<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Administrative report
 Work of the survey
 Offices and museum
 Accessions
 Library, Cooperation with other...
 Recommendations
 Mineral production in Florida in...
 Northern disjuncts in northern...
 Cypress domes
 Notes on the geology and the occurrence...
 Diatoms of the Florida peat...
 Ground-water resources of Sarasota...
 Exploration of artesian wells in...
 Index
 Table 2: Mineral analyses of ground...
 Figure 6: Map of Sarasota County...
 Back Cover
 Spine


FGS



Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00021
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Publication Date: 1930-1932
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00021
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Administrative report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Work of the survey
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Offices and museum
        Page 27
    Accessions
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Library, Cooperation with other organizations
        Page 30
    Recommendations
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Mineral production in Florida in 1930 and 1931
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Northern disjuncts in northern Florida
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Cypress domes
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Notes on the geology and the occurrence of some diatomaceous-earth deposits of Florida
        Page 56a
        Page 56b
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Diatoms of the Florida peat deposits
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
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        Page 76
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        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Ground-water resources of Sarasota County, Florida
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
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        Page 131
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        Page 144
        Page 145
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        Page 177
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        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota County, Florida
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
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        Page 206
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        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Index
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Table 2: Mineral analyses of ground water from Sarasota County
        Page 236
    Figure 6: Map of Sarasota County showing areas covered by Figures 11 and 12 and wells and springs not included in Figures 11 and 12
        Page 237
        Page 238
    Back Cover
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Spine
        Page 241
Full Text













UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES








FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist








TWENTY-THIRD TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT

1930 1932








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT

MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA 1930-1931

NORTHERN DISJUNCTS IN NORTHERN FLORIDA

CYPRESS DOMES

NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY AND THE OCCURRENCE OF SOME
DIATOMACEOUS EARTH DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA

DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS

GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SARASOTA COUNTY

EXPLORATION OF ARTESIAN WELLS IN SARASOTA COUNTY








Published for
The State Geological Survey
Tallahassee, 1933















6%7,z 57


1316LOGA
LIBRARY


PUBLISHED MAY 8, 1933


THE E. 0. PAl TFPI-RINTIN 1qO!PANY
~ LAI'1D. PORLIqA I *'













LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. David Sholtz, Governor of Florida:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the Twenty-third and
Twenty-fourth Annual Reports of the Florida State Geological Survey,
covering the period from July I, 1930, to June 30, 1932. Since our last
annual report, 1928-1930, the Survey has published six bulletins on
technical subjects, in limited editions, reserving the administrative report
and papers of more general economic interest for the annual report.
Combining two annual reports in one has effected economies in printing,
binding and mailing which has been very necessary. The report contains
the administrative section setting forth briefly the activities of the Survey
and an itemized list of expenditures; a paper on the Mineral Production
in Florida for 1930 and 1931; two interesting papers relating to special
vegetation features entitled Northern Disjuncts in Northern Florida
and Cypress Domes; Diatoms of the Florida Peat Deposits; Ground
Water Resources of Sarasota County and Exploration of Wells in Sara-
.sota County. It is thought that each of these reports will be of current
and particular interest.
Some difficult and potentially serious problems confront the ground
waters of Florida, especially in certain localities. In order to study these
with the exactness it was thought the subject demanded cooperative
arrangements were made with the United States Geological Survey
whereby that organization was to detail a trained personnel to assist in
working out most carefully the questions involved. Some preliminary
investigations have been made in different sections of peninsular Florida,
but principal consideration has been given an area bordering the Gulf
coast in southwestern Florida. The paper herewith relates to Sarasota
County and it is a distinct contribution to an understanding of the
occurrence of ground waters in that part of the State. It is hoped that
the work may be continued so that other sections can be treated similarly,
and finally it is planned to publish a comprehensive report covering the
entire State.
Special mention should be made of the report on the Diatoms of the
Florida Peat Deposits, by Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Acad-
emy of Sciences, San Francisco. This comes as a. generous contribution
.from Dr. Hanna, with no expense to the Florida Survey other than that
of preparation of illustrations and of publication. Our indebtedness to
Dr. Hanna is herewith acknowledged.
70/35-










The Survey has made progress even in the face of reduced finances.
The mineral resources and industries dependent thereon are a very
definite factor in the economic life of Florida and the Survey is assisting
in every possible way their continued development.
Very respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida,
March 3, 1933.














CONTENTS

PAGE
Administrative Report, by Herman Gunter ....................................................... 7
Twenty-five years of service ............ ......................... 7
Act establishing the Survey ................................................. 7
Past appropriations ...................................................... 9
Current appropriation ...................... .................................................................. 9
E expenditures ........................................................ ............................... ................... 10
List of warrants issued from July 1, 1930, to June) 30, 1932 ......................... 10
Publications of the Survey ....... ............................................ .................... 20
W ork of the Survey ........................................................ .............................................. 24
P personnel .............................................................. .............................. ..................... 24
R outine w ork ......................................... ............... ..................... 24
Examination of samples ............................................ ............. ............... 24
Stratigraphic w ork ........ .... .. ............................... .................... ................ 25
C lay testing ............................................................ .................................... .............. 26
E educational w ork ........................................ ............................. .... .......... ...... 26
O offices and M museum .............................. .............................................. ...................... 27
A ccessions ............................. ... -.-. -..- ................................... ....................................... 28
L library ...................................... ..... ........ ......... ........ ...... .... ......... ........................ 30
Cooperation with other organizations .......................................................... 30
R ecom m endations ..................................................... ............................... ................. 31
Mineral Production in Florida in 1930 and 1931, by Herman Gunter ................. 35
P hosph ate ...................... ........... ....................................... ............ ................ 35
D descriptions of the deposits ................................... ............................................ 37
Land pebble phosphate ................ ......... ............................................... 37
Hard rock phosphate ...... ............................. ........................... 38
Soft rock phosphate .................. .................................. 38
Limestone, lime, flint and cement ................. ............................ 39
Fuller's earth ....... ............................... ............................................................. 42
Clays other than fuller's earth ................. ........................................ 44
Sand arid gravel ............................. ..--...-....-... ........................... 45
Sand-lime brick ....................................................--- ...... ....................................... 46
P eat ................................................ .................................................................... 47 -
D iatom ite ........................... ...... ......................................................................... 47
M ineral w aters ....................................................... ............................. .................. 47
M miscellaneous statistics ............................................................... .... ................. 48
S um m ary ....................................................................................................................... 48
Northern Disjuncts in Northern Florida, by Herman Kurz ................................... 49
Cypress Domes, by Herman Kurz (Figures 1-2) ..................................... 54
Notes on the Geology and the Occurrence of Some Diatoma-Earth Deposits
of Florida, by Herman Gunter and Gerald M. Ponton (Figures 3-5) ......... 57
Diatoms of .the Florida Peati Deposits, by G. Dallas Hanna (Plates 1-11) ........ 66
Ground-water Resources of Sarasota County, Florida, by V. T. Stringfield
(F figures 5-23) ....................................................................................... ..................... 121
Exploration of Artesian Wells in Sarasota County, Florida, by V. T. String-
field ............... ............................. .... ........... ................. .......... .... ...................... 19 5













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist


TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SERVICE

With the passing of June 3, 1932, the State Geological Survey has
functioned as a State institution uninterruptedly for twenty-five years,
having been authorized by the Legislative Assembly of 1907. Governor
N. B. Broward approved the Act on June 3, 1907, and appointed Dr.
E. H. Sellards as State Geologist June 19, 1907. For nearly twelve
years Dr. Sellards served as State Geologist, resigning April 18, 1919,
and Mr. Herman Gunter, who had been connected with the Survey since
August 15, 1907, was appointed as his successor. In the quarter century
that has passed since its establishment, the Geological Survey has made
unostentatious but steady progress, its field of endeavor has widened,
its influence and usefulness has increased and through its outstanding
characteristic-that of primarily being a field service or bureau of in-
formation on the nature and structure of the rock formations of Florida-
it has kept young and active. Through the years that have intervened
the various members of the Survey have traversed practically every sec-
tion of Florida and have learned through intimate contact the State that
the organization serves. Many changes have, however, come to pass
during this period of time, but the Survey itself is still operating under the
original establishing Act, which is Chapter 5681, page 188, of the Laws
of the State of Florida, adopted by the Legislature of Florida at its
Regular Session, 1907, and reads as follows:

An Act establishing a Geological Survey for the State of Florida, to provide
for the appointment of a State Geologist, to define his duties, and to provide for
the maintenance of the Survey.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. That the Governor of the State shall appoint a suitable person to
conduct a geological survey of the State; such person shall be known as the State
Geologist, and shall have his office at the Capitol.
Section 2. The State Geologist shall appoint subject to the approval of the
Governor such assistance as he may find necessary to enable him to successfully,
and with reasonable dispatch, accomplish the object of the Survey, and such
assistance shall be entirely under the control of the State Geologist.
Section 3. The State Geologist shall make to the Governor annually a report
of the progress of his surveys and explorations of the minerals, water supply and
7










8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

other natural resources of the State, and he shall include in such report full
description of such surveys and explorations, occurrence and location of mineral
and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water supply and power and
mineral waters, and the best and most economical methods of development, together
with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral waters, with maps, charts and drawings
of the same; and it shall be the duty of the State Geologist and his assistants,
when they discover any mineral deposits, or other substance of value, to notify the
owner of the land upon which such deposits occur. Failure of said Geologist to
notify the owner of such deposit before disclosing to any other person or persons,
shall subject said Geologist to a fine of one thousand dollars, and six months
imprisonment.
Section 4. It shall be the duty of the State Geologist to make collections of
specimens illustrating the geological and mineral features of the State; one suit of
which shall be deposited in the office of the State Geologist, at Tallahassee, and
duplicate suits in the libraries of each of the State colleges; each suit to be
correctly labeled for convenient use and study.
Section 5. That for the purpose of expeditiously and thoroughly carrying out
the provisions of this Act, there shall be appropriated, out of any moneys in the
Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of seven thousand five hundred dollars
per annum. The Comptroller shall upon the requisition of the State Geologist, when
approved by the Governor draw his warrant on the Treasurer for the amount so
appropriated in such sums as may be needed from time to time for the purpose of
said Survey as herein set forth; and for all such expenditures made under the
provisions of this Act, except f6r the payment of the salary of the State Geologist,
as herein provided, the consent and approval of the Governor shall be obtained,
and the vouchers for all such expenditures made from this fund shall be filed
with the Comptroller; and a statement of his receipts and expenditures shall be
printed in such annual report of the State Geologist. Of the amount annually
appropriated, there shall be expended: First for the salary of the State Geologist,
two thousand five hundred dollars per annum, which salary is hereby fixed at
that sum: Second, for the contingent expenses of the Survey, including compensation
of all temporary and permanent assistance; traveling expenses of the geological
corps; purchase of materials or other necessary expenses for outfit; expenses
incurred in providing for the transportation,. arrangement and proper exhibition
of the geological and other collections made under the provisions of this Act; for
postage, stationery and printing, and the printing and engraving of maps, and
sections to illustrate the annual reports, five thousand dollars, or so much thereof
as may be necessary.
Section 6. Ail chemical, analytical or assay work shall he performed by the
State Chemist and his assistants at the direction of the Governor upon request
of the State Geologist.
Section 7. 'All laws and parts of laws inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed.
Section 8. This Act shall take effect upon its passage and approval by the
Governor, or upon its becoming a law without such approval.
Approved June 3, 1907.








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


PAST APPROPRIATIONS

The foregoing Act has not been directly changed or amended. But
during the Legislative session of 1921 an Act was passed creating a
Budget Commission for the State of Florida. This Act made it the duty
of each of the State Departments to submit an estimate of the amount
needed each successive biennium beginning July I, 1923. This, therefore,
has affected Section 5 of the above Act, relating as it does to the salary
of the State Geologist, the maintenance appropriation and the compensa-
tion of the Assistant Geologist, since moderate increases have been
allowed by each successive Legislature until 1931, when a decided reduc-
tion became effective. The appropriation bill itemizes the various
amounts and the purposes for which used and the salaries of the State
Geologist and Assistants have been fixed by suitable legislation. The
total appropriations, including all salaries, for the maintenance of the
Survey for the bienniums from 1923 are as follows:

Total Salary Salary
Biennium Appropriation State Geologist Assistants
1923-1925 $20,690 $3,000 $2,000
1925-1927 33,400 3,300 2,200
1927-1929 47,700 4,00o 2,750
1929-1931 50,800 4,000 2,750
193 I-I1933 40,320 4,000 2,700


CURRENT APPROPRIATIONS

The following appropriations were made by the Legislature of 1931
for the biennium 1931-1933:
Annually
Salary State Geologist ................. ..... ....... ............... $4,000
Salary Assistant Geologist ................. .... .................. 2,700
Salary Assistant Geologist .......... ......................... 2,700
Temporary Assistants, Special Investigations ............................... 1,800
Stenographer ............................................................ .................................. 1,8oo
Museum and Library Clerk (part time) ............... ...................... go. 900
Laboratory Assistant ...... ...... ...................................................................... 1,200
Traveling Expenses ......................................... ............ -- ......... 3,000
Field, O office and M useum Equipment ................................................ I,ooo
Printing and Engraving ........ ......... ........................ 3,600
Postage and Stationery ........................................................................ 500
Auto Renewals ......-------------------------------------------------------.........------....----------------------...................- 500
Clay Laboratory Supplies and Operation .................................. ...... 500
Incidentals ....-----------------------------------------.....--..--------..-------------...........................--- 600
TOTAL ............... ....................... $24,800*

*Provided, that the total amount expended by this Department annually shall not
exceed $20,160.










10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


This provision makes a sum total reduction of practically 19 per cent
and was cared for by making reductions in a number of items listed, and
affecting some of the allowances for salaries. The salaries of the State
Geologist and Assistants are fixed by statute.


EXPENDITURES

The following itemized list shows all the expenditures of the Survey
from July I, 1930, to June 30, 1932. All bills and itemized expense
accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, duplicates being
retained in the office of the State Geologist. With the exception of
regular salaries, all accounts are approved by the Governor and are paid
only by warrant drawn upon the State Treasurer by the Comptroller. No
monies are handled by the State Geologist.


LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1930, TO JUNE 30, 1932
1930.
JULY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------------------- $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses -------------------------------- 65.97
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ----------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 19.07
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary -------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ----------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses ------------------------ 9.14
Dr. R. M. Harper, Services in library, salary ----------------------------- 75.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 5.40
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ----------------------------------------- 1.39
Railway Express Agency -------------------------------------------------- 14.68
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------------------------- 3.75
Adams Studio, films and plates ------------------------------------------- 3.90
Bass Hardware Company, supplies --------------------------------------- 1.65
Midyette Insurance Company, insurance on Chevrolet coupe ---------------- 19.44
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, plaster ------------------------ 1.50
J. H. C. Martens, expenses incurred investigating Florida sands ------------ 36.95
John E. Bassett and Company, picks and handles-------------------------- 11.82
Florida Clipping Service --------------------------------------------- 5.00
Electric Blue Print Company, 4 blue prints and 18 white prints ------------ 1.10
Gaylord Brothers, 5 lbs. molding clay ------------------------------------ 4.00
The Record Company, fastener and eyelets -------------------------------- 9.50
Richard F. Deckert, 400 liguus specimens ------------------------------- 75.00
Eastman Kodak Company, 8 enlargements ---------------------------- 10.75
Dixie Engraving Company, 5 plates, prehistoric fish ---------------------- 50.00
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ---------------------------------- 8.74

AUGUST.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary --------------------------------- $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses -------------------------------- 31.14
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 50.88
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 13.35
Mary. H. Carswell, Secretary, salary -------------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------------------- 3.75
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------------------------ 8.47
Western Union Telegraph Company -------------------------------------- 1.47
Leon Electrical Supply Company, wire ------------------------------------ 2.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, repair X1427 Chevrolet coupe ------------------ 9.90
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., base for Manatee ---------------------- 13.22
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln --------------------------------- 13.68
-Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ---------------------------------- 5.55
Charles Williams Hardware, pipe and couplings ----------------..---------- 1.80
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ---------------------------------------- 7.00
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies --------------------- 1.70











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies ----------------------------------------- 20.33
W. A. DeMilly and Sons, insurance on Chevrolet coupe X-1427 ----------- 19.44
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ----------------------- ------ 45.00
Florida Clipping Service ------------------------------------------------- 5.00
Mrs. E. Burckmyer, making drawing, plate 7, Marianna paper --------- 5.00
Adams Studio, eight 5x7 panchromatic films ---------------- -------- 1.00
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames ------------------------ 15.50
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil ------------------------------------- 4.62

SEPTEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ----------------------$ 333.34
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary- ------------------ 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses -- ------------- 21.75
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 17.99
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------------------ 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary --------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses ------------- ---------- 5.60
Dr. R. M. Harper, services during August and September ---- ------- 175.00
Western Union Telegraph Company -------------------------------------- 1.77
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ----------------------------- 50.00
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ----------- -------- --- --- 16.60
Artcraft Printers, 1,000 mimeograph paper ------------------ ---------- 2.00
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------ --------- 17.32
Southern Telephone and Construction Company --------------------- 3.75
Adams Studio, films and developing --------------------------1---------- 18.24
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 7.40
Tallahassee Variety Works, 3 sections of shelves -------------------- 51.50
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company -------------------------------------- .97
T. R. Minton and Son, 1 pair grappling tongs and pan handle ------------ 15.75
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies -------------------------------------------- 6.12
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies ---------------------------- 6.80
Victor T. Stringfield, tire and tube ------------------------------------ 11.60
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Company, 3 copper halftones, 4 line engravings _- 43.50
Knight and Wall Company, 4-inch auger --------------------------------.. 2.96
Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills, 2,000 bags --------------------------------- 40.22
American Association for the Advancement of Science, dues 1930 ------..--.... 5.00
C. A. Mosler, 22 Oxystyla specimens ------------------------------------ 5.50
Florida Audubon Society, dues 1930 ------------------------------------- 1.00
Florida Clipping Service -------------------------------------------------- 5.00
Henry George Fiedler, 1 copy Warren's Mastodon Giganteus of North
America .. .....------------------------------------------------------ 4.00
Good Luck Service Station, oil and gas ----------------------------------- 7.73
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage ----------------------------------- 1.03

OCTOBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ------------------------------ $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ---------------------------- 21.68
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ----------------- 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 35.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses -------------------------- 3.52
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------- 75.00
Dr. R. M. Harper, special services -------------------------------------- 150.00
S. E. Gray, 11 days special work on cabinets ---------------------------- 44.00
Standard Oil Company, oil and gas ---------------------------------- 4.72
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------------------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 9.80
McNellls', 2 batteries and 1 can oil ------------------------------------ -- 26.20
T. R. Minton and Son, 1 camper's grate, repair tongs ---------------------- 5.50
Humpty-Dumpty, Inc., groceries for camp at Wakulla Spring -------------- 22.79
Pichard Brothers, lumber and nails -------------------------------------- 20.67
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ---------------------------------------- 13.65
Good Luck Service Station, oil and gas ---------------------------------- 6.31
Alford Chevrolet Company, 4 tires, grind valves, etc. ----------------- 57.97
W. C. Dixon, hauling raft to Wakulla Springs --------------------------- 8.00
Charles Williams Hardware, bolts, pipe and nails ------------------------- 15.19
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------------------------ 4.54
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ------------------------------------- --- 1.39
Triangle Lumber Company, lumber ---------------------------------- ---- 7.85
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, paint and brush ----------- 1.25
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies ------------------------------------------ 3.32
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies ---------------------------- 6.65
Tallahassee Variety Works, partition and glass -------------------------- 126.85
Florida Clipping Service -------------------------------------------------- 5.00
Florida State Historical Society, Colonial Records of Spanish Florida .------ 15.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies -------------------------------------- 17.08
Fisher Scientific Company, rubber aprons and stearin -------------------- 2.43
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil -------------------------------------- 24.61











12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


NOVEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary --------------------------------- $ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ------ ------------ -------- 6.54
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary -- ------------------------- 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ----------- ---- --------- 20.13
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ----------------------------229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary--- ----------------- --- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ---------------------- ------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------- -- ------ 75.00
Dr. R. M. Harper, special services ------------------------------------- 37.50
S. E. Gray, services at Wakulla Spring --------- ----------------- 39.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -- ------------ -- 4.05
Railway Express Agency ---------------------------------------------- 25.17
Seabrook Hardware Company, supplies ----------------------------- ---- 2.54
Pichard Brothers, supplies -------------------------------------- ---- 29.37
Alford Chevrolet Company, repair to 2 coupes ------------------------ 19.87
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, roll paper ----- ---------------- 3.75
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, shellac and molding plaster ---- 5.25
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies -------------- ------------------------- 3.80
McNeill's, 2 hot shot batteries ------------------------------ -----2.50
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ---------------------------- 10.96
Bass Hardware Company, supplies --------------------------------------- 17.75
G. Dallas Hanna, preparation of slides and photographs of Florida diatomite 150.00
Carl Sorensen, restoring mastodon bones and jaw of Serridentinus floridanus 35.00
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, cement ------------------- 4.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ------------------------------- --- 5.00
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil --------------------------- 9.78
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies ---- --------- ---- --- -------- 3.35
H. & W. B. Drew Company, 3 sections book cases ---------- ------------- 24.00

DECEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ------------------------------ $ 33;3 33
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------- -------------- 16.95
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------- 229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ----------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ------------------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses --------------------- 10.71
W. L. Lovingood, lettering office doors and curbing sign --------------- 30.25
W. L. McLin, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, 1931 X tag -------------------- 1,00
Southern Telephone and Construction Co. --------- ----------------- 3.75
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ---------------------------------------- 2.16
Railway Express Agency --------- --------------------------------- 1.26
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ---------------------------------------- 3.73
Arteraft Printers, 1,500 labels and 1,000 shipping tags ----- -------- 12.50
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln --------- ----- ---------- 1.00
Hill City Machine Company, tongs and welding rods ------------------------ 9.00
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies ------------------------------ 9.00
Humpty-Dumpty, groceries for camping trip -------------------------- 11.93
Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies ---------------- ----------------- 7.95
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies ------------------ -------------------- 5.89
Florida Engineering Society, dues for 1931 ---------------------------- 3.00
U. S. Geological Survey, surface water cooperation ---------- --------- 188.68
U. S. Geological Survey, ground water cooperation ------------------- 1579.96
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Company, 13 halftones ----------------- -- 54.14
Tampa Photo Engraving Company, 5 zinc etchings ------------------------ 17.00
Eastman Kodak Company, enlargements and prints ------- -------------- 9.94
Marshall and Spencer Company, 2 sacks molding plaster --------------- 3.00
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, dues 1931 ------------------ 15.00
Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, subscription to Volume
No. 2 ------------ ------- ---------- 3.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ------------------------------------- 5.00
Good Luck Service Station, gas -- ----------------------- 2.53
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ------------ -------------------- 1.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent ----------------------------------- 2.00
Chas. J. Lang, making casts Warren mastodon hind and front feet .---- 30.00

1931.
JANUARY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------------------- $ 333.33
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, 'salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------- -----------------229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------ ------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary --------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary --------------------------- 75.00
R. M. Harper, special services -------------------- --------------- ---------75.00
McKesson-Groover-Stewart Drug Company, supplies ---------------------- 7.53
Adams Studio, films and developing -------------------------------------- 4.15
Alford Chevrolet Company, repairs Chevrolet coupe, X-1426 ------------- 6.82
Standard Oil Company, oil and gas ------------------------------------- 31.44











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 13


Record Company, printing Bulletin No. 5 ------------------------------ 452.50
Southern Telephone and Construction Company --------------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 1.00
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------------------------ 15.33
Hill City Machine Company, welding vise ------------------ ----------- 1.75
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ---------------------------------------- 1.54
Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies ----------------- -------------- 1.90
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage --------------------------------- 1.75
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., museum cases -------------------- 324.05
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies --- ------------------------------- 3.15
Artcraft Printers, 1,000 card labels ------------------------ --- ---------- 4.00
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies ----------- --- -------- 3.45
J. 0. Perkins Company, Inc., 7 book case units and supplies ---------------- 58.35
Alford Chevrolet Company, repair Chevrolet coupe X-1339 -------------- 3.09
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps -------------------------------------- 59.00
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, 30 feet suction hose --------- 52.90
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1 year's subscription ------------- 4.00
Economic Geology Publishing Company, 1 year's subscription -------------- 5.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ------------------ ----------------- 5.00
American Box and File Company, 100 pamphlet cases ---------------------- 23.03
Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, subscription to Journal
of Paleontology ---------------------------------------------------- 6.00
Alva Bushnell Company, 100 File pockets ---------------------------------- 17.50
James L. Clark Studios, Inc., "Taxidermy & Museum Exhibition" -------- 7.58
American Water Works Association, dues for 1931 --------------- 10.00
Marshall and Spencer Company, 2 sacks of molding plaster -------- 3.00
American Philosophical Society, part 1 of volume 23 ------------ 3.00
Miller-Bryant-Pierce Company, carbon paper ------------------- 3.00
Edward B. Mathews, Treas., Geological Society of America, dues 1931 ------ 10.00
E. Leitz, Inc., 6 lamp bulbs for Mignon lamp ------------- ------------ 4.07
Adams Studio, frame and pictures -------------- ------------------- 6.20
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil ----------------------------------- 3.20

FEBRUARY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary -------------------- ----------- $ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ------------------------------- 66.98
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary --------- ------------- --------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary --------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---- ------------------ 75.00
R. M. Harper, special services ---------------------------------------- 150.00
Frank Leverett, special services ---------- ---- -- ---------- 100.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ------- ------------ 3.75
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ------------------ -- --- ------------ 2.04
Railway Express Agency -------------------------------------------------- 4.90
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies -------------- ------ 9.15
Charles Williams Hardware, museum supplies ---------- ----------- 3.30
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, one fare and Pullman to Washington
and scrip book ----------------- -- -------- --------------- 67.04
W. H. May, Postmaster, 1,000 No. 5 envelopes ---------------------------- 43.92
Collins Furniture Company, linoleum 5.------------------------------------- 83
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------- ---------- 1.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, door glass, wash, grease and adjust --- -- 9.05
J. W. Swain, tanning wildcat hide ------------ -------------------- 5.00
Van Brunt & Yon, lard cans ---------------------- ----- --------------- 2.70
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ----------- ------------------------ 11.70
Rhodes Hardware Company, museum supplies ---------------------------- 2.55
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ----------------- ------------------ 4.83
J. G. Christopher Company, screw plate -- ------------------------------- 10.57
The Orange Press, Inc., zinc etchings -------------------------- 35.00
Southern Art Engraving Company, 6 copper halftones, 2 zinc etchings ------ 46.27
American Box and File Company, 1,000 open top boxes -------- --------- 27.94
Florida Clipping Service, clippings -- --------------------------------- 5.00
Elizabeth E. Burckmyer, 61 pencil drawings, 2 plates ink drawings --------. 123.50
James H. C. Martens, examination of well cores ---------- --------- 10.00
F. S. Reed and J. L. Mergner, 5 thin sections ---------------------- 3.75
McKesson-Groover-Stewart Drug Company, carbon tetrachloride and peroxide 16.77
Chief Disbursing Clerk, U. S. Geological Survey, stream gaging period ending
1 /31 /31 --------------------------------------------------------------134.60
Gaylord Brothers, 4 lbs. clay wax ---------------------------------------- 3.25

MARCH.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary --------------------------------$ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ---------------------------- 86.43
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary -- ------------------- 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------------- 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------- 117.72
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary --------------------------------- ----150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------------------- 75.00
R. M. Harper, special services -------------------------------------------- 150.00











14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


U. S. Geological Survey, Underground water cooperation for period ending
1 /31 /31 ------------------------ --------------- ---- 244.49
Gulf Refining Company, gas and oil -------------- ------------ 3.87
L. B. Marshall, copying mineral statistics -------------- ------ 4.44
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil ---------- --------------- 2.31
Southern Telephone and Construction Company --- --------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------- ------------- 1.00
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company -------------- --------- 4.83
Railway Express Agency 3-------------------------- ----- 3.47
Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies -------------------------------- 3.50
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies --------------- --- -------- 4.65
Bass Hardware Company, supplies --------------------- 2.20
Van Brunt and Yon, supplies ------------ ------------ ---------------- 3.45
Wilson Construction Company, molding plaster --------------- 1.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., paper --------------------------- -- -------------- 1.90
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies ------ -------- 4.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies -------- -------------------- 9.75
Alford Chevrolet Company, repair to coupes ------------------ ---------- 16.90
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ---------------------------------- 11.31
N. A. Miller, repair to X-1339, Chevrolet coupe ----------------------------- 38.35
Florida Clipping Service, clippings --------------- ---------------- 5.00
The Record Company, letter heads (5,000) ---------------------------- 35.00
McKesson-Groover-Stewart Drug Company, supplies---- 6------- --------- 6.11
James L. Clark Studios, tanning deer skin -------------------- ---------- 20.00
George L. Branner, Journal of Association of American State Geologists --- 10.00
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 6 charts ------------------------------ 2.25
U. S. Geological Survey, gaging streams --------------- ------------- 114.11
Hill City Machine Company, peat drill and labor ------------------------- 52.95
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil ----------- ------------- ----------- 5.83
Gulf Refining Company (Atlanta office), gas and oil ------------ 4.05
Gulf Refining Company (New Orleans office), gas and oil --------- 14.93
Frank Shaw, 1 mounted gray fox -------------------------------- 7.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ---------------------------------------- 18.50

APRIL.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ------------------------------- $ 333.33
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ------- ------- ----- 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ---------------- ---------- 56.01
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ------------- ---- ------- 229.16
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ----------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary -------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------------------- 75.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------------- 1.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------- ------ 3.75
Railway Express Agency --------------------------- --- ---------------- 3.49
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ------------------- ---- 1.46
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ------ ------------- -- ------------- 3.50
Van Brunt and Yon, supplies --------------------------- -------------- 1.50
Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies ---------------- ------ 14.25
Haynes & Ratliff, office supplies ---- ---------- ------------------------ 17.55
Artcraft Printers, 500 copies Press Bull. No. 13 and notices --------- 49.75
Hill City Machine Company, welding and fittings --------------- 10.11
States-One-Stop-Service Station, one 4:50x20 tube -------------- 1.62
Southern Art Engraving Company, 1 zinc etching block ------------- 1.93
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., towels, -cards and binders -------------------------- 20.4
The Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., cards and ink ------- 2.75
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., lumber -------------------- ------------ 69.57
Adams Studio, films and prints -------- ------------ ---- ----------- 10.65
Charles Williams Hardware, museum supplies ---------------------------- 29.48
Scientific American Publishing Company, subscription to Scientific American 4.00
S. S. White Dental Mfg. Company, 1 lb. wax --------------------------- 4.60
The Florida Historical Society, annual dues ------------------------ ----- 2.00
The Record Company, second sheets ----------------- --------------- 4.90
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ----- ------------------- --------- 5.00
Gulf Refining Company, oil and gas ---------- -------------------- 7.03
E. Leitz, Inc., 1 low voltage lamp, 1 transformer ------ 36.24
Standard Oil Company, oil and gas -- ------------ .......------------------------ 28.12
Stanford University Press, "Examination of Fragmental Rocks" ----------- 5.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperative work gaging streams -------- 181.92
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperative work underground water investigations 560.47

MAY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ----------------------------------$ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ---------------- ---------- 30.52
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ------ ------ ------ 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------- 43.01
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------------------...... 229.15
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary -------- ---------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------- -------- 76.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary -------------- -- ---- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------- ---------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln --------- ------ --- 1.00











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 15


Wilson Construction & Supply Company, 2 sacks molding plaster ---------- 3.00
Hill City Machine Company, materials, welding and labor ---------------- 93.25
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ----------------- -------- 1.29
Rhodes Hardware Company, museum materials ---------------------- 6.17
Bass Hardware Company, museum supplies ----------------------------- -1.15
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies ------------------------------------ 18.83
Bush Plumbing and Heating Corporation, lead ------------------ 2.75
Adams Studio, films and prints -------------------------- 7.25
Tallahassee Variety Works, material and labor ---------------- 16.50
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ---------------------------------------- 65.00
J. F. Holloway, 7 prints showing work at Wakulla Springs --------- 7.00
University of Chicago Press, subscription to Journal of Geology ---------- 5.40
Scientific American Publishing Company, subscription to Scientific American 4.00
U. S. Geological Survey, photographic work and retouching Choctawhatchee
pelecypods -------------------------------------------------------- 159.52
Edward Heron-Allen, Malay Archipelago 1898-1904; The Foraminifera 1902;
Recent British Forams 1858 ------------------------ 24.35
Sears, Roebuck and Company, swivel base vise --------------------- 9.00
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil -------------------------------------- 17.34
W. H. May, Postmaster, envelopes and stamps ------------------ 62.74
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperative work gaging streams----------- 236.23
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil 3.86

JUNE.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ------------------------------ $ 333.33
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ------------------ 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------ 4.81
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary----------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary- ------------------ 75.00
Railway Express Agency -------------------------------------------------- 50.40
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ---------------------------------- 1.00
Fisher Scientific Company, sieve and spatulas ------------------ 6.45
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, cement ------------------------------ 8.00
Scott Reynolds, tracing map Pensacola shore-line -------------- 12.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, tank cap and labor ---------------------------- 1.65
James L. Clark Studio, Inc., mounting deer -------------------------------- 305.00
Leupold Volpel & Company, 5 water recorders --------------------------- 688.50
The Record Company, 1,000 Bull. No. 6, 1,000 Bull. No. 7 ---------------- 596.90
Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills, 1,002 printed bags ---------------- 31.81
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, 3 sacks plaster ---------- 4.50
Chas. J. Lang, casting foot and caudals ---------- 29.00
S. B. Hubbard Company, 11 lbs. channel iron ---------------------------- 2.00
The Macmillan Company, Studies on Structure and Development of Verte-
brates ---------------------------------------------------------- 10.00
National Research Council, Bulletin No. 80 ---------------------------- 5.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent --------------------------- 202.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., maps and cards ----------------------------------- 17.10
Alford Chevrolet Company, 2 autos (2 trade in) -------------------------- 812.00
Frank Shaw, 1 electric drill (Black & Decker) -------------------------- 25.00
Leon Electric Company, fan and fixing sockets ---------------------------- 41.15
Consolidated Automotive Company, welding rods ------------------------ 1.67
Rhodes Hardware Company, museum supplies ------------------------------ 6.13
Seabrook Hardware Company, museum supplies ---------------------------- 3.30
Bass Hardware Company, supplies --------- -------------------- 2.45
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------------------- 3.75
Hill City Machine Company, welding and making iron supports ------------ 9.00
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies --------------------------------- 15.38
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., lumber and labor ------------------------ 9.50
Southern Art Engraving Company, 17 copper halftones and retouching --- 157.28
Southern Art Engraving Company, 5 zinc etchings and plate for map --. 55.27
Tallahassee, Office Supply Company, supplies ---------------------------- 6.95
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ---------------------------------- 4.20
Florida Clipping Service, clippings --------------------------------------- 6.00
James L. Clark Studios, Inc., re-mounting deer skeleton --------------- 35.00
Arteraft Printers, envelopes, cards and statements ---------------------- 64.50
Capital City Publishing Company, printing 21st and 22nd annual reports -- 749.60
The Record Comapny, binding books ------------------------------------ 140.00
Walter McLin, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, 2 title certificates and 2 tags -- 3.00
Adams Studio, films and prints ----------------------------------------- 7.05
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Journal 9 parts- -------- 27.00
Biological Society of Washington, Rules of Zoological Nomenclature ---- 1.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation underground water investigations ---. 1115.08
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation gaging streams ---------------------- 144.46

[ULY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary -------------------------------$ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ------------------------------ 13.86
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ----------------------------- 225.00
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------ 7.70
Frank Westendick. Assistant Geologist. salary -------------------------- 225.00








16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary -------------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary -------------------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------------------- 3.75
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------------- --- 16.89
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------- 1.00
Seabrook Hardware Company, supplies -- ------------------------------- 2.70
Charles Williams Hardware, vaseline ---------------------- 2.50
Midyette Insurance Agency, insurance on coupe X-3654 --------------------- 24.66
W. A. DeMilly & Son, insurance on Sedan Delivery X-3653 ------------ 32.20
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies ---------------------------------- 4.56
Florida Clipping Service, clippings --------- -------------------------- 5.00
McKesson-Groover-Stewart Drug Company, 2 cans carbon tetrachlorida -- 3.92
Standard Oil Company, oil and gas ------------------------------------ 2.83
Samuel E. Cassino, 1 Naturalists' Directory ------------------------------ 2.25
T. S. Kennedy, 2 days use of boat ------------------------------- 6.00
Fisher Scientific Company, 7 gross micro slides -------------------------- 9.47
Southern Art Engraving Company, zinc etching ---------- ---------- 3.33
Henry George Fiedler, American Naturalist, Vol. 27, 1893 --------------- 1.14
Florida Audubon Society, 1 years dues ---------------- --------- 1.00
Penn and Ruedrich, 4 ounces Hyrax --------------------------------- 5.00
Micropaleontology Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 3, 4 and 5 --------- ------------ 1.80
Science Press, American Naturalist, May-June, 1931 ----------------------- 1.00

AUGUST.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------------------- $ 3i3.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ----------- ------------------ 35.20
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------------------- 225.00
Gerald M. Ponton, Aissistant Geologist, expenses ------ --------------- 39.25
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses --------------------- 11.80
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------- ------------ 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary --------------------------------- 75.0'
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ----------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses --------- --------- 8.68
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ----- ---------------------- 1.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------------------------- 3.75
Railway Express Agency --- -- --------------------- 27.37
Bush Plumbing and Heating Corporation, unstopping pipe line ------------- 6.00
Dixon's Transfer, hauling pump from Wakulla Springs --------------------- 9.00
Artcraft Printers, 3,000 errata sheets -------------------------------- 5.50
Florida Ribbonew Sales Company, 1 ribbon renewer ---------------------- 3.00
The Record Company, 1,000 micro slides --------------------------------- 50.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings -------------- ------ ------------ .0G
Good Luck Service Station, oil and gas ------------------------------------ 2.63
R. M. Harper, reading proofs and indexing report ---- ---- ------------ 75.00
Hill City Machine Company, heating and shaping braces ----------------- 5.2V
Postal Telepgraph-Cable Company ---------------------------------------- 2.5f,
Alford Chevrolet Company, repairs to Sedan Delivery ------------------ 12.9r
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil -------------------------------------- 11.47
Gulf Refining Company, gas and oil ---------------- -- --------- ----- 6.4
James L. Clark Studios, packing complete deer ---------------------------- 15.00

SEPTEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ------------- ------------ $ 333.3~
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------- ----------------- 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------ --------------- ------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary -------------------------------- 75.0'
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ------------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company-- ----------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------- --- 1.0'
Railway Express Agency --------------------------------------- 2.35
Bush Plumbing and Heating Corporation, installing sandtrap -------------- 42.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies ----------------------------------------------- 1.3
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies ------------------- --- 6.2)
Hunter Press, 1,000 lists of reports --- ---------------------------------------- 22.50
Alford Chevrolet Company, grease and change oil ------------------------- 2.75
Standard Oil Company, gas ---------------------------- 1.51
American Association for Advancement of Science, dues --------- 5.00
Chas. Scribner's Sons, Stoddard: "Bob-White Quail" -------5.-------------- 20
Fisher Scientific Company, clay laboratory supplies ------------- 7.03
Florida Clipping Service, clippings 5-------------------------------------- .00
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent ------------------------- 2.00

OCTOBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ----------------------------------- 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ---------------- --- -------- 3.75
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------------- --- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 225.0
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ----------------------------------- 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary ------------------------------------ 75.00









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary -------------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ------------------------ 3.75
Railway Express Agency ----------------------------------------- 8.97
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------------- 1.00
H. H. Bohler, lettering Chevrolet coupe -------------------------------- 29.44
W. L. Marshall, fixing three chairs ------------------------------------- 6.00
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies ------------------------ 3.00
Chas. A. Mosier, 100 Liguus and Oxystyla specimens -------------------- 25.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ---------------------------------------- 5.00
Rock Products, 1 years subscription ----------------------------------- 2.00
The Macmillan Company, "Reefs and Atolls" ---------------------------- 4.25
The Chemical Catalog Company, Inc., "Earth" -------------------------- 4.00
Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, "Journal of Sedi-
mentary Petrology" ----------------------------------------------- 3.00
Adams Studio, films and prints ---------------------------------------- 5.75
L. B. Marshall, copying statistics mineral resources ---------------------- 4.31
Good Luck Service Station, gas ---------------------------------------- 2.20
Science Service, Science News Letter ------------------------------------- 3.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation underground water investigations --- 833.12

NOVEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary------------------- $ 333.33
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary -------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ----------------------- 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary --------------------------- 150.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------ 17.65
Railway Express Agency ----------------------------------------------- 10.07
Adams Studio, films and prints ----- ------------------------ 1.80
H. R. Kaufman, cleaning and overhauling portable typewriter -------------- 3.50
American Box and File Company, 200 file cases ------------------------ 47.00
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Lahee: "Field Geology" --- ----------- 5.00
Manufacturers Record, 18 months' subscription -------------------------- 5.00
Tallahassee, Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies ---------------------- 8.72
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage --------------------------------- 3.22
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2,000 No. 5 envelopes ---------------------------- 43.92
Good Luck Service Station, gas ------------------------------------------ 8.12
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ------------------------------------- 5.00
States-One-Stop-Service, Inc., vulcanizing tire ---------------------------- 2.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., shelves --------------------------------- 40.00
Seabrook Hardware Company, supplies --------------------------------- 1.25

DECEMBER.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------------------$ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses -------------------------------- 39.81
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ------------------------------ 225.00
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------ 15.73
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------------------- 150.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary --------------------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses -------------------------- 2.20
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------------------------- 3.75
Railway Express Agency ----------------------------------- ------ 5.84
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln --------------------------- 3.20
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ---------------------------- 33.00
Burdine's Drug Store, acetic and oxalic acid ------------------------- 1.85
Walter McLin, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, 1932 auto tags ------------- 18.00
Adams Studio, films and prints -------------------------------------- 3.20
Charles Williams Hardware, scoop and file handles ----------------------- 2.00
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ------------------------------------- 4.55
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage -------------------------------- 1.94
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ------------------------------------- 5.00
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, dues 1932 ---------------- 15.00
Florida Engineering Society, dues 1932 ------------------------------- 3.00
Society of Economic Paleontologists, Journal of Paleontology ------------- 6.00
Cushman Laboratory for Forminiferal Research, Vol. 8, parts 1 to 4 ------ 2.50
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1 year's subscription ----------------- 3.00
Jos. A. Cushman, 125 drawings of foraminifera -------------------------- 187.50
The Macmillan Company, Ditmar: "Snakes of the World" --------------- 4.64
Hardy Harden, black bear specimen ------------------------------------ -- 25.00

1932.
JANUARY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary --------------------------------$ 333.33
Herman Gxmter, State Geologist, expenses ------------------------------ 7.07
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 225.00
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------- 10.23
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---.........-----------------------225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ---------------------- 23.55
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ......-------------------------------------- 150.00


2-Geol.









18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ------------------------- 75.00
Baird Hardware Company, OA-55 Johnson Motor -------------------------- 114.20
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ------------------ -------- 6.07
Micropaleontology Bulletin, Vol. 3 ---------------------------------------- 3.00
Florida Historical Society, Whitaker, Commercial Policy No. 171 ------------ 14.50
Edward B. Mathews, Geological Society of America dues ---------------- 10.00
American Water Works Association, dues --------------------------- 10.00
Gulf Refining Company, oil and gas --------------------------------- 10.06
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------------------- 3.75
Railway Express Agency ---------------------------- --- 16.84
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------------ 36.04
Adams Studio, films and prints -------------------------------------- 3.73
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ---- ---------------------- 1.40
Collins Furniture Company, mattress and cover for Sedan Delivery ---...----- 8.75
Pichard Brothers, 32 feet of 4-ply board -------------------------------- 3.20
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies --------------------------- 7.15
Alford Chevrolet Company, seat rod in Sedan Delivery and repairs on coupe 4.62
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil --------------------------------- 7.71
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil -------------------------------------- 9.51
Florida Clipping Service, clippings -------------------------------------- 5.00
McKesson-Groover-Stewart Drug Company, carbon tetrachloride ------------ 3.60
George C. Branner, Journal of Association of American State Geologists -_ 5.00
The Counting House, publications ---------------------------------------- 22.43
James H. C. Martens, work on well cores -------------------------------- 5.00
Standard Pyrometric Cone Company, 300 cones ---------------------------- 3.90
Economic Geology Publishing Company, subscription to Economic Geology 5.00
Pit and Quarry, 250 reprints of December 2, 1931, issue ---------------- 30.50
Museum of Comparative Zoology, cerions from Bahama Islands ------------ 15.00
Public Printer, Government Printing Office, 1,000 Polk County soil maps 238.70

FEBRUARY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ----------------------------- $ 333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses --------------------5--------- 50.26
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ----------------------- 42.44
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary --------------------------------- 150.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ------------------------ 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses -------------- 40.40
Southern Telephone and Construction Company --------------------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ----------------------------- 5.80
Railway Express Agency -------------------------------- 7.36
Alford Chevrolet Company, bearings and fixing front wheel ---------- 3.15
Adams Studio, films and prints ------------------------------------------ 1.05
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies 5---------------------- .42
Standard Oil Company,, oil and gas -------------------------------------- 5.61
Florida Clipping Service, clippings -------------------------------------- 5.00
The Record Company, Museum Register and alterations on Bulletin No. 7 50.80
J. A. Cushman, 170 foraminifera drawings ----------------------------- -- 255.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation underground water resources ------ 7.50
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ----------------------------------------- 1.78
Gulf Refining Company, oil and gas ------------------------------------ 23.11
Fisher Scientific Company, heater and micro slides ------------ 23.78
C. R. Aschmeier, mounting deer and bear skeleton -------------- 240.00
Good Luck Service Station, oil and gas ------------------------ --------- 6.59

MARCH.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------------------- $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses -------------------------------- 49.13
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ------------------------------ 22.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary -------------------------------------- 150.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary -------------------------- 75.0')
Southern Telephone and Construction Company -------------------------- 3.7
Railway Express Agency ------------------------------------------------ 16.2:!
T. J. Chason, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ---------------- 36.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 1.00
Good Luck Service Station, oil and gas --------------------------------- 9.1
R. A. Gray, Secretary of State, 2 copies Laws of Florida ------------------ 7.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ---------------------------------------- 5.00
Florida Historical Society, dues ---------------------------------------- 2.00
The Record Company, 1,500 micro slides --------------------------------- 60.00
Geological Publishing Company, Geologic Index ---------------------------- 10.00
Ceramics Publishing Company, subscription to Ceramic Age --------------- 2.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperative investigation of underground water re-
sources ----------------------------------------------------------202.82
American Museum of Natural History, 2 picks ---------------------------- 9.00
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ---------------------------------- 3.28
Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, Vol. 7 and Vol. 8 -..-- 9.00
E. Kary, adjusting typewriter ------------------------------------------- 1.25











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 19


Texas Gulf Coast Oil Scouts Association, Bulletin No. 1 ------------------ 3.50
Henry Geofge Fiedler, "Mound Exploration" ----------------------------- 5.50
Gulf Refining Company, gas and oil ------------------------------------ 12.18
Cincinnati Office Supply Company, Hotchkiss stapling machine and staples 8.00

APRIL.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary --------------------------------- $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses -------------------------------- 18.80
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 22 00
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ---------------------- 82.95
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ---------------------------- 215.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary -------------------------------------- 135.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary -------------------------- 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ---------------------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln ------------------------------- 2.40
Adams Studio, films and prints --------------------------------------- 7.60
Alford Chevrolet Company, repairing Sedan Delivery ---------------- 3.25
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ------------------------------- 5.13
Capital Auto Supply Company, repair Johnson motor -------------------- 3.40
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ----------- ---------------------- 5.00
C. R. Aschemeier, mounting black bear ------------------------------------ 160.00
Fisher Scientific Company, laboratory supplies ---------------------------- 19.40
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation ground water investigations ...---------- 45.04
The Counting House, American Journal of Science and Arts ---------- 6.00
Gulf Refining Company, gas and oil -------------------------------------- 10.13
Standard Oil Company, gas and oil ------------------------------------- 23.78

MAY.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary -------------------- -------- $ 333.34
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------- ------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary -----------------------------25.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------------- 7.95
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ---------------------------------- 135.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ----------------------- 75.00
Tampa Photo Engraving Company, 33 halftones -------------------------- 164.34
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ---------------------------------- 1.85
Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mines, Journal Sedimentary Pe-
trology ------------------------------------------------------------ 3.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ----------------------- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln --------------------------------- 9.40
Railway Express Agency ----------- -------------------- 16.58
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company ----------------------------------------- 1.35
Adams Studio, films and prints -------------------------------------- 1.50
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies -------------------------- 8.10
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil ----------------------------------- 6.12
Tampa Photo Engraving Company, 3 zinc etchings ---------------------- 9.81
Florida Clipping Service, clippings --------------------------------------- 5.00
Complete Service Publishing Company, Pit and Quarry, 5 years ----------- 5.00
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ries: "Elements of Engineering Geology" --------- 3.75
University of Chicago Press, Journal of Geology --------------------- 5.40
Arthur W. Harkness, Editing Bulletin No. 8 ----------------- ----------- 91.00
Carl Sorensen,, mounting 3 fossil horse feet ------------------------------ 65.00
Mrs. Mildred Clemans, drawing, retouching, mounting and lettering illustra-
tions Miocene mammals Bulletin No. 10 ---------------------------- 202.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation ground water investigations ---------- 169.71
The Record Company, 12 placards ------------------------------------- 34.00
Gulf Refining Company, gas and oil ----------------------------- 8.15
Alford Chevrolet Company, repair Sedan Delivery- -------------- 8.15
JUNE.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ---------------------- $ 333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses- ------------------ 8.70
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary --------------------------- 225.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ------------------------- 25.00
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses ------------------ 17.45
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ------------------------- 135.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary ---------- --------- 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses ----------------------- 15.80
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ------------------------ 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln -------------------------------- 49.57
E. Kary, cleaning and parts to typewriter ------------------------------- 8.50
W. A. DeMilly & Son, insurance on Sedan Delivery --------------------- 31.70
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies -------------------------------------- 3.50
Newell B. Davis, two 18x28 frames .-------------------------------------- 9.30
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil -------------------------------- 5.51
Chas. C. Thomas, "Aquatic Mammals," "Handbook of Protozoology" ------ 9.24
James H. C. Martens, examing well samples ------------------------------ 5.00
Miller-Bryant-Pierce Company, carbon paper ---------------------------- 3.00
Denver Fire Clay Company, fusion furnace complete ---------------------- 160.00
U. S. Geological Survey, cooperation ground water investigations -------- 5.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ---------------------------------------- 5.00
T. J. Chason, Postmaster, stamps, envelopes and box rent ---------------- 98.52
Gulf Refining Company, oil and gas -------------------------------------- 5.13








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

PUBLICATIONS OF THE SURVEY
The publications by which the results of the investigations of the
Geological Survey have been made available in permanent form comprise,
including this volume, twenty-four annual reports, eleven bulletins and
thirteen press bulletins which total about 6,ooo printed pages of facts
and conclusions about the varied mineral and other natural resources of
Florida. In order to make the results of certain investigations more
.promptly available to the public generally than would be the case if
printed in annual report form, the issuing of bulletins has been resumed.
This' practice is receiving cordial approval from workers in the field of
geology and paleontology and continuance is planned. The annual reports
are issued not only as a whole volume but also in the form of separates,
that is, each paper composing the whole volume may be had as a separate.
This has proven an economical practice, for frequently one may be
interested only in a single paper appearing in the whole report and when
such is the case the additional expense of sending the larger report is
avoided. All reports of the Survey, whether bulletin or annual report,
are free to the citizens of Florida, and to certain exchange libraries of
the United States and foreign countries. By placing the publications in
libraries the Survey reports serve permanently as reference books and
'thus become available to many who otherwise would not have access to
them, for the editions of each are limited, thus soon becoming exhausted
for general distribution. Requests for publications from residents of
States other than Florida should be accompanied by postage.
Following is a complete list of the publications so far issued, the
'subjects treated are indicated by the titles of the separate papers listed
under each annual report which make up the whole volume and the
explanatory matter under the several bulletins. Those annual reports
followed by an asterisk (*) are no longer available as a single whole
volume, owing to the exhaustion of supply. It may, however, be that
even though the report in whole volume form is out of print some of
the separate papers from it may be obtained. When this is the case,
such separates making up the respective annual reports as are still avail-
able are indicated by the dagger sign (t).
First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.*
This report contains: (i) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chapter on
mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-making clays,
fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making materials; (3) a bibliography of
publications on Florida geology, with a review of the more important papers pub-
lished previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey.
Second'Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one map.*
This report contains: (I) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida, with
special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic map.of Florida,








'ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


prepared in co-operation with the United States Geological Survey; (2) mineral
industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden county, with notes on similar
deposits found elsewhere in the state.
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp. 28 pls., 30 text figures.*
This report contains: (i) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply of eastern
Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one
map.
This report contains: (i) the soils and other surface residual materials of
Florida, their origin, character and the formations from which derived; (2) the
v.ater supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of phosphate
rock in Florida during I91o and 1911.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two
maps.*
This report contains: (i) origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida; (2)
list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and southern
Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912; (5) statistics on
public roads in Florida.
Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*
This report contains: (i) mineral industries and resources of Floridat; (2)
some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dunnellon and Alachua
formations; (4) geography and vegetation of northern Floridat.
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80o figures, four maps.*
This report contains: (i) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural resources
of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil survey of Bradford Countyt; (4) soil sur-
vey of Pinellas county.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pis., 14 text figures.*
This report contains: (i) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils, including
fossil human remains.
Ninth Annual Report 1917, 151 pp., 8 pis., 13 figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (i) mineral industries; (2) additional studies in the
Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla
rivers in Florida.
Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9 figures,
two maps.*
This report contains: (i) geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new species and a
note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between the Choctawhatchee
and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls
near DeLand.
Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.*
This report contains: (i) literature relating to human remains and artifacts
at Vero, Floridat; (2) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations in Florida; (4)
geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5) the age of the underlying
rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well borings; (6) review of the
geology of Florida with special reference to structural conditions.








22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figs.*
This report contains: (i) Oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of mineral
production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from deep wells; (4) geography of central
Florida.
Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp., 10 figs., one map.*
This report contains: (i) statistics on mineral production, 1919 and 1920; (2)
on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic map.
Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924,. 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (i) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1921 and 1922; (2) a contribution to the late .Tertiary and Quaternary
paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary report on the clays of
Florida.
Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1923; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Floridat.
Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (i) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1924; (2) History of Soil Investigation in Florida and Description of New
Soil Mapt; (3) Generalized Soil Map of .Florida (in colors) ; (4) Elevations in
Floridat; (5) Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Floridat.
Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927, 206 pp., 58 figs.
This report contains: (i) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
production, 1925; (2) Natural resources of southern Florida.
Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pls., 36 figs., 9 tables.
This report contains. (i) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1926; (2) Sand and gravel industry of Florida; (3) Beach deposits of
ilmenite, zircon, and rutile in Florida; (4) New species of Operculina and Disco-
cyclina from the Ocala limestone; (5) New species of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus
from Florida.
Twentieth Annual Report, 1929, 294 pp., 40 pis., 4 figs., I map.
This report contains: (I) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1927-1928; (2) Geology of Florida, with geologic map; (3) Extinct land
mammals of Florida.
Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1931, 129 pp., 39
figs.
This report contains: (I) Administrative report and statistics on mineral pro-
duction, 1929-1930; (2) Need for conservation and protection of our water supply;
(3) The Possibility of petroleum in Florida; (4) Beaches of Florida; (5) Fossil
palm nut.
Bulletin No. I. The underground water supply of central Florida,
1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.*
This bulletin contains: (i) underground water, general discussion; (2) the un-
derground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and artesian
prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disappearing
streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands and
disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables giving general
water resources, public water supplies, spring and well records.








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


Bulletin No. 2. Roads and road materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp.,
4 pls.*
This bulletin contains: (I) an account of the road building materials of
Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by the
counties of the state to the close of 191o.
Bulletin No. 3. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation of Florida, 1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.*
Bulletin No. 4. The foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee formation
of Florida, 1930, 92 pp., 12 pls.*
Bulletin No. 5. (i) A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family
(Lutianidae) from the Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) The foram-
inifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida, 1930, 67 pp., II pls., 2 figs.
Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminifera of Flor-
ida, 1931, 79 PP., 7 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola terrace and associated beaches and
bars of Florida, 1931, 44 pp., 8 figs., I map.
Bulletin No. 8. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion of Florida, 1932, 240 pp., 34 pls., 3 figs. 0
Bulletin No. 9. The foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and part of
the Lower Miocene of Florida, 1932, 147 PP., 17 pis., 2 tables, I map.
Bulletin No. io. (i) Miocene land mammals from Florida; (2) New
heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida; (3) Aphelops from the
Hawthorn formation of Florida, 1932, 58 pp., 30 figs.
Bulletin No. 11. Ground Water Investigations in Florida, 1933,
33 pp.

In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above, press
bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. i. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March 12, 1913.
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the Atlanta
Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 31,
1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914.*
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Embed-
ded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918.*
No. io. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5, 1919.
No. II. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October
6, 1919.
No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida, April -4, 1931.








24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

WORK OF THE SURVEY

Personnel.-Since the publication of the last annual report members
of the Survey, in addition to the State Geologist, have been Mr. G. M.
Ponton, Mr. Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologists; Mr. J. Clarence
Simpson, Museum and Laboratory Assistant; Mrs. Mary H. Carswell,
Secretary, and Mrs. G. M. Ponton, Record Clerk, rendering one-half
time service until November I, 1931. Temporary services were also
rendered by Dr. R. M. Harper and Dr. Frank Leverett, and the following
specialists have submitted reports covering particular subjects: Dr.
William K. Gregory, Dr. W. Storrs Cole, Dr. W. C. Mansfield, Dr.
George Gaylord Simpson, Mr. Edwin H. Colbert, Mr. Albert Elmer
Wood, Dr. Joseph A. Cushman, Dr. James H. C. Martens, Dr. G. Dallas
Hanna and Professor T. D. A. Cockerell.
Routine Work.-Some of the activities of the Department during
the two-year period covered by this report are shown by the subjects
of the papers in this volume and the titles of the several bulletins that
have been issued. Much work. of the Department is, however, of routine
character and is not of record in printed form, but is nevertheless very
important in fulfilling the purposes of the Survey. Numerous calls in
person and by mail come from citizens of the State and from people
elsewhere seeking information about the geology and the natural re-
sources of Florida, and these are shown every consideration and prompt
attention. Some of the requests require detailed answers in addition to
the sending of reports, and this necessitates the writing of many letters
each year in order to satisfactorily supply the desired information. It is
the policy of the Department not to neglect or minimize this phase of its
duties but, on the other hand, to devote its energies toward the dissemina-
tion of reliable data on the resources of the State. The increasing use
made of the Survey as a clearing-house for making information of this
character known is noted with pleasurable satisfaction.
Examination of Samples.-The Survey will gladly receive at all times
samples of rocks, clays, minerals and fossils and report upon them. It
is urged that specimens seemingly of peculiar interest be either sent to
the Survey for identification or, if this is not practical, notice of such
with description might be mailed so that a member of the Survey could
visit the locality when in that part of the State.
Florida for a number of years has attracted the attention of oil and
gas prospectors. As a consequence, test wells have been drilled in
various portions of the State, some of which have reached rather ex-
ceptional depths. Examination of cuttings from wells, whether drilled
for water or in search of oil or gas, forms an important part of the work








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


of the Survey. Specific determination of any fossils contained in well
samples, and a detailed description of the character of such samples, is
of the utmost value to those who spend large sums of money in drilling
deep tests, and this is a service the Survey has been rendering. Unfor-
tunately, the Survey has encountered some difficulty in securing the
voluntary cooperation of all of the companies putting down tests, for
Florida does not have any statewide regulatory Act making it compulsory
to file information of this nature with the State. But a number of
companies have very generously cooperated in this matter to mutual
benefit. However, the Florida Geological Survey should be designated
to receive accurate and full data, including samples and logs, of all
deep drillings, whether for water, oil or gas.
This character of work is of more importance than is probably gen-
erally realized even by those drilling water wells. An abundant supply of
water is found in wells in every section-of Florida, but the different forma-
tions encountered yield waters of different character and in certain areas
especially it is very essential to accurately know the formations penetrated
in order that those yielding highly mineralized waters might not be
drilled into, or, if entered, could be cased by. This question of adequate,
potable supplies of underground water is becoming of more and more
concern as the State develops and increasing volumes of water are needed.
Accurate records of wells may therefore be sorely needed in the future
in order to intelligently handle any critical situation that may arise in
water supply development. The Survey records of wells are far from
complete and it is hoped that voluntary cooperation of well drillers and
owners in the matter of supplying well samples and other data about
wells will continue. Well-data blanks and cloth sample sacks will be
supplied for this purpose to all those willing to assist in preserving records
of this nature.
Stratigraphic Work.-The Geological Survey is continuously en-
gaged in research and has brought to light many facts essentially im-
portant in unravelling the geology of the State and in making correlations
with formations elsewhere, with the result that such studies have markedly
contributed to the development of the natural resources of Florida. As
must be evident, some of the research work carried on does not always
result in immediate economic value, but let it not be forgotten that the
pure science of today becomes the applied science of tomorrow, and
therefore it is an unwise policy not to study in as great detail as possible
every phase of the earth.
Much of the stratigraphic work has been carried on independently,
but at different times since its establishment the Florida Geological
Survey has advantageously cooperated with the United States Geological








26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

Survey and other organizations in geologic, paleontologic and stratigraphic
studies. There are obvious advantages in such cooperation. In a small
organization it is not possible to maintain a large staff of trained special-
ists, but within the Federal Survey, operating as it has for more than half
a century, is found a technically trained personnel and through coopera-
tion with such an agency superior results are assured since the work will
be performed by experienced men. There is also the added inducement
of the Government sharing equally in the cost of such work. In the case
of cooperative agencies other than Federal the Florida Geological Survey
has been peculiarly fortunate in its relations, since a number of important
scientific contributions have come from specialists connected with some
of the best known institutions of our country, and this at the very nominal
expense of bearing the cost of preparing the illustrations and printing.
Reports of merit from recognized authorities are thus procured at a
minimum of expense. (See heading, "Cooperation with Other Organ-
izations").
Clay Testing.-Investigations into the economic possibilities of the
high grade, white-burning clays of Florida have been continued and almost
completed. A report setting forth the results is in process of preparation.
In addition to the usual physical tests made in the laboratory, the various
clays collected were introduced into a number of commercial whiteware
batches in order to ascertain what physical changes, if any, these sub-
stitutions produce and to bring the laboratory tests nearer to actual plant
practice. The report will also contain a number of complete chemical
analyses of clays from both developed and undeveloped deposits, and
these should aid in determining the cause for any unusual differences
that might develop in the above stated tests. Very great care has been
exercised in the collection of samples in the field and in the treatment
given them in the laboratory so that the results should be dependably
comparable. It is confidently felt that the report will contain data and
information that will prove of definite, practical value.
Educational Work.-Since its establishment the Survey has consist-
ently endeavored to fulfill the specific object as stated in the enactment,
to make known information regarding the minerals, water supply and
other natural resources of the State, including the occurrence and location
of minerals and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water
supply and power and mineral waters and their development, together
with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral waters, with maps, charts
and drawings illustrating their occurrence. A knowledge of the soil and
of the available water supply is very necessary to continued successful
agriculture, and the Survey's investigations along these lines are therefore
of value to all landowners. Likewise, a knowledge of the mineral deposits








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


which may lie beneath the surface is necessary to a more nearly correct
valuation of land. Adhering to the legislative policy defined in the en-
acting bill, the Geological Survey has for a quarter of a century en-
deavored to maintain high professional standards of both work and
conduct, to make progressive contribution to the advance of knowledge
within its assigned fields and to apply this to the advancement of the
mineral and related industries of Florida.
The various annual reports and bulletins of the Geological Survey are
being more and more used by the schools and colleges of the State, and
requests are frequently received from college students of other States for
such reports to be used in preparing papers on Florida. Thus it is seen
that the Survey is unostentatiously but permanently and substantially.
contributing to an understanding and development of the State's natural
resources.

OFFICES AND MUSEUM

Since December, 1927, the Survey offices and museum have been on
the ground floor, south wing, of the Martin Building. The west side is
devoted to offices, library, publications room and microscopic laboratory.
The east side, which is one large room measuring about eighteen by sixty
feet, is given over to exhibitions. The corridor between the offices and
museum has also been made use of both for exhibition and for reference
library purposes. In addition to this, the clay-testing laboratory, which
is equipped for making physical tests of clays, has one room located in
the basement. The Survey is very comfortably situated so far as office
space is concerned, but there is pressing need for storage and work
rooms.
The Survey law provides that collections of "specimens illustrating
the geological and mineral features of the State" shall be made and that
these shall be "correctly labeled for convenient use and study." These
provisions have been complied with, in so far as available space would
permit, but room has always been at a premium. At present one large
room, eighteen by sixty feet, is devoted entirely to exhibition. Specimens
of all minerals produced in Florida and numerous vertebrate and in-
vertebrate fossils of utmost scientific and educational value are on display.
One of the most spectacular of the vertebrate specimens is the almost
complete mount of the American mastodon, Mastodon americanus (Kerr),
which was recovered from Wakulla Spring during the fall of 193o and
spring of 1931. A short paper relatirrg to this fortunate recovery ap-
peared in Florida Woods and Waters, spring, 1931, published by Florida
State Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish, Tallahassee. Another
specimen of more than ordinary interest and importance is the associated








28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

skeleton of a sirenian which was found in the sandy stratum between the
upper and lower fuller's earth beds in the Powell mine of the Floridin
Company, Quincy, Gadsden County. Mention of this specimen was
made in the previous annual report of this Survey1 and more recently
a full and complete description has been given by Dr. George Gaylord
Simpson, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.2
This fossil sirenian material is entirely new, to which Dr. Simpson has
given the generic and specific name of Hesperosiren crataegensis. These
two skeletons hold the interest of the many visitors to the museum much
more so than individual or isolated bones, for from the associated skeleton
it is easier to visualize what the animal actually looked like. Many other
type specimens are found in the museum and gradually the collections
are being built up so that even now the museum is making itself felt
throughout the State.
It is most gratifying to observe the constant and regular increase
in interest and attendance at the museum, because it reflects the growth
of public interest not only in the Geological Survey itself but in the
sciences which the museum's exhibits serve to illustrate. It is certainly
an indication that the museum is more successfully fulfilling its mission
as an educational factor and is contributing toward the upbuilding of
the State. Florida should awake to the possibilities and educational
advantages that accrue from a well organized museum and should provide
adequately for its citizens in this particular.


ACCESSIONS

It is encouraging to note the increasing interest in the collections of
the Survey and the willingness of many citizens to generously donate
specimens to the museum. Although only limited facilities are available
for displaying and for storing specimens, the Survey will be glad to
accept any and all mineral and fossil specimens, anticipating that some
day more adequate space will be provided. Such contributions will always
be graciously acknowledged and proper records made. Among acces-
sions during the period covered by this report the following should be
especially mentioned, which, except as otherwise noted, were presented
to the Survey.


'Florida Geological Survey, Twenty-first-Twenty-second Ann. Repts., pp. 9-10, 1931.
Simpson, George Gaylord, Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the Evolution of the Sirenia:
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., Vol. LIX, Art. VIII, pp. 419-503, 1932.









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


GEORGE STEINLEIN, Tallahassee: I sili-
ceous mortar from Lake Lafayette,
Leon County (A-7).
W. E. SEXTON, Vero Beach: Fragments
of proboscidean vertebra and ramus
(V-4858).
M. D. DAvis, Kendrick: I specimen of
botryoidal form of chalcedony.
BURDETT LOOMIS, JR., Pierce: 2 cetacean
vertebrae from the pebble phosphate
deposits (V-5263).
WILL S. Cox, East Point, Ga.: Egg
ribbon of a conch from the Gulf coast
of Franklin County, Florida (1-2756).
S. W. CLARK, Blountstown: Calcite
crystals from the Marianna limestone,
near Marianna (M-1o24).
CLYMER CASH, Tallahassee: Small col-
lection of recent shells from New
Smyrna.
R. H. BRADFORD, Tallahassee: Fragment
of siliceous coral found north of Madi-
son.
S. P. MAY, Tallahassee: Gorgonia se-
cured from a sponge boat at St. Marks
(1-2731).
H. D. BASSETT, Floral City: Gypsite
from east of Inverness (M-Io29).
J. H. WILLIAMS, Ocala: Fragment of
whale rib and a few invertebrate fos-
sils from Ocala limestone (V-5233).
MIL.TON B. PUNNETT, Daytona Beach: I
volume on Geology of New York, Part
IV, 1843, by James Hall.
I\IZNER INDUSTRIES, INC., Palm Beach:
I specimen piece of Bradenton Buff
limestone (M-IooI) and i specimen of
Key Largo. coralline limestone (M-
o1062).
Dr. R. B. BECKER, University of Florida,
Gainesville: Fossil teeth from Devil's
Mill Hopper (5323 a-d).
Miss RACHEL E. GREGG, Florida State
College for Women, Tallahassee: I
whale vertebra, locality unknown (V-
5236).
A. D. JOHNSON, Woods: 2 recent boar's
tusks (V-5235).
L. G. STRINGER, Hildreth: 2 teeth Masto-
don americanus from Itchtucknee
River (V-5363).
L. W. SPEARMAN, Chattahoochee: 2 teeth
Mastodon americanus from the Apa-
lachicola River (V-5364).
R. S. REDD, Sanford: Gypsum crystals
(M-io70).


S. S. MOODY, Croom: Crystalline quartz
(M-Io31).
Y. E. SMITH, Panama City: I specimen
shell, Pterocera chiragra (12953).
H. M. WOODWARD, Tallahassee: I Indian
arrowhead from near Tallahassee (A-
57).
HERBERT LOTT, Wacissa: 17 Indian ar-
rowheads (A-55) and pottery frag-
ments (A-56) from Jefferson County.
PAUL McKEOWN, Tallahassee: I Indian
pestle from near Tallahassee (A-36).
MILLER WALSTON, Tallahassee: 5 Indian
arrowheads (A-Ig, A-24) from. Leon
County; I arrowhead (A-26) from
South Georgia; 2 flint hoes (A-3I)
from Leon County; 2 arrowheads (A-
37) from Leon County; I arrowhead
(A-4I) and I flint artifact (A-42)
from Wakulla County.
CHAS. A. CAY, Dunedin (formerly of
Tallahassee) : 5 flint artifacts from be-
tween the Flint and Chattahoochee
Rivers, Baker County, Ga. (A-I) ; 7
flint artifacts from Lake Lafayette,
Leon County, (A-2) ; 10 flint artifacts
from Leon and adjoining counties (A-
3), 3 polished stone implements from
near Lake Iamonia, Leon County
(A-4) ; flint artifact from near Lake
Iamonia (A-5) ; I polished stone im-
plement from Cherry Lake, Madison
County (A-6) ; I large flint implement
from Lake Lafayette (A-27). Loan.
C. H. DEKLE, Lakeland: 2 recent boar's
tusks from near Polk City (V-5234).
W. M. TALLANT, Manatee: I sirenian
vertebra (V-5379) and I phalange of
horse (V-5380) from Manatee County.
E. H. DUDLEY, Mulberry: Loaned the
mandible of Pliomastodon sellardsi
from which a cast was made and de-
posited with the Florida Survey (V-
5376).
H. E. MILLER, Wauchula: Fragment of
proboscidean femur (5373).
J. H. CHASE, Vero Beach: I milk molar
of Mastodon americanus (V-5372).
A. W. ALBRITTON, Wauchula: Part of
tooth of elephant (V-5370) and I
caudal vertebra of elephant (V-537I)
Peace River Valley.
R. B. FULLER, Mulberry: Part of tooth
of elephant (V-5365) and I foot bone
of camel (V-5366) from mine No. II,
International Agricultural Chemical
Co.. Mulberry.









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS


D. C. ADAMS, Tallahassee: I spine from
the Sting Ray (V-5322) and an Indian
spearhead (A-53) from the collection
of Mr. Claire Whitman, Cedar Key.
Miss MAY LOVE, Mulberry: i shark's
tooth from phosphate mines at Mul-
berry (V-532I). Loan.
PETER VREDENBURGH, Miami: 6 specimens
of Strombus gigas Linn (1-2993).
HARRY GILLESPIE, Gainesville: 4 frag-
ments of fossil turtle (V-4895) and
cetacean fragment (V-4894) from
Ocala Lime Rock Company quarry at
Haile, Alachua County.
:MR. AND MRS. H. H. SIMPSON, High
Springs: Fossil bird bones (V-4897)
and other specimens.
J. S. HUGHES, Arran: Mineral specimens
from Nevada and California (M-lo74-
1078)
F. B. EASON, East Point, Ga.: Various
mineral specimens from out of State
localities (M-Io20, M-io02, M-Io26,
M-lo28).
DR. HERMAN KURZ, Florida State Col-
lege for Women, Tallahassee: Glacial
boulder, Atkins, Ia. (M-Io25).
OLIVER HELDMAN, Tallahassee: I Indian
banner-stone, locality unknown (A-54).
Loan.


J. MEYER, Detroit, Mich.: Specimen of
conglomerate from Cumberland Falls,
Kentucky (M-107I).
L. J. FREEZEE, Eureka, Ill.: 2 cetacean
vertebrae from near Lakeland, exact
locality unknown (V-5263).
B. D. FAIRBANKS, Tallahassee: Crystal-
lized siliceous nodule from a well in
northern Leon County (M-II27).
R. T. AND THETUS THOMAS, High
Springs: Fragmentary lower jaw and
two complete teeth, fragments of ribs
and other portions of the skeleton of
the elephant (V-538I). Loan.
ESTATE OF MRS. JANE 13. DARBY, through
Mrs. LeRoy Collins, Tallahassee: The
following specimens collected by the
late Senator T. A. Darby in Alaska:
Right lower molar (V-5350), left low-
er molar (V-5351), molar fragment
(V-5352), and lower jaw (V-5353), of
Elephas (Mammonteus) primigenius;
Mountain sheep horns (V-5354) ; Pro-
boscidean tusks (V-5355, V-5356, V-
5357, V-5358) ; Fragments of probosci-
dean femur (V-5359, V-5362) ; I plate
of baleen (V-536o); Walrus skull
with tusks (V-5361). Loan.


LIBRARY


The Survey Library has grown gradually through the years so that
it now contains 10,000 or more volumes and an almost innumerable
number of pamphlets and separates. The volumes include the reports
of the several State Geological Surveys, the United States Geological
Survey, other Federal organizations, the Canadian and other foreign
Geological Surveys and many other miscellaneous volumes. A well
equipped reference library is absolutely essential to satisfactory work
and, while the library does lack numbers of badly needed reference works,
it does contain many volumes invaluable to present and future investiga-
tions. As opportunity permits, additions are being made.


COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

The work of the Geological Survey involves problems that touch
many of the activities of not only other State and Federal departments
but also independently supported institutions. It has therefore been the
policy of the Survey to enter into cooperation when it is of mutual
advantage and when duplication can be avoided. Such an arrangement








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


not only works for economy but also for greater efficiency and reliable
results. Owing to this policy, the Survey has a rather wide range of
cooperative connections as is suggested by the following list:
With the United States Geological Survey in studying the water resources of
the State, the geology and invertebrate and micro-paleontology.
With the United States Bureau of Mines in collecting statistics covering the
mineral production of Florida.
With the United States Bureau of Census in collecting certain special mineral
statistics.
With the United States IBureau of Soils and Chemistry in a soil survey of
Polk County, published January, 1933.
With the United States Engineer Office, Jacksonville, in geologic and ground
water studies in connection with surveys for a cross-state canal.
With the United States National Museum in studies of recent mammals of
Florida and vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology.
With the American Museum of Natural History in detailed vertebrate paleon-
tological studies.
With the Florida State Road Department in the identification of certain forma-
tions, their distribution and general character.
With the University of Florida in studies of white-burning clays and in the
identification of invertebrate fossils.
With the Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Engineering, in studying
samples of cuttings from wells drilled for drainage purposes.
With the Rockefeller Foundation in the geology of certain areas in connection
with malaria and mosquito control investigations.
With Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, California Academy of Sciences, in studies of
diatomite deposits of Florida.
With Dr. W. J. Clench, Museum of Comparative Zoology, in determination of
fresh-water and land shells.
With Cushman Laboratory of Foraminiferal Research; Scripps Institution of
Oceanography; Dr. W. Storrs Cole, and Dr. C. I. Alexander, in micro-
paleontological studies.
With Professor T. D. A. Cockerell, University of Colorado, on fossil fish
remains from deep well cuttings.
With the producers of sedimentary kaolin in Florida in the preparation of a
comprehensive report on these high-grade clays.

RECOMMENDATIONS

During times of financial stress conditions are not conducive to the
favorable consideration of recommendations suggesting the expenditure
of any additional funds, but such periods do promote reflective and
sound thinking about fundamentals, and it is such only that we are
here concerned with, affecting as they may the continued progress and
permanent welfare of the State.
The water resources of Florida have always been a tremendously
valuable natural asset. Perhaps one reason why our citizens have given








32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

apparently so little thought to the actual importance of it is because
water from both surface and underground sources is so abundant in
Florida. The Survey, however, early recognized the value of this re-
source to the State, for the first bulletin issued was on the water supply
of central Florida, and succeeding reports have covered other sections.
But problems have arisen in connection with the development of supplies
for public, industrial, irrigation and domestic uses that were not apparent
in earlier years, and, as the State develops, the use of water will increase,
thus making these problems progressively more complex and difficult.
The questions causing concern not only relate to the quantity of water
available but also its quality, as well as the best means of recovery and
protection from pollution. These problems in turn can be solved only
through a study of the geologic conditions governing the occurrence of
ground water in Florida.
In certain regions it was recognized that the situation was more acute
and serious, especially in some areas bordering the coast where flowing
wells were obtainable. In these sections rather pronounced decrease in
hydrostatic pressure had been observed and of even more concern was
a gradual but noticeable change in the character of the water, some wells
actually yielding saline water. The continued progress of such con-
ditions would mean ruination to trucking and fruit-growing centers
dependent upon flowing wells for irrigation. Furthermore, in other
sections of the State additional questions were involved. So, in 1930,
the Florida Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the United
States Geological Survey in an investigation of the ground water re-
sources and problems connected therewith, giving primary consideration
to the safe yield of water-bearing beds in those localities where large
supplies are absolutely essential. Preliminary investigations have been
made in the vicinity of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg and Braden-
ton, and detailed work has been carried on in Sarasota County. A report
on the ground water supplies of this county is included in this volume
and the information obtained through these detailed studies forcibly
brings out the need for continuing similar investigations in other portions
of the State. In view of the importance of flowing wells to the trucking,
fruit growing and other industries, and the ground water supplies to the
State generally, it is urgently recommended that provisions be made for
the continuance of these investigations. The Geological Survey has so
far allotted a small fund to this work from its regular maintenance
appropriation, but for the next bienniumt this will not be possible. If,
therefore, the work is to continue, a direct appropriation for that par-
ticular purpose will be necessary and the value of the work and the
necessity of it merits', and demands continuation.







ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


The Legislature of 1929, recognizing the need for conserving the
water resources, passed an act regulating the drilling and operation of
wells in Manatee, Sarasota and Charlotte Counties. The act should be
amended so as to fix the penalty for non-compliance and the financial
responsibility of closing in and repairing faulty wells. See pages 179-181
of this report for other details. A conservation law applicable to the
whole State should be in force.


3-Geol.












MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
1930 and 1931


HERMAN GUNTER
Collected in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines
and the United States Bureau of Census.
The total value of the mineral output for Florida for the year 1929
V- s $15,566,096. For the year 1930 the total was $15,859,209, or ap-
p oximately the same as for 1929. The year 1931, however, registered
a decided reduction in value, since the total amounted to approximately
? 1,202,o91, or a decrease of about 29 per cent. Exact estimates of the
t 'al mineral output value are impossible, for some producers fail to
ri-ke returns and approximations have to be made. Then, much of the
*-y, gravel and rock used on roads is excavated by the contractors near
,:,c points where used and no value is placed on it. Furthermore, a
. od deal of building stone and mineral water is used locally without
.':,ing through the channels of trade or appearing in any form of statistics.
I :;derground water is an important asset which has been reported upon
by the Survey, also has no value placed on it except as it may be distributed
through public water supplies, but if statistics were kept on such value they
vcuild be impressive. The decline noted above is partly to a slowing
ut of building activities in Florida, coupled with a nation-wide decline
in commodity prices.
In total mineral production, Florida ranks about the same as Georgia
and exceeds other eastern States except those which have coal or oil.
The several products will be discussed in the following pages in ap-
proximate order of importance.

PHOSPHATE

Phosphate mining in Florida began in 1888, and since 1894 the State
has held first place in the United States as a producer of phosphate rock.
In 1930 and 1931 of the total phosphate rock sold or used by the pro-
ducers in the United States, Florida supplied respectively 82.7 per cent
and 81.3 per cent. In 1930 this amounted to about 28 per cent of the
world's production.
Florida's commercial phosphate is of three varieties or kinds, named
in the order of their importance: Land pebble, hard rock and soft rock.
For many years the hard rock was the leading commercial variety, but








36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

land pebble has for some time been of greatest importance, representing
in 1930 97 per cent, and in 1931 96.5 per cent of the total marketed
production of the State. .
The upward movement that began in 1928 continued into 1930, but
in 1931 there was a decided trend downward. The increase of 1930
over 1929 was 5.2 per cent in quantity and 9 per cent in value. In
comparison with 1930, the 1931 figures show a decrease of 37 per cent
in quantity and 33 per cent in value. The shipments in 1930 were
exceeded only slightly by those of one other year, namely, 1920, but the
1931 production was the lowest since 1922.
In 1931 there was exported 822,701 long tons, or 39.9 per cent of
the total production. This was a decrease of 29.9 per cent, compared
with the preceding year. During the same year 1,238,765 long tons
were shipped to domestic markets, which likewise showed a decrease of
40.3 per cent.
A much larger percentage of the hard rock is exported than is the
land pebble. For the year 1931 statistics show that 63 per cent of the
hard, as compared to 25.2 per cent of the land pebble, was exported.
Of the State's total production going to domestic markets, about 86 per
cent is used in the manufacture of superphosphates for fertilizers, the
balance being consumed in various other chemical industries.
During the years 1930 and 1931 the entire production of hard rock
came from Citrus County; the land pebble from Polk and Hillsborough
Counties and the soft rock from Polk and Citrus Counties.
Phosphate mining in Florida began in 1888 with the production of
river pebble phosphate on Peace River, near Arcadia, DeSoto County.
This material is a deposit in the river channels resulting from the
re-working and concentration of material from the land pebble phosphate
beds through which the river flows. It was pumped or dredged from
the river, washed and shipped to fertilizer plants. Production of river
pebble was never on an extensive scale, but a small yearly production
was reported until 19o8 when operations ceased.
In the same year, 1888, hard rock phosphate was discovered near
Dunnellon, Marion County, but operations were not begun until 1889
and production reported in 1890. By 1894 the output had reached over
a quarter of a million tons, and from this year until 1914, with minor
ups and downs, the production ranged from 250,000 to 625,000 long tons
annually. During the period from 1915 to 1918 the production declined
greatly, but in 1919 and later years has maintained a fairly constant
average tonnage of about 1oo,ooo long tons yearly.
Development of the land pebble phosphates began in 1890, the first
recorded shipments being in 1891. The development in this area was








MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1930 AND 1931


gradual but steady, and by 1966 the output of land pebble was slightly
greater than hard rock, and from this year forward the land pebble
phosphate has held the lead by a wide margin. For a number of years
in the early history of the industry the hard rock was able to maintain
a parity with the land pebble, owing to its prevailingly higher grade. But
refinements in the mining methods in the land pebble field have steadily
improved the grade and this, coupled with lower mining costs, have
resulted in forcing a decline in the hard rock area.

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE DEPOSITS
Land Pebble Phosphate.-The commercial bed of land pebble lies in
an area of roughly circular outline, mainly in the southwestern part of
Polk County and the eastern part of Hillsborough County but extending
over into northwestern Hardee and northeastern Manatee Counties. The
important and large production has always been from the two counties
fi st mentioned.
The phosphate-bearing bed termed the Bone Valley gravel and to
n bich the miners have given the term "matrix," consists of a conglomerate
of pebble phosphate, sand and clay of Pliocene age. This bed varies
in thickness and in grade of phosphate and lies immediately above the
planated surface of a phosphatic, sandy marl assigned to the Hawthorn
formation of the Miocene age. The overburden consists mainly of a
variable thickness of sands and sandy clays which may range from the
Pliocene to Recent in age.
Many fossil remains of land and marine animals are found in the
deposit, a large number of which represent a Pliocene fauna, but some
are of Miocene age. Among the most important of the fossils thus far
recovered are those of the four-tusked mastodon, rhinoceros, horse,
gavial, whale, dugong, shark, tortoise and others.
The presence of -the Pliocene land mammalian fauna in close associa-
tion with marine fossils, together with the general character of the
formation itself, suggests that the deposit was laid down in a very shallow
sea.
The material in the phosphate-bearing bed is derived from the weather-
ing of the underlying Hawthorn phosphatic marl and the concentration
of the heavier materials. The phosphate in the original marl was likely
largely due to the replacement of lime in the marl by circulating phos-
phatized waters, the phosphatic content of the water being at least
partially derived from decomposition of vegetable and animal matter.
The mining of land pebble phosphate consists of the following opera-
tions: The overburden is removed either by drag-line or by hydraulick-








38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

ing; the phosphate-bearing matrix is mined entirely by hydraulic methods
and is pumped from the mine pits by pipe line to nearby washers where
the sand and clay is removed; the concentrates are then conveyed by
industrial trains to the central plant for drying; the drying operation is
carried out in two steps, namely, partial drying by drainage in wet storage
and final drying in oil-fired, direct-heat rotary kilns.
Considerable interest has been taken in recent years in the possibilities
of flotation and other methods of concentration, especially in the recovery
of the phosphate "fines" which heretofore have been lost in the process
of mining. Splendid results have been obtained and it is possible that
considerable tonnages of phosphate will be reclaimed in the future from
the tailings or waste-pond materials.
Hard Rock Phosphate.-Of recent years the production of hard rock
phosphate has been restricted to Citrus and Marion Counties, although
at one time mines were spread generally over an area from about Croom,
Hernando County, on the south, to Fort White, Columbia County, on
the north. In an east-west direction the area commercially productive
extends approximately ten miles.
Hard rock phosphate occurs in what is termed the Alachua formatior
of Pliocene age. It occurs in the form of pockets, lenses and irregular
masses. Its relationship to the surrounding materials is most irregular
Its deposition is generally thought to be largely due to the replacement
of limestone and marl by circulating water. However, the details of it:
origin are complex and often obscure.
In mining hard rock phosphate the overburden, consisting principally
of sand and clay of variable thickness, is removed by steamshovel, drag.
line or by hydraulicking; then the phosphate is mined by steamshovel
to or near the permanent ground water level and by floating dippe"
dredges below that level. Boulders are often encountered that are too
large to drop through the dredge dipper and have to be blasted. From
the pits the rock is conveyed in dump cars drawn by cable on an inclined
track to the washer, where it is run through a series of log washers fo:
the removal of foreign materials and impurities, crushed to suitable size,
conveyed to the storage sheds and dried.
In the hard rock phosphate field many fossils have been found, a
number of which have been described in previous reports of this Survey.
These are of great scientific value, not measurable in dollars and cents,
and every care should always be exercised in their preservation.
Soft Rock Phosphate.-The production of soft rock phosphate has
never been on a very large scale. The random production has come
mainly from the hard rock phosphate mines, although locally in the land
pebble field a small production has been reported of recent years.









MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1930 AND 1931


PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN FLORIDA IN 1930 AND 1931
(Long Tons)

Hard Rock Land Pebble Soft Rock Totals
1930 1931 1930 1931 1930 1931 1930 1931
V ne I I I 1440
P oduction --- 74,338 23,164 3,178,939 2,039,221 8,262 14,418 3,261,539 2,071,803
Shipments- .. 81,753 57,224 3,158,056 1,990,806 8,262 13,436 3,248,071 2,061,466
T tal Value I I
of Shipments $517,229 $380,540 $10,247,382 $6,756,428 $25,694 $65,118 $10,790,305 $7,202,086
A.v-rage Value I
p ton ----- $6.33 $6.65 $3.24 $3.39 $3.11 $4.85 $3.32 $3.49
3lt.ks Dec. 31 No
Dry rock -- 21,388 27,505 165,287 145,623 returns 982 186,675 174,110
WVet rock --- 47,778 7,610 563,517 551,647 611,304 559,257


The companies reporting production and sales during the year 1931
wvre as follows:

LAND PEBBLE
Amalgamated Phosphate Company, 535 Fifth Avenue, New York, and Brewster,
Florida.
American Agricultural Chemical Company, 419 Fourth Avenue, New York, and
Pierce, Florida.
Coronet Phosphate Company, 99 John Street, New York, and Plant City, Florida.
International Agricultural Corporation, 61 Broadway, New York, and Mulberry,
Florida. ;
Phosphate Mining Company, ino William Street, New York, and Nichols, Florida.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, 44 Wall Street, New York, and Bartow, Florida.
Swift and Company, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, and Bartow, Florida.

HARD ROCK

J. Buttgenbach & Company, 22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and Dunnellon,
Florida.
C. & J. Camp, Dunnellon, Florida.
Mutual Mining Company, Savannah, Ga., and Inverness, Florida.

SOFT ROCK

American Phosphate Corporation, Dunnellon, Florida.
Connell and Schultz, Inverness, Florida.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Company, Bartow, Florida.


LIMESTONE, LIME, FLINT AND CEMENT

Limestone is one of Florida's most abundant minerals and a study
of the geologic report and map will show that limestones have a wide
areal distribution and form the foundation rock of the State. Limestone
is likewise an important contributor to the total value of the mineral
output, especially so during the period of great activity in road con-
struction. Its earliest use in Florida was as a building stone, as attested
by the stability and durability of Spanish forts, missions and other struc-
tures built of coquina along the east coast. Doubtlessly, too, from early








PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN FLORIDA FROM 1921 TO I19S9
(Long Tons)

Hard Rock Phosphate
1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 I 1928 I 1929
I ..
Mine production .-.-- 329,419 123,394 8o,607 123,359 114,533 108,882 116,832 136,040 72,177
Shipments ---------------------- 175,774 188,o84 199,516 143,115 171,649 116,264 131,254 92,627 72,733
Total value of8 $ 2 1
Shipments ...--..........--- $ ,8o6,671 $ 1,308,201 $ 1,071,675 $ 629,579 $ 707,933 $ 465,308 $ 525,o06 $ 370,508 $ 267,218
Average value per ton $ 10.28 $ 6.96 $ 5.37 $ 4.40 $ 4.12 $ 4.00 $ 4.00 $ 4.00 $ 3.67


Land Pebble Phosphate '.
Mine production .......... 1,751,663 1,895,415 2,34o,964 2,250,171 2,558,117 2,955,559 2,426,876 2,769,786. 3,053,764.
Shipments -..................... 1,599,835 1,870,063 2,348,137 2,289,466 [ 2,758,315 2,591,943 2,506,166 2,729,334 3,015,874
Total value of
Shipments -----.. ..... $8,604,818 $7,o35,82 $7,987,752 $7,387,897 $8,o8I,I37 $8,218,200 $8,121,146 $ 8,953,798 I $9,633,856
Average value per ton $ 5.38 $. 3.76 $ 3.40 $ 3.23 $ 2.93 $ 3.16 $ 3.24 $ 3.28 $ 3.16
________ _______I .. J I _ _








, INI At'-PROD'UCTIO IN' 1930 AND 1931


Spanish days limestone was,' birnt- for minortar. More modern use is
that of sawing blocks of limestone' and using. these in constructing
chimneys, from which use the term "chimney rock" arose. This, is
especially true of the rock in the Marianna section and in more limited
areas of the Ocala: district.
More recently the use of Florida limestone for building .and for
ornamentation has widened and grown decidedly. This is particularly
true of the oolitic limestone of the Miami region, the coralline limestone
of the several Keys of southern Florida and the "Floridene Stone,"
quarriedd near Bradenton, Manatee County.
The greater part of the production of limestone in Florida is used
in the construction of roads and streets. Considerable quantities of the
,arder limestone is crushed and used as railroad ballast, aggregate in
concrete and for road surfacing in place of slag. A less important use
is as a fertilizer or soil conditioner, for which it is finely ground.
A more or less silicified limestone, found in Marion, Levy and other
counties in that region, is marketed as crushed flint, and used prin-
cipally as material for concrete and railroad ballast.
Florida has also one cement plant utilizing limestone of the Tampa
formation. The Florida Portlanid Cement Company has a very modern
plant at Tampa and produces its raw supplies from the Brooksville
district, the limestone from a large quarry about 10 miles north of
Brooksville and the clay from a pit in the same general vicinity. The
production of cement began in the fall of 1927 and has continued ever
since, the product being used in all sections of Florida and considerable
amounts exported. Statistics on production cannot be separately given
but it is combined with the output and value of lime and flint.
The production of limestone in Florida reached a peak in 1926, when
the total reported output reached 6,572,870 tons, valued at $7,177,568,
but has since steadily declined owing to the slackening of road building
and other construction. The decline in production during the five-year
period, 1926-1931, has amounted to about 80 per cent in quantity and
83 per cent in value. The reported production in 1930 was 1,796,670
tons, valued at $1,490,173, and in 1931, 1,359,450 tons, valued at
$1,219,214. The production of crushed flint is included in these figures.
The production of lime reached its peak in 1925 and the total for 1931
amounted to a reduction of about 60 per- cent of that for the year 1925.
The value is not listed separately but is included in the table showing
State totals.
The following companies reported production during 1931, being
listed under the. different character of stone produced:









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

AGRICULTURAL
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Quarry at Zuber.
Naranja Rock Company, Naranja.
Oakhurst Lime Company, Ocala.
BUILDING STONE
Florida Travertine Corporation, Bradenton. Quarry near Manatee.
C. Ed. de Brauwere, Miami. Quarry at Quarry Key.
Mizner Industries, Inc. Palm Beach. Quarry near Ellenton.
Pennsuco Farming Company, Hialeah.
CURBING, FLAGGING, PAVING
C. Ed. de Brauwere, Miami. Quarry at Quarry Key.
RAILROAD BALLAST
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry at Kendrick.
ROAD METAL AND CONCRETE
Atlas Rock Company, Miami.
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala. Quarry near Brooksville.
Connell and Shultz, Inverness.
Consolidated Rock Products Company, Lakeland. Quarry near Brooksville.
Crystal River Rock Company, Leesburg. Quarry near Crystal River.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry near Kendrick.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Quarry at Zuber.
Marianna Lime Products Company, Marianna. Quarries near Cottondale and
Marianna.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
L. B. McLeod Construction Company, Williston.
Miami Lime and Chemical Company, Miami.
R. H. Mills, Inc., 325 N. E. 35th Street, Miami.
Naranja Rock Company, Naranja.
New Port Richey Rock Company, New Port Richey.
Ocala Lime Rock Corporation, Ocala. Quarry at Newberry.
Ocala-Tampa Lime Rock Company, Ocala. Quarry near York.
Thompson-Williston Mine, Williston. Quarry at Newsome.
Williston Shell Rock Company, Williston. Quarry at Newberry.
RIPRAP
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry at Kendrick.
RUBBLE STONE
New Port Richey Rock Company, New Port Richey.
LIME
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Quarry at Zuber.
Miami Lime and Chemical Company, Miami.
MISCELLANEOUS STONE, FLINT
A. A. Griffin, Williston.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston. Quarry at Standard.
CEMENT
Florida Portland Cement Company, Tampa. Limestone quarry and clay pit near
Brooksville.
FULLER'S EARTH

Fuller's earth is a peculiar clay-like mineral possessing to a high
degree the property of decolorizing oils and fats. It takes its name
from its early use by fullers in removing grease from woolen goods.








MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1930 AND 1931


The name is now more loosely applied to a number of materials showing
certain definite bleaching properties in their natural state. It differs
from other clays because of its exceptionally high absorbent power for
c,ils, greases and other liquids.
In color, fuller's earth is as variable as other clays, ranging from
almostt white to shades of buff and green to greenish-blue. It is an
earthy material, usually compact and not infrequently indurated or more
or less hardened, exhibiting a tendency toward lamination and a distinct
mnchoidal fracture. The Florida earth is brittle and has a soapy or
greasy feel, slowly disintegrating in water. In specific gravity it ranges
l"om 2.27 (Gadsden County) to 2.34 (Marion County).
The commercial value of fuller's earth can be determined only after
c haustive, practical tests, since its worth depends chiefly upon its
, ,pacity for filtering oils and fats and the readiness with which it absorbs
;,,td removes basic coloring matters. In determining these qualities a
,emical analysis is of little use since clays of quite similar chemical
i position often exhibit no similarity in physical characteristics.
Most of the fuller's earth produced in Florida is used in the petroleum
dustry in bleaching, clarifying, decolorizing, or filtering lubricating,
-linder and special oils. It is also used for treating various refined
1 oducts. The Florida earth does not enter very largely into the refining
c treatment of vegetable oils and animal fats.
The fuller's earth beds of Florida are now placed in the Hawthorn
lfrrmation3 of Miocene age. Simpson4 suggests, on the basis of the
- rtebrate fauna, that the Gadsden County beds "cover the transition
fiom the Lower to Middle Miocene." This suggestion is also quite in
conformity with determinations by Cushman and Ponton5 on the basis
of invertebrate fossils. The deposits near Emathla, Marion County,
overlie the Ocala limestone. No fossils have been found in the
beds here, but immediately above them some specimens of Ostrea
normalis (a species common to the Hawthorn) have been recovered.
In the same general district, however, other exposures of fuller's earth
occur and these have been more or less definitely correlated with the
Hawthorn formation.
At the mines of the Floridin Company, Quincy, the overburden,
varying in thickness from a few feet to about 35 feet, consisting of sands
and clays, is removed by steamshovel. The upper and lower bed of
fuller's earth, with the intervening layer of sandstone or "sand rock," is
also mined by the steamshovel method. Sometimes it is necessary to

'Cooke, C. Wythe and Mossom, Stuart, Florida Geol. Survey, Twentieth Ann. Rept., p.
119, 1929.
'Simpson, George Gaylord, Florida. Geol. Survey, Bull. 10, pp. 13-16, 1932.
'Cushraan. Josenh A.. and Ponton. Gerald M.. Florida Geol. Survey. Bull. 9. n. 30. 1932.








44' FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL .SURVEY 23RD-24TH' ANNUAL REPORTS

utse:a varying amount. of explosive in order to break down the formation
so the' steamshovel can 'handle it. .....
At Midway the overburden is removed by hydraulicking. In the past
this was done by both steamshovel and slack-line. At this mine the
upper bed of fuller's earth is removed by steamshovel, the 'lower bed
not being mined at.present.
At the mine in Marion County near Emathla the stripping and mining
of the two beds is all done by steamshovel. The sandy bed between the
two layers of fuller's earth is here known as the "middleburden."
The commercial production of fuller's earth in the United States
began in Florida when large deposits were opened in Gadsden County,
near Quincy, in 1895. These deposits have been continuously operated
and Florida was the principal producing State until 1924, when develop-
ments in Georgia assumed such proportions as to put that State in the
lead, with Florida second. The limited number of producers does not
permit publishing the total output and value for either 1930 or 1931,
but these totals are included in the mineral statistics for the State as
a whole.
The following reported production for 1930 and 1931:
Floridin Company, Quincy. Plants at Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.
The Superior Earth Company, Ocala. Plant near Emathla, Marion County.

CLAYS OTHER THAN FULLER'S EARTH
The clays of Florida, other than fuller's earth, fall into two general
groups. First, the white clay or sedimentary kaolin found principally
in the northern part of the lake region of peninsular Florida and a less
well defined area in western Florida and, second, the common clays
found in many parts of the State, particularly from the vicinity of
Leesburg northwestward, which generally burn red and are manufactured
at the locality found into brick, or less frequently into tile, terra cotta
and other wares.
The kaolin occurs in what is known as the Citronelle formation of
Pliocene age. The deposits that have been commercially worked are
located in Putnam and Lake Counties, but deposits in western Florida
may offer commercial possibilities. The .clay occurs intimately mixed
with quartz sand, which is removed through washing. The overburden,
consisting of sand and various colored sandy clays to a depth of from
15 to 35 feet, is removed either by steamshovel or hydraulicking. The
kaolin-bearing formation is then removed by suction dredges floated on
artificial ponds. Through a careful washing process the sand is removed,
principally through a series of sand traps in the sluice-ways, the fine-








MINERAL PRODUCTION IN. 1930 AND 1931


grained kaolin remaining in suspension and conducted to settling basins
or vats. From these vats .the sludge is pumped to the filter presses
and from there the product goes to the drying shed. The clay is shipped
out of the State to the pottery centers of the north, where it enters
into the manufacture of high-grade china, porcelain and other wares.
The by-product sand, which is thoroughly washed, finds a market
for a number of purposes, particularly for use in concrete and building.
Each year in Florida a considerable tonnage of clay is mined and;
used in the building of sand-clay roads and, to a lesser extent,*for other
purposes. This clay usually comes from pits located near the project
on which it is used, although rail shipments are made to the more distant
points. This tonnage is not included in the statistics. Also of im-
portance is the clay mined for the manufacture of cement, which comes
mostly from Hernando and Citrus Counties. The tonnage so used is,
quite large and appears only in the statistics giving the quantity and
value of cement.
The output and value of kaolin, as well as the output and value of
other clays and clay products, is included in the table showing the total
for the State for the two years, 1930 and 1931. The slump in general
construction in Florida is clearly shown in the returns from the manu-
facturers of common brick and other clay products.
PRODUCERS OF CLAY AND CLAY PRODUCTS
KAOLIN
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar.
Lake County Clay Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Trenton, N. J., and Hawthorn.
BRICK AND TILE
Build-With-Brick Company, Molino.
Cheney Art Tile Company, Orlando.
Dolores Brick Corporation, Molino.
Gamble & Stockton Co., Jacksonville. Plant at Dixton.
Georgia-Carolina Brick Co. of Florida, Jacksonville. Plant at Callahan.
Hall and Son, W. J., Chipley.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee.
Roberts Brick Plant, Bunnell. Plant about io miles southwest of Bunnell.
Taylor,. J. E., Pensacola. Plant near Molino.

SAND AND GRAVEL
Sand abounds in nearly all parts of Florida, but varies in fineness,
sharpness and uniformity of grain, so that some deposits are much
better adapted for use in mortar and concrete than others. The principal
localities of commercial production are associated with formations placed
in the Pliocene, and these have been worked both in western Florida
and in the lake region of the peninsula. Sand bars along some of the
rivers, and beaches around some of the lakes, are also important sources.








46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

As previously mentioned, an excellent grade of sand, very white, rather
coarse and with sharp grains, is a by-product from the washing of the
kaolin. Another by-product sand formerly used in construction work
was that from the pebble phosphate fields. In some parts of southern
Florida a so-called sand, dredged from rivers and harbors as well as
along some coastal points, is mostly shell fragments.
The best gravel is dredged from the beds of rivers that have brought
it down from the upland country farther north, principally the Escambia
and Apalachicola Rivers in western Florida. Florida is too distant from
crystalline rocks to have much gravel on uplands, but there is a deposit
of coarse, clayey gravel south of Cottondale, in Jackson County, that
has furnished quite a tonnage of this character of material which has
been used largely in constructing gravel roads.
The reported production in 1930 was 496,198 tons (a little more than
one-third less than in 1929), valued at $269,161, and in 1931, 419,560
tons, valued at $242,383.
SAND AND GRAVEL PRODUCERS REPORTING IN 1931
Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
Atlas Rock Company, Inc., Miami.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster.
P. M. Carlisle, Panama City.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Edgar.
Florida Silica Company, Miami.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Roquemore Gravel Company, Montgomery, Ala. Florida plant near Tarzan
Escambia County.
I. E. Schilling Company, Miami.

SAND-LIME BRICK

Sand-lime brick is a manufactured product, the raw materials usec
being sand and lime. The bonding power of the brick is due to the
chemical reaction between these materials. The chemical changes aro
brought about by heat, pressure and moisture, resulting in the formation
of hydro-silicates of calcium and magnesium, if the latter is present in
the lime.
The sand used in the manufacture of sand-lime brick should be pure
and free from organic or other deleterious substances, and preferably
with some variation in size of grain. The plant is located in proximity
to the deposit of sand, the lime -used is shipped from distant points, since
no plant in Florida has been located where both these raw materials occur.
Sand-lime brick have been produced in Florida for many years, the
peak of production being reached in 1925. In recent years the output








MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1930 AND 1931


has been very materially curtailed and only one plant, operating on a
limited scale, registered activity in 1931, viz: Plant City Brick Company,
Plant City, Hillsborough County.

PEAT
Peat is widely distributed in Florida, for in every county deposits
of varying extent and quality occur, but it is most abundant in the lake
region, the area bordering the St. Johns River and the Everglades. Many
attempts during the past 25 years have been made to develop a number
of deposits, both for fuel purposes and as a fertilizer filler, but with
-% -rying success. The use of this material for application to soils and
,s an ingredient in fertilizers has met with most success and it seems
that this is a field in which it should more largely enter.
Statistics on the output and value of peat from Florida during 1930
:utd 1931 cannot be separately listed, but these figures are included in
tie total mineral output from the State.

PEAT PRODUCERS REPORTING IN 1931
Florida Humus Company, Zellwood.
Plant and Land Food Company, Inc., Haines City. Plant at Dundee.

DIATOMITE
Diatomite, or diatomaceous earth, also formerly called "infusorial
earth," consisting of the siliceous skeletons of diatoms, which are micro-
scopic water plants, occurs as sedimentary beds of various geological
ages, in many parts of the world. In Florida the deposits are all as-
sociated with peat and vary in thickness as, well as in purity. Those that
have so far been commercially exploited are located in Lake County.
but large deposits are known in other parts of the State. A report
accompanies this volume giving much information about some of these
deposits, as well as illustrations of many of the different forms of
diatoms. No production is reported for either 1930 or 1931, but a plant
has been erected near Clermont, Lake County, by the American Diatomite
Company, with offices in the Brown-Marx Building, Birmingham, Ala-
bama. Prospecting of deposits in the Blackwater River valley in Santa
Rosa County has also been active, particularly by the General Minerals
Corporation, of Pensacola and Milton.

MINERAL WATERS
A number of Florida's springs and wells are valued for the sulphur
or other mineral ingredient in the water and form the nucleus of health
resorts. Among these may be mentioned Chumuckla Springs, Santa
Rosa County; Panacea Springs, Wakulla County; Hampton Springs,








48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY :23RD-24TH ANNUAL: REPORTS

Taylor County; White Springs, Hamilton County; Qui-Si-Sana Spring,
Clay County; Heilbronn Springs, Bradford County; Salt Springs, Marion
County, and Espiritu Santo Springs, Pinellas County, as being probably
the best known. Much of the water from these and other springs and
wells reaches the public chiefly in bottled form.
Accurate statistics of the production of mineral water have been
.difficult to obtain. The average production has been estimated and these
-figures, are used in arriving at the total mineral-production statistics for
-the State.
MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS

Miscellaneous statistics of selected mines and quarries of Florida for
the Census years of 1929 and 1919. (This table has been. compiled from
results of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Census of the United States, but
-the values of production shown are those obtained by the Florida Geo-
logical Survey in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey):

Number of Persons Aggregate
Industry Number of Mines and Engaged in Value of Horsepower
Enterprises Quarries Industry used
19291 1919 19291 1919 1929 19191 1929 I 1919 | 1929 I 1910
Phosphate rock ........ 231 181 40 216212585 $9,901,0741$7,797,9291 91,268 40,906
Limestone .............. 37 4 37 6 598 1241 1,669,245 133,7471 11,0741 4*0
Clay (kaolin ............ 3 4 3 4 83 985 544,8483 6 2,o2 33
Other industries' .... 5 6 61 6 s5o6 1,361,8611 0"115' 2,030 15

'Includes Fuller's earth and miscellaneous stone.


SUMMARY

The following table shows the quantity and value of the principal
mineral products of Florida for 1930 and 1931, except that the figures
for those shipped by fewer than three producers each are combined:

MINERAL PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA, 1930 AND 1931

1930 1931
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Pebble Phosphate (long tons) ........3,158,056 $10,247,382 1,99o,806 $6,756,428
Hard Rock Phosphate* (long tons) 9o,o015 542,923 70,660 445,658
Limestone, Lime and Crushed
Flint (tons) .................................... ,939,109 1,620,867 1,378,688 1,320,694
Sand and Gravel (tons) ................... 496,i98 269,161 419,560 242,383
Kaolin and Fuller's Earth (tons) 104,309 1,560,727 96,044 1,331,081
Common Brick, Sand Lime Brick
Peat, Cement, and Mineral
W aters ....... ..................................... 1,618,149 1,105,847
$T5,859,209 $[1,202,091
*Soft rock is included in these figures.

























NORTHERN DISJUNCTS IN NORTHERN
FLORIDA
HERMAN KURZ


CYPRESS DOMES
HERMAN KURZ













NORTHERN DISJUNCTS IN NORTHERN
FLORIDA



HERMAN KURZ
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
TALLAHASSEE
If one consults the leading manuals4-5-6-7 of the flora of the eastern
United States, he will read that a number of the so-called spring flowers
of the northern rich woods or hardwood forests extend southward into
Florida. The botanist should know and appreciate, however, that he
cannot go into any hardwood forest of Florida and find there these
northern species. Indeed, their occurrence is very local and sporadi-.
There. are only three well.defined localities in, northern Florida well
knownri for their woodland hlerbs of r orthern affinities; they 'are tl'e
Tallahassee Red Hills; the Apalachicola River Bluffs, on the east si(.e
of the river, and the Marianna Red Lands.
The most marked topographic features of these areas, well separate< d
from each other and from the Red Hills of Alabama and Georgia farth 'r
north, are their relatively rugged red-clay hill.. Though the altitude is
usually less than 300 feet above sea level, the hills are nevertheless
frequently steep and precipitous. The forest trees are: Magnolia, beec.i,
maple, sweet gum, elm, ash, oak, hickory, basswood, tulip tree or popli r,
hackberry, mulberry, spruce pine (P. glabra) and others. Mostly, the .e
hilly areas are surrounded by gently rolling country, featuring long-leif
pine or species of "scrub oaks," or by flatwoods displaying long-leaf pire,
wire grass, various ericads, sarracenias, orchids, and other concomitan s.
Here and there the landscape is broken by lakes and ponds or cypress,
gum, tyty, or bay swamps. The rugged areas in question may then )e
considered hilly islands more or less completely surrounded, even to t'ie
north, by an -ocean of more flatly rolling or flat topography.'-9 It is
along the steeper hillsides, limestone cliffs, and outcrops of these d's-

4Britton, N. L., and Brown, A. An illustrated flora of the northern United Stales,
Canada and British possessions. Three vols. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1898.
5Chapman, A. W., Flora of the southeastern United States. 1-621. Ivison, Blakemin,
Taylor, and Company. 1872.
GRobinson, B. L., and Fernald, M. L. Gray's new manual of botany. 1-926. 7th IEd.
Am. Book Co. 1908.
'Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States. 1-1394. 2nd Ed. Author. 1913.
'Harper, R. M. Geography and vegetation of northern Florida. Florida Geol. Survey.
Sixth Ann. Rept., pp. 163-451. 1914.
9Kurz, Herman. Northern aspect and pheonology of Tallahassee Red Hills flora. 3Bot.
Gaz. 85: 83-89. 1928.








NORTHERN DISJUNCTS IN NORTHERN FLORIDA


junctive islands where the forests still approximate primeval conditions
that we find habitats suitable for certain northern species. Presumably
these species were driven southward during the ice age and were left
stranded, during the subsequent post-glacial northward migrations of
plants. However that may be, in a country where altitude differences
are negligible and where one rarely sees snow or frozen soils, and in a
land where native palms and Spanish moss suggest the tropics, the pres-
ence of species, some of which extend northward to Nova Scotia, New-
fotundland and Manitoba, presents a spectacular contrast.
The writer does not know just how general or specific a taxonomic
n mual should be in giving range or distribution of species. What
follows is therefore not an intended' criticism of such works. It is rather
a .vord to the explorative botanist. The accompanying table (TABLE I)
sutnmarizes the distributional information apropos to this paper as given
in the four leading systematic manuals dealing with the vegetation of
tile eastern United States and Canada. The manuals show that the
plants in consideration extend southward to Florida. But, north and
south, Florida is about 500 miles long. Point one is that the areas harbor-
iing northern species are in the extreme northern part of the State.
Northern Florida is also a long State east and west, about 400 miles long.
Only three areas containing the species in question are known; and these
are small, well separated from each other and from similar areas farther
north. The species occur, therefore, as disjuncts in disjunctive areas.
Point two is, then, that even if we say northern Florida, we are not
specific enough, since each locality has its own complexion as to species.
See TABLE II. The crosses indicate where the writer, guided by Dr.
R. M. Harper, or else independently, has seen these plants. Some of the
species may yet turn up outside of the regions given for them above.
Yet the writings of Croom,10 Chapman,11 and Harper,12 show, and my
own explorations corroborate, the fact that the three similar hilly islands
have definite differences as to floristic content. And that is point three.
Now why these three areas, despite their relative proximity to each
other, should vary so noticeably as to the disjuncts they harbor is still
an unsolved problem. All three have a clay substratum which, when
well weathered, is red. As to topography, the difference is only in degree.
The Apalachicola River Bluffs present the deepest ravines, the steepest
slopes and the most precipitous limestone cliffs. The Marianna Red
Lands are marked by more frequent though less precipitous limestone

,"Croom, H. B. Botanical communications. Am. Jour. Sci., 25: 69-78; 26: 313-320; 28:
165-168.1833-35.
"Chapman, A. W. Torreya taxifolla, Arnott. A reminiscence. Bot. Gaz., 10: 251-254.
1885.
"Harper, R. M. Geography and vegetation of northern Florida. Florida Geol. Survey.
;Sixth Ann. Rept., pp. 163-451. 1914.








52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

outcrops. In the Tallahassee Red Hills, whose hills are only slightly, if
at all, more pronounced than those of Marianna, limestone outcrops are
rare. This absence of limestone cliffs might account for the paucity
of certain species found at the other two localities. But why the Mari-
anna Red Lands should contain Aquilegia, Isopyrum, Trillium luteum,
Podophyllum and others while the Apalachicola 'River Bluffs and the
Tallahassee Red Hills do not; why the Apalachicola River Bluffs should
harbor Hepatica, Anemonella, Dentaria, and others, while the Marianna
region and the Tallahassee Red Hills do not, are questions that at present
lead only to speculation. The limestones of the two areas are of a
different age. The Marianna limestone, the commonest of the Marianna
Red Lands, is of Lower Oligocene and the Tampa limestone outcropping
at Aspalaga and at Chattahoochee is Lower Miocene.13 Some analyses
have been made for the Florida Geological Survey, but not enough is
known concerning the chemical and physical properties of the rocks and
their residual soils to help us solve, or even speculate on, the above
problems of distribution.

SUMMARY
Some northern woodland "ground flowers" extend as far south as
Florida. But the botanist should realize that they are not to be found
just anywhere in the State. They are mostly limited to very local areas
like the Marianna Red Lands, the Apalachicola River Bluffs and the
Tallahassee Red Hills, all in the extreme northern portion of the State.
These regions may be considered hilly islands more or less completely.
surrounded by an ocean of gently rolling or flat country. It is in thes
islands that we find lingering representatives of species which since
glacial times have migrated to the far north. The hardy norther 1
species found in these hilly regions offer a striking contrast to the semi-
tropical plants found in the same locality or else nearby. The areas
differ somewhat among themselves as to the northern relics they harbor.
why certain species are confined to one region in particular and are nct
common to all three areas is a fascinating though difficult problem
awaiting solution.


"1Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart. Geology of Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Twen-
tieth Ann. Rept., pp. 1-294. 1928.









NORTHERN DISJUNCTS IN NORTHERN FLORIDA


TABLE I


SPECIES

I'vilaria perfoliata L ..............
F-ythronium Americanum Ker.
S7lomonia biflora
(Walt) Britton ..................--.
O.kesiella Floridana
(Chapn) Small ......................
T illium Underwoodii Small ....
Trilliumn luteum (Muhl)
H-arbison ..... ........................
7 :Ilium lanceolatum Boykin ...
kRnuncu1us palmatus Small ....
,J emonella Thalictroides (L.)
1,'patica triloba Chaix .............
I,: ?yrum biternatum (Raf.)
1. & G ........................................
S:uilegia australis Small ----------
A.taea alba (L.) Mill -.--.....-----------
P ,dophyllum peltatum L ...----------
S i guinaria Canadensis L. ........
E 'itaria laciniata Muhl ............


Small


Florida
Florida

Florida

Florida
Florida



Florida
Florida
Florida

Florida
Florida

Florida
Florida
Florida


Chapman


Florida"
Middle
Florida"

Florida"

Florida"


Florida"
Florida"
Florida"
Florida"
West
Florida"
Florida"
Florida"
Florida","
Florida"'


*See footnote references on title page.


TABLE 2


U- uiaria perfoliata ...........
Erythronium Americanun

Saloanonia biflora ............
Oakesiella Floridana .......
Trillium Underwoodii ...
Trillium luteum -----.------------
Trillium lanceolatum .......
Ranunculus palmatus .......
Anemionella thalictroides
Hepatica triloba ...............
Isopyrum biternatum .......
Aquilegia australis ...........
Actaea alba ................
Podophyllum peltatum ...
Sanguinaria Canadensis ...
Dentaria laciniata ...........
Epigaea reopens .................


Apalachicola River Bluffs Marlanna
Tallahassee Chatta- | Aspa-| Rock Alum Red
Red Hills hoochee laga Bluff j Bluff Lands Remarks


x I


x x




x K.


x


Not seen

x Prob'ly 1
general
x General
x




x
x
At Rock
x Bluff
x General


Gray*


Florida

Florida







Florida


Britton*
& Brown

Florida
Florida


Florida








Florida
Florida



Florida
Florida
Florida


"Chapman, A. W. Flora of the southeastern United States. 1-621. Ivilon, Blakeman,
Taylor, and Companyi 1872.
"Chapman, A. W. Flora of the southeastern United States. Third Ed. Am. Book Com-
pany. 1901.











CYPRESS DOMES


HERMAN KURZ
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
TALLAHASSEE

Anyone touring in peninsular Florida cannot help but see many dome-
like groves of cypresses in shallow ponds and depressions. In certain
parts of the peninsula where the land lies flat fdr miles, as in the vicinity
of the St. Johns River west of Melbourne, for example, these domes
break the horizon line like flattened mole hills of mountainous proportions.
(See FIGURE 1) In fact, these mounds are the sole interrupters of an
otherwise monotonous landscape. Both species of cypress frequently
form the same type of dome-like groves. In parts of the St. Johns River
district it is the bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard. Ii
the other flatlands or flatwoods, as in the vicinity of Kissimmee, Tampa.
(See FIGURE 2) and the Everglades, it is the pond cypress, Taxodiuoi
ascendens Brongn. It will be seen, then, that these cypresses lend an
important and singular aspect to Floridian landscape.
Harper10 has observed and photographed such domes. In explana-
tion of these he writes on page 117:

'Anyone seeing such a pond for the first time might imagine that the small trees
at the edges were young ones and that the cypress growth was spreading. But the
cypress never voluntarily invades dry land, and there is no reason to suppose th;.t
the climate is becoming wetter or the water deeper. The little trees at the edges
have probably had just as much time to grow as the large ones in the middle, blit
they must be dwarfed by some unfavorable soil condition. The reason for all thi;,
however, is not known.

The present writer has made a study of the growth rings and finds
that the largest trees in the center are actually the oldest and those nearer
the edge are successively smaller and younger. This suggests that the
first germination and establishment of trees took place in deepest water
and the others germinated and developed successively later toward the
periphery of the pond.
However, such explanation does not conform exactly with what we
know about cypress seed germination. Both Mattoon17 and later Dent-

"Harper, R. M. Natural resources of southern Florida. Florida. Geol. Survey. Eight-
eenth Ann. Rept. 1927.
17Mattoon, W. R. The southern cypress. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 272, pp. 1-74. 1915.
54








CYPRESS DOMES


Fic. i.-Cypress dome of Ta.xodiumi distichuni (L.) Richard, fourteen miles
west of Melbourne.



I"


FIG. -2.-Cypress dome of Taxodium ascendens Brongn. Loyce, Pasco
County.
aree's have shown that cypress seeds require air as well as water for
germination. Demaree has also shown experimentally that even cypress
seedlings or saplings can be drowned. The writer, too, has made ob-
servation on Ta.rodium ascendens Brongn, growing in lakes and ponds
in the vicinity of Tallahassee. All of the many seedlings that germinate
when the water recedes perish when they are submerged for any length
of time by subsequent rising waters. That is to say, even cypress seed
and seedlings can be drowned and will not germinate in deep water.
"Demaree, Delzie. Submerging experiments with Taxodium. Ecol. 13, pp. 258-262. 1932.









56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

In accordance with these facts the chances are that the first cypress
seeds to germinate will be along the shallow edge. And only once in a
great while will a pond grow dry enough to permit seeds to germinate
in the middle and subsequently to grow fast enough to keep ahead of
rising water as the pond fills again. But once a tree near the middle
gets the jump on the rising water its success is reasonably certain. The
question, then, is if trees nearer the edge germinate first why are they
not larger and older than those in the center? We can answer this
question, at least in part. Close observation brings out the fact that there
is a high rate of premature mortality in the trees near the edge. The
nearer one approaches the edge the higher is that mortality.
New shoots or seedlings replace the dead ones and they themselves
in turn meet death. Toward the deeper water, the number of fatalities
and replacements diminish so that nearer the middle the individual trees
are progressively older and larger. This decrease in fatalities and corn-
sequent increase in size is so proportionate to the center that whole
groves, sometimes a quarter of a mile or more across, loom like hugc,
symmetrical domes or distant mounds on the horizon. Just why cypresse,
however, should die back partly or altogether prematurely in the shallower
water where growing conditions should be the best and thus fashion
such domes is the part of the question which as yet we cannot answer .























NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY AND THE OCCUR-
RENCE OF SOME DIATOMACEOUS
EARTH DEPOSi lS. OF
FLORIDA
(Figures 3 and 4)
HERMAN GUNTER AND GERALD M. PONTON


DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS
(Plates 1-11)
G. DALLAS HANNA












NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY AND THE OCCUR-
RENCE OF SOME DIATOMACEOUS
EARTH DEPOSITS OF
FLORIDA


HERMAN GUNTER AND GERALD M. PONTON

The investigations and sampling of the diatomite deposits that form
the basis for the following paper by Dr. Hanna were carried out by the
Florida Geological Survey, and since he had no part in the field work
a brief account of the deposits has been prepared at his suggestion.
All known deposits of diatomite in Florida occur in fresh water lakes
and ponds, or in lagoons or basins along rivers. The diatoms occur
intimately mixed with peat. The number of diatoms present varies
greatly even in the same deposit. Locally, due to wind, rain and flood
waters, sand and silt is present in variable amounts, especially in the
deposits associated with river systems.
The recovery and preparation of the diatomite in such peat deposits
presents many difficulties. In the past the peat has been dredged or
removed in other manner, partly air dried, then artificially dried, and
later the carbonaceous material completely removed by burning. The
most important problem, perhaps, is in the drying and burning. The
comparatively wet climate of Florida permits air-drying only a portion of
the year. The selection of the proper fuel and drying equipment is of
utmost importance.
The "Home" deposit, about three miles east of Tavares, Lake County,
was operated for several years (See samples Nos. 29 to 34). Sellards19
and Harper20 have briefly described the operations at this deposit.
The deposit, some fifteen miles south of Clermont, Lake County, has
been operated periodically for years. (See samples Nos. 35 to 40.)
Several accounts of the operations here have appeared in print and have
been noted by Hanna (See page 00 this report).
Another deposit closer to Clermont is at present being developed.

"Sellards, E. H., Mineral Industries and Resources of Florida; Florida Geol. Survey,
Sixth Ann. Rept., pp. 26-27, 1914.
"Harper, R. IM., Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida; Florida Geol. Sur-
Vey, Third Ann. Rept., pp. 290-1, 1910.
57


5-A-Geol.

























Milton -








NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA


r--I E: C P:


FIGURE 4-Index map of Florida showing approximate location of diatomite
deposits treated in this report. (The Mud Lake deposits are
not discussed in this paper).

Quite numerous samples of peat have been submitted to the Survey
over a period of years from other lake deposits in the State. Many of
these have contained a sufficient percentage of diatoms to be classed as
of possible commercial value.
The Blackwater River valley contains a large tonnage of commercial
diatomite. It should be noted, however, that much more thorough
sampling than has been done by the Survey must be undertaken before
the value of the deposits can be fully established. The deposits are dis-
tributed over a considerable area, and mining conditions will have an
important bearing on their economic value. It is understood that those
in control of these deposits are having them thoroughly sampled and
surveyed.
The Marquis basin deposit (See samples Nos. 25 to 28), consisting
of an admixture of silt and diatoms, is of especial interest. It would be








60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

quite impracticable to try to separate out the silt from this material, and
thus it could not be used as a high-grade diatomite. However, Mr. Frank
Westendick, assistant geologist of the Florida Survey, has tested this
material rather thoroughly and finds that it is suitable for the manufacture
of light-weight brick, etc. (About 55 per cent of the weight of common
brick). This result was obtained by the use of the material without
the addition of any other clay. By mixing ground cork in the batch, an
excellent grade of light, porous brick resulted.
The comparatively recent origin of the diatomaceous earth was never
questioned until Dr. Hanna studied samples sent him in 1930. (See
page 68). The examination of these, two samples, however, appeared to
show conclusively that at least part of the peat was deposited under
considerably colder conditions -than those existing today, and from this
it was concluded that the peat was laid down during one of the Pleistocene
advances of the ice sheet. Since details as to the manner under which
these two samples were procured were not known, it was decided to
obtain some under approved methods, not only of these but other deposits.
All sampling was done with a Swedish Peat Sampler, which permits
the taking of a sample at any desired specified depth. The instrument
was very satisfactory on all the peat, but some difficulties in opening
the barrel occurred when taking any samples contaminated with sand,
and all grit had to be flushed from the barrel before using again.
The examination of these carefully procured samples confirmed the
results obtained from the first two and indicated that only very small
additions, if any, are being made to the deposits.
The placing of these deposits in the Pleistocene must rest almost
entirely on biological data. No very definite correlation with other geo-
logical formations can be made. We do know that the valley of t'le
Blackwater River has been cut down through the Citronelle flood plain
deposits of Pliocene age and into at least the upper part of the Mioce;ie
deposits. The lake deposits are generally located in depressions in areas
where the Citronelle formation forms the main surface deposits. On
stratigraphic evidence, all that can be said is that the deposits are younger
than the Citronelle formation.
During the Pleistocene the deposits in the lake basins might have
been very similar to what they are now; indeed this is quite likely.
However, in connection with the deposits associated with river systems,
the history is much more complicated. While we sampled only the
basin of Blackwater River, the existence of peat deposits in other river
valleys in Florida is known, and likely conditions in these other rivers
would prove much the same as in the Blackwater. Sampling of other
river basins, however, would undoubtedly give much valuable information,








NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA


not only in helping to understand the conditions leading to the deposition
of peat, but also in demonstrating the commercial possibilities of the
Florida deposits.
It is quite evident from a study of maps that Blackwater River is,
in its lower reaches, a drowned river and was likely in earlier times a
tributary of the Escambia River to the west. The river has been
definitely drowned throughout the extent of East Bay (St. Mary de
Galvez Bay) and Blackwater Bay. The river itself starts at Bagdad,
but it is very sluggish for a distance of some ten miles above. This
point is approximately the junction of Coldwater Creek and Blackwater
River. Above the junction there is a decided fall to the river and creek,
the current being quite swift. The slight gradient of the main river
is shown by the fact that tides affect it considerably over this ten-mile
interval, even though the maximum average of the tide of the Gulf is
only 1.5 to 2.5 feet. Normally, brackish water extends to a point about
a mile and a half north of Milton and occasionally steady southerly winds
and high tides drive it farther north, but in freshets fresh water advances
farther south.
Below Milton the river banks are fairly well defined but are bordered
with more or less salt marsh. Above Milton the main river channel is
more or less defined by a narrow sand embankment several feet above
water. This embankment in many places has almost the appearance of
an artificial levee. Back of this embankment are swamps and open basins
'that range in size from small ponds to fairly large shallow lakes. Water-
ways connect these basins with the river and with each other. The tides
cause the current of water through these channels to reverse itself. The
system of swamps, basins and channels is rather complex and the heavy
floods covering the whole valley at times cause decided changes. Away
from the present river there are channels that doubtless in the past were
the main river, and some of the present subordinate channels are so active
that they will eventually capture the main river.
The flood waters occasionally wash away portions of the peat, beds
or cover them with sand. This sanding over of the beds was noticed at
places in the Magnolia basin and in the Marquis basin. Sample Number
25, from the Marquis basin, was a mixture of silt, brackish water diatoms
and a few peat-bog diatoms. Without doubt, thorough sampling of the
Marquis basin would show such a mixture over the whole basin to a
depth of a few feet. The peat-bog material was brought in by flood
waters.
Assuming that the conclusion arrived at, namely, that the peat beds
were laid down during an advance of one of the Pleistocene ice sheets,








62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TIH ANNUAL REPORTS

is correct, we can postulate some of the conditions existent at the time
of the deposition of the beds.
The fact that the brackish-water flora was buried under the peat-bog
flora in McLeod basin and in Marquis basin it was entirely, except for
the surface contamination before mentioned, a brackish-water one, seems
to quite conclusively prove that the brackish-water flora lived before the
peat-bog material was deposited. Possibly the brackish water deposit
covered much more of the basin than at present but was removed from
the upper part of the valley by river action during the last glacial substage,
when the sea level was much lower than at present and the river might
be expected to have a more rapid current. It will be noted that today
the normal line of brackish water in the valley is about a mile and a half
north of Milton. This puts McLeod basin in brackish water today, and
yet we do not find brackish-water diatoms in the upper part of the deposit
here.
It so happens that the junction of Coldwater Creek and Blackwatr
River is not only the up-river end of sluggish current and tidal action,
but also the limit of the peat deposits. The sea levels of both Pamli,:o
and Princess Anne times, which were respectively 25 and 12 feet above
the present level,21 would have drowned the river system consideral ly
above this point. Therefore, it is reasonable to surmise that there m,ty
have been in the past peat deposits north of this point that in the count se
of later developments were removed.
The most suitable time for the deposition of the brackish water ce-
posits appears to have been in Pamlico or Princess Anne times, which 're
believed to have immediately preceded the last advance of the Wisconsin
ice sheet.22 The peat-bog material must have been deposited during the
last Wisconsin Glacial Substage. It ceased to form when the climate
became too mild to support the flora.
Hanna, in estimating the age of the deposits by the rate of accumula-
tion of the peat, used a thickness of 20 feet. We deem this thickness
for making such an estimate somewhat excessive, even though several
tests showed thicknesses greater than this. However, some of this thick-
ness or depth of the deposits should probably be attributed to secondary
accumulation. In the case of the Blackwater River deposits, a more*
conservative average thickness for making an estimate of the age would
not be over ten feet. The greater thicknesses reported are due to the
tendency of the peat to wash toward and accumulate in the deeper parts

2Cooke, C. W., Tentative correlation of American Chronology with the marine time
scale; Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 22, pp. 310-313, 1932.
"Cooke, C. W., Pleistocene changes of sea level (Abstract); Washington Acad. Scl.
Jour., vol. 23, pp. 109-110. 1933.








NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA


of the basin. At the Home deposit near Tavares, the same conditions
exist. Here we found the deepest part of the bog to contain 22 feet
of peat. This deep part, however, did not cover more than 10 acres and
the remaining approximate 90 acres of the bog probably would not
average more than 5 feet. The deposit 15 miles south of Clermont
is located in a long narrow arm of a lake and here the deposit does not
average over 5 feet in thickness. The deposit near Lake Wales today
-.is the appearance of a prairie covered with a very rank growth of
i% eeds, but a few years ago, before it was drained, it was probably covered
v ith water, at least a large part of the year. We believe we sampled
t: is bog in one of the deepest places and, therefore, the average thickness
of peat will probably not exceed this depth, namely, 9 feet.
It would be more conservative and perhaps more closely approach
ti.e true time equivalent to assume an average thickness of 8 to 10 feet
e: peat. Using 8 feet in place of 20 feet and Soper and Osbon's23 lower
r;,te of accumulation, namely, 0.72 inches per century, the time required
f.;r the deposition would be about 13,000 years. If, on the other hand,
tl eir higher rate is used, the time required for deposition would be 4,444
yEars.
The minimum duration of the Late Wisconsin ice sheet in Iowa is
e-timated by Kay24 as about 3,000 years.
Of academic interest is the report of Prof. J. W. Bailey25 on some
diatoms collected in Florida. His report treats of the living diatoms
found in ponds and ditches, rather than with peat deposits. He did,
however, report and describe from near Tampa a "stratum of fossil
marine Diatomacea or Infusoria" of Miocene age. Further investigations,
however, by Dall26 and others shows that the deposit does not seem to be
properly infusorial in character, but is really a siliceous marl formed by
the decomposition of Tampa limestone.
Since Dr. Hanna completed his examination of the samples submitted
to him, we have received from Dr. T. S. Kennedy an additional sample
of diatomaceous peat from a basin along Boiling Creek, a tributary of
Yellow River in the southeast portion of Santa Rosa County. The
sample came from 2 feet below the top of the peat, but the thickness of
the deposit was not given.

"Soper, E. K., and Osbon, C. C., U. S. Geol. Survey; Bull. 728, pp. 12-13, 1922.
4Kay, G. F., Classification and Duration of the Pleistocene Period, Bull. Geol. Soc. of
Amer., vol. 42, No. 1, p. 461, 1931.
"'Bailey, J. W., Microscopical observations made in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida;
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 2, Art. 8, Dec. 1, 1850.
"Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D.. The Neocene of North America, U. S. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 84, pp. 115-117, 1892.










64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

The following species were found in this peat, all abundant or common
and representative of the peat-bog deposits:


Actinella punctata
Pinnularia major
Pinnularia nobilis
Stauroneis phoenicenteron
Frustulia rhomboides
Eunotia diodon
Eunotia e.tiguua
Eunotia pectinalis
Eunotia fle.iuosa
Surirella oblonga


Fragilaria floridana
Stenopterobia bailey
Stenopterobia intermedia
Neidium tumescens
Neidium irridis
Melosira granulata
Navicula cuspidata
Anomoeoneis brachysira
Anomoeoneis serians
Anomoeoneis peregrina


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

These investigations have been much facilitated by the cooperation
of a number of individuals and our appreciation of the help rendered is
herewith acknowledged. Special mention of courtesies extended are du,.
to Dr. T. S. Kennedy, of Milton, and to Mr. Charles Shewey, of Clermoni.
Also to Dr. C. Wythe Cooke, United States Geological Survey, for read-
ing the manuscript and making a number of helpful suggestions.































DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS
(Plates 1-11)

G. DALLAS HANNA
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

























CONTENTS


Introduction ......................... ................................... ................ .............................. 68
L st of localities ........................................................................................ .................... 69
P r- evious investigations ................................................................................. .. ... ............. 72
Relationship with deposits elsewhere ........................................... .. ............................. 73
D position and ecology .................................. .. ................................... ....................... 74
D descriptions of species .......................................................................................... 76
Species which belong to the peat bog flora ............................................. 77
Brackish water species found below the peat deposits ................................................. 91




ILLUSTRATIONS


P latest 1-11 ............... ...................................................................... ........................... 97












DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


G. DALLAS HANNA
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.


INTRODUCTION
In 1930 two specimens of peat were sent to me by Mr. Gerald M.
Ponton, of the Geological Survey of Florida. The material sent was
brown in color, light in weight and obviously composed to a very large
extent of vegetable debris. One of the samples was from the deposit
which was being exploited commercially for diatoms, and some of the
calcined material was included for examination.
Under the microscope the snow-white calcined residue (derived from
burning the dried peat) disclosed a very nearly pure assemblage of fresh-
water diatoms and fragments of the same. Since they were somewhat
warped from the heat they had undergone, some of the unburned peat was
put through the usual cleaning processes familiar to all diatomists. The
result was a very beautiful lot of perfectly cleaned diatoms. The several
species present appeared to be so interesting and so far out of place,
geographically, that (at the suggestion of Mr. Herman Gunter, State Ge-
ologist) an illustrated report was prepared upon the flora.
The diatoms present were soon recognized as belonging to a well known
group, characteristic of peat bogs and glacial lakes of high latitudes. This
assemblage will be referred to hereafter in this report as the "peat-bog,
flora."
Somewhat later, and as a result of the disclosures of the first study,
Mr. Gunter had a sample taken from the bottom of the deposit in McLeo'l
Basin and this was sent to me for examination. The various character-
istic species of the bog flora were absent or very rare and instead there
were large numbers of diatoms which are known to be inhabitants of
somewhat brackish water. This assemblage will be referred to hereafter
in this report as the "brackish water flora."
The only conclusions which could be drawn from a study of the
diatoms of these three samples were that: (1) the peat itself accumulated
during a period when the climate of Florida was comparable to that of.
the northern United States or Canada today, and: (2) prior to the de-









DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


position of the peat, at least McLeod Basin was occupied by brackish
water.
The interest aroused in our minds by these conclusions led Mr.
Gunter to initiate a more comprehensive exploration of numerous lake
basins of the State. Test holes were put down and samples were taken
from various depths. The samples were dried and sent to me for
examination and study.
The following is a list of the material comprised in this survey. The
locality information has been transcribed' from the sample bags and to
tflis has been added such notes as I made from an examination of the
uncleaned material under the microscope. Numerous samples were sub-
sequently put through the customary cleaning processes and the earlier
nii,,tes were fully confirmed and in some cases extended.


ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF SAMPLES

I-i. "McLeod Basin. Depth 6 ft. (water 42 in.). A little west of center
of basin." Dark gray silt with few plant roots. Eunotia abundant.
1-2. "McLeod Basin. Depth 12 ft. (water 42 in.)." Dark gray silt with few
plant roots. Eunotia abundant.
1-3. "McLeod Basin. Depth 13 ft. 6 in. (water 42 in.)." Dark gray silt.
Eunotia abundant.
1-4. "McLeod Basin. Depth 16 ft. (water 42 in.)." Dark gray silt with
plant debris. Eunotia abundant.
1-5. "McLeod Basin. Depth 23 ft. (water 42 in.)." Dark gray silt. Eunotia
abundant.
I-6. "McLeod Basin. Depth 28 ft. (water 42 in.)." Dark brown silt. Al-
most no diatoms.
IA-7. "McLeod Basin. Depth ii ft., 200 ft. west of T Light gray diatomite.
Abundant peat bog flora of diatoms.
IA-8. "McLeod Basin. Depth 22 ft. (water 4 ft.)." Grayish brown silt. Al-
most no diatoms; few sponge spicules.
II-9. "Magnolia Basin. Depth 5 ft. (water 3 ft.J. Southeast corner of basin."
Dark gray silt with abundant plant debris and peat bog diatoms.
II-io. "Magnolia Basin. Depth 13 ft. (water 3 ft.)." Dark gray silt with
small amount of plant debris; Melosira granulata, Pinnularia nobilis
and sponge spicules common.
IIA-II. "Magnolia Basin. Depth 26 ft." Light gray silt with some plant debris
and abundant peat bog flora of diatoms.
III-12. "Big Williams Basin. Depth 4 ft. (water 3 ft.). Thickness of earth
ii ft." Light gray silt with plant debris and abundant peat bog di-
atoms.
III-13. "Big Williams Basin. Depth 14 ft. (water 3 ft.). Thickness of earth,
II ft." Dark gray silt with some plant debris; scattered sponge spicules
and few large diatoms, all partially corroded; not brackish.









70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

IV-I4. "Little Williams Basin. Depth 3 ft. (water 2 ft.)." Light gray peaty
diatomite. Abundant and beautifully preserved peat bog diatoms. 't
IV-I5. "Little Williams Basin. Depth 12 ft. (water 2 ft.)." Dark gray silt
with some plant debris. A few poorly preserved Pinnularia nobilis and
sponge spicules; not brackish.
V-I6. "Cooper's Basin. Lower end. Depth 6 ft. (water 5 ft.).". Dark gray
silty diatomite. Abundant poorly-preserved peat bog diatoms.
VA-17. "Cooper's Basin. Fifty ft. north of 'V'. Detph 8 ft." Dark gray silty
diatomite. Abundant peat bog diatoms; about the same as V-i6.
V-I8. "Cooper's Basin. Depth 13 ft. (water 3 ft.)." Black silty sediment
with some plant debris; very few diatom fragments and sponge spicules.
VB-I9. "Cooper's Basin. Upper end. Depth 3 ft. (water 3 ft.)." Dark gray
silt. Scattered peat bog diatoms.
VB-20. "Cooper's Basin. Depth 9 ft. (water 2/2 ft.). Upper end of basin.'"
Dark gray silt with poorly preserved (rotten) diatoms; apparently pe-.t
bog flora.
VI-2I. "Basin No. 5. Near center. Sample No. i. Depth 6 ft. (water 3 ft.)."
Light gray diatom peat with small amount of silt. Excellent peat bce
flora.
VIA-22. "Basin No. 3. Sample No. 2. Depth 8 ft. (water I ft.). Taken fro i
near edge of stream 300 ft. west of 'VI'." Dark gray silty peat wi h
scattered peat bog diatoms.
VII-23. "Basin No. 6. Sample No. I. Depth 5 ft. (water 2 ft.). Eight miles
up Blackwater, left bank." White diatom peat with much extreme y
fine sediment. Abundant peat bog diatoms.
VIIA-24. "Basin No. 6. Sample No. 2. Taken east of Sample No. i. Depth 6
ft. (water 2 ft.)." Light gray silty peat with abundant peat bog ( i-
atoms.
VIII-25'. "Marquis Basin, at mouth. Depth 4 ft. (water 3 ft.)" Dark gray s It
with few scattered peat bog diatoms.
VIII-26. "Marquis Basin. Depth 19 ft. (water 3 ft.). Sand at 28 ft." Almost
black silt. Scattered brackish water diatoms, Campylodiscus echenis,
Diploneis smithii.
VIIIA-27. "Marquis Basin, near center. Depth 13 ft. (water 3 ft.)." Dark gray
silt with abundant diatoms. This contains some Nitzschia along with
typical freshwater diatoms, but does not contain the true peat bog
flora.
VIIIB-28. "Marquis Basin, 200 ft. east of center. Depth 14 ft. (water 3 ft.)."
Dark gray silt with abundant brackish water diatoms.
IX-29. "Home deposit, about 3 miles east of Tavares. Samples of weeds grow-
ing in water with diatoms." Diatoms abundant; many peat bog species
absent.
IXA-30. "Home deposit, 200 ft. west of old dredge. Depth 4 ft." Dark brown
peat. Very few diatoms present in the ash. This is different material
from any other samples seen; it seems to be very largely unchanged
plant debris.









DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


IXA-3I. "Home deposit, 200 ft. west of old dredge. Depth io ft." Material
is practically identical with the last.
1XA-32. "Home deposit, 200 ft. west of old dredge. Depth 19 ft. (water 3 ft.)."
Identical with last two samples.
IXA-33. "Home deposit, 200 ft. west of old dredge. Depth 25 ft." Few pieces
of plant debris about like the preceding three samples, but most of the
sample is quartz sand. The grains are very well rounded and have the
appearance of dune sand. Very few diatoms are present, but the sand
contains many sponge spicules.
IXB-34. "Home deposit, 100 ft. S. W. of old dredge. Depth 15 ft. (Sand at
20 ft.)." Dark brown peat. Very similar to preceding four samples.
X-35. "Clermont deposit, 15 miles south of Clermont. Diatomite Products
Corp. West end of deposit. Average thickness of earth, 6 ft. Depth
2 ft. (water 1.5 ft.)." Dark brown peat, plant roots and debris.
Abundant peat bog diatoms.
X-36. "Clermont deposit. Depth 7 ft. (water 1.5 ft.)." Black peat with few
light gray streaks in which there are abundant bog diatoms. The peat
has much the appearance of IXA-3o-33 and contains comparatively few
diatoms.
XA-37. "Clermont deposit, 2oo ft. east of X. Depth 7 ft. (water 2 ft.)." Dark
brown peat with abundant peat bog diatoms.
XA-38. "Clermont deposit, 20o ft. east of X. Depth io ft. (water 2 ft.)." Dark
brown peat with borings of light gray diatomite. Peat bog diatoms
abundant.
XB-39. "Clermont deposit, 500 ft. east of west end of bog. Top of earth."
Dark brown peat with abundant plant roots. Diatoms abundant but
many of the typical peat bog species absent.
XC-4o. "Clermont deposit. About 200 ft. from south edge of bog, opposite
plant. Depth 8 ft. (water 3 ft.)." Dark brown peat with abundant
plant stems. Peat bog diatoms abundant in ash.
XI-41. "Lake Wales. Near Humus plant about 70 ft. south of railroad on
west side of canal. 'Depth 8 ft. (no water). Total thickness of earth
9 ft." Dark brown peat. Abundant sponge spicules and some peat
bog diatoms.
XTA-42. "Lake Wales. Thirty feet south of XI. Depth 2 ft. Total thickness of
earth, 9 ft. No water." Dark brown peat.

In addition to the foregoing the two original samples had the following
data:
1. Peat from 15 miles south of Clermont, Lake County, Florida.
2. Peat from IY2 miles northeast of Milton, Santa Rosa County, Florida.

Both of these contain the bog flora of diatoms and many of the
accompanying illustrations were made from them.
The original sample which contained brackish water forms came from
the base of the deposit in McLeod Basin and has been used for illustra-
tions of that flora herein.









72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL RERORTS


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

The occurrence of diatoms in the Florida peat deposits has been
known for several years. As early as 1908 Sellards27 mentioned previous
production and in 191428 he reported on the distribution of the material
and mentioned the operations of one company near Eustis, in Lake
County. Harper,29 in 1910, also described this deposit and plant.
Drake30 described the deposit at Clermont in some detail in 1926 and
showed surface photographs, views of the plant and some of the machinery
of the operating company. Quotations from his article, including five
photographs, were reproduced by Robert Calvert31 in 1930. He also
gave an analysis of the calcined material (p. 35, table 14) showing 98.43
per cent silica and (on p. 53) a brief notice of the occurrence at Eustis.
His photograph of "Florida diatomite" (p. 54, fig. 4) does not show a
material comparable to the samples submitted to me. I did not find
the common species shown in that picture and since the valves are mostly
united, there is probability that he had a sample in which the organisms
had not been long dead; perhaps it came from a higher level.
Weigel32 has also given an account of the Clermont deposit and notes
on its preparation for the market.

V. L. Eardley-Wilmot33 published an excellent treatise on diatomi.e
in 1928 and on page 107 there appears a short account of the Clermo it
deposit. On plate 14, figure D, there is reproduced a photograph 4f
some of the material, and several of the species noted in the present
paper are there readily recognized.










"TSellards, E. H., Mineral Industries, Florida Geol. Survey, First Ann. Rept., p. 39, 19'08.
52Sellards, E. H., Mineral Industries and Resources of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey, Sixth
Ann. Rept., pp. 26-27, 1914.
29Harper, R. M., Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida, Florida Geol. Sur-
vey, Third Ann. Rept., pp. 290-291, 1910.
0oDrake, L. M., Manufacturers Record, vol. 20, No. 18, pp. 102-104, Nov. 4, 1926.
'"Calvert, Robert, Diatomaceous Earth, American Chemical Society, Monograph Series,
No. 52, pp. 85-89, figs. 24-28, 1930.
"2Weigel, W. M., Technology and uses of silica and sand. U. S. Bureau of Mines Bull.
No. 266, pp. 1-204, 1927. [Diatomaceous earth, pp. 185-199; practice in Florida, p. 190;
fig. of Clermont material, fig. 49b].
"Eardley-Wilmot, V. L. Diatomite. Canada Dept. Mines. Mines Branch, Publ. No. 691,
pp. 1-182, 15 pls., 31 text figs., 1 map, 1928.







DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


RELATIONSHIP WITH DEPOSITS ELSEWHERE

The study of the diatoms of these peat deposits has yielded some
highly interesting information. While I have not been on the ground
myself and have made no attempt to ascertain what may be their associa-
tion and relationship, I do not hesitate to say that they date back to the
glacial period. The flora is essentially a northern one, sub-arctic at
the present time, and made known chiefly from a study of lake deposits
of Canada, northeastern United States and northern Europe. This was
brought out repeatedly in the study of individual species. It certainly
is not a tropical or subtropical flora such as should be found living in
Fiorida at the present time and was actually found adhering to growing
plants in some of the basins during the course of this study. (See list
of samples.)
Most of the species are typical inhabitants of peat bogs where acidic
conditions are high. Such a flora was first made known in America by
., wis534 in 1864 from the White Mountains and has since been added to
b numerous authors from material collected in Maine, New Hampshire,
3Y: issachusetts, Vermont and Canada. Some of the forms noted herein
as common or abundant have heretofore been considered rare and the
re ords in the literature bear this out. A few are widely spread in
te operate regions.
A swamp deposit was noticed years ago by K. N. Cunningham35 at
Montgomery, Alabama, and a list of species was given. Also, more
recently, similar swamp material was described by Dr. Albert Mann36
frm an excavation in Washington, D. C. These deposits have many
species in common but the lists contain very few of those noted in the
following pages from the Florida localities. The Washington excavation
contained stumps of bald cypress in place, and this would seem to indicate
a somewhat warmer climate than the present. It seems safe to infer
from this data that the Florida material did not accumulate at the same
time as that in Alabama and the District of Columbia. If the latter
date back to one of the warmer interglacial periods, it is probable that
the diatom-bearing peat of Florida accumulated at the time of maximum
southerly expansion of the ice sheet.
I have made as intensive a search as was possible for previous records
of individual species of freshwater diatoms from Florida, comparable

"Lewis, F. W. On some new and singular intermediate forms of Diatomaceae. Acad.
Nat. Set., Philadelphia, Proc. Vol. 15, pp. 336-346, 1 pl., 1863 [1864].
"Cunningham, K. N., in E. A. Smith and others. Report on * Coastal Plain of
Alabama.. Rept. Geol. Surv. Alabama, pp. 61-65, 1894.
"Mann, Albert. [The fossil swamp deposit at the Walker Hotel site, Connecticut Avenue
and De Sales Street, Washington, D. C.]; Diatom deposit found in the excavation. Journ.
Washington Acad. Sel., Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 26-32, pl. 4, Jan., 1924.


6-Geol.








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TI- ANNUAL REPORTS

to those of the present paper, but I was not successful in finding any,
in spite of extensive library facilities which have been available. There
are a considerable number of records of fossil marine forms from the
State and some living species have been listed, but I do not believe that
any of the material from the peat deposits has heretofore been critically
studied by diatomists.


DEPOSITION AND ECOLOGY

The conditions under which the deposits of peat accumulated in
Florida need consideration because the State falls within the climatic
zone now classed as subtropical. It is well known that most of the
deposits of peat in the world are in the cold temperate and arctic regions;
in fact, the material is so characteristic a feature of higher latitudes that
it has been used as an indicator of past climate.37 This feature alone
would lead to the tentative conclusion that the deposits accumulated, at
least in large part, during a period when the temperature was colder than
it is at present. The diatoms which have been found in the peat and
which are treated in the following pages seem to furnish sufficient proof
of this assumption to warrant its acceptance.
It is obvious from observations on deposits of peat accumulating at
the present time that conditions are best in those cold climates wheie
there is little circulation of the water, little incoming sediment and a
temperature sufficiently low to delay the ordinary processes of plait
decomposition. These necessary conditions have long been recognized
in the literature and I have confirmed them personally through mai,,
years of travel in Alaska. There, peat bogs occupy great areas and for:n
well nigh impassible barriers to summer overland travel in many section.
Collections made in the decaying debris on the bottom of such bogs ha, e
yielded many of the same species recorded herein from the Florida
deposits.
Soper and Osbon3s have estimated the quantity of peat in Florida ait
2,000,000,000 short tons. The physical and chemical properties of the
material have been discussed by many authors39 but it is interesting to
note that Giles has made the following statement: "It appears, therefore,
that the average peat of cold regions has a higher heating value and

3For a general discussion of this subject see Giles, A. WV., Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol.
41, 1930, pp. 405-430. Also: Soper, E. K., and C. C. Osbon, "The occurrence and uses of
peat in the United States." U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 728, pp. 5-6, 1922.
"3Soper and Osbon, U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 728, pp. 92-93, 1922.
09See in addition to the citations already given: Haanel, B. F., "Peat, its manufacture
and uses." Canada Dept. Mines. Publ. No. 641, pp. 36-37, 1925. Davis, C. A., "The prepa-
ration and use of peat as fuel." U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 442, pp. 101-132, 1925.








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


contains less ash than the average peat of warm countries." The Florida
material, however, "compares favorably with peat from any other part
of the country, and is equal to the best peat of the Great Lakes region,
having high calorific value and low ash content." 40
Still more evidence that the Florida deposits date back to one or more
of the glacial periods is furnished by the data on the rate of accumulation
of peat. Soper and Osbon41 computed the average rate for the Great
Lakes region, where conditions favor rapid deposition, at .72 to 2.16
inches per century. Using the lower figure it is seen that the time
required for deposition of 20 feet of peat would be well over 30,000
years. This would take the beginning far back toward the glacial period
if it were assumed that deposition had continued at the same rate up to
the present time. However, it is doubtful if the Florida deposits are being
materially increased under present conditions and it is quite probable
that they have not increased for many centuries. The diatoms which lived
during the period of peat accumulation are not found in present waters
in the swamps, so far as the samples collected indicate. We are not
ju-tified in assuming that even during the maximum extension of the
ice sheet conditions were as favorable for the accumulation of peat in
Florida as they are in the Great Lakes region today. Nevertheless, it
does seem safe to conclude that during a period of 30,000 years or more,
a period probably coincident with one of the ice sheets, the climate of
Florida did not differ greatly from that of the northern part of the
United States at present.
The information derived from this study does not conform to the
conclusion which E. W. Berry42 reached from a study of Pleistocene
plants of North Carolina. Owing to the failure to find definitely north-
ern forms in his collection, he concluded that the cooling influence of the
ice sheet did not reach that far south from the terminal morains. The
evidence derived from the Florida peat deposits is so overwhelmingly in
favor of such a cooling of the climate that it seems probable Dr. Berry's
plants may have been deposited during a warm interglacial period or
during one of the earlier minor southward extensions of the ice.
Almost equal in interest to the finding of this cold water flora of
diatoms in the peat itself was the discovery of a brackish water flora
in McLeod and Marquis basins which lived prior to the deposition of
the peat. Evidently not all of the basins were so occupied by brackish
water because, had they been, the samples collected in the survey would

"Giles, A. WV. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. 41, pp. 411, 418, 1930.
"Soper. E. K., and C. C. Osbon, U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 728, pp. 12-13. 1922.
,"Berry, E. XW. i-. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 140-C, pp. 97-119, pls. 45-57, text figs. 5, 6,
1920.








76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

almost certainly have disclosed the fact. In the original basal sample
from McLeod Basin which was studied in greatest detail there was a
slight admixture of the peat flora due to the inclusion of some of the
actual peat. Careful examination of the section as disclosed by the later
survey showed that the brackish water forms occupy a silt which con-
tains considerable organic matter but which in no reasonable interpreta-
tion of the term would be classed as a peat. The line of demarcation
between the zone of brackish water deposition and that of freshwater
peat seems to be fairly sharply defined, but the sampling instrument
apparently did not cut an actual core which would permit a view of the
contact itself.
Much information can be obtained from a study of the deeper samples
of the various basins, those samples which come from below the zone of
peat. Thus, No. IX A-33 consists largely of well sorted and well rounded
quartz sand, possibly an old dune.
Sample No. IX-29 is a collection of the growing vegetation from
"Home deposit, Tavares." This was carefully cleaned and yielded
abundant Fragilaria, small Navicula, Gomphonema and Tabellaria.
The assemblage found is such as might reasonably be expected to
occupy a body of somewhat stagnant water in a warm climate.
Several of the topmost samples of the peat were examined with great
care to ascertain if any of the typical cold water forms could be found
alive, but in no case was this true. All of the frustules which wore
critically studied were empty. It seems, however, that since the p',at
comes practically to the surface of the bottom some investigators have
been led to believe that accumulation is still going on. I am inclined to
doubt this. Surely the bottom material is in a state of more or l.ss
unrest constantly, due to wind and waves, moving and burrowing anim;ils,
etc., but in view of the mass of information which tends to show ac-
cumulation of peat at the present time only in cold climates, it seems
reasonable to assume that no additions are being made to the Florida
deposits at present. This constant movement of the bottom material,
however, makes it very difficult to secure an uncontaminated sample of
present-day diatoms from any of the basins.

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

In the following pages I have not attempted to prepare complete
synonymies of the several species; such compilations seem best placed
in monographic studies. The references which have been cited are to
standard works on the subject and those American authors who have
furnished definite information for the identification of the species.








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


The slides upon which the present study is based have been deposited
with the Florida Geological Survey. Each species was mounted separately
in almost all cases. While the total number recorded is not large, it is
believed that all of the reasonably common ones have been listed. Un-
doubtedly others could be obtained upon more protracted search, but
they would be rare, and rare forms are not usually of much value in
geologic correlation. Those listed herein can usually be found on strewn
slides of the material, after a few minutes of search.
The diatoms are mounted in hyrax, a synthetic resin with a refractive
index of about 1.80. This not only increases greatly the contrast of the
specimens and their details of sculpture, but materially increases the
depth of focus of lenses used in photography.


SPECIES WHICH BELONG TO THE PEAT BOG FLORA

Actinella punctata Lewis
PLATE I, FIGURE I
Acticlla punctata LEWIS, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1863, .[1864], p. 343,
i1l. I, fig. 5.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, pl. 35, figs. 18,
21.-WOLFE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 37, fig. 6-10.-VAN HEURCK, Treat.
Diat. 1896, p. 306, pl. 30, fig. 832.-HusTEDT in Schmidt, Atlas Diat. pl. 291, 1913,
figs. 15-22.
This interesting species, intermediate between Eunotia and Asterionella,
is common in most of the peat samples. Evidently it is generally rare
because published records of it are scarce. It is said to grow in star-
shaped clusters. Good equipment, skillfully used, is necessary to resolve
the transverse lines into their constituent beads.

Anomoeoneis brachysira (Br6bissoh)
PLATE 3, FIGURES 2-6
Navicula brachysira (BRPBISSON) in RABENHORST, Siissw. Diat. 1853, p. 39, pl. 5,
figs. II, c, d, e.
Anomoeoneis (?) brachysira CLEVE, Kongl. Sr. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, No. 3,
1895, p. 7.
Navicula serians minor & minima GRUNOW in VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique,
1880-1881, pl. 12, figs. 8, 9; not N. serians brachysira, Suppl. pl. B, fig. 31; and
not N. serians brachysira, VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 217, pl. 4, fig 197,
which are merely small serians.
Cymbella beverleiana SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 71, 1881, figs. 56-6I.

It is necessary to select a name for these minute naviculoid diatoms
which are very common in all of the peat samples. They are obviously
generically related to A. serians, but a study of a large number is con-








78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

vincing that they constitute a distinct species. They vary greatly in shape
and size but are consistently smaller than serians. After considering the
matter from several viewpoints, it seems best to follow the work of Cleve,
who suggested the above synonymy and stated that "A. brachysira differs
from serians only in its smaller size, its somewhat finer strike and es-
pecially its obtuse ends." He recorded it from high latitudes only,
"Greenland, Lapland, Finland and Scotland." It has apparently not
heretofore been listed from North America under brachysira but probably
does occur to the north and has been placed under some other species.
As an illustration of this probability, there may be cited Boyer's record
of A. serians minor from May's Landing, New Jersey.43 Chase, in his
manuscript index, has cross references which would seem to involve the
name in a nomenclatorial tangle from which no satisfactory escape is
possible, once it is entered. The diatom is so small that even as late as
the time of Schmidt and Van Heurck, lenses were not well enough con-
structed and mounting media of high index of refraction were inot
available so that the true structure was not well known. Passing farther
back to the period of Ehrenberg, Kiitzing and Rabenhorst, when names
were bestowed on some minute diatoms similar in general shape to thcse
from Florida, the matter becomes so uncertain that it seems far better
to let their names lapse, as Cleve has done.
The markings are scarcely resolvable with the highest aperture, dry
lenses, but appear as a series of irregular, longitudinal lines similar to
N. serians, with a faint indication only of beading when oblique green
light is used. The photographs shown herewith were taken with about
1.20 N. A.

Anomoeoneis follis (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 3, FIGURES 7, 8
Navicula follis EIIRENBERG, Infus. 1838, p. 179.-EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 5,
III, fig. 6; pl. 16, I, fig. i4a-c, II, fig. 12; pl. 17, I, fig 15, II, fig. 21.-LEWIS,
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1865, pl. 2, fig. 5.-DoNKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit.
Diat. 1871-1873, p.. 44, pl. 6, fig. 15.
Anomoroneis follis (EHRENBERG), CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, No. 3,
1895, p. 7.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 8o; pl. 17, fig. 14.-BOYER, Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 325.-EARDLEY-WILMOT, Di-
atomite; Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Publ. No. 691, 1928, pl. I. fig. 27.-
HUSTEDT, Siissw. Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft io, 1930, p. 265, fig. 431.
Navicula trochus Kiitzing, Bacill. 1844, p. 99, pl. 3, fig. 59.
The markings of this striking form show obvious relationship with
N. serians, both of which Cleve placed questionably in Pfitzer's group,

a3Boyer, C. B. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Proc. Vol. 79. sunol. n. 325. 1927.








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


Anomoeoneis. The genotype of the group is N. sphaerophora (selected
by Boyer, 1927).
The species is very common in the material from 1\2 miles northeast
.of Milton, Florida, but was rare or overlooked in some of the other
samples.
The beads can be resolved with 4 mm. dry apochromatic lenses with
careful manipulation, but higher N. A. than .95 is required to show them
as in the photograph herewith. Usually the markings appear as irregular,
longitudinal, slightly wavy lines, as in A. serians when using dry lenses.

Anomoeoneis serians (Br6bisson)
PLATE 3, FIGURE I
Frustulia serians BREBISSON, Consid. Diat. 1838, p. 18.
XYavicula serians (BREBISSON), KOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 92, pl. 28, fig. 43; pl. 30,
fig. 23.-W. SMITH, Syn. Brit. Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 47, pl. 16, fig. 130.-DONKIN,
Nat. Hist. Brit. Diat. 1871-1873, p. 41, pl. 6, fig. 10.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat.
Belgique, 188o-i881, p. 101, pl. 12, fig 7; supply. pl. B, fig. 31.-WOLLE, Diat. N.
America, 1890, pl. 1o, fig. 15.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 217, pl. 4,
figs. 196, 197.
.-Iomoeoneis serians (BRnBISSON), CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27,
no. 3, 1895, p. 7.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 8o, pl. 17, fig 12.-BOYER,
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927, Suppl. p. 325.-EARDLEY-WIL-
MOT, Diatomite; Canada Depf. Mines, Mines Branch, Publ no. 691, pl. I, fig. 6.-
HUSTEDT, Silssw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 264, fig. 426.

This rhomboid Navicula is extremely common in all of the deposits
here being considered. Heretofore it has been found only in the fresh-
waters of higher latitudes, such as New England and farther north, and
it is said to be very abundant in some of the deposits in glacial lakes.
In Europe it is noted from peat bogs and the higher, latitudes generally.
In the Florida deposits it is extremely constant in size, indeed more so
than it appears from the literature to be in some other parts of the world.
The most noticeable character of the diatom when examined with high-
power dry lenses is the series of longitudinal wavy lines; these were all
that were visible with the best optical equipment during an earlier period
and consequently most of the older figures show only this feature and
the shape. Resolution, however, becomes very easy with average modern
lenses and highly refractive mounting media.

Caloneis trinodis (Lewis)
PLATE 8, FIGURE 2
Navicula trinodis LEWIS, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 13, 1861, p. 66,
pl. 2, fig. 6.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 18, fig. 12.-Schmidt, Atlas Diat.
pl. 212, 1897, figs. 2-5.-Not Navicula trinodis EHRENBERG, (1836) which is
Tabellaria flocculosa according to Chase's MS. index.








80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

Navicula trinodis inflata Schultze, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 16, 1889, p. 1ol, pl.
90, fig. 7.
Caloneis schumanniana trinodis (LEWIS), CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl.
vol. 26, no. 2, 1894, p. 53.
Caloneis trinodis (LEWIS), BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 81, pl. 21, fig. 8.-
BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, Suppl. 1927, p. 309.

Only three individuals of this minute but striking species were seen
in the Florida samples; they were all in the peat of McLeod Basin.
Boyer is followed in the use of the name trinodis, the history of which
is considerably involved.

Eunotia diodon Ehrenberg
PLATE I, FIGURES 2, 3; PLATE 8, FIGURE I

Eunotia diodon EHRENBERG, Ber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1837, p. 45.-EHRENBERG, In-
fusionth. 1838, p. 192, pl. 21, fig. 23.-KUiTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 37, pl. 5, fig. 24.-
EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 2, II, fig. 31.-W. Smith, Syn. British Diat. vo:.
I, 1853, p. 16, pl. 2, fig. 17.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, pl. 33,
figs. 5-7.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 36, figs. 6, 21, 22.-SCHMIDT, Atlas
Diat. pl. 270, 1911, figs, 14-18.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vo'.
78, 1926 [1927] Suppl. p. 221. [See discussion under robusta, p. 223].-Hus-
TEDT, Siisswasser-Flora Mitteleuropas, heft 10, Bacill., 1930, p. 173, fig. 207.

This is one of the most abundant species in the Florida peat sample".
It is subject to the usual variation in shape, but in most cases there arc
two well developed convexities on the dorsal margin. The striae arc
finely beaded but are easily resolved in hyrax mounts with 4 mm. dr"
lenses. The species is abundant in northern glacial lakes of Europe a,
well as America. The synonymy of the large Eunotia is extremely
complicated through the creation of a great many species names b/
Ehrenberg. Much consolidation has taken place in the past and there
seems need for more. For instance, there seems to be no reliable mean ;
for separating E. diodon and the variety of monodon which W. Smithi
named bidens and which some have admitted.' E. monodon has no dors;Il
projections; with this as a starting point, there is every conceivable stage
of intergradation into forms which have 20 or more such projections.
Boyer stated that all were living in some of the New England lakes, and
the literature indicates that the same is true in northern Europe. In
the Florida peat samples there is an occasional monodon, vast numbers of
diodon and relatively few robusta. The last name is generally applied to
those specimens which have more than five dorsal projections. Until
some better plan is worked out, it seems the recognition of the three
names may have some advantages. In the end all will probably be con-








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


sidered to be the same, in which case the name diodon has the advantage
of having precedence in the literature.

Eunotia exiguua (Br6bisson)
PLATE I, FIGURE 6
Himiantidium exiguum BREBISSON in KUTZING, Sp. Algarum, 1849, p. 8.-GREGORY,.
Trans. Micr. Soc. London, n. s. vol. 2, 1854, p. 1oo, pl. 4, fig. 37.-GRUNOW,
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, 1862, p. 340, pl. 3, [6], fig. 15.
E.notia exiguua (BREBISSON), VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-188i, p. 142,.
pl. 34, fig. II [upper fig.].-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 300, pl. 9, fig.
369.-HUSTEDT in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 297, 1913, figs. 87-92.-BOYER, Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 217.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-F1.
Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 176, fig. 223.

Diatoms referred to this species are common in the finer washings of
th deposit 15 miles south of Clermont and at several of the other
locailities. The shape and fineness of strike are very uniform but size
is very variable. The subcapitate ends of our specimens are usually
slightly less swollen than they are shown in Hustedt's figures. In the
Cl'rmont deposit, the form seems much more common than E. pectinalis,
which is about the same size but has fully twice as coarse strike.

Eunotia flexuosa (Brebisson)
PLATE I, FIGURES 7, 8
Sypedra (?) flexuosa BREBISSON, in Kiitzing, Sp. Algarum, 1849, p. 6. Not S.
flexuosa EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1853, p. 265.
Ps: udoeunotia flexuosa (BRtBISSON), GRUNOW, Diat. Ins. Banka, p. 8.-De Toni,
Syl. Alg. vol. 2, sect. 2, 1892, p. 809.
EAotia. flexuosa (BRfBISSON), VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, p. 144,
pl. 35, figs. 7-II.-Hus-iEDT in Schmidt, Atlas Diat. pl. 29r, 1913, figs. 9-14.-
BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 78, 1926 [1927] Suppl. p. 226.-
HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 186, fig 258.

This Synedra-like Eunotia is apparently not often common; Boyer
gave New Brunswick as the only North American locality. Therefore,
it is surprising to find it in large numbers in the deposit 15 miles south
of Clermont, Florida, and in most of the other peat samples. The speci-
men illustrated is almost straight, but others are common which are
irregularly bent and flexed along the shaft, without, however, any
noticeable tendency toward twisting.

Eunotia pectinalis (Kiitzing)
PLATE I, FIGURE 4
Hiiantidium pectinalc KOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 39, pl. 16, fig. II.-W. SMITH, Syn.
Brit. Diat. vol. 2, 1856, p. 12, pl. 32, fig 280.
Eunotia pectinalis (KOTZlNG), RABENHORST, Fl. Europa, 1864, p. 73.-VAN HEURCK,
Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, p. 142, p1. 33 (various named varieties).-








82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 38, figs. 12, 13.-Van Heurck, Treat. Diat.
1896, p. 300, pl. 9, figs. 370-373.-HUSTEDT in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat., pl. 271, 1911,
figs. 8-28; (various named varieties).-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 52,
pl. 13, figs. 6-7.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 78, 1926 [1927]
Suppl. p. 218.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft Io, 1930, p. 180, fig. 237.

This species is about the same size as E. exiguua but has differently
shaped ends and many fewer transverse rows of beads. Also the entire
valve is usually more or less flexed in the center. Numerous variations
have received names and many more could be applied with equal justifica-
tion. Until such variants shall have been found to indicate some bio-
logical or geological significance they seem scarcely worth recognition.
The species is common in most of the peat samples.

Eunotia robusta Ralfs
PLATE I, FIGURE 5
Eunotia robusta RALFS, in PRITCHARD, Hist. Inf. ed. 4, 1861, p. 763.-VAN HEURI K,
Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, pl. 33, figs. 8, II-13.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America,
1890, pl. 36, figs. 9-11, 13.-HUSTEDT, in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 270, g1911, fi4s.
I-13.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 53, pl. 13, figs. 13-17, 21, 24, 25.-Hes-
TEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft o10, 1930, p. 171, figs. 203-205.

A few specimens of this species were found in the peat of several
of the basins. It is very common in high latitudes and the number of
dorsal convexities is so variable that numerous varietal names have
appeared. In the references cited above no attempt has been made to
segregate such forms because they do not seem to have any taxonomic
value.
Eunotia formica Ehrenberg
PLATE 2, FIGURE 5
Eunotia formica EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 4, III, fig 19.-VAN HEURCK, Syn.
Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, pl. 34, fig. I.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 38,
figs. 20, 2I.-HUSTEDT, in Schmidt, Atlas Diat. pl. 271, 1911, figs. 3-5, pl. 2)1,
1913, fig. 4-6.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft. 10, 1930, p. 186, fig. 257.
Numerous specimens of this small species were found in the lighter
washings of the peat samples, particularly those from McLeod Basin.
The species, like most Eunotia, is subject to much variation, and in the
above citations no attempt was made to review the extensive synonymy.

Fragilaria floridana Hanna, n. sp.
PLATE 2, FIGURES I, 2
Valves lanceolate obtuse at the apices, strongly inflated in the center;
pseudoraphe missing; transverse striae well defined, slightly concave
toward the ends where they are distinctly beaded; beads less evident in








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


the center; in the center the striae do not reach outwardly to the swollen
margins; border heavy; frustules quadrangular. Length, holotypee)
.0453 mm.; width, .0152 mm.; 11.6 transverse striae in .01 mm. Length,
(paratype) .0269 mm.; width, .0165 mm.; 13.7 striae in .01 mm.
Holotype (fig. 1) and paratype (fig. 2) from 12 miles northeast of
Milton, Santa Rosa County, Florida; peat deposit.
This minute species is similar in shape to F. construens Ehrenberg,
but the broad pseudoraphe of that form is entirely lacking. Like con-
struens, it is very variable in shape and size, but the form of the sculpture
is constant. It is exceedingly common in the Milton deposit. Much time
has been spent in an unsuccessful search of the literature for a named
form to which this could be referred, even as a variant.

Frustulia rhomboides (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 5, FIGURES I, 2
Xavicula rhomboides EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841 [1843], p. 419,
pl. 3, I, fig. I5.-KfTZING, Bacill. I844, p. 94, pl. 28, fig. 45, pl. 30, fig. 44-
W. SMITH, Syn. Brit. Diat. vol. i, 1853, p. 46, pl. 16, fig. 129.-RABENHORST, FI.
Europ. Alg. vol. i, 1864, p. 171.-RALFS in PRITCHARD, Hist. Inf. ed. 4, 186i,
p. 903.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit. Diat. 1871-1873, p. 42, pl. 6, fig. II.-LEWIS,
Proc. Acad.. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1865, p. To, pl. 2, figs. 10, 11.-CLEVE &
GRUNOW, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 17, no. 2, 1880, p. 47, pl. 3, fig. 59.
1'anheurckia rhomboides BRtBISSON, Ann. Soc. Phyt. et Micr. Belgique, 1868, p.
204.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, i880-188i, p. 112, pl. 17, figs. I, 2.-
VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 240, pl. 5, figs. 249, 250.-TRUAN E LUARD,
Anal. Soc. Espanol, Hist. Nat. vol. 13, 1884, p. 352, pl. 8, fig. 2.-SPITTA, Mi-
croscopy, ed. 3, 1920, pl. 8, fig. 5 [as saxonica or crassinervis].
Trustulia rhomboides (EHRENBERG), DE TONI, Syl. Alg. vol. 3, sect. 2, 1891, p. 277.-
CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 26, no. 2, 1894, p. 122.-MANN,
Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. 10, pt. 5, 1907, p. 360.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat,
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927, Suppl. p. 301.-EARDLEY-WILMOT, Diatomite;
Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Publ. no. 691, 1928, pl. I, fig. 26.-Hus-
TEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 220, fig. 324.

Various synonyms have been cited for this species, a complete list of
the references to which would fill several pages. The markings of the
diatom are extremely delicate and require careful manipulation to be seen
with dry lenses. The size and shape are almost exactly the same as the
,equally common Navicula cuspidata of these Florida deposits, but im-
portant structural differences are easily seen on close examination. In
addition to the comparatively coarse, conspicuous dots of the Navicula,
its raphe extends nearly to each end and the central nodule is slightly
-expanded.
Members of the very distinct genus Frustulia seem to be inhabitants
,of extremely acid bog waters where peat is accumulating. They form








84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

a very noticeable portion of the diatom flora of many of the Florida
samples.
There is a tendency to follow Cleve in reviving Agardh's genus-name
Frustulia, for the group of delicate species, of which rhomboides is
perhaps the best known. It is necessary to set aside the rules in order
to do this, because not one of Agardh's originally included species has
been adopted, so poorly were they defined. Boyer went so far as to
select rhomboides as the type of Frustulia, although the species was not
described until 19 years after the genus. In spite of this discrepancy,
the nomenclature of diatoms will undoubtedly be stabilized by arbitrarily
adopting Frustulia rather than to attempt the application of the strict
rules of priority, which have been so disastrous in other branches of
botany and zoology.

Melosira granulata (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 2, FIGURES 6, 7, 8
Gallionella granulata EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841 [1843], p. 127.-
EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 33, TI, fig. 15.
Melosira granulata (EHRENBERG), VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 188o-1881, pl.
37, figs. 9-12.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 189o, pl. 57, figs. 7-9.-ScHMIDT, Atla:-
Diat. pl. 181, 1893, figs. 57, 58, 66.- Boyer, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 15, pl. i.,
fig. Io.-EARDLEY-WILMOT, Diatomite; Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Brancld,
Publ. no. 691, 1928, pl. I, fig. 22.-HANNA & GRANT, Jour. Paleo. vol. 3, no. 1,
1929, p. 95, pl. 12, figs. 8, 9.

The diatoms here referred to, granulata, are somewhat shorter thai.
usual, but otherwise do not differ from this widely spread species. It
is not common but can usually be found on strewn slides of the material
from 1A2 miles northeast of Milton, Florida. It was not seen in the
Clermont deposit, but is present in several of the others.

Navicula cuspidata Kiitzing
PLATE 5, FIGURES 4, 5
Navicula cuspidata KOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 94, pl. 3, figs. 24, 37.-RABENHORST,
Siissw. Diat. 1853, p. 37, pl. 5, fig. i6.-W. SMITH, Syn. Brit. Diat. vol. I, 185.2,
p. 47, pl. 16, fig. 131.-RALFS in PRITCHARD, Hist. Infus. ed. 4, 1861, p. 905, pl.
12, fig. 5.-GRUNOW, Beit. Kennt. Verbreit. Alg. von Rabenhorst, heft. 2, 1865,
p. 12, pl. i, fig. 16, a. b.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit. Diat., vol. I, 1871-1873,
P. 39, pl. 6, fig. 6.-Cox, Amer. Journ. Micr. vol. 4, 1879, pp. 97-100, figs. 1-2.-
VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 188o-1881, p. ioo, pl. 12, fig. 4.-WOLLE, Diat.
N. America, 1890, pl. 12, fig. 16.-CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 26,
no. 2, 1894, p. 109.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 214, pl. 4, fig. 190.-
SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 211, 1897, figs. 34-36, 38.-MANN, Cont. U. S. Nat.
Herb. vol. 10, pt. 5, 1907, p. 341; [excellent synonymy].-BOYER, Diat. Phila-
delphia, 1916, p. 100, pl. 26, figs. I, 2.-SPITTA, Microscopy, ed. 3, 1920, pl. 12,








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


fig. i [as cuspida]; pl. 23, fig. I.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 366.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930,
p. 268, fig. 433.

This elegant species, generally distributed farther north, is extremely
common in the deposit 1Y2 miles northeast of Milton, Santa Rosa County,
and in most of the other samples. Very little variation was noted in the
numerous specimens examined and no craticular plates, such as Cox
described, were seen. Chase (Ms. catalog) has noted 13 names used
in a varietal sense and numerous cross references indicate an abundance
of synonyms, as usual among the older species of Navicula. No attempt
is made in the above synonymy to disentangle these names; references to
pertinent literature only are presented. The sculpture is considerably
coarser and easier to resolve than in Frustulia rhomboides, which has a
somewhat similar shape. The sharp projection at each end of the raphe
of the latter species is the most noticeable difference with low-power
lenses.
Neidium iridis (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 4, FIGURE 4
Saviicula iridis EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841 [1843], p. 130, pl. 4,
I, fig. 2.-KOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 92, pl. 28, fig. 42.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit.
Diat. 1871-1873, p. 30, pl. 5, fig. 6.-ScHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 49, 1877, fig. 2.-
VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, i880-I88I, p. 103, pl. 13, fig. I.-WOLLE, Diat.
N. America, 1890, pl. 18, fig. 4.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 220, pl. 5,
fig. 212.
Acidium iridis (EHRENBERG), CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 26, no. 2,
1894, p. 69.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 84, pl. 21, fig. 17.-BOYER, Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 321.-EARDLEY-WILMOT, Di-
atomite; Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Publ. no. 691, 1928, pl. I, fig. 4.-
HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft o10, 1930, p. 245, fig. 379.
Navicula firma KOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 92, pl. 21, fig. Io.-W. SMITH, Syn. Brit.
Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 46, pl. 16, fig. 148.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit. Diat. 1871-
1873, p. 31, pl. 5, fig. 7.-ScHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 49, 1877, fig. 3.-WOLLE, Diat.
N. America, 189o, pl. 19, .fig. Io.

Numerous names have been applied to the diatoms of the Neidium
group, in many cases the differences being based upon mere trivial varia-
tions in shape. Cleve went so far as to state that perhaps all of the
forms ought to be treated as variations of one species. If this were
done, the name affinis Ehrenberg might be strictly applicable because it
has page precedence over iridis and amphirhynchus in the same paper.
The group seems to be especially characteristic of northern peat bogs
and ponds and it is surprising to find it common in most of the Florida
deposits. Almost every strewn slide prepared from the samples contained
it, although it is not a dominant form.








86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

Neidium tumescens (Grunow)
PLATE 4, FIGURES 1-3
Navicula firma tumescens GRUNOW in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 49, 1877, fig. 10;
Cherryfield, Maine [fossil].-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, i890, pl. 18, fig. 3.
Neidium tunvescens (GRuNOW), CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 26, no. 2,
1894, p. 70.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p.
323.-EARDLEY-WILMOT, Diatomite; Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Publ.
no. 691, 1928, pl. I, fig. 3.

Schmidt stated that in his opinion this form was distinct from firm,
and his reasoning appears to be sound; intergrades between the two have
not been noted.
This is one of the largest and most beautiful of the diatoms of the
Florida peat deposits. Individuals are present on almost every strewn
slide, so it must be recorded as common. Wolle's figure shows the trans-
verse rows of beads as solid lines, and inside the margin he showed
several longitudinal lines; these are obviously the result in part of poor
copying of Schmidt's figure, but even the latter was plainly made with an
objective of insufficient numerical aperture to properly resolve the
markings. Modern 8 mm. apochromatic objectives show the markings
essentially as depicted in the accompanying photographs when the diatom
is mounted in hyrax.
The species falls in the group Neidium Pfitzer which Cleve, Hustedt
and Boyer have treated as a distinct genus.

Piniularia divergens W. Smith
PLATE 8, FIGURE 6 .
Pinnularia dizcrgens W. S.MITHI, Syn. British Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 57, pl. 18, fig.
177.-ScHMIDT, Atlas, Diat. pl. 44, 1876, fig. 9.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890,
pl. 19, fig. 21.-CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handle. vol. 27, no. 3, 1895, p.
79.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 323, fig. 589.
This is a very widely distributed species, especially in high latitudes.

A few specimens were found in McLeod Basin peat.

Pinnularia gibba Ehrenberg
PLATE 7, FIGURE 4
Pinnularia gibba (EHRENUERG), W. SMITH, Syn., Brit. Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 56, pl. 10,
fig. 180.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880o-881, suppl. pl. A, fig. 12.-
SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 45, 1886, figs. 45-47.-CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad.
Handl. vol. 27, no. 3, 1895, p. 82.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 109, pl. 30,
fig. 5.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft [o, 1930, p. 327, fig. 6oo.

The Florida specimens, which are common in most of the peat samples,
agree closely with Hustedt's figure and his treatment of the case is about
as satisfactory as any.








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


The synonymy is badly involved, partly because of great variation
and partly because of inadequate drawings by the early writers. P. tabel-
laria and P. stauroptera are especially confusing. It is even uncertain
to whom the name should be credited. Hustedt cited Ehrenberg, while
Boyer chose Van Heurck because of the nomenclatural tangle.

Pinnularia interrupta W. Smith
PLATE 8, FIGURE 5
Pimmnularia interrupta W. SMITH, Syn. British Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 59, pl. 19, fig.
184. (Not of RABENHORST, Siissw. Diat. 1853, p. 44, pl. 6, fig. 3).-SCHMIDT,
Atlas Diat. pl. 45, 1886, figs. 72, 75, 76; [as Navicula].-CLEVE, Kongl. Sven.
Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, no. 3, 1895, p. 76.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 434.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas,
heft 10, 1930, p. 317, fig. 573.

Cleve remarked that this species was very close to the earlier described
P. mesolepta Ehrenberg; the straight, parallel margins of interrupta are
the chief distinguishing features. The diatom is common in high lati-
tudes; a few were found in the McLeod Basin samples. Cleve's treatment
of the synonymy is about as satisfactory as any which has been proposed,
although it is probable that numerous other names might well be included
in the list. The capitate and non-capitate forms shown herewith do not
seem to be satisfactorily separable.

Pinnularia legumen Ehrenberg
PLATE 8, FIGURE 4
Pin ularia teguinen EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1842, pl. 4, I, fig. 7.-
CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, no. 3, 1895, p. 78.-BOYER, Diat.
Philadelphia, 1916, p. 107, pl. 30, fig. 3.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas,
heft 10, 1930, p. 322, fig. 587.
Navicula legiumen (EHRENBERG), Mikrog. 1854, pl. 3, I, fig. 9; pl. 3, IV, fig. 8.-
SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 44, 1876, figs. 44-47.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Bel-
gique, 188o-1881, p. 80, pl. 6, fig. 16.

This is an extremely widely-spread species and is especially common
in high latitudes. It has been recorded from many New England lakes
and is abundant in most of the Florida peat samples examined.

Pinnularia major (Kiitzing)
PLATE 7, FIGURE 3; PLATE 8, FIGURE 7
Frustiilia major KOTZING. Syn. Diat. 1833, p. 19, fig. 26.
Navicula major KUTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 97, pl. 4, figs. 19, 21.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist.
British Diat. 1870-1871, p. 69, pl. II, fig. 2.-SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 42, 1876,
fig. 8.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, p. 73, pl. 5, figs. 3, 4.
Pinnularia major (KUiTZING), CLEVE, Kongl. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, no- 3,
1895, P. 89.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 102, pl. 28, fig. 4.-HUSTEDT,
Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 331, fig. 614.








:88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

The chief difference between this and P. nobilis seems to be in the
raphe, which in major is almost straight. The species is abundant in peat
bogs throughout the northern hemisphere and was seen in most of the
Florida samples. In nobilis, the raphe is shown as a laminate structure,
normal to the plane of the valvular surface and twisted into a more or
less wavy line. Whether the differences are constant or not is uncertain;
it is significant that where one species of the large Pinnularia is found
there are usually others. For the present it seems that precedent may
be followed, although it seems inevitable that sometime some consolidation
of names will be necessary.
The form which Boyer described as P. major pulchella44 is very
common in the lower part of the McLeod Basin deposit. No intergrades
were found and it seems that it may be separated from other forms.

Pinnularia nobilis (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 5, FIGURE 3; PLATE 8, FIGURE 8
Navicula nobilis EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1836, p. 132.-KUTZING, Bacill.
1844, p. 98, pl. 4, fig. 24.-EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. II, figs. 24a, b; pl. 15 A,
fig. 13; pl. 15 B, fig. 7.-DONKIN, Nat. Hist. Brit. Diat. 1871-1873, p. 68, pl. II,
fig. I.-SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 43, 1876, figs. I, I*.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. DEat.
Belgique, 1880-1881, pl. 5, fig. 2*.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 13, f gs.
2, 4, 6.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 164, pl. 2, fig. 67.
Pinnularia nobilis (EHRENBERG), W. SMITH, Syn. Brit. Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 54, pl.
17, fig. 161.-CLEVE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, no. 3, 1895, p. 92.-
BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 103, pl. 28, fig. I.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mit-
teleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 337, fig. 619.
The above is a very small part of the synonymy of this large naviculoid
which Boyer chose as the type species of Pinnularia.45 He remarked
that "nearly all the species are exclusively freshwater and have formed
enormous peat deposits throughout New England and Canada;" it is
significant that the present form is exceedingly abundant in the Florida
deposits. It is the heaviest diatom present and is exceeded in length only
by some individuals of Stenopterobia intermedia. Considerable variation
has been noted in size, number of striae, gibbous margins and width of
central area, but it is believed that species boundaries should be liberally
interpreted; otherwise one is projected into an inextricable tangle of
nomenclature.
Pinnularia viridis (Nitzsch)
PLATE 7, FIGURE 5
Bacillaria viridis NITZSCH, Neue Schrift, Naturf. Ges. Halle, vol. 3, 1817, p. 97, pl. 6,
figs. 1-3.
Frustulia viridis (NITZSCH), KOTZING, Linnaea, vol. 8, 1833, p. 551.

"Diat. Phila, p. 1C2, pl. 28, fig. 2, 1916.
"Boyer, C. S. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 79, Suppl. p. 430, 1927.







DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


Navicula ziridis (NITzSCH), EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1831, p. 81; 1832
[1833], pp. 255, 265.-EHRENBERG, Infusionth. 1838, p. 182, pl. 13, fig. 16, pl. 21,
fig. 12.-KKOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 97, pl. 30, fig. 12.-SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl.
42, 1876, figs. I1-14, 19, 21-23.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-1881, p.
73, pl. 5, fig. 5.
Pinnularia viridis (NITZSCH), CLEvE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. vol. 27, no. 3,
1895, p. 91.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 104, pl. 29, fig. 2.-BOYER, Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 446.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl.
Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 334, fig. 617 a.

The specimens referred to this species are considerably smaller than
would be expected, yet they agree with Schmidt's figures sufficiently
close, it seems, to warrant including them under the name viridis. It is
difficult to properly place such forms, as Cleve has stated. Undoubtedly
species boundaries should be interpreted broadly, yet the most trivial
variations have been named. The form is very common in the deposit
15 miles south of Clermont, Florida, but was not noted in some of the
others. In comparing the figures herewith with that of P. nobilis beside
it, note should be taken of the difference in magnification.

Stauroneis phoenicenteron (Nitzsch)
PLATE 2, FIGURES 4, 9
Bacillaria phoenicenteron NITZSCH, Neue Schrift' Naturf. Ges. Halle, vol. 3, 1817,
pl. 3, figs. 12, 14.-EHRENBERG, Infusionth. 1838, p. 175.
Stoironeis bailey EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841 (1843), p. 422.-
EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 2, III, fig. 12.
Stauroneis phoenicentron (NITzSCH), EHRENBERG, Abh.. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841
(1843)', p. 387, pl. 2, V, fig. I; pl. 3, I, fig. 17.-Ehrenberg, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 2,
II, fig. 8; pl. 3, I, fig. 7; III, fig. 4.-RABENHORST, Siissw. Diat. 1853, p. 47, pl. 9,
fig. I.-W. SMITH, Syn. Brit. Diat. vol. i, 1853, pl. 19, fig. 185.-RALFS in
PRITCHARD, Hist. Infus. ed. 4 ,186i, p. 913, pl. 9, fig. 139, pl. 12, figs. 17, 18.-
BRUN, Diat. Alps, Jura, 1880, p. 88, pl. 9, figs. 5, 7.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat.
Belgique, i88O-i881, p. 67, pl. 4, fig. 2.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 158,
fig. 30, pl. I, fig. 50.-HEIDEN in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 242, 1903, figs. 13,
16.-MANN, Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. 10, pt. 5, 1907, p. 350; [excellent syn-
onymy].-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 88, pl. 27, fig. I.-SPITTA, Micro-
scopy, ed. 3, 1920, pl. 14, fig. 3.-EARDLEY-WILMOT Diatomite; Canada Dept.
Mines, Mines Branch, Publ. no. 691, 1928, pl. I, fig. I.-HustrEDT, Stissw.-Flora,
Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 255, fig. 404.

This is one of the very common and almost universally distributed
species of freshwater diatoms. Consequently, the list of references could
be extended to great length; the above is taken, in part, from Mann
(1907). The species is easily recognized with moderate power lenses
and is not usually subject to much variation. Several slight modifications
have received separate names. The width of the stauros varies somewhat


7-(ieol.








90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

and is usually greater than in the specimens from 15 miles south of
Clermont, Florida; it was not seen in a few of the peat samples, but was
present in most of them.

Stephanodiscus niagarae Ehrenberg
PLATE 2, FIGURE 3
Stephanodiscus niagarae EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1845, p. 80.-EHrEN-
BERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl. 35 A, VII, figs. 21, 22.-VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Bel-
gique, i88o-i88i, pl. 95, figs. 13, 14.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, i89g, pl. 66,
figs. 28, 29.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 78, 1926 [19-7]
Suppl. p. 61.

The form is sparsely distributed in the strewn slides made from the
material from 15 miles south of Clermont, Florida. The spines at the
border are not well shown in the photograph because of the impossibility
of securing sufficient depth of focus at this magnification.

Stenopterobia bailey (Lewis)
PLATE 6, FIGURES 4, 5, 6
Surirella bailey LEWIs, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 15, 1863 [18(4],
p. 338, pl. I, fig. I.-KITTON, Science Gossip, vol. 4, 1868; p. 87, fig. 69.-WoILE,
Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 53, figs. 22, 23.-BoYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phla-
delphia, vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 545.
Stenopterobia bailey (LEWIs), VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 374.
Surirella arctissima SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 56, 1877, fig. 13.-BOYER, Diat. Phila-
delphia, 1916, p. 128, pl. 34, fig. 4.-BOYER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelp lia,
vol. 79, 1927 Suppl. p. 546.

The genus Stenopterobia was first published by Habirshaw 'as
Stenopterotia) in 1878,46 and included the species Surirella anceps Lewis,
only. Evidently Brebisson proposed the name, but I have not found
that he published it. Grunow47 has used it as a subgenus. The forms
seem to differ so greatly from Surirella that they may well be held distinct,
as Van Heurck and others have done.
The species, bailey, is very common in the Florida peat samples, but
it must be an uncommon diatom in general because there are comparatively
few records in the literature.

Stenopterobia intermedia (Lewis)
PLATE 6, FIGURES I, 2, 3
Surirella intermedia LEWIS, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1863 [1864], p. 339,
pl. I, fig. 2.--WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 53, fig. 26.-BOYER, Diat. Phil-
adelphia, 1916, p. 128, pl. 34, fig 3; pl. 39, fig: 9.

46Habirshaw, F. Cat. Diat., p. 230, 1878.
4"In Cleve, Ofr. Kgl. Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 38, No. 10, p. 7, 1882.








DIATOMS OF THE FLORIDA PEAT DEPOSITS


Surirella sigma QUELLE, FRICKE in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 266, 1906, figs. I, 2;
Harz Mts.
Stcnopterobia intermedia (LEWIS), VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 374.-Hus-
TEDT in SCHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 284, 1912, figs. 3-14.
This common form in the Florida deposits seems doubtfully separable
from the type species, anceps, if a large series be examined; Hustedt's
figures indicate intergradation. However, I have not critically studied a
sufficiently large number to warrant the union at this time. The separa-
tion of such diverse diatoms from the overcrowded Surirella seems war-
ranted, in view of the remarkably different structural details.

Surirella oblonga Ehrenberg
PLATE 7, FIGURE I
Surirella oblonga EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1841 [1843], pl. I, IV, fig.
4.--KUTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 61, pl. 29, fig. 38.-EHRENBERG, Mikrog. 1854, pl.
17, II, fig. I; pl. 2, III, fig. 15; pl. 15 A, fig. 48; pl. 33, XII, fig. 26, SCHMIDT,
Atlas Diat. pl. 22, 1875, figs. 6-8 (?).-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 52,
figs. 12, 13.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 127, pl. 35, fig. 9; [identity
questioned].

There seems to be some uncertainty about the determination of
Elhrenberg's figures, because neither Schmidt nor Boyer were able to
make a positive identification. The species is rare in the Florida peat
samples which were studied in detail. However, those specimens seen
agree sufficiently well with Schmidt's figures to warrant the belief that
they are the same; his specimens came from ponds in Maine.


BRACKISH WATER SPECIES FOUND BELOW
THE PEAT DEPOSITS

Amphiprora alata (Ehrenberg)
PLATE IO, FIGURE I
Navicula alata EHRENBERG, Ber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1840, p. 212.-EHRENBERG,
Mikrog. 1854, pl. 2, II, fig. 10, III, fig." 14.
Amphiprora alata (EHRENBERG), KJTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 107, pl. 3. fig. 63.-
W. SMITH, Syn. British Diat. vol. I, 1853, p. 44, pl. 15, fig. 124.-WOLLE, Diat.
N. America, 1890, pl. 2, figs. 20, 21.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, p. 262,
fig. 52.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia, 1916, p. 68, pl. 14, figs. I, 2.-HANNA &
GRANT, Trans. American Micro. Soc. vol. 50, no. 4, 1931, p. 285, pl. 25, fig. I.

Numerous specimens of this typical brackish water diatom were found
below the peat in McLeod and Marquis Basins. Owing to the twisted
nature of the valve of Amphiprora, it is impossible to photograph the
two halves of a specimen at once and have them in focus.









92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 23RD-24TH ANNUAL REPORTS

Anomoeoneis sphaerophora (Ehrenberg)
PLATE 9, FIGURE 4
Naviculda sphaerophora (KOTZING), Alg. exsice. 1830-1836, Dek. 84; [according to
0. Miiller].-EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841 [1843], p. 419, pl. 3,
IV, fig. 3.-KKOTZING, Bacill. 1844, p. 95, pl. 4, fig. 17.
Anomoeoneis sphaerophora (EHRENBERG), 0. MULLER, Hedwigia, vol. 38, 1899, p.
295-305, 317, pl. 12, figs. 1-15; [numerous varieties].-HANNA, Univ. Kansas
Sci. Bull. vol. 20, no. 21, 1932, pp. 373-375, pl. 31, figs. 3, 4; [extensive syn-
onymy].
Anomoeoneis sculpta (EHRENBERG), HANNA & GRANT, Trans. American Micro. Soc.
vol. 50, no. 4, 1931, p. 285, pl. 25, figs. 7, 8.

Some of the extensive synonymy of this variable species is referred
to above. Names frequently encountered in the literature are, sculpta,
rostrata, tumens, bohemica, polygramma and pannonica. 0. Muller's
union of all of these and many others under sphaerophora is gradually
being adopted. Usually the species is an inhabitant of more or less
saline waters, but in some older deposits it seems to have been a strictly
freshwater form.
Campylodiscus echeneis Ehrenberg
PLATE 9, FIGURE 5
Campylodiscus echeneis EHRENBERG, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 184o, p. 208.-EHREN-
BERG, Mikrog., 1854, pl. 10, I, fig. I; II, fig. 21.-ScHMIDT, Atlas Diat. pl. 54,
1877, figs. 3, 6.-WOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 73, figs. 5, 7.-DEBY, Anal.
Campylodiscus, 1891, p. 43, pl. 9,. fig. 49.-VAN HEURCK, Treat. Diat. 1896, pl.
14, fig. 600.-HANNA & GRANT, Journ. Paleo. vol. 3, no. I, 1929, p. 91, pl. III, fir;s.
4, 5.-HUSTEDT, Siissw.-Fl. Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930, p. 449, fig. 875.
Well preserved specimens of this brackish water species were found
beneath the peat in McLeod and Marquis Basins. As usual, there is
great variation in the arrangement of the beads on the surfaces of t he
valves.
Cyclotella striata (Kiitzing)
PLATE 9, FIGURE I
Coscinodiscus striatus KOTZING, Bacill. 1844,e p. 131, pl. I, fig 81
Cyclotella striata (KiTZING), GRUNOW in VAN HEURCK, Syn. Diat. Belgique, 1880-
1881, p. 213, pl. 92, figs. 6-IO.-VWOLLE, Diat. N. America, 1890, pl. 66, figs. 16,
17-Schmidt, Atlas Diat. pl. 223, 1900, figs. 9-12.-BOYER, Diat. Philadelphia,
1916, p. 19, pl. 2, fig. 9.-HusTEDT, Sfissw.-Flora, Mitteleuropas, heft 10, 1930,
p. 101, fig. 71.
Cyclotella dallasiana, W. SMITH, Syn. British Diat. vol. 2, 1856, p. 87.

This is a common form in the estuaries of the north Atlantic at the
present time. Numerous specimens were found beneath the peat in
McLeod and Marquis Basins.