s'ilp y;. 4f n
.:. i :LN
B-' '''.: !.- 4 1
: 1.1Aft :
~ :;: ~::'A
.: s : :t .Ora-
=~. / R. o
4 PLI ANNH~c :3
,~. ;~. .i..~at
61 f r
.:I: I~8~111$ 6~~i~lSr~F; TBI-P ~I-~'~i rj~a~T ~~~Ji~42 cIlk, "k, --m.. s~li~ ^
jiN 74 7,1~
.~i5 .t~.i:.i~r Lii::~t~:f
I~ k ;
~: : ~ll~ C~I~sBEIL~.~r ~ ""~.i~; Z I-P---~~ol~ ~J I~~~ I~~14
i:!! ;!:I':1"'' ''':': iw s
-T.. frSuk 1k Ati -
BOTANIST to His MAJESTY
A Journey from S T. A G US T I N E up the River S T. J oN s,
as far as the Lakes.
With EXPLANATORY BOTANICAL NOTES.
-----~ .... ll rll ,
--- ---UX~-~----- ~--C-CT~IC
-( i )
IN T R D U C T ION
J O U R N A L.
AS my view in publishing the account of Eaft-Florida was to make the
nation acquainted with the importance of that colony, and its natural
advantages beyond the reft of the continent of North-America, I feel a parti-
cular fatisfation in finding that my endeavours have not been unfuccefsful,
and that the prejudices of the public against Eaft-Florida, which seemed fome
time ago to be infuperable, are fo much abated, that I no longer wifh for a
more impartial enquiry than is at present made, after the value and real confe-
quence of the different parts of that country.
In order to gratify the curiosity of the speculative, and to give all poflible
fatisfadion to the enquiries of thofe who are defirous to judge of the nature of
the foil and climate of Eaft-Florida, and to compare the advantages and dif-
advantages of fettling there, I here publish the following Journal'; from which
thofe who are accustomed to estimate the comparative goodnefs of countries,
to consider the principles of vegetation, and to obferve the similarity of pro-
duce in similar climates, will conclude a great deal ; whilif men of no
knowledge or experience in thefe matters, will conclude (I had almost faid)
nothing at all.
Mr. John Bartram, a native of Penrylvania, the author of this Journal, is
well known, and well refpeaed in the learned world, as an able Naturalift ;
his knowledge in Botany recommended him to the efteem and patronage of
the Great, and procured him the honour of being Botanift to his Majefty for
both the Floridas. The ufefulnefs of his Journal, in making early known to
the world what are the natural produ&ions of the country to which it relates,
is a sufficient proof of the ufefulnefs of his appointment.
The frequent discovery of new plants and herbs, in countries long fettled;
Ihows how neceffary it is that a new country should be feen, and obferved by
[ "; ]
learned eyes, in order that an age may not pafs before any tolerable judgment
is formed of what it naturally produces, and of what it is capable of producing.
Nobody is uninformed, that Carolina was fettled near halfa century before
a grain of rice was fown in it, though it is now the ftaple commodity of the
colony ; it might have wanted that bafis of its prefent importance to this hour,
had not an accidental remnant of rice on board a fhip, that had vidualled
with it, been given a planter, who fowed a little for an experiment. How
long was England, this a&ive, enterprizing, philosophical nation, uninformed
of the ufes of clover, turnips, potatoes, &c. without which its present inha-
bitants would be at a lofs for fubfiftance ? I hope that fuch inftances as thefe
in times paft, will prevent the like in time to come ; and that intelligent men,
whofe knowledge is extended over the whole globe, will endeavour to multi-
ply the articles of commerce in his Majefty's dominions, and the means of
fubfiftance every where, by transferring the ufeful trees, plants, and grains,
from countries where they are cultivated, to thofe where they are not, but
may be cultivated equally well. The new introduction of but a single grain
or plant, as the rice in Carolina, or the turnip in Norfolk, will sometimes
totally change the face and condition of a country. Here therefore is a field
in which the naturalist may make his science peculiarly ufeful. His know-
ledge extending throughout the vegetable world, informs him where every
valuable plant, grain, or tree is to be found, and alfo in what country it is
wanting, and may be propagated to advantage. I cannot touch uponi this
fubje& without mentioning Mr. John Ellis, Fellow of the Royal Society, and
Agent for Weft-Florida, whofe difcovery of the art of preferring feeds during
long voyages, together with his affiduity in procuring from all parts of the
globe, iuch as are moft likely to be beneficial to his Majefty's colonies, does
honour to himself, and will render him, I doubt not, a great benefacor to
mankind. It is to this very ingenious gentleman that I am indebted for the
following catalogue of plants that may be ufeful in America, in which, to
avoid confusion in the botanical names, Mr. Ellis hath given both the gene-
rical and the fpecifick or trivial names of the plants, with the page referred to
in the celebrated Dr. Linneus's 2d edition of his Specie3 of Plants. Olhtr
authors of the belt authority are mentioned, where Linnsus is filenr.
[ iii ]
2d Ed. Lid. Sp.j Englih Names.
Turkey Madder *
Avellanea or Vale-
Parkinfon 1386 Gall-bearing oak
Lin. Sp. 1162
Sefamum Orientale p. 883
Salfola Soda }
produce yellow ber-
ries of Avignion
Olives of federal va-
Two forts of annu-
There kinds of
glafswort for Ba
The firft is fuppofed to be the
fame that is now cultivated
in Smyrna for a crimfon dye.
Grows in the southern parts of
France, Spain, and Portugal:
The cups of the aeors, which
are very large, ufed here in
dying, grow in Greece and
Galls from Aleppo and Smyrna.
Much ufed in dying, grows in
Ufed by painters and dyers I
both thefe plants produce
berries fit for this purpose.
For oyl ; there grow in France,
Spain, and Italy.
Propagated in the Levant for
oyl, which does not grow
rancid by keeping.
Both thefe kinds of annual
cotton are yearly fown in
Turkey, and would grow
well in the warm climates of
N. America, as the Flori-
das, Georgia, Carolina, and
Thefe are fown yearly in fields
near the fea in Spain for
making Barilla, for foap,
This plant is a native of the warmeft parts of Europe, and is better calculated for the cli.
mate of the Floridas than either of Holland or England, where it is cultivated; but principally
in the former, from whence we are chiefly fupplyed with this valuable dye. The cheinifs fay,
and with reason, that the warmth of the climate exalts the colour. If fo it may be well worth
the attention of the public to encourage the planting of fo valuable an article of commerce in a
climate and foil that feems to much better adapted to it, where the land is cheap, and where
vegetation is fo much quicker and more luxuriant ; and while we encourage the growth of it in
our colonies, we may have the advantage of manufacturing this valuable commodity at home, for
which at present we payfumsfcarcely credible, to the Dutch.
d Ed. Lin.Sp.
Piftachia Lentifcus Ip. 1455
f iv -
Locuft-tree or St.
The pods are excellent food
for hard working cattle, and
ufed for this purpose on the
fea coaft of Spain, where
they are eafily propagated
from feeds or cuttings.
They are propagated about
Aleppo, where the female
r-Tfr-uI-earing ones are
ingrafted on the flocks raised
from the nuts.
Chian Turpentine- This kind of turpentine is
tree ufed in medicine.
Gum Maflick from the ifle of
Scio ; as this tree is doubt-
ed to be the genuine, feeds
of the true may be procured
from the ifle of Scio.
This tree grows in Italy, Syria,
and India, but the warmer
climates yield the beft gum.
From Aleppo. This deep tap-
rooted plant will thrive well
in all the warm fandy foils
of our southern colonies.
opium poppy This has been recommended
already to be fown in our
southern colonies of North-
This grows in Upper Egypt,
and is brought from thence
to Alexandria; it will not
be difficult to procure the
feeds of this ufeful drug.
This plant grows in moift pla-
ces in China, and is of great
ufe in that country.
The feed of this plant was
brought to England about
five years ago, byDr.Moun-
fey, F. R. S. from Mofcov,
Pterocar pus Draco
Palma Yucca fo-
liis Arbor Draco
2d Ed. Lin. Sp. English Names.
Lin. Sp. 1023
Laurus Caffia p. 528
LaurusCinamomum p. 528
Amyris Gileadenfis Lin. Mant. 165.
Three forts of Gum
Dragon or Dra-
A kind of kidney-
bean called Daid-
True balm of Gile-
and appears by experiment
to be the genuine true Rhu-
barb of the fhops, and is a
moft valuable acquisition to,
this country, as it will grew
well in a deep rich foil, in-
clining to a fandy or gra-
velly loam, but not in too
wet a situation, and may be
cultivated both here and in
r. From a kind of cane in the
Eat-Indies. 2. From Java
and Surinam. 3. From the
Canary and Madeira iflands,
Ufed for making Soye t or In-
dia Ketchup. See Kemp.
Grows in Sumatra.
In Ceylon, Guadaloupe, and
in moft of our newly ceded
In Japan, now inEnglandinthe
green-houfes about London.
In Java, and the warmefl parts
of the Eaft-Indies.
Lately discovered in Arabia by
Dr. Forfkall, and described
by Dr. Linnaeus in a late
t The method of preparing Ed-rIndia Soye or India Ketchup.
Take a certain measure, for instance a gallon, of that fort of kidney-beans, called Daidfu
by the Japonefe, and Caravances by the Europeans, let them be boiled till they are foft ; alfo a.
gallon of bruised wheat or barley, (but wheat makes the blackeft Soye) and a gallon of common
falt. Let the boiled caravances be mixt with the bruised wheat, and be kept covered clofe a day
and a night in a warm place, that it may ferment. Then put the mixture of the caravances
and wheat together with the gallon of fault, into an earthen veffel, with two gallons and a ha!f
of common water, and cover it up very clofe. The next day ftir it about well with a battering
machine or mill (Rutabulum) for several days, twice or thrice a day, in order to blend it more
thoroughly together. This work muff be continued for two or three months, then ftrain off and
prefs out the liquor, and keep it for ufe in wooden veffels; the older it is the clearer it will be,
and of Co much more value, After it is preffed out, you may pour on the remaining mafs more
water, then ftir it about violently, and in rome days after you may prefs out more Soye.
The camphire from Sumatra is greatly preferable to that of Japan ; we are not certain
whether it is from a different species of tree, but it feems well worth inquiring into, as the
effeas of proportionable quantities in medicine are furprizingly different, perhaps it may be
owing to the great difference of heat in the climates.
T We have in the ifland of Jamaica, a species of tree of this genus, called by Linneus Amyris
balfamifera. See Species Plantarum, p. 496. Sir Hans Sloane, in his liiO. of Jam. Vol. 2..
[ vi ]
Latia Names. .d Ed. Lin. Sp. Englifh Names. Obfervations.
Arundo Bambo p. 120 h The true Bamboo Of great ufe in China, and
cane might be alfo in our Ameri-
Anacardus Orienta- Kemph Am. Siam varni(h-tree, The fruit of this is the Malacca
lis p. 793. called Ton-rak bean, or m:aikIng nut, and
by the Japonefe the Oriental Anacardium of
the (hops. This is the com-
mon varnifh of the Eaft-In-
dies as described by Kamp-
Thea Lin. Sp p. 734 Tea From Japan and China. See
Kaempfer's Ama2itates, p.
p. 24. calls this tree Lignum Rhodium, from the odoriferous fmell of its wood when burnt,
which it diffufes a great way ; for which reafon he believes it to be the tree that afforded the
agreeable fcent which Columbus perceived on the fouth fhore of Cuba, upon the discovery of that
island, as it is mentioned by federal hillorians.- Dr, Pat. Browne, in his hiflory of Jamaica,
p. 208. calls this tree while candlewood, or rolenood, and commends it much ; he fays it is
very refinous, burns freely, and affords a moft agreeable fmell; and that all the parts of this tree
are full of warm and aromatic particles- Quere, Whether it is not worth while to extra
the balfam, as it agrees fo near in charaler and genus with that moft valuable drug the balfam
of Mecca ?
The bell method of bringing this valuable tree to EngLind, is by fowing the feeds in tubs or
pots, which feeds may be procured in plenty from the tea country, perfectly ripe in the autumn,
about the time of the departure of our Eaft-India hips from Canton in China. Theft tubs or
pots muff be well fecured by a wired covering to keep them from the rats, which will otherwise ,
deftroy them as foon as they come out of the ground. Some of the feeds Ihould be preferred in
bees-wax, in order to be fown at different times on the voyage, and likewise fome of thofe in
wax to be brought home. The earth in the tubs or pots should be flirred near the edges, to
prevent any mouldinefs ; this may be done with a thin flat flick ; and to prevent the faline
vapour being too much absorbed by the earth, a flight covering of land \mofs or chaff may now
and then be repeated. This covering will likewife prevent the earth growing too dry on the
surface, and fave the young fibres from the burning heat of the fun's rays in thofe hot climates.
When the plants appear, they muff be kept as far from the fpray of the fea as poffible in rough
weather, and the cabin windows should not be left open on, them, unlefs in very moderate
weather. When the feeds are inclofed in wax, they muft firit be very carefully wiped quite
clean and dry, for the leaft dirt or damp will turn to mouldinefs and rot them ; and after each
feed is carefully wrapt up in a coat of foft bees-wax, they should be put into fmall wooden boxes
wherein there has been poured fome melted wax, juft at the time that the wax is cool enough for
one to bear their finger in it, and is fill fluid ; when they are thus covered with wax, all 'cracks
that proceed from shrinking on the cooling of the wax, mull be flopped quite clofe with very foft
wax. The cover of the box then may be put on, and kept in an airy cool place. The beft foil
for them is a frefh foapy crumbling loam, fuch as the under turf of earth of many of our com-
mons in England. They muft -have but a moderate fhare of water on the voyage, fo much as
will keep the earth from being hard and binding; the covering the tubs with mois will greatly
prevent this. If by accident the tops of the young plants should be broke off, the roots
should not be thrown away, as they may foot again. The celebrated Linnaeus is now in
poffeflion of fome tea-trees, which were brought over to him in the year 1763, by captain
Ekenberg, the commander of a Swedifh Eaft-Indiaman. The captain fowed them in good
earth juft upon his departure, and took tare to keep them as much as pollible from the faline
Cinchona Officina- p 244
Hymenea Courbaril jp. 537
[ vii ]
ad Ed.Lin. Sp., Englil Names.
Umkyof the Chinefe
Balfam Copaiva tree In Brazil, and Martinico.
Balfam Tolu tree
The Locuft or Gum
Copal tree for the
This tree grows near Cartha-
This tree is now known to yield
the true Gum Copal, and
that the difference between
this and Gum Anime, may
be owing to foil and heat of
climate ; it grows wild in
vapour of the fea: they are now in a fine thriving ftate in the phyfic garden at Upfal.--By
pursuing this method, we may bring feeds or plants in a vegetating late to England from the
remoteft parts of the world.--It is affected by fome people, that the green tea and the bohea
tea are two different species, but without foundation : They are one and the fame fpecies. It is
the nature of the foil, the culture, and manner of gathering and drying the leaves, that makes
the difference; for take a green tea tree and plantit in the bohea country, and it will produce bo-
hea tea, and fo the contrary. This is a fat attefted by gentlemen now in London, that have
refided many years in China, and been for fome time where the tea grows.
Ufed in dying fcarlet in China.
See Phil. Tranf. Vol. 52. p.
This excellent fruit is much
efleemed in the Eafl-Indies,
and 'tis faid there is a tree of
it now growing in the island
Ufed for making paper in Ja-
pan. See Keemph. Amtenit.
p. 467. This has been fome
time in the Englilh gardens.
This grows at Loxa in the pro-
vince of Peru, and could it
be obtained fo as to be culti-
vated in ourAmenricn'iflandF,
would be of infinite advan-
tage to us.
This grows in New Spain,
Mexico, and Peru.
It is brought from the bay of
Campeachy, and the gulph
of Honduras, where it
grows in plenty, and might
eafily be propagated in Flo-
2d Ed. Lin. Sp
Lin. Sp, 730
[ viii ]
Arnotto, for dying
Gum Senegal tree
True Sycamore of
Currants or Corin-
our American islands, the
Mofkito fhore, and in Terra
This plant is fuppofed by fome
to be a kind of Bindweed or
Convolvulus that grows near
Mexico ; by others it is
thought to be a species of
Marvel of Peru.
This grows in all the warm
climates of America. The
French cultivate it, but what
the Spaniards fend is much
richer in colour and more
in .Egypt, and in
In JEgypt, from whence the
feeds may be procured.
This is reckoned the moft du-
rable timber we know. The
repofitories of the Mummies
found in 2Egypt are made of
Figs gr6w in the greatest per-
feEion in Carolina, and
would become a valuable
trade if they had the method
of curing them as in Turkey.
The cuttings of this vine might
be procured fromZant in the
winter feafon, and firft pro-
pagated here, and after-
wards in our colonies.
This is worth trying in our
southern colonies, where
the heats are violent in the
summer. It is common in
our nurfery gardens.
There is no drug fo liable to adulteration as this; and therefore, as it is a medicine fo fre-
quently in ufe among perfons of tender constitutions, especially young children, great care should
be taken to have it genuine.
[ ix ]
2d Ed.Lin. 5p.| Engliifh Names.
Similax China p. 1459
Pimpinella Anifum p. 379
Gambogia Gutta p 728
Jordan and bitter
Balauftians, or the
bloffoms of the
weed, or Orchell
or Gum Dragon
Thefe would grow to great
perfection in our southern
This Lhrub requires a rocky'
foil to grow in, as it is about
Marfeilles and Toulon..
Small plants may be fent
from hence, being to be pur-
chafed of our nurfery-men.
This tree would thrive ex-
tremely well in our southern
provinces, and yield a pro-
fitable article in their blof-
foms. Plants of this kind
are to be bought from moft
of our nurfery-men.
'Tis poffible this valuable plant
may be found in our Ameri-
can islands, as well as in the
Canaries and Cape-Verd
In Spain and the Archipelago.
n the Eaft-Indies.
In the fouth of France and in
In the Alps, Appenines, and
Pyrenees. To be had of
In China and in New Spain.
In the EaRlandies.
d Ed. Lin.p. EngliNames.
ad Ed. Lin.Sp.I Englifh Names.
Dale. I 9
Caryophyllus Offic.jDale. 295
Lin. Sp. 40.
Afra Fetida'Lin. Sp. 356
325 Gum Myrrh
Natural Balfam of
Lechee of China
Ipecacuanha of the
fhops, or Brafilian
Affa Fetida, or De-
Hing in the Malay
About Marfeilles and Toulon.
To thefe may be added the eftablifhing of Apiaries for bees-wax and honey;
and the bringing over Angora goats from Natolia for the beneficial article mohair.
Thefe animals would thrive in all the latitudes of North-America, between
thirty and forty degrees, and may be as eafily procured by us, as they have
t Specimens of the Nutmeg-tree in fruit from the ifland of Tobago have been lately received
by the earl of 1lilhrihorou.-l, which his lordfhip has fent, with fpecimens of many other curious
plants, for the information of the public, to the Bri:i'K Mufeum. TIhy are certainly of'the
fame genus with the true nutmeg, and ofoiFi'uy may be improved by cultivation ; the mace
evidently covers them, and they have all the characters and the fame leaves with the wild Nut-
meg-tree described by Rumphius, in his Herbarium Amboinenfe, published by Burman,
In Sumatra and, Java.
In the Upper Egypt and interi-
or parts of Africa.
In the Molucca iflands.
A moft delicious fruit, grows
in Java, and in several parts
of the Eafl-lndies.
This fruit is highly commend-
ed by all perfons that have
been in China.
Very ufeful in medicine.
The gum of this plant is much
ufed in medicine. Kxmipf.
535 and 536.
been by the Swedes, who, in order to harden them to the fiverity of-their
climate, have artfully contrived to mix the breed with their own goats.
Laftly, the cultivation of the Madeira grape, or any other ufeful kind of
grape, may be worth while attempting. I know the objetiofi to vineyards
in Carolina and Georgia is, that the rainy feafons coming on in autumn, as
the grapes are ripening, they burft and become unfit to make wine ; but
as it is a well known truth, that vines of many forts grow wild in the woods
of America, and bring their grapes to perfection by twining up trees, Nature
therefore feems to point out to us this method of planting them ; and, fuppo-
fing rows of mulberry-trees were planted to be their supporters, (as I am in-
formed they are in fome parts of Italy) they might shelter them from the
violence of the rains, as well as be useful for filk-worms ; whereas in vineyards
where the vines are led along to clofe to the ground as they are in France,
the grapes muff neceffatily lie open to the wet and dirt, that muft una.
voidably be thrown on them in violent showers from their too expofed fitu-
I hope before long, to fee wifdom directing, and wealth affifting, the
hand of induftry in Eaft-Florida.
The attention that has been paid to this colony, fince the preceding account
was firft published, fufficiently proves, that neither the gentlemen, or the
nobility of England, are deficient in enterprise, where an object that merits
attention is fet before them.
A country unknown, muft, if a paradise, fill continue a defart. It is the
happinefs of the present age, that an active fpirit is feen every where ; and
that all means of acquiring wealth and bettering the private condition of life
are fought after, and examined to the bottom, fo that nothing which deserves
attefition, remains long unknown, after the means of information are to be
To form a competent judgment of the nature and value of any country, re-
quires an enlarged and an active mind. The following Journal will help to ma-
nifeft the natural advantages of Eaft-Florida, and the experience of a very few
years, will, I doubt not, Tufficiently manifeft the value of them.
WILLIAM STORK, M. D.
A JOURNAL, &c.
D ECEMBER the 19th, 1765, fet out from St. Augultine early
in the morning, which was frofty, the ground being covered with
a white hoar froft. We travelled to Greenwood's -houfe, where we
lodged ; the roads were very wet, by reafon of much rain that lately fell;
here I obferved very large oaks, magnolias*, liquid-amber near ioo foot
high, and guilandina b 30; there grew on a high bluff 8 or to foot above
the surface of the river, which rifes here I8 inches at high water, and in dry
feafons is sometimes brackifh, but in wet is drinkable to Cow-ford, which
is 12 miles below this, and about 24 from its mouth.
2cth. Set out for Robert Davis's, whofe fon the Governor had ordered to
take us up to fearch for the head of the river Sr. John's ; and having neceffa-
The Magnolia mentioned here among the trees 1oo feet high, muft be the Laurel-leafed
Tulip-tree ; and is the moft elegant evergreen tree of North-America, both for its large milk-
white odoriferous bloffoms, and its shining Laurel fhaped leaves. It will fcarcely bear this
climate without helier in severe winters, unless near the southern fea-coati. This is the Mag-
nolia grandiflora, Linn. Spec. p. 755.
a Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Lin. Spec. 1418. American gum-ftorax-tree, with a maple-leaf,
called alfo fweet-gum.- Monardes, in his hiflory of Mexico, calls this tree by the name of
liquid-amber, where he fays it grows to a vaft height ; and that upon wounding its thick fpongy
bark, the balfam flows out, of the fame fcent with ltorax. See Cafp. 4. Bauh. Pin. p. 502o.
This tree grows not only in Mexico, but in the greatest part ofNorth-America, from the Flori-
das to New-York ; it yields its valuable balfam in proportion to the heat-of the climate it grows
in. Some excellent specimens of it have been collected in Georgia lately. It is found to be an
admirable remedy for green wounds or bruises.
b Guilandina dioica, Linn. Spec. 546. Bonduc or Nickar Nur.- We have two kinds of
this genus in the Weft-India Iflands, that are climbing plants; one of them is thorny, and bears
pods with round grey feeds like marbles ; the other has no thorns, and bears yellow feeds cf
the fame fize with the former, and are likewise ufed by children to play with. The one men-
tioned here, may be the fame that Monf du Hamel of Paris fays grows wild in Canada, and is
male and female in diffr- ,.t plants. This tree is very hardy in refpe& to cold, and esteemed one
ofthe rareft and moft elegant hardy trees in the Englifh gardens, growing erea with large
ries provided, I, my fon William, Mr. Yates, and Mr. Davis, embarked in
a battoe ; Mr. Davis was not only to conduct us, but alfo to hunt venifon for
us, being a good hunter, and his Negro was to row and cook for us all, the
Governor bearing our expenses.
2 Ift. Thermometer 74. P. M. The wind blew from the fouth right against
us, fo ftrong that we could not advance ; fo (laid at Mr. Davis's, who walk-
ed with us about his land, on which grew very large evergreen and water
oaks, magnblia, liquid amber, red bay c 2 foot in diameter and 100 high,
and fome curious fhrubs and plants we never observed before, with orange-
trees amongft them, large zanthoxylum d, and purple-berried bay ".
22d. Thermometer 70, wind S. W. Cleared up, and we fet out from
Mr. Davis's ; but the wind turning fouth again and blowing hard against us,
we rowed but a few miles, then landed and walked on fhore, found a pretty
evergreen ', which produces nuts or flones as big as acorns, and good to eat,
and perhaps may be improved by culture to be near as good as almonds; it
bears plentifully, grows 8 or o1 foot high, the people call them wild limes,
for this fhrub much resembles that tree ; here grew chinquapins, the mid.ling
ground being generally 300 yards broad to the higher land, fome little
fwamps bordering the fmall rivulets ; we encamped, faw a large alleg-tor:
The fhores of the river are generally very fhoal for above ioo miles, at 50
yards distance more or lefs from the banks, the lowifh or middle ground be-
tween the fwamp and pine land is generally fand mixed with black mould,
c Laurus Borbonia, Linn. Spec. 529. Red-Bay.- This tree makes excellent timber for the
cabinet-makers, and is very little inferior to mahogany; fome trees of this kind are fo clofe-
grained, that they are not to be di'lligu.ihLed from the beft mahogany. They grow much
larger near the fea-coaft than'in the inner parts, and will foon become a beneficial article of trade.
d Zanthoxylon, Clava Herculis, Linn. Spec. 145j. Tooth-ach-tree.- Dr. Linnaeus ob-
ferves, that this is the fame species that grows in Japon, and is called there Seo and Sansjo, or
Japon-pepper, where they ufe it to feafon their food, as we do pepper and ginger. Vid. Kremp.
fer's Amconitates, p. 892. Befides this, the wood will afford a yellow dye.
e The Purple-berried Bay, is called by Catefby a Liguitrum or Evergreen Privet; but Dr.
Solander, who has diffefted many specimens of it, both with bloflbms and fruit on them, fays it
is a species of olive : it is a beautiful evergreen-tree, with oppofite lanceolated leaves, as long
as thofe of the Red-bay.
f This fhrab is well worth enquiring after ; it is not known at present to the EBonil by
this superficial description.
formed from the rotting of the fallen leaves from the thick brufh and tall trees,
which generally grow plentifully in this kind of ground ; the palmettos like-
wife grow pretty plentifully between thefe middle grounds and pine lands.
23d. Cold moi ning, thermometer 42, wind N. W. Arrived and lodged at
24th. Cold morning, thermometer 50, wind N. W. Blowed pretty freth,
but ceafed towards night ; landed, and Mr. Davis fhot a deer, and his Negro
a turkey I and my fon walked in the woods to obferve'the foil and plants,
with a man that went to fell fome trees for honey : he felled one that contain-
ed only fome yellow wafps, that had taken up their winter-quarters in a pine-
tree ; we then walked to another hollow tree, wherein was a fwarm of bees
and fome honey; but both the white people and Indians often meet withfuch
good fuccefs, as to find great quantities of honey and wax, even ten gallons,
more or lefs, out of one tree ; the Indians eat much of it with their venifon
and four oranges, of which they cut off one end, then pour the honey into
the pulp, and fcoup both out as a relishing morfel., We then foon crofleJ the
river to a point, where we lodged, and faw many rocks of congealed fnail and
mufcle-lhells; here was a patch of good fwamp, but the pine-lands approach-
ed near the river, and generally a perch or more of palmetto-ground, gently
rising between the fwamp and pine-land.
25th. Cool hazy morning, thermometer 46 in the open air, (in which all
my thermometrical observations up the river are taken). After several miles,
by choice fwamps near the river, we landed at a point of high ground, which
has been an ancient plantation of Indians or Spaniards ; many live oak-trees
grew upon it near two foot diameter, and plenty of oranges; the foil was
fandy but pretty good; we walked back from the river, the ground rifing
gradually from the fwamp on the right-hand, where grow fnIall evergreen-
oaks, hiccory, chinquapins, and great magnolia, and in the fwamp grows
the fwamp* or northern kind x8 inches diameter, and 60 foot high, liquid-
SThis is the Magnolia glauca of Linnaus Spp. p.755, and is the moft valuable fhrub that the
gardeners import to England, both on the accountofits landing the fevereft froff, and the delightful
fragrancy of its large white flowers ; there is a great demand for this lhrub both at home and
amber and red-maple 3 foot diameter, elm, ath, and bays; the plants were
moft forts of the northern ferns, faururus f, iris 9, pancratium h, large long
flowering convolvulus' running o2 foot high, chenopodium k as high, and 4
inches diameter, pontederiaI and dracontium. Cloudy cool day, arrived at
fquire Roll's, a bluff point 17 foot high, more or lefs, of which 5 foot is
composed of fnail and mufcle-flellh, mixed with black mould or rotten vege-
tables, intermixed with fand, 20 paces distant from the thore, and diminifh-
ing all the way to the yellow foil, on which grows large evergreen-oaks,
evergreen.fhrub-oaks, where the pine-lands begin at 50 yards from the river:
This fhell-bluff is 300 yards more or lefs along the river's bank, gradually
deTcending each way to a little fwamp, round the head of which the pine-
lands continue down the river a good way, and a little way up it; the bluff
feems all foil and shells, but back near the Savanna's is found fome clay;
there is a fmall Spanifh intrenchment on the bluff about 20 paces fquare, and
pieces of Indian pots ; the river is very deep near the bluff, though there is a
great barr opposite to the town, and a very rich extenfive fwamp.
26th. Thermometer temperate, fine day, wind fouth. Excellent fwamps
on both fides of the river, fome 2 or 3 miles deep ; landed on Dunn's Ifland
on a large tnail hell ridge, the adjacent fwamp excellent, and the middle
ground rich for corn, turkeys and alligators plenty, law a middling fized
Indian tumulus, 20 yards diameter and 6 or 8 foot high ; arrived foon at
Spalding's Lower-ftore, on the weft-fide of the river, 37 miles from Picolata
and 50 from Latchaway, an inland Indian town, near half the way pine-land
and palmetto-ground : It is generally affirmed, that the foil at Latchaway is
excellent, and produceth good corn and rich paflure ; we encamped on a
bluff in the pine-land, over-againft a rich little island.
abroad. Here we find it grows to a large tree; which is a firong proof of the richness of the
oil, as well as the excellency of the climate.
Saururus cernuas, Linn. Spec. 489. Lizard's-tail, a creeping plant with heart-fhaped leaves.
s Iris, inEnglifh, flower-de-luce.
h Pancratium Carolinianum, Linn. Spec. 418. Carolina fea-daffodil.
i Convolvulus, in Englifh, bindweed.
Chenopodiom, in Englifh, goofe-foot.
I Pontederia, a water-plant, with arrow-headed leaves, and a pike of blue flowers.
27th. Thermometer 50, fire morning. Stt ou; from theStore, and about
5 miles above, landed on a high bluff, on the eaft-fide of the river, at John-
fon's Spring, a run of clear and fweet water r, then travelled on foot along
thick woody but loamy ground, looking rich on the furface by reafon of the
continual falling Ikaves,. and by the conflant evergreen fthade rotting to foii,
as the fun never fines on the ground strong enough to exhale their virtue be-
fore their diffolution, as under deciduous trees : We croffed several fmall
rivulets of clear feet water, and as many narrow moift fwamps. 'TIS divert-
ing to obferve the monftrous grape-vines, 8 inches in diameter, running
up the oaks 6 foot in diameter, fwamp-magnolia.70 foot high ftrait, and a
foot diameter, the great magnolia very large, liquid-amber, white fwamp
and live oaks, chinquapines and clufter-cherry h all of an uncommon fize,
mixed with orange-trees, either full of fruit or fcatterLd ot the ground,
where the ifn can hardly fhine for the green leaves at Chrilfmas, and all
in a mafs of white or yellow foil 16 foot more or lefs above the
surface of the river. We came down a fleep hill 20 foot high and about
4 or 500 yards from the river, under the foot 6f which iffued out a large
fountain (big enough to turn a mill) of warm clear water of a very offensive
tafte, and finelt like bilge-water, or the wafhings of a gun-barrel ; the
fediment that adhered to the trees fallen therein, looked of a pale white or
bluifh caft, like milk and water mixed :.We then croffed the fwamp, and
afcen3ed d and .-fcnded two hills and narrow fwamps more ; at the foot of
the laft iflued out another warm f, ring of clear water like the other, but not fo
1 r-e. Then travelling alt..rnarely o.er Lills and Iwamps, in all about 3 or 4
miles, came to a great cove, near a quarrter of a mile from the river, out of
the head of which arofe a rodigio.is laige fountain of clear water ofloathfome
g Tagus Pumila, Linn. Spec. 1416, Dwarf-chefnut called Chinquapin This tree grows
about to or z feet high, and produces a great quantity of fin a'l round nuts, exceeding the
common clhefuts .: .' in the f.vcetaefs of their tafie.
h fr, rLi Virginiana, Linn. Spec. 677, and 3d Padus of Miller's Diciionary, American
Bird cherry or Cluiler cherry.- The wood of this tree is much esteemed by the Cabinet-ma-
kers ; it preserves its leaves the ,:, '. of any of the deciduous trees. 'i :;i is an evergreen
fort of this Bird or Clufter. cherry, which grows about 30 feet high in S. Car:lina, ai.d from
the beaay of its evergreen C,; ,i:, leaves is called the Mock-orange ; the fru:t of hidi .... in
brandy oa';as a fine filvoured ratafie. This is the 6th Padus of Diftio ry.
tafte, like the other two before.mentiqned ; it direcEly formed a large deep
creek 40 or 50 yards wide to rhe river, and deep enough for a large boat to
fwim loaded to its head, which boils up near 8 foot deep from under the
fhelly rocks ; 'is full of large fifh, as cats, garr, mullets, and several othet
linds, and plenty of alligators :-Lodged at Johnfon's Bluff, where for a
mile the fandy pine-barren comes lofe or near the fhore, and here grew
plenty of what is called wild limes, which fhows that they will grow in poor
foil' though chiefly in rich.
28th. Set out from Johnfon's Bluff foggy morning, wind N. E. thermo-
meter 56. Came in a few miles to Mount Hope, at the entrance of a little
lake, the eaft and fouth-fide of which is pine-land, reaching to Johnfon's
Bluff, except a point of good fwamp : Mount Hope is 5o yards long and 30
wide, near 20 foot high, compofed all of freth water nail and murcle-ihells
of various dimensions, the fmall ones drove into the large, and the broken
and powdered ones into the interflices of both ; thefe are very fertile foils as
far as the tells reach, and if not the only, yet the common planting grounds
of the former Florida Indians, as is proved by the numerous pieces of broken
Indian pots scattered all over all thefe thelly bluffs, and the veffiges of the
corn hills fill remaining, although many pretty large live oaks, red-cedars,
and palms, nowgrow upon them : the w ft wind hath a long and full ftroke
against this mount, which perhaps raised it to that height : Saw many alliga-
tors, and killed one ; 'tis certain that both jaws open by a joint nearly alike
to both: Here and near the river's bank grows the fhort-poded gl-dirra *,
elm and black-afh, with moft of the South-Carolina plants:- La:-,i i at
Mount-Royal, where there are 50 acres of cleared old fields, fine orar..t. in
the woods, and a fine fpring iffaing out above a mile from the river, making
a ftream big enough to turn a mill, on the back of which the pine-lands be-
Gleditfia, Linn. Spec. 1509, Three-thorn'd Acacia or Honey-locuft. This tree with its
elegant leaves grows up to a large fize, and is faid to make excellent timber. There is a very
large one of this kind in the Bifhop of London's garden at Fulham.- There is another species
of this, with fmalt thin oval pods, inclofing only one feed, called by Mr. Catelby Water-acacia,
on account of its growing in moit places, which, alfo comes to very good timber, and is men-
tioned here by Mr. Bartranm.
gin : the bank and for 50 yards back i- compofed -of findy foil mixed with
fnail-fllels, which for a foot or more thick is indurated to a foft rock, from
which a fine fouth profpeLt opens to the great lake (the river here is above
half a mile wide) near the entrance of which is a large ill mnd : we encamped
on the cafl-fide of the river opposite to the ifland, f om whence we heard a
bear roaring in the night we lay on a low bluffof fail fhelJs, amongst plenty
of bitier-fweet oranges, next in goodjnefs to the China, and here the woods
are full of them ; we walked back over a dry kind of rich fwamp full of
shells mixed with black tenacious mud, under which is a white tenacious clay
or marl, and in about 400 yards came to rising ground, pretty rich, and
good corn-lanid, then to palmetto yet blackilh foil, then to whitilh, in which
grew pines, tthen favannahs and ands, which are interfperfed generally in the
pine-lands in moft part of the southern provinces, together with the cyprefsa
and bay-fwamps, and have for the molt part good feeding round their bor-
ders. Thisg-ich fwamptrerminated-aetthe bend of the river where the pine-land
reaches clofe to its banks ; fo that the banks of this fine river are a continual
alternate change of pine-land, bluffs, cyprefs, fwamps, marches, and- rich
afh, and maple-fwamps: the hammocks of live-oaks and palmettos' are gene-
rally surrounded either with fwamp or marfh : foinetimes thedeep rich fwamps
are 2 or 3 miles deep from the river to the pines, and reach along the
river from one mile to 4, 5 or 6 at uncertain depths. Thefe fwamps are fup-
pofed to be the beft rice-grounds, as neither the dry weather nor wet can hurt
them fo much as where there is no water in dry times, and in wet there is too
much, for this is rarely overflowed but in fpring-tides, and thefe will alw.iys
keep them wet enough in the dryel feafons, especially below the great lake.
k Cupreffus-difiicha, Linn. Spec. 1422. Deciduous Swamp, Cyprefs or Bald-cyprefs.-
This moft ufeful tree grows in great plenty in many of the fwamps, and grows to fuch an amaz.
ing fize, that boats or pettiaugres, capable of carrying a considerable burthen, are formed from
the trunks of fligle trees. From the cones of this tree iffues a moft fragrant balfam like balfam
1 Chamerops humilis, Linn. Spec. 16;7.- Dwarf-palmetta. This Dwarf-palm grows on
the fea-coaft, from the capes of Florida up to Charles-Town in South-Carolina, and bears
bunches of berries something larger than black currants. Thefe contain round horny feeds.
which are of the fize offmall peas, and are covered with a thin pulp, which the Indians ufe as
food. The leaves furnilh them with thatch, and the foil where they grow is judged to be a
middling kind between the fand and the fivamps.
I 2 29th.
[ 8 ]
29th. Foggy morning; thermometer 52. Landed oppofire to the mouth
of the lake, which hath a full ftroke with a fouth wind ; the rock is all corn
poled of frail and mufcle-fhells, hard enough to build with about 4 foor
thick, and will fplit horizontally ; fome parts look like limeftone, but whe-
ther for want of falt that abounds in fea-fhells they will make fuch strong lime,
I cannot fay. Thermometer 72. P. M. Fifh jumping continually ; we en-
camped on a rocky point near a fine fwamp of 25 acres, then a marfh of 20,,
near the end of an ifland on which fome pines grew, then a great rich fwamp4
round the cove ; a very rainy night welcomed us.
30th. Rainy warm morning; thermometer 64 "Set out and came to ai
point of piney land, but between it and the common faft ground is a great,
fwamp, which continues a great part of the cove to the mouth of the river,-
except a few piney points : We landed at the neck, which is about 8 foot;
above the water, the upper ftrata was 2 or 3 foot of white fand covered with-
a thin coat of black-coloured with diffolved rotten leaves of the kilmia m, vacci-,
nium' dwarf-myrtle 0, andromeda palmetto, pines, and other evergreens,
which though always green, yet are mostly shedding, their former year's;
leaves i but next the water was a hard blackilh fand like a foft ftone, which
though it will crumble betwixt the thumb and fingers, yet is almost impene-
trable to water. Thermometer 72. P. M. Arrived at the head of the great:
lake 20 or more miles long, one and a half fathom deep, and 12 miles wide,
as it is commonly reckoned : We landed on a fine fhelly bluff Io foot above
the water; here grows red-cedar, live-oak, grcac palmetto, and good
oranges, behind which is a high rich clear marfh proLucing grafs as high as
m Kalmia, an elegant evergreen flowering thrub, bearing umbels of beautiful red flowers,
now cultivated in the curious Englifh gardens.
n Vacciniam. Cranberries, four times larger than the En..!iii Cranberries.
Myrica cerifera, Linn. Spec. 1453. Dwarf-myrtle.- This is a dwarf kind of the common
Candleberry-myrtle, of fuch importance to the people of North-America, by fupplying them
with excellentwax, with only the trouble of collCct; n, ard boiling the berries, and when the
water is cold tal.ini rT the wax.
P Andromeda. There are many flrubs of this genus now cultivated for their beauty in the
1 9 3
one's head, reaching to the pine-lands, and the cove of the great lake, which
is fuppofed to be the extent of tie real tides flowing ; but a flrong north-wind
will force the water of the lake many miles up the river, and the floods above
coming down after great rains well the river fo as to overflow its banks and
cover a vaft body of reedy marlh.
3ift. Cool morning; thermometer 56. wind N. Set out, and in half a
mile came to a middling creek 2 fathom deep, and from 50 to 100 yards
wide, a rich island on the fouth fide hard enough fjr a horfe to walk upon,
and pretty flail of wood, as maple and afh ; on the north fide is a great extent
of clear marlh, producing tall grafs towards the head of the creek-branches on
both-fides in the marfh, many of which branches head in a great cyprefs
fwamp, in the pine-barrens and in the a .jacent marches: We rowed or fet the
baoe as far as fie coul fwim, then came back to the river, which is 'ned on
both ides wkih very rich hard fwampq, 2 or 3 miles long, and near one
broad more or lef, producing good grafs : It is remarkable that at the en-
trance of the river into the great lake there floats prodigious quantities of the
pifia q, which grows in grcat plenty moft of the way from hence to the head
of the river, and is continually driving down with th. current, and great
quantities lodged a1l along the extensive fhorcs of this river and its iflands,
where it is entangled with a large species of water-numularia, perficaria, wa-
ter-grafs, and faxifrage, all which fnd down very long fibrous roots deep into
the water by which they are nourished, growing all matted together in fuch a
manner as to flop up the mouth of a large creek, fo that a boat can hardly be
pufled through them, though in 4 foot water; there by forms are broke
from their natural beds and float down the river in great patches, the roots
striking deep, often tiu:h the muddy bottom, and there anchor and faften,
and are ready to catch and entangle tlofe that drive down upon them, and all
together gather mud, by the daily accumulation of which they are formed
into iflands which are very numerous in this river, and are much enlarged by.
q Piftia Stratiotes, Linn. Spec. 1365. A Water-plant like the Water-foldier or Water-houfe-
le2.--SirHars Sloane has given us a figure of this plant in his l;:', r" of Jamaica, Vol. I.
Tab. z. Fig. 2. and ftys it is ufed icr the fame difi afs as i'.. .1, either outwardly or in-
ii.l:, in juice, or the powder to a drachm.
[ io 3
thefe plants fixing'on their chores. We now came to plenty of the tree pai-
metto, which the inhabitants call cabbage-tree', and is much eaten both
;raw and boiled.
JANUARY the ift, 1766. Hazy morning ; thermometer 52. Set out
from Spalding's. Upper-flore, about 50 miles above the Lower; the river
here is 200 yards broad, and 9 foot deep in the channel ; in long continued
,rains it hath been known to rife here 3 foot perpendicular ; no'tides from the
fea reach here. Thermometer 72. P. M. Landed at a high fh:lly bluff,
where thousands of orange-trees surrounded us, with red.cedars and live-oaks,
:beyond which is a rich fwamp and marfh, then pine-land, landed agdin at a
point on the north-fide of a great cove on the eaf lake where we lodged.
2d. White froft on the boat; thermometer 35. Set out to view the cove,
which was surrounded with extensive marches on the fouth-fide, on the eaft
and weft with marches, federal hundred yards wide, then a narrow cyprefs-
fwamp joined to the common pine-land ; we came again into the river So
yards broad, which ran at firft a fourth course, then bended eaft for fevwral
miles: We faw very extensive marches on each fide (with several fhort cy-
prefs-trees and maple-hammocks interfperfed) until we came to a pond on the
fourth, foon after which we landed and climbed up a tree, from which we had
a profpe& of the lake lying N. W. with an extensive marlh between : We ob-
ferved many fhort willows, but the woody fwamps are chiefly black and
white ath, with red maple next the river, and generally; a cyprers-fwamp in-
terpofed between the pine-lands and fwamps of alh ; we rowed federal courses
in fightof extensive matdhes and fwamps, 2, 3 or 4 miles wide more or lefs ;
,the river was pretty high, 2 foot above the drieft times, by reason of the great
rains, yet it barely covered the fwamps even in pretty low places, but indeed
Palma aliffima, frulu pruniformi, &c. Sloane Hill. Jamaica, Vol. II. p. i15, u16, &c.
Thep aim called the Cabbage-tree- It appears from this Palm growing here, (which is a na-
tive of the Weft-Indies,) that many others of the Weft-India produaions may alfo be cultiva-
ted.. From the pith, with which this tree abounds, very good Sago has been made, and the hn
,trunk' of this palm ferve very well for pipes to convey water under-ground, and when fplit in
two make excellentlong troughs or conduits to convey water from place to place above-ground.
I i 3
there is little difference in trhir height for fcores of miles, unlefs near the
palmetto and pine-lands : We landed on a fhelly bluff of 2 or three acres of
four orange-trees full of fruit;` then rowing along the cyprefs-trees, which
grew here next the river, a deep fwamp interpore.l between the cyprefs
and pine-lands ; we came to Clement's Bluff, where we encamped on a
ihelly bank 12 foot perpendicular ; the lower part next the water wag
an indurated fhelly rock, the bluff is 300 yards long and one broad,.
more or lefs, beyond which it gradually declines back to a fine favannah,
then to the pine lands, palmetto and flmrtbby oaks; this is on the weft-
fide of the river, as is the orange-grove thermometer 48. P. M.
3d. Clear cold morning ; thermometer 26. wind N. W. The grour.d
was froze an inch thick on the banks : this was the fatal night that defroyed
the lime, citron, and banana trees in Augufline, many curious evergieens up
the river, ttat WE iare 'nar o year old, and in a flourishing late ; the young
green shoots of the maple, elm, and pavia, with many flowering plants and
fhrubs never before hurt Set out from Clement's Bluff, rowed by much
rich fwamp and mar(h; faw many elder-trees in flower (which grow in plenty
clofe to the river next the water reeds) and many alligators," though fo very
cold that it had froze the great convolvolus and coreopfis, yet the great fhrub
after held out : The banks were in federal places 2 or 3 foot high, Ihelly, and
two rood broad; then fell back to a fine rich graffy fwamp, chiefly afh, elm, and
cyprefs, -but much more open than down the river below the great lake, with'
more frequent patches of marih and high grafs and fmall maples, willows,
and cephalanthus thinly scattered upon them ; the higher banks with live and
water-oaks. Landed about noon on the. eaft-fide on a bluff, 6 or 8 foot high,
and 150 yards broad, but foon falls back to a cyprefs-fwamp, at the upper
end of which oaks and palmettos join the river, and a little back the pines
4th. Pleafant morning; thermometer 50.' Set 'outfrom Whitlow's Bluff
the river makes a great eafy bend, and fends out a branch, then the course is
from eaft to fouth, then S. E. the eaft banks being fandy 8 or to foot perpen-
dicular, full of live and fwamp-oaks great magnolia, bay and liquidamber,
but none of them very large then pine-land to the fouth-bend, then lower
[ 12 3
:ground, but on the weft fide very good fwamp it then takes a contrary
bend to the fouth, then eaft, where there is a fine orange grove on each fide of
the river: at the corner of the fouth ben.d, the mouth of a lake appears, one
mile wide and or 3 long, which we entered ; the,courfe is near fouth and
north, the eaft fide is lin d with a n urow cyprefs-fwamp, and live-oaks aher-
nately the weft fide with pines, but above the marfhesare very rich, full of
water-reeds and elders.on both fides the river, wlich is about 30 yards broad,
and near three fathom deep. We landed where a fandy bluffjoined the river;
it produced live and water-oak, palms and bay; coatingg the eaft-fiJe, we
foon came to a creek, up which we rowed a mile, in 4 and 6 foot water and
go yards broad, of the colour of the fea, felled like bilge water, tafting
fweetith and loathfome, warm anrd very clear, but a whitifh matter adhered
to the fallen trees near the bottom ; the fpring-head is about 30 yards broad,
and boils up from the bottom like a pot; plu TIm : it, and found about five
fathum wAttr; mulhitudts of hih rd.i t to its head, as very large garr, cats
and several oElir Ib. ts ; the alligar s very rumeruus either on t.e fl. re or
swimming on the surface of the water, and fome on the bottom, fo tame, or
rather bold, as to allow us to row very near to them. What- a f I'r'zi ,-
fountain muft it be, to furnifh fuch a ftream,: and what a great fpnce (f
gI.unid muft be taken up in the pine-lands, ponds, fa.'.', i,-, and fv..n:,s,
to ifupport apd maintain fo constant a fountain, continually 'ouli:- right up
from under the deep rocks, which undoubtedly con.i under rnot part of
the c,.uJ.try at uncertain di.tis.?
5th. Rainy morning ; thermometer 54. Staid at Mount-joy. TTLis r: ,.
is formed of fia;l and mifc'e-fhills, and is 8 o; o foot p.:.e'i!~i...ular, about
o50 yards long and 20 broad, on the fouth-caft fice of the river, declining
ia3ua'ly at each end to an extensive ftiff miitifh marfh, produ' 'i- a grcat
qua. tity of tall grafs, as thick as it can grow, of several hundred acres; a
pine ridge appears at half a mile difance on the fouth fide. The moun: and
its declni:-.g fides and ends are full of live-oaks and large palm-trees there
are alfo fome hammocks of live-oaks and myrtles in:erfperfed in the adjacent
m:rfh : opi;ofte to tie mount, on the other fide of the river, is a large fwamp
cr ii(ey i.n and beyond it a cyprefi-fwamp, of grea: extent farthi:r ihan the
eye can rea h.
r ZJ I
6th. Clear morning thermometer 38. Strong wind at N.W. Set, out
and foon faw a great body of very different fwamp and marfh joining it,
fome dry, others middling moift, and fome very wet, fome reedy foil, fome
myrtle, oak, cyprefs, and laftly pine then we came a little farther to tall
water-reeds on both fides, and much elder grew next the river and clofe to
the reeds, which laft grew very thick clofe to the bank, and from 14 to 16
foot high ; sometimes a narrow ridge, about a rood wide and a foot or two
high, would run clofe to the river, on which grew oaks, hiccory, maple,
and afh, the ground back being fcarcely above the common flow of the river ;
but as we rowed higher up, the foil was in many places of an unknown
depth, of tenacious rich mud, especially on the Indian fide, which is gene-
rally higher than ours, and fo fliff that cattle may walk upon it very fafe, and
bears choice grafs, though full of tall trees, as hiccory, maple, water-oak,
and afh : We rowed by a very large island on the eaft.fide and another on the
iefl, the beft I iafe'TeeiiTnh Florida ; the liver, for there t.o Jay s, has run
very crooked. Landed on a high rich fhelly bluff, fome good flat foil, but
full of palms, and a little back the pine-lands begin : The laft froft killed the
young shoots of afh, hiccory, eupatorium, peanines, fun-flowers, and the
tops of two lovely evergreen fhrubs, one of which would have'grown all winter,
if the froft had not killed it the bark was burft from the wood, but the
lower part was not hurt, the other was full of flowers, green and ripe berries,
yet the tender tops for half a foot were killed : 'Tis very common in this
country for vegetables to produce at the fame time flowers, green and ripe
fruit; and if the tender (hoots are by chance killed, they foon fend out frefh
ones ; here is a native gourd or fquafh, which runs 20 foot up the trees,
clofe to the river ; the people eat them when young, but they are bitter when
old, and about the fize of a man's fitll
7th. Clear morning; thermometer 36. Set out from Cabbage-bluff, to
called from the great number of palm or cabbage-trees growing there ; after
fome miles rowing round several points of the compafs, it being generally
good reed-marfh and fome cyprefs-fwamps, we came to the middle lake, i, 2,
or 3 miles broad, and 8 long; its general course is S. E. at the N. E. ecnd is high
ground, producing oak, palm, myrtle, bay, and a fine new evergreen,
something like the purple-berried bay, but the leaves grow alternately,- and'
the berries clofe to the ftem, like myrtle; here is a pretty ftream of feet wa-
ter, fmall enough to run through the bung-hole of a barrel, and at about too
yards distance from it runs out a large fiream of water, fo warm as to support
the thermometer at 7 1 in it, feels warm to a coolifh hand, taftes more loath-
fome than the others beforementioned of the fame kind, and may be fmelt at
fome roods distant; hereabout is drove on fhore, the moft delicate cryftal-
line fand I ever faw, except what is got on an island near our capes, though,
this is fill finer : A few hundred yards from the laft fpring is another much
like it in tafte, but much larger, and near 30 yards broad, having three heads,
within 30 yards the water is very loathfome and warm, but not fo hot as
one's blood : This differs from the other in having moft of its surface covered
with duck-meat ; its banks full of fhelly ftone of the fnail-fhell kind, and
running level with the river ; the laft had fome fall ; they are not above 200
yards from the lake. Set out and arrived at a rocky bluff, at the entrance of
the head of the river, which was two or more miles wide,but gradually narrowed;,
this bluff is composed of fnail and mufcle-fliells, indurated into hard rocks, which
would break or fplit for building or burning into lime ; but a bluff we landed
at in the forenoon was more remarkable; for as the bank was perpendicular, we
had a better opportunity of fearching deeper ; we faw about 3 foot above the
water a mafs of clustered fea-fhells, as periwinkles, cockles, and clams, the
very productions of the fea, add to what depth they went is unknown ; but
this I believe, that they reach all under this whole low country at uncertain
depths, and support the superior foil, under which the prodigious fulphureous
and faline fountains run, which are continually fed by the flow fettling of
8th. Clear fine morning; thermometer 44. Wind weft by north. Rowed
by much reedy ground, which is generally very wet, being often covered a
foot more or lefs deep, after great rains ; but the banks in many places are
raised, a foot or more, by the trafl floating down the river, which being
drove on fhore by the wind, there rots and is converted into fliff foil, on which
the alligators love to bafk in the fun-fhine; every 20, 5c, or ico yards
dilhnce they are to be found: We encamped on a pleasant dry bank, but
IC I I
middling foil, in a grove of live-oaks; beyond which is a plain, and behin-
that a great inland pond or lake ; below where we lodged several inlets ap-
peared to the northward, and above the river forked, and we rowed up the
N. E. branch.
9th. Clear fine morning; thermometer 44. We rowed along several long
beaches generally eaft and N. E. then came to a high bluff of fand on the
eaft-fide, under which was a ftrata four foot thick, of a brownish foft fand
ftone, eafily rubbed to fand between the thumb and fingers; this was a point
of pine-land, and on it grew great magnolia, fweet-bay, live-oak, palms, tall
andromeda, vaccinium, red-cedar and an odd zanthoxylum ; here we found
an Indian hunting cabin covered with palmetto-leaves; we then rowed by a
large marfh on the eaft fide with a row of trees on the bank of hiccory, ath,
and live-oak ; then pine-land on our fide for a long reach, and high banks
and treefofrrhe'lnEmrrft c~ rrWwf rowing several long reaches, generally poor-
ifh land, either near the river or at a distance from it, we came against a
creek bearing northward, up which we rowed about a mile, where we faw
fome good fwamps, and much long thick grafs, fome on pretty dry ground,
but generally wet ; this creek led us up to a great cyprefs-fwamp, in which
it divided invifibly as the other branches did in federal parts of the marfh ;
we came back again to the river, up which we rowed 'till we came to a high
bluff, whee we encamped, and found 2 or 3 curious fhrubs ; opposite to this
bluffs a very extensive marih, part of which is reed, and fome very good
rich dry foil ; here are fome very large mufcle-flhells, of which this bluff is
composed and enriched ; this has been a fine piece of planting-ground.
Ioth. Pleafant morning; thermometer 50. The wolves howled, the firft
time I heard them in Florida ; here we found a great neft of a wood-rat,
built of long pieces of dry flicks, near 4 foot high and in diameter, all laid
8 Juniperus Virginiana, Linn. Spec. 147 I. Red-cedar, or Great Juniper.-'Tis neceffary
to diftinguilh this tree from the many that are called Cedars : It is of great ufe not only in the
building of houses, but in thip-building : This is the wood ufed in making black lead pencils;
the berries put into spirits make excellent geneva, and from the tree diftils a refin equal to gum.
fandrach, very ufeful in making varnifh.
[ 16 ]
confufedly together ; on ftirring the fticks to obferve their ftruCure, a.large
rat ran cut, and up a very high faplin with a young one hanging to its tail.
Set out, and in half a mile came to a lake, and taking the north-eaft fide,
ftretched eastward by a very extensive marfh, pretty low next the
lake, but farther back good marfh, beyond which is a large cyprefs-
fwamp; then the pine-lands begin ; we rowed to the eaft-fide of the
lake, near which is the mouth of a fine lagoon, a mile long and half as wide,
bordered with a very large marfh extending to a large cyprefs-fwamp ; we
then coafted fouthward along a fandy beach, back of which is a dryifh marfh,
then came to a ridge of oaks about 20 roods wide more or lefs, behind which
is a marlh reaching to the cyprefs-fwamp, but more fouth the pine-lands ap-
pear ; at the fouth end of the oak-hammock runs eaftward a large branch,
which fpreads into many branches in this large marlh, draining it and the adja-
cent cyprefs-fwamps ; this marfh is large and looks rich, and I believe
reacheth from the lake to the cyprefs-fwamp and pine-land : We then turned
round a point, and landed at another fandy beech and hammock, beyond
which is a large plain or favannah, half a mile wide more or lefs to the pines,
producing pretty good grafs, low fhrubs, oaks, and myrtles, the foil black-
on the furface and moift, though fliff enough to ride upon.; there is a fmall
pond within the beech at the fouth-end, where ducks frequent ; this upper
lake may be 4 or 5 miles in diameter, and perhaps more in length, and one
fathom deep more or lefs but the river between this and'the laft is in many
places two and a half fathoms, and in moft places near 150 wide ; we lodged.
at a fandy beech, and it rained towards morning, but foon cleared up.
i th. Clear morning; thermometer temperate. Set out and foon came
into the river, which fends out numerous branches, that terminate in the eaft
marlh, which is wonderfully interfered and divided with ponds and branches,
and the river is alfo divided with numerous fmall and great iflands of low,
marh ; fo that it is difficult to find the main river, but by the strong current:
We came at laft to a fine lake or rather three, the lowest of which is the big-
geft, being a mile diameter; on the eaft-fide the pine-lands appear about
two miles distant molt of the way more or lefs from the lake we lodged at;
but on the weft fide we could hardly fee them, fuch a great body of marli
being between ; after noon we came to where the river was more entire, and
fome of its banks 3 foot high. and 7 or 8 foot broad to the weft marfh, the
e 7 j
river being 200 yards broad more or lefs, and one and a half fathom deep;
here several more large branches or lagoons branched eaftward, and fpread
their numerous branches in the marches ; we rowed federal long beaches up the
rivers, and at laft to our great joy came to a bluff where we could fet our
feet on dry ground ; this being a very rich hammock of 6 acres of light black
fhelly foil (thermometer 58. P. M.) producing red-cedar, celtis', a curious
zanthqxylium, and several others we never observed before, a few large
orange-trees, and fome young ones.
12th. Fine clear morning ; thermometer 44. Set out, and rowing S. E.
foon came to a little lake which we headed, it 'lemed to be surrounded with,
marth, fome few pines appeared at a distance ; we turned back, and within a
mile came into the main river, which turned various courfes S. E. and north,
but generally eaft by north ; it fends out on each fide lagoons and branches
that drain thofe I-xtenfiye _arfhes. We came now to a large lake 5 or 6 miles
long and near one wide, a long tongue of low marfh comes from the N. E. end,
where a long hammock of oaks runs a fourth course; we then rowed out of
the lake, and between several iflands, and came again into the main river,
which runs in general an eaft and weft course on a fandy bottom, fhoaling
gradually until the weeds and reeds flopped our battoe in fuch a manner,
that it was impoffible to pufh her any farther, though the water was 3 foot
deep, and a fmall current against us, which we fuppofe was the draining of
the extensive marfhes which opened towards the fouth-eaft, how far beyond
our view we could not determine ; the water-reeds grew here in the current
as thick and clofe together as on the marfh, that is, as clofe as hemp ; yet
the current forceth its way through, and alfo under the great patches of the
piftia, the water perficaria, and other water-plants, which are all entangled toge-
ther, covering many thousands of acres on St. John's and its branches, which
heads in numerous rich fwamps and marches. We returned to-the rich ham--
mock where we lodged laft night.
13th. Fine pleafant morning ; thermometer 54. Set out homeward from
the rich hammock, the highest up the river we could land at. Thermometer-
t Celtis, occidentalis,. Linn. Spec. 1748. The Lote or Nettle-tree- This grows to be:-a
very large tree, and the wood of it is muckhefteemed for being f. tough and pliable ; it is rez.
koned the beft wood for the fhafts of all kinds of carriages,.
[ i8 ]
79. P. M. about one o'clock we came to Round-lake, fo we called it, it
being one of the roundeft I ever faw, almost furrounded with palmetto, pine,
and fcrub-oak ; the lake is 6 miles more or lefs in diameter, and generally
all over the lake about 9 or o1 foot deep.
14th. Clear morning; wind north. Set out from Coffee-bluff, thermo-
meter 52 ; a very long reach on the weft fide of the river, of piney, palmetto-
ground, with fcrub-oaks ; about noon we entered the weft lake fleering S. W.
a ridge of pine-land runs-on theeaft fide and a marth quarter of a mile more
or lefs between it and the lake, which I think is 8 or 1o miles from north to
fourth, and 5 or 6 miles broad, the marfh is in many places a mile or two
wide, and then comes to hammocks of oaks ; faw a mullet jump three times
in a minute or two, which they generally do before they reft, fo are called
jumping-mullets; on the fouth fide of this lake is a great low cyprefs-fwamp ;
here to my great difappoincment my thermometer was broke accidentally in
firiving to take a warm of bees for their honey, which is practifed both by
the whites and Indians, who take great quantities in the cyprefs-fwamps and
pine-lands. We landed on the weft fide, which was low and rich for Ioo
yards back, rifing gradually from the water to 4 or 5 foot perpendicular, then
comes to a level, looking rich and black on the surface for an inch or two,
then under it a fine fand to a great depth ; this level produceth red-bay, great
magnolia, water and live-oaks, liquid amber, hiccory, and fome oranges, but
no large trees ; the lower rich ground produceth glediftia, pifhamins, cepha-
lanthus, afh, cyprefs, andcornu femrina: Our hunter killed a large he-bear
fuppofed to weigh 400 pounds, was 7 foot long, cut 4 inches thick of fat on
the fide, its fore-paw 5 inches broad, his fkin when ftretched measured five
foot and a half long, and 4 foot 10 inches in breadth, and yielded 15 or 16
gallons of clear oil ; two of us had never eat an ounce of bears meat before,
but we found it to our furprize to be very mild and fweet, above all four-
footed creatures, except venifon ; although it was an old he-bear, his fat,
though I loathed the fightof it at firft, was incomparably milder than hogs-
lard, and near as fweet as oil of olives ; it was not hunger that engaged us in
its favour; for we had a fat young buck and three turkeys frefh Ihot at the
1 19 3
fame time, and fome boiled with the bear, but we chofe the laft for its fweet-
nefs and good relifh.
15. This morning was very warm and a little fhowery ; the mufkatoes
were troublefome laft night, and this morning the flies blowed our meat be-
fore io o'clock the ticks creeping and lizards running about our tent ; we
flaid here all day to barbecue our meat to ferve us down the river, which would
foon fpoil if not preferred either by fire or falt, and of which laft we had only
enough to feafon our visuals with it ; rained faft, yet we walked to fee feve-
ral warm springs on the weft-end of the lake, one of which was about 40 or
50 yards broad at the head, and held the fame width for 300 yards down to
the lake, without much current, the head being near even with the lake ; the
water had a greenifh caft, was very loathfome, and full of great gar-fifh ; the
other rifes near half a mile from the lake, and hath a middling fdll, very conve-
nient to turn a JLpJ, w.iJ little dam having high bank's on each fide, and no
floods can hurt it, as the mill may be near halfa mile from the fpring-head; the
worft is, the ftream is full fmall ; there is a fine large cyprefs-fwamp on each
fide clofe to the lake, the fartheft of which is about half a mile ; this fine
fiream hath five heads, the banks are zo or 15 foot perpendicular; three of
the heads boilup like a pot in a pure white fand, every minute it boils up above
the surface of the common pond or bafon, then the firrounding fand flips into
the cavity, which preffes down the spring until the water below is collected
from the back under-ground ftream fo strong as to force the fand and water
above the common surface, fo that there is a continual periodical motion ;
one of thefe springs was fo warm, that although I was in a fweat, yet it
seemed warm to my hand; they are all of them warm, and of a loathfome
tafte, their fediment is white, and one may fmell them at many yards dif-
16th. Very cold windy day, the lake being fo rough that we could not
ftir; fo our hunters rendered the bear's oil, and stretched and dried the fkin.
17. Fine fill morning, and moderate. Set out and rowed up the lake ;
palt by a long point of marfh with a hammock of palms projetiag out from
near the weft fide of the lake, it being fuppofed to be an ifland from which is
extended numerous little turfs of grafs a great way farther into the lake, and
t 20 ]
in time may unite into a long point ; the depth is generally 7 foot, one place
8 : About 12 o'clock we came to the middle lake, and having in our going
up the river viewed the north fide and linking springs, we now coated the
fouth-weit or Indian fide, which is surrounded with pine-barrens, interfperfcd
with fome cyprefs, but generally poor fandy palmetto-ground, its length may
be near 8 miles, and breadth 3 or 4 ; fome fmall marfh points project a little
way into it, it is about io feet deep, generally fo is the river, its course eaft
and weft : A few miles below the lake we came to a fine rich low dry bluff
4 foot above the water; it declined gradually to a fine marfh, near half a mile
wide to the pine-lands, and a very extensive profpec to the Indian fide over maflhes
and large fwamps; this is the finest piece of rich dry ground I observed fince we
left the head of the river; it produced very good rich grafs, palms and live-oaks,
the dry ground may be 8 roods wide and 40 long; here we cut down three tall
palm or cabbage-trees, and cut out the top bud, the white tender part, or
the rudiments of the great leaves, which will be fix i.r 7 foot long, when full
grown, and the palmed part 4 in diameter; this tender part will be three or 4
inches in diameter tapering near a foot, and cuts as white and tender as a tur-
nip ; this they flice into a pot and flew with water, then, when almoft tender,
they pour fome bears oil into it, and ftew it a little longer, when it eats
pleafant and much more mild than a cabbage : I never eat half fo much cab-
bage at a time, and it agreed the beR with me of any face I ever eat, either
alone or with meat: Our hunters frequently eat it raw, and will live upon it
several days; the fmall palmetto or chamerops yields a fmall white bud no
bigger than one's finger, which is eaten by men, bears, and horfes, in cafe of
great need ; this situation pleaded me fo much we called it Bartram's Bluff,
and for an industrious planter with a few hands may be a pretty estate.
8Sth. Set out from Bartram's Bluff, a lovely fine morning and warm,
flopped at Mount-joy for a little, and after several miles rowing came to a
rich island, and took the left hand branch, down which we rowed several
very crooked courfes by fome oak and pine-bluffs 5 or 6 foot high, excellent
fwamps, fome cyprefs-trees, and much maple and afh being on both fides
the river, which is two fathom deep, and, where we entered it, not above 20
C 2z ]
yards wide, but at the lower end twice as much ; it opened into the main
river, a little below a high bluff of four oranges, and on the opposite fide
grow great quantities of what is called bitter fweets, which are next in good-
nefs to the china ; we ate abundance of them, and found them yery whole-
fome; they laft much longer than the fweet, which continue only to March.
The common current of the river here is not above two miles an hour, the
uncommon rains laft fummer and part of the fall had raised it 2 foot or more
higher than at prefent, and then the current no doubt ran fwifter, and our
pilot faid he had known it to be 3 foot lower than now ; but fuppofe it only
two, then there muft be very little current.- This night was very warm,
and the mufkitoes troublesome, fo that we fmoaked our tent twice.
19th. Fine warm morning, birds singing, fifh jumping, and turkies gob-
ling. Set 6ur, ant'pr'efrntty came to a rich ifl.ind, anJ ian between it and
the Indian land, which is high and fhelly, then lower, and very good on each
fide : We foon came into the river again, and rowed down it, till we'came
to a fmall branch on the eaft fide, down which we rowed near half a mile,
where we were entirely stopped by the piftia and perficaria growing all in a
matt ; we then turned back, concluding it to run on the eaft fide of an ifand,
and tojoin the river below in fJme of its eastern lagoons to the river, down
which we proceeded, and croffed the mouth of the eaft lake, and in an hour
or two arrived at Spalding's Upper-ftore, where we ftaid all night, which was
very warm, and the mufkitoes very troublesome, as much fo as any time fince
I left Charles-Town.
2oth. Fine warm morning, but the fouth-wcft wind foon blew fo hard, that-
we durft not venture to fail on the great lake, and our pilot wanted to dry his
fkins, fo we ftaid here all day : but in the afternoon our hoft went over the
river to fhoot geefe in the pine-land ponds, where they generally feed on
the grafsgrowing there ; for they don't frequent the river, as we did not fee
one all the way, but multitudes of ducks : We landed on a bank of the river,
a little above the place where the Indians fwim their horfes over, about 4 foot
above the water ; the bank was composed of fnail and mufcle-fhells, a itrata
of which, that was even or u under the surface of the river, was converted into
L a concrete
[ 22 ]
a concrete as hard as a foft ftone, as are mof of the banks of the upper part bf
the river, which will burn to lime; we walked from the landing direly to-
wards the pine-lands, at firft over a rich level, then ascended a hill 6 feet per-
pendicular, formed all of shells mixed with a little black fandy mould, fcarce
enough to fill up the vacuities betwixt one fell and the other, although the
fmall ones and broken pieces are drove as clofe together as poffible ; this com-
pofition lasted for near 200 yards, the fhells diminishing gradually, and the
fine fand appearing more and more, until no more fheils were feen mixed
with it; we 1till came to rifing ground producing hiccory, magnolia, bay
and water-oak, then ground-oak, chamrerops, then pine-land, dwarf-myrtle,
kalmia, vaccinium, andromeda, fmall pines and long grafs in the ponds,
where t':e water was about knee-deep more or lefs, fome of which contain
from i to lo acres ; but fome ponds are a mile or two big, more or lefs,
fome furrounde I clofi vith the adj :,cit pin-.lad:, a .J others wv'ih large fa-
vannahs at one or both fides, with a rivulet running out, arJd Imetimes with
a bay or ypriLf-fwiamp at the head. I \\as talking to our holt that I cou!d
not find any good clay up the river ; he faid there was good white clay to be
got on the weft fide of the river near his houfe; we went to look at it, and
taking a hoe, I cut a piece of it up, which was a clofe compact mafs of ground
fea-fhells a little above the furface of the water, the lower the more it looked
and felt like clay. Quere, whether or not fome forts of clay are not formed
out of fea-fhells ground minutely to powder in a long feries of time ?
2 ft. Warm morning; fet out from Spalding's Upper-ftore, wind fouth ;
it foon fell a r.il ing, fo that we encamped near the head of the great lake, at
an orange grove on a bluff, where we gathered good bitter-fweets, the four
ones lay scattered all about on the ground ; there are two large and fome
fmall iflands near the head of the great lake.
22d. Cold morning, and the wind fo high, durft not venture on the lake
it being very rough ; fo we flaid here all night, and fired the marfh.
23d. Very cool, clear morning, wind N. W. Set out early, and coaft d
the weft fide of the lake, which was part fandy-beech, part marfh, fome cy-
prefs-fwamp, and much oak banks, until we came to wVllianl,'s Spring, a
creek of very clear warm water, 30 yards broad and 2 foot deep, the fpring
heads even with the river ; we landed near its mouth on a fhelly-b!uff amongft
thousands of orange-trees, growing fo thick that we could hardly pafs be-
tween them for a quarter of a mile; we walked near a mile up to two or three
of its heads, and left one on the right hand which we did not fearch, because
we could not get at it without a boat; the land near the creek was a rich but
narrow fwamp ioo yards wide more or lefs, adjacent to which was a high
fhelly-bluff,,on which the Indians had planted ; it is remarkable that the Flo-
rida Indians planted on all thefe fhelly-bluffs, as being the mofft fertile parts,
except the fwamps and marlhe;, which are only proper for rice, and which the
Indians never planted,, as they would never take the pains of raising and
shelling of it; and the pine-lands ,ot being fuitible for corn by their method
of cuLivation ; but whether th;y planted the intermediate declining grounds
I can't fay, as Jaege tresof cedar, celkes, and palms, with many oLher kinds,
grow on moft of them : About noon we fet out from this place, and coated
fill on the weft fide, being very warm, and we till observed either oak-ham-
mocks, or high pines ; about half way down the'lake is a high bluff, the up-
per part white foil, the lower yellow, it produced fpruce-pine and fcrub-oaks
we could not bring our boat near the flore, for this weft fide is very fhoal
molt of the way, and the land molly palmetto-giound, and fome few cyprefs-
fwamps ; we encamped on a defcending bank, on the back of which was
icrub-oaks and dwarf-palmetto or chamasrops ; here we cooked a fine mefs of
24th. Moderate clear morning ; rowed early by a bank of pine-land for
several miles and rome cyprefs-fwamps, then came to a large creek called
Johnfon's Spring, the weft end of the lake about 80 yards near broad, but
after it widens to about 200 ; the pine-land comes pretty clofe to its banks,
then a narrow low marlh interpofcs, and after we rowed higher up we faw
narrow cyprefs-fwamps, loblolly-bays, and fome few oak hammocks ; the
,creek abounds with filh, many ftengrays near its mouth it is fuppofed to
run 7 miles from its head to the lake, where the bar is about I8 inches deep,
but the creek is 3, 4, and 5 foot up to the spring, which is nearly level with
L 2 the
[ 4 3
the lake, and full of grafs and weeds at the bottom, many of which reach to
the top of the water, and are a great obftrution to boats in going up, with-
out they keep directly in the channel ; on the north fide towards its head a
large marfh brancheth out ; we came at laft to where the cat-tails and bull-
rufhes grew fo thick, that we could not force the battoe through them, though
it was ioo yards broad, and 3 or 4 foot dtep, fo clear that we'could fee the
mufcle-thells on its fhelly bottom in patches 3 or 4 foot diameter between the
great patches of grafs and weeds ; we landed to fearch the head springs, and
paffed through an orange-grove and an old field of the Florida Indians, then
came to the main springs, where a prodigious quantity of very clear warm
brackish water boiled up between vaft rocks of unknown depth, we could not
reach the bottom by a very long pole ; this was on the north bank, about 12:
foot high above the water, which fpreads immediately 50 or 60 yards broad:
We walked round the weft end towards the fouth bank, where the bare flat
rocks appeared above water, and a great ftream boiled up of a falt and foirifh
tafte, but not near fo loathfome as several before-defcribed, nor had it any
bad fell, or whitifh fedlment as they; we examined the composition of the
rocks, and found fome of them to be a concrete redifh fand, fome whitifh
mixed with clay, others a ferruginous irregular concrete, and many a corm
bination of all thefe materials with fea-fhells, clams, and cockles ; we found
in the bank an afh-coloured tenacious earth, and a ftrata of yellow fand be-
neath ; near here my fon found a lovely fweet tree",. with leaves like the
fweet bay, which fmelled like faffafras, and produce a very ftrange kind of
feed-pod, but the feed was all thed, the fevere froft had not hurt it ; fome of
them grew near 2o foot high,. a charming bright evergreen aromatic : We
faw near the spring numbers of large garr, cats, mullets, trouts, and several
other kinds unknown to us, fome in chace of others, which. run into the grafs
to hide them from their enemies ; in going down to the. lake the fifth were
continually jumping ; we observed on the north end of the lake a hammock.
of oak. We then fteered our course to Bryan's Ifland, on which there is fome-
u By the above description this may-probably be the Illicium anifatum of Linn. Spec. 664.
whichis the Somo or Skimmi of Kaempfer's amcenitates, p. 880.- This is the- tree fo much
admired for its fpicy quality by the Chinefe and Japonefe, and which has been discovered lately
by William Clifton, Efq;, Chief-Jaftice of Weft-Florida,, to grow near Penfacola.
[ 25 1
good land and rich fwamp, with pretty much pine-land, itis fuppofed to con-
tain about 1500 acres; here we encamped on a rocky lifing grourid, and
found numbers of great and fmall oyfter-fhells, clams, perriwinkles, fea-
mufcles, and cockles, all cemented together with broken fragments, fome
ground as fine as coarfe fand ; they were all confufidly mixed and jumbled to-
gether as upon our fea-coaft ; firft a ftrata of fhells, then a ftrata of fhells
and fragments fill up the leaft cavity ; it is remarkable that we never found
any fcallops to the fouth of Carolina, either on the coat or up in the country.
25th. Fine pleasant morning, although a little froft in the pine-lands; faw
several flock? of pigeons flying about both yesterday and to-day: About noon
we landed at iuiu!it-Royal, and went to an Indian tumulus, which was about
too yards in diameter, nearly round, and near o2 foot high, found fome
bones fcattereJ on it, it muf be very ancient, as live-oaks are growing upon
it three f ot in diameter i wh.i a pio igiou- multitude of Indiins muft have
laboured to raife it ? to what height we can't fay, as it muft have fettled much
in fuch a number of years, and it is furprizing where they brought the fand
from, and how, as they had nothing but baskets or bowls to carry it in;
there feems to4be a little hollow, near the adjacent level on one fice, though'
not likely to raife fuch a tumulus the 5oth part of what it is, but direly north.
from the tumulus is a fine straight avenue about 60 yards broad, all the surface
of which has been taken off, and thrown on each fiJe, which makes a bank of
about a rood wide. and a- foot high more or lefs; as the unevennefs of the
ground required, for the avenue is as level as a floor from bank to bank, and
continues fo for .ibo.ut three quarters of'a mile to a pond of about ico yards o
broad and 150 long N. and S. seemed to be an oblong.fquare, and its banks
4 foot perpendicular, gradually loping every way to the water, the depth of
which we could not fay, but do not-imagine it deep, as the grafs grows all
over it ; by its regularity it feems to be artificial; if fo, perhaps the fand
was cared from hence to raife the tumulus, as the one direly faces the
other at each end of the avenue; on the fourth fide of the tumulus I found a--
very large r; tle-fnake funning himself, I fuppofe this to be his winter-quar-
ters; hcre had formerly been a large Indian town ; I fuppofe there is o5 acres
of pl-:ilo ground cleared and of a middling foil, a good part of which is-
[ 26 ]
mixed with fmall shells ; no doubt this large tumulus was their burying.place
or fepulchre : Whether the Florida Indians buried the bones after the fleth was
rotted off them, as the prefert foothern Indians do, I can't fay : We then
rowed down the river, and encamped at Spalding's Lower-ftore, oppo5fik to
a fmall rich island on the weft fide of the river.
26th. Fine morning, warm and pleasant ; observed a plum-tree in full
bloffom'; here I faw many pine-trees, that had lat y been cut down, and
though 18 inches in diameter, they were the greatest part fap ; I counted their
years growth, and found fome to be about o5, fome 40, and others 30, but
one large tree two foot in diameter, had only four inches of fap, and I counted
S30 years growth or red circles ; here was a well dug on declining ground, the
water, which was fweet, rofe to within 5 or 6 foot of the surface of the
ground, at the distance of 100 yards from the river, and perhaFs eight foot
We rowed four miles down the river to Dunn's Ifland, which Lord Adam
Gordon has petitioned for ; it contains about 1500 acres more or lefs of good
fwamp, and fome hammock. We then took the right-hand creek up to
Dunn's lake, observing much good fwamp on both fides, the creek being
generally 150 yards broad, and two fathom deep ; on the weft fide there is
two points of low land, which comes clofe to the creek : About noon we en-
tered the lake, whofe general course is N. W. and S. E. and about 15 miles
long, the upper end turns towards the eaft: We encamped on the north
fide in a cyprefs-fwamp, part of it marlhy, its bank next the lake was a foot
above the water, but back was lower until the pine- lands began within half a
mile ; this north fide is generally a narrow cyprefs-fwamp to the pines, wi-
dening a little in rome branches.
27th. Fine pleasant morning. Set out early, and landed on a fmall ifland
cf near 1oo acres, part cyprefs-fwamp, part marfh, and piney palmetto, a
very rotten black foil, mixed with white fand : We landed on a low oluff of
mufcle and fiail-fhells, generally Irok.ri and powdered by the furges of
the lake; here, as well as in molt other'places on any high dry'bank on
[ 27 3
the river or its branches where the foil is good, are found fragments of old
Indian pots and orange-trees, which clearly demonstrates, that the Florida
Indians inhabited every fertile fpot on St. John's river, lakes and branches ;
now the amh, maple, elm, and pavia, are all green, and fhot out fiveral inches,
the cyprefs is in full bloom, the water-oak begins to lock yellow, and the
fweet-gum jft cafting its leaves : the north end of this island is pine and pal-
metto, then high fwamp ; the eaft end low. Leaving the nflan i, we encamp-
ed where we did the night before, on a bed of long tiee-mofs, to preserve us
from the very low damp ground, which is very unp:kaFant and dangerous.
28th. Fine morning; fto down Dunn's lake, the weft fide of which is gene-
rally pine-land, but at the head westward are fome very good fwrnmps, which
hold generally down the river; fquire Roll ildams all the north or north-eaftl
fide from his town to the helid of the lake ; from the lower end of which 'tis
reckoned 13 miles to the river, thence down to Roll's 4 ; on the weft fide of
the river is a very rich extensive marfh, which colonel Middleton claims;
about one o'clock we arrived at Char:ottenburgh, Roll's town, and flaid all
29th. Fine clear morfiing and warm day, like the firfl of our May; walked:
a' about the town and adjacent woods : near the banks of the river are the re-
mains of an old Spanifh entrenchment, 12 yards one way anC 14 the otier,
about 5 foot high ; on three fides being open to the river; the town is half a
mile long, with half a fcore of scattered houfes in it, built of round loggs ;
the fireets are laid out at right angles, one of them is Ioo foot broad, the
other 60 ; the land back is all pine and fcrub-oaks ; the bluff continues half a
mile down the river, which is 7 fathom deep near the town, but towards the
opposite thore there is a fand-bar, it is not above half a mile wide here but
foon widens above.
3oth. Fine morning ; fet out from Roll's, whole fteward, Mr. Banks,,
was very kind to us, and feems to be a fober, careful, and agreeable man ,
we rowed"' miles, croffing the river to Gray's creek, which is 60 yards wide,.
and two fathom and a half deep ; we went about 7 miks up it ; its general;
[ 28 1
,courfe is weft by fouth, and generally pretty straight, good high fwamps on
each fide, though on the north fide the pines come near, especially near the
upper part, where the ground is poor; we could not pafs near fo far, as we
had depth of water, by reason of many old trees fallen acrofs the creek at 7
foot deep and Io or 12 yards broad ; great floods certainly come down it,
for there were great banks of fand 4 foot, more or lefs high, drove on its
banks ; here is very good grafs growing in the pine-woods knee high. We
,rowed down again, croffed the river, and encamped at a great orange-grove,
where thousands of orange-trees grow as thick as poflible, and full of four
and bitter-fweet fruits ; this is about four miles by land from Mr. Roll's,
though near 8 by water ; he claims it in his 20,000 acres ; fome of it is good
fwamp, but moftly pine-land.
3ift. Fine morning : rowed for several miles on the weft fide of the river,
;having croffed it, and ubferved federal good cyprefs-fwamps and oak-ham-
,mocks alternately mixed with pine-land, which comes cl6fe to the river'b bank,
win other places they come clofe to the fwamps, which are here from 5o yards
deep to 500 or more ; we then croffed the river to the eaft fide, along which
we rowed, the pine-lands fill approaching near the banks moft of the way,
lome few cyprefs and maple-trees grow near the fhore ; we rowed into a great
cove, on the north fide of which is a fine rich high fwamp; we encamped at a
.point on the eaft fide on middling high ground loping towards the river, back
of which is palmetto-ground and black foil well timbered with live-oaks.
February the firft. Walked in a fine rich open marth, then palmetto and
myrtles join the pine-lands, in which a little spring heads the fwamp, which
rmay be a quarter of a mile deep : We got to Picolata by noon, the north
wind being against us as the day before ; we then rowed to a low bluff of mid-
dling land, well timbered with live and water-oak, great magnolia and fvweet_
gum ; here was alfo a rich fwamp of am and maple ; but generally below
Roll's town there is nofuch large bodies of fwamps as above, efpecially en
the eaft fide, though at the mouth of Picolata creek, about 6 miles below the
fort, there is a pretty large fwamp.
[ 29 ]
2d. Walked this morning to observe the foil, the wind north, and cool,
landed at Popa fort, a fmall shallow entrenchment almost filled up withlength
of time; 'tis 20 yards fquare ; and as many from the river; a few yards
back of it there is another about twice as big here is a grove of orange-trees,
and many acres of large live-oaks, a or 3 foot in diameter, adjacent to which
is a shallow but good fwamp with fome cyprefs-trees nearly opposite to this
on the weft fide branches out a creek running 3 or 4 miles, on which grow
large red cedars i and about two miles below it, branches out White or Black
River, it bears both names, the laft by the Englifk ; 'cis navigable above 20
miles, fome fay 30, 'tis reckoned o2 to Caldwall's ftore, our prefent boundary
with the Creek Indians ; this river or creek is about 0oo yards wide and 3
fathom deep, more or lets, its general courfe is weft; we landed at a pine-
bluff, 300 yards long and to foot perpendicular, more or lefs, the upper
surface of which, for a foot or more deep, is white fand, then 2 foot of an
afh-coloured clay mixed with red and yellow fand, then 5 foot of a fine
yellow fand, (no coarfe fand is to be found in any of the southern provinces)
then a tenacious ahl-coloured clay to an unknown depth, reaching below the
surface of the creek ; there is a pretty Ipring runs into the creek juft above the
bluff; we lodged near its mouth.
3d. Set out early, cool morning, with white froft, wind N.W. SW a
many high bluffs, near 2o foot high, but poor and fandy ; fome have a cy,
prefs-fwamp behind them, others are level with the adjacent pine-land, in
which is plenty of rank grafs knee-high ; on one or both fides of thefe bluffs
frequently runs out a fmall spring : We called at. the Store, (this was a fine
warm day) above which, the land is flill higher, and produces live-oak, Ped
and purple-berried bay, alder, maple, chinquapins, elm, linden, water-oak,
myrtle, dogwood, vaccinium, palmetto, hamamelis ", and cedar; here the
creek divides into two branches nearly equal ; we took the left-hand one,
which had generally high banks on each fide, raised by the floods 12 or more
feet with white fand ; in many places the level pine-lands come clofe to its
banks ; in others again, there is a pond or cyprefs-fwamp juft behind the
bank, in which very large trees grow in the.pine-lands; there are a number
w Hamamelis, a thrub with leaves like the common hazel, propagated for the fake of variety
by the Englifh gardeners.
[ 30 ]
So shallow ponds, on the borders of which there is much green grafs alt the
winter: We rowed up this branch, until the great trees, that had fallen-
acrofs the creek, flopped our paffage, and there the creeks were 4 or 5 foot-
deep and io yards broad, on a fandy bottom ; we returned to the Store,
where we lodged, and before day it began to- rain.
4th. Warm rainy morning; it cleared up, and'we fet out up the north-
branch, the banks of which were 12 or 13 foot high moft of the way, more
or lefs, in many places rocks under the furface 3 or 4 foot, reaching below the
furface of the water to an unknown depth in fome places; the firft ftrata is
fandy, then a gritty rock for a foot, then a foftifh rock full offea-fhells, of
the cockle and perriwinkle kind; mixed clofe with broken or ground fhells to
a folid mafs for two foot, more or lefs, then a deep mafs of foft, in fome
places, hard rocks : We rowed up this branch until we were flopped by trees,
as in the other, and here the creek was io yards broad and a fathom deep ;
we walked up it a good way farther, but found li tle alteration, except in its
being fuller of old trees ; the traders fay, it heads in a great lake 5 miles long
and 3 broad ; there are fome middling good cyprefs-fwamps near its banks,
" e floods had been fo high up this branch, as to flow over its banks, and the
Meit rlil-6 of the pine-lands; they had not been quite fo high in the other
branch ; near the Store was a deep gut with a middling fiream of water,
which headed about a quarter of a mile up in the pine-lands, and gufhed out
over the rocks, where it had worn a deep narrow gully 8 or io foot deep, the
rooks reached to within 4 foot, more or lefs of the furface, and to an unknown.
depth, all of ground or broken fea-fhells ; in fome places there is a'ftrata of
tenacious clay, either above, under,, or without this fhelly ftrata.
5th. Set out from the Store down the river, near. the mouth of which are
fome good cyprefs-fwamps, and up it generally very large ones ; about 4 miles
up, there is a very extenfive one, reaching a mile and a, half north-eaftward,
to a place called the Dotor's lake, narrowing gradually to the mouth of the
creek and upwards, till a pine-bluff interpofes ; opposite to this is another ex-
tenfive fwamp, upwards of 10oo acres ; pretty near the mouth of the creek
there are two fmall iflands ; a large point of land projects out.from the main
t 31 ]
on the eait fide of the river opposite to the mouth of Do&or's lake, which
runs near fouth partly parallel with the river: We arrived this evening at
6th. Set out for the Do&or's lake, which is half a mile or more broad,
and 6 or 7 long; at the head of which is a large creek, about ioo or more
yards broad, and near a mile and a half long, heading in a rich fwamp with 3
or 4 branches, which drain it : On the weft fide there is a hammock of oak,
hiccory, magnolia, and hornbeam, and a fine spring of clear water a!moft big
enough to turn a mill, boiling up from under the main body of the country
rocks, as all the great fountains do ; the foil looks.rich.
7th. Cloudy morning ; we croffed a branch, landed, and walked over a
rich fwamp 2 or 300 yards wide, then came to cutting-grafs, then palmetto
for 1oo yard&, then to a pine-favannah of a vaft extent, moift, and producing
a great biTrirf"t'w o t~?ty good grfs, knee deep; \\e returned and rowed
down the lake and river about 14 miles to Davis's, against a strong wind, rain,
and thunder, all wet and cold.
8th. Fine clear morning, wind weft. Set out after noon, having dried our
cloaths and blankets, rowed to Greenwood's, and encamped by a grove of
orange-trees ; from hence to the Cow-ford ; the banks are generally high,
with very large oak, bay, and great magnolia, the foil, though fandy, is pretty
9th. A fine morning ; rowed down to the Cattle-ford, below which is a
marfh on both fides, then pines, then another pretty large marfh, and fo on
alternately high oak-banks, open marches, and flat pine-woods and favan-
nahs; back there is pretty high fand-hills, and fome ponds; came to Wil-
liams's point and creek, the water is pretty deep at the point, out of which
iffue several little fprings :"We then foon came to Forbes's bluff, where grows
a good fort of ruLh to bottom chairs with, or make matts, much better than
the common bull-rulh or the three-fquare ones; it rained in the evening, but
cleared up about midnight ; this bluff is very produ&ive, being covered with
shells of oyfters, which the Florida Indians fed much upon near the fea-coaft.
M 2 oth.
t ^ )
ioth. Pleafant morning, wind blowing ftrong at N. W. Breakfafted on bt
tiers of tanniers, a fpecies of eddo ', which being boiled with meat is good
food ; the roots are 4 inches in diameter, and 5 long, wholefome, and of
great increase, when planted in moiftifh rich ground, but will do in middling
foil. Set out, and failed through the narrow paffage, not being much above
a quarter of a mile wide, running between two large marfhes a little above a
high bluff, called Oglethorpe's or Hefler's bluff, (an exceeding convenient
situation for the building of a fort to fecure the inhabitants up the river in
time of war, 'tis about 8 miles from the bar and fea) in this narrow paffage
'tis very reasonable to fuppofe, that the flood-tide muft run very rapid, as it
has 200 miles up this broad river to flow, in many places 2 miles wide, and
many branches and large lakes to fill ; we landed about 2 miles above the bar,
and walked along a fine fandy beech of regular decent, quite to the fea low-
water-mark, to an inlet, up which we walked to one Hazard's, a good kind
of a man, and one ofthe bell planters in Florida ; he is fettled on a large
rich island, great part of which is furrounded with marlh, which on one fide
is very extenfive.
n1th. North-weft wind very high; could not venture on the river,- fo
walked all over the island observing his improvements ;: and the curiosities,
both natural and artificial, of the Indians and Spaniards ; of the former,
were several middling tumulus' or fepulchres of the Florida Indians, with nu-
merous heaps ofoyfter hells, which one may reasonably fuppofe were many
hundred years in collecting by as many thousands of Indians, alfo variety ( f
old broken Indian pots. 'Tis very demonftrable that the Spaniards.-had a fine
settlement here, as there itill remain their cedar pofls on each fide their fine
firaight avenues, pieces of hewn live-oaks, and great trees girdled round to
kill them, which are now very found, though above 60 years fince they were
cut. This rich island, though it appears fandy on the surface, yet hath a
clay bottom, above which in fome places there is a dark-coloured frata of in.
TaBniets, a species ofEdlJ 's.- This is a fpecitsdfrAtum or Wake Robin.--There are
many forts of them cultivated in the Weft-Indies, and in Carolina, for the fake of-the roots as
well as the leaves, which latter is called lndian-Kale; for further information c n!ult Sir Hans
Sloane, Hit. Jam. Vol. I. p. 166 to 170; Brown's Hill. Jam. and Miller's Dictionary, under
the title Arum.
x2th. Cool morning, with a little white froft, yet a pleasant day. Set out
early, rowing up the river again ; on the fouth fide, near the bar, there are
fome very high fand-hills, a little above which is the mouth of Don Pablo's
creek, which runs towards the head of the north river, that empties itself near
St. Auguftine ; 'tis reckoned about 5 or 6 miles between them, where, if a
good paffage was cut, and could be kept open, there would be a fine commu-
nication from St. John's river to the town, without the hazard of going to
lea, and croffing two troublesome bars : Four miles from the mouth of the
river, on the north fide, branches out a creek, called the Sifters, from two
hammocks that are much alike ; between them is a paff g to Charles-Town
for schooners i the large fhips can come within 15 miles of St. John's: a
little above this, there is another little creek and paflage to Chark -Town ;
below which is an island of marfh. Paft by Trout-creek, 300 yards broad,
fault to its head, up which there is gool pine-woods, and fine range for cattle,
with finmecyprefs-fw rrrp,.-opppolire to it, on the ifu:h fide of the river, is.
Sandy-point, full of high pines, and back very large ponds. We arrived at
\Ir. Davis's near night, and next morning fet outfor Augutine.
As the lower part of the river and its branches are known, 'tis needles' to
be more par icular in J. Fcrib ng them.
RE M A R K S
f 34 71
REMARKS on the River ST. JOHN'S.
T H E pine-lands, as they are here called, contain a variety of foil, ac-
cording to their different situations ; fome very lar e shallow ponds,
quite dry in dry feafons, but generally abounding with tall grafs; fome
very extensive favannahs, producing rank good grafs, as thick as it
tan grow, where great numbers of cattle may be raised; very 1, f y pines,
and in many places cyprefs-fwamps, the laft of which are allowed to be excel-
lent rice-grounds, if clay-bottoms are within a few feet, and a good L ling
fiream of water runs through them, to drain and flow them at pleafure ; the
bay fwamps are frequently found in the piie-lands, being the general heads of
the cyprcfs-branches : This pine-land, by the help of dung and cultivation,
will produce good corn, potatoes and cotton; the large palmetto declining
ground, between the pines and fwamps, are moift and feem rich, and per-
haps will fuic both corn and indigo ; but the fhelly bluffs feem to be the moft
fertile fpots of high ground, and the Indians chief plantations for corn and
pumkins: That which is called hammocky ground is generally full of large
evergreen and water-oaks, mixed with red-bay and magnolia, and in many
places' the great palmetto or cabbage-tree ; this is generally reckoned proper
both for corn, cotton, and indigo: but the marches and fwamps (fo very cx-
tenfive upon the river St. John's) are exceeding rich, the laft of which are
full of large afh, maple, and elm, being of an unknown depth of rich mud;
fo are the marches on the upper part of the river, which are covered with wa-
ter-canes and reeds, as the lower marches are-with rank grafs and weeds; all
of which when they are drained dry, will produce, in all probability, great
crops of corn and indigo, and without much or any draining, a fine increase
of rice ; fo would the vaft cyprefs-fwamps; and of the large cyprefs-trees
may be made great quantities of choice shingles, pales, and boards, of long
,duration ; the prodigious large live-oaks will make excellent strong and dura-
ble timbers for fhippings, as the tall straight long-leaved pine for malfs and
yards, and the others for turpentine, tar, and pitch, as alfo for plank and
4- 6 8 2_ 30a_
The BAY of
8ESPI RITT SLAOTDO,
1 35 1
St. John's river, by its near affinity to the fea, is well replenished with va-
riety of excellent fifth, as bafs, fea-trout, fheep.head, drums, mullets, cats,
garr, flurgeon, flingrays; and near its mouth, oyfters, crabs, and thrimps,
sharks and porpoifes, which doubtlefs will continue, as there is fuch a great
extent of its waters in fo many great lakes, ponds, and branches, continuing
both deep and broad to near its head ; its flhoes, being generally fhoal, are
full of grafs and weeds, and afford a fine afylum to the young fry against
their devouring enemies.
A Defcription of the Bay of ESPIRITU SANTO.
T H E bay of Efpiritu Santo is fituatcd on the weft coaft of this pro-
vince, in 27th degree of north latitude. It has a good harbour, but
the land all about thac coat is very low, and cannot be feen off a thip's deck,
when in 7 fathom water. Several .low fandy lands and mrarfl.s, covered
with mangrove bushes, lie before the main land. Here is the greatest
quanthiy of fifh in the summer time I ever faw, to be catched with a fayne,
enough to load a fhip, if the climate would admit of curing them, even in a
Here is lone proper for building, on this coaft. Alfo great plenty of
deer, and fome wild cattle ; but the main land near the coat is in general
fandy and barren ; and is, fo far as I have feen, much like that in North-
Carolina, a pine barren, intermixed in many places with vallies, capable of
improvement for flock of all forts. The bay and iflands before the main
land, seemed to be the report of many kinds of fea fowl and fifh, that at pro-
per feafons you may load your veffel with eggs, young birds, or fifh; of fifth
the bafs and mullet are the chief; of birds, all the species of fea gulls, cranes,
curlews, pelicans, and fundry others whole names I know not.
F I N I S.
Page 5 of the Journal, (Note g) instead of r'agus Pumila, read Fagie
DIRECTIONS to the BINDER.
The Map of Eaft-Florida to be placed facing the Title Page."
The Plan of Sc. Auguftine facing page 7 of The Defcription of Ea1
The Plan of the Bay ofEfpiritu Santo facig page 35-of the Journal.
C H A P. L
CLIMATE and SITUATION.
TH E situation of Eaft-Florida, upon the Globe of the Earth will be
the beft understood by having recourfe to a map of America, where
its northern boundary is feen in latitude 30. 47. at St. Mary's River, and its
southern point in latitude 25, where the peninfula terminates in the gulph of
Mexico, by which it is alfo bounded on the weft, and by the atlantick
ocean, and the trait of Florida on the caft. Its length from north to fourth is
350 miles, its breadth is various, and diminifhes from 240 miles at St. Mary's
River, to lefs than half that diameter when you approach the cape; the whole
contents amounting to upwards of I2 millions of acres, which is about the
fize of Ireland.
The situation of Eaft-Florida, in the southern part of the temperate zone,
between two feas, the great atlantick ocean, and the bay of Mexico, appears
_ __ _
to be the natural caufe of the goodnefs of its climate; for as on the one hand,
a southern latitude exempts it from all the inconveniences of extreme cold, fo
a maritime situation, and its lying within the courfe of the fea-breeze thrat
daily blows acrofs the peninfula, is the caufe that the heat of the fun in fum-
mer is mitigated by the frefhnefs of the fea air, which in a hot climate is much
more falutary than the air of an extended continent.
All America to the north of the river Potomak, is greatly incommoded by
the feverities of the weather for two or three months in the winter: In Eaft-
Florida there is indeed a change of the feafons, but it is a moderate one; in
November and December many trees lofe their leaves, vegetation goes on
flowly, and the winter is perceived. In the northern parts of the province a
froft happened laft winter; which injured the fugar-canes at Auguftine, but
did no hurt to thofe planted at the Mufquito inlet, about fifty miles
to the fouthward. I do not find upon enquiry, that fnow has ever
been feen there ; the winters are fo mild, that the Spaniards at Auguftifie had
neither chimneys in their houfe, nor gla& .windows. The tender plants of
the Weft Indies usually remain unhurt during thei1Trer, in the gardens of
The fogs and dark gloomy weather, fo common in England, are unknown
in this country. At the equinoxes, especially the autumnal, the rains fall
heavily, every day, betwixt eleven o'clock in the morning, and four in the
afternoon, for fome weeks together ; when a fhower is over, the fky does
not continue cloudy, but clears up, and the fun appears again : the mildnefs
of the feafons, and purity of the air, are probably the caufe of the healthinefs
of this country.
By the beft accounts of the firft discovery of Eaft-Florida, it appears to
have been nearly as full of inhabitants as Peru and Mexico ; and thefe ac-
counts are in fome measure verified, by the frequent remains of Indian towns
throughout the peninsula. The natives are described to have been larger,
and of a stronger make than the Mexico Indians.
When the Spaniards quitted Augufline, many of them were of a great
age, fome above ninety : the Spaniih women were observed to be more proli-
fic there than in Old Spain, where they are generally accounted but indifferent
The inhabitants of the Spanifh settlements in America consider Eaft-Florida,
with refpect to its healthinefs, in the fame light that we do the fouth of
France ; and they looked upon Auguftine as the Montpelier of America :
the Spaniards, from the Havannah and elsewhere, have frequently reported
thither for the benefit of their health.
Since it came into the hands of Great Britain, many gentlemen have expe-
rienced the happy effects of its climate, by the recovery of their health.
It is an indisputable faA, which can be proved by the monthly returns of
the ninth regiment, in garrifon in Eaft-Florida, that it did not lofe one single
man by natural death in the fpace of 20 months ; and as that regiment per-
formed duty in the several forts, at different' diftances from Auguitine, St.
Mark's d'Apalachie at 200 miles, Piccolata 30, Matanzas 20, it proves
in the moft fatisfatory manner, that the climate is healthy in the different
parts of the province.
The peninsula of Florida is not broad, and as it lies betwixt two feas, the
air is oftener refrefhed with rains, than on the continent : The entire abfence
of the fun for eleven hours makes the dews heavy, and gives the earth time to
cool ; fo that the nights in summer are lefs fultry here than in the northern
latitude, where the fun shines upon the earth for feventeen or eighteen hours
out of the twenty-four. The heat, which in South-Carolina, and in the
southern part of Europe, is sometimes intolerable for want of wind, is here
alleviated by a fea-breeze in theday-time, and a land-wind at night. It is
only in and near the tropicks that the fea and land-breezes are at all uniform
or to be depended upon.
The white people work in the fields in fhe heat of the day without prejudice
to their health ; gentlemen frequently ride out for pleasure in the middle of
the day ; and governor Grant is regularly on horfeback every day from
eleven to three o'clock in the afternoon.
C H A P. I1.
A COUNTRY fo extensive as Eaft-Florida, cannot but have a great
variety of foil, the fandy is moft prevalent, especially towards the fea.
The fea coat of Eaft-Florida is a low flat country, interfered by a great
number of rivers, very like Holland, or Surinam in America. It continues;
flat for about 40 miles from the coaft, and then grows a little hilly,,and in
fome parts rocky.
Florida differs materially from the reft of America in this, that almost air
the continent besides is covered with a thick foreft ; whereas the trees in Flo-
rida.are at a distance from one another, and being clear of under wood, have
more the appearance of an open grove than a foreftl
The rains and heavy dews create fuch a luxuriant vegetation, that the fur-
face of the earth,, notwithstanding the heat of the fun, is never without a&
There are frequently four ftrata or beds of earth found in Eaft-Florida:
the uppermoft a thin mould of earth, beneath a fand half a.yard or more in
depth; below that a ftrong white clay, resembling the marble in England,
proper for manure to the fandy land, this firatum is commonly four feet
thick ; the fourth layer is a rock compofed of a congeries of broken fea-fhells,
refembling the bottom of the fea. The fertility of Florida is much afcribed
to thefe two ftrata of clay and rock, which contribute to keep the fand moif,,
and prevent the rains from finking away from the roots of the plants and trees..
In the interior parts the trees are larger, the grafs higher,, and the cattle
bigger, than toward the fea, especially in that part of the peninsula which.
lies betwixt the river St. Juan's, and the fort of St. Mark d'Apalachie,
which is about 150 miles to the north-weft of this river.
To take-a view of the eaflern fhore of Florida, beginning from the north:
we fee the river St. Mary's, lying in the 3oth degree 47' latitude, it is a mile
broad at its mouth, where Amelia island is fituated ; it has five fathom water
upon the bar at low water, is navigable above 60 miles, where it has three
fathom water. It-is the beft harbour from the capes of Virginia to thofe
of Florida; it takes its rife out of the great fwamp*, called by the
Indians Owa-qua-phe no-gaw. The lands upon the banks of this river are
the richeft in the northern parts of the province ; the abundance of cane-
fwamps are a firong indication of the goodnefs of the foil. The beft trees-
that grow in the fwamps on this river, are the live oak and cedar, very ufe-
ful for fhip-building they are here of an extraordinary fize.
St. Juan's, now called St. John's river, lies 40 miles fouthward of St.
Mary's ; the traA of land between them confifts of plains covered with pines ;
thefe plains are called in America, pine-barrens, or highlands, in contra-
diftin&ion to the fwamps and lowlands.
We find a ftriking difference betwixt the pine-barrens of Florida, and thofe
to the northwards ; the pine-barrens to the northwards, from the poverty of
the foil, do not anfwer the neceffary expence of clearing. The clofenefs of
the tres hinders the grafs from growing under them, fo that large tra&s of
land are no further ufeful than to make pitch and tar : whereas in Florida,
by a difference in the climate, the trees flanding at a greater diftance, the
pine-barrens afford tolerable good grafs.
In paffing through this part of Florida, we find the plains frequently divi-
ded by the fwamps above-mentioned, which being full of foreft-trees diver-
fify the afpe& of the country, with fo many thick woods,
The fwamps are from half a mile to a mile broad, and from two to five
miles long; the depth of the water is various, but is fuch that in travelling
they are usually rode through without much difficulty.
The word fwamp is peculiar to America ; it there fignifies a tra& offand that is found and&
good, but by lying low is covered with water. All the foreft trees (pine excepted). thrive beft
in the fwamps, where the foil is always rich ; and when cleared and drained, is proper for the
growth of rice, hemp, and indigo..
From St. John's river fouthwards to St. Auguftine is 45 miles, the coun-
-try is much the fame as has been juft described, but not quite fo good, the
fwamps being neither fo frequent nror.fo large.
Before.we fpeak of St. Auguftine, it will be proper to take fome notice of
the river St. John's, the principal river of the province; and, in point of uti-
licy and beauty, and not inferior to any in America. The force of this
river, though not yet discovered, is in.all probability near the cape of Flo-
rida ; it paffes through fome fmall lakes, the loweft of them is called by the
Indians the great lake ; it is 20 miles long, and 15 broad, -has eight feet wa-
ter ; there are federal iflands in it, and it is now called Lake George; it is
170 miles from the mouth of the river. In going down from hence the firft
European habitation is Mr. Spalding's, an Indian trader's ftore-houfe : 15
miles lower is Mr. Rolle's settlement; the whole distance from the lake to
Mr. Rolle's is 45 miles, and the country between, the belt discovered yet
Supon the river. The tropical fruits and plants are found in great abundance,
and afford the ftrongeft evidence that both the foil and climate are fit for fugar,
cotton, indigo, and other Welt-India productions. Mr. Rolle's plantation
is well fituated on the eastern banks, and is the moft considerable upon this
river, which is here very narrow ; 25 miles from Mr. Rolle's,. downward, is
Piccola.a, a fmall fort with a garrifon, the river is there three miles broad.
The bar at low water is nine feet deep, its channel up to lake George is
much deeper ; the breadth is very unequal, from a quarter of a mile to three
miles. The tide rifes at the bar from five to eight feet, and two feet at Mr.
Rolle's, though 125 miles from the fea. There are neither -hal!ows nor
rapids in the river ; the current is very gentle, and veffels may go up the
river almoft as eafy as down, for 200 miles ; there are few.rivers more com-
modious for navigation.
Near the mouth of St. John's river, a 'fmall river called St.'Mark's takes
its rife, running almost from north to fourth, parallel with the fea, till it emp-
ties itdlf into the harbour of St. Auguftine ; there are many fatt marches on
both fides of the river, almost up to its force ; there marfhes may be eafily
A I- ILK ..-
,- . .E .~. .
Li~~~~~~i~~~~ s~\!bli : e~
[: 7 ]..
defended from the tides, and will make very rich lands, either for rice, in-
digo, or hemp.
We come now to the harbour of St. Augufline, which would be one of the
beft in America, were it not for its bar, which will not admit veffels of great
burden, as it has but eight feet water*. The bar is.furrounded by
breakers, that have a formidable appearance when you enter it, they are not
fo dangerous as they appear to be, on account of the bar being very fhort.
There is a road on the north fide of the bar, with good anchorage, for fuch
fhips as draw too much water to go' into the harbour.
A neck of the main land to the north, and a point of Anatlafia island to
the fouth, form the entrance of the port. Oppofite to the entrance lies Fort
St. Mark's, fo called from the river it lies upon; this fort is a regular
quadrangle, with four bastions, a ditch fifty feet wide, with a covert-way,
places of arms, and a glacis- the entrance of the gate is defended by a rave-
line; it is cafe-mated all round, and bomb-proof: the works are entirely of
hewn tone, and being finifhid according to the modern tafte of military
archite6aure, it makes a very handsome appearance, and may bejuftly deemed
the prettiest fort in the king's dominions.
The town of St. Auguftine is situated near the glacis of the fort, on the
weft fide of the harbour ; it is an oblong fquare, the streets are regularly laid
out, and interfed each other at right angles, they are built narrow on pur-
pofe to afford (hade. The town is above half a mile in length, regularly
fortified with baftions, half-bations, and a ditch ; besides thefe works it has
another fort of fortification, very fingular, but well adapted against the
Indians, an enemy the Spaniards had moft to fear : it confifts of several rows
of palmetto trees, planted very clofe along the ditch, up to the parapet ;
It is neceffary to observe, that the depth of the bars of the harbours oin the eastern fhore of
Eaft-Florida, cannot be exaaly ascertained, as the tides there are chiefly regulated by the
w;nds; a strong wefterly wind will make but fix feet, and an eafterly wind I2 feet water upon
the bar of St. Auguaine, at low water.
their-pointed leaves are fo many chevaux de frieze, that make it entirely
impenetrable; the two southern baftions are built of ftone. In the middle
of the town is a spacious fquare called the parade, open towards the harbour:
at the.bottom of this fquare is the governor's houfe, the apartments of which
are spacious and fuited to the climate, with high windows, a balcony in front,
and galleries on both lides; to the back part of the houfe is joined a tower,
calkd in America a look-out, from which there is an extensive profped to-
wards the fea, as.well as inland. There are two churches within the walls
of the town, the parish church a plain building, and another belonging to the
convent of Francifcan friars, which is converted into barracks for the garri-
fon. The houses are built of free-flone, commonly two stories high, two
rooms upon d floor, with large windows and balconies : before the entry of
moft of the houses runs a portico of tone arches; the roofs are commonly
flat. The Spaniards consulted conveniency more than tafte in their build-
ings ; the number of houses in the town, and within the lines, when the
Spaniards left it, was above 9 many of them, especially in the fuburbs,
being built of woo-, are now gone to decay. -Tht igaubit.nts were of all
colours, whtes, negroes, mulattoes, Indians, &c. at the evacuation of St.
Auguftine, amounted to 5700, including the garrifon of 2500 men. Half
a mile from the town, to the weft, is a line with a broad ditch and baftions,
running from St. Sebaftian's creek to St. Mark's river : A mile further is
another fortified line, with fome redoubts, forming a second. communication
between a floccata fort upon St. Sebaftian's river, and fort ,Mofa upon the
river St. Mark's.
Within the firft line, near the town, was a fmall settlement of Germans,
who had a church of their own. Upon St. Mark's river, within the fame
line, was alfo an Indian town, with a church built of free-ftone.; what is very
remarkable, the fteeple is of good workmanship and tafte, though formerly
built by the Indians. The governor has given the lands belonging to this
township, as glebe-lands to the parifh church.
The land about Auguftine, though in appearance the worft in the province,
is yet far from being unfruitful ; it will produce two crops of Indian corn a
year; the garden vegetables are in great perfe&ion ; the orange and lemon
C 9 1 '
trees grow here, without cultivation, to a larger fize, and produce better
fruit than in Spain or Portugal.
'Oppofire to the town of St. Auguftine, lies the ifand of Anaftaia ; this
island is about 25 miles in length, and divided from the main land by a nar-
row channel, called Matanza river, though in reality a channel of the fea:
the foil of the ifland is but indifferent ; at present it is ufed for pafturage;
but having fome creeks and fwamps in feveral.parts,.may in time be culti-
vated to advantage.
At the north end of this island is a watch-tower, or look-out, built of
white ftone, which ferves alfo as a land-mark for veffels at. fea. At the ap-
proach of any veffels, fignals are made from.this tower to the fort; a few
fliers do duty there on that account. In this ifland there is an excellent
quarry of whitifh free-flone, of which the fort and houfes in Auguftine a're
built : ftone quarries are very rare in the southern parts of America, which
makes this of Anaftafia the more valuable; the tone is manifeftly a concre-
tion of fmall shells petrefied; it is-foft under ground, but becomes very hard
and durable by being expofed to the air.
Goingfouthwards from Auguftine, at the distance of a mile and a half, we
come to.St. Sebaftian's creek; this ffream rifes five miles north of Auguftine,
and after making a fweep to the weft, empties itself into the fea at this place.:
near the mouth of this creek are extensive falt-water marfhes, overflown at
high tides, which may be easily taken in; higher inland are fine fwamps.
We come next to Wood-cutters creek, which rifes 15 miles north of Au-
Sguftine, and after defcribing a femicircle to the weft, much like Sebaftian's
creek, but with a larger fweep, empties itself into the fea, fix miles below
Auguftine ; the lands upon this creek confifft of very good fwamps and high-
At the Matanzas, 15 miles fourth of" Wood-cutters creek, is a fmail fort
and harbour, fit for coating veffels. The harbour is oppofice the fourth
point of Anaftafia ifland, where there is a fecond.watch-tower. The foil be-
[ 1o }
tween Wood-cutters creek and the Matanzas is tolerably good, on account of
several creeks and fwamps.
From theMatanzas we come to Hallifax river, which, likeSt. Mark's above
mentioned, runs parallelkto the fea, and is separated from it only by a fandy
beach, in rome parts a mile, in others two miles broad. This beach or bank
feems to be formed by the fands; which, either by hurricanes, or in a ccurfe
of ages, have been wafhed up by the fea. The force of this river, though
certainly not very far from St. John's river, is not as yet well afcertained:
before it reaches Mufquito inlet, Tomoko river falls into it ; this river runs
from weft to eaft from this river to St. John's is only four miles land-car-
From the Matanzas to Mufquito inlet is 40 miles: at this place, Hillibo-
rough river, flowing from the fouth, and Hallifax river from the north,
meet, and are both discharged into the fea : the bar of this harbour has eight
feet at low water.
I do not know any country besides Eafl-Florida, where the rivers have been
observed to run parallel to the fea, or where two ftreams, as thofe laft men-
tioned, meet each other from dire& opposite quarters, which is Rill more re-
markable, where two rivers, as the Hallifax and St. John's, nearly parallel
to each other, and at no great distance, flow contrary ways, the fiream of the
former running to the fouth, and that of the latter to the north.
About Mufquito inlet the country is low, and chiefly faltrmarfh ; the high-
lands are covered with the cabbage and papaw-tree, and various tropical plants,
which fhew that Weft-India commodities may be raised here. The weftern
banks of Hallifax river contain a great deal of excellent land ; the many orange
groves, (which denote former Spanifh settlements) and the frequent remains
of Indian towns, fhew that they have been once well inhabited. We aro as
yet unacquainted with the forces of molt of the rivers in Eaft-Florida, and
particularly that of Hillfborough river ; it is generally believed to have a
communication with an Indian inlet, called by the Spaniards Rio Days, 60
miles to the fouth, where there is fuch another harbour.as Mufquito, with
eight feet water ; it is faid to communicate'wi:h St. John's river.
[ It 3
Mr. De Brahm, the furveyor general of the southern diftri& of America,
having transmitted to the board of trade fome obfervations made by him in
the course of his survey of the eastern coaft of the peninfula, I have fubjoined
a few of them, as they are the only hints to be depended upon, relative to
the southern part of the province.
In LATITUDE 27,
The mangrove trees are ftreighter, higher, and thicker, than in Mufquito
The plantable land is fcarce, except the mangrove fwamp for the cultiva-
tion of Barilla.
Little River affords plenty of fifh, especially Jew-fifh and Bais ; the trees
and shrubs on the profitable corn and cotton land, are the cabbage tree, the
arboreous grape vine, and fpice bark trees, the hiccora, plumb, and papao.
The weft fhore of Hillfborough river, is chiefly pine land to the fouth-
ward, and mangrove to the northward,
From latitude 26, 40, to 27, there is a branch of Hillfborough river ter-
minating in frefh water march ; the principal river departing fouth-weftwards.
The fea bank contains but indifferent high plantable land here and there in
fpots, the mangrove fwamp lands between the fea bank and branch of the
river, confit of 4,693 acres, and the frefh water marfh land, of 9,386 acres.
As the mangrove fwamp is always fa!t, or very brakifh, but exceedingly
rich, it will do for the cultivation of the Barilla ; which plant requires a very
brakilh foil, no doubt in fome years after having been improved by the Barilla,
land may become fit for other improvements.
From latitude 26, 20, to-26, 40, is the head ofSharkfhead river, entirely
frefh water, running in frefh water marches, by which it is bounded on both
fides with 24,300 acres, all good plantable land, fit either for rice, indigo,
or fugar canes.
[ 12 ]
About 950 acres of land covered' with live oak, papao, and grape vines,
on a rocky foundation covered with a rich black foil, are fituated on.the
northernmost fSrk of the river; the ftrip of land between the fea and the
river confining of much implantable and few plantable lands.
The well fide of this marfh and river is bounded chiefly with barren fand-
bills, on which are fcattered oak-fhrubs and other bushes, and fcarcely any
land calculated for producing provision, but may do in time for the cultiva-
tion of the Opuntia plant.
From latitude 26 to 26, so, we observe part-of Sharkfhead, and part of
The cape and fea-coaft to the eastward of the river, confift of fwamp and
highland, the latter not exceeding 2,800 acres, in coarfe reddith land, con-
taining much moifture, whofe hlxurious plants are the pomegranate, the
arboreous grape vine, the Chicafau plumb, the opuntia, fpice trees, and
variety of unknown flirubs ; the foil is as rich as dung itself, producing
mangrove between 50 ard 60 feet high, of whofe crimfon bark it is faid the
Spaniards make their red carduan.
The main on the weft of Cape River, appears to be all high land, and is
chiefly covered with cedar, oak, mulberry, and gum.
In latitude 25, 35, the main upon a due weft line is a mile acrofs, and
there appears a river 4 miles over, which comes either from Tampa bay, St.
John's river, or is the mouth of Hillfborough river, which in latitude
26, 50, takes a fouth-weftern departure.
No filh is in the white waters round the capes, at leaft there was none
May the 13th and 29th, nor is any other animal species there, except fea
birds, and a tra& of only one bear was observed.
No fign of any winter effe& is vifible, nor any fhrub or tree fpecies, of
thofe in the northern climate, nor is there any intermiffion in the vegetation,
of which I had a full proof by the pomegranate, of which the trees are full of
bloffoms, with half ripe, and full ripe fruit.
[ 13 ]
The heat would be intolerable, if the trade winds did not afford an agree-
able temperature of air. Black amber is on this flhore in great quantity.
From lat. 25, 40, to 26, is the force of Sharkflail and Middle Riverr,
both frefh water, alfo the head of Cape River. All thofe rivers are supplied
with, and situated in fre(h water marfhes, containing 37,961 acres good
rice lan ), and interfperfed with a few live oak, knows of good plantable
corn and indigo land.
The plantable land on the main is commonly covered with live oak
hickory and mulberry trees are.in fpots, and the remainder confifts of pine
land of the beft kind, producing smooth bark yellow pine, the very choice
As the climate is mild, the marfh land may do either for rice, indigo, or
fugar canes, the highlands for cotton, hemp, corn, and alfo indigo, the
beft method of difpofing of thofe parts will be to furvey them in large tracts
from the fea-coaft weft into the main, and others behind them from the main
to the lakes and rivers which lie to the weftward.
C;H A P. IIr.
H A V IN G already taken notice of the foil and climate, upon which
all vegetation depends, I hall now proceed to the vegetable pro-
ductions of Eaft-Florida.
In no one part of the Britilh dominions is there found fo great a variety of
trees, plants and shrubs, as in Eaft-Florida ; which, I fuppofe, is entirely
owing to the temperature of the climate, in which the produaions of the
northern and southern latitudes feem to flourifh together. Without attempting
to enumerate all the foreft-trees, I fall only take notice of fuch as are moft
[ 14 1
The white pine grows to a considerable fize, and is fit for mafts, plarfks,
and other timber for houfe-building.
The red pine is a heavy wood, full of rezin, and moft fit for pitch and
tar ; its bark is of great ufe for tanning.
The fpruce fir here isquite a different tree from that to the northward, but
anfwers the fame end for making the fpruce beer. Thefe different forts of fir
demand a fandy foil, that has a clay, or other firong earth beneath it.
The white cedar: of this tree are made boards, shingles, clapboard's, and
ftaves for dry cafks.
The red cedar is ufed for pofls and boards, the trunk is feldom above 14
feet high, and the limbs are usually crooked, and very proper for fhip-building.
The cyprefs tree grows to a greater fize here than to the northward; and
being larger than any other tree, is ufed for making canoes.
The live oak (fo called from being an evergreen) is tougher, and of a
better grain than the Englilh oak, and is highly efteemed for fhip-building.
The chefnut oak, very little known in other parts of America, is very
common in Florida. Its leaf is like that of a horfe-chefnut, the acorn it bears
is two inches long, and in tafte like a chefnut: it affords excellent maft for
hogs, and is an exceeding good timber.
Mahagony grows only in the southern and interior parts of the peninsula;
it is in fize and quality inferior to the Jamaica, but good enough to become
an article of trade: the wood-cutters from Providence, one of the Bahama
iflands, come to Eaft-Florida to cut mahagony, and carry it off clandeftinely.
Red bays : this tree feems a baftard mahagony, and is not yet known in
S Europe ; it may come into repute in time, when the beft of Mahagony is
become till more fcarce.
C[ 5 ]
The walnut, and hickory (which is a species of walnut) are fo common,
that they, with the chefnut-tree, though beautiful woods, are ordinarily ufed
for firewood : They afford good maft for hogs.
Black cherry-tree, is a beautiful wood, the tree bigger than in Europe,
the fruit fmall and of little ufe.
Maple: its wood is of a fine variegated grain, fit for cabinet-work. In the
spring they tap it, in order to make fugar of its juice.
The afh, locuft, and dog-wood trees are here in abundance, and fit for the
mill, or wheelwrights work, and other ordinary purposes.
The mulberry-tree, both the red and white, are natives of the country,
the forests are full of them they grow here to.a larger fize than in any other
The leaf of this tree being the food of the filk-worm, and the climate per-
fe&ly adapted to that tender infe&, I hall, in a proper place, make fome
observations upon the cultivation of filk.
The fuftic and brafiletto, ufeful as dying woods, are likewise found in.
Saffafras of Florida was always reckoned the beft in America.
Balfam-tree, of the fize and with leaves like the fycamore tree in England,,
yields the true balfam of Tolu.
The magnolia, tulip-laurel, tupelow-tree, are all beautiful, and very orna-
mental in gardens and pleafure-grounds.
It is obfervable in America, that though no country has a greater variety of
valuable foreft-trees, yet there are but- few fruit-trees, natives of the continent,
[ -16 ]
All the fruit-trees (an indifferent fort of plumb,, and a mall black cherry
excepted) have been imported from Europe, and thrive exceeding well. 'In
Florida, a stranger cannot help being truck with:the luxuriancy of the orange
tree ; it is larger in fize,, and produces greater abundance and better flavoured
fruit than in Spain or Portugal : this tree is fo well adapted to the climate,
that it has fpread itself every where, and is fo far, from rarity, that the inha-
bitants, not apprehenfive of fcarcity, frequently cut down the tree in order to
gather the fruit.
The lemon-, limes, citrons, pomegranates, figs, apricots, peach,, .c.
grow here in high perfe&ion.
,SHRUBS and PLANTS.
The myrtle-wax fhrub is, without doubt; -the moft ufeful of the fpontane-
ous growth of America ; it is found in all forts of foil, and in fuch plenty in
Eaft-Florida, that were there hands enough to gather -the berries,, they could
supply all England with wax : the procefs of making it is very simple; they
bruife the berries, boil them in water, and fkim the wax off, which is natu-
rally of a bright green colour, but may be bleached like bees-wax, and, on
account of its hardnefs, is well adapted-for candles-inwho countries.
Of the opuntia, or prickly pear, are different species in Eaft-Florida; on
one fort, with a fmooth leaf, is the cochineal iifec&, fourdd in incredible
plenty : of the fruit.of the other species, is made a vegetable cochineal, which
may be ufed in ordinary purposes inflead of the true cochineal.
The vines, the fenna Ihrub, farfaparilla, China-root, wild indigo, water
and mufk-melons, are indigenous plants of Eaft-Florida.- :
I cannot omit mentioning a herb of the growth of Eaft-Florida, of which,
as yet, very little notice has been taken, notwithftanding the great advantage
.that may be derived from it : this herb resembles entirely our famphire in
England, and. is called barilla or kaly ; it is the fame of which in Spain the
pearl-afhes are made, in the manner as the kelp in Scotland i the fea-coaft,
marfhes, and low-lands, overflown at high tides, are covered with it here in
It has been a long time observed by the curious, that many of the plants
both of China and Japan have been found in the fame latitudes in our pro-
vinces of North-America, notwithstanding the very great difference of longi-
tude between them. We are lately confirmed in this, by ofme fpecimens of
rare plants received from Weft-Florida, that were collected about Penfdcola,
by William Clifton, Efq; Chief Juffice of that province, at the request of his
Majefty's agent here.
There fpecimens have been carefully examined by Dr. Solander, of the
BritifhMufeum, and left in his pofflffion. Among them were found fome
fpecimens of.the Somo or Skimmi, of the celebrated Dr. Kaempfer, who is
the only person to whom we are indebted for any account of "the Japanefe
plants, .and whofe defcriptioris we find very accurate.
Kaempfer's Herbarium was purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and is now to
be feen in the Britifh Mufeum, in which there are fome fpecimens of this
plant colleaed in Japan by Kaempfer himself.
This gives us great hopes'of foon difcovering the true tea-tree of China and
Japan, fo much in ufe among us, as now to be become-one of thofe neceffary
articles of our diet, that, in order to. purchase it, we are obliged to export
immenfeTrums annually in silver, and at the fame time fend but very little of
the produce or manufactures of this country for that purpose.
This rare Japanefe-tree, called Somo or Skimmi, by Krempfer, and very
fully described in his Amanitates Exotice, p. 880, with a very good figure of;
it. Dr. Linnaus, from Kampfer's description of it, in his Species Plantarum,
p. 664, calls it 1lliium anifatumr; but acknowledges he never faw it.. The
following is an extract from Kempfer's description of -it.
He fays, it is a tree that grows in their woods, and rifes to the height of a
cherry-tree ; its leaf is like that of the Laurus or Bay-tree t the flower at a
. 1-9 A
distance looks like a Narciffus, and is of a pale white colour, it contifif f 1a
double row of petals, and is about an inch and a half over, The bark-is aro-
matic, with a little aftringency; the wood is red, hard, and brittle, with
,:very little.pith, &c.
He then points out the following remarkable ufes to which it is applied in
The Bonzes, or Priefts of China ald 'Japan, teach the people to believe
that the Gods delight in the presence of this tree, as the Bramins in India
affirm of the tree they call Budumghas, and the Bannians, Bipel. For this
reason they make garlands of the fprigs of it, and place bundles of. the branches
before their idols. They likewife lay them on the graves of the dead, as an
offering to the ghofts of their pious departed friends.
The public watchmen uftehe-powder of this aromatic bark as fuel, for
the following purpose :
They firew it regularly in fmall grooves, or little channels, that are form.
ed on the surface of fome afhes; this being lighted at one end, burns very
gently on through certain fixed faces; fo that by the continuance of this fire
they divide their time, and proclaim the hours to the public by ftriking a bell.
This time-meafurer is inclofed in a box of a foot fquare, the fmallnefs of whole
area is helped by the many windings of there little channels,. When the fuel
is lighted, they. puta cover on the box, (with a hole at the top to let out the
fmoke,) left it should burn unequally by the wind blowing upon it.
They believe that the powder of this bark, burnt on their altars in brazen
veffels, regales.their idols, with its grateful perfume.
One thing is very remarkable, that if a fprig of this tree is put into a de-
coction of the fifth, called by the Dutch the bladder fifh, (Tetraodon ocella;us
of Linnau.'s Syflem of Nature, p. 333.) which, if cleaned of its poifon, is the
moft delicate of all fifh i it will exalt its poifon many degrees. This experi-
ence has'proved, by the more fudderi death of fuch as have ufed it, prepared in
this manner to destroy themselves.
I have added a lift of fuch plants as grow both in America and Japan, with
Dr. Linnaius's names, and likewife the Japan names, and references to the
figuresof-them in Kempfer's Amacnitates.
Diofpyros; Lix. Spe. ISg9. a kind of Virginia Pilhamin plumb. Kempf. 807, Karki.
Phytolocca o&andra, 6 3 in Mexico, like Virginia poke, 8 S, Jamma Gobo.
Bignonia catalpa, 868, in Carolina, Georgia, &c. 843, Kawara Fifagi.
Calycanthus precox, 7 18, Gatefby's all-fpice tree-of Carolina, 878, Obai Robai.
Illicium anifatum, 664, in Weft-Fl6rida, 880, Somo or SkimmL.
C6mmelinacommunis,66o in Virginia, 888, Skigufa.
With the bloffoms of this, and rice flower, the Japanefe make a fine blue paint.
Zanthoxylon clava Herculis, Lin. Spe. 1455, Tooth-ach tree in Carolina, 892, Seo and Sansjo,
This ufedin Japan for pepper" and ginger.
In looking over Kempfer's Herbarium, we may difcover several other genus's
of American plants, and amongft them a fpecimen of a new fpecies of Mag-
nolia, colle&ed in Japan. It is remarkable, that no Botanift has ever difco-
vered this genus, either in Europe or Africa; but in America there are four
species of this moft elegant tree that are come to our knowledge, and all of
them in the fame latitude with Japan.
QU A D R.U P E D S:
There is no animal in this country better worth mentioning than the deer,
which is found in great plenty; the deer-fkins are, at present, the only article
of exportation of Eaft-Florida.
The buffalo is found in the favannahs, or natural meadows, in the interior
parts of Eaft-Florida : the peculiarity of the American buffalo is, that in-
ftead of hair, it is covered with a fine frizzled wool.
The bear in America is considered not as a fierce, carnivorous, but as an
ufeful animal ; it feeds in Florida upon grapes, chefnuts, acorns, &c. It is
reckoned very good food, especially the bear hams, &c.
[ 20 ]
SThe racoon is a species of the bear, but smaller; he is of the fize and colour
,of a badger, and is efteemed very.delicate eating.
Hares are very plenty, but not bigger than an Englifh rabbit.
'I have mentioned but a few of the moft ufeful of wild animals: (if we ex-
,cept the moofe-deer and beaver) Eaft Florida has all the wild animals com-
mon to America ; though I muft acknowledge, that the fkins of thofe of the
fur kind are of little value, the climate being too hot for them.
As to the domestic animals, they are in general the fame that we have in
Europe ; the horned cattle as big as in England, especially in the inland
The horfes are of the Spanifh breed, of great spirit, but little strength ;
they are.feldom above 14 hands high : the Indians here, by mixing the Spa-
nifl breed with the Carolina, have excellent horfes, both for service and
From the great plenty of fine maft, the hogs grow -here to an uncommon
fize and their flefh-is fatter and better than in any other country.
Sheep, goats, and caprittos, thrive here very well, but muft be fecured at
,night against the wolves and foxes, till the country is better fettled.
Florida, on account of its climate, has a great variety of-birds; immenfe
numbers migrate thither in winter, to avoid the cold of the northern latitudes.
In the woods are plenty of wild turkeys, which are better tafted, as well as
larger, than our tame ones in England.
The pheasant is in fize like the European, its plumage like that of cur par-
tradge. The American partridge is not much bigger than a qual, and fiems
to be of that fpecies.
C 21 3
The wild pigeons, for three months in the year, are in fuch plenty here,
that an account of them would feem incredible.
All the different forts of water-fowls belonging to America, (the fwan ex-
cepted) are found here in the greater abundance.
F I S If.
The rivers of the southern provinces of North-America abound :greatly
with fifh, but Florida rather more than any other : thofe mofly made ufe of,
arethe bafs, mullet, different forts of rays, and flat-fifll, cat-filh, fea.trour,
Of fhell-fifh: federal forts of crabs, prawns, and fhrimps, of an extraosr
The oyfters are fo plentiful here, that nothing is more common, than at
low water, to fee whole rocks of them.
There are three forts of fea-turtle common- in Eaft-Florida,.the logger-
head, hawk's-bill, and green-turtle. There are likewife two forts of land-
turtle, one of them is amphibious, and the other, not fo, is called a terrapin.
Ifone considers the extent of Eaft-Florida, and the fmall number of inha-
bitants it has had thefe fixty years, fince the native indians were exterminated
by the Creeks, one would be apt to think it muft of course be over-run with
venemous infeEts and reptiles : several writers who mention Florida, have
taken it for granted to be fo; amongft- others, the gentleman who lately
wrote major Rogers's Hiftory of North America, tells us, Eafl-Florida
would be a fine country, were it not for the innumerable venomous infets
with which it is infected : the faf is quite otherwise ; if we except the alliga-
tor, Eaft-Florida has fewer inrets than any other province in America:
[ 22 ].
during my flay there, I faw but two black fnakes; Mr. Rolle, who for
eighteen months lived constantly in the woods, has feen but one rattle-fnake.
If Eaft-Florida.is fo happy as to have fo few venomous creatures, it is not
owing to a fupernatural or miraculous caufe, like the bleffings of St. Patrick
upon Ireland, but to a very plain and natural one, which is, that the hunting
parties of the Creekl Indians, who-are difperfed through the whole province,
continually fet the grafs on fire, for.the conveniency of hunting; by which
means, not only the infects but their eggs alfo are destroyed.
Alligators are here very numerous; they do not excite any fear, as there
has not yet occurred any instance of their attacking men, either in the'water,
or upon the-land.
There is an infect& in Eaft-Fforida, not known in other parts of America,
which is a large yellow fpider; the hind part of his body is bigger thin a
pigeon's egg, -and the reft in proportion .its web is a true yellow filk, fo
firong as.to catch fmall birds, upon which it feeds: the bite of this fpider is-
attended with a dwelling of the part, and great pain, but no danger of life.
A great variety of lizards are found here, fome of them very beautiful,.
changing their colour like the chameleon ; they are quite a harmless infect
it ,23 1
C H A P. V.
FR O M the climate of Florida, and the great variety of tropical, as well
as northern produ&ions, that are natives of this country, there was rea-
fon to expect, that cotton, rice, and indigo, would grow here as well as in
any part of the globe, all thefe have now been planted, and are found to
thrive extremely well.- Some of the planters from Carolina, that have visited
Florida, fince it came into our poffeffion, are of opinion, that it is fitter for
the production of rice, even than South-Carolina;
The great peculiarity, and indeed the principal difficulty, attending the
cultivation of rice, in a proper climate, arifes from the necellity of laying the
grourid -whege it is fown under water at two fated periods. It is manifeff,
that not many situations can have this command of water ; but from the
number of rivers in Florida, and the nature of the country, which approaches
to a level without being fo, it is eafy to difcern, that the ftreams of water can
be guided more at pleafure, than if the inequalities of the surface were
Florida is in the fame latitude with Bengal and China, where rice grows in
greater plenty than any where elfe in the world; and when the variety of
fwamps, rivulets, and water-fide lands are considered, we may give credit to
what a very knowing and eminent planter of Carolina fays, who has been up
the river St. John's as high as lake George, that the country from that lake
to Mr. Rolle's, 45 miles in length, will, in his opinion, yield as much rice
as is produced in all South-Carolina.
[ 24 1
Since every.colony in America feems to have, as it were, a flaple commo-
dity peculiar to itself, as Canada the fur ; Maffachufets-bay, fifh ; Connedi-
cut, lumber; New-York and Penfylvania, wheat; Virginia and Maryland,-
tobacco; North-Carolina, pitch and tar; South-Carolina, rice and indigo;
Georgia, rice and filk. I am much difpofed to prognosticate, that cotton
will, in time, be a ftaple commodity in Florida.
The cotton fhrub is known to thrive beft in a light fandy foil, in the fandy
parts of Arabia, where from the appearance and drynefs of the fand, one
could expea nothing to grow, very fine cotton is produced : the pine-barrens,
and worft parts of Florida, are therefore fit for this fhrub.
It is needles to fay any thing of the utility and importance of cotton as an
article of trade ; Bengal, and the Coromandel coat, in great measure, owe
their riches to it the calicoes, chintz, muflins, &c. &c. annually imported
by the Eaft-India company, and fold at fuch immenfe profit, are all made of
The quantity imported from the Weft-Indies, notwithstanding the .great
increase lately made in the produce of it at Tortola, one of the Virgin-iflands
belonging to Great-Britain, bears but a fmall proportion to the whole con-
fumption. A great.demand has raised the price of the Turkey cotton from
five-pence toten-pence a pound, and of the Weft-India, from nine-pence to
The Manchelter manufaaures are greatly cramped by the fcarcity of this
commodity, and would be considerably extended should cotton become
plentiful in England.
A fmall bounty upon the growth of it in Florida, might be attended with
gooJ effet, and be a wif: encouragement of an infant colony.
[ 25 3
The cotton-tree hath been planted in Florida, where it is found it thrives
fo well, as plainly proves the foil and climate to be adapted to it.
With refpe& to the cultivation of filk in Florida, there is not the least doubt
of the climate being better adapted to the filk-worm than any country in Eu-
rope, or probably, in America : filk abounds much more in India, Perlia, and
China, which are in the latitude of Florida, than in Italy.
A considerable increase has of late been made in the growth of filk in Caro-
lina and Georgia; at Purifburgh, filk is become the ftaple'commodity of the
place : this town was fettled about 40 years ago, by fome natives of Switzer-
land ; it lies 30 miles eaft of Savannah.
In Carolina and Georgia the worms are often injured by accidental frofts,
and cold mornings, in the fpring, especially if it is a late one; they are
sometimes a&ually destroyed, and at other times are benumbed and made
fickly for want of warmth : this inconvenience is alfo frequently experienced
in Italy : it is almost unneceffary to remark, that the southern situation of
Florida has placed it out of the reach of this difafter.
In Georgia there is often a great deal of thunder and lightning in the fpring-
feafon, which is apt to affef and injure the filk-worm ; whereas in Florida,
where frequent showers refrefh the air, and the fea-breezes keep it in conflant
agitation, the thunder is neither fo common or fo violent: experience will
probably fhew, that this country is as much adapted to the filk-worm as to
the mulberry-tree, on which it feeds. It has been before obferved, that this
tree grows in its utmoft luxuriance in all parts of Florida.
The fugar cane hath now been planted about two years, and promises to
turn out very well ; thofe canes that were planted by way of experiment at
Augufline, suffered by a very uncommon froft laft winter, but thofe at Mr.
Ofwald's plantation upon the Mufquito inlet, about 50 miles to the fouth of
Augutiine, were not at all injured, and we fall therefore ieore it Is long,
be able to judge how far the southern parts of the province are fit for thisvalu, -
able production. It is certain the fugar-cane is a tender plant, that requires
both a good and a moifl foil, as well as a hot climate to bring it to per-
The fugar-cane is not a native of the Weft-Indies, as is commonly taken
for granted; nor will it grow there without art and cultivation.
The common ufe of fugar in Europe was introduced by the Portaguefe,
who transplanted it from the Eaft-Indies irito the Madeira iflands ; the-fugar-
cane flourished there, and in the Canaries, which are in the latitude of Flo-
rida, fo well, that all Europe was fuppjied from thence with fugar.
The loaf-fugar at this day, in Germany, is called Canary-fugar. Sugar Is
plentiful and common in Egypt, nm par' Turther from the tropic than Flo-
rida. Pliny, the elder, makes it the produce of Arabia and India..
In the neighbourhood of Malaga, fugar ufed to be raised in great abun-
dance, and it is grown in fome parts of Spain at this day. The fourth of
Spain is ten degrees north of the capes of Florida. The plantane-tree and
allegator pear, the 'tendereft of the tropical plants, are in full perfection at
As both the foil and climate of Eaft-Florida feem fit for fugar, one cannot
reasonably doubt, but the cultivation of it will be attended with fuccefs; and
if in fome refpets Florida be found inferior to the WeftBIndies, which I do.
riot expea, it has in other refpeas the advantage of them.
The flock of a fugar planter is not only procured, but supported at a vaft-
expence ; the exceffive price of labour in the Weft-Indies, arifing from the
inhealthinefs of the climate, and the dearnefs of the neceffaries of life, virtu-
al'y amounts to a tax upon the fugar-planter; not only all kind of clothingg,
E 27 I
but provifions too, muft be imported from Europei and the northern plan-
The materials for building, all the lumber required to ere&t and repair the
fugar-works, muft be fetched from the continent: in Florida they are found
upon the fpot. In the ifands, the wages of a carpenter, mafon, &c. run up
as high as ten fhillings a day ; the natural plenty in Florida will make labor
there comparatively cheap.
The overfeer, and other white fervants, will, beyond all question, be
hired much cheaper in a plentiful and good climate, than in a fcarce and fickly
Not only overfeers and fervants will be had at a reasonable price, but
horfes, cows, and oxen, may be purchased at lefs than one fixth of the price
they bear in the Weft-Indies. Mules and horfes are there fold from 201. to
3o 1. apiece : a ferviceable horfe in Florida may be had for 4 1. The price
of an ox is no more than 3 1. in Florida. It is not only the prime coft of the
flock that differs fo much in the two countries, but the expence of maintain-
ing it bears ihe fame comparative difference ; grafs and fodder for the cattle,
and corn and flefh-meat for the fervants, are very fcarce in the iflands, ahd
very plentiful in Florida.
When the fugar is made, it is often neceffary, in the Weft-Indies, to carry
it at a great expence by land, a considerable diflance to the fhipping-places:
this expence will be faved in Florida, where a planter will be fure to make his
plantation on the fide of a navigable river.
In Florida the lands are not fold, as in the ceded iflands, but given upon
eafy conditions; and the reservation made to the crown is only a halfpenny an
acre, after the end of three, five, or ten years, which is regulated by the ex-
tent of the grants.
E 28 j
It often happens in the Weft-Indies, as it did' laft year; that when the
ground is prepared, and the cane planted, the rains, or feafons as they are
called, fail; as often as this is the cafe, the crop is ruined by a drought, a
misfortune which is not to be apprehended in Florida.
Both the foil and climate of Eaft-Florida are fuited to this plant; the
Spaniards planted fome of the guatimala indigo in their gardens at Auguftine,,
where I have feen, in a poor, fandy foil, indigo plants of a larger fize,, and
in a more luxuriant fate, than ever I faw in, South-Carolina in the richeft
and beft cultivated lands.: I was informed. the Spaniardscut it four times a
This grain is the common food in America ; the Spaniards being confined
within the lines of Auguftine, ufed to raife two crops a year upon the fame
ground; which I mention rather as a mark of the fertility of the foil, than of
the good hufbandry of the Spaniards : it grows here in ahnoft every foil.
The large bounties granted by parliament, and the considerable premiums
by the society of arts and sciences, will induce fome of the new settlers to
cultivate hemp ; it requires a frefh, strong, moift foil: the fwamps, after
being cleared and drained for rice, are fitteft to be fown with hemp for the
firft and second year.
It is not at all doubtful whether the vine will flourish in Florida, because
it grows there, and in almost all parts of America, fouth of Delaware, in
great plenty. The wild grapes of America are of little worth, they usually
run up the trees of the forests, where they are .too much shaded, and for
want of cultivation, of no value.
1C 9 J
The dearnefs of labour, and the cheapnefs of foreign wines in America.
have both contributed to prevent the planting of vineyards more frequently.,
The French refugees planted fome in South-Carolina, and I have drank a red
wine of the growth of that province little inferior to Burgundy.
When it is observed that the richest wines are produced in the iflands of
Madeira and the Canaries, in the ifland of Cyprus, and in other parts of the
Levant, lying nearly in the latitude of Eaft-Florida ;.it will, probably, not
be owing to any, defect either in foil or climate, but to the dearnefs of labour,
or negligence of the inhabitants, if wine is not produced hereafter in fome
plenty upon this continent.
Currants,,-raifins, figs, and olives, will. moft probably. thrive here when-
ever they are planted.
Having finished what I had to fay of the country of Eaft-Florida, I muff,
before I conclude, add one word more upon the fubje& of procuring inhabi-
tants for it.
The government has a&ed agreeably to the wife and mafculine fpirit of its
policy, in laying.the new foundation of federal extensive colonies. Civil as,
well as military eftablifhments have been provided thefe four years for the
two Florida's, at an expence of near 1oo,ooo 1. a year ; but fill the inhabi-
tants of both of them put together, soldierss and favages excepted) would not:
make a very large congregation in a.good parifh-church..
If the government refolves not to ftir one flep further in affifling this,
colony, it has gone already a great deal too far ; Florida,. without inhabi--
tants, is fo much worfe than nothing,, that Great-Britain muft lofe near
1oo,ooo 1. year by it.
Governments, and garrifons, eftablifhments civil and military, without-
inhabitants,, or any measures taken to procure them, feems something ftrange..
It is very unufual to take all the meafures requifite to a particular end but
one, and to negle& a single one, which being omitted, tends to rerner all the
If a farmer should purchafe'an estate, hire fervants, prepare the ground
for fowing, have the feed-corn ready, and fill fave the expence of putting it
into the ground, all his neighbours would laugh at him. Rice, cotton, and
indigo, will grow in Eaft-Florida, if they are planted, but they will not
grow without. We muft not expe& because a country is a good one, that it
therefore will work miracles, and without fo much as fowing the teeth of
Cadmus's ferpent *, of itself produce the human species.
If Eaft-Florida fettles itself, which it is left to do,, it will be the firft colony
on the continent that ever did do fo: the fa&, as far as experience goes,
overturns the theory.
Notwithftanding every wife and generous measure i taken by governor
Grant for the good of Eaft-Florida, yet without the affitance of government,
his beft endeavours will not fuffice. When we consider the amount of the pre-
fent eftablifhments for that country, it feems to be bad economy to flay for
years, in order to fee what Eaft-Florida will do for itself. None of the
American provinces are fo well peopled, as to fpare inhabitants; and were any
of the inhabitants to the northward difpofed to go to Florida, it is, with re-
fpec to the migration of families, quite inacceffible by land, for want of
roads, and ferries to pafs the several large rivers ; and fuch inhabitants as may
be willing to feek a new habitation, cannot afford the expence of conveying
themselves and families by fea.
Neither is Florida likely to be fettled by inhabitants from Europe, unlefs
the government will defray the expence, and pay the paffage, for men who
have neither money nor credit to convey themselves thither. Will any man
go from Europe to Florida at his own expence, when he can go to South-
Carolina paffage free, and have lands given him when he gets there, without
Ovid. iv. Metam,
r 3I 1.
any expence; and besidess this, be supplied with neceffaries. and provision
for a twelvemonth. South-Carolina, though fettled above a century, is fill
at an expence of 4000 1. a year, in bdo'nties given for the importation of fo-
reign proteftants *: we ought to follow their example, and not content our-
felves with the name only of governments and colonies.
Should the parliament of Great-Britain give only the fame bounty that
Carolina gives, Eaft-Florida would ftand a chance at leaft, of becoming in-
habited; the healthinefs and fertility of this country will be known by de-
grees ; and I do not doubt, but foreigners may be induced to go thither upon
the fame terms they are tempted to go to other colonies. 'I believe federal
perfons of note intend to apply for grants of land in Eaft-Florida, with a
view of raising fugar, or other articles there, by the help of negroes,: and it
is alfo true, that the condition of each grant, requires the having one white
inhabitant to xoo acres of land but it is furely impolitic, to make the aacual
fettling of new colonies depend upon a flight and precarious foundation,
without affifting the laudable designs of thofe who apply for grants, and
feconding their views, by promoting the importation of foreign proteftants,
to fupply them with cheap fervants, and ufeful labourers.
By foreign fettlers is to be underfltood, i. Germans from the Rhine, Mofelle, and other
parts, where they cultivate vineyards. 2. Proteftants from the southern provinces of Frince,
ufed to the culture offilk, olives, vines, &c. 3. Inhabitants of th'e iflands of Greece, and the
Archipelago ; they are a very fober, induftrious people, well Ikilled in the cultivation of cotton,
vines, raifins, currants, olives, almonds, and filk-worms : the foil and climate of Eaft-Florida
is adapted to every one of thefe articles.
Without doubt, many of my readers, especially thofe unacquainted with America, will be
apt to afk, why should we make choice of foreigners, and not of our own fubjeas ? to which I
would answer, that thefe foreigners, when fettled in an Englifh colony, are no longer foreign-
ers, but fubjeas to Great Britain. It would be very impolitic to encourage, or fo much as to
countenance the emigration of induftrious hufbandmen, and useful manufacuters; and thofe which
are either chargeable, or ufelefs to the public here in England,.will be much more fo.in a new co- -
lony ; besides, experience convinces us, that foreigners are the fitteft people to fettle America.
The provinces of Penfylvania, New-York, and New.Jerfeys, chiefly inhabited by Germans and
Dutch, are the beft peopled, and very wealthy, notwithilanding the little value their produce is
-of, compared with the southern colonies: and it is undoubtedly true, that the floutifhing ilate-
America is in, is.chlefly owing to the .continualimportation of foreign fettlers.
f 32 ]
At a time when public economy is absolutely neceffary, I do .not wifh to
fee fuch fums expended to fett'e Florida, as has been done with refpe& to
Nova Scotia; but fince a method. of encouraging foreigners to fettle in Ame-
rica has been fome:ime prafifed, and experience hath (hewn it to be both
,frugal and efficacious, I flatter myfclf the administration will adept the fyftem
of Carolina, or fome other equally expedient.
The amount of the civil eftablifhment in Eaft-Florida, is 57001. a year,
granted by parliament: If Great-Britain should grant an equal fum, to en-
courage the fettling of the colony, and allow only 2500 1. to be paid in
bounties of 4 1. per head to the master of the (hip, for every foreign proteftant
imported, and allow 25ool. more, to fupply the new fettlers with provisions
for nine months, and the remaining 700 1. for provincial premiums, upon
the growth of cotton, fugar, indigo, &c. we need not defpair under the
auspices of governor Grant, to fee Eaft Florida a flourishing colony.
I s3 I
A P P E ND I X.
Extrat of a letter from an eminent planter in South-Carolina, to a noble
Lord in England, dated, Charles-Town, Auguft 27, 1765.
S' 0 N after may arrival at Auguftine, I fet out for St. Juan's river,
Sand arrived that evening at Piccolata, a fmall fort upon the banks of
St. Juan's ; next morning we proceeded up the river as far as Mr. Rolle's.
town, which may be about 30 miles from Piccolata: the land on both fides
of the river is very indifferent, except fome fpots here and there; but at Mr.
Role's the good land begins. After flaying one' night at Mr. Rolle's, we
fet out for Lake George, went that day as far as Spalding's flore, and next
day arrived at Lake George, which is 20 miles long, and 15 broad. From
Mr. Rolle's to Lake George, which is near 50 miles, is one continued body
of excellent land ; I may fay the beft in the king's dominions. This tract
alone is capable of producing yearly more rice than the whole province of
South-Carolina has ever yet produced in a year : thefe lands feem to me
more adapted to rice and indigo, than any thing elfe: it is better land than
mine at Winyaw, which is reckoned fome of the beft in South-Carolina. We
intended to crofs the lake, but the wind blowing frefh, and we in an open
boat, it was not thought fafe to venture, arid therefore turned back, after
flaying one night and a day. Our Guide,'who was a man of credit, inform.
ed us, that after you pafs over Lake George, there was good land on each
fide of the river for 50 miles; when you meet with another lake, not quite fo
large as lake George: when that is croffed, the country, as far as you can
fee, on both tides of the river, is a freth water marfh: for 40 miles higher
C 34 3
up, there marches are extraordinary rich lands ; here the river begins to be
shallow, but from the mouth to this place, it is the belt and fafeft navigation
I ever have feen. At this place, in a ftill evening, the furf of the fea is heard,
and plenty of fea-birds are feen in the river; which is a fign it cannot be
above even or eight miles from the fea.
In coming down the river, within a few miles from Mrs. Rolle's, we
pitched upon an island where we landed, and examined it; it may contain
about 14 or 1500 acres; a ridge of high lands runs acrofs, on which is a
continued grove of orange-trees, live-oak, wild cherries, and magnolia; on
each fide of this ridge, is as fine a body of rich low lands as any in the world,
Near this ifland is a tra& of very good land, separated from it by a creek of
about 40 yards wide, and deep enough for any ihip. Great plenty of frefh
water fifh is here in the river, and abundance of ducks, and wild turkies upon
the island. I hall return to Eaft-Florida next November, and carry negroes
with me ; as the governor will not grant us our land, till the negroes are ar-
rived in the province."
St. Augufine, May r, 1765.
In confequence of your desire, and your purpofe to bring to Eaft- Florida
foreign proteftants, in cafe I could affure you the land to be good, and fit
for cultivation ; in answer to which, I acquaint you, that, by order of the
lords of trade, and virtue of my appointment, as furveyor-general of the
southern diftria of North-America, I have made, fince January, an exafc
furvey of the land, and fea.-coaft, from St. Auguftine towards the cape of
Flirida, as far as latitude 26. 40. the special charts of which, as well as a ge-
neral map, with my journal, I have tranfmitted to the board of trade ; and
make no doubt will be published for the inftruftion of fuch as are of your
good difpofition. You may inform thofe, who choofe to become inhabitants
of Eaft-Florida, at this favourable junaure of its beginning, that the firft
comers will have great advantages in the choice of their land. There is vari-
ety of foil in Eaft-Florida; the high lands, fome very rich, with a clay
foundation; fame lefs, with a fandy bottom, and fome quite fandy : the
firft and second produce oranges feet and four, lemons, oak, afh, red bay,
1 35 1
fpice-tree, papaw-trce, and pine ; the third fort of foil produces the cabbage-
tree, the arboreous grape-vine, the plumb-tree, and opuntia, on which the
cochineal worm is nourished.
The low lands are partly cyprefs and tupelow fwampp, partly frefh water
marfh, without any tree, except cedar, on the foot of the high lands ; partly
falt-water marfh, full of the barilla, and the mangrove-tree. There is an
inland navigation mostly through the whole province, by which the produce
may be conveyed to the capes, or to St. Mary's river to the northward."
Abftra& of a ltter from a gentleman in Auguffine, to his friend in
According to your defire, I made all poffible enquiry about the proper
place to take up a tra& of land ; but have not till lately, been able to get fa-
tisfaaion on that head. I am informed, by a gentleman living upon St.
John's, that the lands on that river, below Piccolata, are, in general, good
and that there is growing there now, good wheat, Indian corn, indigo, and
and cotton ; that the indigo promises well for a good crop ; and indeed
there is all reason to believe, that this will exceed either Carolina or Georgia
for indigo, as our climate is fo much lefs affected by the froft than theirs.
I am farther informed, by one of the principal planters in Carolina, who came
here to take up land, that above Piccolata, for 40 miles along the river is as
good fwamp, or rice land, as any in Carolina: this gentleman is come to live
here, as he finds Eaft-Florida much healthier than South-Carolina, and that
it is fo, is the opinion of every body : agues and fevers are diforders hardly
known here. Some gentlemen are gone to the fouthwards, to a place called
Mufquito, to take up land, as there is great expe&ation of fugar ; as in that
part they never have any froft, and the foil naturally produces the Weft-Indian
plants. You will find your grant no inconfiderable matter, as it has all the
appearance we hall make a figure here in time, if we are properly encouraged
from home. It is true, the bar of Augulfine is a great bar to our hopes ; it
has a dreadful appearance to strangers, though if a veffel draws but eight or
nine feet water, it may fafely come over.
F 2 It
C 36 ]
It is not expensive living here ; all kind of provfion is cheaper here than
in England ; and houfe-rent exceflive cheap, and. good houses they are,
though built in the Spanifh fashion, which is the propereft for this country."
For the gratification and inftru&ion of fuch of my readers as may be in-
clined to petition for a grant, or to take up land in Eaft-Florida, according
to a proclamation iffued by his excellency governor Grant, dated, October i,
1764. I have annexed both the conditions of the grant, and the Terms of
** By his excellence Jathes Grant, Efq; captain-general,* governor and
commander in chief, in and 6ver the faid province, and vice-admiral of
W* H E RE A S the king, by his royal inftruaions, has commanded
Sme to iffue a proclamation, to make known the terms and condi-
tions, on which all perfons may obtain grants of lands in the faid province ; I
do, in obedience to his majefty's inftrudions, iffue this my proclamation, and
make known to all persons, that they may, on application to me in council,
at St. Auguftine, obtain grants of lands, in the faid province of Eaft-Florida,
in the following quantities, and on the following terms and conditions.
That ioo acres of land will be granted to every perfon, being matter or
miftrefs of a family, for him or herself j and 5o acres for every white or black
man, woman, or child, of which fuch perfon's family hall confift, at the
a&ual time of making the grant: and in cafe any person applying as aforefaid,
hall be defirous to take up a larger quantity of land than the family-right en-
titles fuch perfons to, upon chewing a probability of cultivation, an additional
number of acres, not exceeding zooo, may be obtained, upon paying, to
the receiver of the quit-rents,- the fum of five Ihillings flerling, for every 50
acres of fuch additional grant, on the day of the date of the faid grant.
That the quit-rents of the land granted in this province, to be one half-
penny per acre, payable to his majefty, his heirs and fucceffors, yearly, on
the feafl of S;. Michael, which hall happen two years after the date of the
That in all grants of land to be made, regard will be had to the profitable
and unprofitable acres; fo that each grantee may have a p;roportionable num-
"ber of one fort and the other ; as likewise, that the breadth of each trat of
land be one third of the length of fuch tra& ; and that the length of each traC
do not extend along the banks of any river, but in the main land ; and
thereby the faid grantees may have each a convenient fhare of what accom-
modation the faid river may afford, either for navigation, or otherwise.
That all perfons, on fulfilling the terms of the firft grant, may have a fur-
ther grant of the like quantity of lands, on the fame terms and conditions as
That for every 50 acres of plantableland, each grantee fall be obliged,
within three years after the date of the grant, to clear and work three acres,
at leaft, on that part of the tra& which they fhall think moft convenient or
advantageous ; or elfe, to drain or clear three acres of fwampy, funken
ground ; or drain three acres of marfh, if any fuch within his or her grant.
That for every 50 acres of land, accounted barren, every grantee hall be
obliged to put on his or her land, within three years after the date of the
grant, three neat cattle; which number every person fall be obliged tocon-
tinue on their lands, till three acres for every fifty be fully cleared and im-
That if any perfon hall take up a trat of land, wherein there hall be no
part fit for present cultivation, without manuring and improving the fame,
every fuch grantee (hall be obliged, within three years from the date of the
grant, to eret on fome part of the land, one good dwelling-houfe, at leaft
20 feet in length, and t6 in breadth ; and alfo to put on the land, the num-
ber of three neat cattle for every 50 acres.
That if any person, who hall take up any felony or rocky grounds, not fit
for culture or pasture, hall, within three years after the paffing the grant,
begin to employ thereon, and continue to work for three years then next en-
fuing, in digging any ftone-quarry, or other mine, one good hand, for every
1oo acres, it fhall be accounted a fufficent cultivation.
That every three acres which (hall be cleared ard worked as aforefaid, and
every three acres which fall be drained as aforefid, fall be accounted a
sufficient eating, planting, cultivation and improvement, to keep for ever
from forfeiture 50 acres of land in any part contained within the fame grant .
and the grantee hall be at liberty to withdraw the ftock, or forbEar working
in any quarry or mine, in proportion to fuch cultivation and improvement as
hall be made on the plantable lands, or upon the fwampy or funken
grounds, or marches, which (hall be included in the fame grant.
That when any perfon who hall hereafter take up and patent any land,
fall have feated, planted, or cultivated and improved the faid land, or any
part of it, according to the direaions and conditions abovementioned, fuch
patentee may make proof of fuch eating, planting, and cultivation or im-
provements, in any court of record in the faid province, or in the court of
the country, diftriA, or precina, where fuch lands hall be, and have fuch
proofs certified to the register and office, and there entered with the record of
the faid patent; a copy of which hall be admitted on any trial, to prove the
eating and planting fuch lands."
At the Court of ST. JAMES'S.
" HER E A S the lords commiffioners for trade and plantations
Shave represented to his majefty, at this board, that application
has bcen made to them, by praying for a grant of lands in his majefy's
1 39 3
province of Eaft-Florida, in order to make a settlement thereupon, his ma-
jefty, this day, took the fame into consideration ; and having received the
opinion of the lords commissioners for trade and plantations, and alfo of a
committee of the lords of his majefty's moft honourable privy-council there-
upon, is hereby pleaded, with the advice of his privy-council, to order, that
the governor and commander in chief of his majefty's province of Eaft-Flo-
rida, for the time being, do caufe acres of land to be surveyed,
in one contiguous tra&, in fuch part of the faid province as the faid
or his attorney, fhall choofe, not already granted, or surveyed to others ;
and upon return of fuch furvey, conformable to his majefty's direaions in
general intrusions, to pafs a grant for the fame to the faid under
the feal of the faid province, upon the following terms, conditions and refer-
That the grantee do fettle the lands with proteftant white inhabitants,
within ten years from the date of the grant, in the proportion of one perfoa
for every 1oo acres.
That if one third of the land is not fettled with white proteftant inhabitants
in the abovementioned proportion, within three years from the date of the
grant, the whole to be forfeited to his majefty, his heirs or fucceffors.
That fuch part of the whole tra& as is not fettled with white proteftant in-
habitants at the expiration of ten years from the date of the grant, to revert
to his majefty, his heirs or fucceffors.
That an annual quit-rent of one halfpenny, fierling, per acre, be reserved
to his majefly, his heirs or fucceffors, payable on the feat of St. Michael, in
every year, to commence, and become payable, upon one half of the faid
land, on the faid feaft of St. Michael, which hall firfl happen after the expi-
ration of five years, from the date of the grant ; and to be payable on every
enfuing feat of St. Michael, or within fourteen days after ; and the whole
quantity to be fubjea in like manner to the like quit-rent, at the expiration of
That there be a reservation in the faid grant to his majefty, his heirs and
fucceffors, of all thofe parts of the land, which the furveyor Ihall, upon the
return of the furvey, report to be proper for ereaing fortifications, public
wharfs, naval yards, or for other military purposes.
That there be a refervati6n to his majefty, his heirs and fucceffors, of all
mines of gold, filver, copper, lead, and coals.
That any part of the land which hall appear, by the furveyor's report, to
be well adapted to the growth of hemp or flax, it fhall be a condition of the
grant, that the grantee hall fgw, and continue armnatly to cultivate a due
proportion of the land, not lefs than one acre in every looo, with that bene-
ficial article of produce. And the governor or commander iri chief of his
majefty's province of Eaft-Florida, for the time being, and all others whom
it may concern, are required to carry his majefty's commands, hereby figni-
fled, into execution.
F I N I S,
BOTANIST to His MAJESTY
A Journey from ST. AU G US.TI N E up the River S T. JOH N'S,
as far as the Lakes.
With EXPLANATORY BOTANICAL NOTES.
Illuftrated with an accurate Map of EAST-FLORIDA, and two Plans ; one of
ST. AOGUSTINE, and the other of the Bay of ESPIRITU SANTO.
The THIRD EDITION, much enlarged and improved.
Hic Segetes, illic veniunt felicius Uve
Arborei Frudfus alibi, atque injuffa virefcunt
Gramina. Nonne vides croceos ut Tmolus Odores,
India mittit Ebur, molles fua Thura Sabaei ?
Sold by W. NICOLL, at No. 51, St. Paul's Church Yard and T. JEFFERIES,
at Charing-Crofs, Geographer to his Majetly.
-M DCC LXX.
THE MOST HONOURABLE
C H A R L E S
MARQUIS of ROCKINGHAM,
FIRST LORD of the TREASURY,
&c. &c. &c.
AS the commercial interests of Great-Britain are
weighed by your Lordfhip daily, in order to be
promoted, and a thorough knowledge of his Majefly's
foreign dominions is fought after, with a view to the pub-
lic service, I flatter myfelf, that an account of a new
colony, whereof none hath as yet been published, will
have the honour of meeting with your Lordfhip's appro-
During my residence in Eaft-Florida, I endeavoured to
acquire a knowledge of that country : I made myfelf ac-
quainted, as far as my fay would permit, with its foil
and navigable rivers, its climate and natural produdions:
I can affure your Lordfhip, my purfuit was made agreeable
by the fatisfadory evidences I found, both of the goodnefs
of the foil, and the healthinefs of the climate.
In its climate it has the advantage of South-Carolina
and Georgia; and from being nearer the fun than thofe
colonies, will, probably, be found superior to them in the
produce of rice, indigo, filk, cotton, &c. If I am par-
tial to Eaft-Florida, it is not for want of knowing other
countries, either in Europe or America,. for I have com-
pared it with them. I even fufped myfelf the lefs of this
foible, because other gentlemen, who know the country,
rate the advantages to be expected from it higher than
My view in publishing the following sheets, is to give
Great-Britain the benefit that will arife from affifting this
infant colony ; and they are infcribed to your Lordfhip,
because whatever is intended for fo good a purpose, can-
not fail of meeting.with your Lordfhip's approbation. I
am, with the greater refpe&,
Your Lordfhip's moft humble
and moft obedient fervant,
WHEN any new matter is laid before the public, there is no
doubt but its reception will always depend not only upon
the real merit of what is proposed, but alfo upon the prepoffeffions
already entertained upon the fubjet. The author of the following
account of Eaft-Florida, cannot but be fenfible, how much his de-
fign, to make the nation acquainted with that country, hath been dif-
couraged, by the prejudices prevailing against it. The real truth is,
that the peninsula of Florida is a country very little known in Europe:
even the Spaniards, who from indolence, and a fear of the Indians,
feldom ventured beyond the lines of St. Augufline, made themselves
but little acquainted with it. Its broad fandy beach has a difadvan-
tageous appearance to fhips failing near the coat ; and mariners have
for this reafon, frequently represented it as barren and ufelefs. The
federal concurrent accounts of the unhealthinefs and infertility of Weft-
Florida, whether true or falfe, have had no little effect in creating an
opinion, that the whole of Florida ceded to Great-Britain, is little
better than a fandy defert. Prejudices once entertained, cannot eafily
be overcome; the lights neceffary to remove them muff be ftrong in
order to be convincing.
My defign is not only to draw the attention of administration to an
objea of great national importance; but alfo to point out to men of
fenfe and enterprise, whofe fortunes will not enable them to live
[ ii ]
comfortably in England, the advantage they may derive from becom-
ing proprietors of lands, by gift of the crown in Eaft-Florida, where
the climate is much better, and the productions nearly as valuable as
in the iflands of the Weft-Indies.
The importance of Eaft-Florida, in a national view, depends upon
two grounds; firft, its fertility in producing fuch articles of com-
merce as will be beneficial to Great-Britain ; fecondly, upon its con-
venience, from its situation and other circumstances, to carry on a
beneficial commerce with the Spanifh settlements in time of peace;
and to intercept their trade, and cut off their communication with
Europe in time of war.
As to the fertility of Eaft-Florida; without entering into the detail
of its productions, which hall be referred for the body of the work ;
I here propose only to make fome general remarks with reference to
this head ; and muff intreat the reader for a while to fufpend his opi-
nion, and not take it implicitly for granted, that that part of North-
America, at prefent fo little known, which lies to the fouth of
Georgia, differs in its foil from the reft of the continent; or is unfit
for fuch productions, as correfpond with the nature of its climate.
North as well as South America, may be divided into three regions;
the Flats, the Highlands, and the Mountains. The Flats, in the
Indian language termed Ahkynt, is the territory lying between the
eastern coat, and the falls of the great rivers that run into the Atlantick
ocean, in extent generally taken about ninety miles. The highlands,
in Indian called Ahkontfhuck, begin at thofe falls, and terminate at the
foot of the great ridge of mountains that runs through the midit of
that continent north-eaft, and fouth-weft, called by the Spaniards
Apalatei, from the nation Apalakin, and by the Indians Paemotinck
they lie nearly parallel to the Atlantick fea coaft. The flats from the
i[ i" i]
ranknefs of the foil, the fault mqifure of the air, the daily difcovery of
fifh (hells three fathom deep in the earth,,bear strong marks of having
been at one time covered with the fea, and a firm perfuafion of it
prevails amongft the Indians; for which they refer to the tradition of
their ancestors. The highlands in the very fame latitudes with the
flat country, are notwithflanding happier in a more healthy and tempe-
rate air, and in the opinion of the celebrated William Penn, have no
lefs advantage in the fertility of their foil.
The Apalachian mountains, called in Indian Pamotinck, or the
origin of the Indians, are for the moft part barren rocks, and defeated
by all living creatures but bears and other wild beats that cave in the
In North-America we find every fort of climate; and in one part or
other it is capable of ielding.every valuable,produaion. If it be afk-
ed, which part of that continent is, the beft, the question is too general
to receive a determinate answer. We; know indeed, that the foil of
Newfoundland is, from the nature of the climate, incapable of yield-
ing a produce equally valuable with cotton, indigo, or fugar. We
may go further, and for the European trade, without difficulty, pre-
fer the climate of Carolina and Gegrgia, to that of Canada or Nova-
If we take a view of America, or even of the globe of the earth, we
fhall find the northern climates, which are often agreeable to live in,
are the leaft adapted to the purposes of trade with Europe ; where the
climate being of the fame nature, on course yields similar produaions.
We fall fee this more clearly by comparing the produce of the two fmall
islands of St. Chriftopher, and Rhode-Ifland, both of them well fettled,
b 2 and
and well cultivated; both fertile, and almost of the fame fize ; yet in
a commercial light no two places can be more different, the exports of
St. Kit's are of very great value; the exports of Rhode-Ifland are too
inconfiderable to be mentioned. If the caufe of this difference is
fought after, it need only be observed, that Rhode-Ifland lies in the
temperate latitude of 41, and that St. Kit's is within 17 degrees of the
line. The conveniences of life are to be had in Rhode-Ifland, but if
we are in fearch of articles of commerce, we muff approach nearer to
Upon the continent of America we cannot but be fenfible that the
southern colonies, though the latest fettled, and therefore the fartheft
from the, belt fate of cultivation, yield more valuable articles of trade,
and (the number of inhabitants considered) greatly furpafs the north-
ern in the amount of their exports-
The colony of Georgia, from being a barrier province, from the
ill-judged regulations on its firft eftablithment, and other circumfian-
ces, had, when firft fettled, many difadvantages to ftruggle with; yet
the rapid increase lately made in its exports, affords sufficient proof that
its climate is adapted to the purposes, both of European and American
commerce; and fit for rice, filk, and indigo; which, fugar excepted,
constitute the moft valuable articles of trade.
In New-England, to fay nothing of Canada and Nova-Scotia, where
the,winters are fill more fevere, the earth is covered with fnow at left
three months in the year; the rigour of the climate puts an end to all
vegetation ; the beafts of the field require to be (heltered from the in-
clemencies of the weather, and to be fuftained, with fodder, laid by in
summer : even the laborious hand of industry is in this feafon of the
year often deftitute of all useful employment.