ATJT:RACTI olr'-VM ]Tu:-
BY 0. A. MYERS. EDITOR ADVOCATE. .
COMBINED WITH A COMPLETE
County Business Direct(
-COMPILID AND PUBLISHED BY-
CANNON AND McCREIAR.(,
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ALACHUA AND MARION COUNTIES, FLA.
Of the Best Hammock and Pine Lands in the
BpAr' OF IFL tOLrIDA. -
FLands are Suitable for Early Vegetables, Orange
~Growing and all Middle Florida Cultures. The
lfl Wild Orange Groves
lands are unsurpassed by any in the world. Mag-
nificent sites for residences on
,rith transportation convenient. This is a very
. HEALTHY LOCALITY,
Sand abounds in fish and game of all kinds.
Circulars and further information, apply to
JOHN E T LMBE I, Agent,
GaaminsiUe, Adaekwa County Florida.
;t~ l j^HAM, G^ SlE^tor
iB^^ i^^';^-i,. ^^
ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
THE great territorial area of this
county is not one of its chief attrac-
tions, though elbow-room for a large
.population is desirable. Its great
-attraction is its adaptability to all
farming purposes. But little less so
is its suitableness to the culture of
fruits, vegetables, etc. Soon the rail-
roadspassing through it to all points
of the compass, will make every
available acre of sound value. For
:the production of Sea Island cotton,
itsurpasses, and of corn, oats, rice
!nd feed grains, it equals any county
in the State. Thousands of acres are
specially adapted for these produc-
tions. In the near future these lands
will be sought after with avidity.
Permanent settlers will seek them be-
cause of the enduring strength of the
natural soil, and the permanency of
everything conducing to make home
-attractive. The county is next. to a
paradise to the natural-born farmer.
Whatever.subsistence he needs, except
his flour, he can make at home; and
while doing this, he can care for his
grove, orchard and vineyard. With
enough money to purchase his land,
clear and fence it, put up his build-
ings, and tide him over the first year
without contracting debt, his fast
growing prosperity'will be assured.
The scenery, and curiosities, and
game about our fields, woods, lakes
and streams, are attractive to visitors;
but the sanitary conditions of Alach-
ua, which cannot be surpassed by any
of the State, are and ought to be the
chief inducements to invalids to make
this a winter home. For such every
village and neighborhood will furnish
accommodations suiting the wants of
all classes. No invalid who has en-
joyed our restorative climatic agencies
has yet been found lacking in expres-
sions of the emotions of gratitude and
hope under their invigorating influ-
Many comparative strangers, and
not a tew of the oldest inhabitants,
are ignorant of the diversified attrac-
tions which Alachua county can pre-
sent to visitors and settlers.' Large
bodies of choice farming lands
abound all over it. It is not far
from twenty-five miles from Gaines-
ville, which is near the center, to the
four cardinal boundary lines of our
county. Within this extensive area,
every variety of lands and .woods,
common to. the State, abound. A
view in transit on the Railroads fails
to make an adequate presentation of
either. Our fine lands extend from
the "Lake Region," and Putnam
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
Sand Marion counties westward to the
Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
These lands yield in abundance all
the cereals, except whet, and this
grain would produce well on the roll-
ing clay lands. The lake and the
hammock lands make large crops of
corn. First class pine land, and even
inferior pine land fertilized or cow-
penned, yields enough for farmers'
supplies, when this is made the object
of cultivation. Of course, it is not
necessary to add that they will pro
duce a superabundance of all other
field and vegetable crops. But, per-
haps, the most remarkable feature of
our lands, of almost every quality, is
that nearly every variety of fruit trees
do well, except the apple family. All
the citrus varieties, peaches, plums,
pomgranates, quinces, guavas, berries,
grapes, nufs, etc., with a little care
can be grown anywhere. The finest
flavored and largest oranges grow in
the gardens of Gainesville-situated
on one of the poorest black jack
ridges in the county. Over our mag-
nificent territorial area villages are
springing up, orange and lemon
groves and vineyards are pushing for-
ward, truck and melon fields are
opening and undergoing improved
tillage, numerous steam whistles
awake the echos and improvements in
town and country move steadily on-
ward, and railroads are ribbing the
Our entire county is feeling the
impulse of new life imparted by the
important internal improvements con-
structed and progressing in and
through the territory. The Transit
pioneer railroad through this county
has greatly increased its influence on
the tide of immigration by its con-
nection with the Peninsular road and
the Santa Fe canal in our eastern sec-
tion. No less an influence is com-
municated to settlement by the build-
ing of the Florida Southern Railway
and its Palatka branch'from the center
to the eastern bonudary of the coun-
ty ; and the progress of the main
trunk of this road from Gainesville
to its northwestern and its southern
limits. At present no county in the
State has equal present and prospec-
tive advantages of internal transpor-
tation and trade; and no other has
an equal area of valuable farming land
for the easy support of a population
three times the present number. But
to rapidly swell our population other
inducements besides railroads and
canals must be made to be felt.. Uol-
ders of large bodies of choice lands
must have them offered to purchasers
in suitable lots and at prices corre-
sponding to the prices.fixed on simi-
lar lands offered by the railroad
companies. This is now being done
by some land owners, and is the sys-
tem pursued by land and railroad
companies. Co-operation by large
land owners with the railroad and
land companies in keeping lands on
the market at low prices will draw a
large, steady stream of settlers within
our borders. An opposite policy will
be a losing one. Competition with
the land and railroad companies in
cheapening lands to buyers will be
the greatest inducement to their set-
tlement among us. By withholding
them from market or fixing on them
prohibitory prices, immigrants will
be driven away to settle where private
lands are cheaper. It is the settle-
ment of a county that adds value to
the real estate of each owner. Were
the land and railroad companies to
pursue the policy of holding their
lands at prohibitory prices, they
would not only be the losers, but
justly subject themselves to public
condemnation. Consequent on the
hearty co operation of every one now
manifest in combining and applying
MUCH of the matter contained in the following pages was written
in the field and covers a period of some ten winters in Florida, a
great deal of the time being passed in out-of-the-way localities while
studying the fauna of the State. The illustrations are, with few
exceptions, from photographs taken by myself; the principal ex-
ceptions being the photographs of the tarpon, which were obtained
through the kindness of Mr. George Mixter, of Boston. The picture
of the manatee and the illustrations in the Key to the Water Birds"
are the work of Mr. Edward Knobel, of Boston.
The nomenclature and classification used in the Key is that
adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union.
I have aimed to make the Key to the Water Birds one
which would enable a person unfamiliar with birds to identify any
Florida species without difficulty. Before using the key the reader
should carefully read the Introduction to the Key" and make him-
self familiar with the terms used in describing birds; the general
rules for measurements, etc.
With few exceptions, the species given have been taken or ob-
served by myself during my various trips to Florida, but several are
included on the authority of others, and I have freely availed myself
of information obtained from the following works and papers: -
History of North American Birds," by Baird, Brewer, and
Ridgway; Manual of North American Birds," by Robert Ridg-
way; Key to North American Birds," by Elliot Coues; Birds of
Eastern North America," by C. J. Maynard; Handbook of the Birds
of Eastern North America," by F. M. Chapman; Notes on the
Birds of the Caloosahatchee Region of Florida," by W. E. D. Scott
(Auk Vol. IX., pp. 209-218).
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
ing from $1.25 to $2.50 per acre.
These are owned by Land and Rail-
road Companies, and by the State and
United States Governments. The
lands of the State are to be applied
for at Tallahassee; those of the
United States at Gainesville; those of
the Florida Land Company and the
Peninsular Railroad at Fernandina ;
those of the Florida Southern Rail-
way at Palatka; and those of the
Florida Land and Immigration Com.
pany at Gainesville, John E. Lamn-
beth, Agent. But'no intending set-
tler will be justified in making a
purchase without first examining the
land offered. There is enough of it
vacant to enable the new settler to
select a home where he and his family
will enjoy health and may surround
themselves with groves, orchards,
vegetables, and abundant field crops.
POPULATION AND SOCIETY.
farms, are filled and carried on by
men who have moved here from the
most refined and best educated sec-
tions of the North, South, East and
West, and by the most advanced, in
these particulars, of the native popu-
lation. There is absolutely no ostra-
cism of such settlers, come from
where they may. The only division
is political, as it is in every State in
the Union. In all other matters there
is close unity of sympathy, feeling
and effort, just as in all the
older States. A man from Old or
New England is quite as much at
home here as there, in his business
and social relations. Every new-
comer, like those we have welcomed
within the past ten years, will meet
with well-wishers on every hand. As
society grows in numbers and wealth
all the denominations of Christians
gather strengthh and influence. In
The population of this county is common with a much larger scope of
about 20,000, the majority being territory, this was a missionary field
freedmen. The increase has been of not many years ago. Now there are
white people by a steady immigration more regular pastors of churches in
of American and foreign born set- the county than there were mission-
tlers. In a short time white citizens aries in the whole State. Every
will be in the majority. But no leading denomination of Christians
social evils have grown out of the fact has developed with settlement, pros-
that they are numerically the less. In- perity and enlightenment. The
telligencc predominates in all the Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist and
essential avenues of business and the Presbyterian shepherds have increas-
principal occupations of life. For ed their folds, built houses of worship
the mostpart the colored people are and exerted a large influence on so-
law-abidmfg, industrious and prosper- city. One or another, generally all,
ous. Only the townscollect the most have occupied the land with zeal,
indolent and poor, while a majority faithfulness and success. As a rule,
in such places are thrifty, keep up churches have been among the first
their churches, and areuseful citizens. improvements thought of and built in
The white population is of the ad- towns and country settlements. Sab-
vanced classes, a very large per cent. bath schools and church music receive
of them being of the educated and a large share of attention, and devel-
morally trained society of the old opment in them is encouraged and
States. The bar, the pulpit, the helped by leading citizens of every
merchant-houses, the work-shops, town and neighborhood. Most of the
the hotels, the exchanges, the internal regular pastors have been prepared
improvements, the mills, and the for their great work by collegiate
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
training; and others, who have not months' sessions by thorough-
enjoyed so great a privilege, have ly educated and experienced
cultivated themselves by hard study teachers, in a few large neighbor-
in the standards of Biblical and Eng- hoods, and in Gainesville, to the latter
lish literature and professional prac- of which pupils from the surrounding
tice. In all essentials the pastors country and distant counties are sent.
here are as well educated, influential, Here, too, is located the East Florida
devotee, and successful as elsewhere. Seminary, a State Institution, open to
There are among us, also, Lutherans, males and females alike. The object
Christians,Methodist Episcopals,Con- of its establishment was to give a
gregationalists and Cumberland Pres- liberal and thorough normal education
byterians in smaller numbers than the and training, free of tuition charges,
sects before named, but adding to the to students from each county East of
volume of the conserving influence the Suwannee in proportion to the
necessary to the maintenance of a county's representation in the lower
society desirable to dwell in. Alach- branch of the Legislature. The ben-
ua county does not breed savagery, eficiaries are selected by the Commis
and Bibles and hymn-books will be a sioners of each county. The Trustees
better protection to the immigrant of the Seminary are appointed by the
than pistols and bowiv-knivts, and Governor with the consent of the
give him Ihe social and political con- Senate. The Trustees, in their discre-
sideration of all good citizens. tion, may allow the admission of
EDUCATION. pupils from anywhere, and may
require the payment from their par-
Educational advantai es in this ents or guardians of a small tuition
county are second to none in the fec. The highest charge now made
State. Since the introduction of the is $2.50 for each quarter of the school
free school system, in 1868, the year. There are now 114 pupils
children have had the benefit of short enrolled, 38 of whom arc beneficiaries
terms of school annually, which all and non-residents of this county, and
of them could not have secured by represent 14 counties. The Board of
the employment of teachers for prl- Instruction are: Edwin P. Cater, A.
vate schools. The people were so M., Princpal, and Professor of Math-
utterly impoverished by the war that ematics, Physics and Chemistrv; Rev.
they were unable to pay for the ser- E. W. Alcaney, B. A. (Oxon.), Pro-
vices of teachers. The system is not fessor .of Latitn and Greek Languages,
only in its infancy, but it still lacks Literature and History; Lieutenant
the necessary adjunct of generally A. L. Wagner, U. S. A., Instructor
distributed means among the popula- in Military Tactics, Algebra, Geome-
tion, by the liberal use of which they try, etc ; E. P. Axtell, (Pottsdam, N.
could supplement the public funds Y., Normal), Teacher of English
and keel) the free schools open for the Grammar, Rhetoric, etc.; Miss Nan-
school year under competent instrunc- nic Warder, (National Normal),
tors. When they shall have been Teacher to Geiography, History, and
thus systematized and conducted, Physiology; and Miss C. H. Mathe-
their inestimable advantages will be son, (Harmony College, S. C.,)
felt and fostered by the whole body Teacher in the Experimiicltaal Depart-
of the people. There are a number inent. The Normal Department of
of private schools, carried on for ten the last session numbered 39 scholars.
ALACHtA (COUNTY-IIER ATTRACTIVE FEATUIEM AND) PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
The methods of instruction introduced
into the latter department are the
same as those adopted by advanced
instructors in the best normal schools
in the North and Northwest. But
the Trustees have exercised the dis-
cretion the law gives them and added
the higher branches of Mathematics
and the Greek and Latin Languages,
for the instruction of any pupils who
may elect to pass through these
studies. The male pupils are organ-
ized into a Batallion of Cadets and
handsomely uniformed. Also, book-
keeping is taught and calisthenics are
practiced. The scientific aliaratus
has been put in complete order, and
Monday evening lectures and experi-
ments introduced. Successful effort
has been made to add music to the
course of instruction. The Seminary
is supported by the semi-annual in-
terest of an invested public fund and
the small tuition fees paid by non-
beneficiary scholars; and, therefore,
it will be a permanent seat of learn-
ing, the great and widely distributed
advantages of which should be accept-
ed and enjoyed by the counties
entitled to them. rhe Trustees and
the Board of Instruction greatly
desire a full representation of pupils
from each county at every annual
The growing of early vegetables for
Northern and Western markets is
largely followed by the farmers of
this county. This industry requires
care on account of occasional sharp
frosts; but it will be a permanent and
safe one when canning houses are
established, which will undoubtedly
be the case at no distant time.
Apples of very creditable size are
produced. LeConte pear and Japan
persimmon trees have been introduced,
are thrifty in growth, and, no doubt,
will yield freely. Walnut and pecan
trees hear liberally on hickory-bearing
land. Figs, grapes and berries, in
large varieties, abound. Two crops
of field peas can be made in ordinary
seasons, and peanuts, goubers ana
chufas can be produced without limit,
for stock. A number of grasses make
excellent hay, and millets flourish.
The beggar-wced grows very
luxuriantly, every kind of stock feed
on it greedily and fatten, and some
planters put it up for hay. It is a
valuable substitute for clover. Oats
are becoming a staple crop. and rye
may be made so. Indian corn is
planted by all who cultivate the soil,
and in proportion to the intelligence
and thoroughness of tilth is the pro-
duct On land that could be made to
yield an average of forty bushels of
corn to the acre, the majority of our
farmers are content with twenty.
The ease with which the ground can
be worked seems always to have been
a drawback to planting fewer acres
and giving them better cultivation.
By improved methods of cropping
the entire demand for corn could be
supplied by the farmers to the con-
sumers of the county. Rice is des-
tined to take position as a staple
crop, both as a forage plant and a
table necessity. The highland variety
is now receiving much attention. It
grows a large, strong stalk, crowned
with abundant train, and it can be
made to average forty bushels to the
acre. Lately patented machinery for
cleaning rice has been put in opera-
tion here. Arrowroot, cassava, kump-
ty, and other starch roots, and Irish
and sweet potatoes, tanniers, cab-
bages and onions, pumpkins, squashes,
turnips, parsnips, cucumbers, toma-
toes, egg-plants, beans, okras, beets,
radishes, and melons of many species
grow as well and to as large sizes
here as they do anywhere in the
ALACHUA. COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
world. The wild pasturage is abun-
dant, and good for the larger part of
the year, during which kine, sheep,
goats, horses, mules and hogs keep
fat. With winter provisions for ani-
mals, stock raising would be a better
business than cultivating cotton. The
growing of tobacco from Cuba seed
is a new industry successfully intro-
duced by M. Entenza, a Cuban, who
is engaged in cigar manufacturing,
and it bids fair to become a large and
money-making one. Sugar-cane is
another valuable staple crop. Like
all other products, except cotton,
vegetables and fruits, the sugar and
syrup made from cane are for home use
and not for export. The adaptability
of the soil and climate to the cultiva-
tion of sugar-cane must berecognized
by the fact that nearly every farmer
annually pitches a crop of it, and pays
as much attention to it as to his corn
and cotton. Sugar and syrup being
heavy articles to transport, rates of
carriage prohibitory, and the market
demand small, no inducements offer
to make these articles for export. Nor
will a change come until the latest
improved machinery employed to pre-
pare all the classes of commercial
sugars for the trade are introduced
here. Capitalists are beginning to
learn that sugar houses, as well as cot-
ton factories, do best when established
where the raw materials grow. But
cotton is the main staple of the coun-
ty. It is the Sea Island, or long staple,
variety; and the superiority of the
fibre is recognized in the markets of
Savannah, Charleston and Liverpool.
It is used tbr sewing thread, laces and
the finest white goods; and nearly
the whole crop goes across the Atlan-
tic. Some day it will be spun and
woven at home, and the manufactured
articles exported over the commercial
RAIL AND WATER WAYS.
Next to the fertility of soil, purity
of water and healthfulness, and the
advanced social, educational and
moral conditions of Alachua county,
the fa ilities of transportation and
travel are chief inducements to immi-
gration. hese, of late, have been
greatly increased to meet the demand
of growing population, agriculture and
trade. The Transit Railroad, from
Fernandina to Cedar Key, uniting the
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, runs
nearly east and west, not far from the
center of the county. Including
Gainesville, five towns and villages
have been settled on this road within
the past twenty-two years, to afford
convenient centers of trade to sur-
rounding neighborhoods as they have
grown in numbers and prospered in
agricultural pursuits. From the Tran-
sit, at Waldo, the Peninsular Railroad
runs south, on the east side of Orange
Lake, to Ocala, Marion county, and
opens an inviting section of Alachua
to rapid settlement. From Gaines-
ville, the county-site, the Florida
Southern Railway runs east, with the
terminus at Palatka, on the St. Johns
river. The Florida Southern crosses
the Peninsular at Hawthorn, this
county, about twenty-two miles east
of Gainesville. Nearly midway be-
tween these two places, at Perry Junc-
tion, the main trunk of the Florida
Southern runs south, along the west
side of Orange Lake, celebrated for
its immense orange groves, budded
on the forest of wild trees. The
charter of this railway grants the right
of construction from a point on the
Jacksonville, Pensacola and Mobile
Railroad to the Southern part of the
Gulf, at Charlotte Harbor, together
with a number of branches. The
company have finished the railway
from Orange Lake to Ocala, and the
ALACHUIA COUNTY-HEll ATTRACTIVE E FIAXTURIES AND PUBLIC IMPHOVEMENTS,
survey of the route and part of the
grading through Alachua, in a north-
western direction, to Lake City. They
have displayed great energy in push-
ing this" important enterprise.'and
will, no doubt, continue to build their
railway both south and north with
the speed large capital can command.
This railway ,s designed to connect
with the Georgia system of railroads.
It will afford much needed facilities
for travel, transportation and settle-
ment to, by far, the most productive
and densely populated portion of this-
county There is also an extension
under way of the Georgia connection
at Live Oak, on the J. P. and M.
Railroad, through the extreme west.
ern part of Alachua, by Bronson, on
the Transit road, to Tampa Bay, a
branch from which is to be constructed
through Newnansville tc Gainesville
This, when completed, will make the
fifth railroad projected through large
sections of this county, two of them
cutting it completely across nearly
centrally. A number of lakes are
navigable by light-draught steamers.
One steamer is employed in the car-
rying trade on Orange and Lochloosa
lakes, which are connected by ;a deep
stream. Another has been built for
carrying through a canal cut between
Santa Fe Lake and Waldo, at the
junction of the Transit and Peninsu-
lar Railroads. The canal, when
completed, will afford ample and
cheap means of transportation to a
large number of industrious, practical
fruit-growers and farmers of four
counties. At Melrose, on the foot of
Santa Fe Lake, a railroad is to be
built to connect that place with the
St. Johns River, at Green Cove
Springs. The Santa Fe River, on
our northern boundary, has a deep,
navigable channel from Fort White
to its entrance into the Suwannee,
and the latter river, which is the
western boundary of this county, is
navigable for steamers from Cedar Key,
on the Gulf. It is seen, therefore,
that Alachua is not second to any
county in the State in the number,
convenience and excellence of inland
rail and water ways for public use, the
attraction of the tide of immigration
and the development of opulent re-
PECULIARARITIES OF SOILS, ETC.
The topography of this county is
more nearly like that of Leon than
any other one with which we are
familiar. The hard woods are the
same, with other valuable woods not
found there. The soil differs from
the stiff' red clay. In general, the
best pine land is almost identical
with the first class in Middle Flori-
da, without a limestone base and
with an abundance of free, pure
water. The open hammock land is
hilly and pebbly, the soil a deep
loam, underlaid with a chocolatecol-
ored, friable clay. On this kind of
land most of the oldest large planta-
tions are situated, and its producing
quality to-day attests the durability
of the soil. Some of the old planters
preferred the first-class pine land for
general cropping, using for fertilizers
cotton-seed and pea-vines, by which
means annual productiveness was
greatly increased. Perhaps the most
curious feature is that on the highest
hills in both the oak and pine sec-
tions are to be found large or small
lakes fed by subterranean springs.
Every section of the country is abun-
(lantly watered, except a small part
lying between Newnansville and C(ow
Creek. Fine crtlps are made on
lands which, to the eye o' the inex-
perienced, are utterly worthless. But
practical tests long since settled tile
question of their value. Tie heavy
hammock lands being expensive to
ALACIIUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
clear, will be reserved to the use of
moneyed men for fruits and vegeta-
bles, while nearly every one of fair,
uninundated pine land will be sought
after by farmers who do their own
work. About Hawthorn, Waldo,
Orange Lake, Melrose, Fairbanks,
Arredondo, Archer, Battonville, La-
(rossc, Newnansville, Magnesia
Spring, Joella, Santa Fe Lake, and
Gainesville, there are lumber, cotton
and grist mills run by steam or water
power. The lumber business has
always been good and is increasing
to very large proportions. Large
lakes and small ones, from which
the waters are discharged by large
and small creeks, teeming with trout,
bream, perch, and other kinds of
fish, are plentiful in the four quar-
ters of the county. Sandstone
abounds and is used by steam mill
men and farmers for their furnaces
in preference to bricks. It is also
pronounced to contain a large per
cent. of phosphoric acid and better
for fertilizing than building. Rock
containing iron ore is found towards
the Suwannee river. Limestone rock
abounds, with coral and drift rocks,
and petrified bones and wood. It is
said that there are beds of blue, yel-
low, red and white marls. Mineral
springs, also, are found all about the
county. Some are strongly impreg-
nated with iron, and others with sul-
phur and magnesia. There are deep
blue and transparent springs, with
soft free water. The Worthington,
the largest sulphur springs, are north
of Newnansville, and exist on both
sides of the river dividing Alachua
from Bradford county. The two
largest throw up jets, a long distance
from beneath the river bed, that
make the basins boil like huge pots
over a large fire. They are resorts
in the summer, and recommended
for rheumatism. Theblue or mag-
nesia spring is situated near the
point at which the Florida Southern
Railway crosses Lochloosa creek,
about 12 miles cast of Gainesville.
Itis coming into notice as a cure for
dyspepsia and other diseases. Large
streams are suddenly lost in the gul-
let of an open sink, and others are as
suddenly disgorged from deep reces-
ses. A few hundred yards from the
south end of Santa Fe Lake, and
evidently connected with it at an un-
known depth,there is a deep canon out
of which issues a large stream, and
a few hundred yards further on it is
put to the practical use of turning
the water-wheel of a mill. With the
expenditure of a little money the
stream could be made navigable.
Paync's Prairie in time past dis-
charged the waters from Newnan's
Lake, four miles from Gainesville,
into the famous "Sink," the which
all tourists go to see, land
which has bankrupted the descrip-
tive powers of not a few. The sub-
terranean passage has choked up,
and the Prairie is now a vast sheet
of water on which a small steamer
does a carrying trade. The Devil's
Wash-Pot" is another place visited
by pleasure parties. The Natural
Bridge across the Santa Fe river, is
formed by the sudden plunge of the
water into a capacious cavern and
breaking out again to the surface far
below. A few years ago a spot in
the old Newnansville road, that had
been traveled "for years, dropped in
and the tops of the tallest pines set-
tled out of sight, while the bowl
filled with water. Natural wells are
found as round and perpendicular as
if they had been cut through the
rock with the hand of man. It is
evident that there is almost as per-
feet a net-work of under-ground
springs and streams as marks the
ALACHUlA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
SETTLEMENTS. ing and occupants. Colonists, count-
Between Townships 6 and 12, S., ed by tlhe thousands, could make ele-
gant homcs in that productive section
and langes 17 and 21, E., or 36 miles of our county. It is not known
from north to south, and 24 niles whether wheat will grow there, hut
from east to west, the oldest settle- I every other cereal will; and cotton,
ments and densest population ofi tobacco, cane, fruits, cherries, vines
Alachua county are embraced. The and vegetables are at home.
attractiveness of this section ma;y ie
inferred from the fact that it has MIAN Y
been selected successively by In-
dians, Spaniards, Englishmen and MICANOPY is situated in the vicin-
Americans, in the past three centu- ity of lower and denser hammock
ries, for habitation. Large grants lands. The natural growths and
named by the Kings of Spain are are similar. The town is em-
still the familiar names by which e mlar he tow em-
they are called to-day, and embrace powered in old orange groves. Much
the finest bodies of land in the coun- attention has been given by the far-
ty. They are inferior to none in the mers there to fruit, vine and vegeta-
State for natural fertility, except, ble culture. This departure from
perhaps, to the red clay lands of the custom of cultivating field crops
Middle Florida, but they are equally alone, has not only kept up the busi-
durable. The oldest towns areNew- ness of the place, but bids fair to
nan^ille, in the northern part, and become the means of making all the
Micanopy, in the southern extremity people in the vicinity independent.
of the county. Newnansville, years The business of the place is gradu-
ago, was the county-seat; before ally expanding and its rising pros-
which it was an advanced post it the perity seems now to be well assured.
Indian territory. A large and active At one time it was the county-seat
population, mostly enterprising Geor- and maintained a seminary of high
gians, settled around it, and soon grade. The citizens represent many
surrounded themselves with bounti- States and foreign countries. They
ful competence. Although the war are intelligent, economical and at-
disastrously affected the place, the training a condition in life for which
hard-laboring farmers around have they have been long heroically strug-
contributed a valuable trade to it, gling. The sightly orange groves
while they have prospered in a good and vineyards that will abound
degree. Many of them make and there will always make it an attrac-
save money. They live in the most tive section. Situated near Orange
picturesque portion of the county. Lake, about four miles from the
The larger proportion of the land is track of the Florida Southern Rail-
open hammock, and the pine land is way, with which the town will be
mixed with oak and hickory growths, connected by a branch road, pro-
and the latter is quite as hilly as the ducers will have the facility they
former. Out of these hills springs have long needed to get their crops
of water gush. While there are many to market. This new advantage will
extensive open plantations, there are bring the lands of that section rapid-
still there large areas of open -ham- ly into market, and materially in-
mock and pine land awaiting clear- crease the areas of the varied mer-
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
chantable productions of all classes the intending settler. The location
of people, and invite numbers of new is healthy, the soil high, dry and roll-
settlers. ing, and with a clay subsoil is reten-
tive of moisture and fertilizers.
ARCHER. -For asthma, bronchitis and differ-
IT WILL be seen by consulting a ent lung diseases, no better locality
map of the county, that the Transit can be found in Florida.
Railroad, from Fernandina to Cedar Orange growing has just begun,
Key, passes through the Arredondo as heretofore the great staples of corn
Grant, and that Waldo lies on the and cotton have claimed the atten-
east and Archer on the west of this tion of our people, but the experience
great plat of magnificent land, and of the last few years shows that the
nearly between them is Gainesville, orange, peach, pear and plum grow
(in S. 5, T. 10, R. 20), the county- profitably and are freer from insect
seat. The railroad( brought these pests than in places further south.
towns into existence, and helped to The people are hospitable, social,
settle in and around a comparatively and anxious to see new comers, and
new population. Archer is a place to aid them in securing homes in the
of considerable trade; but it is not- vicinity. Considerable attention is
ed, principally, for the cultivation of paid to vegetable growing, and with
fruits and vegetables. Peach trees, increased facilities for transportation
of early and late varieties, attain in the future, the area will increase
great age and size in all that section. and the profits be made greater.
The orange and other fruit trees and Inquiries regarding soil and cli-
grapes do well. Messrs. Lipsey and imate, if addressed to the Cor. Sec. of
Christie and others have turned their the Agricultural Society, inclosing
attention successfully to nurseries stamp, will receive prompt attention.
containing a large variety of fruit
trees, vines and plants. Surround- GAINESVILLE.
inu lands are pine, with a friable, NEVLL occupies nearly a
GAINESVILLE OCcupieS nearly a
claycy soil, which gives to trees and p t t ,
vegetation prolific io and endur- central position to the county, on the
vegetation prolific ia and endur- Transit Railroad and the Florida
ance. Very fair bricks have been Southern Railway, a branch of the
made out of the clay. But the prin- latter running to Palatka, on the St.
cipal products are Sea Island cot- ,Johns River, and the min trunk be
ton, corn, oats, rice, peas, potatoes, ing constructed north-west and south
cabbages and all other kinds of gar- through the Peninsula. The two
den vegetables. The soil is easily roas wt ing te city
tilled and the owllers are gradll I raIlroads will bring the (:ity into
Sa t o a g close relationship to the large and
improving their circumstances. c1
improig heir circumstances, productive scope of country, inclosed
A valued correspondent furnishes within Townships 6-12, Ranges 17-
the following additional items of in- 21, S. and E., and within which the
terest: great majority of 20,000 county in
ARCHER certair!ly deserves more at- habitants have their homes. The
tention. With a large body of heavy city is situated on what is called a
pine land adjacent, selling now at black jack (dwarf red oak) ridge, on
low rates, no place on the Transit account of the well-known healthful-
Road offers greater inducements to ness and purity of the water of such
ALACnUA COUNTY-ITER ATTRAC(TIVE FEATURIES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
localities. The soil is a deep led of
silica, underlaid with pipe-clay at a
depth varying from two to twenty
feet. Yet all over the place there
are large bearing orange trees,
grapes, as line an orange and pecan
nursery as can be found in the State,
varieties of fruit trees, strawberries,
flowers, gardens of vegetables in pro-
fusion and melons of extraordinary
size, rare plants, etc. It is a stand-
ing demonstration that there is not a
foot of land in the county, if it is not
overflowed, but that will yield an
abundant living to any one able to
But these healthful and good
watered ridges are the exception and
not the rule in the section of the
county between Townships 6-12,
Ranges 17-21. Most of the lands
are hard-wood hammock or mixed-
pine. The heavy hammock area,
inclusive of the high pine lands, ex-
tends east of Micanopy to Payne's
Prairie and the upper-part of New-
nan's Lake, skirting the Prairie on
both sides, passing -west of Gaines-
ville, and spreading out fanlike from
about twelve miles north-west of this
place, with half the periphery filling
the great bend in the Santa Fe River,
and crossing Ranges 17 and 21 to
the west and east. Within this area
there are occasional stretches of cy
press ponds and saw-palmetto flats,
but they do not give character to the
section, and even such lands will be
reclaimed and made valuable in the
Gainesville being in such a favora-
ble position relatively to this exten-
sive area of the finest classes of lands
in the county and to the railroads
crossing here, will constantly attract
and secure additions to the present
population of about 3,000, and to its
commercial, mechanical, political,
educational and social importance.
The people of this whole section have
struggled under many disadvantages,
and all avocations have eked out the
prosperity of this city by protracted
honest work. Lately, capital from
abroad has found here profitable in-
vestment. Two hotels and many
dwellings have been erected by new-
comtrs from the North and elsewhere.
Citizens who saved a little surplus
money out of their business have in-
vested it in furnishing themselves
with hornes. A bank is doing a very
good business. There are more ap-
plications for rooms for winter guests
than can be filled. Compared with
ten years ago this is a new place.
What it will be ten years hence we
will not predict, but its future shines
much brighter in the eye of hope
than did its past. Its churches,
embracing the Episcopal, Baptist,
Methodist, Presbyterian, and other
denominations, are growing; and its
educational advantages, in private
schools and the East Florida Semi-
nary, we believe to be unsurpassed
in the State. The society is com-
posed of good citizens from Canada
to Texas, from Massachusetts to
California, and from Europe; and
they will not suffer in comparison
with those of the climes from which
they came. The city is orderly and
the community law-abiding, frater-
nal and enterprising.
WALDo situated at the point of
the departure of the Peninsular Rail-
road to Ocala, and of the Lake Santa
Fe Canal to Melrose, gives proof
of its business capacity and impor
tance during the progress of each
trade season. Building improve-
ments have steadily progressed and
others are in contemplation. It is a
center for cotton ginning, cigar man-
ARREDONDO is a point surrounded
by truck farms, to which unpreceden-
ted disasters have successively come.
The subject is painful to think about.
The disasters, however, were not
ern line of Clay until it intersects
with the Putnam county line, thence
south to its intersection with Town-
ship 12, thence west to the western
border of Orange Lake, thence north
to Fairbanks on the Transit Rail-
road,and north to iSanta Fe river, and
thence east to place of beginning, and
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
ufacturing, fruit and vegetable grow- faults of the lands. These are pe-
ing. Mr. Entenza, the cigar mauu- culiarly adapted to the growth of
facturer, has demonstrated the prac- vegetables, and those who manage
ticability of raising a fine quality of or handle them are skilled in the
tobacco from Cuba seed. Other business. Experience has taught
gentlemen of enterprise, but retiring them nearly everything to belearned
habits, push whatever they take hold in their line of culture. But never
of to completion without noise. The in the history of this section, so far
place has several excellent hotels, as we are able to learn, has there been
Such a succession of killing frosts
FAIRBAK. so late in the season, and so little
FAIBANK. moisture from dew and rain when
FAIRBANKS. on the W. I. T. Rail they were most needed, as have made
road, a neighboring place, of which the last eighteen months painfully
theindefatigable Charles D. Furman memorable. Such unfavorable con-
is the father, is a place of health and editions may never occur again. And
industry, for which it is especially this fact alone ought to encourage
suited. Cut up into small farms, it truckfarmers to stick to the business.
affords places of residence and But those who have large bodies of
grounds ample for fruit and vegeta- land would do best, doubtless, if
ble cultivation, in which the whole they should put enough into corn
population are engaged. It promises and cotton to meet the contingency
to add considerably to its numbers of a poor vegetable season. After
each succeeding year. Fairbanks is awhile this essential matter of
settled almost exclusively by western diversifying crops will be better un-
and northern people, who begin life derstood, and more generally and
there anew with all the advantages successfully practiced by farmers
of cultivation and experience. Their living along the transportation lines.
houses and surroundings are corn- And when this change in their plans
portable and attractive. All the cit- shall have become general and fixed,
izens are i-n_: ,..l in gardening and safer and more accurate calculations
fruit growing. To the south and of the annual volume of produce to
south-east of it are some of the larg- be shipped can be arrived at, and
est and most valuable mixed ham- the means of transportation made to
mock and pine land plantations of correspond to it.
the olden time, awaiting the process
of division into small farms for new I
corners, and inviting them on ac- "THE LAKE REGION."
count of healthfulness, excellent wa- Trace a line from the point where
ter, good soil, and being situated be- the Transit Railroad enters Bradford
tween three convenient railroads. county to the east alnno the Sourh-
ALACIIUA COUNTY-IHER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
it will inclose an area of about 300
square miles, or about 30 miles long,
and an average of 10 miles wide; in
which is included, by way of favora-
ble distinction, "The Lake Region,"
averaging about 150 feet above the
sea. So desirable and attractive is
this section of the county, that the
large majority of the northern,
western and foreign immigrants,
settling among us within the past
ten years, have chosen homes among
the lakes and along the railroads.
Their bright and well-cared for
cottages, yards and grounds break
ever and anon on the view of the
traveller on the highways and
neighborhood roads. Within the
lines indicated there are many lakes
full of fish, magnificent water pow-
ers, two railroad junctions and four
towns. Melrose is situated at the
end of Sanra Fe Lake, at the corner
of the counties of Alachua, Bradford,
Clay and Putnam. The Lake is a
magnificent sheet of water, connect-
ed by steamboat canal, through Lake
Alto, with the Transit Railroad, at
Waldo. On the lake, the commodi-
ous and picturesque Balmoral Hotel
occupies a commanding place; and
around it, there is a large society ot
residents, which will compare with
those of any State in all essentials.
Hawthorn is situated at the junction
of the Peninsular Railroad and the
Gainesville and Palatka Branch of
the Florida Southern Railway, in the
midst of an old settlement of agri-
cultural people,-tle pioneers of this
portion of Florida. This fact alone
shows it to be a desirable and fruit-
ful section. hawthorn is growing
rapidly and will increase in attract-
iveness. The country around is un-
dulating pine land of the first-class.
It is splendidly watered, and affords
ample and rich pasturage. Both
lines of railroad promise to he bor-
dered for miles with orange groves,
orchards, vineyards and truck farms.
Every possible in ducement should
be offered by the railroad direc-
tors and the owners of the large
bodies of the finest lands, to still
more rapidly and completely fill up
the whole of the territory, situate
on both sides of Lochloosa Creek
and Lake, and between the Peninsu-
lar and Florida Railroads and the
Bradford, Clay and Putnam county
lines, with an intelligent and indus-
trious population. It is capable of
enriching a dense population, and its
healthfulness is not its least recom-
mendation, as has been shown, to a
speedy occupancy by practical gard-
eners, fruit growers and farmers of
moderate means from all of the States
and other countries.
IN the South-east corner of the
county is situate what is called "The
Island." It is formed between the
Lakes Lochloosa and Orange, by
deep creeks on the eastern and wes-
tern sides. The lands on the ap-
proaches to it, and, indeed, on it, are
of as distinct kinds and qualities as
can be found anywhere. A stranger
visiting it for the first time will be
exercised by many surprises. There
is a broad, solid road on the back-
bone of the island, running on the
skirt of the lands mixed with oak,
cabbage palmetto and pine growth,
and terminating among the orange
groves bordering the east side of Or-
ange Lake. Hon. G. R. Fairbanks
and others are having the business
carried on for them at that point.
Pursuing a road crossing the Penin-
sular railroad which runs through
the island, and running towards the
upper end of Cross Creek, connect-
ing the waters of the two great lakes,
a dense hammock is penetrated, and
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
this is the general character of the
land around the rim of the lakes.
Here is found almost every kind of
woodland tree common to the ham-
mock lands in Middle Florida. State-
ly magnolias and palms with their
S green foliage, oaks, hickories, etc,
furnish stores of acorns and nuts for
birds and squirrels, and pines
S of huge proportions overtop them
all. The soil is a deep, dark mold.
There is quite a neighborhood of set-
tlers on the island, furnishing about
thirty scholars to the school. They
have elbow room between their settle-
ments, and while pursuing their hus-
bandry pay much attention to the
rearing of stock. The range first at-
tracted parties engaged in the cattle
business. But now, since the rail-
road has penetrated it, there will
come a change in this respect. The
population will increase, and atten
tion will be given principally to rais-
ing sugar cane, cotton,fruits and vine-
On the eastern side, on the main-
land and the border of Lochloosa
Lake, there are a number of pine-
land settlements. On the west and
at the foot of the lake, and on the
margin of Cross Creek, is the orange
grove of Mr. Joe B. Blake. At that
point there was an almost impenetra-
ble wild sour orange grove, which by
a great amount of labor he reduced
to an orderly grove by thinning out,
cutting the stumps he wished to re-
main a few inches above the ground
and budding them with the sweet or-
ange. The steamer Alpha, plying
on the two lakes, took his fruit last
year fromhis wharf and delivered it on
the wharf of the Peninsular railroad.
Around the western rim of Lochloo-
sa Lake, the same rich hammock
land attracted some of the old Mid-
dle Florida planters many years ago;
among them Capt. James M. Hun-
ter, Augustus H. Johnson and Rob-
ert H. Hall, Esq. Messrs. Hunter
and Hall still reside there, and, also,
the family of Capt. Johnson. That
lake region and the island are pecu-
liarly adapted to the fruit, vegetable
and vine businesses, to which Flori-
da is destined to be chiefly devoted.
But it is not less fruitful in the pro-
duction of all staple field crops than
the choice lands of the State. The
facilities for transportation afforded
by the steamer on the two great lakes,
and the Peninsular and Florida Sou-
thern railroads, will tend to fill up
that whole section with a new popu-
lation to add strength and wealth to
THE Cow House country, in the
western part of Alachua country, in
a general view, comprises the section
watered by the Wacasassa river, Cow
creek, Santa Fe river, and their trib-
utaries, to the Suwannee river. For
convenience sake we will say the part
of the county we speak of lies be-
tween townships 6 and 12, ranges 14
and 18, south and east. As the route
recently surveyed for the Live Oak,
Rowland's Bluff & Tampa Railroad,
from the bluff to Bronson, in Levy
county, on the Transit R. R., passes
through that section of our territory,a
description of it however general, will
be of interest to the public. As
might be expected (in Florida), where
there are many streams, there is much
overflowed land; but when one
travels through it, he finds that it is
anything but a level country. Neither
is it all pine land. There are areas
of magnificent virgin and some of
cultivated hammock lands. If the
traveler turns his face westward from
Gainesville, after passing Jonesville,
his course is over an undulating, dry,
high road, through a magnificent pine
forest, over rugged lime rocks, by
ALACHUA COUNTY-HER ATTRACTIVE FEATURES AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.
natural wells and deep chasms, until River, there is more rolling and heav-
he reaches a road running north and ily timbered pine country, barely
south, through the Cow Creek and watered, thinly settled, and in some
Wacasassa settlements; and beyond places ruggedly hilly and broken,
these still are the settlements up and with extensive beds of outcropping
down the east side of the Suwannee rocks. But, taken all together, the
River. Taking the roads from Bron- mixed hammock and pine land count
son, by way of Joppa, Wacasassa try lying between a line drawn from
post-office, or Jennings and Fran'k- the Natural Bridge on the Santa Fe
land, to Knight's mill, on Cow River, extending about 27 miles south
Creek, one will pass lakes and mill to Archer, on the Transit Railroad,
seats, through beautiful, rolling pine and situated west of that line (an av-
land-of remarkable fertility, some of erage of about 25 miles wide), to the
it the best in the county for the pro- Suwannee River, is one of the richest
auction of Sea Island cotton. It in- in soil and timber of any body of pine
vites larger and more rapid settlement land of like area in the whole State.
by working men of moderate means. Walnut, pecan and peach trees grow
In the section we have included by thriftily and bear richly; also peas,
the land lines, there is a very consid- potatoes, pindars, rice, oats, corn,
erable population of honest, Felf-sus- sugar-cane, pumpkins, vegetables of
training farmers, and it is capable of all kinds, figs, etc. In the south-
supporting a greatly increased num- western part most of the old and new
her. Not far from Knight's mill is population have settled; first, on ac-
Fort White, on the Santa Fe, to count of the superiority of the range
which point the river is navigable for for cattle around the Cow-House, and
Suwannee River steamers. There, then for its good water, fertility,
during the war, numbers of rich for- schools, churches, nearness to river
eign cargoes were delivered to the and railroad transportation and
Confederate authorities, and return healthfulness. They make plenty,
cargoes of cotton shipped, on block- cultivate their groves at their ease,
ade runners; and there is still some hunt and fish, sell cotton, live boun-
trade between citizens on both sides tifully, are given to hospitality, pay
with Cedar Key boats. From as they go, and are independent. A
Knight's mill, turning towards New- geologist would find curious things in
nansville, occasionally approachedby this little-known country above inad-
some tortuous bend of the Santa Fe equately described.
Ore rlesl To Give Away.
MADE TO UORI)ER.
Some u- 1i- ,ii i" "I--e eral years experience
in planting .i0.1 -. .i. '1.... groves, we offer our
services to parties needing that kind of business
We can buy and prepare land, furnish and
plant trees, warrant them to grow, cultivate and
care for them by the year, at reasonable rates.
There is much good high, dry, rolling pine
land about Archer, well adapted to
Having a tract of a few hundred acres
of good Orange Growing Land to dispose
of, which is well located near Railroad
Station and the town of Archer, I pro-
pose to divide it into ten acre lots, and to
donate each alternate lot to actual settlers
who will improve it with fruit trees, &c.
None but good, moral and temperance
citizens need apply; church members
For further particulars, address with
stamp, W. B. LIPSEY,
Orange and Other Fruit Growing, Archer, Alchua (ounty, .
that can be bought at very reasonable prices; COST OF AN ORANGE GROVE.
quite healthy, good water and near Railroad O F U AN ORANGE GROVE.
station. For further particulars address
LIPSEY, PEARSON & SONS, We receive malny inquiries of the cost
Archer, Alachua Co., Fla. of making anll orange grove. We take
ten acres as a basis for calculation in the
-T E- vicinity of Arlcher. Land varies in price
from ten to twenty-five dollars per acre.
Say, 10 acres at $20 per acre ...... $200
Arc r N ur ies Cutting off all timber $12 peracre 120
Ar chr lN urserl Breiaking up ground, $2 per acre.... 20
Cultivate and keep ol sale it rge amount ofi 0 od rail fe tree, 270
00 good I-year old orange trees, 50c. 250
Fruit Tre i Planting and warranting all to grow. 100
1 8 J1 ees, ti'erintei'diig and working grove
cue y(';'r ....... ... ... ..... 100
suited to Florida and other Southern State ,wilh I .
Shade and Ornamental Trees, Vines. &o., con- 'Iotal cost at cll.d on O ve;..... t$(0
sisting of about 100,000 orange trees, Sweet and I l .1 01o e. .....i
...... -- I -... .. and BUDS on both Sweet andl The cost ach year for five years will
-..ii .-, .,i best and most approved varieties, bi aibolt $12 to $15 per :rve. At this tilme
including the new Satsuma--a large and fine t At ti
stock of Le (onte Pears and other new sorts of the grove should be in bearing, at a 'cst
excellence, with the Peen-To Peach and other of about. $l1(0 per acre ; toill, $1600.
early and later varieties. ,Tap:lnese Pe i-ini moAn on n r of a lbeainl or.lrl grove
Japan Plum. uince, Nectarine, Almond. Fig a eailll. Olil-c love
Lemon, Shaddock, Grape-fruit, iPomegranite, -\ill value it from 1,l'" to $2,000 per
Guava, &&c. acre, certainly profit enough for the in-
Send for price list ani other particular t vestnnt. We vill take contracts for mak-
LIPSEY & CHRISTIE.
One-half mile south-east of iRailroad station, ing Tgrovs :'i about the above prices, in
Archer. Alachua Co., Fla. this county. Apply with stamp to
LIPSEY, PEARSON & SONS,
Archer, Alachlua County, Fl:i.
,TAS. I.EAL, PH. C., M. 1).
--i)E AER I.--.
Examining Surgeon for Pensions,
CORRESPONDING SECRET RY
ARCHER AGILICUTLTURAT ASSOCIATION,
ARCtO R. FLOIISA.
ADKINS BROTHERS, MITCHELL & CAUTHEN,
D EAII'lS IN
I.t W O'I'/0 Y, EL.I.
'itricL attention paid to t:ii ctom- ers, ndl
satisfaction guaranteed "
BULLARD & STEWART,
I)Fk .IIS- IN
Clothing, Hats, Boots, Shoes
HA WTOIIRN. FLOR IDA.
All goods sol(l low (doi\n for eash. We
gi:urantee satiHfaction in every respct'.
S. L. HAWTHORN,
fHA TVTJ"OIV, FLA.
HAY, CORN AND OATS KEPT
CONSTANTLY ON HAND.
"Quick Sales and Small Profits" is
S. T. KIRTLIN,
Wines, Liors, Cijars &Tobaco,
Nothing hbut the Best Articles oldl.
BL.LA L, : IN
WAI LDO, FLA..
A t d An ,t: .' t WaV do fAr
IOYSTER SELL LIlYIE,
Will remove about August 1st
to their New Building, op-
posite the Drug Store.
( I )
CRIMWLL & WEAVER,
<^ DENTISTS A.
OFFICEE OVER IBARNES' BRICK BLOCK.)
Will be pleased to make Examinations and render services
to parties desiring Scientific Dentistry.
FRESH GAS ALWAYS ON HAND.
Thanks to my friends and the public for their liberal
patronage for the last eight years. I do not ask for an in-
crease in my business, for it would be selfish; I only ask for
a continuation of the same. We have also all the modern
improvements in the way of fine chairs, Dental Engines, Gas
Aparatuses, etc. We are prepared to do you any kind of
work that has ever been performed or practiced in the pro-
fession. We are also prepared to attend all calls in the coun-
try, and all parties coming from a distance to have work
done, aind having to stop over, can remain with us free of
DR. WEAVER comes among us with the best recommen-
dation of any Dentist in the South, and defies competition.
J D. CROMWELL.
All communications should be addressed to
CROMWELL & WEAVER.
J.. L. PATTONT & CO-,
Dry Gooas, Notions, Hats, Caps,
Boots and Shoes.
A Full Line of Staple and Fancy Groceries.
ALL KINDS OF
Plantation and Farmin Implements at Low Rates.
HIGHEST MARKET PRICE PAID FOR COUNTRY PRODUCE.
WE ARE ASO AGENTS FOR THF,
WILSON OSCILLATING SHUTTLE SEWING MACHINE,
AND ROYAL ST. JOHN SEWING M(ACHIINE.
Send and get one of these Machines, and you will never
regret it. Proves satisfactory in every respect.
M. E. TURNER.,
J. L.. PATTON.
W. W. JOHNSON, -THE-
HAWTHORN, FLORIDA. WHITE SEWING MACHINE.
US DEALER IN E
DRUGS and MEDICINES,
Perfumery, Shoulder Braces,
and all kinds of
usually kept in a;
FIRST CLASS DRUG STORE.
Physicians' Prescriptions care-
fully compounded, and all
orders answered with
care and dispatch.
will find my stock ofmedicines
complete, warranted gen-
uine and of the best
THE MOST POPULAR
SewinE Machine in the World!
Easy to learn,
Easy to Operate,
Hard to wear out.
The "WHrrE" stands :neknowldg1ed
OF ALL SEWING MACHINES.
FOR FIVE YEARS
Send for descriptive circular contain-
ing testimonials from experts who are
now using "The White" Machine.
Address all orders to
WM. II. VEITCH,
General Dealer. Gainesville, Fla.
JOHN E. LAMBETH,
Real Estate and Insurance
3_ G- "3 1T T,
Lands of all Descriptions for Sale at Low Figures. Orange
Groves planted and cared for by Contract.
Homesteads Entered, Taxes Paid, Rents Collected, and all
other Real Estate Business promptly attended to.
Also, Agent for the Famous Sanford Lands on the Arredondo
Grant. Real Estate Bought and Sold.
FLORIDA LANDS FOR
Orange Groves, Fruit Culture
And General Farming Purposes.
These lands consist of Haummock and ieaivv Pin(, ind are lo. atcd Imol ly on
the Arredondo Grant, Alachua and Marion cmun;ies. The famous S.Inford lands
are surpassed by none in the State for fertility of soil "and fine timber. Terms to
Information and circulars furnished promptly on application by
JOHN E. LAMBCETH, A A:r,
Gainesv/le, Fla. .
GEORE M. CflLMAN,
!J.- ,._ ..
BOOT AND SHOE-MAKER,
I keep eoInstanIly on h1a gd a goodlection of the very best Frenchi andi Atlmerica;n
Calf; have the latest styles of patterns, and guarantee to give yon the best boot or
shoe made in Alachua county. Orders by mail will receive prompt attention.
STEPHEN ROSS, JOLLY & PECK,
--PRACTICAL- DALERBK IN
BOOT AND SHOE-MAKER, DruBl Beiicins, Chieicles, &c.,
Amtnd evr-y )ins u,>allv kept in a
;,At. ES VIL LE, 'L.A. .fi t-ela 'ri sore.
_RE_ SCtRIPT IONS CAiiEFIULLY COMPOUa D)ED.
I keep on hand a good stock of French Crawford & Jackson,
and American Calf Skins, and warrant BUTCHERS,
my work satisfactory in every respect.
SG *AIN SILL E, FI')RIDA.
The Highest Cash Price Paid for
REPAI NG Beef, Mutton and Pork,
Neatly done and at short notice. Orders from a diat nce promptly filled.,
--SEND YOUR ORDERS TO-
C. A. SHELDON'S
-IF YOU WANT-
Staple and Fancy Groceries
Low Down for Cash!
NEW GOODS ARRIVING EVERY WEEK.
MY STOCK CONSISTS IN PART OF
Bacon, Flour, Lard, Hams, Butter, Sugar Coffee, Cheese,
onions, potatoes, pickles, confections, tin & crockeryware.
And Everything Usually Kept in a First-Class Grocery Store.
A FULL LINE OF THE
Best Brands of Fine Cigars and Tobaccos.
I guarantee satisfaction in goods and prices.
C. A.. SE:EX.ELDOLT2 ,
I, ~ ~,
~"` t '
"'~~ g~E~5~:~.~r:~;"~' ,%r .~;
; A- -
A E VILIF
fouIn Hn MacI
DOIC & BALDWIN, Prop,
S We are prepared to make Castings,
I Brass or Iron, of any dimension or foi
Sso Machine Works of all kinds, su
Engines, saw mills, cotton gins, s
sugar evapora i Also, manufae
Agents for an the m ne li
you have any
Sto get -it'
iiii- i 4.
' J4`ITSEXEC1JTIV AT ::T
i 1" wealthy orange gr~wers whose Mi I4
aracter, reliability and business .
.ac it a7 ,a-.pa-e.d.
cein thiu A VAiiat;d* s a izaoiuul oiwtpiFA
VCoimpanies, and eonsist of Itiq f which t nmrI't
S s pad only .odf 9Aaa ecthtf -I1
e grade of risk, and ai ~me.at, which i i1
ceed a certain The seml-anSnati
iAMfe ach poliScy, fa't lern,
rty, associated in the same also on dwellings,
pr attached or vi ad eto other b
at d eatit dtbel eth han oot
Is ievety-five coats on the tQimqad dollars of a me
aie I. o, dl oh i. 'o~I6y e oN covering ft,
.i .-trd rrstdtftft, in towns o olei
ion.fr ot.dhem~ebBUi under dipoerest
da s dollar E-perleanse sd athe best obtainabl,.
.sr o w, "ith O"I
gfU "~ft~iu a i~ l1i.i LM
HniiiB~~iiiiltmili imiilaiitlnIii^1iiiri f'-~ -
.a. .q.n Isnads, wi. accept as p r
4 tliSep.tn such shape as not only to yield a
ble tiat *y tile in case of extraordinary
Fe ~tbm tie sinking fund is accredited to the pollcy-o
rreducin the number of assessments, and will in a few ye.a
pay all lonss of self.
We insure for full value when it is desired, so as to
ion, but each loss undergoes an equitable adjustment, and
actual, loss or,da* sge sustained by fire, or above th.
in eicb policy,fs paid.
Our policies are not subject to conditions of 'piorite.
bOupaniee. If such Companies wish to prorate with us, tht
I our policies is expressly declared on the face of each"
lives to our policy-holders their full rights in case they sho
Mesde ii0e ie of taking of holding P01w
Our policies ain, without extr expense, b boagt or
toperty, or traerferre4 to thr p
a to cover other property ofi -6hkei i erve1
tas, by eadormeateo the.- l Uvi ppe M*l
We accept no risk'eicept thoee 6oouifeltW w
Ve do not take risks on works run by steam, abr hterp
ro hundred feet of the same. Public livrerly ato daor
Athin one hundaed feet of the same.
a litigation. In towns or villages, .hqe
ader different control are adjoined, or
rhere there is reason to suspect moral- o
,e risk, And that'not on the building.
ore than five thousand dollars. All 'rts of-
ikilated as whole thousands. *';
SThe benefits and protection given. t c y-hold.i+
id. is unprecedented in Fire Insurant, i: will.t j
per the membership fee is paid, the cost o keplng up a p
Gandise or property of that grade of risis, i oiuy two doli
i6nths, with a probable assessment of seventy-five cents oin
kisla's The cost to a farmer or isolated property ow
oi6e, out buildings and fruit trees, near enough to be.
Milar every six months, with a probable assessment
thousand dollars. These assessments may orP s* .
tlring a year. Thia places oIpernT s
I:owner. And when it ca b
stUm."euts, t .hemo
, Martitnez a Co.,
|Inufactnre to order any style, size or brand desired'
]provided such brand is not secured by letters patent
in the United States.
We always keep on hand a large lot of
cigars are manufactured, and purchasers can
o getting a first-class Havana cigar. Orders so-.
aipromptly filled, eithAr large or small.
CIGARS AT R WHOLESALEE RATES.
Remember the place,
b Cigar Store, Gainesvlle, a
FIRE INSURANCE A
At Gainesville, Florida.
W W. --TA.hm:P"TOrC:, .A.-
Liverpool & London &
FIRE ASSETS, $12,167,538.44.
NEW YORK UNDERWRITER'S AGENj
(GERMANIA & HANOVER.)
Total Assets, $5,000,0 ,
: Jsa C oufnaume
OF PARIS, FRANCE.
Total Assets, (American Branch,) $
Call at Law Office of Thrasher &,4Hampton,
street, Gainesville, Fla.
B ,- ^BP--?^ "-.-.-' *K "T ,. -, .. ; .-,.^
S INDUSTRY WILL THRIVE.
The subject of this article is one of the most prosperous business men
our city, Mr. B. C. Drake, whose advertisement appears on the oppo-
page. He came here from Massachusetts in January, 1871, a stran-
almost penniless. He first engaged in the printing business, and
Iteid what was called the "Florida Independent," a Republican
per, and continued to publish that paper until 1874. He retired
the management of that paper and soon established the paper called
"Alachua Citizen," which continued until 1877, (in the mean time
bg the old established papers "New Era" and "Florida Indepen-
.| ,d-1i4nally sold out and retired from the business.
im :ne, 1873, he conceived the idea of a planing mill as a valuable
sition to the place, and probably remunerative to himself. He had
,o capital, but very good credit, and on that began business with very
1ttle machinery, near the depot. He struggled hard to succeed, and at
lte time came very near abandoning the enterprise, as he had accurnu-
-tdS4 such an indebtedness that he saw no way of extricating himself.
kshe is not one of those to even say "fail" the determination for success
his every thought, and most manfully he struggled on. It became
rent that by moving his works, though very small, up into the city,
d be more to his advantage. That was the turning point in his
He planted his machinery under the broad canopy of heaven
re the mills now stand, having purchased the block of two acres on
time. The engine, one planer, one saw table and one turning lathe
grist mill, his entire stock of machinery, was only covered with slabs
rough edge boards for some time. He finally erected the main build-
hag and has since made such additions as can be now seen. Although
sustained some considerable losses in the meanwhile by fire and
so, he is now numbered among the most substantial and prosperous
ess men of the city; and he often speaks of the generous kindness of
1 merchants of the city, who helped him to make his start and stem
tide to success.
il:, Wihin the past year he has invented and put in operation a rice
which bids fair to be of great benefit to himself and the community.
l Is, "here there is a will there is a way," and in his case it is
I */.' '*
[E8TABLIBHED JUNE, 1878.1
Plnig Mill,grist Mill,Rice
Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida
Having lately made many additions and improvemeBS
in machinery, I am prepared to do all kinds of house E
fishing work, such as Window and Door Frames, M1
Fronts, etc., at short notice and low prices.
I have constantly on hand a large variety of Mouldi i
also Hand-rail for stairs and Ballustrades. Sawed and turi
Ballusters, Brackets and Scroll-sawing of any desired pat
done to order.
SSeasoned Lumber constantly on hand. I would invit"
those contemplating building houses, yard fences, etc., to gvir
me a call and get prices.
My Mills are right in the heart of the city, a .id
Three blocks from the Public Square and business, pQ
Ganiesville. B, 0. I
,'-a;;.,'oi? 2.(" ", .'
S P. M. L IV E R,
X-AL ESTATE AGENT,
SdibinhlBn Merchant, Oity and County Auctioneer,
SIiness in the United States Land Office Promptly at-
tended to. Buy, Sell, Rent and Improve Lands, Pay Taxes
Consignments of all classes of goods solicited,
and prompt returns made.
| d and Lodging, per day ..... .. .. .. ...... $1.00 to $1.50
^ << week ....... ..... ..... .... $5.00 to $7.00
? .OWING TO LOCATION OF ROOMS.
SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS BY THE MONTH.
h-e above House is pleasantly situated on West Main street,
-4aid within 50 yards of the Public Square. Colonade above
la~ ow, from which Oranges and Lemons can be plucked
Arm -> ... -
G. W. GORNTO & 0
groceriecs and Projisiiia
Wll._m~lml-llr~a_ : '-W'i
A Full Line of Staple and Fancy
KEPT CONSTANTLY ON HAND.
Also, Iealers in
We make a specialty of this business, and are prepa
fill at short notice, all orders for
Dyed Moss of any Grade, Rough or Gia
C. W. Cornto & ,<
-'~4~ ~ A
-W W. HAMPTON, B. U. TTHRAS M. W. W. HAMPtroN.
:W. \V. HAMPTN, THtASHI. A H1AMrTO,.
ary Public for State at Large, A T TO R N K Y S A T L A W,
IPractice in Statle land Federa'.l Courts. Biiui-
1 nss promptly attended to.
:OIIISSIONER OF DEEDS nc. ,
OfOce opposite re, ldence ,f I. II. Thr sher.
FOR VAIOU STAT C. B. D 0 D D,
.C B. 1) 0. I 1),T
ut Main St., ainesville, Fla. 'TIN & SHEET-IRON WORKER,
GA INES VILLE, FLA.
STin Roofing, Valleys and Leaders
Supplied at Short Notice.
I, House-Fiunihs Goods, Stoves,
And Stove I'urniture.
Plain, Stamped. Re-tiuned and Jait-
vegetables of all varieties will be paned Tinware.
band, in their seasons. Also,
eats of all kinds. Glass and Woodenware, Lamps Lan-
terns. Library Lamps and Chan-
York Beef, a Specialty. deliers, Fruit Jars and Self
*Sealing Fruit Cans.
Mpn from housekeepers of the towns Fruit ans.
roe Other goods too nuinmrous to mention.
part of the coiuty, will be prompt-
i. TINWAREE REPAIRED.
STEAMER "F. S. LEWIS;"
Built at Waldo Fla., in 1881,
BY THE SANTA FE CANAL COMPANY,:-:A'
S. C. BARKER, Captain.
This Steamer was built to ply on the Canal betl
Waldo and Santa Fe Lake, and to transport produce, frei
and passengers from and to the "Lake Region." Tthe StA
er has ample carrying capacity, being 90 feet long an
feet beam. Ned E. Farrell, Esq., is the Superintendet
the work of the Santa Fe Canal Company.
'COUNTY BUSINESS DIRECTORY.
.'BLACKSMITIa-James Skinner, Elbert
.CABPENTER--H. J. Levy.
BOARDING HOUSE--H. J. Levy, Mrs.
P. W. Tompkies, Jerry Baukman.
bavtooIs-Wm. C. Andrus & Co.
'MucaLA-rs-J. T. Fleming, C. W.
Plaiknfght, G. M. Blitch, F. G. Bauk-
lght, W. A. Geiger, Mrs. S. F. Wine-
SNumStYMEN-Lipsey & Christie.
ParTSICIANS--J. C. Neal, S. W. Boyn-
to, J. N. D. Cloud.
SMmCcANxT--W. F. Rice.
'; ParTICIAN--E. S. Carew, B. F. Rich-
SWIE AND LIquoas-Geo. Walton.
4AkmOHATrs-N. G. LaVan, C. B. Pcl-
Matlaes--C. R. Howell.
-H. F. Dutton & Co.
.-R. Reynolds, L. Lavis.
.-8. C. Bevill, Jackson &
.-A. Watts, T. W. Dawkins.
CKxsrrHs.-J. H. Avery, F. Roux,
Ma.urAcr nume-Patraclo Mar-
CARPENTERS.-J. McKeever, S. Fewel,
L. H. Smith.
DENTISTs.-W. L. Seigler, Cromwell
DRavU sTs--McMillau & Miller, A. J.
HoTzLs.-Arlhngton House, Varnum
Hotel, Magnolia House, American House
Gainesville House, Bevill House, Oliver
INS. AGENTS.-O. S. Acee, H. K. Day,
W. W. Hampton, J. W. Tench, James
JEWELERS-Iewis A. Jernigan, J. H.
LIVERY STABLES-\. W. Scott, J. D.
BOOKS AND STATIONERY-J. C. East-
MILLINERS-Mrs. C. E. Marchmont,
Mrs. F. X. Miller, Mrs. R. Scarrott, Mrs.
C. B. Dood.
MILLERS AND MACHINISTS Doig
Baldwin, B. C. Drake, Leonard & Pearce.
MERCHANTS-Geo. K. Broome, I. M.
Cox, Chesnut & Clinton, M. Endel &
Bro., E. K. Fagan, G. W. Gornto & Co.,
T. Foster, F. X, Miller, J. D. Matheson,
McClellan & Ellis, P. Miller, G. Joseph,
C. A. Sheldon, J. A. Shannon, Geo. W.
Sparkman, W. W. Scott, S. C. Sadler,
Endel & Herman, Mrs. R. Scarrott.
PHOTOGRAPHERS-W. A. Nobles.
PAINTES-S. Keeler, J. A. Morris.
REAL ESTATE AoENTs-Matheson &
McMillan, P. M. Oliver, J. E. Lambeth,
S. F. Halliday.
RESTARANTS-W. F. Flynn, G. T.
SEWING MACHINE AoGNTS--Wn. H.
Veitch, G. W. Sparkman, T. L. Carter,
F. W. Churchouse.
-` I .
TANNeBR-Avera & Seagle.
TINNERS-C. B. Dodd, B. M. Smith.
TAILORs-W. M. Moore, R. E. Shiv-
WINES AND LIQUORS-F. Bayer. J.
PHYSICIANS-J. F. McKinstry, N. D.
Phillips, G. P. Thomas.
ATTORNEhr -Thrasherl & Hampton, O.
A. Mycre, J. C. Gardner, J. 11. Goss, T.
F. King, Taylor & Sanchez, W. W. Mc-
l11l, A. W. Roysdon.
JUDGE-J. (. Gardter.
CLRUlK--J. A. Carlisle.
SHERIFF-John IV. Turner.
AssESSOR OF REV.NUE'-G. IV. llaw-
COLLECTOR OF REVENUIE- C. C. DI1-
SUP'T. ov SCHOOL.-;-W. N. Sllhcatt.
BOARDING ilouSEs-.J. M. QMuarrels.
DuRI'isiT--W- WV. Johnson.
MERCHANTS-S. L. L Hwthorn, Adkikns
Bros., R. B. Weeks, L. Wertheim, BIul-
lard & Stewart., T. J. MeRe.
MEIRCHANTS-Futchl Bros., Broom0e &
MILLERS- Sloan and (Catheart.
WINES AND LIQUL'ORS--I. Rlll.ald.
BLACKSMITHS, &c.-J. H. Stokes, G.
DRUuGISTS L. Montgomery, J. C.
MERCHANTS-J. L. Patton & Co., L.
Montgomery, B. W. Fontane, Win. M.
SKnox, S. H. Benjamin.
WINES AND LIQuORs-M. Shiretskt.
PHYSICIAN--L. Montgomery, A'.
Mathers, J. A. Marshall. '
BOARDING IIoUaHES-Lanaden House.-
BLACKSMITIHS-G. J. Jackson.
MERCHANTrs-A. Goodson & Co., T. J'
McRase Bro. '
lPHYSI(CIANS-Frank McRae, G. W. L.
REAL ESTATE AGENTs-rMosely & Brait i
MILLERs-E. Pearce & Son.
MERCHANTM-A. 1. E1igill, H. Lovy,$
J. H. Love & Co., F. P. Olmstead.
I MIilrAlNTS-..rohn Mc.AlistL.r. ';
alIEm ANTs--Slith & Colson.
BOAR)ING( Ilol OsEs--Si-iinysid HloleOtt,'
Waldo House, Beckhli:am IIoiseo, Tlohli
l Om l I "'
BI.AcxsMKnaTsS-1). I. Illks, Gahb",,j
BU:TCHlEits-Preston & Whittenburg...
C'IGAI MANlUFACTURERl--M. Ento a;-
Dium)tcISTS-Jolly & Peck.
MERCHANTS-Fergltnson Bros., Mtte
& Catthen, Jac. Belsinger, John
Preston, Ratlersotn & Ambrose.
MILIJNERS--Mr8. T. Livingaton. ..-
WINES AND LIQUOnS-- Raulerson
Co., S. T. Kirtlin.
MILLEms-Knight & Co.
PHaYSIucw-J. M. Perry, L.
W. J. Jolly, M. A. Cushing.
p~,l"~';' 1'"~Z:'' -~' ~'