Region, includ-
ing southern Florida. Nine further species
are now described, four from Florida and five
from Dominica and the Bahamas. The genus
occurs throughout the world and now com-
prises 115 species. The Nearctic Region has
24 species, but with further collecting the
genus will probably be found to have an even
greater number of species in the Neotropical
Region.
Distinctive characters of the genus are the
characteristic vibrissal fasciculus in the male


(present in all species in Florida except hay-
deni) and the conspicuous facial keel di-
viding the base of the antennae. The hal-
teres are normally brown or black. The ma-
jority of species form external stem mines,
pupating in the mine, but some are leaf
miners.

Key to Florida Ophiomyia species

1 Squamal fringe white ...................... 2
1' Squamal fringe black ......................... 3
2 Jowls narrow, one eighth height of eye;
last section of vein M3+4 short, two
thirds penultimate; proboscis conspicu-
ously elongated ............ haydeni Spencer
2' Jowls broader, one fifth eye height; last
M3+4 section only slightly shorter than
penultimate; proboscis short, normal .....
.......................... .----- lippiae Spencer
3 Vibrissal corner acute, forming angle of
at m ost 600 .......................................... 4
3' Vibrissal corner approximately 800 to
900; facial keel broad, conspicuously
raised; vibrissal fasciculus long, not sub-
stantially tapering (Fig. 138) ................
................................ lantanae (Froggatt)
4 Facial keel conspicuously raised ........ 5
4' Facial keel flatter, only slightly raised ..6
5 Squamal fringe black; large species, wing
length 2.4 mm ............ lacertosa Spencer
5' Squamal fringe paler, brownish; smaller
species, wing length 2 mm ....................
........................................ obstipa Spencer
6 Vibrissal fasciculus long, uniformly curv-
ing (Fig. 120) ............ camarae Spencer
6' Vibrissal fasciculus shorter, with distinct
bend at end (Fig. 126) .. gentilis Spencer


Ophiomyia camarae Spencer

Fig. 120-125

Ophiomyia camarae Spencer, 1963a: 326;
1966c: 6. Holotype male from Trinidad
in BM.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.6
mm, last section of vein M3 +4 only slightly
shorter than penultimate; ocellar triangle
and orbits only moderately shining; jowls in





Remarks: This species very closely resem-
bles M. erechtitidis, but differences in the
depth of the jowls and of the length of the
orbital setulae, together with differences in
the genitalia, satisfy me that the two are dis-
tinct, though certainly sister species. The
most distinctive character is the coloration
of the squamae, which are pale gray with a
black margin and fringe.

Unidentified Melanagromyza species

1. Hialeah, one unemerged male, leg. 2 April
1964 ex stem of Verbena scabra (C.E.S.).
This appears to represent an undescribed
species. The posterior spiracles of the pu-
parium each bear ten bulbs, without a cen-
tral horn; the two processes are separated
by twice their own diameter.
2. Hialeah, one female, 4 Feb. 1963, ex stem
(?) of Sida sp. (C.E.S.).
This is an entirely black species, with a
conspicuously black squamal fringe; the wing
length is 1.9 mm. It runs to couplet 18 in the
key on p. 31 but is clearly distinct both from
marellii and also from parvella and caribbea.
However, it is not considered desirable to
describe this species until additional material
is available.


GENUS OPHIOMYIA BRASCHNIKOV

Agromyza Fallen, subgenus Ophiomyia
Braschnikov, 1897. Type of subgenus:
maura Meigen (misidentified as pulicaria
Meigen).
Ophiomyia Braschnikov, Hendel, 1920: 128.
Seven species have been known in this
genus from the Neotropical Region, includ-
ing southern Florida. Nine further species
are now described, four from Florida and five
from Dominica and the Bahamas. The genus
occurs throughout the world and now com-
prises 115 species. The Nearctic Region has
24 species, but with further collecting the
genus will probably be found to have an even
greater number of species in the Neotropical
Region.
Distinctive characters of the genus are the
characteristic vibrissal fasciculus in the male


(present in all species in Florida except hay-
deni) and the conspicuous facial keel di-
viding the base of the antennae. The hal-
teres are normally brown or black. The ma-
jority of species form external stem mines,
pupating in the mine, but some are leaf
miners.

Key to Florida Ophiomyia species

1 Squamal fringe white ...................... 2
1' Squamal fringe black ......................... 3
2 Jowls narrow, one eighth height of eye;
last section of vein M3+4 short, two
thirds penultimate; proboscis conspicu-
ously elongated ............ haydeni Spencer
2' Jowls broader, one fifth eye height; last
M3+4 section only slightly shorter than
penultimate; proboscis short, normal .....
.......................... .----- lippiae Spencer
3 Vibrissal corner acute, forming angle of
at m ost 600 .......................................... 4
3' Vibrissal corner approximately 800 to
900; facial keel broad, conspicuously
raised; vibrissal fasciculus long, not sub-
stantially tapering (Fig. 138) ................
................................ lantanae (Froggatt)
4 Facial keel conspicuously raised ........ 5
4' Facial keel flatter, only slightly raised ..6
5 Squamal fringe black; large species, wing
length 2.4 mm ............ lacertosa Spencer
5' Squamal fringe paler, brownish; smaller
species, wing length 2 mm ....................
........................................ obstipa Spencer
6 Vibrissal fasciculus long, uniformly curv-
ing (Fig. 120) ............ camarae Spencer
6' Vibrissal fasciculus shorter, with distinct
bend at end (Fig. 126) .. gentilis Spencer


Ophiomyia camarae Spencer

Fig. 120-125

Ophiomyia camarae Spencer, 1963a: 326;
1966c: 6. Holotype male from Trinidad
in BM.
Adult: very small species, wing length 1.6
mm, last section of vein M3 +4 only slightly
shorter than penultimate; ocellar triangle
and orbits only moderately shining; jowls in




center one-sixth vertical height of eye, con-
spicuously projecting forward, forming
angle of between 450 and 60 (Fig. 120);
vibrissal fasciculus long, broad at base; fa-
cial keel narrow, virtually linear; mesonotum
shining black; squamae gray, fringe black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Figs. 121,
122, highly asymmetrical; surstyli as in Fig.
123.
Host plant/Biology: Lantana camera,
larva feeding mainly along midrib, with off-
shoots along lateral veins (Fig. 124); Steg-
maier (1966e) gives three photographs of
the leaf mines; pupation in leaf.


Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Monroe
Co.; Trinidad.
Remarks: the leaf mines of this species
are entirely distinctive. However, the adults
closely resemble 0. gentilis, but the genitalia
of the two species are entirely distinct.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, two males,
eight females, emerged 17 April 1963 ex leaf
mines on Lantana leg. 5 April 1963
(C.E.S.); Homestead, two females, 14 Oct.
1968, caught on Lantana (K.A.S.).
Trinidad: Curepe, ten males, two females,
July 1962, ex Lantana; Brigart Hill, one fe-
male, April 1969 (all F.D. Bennett).






124


124


N''




122


123

Figs. 120-124. Ophiomyia camarae: 120, head; 121,
aedeagus, side view; 122, same, ventral view;
123, surstylus (all Hialeah); 124, leaf mine on
Lantana camera.


Fig. 125. Distribution of Ophiomyia camarae.





Ophiomyzia gentilis Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 126-129

Adult: jowls about one-fifth vertical height
of eye, distinctly projecting forward, form-
ing angle of about 600 in front, vibrissal
fasciculus slender, with distinctive bend,
rather than uniformly curving (Fig. 126),
facial keel narrow but slightly raised and
widening below base of antennae; ocellar tri-
angle conspicuously shining; mesonotum
shining black, acr appearing sparse; wing
length 1.6 1.75 mm in male, last and penul-
timate sections of vein M3+4 equal or last
section slightly shorter; squamae pale gray,
fringe brownish black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 127,
128, with conspicuous chitinized process
above.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Dominica, Clarke Hall, 21-
31 Jan. 1965 (W.W. Wirth); paratypes:
Florida, Dade Co., Miami, one male, 10 Sept.
1963 (C.E.S.); Costa Rica, La Caja, 10 km
W. of San Jos6, one male, 1930 (Schmidt).


r I2
/-/\ 7!

^^-4''


127





128
Figs. 126-128. Ophiomyia gentilis: 126, head; 127,
aedeagus, side view; 128, same, dorsal view.


Fig. 129. Distribution of Ophiomyia gentilis.

Holotype in USNM, one paratype in DEI,
one in senior author's collection.
Remarks: The form of vibrissal fascicu-
lus, the brilliantly shining ocellar triangle
and the narrow facial keel are distinctive
characters of this species. The male geni-
talia are entirely characteristic and are iden-
tical in the three type specimens.
With records of this species from Costa
Rica, Dominica and Miami, it is obviously
widespread throughout the Caribbean area.


Ophiomyia haydeni Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 130-133

Head: frons not projecting above eye; two
equal ors, two ori equally long as ors but
slightly more slender; orbital setulae long,
sparse, reclinate behind, incurved or procli-
nate below lower ori; jowls deepest in center
below eye, one-seventh vertical height of eye,
vibrissa in male strong but normal (not sev-
eral hairs fused into a fasciculus) ; facial keel
conspicuously raised below base of antennae





but of medium width; proboscis greatly elon-
gated, both labellae and mediproboscis nar-
row, of equal length (Fig. 130).
Mesonotum: two strong pairs of de; acr
in up to 10 rows in front but none reaching
level of first dc.
Wing: length in male 1.9 mm, costa ex-
tending strongly to vein M1+2, last section
of M3+4 shorter than penultimate, in ratio
13:18, first cross-vein at midpoint of discal
cell.


p -


Figs. 130-132. Ophiomyia haydeni: 130, head; 131, aedeagus (Bahamas); 132, aedeagus (Florida).


Color: ocellar triangle and orbits weakly
shining, mesonotum only moderately shining
black; squamae whitish gray, margin brown,
fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 131;
ninth sternite essentially as in 0. buscki (cf.
Spencer, 1963a: fig. 42D); aedeagus of male
from Flamingo, Florida as in Fig. 132.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Bahamas, Andros Is., Man-
grove Cay, 26 April 1953 (E.B. Hayden);
paratypes: Eleuthera Is., New Portsmouth
(Rock Sound), one male, 28 March 1953; o
Florida, Monroe Co., Flamingo, one male, 1-5 -
Dec. 1961 (Munroe, Holland and Chillcott).
Holotype in AMNH, paratypes in CNC and
senior author's collection.
Remarks: This species closely resembles O.
buscki (Frost) from the Panama Canal Zone ,
but both aedeagus and surstyli are suffi-
ciently different to justify considering it as
distinct. Characters in common with buscki -*
are the normal vibrissa, raised facial keel,
elongated mouth parts, white squamal fringe Fig. 133. Distribution of Ophiomyia haydeni.





and general form of the aedeagus and ninth
sternite.
Specimens from Argentina and Brazil
reared from stem mines on Alternanthera
philoxeroides were treated by Spencer
(1963a: 325) as identical with buscki from
Panama. Although the two populations are
closely related, it is now considered that there
must be doubt as to whether they are identi-
cal. Frick's (1959: Fig. 46) illustration of
the head of buscki shows a strong vibrissal
fasciculus. In view of this it is necessary
for the genitalia of the male holotype to be
examined to clarify the identity of buscki,
both in relation to the specimens from Ar-
gentina and Brazil and also in relation to O.
haydeni from the Bahamas and Florida.


Ophiomyia lacertosa Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 134-137

Head: jowls distinctly projecting for-
ward, forming angle of about 600 in front,
about one-sixth vertical height of eye; cheeks
broad, more than half width of jowls; vibris-
sal fasciculus in male stout at base, regularly
curving, short (Fig. 134) ; facial keel of me-
dium width, conspicuously raised above base
of antennae, with a distinct furrow centrally.
Mesonotum: acr appearing sparse, in
about six rows.
Wing: length 2.4 mm, last section of vein
M3 + 4 little shorter than penultimate.


Fig. 137. Distribution of Ophiomyia lacertosa.


Color: ocellar triangle and orbits moder-
ately shining; mesonotum entirely shining
black; squamae dark gray, margin and fringe
black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 135,
136.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Florida, Levy Co., Gulf


.: ,~~


Figs. 134-136. Ophiomyia lacertosa: 134, head; 135, aedeagus, side view; 136, same, ventral view.
59


""





Hammock, 23 April 1952 (0. Peck), in CNC.
Remarks: The form of head in this species
somewhat resembles that in 0. arguta, but
the vibrissal fasciculus is substantially shor-
ter; the facial keel is more pronounced in
lacertosa. The entirely black squamal fringe
is a further distinguishing character. 0.
lacertosa, with wing length of 2.4 mm, is one
of the larger species.


Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt)

Fig. 138-141

Agromyza lantanae Froggatt, 1919: 665; Al-
drich, 1923: 262. No types extant.
Ophiomyia lantanae, de Meijere, 1925: 253;
Frick, 1952a: 382; 1959: 370; Spencer,
1963a: 328; 1963b: 324.
Agromyza longicauda Curran, 1928: 65.
Adult: small species, wing length 1.9 2.2
mm; frons not projecting above eye, jowls
about one-fifth vertical eye height, not
greatly projecting forward, forming an angle
of 800, rather flat below, vibrissal fasciculus
in male strong but narrow at base (Fig. 138),
keel dividing antennae pronounced, broad
and raised but somewhat variable; mesono-
tum distinctly mat, almost brownish black,
squamae gray, fringe black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 139,
140.
Host plant/Biology: Lantana camera,
larva feeding in the seed heads, either on
the pulp of the immature berries or eating
out the actual seed, where pupation takes
place.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Dade
Co., Lake Co.; Hawaii; Brazil, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Trin-
idad; East Africa, Australia, Ceylon, India,
Malaya, Singapore.
Remarks: This species normally occurs in
abundance in association with its main food
plant, Lantana camera. There is no evidence
whether it also feeds on other Lantana spe-
cies, but it may do so. 0. lantanae is native
to Mexico and Central America but is wide-
spread throughout the Caribbean area. It
occurs throughout most of Florida.


140
Figs. 138-140. Ophiomyia lantanae: 138, head; 139,
aedeagus, side view; 140, same, ventral view.


Lantana has been widely introduced in Af-
rica, much of Asia and Australia and prob-
ably 0. lantanae was originally introduced
inadvertently with the seeds. The fly sub-
sequently has been deliberately introduced
into India and Kenya in an attempt to con-
trol the spread of Lantana, which has spread
over large areas in much of the Old World
tropics and Australia.
0. lantanae closely resembles O. legitima
but is distinguishable by the broader, more
raised facial keel and mat mesonotum (bril-
liantly shining black in legitima).
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, one fe-
male, 9 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.) ; Lake Co., Lees-
burg, one male, one female, 10 Oct. 1968
(K.A.S. and C.E.S.).
Costa Rica: La Caja, 8 km W. of San Jose,
one male, 7 Nov. 1930 (Schmidt).





Brazil: Porto Alegre, one male, two fe-
males, 4 March 1969, on Lantana camera
(K. Hurley).


Fig. 141. Distribution of Ophiomyia lantanae.


Ophiomyia lippiae Spencer

Fig. 142-146

Ophiomyia lippiae Spencer, 1966c: 6. Holo-
type male from Florida, Dade Co. in
USNM.
Adult: very small species, wing length
from 1.5 to 1.9 mm, squamal fringe white;
jowls broad, one-fifth vertical height of eye,
lower margin straight, vibrissal corner
scarcely projecting forward, forming angle
of approximately 900; vibrissal fasciculus in
male long, slender, uniformly curving (Fig.
142) ; facial keel distinctly bulbous between
base of antennae; mouthparts not elongated,
normal; mesonotum conspicuously shining
black, acr in some eight to ten rows; last sec-
tion of vein M3 + 4 only slightly shorter than
penultimate, in ratio 12:15; squamae white,
margin pale brownish yellow, fringe nor-
mally silvery white, more rarely ochrous.
Male genitalia: aedeagus highly asymmet-
rical, as in Fig. 143, 144.
Host plant/Biology: Lippia nodiflora,
larva reported to be seed feeder, but this


-A-->


%6'-


- X.a-<**
, *S -r 1^'
A 14



145


Figs. 142-145. Ophiomyia lippiae: 142, head; 143, aedeagus, side view; 144, same, ventral view; 145, pos-
terior spiracles of puparium.






is possibly a stem miner, pupating in the
upper part of the stem; puparium pale,
yellowish white, posterior spiracles on
short, raised stalks, each process with five
bulbs (Fig. 145).


Fig. 146. Distribution of Ophiomyia lippiae.

Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Miami;
Bahamas.
Remarks: This species resembles 0. buscki
in having a white squamal fringe, but the
jowls are deeper, the mouth parts are normal
(greatly elongated in buscki), and it is gen-
erally smaller.
The new records from the Bahamas given
below suggest that this species has reached
Florida from the south.
Material examined:
Bahamas: Cat Is., McQueen, one male, 23
Jan. 1953; Great Inagua Is., Mathew Town,
five males, four females, 31 Jan. 1953 (E.B.
Hayden & L. Giovannoli).
Florida: Miami, four males, nine females,
emerged 26 Aug. 1963 "ex seeds" of Lippia
nodiflora leg. 24 Aug. 1963; two females, 18-
24 July 1963 (all C.E.S.).


Ophiomyia obstipa Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 147-150

Adult: small species, wing length 2 mm;
jowls deep (Fig. 147), one-quarter height of
eye, forming angle of 600 or less in front;
vibrissal fasciculus slightly thickened at base,
becoming very fine at end and distinctively
bending in center; ocellar triangle bril-
liantly shining black, orbits slightly less so;
facial keel between antennae narrow but
well defined; mesonotum shining black; squa-
mae pale-gray, margin and fringe grayish
black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 148,
149, distiphallus highly asymmetrical.


149
Figs. 147-149. Ophiomyia obstipa: 147, head; 148,
aedeagus, side view; 149, same, dorsal view.





... Remarks: This species is distinguishable
by the deep, acute-angled jowls and the dis-
tinctive vibrissal fasciculus. It is possible
that the host is one of the plants on which
specimens were caught, but this is not cer-
tain, as experience has shown that Agromy-
Szidae frequently rest on any convenient foli-
age which may not be associated with their
host plant.



Ophiomyia sp. (Lantana)

Fig. 151-152

An undescribed species forming long, nar-
row, pale greenish linear mines (Fig. 151)
Son Lantana camera, pupating in the leaf, is
not uncommon in the Miami area, and I have
.seen similar mines at Caracas, Venezuela, 3
Dec. 1958. It is to be hoped that eventually
Fig. 150. Distribution of Ophiomyia obstipa. males of this species can be reared, so that its
status can be clarified.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Hialeah,
8 March 1964; paratypes: same locality, two
males, 5 Oct. 1964, caught on Verbena; one
male, 31 Oct. 1964, caught on Borreria termi-
nalis (all C.E.S.); Homestead, one male, 4
April 1952 (J.R. Vockeroth); Volusia Co.,
Ormond Beach, one female, 3 Oct. 1960 (R.E.
Woodruff). Holotype in USNM, further \
paratypes in CNC, FSCA and senior author's
collection.













151 .

Fig. 151. Ophiomyia sp. (Lantana): leaf mine. Fig. 152. Distribution of Ophiomyia sp. (Lantana).






SUBFAMILY PHYTOMYZINAE


GENUS PHYTOBIA LIOY

Phytobia Lioy, 1864: 1313; Spencer, 1966d:
142; 1969a: 101. Type of genus:
Agromyza errans Meigen, syntypes in
Paris and Vienna.
This genus consists of large species, and
those whose life history is known all feed as
cambium borers in the twigs of trees. The


Fig. 153. Distribution of Phytobia sp.

species occur throughout the world except
Australia and provide the largest species in
the family, with wing length up to 6.5 mm.
They can be mistaken easily for Agromyza
species, but the male genitalia will always
reveal their correct identity.
The genus is about equally represented in
the Neotropical and Nearctic Regions. Only
a single species from Torreya is known in
Florida, and none of obvious southern origin
are known in the south.


Phytobia sp.

Fig. 153

Florida: Liberty Co., Torreya State Park,
one female, 29 April 1952 (0. Peck), in CNC.
Remarks: In view of the many similar spe-
cies in this genus, it is unfortunately not
possible to make a positive identification of
this single female. It closely resembles P.
betulivora Spencer (1969a: 103) recorded
from District of Columbia and Ontario, feed-
ing as a cambium borer in Betula nigra. The
reddish frons and antennae and six slender
orbital bristles are characters in common, but
the mesonotum of the Florida specimen is
distinctly more black (gray in betulivora),
and it is also somewhat smaller, with wing
length of 3.5 mm (4.3 in male of betulivora).
It therefore seems very probable that it rep-
resents an undescribed species, but more ma-
terial will be necessary before this can be de-
cided.



GENUS CERODONTHA RONDANI

Cerodontha Rondani, 1861: 10; Nowakowski,
1962: 100; 1967: 633-661; Spencer, 1969a:
109. Type of genus: Chlorops denticornis
Panzer.

This genus was originally restricted to the
small group of species having a conspicuous
spine on the third antennal segment and only
one pair of scutellar bristles. C. dorsalis is a
well-known North American species with
these characters.
Nowakowski (1962) later expanded the
generic concept to include the sub-genera
Dizygomyza, Poemyza and Icteromyza in-
cluded by Hendel (1931-6) in the genus Dizy-
gomyza and by Frick (1952a) in Phytobia.
Cerodontha is now a large genus of over 130






SUBFAMILY PHYTOMYZINAE


GENUS PHYTOBIA LIOY

Phytobia Lioy, 1864: 1313; Spencer, 1966d:
142; 1969a: 101. Type of genus:
Agromyza errans Meigen, syntypes in
Paris and Vienna.
This genus consists of large species, and
those whose life history is known all feed as
cambium borers in the twigs of trees. The


Fig. 153. Distribution of Phytobia sp.

species occur throughout the world except
Australia and provide the largest species in
the family, with wing length up to 6.5 mm.
They can be mistaken easily for Agromyza
species, but the male genitalia will always
reveal their correct identity.
The genus is about equally represented in
the Neotropical and Nearctic Regions. Only
a single species from Torreya is known in
Florida, and none of obvious southern origin
are known in the south.


Phytobia sp.

Fig. 153

Florida: Liberty Co., Torreya State Park,
one female, 29 April 1952 (0. Peck), in CNC.
Remarks: In view of the many similar spe-
cies in this genus, it is unfortunately not
possible to make a positive identification of
this single female. It closely resembles P.
betulivora Spencer (1969a: 103) recorded
from District of Columbia and Ontario, feed-
ing as a cambium borer in Betula nigra. The
reddish frons and antennae and six slender
orbital bristles are characters in common, but
the mesonotum of the Florida specimen is
distinctly more black (gray in betulivora),
and it is also somewhat smaller, with wing
length of 3.5 mm (4.3 in male of betulivora).
It therefore seems very probable that it rep-
resents an undescribed species, but more ma-
terial will be necessary before this can be de-
cided.



GENUS CERODONTHA RONDANI

Cerodontha Rondani, 1861: 10; Nowakowski,
1962: 100; 1967: 633-661; Spencer, 1969a:
109. Type of genus: Chlorops denticornis
Panzer.

This genus was originally restricted to the
small group of species having a conspicuous
spine on the third antennal segment and only
one pair of scutellar bristles. C. dorsalis is a
well-known North American species with
these characters.
Nowakowski (1962) later expanded the
generic concept to include the sub-genera
Dizygomyza, Poemyza and Icteromyza in-
cluded by Hendel (1931-6) in the genus Dizy-
gomyza and by Frick (1952a) in Phytobia.
Cerodontha is now a large genus of over 130






SUBFAMILY PHYTOMYZINAE


GENUS PHYTOBIA LIOY

Phytobia Lioy, 1864: 1313; Spencer, 1966d:
142; 1969a: 101. Type of genus:
Agromyza errans Meigen, syntypes in
Paris and Vienna.
This genus consists of large species, and
those whose life history is known all feed as
cambium borers in the twigs of trees. The


Fig. 153. Distribution of Phytobia sp.

species occur throughout the world except
Australia and provide the largest species in
the family, with wing length up to 6.5 mm.
They can be mistaken easily for Agromyza
species, but the male genitalia will always
reveal their correct identity.
The genus is about equally represented in
the Neotropical and Nearctic Regions. Only
a single species from Torreya is known in
Florida, and none of obvious southern origin
are known in the south.


Phytobia sp.

Fig. 153

Florida: Liberty Co., Torreya State Park,
one female, 29 April 1952 (0. Peck), in CNC.
Remarks: In view of the many similar spe-
cies in this genus, it is unfortunately not
possible to make a positive identification of
this single female. It closely resembles P.
betulivora Spencer (1969a: 103) recorded
from District of Columbia and Ontario, feed-
ing as a cambium borer in Betula nigra. The
reddish frons and antennae and six slender
orbital bristles are characters in common, but
the mesonotum of the Florida specimen is
distinctly more black (gray in betulivora),
and it is also somewhat smaller, with wing
length of 3.5 mm (4.3 in male of betulivora).
It therefore seems very probable that it rep-
resents an undescribed species, but more ma-
terial will be necessary before this can be de-
cided.



GENUS CERODONTHA RONDANI

Cerodontha Rondani, 1861: 10; Nowakowski,
1962: 100; 1967: 633-661; Spencer, 1969a:
109. Type of genus: Chlorops denticornis
Panzer.

This genus was originally restricted to the
small group of species having a conspicuous
spine on the third antennal segment and only
one pair of scutellar bristles. C. dorsalis is a
well-known North American species with
these characters.
Nowakowski (1962) later expanded the
generic concept to include the sub-genera
Dizygomyza, Poemyza and Icteromyza in-
cluded by Hendel (1931-6) in the genus Dizy-
gomyza and by Frick (1952a) in Phytobia.
Cerodontha is now a large genus of over 130






species of world-wide distribution. The lar-
vae feed exclusively on Monocotyledoneae, in
the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Junca-
ceae and Iridaceae.
Cerodontha is well developed in the Nearc-
tic and Palaearctic Regions, and several spe-
cies occur in the arctic tundra. Only nine
species hitherto have been known in the Neo-
tropical Region, but this number will in-
crease substantially with further collecting.
Five species are now recorded in Florida,
three Dizygomyza species being described as
new, and one, C. (Ict.) longipennis, is new
to the State.

Key to Florida Cerodontha species

(including Cer. (Diz.) puertoricensis
from Puerto Rico

1 Third antennal segment with conspicuous
spine at upper corner; only single pair
of scutellar bristles ....--------------- -- -------.
............. (Cerodontha) dorsalis (Loew)
1' Third antennal segment without spine,
though sometimes greatly enlarged in
male; two pairs of scutellar bristles ...... 2
2 Frons and orbits yellow ... ...........
.......... (Icteromyza) longipennis (Loew)
2' Frons and orbits darker, brown or black..
--------------.................. (Dizygomyza) 3
3 Lunule broad, semicircular; third anten-
nal segment enlarged in male ............ 4
3' Lunule higher than semicircle, V-shaped;
third antennal segment in male normal ..
........................ puertoricensis Spencer


Fig. 154. Cerodontha (Diz.) frosti: head (female)


4 Notopleural triangle yellow .................
.-..............................-.... pecki Spencer
4' Notopleural triangle black .........-..... 5
5 Frons brown above, black below, orbits
brownish; lunule higher than semicircle ..
.................................. iridophora Spencer
5' Frons uniformly pale brown, orbits
black; lunule semicircular ..................
....-.... ............................... frosti Spencer


Subgenus Dizygomyza Hendel

Dizygomyza Hendel, 1920: 130; Spencer,
1969a: 113. Type of subgenus: Agromyza
morosa Meigen.
This is the largest subgenus in Cerodon-
tha, and three new species are described
below. The males are normally character-
ized by the greatly enlarged third antennal
segment. Host plants are found in the fam-
ilies Gramineae, Cyperaceae and Iridaceae.



Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) frosti
Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 154, 155

Head (Fig. 154) : frons broad, 11/2 times
width of eye; orbits conspicuously differen-
tiated, widening and strongly projecting
above eye anteriorly; ors missing, relative
strength not detectable, orbital setulae recli-
nate behind, upright or proclinate in front;
lunule broad, semicircular, jowls small, about
one-fifth height of eye; third antenna seg-
ment enlarged, conspicuously pubescent.
Mesonotum: 3+1 de, pre-sutural weak;
acr sparse, in about five rows; prescutellars
well developed (one absent).
Wing: length in female 2.5 mm, costa ex-
tending strongly to vein M1+2, last section
of vein M3+4 slightly longer than penulti-
mate in ratio 25:20, first cross-vein at mid-
point of discal cell.
Color: frons pale brown, orbits strikingly
differentiated, black; lunule brownish gray;






species of world-wide distribution. The lar-
vae feed exclusively on Monocotyledoneae, in
the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Junca-
ceae and Iridaceae.
Cerodontha is well developed in the Nearc-
tic and Palaearctic Regions, and several spe-
cies occur in the arctic tundra. Only nine
species hitherto have been known in the Neo-
tropical Region, but this number will in-
crease substantially with further collecting.
Five species are now recorded in Florida,
three Dizygomyza species being described as
new, and one, C. (Ict.) longipennis, is new
to the State.

Key to Florida Cerodontha species

(including Cer. (Diz.) puertoricensis
from Puerto Rico

1 Third antennal segment with conspicuous
spine at upper corner; only single pair
of scutellar bristles ....--------------- -- -------.
............. (Cerodontha) dorsalis (Loew)
1' Third antennal segment without spine,
though sometimes greatly enlarged in
male; two pairs of scutellar bristles ...... 2
2 Frons and orbits yellow ... ...........
.......... (Icteromyza) longipennis (Loew)
2' Frons and orbits darker, brown or black..
--------------.................. (Dizygomyza) 3
3 Lunule broad, semicircular; third anten-
nal segment enlarged in male ............ 4
3' Lunule higher than semicircle, V-shaped;
third antennal segment in male normal ..
........................ puertoricensis Spencer


Fig. 154. Cerodontha (Diz.) frosti: head (female)


4 Notopleural triangle yellow .................
.-..............................-.... pecki Spencer
4' Notopleural triangle black .........-..... 5
5 Frons brown above, black below, orbits
brownish; lunule higher than semicircle ..
.................................. iridophora Spencer
5' Frons uniformly pale brown, orbits
black; lunule semicircular ..................
....-.... ............................... frosti Spencer


Subgenus Dizygomyza Hendel

Dizygomyza Hendel, 1920: 130; Spencer,
1969a: 113. Type of subgenus: Agromyza
morosa Meigen.
This is the largest subgenus in Cerodon-
tha, and three new species are described
below. The males are normally character-
ized by the greatly enlarged third antennal
segment. Host plants are found in the fam-
ilies Gramineae, Cyperaceae and Iridaceae.



Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) frosti
Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 154, 155

Head (Fig. 154) : frons broad, 11/2 times
width of eye; orbits conspicuously differen-
tiated, widening and strongly projecting
above eye anteriorly; ors missing, relative
strength not detectable, orbital setulae recli-
nate behind, upright or proclinate in front;
lunule broad, semicircular, jowls small, about
one-fifth height of eye; third antenna seg-
ment enlarged, conspicuously pubescent.
Mesonotum: 3+1 de, pre-sutural weak;
acr sparse, in about five rows; prescutellars
well developed (one absent).
Wing: length in female 2.5 mm, costa ex-
tending strongly to vein M1+2, last section
of vein M3+4 slightly longer than penulti-
mate in ratio 25:20, first cross-vein at mid-
point of discal cell.
Color: frons pale brown, orbits strikingly
differentiated, black; lunule brownish gray;






species of world-wide distribution. The lar-
vae feed exclusively on Monocotyledoneae, in
the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Junca-
ceae and Iridaceae.
Cerodontha is well developed in the Nearc-
tic and Palaearctic Regions, and several spe-
cies occur in the arctic tundra. Only nine
species hitherto have been known in the Neo-
tropical Region, but this number will in-
crease substantially with further collecting.
Five species are now recorded in Florida,
three Dizygomyza species being described as
new, and one, C. (Ict.) longipennis, is new
to the State.

Key to Florida Cerodontha species

(including Cer. (Diz.) puertoricensis
from Puerto Rico

1 Third antennal segment with conspicuous
spine at upper corner; only single pair
of scutellar bristles ....--------------- -- -------.
............. (Cerodontha) dorsalis (Loew)
1' Third antennal segment without spine,
though sometimes greatly enlarged in
male; two pairs of scutellar bristles ...... 2
2 Frons and orbits yellow ... ...........
.......... (Icteromyza) longipennis (Loew)
2' Frons and orbits darker, brown or black..
--------------.................. (Dizygomyza) 3
3 Lunule broad, semicircular; third anten-
nal segment enlarged in male ............ 4
3' Lunule higher than semicircle, V-shaped;
third antennal segment in male normal ..
........................ puertoricensis Spencer


Fig. 154. Cerodontha (Diz.) frosti: head (female)


4 Notopleural triangle yellow .................
.-..............................-.... pecki Spencer
4' Notopleural triangle black .........-..... 5
5 Frons brown above, black below, orbits
brownish; lunule higher than semicircle ..
.................................. iridophora Spencer
5' Frons uniformly pale brown, orbits
black; lunule semicircular ..................
....-.... ............................... frosti Spencer


Subgenus Dizygomyza Hendel

Dizygomyza Hendel, 1920: 130; Spencer,
1969a: 113. Type of subgenus: Agromyza
morosa Meigen.
This is the largest subgenus in Cerodon-
tha, and three new species are described
below. The males are normally character-
ized by the greatly enlarged third antennal
segment. Host plants are found in the fam-
ilies Gramineae, Cyperaceae and Iridaceae.



Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) frosti
Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 154, 155

Head (Fig. 154) : frons broad, 11/2 times
width of eye; orbits conspicuously differen-
tiated, widening and strongly projecting
above eye anteriorly; ors missing, relative
strength not detectable, orbital setulae recli-
nate behind, upright or proclinate in front;
lunule broad, semicircular, jowls small, about
one-fifth height of eye; third antenna seg-
ment enlarged, conspicuously pubescent.
Mesonotum: 3+1 de, pre-sutural weak;
acr sparse, in about five rows; prescutellars
well developed (one absent).
Wing: length in female 2.5 mm, costa ex-
tending strongly to vein M1+2, last section
of vein M3+4 slightly longer than penulti-
mate in ratio 25:20, first cross-vein at mid-
point of discal cell.
Color: frons pale brown, orbits strikingly
differentiated, black; lunule brownish gray;































Fig. 155. Distribution of Cerodontha (Diz.) frosti.
all antennal segments black; mesonotum mat
black; upper margin and hind-corner of
mesopleura orange-yellow, pleura otherwise
black; legs black, but all knees distinctly yel-
low; abdomen shining black, squamae and
fringe yellowish.
Host plant/Biology: unknown.
Holotype female, Florida, Highlands Co.,
Archbold Biological Station, 28 Nov. 1959
(S.W. Frost), in USNM.


Remarks: The coloration of the head and
the enlarged, pubescent third antennal seg-
ment in the female make this a distinctive
species.


Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) iridophora
Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 156-159

Head (Fig. 156) : frons broad, twice width
of eye, normally slightly projecting above eye
in profile (not so in one of six specimens ex-
amined); two ors, three (rarely four)
weaker, largely incurved ori; orbital setulae
conspicuously long in front, reclinate; orbits
broad, inner margin parallel to eye, lunule
large, distinctly higher than semicircle; jowl
deeper at rear, at midpoint about one-eighth
height of eye; third antenna segment greatly
enlarged in male, shortly pubescent, in fe-
male normal.
Mesonotum: 3+1 dc, third and fourth
equal; acr in some six rows, pre-scutellars
well developed.
Wing: length from 2.2 mm in male to 2.5
in female; last section of M3 + 4 shorter than
penultimate, slightly variable but normally
in ratio 20 : 25; first cross-vein slightly be-
yond midpoint of discal cell.
Color: frons brown in upper half, dis-
tinctly black below; orbits brownish, lunule
appearing brown viewed from front, dis-


Fig. 156, 157. Cerodontha (Diz.) iridophora; 156, head (male); 157, aedeagus.






tinctly silvery viewed from behind; third an-
tennal segment black, first and second par-
tially paler, brownish; mesonotum mat
black, pleura black, apart from narrow yel-
low upper margin of mesopleura; legs: all
femora black, with bright yellow knees, tibia
and tarsi somewhat paler, more brownish;
abdomen shining black; wing base, squamae
and fringe bright yellow.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 157,
paired distal tubules entirely symmetrical
and parallel; surstyli with well-developed
group of short spines on inner corner; epan-
drium with conspicuous knob between base
of cerci (cf. Frick, 1959: Diz. thompsoni,
Fig. 84).
Puparium: dark brown, posterior spiracles
arising from projecting base, each with three
distinct bulbs, the lower two curving later-
ally (Fig. 158).





158 --


Fig. 158. Cerodontha (Diz.) iridophora: posterior
spiracles of puparium.

Host plant/Biology: Iris sp., larva form-
ing irregular whitish leaf mine, pupating to-
ward base of leaf.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Miami
Springs, emerged 23 Dec. 1966 ex leaf mines
on Iris sp. leg. 8 Dec. 1966; paratypes: one
male, same data; three males, one female,
emerged 22-29 Dec., leg. 14 Dec. 1966 (all
B.K. Dozier). Holotype and one paratype in
USNM, two paratypes in FSCA, two in sen-
ior author's collection.
Remarks: This species is immediately dis-
tinguishable from the only other species in
the subgenus known in Florida by the key
characters given above. On external char-
acters it closely resembles Diz. thompsoni
Frick (cf. Spencer, 1969a: 124) mining on
Iris versicolor in the N.E. United States and
eastern Canada. However, in thompsoni the
mined leaves around the pupation site be-
come conspicuously distorted. The aedeagus


-'
Fig. 159. Distribution of Cerodontha (Diz.) irido-
phora.

of the two species is generally similar (cf.
Spencer, 1969a: Fig. 217) but they are
readily distinguishable by the form of the
posterior pupal spiracles. In thompsoni the
lower two are closely wrapped around the
base of the longer, upper one (an arrange-
ment frequently found in species of this
subgenus, cf. Hendel, 1931-6: Fig. 113, 114-
Diz. morosa), while in iridophora the lower
two lie free, although curving out laterally.
Diz. iridophora is distinct from two Euro-
pean miners on Iris, D. ireos R.-D. and D.
iridis Hendel.


Fig. 160. Cerodontha (Diz.) pecki: head (male).







Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) pecki
Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 160-162

Head (Fig. 160) : frons broad, twice width
of eye, either not projecting above eye or
slightly so in front; two slender ors, the
upper distinctly stronger, two weak incurved
ori; orbital setulae sparse, irregular, at rear
upright, a few in front more proclinate;
orbits broad, slightly widening anteriorly;
lunule broad, semicircular; jowls not ex-
tended at rear, about one-sixth eye height;
third antennal segment enlarged in both male
and female, conspicuously pubescent but pi-
losity shorter in female.
Mesonotum: 3+1 weak dc, third and
fourth equal; acr sparse, in four rows, ex-
tending to midway between second and first
dc; pre-scutellars present but weak.
Wing: length 1.8 1.9 mm, costa extend-
ing to vein M1+2, last and penultimate sec-
tions of M3+4 equal or last slightly longer;
first cross-vein at midpoint of discal cell.
Color: frons brownish, orbits and lunule
gray, almost silvery; all antennal segments
black; mesonotum conspicuously mat, ash
gray; humerus, notopleural triangle and up-
per hind corner of mesopleura bright yellow
or slightly suffused with gray; legs black,
fore-knees conspicuously yellow; abdomen
basically shining black but front tergites
broadly yellow laterally and narrowly so on
hind margins; wing base, squamae and
fringe bright yellow.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 161,
distal tubules conspicuously dilated at apex;


-qa.
)I


Fig. 161. Cerodontha (Diz.) pecki: aedeagus.


ninth sternite U-shaped, side arms narrow,
with broad membranous fusion apically; sur-
styli with two or three short, strong spines
on inner corner.
Host plant/Biology: unknown but almost
certainly Cyperaceae.
Holotype male, Florida, Alachua Co.,
Gainesville, 25 April 1952; paratypes: one
female, Newnan's Lake, nr. Gainesville, 26
April 1952; DeSoto Co., Fort Ogden, one
male, 8 April 1952 (all O. Peck). Holotype
and one paratype in CNC, one paratype in
senior author's collection.
Remarks: This species is immediately dis-
tinguishable from the other species in the
subgenus known in Florida by the yellowish
sides of the thorax. However, it closely re-
sembles the Holarctic species, Diz. morosa
(Meigen), which has the same distinctive
coloration, but is distinguishable by having
only the fore-knees yellow (all knees yellow
in morosa). Diz. morosa, described as mag-
nicornis Loew from District of Columbia, is
widespread in the north of the United States
and has been recorded from eastern Canada
(Spencer, 1969a: 121).


Fig. 162. Distribution of Cerodontha (Diz.) pecki.











163

Subgenus Icteromyza Hendel

Icteromyza Hendel, 1931: 51; Spencer,
1969a: 137. Type of subgenus: Agromyza
geniculata Fallen.
The single species, I. longipennis, which
occurs widely in North America and also
more rarely in the Neotropical Region, is
now recorded as new to Florida. The fam-
ilies Cyperaceae and Juncaceae provide the
hosts for this subgenus.



Cerodontha (Icteromyza) longipennis
(Loew)
Fig. 163-164

Agromyza longipennis Loew, 1869: 48;
Shewell, 1953: 466. Holotype female from
District of Columbia in MCZ.
Phytobia (Icteromyza) longipennis (Loew),
Frick, 1959: 386.
Cerodontha (Icteromyza) longipennis, Spen-
cer, 1969a: 140.
Adult: wing length 2.5 to 3.1 mm; frons
not projecting above eye in profile, largely
yellow, upper orbits blackish; eye bare, third
antennal segment variable, yellowish brown
to black, palpi yellow; mesonotum mat gray;
femora blackish gray but broadly yellow in
apical third.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 163,
distal tubules unusually long, slightly ex-
panded at end, mesophallus long and slender.
Host plant/Biology: leaf miner on Juncus
spp., reared from J. xiphioides Meyer by
Frick (1959: 387).
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co.; wide-
spread in northern U.S. and in Canada. New
to Florida.
Remarks: This species is immediately rec-
ognizable by the combination of the broadly


Fig. 163. Cerodontha (Ict.)
longipennis: aedeagus.


Fig. 164. Distribution of Cerodontha (let.) longi-
pennis.

yellow femora and bare eyes. The specimens
from Florida are larger than those seen from
the northern states and Canada, in which
the wing length was at most 2.5 mm.
It is generally similar to the Palaearctic
species, I. bohemanni Ryden, 1951 (=lineella
Zett., sensu Hendel). However, the genitalia
of the two species are distinct; in bohemanni
the distal processes of the aedeagus are con-
spicuously enlarged and strongly chitinized
(Spencer, 1969b: 13).
let. longipennis is a species of northern
origin and must be near its southern limit in
Alachua Co.
Material examined.
Florida: Alachua Co., no locality given,
"near a stream," one male, two females, 29
Jan. 1954 (H.V. Weems Jr.).






Subgenus Cerodontha Rondani


Cerodontha Rondani, 1861: 10; Spencer,
1969a: 142. Type of subgenus: Chlorops
denticornis Panzer.
Only the single species, C. dorsalis, which
occurs widely both in North and South Amer-
ica is known in Florida. Host plants are in
the family Gramineae and this species is of
potential economic importance as a leaf
miner on various cereal crops.


Cerodontha (Cerodontha) dorsalis
(Loew)

Fig. 165-167

Odontocera dorsalis Loew, 1863: 54; Holo-
type female from District of Columbia in
MCZ.
Cerodontha dorsalis, Melander, 1913: 249;
Frick, 1959: 396.
Cerodontha (Cerodontha) dorsalis, Spencer,
1969a: 143.
Adult: third antennal segment elongate,
with conspicuous spine at upper corner;
frons, face and jowls orange yellow, third
antennal segment black; arista frequently
conspicuously broad, appearing flattened;
jowls one-third vertical eye height; mesono-
tum normally, yellow adjoining scutellum,
black in front and continuing in two bands
laterally (Frick, 1959: Fig. 95), in more
northern specimens the yellow area may be
greatly reduced; acr lacking; wing length 2.4
to 2.7 mm.




165






166

Figs. 165, 166. Cerodontha (Cer.) dorsalis: 165,
aedeagus, side view, 166, same, ventral view.


Fig. 167. Distribution of Cerodontha (Cer.) dorsalis.

Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 165,
166, distal processes large, tubules of disti-
phallus invariably rotated.
Host plant/Biology: Gramineae, particu-
larly corn (Zea mays), larvae feeding mainly
in leaf sheath, where pupation takes place.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua, Dade,
Orange, Palm Beach and Polk Counties; Bra-
zil, Costa Rica, Dominica (W.I.), Guatemala,
Puerto Rico; Canada, widespread in eastern
United States; Mongolia.
Remarks: This is the only species in this
subgenus known to occur in Florida and is
immediately distinguishable by the spine on
the third antennal segment.
C. dorsalis shows considerable variation in
color, but all so far seen from Florida are of
the pale, yellowish form. The darker form
occurs in the more northern and western
parts of the United States. There is, how-
ever, a further species in which the meso-
notum is entirely black occurring not uncom-
monly in western Canada and northwestern
United States which has been described as
occidentalis Sehgal, 1968. It is unlikely that
this will be found in Florida.






I have recently seen two undescribed spe-
cies in this subgenus from Mexico, and others
are known from South America (Spencer,
1963a: 330).
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, one fe-
male, 15 May 1916, "attacking sorghum" (R.
N. Wilson); Dade Co., Biscayne Bay, one
male, one female, no date (Mrs. A. T. Slos-
son) ; Hialeah, two males, two females, ex
Panicum, 12 March 1963 (C.E.S.); Orange
Co., Orlando, one male, two females, 7-9 Feb.
1918 (G.G. Ainslie); one male, three fe-
males, "reared from corn," no date (G.G.
Ainslie); Palm Beach Co., Belle Glade, one
female, ex Zea mays, 10 April 1964 (E.D.
Harris) ; Polk Co., Lakeland, two males, one
female, "reared from corn," no date (G.G.
Ainslie).
Costa Rica: La Caja, 8 km. W. of San
Jose, two females, 1930 (Schmidt).
Dominica (W.I.) : Clarke Hall, three
males, five females, 21-31 Jan. 1965; three
males, one female, 1-10 March 1965, one fe-
male, 11-20 Feb. 1965 (all W.W. Wirth).



GENUS CALYCOMYZA HENDEL

Dizygomyza (Calycomyza) Hendel, 1931: 65.
Type of subgenus: Agromyza artemisiae
Kaltenbach, 1856, types lost.
Phytobia (Calycomyza), Frick, 1952a: 394;
1956: 284-300; 1959: 387; Spencer, 1963a:
337.
Calycomyza, Nowakowski, 1962: 97; Spen-
cer, 1966c: 16; 1969a: 144.
The distinctive characters of this genus
are the yellow frons and notopleural area
and black scutellum (only exception: C. ob-
scura described below, in which both frons
and notopleural area are dark). All species
have a distinctive patch of bristles on the
ventral hind corner of the epandrium (cf.
Fig. 217). Many species are extremely simi-
lar, and it has not been possible to include
the six species of what can be conveniently
termed the malvae group in the key below.
However, the male genitalia in this group
are particularly well differentiated, and


with caught specimens this will provide the
only satisfactory means of identification.
All known species are leaf miners, and
most are host specific. If the host plant is
known, reared specimens can thus normally
be identified without difficulty.
This genus is essentially of Neotropical
and Nearctic distribution, with only one of
the 49 described species limited to the Ethi-
opian Region. Five new species from Florida
are described below, and two species, C. men-
thae and C. promissa, are recorded as new
to the State. Four further new species are
described from the Caribbean, and other un-
described species have been seen from Costa
Rica. It is thus clear that many additional
species in this genus await discovery in the
Neotropical Region.

Key to Florida Calycomyza species

1 Squamal fringe entirely white or yellow
................................................................ 2
1' Squamal fringe at least partially dark,
ochrous to brown or black .............. 6
2 Last section of vein M3+4 4 times
length of penultimate; one ors; minute
species, wing length 1.1 to 1.25 mm ......
............-------------------....-..- minor Spencer
2' Last section of vein M3+4 at most 21/2
times length of penultimate; two ors;
larger species ...................................... 3
3 Third antennal segment rounded ...... 4
3' Third antennal segment with distinct
angle at upper corner ............................
.................... solidaginis (Kaltenbach)
4 Orbits largely yellow, darkening not
reaching upper ors; fore knees yellow-
ish .-......---.................... lantanae Frick
4' Orbits dark at least to upper ors; all
knees black ......................................... 5
5 Larval posterior spiracles each with
three bulbs; aedeagus as in Fig. 185,
186 ...................... jucunda (Wulp)
5' Larval posterior spiracles each with five
bulbs; aedeagus as in Fig. 219 ...........
.........-...............-..... promissa (Frick)
6 Frons and sides of thorax largely dark..
..- -.-.....-.-.- ............... obscura Spencer
6' Frons and sides of thorax bright yellow
------------ 7






I have recently seen two undescribed spe-
cies in this subgenus from Mexico, and others
are known from South America (Spencer,
1963a: 330).
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, one fe-
male, 15 May 1916, "attacking sorghum" (R.
N. Wilson); Dade Co., Biscayne Bay, one
male, one female, no date (Mrs. A. T. Slos-
son) ; Hialeah, two males, two females, ex
Panicum, 12 March 1963 (C.E.S.); Orange
Co., Orlando, one male, two females, 7-9 Feb.
1918 (G.G. Ainslie); one male, three fe-
males, "reared from corn," no date (G.G.
Ainslie); Palm Beach Co., Belle Glade, one
female, ex Zea mays, 10 April 1964 (E.D.
Harris) ; Polk Co., Lakeland, two males, one
female, "reared from corn," no date (G.G.
Ainslie).
Costa Rica: La Caja, 8 km. W. of San
Jose, two females, 1930 (Schmidt).
Dominica (W.I.) : Clarke Hall, three
males, five females, 21-31 Jan. 1965; three
males, one female, 1-10 March 1965, one fe-
male, 11-20 Feb. 1965 (all W.W. Wirth).



GENUS CALYCOMYZA HENDEL

Dizygomyza (Calycomyza) Hendel, 1931: 65.
Type of subgenus: Agromyza artemisiae
Kaltenbach, 1856, types lost.
Phytobia (Calycomyza), Frick, 1952a: 394;
1956: 284-300; 1959: 387; Spencer, 1963a:
337.
Calycomyza, Nowakowski, 1962: 97; Spen-
cer, 1966c: 16; 1969a: 144.
The distinctive characters of this genus
are the yellow frons and notopleural area
and black scutellum (only exception: C. ob-
scura described below, in which both frons
and notopleural area are dark). All species
have a distinctive patch of bristles on the
ventral hind corner of the epandrium (cf.
Fig. 217). Many species are extremely simi-
lar, and it has not been possible to include
the six species of what can be conveniently
termed the malvae group in the key below.
However, the male genitalia in this group
are particularly well differentiated, and


with caught specimens this will provide the
only satisfactory means of identification.
All known species are leaf miners, and
most are host specific. If the host plant is
known, reared specimens can thus normally
be identified without difficulty.
This genus is essentially of Neotropical
and Nearctic distribution, with only one of
the 49 described species limited to the Ethi-
opian Region. Five new species from Florida
are described below, and two species, C. men-
thae and C. promissa, are recorded as new
to the State. Four further new species are
described from the Caribbean, and other un-
described species have been seen from Costa
Rica. It is thus clear that many additional
species in this genus await discovery in the
Neotropical Region.

Key to Florida Calycomyza species

1 Squamal fringe entirely white or yellow
................................................................ 2
1' Squamal fringe at least partially dark,
ochrous to brown or black .............. 6
2 Last section of vein M3+4 4 times
length of penultimate; one ors; minute
species, wing length 1.1 to 1.25 mm ......
............-------------------....-..- minor Spencer
2' Last section of vein M3+4 at most 21/2
times length of penultimate; two ors;
larger species ...................................... 3
3 Third antennal segment rounded ...... 4
3' Third antennal segment with distinct
angle at upper corner ............................
.................... solidaginis (Kaltenbach)
4 Orbits largely yellow, darkening not
reaching upper ors; fore knees yellow-
ish .-......---.................... lantanae Frick
4' Orbits dark at least to upper ors; all
knees black ......................................... 5
5 Larval posterior spiracles each with
three bulbs; aedeagus as in Fig. 185,
186 ...................... jucunda (Wulp)
5' Larval posterior spiracles each with five
bulbs; aedeagus as in Fig. 219 ...........
.........-...............-..... promissa (Frick)
6 Frons and sides of thorax largely dark..
..- -.-.....-.-.- ............... obscura Spencer
6' Frons and sides of thorax bright yellow
------------ 7





7 Last section of vein M3+4 relatively
short, less than twice length of penulti-
mate; orbits conspicuously black ...... 8
7' Last section of vein M3+4 longer, 2 to
21/2 times length of penultimate ...... 9
8 Leaf miner on Mikania ..........................
.................................. mikaniae Spencer
8' Leaf miner on Senecio ......................
................................ majuscula Frick
9 Larva and puparium with rows of spi-
nules around each segment (Fig. 175) ;
aedeagus as in Fig. 172, 173 ..................
.................................. durantae Spencer


9' Larva and puparium without such spi-
nules ........................................... 10
10 Very small species, wing length 1.4 1.5
mm; aedeagus as in Fig. 222, 223 ......
........................................ sidae Spencer
10' Larger species, wing length 1.6 2.2 mm
............................................................ 11
11 Mesonotum distinctly mat black; ae-
deagus as in Fig. 229, 230 ......................
.-stegmaieri Spencer
.................................. stegmaieri Spencer
11' Mesonotum more obviously shining;
squamal fringe brown or black; upper
orbits darkened to upper ors ............
....................................... malvae group


Species in the malvae group cannot be satisfactorily identified on external characters.
Details of the leaf mine in association withthe host plant, or aedeagus of the male pro-
vide the only certain means of identifying the following species in this group:


SPECIES
C. ambrosia Frick
C. hyptidis Spencer
C. ipomaeae (Frost)

C. malvas (Burgess)


C. melantherae Spencer
C. menthae Spencer


Host plants)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Hyptis pectinata
Ipomoea spp., Calonyction
aculeatum
Althaea rosea, Malva,
Sida and other malvaceous
genera
Melanthera deltoidea
Hyptis, Mentha, Monarda


Leaf mines


Blotch (Fig. 170)
Stellate blotch (Fig. 179)
Irregular linear-blotch
(Figs. 183, A, B)
Long, serpentine mine
(Fig. 199)

Dark greenish blotch
Regular blotch at margin
of leaf (Fig. 207)


Male genitalia
Figs. 168, 169
Figs. 177, 178
Figs. 181, 182

Figs. 197, 198


Figs. 201, 202
Figs. 205, 206


Calycomyza ambrosiae Frick

Fig. 168-171

Phytobia (Calycomyza) ambrosiae Frick,
1956: 299. Holotype male from Nashville,
Tennessee in USNM.
Adult: orbits normally dark to upper ors
(scarcely so in specimen from Hialeah men-
tioned below); face largely yellow; mesono-
tum moderately shining black, acr in about
six rows; legs entirely black apart from
faintly yellow fore knees; wing length nor-
mally slightly less than 2 mm, last section of
vein M3+4 just over twice length of penulti-
mate; squamae yellowish gray, fringe black.


168










169
Fig. 168, 169. Calcomyza ambrosia: 168, aedeagus,
side view; 169, same, ventral view.


















170
Fig. 170. Calycomyza ambrosiae: leaf mine.

Male genitalia: aedeagus distinctive, as in
Fig. 168, 169.
Host plant/Biology: Ambrosia artemisiifo-
lia and A. trifida, larva forming greenish
blotch mine (Fig. 170), pupating externally.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co.; Indiana,
Pennsylvania, Tennessee.
Remarks: This species belongs to the dif-
ficult group with a dark squamal fringe, in
which a positive identification normally will
be possible only from examination of the
male genitalia.


The available evidence suggests that this is
a Nearctic species, which has reached Flor-
ida from the north.
Material examined:
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, one male, 7
March 1963 (C.E.S.).


Calycomyza durantae Spencer, sp.n.

Fig. 172-176

Adult: frons orange yellow, upper orbits
conspicuously darkened, at least to upper ors,
normally slightly beyond; two equal ors,
two slightly weaker ori, orbital setulae
sparse, reclinate; face gray, yellow below;
mesonotum shining black, acr in six rows;
humerus, notopleural triangle, upper hind
corner of mesopleura bright yellow; legs
black, only fore knees narrowly yellowish;
wing length from 1.6 to 1.9 mm, last section
of vein M3+4 twice length of penultimate;
squamae yellowish-gray, margin and fringe
black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 172,
173.
Host plant/Biology: Duranta repens, larva
forming upper surface, whitish blotch (Fig.
174), pupating externally; puparium (Fig.
175) reddish brown, with a band of short,


Fig. 172. Calycomyza durantae: aedeagus, side view.


Fig. 171. Distribution of Calycomyza ambrosiae.









S-

173




174

175
Fig. 173-175. Calycomyza durantae: 173, aedeagus,
ventral view; 174, leaf mine on Duranta repens;
175, puparium.

stout spinules around the center of each seg-
ment; posterior spiracles each with three
bulbs.
Holotype male, Florida, Dade Co., Miami,
Fairchild Tropical Garden, emerged 7 Nov.
1968 ex leaf mine leg. 16 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S.);
paratypes: one male, two females, same data
(C.E.S.) ; two males, two females, caught on
host, 16 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and C.E.S.). Holo-
type in USNM, paratypes in FSCA and sen-
ior author's collection.


F.a e.

Fig. 176. Distribution of Calycomyza durantae.


Remarks: This is now the third species
known to form blotch mines on genera of
the Verbenaceae. It is distinguishable from
C. lantanae, feeding on Lantana and Ver-
bena, by the black squamal fringe and from
both lantanae and verbenae Hering, feeding
on Verbena, by the darkened upper orbits.
The male genitalia of C. durantae are entire-
ly distinct.
This is the only species in the genus in
which the puparium (and larva) bear bands
of spinules around each segment. However,
identical structures are found in three Pseu-
donapomyza species-atra Mg. (cf. de Mei-
jere, 1926: Fig. 67); spicata Malloch and
philippinensis Spencer (cf. Spencer, 1961:
Fig. 33 and 36).
The host plant, Duranta repens, is native
to the West Indies, Central and South Amer-
ica, and it is therefore clear that C. durantae
is of southern origin.



Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer

Fig. 177-180

Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer, 1966c: 16.
Holotype from Florida, Dade Co., in
USNM.
Adult: orbits faintly darkened to upper
ors; face grayish in upper half, distinctly
yellow below; mesonotum shining black, acr
in six rows; squamae yellowish gray, margin
and fringe black; legs black but fore knees
bright yellow; wing length 2 mm, last sec-
tion of vein M3 + 4 slightly over twice penul-
timate.
Male genitalia: aedeagus distinctive, as in
Fig. 177, 178.
Host plant/Biology: Hyptis pectinata, lar-
va forming upper surface, star-shaped blotch,
with frass all deposited in center (Fig. 179);
pupation externally.
Distribution: Florida, Dade Co., Hialeah;
Dominica (W.I.) ; Brazil.
Remarks: This species belongs to the dif-
ficult group with the squamal fringe dark,
in which a reliable identification of adults
can be made only by the male genitalia. The
























Ti'i. i:.-..


178



Figs. 177-179. Calycomyza hyptidis: 177, aedeagus, side view; 178, same, ventral view; 179, leaf mine on
Hyptis pectinata.


stellate leaf mine on Hyptis is readily distin-
guishable from the normal blotch occurring
on the same host formed by C. menthae Sp.
It now seems clear that the specimen from
Brazil, Nova Teutonia, tentatively referred
to C. allecta s. lat. (Spencer, 1963a: Fig.
53a) represents hyptidis. The species pre-
sumably occurs in Central America and the
Greater Antilles, from where it has reached
southern Florida.
Material examined: lS 1
Florida: Dade Co., Hialeah, four males,
two females, emerged 17 Dec. 1963 ex leaf
mines on Hyptis pectinata, leg. 26 Nov. 1963;
three males, five females, emerged 27 Nov.
1963, ex mines leg. 13 Nov. 1963; five males,
one female, emerged 15 Nov. 1964, ex mines
leg. 2 Nov. 1964 (all C.E.S.).
Dominica (W.I.): Clarke Hall, one male, "
11-20 Jan. 1965; S. Chiltern Est, one male,
20 Feb. 1965 (both W.W. Wirth). Fig. 180. Distribution of Calycomyza hyptidis.






Calycomyza ipomaeae (Frost)

Fig. 181-184

Agromyza ipomaeae Frost, 1931: 74. Holo-
type male from Puerto Rico ex Ipomoea in
USNM.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipomaeae, Frick,
1952a: 395; Spencer, 1963a: 345.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipomoeae, Frick,
1957: 203.
Calycomyza ipomaeae, Spencer, 1969a: 150.
Adult: orbits darkened to upper ors, face
grayish, more yellow below; mesonotum mat
black, slightly more shining from behind, acr
in six rows; legs black, with fore knees yel-
lowish; wing length 1.8 to 2.2 mm, last sec-
tion of vein M3 + 4 slightly over twice length
of penultimate; squamae yellowish gray,
margin and fringe black.
Male genitalia: aedeagus distinctive (Fig.
181, 182), with somewhat elongate, cylindri-
cal tubules of the distiphallus, and mesophal-
lus short, broad.
Host plant/Biology: Ipomoea species, oc-
curring commonly in Florida on I. batatas, I.
cathartica and I. tiliacea, also Calonyction
aculeatum, larva forming irregular linear
blotch (Fig. 183A, B), pupating externally;
puparium dark brown, posterior spiracles
each with three bulbs.


181


.9


Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Dade
Co., Monroe Co.; Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Do-
minica (W.I.) ; Brazil; Canada: S. Ontario.
Remarks: This species is not satisfactorily
distinguishable on external characters from
others in the group having the squamal
fringe dark. However, the male genitalia
and also the leaf mine on Ipomoea are dis-
tinctive. The exact host range of this spe-
cies remains to be established. It was noted
while collecting in Florida in October 1968
that certain Ipomoea species consistently
showed no evidence of this leaf miner.
The mines of C. ipomaeae and C. steg-
maieri frequently occur together on Calonyc-
tion aculeatum, sometimes on the same leaf.
The more linear and generally more irregu-
lar form of the mines of ipomaeae makes
them readily distinguishable from the essen-
tially circular mines of stegmaieri. Steg-
maier (1967a) gives a number of photo-
graphs of mines of ipomaeae on I. tiliacea.
C. ipomaeae has not been recorded in the
United States north of Florida. However,
the discovery of this species on I. pandurata
at Pelee, Ontario (Spencer, 1969a: 150) sug-
gests that it will be present with its host
plant throughout the eastern United States.
Material examined:
Florida: Alachua Co., Hawthorne, two
males, emerged 20 Oct. 1968 ex leaf mines on


Figs. 181-183. Calycomyza ipomaeae: 181, aedeagus, side view; 182, same, ventral view; 183 A,
mines on Ipomoea spp.


B, leaf


~pa~






























Fig. 184. Distribution of Calycomyza ipomaeae.

Ipomoea sp. leg. 8 Oct. 1968 (K.A.S. and
C.E.S.) ; Dade Co., Hialeah, five males, five
females, emerged 26 Sept. 1963 ex leaf mines
on I. batatas leg. 18 Sept. 1963 (C.E.S.);
Miami, two females, emerged 28 June 1963
ex leaf mines on I. tiliacea leg. 12 June 1963
(C.E.S.); Monroe Co., Marathon Key, West
Summerland Key, numerous empty leaf
mines on I. cathartica, 14-15 Oct. 1965
(K.A.S. and C.E.S.).
Dominica (W.I.): Clarke Hall, one male,
1-20 Jan. 1965 (W.W. Wirth).


Calycomyza jucunda (Wulp)

Fig. 185-188

Agromyza jucunda van der Wulp, 1867: 161.
Holotype female from Wisconsin in Rijks-
museum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden,
Netherlands. -*
Phytobia (Calycomyza) jucunda, Frick,
1952a: 395; 1956: 288; 1959: 391.
Adult: small species with normal wing
length 1.7 mm but according to Frick (1956)
varying from 1.5 to 2 mm, orbits conspicu-


ously darkened to upper ors (less frequently
somewhat beyond); all antenna segments
black, third round; face black in upper half,
yellow below; squamae and fringe white.
Male genitalia: aedeagus as in Fig. 185,
186.
Host plant/Biology: Ambrosia, Aster, Bi-
dens, Gnaphalium, Helianthus, Solidago,
Xanthium, Zinnia (Stegmaier, 1967a) ; larva
forming whitish blotch with characteristic
irregular offshoots (Fig. 187), puparium at-
tached to pile of frass at center of mine; pos-
terior spiracles of larva each with three
bulbs; young leaves become characteristically
deformed as a result of the mining activity of
the larva.
Distribution: Florida, Alachua Co., Dade
Co., Gadsden Co., Highlands Co., Lake Co.,
Martin Co., Monroe Co., Pascoe Co.; Cuba,
Grand Cayman, Jamaica; widespread
throughout United States (according to
Frick, 1956).
Remarks: The white squamal fringe and
entirely round third antennal segment make
this a distinctive species. The leaf mines
were found to be very common on Bidens in
Oct. 1968, and the species probably occurs
throughout Florida.
Specimens from Jamaica recorded by
Spencer (1963a: 344) as humeralis (Roser)
in fact represent jucunda.


E


186
186


Figs. 185-187. Calycomyza jucunda: 185, aedeagus,
side view; 186, same, ventral view; 187, leaf
mine on Bidens pilosa.




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