Geology of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 29 )

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Material Information

Title:
Geology of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 29 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Bulletin 29 )
Physical Description:
v-ix, 339 p. : illus., maps (1 fold. in pocket) ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Cooke, C. Wythe ( Charles Wythe ), b. 1887
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher:
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Bibliography -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Bibliography   ( lcsh )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by C. Wythe Cooke.
Bibliography:
"Bibliography": p. 3l5-326.
General Note:
"Prepared by the U.S. Geological survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological survey."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000052868
oclc - 00681046
notis - AAF7766
System ID:
UF00000051:00001


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FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
Florida Geological Survey
J. T. HURST, Supervisor of Conservation
HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey





GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 29





GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA




By
C. WYTHE COOKE, Ph.D.
SENIOR GEOLOGIST
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY





Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY





Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1945














SCIENCE ROOM












Manuscript received December 11, 1944

Published September 15, 1945


FLORIDA GROWER PRESS, Tamnpa


~t~-3: ~5"





LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE J. T. HURST
Supervisor of Conservation
Florida State Board of Conservation

Sir:

I herewith transmit a report entitled GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA, by
Dr. C. Wythe Cooke, Senior Geologist, United States Geological Survey,
Washington, to be published as Geological Bulletin 29.

In 1929 Dr. Cooke was senior author of a report bearing the same title,
Stuart Mossom of the Florida Geological Survey being the junior author.
This report during the years has proven most helpful and is constantly re-
ferred to. The demand for it exhausted the supply numbers of years ago
so that it is now available only in reference libraries.

There has been an ever insistent need and demand for a revision of this
report dealing with the Geology of Florida. Dr. Cooke has met this and the
Florida Geological Survey acknowledges this continued cooperation of the
United States Geological Survey most gratefully. The report is accompanied
by a revised geologic map. Coming at a time when there is so much interest
in Florida's geology I am sure that it will be well received.

Your sympathetic and cordial interest in the work of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey has been an inspiration to me, adding immeasurably to the
pleasures of official services.

Respectfully submitted,

HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Geological Survey

Tallahassee, Florida
February 14, 1945





so784o








CONTENTS


PAGE
Preface- 1
Compositon and structure of the Floridian Plateau 3
Topography 8
Natural divisions 8
Marine terraces 12
Stratigraphy 14
Pre-Cambrian core 21
Pennsylvanian (?) series and older 21
Triassic system 22
Cretaceous system 23
Comanche series 23
Gulf series 24
Tuscaloosa formation 25
Limestone of Eagle Ford age -. 27
Beds of Austin age 27
Beds of Taylor age 28
Lawson limestone 30
Tertiary system 33
Paleocene series 33
Cedar Keys limestone -. 33
Porters Creek formation 35
Eocene series 39
Deposits of Wilcox age 39
Oldsmar limestone 40
Salt Mountain limestone 42
Deposits of Claiborne age 44
Lake City limestone 46
Tallahassee limestone 49
Avon Park limestone 51
Deposits of Jackson pge 53
Ocala limestone .53
Oligocene series 75
Deposits of Vicksburg age 75
MarianAa limestone 75
Byram limestone 81
Deposits of late Oligocene age 86
Suwannee limestone 86
Flint River formation 104
Miocene series 109
Deposits of early Miocene age 111
Tampa limestone 111
Alum Bluff group 136
Hawthorn formation 144
Chipola formation 161
Shoal River formation 167
Deposits of late Miocene age 180






Duplin marl -
Pliocene series -
Deposits of middle Pliocene (Hemphill)
Alachua formation -
Bone Valley formation -
Buckingham marl -
Caloosahatchee marl -
Charlton formation -
Citronelle formation -
Tamiami formation -
Pleistocene series -
Oscillations of sea level -
Deposits of Pleistocene age -
Fort Thompson formation -
Miami oolite -
Key Largo limestone -
Anastasia formation -
Brandywine formation
Coharie formation -
Sunderland formation
Wicomico formation -
Penholoway formation
Talbot formation -
Pamlico sand -
Lake Flirt marl -
Recent series -
Bibliography -
Index- -


age -
-.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


PAGE
- 180
- 197


199
199
203
210
214
227
S 229
238
245
245
- 248
- 249
- 256
262
- 265
- 273
- 276
- 278
- 281
- 286
- 292
- 297
- 311
- 313
- 315
- 327


ILLUSTRATIONS


Plate 1.
Figure 1.
Figure 2.


Figure 3.
Figure 4.


Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure


Geologic map of Florida In pocket
Relief model of part of North America 4
Sketch map of Florida and the adjacent States show-
ing structure of contour lines on top of the
Eocene formations 6
Topographic divisions of Florida 9
Approximate locations of the shore line during the
Paleocene epoch and late Eocene and middle
Oligocene (Marianna) times 37
Fossils from the Ocala limestone 59
Echinoids from the Ocala limestone 60
Troy Spring, Lafayette County 69
Rainbow Spring, northeast of Dunnellon 71
Juniper Spring in eastern Marion County 72
Ocala limestone in quarry at Kendrick 72
Quarry in the Marianna limestone 77




PAGE


Figure 12. Unconformable contact of the Suwannee limestone
and the Hawthorn formation near White
b Springs -
Figure 13. Suwannee River at Branford -
Figure 14. Hypothetical Miocene and Pliocene shore lines -
Figure 15. Fossils from the Tampa limestone -
Figure 16. Suwannee limestone in pit near Brooksville -
Figure 17. Tampa limestone on Six Mile Creek at Orient -
Figure 18. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group -
Figure 19. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group -
Figure 20. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group -
Figure 21. Bluff on Sandy Creek, Holmes County -
Figure 22. Fossils from the Duplin marl -
Figure 23. Fossils from the Duplin marl -
Figure 24. Apalachicola River looking south from Alum Bluff -
Figure 25. Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River -
Figure 26. Rock Spring, Orange County -
Figure 27. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation -
Figure 28. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation -
Figure 29. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation -
Figure 30. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation
Figure 31. Caloosahatchee formation on Prairie Creek -
Figure 32. Sand pit in Citronelle formation near Lake Wales
Figure 33. Sand washed free of kaolin, Citronelle formation,
Crossley -
Figure 34. Graphic section of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits
at Fort Thompson -
Figure 35. Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thompson -
Figure 36. Miami oolite at Miami -
Figure 37. Miami oolite about 20 miles southwest of Miami
Figure 38. Key Largo limestone at Key Largo -
Figure 39. Anastasia formation 4 miles west of Flagler Beach -
Figure 40. Blowing Rocks, north of Jupiter Light -
Figure 41. Anastasia formation at Boca Raton -
Figure 42. Anastasia formation /2 miles north of Jupiter Light
Figure 43. Early Pleistocene shore lines in the Southeastern States
Figure 44. Shore line of the Wicomico sea -
Figure 45. Shore line of the Penholoway sea -
Figure 46. Shore line of the Talbot sea -
Figure 47. Shore line of the Pamlico sea -





PREFACE


This book bears the same title as one written in collabora-
tion with Stuart Mossom and published in 1929 as part of the
Twentieth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey.
It contains many paraphrases and verbatim excerpts from
that report without quotation marks or other indications of
origin. References to the original report are chiefly such as
are deemed to be of historical interest. Grateful acknowledg-
ment is made again of the important contributions made by
Mr. Mossom to the original "Geology of Florida," and of the
pleasant association with him.
The years since 1929 have been fruitful in the field of Flor-
idian geology. The subsurface formations have been explored
by many deep borings, made chiefly in the search for petrol-
eum, which have revealed the presence of Paleozoic sediments,
Triassic diabase, and Lower Cretaceous limestones. The faunal
studies of T. Wayland Vaughan and W. Storrs Cole on the
Foraminifera, W. C. Mansfield and Julia Gardner on the Mol-
lusca, and C. Wythe Cooke on the Echinoidea have made bet-
ter known the relationships of the outcropping formations,
have resulted in the recognition of several new stratigraphic
units, and have satisfactorily explained several perplexing
stratigraphic problems. During these same years has come a
better understanding of the isostatic oscillations of sea level,
which have an important bearing on the geologic history of
Florida.

Thanks are due to Dr. Herman Gunter, Director of the
Florida Geological Survey, for unfailing courtesies extended
through many years; to Drs. L. W. Stephenson and John B.
Reeside, Jr., for helpful criticisms; to Mr. and Mrs. Paul L.
Applin for use of a copy of their manuscript on the subsur-
face stratigraphy and structure of Florida; and to Miss M.
Frances Willoughby, Secretary of the Committee on Geo-
logic Names of the United States Geological Survey, for
checking the manuscript for inconsistencies.

C. WYTHE COOKE


Washington, July 5, 1945







GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA


COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF
THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU
Floridian Plateau is the name applied by Vaughan (1910)
to the great projection of the continent of North America
that separates the deep water of the Atlantic Ocean from the
deep water of the Gulf of Mexico. As thus defined, the Flor-
idian Plateau includes not only the State of Florida but an
equally great or greater area that lies submerged beneath
water less than 50 fathoms (300 feet) deep. (See fig. 1.)
The Plateau terminates at the Florida Keys, where the south-
ern end drops off steeply into the Straits of Florida, which
separate it from Cuba. The Floridian Plateau underlies all of
Florida Bay as well as a broad expanse of the Gulf of Mexico,
whose bottom slopes very gently away from the west coast
of Florida. The eastern edge of the Plateau hugs the shore of
Florida from Palm Beach southward. It extends northward
from Palm Beach through the Atlantic Ocean, diverging
from the shore, which trends north-northwestward. The
median axis of the Plateau trends N. 15 W., passing through
Key West, Bradenton, Sarasota, Cedar Keys, and Madison.
Nearly all of the Peninsula of Florida therefore lies east of
the axis of the Floridian Plateau.
The Floridian Plateau apparently has always formed part
of the continental mass as distinguished from the deep sea, for
the oldest sediments within it were deposited in shallow water.
Its pre-Cambrian core, which has never been reached by the
drill, probably is composed of ancient metamorphic rocks like
those of the Piedmont region of Georgia, with which it is
doubtless continuous beneath the sediments of the Coastal
Plain. A few deep wells have penetrated to rocks-mica
schist, quartzite, and black shale-which appear to be of Pale-
ozoic age. These rocks are intruded by diabase of probable
Triassic age. Upon the Paleozoic rocks lies a thick series of
shallow marine deposits, dominantly limestone, that ranges
in age from Lower Cretaceous to Recent.
There is no evidence that the rocks composing the outer
layers of the Floridian Plateau have ever undergone extensive
deformation. On the contrary, all the rocks now accessible





4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE


FIGURE 1.-View of relief model of part of North America, including the
Floridian Plateau. After COOKE and MOSSOM, 1929, pl. 1.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLORIDIAN PLATEAU


lie very nearly horizontal. The distribution of the geologic
formations (see the geologic map, pi. 1) indicates that there
is a broad oval arch trending north-northwestward and cen-
tering in Levy or Marion County. In this arch the Ocala lime-
stone lies at or near the surface throughout a large area ex-
tending from Lafayette and Suwannee Counties in the north
well down into Sumter County in the south and from the
Gulf Coast in Dixie, Levy, and Citrus Counties into Alachua
and Marion Counties in the east. This area measures about
165 miles long by about 60 miles wide. The eroded surface
of the Eocene Ocala (upon which the middle Miocene Haw-
thorn formation was deposited) attains a height of 115 feet
or more above sea level in Marion County.
Where the north-northwestward sloping end of the Ocala
uplift meets the south-southeastward dipping rocks of Geor-
gia, the strata form a broad, flat-bottomed saddle in which
the Ocala limestone lies somewhat deeper than 200 feet below
sea level (Mossom, 1926, structure map facing p. 256). The
seat of this saddle lies in or near Jefferson County. From this
low region the surface of the Ocala limestone rises some 350
feet in about 140 miles, at the average rate of about 2/V feet
to the mile, to the crest of the arch in Marion County. The
average slope from central Marion County to Monroe County,
where the top of the Ocala lies about 1200 feet below sea level
(Cole, 1941, p. 10), appears to be about 5 feet to the mile.
The slope across the arch seems to be intermediate between
these two rates. A generalized structure map of Florida is
shown in figure 2.
The Floridian Plateau north of St. Petersburg has been
tilted downward toward the west. This tilting accounts for
the broad embayment of the west coast, of Florida between
Clearwater and Apalachicola. It has caused the submergence
of the western part of the Ocala uplift, in which the bands of
outcrop of the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa limestones are
truncated by the coast line. It also accounts for the absence
along the embayed area of those marine Pliocene formations
that cover nearly all of southern Florida and extend all along
the east coast. To some extent, however, these effects may be
the result of the greater degradation of the part of the Flor-
idian Plateau covered by soluble limestone. It may be signifi-




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

cant that the embayed area is bordered throughout by soluble
limestones. Moreover, it is quite likely that the submerged
Miocene formations on the Plateau are composed of more
soluble materials than those formations that crop out on the
land, which contain much sand, for the submerged parts are
farther away from sources of plastic sediment.
Part of the warping that raised the Ocala arch appears to
have taken place before late Eocene (Ocala) time. It was


FIGURE 2.-Sketch map of Florida and adjacent States showing structure by con-
tour lines on top of the Eocene formations. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 2.





GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLORIDIAN PLATEAU 7

continued late in Miocene time, for the Hawthorn formation
participated in the movement. The arch was above water in
early Pliocene time, as is shown by the presence of land mam-
mals of that age in the belt east and south and presumably
west of the land area. The tilting that depressed the western
continuation of the belt presumably was contemporaneous
with the crustal movements that deformed many other parts
of the earth at the close of the Pliocene epoch. All the defor-
miation seems to have occurred before the Pleistocene epoch,
for even the oldest Pleistocene shore lines, so far as they have
been traced, remain horizontal.




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

TOPOGRAPHY

NATURAL DIVISIONS
Florida has been described (Cooke, 1939c, p. 14) as con-
sisting of five natural topographic divisions, namely, the
Central Highlands, the Tallahassee Hills, the Marianna Low-
lands, the Western Highlands, and the Coastal Lowlands. The
generalized outlines of these divisions are shown in figure 3.
Central Highlands-The Central Highlands extend along
the Peninsula from the Georgia State line between St. Marys
and Withlacoochee Rivers southward nearly to Glades Coun-
ty. This large area is highly diversified. It includes high
swampy plains; hills, the highest in the State; and thousands
of lakes, big and little. Its soils are prevailingly sandy. Much
of the sand was derived from Pleistocene marine terraces, a
good deal from the Miocene Hawthorn formation, and the
Pliocene Citronelle formation. The altitude ranges from less
than 40 feet above sea level in some of the valleys to 325 feet
on the summit of Iron Mountain near Lake Wales, where
rises the beautiful "Singing Tower."
The lakes of the Central Highlands indicate the occurrence
of soluble limestone not far below the surface. The Ocala
limestone, where not too deeply buried, yields a lacy pattern
of innumerable shallow lakes such as Tsala Apopka Lake and
the smaller lakes of Lake County, and it also is marked by
larger, deeper, open lakes like Lake Apopka and Lake Harris.
The Suwannee limestone and limestone of the Hawthorn for-
mation also give rise to lakes, but these do not commonly com-
pare in intricacy and abundance with those underlain by the
Ocala. Many of the lakes have extensive flats or "prairies"
surrounding them.
The most extensive plain in the Central Highlands is the
Sunderland terrace, which occupies several counties in the
northern part of the State and an even larger adjacent area
in Georgia, where it includes the great Okefenokee Swamp.
The terrace is well developed also in Manatee, Hillsborough,
and Polk Counties, and there are smaller remnants of it scat-
tered throughout the Highlands. The Sunderland terrace
was covered by the sea during part of the Pleistocene epoch




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS


when the shore line stood approximately 170 feet higher than
present sea level. From an island in the Sunderland sea in the
northwest corner of Putnam County a sandy peninsula and
bar, now called Trail Ridge, extended northward into Geor-
gia and now forms the boundary between the Sunderland
terrace and the Coastal Lowlands.
Tallahassee Hills-A 25-mile-wide strip along the Georgia
line between Withlacoochee River on the east and Apalachi-
cola River on the west-a length of 100 miles-is called the
Tallahassee Hills. The highest part of this region is believed
to be a plain ranging around 300 feet above sea level in the
northwestern part of Gadsden County. It is underlain by red
sand mapped as Citronelle formation. Most of the remainder


FIGURE 3--Topographic divisions of Florida. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 3.





10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

consists of rolling hills carved out of the Citronelle and the
underlying clayey sand and fuller's earth of the Hawthorn
formation, which also weather red. This is a fertile farming
region.
Marianna Lowlands-A roughly quadrilateral area in Jack-
son, Holmes, and Washington Counties adjoining Alabama
and Georgia is underlain chiefly by limestone, which, being
soluble and consequently easily degraded, accounts for the
low, generally flat or rolling topography. The Ocala lime-
stone underlies the entire region and crops out in several areas,
the largest north of Marianna, where many springs contribute
clear, cool water to Chipola River. Although the Marianna
limestone occupies a smaller area, it is an important source
of building stone. The largest part of the Marianna Low-
lands is occupied by the Flint River formation and its offshore
equivalent, the Suwannee limestone. The Tampa limestone
forms a narrow band around the southern margin of the area.

Western Highlands-The Western Highlands extend from
Apalachicola River westward to the Perdido, which forms
the western boundary between Florida and Alabama. In the
eastern part of this area they are confined between wide strips
of Marianna Lowlands on the north and Coastal Lowlands on
the south. Farther west, however, they extend from the Ala-
bama line almost to the Gulf, from which they are separated
by a narrow strip of lowlands. The Western Highlands con-
sist of a plateau sloping gently southward. It is underlain for
the most part by the Citronelle formation and high-level
Pleistocene terrace deposits. The plateau is crossed by several
large streams, which flow in deep flat-bottomed valleys. It
is trenched by many small streams, which head in steep-
walled narrow gorges. Some parts of the region are hilly or
rolling.
Coastal Lowlands-The Coastal Lowlands border the en-
tire coast of Florida. They are widest in the south, where
they cover all of the State south of Lake Childs. They are
narrow from Choctawhatchee Bay westward, where they are
only 10 or 12 miles wide at Pensacola. They are narrow also
in Citrus and Hernando Counties. The Coastal Lowlands lie
nearly everywhere less than 100 feet above sea level.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS


The Coastal Lowlands consist for the most part of nearly
level plains. They have so recently been covered by the sea
that great areas of them have suffered little dissection. One
invasion of the sea left successive shore lines at 100, 70, and
42 feet above the present sea level. A later invasion reached
only 25 feet. The marine terraces corresponding to these
Pleistocene shore lines are named Wicomico, Penholoway, Tal-
bot, and Pamlico. The Pamlico terrace, with shore line 25
feet above sea level, is the most extensive plain in Florida. It
covers most of Florida south of latitude 27 as well as broad
strips along both coasts north of that line.
The soil of the Coastal Lowlands is prevailingly light-gray
or drab sand except part of the Everglades and Big Cypress
Swamp, where bare Pliocene sandy limestone or muck and
peat lie at the surface.
A notable feature of the Coastal Lowlands is the Ever-
glade3, a flat, frequently flooded region commonly lower than
16 feet above sea level extending southward from Lake Okee-
chobee in Florida Bay and confined between slightly higher
land on each side. The floor of the Everglades is composed of
Pliocene and Pleistocene limestone and limy sandstone, cov-
ered by sheets or patches of peat and muck derived from
sawgrass.
The Florida Keys comprise a long fringe of low islands that
curve southwestward along the edge of the Straits of Florida
from Biscayne Bay to Key West. Outlying islands such as the
Marquesas, Rebecca Shoal, and the Dry Tortugas might be
included with them. The outer fringe of keys, terminating
at Loggerhead Key, is an emerged coral reef (Key Largo lime-
stone) composed of limestone containing coral heads in their
original position. Most of the keys are long and narrow and
are strung out in a line. Other keys, known as the Pine Islands,
are more irregular in shape and are composed of oolitic lime-
stone (Miami oolite) like that of the mainland. The Mar-
quesas Keys and the Dry Tortugas consist of "coral sand"
heaped up by the waves in the form of atolls on a slightly sub-
merged bank. All of the keys are very low. Probably none
exceed 15 feet above sea level.
Mangrove swamps occupy much of the shallow water be-





12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

hind the keys. The head of Florida Bay is dotted with them,
and they fringe the mainland from Biscayne Bay as far west
as Cape Romano. Most of the Ten Thousand Islands consist
of mangrove swamps, though some of them are partly sub-
merged sand dunes. Mangroves grow in sheltered tidal waters
as far north as New Smyrna on the east and Cedar Keys on
the west. Their northern limit is determined by climate, for
they cannot endure much freezing weather.

MARINE TERRACES

Some mention has already been made of the Pleistocene
marine terrace plains, of which there are at least seven. These
record oscillations of sea level and are therefore best defined
by reference to the present altitude of the shore line corres-
ponding to each terrace. This is possible because the shore
lines, so far as they have been traced, give no evidence of de-
formation but remain approximately horizontal.

The altitude assigned to each shore line was determined by
the study of innumerable topographic maps of the South-
eastern States. As the contour interval of most of the maps
is 10 feet, the figure chosen may vary a little from the actual
altitude, which is the high-tide mark on the land. This, itself,
is not a level line but varies slightly in altitude according to
the configuration of the coast and because of other factors.
It is, however, much more constant than spot elevations on
the terrace itself, which vary inversely as the depth of the
water on it when it was part of the sea bottom. The error in
the determination of the altitudes of the lower shore lines is
probably not greater than 5 feet. That of the shore lines above
100 feet may be somewhat greater, for the higher lines are
less well preserved and are shown on fewer maps. The present
list was revised in 1931 (Cooke, 1931) and has been repeated-
ly checked since then as new maps have become available.

The altitudes of the shore lines of the seven well-established
terraces are as follows:
Brandywine terrace 270 feet
Coharie terrace 215 feet
Sunderland terrace 170 feet





GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARINE TERRACES 13

Wicomico terrace -- 100 feet
Penholoway terrace 70 feet
Talbot terrace 42 feet
Pamlico terrace 25 feet

These seven marine terraces and the geologic formations
corresponding to them are discussed more fully in the chap-
ter on the Pleistocene series.




14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

STRATIGRAPHY

GENERAL FEATURES

The rocks underlying Florida range in age from a hypo-
thetical pre-Cambrian core, which has never been penetrated
by the drill, to Recent deposits that are still accumulating.
The oldest formation exposed at the surface is the Avon Park
limestone, of middle Eocene age, which is reported by David
Ericson, of the Florida Geological Survey, to crop out in
Citrus and Levy Counties.
The oldest rocks thus far encountered in bore holes, though
somewhat metamorphosed, are so obviously of plastic origin
that such great antiquity as pre-Cambrian seems unlikely;
one would expect to find pre-Cambrian rocks more highly
altered. They are tentatively assigned to the late Paleozoic
(Pennsylvanian). These rocks are intruded by diabase dikes,
which are assumed to be of Triassic age because of their simi-
larity to the diabase of the Newark group of the Eastern States.
The next younger formation of which there is record is a
limestone. It is assigned to the Comanche because of its simi-
larity to certain limestones of the Comanche series of Texas,
but as the diabase and the limestone were found in different
and widely separated wells, it is quite possible that rocks of
both Triassic and Comanche age are more fully developed in
Florida than one might suppose from the meager evidence
available.
Several deep wells in Florida have passed through strata of
the Gulf series. In the northern part of the State the faces of
the Gulf series are much like those of the supposed contempo-
raneous deposits that crop out farther north, in Alabama and
Georgia. In southern Florida Gulf deposits are less diversified
and consist chiefly of limestone.
The Paleocene series is represented in wells in southern
Florida by limestone and farther north in the State by shale,
both types of rocks suggesting the Midway group of Alabama.
The Eocene series includes formations of Wilcox, Claiborne,
and Jackson age. None are known to appear at the surface




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-STRATIGRAPHY


except the Ocala limestone of Jackson age, which crops out
over a wide area, and the Avon Park limestone, which has
recently been found in Levy and Citrus Counties.
Exposures of the older formations of the Oligocene series-
the Marianna limestone and the Byram limestone-are con-
fined to the northern part of the State, but the late Oligocene
Suwannee limestone is known as far south as Hillsborough
County, though a contemporaneous littoral faces, the Flint
River formation, occurs in Florida only in Jackson and
Holmes Counties.
The lower, middle, and upper divisions of the Miocene are
well represented in Florida by the Tampa limestone, the Alum
Bluff group (which includes the Chipola and the Shoal River
formations in western Florida and their equivalent, the Haw-
thorn formation, in the Peninsula), and the Duplin marl. All
crop out at many places, though there are no exposures south
of latitude 27.
The Pliocene deposits of Florida are divided into seven for-
mations, all of which appear to be contemporaneous, repre-
senting merely local lithologic facies. Six are marine or partly
estuarine, the other, a mixture of residual material from older
formations, contains a distinctive fauna of land animals.
Pliocene formations lie close to the surface in nearly all parts
of Florida.
The immediate surface at most places in the State is under-
lain by Pleistocene deposits, of which two principal kinds are
recognized. The most widely distributed is a series of seven
littoral, sublittoral, and estuarine sandy formations corres-
ponding to seven different stages of sea level. These are dis-
tinguishable primarily by their topographic relations, those
underlying the higher terraces being older than the lower ones.
The other kind, which underlies the east coast and the south-
ern part of the State, is divisible into three contemporaneous
marine formations probably of Sangamon interglacial age,
all containing marine shells but differing in facies-one, a
coquina; merging into another, an oolite; the third a coral-
reef limestone. Another Pleistocene deposit, the Fort Thomp-
son formation, includes an alternation of marine shell beds
and fresh-water marls and limestones. It appears to record




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

oscillations of sea level corresponding to all the interglacial
and glacial stages from the Nebraskan to the Sangamon, in-
clusive.
The Recent marine deposits include quartz sand, locally
mixed with broken shells, which has drifted along the beaches
as far south as Miami Beach on the Atlantic and Cape Romano
on the Gulf of Mexico, and white limy ooze, which is accumu-
lating in Florida Bay and the adjacent waters. Some of the
fine sand is blown from the beaches into dunes. Chiefly silt
and sand are being deposited in tidal flats and in bars and flood
plains along rivers. Much of this material originates north of
the State line, in Georgia and Alabama. Muck and peat are
the principal deposits in ponds, shallow lakes, and mangrove
swamps. A kind of travertine or caliche locally forms at the
surface in southern Florida. None of these Recent deposits
have been given formation names except the Lake Flirt marl,
which may be partly Recent and partly late Pleistocene.
The formations that are described herein are named in the
accompanying table.




GEOLO(j OF FLORIDA-GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA


Erosion interval. Lake Flirt marl (fresh-water, partly
Recent).

Pamlico sand (littoral, shore line at 25 feet).

Erosion interval.


Talbot formation
(littoral, shore line at
42 feet).

Penholoway formation
(littoral, shore line at
70 feet).

Wicomico formation
(littoral, shore line at
100 feet).


M_
0






41
'i3


*Sl g-

G,
v1


c r

E
SV


0


o

14


Erosion interval. Fresh-water
Fort Thompson formation.


limestone in the


Sunderland formation
S (littoral, shore line at 170 feet).

S Coharie formation
(littoral, shore line at 215 feet).


z
Erosion interval. Fresh-water limestone in the
S Fort Thompson formation.
sri


Brandywine formation
(littoral, shore line at 270 feet).


Erosion interval.


__





Deformation, tilting, and emergence.
Alachua Bone Valley Buckingham
formation formation marl
(terrestrial, (estuarine, (marine).
of Hemphill of Hemphill
age). age).
Erosion interval.


Caloosahatchee
formation
(marine).


Duplin marl (marine, of late Yorktown age).
Erosion interval during early Yorktown time.
W Aluin Bluff group: Shoal River formation (marine).
o W Chipola formation (marine).
S Hawthorn formation (marine).
Tampa limestone (marine, of Anguilla age).
SErosion interval.
Z Suwannee limestone (marine). Flint River formation (littoral, of Antigua age).
U Erosion interval.
S r Byram limestone (marine, of late Vicksburg age).
O Marianna limestone (marine, of early Vicksburg age).
Erosion interval during Red Bluff time.


Ocala limestone (marine, of Jackson age).
Erosion interval.
Avon Park limestone (marine, of Claiborne age).
Tallahassee limestone (marine, of Claiborne age).
Lake City limestone (marine, of Claiborne age).
Erosion interval.
Oldsmar limestone (marine). Salt Mountain limestone (marine, of Wilcox age).

Cedar Keyj limestone (marine). Porters Creek formation (marine, of Midway age).


w
Zv

U
0
-j Cn
&-


Charlton
formation
(estuarine).


Citronelle
formation
(littoral).


Tamiami
formation
(marine).


3z a
P-10'E
< uO
C-i0 C





GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA (CONT.)


Lawson limestone (marine, of Navarro age).

Limestone and chalk (marine, of Taylor age).

Limestone and shale (marine and littoral, of Austin age).

Erosion interval.

O. Tuscaloosa formation (marine and littoral).


H u Erosion interval.

0 C Limestone (marine).
U U


SErosion interval.
S Diabase (igneous, of Newark age, intrusive into Paleo-
H > zoic system).



O
04 Erosion interval.
Z Cn
0 > Black shale, quartzite, and mica schist (marine or littoral,
probably of Pennsylvanian age).

U

z

S Erosion interval.

C Metamorphic rocks (hypothetical, not reached by drill).

(-







GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PRE-CAMBRIAN-PALEOZOIC


PRE-CAMBRIAN CORE
It may be assumed that if one were to drill deep enough
anywhere in Florida he would find a complex mass of folded
and faulted schists, gneisses, and possibly marbles like that
which underlies the Piedmont region in Georgia. These are
the altered and metamorphosed rocks that composed the an-
cient continent of Appalachia, the progenitor of eastern
North America. No well in Florida has yet reached this hypo-
thetical core, and any discussion of it is necessarily specula-
tive. A well in Pierce County, Georgia, some 40 miles north
of Nassau.County, Florida, entered hard, unweathered gran-
ite at a depth of 4340 feet (Schuchert, 1943, p. 453). This
rock, however, may be younger than pre-Cambaj

PENNSYLVANIAN (?) SERIES AND OLDER
Metamorphic rocks were first discovered in Florida (Gun-
ter, 1928) in a boring drilled in 1926 to 1928 by the Ocala
Oil Corporation in sec. 10, T. 16 S., R. 20 E., in Marion Coun-
ty about 3 miles south of York. This hole entered mica schist
at a depth of about 4100 feet, passed through it into white
quartzite somewhere above 4500 feet, and remained in quartz-
ite to a depth of 6180 feet, where drilling was discontinued
(Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 44). These rocks are probably
of Paleozoic age. Campbell (1939a, p. 95), however, sug-
gests a correlation with similar rocks in Cuba that Dickerson
and Butt (1935) assigned to the Jurassic. A sample of red
mud taken between 4000 and 4100 feet, above the mica
schist, may represent an oxidized subsoil, or it may be de-
rived from a red shale. A description of an incomplete set of
cuttings from this well was published by Cooke and Mossom
(1929, pp. 44, 45).
The Hilliard Turpentine Company well no. 1, drilled by
the St. Mary's River Oil Corporation from 1936 to 1940, 4
miles northwest of Hilliard (NWI4 NW, SEV4 sec. 19,
T. 4 N., R. 24 E.) penetrated 80 feet of hard black splintery
shale between the depths of 4640 and 4720 feet, then 88 feet
of fine-grained, dense sandstone (4720-4808 feet), then dia-
base to the bottom of the hole at 4824 feet (Campbell, 1939a,
b; Schuchert, 1943, p. 454). The black shale contains ostra-




22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

codes that R. S. Bassler tentatively identifies as a species of
Amphissites, a genus ranging from Devonian to Permian.
This fossil apparently confirms the Paleozoic age of the shale,
which had been suspected to be Paleozoic because of its ap-
pearance. Cole (1944, pp. 20-21), however, who could find
no authentic fossils in this shale, tentatively assigns the inter-
val from 4640 to 4795 feet to the Triassic.

TRIASSIC SYSTEM
Below the supposed Paleozoic black shale in the well near
Hilliard and presumably intrusive in it is a sill or dike of a
basic igneous rock that J. 0. Fuller (Cole, 1944, pp. 89-94)
identifies as a diabase similar to the diabase of the Triassic
Newark group of the Eastern States. As Triassic intrusives
are widely distributed in the Piedmont region as far south as
Georgia, the reference of the diabase in the Hilliard well to
the Triassic seems justifiable. The drillers log (Cole, 1944,
p. 100) shows diabase between depths of 4821 and 4824 feet,
which was the bottom of the well. Apparently the drill en-
tered it at 4795 feet (Cole, 1944, p. 30).




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-COMANCHE SERIES


CRETACEOUS SYSTEM

COMANCHE SERIES
Apparently no rocks of Comanche age were encount-
ered in either the York well or in the Hilliard well, both of
which lie in the northern part of the Peninsula. However, a
thickness of more than 2000 feet of hard limestone similar to
limestones in the Comanche series of Texas alternating with
anhydrite and gypsum was penetrated in the Cory well near
Pinecrest in the Everglades (sec. 6, T. 5 5 S., R. 34 E.). A core
representing the interval between depths of 7944 and 7949
feet consists of hard limestone containing unidentifiable
fragments of a species of Gryphaea, a kind of oyster. These
shells give little clue as to the age, but according to L. W.
Stephenson (Cole, 1941, p. 17) the rock resembles limestone
of the Comanche series. If this rock is of Comanche age, it
cannot be far from the top of the series as represented in this
well, for a core from 7676-7684 feet contains an Upper Cre-
taceous (Eagle Ford age) fossil. Hard limestone, anhydrite,
and gypsum, all common in the Comanche series, continue
to the bottom of )the well at a depth of 10,006 feet. Camp-
bell's (1939b, p. 1714) announcement of the discovery of
Lower Cretaceous deposits in this well was the first published
mention of the presence of the authentic Comanche series
under Florida, though Lower Cretaceous beds had been recog-
nized by E. R. Applin in another well several years earlier
(Campbell, 1939b, p. 1714). Earlier reports (Cushman,
1919) of supposed Lower Cretaceous deposits in Florida re-
ferred to much younger beds that had been misidentified.

The absence of deposits of Comanche age from the north-
ern part of the Peninsula is not surprising, for none are known
beneath the Coastal Plain of Georgia or of any other Atlantic
States, nor do any lie at the surface in Alabama or Mississippi.
The nearest outcrop is in southwestern Arkansas. The land-
ward margin of the Comanche series is overlapped by younger
deposits east of that region, but records of a deep well show
that the Lower Cretaceous Hosston formation underlies
Clarke County, Alabama (Imlay, 1943, p. 1463), with a
thickness of at least 1700 feet. As this well lies about 45 miles
farther north than the Florida State line and less than 30




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

miles west of it, and as the regional strike appears to be east-
southeastward, one may infer that the Hosston underlies all
of northwestern Florida also.

GULF SERIES
GENERAL FEATURES
In northwestern Florida rocks of the Gulf series partake
somewhat of the character of contemporaneous deposits ex-
posed farther north in Alabama. As revealed by cuttings
from a well drilled in 1921 for the Chipley Oil Company at
Falling Water, 4 miles south of Chipley, Washington County
(Mossom, 1926, pp. 195-202), they include dark-brown
micaceous sandy clay, gray calcareous clay, gray argillaceous
limestone, and similar deposits. Mossom's description of gray
argillaceous limestone between depths of 2415 and 3465 feet
tallies well with the Selma chalk of Alabama, and Foramini-
fera taken within this interval were regarded by Cushman
(Mossom, 1926, p. 203) as suggestive of that formation.
Ostrea cretacea Morton? (identified by L. W. Stephenson)
at 3615 feet and Ostrea mesenterica Morton and 0. cretacea
Morton (identified by J. J. Galloway) in dark-gray calcare-
ous clay at 3693 feet suggest the Eutaw formation. Drilling
was stopped in dark-brown finely micaceous, sandy clay at a
depth of 4910 feet. It was found impossible to designate defi-
nite boundaries to the formations penetrated by this well,
which was drilled with cable tools. A condensed log with
suggested correlations is given by Semmes (1929, pp. 314-
316).
More specific information about the subsurface conditions
in northwestern Florida is contained in a description by Cole
(1938) of the Granberry well, drilled in 1936, in sec. 15,
T. 5 N., R. 9 W., about 7 miles northeast of Marianna, Jack-
son County. Cole places the top of the Upper Cretaceous at
a depth of 1937 feet and supposes that the hole continues in
the Upper Cretaceous to the bottom, at 5022 feet. He recog-
nizes the Tuscaloosa, Eutaw, and Selma formations in this
well but suggests the possibility that his supposed Tuscaloosa
may really represent the Trinity group of the Comanche
series. The foraminiferal faunas of his Selma are characteris-
tic of the Taylor marl of Texas (Cole, 1938, p. 25).




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES


Beds of the Gulf series in the Peninsula consist for the most
part of limestone. Applin and Applin (1944) recognize
equivalents of the Eagle Ford shale, the Austin chalk, the
Taylor marl, and an upper formation of Navarro age, to
which they give the name Lawson limestone.

TUSCALOOSA FORMATION
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The Tuscaloosa formation was named from a city
in Alabama. The name dates from 1887, when it was first
used by Smith and Johnson.
Characters-At the outcrop in Alabama and adjacent
States the Tuscaloosa is a littoral and continental formation
consisting chiefly of coarse dirty sand and lenses of clay, some
of which are pure white kaolin. It contains no lime though
it includes a glauconitic member. Recent field work by W. H.
Monroe indicates that it is divisible. The identification as
Tuscaloosa of marine beds in wells far from the outcrop needs
verification, for it is based primarily on their stratigraphic
position below beds of Eutaw age.
Thickness-The thickness of beds assigned by the Applins
to the Tuscaloosa in wells in Florida ranges from 65 feet in
Levy County to 1442 feet in Washington County, where the
base of the formation has not been reached.
Distribution-From the type area in Alabama the outcrop
of the Tuscaloosa formation extends northwestward up the
Mississippi Embayment at least as far as Tennessee and east-
ward to North Carolina, where the formation is overlapped
by younger beds. Marine beds identified with it occupy north-
western and northeastern Florida but appear to be absent from
Marion County. Limestone in southern Florida referred to
the Tuscaloosa by Applin and Applin (1944) is herein de-
scribed under the heading "Deposits of Eagle Ford age."
Stratigraphic relations-At the outcrop the Tuscaloosa
formation lies unconformably on rocks of Paleozoic age or
older, and unconformably under the Eutaw formation or its
equivalent or younger beds. The same relationships may be




26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

presumed to hold for some distance under cover, for both
unconformities are of wide extent.
Fauna and flora-A few oysters and Brachidontes, a ma-
rine or brackish-water mollusk, have been found at one lo-
cality in Chilton County, Alabama. No other animal remains
have been reported from the outcrop. Some of the clay lenses
contain abundant impressions of leaves.

LOCAL DETAILS
Applin and Applin (1944) record the Tuscaloosa forma-
tion from the following wells in Florida:
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1
Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths
3626 to 3741 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.
Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec.
15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depths 2803 to 3448 feet; total depth
of well, 5022 feet.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3410 to
3838 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1
J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 5322 to
5392; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles
east of Woodville, depths 3465 to 3755 feet; total depth of
well, 3755 feet.
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 4170 to
4235 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 4254 to 4600 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14,
T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 3672 to 4270 feet; total depth of
well, 5746 feet.
Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES


& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 4133
to 5337 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet.
Washington County--Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle
(sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 3470? to 4912 feet; total
depth of well, 4912 feet.

LIMESTONE OF EAGLE FORD AGE
A core from a depth of 7676-7684 feet in the Cory No. 1
well of the Peninsular Oil & Refining Company (sec. 6, T. 55
S., R. 34 E.) in Monroe County yielded a fragment of an
Inoceramus that, according to L. W. Stephenson (Cole, 1941,
p. 17), strongly suggests Inoceramus labiatus Schlotheim, a
form of the species restricted to the lower part of the Eagle
Ford shale of Texas. The core consists of speckled limestone
resembling that interbedded with the shale of the Eagle Ford.
The Applins call the limestone between the depths of 7676
and 8168 feet in this well the Tuscaloosa formation, though
the Tuscaloosa at the outcrop represents an entirely different
faces and may be older (L. W. Stephenson, oral communi-
cation).
BEDS OF AUSTIN AGE
GENERAL FEATURES
Hard white limestone penetrated by the Cory well in Mon-
roe County between the depths of 7330 and 7676 feet is cor-
related by the Applins with the Austin chalk of Texas. They
consider it equivalent and continuous with a plastic faces in
northern Florida, which is probably the continuation from
Alabama of the Eutaw formation and the lower part of the
Selma chalk, which overlies the Eutaw. They describe the
plastic faces as composed of gray and greenish-gray marly
shale with fine-grained argillaceous sandstone, sandy mica-
ceous and carbonaceous clay, and some limestone. Lenses of
black to brownish-black speckled shale like that in the lower
part of the Austin chalk are common.
In peninsular Florida the limestone of Austin age ranges
around 250 to 350 feet in thickness. The plastic faces is 150
to 200 feet thick in the neighborhood of Tallahassee and 500
feet thick in northwestern Florida.





28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins have recognized beds of Austin age in the fol-
lowing additional wells in Florida:
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.),
depths 3365? to 3626 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3268 to
3410 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 5077 to
5322 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles
east of Woodville, depths 3180 to about 3410 feet; total
depth of well, 3755 feet.
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 3740 to
about 4170 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13
S., R. 20 E.), depths 3180 to 3520 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 3900 to 4254 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14,
T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 3482 to 3672 feet; total depth of
well, 5746 feet.
Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land
& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 3814
to 4133 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet.
Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle
(sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 2870 to 3470? feet; total
depth of well, 4912 feet.

BEDS OF TAYLOR AGE
GENERAL FEATURES
The Selma chalk of Alabama is represented in part by beds




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES


of Taylor age, which underlie the entire State of Florida.
Applin and Applin (1944) have recognized beds of Taylor
age in 12 wells in Florida. In northern and northwestern
Florida they consist of hard gray marl with interbedded lenses
of gray limestone and light-gray, grayish-green, or blue-gray
marly shale, which locally contains carbonaceous matter and
mica. In peninsular Florida they are hard white or cream-
colored chalky limestone. Apparently everywhere they con-
formably overlie beds of Austin age. They are overlain by
beds of Navarro age in northwestern Florida and southeast-
ern Georgia. The contact is presumably unconformable, for
only the lower part of the Taylor is represented in Jefferson
County and in Pierce County, Georgia. They are overlain
unconformably by the Paleocene series in the vicinity of
Tallahassee.
According to the Applins the beds of Taylor age are about
400 feet thick in the central part of peninsular Florida, 600
feet thick in the northeastern part, and more than 1200 feet
thick in Monroe County. Only 200 feet, representing the
lower part of this unit, is present in Jefferson County, where-
as there is more than 700 feet in Wakulla County, the adjoin-
ing county.
The upper part of the beds of Taylor age contain frag-
ments of Inoceramus and several short-ranging species of
Foraminifera, among which the Applins mention Stensi6ina
americana Cushman, Bolivinoides decorate (Jones), and
Anomalina rubiginosa Cushman, var. The lower beds in the
Peninsula carry Planulina texana Cushman, Robulus miinsteri
(Roemer), Globotruncana arca (Cushman), and Globigerina
cretacea d'Orbigny.
LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins have identified beds of Taylor age in the fol-
lowing wells:
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.),
depths 2683 to 3365? feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3056 to
3268 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.




30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.),
depths 3900 to 5077 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles
east of Woodville, depths 2675 to about 2900 feet; total depth
of well, 3755 feet.
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 3239 to
3740 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T.
13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 2770 to 3180 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet.
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No.
1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 6110 to 7330 feet;
total depth of well, 10,006 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 3280 to 3900 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14,
T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 2745 to 3482 feet; total depth of
well, 5746 feet.
Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land
.& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 E.), depths 3136
to 3790 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet.
Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle
(sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 2570 to 2870 feet; total
depth of well, 4912 feet.

LAWSON LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name Lawson limestone is applied by Applin
and Applin (1944) to limestone of Navarro age penetrated
between depths of 2235 and 2770 feet in the J. S. Cosden No.
1 Lawson well (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.) in Marion County,
Florida.
Characters-The Lawson limestone is white or cream-col-




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES


ored, calcitic or chalky, locally porous, and includes some
gypsum. It is divisible into two members of which the upper
contains more gypsum than the lower and is impregnated
with calcite to such an extent that most of its fossils are re-
crystallized.
Thickness-The limestone ranges in thickness from about
200 feet to about 800 feet.
Distribution-The Lawson limestone is known only in
wells in the peninsula of Florida. It appears to be absent from
northern Florida from Jefferson County westward, though
it is represented in Walton and Washington Counties by 30
to 50 feet of light-gray chalky marl. Wells in northern Flor-
ida between Nassau County and Jefferson County are not
deep enough to reach it if it is present there.
Stratigraphic relations-The Lawson limestone overlies
beds of Taylor age and underlies the Cedar Keys limestone
(Paleocene). Its upper surface probably became land and
was eroded before the submergence that ushered in the Paleo-
cene epoch. The limestone is correlated with the Navarro
group of Texas. It is possible that the lower member is equiva-
lent to the Ripley formation of Mississippi and Alabama and
the upper member to the Prairie Bluff chalk, both of which
are of Navarro age.
Paleogeography-The Lawson limestone was deposited in
the open ocean, probably far from land. The absence of the
formation from part of northern Florida may be the result
of erosion during the period of emergence that preceded the
Paleocene epoch.
LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins have identified the Lawson limestone in the
following wells:
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.),
depths 1894 to 2683 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.),
depths 3365 to 3900 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 2489
to 3239 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet,
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T.
13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 2235 to 2770 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet.
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No.
1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 5430 to 6110 feet;
total depth of well, 10,006 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 2750 to 3280 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 Hecksher-
Yarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 4300 to 4540 feet
(upper member only) ; total depth of well, 4540 feet.
Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell
well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 2940 to 3070 feet;
total depth of well, 3070 feet.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES


TERTIARY SYSTEM

PALEOCENE SERIES
GENERAL FEATURES
The strata in the Southeastern States now included in the
Paleocene series comprise the Midway group, which was for-
merly classified as the oldest group of the Eocene series. The
name Paleocene dates back to 1874, when Schimper proposed
it for certain French deposits having a distinctive flora, but
it was not officially adopted for the United States until re-
cently (Cooke, 1939f; 1944, p. 39), although the Midway
group had long been recognized as equivalent to the Paleocene.

CEDAR KEYS LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name Cedar Keys formation was applied by
Cole (1944, p. 27) to limestone known only "in wells in pen-
insular and northern [northeastern] Florida from the first
appearance of the Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper Cre-
taceous." The name is taken from the town of Cedar Keys,
Levy County.
Characters-The formation consists of hard cream-col-
ored to tan limestone.
Thickness-Cole (1944, p. 28) reports a thickness of 570
feet in the Hilliard well and 566 feet in the Cedar Keys well
no. 2. He supposes that it is considerably thicker in the south-
ern part of Florida.
Distribution-The Cedar Keys limestone probably under-
lies all of Florida except the northwestern part, where the
equivalent formation is the Porters Creek clay.
Stratigraphic relations-The formations of the Midway
group at the outcrop are separated from formations above
and below by unconformities. The relations in Florida are
conjectural, but there is little doubt that these unconformi-
ties extend across the Floridian Plateau.
Paleogeography-The Cedar Keys limestone was deposited
in the open ocean. The shore line (fig. 4) extended across




34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Alabama and Georgia, circling northwestward up the Missis-
sippi Embayment, in and near which the Porters Creek clay
was deposited contemporaneously.
Fauna-Borelis gunteri Cole and B. floridanus Cole, two
related species of Foraminifera, are regarded by Cole as char-
acteristic of the Cedar Keys limestone.

LOCAL DETAILS
The Cedar Keys limestone has been reported from the fol-
lowing wells:
Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 War-
wick (sec. 12, T. 55 S., R. 40 E.), depths 3675 to 5432 feet;
total depth of well, 5432 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.),
depths 1561 to 1894 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.
(Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec.
18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 3090 to 3255 feet; total depth
of well, 3255 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.),
depths 2570 to 3365 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
(Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 2051 to
2489 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944); total depth of well,
5266 feet. Cole (1942) refers the interval from 1965 to 2531
feet to the Cedar Keys limestone. He identified Borelis gun-
teri and B. floridanus in the upper part. The lower part con-
tains some gypsum; no fossils were found in it.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T.
13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 1730 to 2235 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company
Cory No. 1 (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 3310 to 5430
feet; total depth of well, 10,000 feet. (Applin and Applin,




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES


1944.) Cole (1941, p. 16) reports Borelis sp. at a depth of
3350 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 2215 to 2750 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944) or 2785
feet (Cole, 1944, p. 28); total depth of well, 4821 feet. It
contains Borelis gunteri and B. floridanus.
Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 Hecksher-
Yarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 2630 to 4300 feet;
total depth of well, 4540 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.)
Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell
well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 2005 to 2940 feet;
total depth of well, 3070 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.)

PORTERS CREEK FORMATION
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The Porters Creek formation was named from a
creek in Hardeman County, Tennessee, by Safford in 1864.
The continuation of this formation in Alabama was later
(1892) called "Sucarnochee" by E. A. Smith, but this syno-
nym seems unnecessary.
Characters and thickness-The Porters Creek at the out-
crop consists of brittle gray to black clay or shale with con-
choidal fracture. It is several hundred feet thick. Accord-
ing to Applin and Applin (1944), wells in northwestern
Florida show that the lower part of the Paleocene series con-
sists of gray to cream-colored marly clay and greenish-gray
highly fossiliferous marl. This is overlain by gray clay, sandy
clay, and less fossiliferous marl.
Distribution-The Porters Creek crops out in a great semi-
circle that extends from western Tennessee through Missis-
sip'pi far into Alabama. Presumably it merges seaward into
the Cedar Keys limestone.
Stratigraphic relations-At the outcrop the Porters Creek
either rests directly and unconformably on strata of the Up-
per Cretaceous series or is separated from those strata by a
thin bed of limestone of the Clayton formation of Paleocene




36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

age. At the top it merges into the Naheola formation or is
unconformably overlain by younger deposits.
Paleogeography-The Porters Creek formation was laid
down within and near the Mississippi Embayment, into which
an abundant supply of black mud was poured by the tribu-
tary rivers. The approximate location of the shore line is
shown in figure 4.
Fauna-The lower marl carries a microfauna similar to
that of the Tamesi (Velasco) of Mexico (Applin and App-
lin, 1944).
LOCAL DETAILS
The plastic faces of the Paleocene series, presumably the
Porters Creek formation, has been reported from the follow-
ing wells:
Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec.
15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depth 1672 to 1934 feet; total depth
of well, 5022 feet. The Tamesi fauna occupies the interval
from 1761 to 1934 feet. Cores from 1761-1767 and 1878
feet are described as brittle slightly micaceous gray shale
(Applin and Applin, 1944). Cole (1938, p. 23) places the
top of the Midway group at 1726 feet and the bottom at 1937
feet.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.); total depth of
well, 3838 feet. The Applins report the Tamesi fauna be-
tween the depths of approximately 2490 and 3056 feet.
Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles
east of Woodville; total depth of well, 3755 feet. The App-
lins report the Tamesi fauna between 2235 and 2675 feet.
Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14,
T. 3 S., R. 1 E.); total depth of well, 5746 feet. The Ta-
mesi fauna occurs between 2665 and 2715 feet (Applin and
Applin, 1944).
Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land
& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths
2010 to 3061 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. The Tamesi





GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES


FIGURE 4.-Approximate locations of the shore line during the Paleocene epoch
and late Eocene and middle Oligocene (Marianna) times.




38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

fauna was found between 2400 and 3061 feet (Applin and
Applin, 1944).
Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle
(sec. 21, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.); total depth of well, 4912 feet.
The Applins report the Tamesi fauna between depths of 2060
and 2545 feet.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES


EOCENE SERIES
GENERAL FEATURES
As restricted by the elimination of the Midway group
(Paleocene), the Eocene series of the Southern States is di-
visible into three parts. Named in ascending order, they are
commonly called the Wilcox, Claiborne, and Jackson groups.
Each of these groups is separated from the adjacent groups
or from the overlying and underlying series by widespread
unconformities.
In Florida only part of the deposits of Jackson age is ex-
posed to view; the remainder of the Eocene series is deeply
buried. What little information is available about the older
Eocene was obtained from the study of well cuttings.
Throughout the Peninsula, the Eocene series consists dom-
inantly of limestone. Where fossils are present and well
enough preserved for identification, it is usually possible to
recognize the various Eocene formations. But many kinds
of fossils are gregarious, not evenly distributed throughout
contemporaneous beds. Where they are absent or not diag-
nostic one must depend upon other criteria. To some extent
the physical characters of the rock can be used. But this cri-
terion, too, is not reliable, for the very causes that brought
about a segregation of species or their local, spotty distribu-
tion may have produced variations in the rock itself. The
very lack of organic remains from a formation, elsewhere
highly fossiliferous, may give the rock a different texture and
composition.
DEPOSITS OF WILCOX AGE
GENERAL FEATURES
In Alabama the outcropping edges of the Wilcox group
are rather diversified and have been divided into several for-
mations. All consist primarily of plastic materials, though
one (the Bashi formation) contains some lime. Seaward,
under cover, these formations merge into limestone. This
transformation takes place by intertongueing.
The oldest tongue of limestone extends farther inland than
the others. It has been brought to the surface along the Jack-




40' FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

son fault in Clarke County, Alabama, where it has received
the name of Salt Mountain limestone from its most prom-
inent outcrop. Among the distinctive fossils of the Salt
Mountain are two orbitoid Foraminifera, Pseudophragmina
cookei (Vaughan) and Discocyclina blanpiedi Vaughan.
These species are restricted to the Salt Mountain at the out-
crop but seem to have a wider vertical distribution within
the buried limestone of Wilcox age, which has been named
the Oldsmar limestone. Clastic tongues of the Wilcox group
reach southward into part of northwestern Florida, but the
limestone faces occupies most of the State.

OLDSMAR LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name Oldsmar limestone is applied by Applin
and Applin (1944) to limestone of Wilcox age in Florida and
southeastern Georgia. The name is taken from R. V. Hill's
"Oldsmar well" in Hillsborough County, Florida. The Salt
Mountain limestone might appropriately have been expanded
to include all the Oldsmar, which, however, may ultimately
be divided into two or more formations, of which one would
be the Salt Mountain.
Characters-The Oldsmar consists predominantly of lime-
stone, but it contains some gypsum and chert.
Thickness-The Oldsmar is 925 feet thick in the Oldsmar
well and 1200 feet thick in the Peninsular Oil & Refining Com-
pany's no. 1 Cory in Monroe County. Only 445 feet of un-
fossiliferous limestone in Cosden's no. 1 Lawson well in Mar-
ion County is referred to the Oldsmar.
Distribution-The Oldsmar limestone underlies the Pe-
ninsula, the northeastern part of Florida, and the southeast-
ern part of Georgia.
Stratigraphic relations-The top and bottom of the Olds-
mar limestone are probably separated from the adjacent for-
mations by unconformities. At least, that relationship holds
good for the Wilcox group at the outcrop in Alabama and
Georgia. It is possible that there is an unconformity within
the formation corresponding to that which probably separates




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OLDSMAR LIMESTONE


the Nanafalia formation from the Tuscahoma sand in Ala-
bama. In northwest Florida the limestone breaks into tongues,
which interfinger with tongues of clay and sand extending
southward from Alabama. The main body of the Oldsmar ap-
pears to be equivalent to the entire Wilcox group of Alabama.
Paleogeography-The Oldsmar limestone was deposited in
the open sea, far away from land. The boundary between the
area in which limestone was deposited and that in which the
sea bottom was sandy or clayey shifted back and forth from
time to time across northwestern Florida and southern Ala-
bama, producing an interfingering of the limestone with the
plastic sediments.
Fauna-Applin and Applin (1944) recognize four distinct
faunal zones in the Oldsmar limestone. The topmost is char-
acterized by Helicoste'gina gyralis Parker and Grimsdale; the
next by Pseudophragmina cedarkeysensis Cole; the third by
Coskinolina elongata Cole; and the fourth by an unnamed
species of Foraminifera.

LOCAL DETAILS
Applin and Applin (1944) have recognized the Oldsmar
limestone in the following wells:
Broward County-Port Everglades Oil & Gas Company
well 2 miles south of Fort Lauderdale, depths of about 2500
and 3010 feet; total depth of well, 3010 feet.
Columbia County-City well at Lake City (sec. 5, T. 4 S.,
R. 17 E.), depths 1010 to 1012 feet; total depth of well, 1012
feet.
Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 War-
wick (sec. 12, T. 55 S., R. 40 E.), depths 2737 to 3675 feet;
total depth of well, 5432 feet.
Miami Oil & Gas Company No. 1 Chevalier (sec. 19, T.
54 S., R. 35 E.), 3720 (first sample) to 3773 feet; total depth
of well, 4560 feet.
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company, depths 1085 to 1561 feet; total
depth of well, 4776 feet.




42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec.
18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 2165 to 3090 feet; total depth
of well, 3255 feet.
SLake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.),
depths about 2000 to 2570 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 1308 to
2051 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T.
13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 1285 to 1730 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet.
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No.
1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 2050 to 3310 feet;
total depth of well, 10,006 feet.
Florida East Coast Railroad well at Marathon, Key Vaca,
depths 1920 to 2310 feet; total depth of well, 2310 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 1370 to 2215 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 Hecksher-
Yarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1960 to 2630
feet; total depth of well, 4540 feet.
St. Johns County-East Coast Hotel Company well at St.
Augustine, depth 1350 feet (last sample) ; total depth of well,
1350 feet.
Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell
well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 1430 to 2005 feet;
total depth of well, 3070 feet.

SALT MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE

GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The Salt Mountain limestone was named in 1891
by Langdon from a hill in Clarke County, Alabama, where
it was brought to the surface by the Jackson fault (Cooke,




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SALT MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE


1936a, p. 1163). The outcrops have been thoroughly de-
scribed by Toulmin (1940a).
Characters-At the type locality the Salt Mountain con-
sists of white limestone, which varies somewhat in texture.
Parts are soft and chalky; elsewhere the rock is impregnated
with calcite.
Thickness-According to Toulmin (1940a) the thickness
of the Salt Mountain limestone approximates 90 feet in Clarke
County, Alabama, which is probably not very far.from the
landward margin of the formation. It appears to be about
300 feet thick in Jackson County, Florida.
Distribution-The Salt Mountain limestone underlies
southwestern Alabama and northwestern Florida. It is not
known to crop out anywhere except along the Jackson fault
in Alabama. Elsewhere it is known only from well cuttings.
Stratigraphic relations-According to Blanpied (1938)
the Salt Mountain limestone is equivalent to the Ostrea thirsae
beds of the Nanafalia formation. The limestone presumably
merges northward, toward the shore line of the Nanafalia sea,
into the oyster reefs and other shallow-water deposits of the
Nanafalia.
The Nanafalia formation lies unconformably on deposits
of Midway (Paleocene) age. This unconformity, which is
widespread, probably extends seaward under cover for a con-
siderable distance, possibly throughout the Floridian Plateau.
If so, the Salt Mountain limestone, likewise, is unconformably
on, older beds, either plastic sediments of Midway age or the
Cedar Keys limestone. The relation to overlying beds has not
been determined.
The Salt Mountain limestone appears to be a tongue of 'a
thicker mass of limestone, the Oldsmar limestone, which is be-
lieved to represent the entire Wilcox group. It presumably
lies at the base of the group and is overlain by a tongue of clas-
tic sediments which extends southward and becomes thinner
as the Oldsmar limestone is approached.
Paleogedgraphy-All of Florida and part of Georgia was
submerged during Wilcox time. The Gulf of Mexico then
was merely an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean. The shore
k




44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

line probably crossed the present Chattahoochee River some-
where between Fort Gaines, Georgia,'and Eufaula, Alabama,
extended across Alabama in a fairly straight line and entered
Mississippi in the northern part of Lauderdale County. This
line paralleled and lay not many miles south of the shore line
of the Paleocene sea.
Fauna-The most conspicuous fossils of the Salt Mountain
limestone at the outcrop in Alabama are two orbitoid Fora-
minifera, Pseudophragmina cookei (Vaughan) and Discocy-
clina blanpiedi Vaughan. These species have not been found
elsewhere in outcropping formations, but they occur at sev-
eral different horizons in the Oldsmar limestone (E. R. App-
lin, oral communication). Toulmin (1941) recognizes 97
species of smaller Foraminifera in the Salt Mountain, and he
(1940b) has described from it two new species of Brachio-
poda, Thecidellina cooperi and Argyrotheca saltmountainen-
sis. It also contains Cidaris splendens Morton and fragments
of other unidentifiable echinoids. Blanpied (1938) reports
that some cores of the Salt Mountain limestone contain Os-
trea thirsae Gabb.
LOCAL DETAILS
Jackson County-Cole (1938) assigns limestone between
the depths of 1406 and 1600 feet in the Granberry well
(SW4 NE4 sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.) to the Salt Mountain
limestone. It contains fragments of an orbitoid suggestive of
Pseudophragmina cookei (Vaughan).
Nassau County-Limestone between the depths of 1785
and 1910 feet in the St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company well is classified as Salt Moun-
tain by Cole (1944, p. 27) because of its lithologic charac-
ters and the presence of Pseudophragmina cookei and Disco-
cyclina blanpiedi. It contains also Pseudophragmina cedar-
keysensis Cole. This interval falls within the Oldsmar lime-
stone as identified by Applin and Applio (1944).

DEPOSITS OF CLAIBORNE AGE
GENERAL FEATURES
In Alabama the Claiborne group is divided into two forma-




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES


tions, the Tallahatta at the base and the Lisbon above. The
Gosport sand, which was the topmost formation of the orig-
inal Claiborne group, has proved to be of basal Jackson age
and is now classified as Moodys Branch marl (Cooke, 1939a).
The Lisbon is divisible into at least two parts, a lower glau-
conitic part corresponding to the Cane River formation of
Louisiana and an upper calcareous part corresponding to the
Cook Mountain formation of Texas. In Georgia the deposits
of Claiborne age, which are not divided, are called the Mc-
Bean formation (Cooke, 1944, p. 53). Throughout the Coast-
al Plain the outcropping formations of Claiborne age overlie
unconformably deposits of Wilcox age or older formations
and are overlain unconformably and at many places over-
lapped by deposits of Jackson age.

In Florida the deposits of Claiborne age underlie the entire
State, but they are generally buried by younger beds. From
studies of many well cuttings, Applin and Applin (1944)
have been able to recognize two faces, a plastic faces in north-
western Florida and a limestone faces in the northeastern and
peninsular parts of the State. They recognize Cook Mountain
fossils in the plastic faces, which is continuous with the Clai-
borne group of Alabama and presumably is equivalent to the
littoral Tallahatta formation and the Lisbon formation com-
bined. They divide the limestone into three formations, the
Lake City limestone at the base, the Tallahassee limestone
above it, and the Avon Park limestone at the top. Their pro-
files suggest that the Lake City limestone is equivalent to the
plastic faces and that the Tallahassee and the Avon Park are
younger.

The top of the deposits of Claiborne age appears to have
been beveled off before the deposition of the Ocala limestone,
which overlies the plastic faces in northwestern Florida, the
Tallahassee limestone in Gadsden County, and the Avon Park
limestone farther east. This relationship might be explained
as caused by a migration of faces of deposition,. but it may be
the result of subaerial erosion. This latter explanation seems
the more plausible because the deposits of Jackson age every-
where at the outcrop transgressively overlie an eroded surface.




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

LAKE CITY LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name Lake City limestone is proposed by App-
lin and Applin (1944) for limestone encountered in wells in
northern and peninsular Florida above the Oldsmar limestone.
The name is derived from the county seat of Columbia
County.
Characters-The Lake City limestone is described as made
up of alternating layers of dark-brown and chalky limestone.
It contains beds of gypsum in the central part of the penin-
sula, the Tallahassee area, and southeastern Georgia. Chert is
especially noticeable in the Tallahassee area.
Thickness-In the northern part of Florida the Lake City
limestone ranges in thickness from 400 to 500 feet, but it is
only 200 to 250 feet thick in the southern part of the
peninsula.
Distribution-As described by Applin and Applin (1944)
the Lake City limestone underlies all of Florida except the
northwestern part, where the limestone merges into a plastic
faces of chalky, glauconitic sand, apparently resembling the
Lisbon formation of Alabama, with which part of it is doubt-
less continuous. The limestone is present also in southeastern
Georgia.
Stratigraphic relations-The Lake City limestone overlies
the Oldsmar limestone, of Wilcox age, and is probably uncon-
formable with it, though this relationship has not been proved.
It is overlain by the Tallahassee limestone or by unfossiliferous
limestone supposed to be equivalent to the Tallahassee. The
Lake City merges westward through highly glauconitic lime-
stone into chalky, glauconitic sand, which presumably is the
offshore equivalent of the Tallahatta and Lisbon formations
of Alabama.
Paleolgeography-During Claiborne time, most of Florida
lay well offshore and received little plastic sediment. The
northwestern part was nearest the land. The shore line ex-
tended across Alabama from the northern part of Choctaw
County to Henry County, thence across Georgia to Rich-
mond County.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-LAKE CITY LIMESTONE


Fauna-Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman) is regarded
by the Applins as a guide fossil of the Lake City limestone. It
is generally accompanied by an abundance of Fabularia
vaughani Cole and Ponton, Discorbis inornatus Cole, and
several other species of small Foraminifera. Discocyclina
(Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton and Lepido-
cyclina (Polylepidina) antillea were found in the Lake City
limestone in Nassau County.

LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins have recognized the Lake City limestone or
the equivalent sandy, glauconitic faces in the following wells:
Brevard County-R. 0. Couch well at Grant, depths 756
to 872 feet; total depth of well, 872 feet.
Broward County-Port Everglades Oil & Gas Company
well, 2 miles south of Fort Lauderdale, depths 2127 to 2500
feet; total depth of well, 3010 feet.
Calhoun County-Calhoun Oil and Gas Company well,
half a mile northwest of Clarksville, depths 1000 to 1320 feet;
total depth of well, 1320 feet. Clastic faces.
Columbia County-City well at Lake City (sec. 5, T. 4 S.,
R. 17 E.), depths 492 to 1010 feet; total depth of well, 1012
feet.
Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 War-
wick, depths 2490 to 2737 feet; total depth of well, 5432 feet.
Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No.
1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.),
depths 525 (first sample) to 1085 feet; total depth of well,
4776 feet.
Duval County-City of Jacksonville well at Fourth and
Pearl Streets, depths 805 to 1005 feet; total depth of well,
1005 feet.
Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec.
18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 1910 to 2165 feet; total depth
of well, 3255 feet.
Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec.




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depths 200 to 776 feet; total depth of
well, 5022 feet. Clastic faces.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Millard and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 1740
to 2223 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1010 to
2000 feet (approximately); total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Leon County-Central Florida Oil & Gas Company well
3 miles east of Woodville, depths 1600 to 1995 feet; total
depth of well, 3755 feet.
Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2
Sholtz (sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 811 to 1308 feet;
total depth of well, 5266 feet.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T.
13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 915 to 1285 feet; total depth of well,
4334 feet.
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No.
1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 1810 to 2050 feet;
total depth of well, 10,006 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 945 to 1370 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.
Rayonier, Inc., well at Fernandina (sec. 60, T. 3 N., R. 28
E.), depths 853 to 1060 feet; total depth of well, 1060 feet.
Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 Hecksher-
Yarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1540 to 1960 feet;
total depth of well, 4540 feet.
Avon Park Bombing Range (sec. 31, T. 32 S., R. 25 E.),
depths 930 to 1040 feet; total depth of well, 1040 feet.
St. Johns County-East Coast Hotel Company well at St.
Augustine, depths 590 to 1350 feet; total depth of well, 1350
feet.
Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell
well" (sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 890 to 1430 feet;
total depth of well, 3070 feet.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES


Suwannee County-City well at Live Oak, depths 475 to
650 feet; total depth of well, 650 feet.
Wakulla County-Bonheur Development Company well
(sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 1750 to 2169 feet; total
depth of well, 2169 feet.
Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land
& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 775
to about 1508 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. Clastic
faces.
Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle
(sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 375 to 970 feet; total
depth of well, 4912 feet. Clastic faces.

TALLAHASSEE LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-Applin and Applin (1944) are proposing the name
Tallahassee for limestone found in eight wells near Tallahassee.
Characters-The formation is composed chiefly of cream-
colored and tan crystalline limestone and some softer argil-
laceous limestone. It includes a little tan clay, chert, and
gypsum.
Thickness-The thickness of the Tallahassee limestone
ranges from about 75 feet in wells near its western edge to
650 feet in Jefferson County.
Distribution-The known geographic range of the Talla-
hassee limestone extends from Calhoun County on the west
to Leon and Wakulla Counties on the east. It extends north-
ward into Decatur County, Georgia. Eastward and south-
ward it merges into unfossiliferous limestone, which extends
as far as Nassau County and southward to Polk County.
Stratigraphic relations-The Tallahassee overlies the Lake
City limestone and underlies the Avon Park limestone, which
is overlapped at Quincy by the Ocala limestone. The Talla-
hassee is probably conformable with the Lake City and the
Avon Park, but it is unconformable with the Ocala, if the
relations inferred from the distribution are correct.




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

The Tallahassee limestone apparently represents a geologic
horizon not present at the outcrop in western Alabama, where
the Ostrea sellaeformis zone of the Lisbon formation (equiva-
lent to the Wautubbee formation of Mississippi) is overlain
by deposits of Jackson age, which overlap the Tallahassee.
Paleogeography-The Tallahassee limestone was deposited
in the open ocean, probably not far from land. The location
of the shore line is not known. It may have been coincident
with that of the Claiborne group of Alabama, or, more likely,
not so far inland. The presence of clay in the formation, to
which may perhaps be attributed its tan color, suggests a
nearby source.
Fauna-The Tallahassee limestone contains small species of
Foraminifera, many of which appear to be undescribed. As
a whole, its fauna bears some resemblance to that of the Cocoa
sand member of the Yazoo clay of Jackson age, but it includes
some species restricted to the Claiborne group.

LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins (1944) report the Tallahassee limestone in the
following wells in Florida:
Calhoun County-Calhoun Oil & Gas Company well, half
a mile northwest of Clarksville, depths 915 to 1000 feet; total
depth of well, 1320 feet.
Gadsden County-City of Quincy municipal well at wat-
erworks on Bainbridge road, depths 910 to 1395 feet; total
depth of well, 1395 feet.
itr
Jackson County-Florida State Hospital well (sec. 31, T.
4 N., R. 6 W.), depths 400 to unknown; total depth of well,
477 feet.
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Millard and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 1100
to 1740 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.
Leon County-Central Florida Oil & Gas Company well 3
miles east of Woodville, depths 990 to 1600 feet; total depth
of well, 3755 feet.
Wakulla County-Bonheur Development Company well




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES


(sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 1200 to 1750 feet; total
depth of well, 2169 feet.

AVON PARK LIMESTONE

GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name Avon Park limestone, from the Avon
Park Bombing Range wells in Polk County, is applied by App-
lin and Applin (1944) to a formation known only from wells
in Florida and southern Georgia.
Characters-The Avon Park is mainly a cream-colored
challky limestone. It includes some gypsum and chert in
northern Florida.
Thickness-The thickness of the Avon Park ranges from
50 feet or less in northeastern Florida, where only the basal
part is present, to 300 feet in the central part of the Penin-
sula and 650 feet in the southern part.
Distribution-All parts of Florida except the northwest-
ern counties are underlain by the Avon Park limestone. It has
not been found at Lake City nor Live Oak, where it seems to
have been eroded away before the deposition of the Ocala
limestone, nor west of Wakulla County, where it may never
have been deposited.
Stratigraphic relations-The Avon Park comprises the up-
per part of a probably conformable sequence that includes
also the Lake City limestone and the Tallahassee limestone-
all the deposits of Claiborne age in the peninsula. Its upper
surface was eroded before the overlying Ocala limestone was
deposited, and the formation was completely removed from
part of northern Florida. There appear to be no equivalent
deposits at the outcrop in Alabama, at least not at Claiborne,
where the time interval represented by the Avon Park is in-
cluded in the hiatus between the Lisbon formation and the
Moodys Branch marl (Gosport sand), the basal formation of
the Jackson group. It may be equivalent to the Cockfield
formation of Louisiana and Mississippi.
Paleogeography-The Avon Park limestone was deposited
in an open ocean that received little sand or clay. The entire




52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Floridian Plateau was probably submerged, but the location
of the shore line is unknown.
Fauna-According to the Applins the Avon Park limestone
carries a distinctive and abundant fauna consisting for the
most part of Foraminifera, of which Coskinolina floridana
Cole is the most abundant and persistent species. Dictyoconus
cookei (Moberg) occurs at the top and at the bottom of the
Avon Park as well as in the Oligocene Suwannee limestone in
northern Florida. The small echinoid Peronella dalli (Twitch-
ell) is locally common in the upper part of the Avon Park.
This species was attributed to the Ocala limestone by Cooke
(1942, p. 26) because the type was supposed to have been
found at Archer, where the Ocala limestone is the country
rock. However, the type may have come from a deep well,
for no other individuals have been found at the surface.

LOCAL DETAILS
The Applins studied samples of the Avon Park limestone
from several hundred wells, too many to list in their paper.
The following records are taken from their two general
profiles:
Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1
Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 880 to
1100 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.
Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No.
1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 170 to
500 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.
Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13
S., R. 20 E.), depths 230 to 360 feet; total depth of well, 4334
feet.
Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No.
1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 1350 to 1810 feet;
total depth of well, 10,006 feet.
Florida East Coast Railway well at Marathon, Key Vaca,
depths 1248 to 1740 feet; total depth of well, 2310 feet.
Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1
Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.),
depths 860 to 910 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES


Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 Hecksher-
Yarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 510 to 800 feet;
total depth of well, 4540 feet.
Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14,
T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 920 to 1200 feet; total depth of
well, 5746 feet.

DEPOSITS OF JACKSON AGE
OCALA LIMESTONE

GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The Ocala limestone was named from the City of
Ocala, Marion County, in the vicinity of which it has for
many years been extensively quarried. The name was first
formally used by Dall (in Dall and Harris, 1892, p. 103),
who identified it as the Oligocene of Heilprin (which Dall
then considered Eocene). Dall supposed that the Ocala over-
lies the "Orbitoides limestone," which he correlated with the
Oligocene Vicksburg group because of a mistaken identifica-
tion of the orbitoids in it with the common Vicksburg for-
aminifer now called Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton).
Later, Dall (1903, p. 1554) proposed the general term "Penin-
sular limestone" to replace the name "Orbitoides limestone"
and suggested that the Peninsular might be younger than the
typical Vicksburg and older than the Ocala. Matson and
Clapp (1909) adopted these names, "Peninsular" and "Oca-
la", and proposed the new name "Marianna limestone" for the
limestone of northwestern Florida containing Lepidocyclina
mantelli. For lack of information they were vague as to the
stratigraphic relationships of these three formations, though
they followed Dall in regarding the Ocala as younger than
the Peninsular. They apparently supposed that the Marianna
and the Peninsular were equivalents, though they placed the
Peninsular above the Marianna in a table of formations (Mat-
son and Clapp, 1909, table facing p. 50). Six years later,
Cooke (1915, p. 117) found that much of the Peninsular
limestone is identical with the Ocala limestone; that the Ocala
underlies the Marianna limestone at Marianna, and that the
fauna of the Ocala is overwhelmingly Jackson (upper Eo-
cene) in its affinities.




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Characters-The Ocala limestone ranges in color from pure
white through cream-color to yellow. Its texture is com-
monly granular, but parts of it have been converted into hard,
compact rock by the deposition of travertine or calcite in its
interspaces. In some places it consists of a loosely coherent
mass of foraminifers, bryozoans, and other small organisms,
a mass so porous that water can percolate freely through it;
elsewhere it is finer grained and more compact, though still
pervious to water.
The free circulation of water through the Ocala limestone
has facilitated the solution of the rock. Funnel-shaped cavi-
ties, most of them filled with clay and sand and some contain-
ing bones, lead downward from the surface and connect with
ramifying underground passages. The solution of the lime-
stone has at many places been accompanied by the deposition
of silica, either as sheets or as irregular masses of chert (flint)
or as pseudomorphous replacements of shells or granules.
Some of these pseudomorphs preserve with great fidelity the
original form and sculpture of the shell. Such replacements
commonly occur only near the surface, though layers of chert
are encountered at considerable depth in some wells.
In chemical composition as in physical character the Ocala
limestone is remarkably uniform. It consists almost entirely
of carbonate of lime and in places contains as little as four-
tenths of one percent of impurities. The lower part of the
formation as exposed only along the Choctawhatchee River
near the Alabama line is sandy and shaly.
Thickness-The thickness of the Ocala limestone is diffi-
cult to determine because the top of the rock is an eroded,
uneven surface, and the bottom has not been certainly identi-
fied. At Claiborne, Alabama, it is little more than 50 feet
thick (Cooke, 1926a, p. 275); at Albany, Georgia, it is said
to be about 300 feet thick (Prettyman and Cave, 1923, p. 79);
in a well at Live Oak, Suwannee County, whose log is re-
ported by Mossom (1926, p. 222), white limestone contain-
ing Ocala fossils extends from a depth of 110 feet to 300 feet,
where it is succeeded by light cream-colored to brown lime-
stone, presumably the Tallahassee limestone; in a well at An-
thony, Marion County (Mossom, 1926, p. 225), the drill
apparently passed out of the Ocala at a depth of 110 feet,




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


where hard blue-gray limestone was encountered. In a well
at Bushnell, Sumter County, Mossom (1926, p. 229) sup-
posed the Ocala to extend to a depth of at least 385 feet, but
Applin and Applin (1944) refer only about 100 feet to the
Ocala limestone, the remainder to the Avon Park limestone.
A well north of Auburndale, Polk County, (Mossom, 1926,
p. 239) entered Ocala limestone at 160 feet; brown limestone
was first encountered in a sample representing the interval
from 448 to 455 feet. Cole (1944, p. 24) assigns a minimum
thickness of 690 feet to the Ocala in the City of Quincy water
well, but the Applins make it only 260 feet, the remainder
being Tallahassee limestone, and Cole (1944, p. 21) found
355 feet of Ocala in the deep well northwest of Hilliard; the
Applins call it 360 feet.
Distribution-The Ocala limestone, which underlies all of
Florida, comes to the surface in two regions. In the peninsula
it extends from Suwannee River at Ellaville, Madison Coun-
ty, southeastward to Lacoochee, Pasco County, and Winter
Garden, Orange County, a length of 165 miles, and from the
Gulf of Mexico between the mouth of Steinhatchee River and
Chassahowitzka Bay eastward to the eastern part of Marion
County, a width of about 60 miles. The limestone is exposed
in many quarries within this tract, though it is commonly
covered by Pleistocene sand or by outliers of the Suwannee
limestone, the Hawthorn formation, or the Alachua forma-
tion. In northwestern Florida the Ocala lies near the surface
in an area extending from Chattahoochee River to the north-
east corner of Walton County, a length of 60 miles, and from
Marianna and Caryville to the Alabama line, a width of 16
miles. In part of this area it is covered by the Flint River for-
mation. This western tract forms part of a much larger re-
gion that includes much of the Flint River basin in Georgia
and the Chattahoochee basin and the valley of Pea River in
Alabama. An exposure of white limestone in a sink at Duncan
Church, Washington County, which was mapped as Ocala
by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 61, pl. 2), because of a mis-
taken identification of orbitoid foraminifers, proves to be
Suwannee limestone.
The regions in which the Ocala limestone lies near the sur-
face are generally of low relief except where the limestone is




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

covered by outliers of the Hawthorn or Alachua formations,
which are more resistant and make hills. Where the Ocala is
covered by the Flint River formation, the surface is generally
flat or rolling. Because of the solubility of the Ocala much of
the unprotected surface has been reduced nearly to the level
of ground water, and because of the permeability of the rock
this level fluctuates with variations in rainfall. Consequently,
a profusion of lakes have come into existence in the main
region underlain by the Ocala, and many of them are so shal-
low that a slight change in the level of the water causes a
great expansion or contraction in the size of the flooded area.
The principal rivers of this region are the Suwannee and the
Withlacoochee. These streams have few tributaries because
most of the rainfall within their drainage basins enters the
ground and emerges as springs on or near the river banks. The
altitude of the exposed surface of the Ocala in peninsular
Florida ranges from sea level at the Gulf Coast to possibly 150
feet above sea level west of Ocala.
Stratigraphic relations.-In Georgia and Alabama the de-
posits of Jackson age lie unconformably on older beds. The
Jackson sea transgressed across the beveled outcrop from the
middle Eocene Lisbon formation in Alabama to the ancient
crystalline rocks of the Piedmont region in Georgia. That old
pre-Ocala land surface apparently extended into Florida, for
the Ocala transgresses across the beveled surface of the Avon
Park, Tallahassee, and Lake City limestones. The top of the
Ocala limestone was also a land surface before any younger
marine deposits were laid down upon it. The oldest outcrop-
ping rocks on the Ocala are the Marianna limestone of middle
Oligocene age. The hiatus at Marianna apparently represents
Red Bluff (early Oligocene) time of Mississippi and probably
some late Eocene beds that were eroded during that interval.
The hiatus was still longer in the peninsula, for at Ellaville,
Madison County, the Marianna also is absent, and the Ocala
apparently is overlain directly by the Byram limestone. Far-
ther south, in Lafayette and Citrus Counties, the Byram is
missing, and the Suwannee limestone, of late Oligocene age,
is in contact with the Ocala. In Alachua and Marion Coun-
ties the Ocala is commonly overlain by the Hawthorn forma-
tion, of Miocene age.
The Ocala limestone extends westward nearly across Ala-




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


bama to Tombigbee River, where it merges into the Yazoo
clay in Clarke and Choctaw Counties (Cooke, 1926, p. 275).
Northward it extends as far as Twiggs and Wilkinson Coun-
ties, Georgia, and it is characteristically developed in wells at
Savannah (Cooke, 1944, p. 68). Its partial equivalent in
South Carolina is the Santee limestone (Cooke, 1936b, p. 40;
1943). The Cooper marl, which overlies the Santee in South
Carolina and the Ocala in Georgia, may be represented by the
upper part of the Ocala in Florida, but definite correlations
have not been established. The Barnwell formation of South
Carolina and Georgia is interpreted as the littoral equivalent
of the Ocala limestone (Cooke, 1944, p. 63).
Paleogeography-The Ocala limestone was laid down in an
open, fairly shallow sea. The shore line (fig. 4) extended
across Alabama in a fairly straight line from Choctaw Coun-
ty to Houston County, then curved northeastward through
Georgia past Macon, to Augusta. Sediments of several kinds
were deposited in the Jackson sea. In Mississippi and western
Alabama clay predominated (Yazoo clay), though the basal
formation, of Jackson age (the Moodys Branch marl), is
sandy. Between Tombigbee River in Alabama and Ocmulgee
River in Georgia and offshore east of that region the sediments
were mainly limestone (Ocala). Near shore east of the Oc-
mulgee calcareous clay, fuller's earth, and sand (Barnwell
formation) were deposited.
Fauna-The most conspicuous elements of the Ocala fauna
are the orbitoid Foraminifera, the Mollusca, and the Echi-
noidea. Some representatives of each of these three retain
their shells intact; others are preserved only as molds.
At some places the Ocala limestone consists almost exclu-
sively of loosely coherent orbitoid Foraminifera. Other zones
are composed chiefly of Operculinoides. Dr. T. Wayland
Vaughan has kindly prepared the following list of the larger
Foraminifera of Georgia and Florida:

LARGER FORAMINIFERA FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE
By T. W. VAUGHAN
Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna
moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna
vanderstoki (M. Rutten and Vermunt)




58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Operculinoides cookei (Cushman)
curasavicus (M. Rutten and Vermunt)
floridensis (Heilprin)
mariannensis (Vaughan)
ocalanus (Cushman)
vaughani (Cushman)
willcoxi (Heilprin)
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) americana (Cushman)
chipolensis Vaughan
georgiana (Cushman)
mariannensis (Cushman)
papillata (Cushman)
vaughani (Cushman)
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan)
flintensis (Cushman)
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana Cushman
mortoni Cushman
ocalana Cushman
attenuata Cushman
cookei Cushman
floridana Cushman
pseudocarinata Cushman
pseudomarginata Cushman
tschoppi Thiadens
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman
semmesi Vaughan and Cole

Only a few corals have been found in the Ocala limestone.
A species of Flabellum, probably the common F. wailesii Con-
rad of the Jackson group, is represented by a few molds and
casts.

More species of echinoids have been found in the Ocala
limestone than in any other formation of the Cenozoic era
in the United States, though some species elsewhere were more
gregarious and hence are represented by more numerous in-
dividuals. The following species have been reported from the
Ocala (Cooke, 1941a, 1942) in Florida, Georgia, or Alabama.
A few of them are pictured in figures 5 and 6.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


--------------------------- --------"p-r rn


-__.__ .. 5.a _
5b _7

FIGURE 5.-Fossils from the Ocala limestone. 1, Amusium ocalanum Dall; 2, Oligopygus
wetherbyi de Loriol; 3, Oligopygus haldemani (Conrad); 4, Fibularia vaughari
(Twitchell), X 2; 5, Laganum floridanum Twitchell; 6, Rumphia archerensis (Twitch-
ell); 7, Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell). After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 3.





60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE


'
.i '




:,
"
r C ;;I~.~

.~~
~

'""
~f


FIGURE 6.-Echinoids from the Ocala limestone. 1, Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus)
mooreanus Pisbry; 2, Eupatagus (Plagiobrissus) curvus Cooke; 3, Eupatagus (Plagio-
brissus) dixie Cooke; 4, Brissopsis steinhatchee Cooke, X 1 2; 5, Eupatagus (Plagio-
brissus) ocalanus Cooke; 6, Peronella cubae Weisbord, X 1 2. After COOKE, 1942.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


ECHINOIDS FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE
Psammechinus? ocalanus Cooke
Phymosoma dixie Cooke
?Phymotaxis mansfieldi Cooke
Fibularia vaughani (Twitchell)
Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol
floridanus Twitchell
Amblypygus americanus Desor
Periarchus lyelli (Conrad)
Laganum floridanum Twitchell
ocalanum Cooke
Peronella crustuloides (Morton)
cubae Weisbord
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell)
S archerensis (Twitchell)
Cassidulus (Cassidulus) Irojanus Cooke
(Paralampas) conradi (Conrad)
lyelli (Conrad)
Eurhodia patelliformis (Bouve)
Schizaster armiger Clark
beckeri Cooke
(Linthia) ocalanus Cooke
Agassizia floridana de Loriol
Brissopsis steinhatchee Cooke
Macropneustes mortoni (Conrad)
Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus) mooreanus Pilsbry
(Plagiobrissus) dixie Cooke
gardnerae Cooke
carolinensis Clark
curvus Cooke
ocalanus Cooke
(Brissopatagus) georgianus Cooke
alabamensis Cooke

Bryozoa are very abundant at certain localities but are less
widely distributed in Florida than in Georgia and Alabama.
More than 80 species of cheilostomatous Bryozoa have been
listed from the Ocala limestone at Ocala, Alachua, and Mari-
anna (Canu and Bassler, 1920).

Mollusks are preserved chiefly as molds or occasionally as
beautifully reproduced siliceous pseudomorphs. The shell
substance of the scallops and oysters is commonly retained.
Amusium ocalanum Dall (fig. 5, no. 1) is a characteristic




62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

species, and ribbed scallops such as Pecten suwanneensis Dall
and a variable lot commonly identified as P. "perplanus" Mor-
ton are not rare. (The true P. perplanus Morton is a synonym
of P. poulsoni Morton.) Ostrea podagrina Dall has been found
at several places.
The most significant vertebrate known from the Ocala
limestone is the great marine mammal Basilosaurus cetoides
(Owen), fragments of one individual of which were found
near Ocala in 1913 (Cooke, 1915, p. 113; Kellogg, 1936, p.
19). This species is much more common in Alabama and
Mississippi than in Florida, for it seems to have usually stayed
near shore and seldom swam far out to sea. Its presence so far
from land may be an indication that the water on the Floridian
Plateau was shallow and yielded the creature's customary food,
or perhaps the carcass floated out to sea.
Utilization-The Ocala limestone has been extensively
quarried at many places. Because of its uniform texture it is
easier to excavate and crush than the Suwannee limestone,
which tends to be lumpy. Its freedom from grit and its chem-
ical purity make it suitable for any use demanding those qual-
ities, such as the manufacture of cement, and it is much used
for the making of lime. The Ocala is the best road-building
rock available in quantity in the State. It is somewhat softer
than the ideal rock for that purpose, but it binds well and
makes a fairly durable road when surfaced with a suitable
material. Some of the harder parts of the limestone are used
for railroad ballast, and there is a very slight local demand for
it as a building stone. The quantity available is limited only
by the depth to the water table, which is greatest in the up-
lands because of the permeability of the rock.

LOCAL DETAILS
.Alachua County-Most of the exposures of the Ocala
limestone in Alachua County are in the southwestern half.
The limestone is covered by the Hawthorn formation in the
northeastern part and by residual sand and clay referred to
the Alachua formation in the southwest corner. There are
exposures along Santa Fe River near High Springs, in sink
holes and road cuts near Alachua and Gainesville, and in many
phosphate pits in the vicinity of Newberry and Archer. The




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


limestone is quarried at a number of places for road metal
or to make lime.
A pit of the Cummer Lumber Company 1 /4 miles south-
east of Newberry shows 20 feet of soft creamy yellow Ocala
limestone containing many foraminifers and casts of mol-
lusks. The Gainesville Lime-Rock Company quarries the
Ocala to a maximum depth of 21 feet. Ten feet of soft, friable
pure limestone is visible in the pit of the Arrendondo Lime
Company 5 /2 miles southwest of Gainesville. There are also
pits near Wilcox, Fanning Springs, and Archer.
At Alachua Sink, 3 /2 miles southeast of Gainesville, 14 feet
of Ocala limestone is overlain unconformably by about 23
feet of Hawthorn formation. The following species have
been collected there:
Foraminifera (identified by T. W. VAUGHAN):
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin)
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) flintensis (Cushman)
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman
Bryozoa (identified by R. S. BASSLER):
Schizopodrella viminea (Lonsdale)
Membraniporidra spissimuralis Canu and Bassler
Stamenocella inferavicularia Canu and Bassler
Mollusca (identified by C. W. COOKE):
Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad
Pecten suwanneensis Dall?
indecisus Dall?
"perplanus" Dall
Annelida:
Tubulostium n. sp.
Echinoidea (identified by C. W. COOKE):
Peronella cubae Weisbord
Citrus County-The Ocala limestone is covered by the
Suwannee limestone in the southeastern part of Citrus Coun-
ty and by the Alachua formation and Pleistocene sand in a
belt west of Tsala Apopka Lake. A wave-cut terrace on which
some beach sand remains borders the Gulf Coast and abuts
against a steep cliff in which the Ocala limestone is exposed
in the lower part and the Suwannee limestone in the upper
part. The Crystal River Rock Company works these lime-
stones to a depth of 121 feet below the top of the cliff in secs.




64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

1 and 6, T. 19 S., Rs. 17 and 18 E., 5 miles southeast of Crystal
River. Mansfield (1939a) estimates that the contact of the
Suwannee on the Ocala stands as much as 70 feet above the
floor of the quarry at some places. The Ocala in this quarry
has yielded the following species of echinoids:
Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol
Laganum ocalanum Cooke
Peronella cubae Weisbord
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell)
Schizaster armiger Clark
(Linthia) ocalanus Cooke
Agassizia floridana de Loriol
The Ocala is exposed also in several quarries and old phos-
phate pits in the eastern part of the county between Istachatta
and Holder, particularly in the neighborhood of Inverness.
There are also many patches of the rock in and around Tsala
Apopka Lake.
A drainage ditch on Florida Highway 15, 5.2 miles north-
west of Crystal River, cuts into hard white Ocala limestone
containing Periarchus lyelli (Conrad). The springs forming
the heads of Crystal River, Homosassa River, and Chassahow-
itzka River rise through Ocala or Avon Park limestone.
About 33 feet of white Ocala limestone, most of it soft and
powdery, is exposed in the Miley rock pit in sec. 36, T. 20 S.,
R. 18 E. A harder zone near the top contains Ostrea poda-
grina Dall, Pccten alpha Dall?, Peronella cubae Weisbord?,
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell), and other fossils. The Ocala
there is overlain by about 18 feet of white limestone, presum-
ably Suwannee though it resembles the Byram at Ellaville,
containing Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) and Cassidulus
gouldii (Bouve).
At Red Level, north of Crystal River, there is a pit about
25 feet deep in cream-colored soft, powdery magnesian lime-
stone analyzing about 36 to 39 percent MgCO3. The rock
is probably an altered faces of the Ocala limestone.
Dixie County-A large borrow pit in the Ocala limestone
at Steinhatchee River north of U. S. Highway 19 has yielded
the following species of echinoids:




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OCALA LIMESTONE


Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol
Peronella cubae Weisbord
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell)
Cassidulus trojanus Cooke
(Paralampas) carolinensis Twitchell
Schizaster armiger Clark
Agassizia floridana de Loriol
Two miles below Highway 19 Steinhatchee River falls over
a ledge of dolomitic limestone, apparently altered Ocala, con-
taining molds of small nummulitic foraminifers and Pecten
"perplanus".
A canal near the mouth of Steinhatchee River near Jena
cuts into the Ocala limestone. There are many other shallow
excavations in the Ocala within Dixie County. The surface
of the Ocala in a quarry near Highway 19, 6.2 miles west of
Suwannee River near Oldtown, is closely pitted with large
solution chimneys. Amusium ocalanum Dall and orbitoid
foraminifers were noted there in the Ocala, which is overlain
by 3 or 4 feet of sand.
Gilchrist County-Ocala limestone probably lies not far
below the surface everywhere in Gilchrist County except in
the eastern part, where it is overlain by the phosphate-bearing
Alachua formation. Pleistocene sand probably covers the
rock in the eastern part. No details are available.
Holmes County-Although the Ocala limestone lies not
far below the surface everywhere in Holmes County, except
the southwestern quarter, exposures of the rock are not num-
erous, much of it being covered by the Flint River formation.
Vernon (1942), who has made a detailed study of the county,
maps the Ocala along Choctawhatchee River and Pittman
Creek in the north-central part and along Wrights Creek and
Ten Mile Creek. He also indicates a patch along Choctaw-
hatchee River about one mile above the Washington County
line.
The basal part of the Ocala limestone as exposed along the
Choctawhatchee from Geneva, Alabama, to the middle of
sec. 34, T. 6 N., R. 16 W., 1 /2 miles below the State line, dif-
fers from the typical faces in that it consists of dirty-gray,
pepper-and-salt, sandy marl containing glauconite and mica




66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

and many molds of small bivalve mollusks. In Alabama the
marl forms steep banks 10 feet high, but in Florida it is finer,
softer, and more shaly and extended only 4 feet above the
river level when visited in June 1921.
Yellow limestone containing large curved orbitoid fora-
minifers crop out below water level in Blue Spring, which
rises west of the Choctawhatchee, probably in sec. 12, T. 5 N.,
R. 17 W. This rock resembles the Suwannee limestone but is
suspected to be Ocala because of its geographic location.
Ocala limestone containing bryozoans, a large thick orbit-
oid foraminifer, Lyria? sp., and other fossils extends to a
height of 4 feet above a mill stream (Little Gum Creek?) in
the NW/4 SE/4 sec. 26, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. Chert of the Ocala
was noted also in the woods in the E of section 26. Dr. Rob-
ert 0. Vernon kindly guided the writer to both of these ex-
posures. Vernon (1942, pp. 53-54) refers this limestone to
the lower part of the Marianna because of the foraminifers
and ostracodes that it contains but states that F. Stearns Mac-
Neil found Amusium ocalanum, a sure indicator of the Ocala,
in it. Both formations may be represented there.
Typical Ocala limestone containing Asterocyclina sp. and
many specimens of Amusium ocalanum was seen in 1921 at a
turpentine landing on the east side of Choctawhatchee River
about a mile above the mouth of Wrights Creek. Similar rock
was struck in excavations for a bridge at Caryville.

Jackson County-Exposures of the Ocala limestone are
fairly common in the north half of Jackson County except
at the eastern and western ends, where the Ocala is covered
by an overlap of the Flint River formation. The best-known
exposures are at and near the highway bridge at Marianna,
where the Ocala rises about 10 feet above water level in
Chipola River and is overlain by the Marianna limestone.
(See section, p. 80.) The rock there is a granular mass of
loosely cemented organic remains, including many foramini-
fers and bryozoans. It appears to represent the same zone as
that exposed along Flint River at Bainbridge, Georgia (Cooke,
1915, p. 110; 1917, pp. 111-112; 1944, p. 72). Canu and
Bassler (1920, pp. 20-33) list 56 species of Bryozoa from the




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OCALA LIMESTONE


Ocala at Marianna, and T. W. Vaughan has identified the fol-
lowing species of larger Foraminifera:
Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman)
mariannensis (Vaughan)
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) americana (Cushman)?
georgiana (Cushman)
mariannensis (Cushman)
papillata (Cushman)
vaughani (Cushman) ?
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan)
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana Cushman
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman

The Florida Caverns, about 3 miles north of Marianna, are
in the Ocala limestone. The large echinoid Macropneustes
mortoni (Conrad) occurs there. This is the only known oc-
currence of the species in Florida, though it is common in the
Ocala in Georgia and Alabama (Cooke, 1942, p. 51).

Blue Springs, 6 miles east-northeast of Marianna, probably
rises from the Ocala limestone, though the Ocala is riot known
to be exposed there. The rock at the surface is the Marianna
limestone. The spring issues from a cavern 10 or 15 feet be-
low the water level.
A quarry east of U. S. Highway 231 in the E, sec. 13,
T. 6 N., R. 12 W., about 2 miles south-southeast of Campbell-
ton, exposes Ocala limestone containing Amusium ocalanum,
Oligopygus sp. (probably 0. haldemani), and other fossils.
It is overlain by somewhat harder limestone containing many
large thick Lepidocyclina sp., Pecten poulsoni, and Clypeaster
sp. (probably C. rogersi), presumably an unmapped outlier
of the lower part of the Marianna limestone. The contact is
a sharp nearly horizontal line, probably marking a discon-
formity.

Ocala limestone containing foraminifers, bryozoans, and
Amusium o'calanum was noted in 1921 near the sink of Car-
ters Mill Creek in sec. 20, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., about 3 /2 miles
north-northwest of Marianna. About 27 feet of hard white
limestone with softer patches was exposed, but some of it may
not be Ocala.




68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Lafayette County-The western part of Lafayette County
is covered by the Suwannee limestone, but elsewhere the
Ocala lies near the surface. The best natural exposures of the
Ocala are in the banks of Suwannee River, which forms the
eastern boundary of the county. Twelve feet of limestone is
visible at Troy Spring (fig. 7), 10 feet at Fort McComb, 6
feet at Dowling Park, and about the same amount at many
other places along the river. Much of the rock on the river
is case-hardened and weathered into tubular cavities. It con-
tains several species of orbitoid Foraminifera, including Lepi-
docyclina ocalana, L. pseudomarginata, and L. floridana; Os-
trea podagrina, Pecten suwanneensis, Rumphia eldridgei, and
many other fossils.
A large road-metal quarry north of Florida Highway 5A,
5.2 miles northwest of Mayo, shows white and buff-colored
friable porous limestone. This pit has yielded foraminifers
and bryozoans as well as the following mollusks and echinoids:
Ostrea podagrina Dall
Pecten suwanneensis Dall
sp.
Pinna quadrata Dall?
Tubtlostium n. sp.
Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell)
Cassidulus trojanus Cooke
Schizaster armiger Clark
Eupatagus dixie Cooke
ocalanus Cooke

The Taylor County rock pit in Lafayette County 4.8 miles
northwest of Mayo on Florida Highway 5A uses Ocala lime-
stone. Lumps of silicified Suwannee limestone are nearby.
Lake County-Most of the lakes in Lake County were
probably formed by solution of the Ocala limestone, which
in most places is covered by deep sand referred to the Pliocene
Citronelle formation.
Levy County-The Ocala limestone underlies all of Levy
County except, possibly, a strip bordering the coast and ex-
tending into the Gulf Hammock, where hard sandstone con-
taining Chione cancellata and, therefore, of Pleistocene or




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


Pliocene age, conceals the bedrock. The Ocala is generally
covered by Pleistocene sand except in the eastern part, where
it is overlain by the Alachua formation.
As Levy County occupies the central part of the Ocala Up-
lift, which extends westward beneath the Gulf of Mexico,
and as it is topographically lower than the counties adjoining
it on the east, the outcrops of the Ocala limestone presumably
are lower stratigraphically than those in the neighboring re-
gions. The occurrence near Inglis of Periarchus lyelli, a very
abundant echinoid in the basal Jackson Moodys Branch marl
in Alabama and Mississippi and in the Tivola tongue of the
Ocala limestone in Georgia suggests that the bed containing
it lies not far above the base of the Ocala.
















FIGURE 7.-Troy Spring, Lafayette County, Suwannee River in the background.
After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 52.

Soft cream-colored granular Ocala limestone underlies the
bog-iron ore on the old Studsill place about 3 miles northwest
of Levyville. It is exposed in natural wells. Yellowish or
cream-colored limestone containing Lepidocyclina ocalana
floridana, a few bryozoans, and indeterminable mollusks, rises
6 feet above water level in Manatee Spring, which bursts up
from a deep hole in the Ocala limestone near Suwannee River.




70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Ocala limestone is exposed in Willow Sink and several other
sinks in the SE4 sec. 34, T. 11 S., R 14 E., 1 / or 2 miles west
of Chiefland. It is white or cream-colored and contains sev-
eral varieties of Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Peronella
crustuloides (Morton), and Pecten sp. The rock rises about
13 feet above water level and extends at least 20 feet below.
The rock exposed at Wekiva Spring, 12 miles south of Bron-
son, is cream-colored or yellowish compact to granular lime-
stone composed chiefly of small foraminifers. It rises 3 or 4
feet above water and extends 23 feet below water in the spring.
A sample taken about 4 feet below water level does not differ
materially from that above it.
Many pits for road metal have been opened in Levy Coun-
ty. The pit of the Florida Shell Rock Company, 2 miles north
of Williston, shows 38 feet of pure soft limestone that seems
somewhat more compact and less friable than that found else-
where in the formation. A pit near the mouth of Withlacoo-
chee River between Inglis and Yankeetown is about 5 feet
deep. It has yielded the echinoids Periarchus lyelli (Conrad),
Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry, and Agassizia floridana de
Loriol.
Madison County-Exposures of the Ocala limestone in
Madison County are confined to the banks of Suwannee River
and are visible only at low water. The Ocala there is overlain
by a thin bed of limestone that is supposed to be of Byram
(middle Oligocene) age. The Byram is overlain bythe Su-
wannee limestone.
Marion County-Marion County is the type area of the
Ocala limestone, which takes its name from the county seat.
The limestone lies near the surface throughout a large part of
the county but is covered by deep sand of the Citronelle for-
mation in the eastern part, by the residual sand and hard-rock
phosphate of the Alachua formation in the western part, and
by outliers of the Hawthorn formation in the central part.
The Ocala limestone in Marion County is soft, pure, creamy
white, granular, and porous. Most of it is so soft that it can
be crumbled in the hand, but harder masses are found in all
pits. The surface of the rock is deeply pitted with solution
channels and clay-filled holes, some as much as 25 feet deep.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE


The rock is extensively utilized in the manufacture of lime
or as road metal. These industries center in Ocala, the site of
the oldest lime pits in the State.
There are many lime pits in Marion County (see fig. 10),
and they present little variation. The pits are deeper than
those in other parts of the State, because the top of the rock
is higher and the water table lies farther below the surface.
Near Ocala the top of the limestone stands generally around
110 feet above sea level, and the water table between 40 and
50 feet above sea level (Stringfield, 1936, p. 151). Therefore,
pits as deep as 60 or 70 feet may remain dry.
















FIGURE 8.-Rainbow Spring, northeast of Dunnellon. After COOKE, 1939, fig. 44.

Silver Springs, near Ocala, Blue or Rainbow Spring, north-
east of Dunnellon, and Juniper Spring, in the eastern part of
the county, issue from caverns in the Ocala limestone (see
figs. 8, 9).
Sumter County-The southern part of Sumter County is
underlain by the Suwannee limestone. Elsewhere the Ocala
limestone lies near the surface. A well at Oxford entered it at
35 feet (Matson, in Matson and Sanford, 1913, p. 405), and
it crops out between Webster and Oxford. As much of the
county is low and flat, with the level of ground water not far




72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE


i- ** r 49'


,,--,.* "V. y

flu'fi- -^#-

FI 9.Juniper Spring in eastern Marion County. After C E, 199, g. 47.
FIGURE 9.-Juniper Spring in eastern Marion County. After COOKE, 1939, fig. 47.


FIGURE 10.--Ocala limestone in quarry of The Ocala Lime Rock Corporation
near Kendrick. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 12.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 73

below the surface, conditions for quarrying the rock are less
favorable than in Marion County.
Taylor County-The Ocala limestone lies near the surface
in the southeastern end of Taylor County. Elsewhere it is
covered by the Suwannee limestone.
White limestone dug from the bottom of a pit west of
Florida Highway'19, 23.3 miles southeast of Perry and 6.1
miles northwest of the bridge over Steinhatchee River, con-
tains many nummulitic foraminifers, Pecten sp., Peronella
cubae Weisbord, and Schizaster (Linthia) ocalanus Cooke.
The rock above it is hard brown crystalline dolomite, which
may be either altered Ocala or Suwannee limestone. Granu-
lar limestone, probably dolomitic, in a shallow pit east of the
highway one mile from the river seems to be Ocala.







GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TERTIARY SYSTEM


OLIGOCENE SERIES

GENERAL FEATURES
The Oligocene series, as interpreted by the United States
Geological Survey, is divided into three parts (Cooke, 1943).
The lowest, which includes the Red Bluff clay and the Forest
Hill sand of Mississippi, is not known to be represented in
Florida. The Marianna limestone and the overlying Byram
limestone together comprise the middle part to which the
name Vicksburg group is now restricted (MacNeil, 1944,
p. 1316). The Suwannee limestone and its littoral equivalent,
the Flint River formation, are of late Oligocene age. For some
years the Tampa limestone and the Alum Bluff group, now
classified as Miocene, were included in the Oligocene. It was
then customary to call the Tampa and the Alum Bluff "up-
per Oligocene;" what is now classified as upper Oligocene
was called "middle Oligocene;" and the present middle and
lower parts were called "lower Oligocene."
There is usually little doubt as to the location of the bound-
ary between the Eocene and the Oligocene where the rocks of
both series contain identifiable fossils, for there is a sharp
faunal break between them. The boundary between the Oli-
gocene and the Miocene is less well defined and is more arbi-
trary, and its determination has varied with different inter-
pretations of the location of the boundary in Germany and
Belgium, where the Oligocene is typically developed (Cooke,
1939b). The selection of the contact between the Suwannee
limestone and the Tampa limestone as the boundary between
the Oligocene and the Miocene is well considered, for the
contact marks a conspicuous change in the lithologic charac-
ter of the rocks and appears to be an unconformity; how-
ever, the faunal difference between the two adjacent forma-
tions is less pronounced than one would like.

DEPOSITS OF VICKSBURG AGE
MARIANNA LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 51-52) gave the
name Marianna limestone to ". white limestones of west-




76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

ern Florida, which are characterized by an abundance of
Orbitoides [Lepidocyclina] mantelli... and Pecten poulsoni."
The local details given by Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 54-
59) included not only the chimney rock at Marianna, which
may be regarded as typical, but also the Suwannee limestone
near Chipley and elsewhere and the Byram limestone at Mari-
anna and Natural Bridge. Neither of these two formations
had then been named. As restricted by Cooke (1915, 1918,
1923, 1926a), Mossom (1926, pp. 180-181), and by Cooke
and Mossom (1929, pp. 63-66), the name Marianna was in-
tended to apply only to the stratigraphic unit of which the
chimney rock is representative, although some beds since re-
cognized as Byram limestone were included. Cooke (1918,
p. 195) proposed the Glendon limestone as a member of the
Marianna, but it has since been transferred to the Byram
(Cooke, 1943, p. 1714). True Glendon is not known in Flor-
ida, unless the Byram at Ellaville represents this member.
Characters-The most distinctive part of the Marianna is
soft white homogeneous chalky limestone, which can be easily
sawed into building blocks. (See fig. 11.) Because of its ex-
tensive use in building chimneys this limestone is popularly
called chimney rock. According to Mossom (1925, p. 72)
the Marianna limestone contains 93 to 95 percent of calcium
carbonate (CaCOs). The lower ledges of the Marianna are
less pure and are speckled with small grains and patches of
green glauconite. Many exposures of the formation show
several ledges of hard, compact limestone, which stand out
conspicuously from the softer layers between them. Fresh ex-
posures of the chimney rock have a creamy white tint, which
bleaches to chalky white on drying and weathers to dirty gray.
Thickness and distribution-The total thickness of the
Marianna limestone at Marianna is about 30 feet, but in west-
ern Alabama it is as much as 80 feet. The formation has not
been recognized east of Chattahoochee and Apalachicola
Rivers, either in Georgia or in Florida, but it extends west-
ward with remarkable uniformity across Alabama into Mis-
sissippi, where it becomes more variable. As it is overlapped
by younger formations everywhere east of Alabama River,
exposures are confined to river valleys or other suitable low-
lands. Outcrops in Florida are known only in Jackson and




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARIANNA LIMESTONE


Holmes Counties, where the Marianna is overlapped by the
Flint River formation.
Stratigraphic relations-In Mississippi and western Ala-
bama the Marianna limestone is separated from the Eocene
formations by the lower Oligocene Red Bluff clay, but in
Florida it lies directly on the Eocene Ocala limestone. Cooke
(1923, p. 2) supposed that the Marianna is conformable with
the Ocala and that the lower part of the Marianna is the
stratigraphic equivalent of the Red Bluff clay. However, it
now seems probable that the Marianna overlaps the lower
Oligocene deposits somewhere in Alabama and lies uncon-
formably on the Ocala in Florida.


FIGURE 11.-Marianna limestone. Building-block quarry of Richard Harts-
field, NWY4 sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., about 5 miles northeast of Marianna.
After VERNON, 1943, fig. 17.

The Marianna is overlain by the Byram limestone. The
contact at Marianna is a sharp line.
Paleogedgraphy-The Marianna limestone was deposited
in the Gulf of Mexico, which was expanded northward and
contracted eastward, for the Floridian Plateau was probably




78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

above water then. The shore line (fig. 4) seems to have ex-
tended west-northwestward from Jackson County across
Alabama and southward into the present Gulf, probably lying
along the western side of the Floridian Plateau.
Fauna-Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton), Pecten poul-
soni Morton, and Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) are the only
commonly identified fossils in the Marianna limestone. All
three were described in 1834 from limestone in the vicinity
of Claiborne, Alabama, then supposed to be of Cretaceous
age, but now included in the Marianna limestone. All are
common in the Marianna throughout its extent. In Alabama,
Bryozoa are locally abundant, and 82 species are listed by
Canu and Bassler (1920, pp. 34-38) from a single lot col-
lected by the writer one mile north of Monroeville, Alabama.
From nine localities in Jackson County, Cole and Ponton
(1930) record 56 species and varieties of Foraminifera. Of
these Lepidocyclina mantelli, L. mantelli papillata, Eponides
mariannensis, and Operculinella dia are the only species that
they supposed to be restricted to the Marianna. It is doubtful,
however, that even these are so restricted, for the most fossil-
iferous bed at Marianna, from which, presumably, most of
Cole and Ponton's collections were derived, is here regarded as
Byram limestone.
One teleost fish of the snapper family, Lutianus avus Greg-
ory (1930), has been found in the Marianna limestone at
Marianna. It is unknown elsewhere.
Utilization-The Marianna limestone is much used locally
as a building stone. From Mississippi to Florida farm houses
within easy hauling distance of outcrops of the Marianna have
chimneys built of blocks sawed from the massive beds of
Marianna limestone. The chimney rock is used to some ex-
tent for walls, but it is too soft and porous to give complete
satisfaction.
LOCAL DETAILS
Holmes County-Vernon (1942) maps the Marianna lime-
stone in two areas in Holmes County, one extending from the
Choctawhatchee River 4 miles northwest of Westville north-
westward to the Walton County line, the other east of Wrights
Creek for 2 miles above Little Gum Creek. The thickest ex-




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARIANNA LIMESTONE


posure found by Vernon (1942, p. 54) is in a small sink in
the NW' /SE4 sec. 3, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., where he reports
9.8 feet of cream-colored to light-gray massive sandy lime-
stone containing Lepidocyclina mantelli and other Foramini-
fera overlain by 15.9 feet of thin-bedded similar limestone
resembling the Byram formation of Alabama. As authentic
exposures of Marianna limestone contain little or no quartz
sand, it is possible that none of this rock is Marianna.
The westernmost exposure reported by Vernon (1942, p.
55) is in a small sink on the N. C. Spears farm in the NE '
NW 4 SE 4 sec. 26, T. 5 N., R. 18 W., a mile east of the Wal-
ton County line and half a mile southeast of Leonia. He re-
ports Operculinella dia, Lepidocyclina mantelli?, and other
.-Foraminifera from this place. Operculinella dia may indicate
that the rock is Byram rather than Marianna.
Vernon (1942, p. 53) reports 4 feet of cream-colored por-
ous sandy limestone on Little Gum Creek one-quarter of a
mile west of the Hathaway mill in the NW SE sec. 26,
T. 5 N., R. 16 W. He lists Foraminifera and Ostracoda "rep-
resentative of the lower Marianna" limestone. The occur-
rence of the Ocala limestone here or nearby is shown by the
presence of Amusium ocalanum reported by MacNeil (Ver-
non, 1942, p. 53, footnote). Inasmuch as neither the Ocala
nor the Marianna is commonly sandy, and as a good many of
the species listed occur in the Byram, it seems quite possible
that the bed described by Vernon is neither Ocala nor Mari-
anna, but Byram.
Jackson County-The type locality of the Marianna lime-
stone may be regarded as the exposures west of the Chipola
River at Marianna. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 57) men-
tion a chimney-rock quarry in this vicinity, and there is one
near the road leading to the old bridge. Exposures on this
road and a cut on U. S. Highway 90 near the new bridge, a
short distance upstream from the old bridge, are character-
istic. However, the top of the limestone at both places is
probably Byram. In the cut on Highway 90 the contact of
the Marianna and the Byram is a somewhat uneven line 17
feet above the bottom of the ditch and about 3 feet below
the top of the cut. The following generalized section is based
on sections published by Cooke (1915, p. 109; 1917, pp. 109-




80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

110) and by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 60) and on addi-
tional notes made in 1939.

SECTION ON CHIPOLA RIVER AT MARIANNA
FEET
3. Byram limestone (Oligocene): finely granular crystalline lime-
stone like that exposed along Chipola River south of Marianna.
Pecten aff. P. poulsoni and impressions resembling Lepidocyclina
supera. Exposed in the cut on Highway 90. About 3
2. Marianna limestone (Oligocene): Massive, homogeneous white
chalky limestone containing Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pecten
poulsoni. Lower part is glauconitic. About 30
Unconformity.
1. Ocala limestone (Eocene): Soft granular white limestone with
hard ledges in upper part. Composed chiefly of calcareous organ-
isms locally cemented, including Flabellum sp., Terebratulina
lachryma?, Amusium ocalanum, Plicatula sp., and the larger Foram-
inifera listed on page 67. Lepidocyclina fragilis at the top. To
water level, About 14
The Marianna limestone is quarried on the west bank of
Chipola River at the Louisville & Nashville Railroad bridge
below Marianna. Thirty-one feet of soft white chimney rock
is exposed there.
Chimney rock is quarried at several pits east of the river
near Marianna. According to Mossom (1925, p. 147) 20 feet
of soft white chalky limestone containing 97.6 percent of
calcium carbonate is exposed in M. R. Burton's pit 2 /2 miles
northeast of Marianna, and 15 feet of somewhat less pure
limestone in Philip Sexton's pit 13/4 miles northeast of Mari-
anna.
On Penn Street in Marianna 35 feet of chimney rock is
exposed in the SE/4 sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., above the
Ocala limestone. The Marianna crops out at several places
along the Springfield road in sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., and
its contact with the Ocala limestone was found in the SW /4
sec. 20.
On the land of M. A. Spate a mile and a half north of Cot-
tondale, the soft chalky Marianna limestone is covered by a
foot or less of soil. Eight feet of the limestone, which con-
tains 93.9 percent of calcium carbonate (Mossom, 1925, p.




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OLIGOCENE SERIES


149), is exposed in a small quarry. Mossom (1925, p. 149)
reports a small.exposure of Marianna limestone on the floor
of Rabbs Valley, 3 V2 miles southeast of Cottondale. An anal-
ysis of a sample from the property of G. H. Cartledge shows
97.8 percent calcium carbonate.
The Marianna limestone has been extensively quarried on
the north bank of Blue Spring Creek, 4 miles east of Mari-
anna, for use as building blocks. About 30 feet of rock is
exposed, but only the lower part is quarried. The upper part
contains hard ledges that are not suitable for sawing. Pos-
sibly part of this exposure represents the Byram limestone.

BYRAM LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The Byram marl, named from Byram, Mississippi,
was first described by Cooke (1918, p. 196; 1922; 1923, p. 3;
1926a, pp. 287-294; 1935, p. 1164). The first recognition
of the Byram in Florida was by Cooke and Mossom (.1929,
pp. 74-76). The name Byram limestone is here preferred
for the formation in Florida because it seems more appropriate.
As originally defined, the Byram included only those de-
posits of Vicksburg age that are younger than those now
identified as the Glendon limestone member of the Byram.
The Glendon at that time was treated as a member of the
Marianna limestone. Later Cooke (1923, p. 3) raised the
Glendon to the rank of formation on the mistaken assump-
tion that the chert-bearing beds now called Flint River for-
mation (Cooke, 1935b, p. 1170) are equivalent to the Glen-
don and formed part of it. The typical Glendon has since
been reduced again to the rank of a member and placed in the
Byram (Cooke, 1943, p. 1714), to which it appears to have
a closer faunal relationship than to the Marianna limestone.
Mossom in 1925 (pp. 73-77) used the name "Glendon
formation" to include the Suwannee limestone and the Flint
River formation of present usage. Later, Mossom (1926,
pp. 181-182) restricted it to the occurrence of those forma-
tions in northwestern Florida and referred his (1925) so-
called Glendon of the peninsula to the Tampa formation.
This usage was followed by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp.




82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

67-93), but they also referred to the Glendon 7'2 feet of
limestone below the so-called Tampa (Suwannee limestone)
on the Suwannee River at Ellaville. That rock may really be
equivalent to the typical Glendon limestone member of the
Byram, though its fauna is more profuse; it is not here dif-
ferentiated from the Byram limestone.
Characters-The Byram in Florida consists chiefly of lime-
stone but includes some clayey beds. Much of the limestone
is sandy. The color is commonly yellow or cream. Most of
the rock is rather soft, or porous, but some ledges are hardened
by deposition of calcium carbonate in the interspaces. On
weathered surfaces, particularly along Chipola River, much
of the lime has been leached out, leaving a soft, porous sand-
stone. The Byram on Suwaninee River is very hard and
weathers into tubular cavities, like the Glendon limestone
member in Alabama.
Distribution-The Byram is typically developed in Missis-
sippi. It occurs also in Louisiana. There are many exposures of
it in southern Alabama. The line of outcrop enters Florida near
Natural Bridge, Walton County, east of which it is over-
lapped by the Flint River formation. The limestone in Holmes
County mapped as Marianna may be Byram. In Jackson
County there are exposures along Chipola River, but none
have been found along the Chattahoochee, where it appears
to be completely overlapped. The Byram reappears along
Suwannee River at and below the mouth of the Withlacoo-
chee. It is unknown in Georgia. ,
Thickness-At Natural Bridge the Byram is probably more
than 40 feet thick. No single exposures as thick as that have
been found along the Chipola. On the Suwannee it is prob-
ably not more than 10 feet thick.
Stratigraphic relations-The Byram directly overlies the
Marianna limestone and appears to be conformable with it.
It is overlain unconformably by the Suwannee limestone or
by the Flint River formation, both of which overlap it.
Paleogeography-The Byram appears to be essentially a
littoral formation, although some of it contains little plastic
sediment. The shore line apparently passed near Vicksburg
and Jackson, Mississippi, and crossed the Florida line east of




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BYRAM LIMESTONE


Florala, Alabama. Its course east of Marianna has not been
determined. The shore line evidently lay somewhere north of
the junction of Withlacoochee River with the Suwannee.
Fauna-The Byram in Mississippi. contains many fossils.
Cushman (1922) describes 68 species and varieties of Fora-
minifera from Byram, and Cooke (1922) lists 5 corals, 134
mollusks, and 2 echinoids from several places within the State.
The fauna may have been just as rich in Florida, but few
fossils have been preserved. The most characteristic species
are Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad) and Anadara lesueuri
(Dall). A thin-margined variety of Clypeaster rogersi (Mor-
ton) is locally common along Suwannee River. Cassidulus
alabamensis Twitchell occurs at Natural Bridge and Ellaville.

LOCAL DETAILS
Holmes County-Although no Byram is mapped in Holmes
County, the limestone there referred to the Marianna may
be Byram. This possibility is suggested in the description of
the Marianna limestone in Holmes County.
Jackson County-The upper 3 feet of limestone in the cut
on Highway 90 near Chipola River at Marianna contains
impressions of a foraminifer resembling Lepidocyclina supera
and a Pecten related to P. poulsoni. The rock is tentatively
referred to the Byram limestone.
The following section was measured in 1914 on the second
hill west of Chipola River along the street in Marianna lead-
ing to the old bridge. The Lepidocyclina is probably L. supera.
A collection (U.S.G.S. 7243) was made from beds 3-6, but
it has been mislaid. Beds 1 and 2 of the section may represent
the top of the Marianna limestone, from which the Byram
had not been distinguished when the section was measured.

SECTION AT EASTERN EDGE OF MARIANNA
FEET
Flint River (?) formation (Oligocene?)
7. Red and orange sand containing a few small pebbles near the
bottom and sparingly throughout; near top are numerous
rounded concretions of ferruginous sandstone. To level of
plain on which city is built 40
Unconformity.




84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

Byram limestone (Oligocene):
6. Yellow compact limestone with hackly fracture 3
5. Brownish-gray calcareous clay containing fragments of lig-
nitized wood 4- 2
4. Slightly harder ledge of brownish-gray argillaceous lime-
stone containing Lepidocyclina sp. and Pecten poulsoni? 1
3. Brownish-gray calcareous clay containing small Lepido-
cyclina 3
2. Hard, compact light-gray or cream-colored limestone con-
taining Lepidocyclina and Pecten, a hardened faces of bed 1 1
1. Soft, compact light-gray limestone containing Lepido-
cyclina ----- 1/2
Yellow granular limestone containing impressions of a
small Lepidocyclina, probably L. super, Pecten sp., and other
fossils crop out at the abutment of the bridge over Dry Creek
in sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 10 W., about 7 miles south of Marianna.

MacNeil (1944, p. 1331) describes the following section
on a new road leading from Marianna to the Marianna Cav-
erns State Park:

SECTION 0.4 MILE NORTH OF CHIPOLA RIVER
FEET INCHES
Byram formation, Glendon limestone member:
9. Light bluish gray to brown bentonitic clay, largely
weathered, possibly in part a concretion from weather-
ing of bentonitic limestone or dolomite, filling caverns
and solution holes in underlying dolomite, an undulat-
ing line of weathering forming the base 2+
8. Buff, moderately tough dolomite with prints of fossils 7-
7. Buff, tough dolomite 1 6
6. Buff to gray clayey dolomite 10
5. White, hard limestone ledge where unweathered in cen-
ter of cut, passing successively through zone of partly
dolomitized limestone and zone of unaltered limestone
pellets to buff dolomite at ends of road cut 10
4. Buff, tough dolomite with prints of Pecten and Lepido-
cyclina (lens of soft, unaltered cream-colored lime-
stone, with shells preserved, on under side of unaltered
part of zone above) 5 6
Marianna limestone:
3. Cream-colored, very hard limestone ledge 1 6
2. White, tough limestone with harder concretionary zones 5
1. White, soft, homogeneous limestone 6+




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--BYRAM LIMESTONE


MacNeil suggests that the bentonitic clay at the top of the
section probably corresponds to high-grade bentonite in the
Glendon limestone member in Smith County, Mississippi.
Lafayette County-A thin bed of cream-colored limestone,
apparently the Byram, lies between the Ocala and the Suwan-
nee limestones in the northern part of Lafayette County.
Exposures have been noted at the old bridge near Luraville,
where the rock, which contains species of Lepidocyclina,
Turritella, and other fossils, emerges 2 feet above water level
at a stage of 5 feet.
Madison County-Suwannee River, which forms the south-
eastern boundary of Madison County below Ellaville, flows
in a gorge cut through the Suwannee limestone into the Byram
limestone.
Suwannee County-The best-known exposure of the By-
ram limestone is that along Suwannee River below the mouth
of the Withlacoochee, where a thin bed of limestone inter-
venes between the Suwannee limestone and the Ocala lime-
stone. This bed passes below water level a short distance above
the bridge of the Seaboard Railway and is frequently under
water at the mouth of the Withlacoochee. Its extension
downstream is probably not as continuous as it has been
mapped, and its limits are conjectural. Because of the ero-
sional unconformity at its top, which separates it from the
Suwannee limestone, and the erosional unconformity that
must separate it from the underlying Ocala limestone if it is
really Byram, the bed probably varies considerably in thick-
ness. The following section was measured in 1913 at the Sea-
board Railway bridge, which is easily reached from U. S.
Highway 90.

SECTION ON EAST BANK OF SUWANNEE RIVER OPPOSITE ELLAVILLE
FEET
Wicomico (?) formation (Pleistocene):
5. Upper part concealed; lower part is argillaceous yellow sand
containing small pebbles; the top is level with rail at bridge 16/2
Unconformity.
Suwannee limestone (Oligocene):
4. Hard cream-colored to yellow limestone resembling bed 3
but very massive and without bedding planes; Cassidulus
gouldii (Bouvr) very abundant 10 '




86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

3. Hard, compact chalky-white to pink crystalline limestone;
lower 2 feet appears to be brecciated; upper part is thin-
bedded --------------- 4
Unconformity.
Byram limestone (Oligocene):
2. Soft white marly limestone, indurated in places; contains a
few bryozoans and many fragments of Clypeaster rogersi
(Morton)- -- 2
1. White or creamy yellow compact limestone loaded with
molds of mollusks (U.S.G.S. 6824); honeycombed by solu-
tion; extends to water level 5$ 2
Bed 1 contains Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad), Clypeaster
rogersi (Morton), Cassidulus alabamensis Twitchell, Olivella
afluens Casey, Mitra conquisita Conrad, and many other fos-
sils, which are preserved only as hollow molds. All of the
species listed occur elsewhere in the Byram, and some of them
are restricted to it.
Although the presence of the Ocala limestone is not indi-
cated in the section near Ellaville it is believed to be exposed
below the Byram at very low stages of the river, and it crops
out above water level farther downstream.

DEPOSITS OF LATE OLIGOCENE AGE
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
GENERAL FEATURES
Name-The name "Suwannee limestone" was .proposed
by Cooke and Mansfield (1936a, p. 71) for yellowish
limestone typically exposed along Suwannee River in Florida
from Ellaville almost to White Springs. The rock to which
it was applied had previously been called by various names.
Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 73) referred it to the Hawthorn
formation. Mossom (1925, pp. 73-77; 1926, pp. 181-182)
placed it in the Glendon formation, by which name the equiv-
alent beds in Georgia, now called the Flint River formation,
were then known. Later, Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 89-
91) transferred it to the Tampa limestone because they recog-
nized its equivalence with limestone in Hernando County
then supposed to be Tampa (Mossom, 1925, p. 79). Further
study has verified both of these correlations, but the beds in
Georgia are now known to be younger than the typical Glen-




GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE


don, and the limestone in Hernando County is now known
to be older than the Tampa.
Characters-In the typical area the Suwannee limestone is
commonly hard and resonant. Small solution holes filled
with green clay, probably residual from the limestone, are
abundant. Where the Suwannee is unaltered, it consists of a
soft granular mass of limy particles, many of them of organic
origin. The color is commonly yellow or cream, locally with
a pinkish tinge. At many surface exposures all the lime has
been leached from it, leaving a porous or massive flint, which
is recognizable as Suwannee by the presence of molds of the
common Suwannee echinoid, Cassidulus gouldii.
In Hernando County the Suwannee is very variable in hard-
ness. It contains patches of hard and soft rock that are irregu-
larly distributed and apparently show no relation to bedding
planes. This variability is especially annoying to quarrymen,
for it causes much waste of rock, their machinery not being
generally adapted to use both hard and soft material.
Chemical analyses (Mossom, 1925) show that the Suwan-
nee limestone contains about 91 to 98 percent calcium car-
bonate (CaCO3) and that the chief impurity is silica (SiO2).
A small amount of iron may account for the color of the rock.
The Suwannee is almost as pure as the Ocala. It is much less
siliceous than the Tampa, which contains a large portion of
very fine sand.
Thickness-Near Live Oak the Suwannee limestone is about .
1QO feet thick. At Falling Water, 4 miles south of Chipley,
a thickness of 65 feet is exposed in the cylindrical sink, which
may not reach the bottom of the formation.
Distribution-The largest area of outcrop of the Suwannee
limestone includes nearly all of Taylor County and parts of
all but one of the adjoining counties. This area expands from
the Gulf of Mexico across the State line into Georgia, where
it is restricted to the valley of the Withlacoochee. Another
large area includes most of Hernando County and parts of
all the adjoining counties. The formation also underlies parts
of Jackson, Washington, and Holmes Counties. Here the
Suwannee limestone is believed to merge northward into the
Flint River formation, and the two are not separated on the




88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE

geologic map. Outcrops of the limestone faces are confined
to a strip along the southern border of this area.
Stratigraphic relations-The Suwannee limestone lies un-
conformably on the Byram limestone or, where that is absent,
on the Ocala. It is overlain unconformably by the Tampa
limestone or by the Hawthorn formation (fig. 12). The
contact with the Byram is exposed along Suwannee River near
Ellaville; that with the Tampa on Blackwater Creek in Hills-
borough County, though it is normally under water.
The Suwannee limestone appears to be the offshore equiva-
lent of the Flint River formation, with which it probably
merges in northwestern Florida and in Georgia. Its equiva-
lent in western Alabama and in Mississippi is the Chickasawhay
limestone. These three formations represent the deposits of a
transgressing sea, which extended northward and northeast-
ward far beyond the limits of the Byram and Marianna.


FIGURE 12.-Unconformable contact of the Suwannee limestone (white) below
the Hawthorn formation (dark) in the left bank of Suwannee River about half
a mile above the old bridge on the road from White Springs to Lake City. Photo-
graph by Herman Gunter.. After MANSFIELD, 1937b, pl. C, fig. 1.




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120 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae: Floridachoerus olseni White Camelidae: Oxydactylus floridanus Simpson Paratylopus grandis White Hypertragulidae: Hypermekops olseni White Floridatragulus dolichanterius White Protoceratidae: Syndyoceras australis White Cervidae: Machaeromeryx gilchristensis White Parablastomeryx floridanus White Perissodactyla: Rhinoceratidae (to H. E. Wood, II, for study). Equidae: Anchitherium clarencei Simpson Miohippus sp. Parahippus blackbergi (Hay) barberi White leonensis Sellards Merychippus gunteri Simpson westoni Simpson Charadriiformes (shore birds, gulls, and auks): Rhegminornithidae: Rhegminornis calobates Wetmore According to White (1942, p. 27), The Artiodactyla present a decided lower Miocene aspect. Two of the genera are restricted to deposits of that age on the Plains. Two genera of one family (Hypertragulidae) seem to be peculiar to the deposit in north Florida. Among the Carnivora are two genera which did not persist on the Plains beyond the upper John Day-lower Rosebud age. There is one species in each of two other genera which are very closely related to plains species in the same genera of the late middle and upper Miocene. The Equidae are all progressive, and their only relatives are found in the late middle and upper Miocene of the Plains ...The forms in this fauna closely related to the upper Miocene forms of the Plains developed on the island [northcentral Florida] and were unable to escape to the mainland till after the early middle Miocene. In view of the strong probability that the Thomas farm was on a peninsula rather than an island during Tampa time, some other explanation of the apparent discrepancy should be sought.



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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES UN t BWBWI&S



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-LAKE FLIRT MARL 311 Volusia County-In 1928, J. W. Gidley orally described before the National Academy of Sciences (April 24) and the Geological Society of Washington (May 9) the occurrence of human remains in association with the Melbourne fauna at a place about 6 miles southwest of New Smyrna. The conditions near New Smyrna were said to be very similar to those at Melbourne and Vero Beach except that there is no welldefined stream channel. The bone bed is overlain unconformably by a thin cover of peaty material, a bog deposit. The surface of the bone bed is indurated and is pitted with shallow depressions. The bone bed lies on the Anastasia formation. Wakulla County-Part of the shore line of the Pamlico sea is traceable on the Arran quadrangle from a point 1 2 miles west of Panacea north-northeastward for several miles beyond St. James Church. As usual, it lies between the 20and the 30-foot contour lines. This stretch of the coast was exposed to the force of the waves, which cut a low scarp. Elsewhere within the Arran quadrangle the shore was low and crooked. Walton County-The shore of the Pamlico mainland occupied almost its present location in Walton County, but the entrance to Choctawhatchee Bay extended eastward to sec. 35, T. 2 S., R. 20 W. (Villa Tasso quadrangle). Shallow water extended inland 2 to 4 miles north of the present shore of the bay. A conspicuous sea cliff 30 feet high was developed 1 mile inland from Hammock Point, in secs. 23 and 24, T. 1 S., R. 20 W. The water level stood between the 20and the 30-foot contour lines. LAKE FLIRT MARL GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Lake Flirt marl was named by Sellards (1919b, p. 73) from Lake Flirt, a shallow expansion of Caloosahatchee River east of La Belle. The lake has been drained by the Caloosahatchee Canal. Characters and thickness-The Lake Flirt marl consists of gray calcareous mud containing shells of fresh-water snails. Its thickness ranges from a few inches to 2 or 3 feet. Distribution-Marl of this kind is widely distributed over



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274 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE ern half of Santa Rosa Counties 2 or 3 miles south of the Alabama boundary. East of longitude 87" it probably followed a fairly direct eastward course through the intervening counties to the northern part of Gadsden County. Thence, it probably swung northeastward through Georgia. There was an island in Polk County including the site of Lake Wales, and probably others north of it. The present extent of the Brandywine formation within the limits outlined has not been determined. The region once covered by the Brandywine sea has been greatly eroded, much of the original deposits have been removed, and the boundaries of the remnants are very intricate. Fauna-No search for fossils has been made in the littleknown Brandywine formation of Florida, and none have been reported, though shells are plentiful in the supposedly equivalent basal member of the Fort Thompson. Their absence may be attributable to unfavorable conditions for their accumulation or preservation. It is quite possible that the Brandywine may have originally contained a moderate number of shells, which have since been dissolved by rain water percolating, unimpeded by overlying deposits, through the porous sands. Utilization-Some of the deposits of sand and gravel in the Brandywine may be of value. LOCAL DETAILS Escambia County-Topographic maps of the Century and Dyas quadrangles have been published by the United States Geological Survey since the field work for this report was completed. They show remnants of the Brandywine terrace ranging in altitude from approximately 270 feet above sea level to 230 or 220 feet, where there is a relatively steep descent to the Coharie level (shore line 215 feet). It may be assumed that these areas are underlain by the Brandywine formation, though they have not been examined. The northern limit of the largest areas appear to be near Davis School and Bratt, on the Century quadrangle 2/2 miles south of the Alabama line. They extend southward to the vicinity of Enon (within the Dyas quadrangle), sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 33 W., and three-



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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE hind the keys. The head of Florida Bay is dotted with them, and they fringe the mainland from Biscayne Bay as far west as Cape Romano. Most of the Ten Thousand Islands consist of mangrove swamps, though some of them are partly submerged sand dunes. Mangroves grow in sheltered tidal waters as far north as New Smyrna on the east and Cedar Keys on the west. Their northern limit is determined by climate, for they cannot endure much freezing weather. MARINE TERRACES Some mention has already been made of the Pleistocene marine terrace plains, of which there are at least seven. These record oscillations of sea level and are therefore best defined by reference to the present altitude of the shore line corresponding to each terrace. This is possible because the shore lines, so far as they have been traced, give no evidence of deformation but remain approximately horizontal. The altitude assigned to each shore line was determined by the study of innumerable topographic maps of the Southeastern States. As the contour interval of most of the maps is 10 feet, the figure chosen may vary a little from the actual altitude, which is the high-tide mark on the land. This, itself, is not a level line but varies slightly in altitude according to the configuration of the coast and because of other factors. It is, however, much more constant than spot elevations on the terrace itself, which vary inversely as the depth of the water on it when it was part of the sea bottom. The error in the determination of the altitudes of the lower shore lines is probably not greater than 5 feet. That of the shore lines above 100 feet may be somewhat greater, for the higher lines are less well preserved and are shown on fewer maps. The present list was revised in 1931 (Cooke, 1931) and has been repeatedly checked since then as new maps have become available. The altitudes of the shore lines of the seven well-established terraces are as follows: Brandywine terrace -------270 feet Coharie terrace --------215 feet Sunderland terrace -------170 feet



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200 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE amounts of phosphate. After long exposure it becomes pinkish or purplish or, in some places, reddish or yellow. At the bottom of the formation are large residual lumps of silicified limestone containing molds of Cassidulus gouldii, which shows that they were derived from the Suwannee limestone. The lower part also locally contains phosphate rock, which commonly occurs as plates or large boulderlike masses. Phosphate has also impregnated or replaced the top of the underlying Ocala limestone. The phosphate deposits are obviously of secondary origin. Originally they occurred as grains disseminated throughout the Hawthorn formation, from which they were dissolved by downward-percolating rain water. "When the solution reached the underlying limestone or water saturated with lime, the phosphate was reprecipitated. This process doubtless began as soon as the Hawthorn formation emerged from the sea, at the end of middle Miocene time, and has continued intermittently ever since, though it was interrupted during the Pleistocene epoch by repeated incursions of the sea. The Alachua is unique among geologic formations in Florida in that most of it was not deposited in water, either salt, or brackish, or fresh. The bulk of the Alachua is merely the collapsed and compacted residue of the Hawthorn formation in situ together with accumulations in sinkholes and ponds. These latter accumulations contain the bones of Pliocene animals. Thickness--According to Sellards (1913, pp. 30, 31) the Alachua formation reaches a thickness of 75 to 100 feet in Citrus County, though it is commonly thinner. Distribution-The main area of the Alachua formation extends from the northern part of Gilchrist County into Hernando County. This area is cut into two sections by Withlacoochee River, which cuts through the Alachua deposits into the Ocala limestone. There are outlying patches in the southwestern part of Lafayette County and the western part of Hamilton County as well as smaller patches in Alachua and Marion Counties. Stratigraphic relations-The contact with the Ocala limestone, which underlies the Alachua formation at most places,



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142 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1 3 5 COOKE and MOSSOM, 1929, pl. 12. CootiE and MoSSOM, 1929, pl. 12.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TALBOT FORMATION 295 about 20 feet above the Talbot shore within a quarter of a mile in the SE'4 sec. 34, T. 1 S., R. 17 W. Elsewhere in that vicinity the land bordering the Talbot sea was even lower. Duval County-A broad lagoon containing water about 20 feet deep occupied much of the central part of Duval County during Talbot time. It was separated from the open ocean by bars, on which rose a chain of long, narrow barrier islands as much as 20 feet high in places. Tisonia (St. Marys quadrangle) stands at the north end of one of these bars, along which runs the Seaboard Railway almost to Cedar Creek. Barrier islands, which appear to have been heaped up by the waves and winds during Talbot time, extend from Mitchell Bluff and Fulton, on St. Johns River below Jacksonville (Jacksonville quadrangle), to sec. 36, T. 3 S., R. 27 E. (Orange Park quadrangle). The shore and beach on the mainland sloped rather uniformly from the bottom of the lagoon to the Wicomico terrace, so that there is little indication on the maps of the presence along it of either the Penholoway or the Talbot terrace, both of which are narrow. Flagler County-Bars, possibly bearing low, narrow barrier islands, lay off the coast of the Talbot sea in Flagler County. Except for these little islands, the entire county was probably submerged. The lagoon behind the islands was later occupied by a Pamlico estuary. Gilchrist County-An estuary now partly occupied by Suwannee River extended along the western side of Gilchrist County during Talbot time. Leon County-The Tallahassee quadrangle contains areas of Talbot terrace 6 to 9 miles south of Tallahassee. They have been somewhat modified by solution of the underlying Tampa limestone. Marion County-An estuary probably extended along Oklawaha River through Marion County almost to the Lake County line during Talbot time. Nassau County-The shore of the mainland during Talbot time lay a mile and a half east of Hilliard and a mile and a half west of Callahan, but the water offshore was shallow (probably not deeper than 20 feet) for a distance of 10 to



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60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 2 A' X1 i 4 5 FIGURE 6.-Echinoids from the Ocala limestone. 1, Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus) mooreanus Pisbry; 2, Eupatagus (Plagiobrissus) curvus Cooke; 3, Eupatagus (Plagiobrissus) dixie Cooke; 4, Brissopsis steinhatchee Cooke, X 1 2; 5, Eupatagus (Plagiobrissus) ocalanus Cooke; 6, Peronella cubae Weisbord, X 1 2. After COOKE, 1942. _mu 6--Ecinods rom he cal limstoe. Euataus Gymnpatg). mooranu Pibry;2, upaagus(Plgiorisss) urvs Coke;3, upatgus(Plgio



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARINE TERRACES 13 Wicomico terrace------100 feet Penholoway terrace -------70 feet Talbot terrace ---------42 feet Pamlico terrace --------25 feet These seven marine terraces and the geologic formations corresponding to them are discussed more fully in the chapter on the Pleistocene series.



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56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE covered by outliers of the Hawthorn or Alachua formations, which are more resistant and make hills. Where the Ocala is covered by the Flint River formation, the surface is generally flat or rolling. Because of the solubility of the Ocala much of the unprotected surface has been reduced nearly to the level of ground water, and because of the permeability of the rock this level fluctuates with variations in rainfall. Consequently, a profusion of lakes have come into existence in the main region underlain by the Ocala, and many of them are so shallow that a slight change in the level of the water causes a great expansion or contraction in the size of the flooded area. The principal rivers of this region are the Suwannee and the "Withlacoochee. These streams have few tributaries because most of the rainfall within their drainage basins enters the ground and emerges as springs on or near the river banks. The altitude of the exposed surface of the Ocala in peninsular Florida ranges from sea level at the Gulf Coast to possibly 150 feet above sea level west of Ocala. Stratigraphic relations.-In Georgia and Alabama the deposits of Jackson age lie unconformably on older beds. The Jackson sea transgressed across the beveled outcrop from the middle Eocene Lisbon formation in Alabama to the ancient crystalline rocks of the Piedmont region in Georgia. That old pre-Ocala land surface apparently extended into Florida, for the Ocala transgresses across the beveled surface of the Avon Park, Tallahassee, and Lake City limestones. The top of the Ocala limestone was also a land surface before any younger marine deposits were laid down upon it. The oldest outcropping rocks on the Ocala are the Marianna limestone of middle Oligocene age. The hiatus at Marianna apparently represents Red Bluff (early Oligocene) time of Mississippi and probably some late Eocene beds that were eroded during that interval. The hiatus was still longer in the peninsula, for at Ellaville, Madison County, the Marianna also is absent, and the Ocala apparently is overlain directly by the Byram limestone. Farther south, in Lafayette and Citrus Counties, the Byram is missing, and the Suwannee limestone, of late Oligocene age, is in contact with the Ocala. In Alachua and Marion Counties the Ocala is commonly overlain by the Hawthorn formation, of Miocene age. The Ocala limestone extends westward nearly across Ala-



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202 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Utilization-The Alachua formation contains the valuable hard-rock phosphate deposits, which, after 50 years exploitation, still retain a billion and a half tons of ore in reserve (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, p. 48). LOCAL DETAILS Alachua County-The western part of Alachua County is composed of the Alachua formation, which lies on the very uneven, deeply pitted surface of the Ocala limestone. Old, abandoned phosphate pits at Clark Station show pinnacles of Ocala limestone laid bare by the removal of the ore from around them. The 40-foot-deep pit of the Cummer Lumber Company's phosphate plant number 6, 1 4 miles south of Newberry, shows peaks and ridges of Ocala limestone projecting 15 feet above the general level of the floor. The ore-bearing rock is slightly coherent white sand with white argillaceous matrix containing massive lumps of hard-rock phosphate. This passes upward into orange sand, above which, at the top of the pit, are 2 feet of light-colored sand. Plant number 10, 1 mile north of Newberry, is similar but contains lumps of silicified Suwannee limestone. Citrus County-The sandy ridge west of Lake Tsala Apopka is underlain by the Alachua formation. In pit number 1 of the Southern Phosphate Development Company, 1'/4 miles west-southwest of Inverness, the irregular top of the Ocala limestone is overlain by white sand containing the phosphate ore disseminated throughout, usually as large lumps associated with blocks of fossiliferous chert. The chert lumps may occur anywhere within the sand, some of them are at a considerable height above the limestone. Above the ore bed and sharply separated from it is yellow sand of variable thickness. Pit number 3 of the same company is much deeper than pit 1. It is dredged to a depth of 40 feet below water level. Gilchrist County-The western part of Gilchrist County is believed to lie within the hard-rock phosphate area, but no details of the Alachua formation are available. Hamilton County-Part of Hamilton County west of Alapaha River contains phosphatic beds presumably residual



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214 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Pliocene beds exposed along Caloosahatchee River in the vicinity of La Belle, Hendry County, were first made known through the publication of the results of Angelo Heilprin's (1887) Explorations on the West Coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee Wilderness, made early in 1886. Heilprin collected from the shell marl many extinct species of mollusks that are not found in any Miocene deposit, but that are associated with a greater number of living species than have been found in the Miocene. For this reason he assigned them to the Pliocene epoch. To designate deposits of Pliocene age in Florida, wherever they might occur, he coined the name "Floridian," to be coordinate in rank with his "Marylandian," "Virginian," and "Carolinian," group names applied to the Miocene deposits of the Atlantic States. Soon after Heilprin's report was published and again five years later, Dall (1887; 1892, pp. 140-149) described the same formation under the name "Caloosahatchie beds." Matson and Clapp (1909) accepted the term "Caloosahatchee marl" for the Pliocene deposits in the vicinity of Caloosahatchee River, but applied the name "Nashua marl" to Pliocene beds that they had discovered in the valley of the St. Johns; Mansfield (1918) showed that nearly all of the identifiable species in a large collection of mollusks from the Nashua occur also in the Caloosahatchee, though, as was to be expected, its fauna is intermediate beitween that of the typical Caloosahatchee and that of the contemporaneous Waccamaw formation of the Carolinas. Because these differences are so slight, Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 152) included the Nashua in the Caloosahatchee marl. Cooke and Mossom also included in the Caloosahatchee a more calcareous, harder facies in Monroe and Collier Counties now called the Tamiami formation. Characters-The Caloosahatchee marl consists predominantly of sand and shells. At many places the shells are so abundant as to make up a large part of the deposit, though elsewhere there are few or none. A larger proportion of the shells are preserved unbroken than in most shell marls-an



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126 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE water level in Sixmile Creek at Orient (fig. 17), a suburb east of Tampa, where it is overlain by shell marl heretofore referred to the Pleistocene but probably of Caloosahatchee age (Pliocene). Mansfield (1937b, p. 20) lists 56 species of mollusks, all but five of which occur elsewhere in the Tampa limestone near Tampa. The species new to the Tampa area are Humboldtiana? tuckerae Mansfield, Urosalpinx? hillsboroensis Mansfield, Chlamys crocus (Cooke), Chlamys burnetti Tucker, and Cardium gadsdenense Mansfield. Several of the mollusks listed are land snails. FIGURE 17.-Tampa limestone on Sixmile Creek one-fourth mile below the railroad bridge at Orient, Hillsborough County. After MATSON and CLAPP, 1909, pl. 4, fig. 2. Silicified Tampa limestone is cut by a shallow ditch in sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 17 E., on the road from Tampa to Safety Harbor (State Highway 17) 3 miles northwest of its junction with Columbus Drive. Cream-colored limestone loaded with molds of mollusks rises 6 feet above water level on Sweetwater Creek in sec. 1, T. 29 S., R. 17 E. In most places it is covered by 2 or 3 feet of dirty gray sand, probably Pamlico (Pleistocene). Tampa limestone is uncovered for a distance of one-tenth



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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE consists of rolling hills carved out of the Citronelle and the underlying clayey sand and fuller's earth of the Hawthorn formation, which also weather red. This is a fertile farming region. Marianna Lowlands-A roughly quadrilateral area in Jackson, Holmes, and Washington Counties adjoining Alabama and Georgia is underlain chiefly by limestone, which, being soluble and consequently easily degraded, accounts for the low, generally flat or rolling topography. The Ocala limestone underlies the entire region and crops out in several areas, the largest north of Marianna, where many springs contribute clear, cool water to Chipola River. Although the Marianna limestone occupies a smaller area, it is an important source of building stone. The largest part of the Marianna Lowlands is occupied by the Flint River formation and its offshore equivalent, the Suwannee limestone. The Tampa limestone forms a narrow band around the southern margin of the area. Western Highlands-The Western Highlands extend from Apalachicola River westward to the Perdido, which forms the western boundary between Florida and Alabama. In the eastern part of this area they are confined between wide strips of Marianna Lowlands on the north and Coastal Lowlands on the south. Farther west, however, they extend from the Alabama line almost to the Gulf, from which they are separated by a narrow strip of lowlands. The Western Highlands consist of a plateau sloping gently southward. It is underlain for the most part by the Citronelle formation and high-level Pleistocene terrace deposits. The plateau is crossed by several large streams, which flow in deep flat-bottomed valleys. It is trenched by many small streams, which head in steepwalled narrow gorges. Some parts of the region are hilly or rolling. Coastal Lowlands-The Coastal Lowlands border the entire coast of Florida. They are widest in the south, where they cover all of the State south of Lake Childs. They are narrow from Choctawhatchee Bay westward, where they are only 10 or 12 miles wide at Pensacola. They are narrow also in Citrus and Hernando Counties. The Coastal Lowlands lie nearly everywhere less than 100 feet above sea level.



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184 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE -a ,1. 8 7 FIGURE 22.-Fossils from the Duplin ?narl. 1, Ptychosalpinx laqueata (Conrad) ; 2, Cancellaria propevenusta Mansfield; 3, Dorsanum? plicatilum (Base) ; 4, Peristernia filicata (Conrad); 5, Solenosteira vaughani Dall; 6, Eupleura miocenica Dall; 7, Ecphora quadricosta umbilicata Wagner; 8, Polinices coensis Dall; 9, Tegula exoleta (Conrad). After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 16.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 171 donta waltonensis Mansfield, and Callocardia rubisiniana Mansfield. Utilization-So far as known, the Shoal River formation has no commercial value except as the source of specimens of fossil shells for museums or for sale as curios. The shell marls, if spread on the barren sands of the uplands, might improve the fertility of the soil. LOCAL DETAILS Bay County-Vernon (1942, p. 78) somewhat doubtfully refers to the Chipola formation exposures along the headwaters of Econfina Creek in the northern-most township of Bay County. He reports 10 feet of greenish-gray micaceous, fossiliferous sandy marl with carbonized wood fragments and leaves at the base approximately one mile below Scotts Bridge, in the SEV4 sec. 21, T. 2 N., R. 12 W. About three-quarters of a mile farther down stream, in the NE /4 sec. 28, he found the following species of mollusks in 6 feet of greenish-blue argillaceous fine sand. The stratigraphic range of each is given in parentheses. Cardium taphrium Dall (Shoal River formation) Chione burnsii Dall (Chipola formation) Corbula funiakensis Gardner (Shoal River formation) Diplodonta glos Gardner (Chipola formation) Leda proteracuta dystakta Gardner? (Chipola formation) Nucula chipolana Dall (Chipola and Shoal River formations) Phacoides calhounensis Dall (Chipola and Shoal River formations) Turritella gatunensis blountensis Mansfield (Shoal River formation) Yoldia frater Dall (Chipola and Shoal River formations) The number of Chipola and Shoal River species is equally divided in this list, but, if more significance is attached to the presence of more-recent species than to the survival of the old, the evidence is stronger for a Shoal River age. Holmes County-Only the southeastern corner of Holmes County is underlain by the Shoal River formation. The millrace at Flournoy's old mill (later Summerville's) cuts into 5 feet of blue-gray compact sandy marl that has a thin shell bed at its bottom. The oldest collection from this place now in the United States National Museum (U.S.G.S. 2238) was



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332 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Hillsborough County, forma316, 44, 47, 50, 66, 79, 83, 95 tions in --34, 42, 47, 125 108, 128, 233 208, 222, 290, 305 Jackson Spring -----127 Hillsborough River ----127 Jacksonville limestone -183, 192 Hinson Crossroads ---135 Jacksonville quadrangle --295 Hog Creek ------172 Jacksonville, well at ---47 Holder -------64 Jamieson ------151 Holland -------189 Jay quadrangle -----276 Holley quadrangle --285, 296 Jefferson County, formations Hollywood ------312 in -26, 28, 29, 36, 48, 50 Holmes, Walter W. --309 52, 95, 128, 153 Holmes County, formations in 65 Jena --------65 78, 83, 94, 108, 127, 171 Joes Creek ----224, 309 Holmes Creek ---135, 166 Johnson, L. C. ---111, 172 Holt quadrangle ---280, 285 Johnson, S. D., farm of --192 Homosassa River ---64 Jupiter Light ----270, 271 Horse Creek-----173 Jupiter Island -----269 Horseshoe Lake -----310 Juniper Spring ----71, 72 Hosford quadrangle ---278 Hosford's mill ----192 K Houston -------277 Howell, -Charles, property of -173 Keaton Beach -----101 Howey -------234 Kellogg, Remington, quoted -207 Hudson ------98, 130 Kendrick------129 Hudson farm -----94 Key Largo ---262, 264, 265 Hymeson place ----151 Key Largo limestone ---262 Keystone Heights ----232 I Key Vaca ------262 Key West oolite----256 Immokalee ------212 Kings Ferry-----229 Indian Key Channel --263 Kirkwood formation ---109 Indian River City ----267 Kissengen Spring ----160 Indian River County, formaKissimmee ------224 tions in ----269, 305 Knox Still Landing ---188 Indian Rocks --131, 132, 308 KromeRoad ------239 Inglis --------70 Kynesville ------95 Ingraham Highway ---261 Interglacial stages, names of -245 L Interlachen ------236 Interlachen quadrangle -285, 296 LaBelle --214, 215, 222, 249 310 Lacoochee -----55, 98 Inverness -----64, 202 Lafayette County, formations Istachatta ------64 in --68, 85, 96, 203, 290 Lafayette formation ---230 J Lake City limestone --45, 46 Lake City, well at ---41, 47 Jackson age, deposits of -53 Lake Clarence -----234 Jackson -Bluff --155, 156, 188 Lake County Clay Co. ---234 Jackson County, formations in 26 Lake County, formations in -26



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-STRATIGRAPHY 15 except the Ocala limestone of Jackson age, which crops out over a wide area, and the Avon Park limestone, which has recently been found in Levy and Citrus Counties. Exposures of the older formations of the Oligocene seriesthe Marianna limestone and the Byram limestone-are confined to the northern part of the State, but the late Oligocene Suwannee limestone is known as far south as Hillsborough County, though a contemporaneous littoral facies, the Flint River formation, occurs in Florida only in Jackson and Holmes Counties. The lower, middle, and upper divisions of the Miocene are well represented in Florida by the Tampa limestone, the Alum Bluff group (which includes the Chipola and the Shoal River formations in western Florida and their equivalent, the Hawthorn formation, in the Peninsula), and the Duplin marl. All crop out at many places, though there are no exposures south of latitude 27. The Pliocene deposits of Florida are divided into seven formations, all of which appear to be contemporaneous, representing merely local lithologic facies. Six are marine or partly estuarine, the other, a mixture of residual material from older formations, contains a distinctive fauna of land animals. Pliocene formations lie close to the surface in nearly all parts of Florida. .The immediate surface at most places in the State is underlain by Pleistocene deposits, of which two principal kinds are recognized. The most widely distributed is a series of seven littoral, sublittoral, and estuarine sandy formations corresponding to seven different stages of sea level. These are distinguishable primarily by their topographic relations, those underlying the higher terraces being older than the lower ones. The other kind, which underlies the east coast and the southern part of the State, is divisible into three contemporaneous marine formations probably of Sangamon interglacial age, all containing marine shells but differing in facies-one, a coquina; merging into another, an oolite; the third a coralreef limestone. Another Pleistocene deposit, the Fort Thompson formation, includes an alternation of marine shell beds and fresh-water marls and limestones. It appears to record



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44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE line probably crossed the present Chattahoochee River somewhere between Fort Gaines, Georgia,'and Eufaula, Alabama, extended across Alabama in a fairly straight line and entered Mississippi in the northern part of Lauderdale County. This line paralleled and lay not many miles south of the shore line of the Paleocene sea. Fauna-The most conspicuous fossils of the Salt Mountain limestone at the outcrop in Alabama are two orbitoid Foraminifera, Pseudophragmina cookei (Vaughan) and Discocyclina blanpiedi Vaughan. These species have not been found elsewhere in outcropping formations, but they occur at several different horizons in the Oldsmar limestone (E. R. Applin, oral communication). Toulmin (1941) recognizes 97 species of smaller Foraminifera in the Salt Mountain, and he (1940b) has described from it two new species of Brachiopoda, Thecidellina cooperi and Argyrotheca saltmountainensis. It also contains Cidaris splendens Morton and fragments of other unidentifiable echinoids. Blanpied (1938) reports that some cores of the Salt Mountain limestone contain Ostrea thirsae Gabb. LOCAL DETAILS Jackson County-Cole (1938) assigns limestone between the depths of 1406 and 1600 feet in the Granberry well (SW4 NE4 sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.) to the Salt Mountain limestone. It contains fragments of an orbitoid suggestive of Pseudophragmina cookei (Vaughan). Nassau County-Limestone between the depths of 1785 and 1910 feet in the St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company well is classified as Salt Mountain by Cole (1944, p. 27) because of its lithologic characters and the presence of Pseudophragmina cookei and Discocyclina blanpiedi. It contains also Pseudophragmina cedarkeysensis Cole. This interval falls within the Oldsmar limestone as identified by Applin and Applio (1944). DEPOSITS OF CLAIBORNE AGE GENERAL FEATURES In Alabama the Claiborne group is divided into two forma-



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298 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE. -----------------------------"-----I ---------------------------PAMLIC0 >00 1 4 FIGURE 47.-Shore line of the Pamlico sea in the Southeastern States. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 16.



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282 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE as 70 to more than 100 feet, and stated that it is composed of sand with local deposits of clay. Characters and thickness-The principal component of the Wicomico formation is sand. As exposed on the weathered surface it has for the most part a dirty, drab color. Where less weathered it has a yellowish or reddish tinge. The thickness is variable, being greatest near shore. The thickness probably does not exceed 50 feet at many places, and it is commonly much less. Distribution-The Wicomico formation occupies intricate bands of variable width along both sides of the peninsula and in western Florida and also irregular areas in Alachua and Marion Counties that are partly enclosed by higher land. The extent and interpretation of these must await the completion of topographic maps. A band 15 miles wide lies east of Trail Ridge and St. Marys River in Clay, Duval, and Nassau Counties. Stratigraphic relations-The Wicomico formation is the oldest of the deposits laid down in the seas and estuaries during a high-level stage supposed to correspond to the Sangamon interglacial stage. During this interglacial stage the sea invaded the land to a height of 100 feet above its present level, then it fell to 70 feet, then to 42 feet, and afterwards withdrew below its present level during the Wisconsin glacial stage. The Wicomico formation was deposited during the highest, 100-foot stage; the Penholoway during the intermediate, 70-foot stage; and the Talbot during the final, 42foot stage. Hence, it follows that the. Wicomico lies unconformably on all older deposits but is conformable with the Penholoway formation, though most of the exposed part of the Wicomico stands higher than the Penholoway. The limits of altitude of the Wicomico terrace, which forms the exposed surface of the Wicomico formation, are 100 to 70 feet above sea level. Paleogeography-The generalized location of the shore line during Wicomico time is shown in figure 44. It extends eastward at increasing distances from the present coast from Pensacola to White Springs, where it turned southward and rounded a short peninsula ending in Putnam County, thence



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234 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE sis shows that nearly half of a sample from this pit passed the 50-mesh screen but was was retained on the 100-mesh screen. An old pit in the western part of sec. 30, T. 18 S., R. 26 E., exposes 11 feet of coarse sand, gravel, and clay beneath a 4-foot overburden of light-yellow sand. Nearly 53 percent was retained on a 50-mesh screen. A road cut 3/2 miles east of Okahumpka cuts through 9 feet of red sandy clay overlain by 4 feet of yellow sand. Only 31 percent of the clay was retained on a 50-mesh screen. The pit of the American Building Products Company in the NE'4 sec. 13, T. 20 S., R. 24 E., about 2 miles east of Okahumpka, was formerly dredged for kaolin to a depth of about 80 feet. When visited in 1940, the waste sand was being rewashed for concrete. The bank shows about 5 feet of sandy kaolin containing patches of well-rounded pebbles. The following generalized section was made in a pit of the Lake County Clay Company in sec. 18, T. 20 S., R. 25 E. The kaolin-bearing sand was dredged. SECTION IN PIT OF LAKE COUNTY CLAY COMPANY FEET Citronelle formation (Pliocene): 3. Loose yellow sand ------------6 to 10 2. Coarse white kaolin-bearing sand --------15 to30 Hawthorn formation (Miocene): 1. "Blue marl" and limestone containing Ostrea sp. ---Other road-metal pits in which the red sandy clay or clayey sand of the Citronelle formation is exposed beneath loose surficial sand are half a mile northeast of Astatula, 2.2 and 8.8 miles south of Okahumpka on the road to Groveland, 1.8 miles northwest of Montverde, 2.5 miles north of Mineola, and 4.5 miles east of Howey. A pit in the SW/4 sec. 15, T. 22 S., R. 26 E., near Lake Clarence and 3 miles north-northwest of Clermont shows about 15 feet of coarse white to red sand containing wellrounded pebbles. The upper part includes some clay. Liberty County-The highlands in the northern part of



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ALUM BLUFF GROUP 141 iw 2 FIGURE 19.-Fossils from the Alum Bluff group. 1, Cardium taphrium Dall; 2, Pecten nicholsi Gardner; 3, Pecten acanikos Gardner; 4, Pecten sayanus Dall. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pi. 11.



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i GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 339 PAGE PAGE Wildwood ------291 Yazoo clay ------57 Willis Bridge -----121 Yellow River -----310 Williston ------203 Yellow Water Creek ---303 Willow Sink -----70 Yoldia waltonensis zone -168, 169 Wilmarth ------99 170, 176, 181 Windleys Island ----265 York --------290 Winter Garden -----55 Yorktown formation -109, 110 Woodlawn Beach ----310 182 Woods -------192 Youngstown -----289 Wrights Creek, Ocala limestone on -----65 Z Y Zephyrhills -----97, 159 Yankeetown -----70 4



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU Floridian Plateau is the name applied by Vaughan (1910) to the great projection of the continent of North America that separates the deep water of the Atlantic Ocean from the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico. As thus defined, the Floridian Plateau includes not only the State of Florida but an equally great or greater area that lies submerged beneath water less than 50 fathoms (300 feet) deep. (See fig. 1.) The Plateau terminates at the Florida Keys, where the southern end drops off steeply into the Straits of Florida, which separate it from Cuba. The Floridian Plateau underlies all of Florida Bay as well as a broad expanse of the Gulf of Mexico, whose bottom slopes very gently away from the west coast of Florida. The eastern edge of the Plateau hugs the shore of Florida from Palm Beach southward. It extends northward from Palm Beach through the Atlantic Ocean, diverging from the shore, which trends north-northwestward. The median axis of the Plateau trends N. 15 W., passing through Key West, Bradenton, Sarasota, Cedar Keys, and Madison. Nearly all of the Peninsula of Florida therefore lies east of the axis of the Floridian Plateau. The Floridian Plateau apparently has always formed part of the continental mass as distinguished from the deep sea, for the oldest sediments within it were deposited in shallow water. Its pre-Cambrian core, which has never been reached by the drill, probably is composed of ancient metamorphic rocks like those of the Piedmont region of Georgia, with which it is doubtless continuous beneath the sediments of the Coastal Plain. A few deep wells have penetrated to rocks-mica schist, quartzite, and black shale-which appear to be of Paleozoic age. These rocks are intruded by diabase of probable Triassic age. Upon the Paleozoic rocks lies a thick series of shallow marine deposits, dominantly limestone, that ranges in age from Lower Cretaceous to Recent. There is no evidence that the rocks composing the outer layers of the Floridian Plateau have ever undergone extensive deformation. On the contrary, all the rocks now accessible 3



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"CONTENTS PAGE Preface--1 Compositon and structure of the Floridian Plateau ---3 Topography 8 Natural divisions --------8 Marine terraces --------12 Stratigraphy ---14 Pre-Cambrian core --21 Pennsylvanian (?) series and older -----21 Triassic system --------22 Cretaceous system --------23 Comanche series -------23 Gulf series --------24 Tuscaloosa formation -----25 Limestone of Eagle Ford age -. ---27 Beds of Austin age -----27 Beds of Taylor age ------28 Lawson limestone -----30 Tertiary system --------33 Paleocene series -------33 Cedar Keys limestone -----. 33 Porters Creek formation -----35 Eocene series --------39 Deposits of Wilcox age -----39 Oldsmar limestone -----40 Salt Mountain limestone ----42 Deposits of Claiborne age -----44 Lake City limestone -----46 Tallahassee limestone -----49 Avon Park limestone -----51 Deposits of Jackson pge -----53 Ocala limestone -----.53 Oligocene series -------75 Deposits of Vicksburg age ----75 Marianla limestone -----75 Byram limestone -----81 Deposits of late Oligocene age ----86 Suwannee limestone -----86 Flint River formation ---104 Miocene series -------109 Deposits of early Miocene age ----111 Tampa limestone -----111 Alum Bluff group ------136 Hawthorn formation -----144 Chipola formation -----161 Shoal River formation ----167 Deposits of late Miocene age ----180 vii



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 121 Utilization-The Tampa limestone is too impure and too variable in composition and hardness to be suitable for many purposes to which limestones of better grades are adapted. LOCAL DETAILS Calhoun County-So far as is known, the Tampa limestone is exposed in Calhoun County only along and near Chipola River in the northern part of the county. The contact of the Tampa with the Suwannee apparently crosses the Chipola at Richards Bend, about one mile south of the eastern extension of the Jackson County line, where Archaias? sp. was noted in 1926 on the west side (Jackson County). There are many exposures of the Tampa between Richards Bend and Willis Bridge, more than 2 miles below. At Willis Bridge, on the road from Altha to Carr, 6 or 8 feet of hard, somewhat porous, cream-colored limestone containing minute sand grains is exposed in the bank of Chipola River. It contains Archaias? sp., bryozoans, and mollusks. Similar rock is visible in a series of sinks east of the bridge and 3.8 miles west of Altha. Gadsden County-All of Gadsden County may be underlain by the Tampa limestone, but the formation crops out only along and near Apalachicola River in the west and possibly in FIGURE 16.-Suwannee limestone in. pit of The McDonald Corporation near Brooksville, Hernando County. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 16.



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310 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE at some places rises as much as 8 feet above water level in the canal. The bone bed proper, which is rarely more than a foot or two thick, consists chiefly of fine sand, usually tinged with brown and locally containing some clay. It overlies the shell bed and is either in contact with it or is separated by barren sand. It is overlain by fine sand, generally pale yellowish at bottom, darker yellow or brownish in the middle, and white at top. This upper. bed extends to the surface of the ground and appears to be a soil derived from the bone bed. It varies in thickness from a few inches to several feet. This upper bed is locally transformed into hard gray marlstone, but no rock of this kind was exposed in the excavations at Seminole Field. Putnam County-St. Johns River and Crescent Lake (Palatka quadrangle) are contracted remnants of a larger estuary that in Pamlico time extended westward to Rice Creek Swamp (Interlachen quadrangle) and in Talbot time was even larger. The western boundary seems to be marked by the strip of well-drained land above the 20-foot contour line in sees. 11, 14, 23, T. 10 S., R. 25 E. The Pamlico estuary was studded with high islands and shoals. Santa Rosa County-During Pamlico time Escambia Bay and East Bay were coalesced into a single large bay whose entrance was partly blocked by a peninsula that extended as far west as Woodlawn Beach (Pensacola quadrangle). Projections from this bay extended up Yellow River as far as sec. 35, T. 2 N., R. 26 W., where the better-drained land probably represents the tidal marshes of Pamlico time (Harold quadrangle); up Blackwater River to Deaton Bridge; and up Escambia River probably to Horseshoe Lake (Century quadrangle), where a constriction in the swamp may represent the approximate head of Pamlico tide. At the head of the main bay was a 30to 90-foot bluff, whose foot lies below the 30-foot contour line, extending from Bagdad through Harp to Floridatown (Milton quadrangle). St. Johns County-The ocean extended a few miles inland on St. Johns County during Pamlico time, and a broad lagoon crossed the western border. The intermediate strip was dry land, apparently a large island like the Sea Islands of Georgia.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 183 which seems to have been dry land during both early and middle Miocene time. Fauna-The two faunal zones of the Duplin have many species in common, but Mansfield (1930, pp. 16, 17; 1932, pp. 16-18) lists several mollusks that are restricted to each zone. The lower zone takes its name from Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata (Wagner), a gastropod that is supposed to indicate cool water. The upper zone, named from Cancellaria propevenusta Mansfield, contains several mollusks character\ istic of warm water. However, these differences have probably been exaggerated, though the fauna as a whole doubtless indicates warmer water than the contemporaneous Yorktown fauna, which lived farther north. Mansfield (1930, 1932b) records 48 kinds of gastropods, 3 scaphopods, and 82 pelecypods from the Ecphora zone, and 25 gastropods, and 103 pelecypods from the Cancellaria zone. A few of the species are shown on figures 22 and 23. Flora-The lower part of the Duplin at Alum Bluff (bed 3 of the section, page 191) as here interpreted contains impressions of plants.' This bed was referred to the Alum Bluff formation by Berry (1916), who identified a spot fungus (Pestalozzites sabalana Berry), a very abundant fan palm (Sabalites apalachicolensis Berry), "and 11 species of dicotyledons, including an elm, breadfruit, buckthorn, camphor, satinwood, ironwood, and persimmon." According to Berry (1916, p. 44) "this flora would find a congenial habitat at the present time in the delta of Apalachicola River or almost anywhere along the coast of peninsular Florida." Utilization-The shell marl of the Duplin may be of value as a road metal. LOCAL DETAILS Alachua County-One of the localities cited by Dall (1892, p. 124) for his Jacksonville limestone is Preston Sink, 3 miles north of Waldo. This is a quadrangular sink about 50 or 75 feet across and 25 feet deep. A 2 /2-foot bed of yellowish fossiliferous limestone containing brown phosphatic pellets as much as half an inch in diameter was exposed in 1913 three feet above the bottom of the sink. Dall correlated this rock with the "newer Miocene" (Duplin marl) because of the



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254 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SECTION ON CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER 25 YARDS WEST OF THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE RAILROAD FEET Pamlico sand (Pleistocene, mid-Wisconsin recession): 8. White, brown, and black carbonaceous quartz sand. About 2 Unconformity (early Wisconsin glacial stage) Fort Thompson formation (Pleistocene): 7. Marine shell bed, the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member (Sangamon interglacial stage) --------2 -2 Yz 6. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl (Illinoian glacial stage) '4-1 5. Marine shell marl filling solution holes that cut through all the lower beds. Panope sp. at base (Yarmouth interglacial stage ----------------2 -6 Unconformity (Kansan glacial stage) 4. Gray sandy limestone containing a mixture of fresh-water, brackish, and marine fossils (Kansan glacial stage) ---1 -1 /4 3. Marine shell marl (Aftonian interglacial stage) ----0 -'4 Unconformity (Nebraskan glacial stage) Caloosahatchee formation (Pliocene): 2. Hard marine sandy, shelly limestone -------1 /2-2 1. Creamy calcareous shell marl. To low-tide level ---1 -2 Coffee Mill Hammock, from which the topmost member of the Fort Thompson is named, is a quarter of a mile below the railroad bridge. Marine shells, chiefly Chione cancellata, extend 2 feet above the water in the river. Hendry County-The outlines of the Fort Thompson formation in Hendry County have not been determined, for the formation is covered by Pamlico sand, except in the Everglades, where Lake Flirt marl and peat commonly conceal it. Old Fort Thompson, the type locality of the formation, lay on the south bank of the Caloosahatchee 134 miles east of the courthouse at La Belle. The following section (figs. 34, 35) is adapted from Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 90): SECTION AT OLD FORT THOMPSON FEET Pamlico sand (Pleistocene, mid-Wisconsin recession): 7, 8. Black carbonaceous sand at top, gray quartz sand mingled with reworked fresh-water and land shells at base. About --------------Unconformity (early Wisconsin glacial stage) Fort Thompson formation (Pleistocene):



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 329 PAGE PAGE Chipley Oil Co. well -24, 27, 28 Coral Gables -----262 30, 3'8, 49 Coronet mine -----159 Chipola formation ----161 Cory well -23, 27, 30, 32, 34 Chipola River, Marianna lime40, 42, 48, 52, 115 stone on ----80, 163 Cosden, J. S., well -28, 30, 32 Choctawhatchee marl ---168 34, 40, 42, 48, 52 Choctawhatchee National ForCottondale ------80 est, terraces in --278, 281 Cow Ford ------229 Choctawhatchee River ---166 Cow Swamp ----286, 291 delta of -----301 Crandall -------307 Ocala limestone on --65, 66 Crawfordville ---132, 296 Choptank formation -109, 110 Crawfordville road, old --129 111 Crescent Lake ---304, 310 Chowan formation ----292 Crestview ------174 Citronelle formation ---229 Cretaceous system ----23 Citrus County, formations in 63 Crossley -------238 91, 202 Crowder's Crossing ---174 Claiborne age, deposits of --44 Crystal River -----64 Clapp, F. G. -115, 132, 144, 168 Crystal River Rock Co. -63, 91 173, 177, 199, 203, 204 Crystal Springs -----97 Clara-------101 Cummer Lumber Co. pit near Clark Station -----202 Newberry -----63 Clarksville ---47, 50, 187 Cushman, J. A. -104, 115, 125 Clay County, formations in -187 143, 162 232, 284, 303 Cypress -------95 Clay Landing -----229 Clearwater ------132 D Clewiston ------222 Coastal Lowlands ----10 Dade City ------96 terraces in -----11 Dade County, formations in -34 Coffee Mill Hammock ---254 41, 47, 243, 261, 264, 304, 312 Coffee Mill Hammock marl Dall, W. H. -105, 111, 116, 136 member ----249, 259 144, 159, 160, 161, 183, 186 Coharie formation ----276 192, 199, 203, 216 Coharie terrace, shore line of -12 Darling's Slide -----186 Cole, W. Storrs --33, 137, 145 Darton, N. H. -----153 Collier County, formations in 212 Davis School -----274 242, 260, 303 Deadens, the-----194 Collins, W. E., farm ---179 Deaton Bridge ----310 Columbia County, formations Deerfield -------260 in----41, 47, 149 De Funiak Springs quadrangle 276 Columbus Drive ---223 278, 281, 291 Comanche series ---14, 23 De Land------226 Conrad, T. A. -----116 De Leon Springs ---227 Cooke, C. Wythe -104, 105, 108 Denaud -----211, 222 113, 122, 124, 136, 137, 144 DeSoto County, formations in 208 155, 167, 181, 229, 265, 273 216, 289 Cooper marl-----57 Devil's Mill Hopper --147, 186 Coquina, variations of -265, 267 Dictyoconus in Oligocene --89



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 145 An intermediate product of disintegration is gray or white, very light pumicelike vesicular sandstone, from which the lime and phosphate have been dissolved, leaving smooth, rounded blebs in place of the phosphatic grains. Rock of this kind, commonly in small lumps, caps many hills. Thickness-Over much of its area of outcrop the upper part of the Hawthorn has been eroded to such an extent that it is impossible to measure the original thickness. A well at Quincy, which starts in the Hawthorn formation, passed through it into the Tampa limestone at a depth of 210 feet (Cole, 1944, p. 13). The'cuttings from 90 to nearly 500 feet in the Hilliard no. 1 well, 4 miles northwest of Hilliard, are referred to the Hawthorn formation by Cole (1944, p. 23). Farther south in the peninsula the Hawthorn appears to be much thinner. Distribution-The Hawthorn formation apparently underlies the entire peninsula except in the Ocala uplift, from much of which it has been completely eroded. Northward it extends through the Tifton Upland (wire grass region) of Georgia (Cooke, 1944, p. 90) and northeastward to Berkeley County, South Carolina (Cooke, 1936b, p. 104).' The western boundary of the Hawthorn formation is arbitrarily drawn along Apalachicola River, though possibly part of the Chipola formation might equally as well be referred to the Hawthorn. Stratigraphic relations-The Hawthorn formation comprises the deposits of a transgressing sea that flooded an eroded land surface. Whether this land included the area of the Tampa limestone or whether the Hawthorn sea was merely an expanded Tampa sea has not been conclusively determined. The latter seems the more probable. If so, the Hawthorn lies conformably on the Tampa limestone and unconformably on older formations across which it transgressed. The Hawthorn merges westward into the Chipola formation and probably includes also equivalents of the Shoal River formation. It is overlain unconformably by the Duplin marl or by younger deposits. Fauna-Although fossils are common in the Hawthorn formation, few of them are well enough preserved to be determinable. The beds exposed to view are at most places so deeply weathered that all the shell substance has been dis-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 9 when the shore line stood approximately 170 feet higher than present sea level. From an island in the Sunderland sea in the northwest corner of Putnam County a sandy peninsula and bar, now called Trail Ridge, extended northward into Georgia and now forms the boundary between the Sunderland terrace and the Coastal Lowlands. Tallahassee Hills-A 25-mile-wide strip along the Georgia line between Withlacoochee River on the east and Apalachi"cola River on the west-a length of 100 miles-is called the Tallahassee Hills. The highest part of this region is believed to be a plain ranging around 300 feet above sea level in the northwestern part of Gadsden County. It is underlain by red sand mapped as Citronelle formation. Most of the remainder ALA BAMA M GEORGIA WESTERN MARIANNA i FI*URE 3-Topographic divisions of Florida. After COOKf, 1939C, fig. 3. _A-fr-nisar'^ LLAHASSEE HILLS\ Jacks nville 7 .Tal ahassee PensahhST'-'r9-"^ COASTAL '* 0* \^ \ c Miami FIGURE 3.-Topographic divisions of Florida. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 3.



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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE miles west of it, and as the regional strike appears to be eastsoutheastward, one may infer that the Hosston underlies all of northwestern Florida also. GULF SERIES GENERAL FEATURES In northwestern Florida rocks of the Gulf series partake somewhat of the character of contemporaneous deposits exposed farther north in Alabama. As revealed by cuttings from a well drilled in 1921 for the Chipley Oil Company at Falling Water, 4 miles south of Chipley, Washington County (Mossom, 1926, pp. 195-202), they include dark-brown micaceous sandy clay, gray calcareous clay, gray argillaceous limestone, and similar deposits. Mossom's description of gray argillaceous limestone between depths of 2415 and 3465 feet tallies well with the Selma chalk of Alabama, and Foraminifera taken within this interval were regarded by Cushman (Mossom, 1926, p. 203) as suggestive of that formation. Ostrea cretacea Morton? (identified by L. W. Stephenson) at 3615 feet and Ostrea mesenterica Morton and 0. cretacea Morton (identified by J. J. Galloway) in dark-gray calcareous clay at 3693 feet suggest the Eutaw formation. Drilling was stopped in dark-brown finely micaceous, sandy clay at a depth of 4910 feet. It was found impossible to designate definite boundaries to the formations penetrated by this well, which was drilled with cable tools. A condensed log with suggested correlations is given by Semmes (1929, pp. 314316). More specific information about the subsurface conditions in northwestern Florida is contained in a description by Cole (1938) of the Granberry well, drilled in 1936, in sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., about 7 miles northeast of Marianna, Jackson County. Cole places the top of the Upper Cretaceous at a depth of 1937 feet and supposes that the hole continues in the Upper Cretaceous to the bottom, at 5022 feet. He recognizes the Tuscaloosa, Eutaw, and Selma formations in this well but suggests the possibility that his supposed Tuscaloosa may really represent the Trinity group of the Comanche series. The foraminiferal faunas of his Selma are characteristic of the Taylor marl of Texas (Cole, 1938, p. 25).



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 63 limestone is quarried at a number of places for road metal or to make lime. A pit of the Cummer Lumber Company 1 /4 miles southeast of Newberry shows 20 feet of soft creamy yellow Ocala limestone containing many foraminifers and casts of mollusks. The Gainesville Lime-Rock Company quarries the Ocala to a maximum depth of 21 feet. Ten feet of soft, friable pure limestone is visible in the pit of the Arrendondo Lime Company 5 /2 miles southwest of Gainesville. There are also pits near Wilcox, Fanning Springs, and Archer. At Alachua Sink, 3 /2 miles southeast of Gainesville, 14 feet of Ocala limestone is overlain unconformably by about 23 feet of Hawthorn formation. The following species have ben collected there: Foraminifera (identified by T. W. VAUGHAN): Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin) Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) flintensis (Cushman) Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman Bryozoa (identified by R. S. BASSLER): Schizopodrella viminea (Lonsdale) Membraniporidra spissimuralis Canu and Bassler Stamenocella inferavicularia Canu and Bassler Mollusca (identified by C. W. COOKE): Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad Pecten suwanneensis Dall? indecisus Dall? "perplanus" Dall Annelida: Tubulostium n. sp. Echinoidea (identified by C. W. COOKE): Peronella cubae Weisbord Citrus County-The Ocala limestone is covered by the Suwannee limestone in the southeastern part of Citrus County and by the Alachua formation and Pleistocene sand in a belt west of Tsala Apopka Lake. A wave-cut terrace on which some beach sand remains borders the Gulf Coast and abuts against a steep cliff in which the Ocala limestone is exposed in the lower part and the Suwannee limestone in the upper part. The Crystal River Rock Company works these limestones to a depth of 121 feet below the top of the cliff in secs.



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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE oscillations of sea level corresponding to all the interglacial and glacial stages from the Nebraskan to the Sangamon, inclusive. The Recent marine deposits include quartz sand, locally mixed with broken shells, which has drifted along the beaches as far south as Miami Beach on the Atlantic and Cape Romano on the Gulf of Mexico, and white limy ooze, which is accumulating in Florida Bay and the adjacent waters. Some of the fine sand is blown from the beaches into dunes. Chiefly silt and sand are being deposited in tidal flats and in bars and flood plains along rivers. Much of this material originates north of the State line, in Georgia and Alabama. Muck and peat are the principal deposits in ponds, shallow lakes, and mangrove swamps. A kind of travertine or caliche locally forms at the surface in southern Florida. None of these Recent deposits have been given formation names except the Lake Flirt marl, which may be partly Recent and partly late Pleistocene. The formations that are described herein are named in the accompanying table.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES 39 EOCENE SERIES GENERAL FEATURES As restricted by the elimination of the Midway group (Paleocene), the Eocene series of the Southern States is divisible into three parts. Named in ascending order, they are commonly called the Wilcox, Claiborne, and Jackson groups. Each of these groups is separated from the adjacent groups or from the overlying and underlying series by widespread unconformities. In Florida only part of the deposits of Jackson age is exposed to view; the remainder of the Eocene series is deeply buried. What little information is available about the older Eocene was obtained from the study of well cuttings. Throughout the Peninsula, the Eocene series consists dominantly of limestone. Where fossils are present and well enough preserved for identification, it is usually possible to recognize the various Eocene formations. But many kinds of fossils are gregarious, not evenly distributed throughout contemporaneous beds. Where they are absent or not diagnostic one must depend upon other criteria. To some extent the physical characters of the rock can be used. But this criterion, too, is not reliable, for the very causes that brought about a segregation of species or their local, spotty distribution may have produced variations in the rock itself. The very lack of organic remains from a formation, elsewhere highly fossiliferous, may give the rock a different texture and composition. DEPOSITS OF WILCOX AGE GENERAL FEATURES In Alabama the outcropping edges of the Wilcox group are rather diversified and have been divided into several formations. All consist primarily of clastic materials, though one (the Bashi formation) contains some lime. Seaward, under cover, these formations merge into limestone. This transformation takes place by intertongueing. The oldest tongue of limestone extends farther inland than the others. It has been brought to the surface along the Jack-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OCALA LIMESTONE 67 Ocala at Marianna, and T. W. Vaughan has identified the following species of larger Foraminifera: Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman) mariannensis (Vaughan) Heterostegina ocalana Cushman Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) americana (Cushman)? georgiana (Cushman) mariannensis (Cushman) papillata (Cushman) vaughani (Cushman) ? Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan) Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana Cushman Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman The Florida Caverns, about 3 miles north of Marianna, are in the Ocala limestone. The large echinoid Macropneustes mortoni (Conrad) occurs there. This is the only known occurrence of the species in Florida, though it is common in the Ocala in Georgia and Alabama (Cooke, 1942, p. 51). Blue Springs, 6 miles east-northeast of Marianna, probably rises from the Ocala limestone, though the Ocala is riot known to be exposed there. The rock at the surface is the Marianna limestone. The spring issues from a cavern 10 or 15 feet below the water level. A quarry east of U. S. Highway 231 in the E, sec. 13, T. 6 N., R. 12 W., about 2 miles south-southeast of Campbellton, exposes Ocala limestone containing Amusium ocalanum, Oligopygus sp. (probably 0. haldemani), and other fossils. It is overlain by somewhat harder limestone containing many large thick Lepidocyclina sp., Pecten poulsoni, and Clypeaster sp. (probably C. rogersi), presumably an unmapped outlier of the lower part of the Marianna limestone. The contact is a sharp nearly horizontal line, probably marking a disconformity. Ocala limestone containing foraminifers, bryozoans, and Amusium o'calanum was noted in 1921 near the sink of Carters Mill Creek in sec. 20, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., about 3 /2 miles north-northwest of Marianna. About 27 feet of hard white limestone with softer patches was exposed, but some of it may not be Ocala.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLORIDIAN PLATEAU 5 lie very nearly horizontal. The distribution of the geologic formations (see the geologic map, pi. 1) indicates that there is a broad oval arch trending north-northwestward and centering in Levy or Marion County. In this arch the Ocala limestone lies at or near the surface throughout a large area extending from Lafayette and Suwannee Counties in the north well down into Sumter County in the south and from the Gulf Coast in Dixie, Levy, and Citrus Counties into Alachua and Marion Counties in the east. This area measures about 165 miles long by about 60 miles wide. The eroded surface of the Eocene Ocala (upon which the middle Miocene Hawthorn formation was deposited) attains a height of 115 feet or more above sea level in Marion County. Where the north-northwestward sloping end of the Ocala uplift meets the south-southeastward dipping rocks of Georgia, the strata form a broad, flat-bottomed saddle in which the Ocala limestone lies somewhat deeper than 200 feet below sea level (Mossom, 1926, structure map facing p. 256). The seat of this saddle lies in or near Jefferson County. From this low region the surface of the Ocala limestone rises some 350 feet in about 140 miles, at the average rate of about 2/ feet to the mile, to the crest of the arch in Marion County. The average slope from central Marion County to Monroe County, where the top of the Ocala lies about 1200 feet below sea level (Cole, 1941, p. 10), appears to be about 5 feet to the mile. The slope across the arch seems to be intermediate between these two rates. A generalized structure map of Florida is shown in figure 2. The Floridian Plateau north of St. Petersburg has been tilted downward toward the west. This tilting accounts for the broad embayment of the west coast, of Florida between Clearwater and Apalachicola. It has caused the submergence of the western part of the Ocala uplift, in which the bands of outcrop of the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa limestones are truncated by the coast line. It also accounts for the absence "along the embayed area of those marine Pliocene formations that cover nearly all of southern Florida and extend all along the east coast. To some extent, however, these effects may be the result of the greater degradation of the part of the Floridian Plateau covered by soluble limestone. It may be signifi-



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190 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE -.; i-s FIGURE 25.-Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola River. Made from a photograph by the late Dr. E. A. Smith, Oct. 29, 1890. After SELLARDS, 1915, fig. 13. by the late Dr. E. A. Smith, Oct. 29, 1890. After SELLARDS, 1915, fig. 13.





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270 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE tasia forms a bluff about 10 feet high (fig. 40). The surface of the rock is deeply pitted with solution holes, through which sea water spouts when waves dash against the shore. FIGURE 40.-Blowing Rocks, 1 2 miles north of Jupiter Light. Hard shelly limestone of the Anastasia formation, perforated by solution holes through which water spouts when struck by the waves. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 28. Palm Beach County-Much of the Anastasia formation in Palm Beach County is more compact than the typical coquina of Anastasia Island. There are several exposures of such rock, which might be called either shell sandstone or limestone, along the coast from Jupiter Inlet to Boca Raton. The rock is exposed at low tide about a quarter of a mile north of Jupiter Light. At Boca Raton Beach its bare water-worn surface is lapped by the waves. A quarter of a mile south of the pavilion at Boca Raton Beach this rock extends 20 or 25 feet above sea level (fig. 41) and presents a gently convex surface. Cross sections where it has been truncated by the waves show bedding planes dipping steeply seaward. Most of the islands in Lake Worth are founded on the Anastasia formation, and the rock forms the backbone of the peninsula at Palm Beach. A road cut about 1 2 miles north of the railway bridge at Palm Beach shows friable sandstone



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246 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE of the sea bottom, wherever located, would increase the capacity of the ocean basins and cause a world-wide lowering of sea level, even though large parts of the continents remained stationary. The oscillation of sea level caused by glacial control, combined with a lowering of the sea bottom by progressive steps, would produce a steplike series of highlevel shore lines and a corresponding series of low-level shore lines. Whether or not the two series would, overlap would depend on the amplitude of the oscillations and the magnitude of the progressive lowering of sea level. Forrest (1935) has assembled evidence, based chiefly on the distribution of plants and animals, indicating that the northern part of the present Atlantic Ocean was formerly land. He postulates that North America and Europe were connected by a chain of high mountains passing through Greenland and Iceland, and that the mountains were bordered on the south by a wide coastal plain. He supposes that this land mass remained land during the Pleistocene and furnished high centers of dispersal from which ice sheets flowed through the British Isles, Fennoscandia, and Canada. Further evidence that part of the North Atlantic was formerly land is supplied by the topography of the sea bottom, which is furrowed by submerged valleys and canyons that evidently were carved by subaerial erosion (Veatch and Smith, 1939). The topography of the adjoining land, also, gives clear evidence of submergence. It seems likely, however, that the submergence of the "Atlantean continent" began sooner than Forrest supposes, probably late in Pliocene time, while the, Citronelle formation was being warped. The foundering of this northern continental connection, by admitting wide expanses of water to what may have been an arid region, presumably increased the humidity of the atmosphere and permitted greater quantities of snow to fall on the adjoining land. Possibly the coastal plateau was the first part to be submerged, and the higher mountains north of it may have remained centers of dispersal for the Pleistocene ice. Gradual sinking of this more northern region would have contributed to the world-wide Pleistocene lowering of sea level. Although the Pleistocene ice sheets stopped far north of



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106 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE siderable bodies of limestone; elsewhere chert may be very rare or wanting. The clay is commonly massive, without bedding planes, and not rarely crumpled as if it had been compressed by the collapse of the dissolving limestone from which it was derived. Fresh exposures of the clay are generally lightcolored, with purple tints. Deeper weathering makes it brick red. The general appearance of the Flint River formation is much like that of a terrace deposit. Its surface is nearly flat or rolling, and its sand and gravelare similar in many respects to terrace sand.and gravel. But many of its clay beds are obviously residual, and much of its chert could not have been transported. It is possible that part of the sand and gravel originally overlay the Flint River formation and was incorporated in it during the collapse and compaction resulting from the removal of its soluble constituents. Vernon (1942, p. 131) suggests that the chert lumps or boulders, [which] ... range in size up to a length of 10 feet and a width of 5 feet, and are little worn by water ..represent silicified portions of formations which have been released by erosion during periods of valley cutting, and slumped downward along the valley walls. They were incorporated in later terrace deposits within these valleys. Subsequent erosion of terrace deposits allowed the enclosed boulders to rest along the new valley walls and they are therefore numerous along escarpments separating terraces. However, valley cutting is generally at a minimum in porous soluble formations such as the Flint River appears to have been. In such formations most of the drainage-flows underground, and degradation of the surface takes place either by the collapse, of caverns, resulting in definite sink holes, or by gradual subsidence caused by the removal of the binding material. Thickness-No reliable data on the thickness of the Flint River formation are at hand. The original thickness may have been somewhere about 100 feet, possibly more, but the residual products now exposed to view are probably less. Distribution-The Flint River formation extends from Covington County, Alabama, across Georgia to Allendale County, South Carolina, a distance of nearly 350 miles. Its belt of outcrop attains a width of nearly 65 miles in south-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MIAMI OOLITE 259 the large group known as the Pine Islands, the outer fringe of keys as far west as Loggerhead Key being composed of a contemporaneous coral-reef facies, the Key Largo limestone. Stratigraphic relations-The bottom of the Miami oolite is exposed only in the Everglades and in the southeastern part of the Big Cypress Swamp. There it rests unconformably on the Tamiami formation, of Pliocene age, whose surface is generally clean and solution-pocked. Locally a limestone breccia or conglomerate, perhaps of early Pleistocene age, separates the Miami from the Tamiami. Possibly this bed becomes persistent and increases in thickness towards the east, but it has not been recognized in well cuttings. The Miami oolite becomes more sandy and less conspicuously oolitic toward the north, where it merges into the Anastasia formation, which consists of sandy limestone at its southern end. The Miami presumably is equivalent also to the reef facies called the Key Largo limestone. The Miami probably merges northwestward into the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member or the Fort Thompson formation, which contains a greater proportion of shells and is not oolitic. The Miami is probably of the Sangamon interglacial stage. If so, its lower part is presumably contemporaneous with the Wicomico, its middle part with the Penholoway, and its upper, cross-bedded part with the Talbot, three sandy formations deposited in progressively shallower water. In Talbot time the water above the highest part of the oolite was only a few feet deep. Paleogeography-The Miami oolite was deposited along the southeastern border of the Floridian Plateau, which was at first (in Wicomico time) submerged to a depth of 120 feet-the bottom was about 20 feet below the present sea level. The nearest land was then in Highlands County, more than 80 miles away. The limy oolitic ooze had presumably accumulated to a thickness of a few feet by the beginning of Penholoway time, when the level of the sea dropped from 100 feet to only 70 feet above the present stage. Then, in Talbot time, the level dropped to about 42 feet, at which stage the gradually thickening oolitic ooze probably stood high enough to be stirred by the waves. By this time much of



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174 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULlETIN TWENTY-NINE formation and is listed by Gardner (1926-1944) with the Oak Grove sand [member]. Fine blue sand containing prints of shells forms the bed of a creek crossing State Highway 165 in the NE4 sec. 30,T. 5 N., R. 23 W., 2 miles southwest of Oak Grove. There is an outcrop of black clay, probably Shoal River, on Highway 165 in the SEV sec. 36, T. 5 N., R. 24 W. Fine yellow sand containing prints of fossils crops out between Yellow River and Highway 165, 2.4 miles north of Milligan. Frank Burns in 1895 collected fossils (U.S.G.S. 2675) 1 mile south of the railroad bridge at Milligan. On the north side of U.S. Highway 90 east of Yellow River opposite Milligan (SWI4 sec. 14) 30 feet of Shoal River formation consists chiefly of fine micaceous yellowish sand containing prints of Cardium and other mollusks. The lower 3 feet consists of pebbly sand. The upper part, which is oxidized and extends to the soil, is pink. The Shoal River formation is exposed in a vertical bluff about 12 feet high on the east side of Shoal River about 600 feet above U.S. Highway 90, 4 miles east of Crestview. It consists of fine micaceous, glauconitic sand containing prints of Cardium, Venus, and other fossils. The location is in the SW 4 sec. 13, T. 3 N., R. 23 W. Fine compact white sand including many coarser grains nearly 1 millimeter in diameter rises 7 feet above water level in Shoal River at Dorcas, in secs. 2 and 3, T. 3 N., R. 22 W. Fine yellow sand containing many prints of Cardium and other mollusks crops out in a ditch along State Highway 234 north of the bridge at Dorcas. Walton County-The type locality of the Shoal River formation is at Shell Bluff, a high bluff rising abruptly from the north bank of Shoal River in the E/2 sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 21 W., 3 Y miles northwest of Mossyhead and three-quarters of a mile east of Godwin Bridge. Compact fine blue-gray micaceous sand weathering brown, medium-coarse in the upper part, is exposed to a height of about 10 feet on both sides of the river. This bed here contains few if any shells. Exposures of it continue downstream, perhaps to Godwin Bridge, where



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES 27 & Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 4133 to 5337 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. Washington County--Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle (sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 3470? to 4912 feet; total depth of well, 4912 feet. LIMESTONE OF EAGLE FORD AGE A core from a depth of 7676-7684 feet in the Cory No. 1 well of the Peninsular Oil & Refining Company (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.) in Monroe County yielded a fragment of an Inoceramus that, according to L. W. Stephenson (Cole, 1941, p. 17), strongly suggests Inoceramus labiatus Schlotheim, a form of the species restricted to the lower part of the Eagle Ford shale of Texas. The core consists of speckled limestone resembling that interbedded with the shale of the Eagle Ford. The Applins call the limestone between the depths of 7676 and 8168 feet in this well the Tuscaloosa formation, though the Tuscaloosa at the outcrop represents an entirely different facies and may be older (L. W. Stephenson, oral communication). BEDS OF AUSTIN AGE GENERAL FEATURES Hard white limestone penetrated by the Cory well in Monroe County between the depths of 7330 and 7676 feet is correlated by the Applins with the Austin chalk of Texas. They consider it equivalent and continuous with a clastic facies in northern Florida, which is probably the continuation from Alabama of the Eutaw formation and the lower part of the Selma chalk, which overlies the Eutaw. They describe the clastic facies as composed of gray and greenish-gray marly shale with fine-grained argillaceous sandstone, sandy micaceous and carbonaceous clay, and some limestone. Lenses of black to brownish-black speckled shale like that in the lower part of the Austin chalk are common. In peninsular Florida the limestone of Austin age ranges around 250 to 350 feet in thickness. The clastic facies is 150 to 200 feet thick in the neighborhood of Tallahassee and 500 feet thick in northwestern Florida.



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284 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE northward east of Trail Ridge near the Baker-Duval County line. A group of large islands south of the peninsula extended as far as Highlands County. The water everywhere on the present peninsula was less than 100 feet deep-generally much less. There were estuaries up Escambia River, Choctawhatchee River, Apalachicola River, and several smaller streams. These streams brought down sand and silt, which was spread out over the shallow sea bottom, but probably did not travel far from shore. Fauna-The Wicomico formation has not yielded any fossils in Florida. Utilization-The Wicomico may contain workable deposits of sand and clay. LOCAL DETAILS Alachua County-The topographic map of the Arredondo quadrangle shows a large area in the southwestern part lying between 80 and 100 feet above sea level. Whether this was submerged during Wicomico time is unknown, for it is underlain by limestone in which solution is still active. Some of it may have been degraded to its present low, flat condition since Wicomico time. Bay County-An irregular band of Wicomico terrace several miles wide crosses the northern part of Bay County. Part of it is dotted with solution holes leading downward to limestone. The walls of these sinks should contain exposures of the Wicomico formation. Calhoun County-A band of Wicomico terrace crosses the south-central part of Calhoun County. It widens southwestward to about 8 miles. Most of the Wicomico formation in this county is an ancient delta of the Apalachicola. Clay County-Wicomico terrace, presumably underlain by the Wicomico formation, covers most of the Middleburg quadrangle east of Trail Ridge. The Wicomico is trenched by an estuarine reentrant of the Pamlico terrace, which is followed by Black Creek and several of its tributaries. Duval County-The Wicomico terrace covers most of the western half of Duval County. Along the Seaboard Railway



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 279 from the hamlet of Sunderland in Calvert County, Maryland. It was first applied by Shattuck (1901, p. 73), who stated that the surface of the formation reaches a height of 170 feet above sea level. Characters and thickness-Little is known about the actual composition of the Sunderland formation. It is probably composed entirely of sand and clay of varying degrees of fineness. Elsewhere in the Coastal Plain the Sunderland is commonly coarser at the bottom than near the top, where sandy clay is the usual constituent. The thickness is probably less than that of the Coharie and Brandywine, probably less than 40 feet at most places. Distribution-Dissected remnants of the Sunderland formation should be looked for in a band extending in a nearly straight line eastward from Escambia County to Madison County. East of Alapaha River in Hamilton County, the surface is less broken, and the formation extends almost uninterruptedly along the Georgia line to St. Marys River and southward, west of Trail Ridge, into Bradford and Union "Counties. There apparently are wide expanses of Sunderland terrace extending from the northwestern part of Highlands County westward far into Manatee County and northward into Polk and Hillsborough Counties. The total lack of topographic maps in that region makes it impracticable to determine the limits of the terrace, which is doubtless underlain by the Sunderland formation, though it may be very thin. Stratigraphic relations-The Sunderland formation is supposed to have accumulated in the sea, which had fallen without previous recession from a level of 215 feet to 170 feet above the present sea level. If this is true, the Sunderland should lie conformably on whatever thickness of Coharie sediments may have been deposited within the area occupied by the restricted sea. There is good evidence that the sea receded at the end of Sunderland time (during the Illinoian glacial stage) and that in the succeeding Wicomico time it rose to a height only 100 feet above its present level. It therefore follows that the uncovered, accessible part of the Sunderland formation stands higher than the Wicomico, and that there is an hiatus between the Sunderland sediments and the Wicomico formation where both are present. However,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OSCILLATIONS OF SEA LEVEL 247 Florida, the oscillations of sea level induced by their advances and retreats profoundly influenced the topography of the State. Much of the Floridian Plateau was dry land during each glacial epoch; all but the highest part was submerged during the first interglacial stage, though each successive submergence left a larger and larger area above the sea. All parts of Florida, therefore, were subject to erosion during every glacial stage, and increasingly large areas were above water during each successive interglacial stage. Welcome proof of the oscillations of sea level is yielded by the section on Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thompson (see page 254), where a repeated sequence of marine shell beds and corroded freshwater beds gives a complete record of local Pleistocene events. While the land stood high above sea level, erosion by solution was particularly active. Sink holes and caverns were opened in the areas underlain by limestone, and much of the drainage was doubtless subterranean. Some of the sink holes formed during the Pleistocene extend 200 feet below the present sea level-a probable indication that some of the stages of sea level were at least that low. Little is known about the location of the low-water shore lines because some of them are certainly submerged beneath the sea and any that may have stood higher than the present sea level were washed over and possibly obliterated during subsequent higher stages. Knowledge of the series of highlevel shore lines is more satisfactory but still remains far from complete. It is based, for the most part, on studies of a great number of topographic maps of the Coastal Plain between Maryland and Florida. Field studies have also been made in critical places, but interpretation of the field evidence needs the broader picture that can be acquired only from a graphic representation of the surrounding region. Unfortunately, much of Florida still remains unmapped, and some of the maps now available were not surveyed until after the field work for this report had been completed. Traces of seven well-defined shore lines of the higher series have been found at many places throughout the Coastal Plain, and intermediate shore lines have doubtless left their marks, though less conspicuously. Many have failed of recognition because the change of altitude at the shore line is too slight



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-WICOMICO FORMATION 285 it extends from the Baker County line eastward to within a mile of Marietta, where it is bordered by a mile-wide fringe of the Penholoway terrace. Escambia County-The band of Wicomico terrace lies 2 to 5 miles inland at Pensacola and extends northward as an estuarine reentrant at least to the head of Escambia Bay. Marion County-There are extensive areas in Marion County that lie within the limits of altitude (100-70 feet) of the Wicomico terrace, and parts of them were probably submerged during the Wicomico time. The entire region has been much altered by solution of limestone beneath the surface. Nassau County-The Wicomico terrace occupies the part of Nassau County that lies west of a line connecting Hilliard with Crawford, where it is separated from the broad Pamlico terrace by a narrow band of Penholoway terrace. Okaloosa County-A narrow band lying within the limits of altitude of the Wicomico terrace in Okaloosa County appears to have been modified by the growth of dunes and probably also by subterranean solution. The band extends along the boundary between the Mary Esther and the Holt quadrangles. It averages about one mile in width. Putnam County-The map of the Interlachen quadrangle shows a 2to 5-mile-wide band of Wicomico terrace lying east of the Baywood Promontory (Cooke, 1939c, p. 44). Much pf the terrace is very flat, but it is bordered by a steep rise to the Baywood Promontory on the west and by a steep downward slope to the Talbot terrace on the east. The Penholoway terrace is poorly developed and locally absent there. Santa Rosa County-The narrow band of Wicomico terrace shown on the map of the Holley quadrangle adjoins the Pamlico terrace north of East Bay and East Bay Swamp. The rise to it is steep, and the Wicomico has been somewhat dissected. Wakulla County-The southwest quarter of the Tallahassee quadrangle, including parts of Wakulla and Leon Counties is occupied by a level expanse of Wicomico terrace, which extends southwestward almost to Ochlockonee River.



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146 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE solved and even the molds have been obliterated. One of the most common fossils is the oyster Ostrea normalis (fig. 18, nos. 3, 4), which has been found silicified at many places in the peninsula. Pecten acanikos Gardner (fig. 19, no. 3; fig. 20, no. 5), a Chipola scallop, is widely distributed near the base of the Hawthorn, and Carolia floridana occurs at several places. Large heads of the colonial coral Siderastraea sp. are of common occurrence in the Hawthorn. As has been explained in the discussion of the fauna of the Tampa limestone, the large fauna of vertebrates that has been attributed to the Hawthorn formation probably lived and died on the mainland during Tampa time. Later, the sites of their burial in sink holes were covered by the Hawthorn sea. Some few bones may have been washed into that sea and incorporated in its deposits. However, the fuller's earth mines at Quincy and Midway have yielded several skeletons of the dugong Hesperosiren crataegensis Simpson. This marine mammal presumably was contemporaneous with the deposits in which its bones were interred. Utilization-Fuller's earth is the only product of commercial value obtained directly from the Hawthorn formation. However, the hard-rock phosphate deposits of the Pliocene Alachua formation appear to have been derived from the phosphatic particles that are disseminated throughout the Hawthorn. LOCAL DETAILS Alachua County-Although the northeastern half of Alachua County is underlain by the Hawthorn formation, unweathered exposures of it are few, for most of the surface is covered by loose sand derived from it or by high-level Pleistocene terrace deposits, chiefly the Coharie formation. Outcrops are most abundant along the westward-facing escarpment that separates the high plain from the lowland underlain by the Ocala limestone, but some of the best occur in sink holes within the plain. In the vicinity of Gainesville about 100 feet of Hawthorn deposits lie on the Ocala limestone. Sinks on the campus of the University of Florida show gray phosphatic sandstone with white groundmass, generally underlain by green fuller's



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PAGE Duplin marl -----180 Pliocene series -------197 Deposits of middle Pliocene (Hemphill) age --199 Alachua formation ----. -199 Bone Valley formation ---203 Buckingham marl -----210 Caloosahatchee marl ----214 Charlton formation -----227 Citronelle formation ----229 Tamiami formation ---238 Pleistocene series -------245 Oscillations of sea level ---245 Deposits of Pleistocene age ----248 Fort Thompson formation ----249 Miami oolite ------256 Key Largo limestone ----262 Anastasia formation -----265 Brandywine formation ----273 Coharie formation -----276 Sunderland formation ----278 Wicomico formation -----281 Penholoway formation ----286 Talbot formation -----292 Pamlico sand ------297 Lake Flirt marl ------311 Recent series --------313 Bibliography ---------315 Index----------327 ILLUSTRATIONS Plate 1. Geologic map of Florida ----In pocket Figure 1. Relief model of part of North America ---4 Figure 2. Sketch map of Florida and the adjacent States showing structure of contour lines on top of the Eocene formations ------6 Figure 3. Topographic divisions of Florida ----9 Figure 4. Approximate locations of the shore line during the Paleocene epoch and late Eocene and middle Oligocene (Marianna) times ---37 Figure 5. Fossils from the Ocala limestone ----59 Figure 6. Echinoids from the Ocala limestone ---60 Figure 7. Troy Spring, Lafayette County ----69 Figure 8. Rainbow Spring, northeast of Dunnellon --71 Figure 9. Juniper Spring in eastern Marion County --72 Figure 10. Ocala limestone in quarry at Kendrick ---72 Figure 11. Quarry in the Marianna limestone ----77 viii



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150 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SECTION AT SUWANNEE SHOALS FEET Hawthorn formation: 6. Gray laminated clay, greenish when fresh -------2 '/ 5. Greenish argillaceous sand weathered gray, including harder masses and many very small clay concretions; Siderastraea sp. at top ------------------6 4. Green arenaceous clay; Siderastraea sp. loose on surface --3. Gray argillaceous sand ------------2V/2 2. Impure green fuller's earth, about ---------1 /4 1. Light-gray rock, apparently silicified calcareous clay with conchoidal exfoliation -------------2 Half a mile above Hewitts Ferry the section on the east bank of the Suwannee River is as follows: SECTION HALF A MILE ABOVE HEWETTS FERRY FEET Hawthorn formation: 3. Covered to top of bluff, about ----------15 2. Blue or greenish-gray pebbly sand containing phosphatic? pebbles 5 1. Brittle yellow fuller's earth or clay with partings of pebbly sand, apparently phosphatic, to water level in Suwannee River ---6 Yellow sandstone of the Hawthorn formation rises 5 feet above water in the Suwannee River at Benton Bridge, 9 miles north of White Springs, and 5 feet of coarse pebbly yellow sandstone is exposed at a stream crossing about midway between Benton Bridge and Hewitts Ferry. About 3 feet of hard, brittle gray rock composed of rounded nodules or pebbles of claystone (perhaps phosphatic) embedded in fine gray sandstone crops out in the bank of Suwannee River below a bridge 2 2 miles north of Belmont, Hamilton County. Fine blue-gray speckled sand rises about one foot above low water in the Suwannee at Blounts Ferry. About 13 feet of gray sand passing upward into greenish sandy clay containing spheroidal clay concretions was exposed in 1913 in a sink at the end of Alligator Lake about 2/2 or 3 miles south of Lake City. A sink on the land of a Mr. Langston about 4 miles north by west of Lake City exposed the following section in 1913.



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PAGE Figure 12. Unconformable contact of the Suwannee limestone and the Hawthorn formation near White Springs -------88 Figure 13. Suwannee River at Branford -----93 Figure 14. Hypothetical Miocene and Pliocene shore lines --112 Figure 15. Fossils from the Tampa limestone ----117 Figure 16. Suwannee limestone in pit near Brooksville --121 Figure 17. Tampa limestone on Six Mile Creek at Orient --126 Figure 18. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ----140 Figure 19. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ----141 Figure 20. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ----142 Figure 21. Bluff on Sandy Creek, Holmes County ---172 Figure 22. Fossils from the Duplin marl ----184 Figure 23. Fossils from the Duplin marl ----185 Figure 24. Apalachicola River looking south from Alum Bluff -189 Figure 25. Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River ----190 Figure 26. Rock Spring, Orange County ----193 Figure 27. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation --217 Figure 28. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation --218 Figure 29. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation --219 Figure 30. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee formation --220 Figure 31. Caloosahatchee formation on Prairie Creek --221 Figure 32. Sand pit in Citronelle formation near Lake Wales -237 Figure 33. Sand washed free of kaolin, Citronelle formation, Crossley ------238 Figure 34. Graphic section of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits at Fort Thompson ----251 Figure 35. Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thompson ---255 Figure 36. Miami oolite at Miami -----257 Figure 37. Miami oolite about 20 miles southwest of Miami -258 Figure 38. Key Largo limestone at Key Largo ----264 Figure 39. Anastasia formation 4 miles west of Flagler Beach -268 Figure 40. Blowing Rocks, north of Jupiter Light ---270 Figure 41. Anastasia formation at Boca Raton ---271 Figure 42. Anastasia formation /2 miles north of Jupiter Light 271 Figure 43. Early Pleistocene shore lines in the Southeastern States 275 Figure 44. Shore line of the Wicomico sea ----283 "Figure 45. Shore line of the Penholoway sea ----288 Figure 46. Shore line of the Talbot sea -----293 Figure 47. Shore line of the Pamlico sea -----298 ix



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170 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE ably conformable with the next-older Chipola formation, which adjoins it on the north. Only one contact has been discovered, and that has not certainly been identified (Vernon, 1942, p. 86). In the region where the Chipola is fossiliferous (along Chipola and Apalachicola Rivers) the Shoal River formation is overlapped by the Duplin marl, which rests directly on the Chipola. Contacts of the Shoal River with the Duplin" are likewise rare and have not been studied critically. There is good reason to suppose, however, that where the two are in contact the relations are unconformable, for the Duplin is a transgressing formation that lies unconformably on older formations everywhere else that it has been recognized. Fauna-Each of the faunal zones of the Shoal River formation includes some species that are peculiar to it or are especially abundant, but many species range through several zones. According to Gardner (1926, p. 2) Turritella alcida Dall, Glycymeris drymanos Gardner, Arca dodona (Dall), Parvilucina piluliformis Dall, Chione glyptocyma Dall, and Spisula densa Dall are abundant species restricted to the zone of Cardium taphrium Dall, which species occurs rarely also in the next-younger zone. Abundant and characteristic species of the Glycymeris waltonensis zone are, besides the type species, Conus waltonensis Aldrich, Cancellaria waltoniana Gardner, and a stillundescribed Turritella. Yoldia waltonensis Mansfield is the most common species in the rather sparse fauna of the Yoldia zone, but it has been reported doubtfully also from the Arca zone. With it are Arca rubisiniana Mansfield, Phacoides crenulatus (Conrad), and Crassatellites meridionalis rubisiniana, all of which occur also in the Arca zone. The Arca rubisiniana zone, with about 60 different kinds of pelecypods, is more prolific than the Yoldia zone but less so than either of the other two. Among the characteristic species Mansfield (1932b, p. 13) lists Leda choctawhatcheensis Mansfield, Arca rubisiniana Mansfield, Pecten macdonaldi Olsson, Chlamys pontoni Mansfield, Crenella duplinensis waltoniana Mansfield, Crassatellites meridionalis rubisiniana Mansfield, Phacoides choctawhatcheensis Mansfield, Diplo-



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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE LOCAL DETAILS The Applins have recognized beds of Austin age in the following additional wells in Florida: Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 3365? to 3626 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3268 to 3410 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet. Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 5077 to 5322 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet. Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville, depths 3180 to about 3410 feet; total depth of well, 3755 feet. Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 3740 to about 4170 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 3180 to 3520 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 3900 to 4254 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 3482 to 3672 feet; total depth of well, 5746 feet. Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land & Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 3814 to 4133 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle (sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 2870 to 3470? feet; total depth of well, 4912 feet. BEDS OF TAYLOR AGE GENERAL FEATURES The Selma chalk of Alabama is represented in part by beds



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMIAMI FORMATION 241 abundant. The general facies of the fauna resembles that of the Imperial formation of California, though no species were identified as identical. The fauna is much less rich and varied than that of the Caloosahatchee, and the facies is quite different, though at least half of the named species occur in the Caloosahatchee. Mansfield (1932a, p. 44) lists the following species: Gastropods: Terebra dislocata Say Fasciolaria sp. Strombus sp. Turritella aff. T. perattenuata Heilprin Calyptraea sp. Crucibulum sp. Pelecypods: Glycymeris americana (Defrance) pectinata (Gmelin) ? Arca (Anadara) sp. occidentalis Philippi Pinna sp. Ostrea sculpturata Conrad sp., group of 0. trigonalis Conrad tamiamiensis Mansfield monroensis Mansfield Pecten (Plagioctenium) evergladensis Mansfield (Nodipecten) pittieri collierensis Mansfield (Lyropecten) tamiamiensis Mansfield (Pecten) sp. Spondylus sp. Plicatula marginata Say Anomia simplex d'Orbigny Thracia (Cyathodonta) tristana Olsson? Cardita (Carditamera) sp. Divaricella sp. Cardium sp. Chione intapurpurea Conrad? cancellata (Linnaeus) Venus? sp. Metis magnoliana Dall? Spisula sp. Gastrochaena sp. Echinoids: Encope macrophora tamiamiensis Mansfield Cassidulus evergladensis Mansfield A different facies more like the Caloosahatchee is reported



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 59 2a 1 p 2b 3b 4a 6a 6b -5b 7 FIGURE 5.-Fossils from the Ocala limestone. 1, Amusium ocalanum Dall; 2, Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol; 3, Oligopygus haldemani (Conrad); 4, Fibularia vaughal-i (Twitchell), X 2; 5, Laganum floridanum Twitchell; 6, Rumphia archerensis (Twitchell); 7, Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell). After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 3.



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144 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE from the Chipola formation are the only echinoids thus far discovered in the Alum Bluff group. Utilization-Fuller's earth is the most valuable resource of the Alum Bluff group. Lenses of fuller's earth are widely distributed in the Hawthorn formation, and there are extensive deposits in the eastern half of Gadsden County that have been mined for 50 years. HAWTHORN FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Hawthorn formation received its name from the town of Hawthorn, Alachua County (Dall, 1892, p. 107). No specific locality was mentioned as the type of the Hawthorn, though Dall (1892, p. 108) saw phosphatic limestone being quarried for use as fertilizer near Hawthorn, probably at the old Simmons' pit about 3 miles from Hawthorn and 2 miles from Grove Park. As interpreted by Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 69-74) the Hawthorn formation included not only the beds referred to it by Dall but also part of the Cassidulus-bearing limestone now called Suwannee. Vaughan and Cooke (1914) showed that the Hawthorn is almost synonymous with the Alum Bluff formation as defined by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 91) and recommended that the name "Hawthorn" be discarded. Later Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 115) redefined the Hawthorn formation to include the Hawthorn beds and the Sopchoppy limestone of Dall (1892, p. 119) and the Alum Bluff formation of peninsular Florida asdefined by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 91). They also tentatively included in it some beds of late Miocene age that are herein tentatively transferred to the Duplin marl. Characters-In northern Florida the Hawthorn formation consists chiefly of gray phosphatic sand and lenses of green or gray fuller's earth. Weathered cuts show a distinctive streaking with narrow light-gray bands on a red groundmass, the shade of red becoming darker with prolonged exposure. The most persistent component is white or cream-colored sandstone containing brown phosphatic grains. Rock of this kind is widely distributed in the peninsula but is rarely seen in natural exposures, for it readily disintegrates into loose sand.



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176 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE near Liberty, which is on State Highway 40 at Big Swamp Creek, NW4 sec. 26, T. 4 N., R. 20 W. SECTION 6.6 MILES NORTH OF BEARHEAD FEET Citronelle formation (Pliocene): 3. Coarse red or orange sand and gravel to top of bluff ----17 Unconformity Shoal River formation (middle Miocene): 2. Very fine clayey yellow micaceous sand with impressions of shells 14 1. Dark-gray clay, carbonized twigs, and imprints of shells, in bed of river -----------------1 The bed of Big Swamp Creek at the mill at Liberty showed in 1939 about 2 feet of platy somewhat sandy black clay. All the tributaries of Alaqua Creek in townships 2 and 3 north have cut through the early Pleistocene terrace deposits and the Citronelle formation into the Shoal River formation. The marl bed of the Shoal River formation is more argillaceous in this area than farther east. It is less porous than the overlying sand and more resistant than the beds beneath it. Water percolates through the sand and emerges as springs on top of the marl, plunges over it, and wears out gullies or "steepheads" below. One of the better collecting localities for shells is on the Chester Spence farm at the head of a small branch in the NEV sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. Gardner (1926-1944) does not report Glycymeris waltonensis from here, but she lists the locality as Shoal River. A shell bed of the Shoal Riyer formation crops out also beneath a strong spring about a quarter of a mile west by north of Pleasant Ridge church in the SW/ SEV sec. 6, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. Mansfield (1932b, p. 22) refers to the Arca zone collections from a branch of Sconiers Mill Creek in sec. 29, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. (U.S.G.S. 12044, 12045) andon Blount Creek in sec. 27 (U.S.G.S. 12046) and sec. 28 (U.S.G.S. 12047), and on Alice Creek in sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 19 W. (U.S.G.S. 12527). He refers to the Yoldia zone collections from the NE4 sec. 17 and from the SE4Y sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. The valleys of Bruce Creek and its tributaries in eastern Walton County contain a number of exposures of the Shoal



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GEpLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 179 ferous marl below water level a quarter of a mile below Walsingham Bridge in the NE/4 sec. 22, T. 1 N., R. 13 W. Harder rock is exposed at water level 1 and 1 2 miles above Gainers Bridge in the SW4 sec. 27. Fossil molds assigned to the Shoal River formation by Vernon (1942, p. 81) were found in a cut on the road to Wausau in the SW4 SEE sec. 28, T. 3 N., R. 14 W., 3.9 miles east of Vernon. The cut shows about 30 feet of yellow to gray very micaceous blocky clay passing upward into coarse argillaceous, micaceous sand. The fossils include Cardium waltonianum Dall and several other species with Shoal River affinities. Vernon (1942, p. 82) describes fossiliferous sand and clay on State Highway 39 southwest of Norum in the SW'4 NE'4 sec. 7, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., and in the SE4 SW 4 sec. 12, T. 2 N.,R. 16 W. Vernon (1942, pp. 99-103) describes fresh exposures of the Arca zone on an escarpment facing Holmes Creek along the north line of T. 2 N., R. 15 W. An old road bed on the W. E. Collins farm in the SW 4 NE 4 sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., yielded the following section: SECTION ON THE W. E. COLLINS FARM (VERNON'S LOCALITY W-74) FEET Shoal River formation, Arca zone (middle Miocene): 8. Slightly mottled clay, mottled with red -------4.3 7. Covered, probably the same as above --------3.5 6. Clay as above -------------8.2 5. Gray-brown argillaceous, micaceous, limonitic medium to fine sand, many fossil molds outlined by limonite ------6.4 4. Greenish-gray silty blocky clay with poorly preserved molds of mollusks ---------------5.0 3. Blue-green (weathers brown) micaceous, argillaceous, glauconitic foraminiferal fine sandy marl with broken shells ---2.5 2. Greenish-gray (weathers buff) sandy, micaceous marl. Foraminifers compose by far the larger percentage of the rock. Harder greenish-gray lime nodules are prominent ----12.0 1. Limestone nodules with much gravel and sand are strewn through a clay matrix. It is apparently reworked ----20.0 Vernon also describes a section on Will Sheffield's farm along a spring head just east of the road in the NWN SEN sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W.:



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36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE age. At the top it merges into the Naheola formation or is unconformably overlain by younger deposits. Paleogeography-The Porters Creek formation was laid down within and near the Mississippi Embayment, into which an abundant supply of black mud was poured by the tributary rivers. The approximate location of the shore line is shown in figure 4. Fauna-The lower marl carries a microfauna similar to that of the Tamesi (Velasco) of Mexico (Applin and Applin, 1944). LOCAL DETAILS The clastic facies of the Paleocene series, presumably the Porters Creek formation, has been reported from the following wells: Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depth 1672 to 1934 feet; total depth of well, 5022 feet. The Tamesi fauna occupies the interval from 1761 to 1934 feet. Cores from 1761-1767 and 1878 feet are described as brittle slightly micaceous gray shale (Applin and Applin, 1944). Cole (1938, p. 23) places the top of the Midway group at 1726 feet and the bottom at 1937 feet. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.); total depth of well, 3838 feet. The Applins report the Tamesi fauna between the depths of approximately 2490 and 3056 feet. Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville; total depth of well, 3755 feet. The Applins report the Tamesi fauna between 2235 and 2675 feet. Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.); total depth of well, 5746 feet. The Tamesi fauna occurs between 2665 and 2715 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944). Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land & Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 2010 to 3061 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. The Tamesi



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 95 Chlamys glendonensis Mansfield, Glycymeris suwanneensis Mansfield, Teredo? incrassata (Gabb), and Pecten cf. P. poulsoni Morton. The description of this deposit seems to indicate that the beds exposed are intermediate between the genuine Suwannee limestone, which is very pure, and the Flint River formation, which contains much clay, sand, and gravel. Verion (1942, map) maps the Suwannee in an irregular belt extending from secs. 13 and 24, T. 4 N., R. 17 W., to the Walton County line in sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 18 W,. His report of limestone in wells in secs. 15 and 34, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., and sec. 23, T. 5 N., R. 18 W., (Vernon, 1942, p. 66) possibly should have specified T. 4 N. instead of T. 5 N. Jackson County-There are a few exposures of the Suwannee limestone in the southern part of Jackson County. Hard white limestone on the road to Blue Springs, 0.9 mile north of the Old Spanish Trail near Cypress and 2.1 miles from Grand Ridge, is probably Suwannee. Hard yellow limestone containing Teredo tubes and impressions of many other mollusks is exposed in the west bank of the Chipola at a wide curving shoal probably in sec, 6, T. 2 N., R. 9 W., northwest of Altha, Calhoun County. Similar rock, apparently without Teredo, extends upstream for half a mile or more. Obscure outcrops of limestone near Kynesville presumably also are Suwannee, and unfossiliferous chert in a road cut about 2 miles south of Alford may be of the same age. Jefferson County-The Suwannee limestone lies not far below the surface in the southeastern part of Jefferson County. It is covered by the Hawthorn formation in the northern part and by the Tampa limestone in the southwestern part. Mansfield (1937b, p. 58) and Ponton collected Cassidulus gouldii, Teredo? incrassata, Chlamys flintensis, and several other Suwannee mollusks from a rock quarry 1 /2 miles eastsoutheast of Flint Rock and also from a road pit half a mile southeast of the depot at Walker Springs. They also collected Cerithium hernandoense?, Cardium aff. C. gadsdenense, Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis, Tellina silicata?, and Cassidulus 'gouldii from along the highway 8 and 10 miles east of Wacissa.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHATCHEE FORMATION 225 S., R. 16 E., 2 4 miles south-southwest of Pinellas Park, the noted bed of Pleistocene vertebrates is underlain by a bed of marine shells including Phacoides multilineatus Tuomey and Holmes and Transenella caloosana Dall. This shell bed rises as much as 8 feet above the water level in the ditch. Putnam County-The type locality of the facies of the Caloosahatchee marl called Nashua marl by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 130), is one-fourthmile south of Nashua, where they report about 15 feet of white shell marl ovelain unconformably by 5 feet of white sand. The only outcrop seen by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 160) in this vicinity is in a gully south of the residence of L. La Bruzzo, just south of the center of sec. 28, T. 11 S., R. 26 E., in the bluff east of St. Johns River. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 131) list Pliocene fossils from a low bluff on the east side of St. Johns River half a mile above the bridge of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway, 5 miles southwest of Palatka. Sidney A. Stubbs informs me that Caloosahatchee shells were found in a well at the north edge of Crescent City. The Ocala limestone was penetrated in the same well at a depth of 100 feet. Sarasota County-The Caloosahatchee formation has been reported only in the southeastern part of Sarasota County. Somewhere on Miakka River Willcox found limestone overlain by sandy shell marl, which Dall (1892, pp. 147, 148) took to be somewhat younger than the typical Caloosahatchee formation because it contains a somewhat larger proportion of Recent shells. Caloosahatchee marl occurs in the bottom of a ditch one mile east of Miakka River on the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). Many shells and hard lumps of shelly'sandstone have been dredged from Big Slough on the Tamiami Trail 3.2 miles east of the Miakka. Cypraea problematica Heilprin (fig. 27, no. 3) and many other shells were found in a creek or ditch on U.S. Highway 41, 7.9 miles east of the Miakka. This place may be in Charlotte County. Seminole County-No exposures of fossiliferous Caloosahatchee marl have been reported from Seminole County, but excellently preserved shells have been found in several wells. Stubbs (1940) lists 87 species of mollusks that were recovered from the city well numbr 5 at Sanford while it was being cleaned in 1937 and infers that the shells came from depths



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278 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Escambia County-A 10to 20-foot south-facing scarp in the NW 4 sec. 29, T. 3 N., R. 31 W., shown on the northern edge of the map of the Muscogee quadrangle, probably_ is a fragment of the shore of the Coharie sea. The remnant of Coharie terrace there is almost 2 miles wide. It extends southward, somewhat dissected, for about 5 miles. Leon County-The topographic map of the Tallahassee quadrangle shows several flat-topped hills within the limits of altitude (215-170 feet) of the Coharie terrace. Some of these may be capped by patches of Coharie formation. Liberty County-A band of Coharie terrace 1 /2 to 4 miles wide extends eastward across Liberty County from Alum Bluff. The shore line, which can be traced on the unpublished topographic maps of the Bristol and Hosford quadrangles, crosses the road from Bristol to Quincy about 4 2 miles northeast of Bristol, but it is more conspicuous 1 to 2 miles east of the crossing. Another areathat falls within the limits of altitude of the Coharie terrace lies 1 to 5 miles east of Taluga Rivef on the road from Bristol to Hosford. This outlier may have been an offshore bar during Coharie time, or it may have been built in the Sunderland sea as a barrier partly shutting off the ancient Apalachicola estuary. Its highest part reaches 190 feet above sea level, and most of it is encircled by the 180-foot contour line. Okaloosa County-The Coharie terrace occupies a large part of the Holt quadrangle. It is crossed by deep, narrow valleys that probably cut through the Coharie formation. Polk County-An excavation for the foundation of a building near the center of Lakeland showed 6 feet of yellow sand unconformably overlying 10 feet of reddish-yellow, somewhat mottled argillaceous sand. The upper bed may be the Coharie formation. Walton County-There appear to be several rather large remnants of the Coharie terrace in the Choctawhatchee National Forest. They are shown on the topographic maps of the Niceville and De Funiak Springs quadrangles. SUNDERLAND FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name of the Sunderland formation is derived



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70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Ocala limestone is exposed in Willow Sink and several other sinks in the SE4 sec. 34, T. 11 S., R 14 E., 1 / or 2 miles west of Chiefland. It is white or cream-colored and contains several varieties of Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Peronella crustuloides (Morton), and Pecten sp. The rock rises about 13 feet above water level and extends at least 20 feet below. The rock exposed at Wekiva Spring, 12 miles south of Bronson, is cream-colored or yellowish compact to granular limestone composed chiefly of small foraminifers. It rises 3 or 4 feet above water and extends 23 feet below water in the spring. A sample taken about 4 feet below water level does not differ materially from that above it. Many pits for road metal have been opened in Levy County. The pit of the Florida Shell Rock Company, 2 miles north of Williston, shows 38 feet of pure soft limestone that seems somewhat more compact and less friable than that found elsewhere in the formation. A pit near the mouth of Withlacoochee River between Inglis and Yankeetown is about 5 feet deep. It has yielded the echinoids Periarchus lyelli (Conrad), Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry, and Agassizia floridana de Loriol. Madison County-Exposures of the Ocala limestone in Madison County are confined to the banks of Suwannee River and are visible only at low water. The Ocala there is overlain by a thin bed of limestone that is supposed to be of Byram (middle Oligocene) age. The Byram is overlain bythe Suwannee limestone. Marion County-Marion County is the type area of the Ocala limestone, which takes its name from the county seat. The limestone lies near the surface throughout a large part of the county but is covered by deep sand of the Citronelle formation in the eastern part, by the residual sand and hard-rock phosphate of the Alachua formation in the western part, and by outliers of the Hawthorn formation in the central part. The Ocala limestone in Marion County is soft, pure, creamy white, granular, and porous. Most of it is so soft that it can be crumbled in the hand, but harder masses are found in all pits. The surface of the rock is deeply pitted with solution channels and clay-filled holes, some as much as 25 feet deep.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ALUM BLUFF GROUP 137 former members to formations, which she designated as the Chipola formation, the Oak Grove sand, and the Shoal River formation. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 98) retained these names for their typical development but revived the name "Hawthorn formation" for the nearly equivalent beds in the peninsula, which represent a different facies. The formations now included in the Alum Bluff group are the Hawthorn (east of the Apalachicola River), the Chipola, and the Shoal River. The Oak Grove sand is here made a member of the Shoal River formation. Characters-The Alum Bluff group consists predominantly of micaceous sand, sandy clay, fuller's earth, and limestone. The best-known parts of it are the fuller's earth of the Hawthorn formation and the shell beds of Chipola, Shoal River, and Oak Grove, typical characteristic faunas. The Chipola, the most variable, ranges in composition from coarse silicious sand to limestone; the Shoal River consists chiefly of fine sand and clay. The Hawthorn includes fuller's earth, sandy clay, and sandy phosphatic limestone, which leaches into white vesicular sandstone. Thickness-Accurate measurements of the thickness of the Alum Bluff group are wanting. Cole (1938) assigns 555 feet of the Port St. Joe well to the Miocene, but this includes some Tampa limestone at the bottom and possibly some Duplin marl at the top. He tentatively allots 210 feet of this interval to the Chipola and about 110 feet to the Shoal River, not including the Arca zone, which he classified as Choctawhatchee formation [Shoal River formation]. As this well is some 40 miles seaward from the nearest outcrop of the Alum Bluff, the thickness at the surface may be quite different. The thickness of the Hawthorn formation is probably particularly variable because it includes local lenses of fuller's earth. A well at Quincy, which started in fuller's earth of the Hawthorn formation, reached the Tampa limestone at a depth of 210 feet (Cole, 1944, p. 13). Nearly 410 feet is assigned to the Hawthorn in a deep well 4 miles northwest of Hilliard (Cole, 1944, p. 23). Distribution-During Alum Bluff time the sea extended across the southern tip of South Carolina, across southern Georgia almost to the Fall line, across all of Florida, southern



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--BYRAM LIMESTONE 85 MacNeil suggests that the bentonitic clay at the top of the section probably corresponds to high-grade bentonite in the Glendon limestone member in Smith County, Mississippi. Lafayette County-A thin bed of cream-colored limestone, apparently the Byram, lies between the Ocala and the Suwannee limestones in the northern part of Lafayette County. Exposures have been noted at the old bridge near Luraville, where the rock, which contains species of Lepidocyclina, Turritella, and other fossils, emerges 2 feet above water level at a stage of 5 feet. Madison County-Suwannee River, which forms the southeastern boundary of Madison County below Ellaville, flows in a gorge cut through the Suwannee limestone into the Byram limestone. Suwannee County-The best-known exposure of the Byram limestone is that along Suwannee River below the mouth of the Withlacoochee, where a thin bed of limestone intervenes between the Suwannee limestone and the Ocala limestone. This bed passes below water level a short distance above the bridge of the Seaboard Railway and is frequently under water at the mouth of the Withlacoochee. Its extension downstream is probably not as continuous as it has been mapped, and its limits are conjectural. Because of the erosional unconformity at its top, which separates it from the Suwannee limestone, and the erosional unconformity that must separate it from the underlying Ocala limestone if it is really Byram, the bed probably varies considerably in thickness. The following section was measured in 1913 at the Seaboard Railway bridge, which is easily reached from U. S. Highway 90. SECTION ON EAST BANK OF SUWANNEE RIVER OPPOSITE ELLAVILLE FEET Wicomico (?) formation (Pleistocene): 5. Upper part concealed; lower part is argillaceous yellow sand containing small pebbles; the top is level with rail at bridge 16 /2 Unconformity. Suwannee limestone (Oligocene): 4. Hard cream-colored to yellow limestone resembling bed 3 but very massive and without bedding planes; Cassidulus gouldii (Bouv6) very abundant --------10



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 335 PAGE PAGE fossils from -----59 Palatka ----215, 291, 296 larger Foraminifera from -57 quadrangle -----296 Ocala Oil Corporation, well Paleocene series ----14, 33 near York -----21 Paleozoic ------14 OcalaUplift--69, 138, 198 PalmBeach ------270 Ochlockonee River ----155 Palm Beach County, formaOil CityCorporationwell26, 28 tions in224, 256, 270, 307 30, 36, 49 Palm Beach limestone ---266 Oil Development Company of Palmetto ------158 Florida well --28, 30, 31 Pamlico sand -----297 34, 42, 48, 52 Pamlico sea, shore line of --298 Ojus --------261 Pamlico terrace, shore line of -13 Okahumpka ------234 Panacea -------311 Okaloosa County, formations Panama City quadrangle --301 in -164, 173, 235, 278, 280 Parrish, A. L., farm ----104 285, 290, 296, 307 Pascagoula clay -----110 Okeechobee County, formaPasco County, formations in -96 tionsin-----290 130, 159, 308 Okefenokee Swamp -8, 280, 313 Payne Prairie ----148, 287 Oklawaha River ---290 Peace Creek ----153, 208 Talbot terrace along ---295 Pembroke ------160 Old Rhodes Key----264 Penholoway formation--286 Oldsmar limestone ----40 Penholoway terrace, shore line Oldsmar well -34, 40, 42, 47 of ------13, 288 Old Walton Bridge ----165 Peninsular limestone ---53 Oligocene age, late, deposits of 86 Peninsular Oil & Refining Co. Oligocene series ---15, 75 well -27, 30, 32, 34, 40 Orange Bluff --228, 229, 299 42, 48, 52 Orange City-----227 Pensacola -----285, 304 Orange County, formations in 192 quadrangle -----310 223, 235 terrace ------297 Orange Hill --165, 166, 237 Pennsylvanian series ---21 Orange Park quadrangle --295 Peoria -------303 Orbitoides limestone ---53 Perdido River -----304 Orient --113, 116, 126, 222 Permenter's Farm, marl exposed Orlando -----224, 235 on -------178 Ormond -------272 Perry-------291 Orthaulax pugnax zone -113, 125 Peterson, Dick, woodyard --166 Ortona Lock -216, 221, 253 167 Osceola County, formations in 224 Phosphate Mining Co. -159, 209 290 Pinecastle -----223, 235 Oscillations of sea level ---245 Pine Islands ---11, 259, 262 Osprey -------160 Pinellas County, formations in 131 Otahite -----231, 235 192, 224 Oxford, Ocala limestone at -71 Pinemount ------161 Pioneer Oil Co. well -32, 35, 42 P 48, 53 Pittman Creek, Ocala limestone Pahokee -------256 on -------65



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102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENT-,NINE graphic equivalent, on the geologic map, plate 1. The bestknown exposures are south of Chipley. The cylindrical sink at Falling Water, in the NW/4 sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 4 miles south of Chipley, cuts through at least 65 feet of Suwannee limestone (Vernon, 1942, p. 59, says at least 73 feet) and probably nearly reaches its bottom. The Suwannee consists of white to cream-colored soft granular limestone composed in large part of organic remains, including Lepidocyclina sp., Cerithium silicifluvium Dall?, Cardium sp., Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad, and Clypeaster rogersi (Morton). The section at Falling Water is described on pages 134-135. Another well-known outcrop of the Suwannee limestone is at Cedar Grove, 2.3 miles by road south of Chipley. This is a large sink in which there is a quarry. The Suwannee limestone forms the wall of an amphitheater-shaped sink 40 feet deep. The faces on the north and west sides are steep, but those on the other sides slope gently. The rock is white granular limestone composed largely of foraminifers and calcareous algae. Bryozoans are not abundant. When freshly quarried the rock is soft and friable, but it hardens on exposure and weathers very rough on the surface. It contains several species of Lepidocyclina, Diploastrea crassolamellata (Duncan), Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), and several species of mollusks. More than 50 feet of limestone can be seen-on the hillside above a sink crossed by the road to Rock Hill about 2 V2 miles south by east of Chipley. The lower exposures are yellowish and much decomposed. The rock has the appearance of chert but seems not to be silicified. The limestone on top of the hill is compact, white, hard, and contains many Lepidocyclinas and other foraminifers. According to Mossom (1925, p. 189) Suwannee limestone lies at the surface and is exposed in sink holes on the B. M. Waldon place 3 z2 miles southeast of Chipley and on the W. T. Laney place 3 miles south by east of Chipley. A sample of limestone from a sink on the Waldon place contains 92.7 percent of calcium carbonate, and one from the Laney place contains 97.6 percent of calcium carbonate. Vernon (1942,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-WICOMICO FORMATION 283 ------------------------------------^ "" '^ 0 -b FIGURE 44.-Shore line of the Wicomico sea in the Southeastern States. After CooKE, 1939c fig. 13.



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154 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE to white calcareous sandstone that looks like limestone but weathers into fine greenish-gray sand is visible at one of the sinks. Fragments of oyster shells, presumably Ostrea, normalis, lie on the bank, but none were seen in the rock. In the upper courses of the streams light-green sand containing a little clay crops out in the banks. It carries Ostrea normalis. At the Cascades, about 2 miles southeast of Lloyd, a small stream plunges over ledges of soft calcareous sandstone and flows into a sink about 40 feet below. Leon County-Although nearly all of Leon County is underlain by sandy limestone of Hawthorn age, the unaltered rock is exposed at few places. Nearly everywhere the formation is so deeply weathered that most of its lime has been removed in solution, leaving behind loose sand or friable sandstone and sandy clay. The following section by Sellards (1917b, p. 104) may be regarded as typical of the weathered Hawthorn formation in the neighborhood of Tallahassee: SECTION ON BAINBRIDGE ROAD 4 MILES NORTHWEST OF TALLAHASSEE FEET [Hawthorn formation (middle Miocene)]: 4. Finely laminated clayey sands, passing at the top into the soil -8 3. Cross-bedded clayey sands, often with white partings ---25 2. Greenish clay which upon weathering breaks into small pieces -3 1. Yellow sands at the base of the exposure -------2 Cuts on the highway to Monticello one mile north of Tallahassee show 25 feet of weathered red and yellow sand and sandy clay, the clay at the base resembling fuller's earth. The sand contains irregular slabs of white sandstone 1 or 2 inches thick, 6 inches or more wide, and rarely as much as 1 foot long. Weathered Hawthorn formation is exposed almost continuously from Tallahassee to Monticello. It consists chiefly of more or less argillaceous sand ranging in color from orange to mottled red or yellow or to brick red. Ledges of sandstone are rather common, but most of the sandstone is broken into small irregular lumps that apparently occupy nearly their original positions. Some of the bedding planes undulate as though they had been disturbed by subsidence resulting from the solution of limestone underground.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 151 Sirenian bones, Siderastraea sp., and Ostrea normalis were found as float. SECTION IN LANGSTON'S SINK FEET Hawthorn formation: 4. Sand and humus --------------2 3. Gray or yellow sand containing pebbles of the underlying sandstone; apparently all residual -----------3 2. Pebbly, argillaceous, phosphatic white sandstone, slightly effervescent with hydrochloric acid ----------8 1. Green to white clay containing many clay concretions and some quartz sand at bottom; very sandy and not concretionary at top; to water's edge--------------14 Gadsden County-All of Gadsden County except the narrow valley of the Apalachicola is underlain by the Hawthorn formation, but most of the western half is covered by the Citronelle formation or high-level Pleistocene terrace deposits. The principal exposures of the Hawthorn are in the escarpment facing the Apalachicola and in the region east of the longitude of Quincy. About 42 feet of sandy clay overlies the Tampa. limestone at Chattahoochee. A section there is given on page 122. Fuller's earth was formerly mined at the old Hymeson place, 4 miles east of River Junction. According to Vaughan (1902, p. 926) the deposit is at least 8 feet thick. The top of this bed is about 208 feet above sea level. Throughout most of Gadsden County there are two beds of fuller's earth, each 2 to 8 feet thick, separated by a bed of gray sand, which at places is as much as 5 feet thick. The combined thickness of all three beds rarely exceeds 18 feet. Good exposures can be seen at many places between Havana and Quincy along U.S. Highway 90. The principal mines are 1 mile north of Quincy, at Midway, and at Jamieson. The sandy stratum between the two fuller's earth beds at Quincy has yielded several skeletons of the dugong Hesperosiren cratae'gensis Simpson (1932a, p. 427). These are the best-preserved sirenian bones of any yet found in the Western Hemisphere. This bed has yielded a tooth of a three-toed horse that has been named Merychippus gunteri Simpson (1930c, p. 165)..According to Simpson (1930c, p. 157)



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S GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 301 18 miles long by 12 miles wide occupied the area now included in West Bay, North Bay, and the adjacent shores. Its southwestern shore line extended northwestward from St. Andrews (Panama City quadrangle) probably to Bayou George. Its northern boundary passed about 1 /2 miles north of Southport (Southport quadrangle) and apparently followed the inner edge of the swamp below the 30-foot contour line 2 to 7 miles west of Southport and also on the West Bay quadrangle. The delta of Choctawhatchee River separated it from Choctawhatchee Bay and partly enclosed it on the southwest. The peninsula south of St. Andrews Bay was under water during Pamlico time. The shore of the Gulf followed the north shore of St. Andrews Bay from St. Andrews to Millville but lay 2 or 3 miles inland east of Millville. Brevard County-Nearly all of Brevard County probably lies within the Pamlico terrace. During Pamlico time a chain of long, narrow barrier islands about 3 miles inland from the present Indian River shut off a wide lagoon now followed by St. Johns River. The water in this lagoon may have been fresh or brackish-at any rate, the meadows along it supported enough edible grass to furnish food for many large animals. Bones of these grass eaters and of the carnivores that preyed on them occur locally in great abundance along the eastern shore of this lagoon, where they were probably buried by sand blown across the islands from the seashore and dropped in the shallow, grassy marshes. The typical locality of the Melbourne bone bed is the bank of a drainage canal that crosses the golf course of the Melbourne Country Club 100 yards south of the Kissimmee highway, 3 V2 miles west of the railway station at Melbourne, in the middle of sec. 6, T. 28 S., R. 37 E. The section at that place is as follows: SECTION ON GOLF COURSE AT MELBOURNE FEET Recent deposits: 3. Swamp and stream deposits consisting of peat and partly decomposed roots, bark, and leaves, interstratified with yellowish or drab sand containing fresh-water mussel shells ----05 Unconformity (late Wisconsin glacial stage) Melbourne bone bed of the Pamlico sand





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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FORT THOMPSON FORMATION 255 6. Marine shell bed, the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member (Sangamon interglacial stage), commonly preserved only in solution holes but locally extending a few inches thick overbed6-------------0 -3 Unconformity (Illinoian glacial stage) 5b. Hard fresh-water limestone (Illinoian glacial stage) riddled with solution holes filled with Coffee Mill Hammock marl member------------2 -3 5a. Soft fresh-water calcareous marl (Illinoian glacial stage) cut through by solution holes filled with Coffee Mill Hammock marl member ---------1 -2 4. Marine shell bed (Yarmouth interglacial stage) ---0 -/2 Unconformity (Kansan glacial stage) 3. Fresh-water shell marl (Kansan glacial stage) locally hardened in top 6 inches to hard limestone ----1 V2-2 2. Marine shell bed (Aftonian interglacial stage), present only in low and protected areas in the underlying beds; a conglomeratic layer at the base -------0 -V4 Unconformity (Nebraskan glacial stage) Caloosahatchee formation (Pliocene): 1. Creamy-gray shell marl with an oyster zone at top. To low-tide level ------------0 -1 FIGURE 35.--Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thompson. The hard ledges are fresh-water limestone in the Fort Thompson formation. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 29.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 159, on the old Raysor place, midway between Lowell and Sparr. The Hawthorn is separated from the underlying Ocala limestone by a thin bed of fossiliferous limestone that has been identified as Tampa (Mansfield, 1937b, p. 23). Pasco County-The hilly region that extends from Zephyrhills northward some miles into Hernando County is underlain by fine red or orange sand and clay that appears to have been derived from the Hawthorn formation. A railroad cut 1.8 miles north of Richland shows 8 feet of fine loose orange sand containing nodules of cherty sandstone. Road cuts near Hickory Hills show about 40 feet of compact fine red and orange sand. Polk County-The bedrock that unconformably underlies the Bone Valley formation in the phosphate mines of Polk County consists of yellow' sandy limestone containing impressions of marine shells and pellets of phosphatic minerals. According to Matson (1915, p. 33) few of the exposures in the phosphate mines are thicker than 5 or 6 feet, though a well in the Coronet mine penetrated limestone of the Hawthorn formation to a depth of nearly 30 feet. Two feet of yellow sandy limestone (bedrock) containing pellets of a hard and brittle dark-brown phosphatic mineral as well as impressions of mollusks was exposed in 1927 at the bottom of a pit of the Phosphate Mining Company 1 /2 miles east of Bartow on the Lake Wales road. The bedrock in a mine of the Coronet Phosphate Company about 5 miles southeast of Plant City yielded fossils that were identified by Dall (Matson, 1915, p. 14) as follows: Busycon, n. sp. Pecten sayanus Dall (Oak Grove species) Arca santarosana Dall (Chipola, Sopchoppy of Dall, Oak Grove) dodona Dall? (Oak Grove) umbonata Lamarck (Chipola to Recent) Chione glyptocyma Dall (Oak Grove) Cardita tegea Dall (Chipola, Tampa) Mytiloconcha incurva Conrad (Sopchoppy of Dall) These fossil mollusks appear to indicate that the bedrock is about the age of the Oak Grove sand member of the Shoal River formation. This age is confirmed by W. C. Mansfield



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FORT THOMPSON FORMATION 251 STA. 325 25 FT. 7d .s J"^ I Li-f l e -'. ATER LINE -_( 2LOW TIDE EXPLANATION SPOIL, DREDGED OUT IN DEEPENING '. MARINE SHELL BED WITH MIXTURE AND STRAIGHTENING CALOOSAHAT"-OF FRESH WATER SHELLS AT CHEE RIVER. """ BASE. YARMOUTH INTERGLACIAL STAGE. BLACK CARBONACEOUS SAND, S OF THE LAKE FLIRT MARL. -FRESH WATER GRAY CALCAREOUS S MARL, LOCALLY HARDENED IN UP-PER PORTION TO A HARD GRAY GRAY CALCAREOUS QUARTZ SAND LIMESTONE. HELISOMA AND AMERS WITH A FEW FRESH WATER SHELLS, IA SPS. KANSAN GLACIAL STAGE. HELISOMA AND AMERIA SPS., WASHED IN FROM NEARBY LAND AREAS. C C (C MARINE SHELLS, FOUND ONLY LOPAMLICO. cc 2 CALLY IN SOLUTION HOLES OR DE"C PRESSIONS IN BED NO. I, OR LYMARINE SHELL BED, THE COFFEE ING ON OR MIXED IN WITH A THIN "MILL HAMMOCK MARL. SANGAMON BASAL CONGLOMERATE, AFTONIAN INTERGLACIAL STAGE. INTERGLACIAL STAGE. FRESH WATER GRAY MARL (56 ) MARINE SHELL MARL. CALOOSACONSOLIDATED IN UPPER PORTION I HATCHEE MARL. PLIOCENE. TO MAKE A HARD FRESH WATER LIMESTONE (5b ). HELISOMA AND AMERIA SPS. ILLINOIAN GLACIAL STAGE. NOTE: CORRELATIONS TENTATIVE. GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION at Sta.325Type locality of the Fort Thompson formation FIGURE 34.-Section of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits on Caloosahatchee River at Fort Thompson. 1, Caloosahatchee formation (Pliocene); 2-6, Fort Thompson formation (Pleistocene); 2, marine shells filling solution holes, probably of Aftonian stage; 3, fresh-water marl and limestone containing fresh-water snails, probably of Kansan stage; 4, marine shells, probably of Yarmouth stage; 5, fresh-water marl hardened at top and containing fresh-water snails, probably of Illinoian stage; 6, marine shells, Coffee Mill Hammock marl member, probably of Sangamon stage; 7-8, Pamlico sand, upper part (8) stained with carbonaceous matter during Lake Flirt time, probably of Wisconsin stage. (9) Spoil bank dredged from river. After PARKER and COOKE, 1944, fig. 4.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 317 COOKE, C. WYTHE (See also VAUGHAN, T. W., 1914; and PARKER, G. G., 1944.) 1915. The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95, pp. 107-117. 1917. The stratigraphic position and faunal associates of the orbitoid Foraminifera of the genus Orthophragmina from Georgia and Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108, pp. 109-113. 1918. Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Mississippi and Alabama: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 8, pp. 186-198. 1922. The Byram calcareous marl of Mississippi: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, pp. 79-85. 1923. The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, pp. 1-9. 1924. American and European Eocene and Oligocene mollusks: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 851-856. 1925. Physical geography of Georgia; the Coastal Plain: Georgia Geol. Survey Bull. 42, pp. 19-54. 1926a. Geology of Alabama; the Cenozoic formations: Alabama Geol. Survey Special Report 14, pp. 251-297, 5 pls. 1926b. Correlation of the basal Cretaceous beds of the southeastern States: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 140, pp. 137-139. 1926c. Fossil man and Pleistocene vertebrates in Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 5, vol. 12, pp. 441-452. 1928. The stratigraphy and age of the Pleistocene deposits in Florida from which human bones have been reported: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 18, no. 15, pp. 414-421. 1929. (and STUART MOSSOM). Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 20, pp. 29-227, 29 pls., incl. geol. map. 1930a. Pleistocene seashores: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 389-395. 1930b. Correlation of coastal terraces: Jour. Geology, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 577-589. 1931. Seven coastal terraces in the southeastern States: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour. vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 503-513. 1932. Tentative correlation of American glacial chronology with the marine time scale: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 310-312. 1935a. Tentative ages of Pleistocene shore lines: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 331-333. 1935b. Notes on the Vicksburg group: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1162-1172. 1936a. (and W. C. MANSFIELD). Suwannee limestone of Florida (abstract): Geol. Soc. America Proc. for 1935, pp. 71-72. 1936b. Geology of the Coastal Plain of South Carolina: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 867, 196 pp., 18 pls., incl. geol. maps.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 305 part of Hendry County during Pamlico time and extended southward into Collier County and westward into Lee County. The remainder of the county was submerged by shallow water. The Pamlico sand in this region is rarely thicker than 2 feet. Hillsborough County-A strip of land several miles wide bordering the present west coast of Hillsborough County was submerged under shallow water during Pamlico time. The Pamlico sand there is only a few feet thick. Indian River County-Most of Indian River County was submerged during Pamlico time, but there were barrier islands not far back of the present seashore. These islands supported many land animals, whose bones were buried in wind-blown sand dropped in the marshes behind them. Bones were first found near Vero Beach in 1913, and the discovery of human bones there threw the spotlight on the region, and much has been written about it. The literature to 1919 relating to human remains and artifacts there has been listed by Sellards (1919a). Geologic conditions at Vero Beach are similar to those at Melbourne except that in place of the Recent swamp deposit that covers the Melbourne bone bed the stream deposits of Van Valkenburg Creek were deposited in a valley cut through the Pamlico sand (the original bone bed) into the underlying Anastasia formation. These stream deposits contain some bones of extinct animals reworked from the Pamlico and others of existing species that appear to be contemporaneous with the stream deposits. This mixture of Recent and Pleistocene faunas was first detected by R. T. Chamberlin (1917). The Melbourne fauna has been found at Vero Beach chiefly in and near the banks of the drainage canal between the spillway and the bridge a mile north of the railway station. Exposures farther inland on the canal have yielded few fossils. The following section, which was described by Chamberlin (1917, pp. 30, 31) has been altered by the insertion of formation names and age assignments:



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86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 3. Hard, compact chalky-white to pink crystalline limestone; lower 2 feet appears to be brecciated; upper part is thinbedded ---------------4 Unconformity. Byram limestone (Oligocene): 2. Soft white marly limestone, indurated in places; contains a few bryozoans and many fragments of Clypeaster rogersi (Morton)-------------2 1. White or creamy yellow compact limestone loaded with molds of mollusks (U.S.G.S. 6824); honeycombed by solution; extends to water level ----------5$ 2 Bed 1 contains Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad), Clypeaster rogersi (Morton), Cassidulus alabamensis Twitchell, Olivella afluens Casey, Mitra conquisita Conrad, and many other fossils, which are preserved only as hollow molds. All of the species listed occur elsewhere in the Byram, and some of them are restricted to it. Although the presence of the Ocala limestone is not indicated in the section near Ellaville it is believed to be exposed below the Byram at very low stages of the river, and it crops out above water level farther downstream. DEPOSITS OF LATE OLIGOCENE AGE SUWANNEE LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Suwannee limestone" was .proposed by Cooke and Mansfield (1936a, p. 71) for yellowish limestone typically exposed along Suwannee River in Florida from Ellaville almost to White Springs. The rock to which it was applied had previously been called by various names. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 73) referred it to the Hawthorn formation. Mossom (1925, pp. 73-77; 1926, pp. 181-182) placed it in the Glendon formation, by which name the equivalent beds in Georgia, now called the Flint River formation, were then known. Later, Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 8991) transferred it to the Tampa limestone because they recognized its equivalence with limestone in Hernando County then supposed to be Tampa (Mossom, 1925, p. 79). Further study has verified both of these correlations, but the beds in Georgia are now known to be younger than the typical Glen-



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88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE geologic map. Outcrops of the limestone facies are confined to a strip along the southern border of this area. Stratigraphic relations-The Suwannee limestone lies unconformably on the Byram limestone or, where that is absent, on the Ocala. It is overlain unconformably by the Tampa limestone or by the Hawthorn formation (fig. 12). The contact with the Byram is exposed along Suwannee River near Ellaville; that with the Tampa on Blackwater Creek in Hillsborough County, though it is normally under water. The Suwannee limestone appears to be the offshore equivalent of the Flint River formation, with which it probably merges in northwestern Florida and in Georgia. Its equivalent in western Alabama and in Mississippi is the Chickasawhay limestone. These three formations represent the deposits of a transgressing sea, which extended northward and northeastward far beyond the limits of the Byram and Marianna. FIGURE 12.-Unconformable contact of the Suwannee limestone (white) below the Hawthorn formation (dark) in the left bank of Suwannee River about half a mile above the old bridge onthe road from White Springs to Lake City. Photograph by Herman Gunter.. After MANSFIELD, 1937b, pl. C, fig. 1.



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140 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1 3 2 L. 4 FIGURE 18.-Fossils from the Alum Bluff group. 1-2, Ostrea rugifera Dall; 3-4, Ostrea normalis Dall. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 10.



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78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE above water then. The shore line (fig. 4) seems to have extended west-northwestward from Jackson County across Alabama and southward into the present Gulf, probably lying along the western side of the Floridian Plateau. Fauna-Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton), Pecten poulsoni Morton, and Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) are the only commonly identified fossils in the Marianna limestone. All three were described in 1834 from limestone in the vicinity of Claiborne, Alabama, then supposed to be of Cretaceous age, but now included in the Marianna limestone. All are common in the Marianna throughout its extent. In Alabama, Bryozoa are locally abundant, and 82 species are listed by Canu and Bassler (1920, pp. 34-38) from a single lot collected by the writer one mile north of Monroeville, Alabama. From nine localities in Jackson County, Cole and Ponton (1930) record 56 species and varieties of Foraminifera. Of these Lepidocyclina mantelli, L. mantelli papillata, Eponides mariannensis, and Operculinella dia are the only species that they supposed to be restricted to the Marianna. It is doubtful, however, that even these are so restricted, for the most fossiliferous bed at Marianna, from which, presumably, most of Cole and Ponton's collections were derived, is here regarded as Byram limestone. One teleost fish of the snapper family, Lutianus avus Gregory (1930), has been found in the Marianna limestone at Marianna. It is unknown elsewhere. Utilization-The Marianna limestone is much used locally as a building stone. From Mississippi to Florida farm houses within easy hauling distance of outcrops of the Marianna have chimneys built of blocks sawed from the massive beds of Marianna limestone. The chimney rock is used to some extent for walls, but it is too soft and porous to give complete satisfaction. LOCAL DETAILS Holmes County-Vernon (1942) maps the Marianna limestone in two areas in Holmes County, one extending from the Choctawhatchee River 4 miles northwest of Westville northwestward to the Walton County line, the other east of Wrights Creek for 2 miles above Little Gum Creek. The thickest ex-



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118 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE originally described under the name Echinocardium depressum Clark. This species is known only from Chattahoochee, Gadsden County. The abbreviated peninsula of Florida during Tampa time was inhabited by a considerable variety of animals, including camels, deer, three-toed horses, rhinoceroses, dogs, and weasels, as well as land birds and waterfowl. The shallow waters near shore were probably the home of a sirenian (dugong). No remains of these land animals have unquestionably been found entombed in the Tampa limestone itself, but it is inferred that bones and teeth showing early Miocene affinities that lie in the lower part of the Hawthorn formation or just below the marine basal beds of the Hawthorn represent animals that lived during Tampa time. These may occupy old sink holes in the Suwannee or Tampa limestones, in which the animals were entrapped, or they may have been reworked into the littoral deposits of the advancing Hawthorn sea. It is not. likely that many bones so situated are as young as the Hawthorn formation, for the Hawthorn sea apparently covered all of the present peninsula, and the shore line stood at least 40 miles away from the nearest bone-bearing locality. Sellards (1916a, pp. 82-90) reports bones and teeth of Mesocyon? iamonensis Sellards (a dog), Parahippus leonensis Sellards (a three-toed horse), Oxydactylus? sp. (a camel), and Leptomeryx? sp. (a deerlike mammal) from near the bottom of a 60-foot well on the Griscom plantation in sec. 32, T. 3 N., R. 1 E., about 15 miles north of Tallahassee. The vertebrate fossils were embedded in gray phosphatic sand, apparently Hawthorn, which overlies hard limestone supposed by Sellards to be Chattahoochee [Tampa] limestone, but which is more probably Suwannee. Mesocyon? iamonensis has been found also in pit no. 2 of the Franklin Phosphate Company in sec. 31, T. 9 S., R. 17 E., near Newberry, Alachua County. With it were Parahippus sp., Caenopus or Diceratherium sp. (a rhinoceros), Oxydactylus? sp., and Blastomeryx? sp. (a deer) (Simpson, 1930c, p. 159). These bones probably occupied a sink in the Ocala limestone. According to Simpson (1930c, p. 160) the vertebrates



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38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE fauna was found between 2400 and 3061 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944). Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle (sec. 21, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.); total depth of well, 4912 feet. The Applins report the Tamesi fauna between depths of 2060 and 2545 feet.



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GEOLO( OF FLORIDA-GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS 17 GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA Erosion interval. Lake Flirt marl (fresh-water, partly z Recent). u Pamlico sand (littoral, shore line at 25 feet). Erosion interval. Talbot formation (littoral, shore line at 42 feet). o w Penholoway formation < (littoral, shore line at o 0 Z" 70 feet). E| $4 pH Wicomico formation W (littoral, shore line at i > 100 feet). z 0 Erosion interval. Fresh-water limestone in the S 5 Fort Thompson formation. z W Sunderland formation So (littoral, shore line at 170 feet). P -4 Coharie formation (littoral, shore line at 215 feet). w Erosion interval. Fresh-water limestone in the S Fort Thompson formation. z0 4 0 Brandywine formation S (littoral, shore line at 270 feet). z 0< Erosion interval.



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164 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Liberty County-Most of Liberty County is covered by Pleistocene terrace deposits, but there are a few exposures of the Alum Bluff group along Apalachicola River above Bristol. At Alum Bluff, a mile-long curving bluff more than 100 feet high, 2 or 3 miles north of Bristol, the lower 20 feet, more or less, depending on the stage of the river, is referred to the Chipola formation. This part of the bluff is divisible into two conformable beds. (See section, p. 191.) The upper bed, 16 feet thick, is light-gray and firm. It consists of fine grains of transparent quartz embedded in a white calcareous matrix. Fossil marine mollusks are scattered throughout the bed, but at the top the shells have been dissolved. Large rounded concretionary masses of hard white calcareous sandstone are embedded at the top. The lower bed at Alum Bluff, which is frequently under water, contains innumerable marine shells embedded in yellowish calcareous sandy clay. One of the most conspicuous species is Orthaulax gabbi Dall. This shell bed was first brought to notice by Frank Burns, who collected there in November 1889. The bluff had been visited two years before by Langdon (1889, p. 322), but high water concealed the shell bed. Okaloosa County-Many road cuts in the northeastern part of Okaloosa County show light-colored mottled clay and occasional lumps of hard white sandstone, which have been mapped as Chipola formation although .there is little direct evidence as to their age. Such exposures have been noted on State Highway 165 east of Oak Grove in sections 23 and 24, T. 5 N., R. 23 W., and near the southeast corner of sec. 17, T. 5 N., R. 22 W. On State Highway 234 (Florala to Deerland) there are exposures in secs. 23 and 35, T. 5 N., R. 22 W., and lumps of hard white sandstone were seen in sec. 11, T. 4 N., R. 22 W. Most of the upland in this region is capped by red sand of the Citronelle formation. Walton County-Light-colored sand and clay like those of Okaloosa County are prevalent in the northern part of Walton County. There are many exposures along a road leading westward to the county line from State Highway 40 in sec. 31, T. 5 N., R. 20 W. and several on the highway both north and south of that road.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 287 Distribution-A band of Penholoway formation fringes the Wicomico formation. It roughly parallels the present coast but crosses the peninsula somewhere near the latitude of Tampa. Stratigraphic relations-As the Penholoway formation was deposited in a sea made somewhat smaller by the withdrawal from the Wicomico shore line at 100 feet above present sea level to a new one at 70 feet, the formation lies conformably on the Wicomico except where the sea bottom remained bare during Wicomico time. This may have been the condition at many places offshore or far from sources of sand or silt. Similarly, Penholoway time was terminated by a further withdrawal to 42 feet, and such Penholoway deposits as then remained submerged were covered conformably by the Talbot formation. Paleo'geography-With the fall of the sea from the Wicomico to the Penholoway level, the Wicomico islands fused into a longer peninsula, which extended southward about to the Highland-Glades County line. The shore line, at an altitude near 70 feet above present sea level, lay close to the present coast at the western extremity of the State but farther back elsewhere. It appears to have been much embayed in the central part of the peninsula. Its generalized outline is shown in figure 45. The water was nearly 70 feet deep over the present Everglades and near the present coast. Deposition of sand and silt probably did not extend very far from shore. Fauna-No fossils have been reported from the Penholoway deposits in Florida.' Utilization-The Penholoway formation may include workable deposits of sand and brick clay. KTCAL DETAILS Alachua County-Payne Prairie and several lake basins lie within the limits of the Penholoway terrace. It is not now apparent whether the slightly higher land surrounding them, in which they have been entrenched by subterranean solution, represents the shallow sea bottom of Penholoway time, or whether it is a lacustrine terrace that owes its concordant C



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TERTIARY SYSTEM 197 PLIOCENE SERIES GENERAL FEATURES Although the Pliocene epoch is represented in Florida by seven mappable formations, which underlie about two-thirds of the State, all seven appear to be essentially contemporaneous. One, the Alachua formation, is nonmarine and contains bones of land animals of middle Pliocene (Hemphill) age. Most of these species and several others occur also in the Bone Valley formation, which is partly estuarine and partly marine in origin. These two faunas are obviously contemporaneous. The Bone Valley probably merges southward into the Caloosahatchee formation, which contains a large and varied fauna of marine shells in unconsolidated sand. The Caloosahatchee merges southwestward into calcareous clay called the Buckingham marl, whose rather meager molluscan fauna represents a different facies. Still another facies is found in the Tamiami formation, a partly consolidated sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone, which interfingers with the Caloosahatchee. These four marine formations underlie nearly all of Florida south of Tampa. The Caloosahatchee also underlies most of the Atlantic coastal region, but on St. Marys River it is replaced by a clayey facies, the Charlton formation, resembling the Buckingham and presumably contemporaneous with the others. The seventh formation is the Citronelle, which appears to be the littoral equivalent of the other six, though there is little direct evidence as to its age. All of these Pliocene formations lie unconformably on Miocene or older deposits and are overlain unconformably by formations of Pleistocene age. At the end of the Miocene epoch the entire peninsula, probably all of the Floridian Plateau, was dry land. From the distribution and composition of the Pliocene formations it can be inferred that at the time of their accumulation the Gulf of Mexico was more deeply embayed at the north than now, and the Atlantic Ocean extended inland some 5 0 miles in Florida beyond its present beach. The western shore of the peninsula north of Tampa, however, lay some distance seaward from its present location, though the



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLIOCENE SERIES 203 from the Hawthorn formation and equivalent to the Alachua. No details of the formations there are available, but the adjoining area in Georgia was reported on by McCallie (1896). Hernando County-The hard-rock phosphate deposits extend southward into Hernando County west of Withlacoochee River. Several old phosphate pits visited in 1915 were similar to those farther north. As is usual in the hard-rock region, white sand carries the ore. The Ocala limestone underlies the Alachua formation. Lafayette County-An outlying area of hard-rock phosphate occupies the southwestern part of Lafayette County west of Steinhatchee River. No details are available. Levy County-A broad strip of Alachua formation extends along the eastern part of Levy County. It forms a sandy ridge bordered on each side by Ocala limestone. There are many old mines between Williston and Romeo. Marion County-Phosphate rock was once mined in the vicinity of Anthony, but the main field lies in the western part of Marion County, between Romeo and Dunnellon, which was once the metropolis of the phosphate-mining industry. Suwannee County-The southern part of Suwannee County includes phosphate rock derived from the Hawthorn formation and lying on the Ocala limestone and perhaps also on the Suwannee. According to Sellards (1913, p. 32) there are old pits 2 miles north of Hildreth. BONE VALLEY FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Bone Valley gravel was so named by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 138) "from a locality west of Bartow, where the beds are exploited on a large scale." As gravel makes up only a small fraction of the deposit, the descriptive part of the name is here discarded in favor of the more general term "formation." Eldridge (1893) referred to the deposit as "land pebble phosphate," and Dall (1892, pp. 137-138) called it simply "pebble phosphates."



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES 49 Suwannee County-City well at Live Oak, depths 475 to 650 feet; total depth of well, 650 feet. Wakulla County-Bonheur Development Company well (sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 1750 to 2169 feet; total depth of well, 2169 feet. Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land & Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.), depths 775 to about 1508 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. Clastic facies. Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle (sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 375 to 970 feet; total depth of well, 4912 feet. Clastic facies. TALLAHASSEE LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-Applin and Applin (1944) are proposing the name Tallahassee for limestone found in eight wells near Tallahassee. Characters-The formation is composed chiefly of creamcolored and tan crystalline limestone and some softer argillaceous limestone. It includes a little tan clay, chert, and gypsum. Thickness-The thickness of the Tallahassee limestone ranges from about 75 feet in wells near its western edge to 650 feet in Jefferson County. Distribution-The known geographic range of the Tallahassee limestone extends from Calhoun County on the west to Leon and Wakulla Counties on the east. It extends northward into Decatur County, Georgia. Eastward and southward it merges into unfossiliferous limestone, which extends as far as Nassau County and southward to Polk County. Stratigraphic relations-The Tallahassee overlies the Lake City limestone and underlies the Avon Park limestone, which is overlapped at Quincy by the Ocala limestone. The Tallahassee is probably conformable with the Lake City and the Avon Park, but it is unconformable with the Ocala, if the relations inferred from the distribution are correct.



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264 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The living reef was killed by the fall of sea level attending the Wisconsin glacial stage. It was submerged again briefly during the mid-Wisconsin recession (Pamlico time) but soon emerged and has since remained above water except in the low passes between the present keys. Fauna-Corals locally comprise about one-fourth of the bulk of the Key Largo limestone. Large colonial coral heads are the most abundant forms. Many of them have been perforated with boring mollusks. So far as is known, none of the species are extinct. Utilization-Many public buildings in Florida are constructed of blocks of coral-bearing Key Largo limestone, which presents an attractive and distinctive appearance. FIGURE 38.-Key Largo limestone at Key Largo. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 11. LOCAL DETAILS Dade County-Sands Key, Elliotts Key, and Old Rhodes Key, the three northernmost islands of the group to which the name Florida Keys is usually applied, are mapped as Key Largo limestone by Sanford (1909, pl. 1; 1913, pl. 1), but no details of its occurrence are available. Monroe County--Quarries at Key Largo station on Key



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188 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE quarry at the fork of Black Creek a mile downstream show cream-colored to yellow fine calcareous sand or sandy limestone rising 17 feet above tide and overlain by about 5 feet of red sand and gray clay. Fossils are somewhat better preserved here than at the other locality, but none specifically determinable were found. Green Cove Spring issues from submerged rock that appears to be sandy limestone, perhaps of Duplin age. The water is strongly sulphurous. Franklin County-Although most if not all of Franklin County is probably underlain by the Duplin marl, exposures are rare because the region is covered by a mantle of Pleistocene terrace deposits. In 1915 E. H. Sellards obtained fossil shells (U.S.G.S. 7474) from a shallow pit on the south side of Rock Creek about half a mile south of Knox. Still Landing on New River, an estimated 15 miles by water from Carrabelle. Sellards and Gunter (1922, p. 103) describe the exposure as limestone or marl, and Mansfield (1932, p. 22) refers it to the Cancellaria zone. Leon County-Only the southwestern part of Leon County is underlain by the Duplin marl. The formation is exposed on Ochlockonee River and its tributaries and in sinkholes south of Tallahassee. Fossils representing both the Ecphora zone and the overlying Cancellaria zone have been obtained at Jackson Bluff on the Ochlockonee in the SW14 sec. 16, T. 1 S., R. 4 W. According to measurements by Sellards and Gunter (see section, p. 156) the Duplin is 16.5 feet thick there. It unconformably overlies the Hawthorn formation and is overlain by terrace deposits. The Cancellaria zone crops out on Harvey Creek in the SW4 sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., about half a mile above an old mill, and the Ecphora zone at the mill, which is about half a mile above the bridge on State Highway 500. About 2 feet of coarse cream-colored shell marl was exposed in 1926 on Polk Creek above Highway 500. Mansfield (1932, p. 20) collected fossils from the Cancellaria zone on Double Branch in sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., just above the highway bridge.



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208 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE LOCAL DETAILS De Soto County-The northwestern part of De Soto County is underlain by pebble phosphate deposits containing more than 55 percent of bone phosphate of lime (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5). A ditch 0.9 mile south of the junction of State Highways 2 and 18 and about 1 2 miles south of Arcadia cuts into clay and phosphate, presumably the Bone Valley formation. A ditch along State Highway 18, 11.1 miles east of Arcadia, shows brown sand and a few small lumps of gray sandstone. The transition of the Caloosahatchee formation probably takes place somewhere in this region, for Caloosahatchee shells were thrown from a ditch on State Highway 2 about 13 miles south of Arcadia and 2 miles north of the Charlotte County line. Hardee County-All of Hardee County appears to be underlain by the Bone Valley formation, for it includes pebble phosphates richer than 5 5 percent of bone phosphate of lime (Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5). The Miocene bedrock is visible.at a few places along Peace Creek, but no details of the occurrence of the Bone Valley are available. Presumably the formation is marine in this area. Highlands County-Pebble phosphates are mapped (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5) as extending into the northwestern part of Highlands County. Hillsborough County-The eastern part of Hillsborough County includes phosphate deposits as rich as 74 percent of bone phosphate of lime (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5). Lightgray pebble phosphate was noted in 1927 in a road cut in sec. 19, T. 30 S., R. 21 E., 5 miles east of Riverview, near Fishhawk Creek. The Bone Valley, containing brown and gray nodules of phosphate, probably overlies the Hawthorn formation at Lithia Springs in sec. 17, T. 30 S., R. 21 E. Manatee County-More than half of Manatee County is underlain by pebble phosphate richer than 55 percent bone phosphate of lime (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5). Yellow or cream-colored marl or clayey sand, possibly Bone Valley, containing particles of phosphate, some of which are as large as a pea, is exposed in a ditch on the road to Ellenton 1.7 miles south of Gillett.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 119 found near Newberry and on the Griscom plantation, which are clearly contemporaneous, cannot be older than Miocene nor younger than early Miocene. He correlates them with the lower part of the Harrison beds of Hatcher in Nebraska or the Rosebud beds of Matthew and Gidley in South Dakota. A more prolific locality for fossil bones was discovered by J. Clarence Simpson, of the Florida Geological Survey, in 1931 on the Raeford Thomas farm, now owned by the University of Florida, in Gilchrist County, 8 miles north of Bell. The early discoveries there have been studied by George Gaylord' Simpson (1932b), of the American Museum of Natural History, and additions to the fauna have been reported on by Theodore E. White (1942) and Alexander Wetmore (1943). The beds containing the bones are interpreted by White as a fluviatile deposit of Hawthorn age. It seems more likely, however, that they accumulated at the bottom of a sink, probably containing a pool of water, during Tampa time. The sink was in the Ocala limestone, and the filling included debris from the Suwannee limestone, which apparently formed the land surface. The deposit is said to be overlain, in part, by vesicular sandstone believed to represent the Hawthorn formation. Sandstone of this description lies at the base of the Hawthorn formation in Alachua and Marion Counties. In regions underlain by the Ocala and Suwannee limestones sinks are much more common than flowing streams, which are confined to places where the water table is too high for the drainage to flow underground. Moreover, some natural trap such as a steep-walled sink is needed to account for the great accumulation of bones and for their preservation. The land animals in the following list are cited by White (1942) from the Thomas farm, the bird by Wetmore (1943): Carnivora: Mustelidae: Mephititaxus ancipidens White Daphaenus caroniavorus White Paradephaenus nobilis Simpson tropicalis White Amphicyon intermedius White longiramus White Nothocyon insularis White Tomarctus conavus (Simpson) thomasi White



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ANASTASIA FORMATION 269 and the upper, sloping beds accumulated during the Sangamon interglacial stage. Another possibility is that the upper beds represent a beach of the Pamlico sea. This is the interpretation advanced by Cooke (1939c, p. 53) in his "Scenery of Florida." The beds are at the proper altitude for a Pamlico beach, and the broken shells may have been derived from the older bed. A cut on the new, direct road to Bunnell half a mile northnorthwest of this place exposes 14 or 15 feet of similar coquina. Indian River County-A shell bed composed of common existing species of mollusks was cut into by a drainage canal along Van Valkenburg Creek one mile north of Vero Beach. The bed, which was referred to the Anastasia by Chamberlin (1917, p. 26), is unconformably overlain by the Melbourne bone bed, a facies of the Pamlico sand. Levy County-Large blocks of hard limestone have been dug from ditches about a mile and a half north of Gunntown, a station on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad south of Otter Creek. The rock is gray to yellow, sandy, and somewhat resembles the hard parts of the Anastasia formation. It contains myriads of small miliolid foraminifers, Chione cancellata, and many fragments of flat echinoids. A few other fossils are preserved chiefly as internal molds. "Miliolite limestone" was also seen along the Chiefland road 10 miles north of Cedar Keys. Hard white "miliolite limestone" comes to the surface on the edge of Gulf Hammock three-quarters of a mile southwest of Ellzey and is said to occur throughout the hammock. This may represent the Avon Park limestone. Martin County-Pleistocene shell marl is exposed in the banks of the St. Lucie Canal almost continuously from the lower locks to a point within 2 miles of Port Myaca, on Lake Okeechobee, but the underlying Caloosahatchee formation was cut into much of the way. Barren Pamlico sand overlies the Anastasia formation. Jupiter Island is underlain by the Anastasia formation, which varies in composition and texture from coarse sandstone composed of consolidated "coral sand" (macerated shells) to a compact mass of only slightly worn shells. At Blowing Rocks, on the coast north of Jupiter Inlet, the Anas-



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130 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE taining Tampa fossils were found between the Hawthorn formation and the Ocala limestone on the hill east of the crossroads midway between Anthony and Martin. No rock was seen in place there, but the ledge from which the boulders came must be at least 2 feet thick. Similar rock crops out abundantly on the knoll three-quarters of a mile farther east, and the intervening hill is capped with sandstone. A thin bed of Tampa limestone was found between the Hawthorn formation and the Ocala limestone in test pits on the old Raysor property midway between Lowell and Sparr. Mansfield (1937b, p. 23) lists the following mollusks from these outliers: Pleurodonte cf. P. cunctator (Dall) kendrickensis Mansfield Mitra silicata Dall? cf. M. prodroma Gardner (MS), a Chipola species Xancus polygonatus (Heilprin) Alectrion aff. A. harrisi Maury Murex trophoniformis Heilprin "Turritella tampac Heilprin Calyptraea trochiformis Lamark? Arca kendrickensis Mansfield Chiamys crocus (Cooke) marionensis Mansfield burnetti Tucker Venericardia nodifera Kellum Phacoides wacissanus Dall Cardium hernandoense Mansfield Dosinia chipolana Dall Clementia sp. Callocardia albofonte Gardner, a Chipola species Antigona cf. A. tarquinia (Dall) Venus halidona Dall marionana Mansfield Tellina silicata Mansfield? Panope aff. P. goldfussii (Wagner) Pasco County-The southwestern third of Pasco County is underlain by the Tampa limestone. Most of the exposures are on Or near the Gulf Coast south of Hudson, where the Tampa lies at or near the surface and the usual cover of Pleistocene sand is thin or wanting. Compact white or cream-colored limestone containing molds of fossils has been quarried three-quarters of a mile east



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 93 from the extreme northwestern corner of the county, in both of which areas the Ocala limestone forms the country rock. The Suwannee is covered in the southeastern part of the county by sand and clay of the Hawthorn formation and in the eastern part by sand generally referred to the Alachua formation. Several large quarries near Brooksville show good exposures of the Suwannee limestone. FIGURE 13.-Suwannee River at Branford, Suwannee County. After COOKE, 1939, fig. 57. In a large quarry of the Florida Rock Products Company about a mile southwest of Brooksville lumps of hard pure limestone are embedded in softer clayey limestone. The hard lumps contain many fossils, most of which are preserved only as molds or siliceous pseudomorphs. From this and other localities in Hernando County, Mansfield (1937b, p. 53) lists the following species: Gastropoda: Scaphander sp. Knefastia? brooksvillensis Mansfield Conus aff. C. cookei Dall Olivella brooksvillensis Mansfield Lyria musicina dalli Mansfield



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300 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE are now extinct, lived in Florida during Pamlico time. Simpson (1929) lists 49 species of mammals from two localities near Seminole, Pinellas County. Of these, 14 are still living and 28 are extinct, the others being doubtful. Practically all the species of the existing fauna that might be expected to live in a similar environment occur in the Pamlico sand near Seminole. Simpson finds no evidence that the living conditions then were much different from those of today, and he suggests that the extinction of so many species was caused by the entrance of "the most destructive of all animals, man" into Florida. Though no human bones or artifacts were found in the bone bed near Seminole, there is strong evidence that man lived in Florida during the latter part of Pamlico time or immediately thereafter. In 1924, Gidley (Smithsonian Inst., 1926, p. 26; Cooke, 1926c) found at Melbourne, "at three relatively widely separated areas human bones or artifacts associated with undisturbed, and not redeposited, fossil bones of the Pleistocene fauna." As these finds were all in or at the top of the bone bed, Gidley was of the opinion that man arrived in Florida about the end of the epoch represented by the bone bed or during the erosion interval that succeeded its deposition, that is, during the mid-Wisconsin time or during the latter part of the Wisconsin glacial stage, according to the chronology here accepted. The human bones attributed to the Pamlico are indistinguishable from those of the American Indian. This is not surprising, for there is no reason to suppose that the evolution of man proceeded more rapidly than that of contemporaneuos animals. The only tangible difference between the Recent fauna and the late Pleistocene fauna is that many of the Pleistocene species have died off, leaving the residue unchanged. If other human or near-human species lived in Florida during the Pleistocene epoch, their remains have not been discovered. Utilization-The Pamlico may contain sand beds of local value, but it is commonly too thin. LOCAL DETAILS Bay County-In Pamlico time a single embayment some



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290 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE tended up Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers and possibly also up Alapaha River. Highlands County-The northeastern and southwestern parts of Highlands County include areas of Penholoway terrace. Hillsborough County-Much of the northern part of Hillsborough County probably lies within the Penholoway terrace. Lafayette County-A wide embayment of Penholoway terrace probably occupies the southern part of Lafayette County. Most of the remainder probably lies within the "Wicomico terrace. Marion County-A 4to 6-mile-wide terrace having a shore line about 70 feet above sea level borders Withlacoochee River as far west as Dunnellon, where it becomes greatly constricted. This terrace may have formed the bottom of an estuary during Penholoway tinie, or it may have been covered by a lake. There are several other large lake basins or former estuaries in Marion County, notably one along Oklawaha River, which averages about 12 miles in width. One north of York appears to be completely enclosed. Nassau County-A narrow band of Penholoway terrace crosses west-central Nassau County from north to south. Its straight, inner boundary is inconspicuous, for the shore appears to have been gently shelving, but its crooked, outer edge is cut into lobes by Pamlico estuaries. The erosion that preceded the Pamlico epoch almost destroyed the Talbot terrace, only inconspicuous benches of which remain. Okaloosa County-The Penholoway terrace is narrow and considerably dissected in Okaloosa County. It lies only a few miles inland from the coast. The greater part of sec. 28, T. 1 S., R. 24 W., is covered by the Penholoway. A bit of shore line steeper than usual is shown on the Mary Esther quadrangle in the NW 4 sec. 25, T. 1 S., R. 23 W., where the beach ridge rose 10 feet above high tide (70-foot contour line), and the water near shore was 10 feet deep. Okeechobee and Osceola Counties-A large part of Okeechobee and Osceola Counties apparently is included in the Penholoway terrace, but details are lacking.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES 53 Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 HecksherYarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 510 to 800 feet; total depth of well, 4540 feet. Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 920 to 1200 feet; total depth of well, 5746 feet. DEPOSITS OF JACKSON AGE OCALA LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Ocala limestone was named from the City of Ocala, Marion County, in the vicinity of which it has for many years been extensively quarried. The name was first formally used by Dall (in Dall and Harris, 1892, p. 103), who identified it as the Oligocene of Heilprin (which Dall then considered Eocene). Dall supposed that the Ocala overlies the "Orbitoides limestone," which he correlated with the Oligocene Vicksburg group because of a mistaken identification of the orbitoids in it with the common Vicksburg foraminifer now called Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton). Later, Dall (1903, p. 1554) proposed the general term "Peninsular limestone" to replace the name "Orbitoides limestone" and suggested that the Peninsular might be younger than the typical Vicksburg and older than the Ocala. Matson and Clapp (1909) adopted these names, "Peninsular" and "Ocala", and proposed the new name "Marianna limestone" for the limestone of northwestern Florida containing Lepidocyclina mantelli. For lack of information they were vague as to the stratigraphic relationships of these three formations, though they followed Dall in regarding the Ocala as younger than the Peninsular. They apparently supposed that the Marianna and the Peninsular were equivalents, though they placed the Peninsular above the Marianna in a table of formations (Matson and Clapp, 1909, table facing p. 50). Six years later, Cooke (1915, p. 117) found that much of the Peninsular limestone is identical with the Ocala limestone; that the Ocala underlies the Marianna limestone at Marianna, and that the fauna of the Ocala is overwhelmingly Jackson (upper Eocene) in its affinities.



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228 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE well 4 miles northwest of Hilliard passed through 60 feet of strata that he assigns to the Caloosahatchee formation. The upper part of this unit consists of gray-green sandy clay, apparently like the Charlton, but the lower 40 feet is loosely consolidated sandstone containing shell fragments, more like the ordinary facies of the Caloosahatchee marl. Distribution-Exposures of the Charlton formation in Florida are confined to the bluffs along St. Marys River in Nassau County above Orange Bluff. Presumably the formation does not extend far eastward beyond the river, for it probably merges into the Caloosahatchee marl. There are also a few exposures near Satilla River in Charlton and Brantley Counties, Georgia. Stratigraphic relations-The Charlton formation probably lies unconformably on the Hawthorn formation or conformably on a tongue of the Caloosahatchee marl. This latter relationship is suggested by the log of the deep well near Hilliard reported by Cole (1944). The Charlton is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene deposits-on the river below the Charlton-Camden (Georgia) County line by the marine Pamlico sand; above that point by an estuarine reentrant of the Pamlico or by the older Pleistocene Sunderland formation. Paleogeography-It is inferred from the lithologic composition of the formation and the occurrence in it of brackishwater fossils that the Charlton was deposited in a bay with sluggish tributary streams. An indentation in the coast line seems probable because no other Pliocene deposits have been discovered nearer than Charleston, S. C. This embayment may have been of structural origin, for it corresponds in location with a sag in the Ocala limestone and (presumably) in the Hawthorn formation. Fauna-The Charlton formation contains ostracods, Pecten gibbus, and other mollusks, all of which have been identified as existing species. A lump of marl supposedly from the Charlton on Satilla River 4 miles south of Atkinson, Georgia, yielded 15 species of fresh-water and brackish-water mollusks (Aldrich, 1911; Cooke, 1944, p. 103). Cole (1944, p. 22) identified 10 species of Foraminifera, including Elphidium gunteri Cole, a Caloosahatchee species, from a depth of 40 feet in the deep well near Hilliard.



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236 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Polk County-The highlands in the eastern part of Polk County are composed of coarse red sand that presumably represents the Citronelle formation. The "Singing Tower" at the Mountain Lake Sanctuary near Lake Wales is underlain by this kind of material. Putnam County-Many road pits in Putnam County disclose coarse red sand and gravel, commonly including flattened beach pebbles. Which of these exposures represent Pleistocene deposits and which the Citronelle formation remains to be determined. The Citronelle formation includes workable deposits of kaolin, which is intimately mixed with sand. The kaolin is recovered by washing and settling. The kaolin-bearing bed in the large water-filled pit of the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company at Edgar, 5 miles southwest of Interlachen, is reported to be 30 feet thick and to rest on limestone and green clay, probably the Hawthorn formation. More than 30 feet of tightly packed coarse yellow, white, and red kaolin-bearing sand is worked by the Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company half a mile west of Interlachen. Santa Rosa County-The Citronelle formation probably underlies nearly all of Santa Rosa County, but its occurrence at the surface has not been distinguished from the Pleistocene. Probably the Citronelle is cut into by most of the valleys, while Pleistocene terrace deposits cap the uplands. Walton County-The extent of the Citronelle formation in Walton County has not been determined. Nearly all parts of the county south of the Louisville & Nashville Railway have been terraced and are doubtless capped by Pleistocene deposits. The topography of most of the region north of the railway is unmapped. A road-metal pit at Forest Highlands (Niceville quadrangle), 3 miles southwest of Mossyhead, shows 3 or 4 feet of coarse white kaolin-bearing sand and gravel overlain by 6 or 8 feet of coarse light-brown sand. Another pit nearby shows about 8 feet of coarse reddish and yellow sand. These may be Pleistocene. Washington County-A band extending eastward from the center of Washington County is underlain by the Cit-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 157 7. Ledge with shells --------------2 6. Gray sand with lime inclusions ---------5. Covered. The section above this bed was made north of a small branch in a part of the bluff that does not directly face the river; the section below was made where the river first strikes the bluff--------------2 4. Light-gray calcareous sand containing a trace of phosphate --30 3. Bluish-green to gray sands, variable in character. Lime inclusions begin to appear in these sands at 20 feet from the base. They become more numerous until the material passes gradually into the sandy marl above -----------34 2. Compact sandy marl with concretions near the base and with an Ostrea layer 6 feet above the base ---------8 Tampa limestone (lower Miocene): 1. Limestone, above water level at stage of 7 /2 feet -----10 Bed 9 at Rock Bluff consists chiefly of Ostrea normalis embedded in gray sand. Bed 7 contains, besides oysters, Pecten acanikos. At places bed 4 contains many Pecten acanikos. It is difficult to draw the line precisely between the Tampa limestone and the Hawthorn formation at Rock Bluff, for the one seems to grade perfectly into the other. Madison County-The northern part of Madison County is underlain by the Hawthorn formation, which is probably covered here and there by outliers of high-level Pleistocene terrace deposits. Many lumps of gray sandstone, residual from the Hawthorn, were noted in 1926 along U.S. Highway 90 for 4 miles east of Madison, beyond which point they are succeeded by loose light-gray terrace sand, probably the Wicomico formation, underlain by the Suwannee limestone. Manatee County-The known exposures of the Hawthorn formation in Manatee County are confined to the western part. Farther east the Hawthorn is covered by the Bone Valley formation and by late Pleistocene sand. Light-gray to white fuller's earth was formerly mined at Ellenton, but the pits are now abandoned and full of water. According to Sellards and Gunter (1909, p. 290) the fuller's earth varies in thickness from 7 feet to a thin film, and at some places it is absent altogether. It is underlain conformably by compact marly fossiliferous limestone and is overlain unconformably by a thin bed of Pleistocene terrace deposits.



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34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Alabama and Georgia, circling northwestward up the Mississippi Embayment, in and near which the Porters Creek clay was deposited contemporaneously. Fauna-Borelis gunteri Cole and B. floridanus Cole, two related species of Foraminifera, are regarded by Cole as characteristic of the Cedar Keys limestone. LOCAL DETAILS The Cedar Keys limestone has been reported from the following wells: Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 Warwick (sec. 12, T. 55 S., R. 40 E.), depths 3675 to 5432 feet; total depth of well, 5432 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 1561 to 1894 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 3090 to 3255 feet; total depth of well, 3255 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 2570 to 3365 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 2051 to 2489 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944); total depth of well, 5266 feet. Cole (1942) refers the interval from 1965 to 2531 feet to the Cedar Keys limestone. He identified Borelis gunteri and B. floridanus in the upper part. The lower part contains some gypsum; no fossils were found in it. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 1730 to 2235 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company Cory No. 1 (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 3310 to 5430 feet; total depth of well, 10,000 feet. (Applin and Applin,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SALT MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE 43 1936a, p. 1163). The outcrops have been thoroughly described by Toulmin (1940a). Characters-At the type locality the Salt Mountain consists of white limestone, which varies somewhat in texture. Parts are soft and chalky; elsewhere the rock is impregnated with calcite. Thickness-According to Toulmin (1940a) the thickness of the Salt Mountain limestone approximates 90 feet in Clarke County, Alabama, which is probably not very far.from the landward margin of the formation. It appears to be about 300 feet thick in Jackson County, Florida. Distribution-The Salt Mountain limestone underlies southwestern Alabama and northwestern Florida. It is not known to crop out anywhere except along the Jackson fault in Alabama. Elsewhere it is known only from well cuttings. Stratigraphic relations-According to Blanpied (1938) the Salt Mountain limestone is equivalent to the Ostrea thirsae beds of the Nanafalia formation. The limestone presumably merges northward, toward the shore line of the Nanafalia sea, into the oyster reefs and other shallow-water deposits of the Nanafalia. The Nanafalia formation lies unconformably on deposits of Midway (Paleocene) age. This unconformity, which is widespread, probably extends seaward under cover for a considerable distance, possibly throughout the Floridian Plateau. If so, the Salt Mountain limestone, likewise, is unconformably on, older beds, either clastic sediments of Midway age or the Cedar Keys limestone. The relation to overlying beds has not been determined. The Salt Mountain limestone appears to be a tongue of 'a thicker mass of limestone, the Oldsmar limestone, which is believed to represent the entire Wilcox group. It presumably lies at the base of the group and is overlain by a tongue of clastic sediments which extends southward and becomes thinner as the Oldsmar limestone is approached. Paleogedgraphy-All of Florida and part of Georgia was submerged during Wilcox time. The Gulf of Mexico then was merely an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean. The shore



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COPYRIGHT NOTICE [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.



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40" FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE son fault in Clarke County, Alabama, where it has received the name of Salt Mountain limestone from its most prominent outcrop. Among the distinctive fossils of the Salt Mountain are two orbitoid Foraminifera, Pseudophragmina cookei (Vaughan) and Discocyclina blanpiedi Vaughan. These species are restricted to the Salt Mountain at the outcrop but seem to have a wider vertical distribution within the buried limestone of Wilcox age, which has been named the Oldsmar limestone. Clastic tongues of the Wilcox group reach southward into part of northwestern Florida, but the limestone facies occupies most of the State. OLDSMAR LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name Oldsmar limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944) to limestone of Wilcox age in Florida and southeastern Georgia. The name is taken from R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" in Hillsborough County, Florida. The Salt Mountain limestone might appropriately have been expanded to include all the Oldsmar, which, however, may ultimately be divided into two or more formations, of which one would be the Salt Mountain. Characters-The Oldsmar consists predominantly of limestone, but it contains some gypsum and chert. Thickness-The Oldsmar is 925 feet thick in the Oldsmar well and 1200 feet thick in the Peninsular Oil & Refining Company's no. 1 Cory in Monroe County. Only 445 feet of unfossiliferous limestone in Cosden's no. 1 Lawson well in Marion County is referred to the Oldsmar. Distribution-The Oldsmar limestone underlies the Peninsula, the northeastern part of Florida, and the southeastern part of Georgia. Stratigraphic relations-The top and bottom of the Oldsmar limestone are probably separated from the adjacent formations by unconformities. At least, that relationship holds good for the Wilcox group at the outcrop in Alabama and Georgia. It is possible that there is an unconformity within the formation corresponding to that which probably separates



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TENTATIVE CORRELATION OF MIOCENE FORMATIONS NORTHWESTERN PENINSULAR FLORIDA MIssissII P F SOUTH CAROLINA NORTH CAROLINA VIRGINIA FLORIDA AND GEORGIA 0 Pascagoula clay Duplin marl Yorktown formation Erosion interval C. r-1 Shoal River formation St. Marys formation Hattiesburg clay Hawthorn formation r Chipola formation Choptank formation Z Calvert Catahoula sandstone Tampa limestone Trent marl formation _________________ __________________________________ ___________ _________________ w



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98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Some lumps of hard chert seen in 1939 at a rock crusher at New Port Richey and reported to have come from Cedar Island, a mile north of Hudson, contain Cassidulus gouldii and Teredo? incrassata. These indicate the presence there of the Suwannee limestone. The McLeod lime pit south of Lacoochee in the SEY4 NEV4 sec. 26, T. 23 S., R. 21 E., exposes soft white Suwannee limestone containing Cassidulus gouldii and other fossils. The upper part is much broken and contains rounded lumps. It is overlain by very light thin-bedded soft porous limestone that resembles some of the deposits in the hard-rock phosphate mines. The bottom of the pit, which was about 40 feet deep when it was visited in 1927, may extend below the base of the Suwannee into the Ocala limestone. Polk County-The Suwannee limestone lies not far from the surface in the northern part of Polk County, but most of the region is flat and covered by Pleistocene terrace deposits. No outcrops have been reported. Sumter County-Only the southern part of Sumter County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone, and there it is for the most part overlain by Pleistocene terrace deposits. The remainder of the county is occupied by the Ocala limestone. Suwannee County-The Suwannee limestone lies near the surface, though covered by Pleistocene terrace deposits, throughout much of Suwannee County, but itis covered by the Hawthorn formation in the high eastern part. The principal natural exposures are in the gorge of Suwannee River above Ellaville. The rock is exposed also in sinks and quarries. About 15 feet of Suwannee limestone is exposed on the bank of Suwannee River at the Seaboard Railway bridge opposite Ellaville. Most of the rock is cream-colored or yellow hard, compact limestone without apparent bedding planes; the lower 4 feet is thin-bedded and somewhat conglomeratic. It is underlain unconformably by the Byram limestone. Cassidulus gouldii is locally abundant. At Suwannee Sulphur Springs, on Suwannee River north of Live Oak, the Suwannee limestone ranges from a soft, unconsolidated mass ,of foraminifers to hard limestone. The



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14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE STRATIGRAPHY GENERAL FEATURES The rocks underlying Florida range in age from a hypothetical pre-Cambrian core, which has never been penetrated by the drill, to Recent deposits that are still accumulating. The oldest formation exposed at the surface is the Avon Park limestone, of middle Eocene age, which is reported by David Ericson, of the Florida Geological Survey, to crop out in Citrus and Levy Counties. The oldest rocks thus far encountered in bore holes, though somewhat metamorphosed, are so obviously of clastic origin that such great antiquityr as pre-Cambrian seems unlikely; one would expect to find pre-Cambrian rocks more highly altered. They are tentatively assigned to the late Paleozoic (Pennsylvanian). These rocks are intruded by diabase dikes, which are assumed to be of Triassic age because of their similarity to the diabase of the Newark group of the Eastern States. The next younger formation of which there is record is a limestone. It is assigned to the Comanche because of its similarity to certain limestones of the Comanche series of Texas, but as the diabase and the limestone were found in different and widely separated wells, it is quite possible that rocks of both Triassic and Comanche age are more fully developed in Florida than one might suppose from the meager evidence available. Several deep wells in Florida have passed through strata of the Gulf series. In the northern part of the State the facies of the Gulf series are much like those of the supposed contemporaneous deposits that crop out farther north, in Alabama and Georgia. In southern Florida Gulf deposits are less diversified and consist chiefly of limestone. The Paleocene series is represented in wells in southern Florida by limestone and farther north in the State by shale, both types of rocks suggesting the Midway group of Alabama. The Eocene series includes formations of Wilcox, Claiborne, and Jackson age. None are known to appear at the surface



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-COHARIE FORMATION 277 passes northwestward into Georgia. There is a large patch of Coharie terrace in Alachua County northwest of Gainesville. Other areas where patches of the Coharie formation should be looked for are near Houston and Wellborn in Suwannee County, surrounding Lake City in Columbia County, between Lakeland and Mulberry in Polk County, and probably also in the eastern part of Polk County. Stratigraphic relations-As the Coharie formation apparently was deposited at the beginning of Yarmouth time, when the sea rose from an undetermined low level to a height of 215 feet above its present level, the formation lies unconformably on all beds immediately beneath it. Later in Yarmouth time, the sea dropped to a height of only 170 feet and deposited the Sunderland formation. It therefore follows that the Coharie is conformable with the Sunderland, where the two formations are in contact, though the main, uncovered part of the Coharie stands higher. Paleolgeography-The generalized outline of the seashore during Coharie time is shown by the dotted line in figuie 43. The shore of the mainland extended parallel to the present coast in western Florida but passed northeastward into Georgia. All the remainder of Florida was submerged except a few islands in the peninsula. The depth of the water over the present State nowhere exceeded 215 feet. The greatest amount of sand was deposited near the shore of the mainland, from which it was distributed over the sea bottom by the waves and currents. Probably little if any sand was carried to the southern part of the peninsula, where the only sources of sand were a few low islands. Utilization-The Coharie formation may contain useful deposits of sand and possibly clay. LOCAL DETAILS Alachua County-The old Arredondo sheet, surveyed in 1890, shows a large flat area extending from Gainesville to the northern edge of the map and about 10 miles wide in which the altitudes lie within the range of the Coharie terrace. This area presumably is underlain by the Coharie forma.tion. The contour lines are too generalized to assist in determining the exact limits of the terrace.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ANASTASIA FORMATION 271 E .....; .. • : t .. .:: FIGURE 41.-Anastasia formation on beach at Boca Raton. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 30. FIGURE 42.-Anastasia formation about 1 2/ miles north of Jupiter Light. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 29.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MIOCENE SERIES 167 on Holmes Creek in the SW!4 sec. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W., is quoted by Cooke and Mossom (1939, p. 106) from the notes of Miss Julia Gardner, who lists the mollusks elsewhere (Gardner, 1926-1944): SECTION AT DICK PETERSON'S WOODYARD, HOLMES CREEK FEET Chipola formation (Miocene): 3. Indurated limestone weathering in irregular masses, dark gray on the outside, creamy white within; highly fossiliferous, the fossils appearing mostly in the form of casts -------17 2. Brownish to yellow and blue mottled clay, highly calcareous and somewhat arenaceous, the limestone often appearing in the form of irregular amorphous masses with lenses or layers of partially indurated limestone carrying a-diversified fauna scattered through the clay but tending to concentrate along the upper surface, which stands out as a rather well defined ledge ------8 1. Reddish-brown compact micaceous sand, extending for at least 18 inches below the water -----------2 SHOAL RIVER FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Shoal River marl" was proposed by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 104) for a member of the Alum Bluff formation lying above the Oak Grove sand member and forming the upper part of the formation. Seventeen years later Gardner (1926, p. 1) raised the Alum Bluff to the rank of group and made its three members independent formations. Cooke and Mossom (1929) accepted this classification with the expectation that further exploration would expand the area of the Oak Grove sand, which at that time was known only in a very small area. However, the known area of the Oak Grove sand is still limited to the vicinity of the type locality, and increasing knowledge of the faunas of the Alum Bluff group reveals greater similarities between the faunas of the Oak Grove and the typical Shoal River than had been suspected. Therefore, it is now proposed to reduce the rank of the Oak Grove again, making it a member of the Shoal River formation. As the upper and lower boundaries of the member coincide with the known limits of its distinctive fauna, the alternate name of "Cardium taphrium zone" is



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 307 As described by Sellards (1917a), the bed in which most of the bones of extinct animals near Vero Beach were found appears to be the alluvial accumulation of Van Valkenburg Creek. It is Recent in the opinion of Chamberlin (1917). The creek apparently cut completely through the Pamlico sand and incorporated the Pamlico bones in its own deposits. The trenching must have taken place during the latter part of the Wisconsin glacial stage, when sea level was low. The rise of sea level at the beginning of Recent time flooded the lower reaches of Van Valkenburg Creek and permitted silt and muck to accumulate along it. Lee County-All but the west-central part of Lee County lies within the Pamlico terrace, but the Pamlico sand there rarely exceeds one foot in thickness. Manatee County-The western third of Manatee County lies within the Pamlico terrace. The Pamlico sand is so thin that older rocks are cut by shallow ditches. Monroe County-Monroe County was completely submerged during Pamlico time, but probably little or no sand drifted in during that time. Nassau County-The shore of the Pamlico sea as shown on the Boulogne, Hilliard, and St. Marys quadrangles lies below the 30-foot contour line. From Hilliard the shore runs northward to St. Marys River. South of Hilliard the shore is made crooked by several small estuaries. An island, which had been a shoal in the Talbot sea, crosses Nassau County from Crandall and Chester, on the St. Marys, to Nassauville, on Nassau River. There were several other low islands or shoals back of it. Okaloosa County-The Pamlico terrace borders Choctawhatchee Bay and East Bay Swamp. The shore line is well marked in secs. 25, 26, and 27, T. 1 S., R. 23 W. (Mary Esther quadrangle), where it lies below the 30-foot contour line and above the 20. As the Talbot terrace is missing here, the Pamlico terrace abuts against the Penholoway terrace, whose outer edge (in section 27) stands 60 feet above sea level. Palm Beach County-Most of Palm Beach County was submerged during Pamlico time, but the Pamlico sand is



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PRE-CAMBRIAN-PALEOZOIC 21 PRE-CAMBRIAN CORE It may be assumed that if one were to drill deep enough anywhere in Florida he would find a complex mass of folded and faulted schists, gneisses, and possibly marbles like that which underlies the Piedmont region in Georgia. These are the altered and metamorphosed rocks that composed the ancient continent of Appalachia, the progenitor of eastern North America. No well in Florida has yet reached this hypothetical core, and any discussion of it is necessarily speculative. A well in Pierce County, Georgia, some 40 miles north of Nassau.County, Florida, entered hard, unweathered granite at a depth of 4340 feet (Schuchert, 1943, p. 453). This rock, however, may be younger than pre-Cambnaj -PENNSYLVANIAN (?) SERIES AND OLDER Metamorphic rocks were first discovered in Florida (Gunter, 1928) in a boring drilled in 1926 to 1928 by the Ocala Oil Corporation in sec. 10, T. 16 S., R. 20 E., in Marion County about 3 miles south of York. This hole entered mica schist at a depth of about 4100 feet, passed through it into white quartzite somewhere above 4500 feet, and remained in quartzite to a depth of 6180 feet, where drilling was discontinued (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 44). These rocks are probably of Paleozoic age. Campbell (1939a, p. 95), however, suggests a correlation with similar rocks in Cuba that Dickerson and Butt (1935) assigned to the Jurassic. A sample of red mud taken between 4000 and 4100 feet, above the mica schist, may represent an oxidized subsoil, or it may be derived from a red shale. A description of an incomplete set of cuttings from this well was published by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 44, 45). The Hilliard Turpentine Company well no. 1, drilled by the St. Mary's River Oil Corporation from 1936 to 1940, 4 miles northwest of Hilliard (NW4 NW,4 SE4 sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.) penetrated 80 feet of hard black splintery shale between the depths of 4640 and 4720 feet, then 88 feet of fine-grained, dense sandstone (4720-4808 feet), then diabase to the bottom of the hole at 4824 feet (Campbell, 1939a, b; Schuchert, 1943, p. 454). The black shale contains ostra-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 321 MANSFIELD, WENDELL C. (See also COOKE, C. W., 1936.) 1916. Mollusks from the type locality of the Choctawhatchee marl: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 51, pp. 599-607. 1918. Molluscan faunas from the calcareous marls in the vicinity of DeLand, Volusia County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 10-11, pp. 111-123. 1924. A contribution to the late Tertiary and Quaternary paleontology of northeastern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 15, pp. 25-51, 2 pls. 1930. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 3, 142 pp., 21 pls. 1931. Some Tertiary mollusks from southern Florida: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 79, art. 21, 12 pp., 4 pls. 1932a. Pliocene fossils from limestone in southern Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 170, pp. 43-56, 5 pls. 1932b. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 8, 240 pp., 3 figs., 34 pls. 1932c. (and G. M. PONTON). Faunal zones in the Miocene Choctawhatchee formation of Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 84-88, 1 fig. 1934. A new species of Pecten from the Oligocene near Duncan Church, Washington County, Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 331-333, 3 figs. 1935. New Miocene gastropods and scaphopods from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 12, 64 pp., 5 pls. 1936a. Stratigraphic significance of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene Pectinidae in the southeastern United States: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 168-192, 2 pls. 1 fig. 1936b. A new species of "Crassatellites" from the upper Miocene of Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 26, no. 10, p. 395. 1937a. New mollusks from the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 608-612, 1 pl. 1937b. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee limestones of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 15, 334 pp., 23 pls., 10 figs. 1938. Oligocene faunas from the lower and upper beds on the A. L. Parrish farm, Washington County, Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 93-107, 19 figs. 1939a. Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of Peninsular Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 18, 75 pp., 3 pls., 1 fig. 1939b. Note on unreported Oligocene in Citrus County, Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 45-46, 1 fig. MATSON, GEORGE C. 1909. (and F. G. CLAPP). A preliminary report on the geology of



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334 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Miami Canal -----261 MacNeil, F. Stearns -66, 79, 84 Miami Oil & Gas Co. well --41 Miami oolite-----256 N Miccosukee Drains ----153 Middleburg ----187, 303 Nanafalia formation ---43 Middleburg quadrangle -284, 289 Naranja -------261 303 Nashua -------225 Midway -------151 Nashua marl ------214 Miley rock pit -----64 Nassau County, formations in -26 Miliolite limestone ----269 28, 30, 32, 35, 42, 44, 48, 52 MillCreek ----128, 189 229, 285, 290, 295, 307 Miller, B. L. ------181 Nassauville ------307 Miller and Gossard well -26, 28 National Gardens ----272 29 Natural Bridge, Walton CounMilton quadrangle ----310 ty -------82 Mims --------267 Natural Well, North Carolina 181 Milligan -------174 Navarro age, beds of --29, 31 Millville -------301 Nettles Landing -----229 Mineola -------234 Newark group ----14, 22 Miocene age, early, deposits of 111 Newberry ----62, 63, 202 late, deposits of ----180 terrace------281 Miocene series ----15, 109 vertebrates near ----119 Miocene shore lines, map of -111 Newhope Church ----180 Mitchell Bluff -----295 Newland Spring -----99 Molino -----231, 233 New Light Church ----291 Monroe County, formations in 30 New River ------188 32, 34, 42, 48, 52, 243, 264 New Port Richey ----98 307 New Smyrna -----272 Montverde ------234 Niceville -------178 Moodys Branch marl --57 quadrangle ----278, 281 Mossyhead ------175 Nigger Sink ------148 Mossom, Stuart --96, 102, 104 North Bay ------301 105, 113,122, 124, 125, 137 NorthNewRiverCanal224, 253 144, 155, 167, 186, 265 Norum -------179 Mountain Lake Sanctuary --236 Nuttall's Rise -----101 Mount Dora ------233 Mount Pleasant----233 O Mulberry ------209 Muscogee quadrangle -278, 280 Oak Grove ----164, 173 304 sand member -138, 139, 167 173 Mc Oak Hill -----165, 237 O'Brien ------99, 100 McAlpin------99 Ocala-------71 McCleland farm ----163 Ocala Lime Rock Corporation McClenny quadrangle ---280 quarry ------72 McDonald Corporation, The -121 Ocala limestone -----53 McKinnon ------276 Amusium ocalanum from -59 McLeod lime pit ----98 echinoids from --59, 60, 61



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PENHOLOWAY FORMATION 289 shore line to a temporary position of the level of the underground water table. Bay County-The northern parts of the Seminole Hills and the West Bay quadrangles is a poorly drained plain that slopes gently southward from 70 to 46 feet above sea level within 2 miles. There is locally a very slight drop to the narrower fringe of Talbot terrace. In sec. 12, T. 2 S., R. 16 W., the surface drops within a quarter of a mile from 50 feet at the outer edge of the Penholoway to 25 feet at the inner edge of the Pamlico terrace. An area of 100 square miles or more lying east of Bayou George and south of Youngstown is occupied by the Penholoway terrace. This region is part of an ancient delta of Apalachicola River. De Soto County-A large part of De Soto County probably lies within the Penholoway terrace, but no topographic maps are available. The Penholoway formation probably overlies the Bone Valley formation in this region. Dixie County-The Penholoway formation, which covers the northwestern part of Dixie County, consists chiefly of sand. It overlies the Ocala limestone. It is only a few feet thick. Duval County-The Cambon and the Middleburg quadrangles include a dissected fringe of the Penholoway terrace. Marietta and Cambon are built on it. Escambia County-The Penholoway terrace appears to be wanting at Pensacola, but there are remnants of an estuarine terrace between 60 and 70 feet above sea level along Escambia River. One such remnant occupies the NE4 sec. 24, T. 2 N., R. 31 W. Gilchrist County--Gilchrist County appears to lie within the former entrance to Penholoway estuaries now occupied by the valleys of Suwannee River and Santa Fe River. There is higher land in the southeast quarter of the county. Glades County-The northwestern part of Glades County includes two patches of Penholoway terrace separated by an estuarine reentrant of Talbot terrace along Fisheating Creek. Hamilton County-A Penholoway estuary probably ex-



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328 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Bloxham -------155 Campbellton, Ocala limestone Blue Sink ------194 near ------67 Blue Spring ---66, 67, 71 Camp Gordon Johnson --304 Blue Spring Creek ----81 Canal Point ------224 Boca Raton ----270, 271 Cancellaria zone -168, 181, 182 Bone Valley formation ---203 Cantonment ------280 Bonheur Development Co. well 49 Cape Canaveral -----299 50 Cape Romano ----12, 16 Boulogne quadrangle ---307 Cape Sable road -----312 Bowling Green -----153 Cardium taphrium zone -167, 170 Boynton Landing -166, 194, 195 *Carolina Ridge ---111, 182 Bradenton -----158, 223 Carolinian Miocene ----180 Bradford County, formations in 232 Carr ------121, 163 Brandywine formation ---273 Carrabelle ------304 Brandywine terrace, shore line Carrabelle quadrangle ---304 of -------12 Carraway ------296 Branford, Suwannee River at -93 Carters Mill Creek, Ocala limeBratt --------274 stone at-----67 Brevard County, formations in 47 Caryville, Ocala limestone at -66 267, 301 Cascades -------154 Bristol formation ----230 Catahoula sandstone --109, 110 Bristol quadrangle ----278 Cedar Grove ------102 Brooksville ---93, 113, 121 Cedar Island-----131 Broward County, formations in 41 Cedar Keys limestone ---33 47, 242, 253, 260, 303, 312 Central Florida Oil & Gas Co. Bruce Creek ----165, 176 well -26, 28, 30, 36, 48 Buckingham ----211, 212 50 Buckingham marl ----210 Central Highlands ----8 Burns, Frank153, 161, 162, 163 lakes in ------8 164, 174, 235 Sunderland terrace in --8 Bushnell well --32, 42, 48, 55 Century quadrangle --274, 304 Butler, sink near ----108 310 Byram limestone ----81 Cerithium rock -----113 Chalk Bluff ----229, 238 C Chamberlin, Rollin T. ---305 Charlie Apopka Creek ---153 Calhoun County, formations in 47 Charlotte County, formations 50, 121, 163, 186, 232, 284 in -------216 Calhoun Oil & Gas Co. well --47 Charlton formation ---227 50 Chassahowitzka River ---64 Callahan -------295 Chattahoochee-113, 114, 115 Caloosa -------213 116, 122, 151 Caloosahatchee marl ---214 Chattahoochee formation 113, 122 Caloosahatchee marl, fossils Chattahoochee, section at --122 from -----217-220 Chesapeake group --109, 111 Caloosahatchee River, section Chester -------307 near Ortona Lock--254 Chickasawhay limestone -90, 105 Calvert formation109, 110, 111 107, 108 Cambon quadrangle --289, 304 Chipley -----102, 237



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES 31 ored, calcitic or chalky, locally porous, and includes some gypsum. It is divisible into two members of which the upper contains more gypsum than the lower and is impregnated with calcite to such an extent that most of its fossils are recrystallized. Thickness-The limestone ranges in thickness from about 200 feet to about 800 feet. Distribution-The Lawson limestone is known only in wells in the peninsula of Florida. It appears to be absent from northern Florida from Jefferson County westward, though it is represented in Walton and Washington Counties by 30 to 50 feet of light-gray chalky marl. Wells in northern Florida between Nassau County and Jefferson County are not deep enough to reach it if it is present there. Stratigraphic relations-The Lawson limestone overlies beds of Taylor age and underlies the Cedar Keys limestone (Paleocene). Its upper surface probably became land and was eroded before the submergence that ushered in the Paleocene epoch. The limestone is correlated with the Navarro group of Texas. It is possible that the lower member is equivalent to the Ripley formation of Mississippi and Alabama and the upper member to the Prairie Bluff chalk, both of which are of Navarro age. Paleogeography-The Lawson limestone was deposited in the open ocean, probably far from land. The absence of the formation from part of northern Florida may be the result of erosion during the period of emergence that preceded the Paleocene epoch. LOCAL DETAILS The Applins have identified the Lawson limestone in the following wells: Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 1894 to 2683 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 3365 to 3900 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 173 SECTION ON SANDY CREEK FEET Shoal River formation (Miocene): 6. Irregularly banded tan to brown unfossiliferous silt with white silt mottlings ---------------12.3 5. Bluish-gray blocky micaceous clay with abundant molds of Busycon sp., Callocardia prosayana Gardner, Cardium sp., Diplodonta sp., Dosinia dalli Gardner, Macrocallista waltonensis Gardner, Metis? sp. indet., Periploma discus Gardner, Yoldia soror Gardner, and carbonaceous plant remains -----8.5 4. Reddish-brown deeply weathered blocky sandy, bentonitic (?) clay with thin grit beds and many molds of Callocardia prosayana Gardner, Cardium waltonianum Dall, Chione ceramota Gardner, Chione trimeris Gardner, Chlamys sp., Macrocallista waltonensis Gardner, and Panope sp. --------1.6 Chipola (?) formation (middle Miocene?) : 3. White limonite-stained unconsolidated coarse to fine sand --3.2 2. Greenish-gray argillaceous, bentonitic (?) silt. Similar in lithology to silts of northeastern Washington County (W-73, etc.) 2.5 1. Cream to white limonite-stained unconsolidated fine dune (?) or beach sand --------------11.4 Okaloosa County-The type locality of the Oak Grove sand member of the Shoal River formation is the bed and bank of Yellow River 400 feet below the bridge at Oak Grove, in sections 16 or 17, T. 5 N., R. 23 W., where compact dark bluish-gray to black somewhat argillaceous sand forms a platform 2 or 3 feet above low water. The sand contains quantities of Cardium taphrium and other well-preserved shells, which have been listed by Gardner (1926-1944). No other outcrops on the river have been discovered. Dense blue-gray sandy marl that forms the bed of Horse Creek on the property of Charles Howell 1 /2 miles south of Oak Grove contains fossil shells that seem to be a little younger than those at Oak Grove, though they are referred to the Cardium taphrium zone. A similar fauna has been found at Tanner's (formerly Senterfeitt's) mill in sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 23 W., 43/4 miles southeast of Laurel Hill. This bed likewise contains a larger Shoal River element than the bed at Oak Grove. The shell bed at Tanner's mill, a grayish-blue sandy marl, weathering brown, is exposed to a height of about 18 inches in a spring. This bed was referred by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 105) to the Shoal River



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 257 its content of small spherules of carbonate of lime, which resemble the roe of a fish. According to Sanford: Examination with the microscope shows that the ovules have a wellmarked concentric structure; some have as nucleus a rounded aggregate of minute calcite crystals; others have as nucleus a rounded aggregate less evidently crystalline; some are built around shell fragments and many around grains of quartz. The concentric layers vary in number from one to five and in appearance from clear and rather coarsely crystalline to opaque, the shade varying with the amount of organic matter and amorphous material. Few of the spherules exceed 1 millimeter in diameter The proportion of spherules to other material in the Miami oolite varies greatly. Some parts of the rock are composed almost entirely of spherules; other parts contain only a few; and some parts contain none. FIGURE 36.-Miami oolite at NW 22nd Avenue and 67th Street, Miami. Note cross-bedding, several cone-in-cone structures, and solution hole filled with Pamlico sand. After PARKER and COOKE, 1944, pl. 18-B. Locally, the Miami oolite is plainly cross-bedded, as if it had been deposited in shallow water on a bar. The cross bedding consists of straight diagonal, steeply inclined lines terminated by horizontal planes. Some of the cross-bedded parts show large cone-in-cone structures as much as 6 inches in diameter (fig. 36).



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224 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE in well number 4, 2 /2 miles south of Orlando; and at 35 feet in well number 5, 5 miles southwest of Orlando. According to S. A. Stubbs (1940, oral communication), a cutting from the City of Apopka well at 60 feet contained Caloosahatchee fossils. Osceola County-The Caloosahatchee marl is completely covered by Pleistocene deposits in Osceola County, but Pliocene shells are reported by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 133) at a depth of 150 feet in a well on an island in Lake Tohopekaliga about 3 miles from Kissimmee. Mansfield (1924, p. 36; Cooke and Mossom, 1929, pp. 148, 149) suspected that some of these shells are Miocene, but his evidence seems inconclusive. Palm Beach County-No exposures of the Caloosahatchee marl are known in Palm Beach County, but the formation lies close enough to the surface (except in the eastern part) to be cut into by the deeper canals. Dredges have brought up shells characteristic of the Caloosahatchee on the West Palm Beach Canal from the entrance at Canal Point to Loxahatchee, 7/2 miles east of Twenty-Mile Bend. The spoil bank of the North New River Canal at the bend about 3 miles south of Okeelanta contains Caloosahatchee shells. Such shells have not been noticed more than 4 miles south of the bend. Pinellas County-The Pinellas Peninsula east of Largo and Seminole is underlain by a shell bed believed to be of Pliocene age. As some of the collections from this region contain no extinct species, it is possible that there is also a Pleistocene bed. Ditches at Ninth Street and Seventieth Avenue, North (NE cor. sec. 36, T. 30 S., R. 16 E.), in the suburbs of St. Petersburg yield many fossil shells, including such characteristic Caloosahatchee species as Arca wagneriana Dall. At Fifth Street and Seventy-first Avenue, Chione cancellata is the most common species. It has been noted also on Roosevelt Boulevard in sec. 13, T. 30 S., R. 16 E., and in sections 23 and 24 of the same township. Drainage ditches along and near Joes Creek cut into a shell bed that has heretofore been identified as Pleistocene (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, pp. 216, 217), but which in all probability represents merely a different faunal facies of the Caloosahatchee. At Seminole Field in the SWY4sec. 5, T. 31



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 177 River formation. At least 50 feet of very fine compact orange sand, probably originally blue, was exposed in 1926 in an old gullied road leading down to the bridge over Euchee Creek on the road from Red Bay to De Funiak Springs. The lower part of the sand contains a few gray argillaceous layers. Impressions of mollusks but no shells were found in the sand. The best collecting ground for Shoal River fossils yet discovered in this region is in a gully on the east side of White Creek 200 feet south of the bridge on the road from Eucheeanna to Knoxhill, in the SW 4 sec. 23 ,T. 2 N., R. 18 W. About 2 feet of compact blue-gray sandy shell marl crops out in the bottom of the gully. Above this bed is 4 feet of yellow or brown sand packed with well-preserved shells and overlain by 2 feet of compact brown sand containing molds of mollusks but no shells. The fauna consists predominantly of pelecypods. Glycymeris waltonensis Gardner is very abundant. About 3 feet of blue sandy shell marl like that just described is exposed on Folks Creek in sec. 22, T. 2 N., R. 18 W., about a quarter of a mile back of the residence of J. M. Armstrong and about 1 mile west of the White Creek bridge. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 117) mentioned only one outcrop of their Choctawhatchee marl in the vicinity of Choctawhatchee River. This is on the west bank of the river on the Anderson farm about 1 mile southeast of Red Bay, where more than 30 feet of bluish-gray marl was exposed. Mansfield (1932b, p. 21) refers a collection made there in 1908 (U.S.G. S. 4975) to the Arca zone. About 19 feet of hard blue-gray sandy and clayey marl crops out in a bluff beneath the "Dripping Spring" in E. Gomillion's field about a quarter of a mile east of Red Bay. It contains fossils listed by Mansfield (1916) as follows: Turritella variabilis Conrad var.? Crucibulum auricula Gmelin var.? Dentalium attenuatum Say Leda choctawhatcheensis Mansfield Glycymeris sp. indet. Arca rubisiniana Mansfield Ostrea sp. (young) Pecten gibbus Linnaeus madisonius Say? sp. indet.



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72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE FIGURE 9.-Juniper Spring in eastern Marion County. After CooKE, 1939, fig. 47. FIGURE 10O.-Ocala limestone in quarry of The Ocala Lime Rock Corporation "near Kendrick. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 12.



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30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 3900 to 5077 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet. Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville, depths 2675 to about 2900 feet; total depth of well, 3755 feet. Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 3239 to 3740 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 2770 to 3180 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 6110 to 7330 feet; total depth of well, 10,006 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 3280 to 3900 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 2745 to 3482 feet; total depth of well, 5746 feet. Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land .& Timber Company (sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 E.), depths 3136 to 3790 feet; total depth of well, 5337 feet. Washington County-Chipley Oil Company No. 1 Dekle (sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.), depths 2570 to 2870 feet; total depth of well, 4912 feet. LAWSON LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name Lawson limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944) to limestone of Navarro age penetrated between depths of 2235 and 2770 feet in the J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson well (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.) in Marion County, Florida. Characters-The Lawson limestone is white or cream-col-



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266 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE shells, and sandstone in which all the shells have been reduced to rounded grains of "coral sand." The coquina includes almost everywhere a little quartz sand, and at some places quartz sand may be almost the sole constituent of the Anastasia formation. In Palm Beach County the Anastasia consists chiefly of shell marl that has been irregularly hardened, into sandy limestone. This rock was called the Palm Beach limestone by Sanford (1913, pp. 175-177), but Cooke and Mossom (1929) regarded it as merely a local facies of the Anastasia, transitional into the Miami oolite. Distribution-The Anastasia formation extends along the East Coast from Anastasia Island, St. Johns County, about to the boundary between Palm Beach and Broward Counties, where it merges into the Miami oolite. It rarely extends inland more than 3 miles beyond the Intracoastal Waterway. Stratigraphic relations-The bottom of the Anastasia formation is nowhere exposed. Presumably it rests unconformably on the Caloosahatchee marl. It is commonly overlain unconformably by the Pamlico sand. It merges southward into the Miami oolite. Paleogeography-The Anastasia formation accumulated in comparatively shallow sea water on the Floridian Plateau. It may include representatives of all three interglacial stages, though it is not known how much of the deposits of each stage survived through the succeeding glacial epochs, when they stood well above sea level and were subjected to the solvent action of rain water. The eastward-sloping bedding planes indicate that most of the accessible part of the Anastasia was deposited as an offshore bar in water shallow enough to be easily stirred by the waves. It may be assumed that this part of the formation is of late Sangamon (Talbot interglacial) stage, when the level of the sea stood only 42 feet higher than now, and the bar reached within a few feet of the surface. At this time the seashore lay some 20 miles back of the bar in the latitude of St. Augustine and perhaps 75 miles west of Jupiter. Fauna-The fauna of the Anastasia formation consists chiefly of mollusks. So far as is known, none of the species are extinct, and most still live in the same region.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FORT THOMPSON FORMATION 253 which lay only a few miles north of the Caloosahatchee region during the latter part of the Sangamon interglacial stage. The Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson accumulated in the sea at that time. The region became land again for a short interval during the early Wisconsin glacial stage but was flooded to a depth of 10 to 25 feet during the mid-Wisconsin recession. Waves and currents in this shallow sea swept a, thin sheet of Pamlico sand over the Fort Thompson formation. The sea withdrew again during late Wisconsin time and has not since risen higher than its present level. Fauna--The lower and middle shell beds of the Fort Thompson are composed, for the most part, of existing species of mollusks but probably include some reworked shells from the underlying Caloosahatchee marl. The upper shell bed of the Fort Thompson, the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member, consists chiefly of Chione cancellata, a small, long-ranging bivalve. The intermediate fresh-water marls and limestones contain species of Ameria and Helisoma, fresh-water snails. LOCAL DETAILS Broward County-The North New River Canal cuts through a shell bed containing many shells of Chione cancellata. This bed may be the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson formation, which probably underlies the northwestern part of Broward County and presumably merges into the Miami oolite or the Anastasia formation, which it resembles. Glades County-The southeastern half of Glades County is underlain by the Fort Thompson formation. The northern boundary of the formation has not been located precisely because the Fort Thompson is everywhere covered by a thin layer of Pamlico sand or Lake Flirt marl. The Caloosahatchee Canal cuts through these and the Fort Thompson into the underlying Caloosahatchee formation. No exposures of the Fort Thompson are known above Ortona Lock. The following section is adapted from one measured by G. G. Parker (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 93) on the west bank of the Caloosahatchee about 25 yards below the Atlantic Coast Line Railway. The top of the bank there is about 11 feet above low-tide level.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BONE VALLEY FORMATION 209 Polk County-Most of the western half of Polk County is underlain by the Bone Valley formation. The type locality is an old phosphate mine west of Bartow. The following section was measured in 1927 in a pit of the Phosphate Mining Company east of Bartow: SECTION IN PIT OF PHOSPHATE MINING Co. NEAR BARTOW FEET Sunderland? formation (Pleistocene): 4. Brown or chocolate-colored sandy clay --------7 Unconformity Bone Valley formation (Pliocene): 3. Grayish-brown argillaceous sand with round lumps of gray sandy clay simulating a conglomerate; seems to grade downward into the underlying bed -------------2-3 2. Pebble phosphate; ash-gray fine phosphatic sand with soft and claylike ash-gray round phosphatic lumps -------10 SUnconformity Hawthorn formation (Miocene): 1. Yellow sandy limestone (bedrock) containing pellets of hard, brittle, dark-brown phosphate and impressions of many marine shells -----------------2 The pebble phosphate in this pit shows no sign of having been deposited in swiftly flowing water. The pellets may have been formed as a flocculent precipitate, perhaps rolled by the waves, in shallow brackish water. Matson (1915, p. 40) describes the section at Mulberry as follows: SECTION IN PART OF PRAIRIE PEBBLE PHOSPHATE CO.'S MINE AT MULBERRY FEET Overburden: Gray sand containing some organic matter -------2 Gray sand containing yellow and red stains -------4-5 Gray sand ----------------5 Brown sand with some iron concretions --------2 Phosphate: Alternating layers of fine and coarse sandy phosphate gravel --8-10 Fine greenish-gray sand and clay with numerous small granules and pebbles of phosphate ------------4 "Bedrock:" Light-yellow marl and limestone containing dark pebbles of phosphate ----------------4-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 11 The Coastal Lowlands consist for the most part of nearly level plains. They have so recently been covered by the sea that great areas of them have suffered little dissection. One invasion of the sea left successive shore lines at 100, 70, and 42 feet above the present sea level. A later invasion reached only 25 feet. The marine terraces corresponding to these Pleistocene shore lines are named Wicomico, Penholoway, Talbot, and Pamlico. The Pamlico terrace, with shore line 25 feet above sea level, is the most extensive plain in Florida. It covers most of Florida south of latitude 27 as well as broad strips along both coasts north of that line. The soil of the Coastal Lowlands is prevailingly light-gray or drab sand except part of the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp, where bare Pliocene sandy limestone or muck and peat lie at the surface. A notable feature of the Coastal Lowlands is the Everglade3, a flat, frequently flooded region commonly lower than 16 feet above sea level extending southward from Lake Okeechobee in Florida Bay and confined between slightly higher land on each side. The floor of the Everglades is composed of Pliocene and Pleistocene limestone and limy sandstone, covered by sheets or patches of peat and muck derived from sawgrass. The Florida Keys comprise a long fringe of low islands that curve southwestward along the edge of the Straits of Florida from Biscayne Bay to Key West. Outlying islands such as the Marquesas, Rebecca Shoal, and the Dry Tortugas might be included with them. The outer fringe of keys, terminating at Loggerhead Key, is an emerged coral reef (Key Largo limestone) composed of limestone containing coral heads in their original position. Most of the keys are long and narrow and are strung out in a line. Other keys, known as the Pine Islands, are more irregular in shape and are composed of oolitic limestone (Miami oolite) like that of the mainland. The Marquesas Keys and the Dry Tortugas consist of "coral sand" heaped up by the waves in the form of atolls on a slightly submerged bank. All of the keys are very low. Probably none exceed 15 feet above sea level. Mangrove swamps occupy much of the shallow water be-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 337 PAGE PAGE 296, 310 Snake Creek-----265 Santa Rosa Sound, Talbot terSneads -------128 race near -----296 Sopchoppy limestone 136, 144 Santee limestone ----57 Sopchoppy River ----143 Sarasota Bay ------160 Southern States Oil CorporaSarasota County, formations in 160 tion well -26, 28, 29, 36 210, 225 48, 50, 52 Satilla formation ----297 Southern Utilities Co. ---100 Satilla River, Georgia ---228 South New River Canal -242, 312 Satsuma Heights ----296 Southport ------301 Sawpit Landing -----229 Southport quadrangle ---301 Scanlon -------101 Sparr ------130, 159 Sconiers Mill Creek ---176 Spears, N. C., farm ---79 Scotts Bridge -----171 Spence, Chester, farm ---176 Sea level, oscillations of --245 Spring Hill ------155 Sebring -------233 Stanley-Brown, Joseph -161, 186 Sellards, E. H. -111, 115, 122 SteinhatcheeRiver-64, 65 124, 128, 154, 155, 156, 157 Stephenson, L.W. ---27, 181 160, 166, 188, 189, 194, 199 Stickney Point Bridge ---160 204, 306 Stokes Ferry-----229 Selma chalk ------28 Stratigraphy, general features -14 Seminole --224, 300, 308, 309 Structure map -----6 Seminole County, formations Stuart Bridge -----155 in -------225 Stubbs, Sidney A. -89, 225, 226 Seminole Field 224, 308, 309, 314 Studsill place -----69 Seminole Hills quadrangle 289, 294 Sulphur Spring -----127 Senterfeitt's mill ----173 Summerville's mill--171 Shattuck, G. B. -----292 Sumter County, formations in 32 Sheffield -------136 35, 42, 48, 71, 98, 291 Sheffield, Will, farm -179, 180 Sunderland formation ---278 Shell Bluff ----174, 175 Sunderland terrace, shore line of 12 Shell Creek ------222 Sunniland ------240 Shoal River formation--167 Suwannee County, formations Shore lines, early Pleistocene, in -49, 85, 98, 161, 203, 291 map of ------275 Suwannee limestone ---86 Paleocene, late Eocene, and Suwannee River -----68 middle, map of ---37 Suwannee Shoals ---149, 150 Pleistocene, list of ---248 Suwannee Sulphur Springs -98 Silex bed --113, 114, 116, 125 Sweetwater Creek ---126 Silver Bluff ----239, 262 Swirl, The ------133 shore line at -----248 Silver Springs -----71 T Simmons' phosphate pits --147 Simpson, G. G. -118, 119, 151 Talbot formation ----292 201, 206, 207 Talbot sea, shore line of -293 Simpson, J. Clarence ---119 Talbot terrace -----294 Sixmile Creek --113, 126, 222 shore line of -----13 Smith, E. A.-----192 Tallahassee ----154, 155 Smith, R. Hendee ----178 Tallahassee Hills ---9



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66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE and many molds of small bivalve mollusks. In Alabama the marl forms steep banks 10 feet high, but in Florida it is finer, softer, and more shaly and extended only 4 feet above the river level when visited in June 1921. Yellow limestone containing large curved orbitoid foraminifers crop out below water level in Blue Spring, which rises west of the Choctawhatchee, probably in sec. 12, T. 5 N., R. 17 W. This rock resembles the Suwannee limestone but is suspected to be Ocala because of its geographic location. Ocala limestone containing bryozoans, a large thick orbitoid foraminifer, Lyria? sp., and other fossils extends to a height of 4 feet above a mill stream (Little Gum Creek?) in the NW 4 SE4 sec. 26, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. Chert of the Ocala was noted also in the woods in the E / of section 26. Dr. Robert 0. Vernon kindly guided the writer to both of these exposures. Vernon (1942, pp. 53-54) refers this limestone to the lower part of the Marianna because of the foraminifers and ostracodes that it contains but states that F. Stearns MacNeil found Amusium ocalanum, a sure indicator of the Ocala, in it. Both formations may be represented there. Typical Ocala limestone containing Asterocyclina sp. and many specimens of Amusium ocalanum was seen in 1921 at a turpentine landing on the east side of Choctawhatchee River about a mile above the mouth of Wrights Creek. Similar rock was struck in excavations for a bridge at Caryville. Jackson County-Exposures of the Ocala limestone are fairly common in the north half of Jackson County except at the eastern and western ends, where the Ocala is covered by an overlap of the Flint River formation. The best-known exposures are at and near the highway bridge at Marianna, where the Ocala rises about 10 feet above water level in Chipola River and is overlain by the Marianna limestone. (See section, p. 80.) The rock there is a granular mass of loosely cemented organic remains, including many foraminifers and bryozoans. It appears to represent the same zone as that exposed along Flint River at Bainbridge, Georgia (Cooke, 1915, p. 110; 1917, pp. 111-112; 1944, p. 72). Canu and Bassler (1920, pp. 20-33) list 56 species of Bryozoa from the



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64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1 and 6, T. 19 S., Rs. 17 and 18 E., 5 miles southeast of Crystal River. Mansfield (1939a) estimates that the contact of the Suwannee on the Ocala stands as much as 70 feet above the floor of the quarry at some places. The Ocala in this quarry has yielded the following species of echinoids: Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol Laganum ocalanum Cooke Peronella cubae Weisbord Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell) Schizaster armiger Clark (Linthia) ocalanus Cooke Agassizia floridana de Loriol The Ocala is exposed also in several quarries and old phosphate pits in the eastern part of the county between Istachatta and Holder, particularly in the neighborhood of Inverness. There are also many patches of the rock in and around Tsala Apopka Lake. A drainage ditch on Florida Highway 15, 5.2 miles northwest of Crystal River, cuts into hard white Ocala limestone containing Periarchus lyelli (Conrad). The springs forming the heads of Crystal River, Homosassa River, and Chassahowitzka River rise through Ocala or Avon Park limestone. About 33 feet of white Ocala limestone, most of it soft and powdery, is exposed in the Miley rock pit in sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 18 E. A harder zone near the top contains Ostrea podagrina Dall, Pccten alpha Dall?, Peronella cubae Weisbord?, Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell), and other fossils. The Ocala there is overlain by about 18 feet of white limestone, presumably Suwannee though it resembles the Byram at Ellaville, containing Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) and Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve). At Red Level, north of Crystal River, there is a pit about 25 feet deep in cream-colored soft, powdery magnesian limestone analyzing about 36 to 39 percent MgCO3. The rock is probably an altered facies of the Ocala limestone. Dixie County-A large borrow pit in the Ocala limestone at Steinhatchee River north of U. S. Highway 19 has yielded the following species of echinoids:



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108 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE in the Marianna and Byram. The Foraminifera include Lepidocyclina favosa Cushman and L. undosa Cushman, which are abundant in the Chickasawhay limestone of Mississippi and in the Suwannee limestone in Washington County. LOCAL DETAILS Holmes County-Blocks of chert residual from the Flint River formation are most abundant on the road from Geneva, Alabama, to Westville about three-quarters. of a mile south of the State line, in the SE4 SE sec. 26, T. 7 N., R. 17 W. Lists of species from this place are reported by Cooke (1923, p. 4) and by Vernon (1942, pp. 131-133), but neither list is wholly reliable because the fossils are represented only by impressions, which have not been critically compared with types. Jackson County-The Flint River formation underlies most of the eastern and western parts of Jackson County north of the Louisville and Nashville Railway, and there are several outliers on the Marianna and Ocala limestones in the intermediate area. A shallow sink 3/2 miles west of Butler on the road to Marianna shows lumps of chert containing Lepidocyclina, Pecten, and other fossils. There are many exposures of mottled clay and sand believed to be residual from the Flint River formation. The Flint River formation, consisting chiefly of gray sandy clay associated with large masses of porous and vitreous chert containing Lepidocyclina favosa? and other fossils, is well exposed at Fairchild Landing on the Georgia side of Chattahoochee River about 1 2 miles above Butler. Walton County-The northeastern part of Walton County is probably underlain by the Flint River formation, but no details are available. Washington County-The northern part of Washington County presumably lies within the transition zone between the Flint River formation and the Suwannee limestone, which occupies a band south of Chipley. No records are available.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHATCHEE FORMATION 219 2 4a 4b 5. FIGURE 29.-Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl. 1, Fasciolaria apicina Heilprin; 2, Solenosteira mengeana Dall; 3, Cerithium caloosaense heilprim Dall; 4, Corbula wilcoxi Dall; 5, Cardium dalli Heilprin. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 20.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OCALA LIMESTONE 65 Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol Peronella cubae Weisbord Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell) Cassidulus trojanus Cooke (Paralampas) carolinensis Twitchell Schizaster armiger Clark Agassizia floridana de Loriol Two miles below Highway 19 Steinhatchee River falls over a ledge of dolomitic limestone, apparently altered Ocala, containing molds of small nummulitic foraminifers and Pecten "perplanus". A canal near the mouth of Steinhatchee River near Jena cuts into the Ocala limestone. There are many other shallow efcavations in the Ocala within Dixie County. The surface of the Ocala in a quarry near Highway 19, 6.2 miles west of Suwannee River near Oldtown, is closely pitted with large solution chimneys. Amusium ocalanum Dall and orbitoid foraminifers were noted there in the Ocala, which is overlain by 3 or 4 feet of sand. Gilchrist County-Ocala limestone probably lies not far below the surface everywhere in Gilchrist County except in the eastern part, where it is overlain by the phosphate-bearing Alachua formation. Pleistocene sand probably covers the rock in the eastern part. No details are available. Holmes County-Although the Ocala limestone lies not far below the surface everywhere in Holmes County, except the southwestern quarter, exposures of the rock are not numerous, much of it being covered by the Flint River formation. Vernon (1942), who has made a detailed study of the county, maps the Ocala along Choctawhatchee River and Pittman Creek in the north-central part and along Wrights Creek and Ten Mile Creek. He also indicates a patch along Choctawhatchee River about one mile above the Washington County line. The basal part of the Ocala limestone as exposed along the Choctawhatchee from Geneva, Alabama, to the middle of sec. 34, T. 6 N., R. 16 W., 1 /2 miles below the State line, differs from the typical facies in that it consists of dirty-gray, pepper-and-salt, sandy marl containing glauconite and mica



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320 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE GREGORY, WILLIAM KING 1930. A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family (Lutianidae) from the lower Oligocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 5, pp. 7-17, 2 figs., 4 pls. GUNTER, HERMAN (See also SELLARDS, E. H., 1909, 1918a, 1918b, 1922.) 1928. Basement rocks encountered in a well in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1107-1108. 193 a. (and G. M. PONTON). The possibility of petroleum in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 21-22, pp. 59-65. 1931b. The nonmetallic mineral resources and their development in Florida: Pit and Quarry, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 31-36, 48, 14 figs. 1933. (and G. M. PONTON). Notes on the geology and the occurrence of some diatomaceous-earth deposits of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 23-24, pp. 57-64, 2 figs. HARRIS, G. D. (See DALL, W. H., 1892.) HEILPRIN, ANGELO 1887. Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee wilderness: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, 134 pp. IMLAY, RALPH W. 1943. Jurassic formations of the Gulf region: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1407-1533. JOHNSON, LAWRENCE C. 1888. The structure of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 36, pp. 230-236. JORDAN, LOUISE (See APPLIN, E. R., 1945.) KELLOGG, A. REMINGTON 1924. Tertiary pelagic mammals of eastern North America: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 755-766. 1929. A new fossil toothed whale from Florida: Am. Mus. Novitates 389, 10 pp., 3 figs. 1944. Fossil cetaceans from the Florida Tertiary: Harvard College, Mus. Comp. Zoology Bull., vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 433-437, 6 pls. LANGDON, DANIEL W. 1889. Some Florida Miocene: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 38, pp. 322-324. MACNEIL, F. STEARNS 1944. Oligocene stratigraphy of southeastern United States: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1313-1354. MANSFIELD, GEORGE R. 1942. Phosphate resources of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 934, 82 pp., 8 pls., 1 fig.



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248 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE to be noticeable on a map. The names of the seven shore lines and the approximate altitudes at which they stand are as follows (Cooke, 1931): Brandywine ---------270 feet Coharie -----------215feet Sunderland ----------170 feet Wicomico ----------100 feet Penholoway ---------70 feet Talbot ----------42 feet Pamlico ----------25 feet To these possibly should be added another at 5 feet, which may be called the Silver Bluff shore line from its occurrence at Silver Bluff near Biscayne Bay at Miami (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 24). This shore line is not generally recognizable except where it is cut into hard rock, such as the Miami oolite. The seven or eight shore lines fall into four groups, three of which apparently correspond to the three major interglacial stages, and the fourth to the recession of the Wisconsin ice. The first shore line of each group is more intricate than the others of the same group-an indication that it represents a shore line of submergence, whereas the others are shore lines of emergence. The first group contains only one recognized shore line, the Brandywine, which presumably corresponds to the Aftonian interglacial stage. The second comprises the Coharie and the Sunderland, both probably of the Yarmouth interglacial stage. The third includes the Wicomico, Penholoway, and Talbot, which are assigned to the Sangamon interglacial stage with considerable assurance. The Pamlico and probably the Silver Bluff apparently represent the mid-Wisconsin recession. DEPOSITS OF PLEISTOCENE AGE GENERAL FEATURES The deposits in Florida assigned to the Pleistocene epoch vary greatly in lithologic characters and thickness. In the southern third of the State they are chiefly calcareous and include some nearly pure limestone. Elsewhere, they are sandy, more like the corresponding formations in other eastern States. A set of seven predominantly sandy formations cor-





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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 127 of a mile in a ditch beside the road leading northward from the Quarantine Station near Gadsden Point. The rock is hard and contains impressions of many shells. It lies 1 or 2 feet below the surface and is exposed to a thickness of about 2 feet. The exposure is 0.5 to 0.6 mile from the Quarantine Station, probably in sec. 34, T. 31 S., R. 18 E. Sandy white Tampa limestone rises about 12 feet above water level in a sink between the Atlantic Coast Line Railway and State Highway 156 at Harney, and it forms the bed of Hillsborough River near by. A few poorly preserved mollusks were seen in it. Tampa limestone without visible sand forms the bed and south bank of the Hillsborough 100 yards above the railway bridge in sec. 7, T. 27 S., R. 21 E. This rock contains Archaias? sp. and many small foraminifers. Several springs yielding sulphur water rise through the Tampa limestone. No rock is visible at Jackson Spring in the NWV4 sec. 35, T. 28 S., R. 17 E. The surrounding land is covered by gray sand, presumably Pamlico. Sulphur Spring is on the north side of the Hillsborough below the Nebraska Avenue Bridge at Tampa. The contact of the Tampa with the underlying Suwannee limestone lies below ordinary water level in a drainage ditch along Blackwater Creek at the crossing of the Seaboard Railway 2V/2 miles south of the Pasco County line and 8 2 miles north of Plant City. The contact is probably unconformable. The spoil bank north of the ditch contains many fossils, most of which are derived from the Suwannee, but among them are several characteristic Tampa species. The names of the fossils are listed by Mansfield (1937b, p. 51). Holmes County-There are few exposures of the Tampa limestone in Holmes County. The formation underlies only parts of four townships in the southwest corner. According to Vernon (1942, pp. 72, 73) the basal green clays and silts of the Tampa formation are exposed at numerous places, but at these localities they are leached of their calcareous content. The best section is in a road cut on State Road 88, in the northwest corner of the SW/4 sec. 16, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., where 16 feet of the deposit is exposed. Other places where the greenish-gray silt and clay facies of the Tampa formation may be seen are: SW corner of the NW/ sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., in cut on State Road 88. Road cut in the NEV4



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96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Lafayette County-The western part of Lafayette County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone. Lumps of chert containing Cassidulus gouldii have been noted at the Taylor County rock pit 4.8 miles northwest of Mayo, where they overlie the Ocala limestone, and there is a large block of brown chert containing the same species on the Perry-Mayo road 7.8 miles east of the Taylor County line. Lake County-Suwannee limestone probably lies not far below the surface in the southwestern end of Lake County about as shown on the geologic map, plate 1, but no exposures have been noted. Madison County-Suwannee limestone lies near the surface in the southern and eastern parts of Madison County, but elsewhere it is covered by the Hawthorn formation. Limestone rises about 8 feet above the low-water mark in Withlacoochee River near Lee (probably on the road to Westlake). Some parts of the rock are hard; others are soft and granular. The rock varies in color from white to cream or yellow. It contains molds of many species of mollusks. White nodular limestone containing no recognizable fossils was seen north of State Highway 1, 9 miles east of Madison, and lumps of chert, apparently Suwannee, are scattered 5 miles east of Madison. The banks of a small stream about midway between Day, Lafayette County, and Lee is composed of compact to porous cream-colored or brownish limestone. The rock, which contains obscure casts of fossils, presumably is Suwannee limestone. Pasco County-Nearly all of Pasco County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone, but it is covered by the Tampa limestone in the southwestern third and by the Hawthorn formation in the highlands surrounding Dade City. A thin sheet of Pleistocene sand covers most of the remainder. Mossom (1925, p. 171) reports a shallow rock pit 5 miles south of Aripeka in very hard semicrystalline limestone containing more than 97 percent of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Because of its purity this rock is presumed to represent the Suwannee limestone, although it probably lies not far from



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42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 2165 to 3090 feet; total depth of well, 3255 feet. SLake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (South Lake well, sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths about 2000 to 2570 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet. Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 1308 to 2051 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 1285 to 1730 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 2050 to 3310 feet; total depth of well, 10,006 feet. Florida East Coast Railroad well at Marathon, Key Vaca, depths 1920 to 2310 feet; total depth of well, 2310 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 1370 to 2215 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 HecksherYarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1960 to 2630 feet; total depth of well, 4540 feet. St. Johns County-East Coast Hotel Company well at St. Augustine, depth 1350 feet (last sample) ; total depth of well, 1350 feet. Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 1430 to 2005 feet; total depth of well, 3070 feet. SALT MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Salt Mountain limestone was named in 1891 by Langdon from a hill in Clarke County, Alabama, where it was brought to the surface by the Jackson fault (Cooke,



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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 2489 to 3239 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet, Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 2235 to 2770 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 5430 to 6110 feet; total depth of well, 10,006 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 2750 to 3280 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 HecksherYarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 4300 to 4540 feet (upper member only) ; total depth of well, 4540 feet. Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 2940 to 3070 feet; total depth of well, 3070 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 315 BIBLIOGRAPHY ALDRICH, TRUMAN H. 1911. Notes on some Pliocene fossils from Georgia, with descriptions of new species: Nautilus, vol. 24, pp. 131-132, 138-140. ALLEN, JOHN H. 1846. Some facts respecting the geology of Tampa Bay, Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 1, pp. 38-42. APPLIN, ESTHER R. (See also APPLIN, PAUL L., 1944.) 1945. (and LOUISE JORDAN). Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 129-148, pls. 18-21. APPLIN, PAUL L. 1944. (and ESTHER R. APPLIN). Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1673-1753. BASSLER, R. S. (See CANU, F., 1920.) BERRY, EDWARD W. 1916a. The physical conditions and age indicated by the flora of the Alum Bluff formation: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98, pp. 41-59. 1916b. The flora of the Citronelle formation: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98, pp. 193-208, pls. 45-47. BLANPIED, B. W. 1938. Age and correlation of the Salt Mountain limestone: Oil and Gas Jour., vol. 36, no. 44, p. 65. BROWN, ROLAND W. 1934. Celliforma spirifer, the fossil larval chambers of mining bees: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 532-539. 1935. Further notes on fossil larval chambers of mining bees: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 526-528. BURNS, FRANK 1889-1890. Field notes on the Miocene of West Florida (Unpublished) in files of U. S. Geological Survey. 1895. Field notes on eastern Mississippi and West Florida (Unpublished) in files of U. S. Geological Survey. BUTT, W. H. (See DICKERSON, R. E., 1935.) CAMPBELL, ROBERT B. 1939a. Paleozoic under Florida?: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1712-1713.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MIOCENE SERIES 111 establish because the faunas represent different facies. South of the Carolina Ridge (Cooke, 193 6b, p. 158), which presumably offered an effective barrier to the migration of organisms, the water seems to have been considerably warmer than that north of it, and the faunas north and south of the ridge had comparatively few species in common. These pre-Duplin faunas of Florida, though originally classified as Miocene, were transferred to the Oligocene by Dall (1898, table facing p. 334), who regarded them as older than the Chesapeake (Miocene) faunas. This classification continued until Sellards (1916a) discovered vertebrates with lower Miocene affinities in the Alum Bluff deposits of supposed upper Oligocene age. Although restored to the Miocene, the pre-Duplin faunas were still supposed to be older than the Chesapeake group as late as 1924 (Cooke, 1924, p. 856). By 1936, however, these faunas had been shifted upward with respect to the Chesapeake group until the Shoal River formation, as then interpreted, was correlated with the Choptank formation of the Chesapeake group (Mansfield, 1936, p. 173). A further shift, which brings the Tampa limestone, the Chipola formation, and the Shoal River formation opposite the Calvert, Choptank, and St. Marys formations of the Chesapeake group seems probable though not yet confirmed. Such a correlation would make the oldest Miocene formations both north and south of the Carolina Ridge the deposits of a locally advancing sea; the middle Miocene formations would record a further advance in both.regions, followed by a general withdrawal and erosion; the late Miocene formations indicate a widespread invasion across the Carolina Ridge, where the Duplin marl lies on the Upper Cretaceous, "and a less distinct separation of the northern and southern faunas. (See figure 14.) DEPOSITS OF EARLY MIOCENE AGE TAMPA LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Tampa formation" appears to have been first used by L. C. Johnson (1888, p. 235). Dall (1892, p. 112) proposed the name "Tampa group" to include "...



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304 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Dade County-A thin sheet of Pamlico sand was spread along the eastern rim of the Everglades and in the passageways across it. Very little sand was carried back of the barrier islands, though all the rest of Dade County was submerged.' Duval County-The shore of the Pamlico mainland lies below the 30-foot contour line on the Cambon quadrangle. It is well marked east of Marietta. Several large islands with straight seashores and crooked bayshores shut off a large bay. High dunes rising from a Pamlico shoal occupy most of sec. 17, T. 1 S., R. 27 E. They are composed of fine gray sand, which is now effectually anchored by a pine forest. The highest dunes now rise 100 feet above sea level, 75 feet above the Pamlico sea. Escambia County-A Pamlico estuary 8 miles wide at the mouth extended up Perdido River to sec. 10, T. 6 S., R. 6 E. (in Alabama, Muscogee quadrangle), where it had tapered to a width of 2V2 miles. The shore rises steeply from below the 30-foot contour line. The shore of the mainland crosses Palafox Street at Belmont Street in Pensacola. Another estuary extended up Escambia River to sec. 18, T. 4 N., R. 30 W. (Century quadrangle), maintaining a rather uniform width of 2 miles. Flargler County-In Pamlico time the shore of the mainland of Flagler County passed a mile or two west of the present Intracoastal Waterway, and a broad lagoon, probably brackish, extended across the western part of the county, including Crescent Lake. The intermediate region was occupied by a low peninsula that had been a shoal with barrier islands in Talbot time. Franklin County-All but the northwestern part of Franklin County lies within the Pamlico terrace. There are several small dune-bearing outlying islands in the vicinity of Carrabelle and Camp Gordon Johnson (Carrabelle and Dog Island quadrangles). Gulf County-Gulf County south of latitude 30 was submerged under water 5 to 20 feet deep during Pamlico time, and the broad estuary of the Apalachicola extended northward almost to the Calhoun County line. Hendry County-A large island occupied the southwestern



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180 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SECTION ON WILL SHEFFIELD'S FARM (VERNON'S LOCALITY W-22) FEET Shoal River formation, Arca zone (middle Miocene): 10. Yellow residual clays ------------15.6 9. Gray micaceous, argillaceous fine sand weathering yellowishbrown. Abundant molds of Cardium sp., Nucula sp., Arca sp. cf. A. santarosana, and many small gastropods. Very fine sand at bottom -------------6.7 8. Blue-gray silty blocky clay with a few unidentifiable molds of small mollusks -------------5.3 7. Greenish-gray argillaceous, glauconitic, slightly arenaceous marl containing many small shells and shell fragments, giving a coquina texture -------------2.5 6. Greenish-gray (weathers buff) sandy marl. Locally consolidated into hard concretionary masses. Foraminifers compose a large percentage of the rock. Same as bed 2, locality W-74 -" 7.0 5. Covered (probably same as bed 6) --------4.0 4. Badly weathered gray clay, perhaps reworked, yellowishbrown where most weathered ----------2.0 3.Covered ---------------2.0 2. Brownish-gray sandy shell marl, weathering brown ---7.0 1. Blue-green-gray glauconitic, argillaceous thin-bedded, crossbedded sand and gravel with many fine shell fragments and delicate shells of Nucula proxima, Crassatellites meridionalis rubisiniana, and Diplodonta subvexa --------9.5 Several other exposures in section 16 were noted by Vernon. Vernon (1942, p. 103) found 5 feet of gray micaceous, slightly sandy clay containing scattered molds of Leda, Nucula, and Corbula in a cut on State Highway 39 at Newhope church, in sec. 14, T. 2 N., R. 16 W., north of the road to Millers Ferry. All these exposures were referred by him to the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee formation [Shoal River formation]. 0 DEPOSITS OF LATE MIOCENE AGE DUPLIN MARL GENERAL FEATURES Name-As early as 1889 Langdon (1889, p. 323) recognized the probable equivalence of the upper shell bed at Alum Bluff with the Carolinian Miocene of Heilprin. This Ecphora bed (Dall, 1892, p. 124) comprised part of Matson and



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 249 responding to the seven shore lines and designated by the same names is divided mainly on the topography of the surface that they underlie. Another sandy formation, the Anastasia, probably of the Sangamon stage, includes loose shells and consolidated coquina (shell rock). It extends southward along the Atlantic coast from St. Augustine about to Boca Raton, becoming progressively more calcareous and merging into the Miami oolite, an oolitic limestone, which continues to Key West. The outer fringe of the Florida Keys is composed of a dead coral reef, the Key Largo limestone, apparently of the same age as the Miami oolite and the Anastasia formation. Along the upper reaches of Caloosahatchee River and in the Everglades is the Fort Thompson formation, an alternation of marine shell beds and fresh-water limestone and marl, which apparently includes representatives of all the glacial and interglacial stages, though it is only 10 feet thick. The Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson is composed chiefly of shells of Chione cancellata. The youngest Pleistocene formation in the Everglades is a gray calcareous clay containing fresh-water shells, the Lake Flirt marl, whose time of accumulation may have extended into the Recent epoch. FORT THOMPSON FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Fort Thompson beds" was applied by Sellards (1919b, pp. 71-73) to alternating fresh-water marl and limestone and marine shell marl in the vicinity of La Belle and Fort Thompson, which is: on Caloosahatchee River about 1 4 miles east of La Belle, Hendry County. The uppermost of the typical beds, a fresh-water limestone, is overlain by a thin shell marl composed chiefly of Chione cancellata, which Sellards (1919b, p. 73) named the Coffee Mill Hammock marl. This bed was included in the Fort Thompson formation by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 211), and Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 73) treated it as a distinct member of the Fort Thompson. Characters-The Fort Thompson formation includes three separate and distinct marine shell beds, the topmost of which is the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member. These three beds of shells are separated by two thin beds of soft, homogenous



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242 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE by Mansfield (1931) from a shallow ditch beside the Tamiami Trail near the line between Collier and Dade Counties, where unconsolidated sand yielded 25 species of gastropods, 29 pelecypods, and 1 scaphopod. These fossils were tentatively referred to the upper Miocene, although it was admitted that they might be Pliocene. This lot contained few oysters, no Pectens, and none of the other species listed from places farther west on the Trail. The common species are: Olivella juspidea gladensis Mansfield Cypraea carolinensis floridana Mansfield Turritella pontoni Mansfield cookei gladensis Mansfield Nucula proxima Say Cardita (Carditamera) arata Conrad Venericardia tridentata decemcostata Conrad Phacoides (Here) pensylvanicus (Linnaeus) var. (Pseudomiltha) anodonta (Say) (Cardilucina) trisulcatus (Conrad) Diplodonta acclinis (Conrad) Transenella carolinensis Dall Macrocallista nimbosa (Solander) Gemma trigona Dall Parastarte martensi Mansfield Spisula incrassata (Conrad) Utilization-The only use that has been made of the Tamiami formation is as a base for roads, for which it is excavated from borrow pits along the right of way. LOCAL DETAILS Broward County-Although the Tamiami formation underlies at slight depth all of Broward County, it is generally covered by the Fort Thompson formation or by the Miami oolite. Along the South New River Canal the unconformable contact with the Miami is exposed. Collier County-All but the northwestern part of Collier County is underlain by the Tamiami formation. Along the Tamiami Trail across the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades the formation lies at the surface or so close that it is reached by shallow ditches. In the western part it is covered by Pamlico sand, and near the Dade County line it is covered by a thickening wedge of Miami oolite. It is concealed at many places by peat. Along the road from Everglades to La



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116 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE the Tampa limestone by the discovery of beautifully preserved fossil shells and corals in the "silex beds" at Ballast Point at Tampa. T. A. Conrad (1846) visited Tampa Bay in 1842 and saw the "silex beds" and the limestone at several places in the vicinity of Tampa. He described several new species of fossils from the "silex beds" and referred them to the upper Eocene. J. H. Allen (1846) and others commented on the manner of preservation of the fossils at Ballast Point. Angelo Heilprin (1887) collected 47 species of mollusks at Ballast Point in 1886, and his study of them convinced him that the "silex beds" are of lower Miocene age, the age to which they are now assigned. W. H. Dall was the next naturalist to investigate the Tampa region. His studies, begun in the winter of 1886-87, resulted in a series of papers (Dall, 1892, 18901903, 1915) that culminated in a monograph on the molluscan fauna of the "silex beds." Some of his illustrations are reproduced in figure 15. Mansfield (1937b) was the first to make a regional study of the molluscan fauna of the Tampa limestone. He found 306 species and subspecies, of which 27 were not assigned specific names. Only 9 were regarded as identical with species or subspecies in the Chipola formation, though 6 more are closely related (Mansfield, 1937b, p. 16). About 9 are reported also in the Suwannee limestone, but several of these were doubtfully identified. The mollusks in the Tampa limestone at Tampa are notable for the inclusion of about 28 species of land snails, an indication that land was not far off. Another indication of nearby land is the occurrence at Ballast Point, Orient, and Wakulla of Celliforma nuda (Dall), the larval chamber of a mining bee (Brown, 1934, 1935) which was originally supposed to be the burrow of a bivalve mollusk (Lithophaga). The Foraminifera of the Tanlpa limestone are not well known. The most conspicuous species is Archaias floridanus (Conrad). No species of Lepidocyclina have been found in the Tampa. That genus appears to have become extinct at the end of the Oligocene epoch. Only one echinoid has been found in the Tampa. This is Lovenia clarki (Lambert) Cooke (1942, p. 60), which was



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 191 and Gunter (1909, p. 275) and Berry (1916a, p. 41) and on notes made in 1914: SECTION AT ALUM BLUFF FEET Sunderland(?) formation (Pleistocene?) (perhaps Citronelle formation, Pliocene): 9. Light-colored ferruginous unconsolidated sand -----9 8. Hard reddish clay --------------2 Citronelle formation (Pliocene): 7. Variegated reddish and yellowish ferruginous sand -----65 Unconformity Duplin marl (upper Miocene): 6. Brown sandy, micaceous, pyritiferous clay tasting like alum; casts of mollusks abundant near the bottom, rare above; many fossils encrusted with gypsum (?); fine slightly coherent grayish sand at top ----------------25 5. Brown or dirty-green fine sand mixed with clay; shells abundant throughout but less so at the bottom than higher (Ecphora zone) 15 4. Medium-fine white or greenish micaceous sand, with a few poorly preserved mollusks at the top -----------3 3. Fine dark-gray or brownish argillaceous sand containing numerous impressions of long, slender, willowlike leaves. A few feet south of the place where this section was measured the leaf-bearing bed divides into several thin beds separated by coarse white sand; the beds pinch out and the white sand merges into the overlying bed 4, the two together forming a single 5 2 -foot bed of coarse incoherent light-colored sand stained below with iron; sharply separated from the bed below it but more or less mingled with the dark shell marl (Ecphora zone) at the top -------3 Unconformity Chipola formation (middle Miocene): 2. Light-gray tough calcareous sand consisting of fine grains of transparent quartz in a white calcareous matrix; fossil mollusks sparingly throughout but preserved in the upper part only as casts. At the top are rounded concretionary masses several feet in diameter of hard white calcareous sandstone, which weather out and lie as boulders on the bank ----------16 1. Fine quartz sand in yellowish calcareous clay, loaded with shells; merges into overlying bed. To water level -------4 Mansfield (1930, p. 18) collected fossils representing the Ecphora zone of the Duplin marl in a cut on an old road to Watson Landing about 2 miles north of Alum Bluff, 2 miles



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 323 SCHUCHERT, CHARLES 1943. Stratigraphy of the eastern and central United States: 1013 pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York. SELLARDS, ELIAS H. 1909. (and HERMAN GUNTER). The fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 2, pp. 253-291. 1910a. A preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 3, pp. 17-41. 1910b. Some Florida lakes and lake basins: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 3, pp. 43-76; Ann. Rept. 6, pp. 115-159 (1914). 1913. Origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 5, pp. 23-80. 1914. The relation between the Dunnellon formation and the Alachua clays of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 6, pp. 161-162. 1915. The pebble phosphates of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 7, pp. 25-116. 1916a. Fossil vertebrates from Florida; a new Miocene fauna; new Pliocene species; the Pleistocene fauna: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 8, pp. 77-119. 1916b. Human remains and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 8, pp. 121-160. 1916c. On the discovery of fossil human remains in Florida in association with extinct vertebrates: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 42, pp. 1-18. 1916d. Human remains from the Pleistocene of Florida: Science, n. ser., vol. 44, pp. 615-617. 1917a. Review of the evidence on which the human remains found at Vero, Florida, are referred to the Pleistocene; Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 9, pp. 69-82; 141-143. 1917b. Geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla Rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 9, pp. 85-139. 1917c. On the association of human remains and extinct vertebrates at Vero, Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 4-24. 1917d. Note on the deposits containing human remains and artifacts at Vero, Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 659-660. 1917e. Further notes on human remains from Vero, Florida: Am. Anthropologist, n. ser., vol. 19, pp. 239-251. 1918a. (and HERMAN GUNTER). Geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee Rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 10-11, pp. 9-56. 1918b. (and HERMAN GUNTER). Geology between the Choctawhatchee and Aucilla Rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 10-11, pp. 77-102.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-COMANCHE SERIES 23 CRETACEOUS SYSTEM COMANCHE SERIES Apparently no rocks of Comanche age were encountered in either the York well or in the Hilliard well, both of which lie in the northern part of the Peninsula. However, a thickness of more than 2000 feet of hard limestone similar to limestones in the Comanche series of Texas alternating with anhydrite and gypsum was penetrated in the Cory well near Pinecrest in the Everglades (sec. 6, T. 5 5 S., R. 34 E.). A core representing the interval between depths of 7944 and 7949 feet consists of hard limestone containing unidentifiable fragments of a species of Gryphaea, a kind of oyster. These shells give little clue as to the age, but according to L. W. Stephenson (Cole, 1941, p. 17) the rock resembles limestone of the Comanche series. If this rock is of Comanche age, it cannot be far from the top of the series as represented in this well, for a core from 7676-7684 feet contains an Upper Cretaceous (Eagle Ford age) fossil. Hard limestone, anhydrite, and gypsum, all common in the Comanche series, continue to the bottom of )the well at a depth of 10,006 feet. Campbell's (1939b, p. 1714) announcement of the discovery of Lower Cretaceous deposits in this well was the first published mention of the presence of the authentic Comanche series under Florida, though Lower Cretaceous beds had been recognized by E. R. Applin in another well several years earlier (Campbell, 1939b, p. 1714). Earlier reports (Cushman, 1919) of supposed Lower Cretaceous deposits in Florida referred to much younger beds that had been misidentified. The absence of deposits of Comanche age from the northern part of the Peninsula is not surprising, for none are known beneath the Coastal Plain of Georgia or of any other Atlantic States, nor do any lie at the surface in Alabama or Mississippi. The nearest outcrop is in southwestern Arkansas. The landward margin of the Comanche series is overlapped by younger deposits east of that region, but records of a deep well show that the Lower Cretaceous Hosston formation underlies Clarke County, Alabama (Imlay, 1943, p. 1463), with a thickness of at least 1700 feet. As this well lies about 45 miles farther north than the Florida State line and less than 30



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258 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE In the eastern rim of the Everglades, where the Miami is bare or covered by merely a thin film of sand, the surface of the oolite is jagged and pitted with solution holes (fig. 37). Little angular prongs of rock project a foot or more above the general level or have been broken off and lie scattered over the surface. On the Florida keys the surface of the oolite is much smoother. Thickness-Records of exploratory wells drilled under the direction of G. G. Parker indicate that the Miami oolite is thickest along the coast, where it is as much as 30 feet thick, and that it thins to a feather edge in the Everglades (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 70). Distribution-The Miami oolite occupies a broad band along the East Coast from a transition zone near the line between Palm Beach and Broward Counties to Key West. It may continue beneath the Gulf of Mexico to the Dry Tortugas, though there are no known exposures of oolite in the outlying keys. On the mainland traces of the Miami oolite have been found in Collier County more than 50 miles inland. On the keys outcrops of the oolite appear to be confined to FIGURE 37.-Jagged surface of the Miami oolite 23 miles south of Miami. After DAVIS, 1943, fig. 65.



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280 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE as the Wicomico shore generally lay far from the Sunderland shore, the Sunderland sediments under the Wicomico formation are probably very thin and may be wanting altogether. Paleogeography-The generalized location of the shore during Sunderland time is shown by a solid line in figure 43. It extended eastward through western Florida, where it was broken by an embayment up the valley of the Apalachicola and apparently also up the other large streams. It curved northeastward into Georgia, far back from the present Atlantic coast. Most of Florida was submerged. There were several rather small islands east of Tampa and others in the northeastern part of the State. From the largest of these, which lay in Putnam County along the eastern edge of a shoal, a long, narrow bar (now Trail Ridge) extended northward and partly enclosed a shallow sound in the area now partly occupied by Okefenokee Swamp. The water within the sound was rarely deeper than 40 feet, whereas outside of the bar it deepened rapidly to 100 feet or more. These relations are shown on the topographic maps of the Lawtey and McClenny quadrangles. Fauna-No fossils have been reported from the Sunderland formation itself, though a member of the Fort Thompson formation, which is suspected to be partly equivalent, contains marine shells. Calcareous shells in porous sand would soon dissolve in rain water if not protected by an impervious stratum above them. Utilization-The Sunderland formation may contain workable beds of sand and possibly brick clay. LOCAL DETAILS Escambia County-The flat-topped divides between the streams draining the south half of the Muscogee quadrangle lie within the limits (170-100 feet) of the Sunderland terrace, and they are probably underlain by the Sunderland formation. One such flat area extends from Cantonment to Gonzalez. Another, larger area is crossed by U.S. Highway 29 for several miles both north and south of Ensley. Okaloosa County-The Holt quadrangle shows traces of the Sunderland shore near the 170-foot contour line, which



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL HONORABLE J. T. HURST Supervisor of Conscrvation Florida State Board of Conservation Sir: I herewith transmit a report entitled GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA, by Dr. C. Wythe Cooke, Senior Geologist, United States Geological Survey, Washington, to be published as Geological Bulletin 29. In 1929 Dr. Cooke was senior author of a report bearing the same title, Stuart Mossom of the Florida Geological Survey being the junior author. This report during the years has proven most helpful and is constantly referred to. The demand for it exhausted the supply numbers of years ago so that it is now available only in reference libraries. There has been an ever insistent need and demand for a revision of this report dealing with the Geology of Florida. Dr. Cooke has met this and the Florida Geological Survey acknowledges this continued cooperation of the United States Geological Survey most gratefully. The report is accompanied by a revised geologic map. Coming at a time when there is so much interest in Florida's geology I am sure that it will be well received. Your sympathetic and cordial interest in the work of the Florida Geological Survey has been an inspiration to me, adding immeasurably to the pleasures of official services. Respectfully submitted, HERMAN GUNTER, Director Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida February 14, 1945 S9Q78



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-LAKE CITY LIMESTONE 47 Fauna-Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman) is regarded by the Applins as a guide fossil of the Lake City limestone. It is generally accompanied by an abundance of Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Discorbis inornatus Cole, and several other species of small Foraminifera. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton and Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea were found in the Lake City limestone in Nassau County. LOCAL DETAILS The Applins have recognized the Lake City limestone or the equivalent sandy, glauconitic facies in the following wells: Brevard County-R. O. Couch well at Grant, depths 756 to 872 feet; total depth of well, 872 feet. Broward County-Port Everglades Oil & Gas Company well, 2 miles south of Fort Lauderdale, depths 2127 to 2500 feet; total depth of well, 3010 feet. Calhoun County--Calhoun Oil and Gas Company well, half a mile northwest of Clarksville, depths 1000 to 1320 feet; total depth of well, 1320 feet. Clastic facies. Columbia County-City well at Lake City (sec. 5, T. 4 S., R. 17 E.), depths 492 to 1010 feet; total depth of well, 1012 feet. Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 Warwick, depths 2490 to 2737 feet; total depth of well, 5432 feet. Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 525 (first sample) to 1085 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. Duval County-City of Jacksonville well at Fourth and Pearl Streets, depths 805 to 1005 feet; total depth of well, 1005 feet. Hillsborough County-R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.), depths 1910 to 2165 feet; total depth of well, 3255 feet. Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BONE VALLEY FORMATION 207 Teleoceras proterus (Leidy) Aphelops longipes (Leidy) ?Prosthennops sp. Camelid indet. Serridentinus floridanus (Leidy) simplicidens Osborn brewsterensis Osborn Pliomastodon sellardsi Simpson According to Simpson (1930c, p. 184): The evidence of the land mammals is very clear and not contradictory. It indicates approximate equivalence with the upper Snake Creek or the Republican River [of Nebraska] ...At present the concensus seems to be that the Republican River and equivalents are referable to the lower Pliocene. On the other hand, the pelagic mammals of the Bone Valley are regarded by Kellogg (1924, p. 765) as "clearly older than Pliocene and not later than upper Miocene," though he admits the possibility that they represent more advanced types than the comparable Miocene species. The pelagic mammals include the toothed whale Kogiopsis floridana Kellogg (1929), the sirenians Felsinotherium floridanum (Hay) and Felsinotherium ossivallense Simpson (1932a, p. 448), and the longbeaked dolphin Schizodelphis bobengi Case (1934). Inasmuch as none of these mammals is known elsewhere, and as two of the genera are unknown in Miocene deposits, the argument for a Miocene age seems very weak. Among the reptiles in the Bone Valley deposits are the gavial Tomistoma americana Sellards and a very large land tortoise (Sellards, 1914, p. 73, figs. 7, 9). Many phosphatized molds of mollusks and fish have been found in the Bone Valley, but most of them appear to have been derived from the underlying bedrock. An exception appears to be an oyster, which is reported to occur in abundance near the top of the workable phosphate bed at Pembroke (Sellards, 1915, p. 75). Utilization-The Bone Valley formation has yielded many tons of pebble phosphate, and large areas remain to be exploited. The known reserves containing 70 percent or more of bone phosphate of lime are two billion long tons (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, p. 61).



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54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Characters-The Ocala limestone ranges in color from pure white through cream-color to yellow. Its texture is commonly granular, but parts of it have been converted into hard, compact rock by the deposition of travertine or calcite in its interspaces. In some places it consists of a loosely coherent mass of foraminifers, bryozoans, and other small organisms, a mass so porous that water can percolate freely through it; elsewhere it is finer grained and more compact, though still pervious to water. The free circulation of water through the Ocala limestone has facilitated the solution of the rock. Funnel-shaped cavities, most of them filled with clay and sand and some containing bones, lead downward from the surface and connect with ramifying underground passages. The solution of the limestone has at many places been accompanied by the deposition of silica, either as sheets or as irregular masses of chert (flint) or as pseudomorphous replacements of shells or granules. Some of these pseudomorphs preserve with great fidelity the original form and sculpture of the shell. Such replacements commonly occur only near the surface, though layers of chert are encountered at considerable depth in some wells. In chemical composition as in physical character the Ocala limestone is remarkably uniform. It consists almost entirely of carbonate of lime and in places contains as little as fourtenths of one percent of impurities. The lower part of the formation as exposed only along the Choctawhatchee River near the Alabama line is sandy and shaly. Thickness-The thickness of the Ocala limestone is difficult to determine because the top of the rock is an eroded, uneven surface, and the bottom has not been certainly identified. At Claiborne, Alabama, it is little more than 50 feet thick (Cooke, 1926a, p. 275); at Albany, Georgia, it is said to be about 300 feet thick (Prettyman and Cave, 1923, p. 79); in a well at Live Oak, Suwannee County, whose log is reported by Mossom (1926, p. 222), white limestone containing Ocala fossils extends from a depth of 110 feet to 300 feet, where it is succeeded by light cream-colored to brown limestone, presumably the Tallahassee limestone; in a well at Anthony, Marion County (Mossom, 1926, p. 225), the drill apparently passed out of the Ocala at a depth of 110 feet,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 189 Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 121) report 7 feet of yellow to bluish-gray highly fossiliferous marl at the bottom of a 28foot well on the farm of\J. R. Harvey, 1 mile west of Holland. According to Mansfield (1932, p. 20) these mollusks are mainly from the Ecphora zone. They also found more than 30 feet of marl on the banks of Mill Creek and in the race at Black's sawmill 1 mile southwest of Holland. A steep-walled sink containing blue water in the S /2 sec. 17, T. 2 S., R. W., about a quarter of a mile north of the Wakulla County line and 0.7 mile west of State Highway 110, shows a small exposure of Duplin marl beneath the root of a tree about 35 feet above the water. The marl lies on the Tampa limestone. It is rather coarse rust-colored sandy shell marl containing species of Venus, Crassatellites, Anomia, Dentalium, and other mollusks. Liberty County-Most of Liberty County is underlain by the Duplin marl, but it is commonly buried by Pleistocene terrace deposits. The best-known exposure is: at Alum Bluff (figs. 24, 25), on Apalachicola River above Bristol. The following section at Alum Bluff is based on sections by Sellards FIGURE 24.-Apalachicola River looking south from Alum Bluff. After SELLARDS and GUNTER, 1909, pl. 17, fig. 1.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 155 The sand hills south of Tallahassee and in the vicinity of Spring Hill are composed of material probably weathered from the Hawthorn formation, though they greatly resemble dunes and beach ridges and occur not far from the shore lines of marine terraces. They consist of fine to coarse orange to red sand that weathers gray. Occasional sink holes pass through the sand to the underlying Tampa limestone. A ditch on the Holland road 1 or 2 miles west of Tallahassee exposes 4 feet or more of hard white sandy limestone containing Ostrea normalis and a few other mollusks. The rock weathers into fine sand and slabs of white sandstone. The soil above it is red. Similar but more profusely fossiliferous limestone was struck at a depth of 60 feet in a well on the high hill at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College near Tallahassee. The basins of Lake lamonia, Lake Jackson, and Lake Lafayette, as well as smaller depressions, are due, at least in part, to the solution of the lime in the Hawthorn formation and in the underlying Tampa and Suwannee limestones, though these basins were originally ordinary stream valleys. An exposure of the calcareous beds of the Hawthorn formation lies on the east bank of Ochlockonee River 100 yards above Stuart Bridge, 2/2 miles northwest of Lake Jackson station o the road to Havana, probably in sec. 24, T. 2 N., R. 2 W. he rock consists of 5 feet or more of light-gray or white arlstone containing Sorites? sp., Ostrea normalis, and obs ure mollusks. On the west bank of the river half a mile or ess above the bridge partly indurated gray sandy clay is visible. No other outcrops of the Hawthorn formation are known on the river for several miles above Stuart Bridge. The most complete exposure of the Hawthorn formation on the Ochlockonee is on the east bank at Jackson Bluff, in the SW 4 sec. 16, T1 S., R. 4 W., 1 mile west of Bloxham. The following section by Sellards and Gunter (1918a, p. 41) revised by Cooke and Mossom (1939, p. 124) was measured before the dam retaining Lake Talquin was built:



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 71 The rock is extensively utilized in the manufacture of lime or as road metal. These industries center in Ocala, the site of the oldest lime pits in the State. There are many lime pits in Marion County (see fig. 10), and they present little variation. The pits are deeper than those in other parts of the State, because the top of the rock is higher and the water table lies farther below the surface. Near Ocala the top of the limestone stands generally around 110 feet above sea level, and the water table between 40 and 50 feet above sea level (Stringfield, 1936, p. 151). Therefore, pits as deep as 60 or 70 feet may remain dry. FIGURE 8.-Rainbow Spring, northeast of Dunnellon. After COOKE, 1939, fig. 44. Silver Springs, near Ocala, Blue or Rainbow Spring, northeast of Dunnellon, and Juniper Spring, in the eastern part of the county, issue from caverns in the Ocala limestone (see figs. 8, 9). Sumter County-The southern part of Sumter County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone. Elsewhere the Ocala limestone lies near the surface. A well at Oxford entered it at 35 feet (Matson, in Matson and Sanford, 1913, p. 405), and it crops out between Webster and Oxford. As much of the county is low and flat, with the level of ground water not far



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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION Florida Geological Survey J. T. HURST, Supervisor of Conservation HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 29 GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA By C. WYTHE COOKE, Ph.D. SENIOR GEOLOGIST UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Published for THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLAHASSEE, 1945



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136 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 4-foot bed of very plastic gray clay containing Ostrea cf. O. rugifera and 0. caducaqua in the SW 4 NE 4 sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 16 W., and in the NEV4 NW'4 NE of the same section there is a 10-foot exposure of pinkish-gray finely crystalline dense limestone interbedded with porous mealy textured, argillaceous limestone. An old quarry in the escarpment of Choctawhatchee River in the SE SE4 sec. 8, T. 3 N., R. 16 W., exposes 15.4 feet of cream-colored to light-gray, dense, finely granular limestone containing corals, mollusks, and microfossils. Vernon (1942, p. 72) found Tampa limestone at the bottom of a 29-foot well in the center of the SW'4 sec. 27, T. 3 N., R. 14 W.; at a depth of 40 feet in a well in the SW4 NEV sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 14 W.; 40 feet of Tampa in the Gully Pond well in the NEI4 sec. 14, T. 1 N., R. 14 W.; at least 20 feet in the Sheffield well in the SE4 sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W.; and 59 feet of Tampa in the Hamilton well in the SE4 sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 18 W. ALUM BLUFF GROUP Name-The name "Alum Bluff beds" was applied by Dall (1892, p. 112) to "the unfossiliferous sand and clay strata intervening between the Chipola marl and the upper fossiliferous bed [Duplin marl] at Alum Bluff" on Apalachicola River above Blountstown. Later, Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 91) expanded the Alum Bluff, to which they applied the term "formation", to include as members the Chipola marl, the Oak Grove sand, and the Shoal River marl and tentatively the Sochoppy limestone of Dall and "limestones and marls on the Manatee River near Ellenton." They also added to it the fuller's earth and related deposits of northern Florida. Vaughan and Cooke (1914) showed that these latter deposits are equivalent to Dall's (1892, p. 107) Hawthorn beds and proposed to discard the name "Hawthorn formation", which had been adopted by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 69) with a somewhat different significance. Gardner (1926, p. 2) considered that the faunal differences between the three members of the Alum Bluff formation are greater than should properly be included within one formation. She, therefore, raised the Alum Bluff to the rank of group and promoted its three



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272 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE or coquina rising 25 feet above Lake Worth. The bedding planes dip in various directions. St. Johns County-On Anastasia Island there are many pits from which coquina has been quarried. The harder parts have been used as building stone since the early Spanish settlement. Fort Marion and many other buildings at St. Augustine are built of coquina obtained from Anastasia Island. The lessconsolidated beds are used as road metal or as concrete aggregate. Coquina crops out also in great blocks on the beach near the lighthouse. St. Lucie County-The Anastasia formation is generally covered by the Pamlico sand in St. Lucie County, but Pleistocene shells thrown from a ditch on the Okeechobee road 8 miles west of Fort Pierce show that it lies not far below. Volusia County-All known exposures of the Anastasia formation in Volusia County are on,the mainland, back of Halifax River and Mosquito Lagoon. A pit beside the Ormond road one mile east of the railroad at National Gardens, 6 miles northwest of Ormond, discloses 5 feet or more of currentbedded coquina, in which the bedding planes dip eastward. The material varies from loose sand to hard limestone. It is composed of water-worn fragments of shells with variable proportions of sand. The harder parts show vertical tubular solution holes. The fauna appears to be like the living EastCoast fauna with the addition of Rangia cuneata and possibly other Gulf species. Unconsolidated white coquina, chiefly shells, is exposed on U.S. Highway 1 west of Tomoko Creek 3 miles northwest of Ormond. A small pit shows solution holes filled with red clay and shells. There is another exposure of unconsolidated and hard coquina 2 miles west of Ormond. A large pit on the north edge of the municipal golf course and airport about 2 miles north of New Smyrna yields coquina rock consisting chiefly of broken shells and a few thin lenses of sand. The most abundant species is a Donax. The bedding planes dip gently eastward. The top is pitted with solution holes. Pleistocene shells underlie at least part of the area between the two railroads west of Ariel, 9 miles south of New Smyrna.



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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE codes that R. S. Bassler tentatively identifies as a species of Amphissites, a genus ranging from Devonian to Permian. This fossil apparently confirms the Paleozoic age of the shale, which had been suspected to be Paleozoic because of its appearance. Cole (1944, pp. 20-21), however, who could find no authentic fossils in this shale, tentatively assigns the interval from 4640 to 4795 feet to the Triassic. TRIASSIC SYSTEM Below the supposed Paleozoic black shale in the well near Hilliard and presumably intrusive in it is a sill or dike of a basic igneous rock that J. 0. Fuller (Cole, 1944, pp. 89-94) identifies as a diabase similar to the diabase of the Triassic Newark group of the Eastern States. As Triassic intrusives are widely distributed in the Piedmont region as far south as Georgia, the reference of the diabase in the Hilliard well to the Triassic seems justifiable. The drillers log (Cole, 1944, p. 100) shows diabase between depths of 4821 and 4824 feet, which was the bottom of the well. Apparently the drill entered it at 4795 feet (Cole, 1944, p. 30).





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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL ,185 4 2 3a 3b 6 FIGURE 23.-Fossils from the Duplin marl. 1, Cardita (Carditamera) vaughani Dall; 2, Anadara aresta Dall; 3, Anadara campsa Dall; 4, Chione xesta Dall; 5, Chione ulocyma Dall; 6, Cardium virginianum Conrad; 7, Crassatellites meridionalis Dall. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 17.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ALUM BLUFF GROUP 143 They are all newcomers and, except Cardium taphrium Dall, which is rare in the Shoal River, no trace of them has been detected in any later formation .... The Shoal River fauna is more complex than that of either the Chipola or the Oak Grove and shares some of the characters of both. The number of species is slightly increased, and several of them, such as Conus waltonensis Aldrich, a new Cancellaria and Turritella, and Glycymeris waltonensis Gardner [fig. 18, no. 3], are as prolific as the abundant species in the Oak Grove. Apparently the waters continued to be relatively cool, for Astarte, which occurs chiefly in northern and temperate waters, is represented by three species, whereas in the Oak Grove there is only one and in the Chipola none at all. On the other hand, the southern element did not submit without a struggle. The West Indian assemblage is suggested by such forms as Spondylus sp. cf. S. bostrychites Guppy and the diversity of the Cancellarias ...Although none of the Alum Bluff faunas are in any sense of the word deep-water faunas, the Shoal River includes a larger number of characteristic littoral and between-tide genera than either of the other two. The molluscan fauna of the Hawthorn formation, which was included in the Chipola fauna by Gardner, is much less rich and varied. On Sopchoppy River only about 50 species have been identified, and of these the only common forms are large Ostreas, Pectens, and Anomias, an assemblage that is characteristic of oyster reefs (Gardner, 1926, p. 2). Ostrea normalis "Dall" Gardner (fig. 18, nos. 3,4) and Pecten akanikos Gardner (fig. 19, no. 3; fig. 20, no. 5) are the most widely distributed species. Sirenian ("manatee") ribs are rather common in the Hawthorn, and the fuller's earth mines near Quincy have yielded several skeletons of Hesperosiren crataegensis Simpson (1932). This was a large strictly aquatic mammal related to the dugong. Bones of several land mammals have been reported from the Hawthorn, but these may have been derived from deposits of Tampa age. Cushman and Ponton (1932) recognize 132 species of Foraminifera in the Alum Bluff group, of which 60 species have not been found in the Duplin marl. Thirty-nine species from the Chipola formation are not known from other Miocene formations in Florida; but the absence of most of them has no temporal significance, for 22 of them are identified as still living species. Scutella floridana Cooke (1942) from the Hawthorn formation on Sopchoppy River, and Clypeaster gatuni Jackson



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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE cant that the embayed area is bordered throughout by soluble limestones. Moreover, it is quite likely that the submerged Miocene formations on the Plateau are composed of more soluble materials than those formations that crop out on the land, which contain much sand, for the submerged parts are farther away from sources of clastic sediment. Part of the warping that raised the Ocala arch appears to have taken place before late Eocene (Ocala) time. It was T E. N N. .-----N.'C. v ^. "',/itlnogt ..." ,A LAA. "\ t \ / -"' aMnacmery / ., .soO" 7' ( -,v.n--" .. L Ae' C_ <'I -1~ ., ""., eel .: :B"eP FIGURE 2.-Sketch map of Florida and adjacent States showing structure by contour lines on top of the Eocene formations. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 2.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CITRONELLE FORMATION 233 Citronelle formation (Pliocene): 2. Gray to mottled red plastic clay at top, grading downward into fine gray sticky sand, about -----------34 1. Concealed to sea level -------------13 A few hundred yards north of the place where this section was measured the lower part of the bluff consists of clay grading into coarse, pebbly, clayey sand. Matson (1916, pl. 33) has pictured a view of the Citronelle formation overlain unconformably by Pleistocene sand and loam on the west bank of Escambia River south of Molino. The clay pit of the Dolores Brick Company at Molino showed in 1927 about 47 feet of gray to orange clay under more than 8 feet of somewhat clayey sand. A seam of limonite along a bedding plane about 15 feet below the top contains obscure casts of marine mollusks. Gadsden County-The plateau around Mount Pleasant and extending southward to the Liberty County line is probably underlain by red sand of the Citronelle formation, but details are lacking. High-level Pleistocene terrace deposits have not been separated from the Citronelle in Gadsden County. Highlands County-The high ridge that extends northward from Sebring is capped with coarse red sand that probably represents the Citronelle formation, though some of it may be Pleistocene. Jackson County-The hilly upland in the southern part of Jackson County is composed of red sandy clay of the Citronelle formation. Several lakes within the region occupy sinks formed by solution of the underlying Tampa and Suwannee limestones. Natural exposures of the Citronelle are few, for loose surficial sand covers nearly everything. Lake County-The Citronelle lies near the surface over a large part of Lake County. As the red sandy clay of the Citronelle was formerly much used as road metal, the formation may be examined in many old pits. A few of the more interesting exposures are here described. A pit on the Sanford Road 3 miles east of Mount Dora shows 10 to 15 feet of uniform red sandy clay beneath a 6-foot cover of loose light-yellow sand. A mechanical analy-



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90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE ently found such a zone in wells in southern Georgia, though he supposed it to be middle Eocene. In Washington County the Suwannee limestone contains (Cole, 1934, p. 23) the following species of larger Foraminifera: Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) supera (Conrad) yurnagunensis Cushman morganopsis Vaughan (Eulepidina) undosa Cushman tumida Vaughan favosa Cushman gigas duncanensis Cole These species indicate close relationships to the Chickasawhay limestone of Mississippi and to the Flint River formation of Georgia, both of which appear to be contemporaneous with the Suwannee limestone. They have not been found in the typical Suwannee, which, however, contains other fossils in common with those formations. Mollusks are locally abundant in the Suwannee limestone, but they are commonly represented only by molds. Mansfield (1937b, pp. 47-48) characterizes the fauna thus: No land or fresh-water shells have been observed. Among the Gastropoda Conus is very rare, if present; Strombus is present in the Brooksville area, but the species are not determinable; Orthaulax, which is represented by a new subspecies of 0. pugnax, is quite common; among the Cerithiidae a few genera are rather common, some of the species being too poorly preserved for determination; Turritella is present at a numberif localities, but more individuals occur in the Brooksville area than elsewhere. Among the Pelecypoda, Glycymeris is present, some forms being rather large; Ostrea is rare and the species are indeterminable; Phacoides is quite common, especially a rather large form of the type of P. hillsboroensis; among the Veneridae, Chione, similar to C. bainbridgensis Dall, a Flint River species, is present at nearly all localities; large Teredo-like tubes are common. Mollusks characteristic of the Suwannee limestone (Mansfield, 1937b, p. 48) are Orthaulax pugnax hernandoensis Mansfield, Ampullina flintensis Mansfield, Chlamys flintensis Mansfield, C. brooksillensis Mansfield, Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall, and Teredo? incrassata (Gabb). Utilization-The Suwannee limstone is suitable for almost any use for which a pure limestone is required. It is extensive-



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338 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Tallahassee limestone -45, 49 Vernon, R.O. -65, 66, 78, 79 Tallahassee quadrangle -278, 285 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 106 Tamiami formation ---238 108, 127, 134, 135, 136, 138 Tamiami Trail -----261 161, 165, 166, 171, 172, 178 Tampa -------223 179, 180, 194, 195 Tampa limestone ----111 Vero Beach 265,269, 305, 306, 309 fossils from -----117 Vicksburg age, deposits of --75 Tampa Shores -----308 Villa Tasso quadrangle ---311 Tampa time, vertebrates of -118 Volusia County, formations in 226 Tanner's mill -----173 272, 311 Tarpon Springs -131, 132, 308 Taylor age, beds of ---28 W Taylor County, formations in 73 101, 291 Wakulla -----116, 132 Taylor County rock pit --68 Wakulla County, formations in 26 Ten Mile Creek ---65, 163 28, 30, 36, 49, 50, 53, 132 Ten Thousand Islands --12, 239 285, 291, 296, 311 Terraces, marine ----12-13 Wakulla Spring----132 altitudes of shore lines of -12-13 Waldon, B. M., place ---102 Tertiary system -----33 Walker Springs -----95 Thomas, Raeford, fari -119, 120 Wall Spring ------132 152 Walsingham Bridge --179, 194 Tisonia -------295 Walton County, formations in 26 Titusville ------267 28, 30, 36, 49, 101, 108, 164 Tomoko Creek -----272 174, 236, 276, 278, 281, 286 Topographic divisions ---8 291, 297, 311 map of ------9 Washington County, formaToulmin, LymanD. ---43 tionsin28, 30, 38, 49, 101 Trail Ridge-9, 232, 280, 282 108, 134, 165, 178, 193, 236 Trent marl ----109, 110 Watson Landing ----191 Triassic system -----22 Wausau -------238 Tropic -------267 Wekiva Spring ----70, 192 Troy Spring ----68, 69 Wellborn ------277 Tsala Apopka Lake ---64 West Bay ------301 Tsala Apopka terrace ---286 West Bay quadrangle -289, 301 Tuscaloosa formation ---25 Western Highlands ----10 West Frostproof Land & Oil U Co. well -----281 West Palm Beach Canal --224 Union County, formations in 161 Wetmore, Alexander ---119 White, Theodore E. --119, 120 V 152 White Beach-----160 Van Valkenburg Creek -269, 305 White Creek ----165, 177 307 White Springs ----92, 149 Vaughan, T. W. -57, 63, 67, 91 Wicomico formation ---281 104, 105, 136, 144 Wicomicoshore line ---283 Veatch, Otto -----181 Wicomico terrace, shore line of 13 Venice ------160 Wilcox age, deposits of ---39



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318 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1939a. Equivalence of the Gosport sand to the Moodys marl: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 337-340. 1939b. Boundary between Oligocene and Miocene: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1560-1561. -1939c. Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 118 pp., 53 figs. 1939d. (and JULIA GARDNER). The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain; pt. C, Tertiary system: Geologie der Erde; Erich Krenkel, ed., North America vol. 1, pp. 549-569, Berlin, Gebriider Borntraeger. 1939e. The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain; pt. D, Quaternary System: Geologie der Erde, Erich Krenkel, ed., North America vol. 1, pp. 569-573, Berlin, Gebriider Borntraeger. 1939f. Geologic map of Georgia; Coastal Plain: Georgia Div. Mines, Mining and Geology. 1941a. Cenozoic regular echinoids of eastern United States: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-20, 4 pls. 1941b. Pleistocene man in Florida (abstract): Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 52, no. 12, p. 1998. 1942. Cenozoic irregular echinoids of eastern United States: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-62, 8 pls. 1943. (with JULIA GARDNER and WENDELL P. WOODRING). Correlation of the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and the Caribbean region: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 54 pp. 1713-1723. 1944. Geology of the Coastal Plain of Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 941, 121 pp., geol. map. CUSHMAN, JOSEPH A. 1919a. The age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the Foraminifera of well borings: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 12, pp. 77-103. 1919b. Lower Cretaceous age of the limestones underlying Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 70-73. 1920a. The American species of Orthophragmina and Lepidocyclina: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125, pp. 39-105. 1920b. Lower Miocene Foraminifera of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128, pp. 67-74, 1 pl. 1921. American species of Operculina and Heterostegina: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128, pp. 125-137, 4 pls. 1922. The Foraminifera of the Byram calcareous marl at Byram, Mississippi: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, pp. 87-122, 15 pls. 1932. (and G. M. PONTON). The Foraminifera of the upper, middle and part of the lower Miocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9, 147 pp., 2 figs., 17 pls.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 319 DALL, WILLIAM HEALEY 1887. Notes on the geology of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 34, pp. 161-170. 1890-1903. Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida, with especial reference to the Miocene silex beds of Tampa and the Pliocene beds of the Caloosahatchie River: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, 1654 pp., 60 pls. Pt. 1, 1890; pt. 2, 1892; pt. 3, 1895; pt. 4, 1898; pt. 5, 1900; pt. 6, 1903. 1892. (and GILBERT D. HARRIS). Correlation papers; Neocene: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 84, 349 pp. 1894. (and JOSEPH STANLEY-BROWN). Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola River: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 5, pp. 147-170. 1898. A table of the North American Tertiary formations, correlated with one another and with those of western Europe, with annotations: U. S. Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 18, pt. 2, pp. 323-348. 1915. A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligocene of Tampa, Florida: U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 90, 173 pp., 26 pls. 1916. A contribution to the invertebrate fauna of the Oligocene beds of Flint River, Georgia: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 51, pp. 487-524, 6 pls. DICKERSON, ROY E. 1935. (and W. H. Burr). Cuban Jurassic: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 116-118. ELDRIDGE, GEORGE H. 1893. A preliminary sketch of the phosphates of Florida: Am. Inst. Min. Engineers Trans., vol. 21, pp. 196-231. FORREST, H. EDWARD 1935. The Atlantean continent, its bearing upon the Great Ice Age and the distribution of species, 2d ed., London. GARDNER, JULIA A. (See also COOKE, C. W., 1939d, 1943.) 1926-1944. The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff group of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 142, 491 pp., 51 pls. (incomplete); pts. 1-4, 1926; pt. 5, 1928; pt. 6, 1937; pt. 7, 1944. 1936. Additions to the fauna of the Alum Bluff group of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 14, 82 pp., 10 pls. GIDLEY, JAMES W. 1929a. Ancient man in Florida; further investigations: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 491-501. 1929b. Further study of the problem of early man in Florida: Smithsonian Inst. Explor. and Field Work in 1928, pp. 13-20, 5 figs.



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252 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Fort Thompson from the marine Pliocene Caloosahatchee marl represents late Pliocene time and the first (Nebraskan) glacial stage, when sea level was low. The basal marine shell bed of the Fort Thompson (fig. 34, bed 2) presumably was deposited during the first (Aftonian) interglacial stage, when sea level was high. This bed emerged and was covered by fresh-water lakes, which were eventually drained through subterranean channels during the second (Kansan) glacial stage, when sea level was low. Rise of the sea at the beginning of the second (Yarmouth) interglacial stage permitted the accumulation of the middle marine shell bed (fig. 34, bed 4) of the Fort Thompson. This bed emerged at the beginning of the third (Illinoian) glacial stage, was covered by lakes, which likewise were drained through subterranean channels, and again was flooded by the sea during the third (Sangamon) interglacial stage, when the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson (fig. 34, bed 6) was deposited. This bed, the last of the Fort Thompson sequence, was slightly eroded during early Wisconsin (fourth glacial) time but was later covered by a thin coating of Pamlico sand, which was swept down from the north during the mid-Wisconsin recession of the ice. Paleogeography-At the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch all Florida stood above sea level, and part of the Floridian Plateau now submerged was probably land. With the melting of the Nebraskan ice, however, the sea rose over most of the State, leaving an island in Polk County. Sand probably covered the sea bottom as far south as this island and possibly farther but stopped short of the Caloosahatchee region, where a bed composed chiefly of marine shells accumulated during Aftonian time. With the withdrawal of the sea during the Kansan glacial stage, southern Florida was covered with freshwater Everglades until subterranean passageways large enough to drain off the water were dissolved. This process was repeated when the sea rose not quite so high during Yarmouth time and fell again during the Illinoian. A third submergence, during Sangamon time, restored marine conditions to southern Florida, but the land area farther north was larger. Later in the same interglacial stage the sea dropped from 100 feet to 70 and then to 42 feet above its present level. This increased the size of the island and finally connected it to the mainland,



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92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Jennings. It resembles the rock at Suwannee Sulphur Springs but is less fossiliferous. There are several exposures of fossiliferous Suwannee lime/ stone in the banks of the Alapaha near the bridge on the road from Jasper to Valdosta, Georgia. Associated with the limestone are deposits of brown carbonaceous sand that seem to be cavity fillings that have been exposed by erosion. The river bed is often completely dry, for during droughts all of the water is carried through underground channels. Suwannee River flows through a gorge cut in the Suwannee limestone for many miles below White Springs. The silicifled top of the limestone forms Rock Island (fig. 13) threequarters of a mile above White Springs. Mansfield (1937b, p. 55) lists the following species from this place: Gastropoda: Scaphander sp. Orthaulax pugnax hernandoensis Mansfield Ampullina flintensis Mansfield Calliostorna silicatum Mansfield Dentalium ladinum Dall Pelecypoda: Glycymeris suwanneensis Mansfield Modiolus grammatus Dall Phacoides wacissanus Dall hillsboroensis Heilprin? Cardium brooksvillense Mansfield Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall Echinoidea: Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve) White Springs evidently rises through the Suwannee limestone, though the limestone apparently does not crop out above the water level there. Seventeen feet of limestone was measured on the river near Suwannee Spring at a low stage in 1915. The lower 5 feet, which is ordinarily submerged, may be the Byram limestone, which underlies the Suwannee at Ellaville. Hernando County-Nearly all of Hernando County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone. The formation is absent from a narrow strip bordering Withlacoochee River and



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--HIPOLA FORMATION 163 The dominant element of the Chipola is the phylum Mollusca. The Mollusca have been discussed by Gardner (19261938), who is quoted on page 139. Utilization-The shell marl of the Chipola formation is suitable for surfacing light-traffic roads, and the best-preserved shells command a limited market among museums and collectors. The limestone is probably suitable for use as an aggregate for concrete, and some of it may be pure enough for making lime. The quality and extent of the clay lenses has not been determined. LOCAL DETAILS Calhoun County-The Chipola formation underlies all but the northern part of Calhoun County, but known exposures of it are confined to the banks of Chipola River and Ten Mile Creek. The type locality is on the west bank of the Chipola on the John M. P. McCleland farm in the SW SW sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 9 W., 2/4 miles east of Carr. About 10 feet of fine bluegray to yellow sand, loaded with firm, perfectly preserved shells, crops out in the bank of the river and is turned up by the plow in nearby fields. The shell marl lies directly on yellowish sandy Tampa limestone, which is visible only at low water. The first collector to visit this place was Frank Burns (1889), who described the relationship as apparently conformable. Burns (1889) collected also at a point on Ten Mile Creek, which he locates as "about 1 mile west of Bailey's ferry." This collecting ground is probably at or near the crossing of the present State Highway 84 (from Marianna to Clarksville) 4.7 miles north of Clarksville, on the line between sections 11 and 12, T. 1 N., R. 10 W. In 1914, there was a 12-foot exposure of fossiliferous calcareous sand. The lower part was bluish-gray to yellowish and contained beautifully preserved marine shells. The upper part consisted of light-gray to white micaceous, argillaceous sand like that in the corresponding position at Alum Bluff. The fossils in it were preserved only as impressions. When revisited in 1921 and 1922 the upper half was covered by Recent sand.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CHIPOLA FORMATION 165 In the southeastern part of Walton County a calcareous facies of the Chipola was found by Miss Gardner on Bruce Creek near Old Walton Bridge in the N/2 sec. 2, T. 1 N., R. 18 W., 92 miles southeast of/De Funiak Springs. The outcrop is 40 or 50 yards above the old bridge and below the new. A yellowish sandy marlstone forming a prominent ledge at water level contains Sorites americana and casts of many mollusks, including the following species: STATION 10596. FOSSILS FROM OLD WALTON BRIDGE, BRUCE CREEK IDENTIFIED BY JULIA GARDNER Yoldia frater Dall Lucina janus Dall Cardium chipolanum Dall simrothi Dall Tagelus divisus Spengler? Solen amphisteinma Dall? Corbula chipolana Gardner? synarmostes Dall? Conus corrugatus Gardner? Polystira albidoides Gardner? Orthaulax gabbi Dall? Clava chipola Dall Turritella subgrundifera Dall Similar marlstone appears in White Creek, probably in sec. 26, T. 2 N., R. 18 W., about half a mile below the bridge on the Eucheeanna-Knoxhill road. It is associated with yellowish-brown marlstone packed with oysters. Similar but softer and somewhat phosphatic marl crops out beneath the Shoal River formation in Folks Creek on the Armstrong farm, probably in section 22. Washington County-The Chipola formation underlies the central and southern parts of Washington County, and there are outliers of it on the hills in the northeastern part. Vernon (1942) maps outliers of the Alum Bluff group (Chipola formation) on Falling Water Hill, High Hill, Oak Hill, and Orange Hill, all of which lie east of State Highway 52 between Chipley and Wausau. He describes (1942, p. 79) the material on Falling Water Hill as a siltstone shallow-water facies composed of greenish-gray, very argillaceous, bentonitic? coarse silt and greenish silty clay. Ten feet of this is overlain unconformably by the Citronelle formation on the road in the



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260 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE the present land north of Lake Okeechobee had emerged from the sea, and the shore line stood only a few miles inland from the present coast, but all of the southern end of Florida was still under water. Currents sweeping southward past the end of the then peninsula shaped the oolitic ooze into a broad, slightly curving bar that reached almost to sea level. This old bar which now forms the eastern rim of the Everglades is the site of the cities of West Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami. Fauna-Vaughan (1910, pp. 176, 177) lists 36 species of corals, mollusks, and echinoids from the oolitic limestone of Florida. All represent existing species. Shells are most abundant in the northern part of the Miami, the part transitional to the Anastasia formation, which is especially prolific in shells. Utilization-Several large pits near Ojus and other places in the Miami area utilize the Miami oolite, which is dredged from below water level. According to Mossom (1925, p. 107) there is a large demand for the oolite for use as railroad ballast, for road construction and in making concrete. The harder parts are used as building stone. LOCAL DETAILS Broward County-The lateral transition from the Anastasia formation to the Miami oolite is visible on the Hillsborough Canal about 4 miles west of Deerfield. Here oolitic spherules are mingled with sand grains in variable proportions, and there are all facies of rock, from loose sand to hard sandstone and sandy limestone. Both the sandy and the oolitic facies contain many shells. Most of the shells retain traces of their original colors, and some of them are nearly as brilliantly colored as living shells. About 6 feet of somewhat sandy oolitic limestone is exposed in a road-metal pit 4 miles west of Deerfield, about a quarter of a mile south of the Hillsborough Canal. The rock contains many shells. Chione cancellata is the most abundant species. Collier County-A very thin layer of Miami oolite extends into the southeastern part of Collier County and covers the Tamiami formation.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BUCKINGHAM MARL 213 There is another old pit at Caloosa, on the river road to Heitman Groves No. 3, 0.2 mild south of State Highway 292, 2.3 miles west of the bridge at Alva. The section there is similar to that at Buckingham (Parker and Cooke, 1944, pp. 81-82). The Buckingham marl rises 2 feet above low-tide level in Caloosahatchee River at Alva and on the north bank of the river opposite Floweree Grove, about 3 miles farther upstream, where it is overlain by 3 feet of Pamlico sand. Two and one-half feet of creamy white clayey marl is overlain by 3 /2 to 4V1 feet of sandier marl on the south bank of Caloosahatchee River on the Goober or Turkey Farm about a mile below Fort Simmonds Branch. The marl is overlain by a 6-inch basal conglomerate containing pockets of mixed fresh-water and marine shells that is referred to the Fort Thompson formation. Three and one-half feet of sand above this bed is referred to the Pamlico sand. Bones of an undescribed species of whalebone whale have been found in the lowest bed. Similar Buckingham marl rises 3 /2 feet above low tide on the south bank of Caloosahatchee River about one-eighth of a mile above the mouth of Fort Simmonds Creek. The marl is overlain by a foot or two of the Fort Thompson formation containing Rangia cuneata. About 120 yards above Banana Creek the south bank of Caloosahatchee River rises about 13 feet above low-tide level. The lower 9 feet, which is clayey at the bottom and sandy at the top, represents the transition from the Buckingham marl to the Caloosahatchee formation. Differential erosion has produced an uneven surface that simulates an unconformity, but there is really a gradation from the clay marl into the sand. Cetacean bones have been found in the lower part. The Buckingham is overlain unconformably by 1/4 feet of marly sand referred to the Fort Thompson formation, and above that comes I/2 feet of black carbonaceous sand and gray quartz sand of the Pamlico. This and the preceding place may be in Hendry County.



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186 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE presence in it of Pecten jeffersonius and Carditamera arata. The fossils are preserved only as impressions. The limestone resembles bed 9 at the Devil's Mill Hopper. (See section, p. 147.) Bay County-Mansfield (1930, p. 19) refers to the Cancellaria zone an exposure of 1 or 2 feet of marl 8 feet above the water level in Econfina Creek on the R. L. Gainer farm in sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W., about 1 mile below a bridge (Gainer Bridge?). The marl bed lies on porous limestone. The following section was exposed in 1927 on the long hill leading down from the village of Econfina (T. 1 S., R. 13 W.) to the bridge on Econfina Creek: SECTION AT ECONFINA BRIDGE FEET Wicomico(?) formation (Pleistocene?): 3. Fine white sparingly micaceous sand to top of hill -----37 Duplin marl(?) (upper Miocene?): 2. Tough yellow to orange argillaceous sand, brownish at top, perhaps weathered marl; appears to grade downward into the marl; no fossils seen ---------------26 Duplin marl (upper Miocene): 1. Tough gray calcareous sandy marl with molds of many shells; to water level in Econfina Creek ----------22 Calhoun County-A section made by Dall and StanleyBrown (1894, p. 160) on the left bank of the Chipola 200 feet north of Abes Spring (south line of sec. 17, T. 1 S., R. 9 W.) shows 7 feet of gray marl (Ecphora zone) overlain by 19 feet of gray "aluminous" clay, overlain in turn by 32 feet of reddish and yellowish streaked sand that is probably Pleistocene. At Darling's Slide, also on the left -bank of Chipola River and a mile or more north of Abes Spring, the marl was dug and used as fertilizer in 1924. The following section is adapted from one by Mossom (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 144): SECTION AT W. H. BAXLEY'S MARL BANK AT DARLING'S SLIDE FEET Wicomico(?) formation (Pleistocene?): 3. Yellow and coarse sand and sandy clay --------33



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302 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE (Pleistocene, mid-Wisconsin glacial stage): 2. Fine white to light-brown sand containing a few local irregular lenses of marine shells and local accumulations of bones; where shell lenses are absent this bed appears massive or is streaked horizontally by dark carbonaceous sand -------1-10 Unconformity (early Wisconsin glacial stage). Anastasia formation (Pleistocene, Sangamon interglacial stage): 1. Coarse sandy coquina composed of rather firmly cemented broken shells and sand; base not exposed ------The marine shells in bed 2 appear not to have been reworked from the Anastasia formation, for the valves of some of them are joined and unbroken, and the texture of the material of the lenses in which they are embedded is very different from that of the Anastasia formation. The shellfish, while still alive, may have been carried across a low, narrow gap in the barrier island by storm waves or hurricanes. Gidley (1929a) found that the surface of bed 2, when stripped of its cover of stream deposits, is pitted with depressions that range in diameter from a few inches to about 8 feet and in depth from a few inches to about 2 feet. He suggested that these depressions may have been made by the trampling of animals. The upper part of this bed is so firm that lumps of it will withstand considerable handling. The induration follows closely the contour of the surface of the bed-an indication that the surface was bare for some time before the stream deposits accumulated on it. Bed 2 is especially interesting because it contains human bones. In 1924, Gidley and Loomis (Smithsonian Inst., 1926) found human bones near the top of bed 2, which was overlain by undisturbed stream deposits, and in 1928, Gidley found additional remains at the same stratigraphic position. A woman's skull had been crushed as if by the trampling of an elephant, and some of the bones of animals also had been crushed. Gidley (1929a, p. 501) was quite certain S. .that man reached Florida contemporaneously with a Pleistocene fauna; that he continued to remain there after most of this fauna had disappeared; and that he occupied the country in great numbers before certain changes produced conditions that permitted the formation of the swamp deposits of bed number 3. Many fragments of bones and teeth are embedded in 2 or 3 feet of clay, rather coarse sand, and macerated debris from



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326 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1917. On reported Pleistocene human remains at Vero, Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 40-42. 1919. Corals and the formation of coral reefs: Smithsonian Inst. Rept. for 1917, pp. 189-276, 37 pls., 16 figs. VEATCH, ARTHUR C. 1938. (and PAUL ALBERT SMITH). Atlantic submarine valleys of the United States and the Congo submarine valley: Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 7, 101 pp., 16 pls., 28 figs. VEATCH, J. OTTO 1911. (and L. W. STEPHENSON). Preliminary report on the geology of the Coastal Plain of Georgia: Georgia Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 466 pp. VERNON, ROBERT O. 1942. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 21, 161 pp., 20 figs. 1943. Florida mineral industry with summaries of production for 1940 and 1941: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 24, 207 pp., 39 figs. WETMORE, ALEXANDER 1943. Fossil birds from the Tertiary deposits of Florida: New England Zool. Club Proc., vol. 22, pp. 59-68. WHITE, THEODORE E. 1942. The lower Miocene mammal fauna of Florida: Harvard College Mus. Comp. Zoology Bull., vol. 92, no. 1, 49 pp., 14 pls. WOODRING, WENDELL P. (See COOKE, C. W., 1943.)



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114 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The silica commonly takes the form of very fine sand. In the "silex bed" silica has replaced the carbonates in the limestone or in the shells within it. Many of the silicified shells are beutiful pseudomorphs that retain the delicate ornamentation of the original. Silification is a surficial process that is not restricted to any definite stratigraphic level. In Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, which include the type area, the Tampa is commonly a fairly hard, dense, light-colored to yellowish limestone. Locally it is closely packed with impressions of mollusks. In the Chattahoochee area soft beds alternate with hard, and much of the rock has a chalky appearance. Fossils are less conspicuous. Thickness-The thickest natural exposure of the Tampa limestone is in Gadsden County, where it rises about 117 feet above low water in Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee. This bluff probably reveals almost the entire thickness of the formation, though the bottom may not be reached there. Because of its greater content of clastic impurities the Tampa is probably thicker near Chattahoochee than elsewhere. According to Mansfield (1937b, p. 14) well borings indicate that the limestone is about 65 feet thick near Tampa. Only a few feet of limestone is exposed at any one place in Hillsborough County. Distribution-The Tampa limestone crops out in two widely separated areas. The typical area includes the northwestern half of Hillsborough County, the southwestern part of Pasco, and the adjoining parts of Pinellas. Exposures in this region are not numerous except along the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where the limestone is bare in many places. The other area extends westward from the Apalachicola valley in western Gadsden and Liberty Counties to the western side of Holmes County. There are many excellent exposures in the Apalachicola valley, but farther west they are few and far between, and some of them are not readily identifiable. Between these two areas there are outlying patches of Tampa limestone in Marion County north of Kendrick. These outliers are not shown on the geologic map. Stratigraphic relations-Exposures of the contact of the Tampa limestone and the next-older Suwannee limestone are



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250 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE marl containing shells of fresh-water snails. The top of each fresh-water marl bed has been case-hardened into dense brittle limestone, and each was perforated by solution holes before the deposition of the succeeding marine shell bed, which fills the holes. Some of the solution holes in the upper of the two fresh-water beds extend downward through the formation to the underlying Caloosahatchee marl, and the shells of the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson, which fills the holes, there lie directly on the Caloosahatchee. (Fig. 34.) Thickness-Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 73) estimate that the greatest thickness of the Fort Thompson formation does not exceed 20 feet, and that the average thickness is less than 10 feet. At Fort Thompson the total thickness is about 6 feet, of which the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member at the top locally occupies about one-half. As the thickness of all the beds comprising the formation have been reduced by erosion, the thickness of each bed may vary considerably from place to place. Distribution-The Fort Thompson formation, generally recognizable by its fresh-water marls and limestones, is exposed along Caloosahatchee River from La Belle to Lake Okeechobee and along the canals leading southeastward through the Everglades. Stratigraphic relations-The Fort Thompson lies unconformably on the Caloosahatchee formation along Caloosahatchee River and in the northern part of the Everglades. Farther south it rests unconformably on the Tamiami formation. It is overlain unconformably by the Pamlico sand. Each of the fresh-water marl beds of the Fort Thompson was eroded by solution before the overlying marine shell bed was deposited on it and in its solution pits, but the fresh-water beds probably began to accumulate as soon as the shell beds emerged from the sea. The alternation of marine and fresh-water beds with subaerial weathering at the end of each fresh-water epoch gives plain evidence of three oscillations of sea level within the interval of time represented by the Fort Thompson. It may be assumed that the erosional unconformity that separates the



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL 215 indication that the water in which they lived was deep enouh to prevent their violent agitation by waves. Fresh, unweathered exposures of the Caloosahatchee are commonly white or light gray. The color changes to cream or yellow when oxidized. Thickness-Only a few feet of the Caloosahatchee is exposed anywhere, for the relief of the region in which it occurs is very slight. Under cover, it is believed to be about 30 to 50 feet thick. Distribution-The typical exposures of the formation are on Caloosahatchee River at and near La Belle, Hendry County. Here, as nearly everywhere, the immediate surface of the ground is composed of Pleistocene deposits, which are so thin that moderately shallow ditches cut through them into the Caloosahatchee formation. Northwestward from La Belle the formation extends under cover into Sarasota County, southward about to the Collier County line, eastward into Palm Beach County, and northward at least as far as Palatka, Putnam County. There are also outlying areas around Tampa Bay in Manatee, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties. Stratigraphic relations-The bottom of the Caloosahatchee marl is not known to be exposed anywhere, but it presumably lies unconformably on the Hawthorn formation or on the Duplin marl, where that is present. In wells in Seminole County it lies on the Ocala limestone. The Caloosahatchee is overlain unconformably by deposits of Pleistocene age, and there are several good exposures of the unconformable contact with the Pleistocene Fort Thompson formation on Caloosahatchee River. On Caloosahatchee River west of Denaud theformation merges laterally into the Buckingham marl. Exploratory well borings in the Everglades show that the Caloosahatchee interfingers with the Tamiami formation there (Parker and Cooke, 1944). Relations are conjectural with the Citronelle formation, which is suspected to be the littoral, unfossiliferous facies of the Caloosahatchee. It is assumed that the Caloosahatchee merges northward into the Charlton formation in Duval or Nassau Counties, though there are no exposures of the transition zone in that area. Fauna-The fauna of the Caloosahatchee marl is large and



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238 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Breaks in the sand hills west of Holmes Creek at Chalk Bluff, 4/2 miles north of Vernon, show about 75 feet of variegated red, pink, and white sand, gravel and kaolin. The beds dip persistently 20 westward throughout the exposure, which is several hundred feet across. Similar breaks are common in the sand hills south of Wausau. Such a high dip, however, is most unusual in Florida. It may indicate the presence of a fault or, possibly, a displacement caused by the collapse of a cavern. FIGURE 33.-Sand washed free of kaolin, Citronelle formation, Crossley, Putnam County. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 30. TAMIAMI FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Tamiami limestone" was proposed by Mansfield (1939a, p. 8) for "a limestone penetrated in digging shallow ditches to form the road bed of the Tamiami Trail over a distance of about 34 miles in Collier and Monroe Counties, Florida." As the rock is generally too sandy to deserve the term limestone, Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 62) called it the Tamiami formation. Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 152, 156), who were the first geologists to cross the Tiaiami Trail, regarded the sandy limestone there as merely a different facies of the Caloosahatchee marl and preferred



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46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE LAKE CITY LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name Lake City limestone is proposed by Applin and Applin (1944) for limestone encountered in wells in northern and peninsular Florida above the Oldsmar limestone. The name is derived from the county seat of Columbia County. Characters-The Lake City limestone is described as made up of alternating layers of dark-brown and chalky limestone. It contains beds of gypsum in the central part of the peninsula, the Tallahassee area, and southeastern Georgia. Chert is especially noticeable in the Tallahassee area. Thickness-In the northern part of Florida the Lake City limestone ranges in thickness from 400 to 500 feet, but it is only 200 to 250 feet thick in the southern part of the peninsula. Distribution-As described by Applin and Applin (1944) the Lake City limestone underlies all of Florida except the northwestern part, where the limestone merges into a clastic facies of chalky, glauconitic sand, apparently resembling the Lisbon formation of Alabama, with which part of it is doubtless continuous. The limestone is present also in southeastern Georgia. Stratigraphic relations-The Lake City limestone overlies the Oldsmar limestone, of Wilcox age, and is probably unconformable with it, though this relationship has not been proved. It is overlain by the Tallahassee limestone or by unfossiliferous limestone supposed to be equivalent to the Tallahassee. The Lake City merges westward through highly glauconitic limestone into chalky, glauconitic sand, which presumably is the offshore equivalent of the Tallahatta and Lisbon formations of Alabama. Paleolgeography-During Claiborne time, most of Florida lay well offshore and received little clastic sediment. The northwestern part was nearest the land. The shore line extended across Alabama from the northern part of Choctaw County to Henry County, thence across Georgia to Richmond County.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 115 rare. At times of drought, when the water level is unusually low, a contact believed to be unconformable is exposed in the bank of a drainage ditch along Blackwater Creek east of the Seaboard Railway bridge 8/2 miles north of Plant City. Presumably the Tampa lies unconformably on the Flint River where that is the underlying formation. There is some uncertainty as to the relations between the Tampa and the overlying formations. My somewhat cursory field studies of the region in which it occurs has led me to the opinion that in Gadsden County and the neighboring part of Georgia (Cooke, 1944, p. 87) the Tampa merges upward gradually into the Hawthorn formation and that the boundary between them is indefinite. Notes made in 1914 at Rock Bluff, Liberty County, indicate that it is difficult to draw the boundary between the Tampa limestone and the Hawthorn formation, or the Chattahoochee and the Alum Bluff as they were called then, for the one seems to grade perfectly into the other. Neither Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 97) nor Sellards and Gunter (1909, p. 274) report an unconformity there. However, Mansfield (1937b, p. 36) inserts an unconformity in a section at Rock Bluff based on that of Sellards and Gunter and also in sections at Chattahoochee and Aspalaga Bluff. Cushman and Ponton (1932, p. 31) describe the contact of the Tampa with the Chipola formation on Chipola River as apparently an erosional unconformity. Paleogeography-During Tampa time part of the present peninsula was probably above water and the remainder of the State was covered by an expanded Gulf of Mexico. The shore line of the Tampa sea (figure 14) apparently extended eastwad across the southern tier of counties of Alabama to the vicinity of Sylvester, Georgia, where it turned southward and entered Florida in the western part of Leon County. From the vicinity of Tallahassee it followed a southeasterly course to Lakeland, beyond which its course has not been determined. As the Tampa limestone has been recognized in the Cory well in Dade County (Cole, 1941, p. 11), the southern part of the State must have been under water. The area above water must have been a low-lying plain underlain by Suwannee and Ocala limestones, very like the present Everglades. Fauna-The attention of naturalists was early attracted to



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166 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE center of the NY2 SE/4 sec. 21, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. According to Vernon (1942, p. 79): An indurated greenish-gray siltstone ledge vith mottlings of limonitic silt giving it a checkered appearance is exposed in the center of the NE/4 sec. 28, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. The ledge has the appearance of having been baked and is cemented by siliceous .cement, probably derived from the bentonite (?). Rock Hill is capped by a 2-foot ledge of hard ferruginous sandstone or conglomerate, presumably the base of the Citronelle formation. Beneath it is at least 22 feet of softer yellowish-gray sandstone with clay cement like that characteristic of the Hawthorn formation in Marion County. Near the center of sec. 24, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. on Rock Hill, Vernon (1942, p. 80) found 15.4 feet of light-greenish-gray sand and silt with clay pebbles, hardened by a siliceous cement. He also mentions greenish-gray silt along a road on Orange Hill in the NE 4 sec. 2, T. 3 N., R. 13 W. Econfina Creek throughout most of its course in Washington County cuts through the Duptin marl into marlstone of various degrees of hardness. Vernon (1942, p. 77) apparently considers the fauna of this rock as a facies of the Chipola, although the evidence seems to be equally strong for a Shoal River age. It is more fully discussed under the Shoal River formation, to which it is here tentatively referred. Gardner (1926-1944) has listed a large fauna of Chipola mollusks from Boynton Landing, which, according to Vernon (1942, p. 84), is in the SEV4 SEV4 sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 92) describe the section there as having 6 feet of fossiliferous marl overlain by 2 feet of yellow and blue clay with impressions of the leaves of Sabalites apalachicolensis Berry and Fagara apalachicolensis Berry. The leaf-bearing clay is overlain by 3 feet of limestone. They assigned all three beds to the Alum Bluff, but the two upper beds may represent the Duplin marl. (See section, p. 195.) At Red Head Still on Choctawhatchee River below the mouth of Holmes Creek, probably in sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 16 W., Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 92) report an oyster reef composed chiefly of Ostrea haitensis rising 5 feet above low water. The following section at Dick Peterson's woodyard landing



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terrace. Fossils representing the Cancellaria zone have been found at Hosford's mill on Big Creek about 2 miles north of Hosford and at Robinson's old mill about 2/4 miles north-northwest of Hosford; also on the S. D. Johnson farm near Woods, in sec. 26, T. 1 S., R. 8 W. (Mansfield, 1930, p. 18). Marion County-A coarse sandy limestone underlying the Citronelle formation in the northeastern part of Marion County is suspected to be of Duplin age, though there is little direct evidence as to its correlation. The principal exposure is in Salt Springs at Lake Kerr Post Office, where ledges of the rock appear to extend to a depth of about 30 feet below the surface. Orange Countty-Rock Spring and Wekiva Spring, in sections 15 and 36, T. 20 S., R. 28 E., issue from phosphatic limestone similar to that of the Hawthorn formation but containing fossils that have been classified as upper Miacene. Rock Spring (fig. 26) is one of the few large springs in Florida whose openings are not below water level. The spring issues from a cavern at the base of a 17-foot bluff of hard creamcolored to brown sandy limestone containing many phosphatic lumps. It was here that Smith (1881, p. 302) collected fossils that were identified by Heilprin as Pecten madisonius, Venus alveata, Venericardia granulata, Carditamera arata, Mytiloconcha incurva, Cardium sublineatum? and Oliva literata?. These fossils led Dall (1892, p. 125) to assign the rock to the upper Miocene and to place it in his Jacksonville formation. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 133) included it in the Hawthorn formation. It is here tentatively referred to the Duplin marl. Pinellas County-There are no known exposures of the Duplin marl in Pinellas County, but shells of that age were dredged from Tampa Bay off the Vinoy Hotel at St. Petersburg. They were embedded in gray sandy, sparingly phosphatic limestone somewhat resembling the Hawthorn formation, but according to W. C. Mansfield (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 148) the fossils are of upper Miocene age. The identified species are Ostrea compressirostra Say, 0. sculptur-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES 29 of Taylor age, which underlie the entire State of Florida. Applin and Applin (1944) have recognized beds of Taylor age in 12 wells in Florida. In northern and northwestern Florida they consist of hard gray marl with interbedded lenses of gray limestone and light-gray, grayish-green, or blue-gray marly shale, which locally contains carbonaceous matter and mica. In peninsular Florida they are hard white or creamcolored chalky limestone. Apparently everywhere they conformably overlie beds of Austin age. They are overlain by beds of Navarro age in northwestern Florida and southeastern Georgia. The contact is presumably unconformable, for only the lower part of the Taylor is represented in Jefferson County and in Pierce County, Georgia. They are overlain unconformably by the Paleocene series in the vicinity of Tallahassee. According to the Applins the beds of Taylor age are about 400 feet thick in the central part of peninsular Florida, 600 feet thick in the northeastern part, and more than 1200 feet thick in Monroe County. Only 200 feet, representing the lower part of this unit, is present in Jefferson County, whereas there is more than 700 feet in Wakulla County, the adjoining county. The upper part of the beds of Taylor age contain fragments of Inoceramus and several short-ranging species of Foraminifera, among which the Applins mention Stensidina americana Cushman, Bolisiinoides decorata (Jones), and Anomalina rubiginosa Cushman, var. The lower beds in the Peninsula carry Planulina texana Cushman, Robulus miinsteri (Roemer), Globotruncana arca (Cushman), and Globigerina cretacea d'Orbigny. LOCAL DETAILS The Applins have identified beds of Taylor age in the following wells: Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 2683 to 3365? feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3056 to 3268 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLORIDIAN PLATEAU 7 continued late in Miocene time, for the Hawthorn formation participated in the movement. The arch was above water in early Pliocene time, as is shown by the presence of land mammals of that age in the belt east and south and presumably west of the land area. The tilting that depressed the western continuation of the belt presumably was contemporaneous with the crustal movemnents that deformed many other parts of the earth at the close of the Pliocene epoch. All the deformation seems to have occurred before the Pleistocene epoch, for even the oldest Pleistocene shore lines, so far as they have been traced, remain horizontal. ..



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182 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE to Florida the Duplin marl lies unconformably on older beds. In the Carolinas the underlying formations range in age from the Upper Cretaceous Black Creek formation to the middle Miocene Hawthorn formation. In Georgia and in Florida east of the Apalachicola the Hawthorn is the underlying formation. West of the Apalachicola the Duplin lies on the Chipola and Shoal River formations. In Florida the Duplin includes the Ecphora and the Cancellaria zones of the Choctawhatchee formation of Mansfield. The Ecphora zone, which lies near the bottom of the Duplin, is believed to be equivalent to the deposit in South Carolina called the Raysor marl by Cooke (1936, p. 115), which is known from only one isolated place and which was separated from the Duplin because its fauna is a little older than the better-known Duplin fauna of Sumpter County, South Carolina, which represents the Cancellaria zone. It is recommended that use of the name "Raysor marl" be discontinued and that the Miocene bed at Raysor Bridge be included in the Duplin marl. The Ecphora zone is also equivalent to the lower part of the Yorktown formation of Virginia (Mansfield, 1936, p. 173). At most outcrops of the Duplin, the Ecphora zone apparently is only sparingly fossiliferous and is represented by a somewhat different, more calcareous facies. The Cancellaria zone, which is somewhat younger than the Ecphora zone, has been correlated with the typical part of the Duplin marl of the Carolinas and with the upper part of the Yorktown formation of Virginia (Mansfield, 1936, p. 173). Therefore, the Duplin of Florida, which includes both zones, seems to be equivalent to the entire Yorktown formation of Virginia and to be somewhat more comprehensive than the Duplin of the Carolinas as interpreted by Mansfield, whose correlation was based almost exclusively on faunal studies. The Duplin marl is overlain everywhere unconformably by Pliocene or Pleistocene deposits. Paleogeography-The shore line of the late Miocene sea extended across the Southeastern States about as shown in figure 14. Although the sea transgressed across a land surface, it apparently did not reach inland as far as that of the preceding, middle Miocene invasion except on the Carolina Ridge,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 327 INDEX A PAGE PAGE Arran quadrangle ----311 Abes Spring ------186 Arredondo Lime Co. ---63 Adams Mill Creek ----175 Arredondo quadrangle -277, 284 Alaclua County, formations in 62 Aspalaga Bluff ---115, 124 146, 183, 202, 277, 284, 287 Astatula -------234 Alachua formation ----199 Atlantean continent ---246 Alachua Sink ----63, 148 Auburndale, well near --55 Alapaha River -----91 Aucilla River -----101 Alaqua Creek ---176, 178 Austin age, beds of ----27 Alice Creek ------176 Avon Park Bombing Range, Allen, J. H. ------116 well at----48, 51 Alligator Creek -----216 Avon Park limestone --45, 51, Alligator Lake -----150 64, 269 Altha ------95, 121 B Alum Bluff -109, 161, 164, 168 181, 183, 189, 190, 191 Bagdad -------310 Alum Bluff group ----136 Baileys Ferry ----161, 163 Alum Bluff group, fossils from 140 Bainbridge, Ga. ---66, 107 141, 142, 143 Baker County, formations in -148 Alva --------213 Ballast Point --116, 125, 135 American Building Products Banana Creek -----213 Co. -------234 Barberville ------227 Anastasia formation ---265 Barnwell formation ----57 Anastasia Island ---265, 272 Bartow ----132, 159, 209 Anclote River ----131, 132 Basilosaurus cetoides ---62 Anderson farm -----177 Bay County, formations in -171 Anguilla formation ---135 186, 232, 284, 289, 294, 300 Anthony -----54, 203 Bayou George ----289, 301 Antigua formation ----135 Baywood Promontory ---285 Apalachicola River, ancient Bearhead -----175, 176 delta of --284, 289, 299 Bee Branch ------222 Applin, E. R. and P. L. -27, 28, Bellville -------91 29, 31, 34, 35, 36, 40, 41, 44 Belmont ------150 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55 Benton Bridge----150 Arcadia -------. 208 Berry, E. W. ----183, 191 Arca rubisiniana zone -168, 169, Big Creek ------192 170, 177, 180, 181 Big Cypress Swamp 240, 242, 259 Arch Creek -----262 Big Slough -----225 Archer -------62 Big Swamp Creek ----176 Argyle -------172 Black Creek --187, 188, 303 Ariel --------272 Black's sawmill -----189 Aripeka -------96 Blackwater Creek --115, 127 Armstrong, J. M. ----177 Blackwater River ----310 Armstrong farm ----165 Blanpied, B. W.----43 Arnold, J. R., well 26, 28, 30, 31 Blount Creek -----176 34, 42, 48, 52 Blounts Ferry -----150 Arran ------291, 296 Blowing Rocks ---269, 270



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26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE presumed to hold for some distance under cover, for both unconformities are of wide extent. Fauna and flora-A few oysters and Brachidontes, a marine or brackish-water mollusk, have been found at one locality in Chilton County, Alabama. No other animal remains have been reported from the outcrop. Some of the clay lenses contain abundant impressions of leaves. LOCAL DETAILS Applin and Applin (1944) record the Tuscaloosa formation from the following wells in Florida: Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company (sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 12 E.), depths 3626 to 3741 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet. Jackson County-Hammond's No. 1 Granberry well (sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depths 2803 to 3448 feet; total depth of well, 5022 feet. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 3410 to 3838 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet. Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 5322 to 5392; total depth of well, 6120 feet. Leon County-Central Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville, depths 3465 to 3755 feet; total depth of well, 3755 feet. Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (Cedar Keys, sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 4170 to 4235 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 4254 to 4600 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Wakulla County-Ravlin-Brown No. 1 Phillips (sec. 14, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 3672 to 4270 feet; total depth of well, 5746 feet. Walton County-Oil City Corporation No. 1 Walton Land



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240 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE the Florida Keys also. In part of Broward and Monroe and in most of Dade Counties it is covered by the Miami oolite or the Fort Thompson formation. Elsewhere it is nearly bare or is covered by a thin coating of late Pleistocene (Pamlico) sand. Stratigraphic relations--Cooke and Mossom (1929) treated the deposits now called Tamiami formation as a facies of the Caloosahatchee marl. This interpretation has been verified by drilling, though a new formation name has been applied to the deposits. Mansfield (1939a, p. 8) suspected that the Tamiami underlies the Caloosahatchee, but in reality the two formations interfinger, and a tongue of the harder facies (Tamiami) overlies the softer facies (Caloosahatchee) in the western part of the Everglades and in the Big Cypress Swamp (Parker, 1942, pp. 64-66). Apparently the Tamiami merges into the Buckingham marl without conspicuous interfingering, for the Tamiami is succeeded by the Buckingham in ditches along State Highway 164 in the vicinity of Sunniland, Collier County. There are no exposures of the bottom of the Tamiami, but the formation doubtless lies unconformably on Miocene beds, presumably the Hawthorn formation. The Tamiami is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene deposits-the Miami oolite in the southeast, the Fort Thompson formation in the northeast, and the Pamlico sand in the west. Paleogeography-The Tamiami formation was deposited in the open ocean in rather shallow water far away from land. The supply of sand that was swept southward past the end of the stubby Pliocene peninsula was less plentiful than in the region farther north where the Caloosahatchee was being deposited, and the proportion of calcareous ooze was greater. These conditions are postulated from the distribution and composition of the formation and from the character of its fauna. Fauna-The fauna of the beds now referred to the Tamiami formation was studied by Mansfield (1932a), who lists six species of gastropods, 26 species of pelecypods, and two species of echinoids. The most common mollusks are oysters and scallops, and an echinoid (Encope tamiamiensis) is locally



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 263 contains so many cavities that some of the crushed stone occupies less space than the original rock. Thickness-The thickness of the Key Largo limestone is very variable. It seems to depend on the topography of the bottom on which it accumulated as a coral reef built up nearly to sea level. According to Sanford (1913, p. 187) a well at Key Vaca passed through reef rock fully 100 feet thick, but at Indian Key Channel a well went through hard rock into marl at a depth of about 40 feet below sea level. Distribution-The Key Largo limestone occupies the outermost fringe of keys from Sands Key on the north to Loggerhead Key on the west. Between these two extremities the keys form a gently curving arc convex towards the ocean. The width of the reef probably does not much exceed a mile anywhere. Stratigraphic relations-The Key Largo limestone grew as a reef along the outer edge of the Floridian Plateau. Its base is everywhere below sea level and has not been observed. Presumably the limestone lies unconformably on the Pliocene Tamiami formation or on early Pleistocene limestone or shell marl. The Key Largo is probably of the Sangamon (third interglacial) stage, contemporaneous with the Miami oolite, which adjoins it on the north. Paleogeography-At the beginning of the Sangamon interglacial stage (Wicomico time) the Floridian Plateau was submerged beneath water deeper by 100 feet than the present sea. On the steeply sloping southeastern edge of the Plateau a coral reef began to grow. According to Vaughan (1919, p. 197) a true coral reef will form in water as deep as 37 to 48 meters (121-157 feet), which seems to have been the approximate depth of the sea along the site of the Key Largo limestone. Later, the level of the sea dropped 30 feet (in Penholoway time) and still later about 30 feet more, which brought it about 40 feet above the present level (Talbot time). These depths are favorable for the growth of coral reefs, and the Key Largo limestone reef grew upward until it was within 20 or 25 feet of the surface, possibly nearer. Meanwhile, the Miami oolite was accumulating in the shallow water behind the reef. The nearest land was in Highlands County, about 150 miles to the north.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MIOCENE SERIES 161 regarded it as intermediate in age between the Tampa limestone and the Chipola formation. Suwannee County-The hills in the eastern part of Suwannee County are cut in the Hawthorn formation but show little distinctive except lumps of calcareous sandstone in sand. Such sandstone occurs 1 mile east of Pinemount. Many large heads of Siderastraea sp. were found on the Mayo road 7 miles southwest of Live Oak. Union County-The greater part of Union County is covered by early Pleistocene terrace deposits, which are probably cut through into the underlying Hawthorn formation on the slopes leading to the larger streams. CHIPOLA FORMATION G4;NERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Chipola formation" was suggested in unpublished field notes made in 1889 by Frank Burns of the U. S. Geological Survey, who discovered and made large collections from a shell bed exposed on Chipola River below Baileys Ferry and on Apalachicola River at Alum Bluff (Dall, 1892, p. 122). Dall and Stanley-Brown (1894) who visited the region a few years later, called the formation the Chipola shell marl. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 91) made the Chipola marl a member of their Alum Bluff formation, and Gardner (1926, p. 1) promoted the member to'a formation. Characters-The typical part of the Chipola formation is fine blue-gray to yellow sand crowded with shells. This facies appears to be confined to the vicinity of Chipola and Apalachicola Rivers, where it lies at the base of the formation and is about 10 feet thick. The beds above it are less conspicuously fossiliferous, and the sand is more or less cemented by calcium carbonate. Farther west there are two principal facies-a sandy limestone, which for the most part lies buried beneath younger deposits, and a rather coarse light-colored sandy facies including lenses of light-colored or variegated clay. This latter facies may be the littoral equivalent of the limestone. Thickness-At Alum Bluff the Chipola formation is at least 20 feet thick. Vernon (1942, p. 76) reports a thickness



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 89 Paleogeography-The Suwannee limestone was deposited in an open ocean far from any source of clastic sediment. The shore of the mainland stretched across Alabama from Washington County to Henry County and across Georgia to Burke County, about as shown in figure 4. The Chickasawhay limestone accumulated in eastern Mississippi and western Alabama, where a good deal of clay was mixed with the lime, and the Flint River formation, including much clay, sand, and gravel near shore farther east. The Suwannee limestone adjoins these formations. Applin and Applin (1944) suggest that there may have been an island in the northeastern part of Florida and in the central part of the peninsula, but the absence of the Suwannee limestone from that area may have been caused by denudation during early Miocene time, when it was a land area. Fauna-The most conspicuous and widespread fossil in the Suwannee limestone is the echinoid Cassidulus gouldii (Bouv4), which in Florida appears to be restricted to that formation though it may occur also in the Flint River formation, in which it is fairly common in Georgia. Another echinoid, Phymotaxis mansfieldi Cooke, has been found in two quarries cutting the Suwannee limestone, but it may possibly have come from the underlying Ocala limestone. The foraminifer Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) occurs in great abundance in the Suwannee limestone at Falmouth Spring near Live Oak and at other places in northern Florida. It is surprising to find a species of Dictyoconus in late Oligocene deposits, for the genus elsewhere appears to have become extinct at the end of the Eocene. Cole (1941, p. 13) suggests that this species may have been reworked from the formation of middle Eocene age now called the Avon Park limestone in which it has been found abundantly in well cuttings. Inasmuch as this zone is separated from the Suwannee limestone by several hundred feet of Ocala limestone, which apparently extends as an unbroken sheet far beyond the known limits of the middle Eocene Dictyoconus cookei zone, it seems more likely that this species recurs in a bed near the top of the Ocala limestone, from which it has been reworked into the Suwannee limestone. Stubbs (in Cole, 1941, p. 14) appar-



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230 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE (1916) from a town in Mobile County, Alabama, about 35 miles west of the northwest corner of Florida. The Citronelle includes much that was called Lafayette formation by earlier workers, but it is not nearly so comprehensive as the older use of the term "Lafayette," which was not a stratigraphic unit. Matson clearly distinguished between the.Citronelle and the marine terrace sands that overlie it south of the type area, and he recognized the unconformable relations between the Citronelle and all older formations. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 180) traced the Citronelle eastward through Florida as far as Apalachicola River, where they correlated with it the Bristol formation, a name that Sellards (1918, p. 51) had tentatively proposed for what he suspected might be Citronelle. They also extended the Citronelle to include the red sand in the lake region of the peninsula. Characters-The Citronelle formation is composed of sand, gravel, and clay. Most of the sand and gravel are red or orange, and the clay, where mixed with sand or gravel, is commonly iron-stained. Many of the purer beds of clay are white or variegated, 'and some of the disseminated clay or kaolin is white. According to Matson (1916, p. 173) the Citronelle is predominantly sandy in the States west of Florida. He found more sand in the vicinity of the principal drainage lines than in the interstream spaces, and more sand and gravel near the landward margin than elsewhere. Thickness-It is impossible to state precisely the thickness of the Citronelle formation because its exposed surface is eroded and because records of its thickness under cover are lacking. Matson (1915, p. 178) says that in southern Alabama the formation may have a thickness of more than 250 feet, and a possible maximum thickness west of Mobile of 340 feet. In Florida the thickness is probably of the same order of magnitude. Distribution-Matson traced the Citronelle formation from Alabama across Mississippi and Louisiana into Texas. In Florida it underlies most of Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa Counties. East of Walton County a narrower band extends into Gadsden County. It reappears in the central ridge of the peninsula, where it extends from Clay County to Highlands County.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BYRAM LIMESTONE 83 Florala, Alabama. Its course east of Marianna has not been determined. The shore line evidently lay somewhere north of the junction of Withlacoochee River with the Suwannee. Fauna-The Byram in Mississippi, contains many fossils. Cushman (1922) describes 68 species and varieties of Foraminifera from Byram, and Cooke (1922) lists 5 corals, 134 mollusks, and 2 echinoids from several places within the State. The fauna may have been just as rich in Florida, but few fossils have been preserved. The most characteristic species are Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad) and Anadara lesueuri (Dall). A thin-margined variety of Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) is locally common along Suwannee River. Cassidulus alabamensis Twitchell occurs at Natural Bridge and Ellaville. LOCAL DETAILS Holmes County-Although no Byram is mapped in Holmes County, the limestone there referred to the Marianna may be Byram. This possibility is suggested in the description of the Marianna limestone in Holmes County. Jackson County-The upper 3 feet of limestone in the cut on Highway 90 near Chipola River at Marianna contains impressions of a foraminifer resembling Lepidocyclina supera and a Pecten related to P. poulsoni. The rock is tentatively referred to the Byram limestone. The following section was measured in 1914 on the second hill west of Chipola River along the street in Marianna leading to the old bridge. The Lepidocyclina is probably L. supera. A collection (U.S.G.S. 7243) was made from beds 3-6, but it has been mislaid. Beds 1 and 2 of the section may represent the top of the Marianna limestone, from which the Byram had not been distinguished when the section was measured. SECTION AT EASTERN EDGE OF MARIANNA FEET Flint River (?) formation (Oligocene?) 7. Red and orange sand containing a few small pebbles near the bottom and sparingly throughout; near top are numerous rounded concretions of ferruginous sandstone. To level of plain on which city is built ----------40 Unconformity.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLINT RIVER FORMATION 105 more formally described (Cooke, 1944, pp. 77-84; 1936b, pp. 98-99). The typical part of the formation had been included by Vaughan (in Veatch and Stephenson, 1911, pp. 329-333) in the Chattahoochee formation, which Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 79) later united with the Tampa limestone. The remainder of the Flint River formation in Georgia comprised part of the Vicksburg formation of Veatch and Stephenson (1911, p. 306), which included also the Ocala limestone of present usage. In 1923 (pp. 6-8) Cooke analyzed the fauna of the chert-bearing beds around Bainbridge as described by Dall (1916) and tentatively correlated the beds with the Glendon limestone of western Alabama, previously classified as a member at the top of the Marianna limestone but then raised to the rank of formation because of its supposed great areal extent and diversified character. The chert-bearing beds of eastern Alabama were included by Cooke (1926a, pp. 286287) in the Glendon formation. Doubt was thrown on this correlation by the discovery that the Chickasawhay limestone of Mississippi and western Alabama, which lies well above the typical Glendon, has several species in common with the Antigua formation of the West Indies, with which the chert-bearing beds had been correlated because of their similar coral faunas (Vaughan, 1900). Accordingly, Cooke (1935b, p. 1170) proposed that they be made an independent formation, which he tentatively correlated with the Chickasawhay limestone. Characters-In its original condition the Flint River formation appears to have consisted chiefly of sandy and pebbly limestone and calcareous dirty sand. The content of lime probably varied greatly from place to place; some parts doubtless had little if any. The processes of solution and weathering have removed all the lime from the exposed parts of the formation, leaving white, purple, and variegated clay and red or orange sand and gravel. Solution of the limestone was accompanied by silicification, which locally retained the original form but elsewhere produced dense, vitreous chert or jasper. Some of the cavities in the chert are studded with drusy quartz crystals. The chert is very uneven in its distribution; at some places (e.g., Americus, Ga.) great masses evidently represent con-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-INDEX 331 PAGE PAGE Fort Marion -----272 Gull Point -----232 Fort Simmonds Creek --213 Gully Pond ----136, 193 Fort Thompson -222, 247, 249 Gunntown ------269 251, 254, 255, 256 Gunter, Herman -115, 122, 124 FortThompson formation-249 155, 156, 157, 166, 188, 191 Fourmile Creek -----187 194, 306 Franklin County, formations in 188 304 H Freeman Creek -----156 Freeport -------297 Hales Landing, Georgia --104 Fuller, J. O. -----22 Hamilton County, formations Fulton ------295 in ---91, 152, 202, 289 Hamilton well -----136 G Hamlin Pond -----194 Hammock Point ----311 Gadsden County, formations in 50 Hardee County, formations in 153 121, 151, 233 208 Gadsden Point -----127 Harney -------127 Gainers Bridge --179, 186, 194 Harold -------281 Gainesville ----146, 277 Harold quadrangle --281, 310 Gainesville Lime-Rock Co. -63 Harp-------310 Gamble & Stockton, clay pits Harrison beds -----119 of -------303 Harvey, J. R., farm of ---189 Gardner, Julia --136, 139, 161 Harvey Creek -----188 163, 165, 166, 167, 172, 174 Hathaway Mill ----79 176 Hattiesburg clay -109, 110, 138 Gidley, James W. -300, 302, 311 Hawthorn formation ---144 Gilbert farm, section at --103 Heilprin, Angelo -116, 160, 192 Gilchrist County, formations Hemphill age, deposits of --199 in -65, 152, 202, 289, 295 Hendry County, formations in 221 Gillett -----158, 208 254, 304 Glacial stages, names of --245 Hernando County, formations Glades County, formations in 221 in ----92, 153, 203 253, 289 Hewitts Ferry ---149, 150 Glendon limestone member -81 Hiawatha Gardens ----268 Glen St. Marys -----148 Hickory Hills -----159 Glycymeris waltonensis zone -168 Hicks Bluff ------229 169, 170 High Hill ------165 Godwin Bridge -----174 Highlands County, formations Gomillion, E. -----177 in ----208, 233, 290 Gonzales -------280 Hildreth -------203 Goober Farm -----213 Hill, R. V., Oldsmar well -34, 40 Granberry well -24, 26, 36, 47 42, 47 Grant, well at -----47 Hilliard -----295, 307 Green Cove Spring ----188 Hilliard Turpentine Company, Griscom plantation ----119 well of -21, 30, 33, 48, 52 Gulf County, Pamlico sand in 304 55, 145, 228 Gulf Hammock ---68, 269 Hilliard quadrangle ----307 Gulf series -----14, 24 Hillsborough Canal ---260



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 181 Clapp's (1909, p. 114) Choctawhatchee marl, in which Mansfield (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, pp. 140, 141) recognized three faunal zones and later (Mansfield, 1932, p. 9) added a fourth. The lower two (Yoldia and Arca zones) are herein transferred to the Shoal River formation; the upper two (Ecphora and Cancellaria zones) are renamed Duplin marl. The name Duplin marl is derived from Duplin County, North Carolina, where the formation is typically exposed in the Natural Well, 2 miles southwest of Magnolia. The name was first used by Dall (1896, p. 40). The formation was recognized in Georgia by Veatch and Stephenson (1911, p. 366) and in South Carolina by Cooke (1936, p. 117). Characters-The most conspicuous part of the Duplin is sandy shell marl containing more or less clay. The basal beds of the Duplin at Alum Bluff are sandy and contain prints of fossil leaves. The shell bed is overlain there by brown sandy clay ("aluminous clay" of Dall and Stanley-Brown, 1894, p. 168), which may represent the Cancellaria zone of the Ochlockonee River and elsewhere, which is more highly fossiliferous. Thickness-The beds assigned to the Duplin marl at Alum Bluff are 46 feet thick, but the top of the formation has been eroded there. In Georgia the few exposures are only 5 to 16 feet thick. The greatest thickness known in South Carolina is 41 feet. According to Miller (1912, p. 239) the Duplin is about 100 feet thick in North Carolina. Distribution-In Georgia and South Carolina the Duplin occurs as isolated patches of various sizes. As they are for the most part covered by Pleistocene terrace deposits, the extent of the Duplin has not accurately been determined. In Florida, likewise, the extent is somewhat conjectural, but the Duplin is known to underlie most of a large area extending from the central part of Washington County eastward to Liberty County and southward to the Gulf. Beds believed to be of the same age crop out along both forks of Black Creek in Clay County, in the northeastern part of Marion County, and at Rock Springs in Orange County. Fossil shells of Duplin age have also been dredged from Tampa Bay at St. Petersburg. Stratigraphic relations-Everywhere from North Carolina



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286 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The boundary between it and the Sunderland terrace is marked by a slight rise above the 100-foot contour line, and the gentle slope from 80 to 70 feet at the north edge of Cow Swamp leads to the Penholoway terrace. Walton County-The narrow band of Wicomico terrace in Walton County is much dissected. PENHOLOWAY FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Penholoway," from a bay (swamp) and creek in Wayne County, Georgia, was applied by Cooke (1925, p. 24) to a terrace, which he later defined (Cooke, 1931, p. 509) by reference to a shore line at or near 70 feet above sea level. The occurrence of the Penholoway formation "in South Carolina and Georgia was described by Cooke (1936b, pp. 147, 148, pl. ; 1944, pp. 109, 110, pl. 1). Matson (1913, pp. 33, 34) had previously used the name "Tsala Apopka terrace" for deposits whose surface forms a plain rising 40 to 60 feet above sea level near Lake Tsala Apopka and elsewhere in the peninsula, but this region has undergone so much degradation by solution that it is difficult to determine without adequate maps whether the "Tsala Apopka" is a marine terrace having the same shore line as the Penholoway, or whether its base level was the shore of a fresh-water lake. Characters-The Penholoway formation is supposed to consist chiefly of sand, but little is really known about its actual composition. The muck and peat associated with the many lakes and swamps on it do not logically form part of the Penholoway but are younger. The formation may, however, include considerable bodies of salt-marsh deposits, for some of it accumulated in lagoons nearly surrounded by islands, where marshes might be expected to prevail. Thickness-In Dixie County sand and clay above the Ocala limestone and possibly including some older deposits as well as the Penholoway formation are less than 20 feet thick. In Marion County east of Dunnellon they are even thinner. (Chief of Engineers, 1938, annex 3, pl. 25, sheet 1, facing p. 542.)



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52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Floridian Plateau was probably submerged, but the location of the shore line is unknown. Fauna-According to the Applins the Avon Park limestone carries a distinctive and abundant fauna consisting for the most part of Foraminifera, of which Coskinolina floridana Cole is the most abundant and persistent species. Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) occurs at the top and at the bottom of the Avon Park as well as in the Oligocene Suwannee limestone in northern Florida. The small echinoid Peronella dalli (Twitchell) is locally common in the upper part of the Avon Park. This species was attributed to the Ocala limestone by Cooke (1942, p. 26) because the type was supposed to have been found at Archer, where the Ocala limestone is the country rock. However, the type may have come from a deep well, for no other individuals have been found at the surface. LOCAL DETAILS The Applins studied samples of the Avon Park limestone from several hundred wells, too many to list in their paper. The following records are taken from their two general profiles: Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Miller and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 880 to 1100 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet. Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 170 to 500 feet; total depth of well, 6120 feet. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 230 to 360 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 1350 to 1810 feet; total depth of well, 10,006 feet. Florida East Coast Railway well at Marathon, Key Vaca, depths 1248 to 1740 feet; total depth of well, 2310 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 860 to 910 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES 33 TERTIARY SYSTEM PALEOCENE SERIES GENERAL FEATURES The strata in the Southeastern States now included in the Paleocene series comprise the Midway group, which was formerly classified as the oldest group of the Eocene series. The name Paleocene dates back to 1874, when Schimper proposed it for certain French deposits having a distinctive flora, but it was not officially adopted for the United States until recently (Cooke, 1939f; 1944, p. 39), although the Midway group had long been recognized as equivalent to the Paleocene. CEDAR KEYS LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name Cedar Keys formation was applied by Cole (1944, p. 27) to limestone known only "in wells in peninsular and northern [northeastern] Florida from the first appearance of the Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper Cretaceous." The name is taken from the town of Cedar Keys, Levy County. Characters-The formation consists of hard cream-colored to tan limestone. Thickness-Cole (1944, p. 28) reports a thickness of 570 feet in the Hilliard well and 566 feet in the Cedar Keys well no. 2. He supposes that it is considerably thicker in the southern part of Florida. Distribution-The Cedar Keys limestone probably underlies all of Florida except the northwestern part, where the equivalent formation is the Porters Creek clay. Stratigraphic relations-The formations of the Midway group at the outcrop are separated from formations above and below by unconformities. The relations in Florida are conjectural, but there is little doubt that these unconformities extend across the Floridian Plateau. Paleogeography-The Cedar Keys limestone was deposited in the open ocean. The shore line (fig. 4) extended across



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314 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Partial evaporation of a large pool may concentrate its dissolved solids into a small area, and further drying may cause them to be deposited in the pores of the soil or to be precipitated on the surface as a solid sheet. This is probably the origin of the marlstone above the bone bed of the Pamlico sand at Seminole Field, Pinellas County, and similar occurrences.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 99 harder parts have been weathered irregularly. Ten feet or more of limestone is exposed at ordinary stages of the river. At extreme low water white fossiliferous limestone resembling the Byram at Ellaville is exposed, but the identity of this bed with the Byram is still unverified. Mansfield (1937b, pp. 57-58) lists the following species from Suwannee Sulphur Springs: Gastropoda: "Drillia" aff. D. plutonica Casey Euclathurella liveoakensis Mansfield Pelecypoda: Chlamys flintensis Mansfield Modiolus grammatus Dall? Cardita liveoakensis Mansfield? Cardium suwanneense Mansfield precursor Dall Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall Tellina silicata Mansfield Teredo? incrassata (Gabb) Echinoidea: Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve) Newland or Falmouth Spring, south of U. S. Highway 90 near Falmouth, 9 miles west of Live Oak, is an underground stream that has been exposed by the partial collapse of the roof of the cavern in which it flows. The visible part flows through a narrow ravine about 40 feet deep. The stream is evidently tributary to the Suwannee, for at times of high water in the Suwannee the direction of flow in Falmouth Spring is reversed and its normally clear water becomes turbid. The rock exposed in the ravine ranges from soft yellowish granular marl to hard, compact cream-colored limestone. About 25 or 30 feet of rock is visible. Well-preserved individuals of Cassidulus gouldii (Bouv6) are very abundant. Associated with them are great numbers of Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg), for which this is the type locality. Silicified lumps of limestone containing Cassidulus gouldii are very abundant in the southern part of Suwannee Couilty. They have been noted one mile south of McAlpin and between O'Brien and Wilmarth. Large blocks of porous chert, evidently derived from the Suwannee limestone, are visible



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES 51 (sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.), depths 1200 to 1750 feet; total depth of well, 2169 feet. AVON PARK LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name Avon Park limestone, from the Avon Park Bombing Range wells in Polk County, is applied by Applin and Applin (1944) to a formation known only from wells in Florida and southern Georgia. Characters-The Avon Park is mainly a cream-colored challky limestone. It includes some gypsum and chert in northern Florida. Thickness-The thickness of the Avon Park ranges from 50 feet or less in northeastern Florida, where only the basal part is present, to 300 feet in the central part of the Peninsula and 650 feet in the southern part. Distribution-All parts of Florida except the northwestern counties are underlain by the Avon Park limestone. It has not been found at Lake City nor Live Oak, where it seems to have been eroded away before the deposition of the Ocala limestone, nor west of Wakulla County, where it may never have been deposited. Stratigraphic relations-The Avon Park comprises the upper part of a probably conformable sequence that includes also the Lake City limestone and the Tallahassee limestoneall the deposits of Claiborne age in the peninsula. Its upper surface was eroded before the overlying Ocala limestone was deposited, and the formation was completely removed from part of northern Florida. There appear to be no equivalent deposits at the outcrop in Alabama, at least not at Claiborne, where the time interval represented by the Avon Park is included in the hiatus between the Lisbon formation and the Moodys Branch marl (Gosport sand), the basal formation of the Jackson group. It may be equivalent to the Cockfield formation of Louisiana and Mississippi. Paleogeography-The Avon Park limestone was deposited in an open ocean that received little sand or clay. The entire



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES 35 1944.) Cole (1941, p. 16) reports Borelis sp. at a depth of 3350 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 2215 to 2750 feet (Applin and Applin, 1944) or 2785 feet (Cole, 1944, p. 28); total depth of well, 4821 feet. It contains Borelis gunteri and B. floridanus. Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 HecksherYarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 2630 to 4300 feet; total depth of well, 4540 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell well" (sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 2005 to 2940 feet; total depth of well, 3070 feet. (Applin and Applin, 1944.) PORTERS CREEK FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Porters Creek formation was named from a creek in Hardeman County, Tennessee, by Safford in 1864. The continuation of this formation in Alabama was later (1892) called "Sucarnochee" by E. A. Smith, but this synonym seems unnecessary. Characters and thickness-The Porters Creek at the outcrop consists of brittle gray to black clay or shale with conchoidal fracture. It is several hundred feet thick. According to Applin and Applin (1944), wells in northwestern Florida show that the lower part of the Paleocene series consists of gray to cream-colored marly clay and greenish-gray highly fossiliferous marl. This is overlain by gray clay, sandy clay, and less fossiliferous marl. Distribution-The Porters Creek crops out in a great semicircle that extends from western Tennessee through Mississippi far into Alabama. Presumably it merges seaward into the Cedar Keys limestone. Stratigraphic relations-At the outcrop the Porters Creek either rests directly and unconformably on strata of the Upper Cretaceous series or is separated from those strata by a thin bed of limestone of the Clayton formation of Paleocene



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268 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Crane Creek drainage canal and a lateral canal at the township line 4/2 miles west of Melbourne. The shell bed is overlain by a 2to 3-foot bed of clay, rather coarse sand, macerated shells, and fragments of bones. Pleistocene shells have been dredged from a drainage canal on the line between secs. 19 and 20, T. 28 S., R. 37 E., 5 miles west of Hiawatha Gardens. Flagler County-Coquina is exposed in pits on each side of the old brick road to Bunnell 2.6 miles west of Flagler Beach. (See fig. 39.) Most of the deposits consist of loose broken shells, but there are several ledges of consolidated coquina. The upper beds dip rather steeply eastward toward the sea, indicating that they were deposited on a bar or beach, and most of the shells are broken and waterworn, a sign of wave action. Near the bottom of thg pit, at an altitude of approximately 20 feet above sea level, there is an indurated ledge perforated by solution pits to which are attached barnacle shells. The lower beds presumably represent deposits of either the Yarmouth or the Aftonian interglacial stages, the pits were dissolved during the succeeding Illinoian or Kansan emergence, FIGURE 39.-Coquina quarry in the Anastasia formation 4 miles west of Flagler Beach, Volusia County. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 23.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TERTIARY SYSTEM 75 OLIGOCENE SERIES GENERAL FEATURES The Oligocene series, as interpreted by the United States Geological Survey, is divided into three parts (Cooke, 1943). The lowest, which includes the Red Bluff clay and the Forest Hill sand of Mississippi, is not known to be represented in Florida. The Marianna limestone and the overlying Byram limestone together comprise the middle part to which the name Vicksburg group is now restricted (MacNeil, 1944, p. 1316). The Suwannee limestone and its littoral equivalent, the Flint River formation, are of late Oligocene age. For some years the Tampa limestone and the Alum Bluff group, now classified as Miocene, were included in the Oligocene. It was then customary to call the Tampa and the Alum Bluff "upper Oligocene;" what is now classified as upper Oligocene was called "middle Oligocene;" and the present middle and lower parts were called "lower Oligocene." There is usually little doubt as to the location of the boundary between the Eocene and the Oligocene where the rocks of both series contain identifiable fossils, for there is a sharp faunal break between them. The boundary between the Oligocene and the Miocene is less well defined and is more arbitrary, and its determination has varied with different interpretations of the location of the boundary in Germany and Belgium, where the Oligocene is typically developed (Cooke, 1939b). The selection of the contact between the Suwannee limestone and the Tampa limestone as the boundary between the Oligocene and the Miocene is well considered, for the contact marks a conspicuous change in the lithologic character of the rocks and appears to be an unconformity; however, the faunal difference between the two adjacent formations is less pronounced than one would like. DEPOSITS OF VICKSBURG AGE MARIANNA LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 51-52) gave the name Marianna limestone to ". ..white limestones of west-


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0000005100001datestamp 2008-12-17setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Geology of FloridaGeological bulletin Florida Geological Survey ; no. 29dc:creator Cooke, C. Wythe ( Charles Wythe ), b. 1887United States Geological Surveydc:subject Geology -- Florida ( lcsh )Geology -- Bibliography -- Florida ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by C. Wythe Cooke.Bibliography "Bibliography": p. 3l5-326.Additional Physical Form Electronic version available on the World Wide Web as part of the PALMM Project."Prepared by the U.S. Geological survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological survey."dc:publisher Florida Geological Surveydc:date 1945dc:type Bookdc:format v-ix, 339 p. : illus., maps (1 fold. in pocket) ; 24 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00000051&v=00001000052868 (aleph)AAA0390 (ltqf)AAF7766 (notis)00681046 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TALBOT FORMATION 293 ----------------------,, --------------------FIGURE 46.-Shore line of the Talbot sea in the Southeastern States. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 15.



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276 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE quarters of a mile south of McKinnon, sec .17, T. 3 N., R. 32 W., a distance of 13 miles. Santa Rosa County-The Jay quadrangle, distributed in 1944, shows a plateau of Brandywine terrace extending from near the Alabama line a mile north of Mount Carmel to the line between secs. 12 and 13, T. 3 N., R. 30 W., a length of 16 miles. The plateau is as much as 7 miles wide in places. The range in altitude is the same as elsewhere. Walton County-A few miles of the shore line of the Brandywine terrace appears to be preserved at an altitude of 270 feet in the northwest corner of the De Funiak Springs quadrangle a short distance south of the Louisville & Nashville Railway. Several strips of the terrace, separated by deep, narrow valleys, extend southward for a mile or more. Farther south, the land is too. deeply dissected to preserve recognizable traces of the Brandywine terrace, but some of the hilltops may be capped by remnants of the Brandywine formation. COHARIE FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Coharie formation," derived from Great Coharie Creek, a tributary of Black River in North Carolina, was proposed by Stephenson (1912, p. 273). Cooke (1931, p. 506) by implication limited it to the Pleistocene deposits formed while the sea stood at an altitude of approximately 215 feet above sea level, the height of the shore line of the Coharie terrace. Characters and thickness-The Coharie formation is probably composed chiefly of fairly coarse sand. So little is known about the details of its occurrence that it is unsafe to generalize. The formation is probably thickest in the region west of Apalachicola River, where there was an abundant source of sediment brought down to the sea by the rivers of Alabama. In that region the Coharie may be as thick as 50 feet. Distribution-A narrow band containing remnants of the Coharie terrace and presumably underlain by the Coharie formation extends along the middle part of northwestern Florida from the Perdido valley to Leon County, where it



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104 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE another quarry in a sink behind (east of) Duncan Church in the southeast quarter of the same section. The rock in both quarries closely resembles the Ocala limestone, to which it was referred by Cooke and Mossom (1939, p. 61) because a collection of fossils (U.S.G.S. 4974) ostensibly from this vicinity contains four species of Lepidocyclina identified by Cushman (1920, pp. 61, 67, 68, 73) as species restricted to the Ocala. The limestone at Duncan Church was later correlated with the so-called Glendon (now the Flint River formation) by Vaughan (in Cole, 1934, pp. 21-22), who recognized Lepidocyclina favosa and L. gigas var. in it. Cole (1934, p. 27) named this variety L. gigas duncanensis and identified also L. supera, L. yurnagunensis, L. yurnagunensis morganopsis, L. undosa, and L. undosa tumida. A sink behind the residence of A. L. Parrish in the SW SEI sec. 33, T. 3 N., R. 13 W., cuts through about 20 feet of limestone. The lower half is white, finely granular, apparently pure, and contains few fossils except Lepidocyclina yurnagunensis, L. undosa, and L. favosa? (Henbest in Mansfield, 1938, p. 96). The upper half is not so pure and contains impressions of many mollusks including (Mansfield, 1938) Phos parrishi Mansfield, Clava parrishi Mansfield, Turritella gatunensis Conrad, Anadara macneili Mansfield, Anadara mummi Mansfield, and Kuphus incrassatus Gabb. The lastnamed species (elsewhere referred by Mansfield to Teredo?) is very common in the Chickasawhay limestone of Mississippi and occurs also in the Flint River formation but has not been found in the typical Suwannee. Other mollusks are related to, perhaps identical with Suwannee, Flint River, and Chickasawhay species. Additional fossils from this sink are listed by Vernon (1942, pp. 62-63). FLINT RIVER FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Flint River formation was named by Cooke (1935b, pp. 1170-1171), who cited as typical exposures the fossiliferous chert beds that overlie the Ocala limestone near Flint River between Red Bluff, 7 miles above Bainbridge, Georgia, and Hales Landing, 7 miles below Bainbridge. The occurrences in Georgia and South Carolina have since been



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 87 don, and the limestone in Hernando County is now known to be older than the Tampa. Characters-In the typical area the Suwannee limestone is commonly hard and resonant. Small solution holes filled with green clay, probably residual from the limestone, are abundant. Where the Suwannee is unaltered, it consists of a soft granular mass of limy particles, many of them of organic origin. The color is commonly yellow or cream, locally with a pinkish tinge. At many surface exposures all the lime has been leached from it, leaving a porous or massive flint, which is recognizable as Suwannee by the presence of molds of the common Suwannee echinoid, Cassidulus gouldii. In Hernando County the Suwannee is very variable in hardness. It contains patches of hard and soft rock that are irregularly distributed and apparently show no relation to bedding planes. This variability is especially annoying to quarrymen, for it causes much waste of rock, their machinery not being generally adapted to use both hard and soft material. Chemical analyses (Mossom, 1925) show that the Suwannee limestone contains about 91 to 98 percent calcium carbonate (CaCOs) and that the chief impurity is silica (SiO2). A small amount of iron may account for the color of the rock. The Suwannee is almost as pure as the Ocala. It is much less siliceous than the Tampa, which contains a large portion of very fine sand. Thickness-Near Live Oak the Suwannee limestone is about 1QO feet thick. At Falling Water, 4 miles south of Chipley, a thickness of 65 feet is exposed in the cylindrical sink, which may not reach the bottom of the formation. Distribution-The largest area of outcrop of the Suwannee limestone includes nearly all of Taylor County and parts of all but one of the adjoining counties. This area expands from the Gulf of Mexico across the State line into Georgia, where it is restricted to the valley of the Withlacoochee. Another large area includes most of Hernando County and parts of all the adjoining counties. The formation also underlies parts of Jackson, Washington, and Holmes Counties. Here the Suwannee limestone is believed to merge northward into the Flint River formation, and the two are not separated on the



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BIBLIOGRAPHY 325 SMITH, EUGENE ALLEN 1881. On the geology of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 21, pp. 292-309. SMITH, PAUL ALBERT (See VEATCH, A. C., 1938.) SMITH, R. HENDEE 1941. Micropaleontology and stratigraphy of a deep well at Niceville, Okaloosa County, Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 263-286, 2 pls., 2 figs. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 1926. Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1924: Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 77, no. 2, 136 pp., 138 figs. STANLEY-BROWN, JOSEPH (See DALL, W. H., 1894.) STEPHENSON, LLOYD WILLIAM (See also VEATCH, J. 0., 1911.) 1912. The Coastal Plain of North Carolina; Quaternary formations: North Carolina Geol. Survey, vol. 3, pp. 266-290. STRINGFIELD, VICTOR T. 1936. Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C, pp. iv, 115-195, 11 pls., 9 figs. STUBBS, SIDNEY A. 1940. Pliocene mollusks from a well at Sanford, Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 510-514. TOULMIN, LYMAN D. 1940a. The Salt Mountain limestone of Alabama: Alabama Geol. Survey Bull. 46, 126 pp., 5 pls., 14 figs. 1940b. Eocene brachiopods from the Salt Mountain limestone of Alabama: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 227-233, 1 pl. 1941. Eocene smaller Foraminifera from the Salt Mountain limestone of Alabama: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 567-611, 5 pls., 23 figs. VAUGHAN, THOMAS WAYLAND 1900. A Tertiary coral reef near Bainbridge, Georgia: Science, n. ser., vol. 12, pp. 873-875. 1902. Fuller's earth of southwestern Georgia and western Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources for 1901, pp. 922-934. 1903. Fuller's earth deposits of Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 213, pp. 392-399. 1910. A contribution to the geologic history of the Floridian Plateau: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 133, Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory, vol. 4, pp. 99-185. 1914. (and C. WYTHE COOKE). Correlation of the Hawthorn formation: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 250253.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 265 Largo cut the Key Largo limestone to a depth of 9 feet (fig. 38). The rock contains large heads of corals in place, just as they grew. This part of the reef evidently did not extend above sea level while it was growing. There are several building-stone quarries on Plantation Key. One about half a mile from the eastern end is about 8 feet deep. It contains many large, erect coral heads, some of which are bored by mollusks. The rock is sawed into blocks about 3 feet thick. Sanford (1913, p. 189) reports vertical faces 14 feet high in quarries on Windleys Island. He also mentions railroad cuts on Plantation Key just east of Snake Creek and near the south shore of Lake Surprise. On the seaward face of the keys between Key Largo and Lower Matacumbe Key the surface of the limestone slopes very gently out to sea. No appreciable scarp has been cut by the waves. The rock is covered by mangrove swamps on the opposite side. ANASTASIA FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Anastasia formation," from Anastasia Island, opposite St. Augustine, was applied by Sellards (1912, pp. 7, 18) to "the extensive deposit of coquina rock found along the East Coast" for a distance of 150 miles or more south of St. Augustine. Chamberlin (1917, p. 26) and Cooke (1926c, p. 443) include in it unconsolidated shell marl at Vero and Melbourne, and Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 199-203) added "all the marine deposits of Pleistocene age that underlie the lowest plain bordering the east coast of Florida north of the southern part of Palm Beach County." This last definition takes in the Pamlico sand, which is here excluded from the Anastasia. Characters-The most conspicuous part of the Anastasia is coquina, a deposit of whole or broken shells that have been more or less firmly cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, or other binding material. All gradations can be fouild between coarse rock, composed almost entirely of unbroken



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158 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Hard white fuller's earth containing small grains of a brown phosphatic mineral is cut through by a ditch about 1 mile west of Ellenton. The top of the bed is about 6 feet below the surface. On the road to Ellenton 1.7 miles south of Gillett a ditch cuts into yellow or cream-colored marl or clayey sand containing many small particles of a phosphatic mineral and other larger grains, some nearly as large as a pea. This deposit apparently is either Hawthorn (Miocene) or Bone Valley (Pliocene). A ditch on U.S. Highway 41, 2 miles south of Bradenton, cuts through the Caloosahatchee formation into white sandstone presumed to be Hawthorn. About 18 inches of hard sandstone resembling the Hawthorn but showing a secondary bedding probably produced by imptegnation with calcium carbonate is exposed on the road to Bradenton Beach about 1 mile west of Highway 41. White rock, probably limestone, containing small grains of sand and phosphatic particles is exposed in a ditch on Highway 41 1 mile from Palmetto on the road to Ellenton. Marion County-There are several large and many small outliers of the Hawthorn formation in the central part of Marion County. The most conspicuous product of the Hawthorn in this region is vesicular or pumicelike sandstone composed of grains of transparent quartz sand embedded in a white or brownish cement. The vesicles are of irregular size, but they are almost invariably smooth and have rounded contours, although few of them are spherical. The rock appears to have been originally a calcareous sandstone containing phosphatic nodules, which have been completely dissolved, leaving smooth, rounded molds in their place. Such porous sandstone, commonly reduced to lumps, caps many hills both north and south of Ocala. At many places it is the only recognizable vestige of the widespread sheet of Hawthorn that once covered the entire county. The sand in which the lumps are embedded is the product of the complete disintegration of the Hawthorn formation. Remnants of sandy phosphatic limestone of the Hawthorn formation were found in prospect pits on the 140-foot hill



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ALACHUA FORMATION 201 is very irregular and jagged, for the surface of the Ocala was strewn with residual lumps of Suwannee limestone and was probably solution-pitted before the Hawthorn formation was laid down upon it. These solution pits were deepened and new ones were formed while the region stood above sea level again during late Miocene and Pliocene time. The relations to the Hawthorn are that of residual product to the parent. The area mapped as Alachua may include some unaltered masses of Hawthorn and some parts that have been merely impregnated by phosphate leached from the beds above them. But most of the original Hawthorn has been thoroughly leached, and the residue has been rearranged by the settling and compaction of the loosened sand and by the collapse of caverns in the underlying bedrock. The Alachua formation is unconformably overlain by marine Pleistocene terrace sands. Fauna-The fossils commonly attributed to the Alachua formation include bones of Miocene animals, which were probably buried in sinkholes during Tampa time, bones of Pliocene animals, which may be regarded as the indigenous fauna, and Pleistocene bones, evidently younger than the true Alachua fauna. Associated in the same general area are zeuglodont bones derived from the Eocene Ocala limestone, echinoids from the Oligocene Suwannee limestone, and mollusks from both. Simpson (1930c, p. 176) concludes that the mammals in the following list represent the true, indigenous identified Alachua species: Equidae: Hipparion ingenuum (Leidy) plicatile (Leidy) Rhinocerotidae: Teleoceras proterus (Leidy) Aphelops longipes (Leidy) Camelidae: Megatylapus? major (Leidy) Procamelus? minor (Leidy) minimus (Leidy) Mastodontidae: Serridentinus floridanus (Leidy) leidyi Frick



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CITRONELLE FORMATION 231 Stratigraphic relations-Th Citronelle lies unconformably on older formations. The youngest bed on which it has been found is the late'Miocene Duplin marl. (See section at Alum Bluff, p. 191). It is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene terrace deposits. The Citronelle is supposed to be contemporaneous with the other Pliocene formations. It is the only representative of the series in the western part of the State, where it seems to be a littoral or near-shore accumulation of sand and clay brought down by rivers and distributed by waves along the shore of the Gulf. In the peninsula it is likewise a littoral deposit but one formed far from any large river. Most of the materials there probably drifted southward from Georgia along the Atlantic coast. The Citronelle is envisaged as the near-shore and beach deposits of the same sea in which the shell marl of the Caloosahatchee formation accumulated a little farther out. Fauna and flora-Very few fossils have been found in the Citronelle. Obscure casts of marine gastropods and pelecypods, none of which were identifiable, are reported by Cooke and Mossom (1939, p. 147) in pits of the Dolores Brick Company at Molino, Escambia County in clay supposed by them to be late Miocene but apparently included in the Citronelle by Matson (1916, p. 172, pls. 33, 34). A long, narrow oyster (compare Ostrea westi Mincher from Shell Bluff, Chickasa,whay River, Miss.) occurs in abundance near Otahite, Okaloosa County but is unknown elsewhere in Florida. It may be older than Citronelle. Berry (1916b) has recognized 16 species of arborescent plants in the Citronelle formation at Lambert, Mobile County, Ala., and Red Bluff on Perdido Bay, Baldwin County, Alabama. Besides such Recent species as the bald cypress, the water oak, and the water elm, the flora includes a species of water chestnut (Trapa alabamensis Berry), Caesalpinia citronellensis Berry, Bumelia praeangustifolia Berry, and several other extinct species. The plants indicate a coastal region having a climate comparable to that of southern Alabama today. Utilization-Some of the clay of the Citronelle formation in Escambia County has been used for making bricks. Kaolin-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OSCILLATIONS OF SEA LEVEL 245 PLEISTOCENE SERIES OSCILLATIONS OF SEA LEVEL The cessation of the deformation that warped the Citronelle formation is a convenient event from which to date the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch. I have detected no evidence of deformation of any deposits in the southeastern States younger than the Citronelle, though there is abundant proof that the level of the sea has repeatedly shifted up and down since that event, and that the continental margins have been successively drowned and drained. One of the causes of this oscillation of sea level must have been the alternate withdrawal from and return to the sea of the great quantities of water that, in frozen form, composed the continental ice caps that gave the name "Great Ice Age" to the Pleistocene epoch. Glacialists inform us that there were four main Pleistocene ice ages, during each of which parts of the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia were covered by perennial ice caps of great thickness and broad extent, each of which persisted for some thousands of years. These four glacial stages have been named Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsin. The four glacial stages were succeeded by comparatively ice-free epochs, supposed to have been of much greater duration, called the Aftonian, Yarmouth, and Sangamon interglacial stages. During the Wisconsin stage there was also a minor recession of the ice sheets. The accumulation and wasting of the continental ice caps alone would account for an oscillation of sea level amounting to perhaps two or three hundred feet. But in addition to this there appears to have been a progressive lowering of sea level, for the highest shore line attributed to the Yarmouth interglacial stage stands lower than the supposed Aftonian shore line and higher than any of the Sangamon shore lines. Moreover, the mid-Wisconsin shore line is lower than the lowest Sangamon and higher than the Recent shore line. A plausible explanation of this post-Pliocene lowering of sea level is a sinking of the bed of the ocean in the North Atlantic, the Indo-Pacific region, off the coast of California, or in some other unstable part of the world. Such a depression



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296 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 15 miles, where there were bars. Most of the Talbot sea bottom was submerged again during Pamlico time, but the bars remained above water level as islands in the Pamlico sea. Okaloosa County-A strip of the mainland west of Choctawhatchee Bay bordering Santa Rosa Sound and extending to East Bay in Santa Rosa County (Mary Esther and Holley quadrangles) is referable to the Talbot terrace. It appears to have been an offshore bar during Talbot time. At a few places it stands as high as 40 feet above sea level, but most of it is a few feet lower. Putnam County-The approximate location of the shore of the mainland of the Talbot sea is marked on the Interlachen quadrangle by the 40-foot contour line passing south and northeast from Carraway. In this sea were islands, remnants of higher land, at Satsuma Heights, west of Palatka, and at San Mateo (Palatka quadrangle). Part of the Talbot sea bottom was flooded again by the Pamlico sea. The better-' drained strip above the 20-foot contour line west of Rice Creek Swamp apparently marks the outer edge of the Talbot terrace there. St. Johns County-The Talbot terrace covers most of St. Johns County. Its eastern margin is a nearly straight line lying a mile or two west of the shore of the mainland, where it is bordered by a fringe of Pamlico terrace. The western side is more irregular and slopes gently down to a fringe of Pamlico terrace bordering St. Johns River. In Talbot time this region was a shoal with bars and low, narrow barrier islands. Santa Rosa County-The peninsula south of East Bay and East Bay Swamp appears to have been a bar or shoal during Talbot time. The shore of the mainland, which lay near the 40-foot contour line north of the bay and swamp, was too steep to show the terraces plainly on the map of the Holley quadrangle. Wakulla County-Crawfordville and Arran are built on the Talbot terrace, whose boundaries are not generally very distinct on the Arran quadrangle. However, the boundary of the Talbot and the Pamlico is plainly shown by the closeness



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76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE ern Florida, which are characterized by an abundance of Orbitoides [Lepidocyclina] mantelli... and Pecten poulsoni." The local details given by Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 5459) included not only the chimney rock at Marianna, which may be regarded as typical, but also the Suwannee limestone near Chipley and elsewhere and the Byram limestone at Marianna and Natural Bridge. Neither of these two formations had then been named. As restricted by Cooke (1915, 1918, 1923, 1926a), Mossom (1926, pp. 180-181), and by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 63-66), the name Marianna was intended to apply only to the stratigraphic unit of which the chimney rock is representative, although some beds since recognized as Byram limestone were included. Cooke (1918, p. 195) proposed the Glendon limestone as a member of the Marianna, but it has since been transferred to the Byram (Cooke, 1943, p. 1714). True Glendon is not known in Florida, unless the Byram at Ellaville represents this member. Characters-The most distinctive part of the Marianna is soft white homogeneous chalky limestone, which can be easily sawed into building blocks. (See fig. 11.) Because of its extensive use in building chimneys this limestone is popularly called chimney rock. According to Mossom (1925, p. 72) the Marianna limestone contains 93 to 95 percent of calcium carbonate (CaCOs). The lower ledges of the Marianna are less pure and are speckled with small grains and patches of green glauconite. Many exposures of the formation show several ledges of hard, compact limestone, which stand out conspicuously from the softer layers between them. Fresh exposures of the chimney rock have a creamy white tint, which bleaches to chalky white on drying and weathers to dirty gray. Thickness and distribution-The total thickness of the Marianna limestone at Marianna is about 30 feet, but in western Alabama it is as much as 80 feet. The formation has not been recognized east of Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers, either in Georgia or in Florida, but it extends westward with remarkable uniformity across Alabama into Mississippi, where it becomes more variable. As it is overlapped by younger formations everywhere east of Alabama River, exposures are confined to river valleys or other suitable lowlands. Outcrops in Florida are known only in Jackson and



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--OLIGOCENE SERIES 81 149), is exposed in a small quarry. Mossom (1925, p. 149) reports a small.exposure of Marianna limestone on the floor of Rabbs Valley, 3 V2 miles southeast of Cottondale. An analysis of a sample from the property of G. H. Cartledge shows 97.8 percent calcium carbonate. The Marianna limestone has been extensively quarried on the north bank of Blue Spring Creek, 4 miles east of Marianna, for use as building blocks. About 30 feet of rock is exposed, but only the lower part is quarried. The upper part contains hard ledges that are not suitable for sawing. Possibly part of this exposure represents the Byram limestone. BYRAM LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Byram marl, named from Byram, Mississippi, was first described by Cooke (1918, p. 196; 1922; 1923, p. 3; 1926a, pp. 287-294; 1935, p. 1164). The first recognition of the Byram in Florida was by Cooke and Mossom (.1929, pp. 74-76). The name Byram limestone is here preferred for the formation in Florida because it seems more appropriate. As originally defined, the Byram included only those deposits of Vicksburg age that are younger than those now identified as the Glendon limestone member of the Byram. The Glendon at that time was treated as a member of the Marianna limestone. Later Cooke (1923, p. 3) raised the Glendon to the rank of formation on the mistaken assumption that the chert-bearing beds now called Flint River formation (Cooke, 1935b, p. 1170) are equivalent to the Glendon and formed part of it. The typical Glendon has since been reduced again to the rank of a member and placed in the Byram (Cooke, 1943, p. 1714), to which it appears to have a closer faunal relationship than to the Marianna limestone. Mossom in 1925 (pp. 73-77) used the name "Glendon formation" to include the Suwannee limestone and the Flint River formation of present usage. Later, Mossom (1926, pp. 181-182) restricted it to the occurrence of those formations in northwestern Florida and referred his (1925) socalled Glendon of the peninsula to the Tampa formation. This usage was followed by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 91 ly used for road metal, railway ballast, and as an aggregate for concrete. LOCAL DETAILS Citrus County-The high land in the southern part of Citrus County is composed of the Suwannee limestone. The contact with the underlying Ocala limestone has not been traced, and the boundary shown on the geologic map is very much generalized. At least 30 feet of Suwannee limestone caps the Ocala in the great pit of the Crystal River Rock Company at Lees Mound in secs. 1 and 6, T. 19 S., Rs. 17 and 18 E., 5 miles southeast of Crystal River. This pit, which was opened about 1912, was first visited by the writer in 1915, when its face was 45 feet high. By 1925 the face had reached a height of 115 feet (Mossom, 1925, p. 125), and when visited by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 56) 121 feet of limestone was exposed. The presence of the Suwannee limestone was first recognized by Mansfield (1939b), who found Cassidulus gouldii, Pecten brooksvillensis?, Teredo? incrassata, Lepidocyclina supera, and several unidentified mollusks in the upper beds. An undulating clay band one foot thick estimated by Mansfield to be in places 70 feet above the floor of the quarry was interpreted as the unconformable contact of the Suwannee on the Ocala. However, the presence of Lepidocyclina supera (identified by T. W. Vaughan) may indicate a remnant of Byram limestone between them, th6ugh that species has been reported from the Suwannee limestone at Duncan Church, Washington County (Cole, 1934). Hamilton County-Although all of Hamilton County is underlain by the Suwannee limestone, there are records of exposures of it only along Suwannee, Alapaha, and Withlacoochee Rivers. Cream-colored limestone composed chiefly of foraminifers rises 5 feet above water level in the Withlacoochee at the bridge near Bellville, about 2 miles south of the State line. The river probably flows through a deepening gorge to its mouth at Ellaville, where the limestone contains Cassidulus gouldii. Cream-colored limestone forms a bluff on the east bank of the Alapaha on the old Jasper road about 2 miles from



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94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Vasum engonatum Dall Cassis sp. Orthaulax pugnax hernandoensis Mansfield Terebellum hernandoense Mansfield Cerithium pascoense Mansfield brooksvillense Mansfield hernandoense Mansfield aff. C. vaginatum Dall Potamides cornutus Heilprin? Turritella bowenae Mansfield Xenophora conchyliphora Born? Ampullina flintensis Mansfield? "Amauropsis" aff. A. burnsii meridionalis Pilsbry Sinum aff. S. imperforatum Dall Calliostoma silicatum Mansfield? Pelecypoda: Glycymeris cf. G. tuckerae Mansfield Barbatia marylandica (Conrad) ? Ostrea aff. 0. antiguensis Brown Chlamys brooksvillensis Mansfield Modiolus blandus Dall grammatus Dall? Thracia vicksburgiana hernandoensis Mansfield Venericardia serricosta brooksvillensis Mansfield Phacoides wacissanus Dall hillsboroensis (Heilprin)? hernandoensis Mansfield Divaricella sp. Cardium aff. C. gadsdenense Mansfield brooksvillense Mansfield hernandoense Mansfield Pitar aff. P. imitabilis (Conrad) Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall Venus? sp. Panope brooksvillensis Mansfield Teredo? incrassata (Gabb) Echinoidea: Cassidulus gouldii (Bouv6) Holmes County-There are few known exposures of the Suwannee limestone in Holmes County. Vernon (1942, p. 65) reports 8 feet of cream-colored to light-gray sandy, argillaceous limestone in a small sink on the Hudson farm in the SWV4 NW sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., 5 2 miles north of Ponce de Leon. He lists 25 species of Foraminifera, including Lepidocyclina cf. L. undosa tumida Vaughan, 10 Ostracoda, and 5 Mollusca, namely, Chione bainbridgensis Dall,



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 69 Pliocene age, conceals the bedrock. The Ocala is generally covered by Pleistocene sand except in the eastern part, where it is overlain by the Alachua formation. As Levy County occupies the central part of the Ocala Uplift, which extends westward beneath the Gulf of Mexico, and as it is topographically lower than the counties adjoining it on the east, the outcrops of the Ocala limestone presumably are lower stratigraphically than those in the neighboring regions. The occurrence near Inglis of Periarchus lyelli, a very abundant echinoid in the basal Jackson Moodys Branch marl in Alabama and Mississippi and in the Tivola tongue of the Ocala limestone in Georgia suggests that the bed containing it lies not far above the base of the Ocala. FIGURE 7.-Troy Spring, Lafayette County, Suwannee River in the background. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 52. Soft cream-colored granular Ocala limestone underlies the bog-iron ore on the old Studsill place about 3 miles northwest of Levyville. It is exposed in natural wells. Yellowish or cream-colored limestone containing Lepidocyclina ocalana floridana, a few bryozoans, and indeterminable mollusks, rises 6 feet above water level in Manatee Spring, which bursts up from a deep hole in the Ocala limestone near Suwannee River.



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322 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Florida with special reference to the stratigraphy: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 2, pp. 25-173, map. 1913. (and SAMUEL SANFORD). Geology and ground waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 pp., map. 1915. The phosphate deposits of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 604, 101 pp., maps. 1916. The Pliocene Citronelle formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98, pp. 167-192. MAURY, CARLOTTA J. 1902. A comparison of the Oligocene of western Europe and the southern United States: Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 3, no. 15, 94 pp. McCALLIE, SAMUEL W. 1896. A preliminary report on a part of the phosphates and marls of Georgia: Georgia Geol. Survey Bull. 5-A, 101 pp. MILLER, BENJAMIN LEROY 1912. The Coastal Plain of North Carolina; the Tertiary formations: North Carolina Geol. Survey, vol. 3, pp. 171-258. MossoM, D. STUART. (See also COOKE, C. W., 1929.) 1925. A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 16, pp. 27-203, 7 figs., 52 pls. 1926. A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida, with special reference to the petroleum possibilities: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 17, pp. 169-275, 1 fig. PARKER, GARALD G. 1942. Notes on the geology and ground water of the Everglades in southern Florida: Soil Science Soc. Florida Proc., vol. 4-A, pp. 47-76. 1944. (and C. WYTHE COOKE). Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida, with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 27, 119 pp., 4 figs., 26 pls. PONTON, GERALD M. (See COLE, W. S., 1930; CUSHMAN, J. A., 1932; and MANSFIELD, W. C., 1932c.) PRETTYMAN, THOMAS MANN 1923. (and H. S. CAVE). Petroleum and natural gas possibilities in Georgia: Georgia Geol. Survey Bull. 40, 164 pp., 8 pls., 11 figs., 3 maps. SANFORD, SAMUEL (See also MATSON, G. C., 1913.) 1909. The topography and geology of southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 2, pp. 175-231. 1913. Geology and ground waters of Florida; southern Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, pp. 42-64, 167-199.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 149 Columbia County-The Hawthorn formation crops out along Suwannee River and in the hills above the Suwannee limestone in the southern part of Columbia County. Most of the upland is covered by early Pleistocene marine terraces. The basal part of the Hawthorn is exposed on the river near "White Springs, Hamilton County, where it lies directly on the Suwannee limestone. The following section was noted in 1913 by T. W. Vaughan and C. W. Cooke (1914, p. 251; Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 127) in a bluff on the south bank of the Suwannee at a large spring one-half to threequarters of a mile above the old wagon bridge on the White Springs-Lake City road. SECTION THREE-QUARTERS OF A MILE ABOVE WHITE SPRINGS FEET Sunderland (?) formation (Pleistocene): 10. Grayish or white terrace sand ---------4 or Unconformity Hawthorn formation (Miocene): 9. Yellowish sand, about -----------12 8. Grayish sand at the surface with float of Ostrea normalis and Siderastraea sp. ------------13 7. Bed with clay concretions ----------1 6. Green sand and clay ------------1 5. Quartz sand coated with calcium carbonate; many phosphatic grains; Sorites, Pecten, Dentalium, and other fossils -4 4. Gray marl like beds 2 and 3 but more calcareous ----1/4 3. Light greenish-gray sandy shell marl (U.S.G.S. 6776) -43/4 2. Light greenish-gray sandy shell marl containing many dark phosphatic particles; Goniopora sp., Pecten acanikos, Ostrea normalis, etc. (U.S.G.S. 6775) ---------2/2 Unconformity (fig. 12) Suwannee limestone (Oligocene): 1. Partly silicified yellowish granular limestone; Dictyoconus? sp., Cassidulus gouddii. (U.S.G.S. 6774) (See fig. 12) --2 At Suwannee Shoals, about 6 miles above White Springs and a mile below Hewitts Ferry, the river falls over ledges in the Hawthorn formation. The section is as follows:



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256 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The section at Fort Thompson and the one below the railroad bridge in Glades County give a clear picture of the geologic history of the region. They show that southern Florida was submerged during the Pliocene epoch; that it emerged, was covered by lakes, and then drained during each of the four Pleistocene ice stages; that it was covered by the sea during each of the three interglacial stages; and that it was submerged during the mid-Wisconsin long enough to receive a thin coating of sand. The carbonaceous layer (bed 8 of section) at the top of the Pamlico sand indicates that the region was a grassy savanna like the Everglades during late Wisconsin and Recent time, until the water table was lowered by the cutting of the Caloosahatchee Canal. Palm Beach County-Fine-grained gray marl containing many shells of Rartgia cuneata and other brackish-water and fresh-water species was dredged from Lake Okeechobee at Pahokee. The canals leading from Lake Okeechobee cut through fresh-water limestone and marine shell marl before reaching the underlying Pliocene beds. MIAMI OOLITE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The names "Miami oolite" and "Key West oolite" were applied by Sanford (1909, pp. 211-214, 218-221) to oolitic limestone on the mainland of southern Florida and on the Florida Keys, respectively. As the only difference between these deposits is that the Miami oolite locally contains more sand than the Key West, Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204) combined them into one formation, the Miami oolite. Characters-The typical Miami oolite is soft white oolitic limestone containing as much as 95 percent of calcium carbonate. It includes local layers of calcite and commonly more or less sand. Some of the sand that at first glance appears to form part of the Miami really has fallen down solution holes in the Miami oolite from the Pamlico sand, which overlies it. The originally included sand is more abundant toward the north, where the Miami merges laterally into the Anastasia formation. Oolite is distinguishable from other calcareous deposits by



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-HAWTHORN FORMATION 147 earth. The Devil's Mill Hopper, a sink 6 miles northwest of Gainesville, cuts through more than 100 feet of Hawthorn to the Ocala limestone, which doubtless lies not far below water level. The following section at the Devil's Mill Hopper was measured in 1913. Some of the upper beds may be younger than Hawthorn: SECTION AT THE DEVIL'S MILL HOPPER FEET Hawthorn formation: 10. Covered; debris of calcareous sandstone -------25 9. Gray or cream-colored calcareous sandstone containing round phosphatic grains, poorly preserved mollusks, and echinoids; lower part more sandy and paler than the upper; this bed has slumped several feet -------------15 8. Concealed; partly encrusted with travertine ------27 7. Green sandy clay, upper part encrusted with travertine 1 inch to more than 4 inches thick and enclosing snail shells ---9 6. Hard silicified green clay or fuller's earth -------5 5. Greenish-gray sand and fuller's earth --------15 4. Covered ----------------7 3. Hard cream-colored or yellow phosphatic fossiliferous limestone; probably a fallen block of bed 9 -------11 2. Soft calcareous sand with brown phosphatic pebbles and moulds of fossils; seen below waterfall on west side ------2 1. White calcareous sandstone with phosphatic nodules; to water level ----------------Old pits in phosphatic limestone about 3 miles west of Hawthorn and about 2 miles from Grove Park were opened in 1879 by Dr. C. A. Simmons of Hawthorn, who ground the material and used it as fertilizer. When visited in 1913 the pits were so thickly overgrown that little could be seen except a few loose lumps of phosphatic limestone. The rock contained many shark teeth. The Hawthorn formation is better exposed in pits on the Hawthorn road 11 miles east of Gainesville, where 6 to 8 feet of sandy phosphatic limestone is visible in an eastward-facing scarp. Much of the lime has been dissolved out. Some of the weathered lumps contain small gray phosphatic pellets in a matrix of gray to greenish clayey sand. Green siliceous clay or fuller's earth and sandstone con-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 61 ECHINOIDS FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE Psammechinus? ocalanus Cooke Phymosoma dixie Cooke ?Phymotaxis mansfieldi Cooke Fibularia vaughani (Twitchell) Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol floridanus Twitchell Amblypygus americanus Desor Periarchus lyelli (Conrad) Laganum floridanum Twitchell ocalanum Cooke Peronella crustuloides (Morton) cubae Weisbord Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell) archerensis (Twitchell) Cassidulus (Cassidulus) Irojanus Cooke (Paralampas) conradi (Conrad) lyelli (Conrad) Eurhodia patelliformis (Bouve) Schizaster armiger Clark beckeri Cooke (Linthia) ocalanus Cooke Agassizia floridana de Loriol Brissopsis steinhatchee Cooke Macropneustes mortoni (Conrad) Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus) mooreanus Pilsbry (Plagiobrissus) dixie Cooke gardnerae Cooke carolinensis Clark curvus Cooke ocalanus Cooke (Brissopatagus) georgianus Cooke alabamensis Cooke Bryozoa are very abundant at certain localities but are less widely distributed in Florida than in Georgia and Alabama. More than 80 species of cheilostomatous Bryozoa have been listed from the Ocala limestone at Ocala, Alachua, and Marianna (Canu and Bassler, 1920). Mollusks are preserved chiefly as molds or occasionally as beautifully reproduced siliceous pseudomorphs. The shell substance of the scallops and oysters is commonly retained. Amusium ocalanum Dall (fig. 5, no. 1) is a characteristic



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 135 Tampa limestone (Miocene): 3. Gray argillaceous sand mottled with red and yellow, probably derived from material like that of bed 2 -------10 2. Soft argillaceous limestone with pockets of greenish clay; contains fossils ---------------16 Unconformity Suwannee limestone (Oligocene): 1. Soft granular white to cream-colored limestone composed in large part of foraminifers, including Lepidocycina sp. ---65 Bed 2 contains the following fossils (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 96; Mansfield, 1937b, p. 39): Sorites duplex (Carpenter) Cerithium aff. C. praecursor Dall Ostrea rugifera Dall? caducaqua Mansfield Chlamys crocus (Cooke) anguillensis (Guppy) aff. C. crucianus (Cooke) gardnerae (Cooke) Amusium sp. Modiolus blandus Dall Chione aff. C. spenceri Cooke These fossils are noteworthy because the four species of Chlamys (scallops) occur also in the Anguilla formation of the Leeward Islands, which contains also corals similar to those in the Tampa limestone at Ballast Point. Moreover, the fauna of the underlying Suwannee limestone at Falling Water is similar to that of the Antigua formation of the Leeward Islands. This is the first locality discovered at which the Antigua and the Anguilla faunas occur in the same section, although the sequence was inferred long ago from the character of the faunas. To these species Vernon (1942, pp. 70, 71) adds Celliforma nuda (Dall), a mining bee's chamber; "Coelopleurus" sp., an echinoid, possibly an Arbacia; and Ampullina sp., a marine gastropod. He also lists 18 species of Foraminifera and 16 of Ostracoda. Vernon (1942, p. 71) reports a 2-foot ledge of very dense sandy limestone containing Clava sp. cf. C. parrishi Mansfield on the bank of Holmes Creek in the center of sec. 3, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. One mile west of Hinson Crossroads he found a



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112 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE S-------.1 I -1% \ -/ *^ .--*-.-', Pascagoula, Duplin, Yorktown; mi..-e Miocene: Hattiesburg, Chipola, HawI -J / .., .1---^ ^ '2, FIGURE 14.-Hypothetical Miocene and Pliocene shore lines. Late Miocene: Pascagoula, Duplin, Yorktown; middle Miocene: Hattiesburg, Chipola, Hawthorn, Choptank; early Miocene: Catahoula, Tampa, Trent, Calvert.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 129 limestone and the subsequent deepening of their valleys converted the valleys into lake basins, which still overflow through their original surficial outlets during seasons of abundant rainfall. Compact chalky-white Tampa limestone rises 19 feet above a very deep pool of water in a sink east of State Highway 110, 0.8 mile southwest of its junction with U. S. Highway 319, 3 2 miles south of Tallahassee. The limestone is overlain by 17 feet of orange argillaceous sand that weathers into gray sand hills. On the Woodville road (US 319) the sand hills end about 5 miles south of Tallahassee, and the flat surface of the limestone is covered by only a thin veneer of gray sand (Talbot formation). This plain extends to the Wakulla County line, maintaining an altitude of very nearly 30 feet above sea level. The white Tampa limestone rises an estimated 35 feet above deep blue water in a sink near the old Crawfordville road 0.7 mile west of State Highway 110 about a quarter of a mile north of the Wakulla County line. The Tampa is overlain by a patch of late Miocene shell marl (Duplin marl), which crops out beneath the roots of a tree. Liberty County-Tampa limestone presumably underlies all of Liberty County, but it is exposed only in the northwest corner on and near Apalachicola River. At Rock Bluff it rises about 10 feet above water level at a 7a2-foot stage (Sellards and Gunter, 1909, p. 274). It consists of hard gray calcareous sandstone or sandy limestone, which merges laterally into coarse argillaceous sand, probably residual from the harder rock. About 2 miles above Rock Bluff there were exposures of gray sandy limestone as high as 26 feet above water level when examined in 1914. Marion County-There are only a few small outliers of the Tampa limestone in Marion County. The highest part (northwest corner) of the deep quarry of the Cummer Lumber Company at Kendrick is rimmed with about 3 feet of hard, compact, white limestone containing Tampa fossils. The underlying rock is the Ocala limestone, which is quarried to a depth of 75 or 100 feet. Lumps of cream-colored sandy, phosphatic limestone con-



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206 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE formation is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene terrace deposits ranging in age from Sunderland to Pamlico. The Bone Valley probably merges southward into the Caloosahatchee formation, but there are no known exposures in the supposed transition area. Paleogeography-The typical part of the Bone Valley formation apparently was deposited in the broad delta of a stream that opened southward into the ocean. Some of it may be the residual product of the decomposition in place of the Hawthorn formation. A larger part presumably was laid down outside the mouth of the estuary in the open sea, but this part is not easily accessible and has not been explored. According to Simpson (1930c, p. 179): The view that the Bone Valley is an estuarine deposit is the most probable, in my opinion. The nature of the sediments themselves bespeaks periods of quiescence and periods of fairly rapid shifting currents in shallow water, as in a sluggish river, estuary, or lagoon. So far as has been determined, the included shells are all derived from older beds, which would at least be unusual in a true marine deposit of this character and as well known as this. Land mammals and terrestrial tortoises are rather abundant and in several cases have been found so associated that they cannot have moved far from the place of death. Crocodiles or gavials and sirenians are common, but neither group is essentially marine, being more at home in estuarine waters. The same applies to the sharks, many of which were, furthermore, derived from older and purely marine beds. Fauna-Vertebrates comprise the dominant element in the fauna of the Bone Valley formation. These include fishes and land and aquatic mammals and reptiles. Because of the methods of mining, which are hydraulic or by dredging, there is much uncertainty as to whether some of the bones attributed to the Bone Valley were actually in it or were derived from the overlying Pleistocene terrace deposits. Moreover, some of them may have been reworked from the underlying Hawthorn formation. The land mammals regarded by Simpson (1930c, p. 180) as contemporaneous with the deposition of the Bone Valley are the following: Agriotherium schneideri Sellards Leptarctus progressus Simpson Hipparion ingenuum (Leidy) plicatile (Leidy) minor Sellards phosphorum Simpson



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PALEOCENE SERIES 37 ----------Ii. \ \% v v .'". "<" / rA .-.-n \ li/ ----L I' FIGURE 4.-Approximate locations of the shore line during the Paleocene epoch S and late Eocene and middle Oligocene (Marianna) times.



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324 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1919a. Literature relating to human remains and artifacts at Vero, Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 47, pp. 358-360; Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 12, pp. 1-4. 1919b. Geologic sections across the Everglades of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 12, pp. 67-76. 1919c. Review of the geology of Florida with special reference to structural conditions: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 12, pp. 105-141. 1919d. Geology of Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 286302, 1 pl., 1 fig. 1919e. Comanchean formations underlying Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 48, pp. 13-16. 1922. (and HERMAN GUNTER). On the petroleum possibilities of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 14, pp. 83-135, 10 figs., map. 1928. The Florida phosphates: Intern. Geol. Congr. XIV, Comptes rendus, fasc. 1, pp. 297-305, 1 fig. (map); Pan-Am. Geologist, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 183-194. 1937. The Vero finds in the light of present knowledge: in McCurdy, G. C., Early man. SEMMES, DOUGLAS R. 1929. Oil and gas in Alabama: Alabama Geol. Survey Special, Rept. 15, 408 pp., 76 figs., 13 maps. SHATTUCK, GEORGE BURBANK 1901. The Pleistocene problem of the north Atlantic Coastal Plain: Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., vol. 20, pp. 69-75; Am. Geologist, vol. 28, pp. 87-107. 1906. The Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of Maryland: Maryland Geol. Survey, Pliocene and Pleistocene, pp. 21-137. SIMPsoN, GEORGE GAYLORD 1929. The extinct land mammals of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 20, pp. 229-279, 4 figs., 11 pls. 1930a. Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole field, Pinellas County, Florida: Am. Mus. Nat. History Bull., vol. 56, pp. 561-599, 22 figs. 1930b. Additions to the Pleistocene of Florida: Am. Mus. Novitates 406, 14 pp., 7 figs. 1930c. Tertiary land mammals of Florida: Am. Mus. Nat. History Bull., vol. 59, art. 11, pp. 149-211, 31 figs. 1932a. Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the evolution of the Sirenia: Am. Mus. Nat. History Bull., vol. 59, art. 8, pp. 419-503, 23 figs., 1 pl. 1932b. Miocene land mammals from Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 10, pp. 7-41, 23 figs.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 97 the boundary of the Tampa limestone, which is much sandier. Prospect pits about 3 miles southeast of Zephyrhills encountered hard, flinty limestone containing Cassidulus gouldii. These may be on the property of the Florida Trap Rock Company, from which Mansfield (1937b, pp. 51-52) reports the following species: Gastropoda: Cerithium pascoensis \Mansfield Turritella bowenae Mansfield Ampullina flintensis Mansfield Pelecypoda: Glycymeris suwanneensis? Mansfield Lima halensis Dall Modiolus silicatus Dall Phacoides hillsboroensis (Heilprin) ? Cardium aff. C. gadsdenense Mansfield Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall Teredo? incrassata (Gabb) Echinoidea: Cassidulus gouldii (Bouvr) Hard, flinty limestone crops out in a swamp on the road to Crystal Springs about a mile south of the prospect pits, and the springs apparently issue from the Suwannee limestone. Mansfield (1937b, p. 52) lists the following species from localities 1 and 2 miles north of Hudson (U.S.G.S. 7356 and 12761): Gastropoda: Lyria musicina dalli Mansfield Orthaulax pugnax hernandoensis Mansfield Cerithium brooksvillense Mansfield Turritella bowenae Mansfield Cypraea sp. Pelecypoda: Thracia vicksburgiana brooksvillensis Mansfield Phacoides? sp. Cardium aft. C. gadsdenense Mansfield phlyctaena Dall Semele silicata Dall? Panope brooksvillensis Mansfield? Teredo? incrassata (Gabb) ?



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58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Operculinoides cookei (Cushman) curasavicus (M. Rutten and Vermunt) floridensis (Heilprin) mariannensis (Vaughan) ocalanus (Cushman) vaughani (Cushman) willcoxi (Heilprin) Heterostegina ocalana Cushman Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) americana (Cushman) chipolensis Vaughan georgiana (Cushman) mariannensis (Cushman) papillata (Cushman) vaughani (Cushman) Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan) flintensis (Cushman) Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana Cushman mortoni Cushman ocalana Cushman attenuata Cushman cookei Cushman floridana Cushman pseudocarinata Cushman pseudomarginata Cushman tschoppi Thiadens Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman semmesi Vaughan and Cole Only a few corals have been found in the Ocala limestone. A species of Flabellum, probably the common F. wailesii Conrad of the Jackson group, is represented by a few molds and casts. More species of echinoids have been found in the Ocala limestone than in any other formation of the Cenozoic era in the United States, though some species elsewhere were more gregarious and hence are represented by more numerous individuals. The following species have been reported from the Ocala (Cooke, 1941a, 1942) in Florida, Georgia, or Alabama. A few of them are pictured in figures 5 and 6.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHATCHEE FORMATION 221 A ditch on State Highway 2 about 13 miles south of Arcadia, 2 miles north of the Charlotte County line and half a mile north of Prairie Creek, yielded Turritella perattenuata (fig. 30, no. 4) and other Caloosahatchee fossils. Glades County-Although the entire county is underlain by the Caloosahatchee marl, the surface everywheireis covered by the Fort Thompson formation (Pleistocene) or by undifferentiated Pleistocene sand. The Caloosahatchee Canal and several drainage ditches cut through these into shell marl of the Caloosahatchee formation. Pliocene fossils are found on the spoil banks below Lake Hicpochee, notably below Ortona Lock, east of the railroad in T. 42 S., R. 30 E. Here Chione cancellata is the most abundant species, but Arca wagneriana (fig. 27, no. 1) and many other species are common. Hendry County-The Caloosahatchee marl underlies most of Hendry County, but in the western part it merges into the Buckingham marl, and in the southern part it interfingers with the Tamiami formation. Natural exposures of the formation are confined to the banks of Caloosahatchee River, for it is elsewhere covered by Pleistocene deposits, but many shallow ditches and road-metal pits cut through the PleistoFIGURE 31.-A pit in the Caloosahatchee marl on Prairie Creek 12 miles south of Arcadia. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 23-A.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BONE VALLEY FORMATION 205 are lenticular and extend only short distances. There are numerous alternations of coarse and fine material and many of the layers are distinctly undulating. The wavy character of the stratification appears to be original, though in one or two mines there are evidences of sufficient deformation to cause slight faulting, which has brought the overlying sand into juxtaposition with the phosphate. The entire formation bears evidence of having been deposited in shallow water where conflicting currents give rise to irregular bedding and rapid alternations of sediments of varying coarseness. The color of the phosphate-bearing portions of the Bone Valley gravel varies from nearly white to dark gray and the individual pebbles are white, yellow, brown, or black. According to Matson (1915, p. 37) Pebbles of quartz and chert occur throughout the Bone Valley gravel. Many of these pebbles are perfectly rounded and are composed of pellucid quartz; others are partly rounded fragments of dark chert, such as may be found in many parts of the peninsula of Florida. It seems probable, however, that Matson intended that statement to apply only to the basal conglomerate, not to the entire formation, and that the occurrence of quartz pebbles is local. Thickness-The maximum thickness of the Bone Valley formation probably does not much exceed 50 feet, and the average thickness may be considerably less. Some of the phosphate mines cut through only 13 feet of Bone Valley to bedrock. Distribution-The occurrence of the Bone Valley formation is known with assurance only in Polk County south of Lakeland and in the adjoining part of Hillsborough County. This is the region in which the formation has been opened by phosphate mines. The area supposed to be underlain by the Bone Valley has been extended northward to the Lake County line and southward into De Soto County chiefly because prospecting has indicated that that entire region is underlain by beds high in phosphate (G. R. Mansfield, 1942, pl. 5). There is little surface indication of the presence of the Bone Valley, for Pleistocene terrace deposits cover it everywhere. Stratigraphic relations-In the type area the Bone Valley formation lies unconformably on a limestone bedrock that is supposed to represent the Hawthorn formation. Farther north it presumably lies on the Tampa and Suwannee limestones. The contact with the Hawthorn is exposed in several phosphate mines, but in many of them it is submerged. The



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 309 Lutra canadensis Arctodus floridanus Lynx rufus Lynx? sp. Felis cf. F. veronis Felis? cf. F. inexpectata Smilodon cf. S. floridanus Xenarthra: Mylodon harlani? Megalonyx cf. M. whcatleyi Tatu bellus Chlamytherium septentrionale Boreostracon floridanus Perissodactyla: Equus cf. E. complicatus leidyi Tapirus veroensis sellardsi sp. Artiodactyla: Platygonus sp. Mylohyus gidleyi cf. M. pennsylvanicus lenis Tagassu? cf. T. tetragonus Tanupolama mirifica cf. T. americana cf. Camelops sp. Bison cf. B. latifrons Odocoileus osceola Proboscidea: Mastodon americanus Archidiskodon columbi Sirenia: Triechus sp. The original discovery of fossil bones near Seminole was made by Walter W. Holmes in 1924 at a place he called Seminole Field, on Joes Creek, in sec. 5, T. 31 S., R. 16 E., about 2 /4 miles south-southwest of Pinellas Park, 3 miles southeast of Seminole, and 6 miles northwest of St. Petersburg. The occurrence was described by Cooke (1926c). The geological relationships are much like those at Melbourne and Vero Beach. At all three places the bedrock on which the bone bed lies is a marine shell bed, but that at Seminole Field, at first supposed to be Pleistocene, equivalent to the Anastasia formation, may be Pliocene, Caloosahatchee marl. The shell bed



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ANASTASIA FORMATION 267 Utilization-The harder blocks of coquina make a durable building stone. The Spaniards used them to build their fortifications, and there is still a large local demand for them. The softer and unconsolidated parts are used as an aggregate for concrete and for building roads. LOCAL DETAILS Brevard County-Shell marls are widely distributed in Brevard County, but the variety called coquina is restricted to a narrow strip of mainland facing Indian River and to the southern end of Merritt Island. The shell marls are cut into by many drainage ditches. A marl bed on Merritt Island has been dredged to a depth of 3 to 5 feet for use on roads. This material contains much sand and is locally consolidated into a resonant sandstone. Coquina has been worked at several places in Brevard County, particularly at Indian River City and 3 miles north of Eau Gallie. It crops out along Indian River in a wave-cut cliff 7 feet high at Rockledge and along the beach at low tide at Indialantic. Both hard coquina and unconsolidated shells are found a mile south of Indian River City in pits that show 8 to 14 feet of shelly material beneath 2 feet of loose sand. The uppermost 2 to 4 feet of the coquina is hard; the lower part is unconsolidated. A pit on the Carl H. Fay property, 3 miles north of Eau Gallie, shows 5 to 7 feet of consolidated shells and shell fragments mixed with 7 to 3 5 percent of quartz sand. Coquina is exposed also at the south end of Merritt Island at Tropic and at low tide on Eau Gallie Beach. A deposit of partly consolidated coquina is exposed in the county road pit about 100 yards east of U.S. Highway 1 about 1 mile north of Mims. The beds there dip steeply eastward as though deposited on a beach or bar. In the Hunt rock pit about 1 mile west of Titusville the Anastasia contains a good deal of sand, and the shells are better preserved than is customary. The deposit is plainly cross-bedded. About 10 feet are exposed. Many drainage canals near Melbourne cut into shell beds of the Anastasia formation. A bed notable for the size of its shells rises 5 feet above water level at the junction of the main



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262 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE metal. The rock is pure, soft, and homogenous and averages about 96 percent carbonate of lime (Mossom, 1925, p. 132). The natural bridge at Arch Creek and the low cliff at Silver Bluff are composed of Miami oolite. Cross bedding in the Miami oolite is well shown in canal banks near Coral Gables. Monroe County-The southern part of the mainland and the Pine Island Keys are composed of the Miami oolite, which evidently forms the bed of Florida Bay under the Recent ooze. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 207) supposed that the Miami covered all of the county, and they included in it the Lostmans River limestone, but Parker and Cooke (1944) found that Lostmans River is underlain by the Tamiami formation. The exact western boundary of the Miami oolite in Monroe County has not been determined, but oolite is known to extend as a thin sheet at least 3 miles west of the Dade County line. KEY LARGO LIMESTONE GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Key Largo limestone was named and described by Sanford (1909, pp. 214-218; 1913, pp. 184-189). The name is taken from Key Largo, the longest of the Florida Keys. Characters-Sanford, who had exceptionally good opportunities to study it during the construction of the Florida East Coast Railway, for which he was the geologist, describes the Key Largo as extremely variable in appearance and structure. Some parts are composed of fragments of corals cemented together. Elsewhere it is a fine white compact, homogenous limestone, which breaks with conchoidal fracture and splintery surface. Other parts, some of which are quarried for use as building stone, are made of standing corals with the spaces filled in with hardened ooze and fragments of broken corals and other organisms. Some of the coral heads are replaced by crystalline calcite, which was evidently formed by the redeposition of calcium carbonate dissolved out of the rock by rain water. Similar alteration has hardened the rock for several feet below the surface, and the hardening locally extends below sea level. Despite its hardness, the limestone



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CITRONELLE FORMATION 237 ronelle formation. There are also outliers on four hills south and southeast of Chipley. Vernon (1942, p. 134) gives the following section on Oak Hill in the NE 4 NW 4 sec. 5, T. 3 N., R. 12 W. The top of the section is recorded as 292 feet above sea level. SECTION ON OAK HILL FEET [Citronelle formation (Pliocene):] 5. Red to yellow very argillaceous sand, which weathers to a sandy clay soil that makes this high outlier excellent fanning land -----------------20.3 4. Gray clay mixed with medium sand --------0.9 3. Light-gray unconsolidated very fine sand, slightly argillaceous. Would make good glass if mining were feasible -----21.1 2. Light-gray very blocky, almost pure kaolin. A few white fine sand lenses. A possible pottery clay --------7.7 1. Yellow-red coarse unconsolidated grit with pebbles ----9.0 There are other exposures at Falling Water. (See section, p. 134.) The top of Rock Hill, 2 miles southeast of Chipley, is covered by a ledge of hard ferruginous sandstone. Orange Hill, 8 miles south of Chipley, is also an outlier of the Citronelle. FIGURE 32.-Sand pit in Citronelle formation near Lake Wales. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 28.



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100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE in a shallow sink 4.9 miles north of O'Brien. This chert contains many fossils, but no Cassidulus was seen. The old Lyle quarry (later owned by the Southern Utilities Company) 1 2 miles north of Live Oak, cuts 50 feet or more into the Suwannee limestone. The unweathered rock is dense, compact, brittle cream-colored limestone. It contains many Sfossils, most of which are preserved only as molds, but siliceous pseudomorphs are scattered through the weathered soil. Mansfield (1937b, p. 57) lists the following species (U.S.G.S. 6826, 11109, 12308): Gastropoda: Scaphander sp. Euclathurella? liveoakensis Mansfield Olivella liveoakensis Mansfield Lyria mississippiensis Conrad? musicina dalli Mansfield Xanchus polygonatus suwanneensis Mansfield Alectrion sp. a. Purpura propeposti Mansfield Terebellum hernandoense Mansfield? Cerithium pascoense Mansfield? suwanneense Mansfield liveoakense Mansfield Modulus liveoakensis Mansfield Turritella cf. T. halensis Dall Xenophora conchyliphora Born? Sinum aff. S. imperforatum Dall Ampullina flintensis Mansfield Pelecypoda: Glycymeris suwanneensis Mansfield tuckerae Mansfield? Barbatia marylandica (Conrad) ? Chlamys flintensis Mansfield aff. C. vaun wythei Hertlein liveoakensis Mansfield Modiolus grammatus Dall Cardita liveoakensis Mansfield Venericardia serricosta brooksvillensis Mansfield? Phacoides wacissanus Dall hillsboroensis (Heilprin) ? Cardium precursor Dall .Chione aff. C. bainbridgensis Dall Tellina silicata Dall? Teredo? incrassata (Gabb) Echinoidea: Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve)



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARIANNA LIMESTONE 77 Holmes Counties, where the Marianna is overlapped by the Flint River formation. Stratigraphic relations-In Mississippi and western Alabama the Marianna limestone is separated from the Eocene formations by the lower Oligocene Red Bluff clay, but in Florida it lies directly on the Eocene Ocala limestone. Cooke (1923, p. 2) supposed that the Marianna is conformable with the Ocala and that the lower part of the Marianna is the stratigraphic equivalent of the Red Bluff clay. However, it now seems probable that the Marianna overlaps the lower Oligocene deposits somewhere in Alabama and lies unconformably on the Ocala in Florida. FIGURE 11.-Marianna limestone. Building-block quarry of Richard Hartsfield, NWY4 sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., about 5 miles northeast of Marianna. After VERNON, 1943, fig. 17. The Marianna is overlain by the Byram limestone. The contact at Marianna is a sharp line. Paleogedgraphy-The Marianna limestone was deposited in the Gulf of Mexico, which was expanded northward and contracted eastward, for the Floridian Plateau was probably



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 153 Hawthorn formation crops out between the Sunderland and the Suwannee limestone. The exposures along Suwannee River have been described on pages 149-150. Hardee County-So, far as it is known, outcrops of the Hawthorn formation in Hardee County are confined to, the banks of Peace Creek and its tributaries. Some of the occurrences here listed may represent deposits younger than the Hawthorn. In 1888 Frank Burns obtained samples of sandy limestone containing large phosphatic nodules from Peace Creek 1 mile east of Bowling Green. In 1890 Darton found it on Charlie Apopka Creek. On the right bank of Peace Creek above the highway bridge on the road from Wauchula to Zolfo there is a 3-foot bed of cream-colored to yellow sandy phosphatic limestone in which most of the phosphate grains are small, though a few are as large as a pea. In a collection of fossils made here in 1927 (U.S.G.S. 11182), W. C. Mansfield identified a Turris sp., Glycymeris cf. G. lamyi Dall, Pecten aff. P. acanikos Gardner, Venericardia cf. V. hadra Dall, and species representing 10 or more other genera. Several of the unnamed species occur also on Manatee River 1 mile east of Ellenton, Manatee County. The limestone is overlain by 3 to 6 feet of bluish clay and about 8 feet of sand. Hernando County-The hilly region in the southeast corner of Hernando County contains fine red or orange sand and clay that appears to have been derived from the Hawthorn formation. It is part of an outlier, the greater part of which lies in Pasco County. Jefferson County-The hilly northern half of Jefferson County is underlain by mottled orange or red and gray sandy clay that weathers brick red. Much of this material was probably derived from sandy, phosphatic limestone or calcareous sandstone. The flat southern-half of the county is a succession of late Pleistocene marine terraces underlain by Suwannee and Tampa limestones. The freshest exposures of the Hawthorn formation are in the gorges of the streams that flow into the Miccosukee Drains, two sinks a mile and a half northeast of Lloyd, which receive the overflow from Lake Miccosukee. Nearly 20 feet of gray



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMIAMI FORMATION 243 Belle the rock is nearly bare. The first appearance of the Buckingham marl is 16.9 miles north of the Tamiami Trail. Throughout the county the formation consists of hard sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone. Dade County-Throughout the Everglades the Tamiami formation is covered by Miami oolite or by peat, but lumps of it are brought up by the dredge. Monroe County-The bottom of Lostmans River at lat. 35' 38' 20", long. 81" 6' 50" and 81' 7' 55" is jagged rock, covered in many places by black carbonaceous ooze. The rock is hard blue sandy limestone containing Chione cancellata and an unidentified oyster. So far as is known, this rock, which appears to be the Tamiami formation, does not extend above water level. The water on it is 3 or 4 feet deep at high tide.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 303 the underlying shell bed at the junction of the main Crane Creek drainage canal and a lateral canal at the township corner about 4 miles west of Melbourne. This bone bed, which appears to be an old soil zone contemporaneous with the Melbourne bone bed, hardens on exposure and bleaches to a white marlstone. It is overlain by 5 feet or more of dirty brown sand and hardpan. Five feet of the Anastasia formation, remarkable for the large size of its shells, underlies the bone bed. Broward County-Although nearly all of Broward County was covered by the sea during Pamlico time, deposition of the Pamlico sand took place chiefly along the shore of a chain of islands, now the eastern rim of the Everglades, composed of Miami oolite. Sand drifted southward along the coast, mantled the bottom, and was swept back and forth through the gaps between the islands (transverse glades of Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 41). Charlotte County-Most of Charlotte County east of the Seaboard Railway is probably coated by the Pamlico sand, but details are lacking. Clay County-An arm of the St. Johns River embayment extended up Black Creek to Middleburg during Pamlico time, and tidewater probably reached the mouth of Yellow Water Creek (Middleburg quadrangle). An island west of Peoria sloped upward nearly to 70 feet above the water in sec. 23, T. 4 S., R.25 E. At the crossing of Black Creek half a mile north of Middleburg yellow clayey sand containing irregular lenses of cleaq white sand was noted in 1927. Dark-gray clay and sandy clay was dredged to a depth of about 20 feet in 1927 in the clay pits of Gamble and Stockton in the SEV SW4 sec. 35, T. 4 S., R. 25 E., one-half to threequarters of a mile west of Doctors Lake. Oyster shells are reported to have been found in prospect pits in the SW4 SW 4 sec. 35. The clay may be older than Pamlico. Collier County-Although all but the northern part of Collier County was under the sea during Pamlico time, the Pamlico sand is commonly only 1 foot thick except along the coast, where it may be thicker.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TERTIARY SYSTEM 109 MIOCENE SERIES GENERAL FEATURES Miocene time is divisible into three parts, each of which was ushered in by an expansion of the sea upon the land. The early Miocene is represented in Florida and Georgia by the Tampa limestone, which lies on the eroded surface of the late Oligocene Suwannee limestone and Flint River formation, and in North Carolina by the Trent marl, which lies on late Eocene or Upper Cretaceous formations. Early Miocene deposits have not certainly been identified elsewhere in the Atlantic States, though the Calvert formation of Maryland and Virginia and the Kirkwood formation of New Jersey are here tentatively referred to that part of the epoch. The Catahoula sandstone of the Gulf States west of Florida is supposed to be contemporaneous with the Tampa limestone. In middle Miocene time the sea spread out over all of the Floridian plateau, which had been partly above sea level during the preceding epoch, and covered a larger part of Georgia and extended into South Carolina. In this eastern region the Hawthorn formation was deposited. Farther west in Florida the Chipola formation was laid down and on it the Shoal River formation. The Choptank and St. Marys formations of Maryland are probably contemporaneous with these. The equivalent in Mississippi is probably the Hattiesburg clay. Then the sea withdrew presumably beyond the present shore line. In late Miocene time the sea again invaded the land south of New Jersey and deposited the Yorktown formation in Virginia and northern North Carolina and the Duplin marl as far south as Florida, part of which may have remained above sea level as an island. These realtionships are recapitulated in the correlation table. The essential contemporaneity of the upper fossiliferous bed at Alum Bluff (Duplin marl of this report) with the Yorktown formation of Virginia was early recognized (Dall in Dall and Harris, 1892, p. 124), for the faunas include many similar or identical species. But the relation of the Miocene beds older than the Duplin to the classic Miocene (Chesapeake group) of Maryland and Virginia has proved more difficult to



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168 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE here proposed for the Oak Grove sand member. For the original typical part of the Shoal River formation the name "Glycymeris waltonensis zone" is here proposed. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 114) applied the name Choctawhatchee marl" to Miocene deposits on Choctawhatchee River near Red Bay, Walton County, to the upper shell bed at Alum Bluff, and to supposed equivalent deposits elsewhere. Mansfield (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 140) recognized three sutcessive faunal zones in the original Choctawhatchee, and he designated the oldest, typical zone (that at Red Bay) as the Arca zone, from a common pelecypod Arca rubisiniana Mansfield (1932b, p. 48). Later, Mansfield and Ponton (1932c, p. 86) added a newly discovered fourth zone, the Yoldia zone (from Yoldia waltonensis Mansfield) to the bottom of the Choctawhatchee. According to Mansfield (1932b, pp. 10, 12) the Yoldia zone is probably conformably below the Arca zone and conformably above the typical Shoal River formation (Glycymeris waltonensis zone). The fauna of the Arca zone is said to be "closely related to that of the Shoal River formation, from which its species were mainly descended" (Mansfield, 1932b, p. 13). These two zones of the Choctawhatchee are here transferred to the Shoal River formation, of which they form the two highest known members. It seems inadvisable to retain the name "Choctawhatchee" for these zones, even though they include the typical part of that formation, because the bestknown and most highly fossiliferous parts of the Choctawhatchee are the Ecphora and Cancellaria zones, which are younger (late Miocene) and were deposited in a transgressing sea unconformably on the Chipola formation. The Ecphora and the Cancellaria zones are here classified as Duplin marl, with which they have long been correlated. To recapitulate, the Shoal River formation as now expanded includes four faunal zones, as follows, arranged in stratigraphic order: Arca rubisiniana zone (typical Choctawhatchee marl of Matson and Clapp) Yoldia waltonensis zone (basal Choctawhatchee formation of Mansfield) Glycymeris waltonensis zone (Shoal River formation of Gardner) Cardium taphrium zone (Oak Grove sand of Gardner)



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292 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE TALBOT FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name of the Talbot formation is taken from Talbot County, Maryland, where Shattuck (1901, pp. 7375; 1906, p. 74) found that its landward margin "where it abuts against higher land lies very constantly at an elevation of about 40 or 45 feet." The Talbot of Shattuck included all the Pleistocene deposits of Maryland younger than the Wicomico formation, as he defined it, but Cooke (1931, p. 510) restricted the Talbot by separating from it the Pamlico formation, which Stephenson (1912, p. 286) had named and recognized in North Carolina. As thus restricted, the Talbot is approximately equivalent to the Chowan formation of Stephenson (1912, p. 282), which Cooke (1931, p. 510) rejected as synonymous. Characters and thickness-Little is known about the detailed composition of the Talbot formation. Presumably it 3 consists chiefly of fine sand except in former estuaries, where clay or silt may prevail. It probably exceeds 20 feet in thickness only in northwestern Florida, where there was an abundant supply of sand. Distribution-The Talbot formation extends around Florida as a narrow fringe lying several miles inland, farther in the south. The terrace is well developed in Duval and St. Johns Counties, where it is separated from the higher terraces by a broad estuarine extension of the Pamlico terrace along St. Johns River. Stratigraphic relations-The Talbot is the youngest of three conformable formations, of which the other two are the Penholoway and the Wicomico. It was deposited in the sea after the water level had fallen from the Penholoway stand of 70 feet above the present sea level to a height of approximately only 42 feet. At the end of Talbot time sea level fell to a location below the present, and all the sea bottom within the limits of Florida became land. Most of the Talbot formation that is now uncovered has been land ever since the withdrawal of the sea during the early part of the Wisconsin glacial stage. The buried parts are separated from the overlying Pamlico sand by an hiatus.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 55 where hard blue-gray limestone was encountered. In a well at Bushnell, Sumter County, Mossom (1926, p. 229) supposed the Ocala to extend to a depth of at least 385 feet, but Applin and Applin (1944) refer only about 100 feet to the Ocala limestone, the remainder to the Avon Park limestone. A well north of Auburndale, Polk County, (Mossom, 1926, p. 239) entered Ocala limestone at 160 feet; brown limestone was first encountered in a sample representing the interval from 448 to 455 feet. Cole (1944, p. 24) assigns a minimum thickness of 690 feet to the Ocala in the City of Quincy water well, but the Applins make it only 260 feet, the remainder being Tallahassee limestone, and Cole (1944, p. 21) found 355 feet of Ocala in the deep well northwest of Hilliard; the Applins call it 360 feet. Distribution-The Ocala limestone, which underlies all of Florida, comes to the surface in two regions. In the peninsula it extends from Suwannee River at Ellaville, Madison County, southeastward to Lacoochee, Pasco County, and Winter Garden, Orange County, a length of 165 miles, and from the Gulf of Mexico between the mouth of Steinhatchee River and Chassahowitzka Bay eastward to the eastern part of Marion County, a width of about 60 miles. The limestone is exposed in many quarries within this tract, though it is commonly covered by Pleistocene sand or by outliers of the Suwannee limestone, the Hawthorn formation, or the Alachua formation. In northwestern Florida the Ocala lies near the surface in an area extending from Chattahoochee River to the northeast corner of Walton County, a length of 60 miles, and from Marianna and Caryville to the Alabama line, a width of 16 miles. In part of this area it is covered by the Flint River formation. This western tract forms part of a much larger region that includes much of the Flint River basin in Georgia and the Chattahoochee basin and the valley of Pea River in Alabama. An exposure of white limestone in a sink at Duncan Church, Washington County, which was mapped as Ocala by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 61, pl. 2), because of a mistaken identification of orbitoid foraminifers, proves to be Suwannee limestone. The regions in which the Ocala limestone lies near the surface are generally of low relief except where the limestone is



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124 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Mansfield (1937b, p. 32) lists the following mollusks from the equivalent of beds 9-12: Turritella pagodaeformis Heilprin? Chlamys crocus (Cooke) burnetti Tucker? Lithophaga bisulcata d'Orbigny antillarum (d'Orbigny) Venericardia sp. Anomalocardia penita (Conrad) A similar section of the Tampa limestone is exposed at Aspalaga Bluff on Apalachicola River 7 miles south of the State line. More of the upper part of the bluff is covered than at Chattahoochee, but the exposures seem to be very similar. Sections are published by Maury (1902), who uses a graphic section by Harris, by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 81, furnished by T. W. Vaughan), and by Sellards and Gunter (1909, pp. 271-272). Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 95) and Mansfield (1937b, p. 35) repeat Sellards and Gunter's section, but Mansfield without explanation interpolates an unconformity between the part that he interprets as Tampa limestone and a covered interval that he assigns to the Hawthorn formation. Mansfield (1937b, p. 35) lists the following species of mollusks from the Tampa limestone at Aspalaga Bluff: Conomitra angulata (Heilprin) Solenosteira quinquespina (Dall) Rapana sp. Cerithium cf. C. praecursor Heilprin Turritella tampae Heilprin Potamides aspalagensis Mansfield Ampidlina amphora (Heilprin) Turbo sp. Chlamys sp. b. Modiolus cinnamomeus (Lamark) Lithophaga antillarwm (d'Orbigny) Phacoides silicatus Mansfield wacissanus Dall Cyrena floridana (Dall) Anomalocardia penita (Conrad) There are many other exposures of the Tampa limestone in the vicinity of Chattahoochee and River Junction. Several are described by Sellards and Gunter (1909, pp. 269-270). Many fragments of bones, probably sirenian ribs, an echinoid, presumably Lovenia clarki (Lambert), and casts of mol-



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122 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE a sink at the northeast corner of the county. Elsewhere it is covered by the Hawthorn and younger deposits. The Tampa in this region and in the counties west of the river was formerly known as the Chattahoochee formation, after the town of Chattahoochee, where it is well exposed. The thickest and most complete exposure of the Tampa limestone is at old Chattahoochee Landing, Apalachicola River, at the Victory Bridge. Sections there have been published by Maury (1902), Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 79), Sellards and Gunter (1909, p. 267), Mossom (1925, p. 84), Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 94), and Mansfield (1937b, p. 31). Mansfield inserts an unconformity between the Tampa and the Hawthorn, but the evidence for it is not stated. The following section, which is based on measurements made in 1913, is essentially that used by Cooke and Mossom. SECTION AT CHATTAHOOCHEE FEET Brandywine(?) formation (Pleistocene?): 19. Brick-red pebbly argillaceous sand containing limonitic concretions --------------10-15 18. Fine to coarse white pebbly sand, cross-bedded at base ---8 Unconformity Hawthorn formation (Miocene): 17. Fine light blue-gray sandy clay and clayey sand, weathering mottled purple --------------5 16. Concealed, about -------------25 15. Sand in mottled white or gray and red clay ------6 14.Concealed ---------------3 13. Stiff light-green very sandy clay. Most of the sand grains are fine and round, but a few are as much as one-eighth inch in diameter ----------------3 2 Tampa limestone (Miocene): 12. Granular chalky white limestone or clay. Adheres to tongue 1 /4 11. Concealed ---------------5 10. Mottled red and white sandy clay like bed 15 -----5 9. Very calcareous white marl or chalk. A few fragments of pelecypods near top ------------5 2 8. White or gray calcareous clay mottled with red on weathered outcrops. Resembles beds 10 and 15 --------6 7. Concealed ---------------5



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 193 ata Conrad, Pecten 'gibbus Linnaeus, P. jeffersonius Say, P. eboreus Say, and Venus tridacnoides Lamarck. Washington County-Exposures of the Duplin marl appear to be confined to the southeastern part of Washington County and to the vicinity of Choctawhatchee River. At Gully Pond, 3 miles east-southeast of Greenhead in the FIGURE 26.-Rock Spring, Orange County, 6 miles north of Apopka. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 15.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHATCHEE FORMATION 223 A drainage ditch half a mile west of U. S. Highway 541 about 1 /4 miles north of Ruskin cuts through about 2 feet of loose drab Pamlico sand into sandy shell marl whose top is near water level. Collections made in 1940 from the shell marl have not been critically studied, but they apparently include several extinct species and are probably Pliocene. Shells were found also at the bottom of a ditch_about 11/4 miles south of Ruskin, probably in sec. 18, T. 32'S., R. 19 E. A ditch along Columbus Drive 1.1 miles east of the intersection with State Highway 17 (S'2 sec. 8, T. 29 S., R. 18 E.), west of Tampa, penetrated shells 3 feet below the surface. Chione cancellata and other mollusks occur in a ditch crossing an east-west road one mile north of Quarantine Station and 1.9 miles west of the road leading to it. Manatee County-The Pamlico terrace bordering Tampa Bay is underlain by a shell bed that is suspected to be Pliocene, though no distinctive species have been recognized. The spoil bank along a ditch on U.S. Highway 41, 2 miles south of Bradenton, is strewn with fossil shells. Species of Crepidula, Strombus, and Cardium are common. Arca and Oliva are less abundant. Chione cancellata, Venus sp., and other mollusks were dredged from a ditch on the road to Bradenton Beach 4.6 miles west of Highway 41 and about 3 miles from the beach. Martin County-The St. Lucie Canal cuts through the Pleistocene Anastasia formation into the Caloosahatchee marl from the entrance at Port Mayaca on Lake Okeechobee to a point about 3 miles below the Seaboard Railway bridge at Indianstown. Throughout this distance Pliocene shell marl, some of it hard rock, has been thrown up by the dredge. At the eastern end of this part of the canal the rock is hard and irregularly weathered as if by exposure to the air. There are no exposures of the Caloosahatchee along this canal, for the Anastasia extends below water level. Orange County-Although there are no known outcrops of fossiliferous Caloosahatchee marl in Orange County, well records indicate that much of the county is underlain by it. A few shells are reported at a depth of 30 feet in drainage well number 2, 1 / miles southwest of Pinecastle; at 50 feet



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CALOOSAHAtCHEE FORMATION 217 1 S2j FIGURE 27.-Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl. 1, Arca wagneriana Dall; 2, Strombus leidyi Heilprin; 3, Cypraea problematica Heilprin; 4, Fasciolaria apicina Dall. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 18.



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220 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE --_ i FIGURE 30.-Fossils from the .Caloosahatchee marl. 1, Area scalarina Heilprin; 2, Cardium emmonsi Dall; 3, Potamides (Pyrazisinus) scalatus Heilprin; 4, Turritella perattenuata Heilprin. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 21.



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134 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Chlamys crocus (Cooke) burnetti Tucker sp. a. Modiolus blandus Dall? cinnamomeus (Lamarck) Celliforma nuda (Dall) Crassatella deformis (Heilprin) var.? Venericardia serricosta (Heilprin) Cyrena pompholyx Dall Phacoides wacissanus Dall hillsboroensis (Heilprin) ? Cardium gadsdenense Mansfield parile Dall phlyctaena Dall hernandoense Mansfield Chione cf. C. spenceri Cooke Antigona glyptoconcha (Dall) Tellina silicata Mansfield merula Dall Semele sardonica Dall? Panope aff. P. goldfussii (Wagner) Pholadomya sp. Gastrochaena aft. G. cuneiformis Spengler Washington County-According to Vernon (1942, p. 70) there are only six exposures of the Tampa limestone in Washington County, but the formation has been penetrated in several wells. All but the northern part of the county is underlain by it, and there are several outliers in the northeastern part, most of which, however, has been eroded down to the Suwannee limestone. Falling Water, a picturesque sink 4 miles south of Chipley in the NW/4 sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., cuts through an outlier of the Tampa into the underlying Suwannee limestone. A small stream rising in sands above the Tampa plunges over a vertical wall 68 feet high into a cylindrical pit about 20 feet in diameter, and flows out through a small cavern at the bottom. The following section, which was measured in 1914, has been somewhat modified by later observations. SECTION AT FALLING WATER FEET Citronelle formation (Pliocene): 4. Yellow and red sand with coarse pebbles at the bottom, partly mantled by loose sand, to top of hill --------50 Unconformity



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 273 BRANDYWINE FORMATION GENERAI, FEATURES Name-The Brandywine formation was named by Clark (1915) from a village in Prince Georges County, Maryland. It was restricted and redefined by Cooke (1931, pp. 505-506) to include only those gravels, sands, and loams that were laid down in the Brandywine sea and in the contemporaneous estuaries and rivers. As the shore of the sea and estuaries during Brandywine time appears to stand about 270 feet above the present sea level, that altitude may be assumed to represent the upper limit of the Brandywine formation. Characters and thickness-The Brandywine formation in Florida is believed to be predominantly sandy. Little is known about its variations. The formation is probably thickest in western Florida, where it lies close to an abundant source of sand. There it may be 50 feet or more thick. Far away from the shore line it is doubtless thinner and locally may be wanting. Distribution-Scattered remnants of the Brandywine formation probably cap the hills and flat-topped uplands along a band 6 or 8 miles wide extending eastward from Perdido River to Gadsden County. There may also be patches of it surrounding the highest parts of the Lake Region as far south as Polk County, where there appears to have been an island in the Brandywine sea. Lack of topographic maps in this region makes the recognition of the Brandywine formation difficult and uncertain. Stratigraphic relations-As the Brandywine formation consists of the deposits of an advancing sea, it lies unconformably on whatever happened to be in its path. The Citronelle formation underlies it in western Florida and Alabama, the Hawthorn in eastern Florida and Georgia. At most places it lies at the surface with nothing above it but the soil. Younger Pleistocene formations may overlie it elsewhere. The Brandywine is probably contemporaneous with the basal member of the Fort Thompson formation, which, however, represents a very different, shelly facies. Paleogeography-The shore line of the Brandywine sea (fig. 43) apparently passed through Escambia and the west-



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210 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Several other sections that vary greatly in details are recorded by Matson (1915). These were reprinted by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 167-172). They are unsatisfactory in that they do not give the line of division between the Bone Valley formation and the Pleistocene. Much of the "overburden" above the "phosphate" is likewise strongly phosphatic. Sarasota County-G. R. Mansfield's (1942, pl. 5) map of the phosphate deposits of Florida shows that the northeastern parts of Sarasota County are underlain by beds containing more than 55 percent of bone phosphate of lime. This may indicate that the Bone Valley formation extends into that area. BUCKINGHAM MARL GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Buckingham limestone" was proposed by Mansfield (1939a, p. 11) for beds exposed on and near Caloosahatchee River in the northeastern part of Lee County. The place name is taken from a settlement on the road from Fort Myers to La Belle (State Highway 25) about 4 miles south-southwest of Olga. The beds were tentatively referred to the Miocene by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 122), who described them under the name "Choctawhatchee marl," and the same classification was tentatively followed by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 147). Mansfield referred them to the upper Miocene. The formation was referred to the Pliocene by Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 60), who changed the name from "limestone" to "marl" because the unweathered material is calcareous clay, which changes into limestone only when case-hardened by weathering. Characters-Fresh exposures of the Buckingham marl consist of cream-colored impermeable calcareous clay containing small grains of a brown phosphatic mineral, which increase in abundance toward the lower part of the formation. The Buckingham is fairly uniform throughout its known extent, but where it has long been exposed to weathering the marl hardens into firm limestone. Thickness-Well records show that the Buckingham marl near Buckingham is 40 or 45 feet thick.



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218 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 2 Ss a 'i ,**:-II: ...:;.:ffi ag, ...I: ia ,-l::^ ... .. FIGURE 28.-Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl. 1, Anadara rustica (Tuomey and Holmes); 2, Fusinus caloosaensis (Heilprin); 3, Scaphella floridana Heilprin; 4, Vassum horridum Heilprin. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pl. 19.



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308 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE probably restricted to the shoresof the barrier islands of that time, where it covers the Anastasia formation. Pasco County-The Pamlico terrace extends inland several miles from the Gulf coast to Pasco County, but the Pamlico sand is very thin. Pinellas County-North of Indian Rocks the fringe of Pamlico terrace along the Gulf coast is very narrow or wanting, except near Tarpon Springs, where it is several miles wide. However, a Pamlico bay extended past Tampa Shores to the northern boundary of Pinellas County and from Largo to St. Petersburg. In all this region the Pamlico sand probably rarely exceeds 5 feet in thickness. An island that extended from Seminole nearly to Tarpon Springs and which now forms the backbone of the Pinellas peninsula was the home of a great variety of animals, many of which were represented also at Vero Beach and Melbourne. From five localities centering near Seminole, Simpson (1929, pp. 562-564) lists the following species of mammals: MAMMALS FROM SEMINOLE FIELD Marsupialia: Didelphis virginiana Insectivora: Scalopus sp. Rodentia: Sylvilagus floridanus palustris Geomys floridanus Sigmodon hispidus Oryzomys palustris Neofiber alleni Synaptomys australis Sciurus cf. S. carolinensis Erethizon cf. E. dorsatus Hydrochoerus (Neochoerus?) cf. H. pinckneyi Carnivora: Canis (Aenocyon) ayersi (Thos) cf. C. riviveronis Urocyon seminolensis Mephitis elongata Spilogale ambarvalis Mustela peninsulae Procyon lotor



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 297 of the 20and 30-foot contour lines passing near St. James Church. Walton County-The shore line of the Talbot terrace lies one-fourth to half a mile south of the Panama City road (State Highway 10) east of Freeport (Point Washington quadrangle). The terrace extends southward in the eastern part of the quadrangle to the swamp bordering Choctawhatchee River. It also occupies that part of the peninsula south of the Choctawhatchee lying south of the line between townships 2 and 3 south. PAMLICO SAND GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Pamlico," from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, was applied by Stephenson (1912, pp. 286-290) to deposits of fine sandy loam, sand, clay, and gravel of late Pleistocene age whose upper surface nowhere exceeds 25 feet above sea level. It is approximately equivalent to Veatch and Stephenson's Satilla formation of Georgia (1911, p. 434) and to the younger part of Matson's (1913, p. 34) Pensacola terrace of Florida, which included also the Talbot. Characters-The Pamlico in most parts of Florida is composed almost entirely of sand, though it may also include some local bodies of clay. The sand consists chiefly of quartz grains. Local lenses of black sand derived from ferromagnesian minerals may also form part of the Pamlico sand. Thickness-South of latitude 27 the Pamlico sand is only a foot or two thick. It is doubtless thicker farther north, closer to its source, but it probably does not much exceed 20 feet in thickness except west of longitude 840. A more plentiful supply of sand was brought down by the large rivers of northwestern Florida. Distribution-The Pamlico terrace, which forms the surface of the Pamlico sand but includes also large areas not reached by the sand in its migration along the coast, fringes the present shore nearly everywhere and extends up innumerable former estuaries of many shapes and sizes. Its greatest width is in southern Florida, where it includes most of the region south of Lake Okeechobee, but a good deal of that



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156 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SECTION AT JACKSON BLUFF FEET Terrace deposit (Pleistocene): 6. Rather coarse sand, at places dark, with small pebbles at the base 15.1 Unconformity. To top of terrace 25 feet. Duplin marl (upper Miocene): 5. Shell marl, maximum thickness ---------16.5 Unconformity Hawthorn formation (middle Miocene): 4. Heavy buff-colored clay resembling fuller's earth ----1.4, 3. Coarse-grained sandstone -----------2.0 2. Heavy buff-colored clay resembling fuller's earth ----3.6 1. Calcareous, slightly phosphatic very fine sand containing a few fossils; blue sand at the bridge merging into white sandy limestone 100 yards up stream ----------22.1 The bed of the river for 14 feet below the surface of the water, as shown by test borings for the dam, consists of blue shell marl. Bed 1 at the upper end of the bluff is yellowish or cream-colored. It is sufficiently firm to stand in a vertical wall but friable enough to be crushed between the fingers, It contains pockets of white kaolinlike clay. The river level at Jackson Bluff is about 32 feet above sea level. The bed of Freeman Creek at an old mill about 4 miles east of Jackson Bluff is composed of blue fine sand or sandy clay containing casts of mollusks. The material is similar in general appearance to the deposits beneath the bridge at Jackson Bluff and doubtless represents nearly the same horizon, although it stands a few feet higher. Liberty County-Ninety feet of strata referred to the Hawthorn formation are included in the following section at Rock Bluff, which is near the southwest corner of sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 7 W., on the east bank of the ApalachicolalI miles from the State line. This section is adapted rom a report by Sellards and Gunter (1909, p. 273). SECTION AT ROCK BLUFF, APALACHICOLA RIVER FEET Hawthorn formation (middle Miocene) : 10. Fuller's earth; exposed -------------3 9. Ledge with shells----1 8. Gray sand -----. ----



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288 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE .. .. ... ....--------------------------------I ---.-D i 0 M 0oto PE N *ot FIGURE 45.-Shore line of the Penholoway sea in the Southeastern States. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 14.



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62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE species, and ribbed scallops such as Pecten suwanneensis Dall and a variable lot commonly identified as P. "perplanus" Morton are not rare. (The true P. perplanus Morton is a synonym of P. poulsoni Morton.) Ostrea podagrina Dall has been found at several places. The most significant vertebrate known from the Ocala limestone is the great marine mammal Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen), fragments of one individual of which were found near Ocala in 1913 (Cooke, 1915, p. 113; Kellogg, 1936, p. 19). This species is much more common in Alabama and Mississippi than in Florida, for it seems to have usually stayed near shore and seldom swam far out to sea. Its presence so far from land may be an indication that the water on the Floridian Plateau was shallow and yielded the creature's customary food, or perhaps the carcass floated out to sea. Utilization-The Ocala limestone has been extensively quarried at many places. Because of its uniform texture it is easier to excavate and crush than the Suwannee limestone, which tends to be lumpy. Its freedom from grit and its chemical purity make it suitable for any use demanding those qualities, such as the manufacture of cement, and it is much used for the making of lime. The Ocala is the best road-building rock available in quantity in the State. It is somewhat softer than the ideal rock for that purpose, but it binds well and makes a fairly durable road when surfaced with a suitable material. Some of the harder parts of the limestone are used for railroad ballast, and there is a very slight local demand for it as a building stone. The quantity available is limited only by the depth to the water table, which is greatest in the uplands because of the permeability of the rock. LOCAL DETAILS .Alachua County-Most of the exposures of the Ocala limestone in Alachua County are in the southwestern half. The limestone is covered by the Hawthorn formation in the northeastern part and by residual sand and clay referred to the Alachua formation in the southwest corner. There are exposures along Santa Fe River near High Springs, in sink holes and road cuts near Alachua and Gainesville, and in many phosphate pits in the vicinity of Newberry and Archer. The



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226 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE of 85 to 95 feet. Most of the species occur also in the typical Caloosahatchee marl. According to memoranda supplied by Mr. Stubbs in 1940, a well in sec. 19, T. 19, S., R. 30 E., penetrated the Caloosahatchee between 90 and 140 feet; a well in the SW 4 SWVY sec. 30, T. 19 S., R. 31 E., between 60 and 100 feet; one in the NEI sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 30 E., between 46 and 85 feet; and in the SE4 sec. 11,.T. 20 S., R. 30 E., between 70 and 85 feet. In these five wells the Caloosahatchee lay directly on the Ocala limestone. However, in the NW sec. 10, T. 21 S., R. 31 E., the Caloosahatchee lay on the Hawthorn formation at a depth of 64 feet. Volusia County-The Caloosahatchee marl probably underlies the entire county, though exposures are confined to the southwestern part. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 132) found a bed of light-green clayey marl containing many well-preserved shells, including Cardium oedalium, on the east side of St. Johns River about 5 miles north of the Atlantic Coast Line bridge, and another thin bed about 2 miles farther north. In 1927 the city marl pit one mile south of De Land showed the following section. When revisited in 1940 the pit was being used as a dump and no clean exposures were seen. SECTION IN THE CITY MARL PIT 1 MILE SOUTH OF DE LAND FEET Wicomico? formation (Pleistocene): 4. Fine white sand to top of excavation --------6 3. Gray sandy loam-------------5 2. Tough dark-gray brittle clay containing oyster shells and a few nodules of hard white claystone ----------3 Unconformity Caloosahatchee marl (Pliocene): 1. Creamy yellow sandy shell marl, somewhat hardened on longexposed surfaces on the floor of the pit -------8/2 Collections made by E. H. Sellards in 1908 from this pit yielded 58 significant species (Mansfield, 1918, p. 120), of which about 70 percent are found also in both the typical Caloosahatchee marl and in the Waccamaw formation of the Carolinas. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 149) doubtfully referred to



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLIOCENE SYSTEM 229 Utilization-So far as is known, no use has been found for the clay of the Charlton. / LOCAL DETAILS Nassau County-Exposures of the Charlton formation extend along St. Marys River from Stokes Ferry, 11 miles south of St. George, Charlton County, Ga., to Kings Ferry, near Orange Bluff. Veatch and Stephenson (1911, pp. 393-400) describe 12 sections within this interval, and their descriptions have been quoted in full by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 192-198). The following abstract is taken from Cooke (1944, p. 102). At Stokes Ferry, which is on the road from St. George, Ga., to Macclenny, Fla., there is 4 or 5 feet of greenish or drab stiff, tenaceous clay containing calcareous concretions, phosphatic particles, and ostracods, underlain by 1 foot of fossiliferous limestone. At Hicks Bluff, which is probably 5 miles south of the bridge at St. George, Veatch and Stephenson found 4 feet of greenish sticky sandy clay underlain by 4 feet of soft argillaceous limestone containing Pecten gibbus, Phacoides multilineatus, and Laevicardium sp. At Red Bluff, probably 1 /2 miles below the bridge at St. George, 7 feet of drab sandy clay is underlain by 1 '4 feet of sandy limestone containing Leda acuta, Barbatia marylandica, Arca umbonata, and species of Pecten, Lithophaga, and Phacoides. A similar section is recorded from Schoolhouse Bluff, about 5 miles below St. George, but the limestone there contains Rangia cuneata, small gastropods, and ostracods. An alternation of thin beds of limestone and calcareous clay totaling 15 feet in thickness was noted at Rand Landing, a mile farther downstream. Other sections recorded by Veatch and Stephenson are at Clay Landing, 1 /z miles northeast of Toledo, and at Nettles Landing, which is probably at the north end of the same bluff. The next exposure downstream is half a mile below Cow Ford and 9 miles south of Folkston, where a total of 4 feet of limestone and clay crops out. At Sawpit Landing, 2 miles by river above the ferry at Traders Hill, a soft chalky limestone alternates with white calcareous clay containing Leda acuta?, Pecten gibbus, Anomia simplex, and other fossils. Clayand limestone alternate to a thickness of 15 feet at the railroad bridge south of Folkston, where Veatch and Stephenson obtained Pecten gibbus, Anomia simplex, and Rangia cuneata. White and greenish chalky clay rises 6 / feet above water at Chalk Bluff, 3 miles west of Kings Ferry, Fla., and there is 4/2 feet of clayey limestone at Orange Bluff, 2 miles above Kings Ferry. At the latter place Veatch and Stephenson obtained Leda acuta, Pecten gibbus, Phacoides multilineatus, Chione cancellata, and Mulinia lateralis. CITRONELLE FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Citronelle formation was named by Matson



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232 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE bearing sands in Lake and Putnam Counties are extensively mined. The sand, which was once discarded, is now used as a concrete aggregate. LOCAL DETAILS Bay County-All parts of Bay County are probably underlain by the Citronelle formation or its offshore equivalent, but most of the county is covered by Pleistocene terrace deposits. Bradford County-A small area in the southeastern part of Bradford County is probably underlain by the Citronelle formation. Calhoun County-The Citronelle formation probably crops out in the northern part of Calhoun County, but the Pleistocene terrace deposits have not been satisfactorily discriminated from it. Clay County-The sand hills in the southwestern part of Clay County beginning at the southern end of Trail Ridge and extending into Putnam County probably are underlain by the Citronelle formation, though much of the sand at the surface presumably is Pleistocene. Road-metal pits near Keystone Heights (Brooklyn) show 1 to 3 feet of light-buff loose sand overlying 4 to 8 feet of coarse red and yellow sandy clay. On the road to McRae, a few hundred yards east of Lake Geneva Station, there is 7 feet of deep-red coarse sand covered with 5 feet of light-buff sand. Escambia County-A layer of Pleistocene sand and gravel covers much of Escambia County, but the underlying Citronelle formation is exposed in bluffs along the rivers and bays as far south as Pensacola. A bluff on Escambia Bay between Gull Point and the bridge of the Louisville & Nashville Railway shows the following section: SECTION ON WEST SIDE OF ESCAMBIA BAY ABOUT 1 MILE BELOW THE L. & N. RAILWAY BRIDGE FEET Sunderland? formation (Pleistocene): 3. White to red sand containing pebbly zones with coarse pebbles at the base. To top of bluff -----------35 Unconformity



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-ALUM BLUFF GROUP 139 Tampa limestone wherever the Tampa is present. Where it is absent, the Ocala limestone or the Suwannee limestone, forms the bed rock. This unconformable relationship seems to have been brought about by an advance of the Alum Bluff sea beyond the shore line of the Tampa sea, which did not cover all of the peninsula. This inundation may have been caused by a slight rise of sea level rather than by local deformation, for the region flooded was underlain by limestone and presumably had little relief. The Hawthorn and Chipola formations and presumably also the Shoal River formation are overlain unconformably by the Duplin marl or by Pliocene or Pleistocene deposits. The shifting of the shore line indicated by this disconformity was apparently caused by local crustal warping, for the shore line advanced in some areas and retreated elsewhere. (Fig. 14.) Fauna-The Mollusca constitute the dominant element in the fauna of the Alum Bluff group, having more than 850 species (Gardner, 1926-44, 1936). According to Gardner (1926, p. 2): The Chipola fauna is a subtropical assemblage, typical of a region decidedly warmer than that inhabited by either of the other two, faunas; it is relatively richer in species and not so rich in individuals. Of the 439 species which have been recognized from this formation three out of four are peculiar to it. Among the outstanding features may be mentioned the predominance of the gastropods, particularly of the turritids, the abundance of the bizarre and consequently short-lived and diagnostic Orthaulax gabbi, the diversity of the Areas and Cardiums, and the absence of any conspicuously dominant species of these genera, as in the Oak Grove and the Shoal River.... In the fauna of the grayish-green Oak Grove sand there is a foreshadowing of the radical fall in temperature at the close of the Alum Bluff epoch which permitted the Mollusca of the Maryland province to penetrate the Floridian waters and to continue to exist for a short time in this new environment. The number of species in the Oak Grove is less than half the number recognized in the Chipola, but the number of individuals is much greater. The large fulguroids apparently were quite common and also a Pecten (Chlamys) closely allied to P. (Chlamys) madisonius Conrad, of the Maryland Miocene. The conspicuously abundant and ubiquitous species, however, include a new Strombus, Turritella alcida Dall, Glycymeris drymanos Gardner [fig. 18, no. 4], Diluvarca dodona (Dall), Cardium taphrium Dall [fig. 19, no. 1], Parvilucina piluliformis Dall, Chione glyptocyma Dall [fig. 18, no. 2], and Spisula densa Dall. Any one of these species might well be selected as characteristic of the Oak Grove fauna.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BRANDYWINE FORMATION 275 "-----------------------------------' ----Si0 / /' S "" ":. ." / -------10 SNER 'S 0 0 FIGURE 43.-Early Pleistocene shore lines in the Southeastern States, much generalized and in part conjectural. After COOKE, 1939c, fig. 12.







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PREFACE This book bears the same title as one written in collaboration with Stuart Mossom and published in 1929 as part of the Twentieth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey. It contains many paraphrases and verbatim excerpts from that report without quotation marks or other indications of origin. References to the original report are chiefly such as are deemed to be of historical interest. Grateful acknowledgment is made again of the important contributions made by Mr. Mossom to the original "Geology of Florida," and of the pleasant association with him. The years since 1929 have been fruitful in the field of Floridian geology. The subsurface formations have been explored by many deep borings, made chiefly in the search for petroleum, which have revealed the presence of Paleozoic sediments, Triassic diabase, and Lower Cretaceous limestones. The faunal studies of T. Wayland Vaughan and W. Storrs Cole on the Foraminifera, W. C. Mansfield and Julia Gardner on the Mollusca, and C. Wythe Cooke on the Echinoidea have made better known. the relationships of the outcropping formations, have resulted in the recognition of several new stratigraphic units, and have satisfactorily explained several perplexing stratigraphic problems. During these same years has come a better understanding of the isostatic oscillations of sea level, which have an important bearing on the geologic history of Florida. Thanks are due to Dr. Herman 'Gunter, Director of the Florida Geological Survey, for unfailing courtesies extended through many years; to Drs. L. W. Stephenson and John B. Reeside, Jr., for helpful criticisms; to Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Applin for use of a copy of their manuscript on the subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida; and to Miss M. Frances Willoughby, Secretary of the Committee on Geologic Names of the United States Geological Survey, for checking the manuscript for inconsistencies. C. WYTHE COOKE Washington, July 5, 1945



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216 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE varied. Dall (1903, p. 1604), who studied the mollusks in connection with his great work on the Tertiary fauna of Florida, recognized 639 species of mollusks, of which half are not yet extinct. Some of the most conspicuous and easily recognized species are shown in figures 27-30. The fossils are most easily collected on the spoil banks of drainage canals, of which there are many in Hendry and Glades Counties. A notable collecting ground is along the Caloosahatchee canal west of Ortona Lock. Mollusks are by far the dominant element of the fauna. There are, besides, a few species of corals and echinoids. Utilization-Shells from the Caloosahatchee formation are used for surfacing roads. LOCAL DETAILS Charlotte County-The Caloosahatchee marl probably underlies all but the southern part of Charlotte County, though exposures are few. The shell marl is cut into by Alligator Creek and by Shell Creek, a tributary of Charlotte Harbor. Dall (1892, p. 147) describes the occurrence on Alligator Creek as follows: Near the north end of Charlotte Harbor a small creek comes in from the east, called Alligator Creek. Here Mr. Willcox found an extension of the Caloosahatchie beds. The banks are about 12 feet high, the upper half being pure sand; the lower half contains fossils of Pliocene age, mollusks, barnacles, and flat Echinidae. They differ from the Caloosahatchie deposits in being pure sand instead of marl as a matrix. The upper half of the fossiliferous stratum shows the shallow-water fauna with its usual partial admixture of strictly Pliocene extinct species. Some parts of the bed are united by silicious cementation into a hard rock. De Soto County-The Caloosahatchee marl underlies the southern part of De Soto County and probably merges northward into the Bone Valley formation. A pit in sec. 25, T. 39 S., R. 25 E., near the head of Prairie Creek, exposed 5 feet of white sandy shell marl overlain by 3 feet of unfossiliferous white sand. This is overlain unconformably by 3 feet of Pleistocene and Recent sand. The marl from this pit was used as road metal. It contains such characteristic Caloosahatchee species as Strombus leidyi (fig. 27, no. 2), Arca wagneriana (fig. 27, no. 1), and Anadara rustica (fig. 28, no. 1). A view of the pit is shown in figure 31.



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80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 110) and by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 60) and on additional notes made in 1939. SECTION ON CHIPOLA RIVER AT MARIANNA FEET 3. Byram limestone (Oligocene): finely granular crystalline limestone like that exposed along Chipola River south of Marianna. Pecten aff. P. poulsoni and impressions resembling Lepidocyclina supera. Exposed in the cut on Highway 90. About -----3 2. Marianna limestone (Oligocene): Massive, homogeneous white chalky limestone containing Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pecten poulsoni. Lower part is glauconitic. About -------30 Unconformity. 1. Ocala limestone (Eocene): Soft granular white limestone with hard ledges in upper part. Composed chiefly of calcareous organisms locally cemented, including Flabellum sp., Terebratulina lachryma?, Amusium ocalanum, Plicatula sp., and the larger Foraminifera listed on page 67. Lepidocyclina fragilis at the top. To water level, About --------------14 The Marianna limestone is quarried on the west bank of Chipola River at the Louisville & Nashville Railroad bridge below Marianna. Thirty-one feet of soft white chimney rock is exposed there. Chimney rock is quarried at several pits east of the river near Marianna. According to Mossom (1925, p. 147) 20 feet of soft white chalky limestone containing 97.6 percent of calcium carbonate is exposed in M. R. Burton's pit 2 /2 miles northeast of Marianna, and 15 feet of somewhat less pure limestone in Philip Sexton's pit 1 /4 miles northeast of Marianna. On Penn Street in Marianna 35 feet of chimney rock is exposed in the SEV4 sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., above the Ocala limestone. The Marianna crops out at several places along the Springfield road in sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., and its contact with the Ocala limestone was found in the SW /4 sec. 20. On the land of M. A. Spate a mile and a half north of Cottondale, the soft chalky Marianna limestone is covered by a foot or less of soil. Eight feet of the limestone, which contains 93.9 percent of calcium carbonate (Mossom, 1925, p.



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204 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Characters-As natural exposures of the Bone Valley formation are rare and of slight extent, either vertically or laterally, descriptions of it are based almost entirely on what can be seen or inferred in phosphate mines. These, naturally, are confined to places where the concentration of phosphatic lumps is greater than usual. The basal part of the formation is a conglomerate containing pebbles of phosphate, many of which are derived from the underlying bedrock, a phosphatic limestone of the Hawthorn formation. The pebbles are embedded in sand or soft, plastic clay, which hardens on exposure. According to Sellards (1915, p. 42) The phosphate beds are more or less definitely stratified, the bedding planes being frequently continuous for the full length of the exposures in the pit, some of which are half a mile or more in extent. Elsewhere the stratification is irregular and cross bedding is evident. According to Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 138), Lithologically, the formation is composed of very poorly assorted materials, such as clay and phosphate pebbles, which usually show some evidence of stratification. The upper part of the formation is much finer and, though it is generally phosphatic, the phosphatic particles are less conspicuous. Matson (1915, p. 21) describes the Bone Valley as gray, brown, or mottled sand and phosphate conglomerate, in a sand matrix. The brown sands are locally cemented into a hard ferruginous sandstone, and slight induration is common. In places a phosphatic marl containing many sand grains lies just above the conglomerate, and though it is not possible to be sure whether this material belongs with the Bone Valley gravel or is part of an overlying formation its relation to the conglomerate is apparently conformable. The conglomerate is made up of pebbles and granules of phosphate embedded in clay or sand. In the same report Matson (1915, p. 36) says: The Bone Valley gravel consists of rounded pebbles of phosphate embedded in a matrix of sand or clay overlain by varying thicknesses of loose or semi-indurated sand. The maximum thickness of this formation is probably more than 50 feet, but only about one-third of this thickness should be assigned to the phosphate. The phosphate-bearing portion of the Bone Valley formation is a gravel containing rounded and subangular pebbles of phosphate in varying degrees of coarseness iintermingled with more or less sand and clay. In general the deposit shows distinct stratification, some beds being wonderfully persistent over a distance of several hundred yards though others



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336 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Plantation Key -----265 Red Head Still ---166, 195 Plant City ------159 Red Level ------64 Pleasant Ridge Church ---176 Rice Creek Swamp -296, 310 Pleistocene age, deposits of --248 Richards Bend -----121 Pleistocene series ----245 Richland------159 Pliocene age, middle, deposits of 199 Ripley formation ----31 Pliocene series -----197 River Junction ---124, 125 Pliocene shore line, map of --112 Robinson's mill -----192 Point Washington quadrangle 291 Rock Bluff ---115, 129, 156 297 Rock Creek ------188 Polk County, formations in -32 Rock Hill ---102, 165, 237 35, 42, 48, 53, 98, 132, 159 Rockledge ------267 209, 236, 278, 281 Rock Springs --181, 192, 193 Polk Creek ------188 Rocky Landing -----195 Ponton, G.M.95, 115, 125, 143 Romeo -------203 152, 162, 168 Rosebud beds -----119 Ponto Spring ----125, 152 Ruskin -------223 Porters Creek formation --35 Port Everglades Oil & Gas Co. S well ----41, 47 Port Mayaca ------223 St. Andrews ------301 Port.St. Joe ------169 St. Andrews Bay ----301 Prairie Bluff chalk ----31 St. Augustine ---42, 48, 272 Prairie Creek ----216, 221 St. James Church ----297 Prairie Pebble Phosphate Co. -209 St. Johns County, formations Pre-Cambriancore--14, 21 in -42, 48, 272, 296, 310 Preston Sink-----183 St. Johns River ---301, 310 Putnam County, formations in 225 St. Lucie Canal ---223, 269 236, 285, 291, 296, 310 St. LucieCounty, formations in 272 St. Marys formation -109, 110 Q 111 St. Marys quadrangle -285, 307 Quincy -------151 St. Marys River -----148 well at -50, 55, 137, 145, 152 St. Marys River Oil Corporation well -26, 28, 30, 32 R 35, 42, 44, 48, 52 St. Petersburg 181, 192, 224, 308 Rabbs Valley -----81 Salem --------101 Rainbow Spring----71 Salt Mountain limestone --42 Ravlin-Brown well -26, 28, 30 Salt Springs ------192 36, 53 Sands Key ------264 Rayonier, Inc., well ---48 Sandy Creek ----172, 173 Raysor marl-----182 Sanford -----225, 299 Raysor place ----130, 159 Sanford, Samuel, quoted --257 Rebecca Shoal -----11 Sangamon interglacial stage -282 Recent series ------313 Santa Fe River, Ocala limeRed Bay -----168, 177 stone on -----62 Red Bluff ------229 Santa Rosa County, formations Red Bluff, Georgia ---104 in236, 276, 281, 285, 291



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212 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Arca lienosa Say (Cunearca) scalaris Conrad, var.? Ostrea meridionalis Heilprin disparilis Conrad Pecten ochlockoneensis leensis Mansfield wendelli olgensis Mansfield (Chlamys) caloosensis Mansfield eboreus buckinghamensis Mansfield nodosus floridensis Tucker and Wilson Lima (Mantellum) carolinensis Dall Anomia simplex d'Orbigny Placunanomia plicata Tuomey and Holmes Thracia (Cyathodonta) sp. Venericardia olga Mansfield Phacoides chrysostoma (Meuschen) Chione ulocyma Dall latilirata athleta Conrad Utilization-The Buckingham marl may have potential value as a source of phosphate, but it is not now so utilized. LOCAL DETAILS Collier County-Only the northern part of Collier County is underlain by the Buckingham marl, the remainder being occupied by the Tamiami formation. Along the road from Everglades to La Belle (State Highway 164) the first appearance of the Buckingham is 16.9 miles north of the Tamiami Trail, where it is exposed during times of low water in ditches along the road. Exposures continue northward for about 11 miles, to a point 9 or 10 miles south of Immokalee, where it is succeeded by sandy soil underlain by the Caloosahatchee formation. Lee County-The type locality of the Buckingham marl is a large borrow pit on the south side of State Highway 25 about half a mile west of Orange River near Buckingham. When visited by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 147) only about 4 feet of soft white clayey limestone was exposed, but the pit has since been deepened and greatly extended and is dredged below water level. Where not sufficiently hardened, the material is cream-colored calcareous clay containing many small grains of a brown phosphatic mineral. Pectens, Anomias, and oysters retain their shells, but other mollusks are represented only by molds.



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330 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE PAGE PAGE Dixie County, formations in -26 Euchee Creek -----177 28, 29, 31, 34, 41, 47, 64, 289 Everglades, the --11, 240, 242 Doctors Lake -----303 Dog Island quadrangle ---304 F Dolores Brick Co. --231, 233 Dorcas -------174 Fairchild Landing, Georgia -108 Double Branch -----188 Falling Branch -----128 Dowling Park -----68 Falling Water -87, 102, 134, 162 Dry Creek ------84 165, 237 Dry Tortugas -----11 Falmouth Spring ---89, 99 Duncan Church, Suwannee Fenholloway Spring ---101 limestone at 55, 91, 103, 104 Fernandina, well at ----48 Dundee Petroleum Co. well -32 Finch, T. A., farm ----103 35, 42, 48 Fisheating Creek ----289 Dunnellon ---203, 290 Fishhawk Creek ----208 Dunnellon formation ---199 Flagler Beach -----268 Duplin marl --109, 170, 180 Flagler County, formations in 268 fossils from ---184, 185 295, 304 Duval County, formations in -47 Flint River formation ---104 284, 289, 295, 304 Flint Rock ------95 Dyas quadrangle ----274 Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College ---155 E Florida Bay ----262, 313 Florida Caverns -----67 Eagle Ford age, limestone of -27 Florida City-----239 East Bay --285, 296, 307, 310 Florida East Coast Railroad East Coast Hotel Co. well -42, 48 well -----42, 52 East Coast Oil & Gas Co. well -34 Florida Keys--11, 262, 264 41, 47 Florida Oil & Development Co. Eau Gallie -----267 well -26, 28, 29, 31, 34 Econfina Creek -166, 171, 178 41, 47 186, 194 Florida Oil Discovery Co. well 26 Ecphora zone 168, 180, 181, 182 28, 30, 32, 34, 42, 48 Edgar -------236 Florida Rock Products Co. -93 Eldridge, G. H. ---132, 203 Florida Shell Rock Co. ---70 Ellaville 82, 85, 88, 92, 98, 99 Florida State Hospital well -50 Ocala limestone at ---55 Florida Trap Rock Co. ---97 Ellenton --136, 153, 157, 158 Floridatown ------310 Elliotts Key ------264 Floridian Plateau, composition Enon --------274 and structure of ---3 Ensley -------280 relief model of ----4 Eocene series ----14, 39 Flournoy's mill ---171, 172 Ericson, David -----14 Floweree Grove ---211, 213 EscambiaBay---232, 310 Folks Creek ----165, 177 Escambia County, formations Folkston, Georgia ---229 in -232 274, 278, 280, 285 Forest Highlands ----236 289, 304 Formations, table of ---17-19 Escambia River -----310 Forrest, H. E. -----246 Eucheeanna ----165, 177 Fort McComb -----68



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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE TOPOGRAPHY NATURAL DIVISIONS Florida has been described (Cooke, 1939c, p. 14) as consisting of five natural topographic divisions, namely, the Central Highlands, the Tallahassee Hills, the Marianna Lowlands, the Western Highlands, and the Coastal Lowlands. The generalized outlines of these divisions are shown in figure 3. Central Highlands-The Central Highlands extend along the Peninsula from the Georgia State line between St. Marys and Withlacoochee Rivers southward nearly to Glades County. This large area is highly diversified. It includes high swampy plains; hills, the highest in the State; and thousands of lakes, big and little. Its soils are prevailingly sandy. Much of the sand was derived from Pleistocene marine terraces, a good deal from the Miocene Hawthorn formation, and the Pliocene Citronelle formation. The altitude ranges from less than 40 feet above sea level in some of the valleys to 325 feet on the summit of Iron Mountain near Lake Wales, where rises the beautiful "Singing Tower." The lakes of the Central Highlands indicate the occurrence of soluble limestone not far below the surface. The Ocala limestone, where not too deeply buried, yields a lacy pattern of innumerable shallow lakes such as Tsala Apopka Lake and the smaller lakes of Lake County, and it also is marked by larger, deeper, open lakes like Lake Apopka and Lake Harris. The Suwannee limestone and limestone of the Hawthorn formation also give rise to lakes, but these do not commonly compare in intricacy and abundance with those underlain by the Ocala. Many of the lakes have extensive flats or "prairies" surrounding them. The most extensive plain in the Central Highlands is the Sunderland terrace, which occupies several counties in the northern part of the State and an even larger adjacent area in Georgia, where it includes the great Okefenokee Swamp. The terrace is well developed also in Manatee, Hillsborough, and Polk Counties, and there are smaller remnants of it scattered throughout the Highlands. The Sunderland terrace was covered by the sea during part of the Pleistocene epoch



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82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 67-93), but they also referred to the Glendon 7 2 feet of limestone below the so-called Tampa (Suwannee limestone) on the Suwannee River at Ellaville. That rock may really be equivalent to the typical Glendon limestone member of the Byram, though its fauna is more profuse; it is not here differentiated from the Byram limestone. Characters-The Byram in Florida consists chiefly of limestone but includes some clayey beds. Much of the limestone is sandy. The color is commonly yellow or cream. Most of the rock is rather soft, or porous, but some ledges are hardened by deposition of calcium carbonate in the interspaces. On weathered surfaces, particularly along Chipola River, much of the lime has been leached out, leaving a soft, porous sandstone. The Byram on Suwannee River is very hard and weathers into tubular cavities, like the Glendon limestone member in Alabama. Distribution-The Byram is typically developed in Mississippi. It occurs also in Louisiana. There are many exposures of it in southern Alabama. The line of outcrop enters Florida near Natural Bridge, Walton County, east of which it is overlapped by the Flint River formation. The limestone in Holmes County mapped as Marianna may be Byram. In Jackson County there are exposures along Chipola River, but none have been found along the Chattahoochee, where it appears to be completely overlapped. The Byram reappears along Suwannee River at and below the mouth of the Withlacoochee. It is unknown in Georgia. Thickness-At Natural Bridge the Byram is probably more than 40 feet thick. No single exposures as thick as that have been found along the Chipola. On the Suwannee it is probably not more than 10 feet thick. Stratigraphic relations-The Byram directly overlies the Marianna limestone and appears to be conformable with it. It is overlain unconformably by the Suwannee limestone or by the Flint River formation, both of which overlap it. Paleogeography-The Byram appears to be essentially a littoral formation, although some of it contains little clastic sediment. The shore line apparently passed near Vicksburg and Jackson, Mississippi, and crossed the Florida line east of



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 57 bama to Tombigbee River, where it merges into the Yazoo clay in Clarke and Choctaw Counties (Cooke, 1926, p. 275). Northward it extends as far as Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia, and it is characteristically developed in wells at Savannah (Cooke, 1944, p. 68). Its partial equivalent in South Carolina is the Santee limestone (Cooke, 1936b, p. 40; 1943). The Cooper marl, which overlies the Santee in South Carolina and the Ocala in Georgia, may be represented by the upper part of the Ocala in Florida, but definite correlations have not been established. The Barnwell formation of South Carolina and Georgia is interpreted as the littoral equivalent of the Ocala limestone (Cooke, 1944, p. 63). Paleogeography-The Ocala limestone was laid down in an open, fairly shallow sea. The shore line (fig. 4) extended across Alabama in a fairly straight line from Choctaw County to Houston County, then curved northeastward through Georgia past Macon, to Augusta. Sediments of several kinds were deposited in the Jackson sea. In Mississippi and western Alabama clay predominated (Yazoo clay), though the basal formation, of Jackson age (the Moodys Branch marl), is sandy. Between Tombigbee River in Alabama and Ocmulgee River in Georgia and offshore east of that region the sediments were mainly limestone (Ocala). Near shore east of the Ocmulgee calcareous clay, fuller's earth, and sand (Barnwell formation) were deposited. Fauna-The most conspicuous elements of the Ocala fauna are the orbitoid Foraminifera, the Mollusca, and the Echinoidea. Some representatives of each of these three retain their shells intact; others are preserved only as molds. At some places the Ocala limestone consists almost exclusively of loosely coherent orbitoid Foraminifera. Other zones are composed chiefly of Operculinoides. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has kindly prepared the following list of the larger Foraminifera of Georgia and Florida: LARGER FORAMINIFERA FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE By T. W. VAUGHAN Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna vanderstoki (M. Rutten and Vermunt)



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128 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SW4 sec. 4, T. 5 N., R. 17 W. Road cut in the center of the SW, sec. 4, T. 5 N., R. 17 W. Aloitgthe hill west of the road in the NW'/ sec. 14, T. 5 N., R. 17W. Jackson County-The southeastern part of Jackson County includes a small area underlain by the Tampa limestone. White sandy limestone having a greenish tinge is exposed on the Blountstown road 2.7 miles south of Sneads. It resembles the Tampa limestone at Chattahoochee and River Junction. There are also exposures about a quarter of a mile north of the highway in section 26, 1 /2 miles east of Sneads and in section 28 about half a mile north of the highway half a mile west of Sneads. Falling Branch, probably in sec. 30, T. 4 N., R. 7 W., when visited in 1921 was a double sink about 50 feet deep in which was exposed 30 feet of very fine, compact, soft, sandy limestone overlain by about 20 feet of residual sand containing pebbles and lumps of chert. Jefferson County-Only a small area in the western part of Jefferson County is underlain by the Tampa limestone. Mansfield (1937b, p. 24) presents a list of 26 species of land shells and marine mollusks, many characteristic Tampa species, from the sink of Mill Creek about 1 /4 miles northeast of Lloyd. This sink cuts through the Hawthorn formation into the Tampa, which consists of dense pale-yellow limestone. The Tampa is exposed to a depth of 20 feet in another sink draining the overflow from Lake Miccosukee about oneeighth mile northeast of the sink of Mill Creek. These sinks were visited in 1913 under the guidance of E. H. Sellards, who had described the geographic setting (Sellards, 1910b, pp. 58-61). Leon County-All of Leon County is probably underlain by the Tampa limestone, which lies near the surface only in the southern part and in the northwest corner. Elsewhere the Tampa is covered by the Hawthorn formation. The presence of limestone beneath the Hawthorn accounts for the existence of Lake lamonia, Lake Jackson, and Lake Lafayette, all of which are connected with a subterranean drainage system. These lakes, as well as Lake Miccosukee, most of which is in Jefferson County, originated as surface streams. Capture of these streams by passages through the cavernous underlying



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TERTIARY SYSTEM 199 DEPOSITS OF MIDDLE PLIOCENE (HEMPHILL) AGE ALACHUA FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Alachua clays" was applied by Dall (1892, p. 127) to the bone-bearing beds found "in sinks, gullies, and other depressions in the Miocene, upper Eocene, and later rocks of Florida, especially on the western anticline in the higher portions of Alachua County and along the banks of many rivers and streams." Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 133) included in the Alachua clay the Peace Creek bone bed of Dall, "which appears to be a local phase of the formation which may have been eroded and redeposited in its present position." Sellards (1910a, p. 32) applied the name "Dunnellon formation" to the beds containing the hard-rock phosphate deposits of the Dunnellon region. Later he concluded that the Dunnellon and the Alachua are merely different facies of a single formation and recommended that the name "Dunnellon" be no longer used and that the entire set of deposits be called the Alachua formation. This usage, which involves a considerable expansion of the original meaning of the Alachua, was followed by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 173179). Characters-The part of the Alachua formation to which the name was originally applied consists chiefly of clay. It accumulated in ponds or sinks. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 134) describe it as follows: The Alachua clay consists of blue to gray sandy clay, which weathers to light yellow or red from the presence of iron oxide. There is usually sufficient clay to give the material a distinct plasticity, and sand is commonly present in considerable quantities. The weathered material is frequently more or less concretionary as a result of the aggregation of the iron oxide. The formation is nearly destitute of fossils except in a few localities where it is filled with vertebrate remains. The great bulk of the formation that Sellards called Dunnellon consists chiefly of compact white or gray sand. It closely resembles the sand in the Hawthorn formation, from which it no doubt was derived. The sand is roughly angular and medium-coarse grained and is associated with variable



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 125 lusks having the general aspect of the Tampa fauna were noted in 1922 in limestone exposed on the Bainbridge road one mile from Chattahoochee post office. A cut on the Bristol road half a mile south of the railroad crossing near River Junction exposes the Tampa limestone. At Ponto Spring, a limesink in the northeast corner of Gadsden County about 4 miles east of Concord, two beds of limestone were exposed in 1925. At the bottom was a 5-foot bed of hard, yellowish, case-hardened limestone resembling the Suwannee. This was overlain, apparently unconformably, by white or cream-colored, soft porous silicious limestone, either Tampa or basal Hawthorn. When revisited many years later, all of the limestone then exposed appeared to be one formation. The place has been described by Mossom (1925, pp. 136, 137) and by Cushman and Ponton (1932, p. 21). (See section, page 152.) Hillsboroulgh County-Although the typical area of the Tampa limestone is in Hillsborough County, exposures of the formation are not numerous. Much of the country is low and flat and is covered by a veneer of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. Most of the exposures are in the vicinity of Hillsborough River or other water courses. The classic locality of the Tampa limestone is on the western shore of Hillsborough Bay at Ballast Point, 4 miles below the mouth of Hillsborough River. In 1915 several feet of light-gray to white compact limestone containing molds of fossils could be seen along the water front. On weathering the limestone breaks down into greenish clay and the fossils become silicified. This is the famous "silex bed," but the silification seems to be merely a superficial phenomenon that is not confined to any particular stratigraphic level. Dall (1915) described more than 300 species of mollusks from Ballast Point and designated the horizon as the "Orthaulax pu'gnax zone." However, this species is not confined to the Tampa limestone but occurs also in the Flint River formation. The fossiliferous bed at Ballast Point must lie near the top of the Tampa limestone. A sandy facies of the Tampa limestone rises 5 or 6 feet above



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68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Lafayette County-The western part of Lafayette County is covered by the Suwannee limestone, but elsewhere the Ocala lies near the surface. The best natural exposures of the Ocala are in the banks of Suwannee River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. Twelve feet of limestone is visible at Troy Spring (fig. 7), 10 feet at Fort McComb, 6 feet at Dowling Park, and about the same amount at many other places along the river. Much of the rock on the river is case-hardened and weathered into tubular cavities. It contains several species of orbitoid Foraminifera, including Lepidocyclina ocalana, L. pseudomarginata, and L. floridana; Ostrea podagrina, Pecten suwanneensis, Rumphia eldridgei, and many other fossils. A large road-metal quarry north of Florida Highway 5A, 5.2 miles northwest of Mayo, shows white and buff-colored friable porous limestone. This pit has yielded foraminifers and bryozoans as well as the following mollusks and echinoids: Ostrea podagrina Dall Pecten suwanneensis Dall sp. Pinna quadrata Dall? Tubtlostium n. sp. Oligopygus wetherbyi de Loriol Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell) Cassidulus trojanus Cooke Schizaster armiger Clark Eupatagus dixie Cooke ocalanus Cooke The Taylor County rock pit in Lafayette County 4.8 miles northwest of Mayo on Florida Highway 5A uses Ocala limestone. Lumps of silicified Suwannee limestone are nearby. Lake County-Most of the lakes in Lake County were probably formed by solution of the Ocala limestone, which in most places is covered by deep sand referred to the Pliocene Citronelle formation. Levy County-The Ocala limestone underlies all of Levy County except, possibly, a strip bordering the coast and extending into the Gulf Hammock, where hard sandstone containing Chione cancellata and, therefore, of Pleistocene or



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 175 similar sand contains a few molds of pelecypods. The bed apparently passes below water level at the old ford (Crowder's Crossing) a quarter of a mile below the bridge. This lower bed contains more Oak Grove species than the upper bed. The shell bed from which Shell Bluff takes its name is well up on the bluff, its base 42 feet above the river and about 135 feet above sea level. It is composed of fine to medium-grained blue, yellow, or brown sand containing great numbers of shells, especially Glycymeris waltonensis and several species of Cardium. It contains enough clay to make firm lumps when broken. Above the shell bed proper is sandy clay containing some grains as large as a pea. The following section is adapted from the notes of T. W. Vaughan, October 23, 1908: SECTION AT SHELL BLUFF, SHOAL RIVER FEET Citronelle(?) formation (Pliocene?): 8. Gravel-covered slope; gravel ellipsoidal, one-half inch probably usual length, rarely one inch, mostly quartz, in rather coarse red sand-------------30 Shoal River formation (middle Miocene): 7. Gray finer sand, blotched yellow, decidedly argillaceous, estimated ----------------10 6. Greenish shell marl, matrix arenaceous, fine (Glycymeris waltonensis zone) --------------2/4 5. Nonfossiliferous coarser greenish sand becoming argillaceous at base ---------------3 4.Green clay ---------------/2 3. Coarser sand, gray, greenish, last 2 /2 feet loose, purple and white -----------------6 2.Unexposed ---------------15 1. Nonfossiliferous green sand, oxidized yellowish on surface --10 Gray sand containing Shoal River fossils and underlain by blue clay and sand crops out at an altitude of approximately 129 feet above sea level on Adams Mill Creek at the mill in the NW 4 sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 21 W., 2/4 miles north of Mossyhead. The following section was noted in 1926 on a stream then supposed to be Shoal River at the crossing of the Florala road 6.6 miles north of Bearhead. This place was probably at or



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLIOCENE SYSTEM 239 not to give it a different formational name. However, as the facies persists over a good many square miles, the use of an individual name for it is not inappropriate. The same rock extends southward beneath the mangrove swamps of the Ten Thousand Islands and forms the bed of Lostmans River. Sanford (1909, p. 222) called it the Lostmans River limestone. This name was rejected by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 207), who suspected that it was a facies of the Miami oolite, though they had never visited Lostmans River. Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 62) regarded it as identical with the Tamiami but did not revive the name "Lostmans River" because the rock is completely submerged at the type locality, which is less easily accessible than the Tamiami Trail. Moreover, the few fossils that have been seen in it are not distinctive. Characters-The Tamiami formation ranges in composition from sandy limestone to nearly pure quartz sand. It is commonly somewhat hardened, especially where it lies at or near the surface, as along the Tamiami Trail, where it forms a very hard rock riddled by solution holes. Its color is grayish-white to tan. Thickness-Cuttings from drill holes made under the direction of G. G. Parker indicate that the Tamiami formation is wedge-shaped. From a thickness of 15 feet on the Tamiami Trail 40 miles west of Miami it thickens eastward to 20 feet in 10 miles, to 45 feet in 21 miles, to 80 feet in 32 miles; and at Silver Bluff, near the shore of Biscayne Bay, it is about 100 feet thick. South of the Tamiami Trail at Krome Road, 19 miles west of Miami, the Tamiami maintains its thickness of 45 feet at least as far south as Florida City (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 65). Distribution-The boundaries of the Tamiami are rather indefinite because the formation is merely one, somewhat variable, facies of contemporaneous and continuous Pliocene marine deposits. Moreover, the scarcity of roads makes it difficult to explore the region. The Tamiami appears to underlie all of the mainland south of township 48, which area includes Collier, Broward, Dade, and part of Monroe Counties. It presumably underlies the Pleistocene formations in



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS 19 GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA (CONT.) Lawson limestone (marine, of Navarro age). WLimestone and chalk (marine, of Taylor age). Limestone and shale (marine and littoral, of Austin age). Erosion interval. 0. Tuscaloosa formation (marine and littoral). U U Erosion interval. 0 C Limestone (marine). U U SErosion interval. C < Diabase (igneous, of Newark age, intrusive into PaleoH >zoic system). 0 04 _Erosion interval. Z Cn 0 >' Black shale, quartzite, and mica schist (marine or littoral, q (probably of Pennsylvanian age). U z Erosion interval. Metamorphic rocks (hypothetical, not reached by drill).



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PAMLICO SAND 299 region is not covered by Pamlico sand. A broad belt borders the East Coast from Cape Canaveral southward. North of Cape Canaveral the band is broken by outliers of higher land. Along the West Coast the band is much narrower except in the delta of the Apalachicola, where it extends inland about 3 5 miles. Stratigraphic relations-The Pamlico sand lies unconformably on everything below it, because it was deposited during a submergence that followed a much lower stand of the sea. It is overlain unconformably by Recent beach and estuarine deposits, by accumulations in fresh-water streams and swamps, and by wind-blown sand. Paleo'geography-During Pamlico time the shape of Florida was much like that of today (see fig. 47) except that the peninsula was shorter and terminated near Lake Okeechobee. A large oval island lay off the southwestern end of the peninsula, from which it was separated by a shallow strait about 5 miles wide. This strait is now occupied by Caloosahatchee River. An island on the Pinellas peninsula partly blocked the entrance to a wide-mouthed bay heading east of Tampa. A long, wide lagoon, including the present St. Johns River, extended southward from Orange Bluff on St. Marys River to Sanford. It was separated from the open ocean by a chain of large islands resembling the Sea Islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The shore of the mainland was indented by many embayed streams, for all the valleys that had been eroded during previous lower stands of the sea were flooded by tidewater, which then reached approximately 25 feet higher than the present sea level. The Melbourne bone bed (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 218), here regarded as a facies of the Pamlico sand, appears to have accumulated in fresh-water or slightly brackish lagoons behind low barrier islands. A good deal of the sand in it was probably blown across the islands into the lagoons, where it became mixed with the roots and stems of water plants, which made it somewhat carbonaceous. Fauna-A great variety of land animals, many of which



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-RECENT SERIES 313 RECENT SERIES The Recent series includes those deposits that have accumulated since the end of the Wisconsin glacial stage of the Pleistocene series. At that time the melting of the continental ice sheets flooded the oceans with meltwater and caused them to rise to a level that has remained almost constant ever since. The rise of sea level caused the drowning of the valleys that had been etched below the general level of the land during the Wisconsin and previous lower stands of the sea. The materials now accumulating along the present sea coast and in the estuaries that indent it do not differ materially from those that were deposited under similar conditions in the past. Sand like the Pamlico sand is now being swept southward as far as Miami Beach along the Atlantic coast and in various directions along the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico. Locally, it contains patches of broken or macerated shells like those in the coquina of the Anastasia formation, and much of this shelly material is derived from the Anastasia. Limy ooze, somewhat like the Miami oolite, is being deposited in Florida Bay and the adjacent marine waters, and a new coral reef is growing off the Key Largo limestone. Some sand and silt, much of it originating across the State line in Georgia or Alabama, is being brought down by the rivers and finding transient or permanent resting places in floodplains and sand bars along their courses. The greater part, however, is piled up into tidal flats at the heads of estuaries. Such tidal flats, when drained by a permanent fall of sea level, make one of the surest indicators of the height of the ancient shore line. Peat and muck is accumulating in shallow ponds, lakes, and mangrove swamps, where leaves, stems, and roots of aquatic plants are prevented from rapid decay by the water in which they lie. Similar conditions were prevalent at many times during the past. Some of the upland swamps, notably Okefenokee Swamp, have been in existence, probably with little change, since the Illinoian glacial stage, possibly earlier. A kind of fresh-water limestone, travertine, or caliche is being formed on poorly drained plains where shallow temporary pools of water remain for a time after the rainy season.







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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 113 the Chipola beds ..., the Tampa beds (including the Tampa limestone) and the Alum Bluff beds. .." Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 84-91) restricted the use of the name "Tampa" to the Tampa formation, which, so far as they knew, occurred only in the vicinity of Tampa. Mossom (1925, pp. 77-82) tentatively included in the Tampa formation the limestone near Brooksville that now forms part of the Suwannee limestone, but pointed out its similarity to the so-called Glendon formation of Suwannee and Hamilton Counties (typical Suwannee limestone). Later (Mossom, 1926, pp. 182-184) he added this rock to the Tampa. In both reports Mossom retained the name "Chattahoochee formation" for strata he considered to be a separate but contemporaneous unit. Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 78-93) changed the name of the formation to Tampa limestone and included in it the limestone of the peninsula that was later (Cooke and Mansfield, 1936a) separated as the Suwannee limestone. They also added to the Tampa limestone the Chattahoochee formation of Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 74-84). Characters-Early observers laid great stress on the differences in lithologic characters and fauna between the various rocks exposed in the vicinity of Tampa. They attempted to separate them into three units: the "silex bed" (called Orthaulax pu'gnax zone by Dall, 1915), "Tampa limestone," and "Cerithium rock." All these supposed entities are now regarded as merely different facies or parts of a single formation, the Tampa limestone. The composition of the Tampa is much more variable than that of either the Suwannee or the Ocala, both of which are much purer limestones. An analysis of the Tampa limestone on Sixmile Creek at Orient, Hillsborough County (Mossom, 1925, p. 145) shows about 74 percent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and more than 24 percent silica (SiO2). This rock contains only a trace of magnesium carbonate (MgCOa). At Chattahoochee, Gadsden County (Mossom, 1925, p. 136), the Tampa contains about 41 percent calcium carbonate, 35 percent magnesium carbonate, and 20 percent silica. At Chattahoochee Landing (Mossom, 1925, p. 135) two analyses average about 15 percent calcium carbonate, 10 percent magnesium carbonate, and 71 percent silica.



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152 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE This bone-bearing stratum consists of very tough, massive clayey sand, with lenses and pebbles of purer fuller's earth. It grades rapidly but conformably into the upper fuller's earth, but is unconformable on the lower bed, probably a local feature. A bed apparently occupying the same stratigraphic position in the mines at Midway contained Merychippus gunteri and Amphicyon pontoni Simpson (1930c, p. 162). These bones and those at Quincy are confidently placed in the middle Miocene by Simpson (1930c, p. 160). This horizon is probably well up in the Hawthorn, for a well at Quincy indicates that the Hawthorn extends to a depth of 210 feet there (Cole, 1944, p. 13). The basal beds of the Hawthorn crop out in the vicinity of Ponto Spring in the northeast corner of Gadsden County. The following section is based on one described in 1932 by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton (Cushman and Ponton, 1932, p. 21). SECTION AT PONTO SPRING FEET Hawthorn formation (Miocene): 3. Sand and clay containing Ostrea normalis? throughout and other mollusks and Sorites? sp. abundant in the upper part -1 2. White to gray very sandy marl containing Ostrea normalis? and Sorites? sp. -------------8 to 10 Unconformity? Suwannee(?) limestone (Oligocene?): 1. Hard, compact gray to buff limestone containing no determinable organisms -------------10 Bed 1 of the section at Ponto Spring was referred to the Tampa limestone by Mansfield and Ponton, but it is more probably Suwannee, the Tampa being overlapped. Gilchrist County-According to White (1942, p. 30, pl. 14, fig. 4) the bone-bearing beds on the Raeford Thomas farm 8 miles north of Bell (see page 119) are overlain by about 3 feet of cream-colored pumicelike sandstone resembling that of the Hawthorn formation. This apparently indicates that there is an unmapped outlier of the Hawthorn formation there, and there may be others that have escaped notice. Hamilton County-A large part of Hamilton County is covered by the Pleistocene Sunderland formation, but the



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316 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 1939b. Deep test in Florida Everglades: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1713-1714. CANU, FERDINAND 1920. (and R. S. BASSLER). North American early Tertiary Bryozoa: U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 106, 879 pp., 279 figs., 162 pls. CASE, E. C. 1934. A specimen of a long-nosed dolphin from the Bone Valley gravels of Polk County, Florida: Michigan Univ. Mus. Paleontology Contr., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 105-113, 2 pls. CAVE, H. A. (See PRETTYMAN, T. M., 1923.) CHAMBERLIN, ROLLIN T. 1917a. Interpretation of the formations containing human bones at Vero, Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-39. 1917b. Further studies at Vero, Florida: Jour. Geology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 667-683. CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 1938. Atlantic-Gulf ship canal, Fla.: 75th Cong., 1st Ses., House Doc. 194, 625 pp. CLARK, WILLIAM BULLOCK 1915. The Brandywine formation of the middle Atlantic Coastal Plain: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 40, pp. 499-506. CLAPP, F. G. (See MATSON, G. C., 1909.) COLE, W. STORRS 1930. (and G. M. PONTON). The Foraminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 5, pp. 19-69. 1934. Oligocene orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Washington County, Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21-28, 2 pls. 1938. Stratigraphy and paleontology of two deep wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 73 pp., 12 pls. 1941. Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, 89 pp., 18 pls. 1942. Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in FloridaNo. 2: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 89 pp., 16 pls. 1944. Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in FloridaNo. 3: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 pp., 29 pls. CONRAD, TIMOTHY A. 1846. Descriptions of new species of organic remains from the upper Eocene limestone of Tampa Bay, Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, pp. 399-400.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OCALA LIMESTONE 73 below the surface, conditions for quarrying the rock are less favorable than in Marion County. Taylor County-The Ocala limestone lies near the surface in the southeastern end of Taylor County. Elsewhere it is covered by the Suwannee limestone. White limestone dug from the bottom of a pit west of Florida Highway'19, 23.3 miles southeast of Perry and 6.1 miles northwest of the bridge over Steinhatchee River, contains many nummulitic foraminifers, Pecten sp., Peronella cubae Weisbord, and Schizaster (Linthia) ocalanus Cooke. The rock above it is hard brown crystalline dolomite, which may be either altered Ocala or Suwannee limestone. Granular limestone, probably dolomitic, in a shallow pit east of the highway one mile from the river seems to be Ocala.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA--SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 103 p. 65) identifies these places as being in the northeast quarters of sections 14 and 15, respectively, of T. 4 N., R. 13 W. Vernon (1942, p. 63) reports a 25-foot exposure of Suwannee limestone in a sink on the T. A. Finch farm in the NE 4 NW/4 sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 5 miles south of Chipley. He lists Lepidocyclina undosa, L. duncanensis, L. yurnagunensis, several species of smaller Foraminifera, and 15 species of Bryozoa. The following section of the Suwannee limestone was described by Vernon (1942, p. 61): SECTION ON THE GILBERT FARM (NW 4 SEC. 36, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.) FEET 3. Red granular clay with limestone float. Elevation 145 feet --2.4 2. Buff soft foraminiferal coquina. Weathers to light-gray crystalline limestone containing numerous Lepidocyclina undosa Cushman, L. yurnagunensis Cushman, L. favosa Cushman, and Operculinella sp. cf. 0. dia Cole and Ponton --------26.5 1. Cream to buff, soft granular limestone interbedded with and grading up into bed 2. It contains numerous molds of Orthaulax pugnax hernandoensis Mansfield, Diplodonta? sp., Cardium brooksvillense Mansfield, Ampullina flintensis Mansfield, "Amauropsis" sp. aff. A. burnsii meridionalis Pilsbry. The following microfossils are also presents: Hemicythere sp., Bairdoppilata sp., Cibicides sp., Globigerina sp., Baggina xenoula Hadley, Elphidium rota Ellis, Nonion advena (Cushman), Globulina gibba d'Orbigny, Angulogerina sp., Reussella sp., Discorbis sp., Gypsina sp., Rotalia byramensis (Cushman), Lepidocyclina undosa Cushman, L. sp. cf. L. parvula, and Operculinoides muiri Barker ----19.5 "TOTAL -------;---------48.4 Vernon (1942, pp. 61-62) reports 55.6 feet of creamcolored to buff or pinkish Suwannee limestone in and near a test pit in the N /2 SW'!4 sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W. It is soft and granular and contains many Lepidocyclinas. A sink 0.3 mile north of Duncan Church near the center of sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W., 6 miles south-southwest of Chipley exposes about 52 feet of soft white limestone containing Pecten sp. and many Lepidocyclinas. The rock extends from the road to the bottom of the sink, where it has been quarried, but the exposure is not continuous. There is



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222 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE cene into the shell marl. The typical exposures are on the river between Denaud and Fort Thompson, 13/4 miles east of La Belle, a distance of approximately 6y 2 miles. The top of the Caloosahatchee marl passes below water level on the river about one mile above (east of) Fort Thompson, where about one foot of creamy-gray shell marl containing oysters is exposed at low tide. It is overlain unconformably by the Fort Thompson formation (Pleistocene). Exposures are almost continuous downstream to La Belle, where the top is 9 feet above low-tide level. At La Belle the Caloosahatchee is rather clayey and contains few fossils. There are many fossils in the right (north) bank of the river 0.4 mile west of the bridge at La Belle, where the Caloosahatchee marl stands 5 feet above low tide and consists of greenish-gray calcareous sand. Another good place to collect fossils is just west of the mouth of Bee Branch, about 1 /2 miles west of La Belle. A transition to or interfingering with the Buckingham marl is noticeable above the bridge at Denaud, where 1 foot of whitish calcareous clay is overlain by 5 feet of locally hardened sand containing coral heads and fresh-water and land shells as well as marine shells. A drainage ditch between sections 6 and 7, T. 43 S., R. 34 E., 3 miles west of Clewiston, cuts into the Caloosahatchee marl. Great numbers of beautifully preserved shells in fine white sand are scattered over the spoil bank. A collection made there by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 155) yielded almost 200 species of mollusks, most of which occur also on Shell Creek, Charlotte County. Hillsborough County-The Pamlico terrace bordering Tampa and Hillsborough Bays is underlain by a shell bed that appears to be the Caloosahatchee marl. The only natural exposures known are in the bluff bordering Sixmile Creek at Orient, a suburb east of Tampa, where the Tampa limestone is overlain by a sandy shell marl about 6 feet thick. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 148), who referred the bed to the Pleistocene, list 31 species of mollusks from it, most of which are still living. However, the presence of Transennella caloosana Dall and Anomalocaria caloosana Dall, both of which were described from the Caloosahatchee formation, is fairly good evidence that the bed is Pliocene.



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172 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE made by L. C. Johnson in 1890. The species are listed by Gardner (1926-1944). The millrace is in the NE4 sec. 34, T. 3 N., R. 18 W., on the headwaters of Hog Creek nearly half a mile downstream from the railroad milepost 77, which is nearly a mile southeast of Argyle, Walton County. Vernon, (1942, p. 85) describes the section thus: SECTION AT FLOURNOY'S MILLRACE FEET Shoal River formation, Glycymeris waltonensis zone (middle Miocene): 3. Weathered brownish-gray micaceous sand with many fossil molds 2.1 2. Bluish-gray compact micaceous, glauconitic coquina sand. Shells well preserved ---------------5.0 1. Bluish-gray argillaceous sand with many fossil molds ----1.0 FIGURE 21.-Bluff on Sandy Creek, Holmes County (sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 18 W.), exposing the Chipola (?) and Shoal River formations. Bed 5 of section lies just below the lowest dark band. After VERNON, 1942, fig. 17. Vernon (1942, pp. 85, 86) discovered a possible contact of the Chipola formation and the Shoal River formation on the east bank of Sandy Creek in the SE V SE1 SW 4 sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 18 W., 42 miles northwest of Ponce de Leon and 3 miles north of Flournoy's millrace (fig. 21). He describes the Alum Bluff group there as follows:



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 131 of Cedar Island, which is a mile north of Hudson. The rock contains Archaias? sp. and mollusks that seem to place it in the Tampa (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 85), although the Suwannee limestone is probably not far below. Pinellas County-The Tampa limestone underlies all of Pinellas County, but it is covered in the southern part by late Miocene and Pliocene deposits. Exposures are most numerous along the Gulf Coast in the northern part of the county, but there are a few as far south as Indian Rocks. There is a small exposure of gray or yellowish Tampa limestone on Anclote River about 300 yards above the bridge at Tarpon Springs. The rock rises about one foot above high tide. Mansfield (1937b, p. 22) reports the following species from this place: Conus designatus Dall Xancus polygonatus (Heilprin) Lyria heilprini Dall Busycon perizonatum Dall? Solenosteira quinquespira (Dall) Urosalpinx? inornata (Dall) Murex trophoniformis Heilprin Rapana vaughani Mansfield Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin) Strombus liocyclus Dall Cerith:um praecursor Heilprin? Potamides campanulatus Heilprin cornutus (Heilprin) Serpulorbis granifera (Say) Turritella tarponensis Mansfield Globularia solidula Dall Ampullina amphora (Heilprin) Sinum imperforatum Dall Arca umbonata Lamark Anadara tarponensis Mansfield Amusium sp. Plicatula densata Conrad Lithophaga bisulcata d'Orbigny Cardita. anclotensis Mansfield Cyrena floridana (Dall) Diplodonta anclotensis Mansfield Cardium anclotense Mansfield pinellasense Mansfield Chione rhodia Dall There is an outcrop of hard yellowish limestone containing



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 101 Taylor County-All of Taylor County except a narrow strip along Steinhatchee River in the southeastern corner is underlain by the Suwannee limestone, but it is generally covered by a thin sheet of Pleistocene terrace sand. A shallow rock pit on the road to Scanlon 22 miles westnorthwest of Perry shows about 3 feet of creamy yellow granular Suwannee limestone containing many Cassidulus gouldii, Clypeaster rogersi, Pecten flintensis, Miltha hillsboroensis, and Chione bainbridgensis. At Nuttall's Rise, west of Scanlon, the Aucilla River emerges from beneath a natural bridge several hundred feet wide. The rock of which it is composed presumably is Suwannee limestone. At Keaton Beach on the Gulf 24 miles from Perry yellow or gray granular limestone is exposed at low tide. The rock contains impressions of many mollusks, among which a Cerithium is conspicuous. The appearance of the rock suggests that it is a dolomitized facies of the Suwannee. A pit west of Highway 19, 5 miles south of Salem and 6.1 miles from Steinhatchee River near Clara, shows large lumps of hard crystalline brown dolomite containing poorly preserved Cassidulus? sp. and Turritella sp. This rock is probably an altered facies of the Suwannee limestone. The bottom of the pit reaches the Ocala limestone, which contains (U.S.G.S. 14539) Peronella cubae Weisbord, Schizaster (Linthia) ocalanus Cooke, and other fossils. Lumps of flint derived from the Suwannee limestone and containing Cassidulus gouldii (Bouv6) were noted near Fenholloway Spring, 6.3 miles east of Perry. Walton County-Although there are no records of Suwannee limestone in Walton County, the formation may crop out in the northeastern part and probably underlies at depth the remainder of the county. Washington County-The Suwannee limestone lies near the surface in the northern part of Washington County, but it is buried under younger formations farther south. The area of outcrop is indicated as Flint River formation, its strati-



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160 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE (Cooke and Mossom, 1939, p. 134), who identified Pecten sayanus and Carolia floridana among fossils collected by E. H. Sellards from a pit of the same company at Pembroke. Kissengen Spring, about 4 miles south of Bartow, boils up through gray highly phosphatic limestone containing Cardium sp. and other marine mollusks. Sarasota County-Although all of Sarasota County is probably underlain by the Hawthorn formation, known exposures are confined to the western part. Two feet of fine creamy yellow sandstone is exposed at low tide in Sarasota Bay 2I/2 miles south of the Manatee County line. Some of it contains scattered phosphatic particles. Yellow phosphatic? sandstone containing impressions of a large Pecten and a few other fossils occurs as loose lumps at Stickney Point Bridge leading to Sarasota Key about 3 miles south of Sarasota. Loose lumps of coarse white conglomerate containing sirenian bones, impressions of many marine mollusks, and large lumps of a phosphatic mineral lie on the shore at Osprey, and similar lumps and sirenian bones strew the beach at Venice. Yellow phosphatic sandy limestone containing prints of a large Pecten extends about 1 foot above the water level in a creek 1.2 miles east of Miakka River on the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). Limestone supposed to represent the Hawthorn formation is quarried for building stone in sec. 5, T. 36 S., R. 18 E., about 3 miles northeast of Sarasota. The rock is at least 18 feet thick. It is overlain by 1 or 2 feet of marine shell marl, either of Pleistocene or Pliocene age. Heilprin (1887, pp. 17, 64, 65) and Dall (1892, pp. 114, 115; 1903, pp. 1568-1570) have described a locality known as White Beach near the north end of Little Sarasota Bay. According to Dall a yellowish limestone rises 2 or 3 feet above high water. It contains many imperfect molds and pseudomorphs of mollusks and corals. Heilprin thought it was of very late Miocene age; Dall, who found many more species,



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132 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE corals and mollusks on State Highway 15 north of the Anclote River near Tarpon Springs. White and cream-colored sandy limestone has been dredged from the river opposite the sponge wharf. "Wall Spring issues from under a submerged ledge of rock, and white, sandy chalky limestone is exposed near by. The rock contains a land shell and several marine mollusks. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 90) report numerous exposures of Tampa limestone on the Gulf coast near Clearwater, but most of them now appear to be covered. About 3 feet of hard white sandy limestone is exposed on the shore of the Gulf at Indian Rocks. It is overlain by 2 or 3 feet of fine carbonaceous sand, presumably Pamlico sand. Polk County-No natural exposures of the Tampa limestone are known in Polk County, although it probably underlies all that part south of Lakeland. About 1894, G. H. Eldridge found it at the bottom of a phosphate mine near Bartow and collected fossils (USGS 2470) that are listed by Mansfield (1937b, p. 22) as follows: Conus planiceps Heilprin Turritella tampae Heilprin litharia Dall Chlamys crocus (Cooke) burnetti Tucker? Spondylus chipolanus tampaensis Mansfield Crassatella deformis Heilprin Venericardia serricosta (Heilprin) Antigona glyptoconcha (Dall) Wakulla County-Nearly all of Wakulla County is underlain by the Tampa limestone, but the formation is exposed chiefly east of State Highway 110, which passes through Crawfordville and Panacea. Much of the western part of the county is covered by the Penholoway formation (Pleistocene). Tampa limestone can be seen in ditches near Wakulla and Crawfordville, and Wakulla and St. Marks Rivers have cut their channels in it. Wakulla Spring, which is reported to be 185 feet deep, may get its water from the underlying Suwannee limestone. A large open sink about midway between Wakulla and Crawfordville exposes 6 to 10 feet of



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198 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE southern end of the peninsula as far north as Tampa was submerged. (See fig. 14.) This condition apparently had been brought about by a rise of sea level that flooded the lower parts of the late Miocene land but left the region of the Ocala Uplift standing above water. This short, stubby peninsula during Pliocene time probably had rounded contours determined to some extent by the structural shape of the Ocala Uplift, though part of the top of the dome had been worn off before the Hawthorn was deposited on it. The deposition of marine Pliocene beds in Florida 'was terminated by crustal warping that caused the Citronelle formation in the north-central part of the peninsula to stand more than 300 feet above present sea level, whereas its belt of outcrop on the southwestern limb of the Ocala Uplift is completely submerged. This warping accounts for the broad embayment along the West Coast between Clearwater and Apalachicola. Contemporaneous crustal warping affected many other regions outside of Florida. Matson (1916, p. 180) reports that the surface of the Citronelle stands as high as 520 feet above sea level in western Mississippi, whence it slopes eastward to about 420 feet in western Alabama, or at an average rate of 6 inches to the mile. This appears to be the western limb of the same broad syncline. Matson (1916, p. 184) also finds that the normal southward slope of the Citronelle is reversed between Vicksburg and Natchez, Miss., where the surface slopes northward at the rate of about 6 inches to the mile. Results of Pliocene deformation are more conspicuous farther north. The entire North Atlantic region appears to have been down-warped in Pliocene time, resulting in the complete drowning of the Coastal Plain north of Cape Cod, the submergence to a depth of several thousands of feet of the canyon of Hudson River, and a lesser drowning of the valleys of the Delaware and Susquehanna (Veatch and Smith, 1939). This deformation, the closing episode of the Pliocene epoch, by opening or widening the connection between the Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean and thus altering oceanic currents and changing the location of maximum snowfall may have been the ultimate cause of the Ice Age, which followed it'



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306 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE SECTION ON THE CANAL AT VERO BEACH WEST OF THE SPILLWAY FEET Recent: 4. Pure-white, coarse-grained, wind-blown quartz sand ---4-7 3. Soft, spongy, peaty layer, containing many partially decayed roots; in places absent ------------0V2 Pamlico sand (Pleistocene, mid-Wisconsin glacial stage): 2. Dark-brown to true-black, firmly indurated sand or sandstone cemented by ferric hydroxide and organic matter, but the color of iron staining is largely obscured by the organic black 2-4 1. Brown sand gradually losing its dark stain and passing downward into a reddish-brown sand stained by iron oxide, and finally grading into a buff sand below, which is of finer grain than that above, and may possibly be marine -----3-4 The Anastasia formation underlies bed 1 of this section and is exposed in the banks of the canal below the spillway. No bones were found in this section, possibly because the water in which beds 1 and 2 were deposited was too deep for animals to wade. In October 1915, Mr Frank Ayers found parts of a human skeleton in place in the south bank of the canal below the spillway. The bones were about 2 feet below the surface of the ground and about 9 inches below the top of bed 2 of the following section, which is adapted from a report by Sellards (1916b, p 131). SECTION ON CANAL BANK BELOW SPILLWAY NEAR VERO BEACH FEET Pamlico(?) sand (Pleistocene(?), mid-Wisconsin glacial stage?): 3. Sandy hard marl rock containing the tooth of a-fox different from the common gray fox of that region -------1/4 2. Sand stained brown by organic matter; contains human bones, Elephas columbi, Lquus leidyi ----------33/4 Anastasia formation (Pleistocene, Sangamon interglacial stage): 1. Marine shell marl to water level in the canal ------5 3/ Judging from Sellards' (1916b) original description, beds 2 and 3 of this section appear to represent the Pamlico sand, as they are doubtfully correlated here, but later Sellards (1917c, p. 11) referred the marlstone at the top of the section (bed 3) to his "No. 3 bed," which is here considered to be Recent. He regarded the human bones as definitely in place below the marlstone.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CITRONELLE FORMATION 235 Liberty County are underlain by the Citronelle formation, which is probably covered nearly everywhere by Pleistocene terrace deposits. Sixty-five feet of variegated reddish and yellowish ferruginous sand unconformably overlying the Duplin marl at Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River, is referred to the Citronelle formation. (See section, p. 191.) Marion County-The sand hills in the eastern part of Marion County are underlain by the Citronelle formation. Exposures of the unweathered material are few, for the surface nearly everywhere is covered by a mantle of loose drab or yellow sand, part of which may be Pleistocene. Red sandy clay generally forms the subsurface. Okaloosa County-The Citronelle formation underlies much of Okaloosa County but has not been satisfactorily distinguished from the Chipola formation (Miocene), which occupies part of the northeastern corner of the county, nor from the Pleistocene terrace deposits, which cover most of the remainder. Long, slender oyster shells resembling Ostrea westi Mincher, possibly derived from the Citronelle formation, have been found on hillsides above Blackwater River east of Otahite, probably in sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 25 W. According to the unpublished notes of Frank Burns (1895) the upper 10 or 12 feet of a hill 35 or 40 feet above the river is covered with the oysters, which are interbedded with iron ore and thin laminae of sandstone. The oyster reef lies on reddish-yellow clay, which extends to water level. The oyster bed, which I have not seen, may be of Miocene age. Ostrea westi occurs in the Pascagoula clay at Shell Bluff, Chickasawhay River, Mississippi. Orange County-Further study is needed to distinguish between Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits in Orange County. Fossils found in wells near Orlando and Pinecastle indicate the presence of the Caloosahatchee marl beneath the Pleistocene there. Farther west the Caloosahatchee probably merges into littoral sand of the Citronelle type, which presumably lies directly on the Ocala limestone and the Hawthorn formation. Whether the surface materials in the highlands of the western part of the county are Pliocene or Pleistocene remains to be determined.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-CHARLTON FORMATION 227 the Pleistocene an exposure of shell marl one-fourth mile south of the railroad station at Orange City. Shells from this place and from another about one-fourth mile north of the station were identified as Pliocene by Mans ld (1918, pp. 118, 119). Marl has been dug for use as road metal from a large pit about 1 V2 miles northwest of the center of Orange City, where the shell bed is at least 8 feet thick. According to memoranda furnished by S. A. Stubbs in 1940, a sample from a depth of 70 to 80 feet in a well 3 miles northeast of De Leon Springs represents the Caloosahatchee marl. The Caloosahatchee ends at a depth of 113 feet in a well at the Calhoun Packing Co. at Barberville. City well number 1 at Daytona Beach entered the Caloosahatchee at 35 feet. About 3 feet of yellowish sandy shell marl is exposed west of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in a large pit on the golf course about a mile south of De Leon Springs. CHARLTON FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Charlton formation, named by Veatch and Stephenson (1911, p. 393) from Charlton County, Georgia, has-ince been described by Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 192-198) and by Cooke (1944, pp. 101-103), who added little to the original description. The present discussion is a rehash of the same information. Cole (1944, p. 22) recommends that the name Charlton be discarded in favor of Caloosahatchee, with which the formation is contemporaneous. Characters-The Charlton formation consists chiefly of light-colored calcareous clay and impure limestone. It closely resembles the Buckingham marl, though part of it may have accumulated within an estuary rather than in the open sea, as the Buckingham is supposed to have been formed. Thickness-No natural exposure of the Charlton thicker than 15 feet has been described, and Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 192) supposed that the total thickness does not much exceed 20 feet. However, Cole (1944, p. 23) reports that a



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312 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE the Everglades and along the upper reaches of Caloosahatchee River. Stratigraphic relations-The Lake Flirt marl underlies the peaty accumulations of the Everglades and overlies the Pamlico sand, the Coffee Mill Hammock marl member of the Fort Thompson formation, or whatever other Pleistocene or Pliocene bed happens to come below it. Paleogeography-The marl accumulated in a fresh-water lake or lakes in water either too deep for grass to grow or in which grass had not yet grown in sufficient abundance to form an appreciable deposit of peat. Deposition of the marl probably began during the late-Wisconsin (post-Pamlico) emergence and may have continued locally into the Recent epoch. Similar marl may be accumulating now in some parts of the Everglades. Fauna-Several species of fresh-water snails have left their shells in the Lake Flirt marl. One of the most common is a species 6f Helisoma. LOCAL DETAILS Broward County-The Intracoastal Waterway at Hollywood cuts through 1 foot of peat, 2 feet of fresh-water marl (Lake Flirt), into the Miami oolite. Dade County-Along the Cape Sable road through the Everglades the Miami oolite is overlain by 1 or 2 feet of gray limy clay containing fresh-water shells. Along the South New River Canal the Lake Flirt marl is about 1 foot thick. It overlies the Miami oolite and is covered by several feet of peaty muck.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 123 6. Tough, dense white or cream-colored chalky limestone, somewhat harder at top than below, with conchoidal fracture that makes mammillary shapes resembling concretions. Weathers into slightly sandy gray clay like bed 8 -------47 S5. Very calcareous creamy-gray clay, softer and somewhat darker than bed 6. Contains white concretions -------4 4. Granular or semicrystalline argillaceous limestone. Crumbles readily ---------------'/ 3. Creamy-white chalk like bed 6 in alternating hard and softer layers. Contains numerous pellets or small pockets of yellowish or brownish clay and sand. Lovenia clarki (Lambert) and mollusks ----------------11 2. Covered by Penholoway terrace deposits (Pleistocene) mantled by alluvium (Recent), about ----------25 1. A ledge of hard white chalky limestone weathering soft and sticky is visible at low water between Chattahoochee Landing and the Louisville & Nashville Railroad bridge near River Junction ----------------2 From the equivalent of bed 3 Mansfield (1937b, pp. 31, 32) reports the following mollusks: Scaphander ballistus Mansfield? Epitonium sp. Arca umbonata Lamark? Ostrea aff. 0. antiguensis Brown Chlamys crocus (Cooke) sp. b. Modiolus blandus Dall Divaricella sp. Protocardia sp. Cardium gadsdenense Mansfield Venus? sp. Semele silicata Dall? Panope aff. P. goldfussii (Wagner) From the equivalent of bed 6 Mansfield (1937b, p. 32) reports the following mollusks: Conus sp. Potamides campanulatus Heilprin Xenophora sp. Ampullina cf. A. amphora (Heilprin) Glycymeris sp. Chlamys crocus (Cooke) ? Lithophaga bisulcata d'Orbigny Venericardia sp. Cyrena cf. C. floridana Dall Antigona shepardi Dall



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SCIENCE ROOM Manuscript received December 11, 1944 Published September 15, 1945 FLORIDA GROWER PRESS, Tampa



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294 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The bare surface of the Talbot formation is the Talbot terrace, which stands lower than the Penholoway terrace and higher than the Pamlico, with a shore line about 42 feet above sea level. The shore line apparently remains nearly horizontal from Maryland to Florida, though its exact location is at many places obscure because the beach was shelving rather than steep. This condition may be considered normal, because there was no subaerial erosion of the Penholoway plain before the Talbot sea came to rest. Paleogeography-The shore of the Talbot sea was less indented than that of the Penholoway because most of the lagoons that remained after the Penholoway emergence were drained by the Talbot emergence. There were estuaries up the valleys of the principal streams of northwestern Florida, along the Suwannee beyond the mouth of the Santa Fe, and perhaps others. The peninsula terminated in Glades County a few miles north of La Belle.. (See fig. 46.) There were several long, narrow barrier islands east of the present St. Johns near Jacksonville, but the eastern shore of the mainland lay some 25 miles inland as far south as Martin County. It apparently crossed Volusia County about 3 miles east of De Land. There was a wide embayment at the southeastern corner of the peninsula extending inland to Lake Istokpoga. The shore lay nearer the present west coast, particularly west of Choctawhatchee River, where the sea bottom apparently sloped rather steeply. Fauna--No fossils have been found in the Talbot formation in Florida. Utilization-The Talbot formation may contain useful deposits of brick clay and sand. LOCAL DETAILS Bay County-The Talbot terrace is best developed in the western part of Bay County, where it covers many square miles of the Seminole Hills quadrangle. A 30-foot cut along the Intracoastal Waterway in secs. 15-18, T. 2 S., R. 17 W., may yield exposures of the Talbot formation. The Talbot shore is fairly steep, but the terrace is very narrow in the EY/ sec. 7, T. 2 S., R. 16 W. The Penholoway terrace rises



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84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Byram limestone (Oligocene): 6. Yellow compact limestone with hackly fracture ----3 5. Brownish-gray calcareous clay containing fragments of lignitized wood -------------4 2 4. Slightly harder ledge of brownish-gray argillaceous limestone containing Lepidocyclina sp. and Pecten poulsoni? --1 3. Brownish-gray calcareous clay containing small Lepidocyclina ---------------3 2. Hard, compact light-gray or cream-colored limestone containing Lepidocyclina and Pecten, a hardened facies of bed 1 1 1. Soft, compact light-gray limestone containing Lepidocyclina --------------1/2 Yellow granular limestone containing impressions of a small Lepidocyclina, probably L. supera, Pecten sp., and other fossils crop out at the abutment of the bridge over Dry Creek in sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 10 W., about 7 miles south of Marianna. MacNeil (1944, p. 1331) describes the following section on a new road leading from Marianna to the Marianna Caverns State Park: SECTION 0.4 MILE NORTH OF CHIPOLA RIVER FEET INCHES Byram formation, Glendon limestone member: 9. Light bluish gray to brown bentonitic clay, largely weathered, possibly in part a concretion from weathering of bentonitic limestone or dolomite, filling caverns and solution holes in underlying dolomite, an undulating line of weathering forming the base -----2+ 8. Buff, moderately tough dolomite with prints of fossils 77. Buff, tough dolomite ----------1 6 6. Buff to gray clayey dolomite --------10 5. White, hard limestone ledge where unweathered in center of cut, passing successively through zone of partly dolomitized limestone and zone of unaltered limestone pellets to buff dolomite at ends of road cut ----10 4. Buff, tough dolomite with prints of Pecten and Lepidocyclina (lens of soft, unaltered cream-colored limestone, with shells preserved, on under side of unaltered part of zone above) ----------5 6 Marianna limestone: 3. Cream-colored, very hard limestone ledge ----1 6 2. White, tough limestone with harder concretionary zones 5 1. White, soft, homogeneous limestone ------6+



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4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE FIGURE 1.-View of relief model of part of North America, including the Floridian Plateau. After COOKE and MOSSOM, 1929, pi. 1.



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50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE The Tallahassee limestone apparently represents a geologic horizon not present at the outcrop in western Alabama, where the Ostrea sellaeformis zone of the Lisbon formation (equivalent to the Wautubbee formation of Mississippi) is overlain by deposits of Jackson age, which overlap the Tallahassee. Paleogeography-The Tallahassee limestone was deposited in the open ocean, probably not far from land. The location of the shore line is not known. It may have been coincident with that of the Claiborne group of Alabama, or, more likely, not so far inland. The presence of clay in the formation, to which may perhaps be attributed its tan color, suggests a nearby source. Fauna-The Tallahassee limestone contains small species of Foraminifera, many of which appear to be undescribed. As a whole, its fauna bears some resemblance to that of the Cocoa sand member of the Yazoo clay of Jackson age, but it includes some species restricted to the Claiborne group. LOCAL DETAILS The Applins (1944) report the Tallahassee limestone in the following wells in Florida: Calhoun County-Calhoun Oil & Gas Company well, half a mile northwest of Clarksville, depths 915 to 1000 feet; total depth of well, 1320 feet. Gadsden County-City of Quincy municipal well at waterworks on Bainbridge road, depths 910 to 1395 feet; total depth of well, 1395 feet. /10 Jackson County-Florida State Hospital well (sec. 31, T. 4 N., R. 6 W.), depths 400 to unknown; total depth of well, 477 feet. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Millard and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 1100 to 1740 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet. Leon County-Central Florida Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville, depths 990 to 1600 feet; total depth of well, 3755 feet. Wakulla County-Bonheur Development Company well



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PLEISTOCENE SERIES 281 crosses the Choctawhatchee National Forest not far north of the Tallahassee base line. The Sunderland formation probably lies at the surface over most of the quadrangle south of that line, though it may be cut through by some of the valleys. Polk County-The log of the West Frostproof Land & Oil Company's well in the SE4 NE/4 sec. 4, T. 32 S., R. 27 E., shows white sand extending to a depth of 65 feet. All the sand is fine except a sample representing a depth of 30 to 40 feet, which is coarse, and another from 60 to 65, which is also coarse and contains pebbles. This white sand rests on the Bone Valley formation (Pliocene). Part of it may represent the Sunderland, the remainder the Coharie and Brandywine formations. The source of this considerable thickness of sand so far from the mainland was probably an island in the vicinity of Lake Wales, not many miles distant. Santa Rosa County-U.S. Highway 90 on both sides of Harold follows a flat divide ranging around 140 to 170 feet above sea level. Part of the Harold quadrangle south of Yellow River also lies within the limits of the Sunderland terrace. The surface throughout this region is covered with drab sand. Walton County-There are many flat-topped divides between the limiting altitudes (170-100 feet) of the Sunderland terrace in the southern parts of the Niceville and De Funiak Springs quadrangles. These are probably underlain by sand of the Sunderland formation. WICOMICO FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The name "Wicomico formation" was first used by Shattuck (1901, pp. 73-75), who took it from Wicomico River in St. Marys and Charles Counties, Maryland. He included in it deposits lying between 40 or 50 feet above sea level and 90 feet. Cooke (1931, p. 508) restricted the Wicomico terrace (and, by implication, the Wicomico formation) by eliminating from it the Penholoway terrace (shore line 70 feet above sea level) and defined the Wicomico by referring it to a shore line at 100 feet. Matson (1913, p. 32) applied the name "Newberry" to the Wicomico in Florida. He recognized it as marine, specified its limiting altitudes



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162 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE of 30 feet in the southern part of Washington County and 56 feet near Falling Water, where the deposit is more sandy and clayey. None of these measurements may include the entire thickness of the Chipola. Distribution-The Chipola formation as mapped extends from Apalachicola River in Liberty County to the northwestern part of Okaloosa County, where it connects with undifferentiated Miocene deposits in southern Alabama. In Calhoun and the eastern part of Washington Counties it is overlapped by the Citronelle formation and crops out only along Apalachicola and Chipola Rivers and possibly along Econfina Creek. Farther west it lies at the surface over a considerable area, but it has not been explored in detail. Stratigraphic relations-The Chipola formation seems to merge laterally into the Hawthorn formation, the difference between them being one of facies. Ifothis is true, one would expect both the Chipola and the Hawthorn to show the same relationship, either conformable or unconformable, with the next older formation, the Tampa limestone. The Hawthorn is probably conformable with the Tampa, but Cushman and Ponton (1932, p. 31) found ...the soft greenish-gray shell marl of the Chipola lying on what looks like the eroded surface of the hard white to buff limestone of the Tampa. The great difference between the sediments alone would suggest an unconformity. However, Burns (1889-1890, p. 19) thought that the Chipola rests conformably on the underlying limestone on Chipola River. The Chipola was probably succeeded by the Shoal River without great migration of the shore line. From the central part of Washington County eastward the Chipola is directly and unconformably overlain by the Duplin marl, the Shoal River formation being 'overlapped or eroded. Fauna-Cushman and Ponton (1932, p. 35) list 39 species of Chipola Foraminifera that are not known in Miocene formations younger than the Chipola, but 23 of these species recur in the Recent seas. Their supposed absence from deposits of intermediate ages therefore cannot be relied on in identifying the formation. They regard an unnamed Sorites? as particularly characteristic of the Chipola and Hawthorn.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-OLDSMAR LIMESTONE 41 the Nanafalia formation from the Tuscahoma sand in Alabama. In northwest Florida the limestone breaks into tongues, which interfinger with tongues of clay and sand extending southward from Alabama. The main body of the Oldsmar appears to be equivalent to the entire Wilcox group of Alabama. Paleogeography-The Oldsmar limestone was deposited in the open sea, far away from land. The boundary between the area in which limestone was deposited and that in which the sea bottom was sandy or clayey shifted back and forth from time to time across northwestern Florida and southern Alabama, producing an interfingering of the limestone with the clastic sediments. Fauna-Applin and Applin (1944) recognize four distinct faunal zones in the Oldsmar limestone. The topmost is characterized by Helicoste'gina gyralis Parker and Grimsdale; the next by Pseudophragmina cedarkeysensis Cole; the third by Coskinolina elongata Cole; and the fourth by an unnamed species of Foraminifera. LOCAL DETAILS Applin and Applin (1944) have recognized the Oldsmar limestone in the following wells: Broward County-Port Everglades Oil & Gas Company well 2 miles south of Fort Lauderdale, depths of about 2500 and 3010 feet; total depth of well, 3010 feet. Columbia County-City well at Lake City (sec. 5, T. 4 S., R. 17 E.), depths 1010 to 1012 feet; total depth of well, 1012 feet. Dade County-East Coast Oil & Gas Company No. 1 Warwick (sec. 12, T. 55 S., R. 40 E.), depths 2737 to 3675 feet; total depth of well, 5432 feet. Miami Oil & Gas Company No. 1 Chevalier (sec. 19, T. 54 S., R. 35 E.), 3720 (first sample) to 3773 feet; total depth of well, 4560 feet. Dixie County-Florida Oil & Development Company No. 1 Putnam Lumber Company, depths 1085 to 1561 feet; total depth of well, 4776 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 195 SECTION AT BOYNTON LANDING FEET Terrace deposits (Pleistocene): 4. Sloping and covered by sand and pebbles -------25 Duplin(?) marl (upper Miocene?): 3. Limestone ledge, fossils mostly as casts --------3 2. Yellow and blue clay, leaf impressions of Sabalites apalachicolensis Berry and Fagara apalachicolensis Berry ------2 Chipola formation (middle Miocene): 1. Marl \vith many fossils mostly preserved as casts, silicified oysters abundant near the top -------------6 Mansfield (1930, p. 16), without comment, refers the highest fossiliferous bed at Rocky Landing, Choctawhatchee River west of Red Head, to the Ecphora zone (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 145) The fossils from this bed appear not to have been reported on in his two bulletins on the mollusks of the Choctawhatchee formation (Mansfield, 1930, 1932). Vernon (1942, p. 108) did not recognize any Tertiary beds younger than Chipola there. The place presumably is near the line between sections 17 and 20, T. 1 N., R. 16 W.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-PENHOLOWAY FORMATION 291 Putnam County-The low plateau that extends for 5 miles southwest of Palatka appears to have been a shoal in the Penholoway sea. It probably consists of a core of Pliocene Caloosahatchee marl veneered with sand of Penholoway age. The low mounds along the eastern edge have the appearance on the map of being sand dunes. Santa Rosa County-The fringe of Penholoway terrace inf Santa Rosa County is very narrow. It is fairly well developed in secs. 35 and 36, T. 1 S., R. 26 W., and in sec. 2, T. 2 S., R. 26 W. Sumter County-A broad band of Penholoway terrace borders Withlacoochee River and extends eastward as far as Wildwood. The Penholoway formation in this region is probably very thin, for the Ocala limestone lies at the surface in some places. Suwannee County-An estuary of the Penholoway sea apparently extended up Suwannee River at least as far as the mouth of the Withlacoochee, but its exact limits are unknown. Argillaceous yellow sand containing small pebbles unconformably overlies the Suwannee limestone to a thickness of about 15 feet at the Seaboard Railway bridge opposite Ellaville. Taylor County-The Atlantic Coast Line Railway apparently runs along the Penholoway terrace from Perry southward, but the boundaries of the terrace have not been mapped. Wakulla County-The shore line of the Penholoway sea extended from sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 2 W., where it was fairly steep, southwestward almost to Ochlockonee River, where it terminated in a peninsula at the mouth of the Apalachicola estuary. Cow Swamp is on the terrace. New Light Church, sec. 19, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., stands on the outer edge of the terrace, which extends southward past Arran. Walton County-The Penholoway extends as a well-defined terrace lying, for the most part, between the 70and the 50-foot contour lines. It averages about 1 mile in width in the northeastern part of the Point Washington quadrangle. It is somewhat wider in secs. 2 and 11, T. 1 S., R. 20 W., on the De Funiak Springs quadrangle, but the shore line in that vicinity does not show conspicuously on the map.



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iMm K 0i"i AmL A q N N4



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MIAMI OOLITE 261 Dade County-The Miami oolite underlies nearly all of Dade County, though it is very thin in the western part, where oolitic spherules are less conspicuous than in the coastal strip. At many places percolating waters have dissolved the calcium carbonate of the spherules and redeposited it elsewhere, thus destroying the oolitic appearance of the rock or making it vesicular. Miami oolite has been brought up by the dredge along the Miami Canal. The rock is visible above water level in the banks of the canal except where it is covered by peaty muck. In the Everglades the oolite is overlain by about one foot of gray calcareous clay, the Lake Flirt marl, containing freshwater shells, and by a few feet of peaty muck. Along the Ingraham Highway (Cape Sable road) the Miami oolite lies at the surface except in the Everglades, where it is covered by the Lake Flirt marl. The Tamiami Trail was built of Miami oolite dredged from borrow pits along the right of way, and the highway to Key Largo was constructed in the same manner. Huge pits have been dug in the Miami oolite near Ojus to obtain rock for use as road metal and for concrete mixtures. The pit of the Maule Ojus Rock Company at Ojus covered about 400 acres in 1925 (Mossom, 1925, p. 130). It lies near the ocean and is connected with it by a canal. The rock rises about 3 feet above water level and was dredged in 1925 to a depth of 22 feet below it. The pit of the Ojus Rock Company at Ojus was worked to a depth of 29 feet. At the north end of this pit the rock stood 8 or 10 feet above water level and was worked by steam shovels; at the southwest end it was dredged. The oolite in this region has been altered by percolating waters to such an extent that many of the spherules have been obliterated, and the rock has become hard limestone that breaks with rough, jagged edges. A good deal of sand has fallen through cavities and become incorporated in the rock. Numerous pits near Miami and farther south supply the local demand for road metal and building stone. A typical pit is that of the Ojus Rock Company at Naraja, in which 10 or 12 feet of Miami oolite is quarried for use as road





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138 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Alabama, and westward to Texas. (See fig. 14.) East of the Apalachicola River it deposited the Hawthorn formation; west of it, successively the Chipola and the Shoal River formations in Florida and the Hattiesburg clay in Mississippi and Louisiana. Much of the Hawthorn has since been eroded from the region of the Ocala Uplift, leaving isolated patches in Pasco, Hernando, Marion, Alachua, and Gilchrist Counties. The band of outcrop of the Alum Bluff group extends from Okaloosa County eastward to Columbia County, thence southeastward to Marion County, but it is broken by overlaps of the Citronelle and other formations to Manatee County, from which it extends into Sarasota County. There are also a few exposures near Peace Creek in Polk and Hardee Counties. Stratigraphic relations-The Alum Bluff group comprises the deposits made by an expanding sea. At the end of Tampa time the shore line advanced inland beyond the shores of the Tampa sea and deposited the Hawthorn formation unconformably on the old land surface; but in the area covered by the Tampa sea the Hawthorn and the Chipola formations probably lie conformably on the Tampai limestone. The Hawthorn (in the peninsula) and the Chipola (in western Florida) represent different lithologic facies of contemporaneous deposits, but the Hawthorn may include also the equivalent of the Shoal River formation or part of it. The Chipola and the overlying Shoal River are probably conformable. The Oak Grove sand member at the bottom of the Shoal River formation apparently is merely a local highly fossiliferous development of a faunal zone that elsewhere is more sparingly fossiliferous. At the end of Alum Bluff time the sea withdrew, and the younger deposits that overlie the group are unconformable with it. Vernon (1942, p. 75), who has studied the Alum Bluff group in Holmes and Washington Counties, regards the Chipola and the Shoal River as contemporaneous ecological facies. There is some justification for this belief, but it seems more probable that the two form a chronological sequence and that the Chipola is represented by unfossiliferous sand and clay west of its typical development, where it presumably merges into the Hattiesburg clay. The Alum Bluff group apparently lies conformably on the



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-FLINT RIVER FORMATION 107 western Georgia, where it is broken into two parts by an inlier of Ocala limestone. The formation is completely overlapped in eastern Georgia, but it reappears in the valley of Savannah River. In Florida it extends from Chattahoochee River westward to Walton County. Stratigraphic relations-The Flint River formation merges southward into the Suwannee limestone, from which it differs in containing a large proportion of sand, clay or gravel, whereas the Suwannee consists of almost pure calcium carbonate. It merges westward (in Alabama) into the Chickasawhay limestone, which is rather variable in composition, but whose clastic sediments are generally finer than the sand of the Flint River. All three formations overlie the Byram unconformably, and the Flint River transgresses northward across older formations to the basal middle Eocene Tallahatta formation in Alabama and the Paleocene Clayton formation in Georgia. The Flint River formation generally lies at the surface in Florida, but it is overlapped unconformably by the Hawthorn formation in eastern Georgia. Paleogeography-The Flint River formation was deposited in shallow marine water not far from land. Its shore line extended from Washington County, Alabama, through Fort Gaines across Georgia to South Carolina. In this sea sand, clay, gravel, and some limestone accumulated mostly east of Conecuh River. Farther west calcareous clay (Chickasawhay limestone) predominated, and farther south the pure Suwannee limestone was formed. Fauna and flora-The organisms that lived in theFlint River sea were reef-dwelling and shallow-water marine forms. They included calcareous algae and corals, which were abundant .in reefs near Bainbridge, Georgia, several species of Cerithium, and a great variety of other mollusks (Dall, 1916; Cooke, 1923, pp. 5-6). The mollusks are more closely related to those of the Suwannee limestone than one would suppose from Mansfield's (1937b) report on the mollusks of the Suwannee, for his differentiation of several species is based on variations that appear to be insignificant. Cassidulus gouldii (Bouvr), a characteristic Suwannee echinoid, is fairly common in the Flint River formation, from which the type was obtained. Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) is less abundant than



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 133 soft white or cream-colored limestone containing casts of many fossils. This rock contains about 82 percent calcium carbonate (Mossom, 1925, p. 182). A large sink, called The Swirl, about 2 miles southeast of Crawfordville, shows about 16 feet of hard brown limestone under an equal thickness of sand. About 5 feet of Tampa limestone can be seen in the old pit of the Wakulla Turpentine Company three-quarters of a mile northwest of Wakulla station. From these and other places in Wakulla County Mansfield (1937b, p. 25) lists the following species of fossils, which include four species of land snails, 22 gastropods, and 29 pelecypods, and one bee chamber: Pleurodonte cf. P. cunctator (Dall) Bulimulus americanus wakullae Mansfield patulinus Dall? Cerion anodonta (Dall) Scaphander ballistus Mansfield Conus princeps wakullensis Mansfield Fusiturricula: condomina (Dall) Lyria heilprini Dall Conomitra angulata (Heilprin) Xancus polygonatus (Heilprin) Murex tritonopsis Heilprin Carolliophaga magna Dall Cypraea tumulus Heilprin Strombus liocyclus Dall Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin) Cerithium praecursor Heilprin aff. C. georgianum Lyell and Sowerby Potamides transecta Dall campanulatus Heilprin cornutus (Heilprin) Turritella tampae Dall pagodaeformis Heilprin megalobasis Dall Calyptraea trochiformis Lamarck Globularia streptostoma (Heilprin) Ampullina amphora (Heilprin) Nuculana flexuosa (Heilprin) Glycymeris cf. G. lamyi Dall Arca umbonata Lamarck grammatodonta Dall Barbatia arcula Heilprin Anadara hypomela (Dall) fltren -nii ahani D1ll



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Deformation, tilting, and emergence. Alachua Bone Valley Buckingham Caloosahatchee Charlton Citronelle Tamiami Z formation formation marl formation formation formation formation U 2 (terrestrial, (estuarine, (marine). (marine). (estuarine). (littoral). (marine). j Cn of Hemphill of Hemphill age). age). Erosion interval. > Duplin marl (marine, of late Yorktown age). tM W Erosion interval during early Yorktown time. 0 0 W Aluin Bluff group: Shoal River formation (marine). 0 o Chipola formation (marine). o V) Hawthorn formation (marine). > Tampa limestone (marine, of Anguilla age). Erosion interval. 5 SSuwannee limestone (marine). Flint River formation (littoral, of Antigua age). z < o Erosion interval. S w Byram limestone (marine, of late Vicksburg age). 0 4 Marianna limestone (marine, of early Vicksburg age). o SErosion interval during Red Bluff time. 1 Ocala limestone (marine, of Jackson age). Z Erosion interval. Z g Avon Park limestone (marine, of Claiborne age). § Tallahassee limestone (marine, of Claiborne age). V) Lake City limestone (marine, of Claiborne age). Erosion interval. Oldsmar limestone (marine). Salt Mountain limestone (marine, of Wilcox age). S W edar Keyj limestone (marine). Porters Creek formation (marine, of Midway age). P-1 0 UO



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-DUPLIN MARL 187 Duplin marl (upper Miocene): 2. Steel-gray unfossiliferous clay ----------10 1. Dark greenish-gray sandy shell marl (Ecphora zone); great numbers of Mulinia congesta ------------21 The Duplin marl is exposed also on the south bank of Fourmile Creek about three-quarters'of a mile north of Clarksville and about half a mile west of the highway bridge (Mossom, 1925, p. 123): SECTION ON FOURMILE CREEK NEAR CLARKSVILLE FEET Sunderland(?) formation (Pleistocene?): 4. Steeply sloping bluff covered by sandy loam (approximately) -50 Duplin marl (upper Miocene): 3. Gray micaceous clay (exposed) ----------4 2. Greenish-gray very fossiliferous marl (Ecphora zone); lower 2 feet composed almost exclusively of closely packed shells; less shelly above and grading into the overlying micaceous clay --5 1. Covered to water level ----------6 Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 120) report 14 feet of clay above the marl at this place, and 'the clay may extend even higher under cover. Clay County-Several exposures of sandy limestone along Black Creek in the vicinity of Middleburg were referred to Dall's Jacksonville formation by Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 112) and tentatively to the Hawthorn formation by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 128). They reported 5 feet of the limestone on the north bank about 5 miles above the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Two miles above Middleburg they found 10 feet of soft porous light-gray siliceous and arenaceous highly fossiliferous limestone underlain by 4 feet of similar rock containing fewer fossils. The lower 17 feet of the 80-foot bluff on the South Fork of Black Creek in the SWV4 NE/4 sec. 13, T. 5 S., R. 24 E., three-quarters of a mile southeast of Middleburg, consist of tough cream-colored to yellow speckled argillaceous sand, probably originally 'calcareous, weathering to plastic blue sandy clay. The upper part contains obscure impressions of mollusks, of which the most common is a fluted oyster of the Ostrea sculpturata type. Less-weathered exposures in an old



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-BUCKINGHAM MARL 211 Distribution-The Buckingham marl is exposed here and there along or near Caloosahatchee River from the vicinity of Denaud to the type locality, a clay pit south of Buckingham. It has also been recognized between Sunniland and Immokalee. The boundary lines shown on the geologic map are in large part conjectural. Stratigraphic relations-The bottom of the Buckingham marl is nowhere exposed. However, a well near Buckingham shows that at a depth of about 45 feet it lies on greenish-gray sandy limestone supposed to be the Hawthorn formation. No doubt, the contact is unconformable, though the relations can only be surmised. Along Caloosahatchee River between a point near Denaud and Floweree Grove, 4V/4 miles farther west, the Buckingham marl interfingers with and merges into the less-clayey Caloosahatchee formation. The Buckingham is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene deposits. Paleogeography-The Buckingham marl appears to have accumulated in quiet, sheltered marine water out of the path of currents strong enough to carry sand grains. Conditions were favorable for the precipitation of phosphatic matter, which is an important constituent, particularly in the lower part of the formation. The large proportion of clay in the Buckingham indicates that a river entered the ocean at some not very distant point, presumably the same river in whose delta part of the Bone Valley formation was deposited. Fauna-The most conspicuous elements of the fauna of the Buckingham are the oysters and scallops (Pectens), but there are other mollusks as well as foraminifers and other kinds of animals. The only vertebrate found is a whale-bone whale. The following species of mollusks were noted by Mansfield (1939a, pp. 46-58): Cancellaria cf. C. tabulata Gardner and Aldrich aff. C. venusta Tuomey and Holmes Dorsanum? cf. D.? plicatilum (B6se) Turritella aff. T. cartagenensis Brown and Pilsbry cf. T. pontoni Mansfield buckinghamensis Mansfield Nuculana sp. Navicula occidentalis Philippi? umbonata Lamarck?



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178 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE Crenella sp. (young) Astarte sp. (young) vaughani Mansfield Crassatellites melinus Conrad Venericardia sp. indet. Chamna arcinella Linnaeus Phacoides cremilatus Conrad choctawhatcheensis Mansfield sp. indet. Diplodonta two sp. indet. waltonensis Mansfield ? sp. indet. Sphaerella? two sp. Cardium acutilaqueatum Conrad Dosinia elegans Conrad Macrocallista maculata Linnaeus Venus rileyi Conrad Semele sp. indet. Corbula two sp. Panope goldfussi Wagner About 25 feet of fossiliferous gray marl is exposed in an old road cut on the east bank of Alaqua Creek on P. Permenter's farm in sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 19. The bed was assigned to the Ecphora zone of the Chootawhatchee formation [Duplin marl] by Mansfield (1932b, p. 15), but R. Hendee Smith (1941, pp. 269-274), who has studied the microfauna as well as the mollusks, thinks it is intermediate in age between the Arca zone and the Ecphora zone and that its fauna is middle Miocene rather than upper Miocene. It is here included in the Shoal River formation, of which it represents the youngest-known part. This same fauna was recognized by Smith (R. H. Smith, 1941, p. 274) in a well at Niceville, Okaloosa County, where the bed is at least 80 feet thick. He named the unit the Permenter's Farm beds. Washington County-The Shoal River formation is confined to the southern part of Washington County, where it is for the most part covered by younger deposits. Econfina Creek cuts through the Duplin marl into hard crystalline limestone that merges upstream into the blue sandy micaceous marl that has been tentatively assigned to the Shoal River formation in Bay County. Vernon (1942) maps the Alum Bluff group down the creek almost to the Bay County line. He reports (1942, p. 78) a 2-foot ledge of blue-green fossili-



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-GULF SERIES 25 Beds of the Gulf series in the Peninsula consist for the most part of limestone. Applin and Applin (1944) recognize equivalents of the Eagle Ford shale, the Austin chalk, the Taylor marl, and an upper formation of Navarro age, to which they give the name Lawson limestone. TUSCALOOSA FORMATION GENERAL FEATURES Name-The Tuscaloosa formation was named from a city in Alabama. The name dates from 1887, when it was first used by Smith and Johnson. Characters-At the outcrop in Alabama and adjacent States the Tuscaloosa is a littoral and continental formation consisting chiefly of coarse dirty sand and lenses of clay, some of which are pure white kaolin. It contains no lime though it includes a glauconitic member. Recent field work by W. H. Monroe indicates that it is divisible. The identification as Tuscaloosa of marine beds in wells far from the outcrop needs verification, for it is based primarily on their stratigraphic position below beds of Eutaw age. Thickness-The thickness of beds assigned by the Applins to the Tuscaloosa in wells in Florida ranges from 65 feet in Levy County to 1442 feet in Washington County, where the base of the formation has not been reached. Distribution-From the type area in Alabama the outcrop of the Tuscaloosa formation extends northwestward up the Mississippi Embayment at least as far as Tennessee and eastward to North Carolina, where the formation is overlapped by younger beds. Marine beds identified with it occupy northwestern and northeastern Florida but appear to be absent from Marion County. Limestone in southern Florida referred to the Tuscaloosa by Applin and Applin (1944) is herein described under the heading "Deposits of Eagle Ford age." Stratigraphic relations-At the outcrop the Tuscaloosa formation lies unconformably on rocks of Paleozoic age or older, and unconformably under the Eutaw formation or its equivalent or younger beds. The same relationships may be



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-EOCENE SERIES 45 tions, the Tallahatta at the base and the Lisbon above. The Gosport sand, which was the topmost formation of the original Claiborne group, has proved to be of basal Jackson age and is now classified as Moodys Branch marl (Cooke, 1939a). The Lisbon is divisible into at least two parts, a lower glauconitic part corresponding to the Cane River formation of Louisiana and an upper calcareous part corresponding to the Cook Mountain formation of Texas. In Georgia the deposits of Claiborne age, which are not divided, are called the McBean formation (Cooke, 1944, p. 53). Throughout the Coastal Plain the outcropping formations of Claiborne age overlie unconformably deposits of Wilcox age or older formations and are overlain unconformably and at many places overlapped by deposits of Jackson age. In Florida the deposits of Claiborne age underlie the entire State, but they are generally buried by younger beds. From studies of many well cuttings, Applin and Applin (1944) have been able to recognize two facies, a clastic facies in northwestern Florida and a limestone facies in the northeastern and peninsular parts of the State. They recognize Cook Mountain fossils in the clastic facies, which is continuous with the Claiborne group of Alabama and presumably is equivalent to the littoral Tallahatta formation and the Lisbon formation combined. They divide the limestone into three formations, the Lake City limestone at the base, the Tallahassee limestone above it, and the Avon Park limestone at the top. Their profiles suggest that the Lake City limestone is equivalent to the clastic facies and that the Tallahassee and the Avon Park are younger. The top of the deposits of Claiborne age appears to have been beveled off before the deposition of the Ocala limestone, which overlies the clastic facies in northwestern Florida, the Tallahassee limestone in Gadsden County, and the Avon Park limestone farther east. This relationship might be explained as caused by a migration of facies of deposition,. but it may be the result of subaerial erosion. This latter explanation seems the more plausible because the deposits of Jackson age everywhere at the outcrop transgressively overlie an eroded surface.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-TAMPA LIMESTONE 117 1 5 64 S3d 7 11 12 FIGURE 15.-Fossils from the Tampa limestone. 1, Archaias floridanus (Conrad); 2, Murex trophoniformis Heilprin; 3, Turritella tampae Heilprin; 4, T. systoliata Dall; 5, Pyrazisinus campanulatus Heilprin; 6, Lyria musicina Heilprin; 7, Strombus liocyclus Dall; 8, Chione rhodia Dall; 9, Antigona glyptoconcha Dall; 10, Trigoniocardia alicula Dall; 11, Cyrena pompholyx Dall; 12, Ampullina amphora Heilprin. After COOKE and MossoM, 1929, pi. 8.



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48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE 15, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.), depths 200 to 776 feet; total depth of well, 5022 feet. Clastic facies. Jefferson County-Southern States Oil Corporation No. 1 Millard and Gossard (sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 5 E.), depths 1740 to 2223 feet; total depth of well, 3838 feet. Lake County-Oil Development Company of Florida No. 1 J. Ray Arnold (sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1010 to 2000 feet (approximately); total depth of well, 6120 feet. Leon County-Central Florida Oil & Gas Company well 3 miles east of Woodville, depths 1600 to 1995 feet; total depth of well, 3755 feet. Levy County-Florida Oil Discovery Company No. 2 Sholtz (sec. 9, T. 15 S., R. 13 E.), depths 811 to 1308 feet; total depth of well, 5266 feet. Marion County-J. S. Cosden No. 1 Lawson (sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 20 E.), depths 915 to 1285 feet; total depth of well, 4334 feet. Monroe County-Peninsular Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Cory (sec. 6, T. 55 S., R. 34 E.), depths 1810 to 2050 feet; total depth of well, 10,006 feet. Nassau County-St. Marys River Oil Corporation No. 1 Hilliard Turpentine Company (sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 24 E.), depths 945 to 1370 feet; total depth of well, 4821 feet. Rayonier, Inc., well at Fernandina (sec. 60, T. 3 N., R. 28 E.), depths 853 to 1060 feet; total depth of well, 1060 feet. Polk County-Pioneer Oil Company No. 1 HecksherYarnell (sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E.), depths 1540 to 1960 feet; total depth of well, 4540 feet. Avon Park Bombing Range (sec. 31, T. 32 S., R. 25 E.), depths 930 to 1040 feet; total depth of well, 1040 feet. St. Johns County-East Coast Hotel Company well at St. Augustine, depths 590 to 1350 feet; total depth of well, 1350 feet. Sumter County-Dundee Petroleum Company "Bushnell well" (sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 22 E.), depths 890 to 1430 feet; total depth of well, 3070 feet.



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-MARIANNA LIMESTONE 79 posure found by Vernon (1942, p. 54) is in a small sink in the NW'/4SE4 sec. 3, T. 5 N., R. 17 W., where he reports 9.8 feet of cream-colored to light-gray massive sandy limestone containing Lepidocyclina mantelli and other Foraminifera overlain by 15.9 feet of thin-bedded similar limestone resembling the Byram formation of Alabama. As authentic exposures of Marianna limestone contain little or no quartz sand, it is possible that none of this rock is Marianna. The westernmost exposure reported by Vernon (1942, p. 55) is in a small sink on the N. C. Spears farm in the NE NW4 SE4 sec. 26, T. 5 N., R. 18 W., a mile east of the Walton County line and half a mile southeast of Leonia. He reports Operculinella dia, Lepidocyclina mantelli?, and other .-Foraminifera from this place. Operculinella dia may indicate that the rock is Byram rather than Marianna. Vernon (1942, p. 53) reports 4 feet of cream-colored porous sandy limestone on Little Gum Creek one-quarter of a mile west of the Hathaway mill in the NW SE sec. 26, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. He lists Foraminifera and Ostracoda "representative of the lower Marianna" limestone. The occurrence of the Ocala limestone here or nearby is shown by the presence of Amusium ocalanum reported by MacNeil (Vernon, 1942, p. 53, footnote). Inasmuch as neither the Ocala nor the Marianna is commonly sandy, and as a good many of the species listed occur in the Byram, it seems quite possible that the bed described by Vernon is neither Ocala nor Marianna, but Byram. Jackson County-The type locality of the Marianna limestone may be regarded as the exposures west of the Chipola River at Marianna. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 57) mention a chimney-rock quarry in this vicinity, and there is one near the road leading to the old bridge. Exposures on this road and a cut on U. S. Highway 90 near the new bridge, a short distance upstream from the old bridge, are characteristic. However, the top of the limestone at both places is probably Byram. In the cut on Highway 90 the contact of the Marianna and the Byram is a somewhat uneven line 17 feet above the bottom of the ditch and about 3 feet below the top of the cut. The following generalized section is based on sections published by Cooke (1915, p. 109; 1917, pp. 109-



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148 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE taining Ostrea normalis crop out in the bed of Lochloosa Creek 200 or 300 yards from Magnesia Spring. There are a few exposures of the fuller's earth and calcareous sandstone of the Hawthorn formation in the bluffs facing Payne Prairie, south of Gainesville. The following section was noted in 1913 at Alachua Sink, 3 /4 miles south-southeast of Gainesville. SECTION AT ALACHUA SINK FEET INCHES Hawthorn formation: 6. Mostly concealed; much debris of gray or white calcareous sandstone like bed 4, in places ferruginous; to top of slope -------------20 5. Green siliceous clay resembling fuller's earth ---4 4. White calcareous sandstone containing small ellipsoidal phosphatic grains -----------1 8 3. Green clay resembling fuller's earth ------4 2. Unconsolidated gray calcareous sand, underlying deposit not exposed -----------6 Unconformity Ocala limestone: 1. White limestone, hard and cherty in places, soft and saccharoidal elsewhere; highly fossiliferous; exposed 30 feet north of the beds described above -----14 Many large silicified colonies of the coral Siderastraea sp. were seen in 1913 in and around Nigger Sink, in sec. 18, T. 7 S., R. 18 E., about 4 miles northeast of High Springs. These were derived from 3 feet of brown argillaceous sand containing residual lumps of white sandstone, which overlies 22 feet of greenish more or less sandy clay containing Ostrea normalis. Both beds form part of the Hawthorn formation. Similar deposits occur north of Alachua. Baker County-Most of Baker County is covered by early Pleistocene marine terrace deposits (Sunderland formation, for the most part). The prongs of St. Marys River probably cut through these into the Hawthorn formation. Gray argillaceous sand weathering mottled red was exposed in 1927 below the 120-foot contour line on the slope to South Prong on US Highway 90, one mile east of Glen St. Marys. This has been mapped as Hawthorn formation, though there is no conclusive evidence as to its age.



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194 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-NINE NW'/4 NE/4 sec. 14, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., yellow sandy marl packed with shells, chiefly varieties of Chione ulocyma Dall, rises about 5 feet above the pond and extends an undetermined distance below the surface of the water. This exposure is referred to the Cancellaria zone. According to Vernon (1942, p. 107) the best exposure in the vicinity for collecting fossils lies approximately 300 yards southwest of Gully Pond, at Blue Sink, where he measured 24.6 feet of blue-gray to brown sandy shell marl. The Cancellaria zone is exposed also at several places in the Deadens, a region of many sinks surrounded by broad prairies that are overflowed during the rainy season. According to Vernon (1942, map) the Deadens occupy part of sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., but the name may apply to a larger area, perhaps extending to Gully Pond. At Hamlin Pond, which Vernon (1942, p. 108) tentatively identifies with Clarks Pond, in the NE'/ SE/4 SW/Y sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., two small, very deep circular sinks are rimmed by vertical walls of shell marl similar to that at Gully Pond but containing a much more diversified fauna. Econfina Creek, which crosses the southeastern township of Washington County, cuts through the Duplin marl, which is exposed in its vertical banks. The marl overlies cavernous limestone, which has been tentatively referred to the Shoal River formation. The most accessible locality is in the NW'4 NE-'4 sec. 22, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., 100 yards above Walsingham Bridge. Vernon (1942, p. 109) measured 7.2 feet of bluegreen sandy shell marl extending 3 feet below water level, lying on hard cavernous limestone and overlain by 6 feet of brownish-gray sandy clay. Other places mentioned by Vernon are above and below Gainer Bridge, which is a short distance above the Bay County line. The Duplin marl may be represented on Choctawhatchee River by deposits at Boynton Landing, which Vernon (1942, p. 84) locates in the SE/4 SE/4 sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. This correlation is suggested by the presence there of two plants originally described from Alum Bluff in beds now referred to the Duplin marl. The following section is based on descriptions and measurements by Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 92):



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GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA-SHOAL RIVER FORMATION 169 Characters-The Shoal River formation consists predominantly of fine micaceous sand and sandy clay. The unweathered Oak Grove sand member of the Shoal River is composed of compact bluish-gray to black sandy shell marl. Where weathered its color is probably much lighter. The typical exposure of the Glycymeris waltonensis zone shows fine blue, yellow, or gray clayey sand filled with shells. The sediments composing the Yoldia waltonensis zone are described as "dark-gray to bluish micaceous, clayey sand with inclusions of carbonaceous particles" (Mansfield and Ponton, 1932, p. 86). The Area rubisiniana zone also consists of bluegray clayey sand. The color of all parts of the Shoal River formation appears to be dark blue or gray on fresh exposures, but it becomes much lighter, generally yellowish or light brown, when weathered. Unweathered parts of the formation contain enough clay to make it fairly firm, and some beds are decidedly clayey. Weathered exposures commonly glisten with flakes of mica. Thickness-Cuttings from a well at Port St. Joe (Cole, 1938, pp. 11, 12) indicate rather vaguely that the drill entered the Arca zone at a depth of 235 feet and passed through the Shoal River formation into limestone of Chipola age at 406 feet, a thickness of about 170 feet near the coast in Gulf County. Distribution-Outcrops of the Shoal River formation lie in a belt about 15 miles wide extending from Yellow River in Okaloosa County north of Milligan to Econfina Creek in Washington and northern Bay Counties. The formation doubtless underlies all the region between that belt and the Gulf and extends southeastward under cover at least as far as Gulf County. The formation is probably wanting in the region east of Apalachicola River, though it may occur below the surface in the western part of Franklin County. The principal exposures are in the much-dissected valleys of Bruce and Alaqua Creeks and their tributaries and along Shoal and Yellow Rivers. Most of the intervening areas are covered by an overlap of the Citronelle formation. Stratigraphic relations-The Shoal River formation is prob-



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PAGE PAGE 28, 29, 31, 34, 42, 48, 52, 68 Lower Matacumbe Key--265 96, 233 Loxahatchee ------224 Lake Flirt marl -----311 Luraville -------85 Lake Geneva Station ---232 Lyle quarry ------100 Lake Hicpochee -----221 Lake lamonia ----128, 155 M Lake Jackson ----128, 155 Lake Kerr ------192 Madison -------96 Lake Lafayette ---128, 155 Madison County, formations in 70 Lakeland ---115, 132, 278 85, 96, 157 Lake Miccosukee--128, 153 Magnesia Spring ----148 Lake Surprise -----265 Man, fossil ------300 Lake Talquin -----155 Manatee County, formations in 157 Lake Tohopekaliga ----224 208, 223, 307 Lake Tsala Apopka ----202 Manatee River ---136, 153 Lake Wales -236, 237, 274, 281 Manatee Spring----69 Lake Worth, islands in ---270 Mangrove swamps ---11-12 Laney, W. T., place ----102 Mansfield, W. C. -90, 93, 97, 99 Langdon, D. W. ---164, 180 100, 104, 107, 113, 114, 115 Langston'sSink ---151 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 130 Largo ------224, 308 131, 132, 133, 152, 153, 159 Lawson limestone ----30 168, 176, 178, 183, 191, 238 Lawson well -28, 30, 32, 34, 40 Marathon, well at ---42, 52 42, 48, 52 Marianna, section at --80, 83 Lawtey quadrangle ----280 Marianna limestone ---75 Lee --------96 quarryin-----77 Lee County, formations in -212 Marianna Lowlands ---10 307 Marietta ---285, 289, 304 Leon County, formations in -26 Marion County, formations in 28 28, 30, 36, 48, 50, 128, 154 30, 32, 34, 42, 48, 52, 70, 129 188, 278, 295 158, 192, 203, 235, 285, 290 Leonia -------79 295 Levy County, formations in -26 Marquesas ------11 28, 30, 32, 34, 42, 48, 68, 203 Martin County, formations in 223 269 269 Levyville, Ocala limestone near 69 Mary Esther quadrangle -285, 290 Liberty -------176 296, 307 Liberty County, formations in 129 Matson, G. C. --113, 115, 122 156, 164, 189, 234, 278 124, 132, 144, 159, 168, 173 Lithia Springs -----208 177, 199, 203, 204, 205, 209 Little Gum Creek ----66 Maule Ojus Rock Co. ---261 Little Sarasota Bay ----160 Maury, C. J. ----122, 124 Live Oak, well at ----49 Mayo, limestone near ---68 Lloyd ----128, 153, 154 Melbourne -265, 267, 301, 309 Lochloosa Creek ----148 311 Loggerhead Key ---11, 259 Melbourne bone bed --299, 301 Lostmans River -239, 243, 262 Merritt Island -----267 Lostmans River limestone --262 Miakka River ---160, 225 Lowell ------130, 159 Miami -------257