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BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Canaveral. There may also be two offshore bars with a lagoon
between them and another lagoon between the inside one and the
mainland. (See Figure 23).

TIDES AND THEIR RELATION TO BEACHES.
The main facts of beach and dune formation seem to be about
the same on the Great Lakes, where there is no tide, as on parts
of the ocean shore where there is a moderate rise and fall of tide.
It is true however, other things being equal, that where there is
a tide the average width of beach is greater. Currents produced
by tides may be important in carrying sand from one place to
another, especially where, as at the mouth of a bay or at an inlet
or pass connecting a lagoon or sound with the sea, the water is
forced to run through a narrow opening. Currents caused in this
way produce what are known as tidal deltas, which are bars of
sand deposited at the mouths of tidal rivers or at the outer ends
of passes or inlets. St. Johns Bar at the mouth of St. Johns River
is an example.
The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has recorded the
rise and fal of tide at several stations in Florida, but most of
the measurements seem to have been made in bays and harbors
and therefore do not indicate very accurately the tidal range on
the beaches. The maximum average rise and fall of tide in Flor-
ida is 6.0 feet at Fernandina. At the St. Johns River entrance
it is 4.6 feet, and at St. Augustine it is 4.17 feet. On the southern
part of the east coast the rise and fall is much less, being only
1.1 feet at Miami and 1.7 feet at Cape Florida. Most of the way
around the Gulf coast of Florida the average rise and fall is
between 1.5 and 2.5 feet, but in the region of the Ten Thousand
Islands it is somewhat greater, the maximum shown on the coast
chart being 3.7 feet at Lostmans (or Lossmans) River. In the
extreme western part of Florida and the adjoining part of Ala-
bama there is only one high and one low tide daily instead of
two. All of these figures are from the coast charts of the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Tides are very important in connection with the suitability of
beaches for motoring, because only the part of the beach which
Ss left moist by the outgoing tide is hard enough to support the
wheels of automobiles. On some beaches, because of too shallow
water at low tide or unsightly accumulations of decaying sea-
-weed, conditions are more pleasant for bathing at high tide. At
low tide is the best time for collecting shells on the beach.

COASTAL SAND DUNES
Sand dunes are not a part of the beach if that word be con-
aidered in a restricted sense, but since the coastal sand dunes








92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
border directly upon the beach and are generally passed and seen
by everyone visiting the beach that will be sufficient excuse for
devoting a few words to them at this point.
Immediately back of the beach a distinct ridge may often be
observed running parallel to the shore. Where low this may be
formed entirely by wave action during storms, and this seems
to be generally true of the shore ridges in the region of the
Florida Keys and also on most of the west coast of peninsular
Florida. On most of the Atlantic coast as well as the Gulf coast
of northwestern Florida this ridge is a dune ridge formed of sand
blown up from the beach. Winds blowing from the sea lift the
sand from the upper part of the beach where it becomes dry in
fair weather and pile it up into the ridge. There grasses and
other plants hold it in place so that most of it is not blown much
farther. Where the sea has been depositing material and so
building out the shore there is a series of parallel dune ridges.
(See Figure 25). The outer one may be referred to as the shore
dune or littoral dune but the others were formed in the same
way as the outer one.
Where the sand is highly siliceous the vegetation cover on the
dunes is rather sparse, and fires, very dry weather, or the grazing
of cattle may cause a place to become so bare that a strong wind
is able to start the movement of sand again and make what is
known as a "blowout." This is generally a circular or oval de-
pression from which the sand has been removed and piled up on
the side toward which the wind is blowing. The blowouts may
form either in the shore dune facing the beach or in the dunes
farther back. The best examples of recent blowout dunes are in
the northwestern part of the State, especially on Santa Rosa
Island. (See Figure 26).
BEACHES SUITABLE FOR MOTORING.
The question is often asked why the northern part of the east
coast of Florida has beaches so much better for automobile driv-
ing than most other parts of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is
not easy to give a final answer, but we might first note that for
a beach to be suitable for driving an ordinary automobile at
moderate or high speed it must be smooth, wide and hard. It is
a matter of common observation that only the strip of damp sand
between high and low tide lines is hard enough.
In order for a beach to be smooth it must be composed of
sand, with no greater amount of either pebbles or shells, but even
where there is nothing but fine sand the waves may at times heap
it up in some places and wear it away in others so as to produce
an uneven surface. Only those beaches in Florida where the sand
is nearly all quartz pack so hard that automobile wheels do not
sink in appreciably. Most of the way from the Georgia line to a
little south of Cape Canaveral the beach sand consists almost





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


93


Fig. 25.-Two dune ridges parallel to the shore, Bay County. one mile east of Philllps
Inlet. Note that there li more grass on the outer dune because it is moistened by
wind-blown spray.


Fig. 26--Blow-out In dune sand. One-half mile west of Phillips Inlet. Walton
County.




94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
entirely of quartz, but from near Melbourne southward there is
generally a large percentage of finely broken shell in the sand,
which has also more of a yellowish color than that farther to the
north. These shell fragments are both softer and smoother than
the quartz grains, so that they do not offer so much resistance
to the wheels. In driving from Jacksonville Beach to St. Augus-
tine it can easily be noticed that the softer places are where there
is more shell. Flagler Beach is too soft to drive on because of
local conditions which result in the presence of a considerable
proportion of finely broken shell in the sand, although both to the
north and to the south of that locality there is little shell and
the beach is suitable for motoring.
The slope of the beach is important for two reasons. If it
slopes too steeply toward the sea the beach would not be con-
venient to drive on even if hard enough and wide enough, and
would not give a sufficient width of beach between high and low
tide. Examination of coastal charts shows that excluding the
region of the Florida Keys, which on account of its limestone
formation does not concern us here, the bottom offshore has a
much steeper slope on the southern than the northern part of
the east coast. The same is true of the beach itself as determined
by direct observation at many localities. At Daytona Beach,
Jacksonville Beach, and a few localities in Georgia and South
Carolina the slope of the beach is so slight as to require practic-
ally no effort in steering an automobile parallel to the shore. The
more abundant supply of sand, which is carried by currents from
the north toward the south along the shore, is probably one of
the reasons for the more gentle slope of the beaches on the north-
ern part of the east coast of Florida. The erosive effect of the
Gulf Stream may have something to do with the rather steep
offshore slope from Jupiter Inlet to Miami and the rather narrow
steeply sloping beach of the same region. It is also worth noting
that very fine sand, when moved about by the waves, will form a
beach with a lower angle of slope than coarser sand, and it seems
likely that this is one of the main reasons for the superiority of
the Florida beaches for motoring.
Another factor to be considered is the amount of rise and fall
of tide. The greater this is, the wider will be the strip of damp
sand on the beach at low tide, the shorter will be the period at
high tide when the beach is not suitable for motoring, and the
fewer will be the occasions when conditions of wind or storm are
such as to make the beach impassable. At Fernandina the ordi-
nary tidal range is six feet, which is the greatest anywhere in
Florida; at the mouth of the St. Johns River it is 4.6 feet, while
to the south it becomes less until it is scarcely two feet at Miami.
On the Gulf coast of Florida the ordinary tidal range is from
about one to two feet.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


The spacing of the inlets or passes, connecting the waters of
the lagoons or sounds, with those of the Gulf or ocean is of inter-
est as determining the uninterrupted length of beach. The great-
est distance which it is possible to drive in Florida without leaving
the beach is 35 miles, between St. Johns River and St. Augustine
Inlet. In the few greater intervals between inlets which occur
on the coasts of Florida, the softness of the sand on the beach
prevents motoring for a part or all of the distance.
On the east coast of Florida the principal localities where
there are beaches suitable for motoring are from north to south,
Amelia Island, St. Johns River to St. Augustine, Anastasia Island,
Daytona Beach, Coronado Beach near New Smyrna, and Cocoa
Beach. On the Gulf coast of northwestern Florida I do not know
of any beach which it is possible to drive upon except a stretch
of about twenty miles near Cape San Bias in Gulf County. On
the Gulf coast of the southwestern part of peninsular Florida,
Captiva, Sanibel and Marco Islands are definitely known to have
beaches hard enough for motoring and perhaps some of the other
islands not particularly examined have beaches which are about
the same. The unevenness of the surface and the usual narrow-
ness of the damp hard sand strip make these beaches, as far as
motoring is concerned, inferior to those of the east coast.
The excellent hard, smooth, wide surface of so much of the
beach of the northern half of the east coast of Florida, which
makes it eminently suitable for motoring, is due to a combination
of favorable factors, as the composition of the sand, which is
nearly all fine sharp grains of quartz, the gentle slope of the
beach toward the sea, and a sufficient tidal range to leave a wide
strip of damp sand exposed.

REGIONAL AND LOCAL DESCRIPTIONS.
Claims are often made by persons either having a certain
justifiable pride in their surroundings, or wishing to secure the
maximum of advertising to help attract tourists or sell real estate
that such and such a beach is the best in Florida or the best in
the world, and such and such a city has more beach, or better
beach, or beach situated nearer and more conveniently to the
center of population than has any other city. Some of these
claims may be partly true, since the question as to which is the
best beach is one which is not easily answered in a word. Firstly
we might notice that the beach is often very uniform in its char-
acteristics for long distances. If a certain locality is said to
have a particularly good beach, it may be that just such a beach
extends along the coast for 10, 20 or even 50 miles. Some parts
not especially named and less easily accessible than the better
known and widely advertised localities may be more beautiful
because less spoiled.


95




96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Which is the best beach also depends on our point of view
and the use to which we wish to put the beach. If suitability for
motoring is the main consideration, then Daytona Beach, which
is the most widely known, appears to be actually the best, although
under favorable conditions some of the other beaches of the
northern half of the east coast are not much inferior to it in
hardness, width, and smoothness. It need hardly be said that the
beaches of southern Florida are most attractive for winter bath-
ing because of the higher temperature of the water and the sur-
rounding air, while the softer sand of the beach from Palm Beach
to Miami Beach makes this more pleasant to lie upon than the
hard packed unyielding sand at Jacksonville Beach and Daytona
Beach.
In whiteness of sand, and in the natural beauty of the sand
dune scenery back of the beach, some of the beaches of the north-
western Gulf coast excel, as for example Inlet Beach at the
boundary of Bay and Walton counties, and Santa Rosa Island in
Escambia County.
For variety and beauty of the shells cast up by the waves the
beaches of the southern part of the west coast, to mention only
Sanibel Island, Marco Island, and Cape Romano, are surpassed
by no other part of Florida, and according to some, by only a few
other places in the world.
These few localities are cited not to imply that other beaches
in Florida are lacking in interest or beauty but merely to give a
slight idea of the variety of Florida's beaches and to point out
the difficulty of proving that any particular place has the world's
best beach. Upon whether one is looking for accessibility or
remoteness, large hotels or small home-like accommodations,
whether one is more interested in fishing or motoring, whether
one prefers surf bathing or quiet waters of the bay, lagoon or
protected parts of the Gulf, and upon other factors too many and
too complex to be listed here will depend one's choice of which
beach to visit.
In the following pages are given somewhat generalized de-
scriptions of the beaches on the different parts of the Florida
coast. For convenience we may consider four general regions in
which beaches occur: (1) the east coast from the Georgia line
to Cape Florida; (2) the Florida Keys and Cape Sable; (3) the
west coast of peninsular Florida; (4) the Gulf coast of north-
western Florida. Since many of the localities named are not on
the small and very generalized map accompanying this report
(Figure 12) the reader should refer to a more detailed map of
Florida.
In the following descriptions of the beaches occurring on the
coasts of Florida the distances given were measured on the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey charts on a scale of 1:80,000.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


BEACHES OF THE EAST COAST OF FLORIDA.
From the Georgia line to Cape Florida the beach on the east
coast is continuous except for a few short interruptions by inlets
and coquina outcrops. On the northern part of the east coast
the beach is separated from the mainland by marshes and tidal
creeks and on the central and southern part generally by lagoons
or "rivers." The beaches of the east coast are better known,
more easily accessible, and are visited by a larger number of
people than those of any other part of Florida. There is much
variation in the character of the beach on different parts of the
east coast, but a few generalizations can be made as to the
changes observed as we go from north to south. On the northern
half of the east coast the beach averages much wider than on the
southern half, and has a more gentle slope. Toward the south
there is a rather irregular increase in the amount of shell frag-
ments in the sand with a corresponding increase in the calcium
carbonate and decrease in the silica percentage. Some of the
other differences in the east coast beach from one place to an-
other are related to this variation in composition. For example,
the sand with much shell in it has a light yellowish brown color
corresponding to the color of the somewhat weathered fragments
of the shells themselves. Because of the smoother and more
slippery surfaces of the grains the calcareous sand is softer and
more yielding, and does not pack so hard as the fine silica sand.
The greater amount of calcium carbonate toward the south
may be due partly to the fact that conditions are more favorable
for the growth of shells in the warmer waters, but the fact that
the source of the siliceous sand is to the north, so that the supply
is less in the southern part of the State is probably more import-
ant. Outcrops of coquina which are being broken up by the waves
cause some local variations in the amount of calcium carbonate
in the sand. (See table of analyses, page 82.)
Around the north end of Amelia Island facing Cumberland
Sound there is a beach for two miles or so, but the south jetty of
St. Marys River is the real northern limit of the ocean beaches
of the east coast of Florida. From this point a broad hard beach
suitable for automobile driving extends 13 miles to Nassau Sound.
This is easily reached by paved road from Fernandina. For more
than a mile south of the jetty there is a beach plain, a nearly
smooth area of sand up to more than two thousand feet in width.
This plain has been formed by the rapid building out of the shore.
It is very thinly covered by grass and a few low dunes are start-
ing to form on it. The front of the beach plain is marked by a
low ridge at the top of the outer sloping beach, which is here
500 feet or more in width at low tide, and at the back of the
beach plain is the main shore dune, which is here 30 to 40 feet
high, but rather irregular.


97




98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
To the south of this the beach plain narrows down and wedges
out entirely, and the beach has an even slope up to the outer dune
ridge. The vegetation on the series of parallel dune ridges is
such as to indicate that the shore has been growing outward in
the not far distant past. The three ridges nearest the beach
have no trees and the seaward side of the outermost one is a slope
built by the wind and not a wave-cut cliff. By comparison with
sand in many other places that on the beach of Amelia Island
might well be called white, although it is slightly gray to grayish
yellow. Shells such as make up the coquina deposits occurring
farther to the south, occur in small proportion.
Little Talbot Island, between Nassau Sound and Ft. George
Inlet, has about four miles of ocean beach. By the deposition of
sand and the formation of a beach plain this island has been
rapidly growing in both length and width at the south end. Ex-
cept for a few places where there is more than the usual amount
of shell fragments the beach is very hard and firm so that it is
suitable for automobile driving.
From the mouth of the St. Johns River south to St. Augustine
Inlet the beach is nearly straight and has no interruptions for a
distance of 35 miles. It is possible to drive an automobile all
the way on the beach when tide and weather conditions are favor-
able. Nowhere in Florida is there a longer continuous stretch
of beach suitable for motoring. It can be reached by a broad
highway from Jacksonville, or by bridge from St. Augustine.
For about a mile south of the St. Johns River there is a broad
flat beach or beach plain formed by recent filling in behind the
south jetty. Farther south, as at Jacksonville Beach and Mineral
City, the beach is generally about 500 feet wide at low tide. Be-
F


Fig. 27.-General view of beach near Mineral City, St. Johns County.


























0 .




100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
hind the beach there are dunes nearly all the way to St. Augus-
tine. The dune front is generally ragged because of the many
blown-out places in what was once a regular dune ridge. Many
cabbage palmettoes give an effect different from that of most of
the beaches of Florida. The wave-cut cliff showing yellow sub-
soil in a few places, the destruction of palmettoes and scrub
vegetation, and the outcrops of a dark-colored old marsh deposit,
all indicate that erosion is fairly active much of the way along
this beach.
The angle of slope of Jacksonville Beach is very low, about
1/2 degrees on some of the more uniformly sloping parts, but
averaging less than that.
On the back part of this beach there is the most extensive
concentration of dark heavy minerals known anywhere on the
beaches of Florida. This deposit was the basis of the mining
operations of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., for the recovery of
ilmenite, zircon and rutile.1
Donax, a small bivalve mollusk commonly used for making
soup, occurs in vast numbers on Jacksonville Beach in the strip
where the waves run up on the beach at low tide.
Coquina outcrops on the shore by the lighthouse near the
north end of Anastasia Island. The ocean beach for the whole
length of the island, south of Matanzas Inlet, a length of 12 miles,
is wide, hard and smooth, suitable for motoring except when the
tide is nearly high. A paved highway, the Ocean Shore Boule-
vard, runs the whole length of Anastasia Island and is connected
by bridges to the mainland at the north and south ends.
From Matanzas Inlet south to Ponce de Leon (Mosquito)
Inlet there is a 48-mile stretch of beach not interrupted by any
inlets. All parts of this are accessible, since an improved high-
way runs parallel to the shore, and is very close to it most of the
way.
On the shore four miles south of Matanzas Inlet there is an
outcrop of coquina known as "The Rocks." For some miles south
of this shell fragments make up a large proportion of the beach
sand, but they gradually decrease in abundance toward Daytona
Beach. At Flagler Beach the sand is yellow because it has so
many shell fragments of that color. The outer part of the beach,
90 feet or so wide at low tide, has a slope of about 5 degrees,
back of this is a narrow nearly level strip, and then a curving
ascent into the dune ridge. Behind the outer dune ridge is a
series of other ridges parallel to it. The greater regularity of
these as compared with those near Jacksonville Beach is probably
explained by the presence of so much shell at Flagler Beach.
Vegetation grows better on this than on highly siliceous sand,
so that the dunes are held in place.
"Martens, James H. C., Beach Deposits of Ilmenite. Zirton and Rutile in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey, Nineteenth Ann. Rept.. pp. 124-154. 1923.





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Continuing south from Flagler Beach the beach becomes
wider, the slope more gentle, and the amount of shell less, until
at Ormond it is possible to drive upon the beach. The length of
this famous beach for motoring, where several speed records have
been established (the latest about four miles per minute), from
Ormond through Daytona Beach to Ponce de Leon (Mosquito)
Inlet, is 17 miles. The southern part of it is harder, smoother
and more uniform than the northern part.
Daytona Beach (see Figure 28) is made up of very fine silica
sand which packs hard when damp. The beach is smooth, evenly
sloping and 400 or 500 feet wide at low tide. Behind the beach,
where not leveled off or obscured by building operations, are
dune ridges, the outer one of which has a wave-cut cliff following
stormy weather or unusually high tides.
Just south of Ponce de Leon (Mosquito) Inlet is Coronado
Beach, the part of which near New Smyrna is easily reached and
is suitable for motoring. South of Ponce de Leon Inlet the coast
chart shows that the beach is unbroken by inlets for 119 miles,
to Indian River Inlet, which makes this by far the longest con-
tinuous stretch of beach in Florida. Although separated from
the mainland by Indian River, the ocean beach in this region can
be reached by bridges from a number of places, as follows: New
Smyrna, Titusville, Cocoa, Eau Gallie, Melbourne and Vero Beach.
In the vicinity of Cape Canaveral the ocean beach reaches its
greatest distance from the mainland, some twelve miles or more.
Cocoa Beach is composed of fine quartz sand and is wide, smooth,
hard and gently sloping, so that at low tide it is suitable for
motoring as far as Cape Canaveral. Back of the beach are low
dune ridges. At Eau Gallie beach there is an outcrop of coquina
at and below water level, and blocks of it are thrown up on the
sandy beach, which contains an abundance of shell fragments.
Behind the little wave-cut cliff in the sand at the back of the
beach, there is palmetto scrub.
The late Professor James F. Kemp15 has given a very interest-
ing description of the beach at Melbourne. It is especially valu-
able for the observations on the formation and destruction of
beach cusps.
From Indian River Inlet to St. Lucie Inlet is 25 miles on the
coast chart, but the present inlet into Ft. Pierce is a little south
of the former Indian River Inlet shown on the chart. The beach
in this interval all has a fair proportion of shell which gives the
sand a yellowish color and makes it soft and yielding. This beach
can be reached by a bridge at Ft. Pierce or by boat across St.
Lucie Sound.
From St. Lucie Inlet to Jupiter Inlet is 16 miles along the
beach. In this interval the slope of the bottom offshore becomes
-lEcon. oeol. 14: pp. 302-323, June 1919.


101





102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


Fig. 20.-Lookmn south along shore at Miami Beach, Dade County. (Photo by R.
M. Harper.)
steeper the farther south we go. From Olympia Beach nearly to
Jupiter there is a paved road immediately back of the beach. At
the Spouting Rocks, four miles north of Jupiter, sandy coquina
outcrops on the shore.
From Jupiter Inlet to Lake Worth Inlet the beach extends
nearly straight for a distance of ten miles. In this interval the
beach is narrow and steeply sloping and contains a large propor-
tion of finely broken shell. The 10-fathom depth contour comes
within a mile of the shore part of the way and is not much
farther out the rest of the distance.
The well known Palm Beach is part of the beach which extends
37 miles from Lake Worth Inlet to Hillsboro Inlet. For the
whole of this distance the beach is easily accessible and the great-
er part of the way there is a paved road directly back of the
beach. At 7 miles south of Palm Beach, and at Boca Raton,
ledges of sandy coquina, or something similar, outcrop on the
shore. This rock has less whole or nearly whole shells than the
typical coquina, and is really the consolidated equivalent of the
present day beach deposit, which is more than half finely broken
shell. Recent sand dunes are not very important in this region,
but at times sand blows from the beach onto the ridge back of it,
which in places is higher than it would have grown by wave
action alone.
Fort Lauderdale beach is part of a ten mile stretch of beach
between Hillsboro Inlet and New River Inlet. It is reached by a
road and bridge from Fort Lauderdale.
From New River Inlet to the ship channel at the south end
of Miami Beach, the beach is fairly uniform in its characteristics.





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


It is narrow, steeply sloping, and composed of soft yellow sand
with a large proportion of shell fragments, worn smooth. (See
Figure 29). Where it has not been leveled there is generally a
low ridge at the back of the beach. This is no higher than it
could have been built by storm waves alone, and it appears that
there is practically no formation of dunes in Florida from sand
as highly calcareous as that in this region.
Virginia Key, at the entrance to the harbor of Miami, has
about two miles of beach, and Key Biscayne, the next one to the
south, about four miles of beach. Cape Florida at the south end
of Key Biscayne marks the south end of the nearly continuous
beach on the east coast, and it is also the most southerly locality
at which the beach sand contains much quartz, or appreciable
amounts of other minerals derived from beyond the northern
limits of Florida.
BEACHES OF FLORIDA KEYS AND CAPE SABLE.
The beaches of the Florida Keys southwestward from Cape
Florida are narrow and not continuous for long distances. On the
more exposed parts of the shore there are generally hard, rough,
limestone outcrops and in the more protected places mangrove
swamps. The sandy beaches seem to be less extensive than either
of these two other types of shore. The tropical aspect of these
beaches and their surroundings makes up for their small extent.
Leaning cocoanut palms fringe the back of the beach and clumps
of mangroves sticking up out of the water are in sight in front
or to one side. Where not already destroyed by fire or axe, a
short distance back from the beach there are tropical hammocks


Fig. 30.-Rocky outer shore of Lower Matacumbe Key at low tide. Monroe County.
(Photo by R. M. Harper.)


... ...


103


R, P




104 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


Fig. 31.-Looking west along marly shore near East Cape Sable, Monroe County, at
medium tide. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)

with an appearance totally different from that of the woods in
most parts of Florida.
On the beaches of the Florida Keys may sometimes be found
shells of the large conch which lives on the coral reef in front.
The sand of these beaches is almost all calcium carbonate and
consists of broken shells, coral fragments, small whole shells, and
Foraminifera. In some places (see Figure 30) the beach does
not extend all the way down to the water's edge at low tide, and
jagged limestone is exposed below it. While there are no dunes
in this region, sand ridges 3 to 5 feet high have been heaped up
at the back of the beach by storm waves.
At Key West there is a small beach of calcareous sand, and
the Marquesas Keys, 20 miles west of Key West, have mostly a
shore of white sand with similar material forming the bottom of
the surrounding shallow water.
The Dry Tortugas, a group of small islands 70 miles west of
Key West, have a total land area of less than quarter of a square
mile and rise little above sea level. The shores of these islands
have in part beaches of calcareous sand and in part ledges of
coquina outcropping on the shore.1"
On Cape Sable at the extreme southern end of the mainland of
Florida and of the United States there is a narrow beach of cal-
careous sand, or marl, in front of which shallow water extends
out for a long distance. (Figure 31).

$Taylor. Wm, Randolph. The Marine Algae of Florida with Special Reference to the
Dry Tortugas. Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of
Washington, Volume XXV, pp 15, 16, 21. 32. 1928,





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


BEACHES OF WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR FLORIDA.
On account of the more protected situation and the shallower
water offshore, beaches on the west coast of Florida are less
extensive than those on the east coast, and where they do occur
have somewhat different characteristics. The beach sand is de-
rived from other sand deposits of this region and none of it is
coming at the present time from sources far to the north as it
is on the east coast. A large proportion of the beach material
is whole or coarsely broken shell which does not stay uniformly
mixed with the fine quartz sand as does the finely broken shell
of the east coast beaches. To the person interested in shell col-
lecting the beaches of the west coast of the peninsula have more
to offer than any other part of Florida, both in the number of
species and the good condition of the shells when found. Shore
dunes are scarcely forming at all in this region at the present
time. It is true that the sand on the back part of the beach is
moved about by the wind to a small extent, but not enough to
form a real dune ridge. Some of the outer islands near Cedar
Keys have a beach of small extent, but on account of the shallow
water in front, most of the sand is somewhat muddy. Figure 32
shows the general character of the beach on Sea Horse Key and
the vegetation back of the beach. On the west coast of the penin-
sula the northern limit of the beach on which the sand is kept
washed fairly free from mud and vegetable material is on Anclote
Keys. The main island of this group has a frontage of 2% miles
on the Gulf. Even here wave action is ordinarily very moderate,


Fig. 32.-Beach on Sea Horse Key, Levy County.


105




106 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
since a three-fathom depth is reached only at two or three miles
from shore.
South of Anclote Keys there is a gap of nearly six miles to
Caladesi (Hog) Island, which has a beach facing the Gulf for a
distance of five miles; then a narrow pass and Clearwater Key to
the south with a beach three miles long. This is accessible by a
causeway from Clearwater. Clearwater Beach is composed of
very fine white sand with a moderate proportion of shell.
Sand Key extends from Little Pass to Indian Pass, a distance
of 912 miles, and has a beach on the Gulf for the entire distance.
The rest of the outer islands south to the North Channel into
Tampa Bay, as well as Egmont Key between the North and South-
west channel, and Passage Key south of the Southwest Channel,
have good beaches, most of which can be reached easily from
St. Petersburg.
On Anna Maria Key, a beach 7 miles long is easily accessible
by improved highway from Bradenton. Anna Maria is separated
from Longboat Key, to the south, by Longboat Inlet. This as
well as the other gaps between the islands, is now bridged, so
that it is possible to drive from Anna Maria to Sarasota on the
islands close to the beach. Longboat Key has nearly ten miles
of beach facing the Gulf. Between Longboat Key and Sarasota
Key there are several small, low, sandy islands with a total of
two or three miles of beach.
Sarasota Key is easily reached by a causeway and improved
road from Sarasota. All of the islands from Anna Maria to
Sarasota are low and flat without any conspicuous dunes. There
is generally swamp or marsh along the back or east side, but
much of this has been "improved" by artificial fill. The beach is
fine white sand with a moderate amount of shell. There is more
shell in the material dredged out of the lagoon than there is in
that on the actual beach.
It is very plain that erosion is actively going on, on the part
of this shore near Venice. This is shown by the distinct wave-
cut cliff, the exposures of wave-worn hardpan and limestone, and
the occurrence of flatwoods immediately back of the beach. This
limestone contains a large proportion of phosphate in the form
of grains of collophrne, and the dark grains of this mineral con-
centrated on the outer part of the beach make the sand almost
black. The cellophane is coarser than the quartz and therefore
tends to separate from it along with the heavy minerals. At the
upper limit of wave action in calm weather there is a thin nar-
row streak of sand which is about two-thirds zircon, which has
been thus concentrated by the waves because of being heavier
than any of the other minerals present in appreciable amount in
the sand. It is almost as white as the quartz, but even in small
grains it can be detected by the flashing surfaces of the little





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 33.-Gulf beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande. Lee County,
showing steep wave-cut scarp about six feet high. (Photo by R. M. Harper,)
crystals, and the diamond-like luster. When weather conditions
are favorable, wind ripple-marks in small dunes on the back part
of the beach are very prominent because of the contrasting colors
of the different minerals.
Manasota Beach, 8 miles south of Venice, is outside of the up-
per part of Lemon Bay on the Peninsula which is really an off-
shore bar, composed of beach deposits and connected with the
mainland at the north end. There is a large proportion of whole
and coarsely broken shell on the beach, beside some phosphate
grains, loose slabs of phosphatic coquina, fossil bones, and worn
fragments of limestone.
Three islands outside of the southern part of Lemon Bay and
the northern part of Gasparilla Sound have no names on the coast
chart. Together they have about eight miles of beach on the
Gulf. Gasparilla Island, the next one to the south, has a good
beach 61/2 miles in length (see figure 33).
Four miles or so of the mainland shore on the southern part
of the east side of Charlotte Harbor, labelled on the coast chart
"Burnt Store Coast," is indicated as sand beach. The west wind
has a reach of 12 miles across the harbor, so the presence of a
beach is not surprising.
The next island south of Gasparilla is LaCosta which has 71/2
miles of Gulf Beach; then Captiva, 9 miles long with beach all
the way. The southern part of Captiva is accessible by a road
from the ferry landing near the east end of Sanibel, but the
northern part is cut off by a new pass or inlet opened by a storm.
Sanibel Island is crescent-shaped, with the convex side out-
ward toward the Gulf. The general direction of the line con-


107





108 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
necting the two ends is almost east and west. On both Sanibel
and Captiva Islands it is possible to drive an automobile along
the beach, which is composed of fine quartz sand with a large
proportion of waterworn whole shells and shell fragments, fairly
well sorted into distinct streaks or layers. This region is well
known for the unusual variety of shells found there, and for the
rarity and beauty of some of them. Wave action is moderate, so
that the shells do not receive the heavy pounding that they do
on the east coast. Both of these islands are low, without sand
dunes, and composed of material similar to that on the actual
beach. Two miles from the west end of Sanibel Island there is a
small outcrop of coquina on the shore a little below high-tide line,
and this is one of the very few exposures of this rock on the west
coast of Florida.
From the north end of Estero Island, which is across San
Carlos bay from Sanibel, the outer shore extends nearly straight
in a direction a little east of south to Big Marco Pass, a distance
of about 45 miles. There is a beach of sand and shell which is
continuous but for narrow interruptions by ten passes or inlets.
For most of this distance there are shallow lagoons and mangrove
swamps between the beach and the mainland, but at Naples the
outer beach is on the mainland, and there are pine woods a short
distance back of it.
Marco Island, which is accessible by ferry and railroad, has
a beach four miles long on the Gulf side, and there is perhaps a
mile or two of fairly good beach at the entrances to the passes
at the ends of the island. The beach is composed of fine white
quartz sand which packs hard enough for motoring in the strip
left bare by the outgoing tide. There is also a large amount of
shell, which is so much coarser than the quartz sand that it does
not stay mixed with it but is sorted into separate streaks or lay-
ers. The dunes near Caxambas at the south end of Marco Island
are supposed to be the highest on the west coast of the Penin-
sula, but they are now inactive and thoroughly covered with
vegetation.
The nearly straight shore of the island on which Cape Ro-
mano is located has a beach similar to that of Marco Island for
the whole length of five miles. At Cape Romano is the south end
of what may properly be called beach on the west coast of penin-
sular Florida.
BEACHES OF NORTHWESTERN FLORIDA
Compared with those of other parts of the State the beaches
of this region are little known and little frequented. Although
this condition is now being changed by the building of the Culf
Coastal highway with a number of new bridges, the beaches of





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


northwestern Florida have been rather difficult of access and
have not received anything like the publicity that has been given
to those of peninsular Florida.
Over most of the distance from Perdido Bay to Ocklocknee
Bay there are as good beaches as any in the state. The sand of
this region is the whitest and most highly silicious of any occur-
ring on the beaches of Florida. This fact probably determines
some of the differences in vegetation between this and other parts
of the coast. It is especially noticeable that cabbage palmettoes
are rare in the eastern part of this region and entirely absent
from the western part, while pine trees grow closer to the shore
than on other parts of the coast. The composition of the sand
is also responsible for a greater activity of the sand dunes here
than elsewhere in Florida.
Perdido Entrance separates Florida from Alabama on the Gulf
coast. From Florida Point on the east side of Perdido Entrance
to New Inlet, the beach stretches eastward for ten miles along
the south side of the peninsula between Old River and Big La-
goon. It is accessible by a paved highway from Pensacola and
is known as the Pensacola Gulf Beach. The beach is composed
of white siliceous sand of medium fineness, and similar white
sand is the only type of soil occurring on the peninsula south of
the lagoon. Part of the way along the beach there is a well-
defined shore dune ridge and for the whole distance there are
small dunes of some variety.
On the island south of Big Lagoon there is a beach similar


ig. 34,-Drifted sand on beach plain, Santa Rosa Island, near Camp Walton. Note
formation of small dunes behind tufts of grass.


109





110 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
to that just described, extending for nearly five miles from New
Inlet to Ft. McRae at the west side of the entrance to Pensacola
Bay.
Pensacola Bay and its branches, while not having any
beaches similar to those on the Gulf, are very favorable places
for the observation of shore processes on a small scale. There
we may see how erosion with the formation of wave-cut cliffs
is going on in some places while deposition is forming sand spits
and mud flats in others. On the beaches we may see good ex-
amples of ripple marks, concentrations of heavy minerals and
other minor shore features.
Santa Rosa Island has the longest unbroken stretch of beach
on the Gulf Coast of Florida, and its beaches and sand dunes have
some of the finest scenery to be found anywhere on the coasts
of the state. As scaled from the United States Coast and Geo-
detic Survey chart, the total length of the south side of the island,
and therefore of the beach on the Gulf, is 491/% miles, but about
a mile of this has been detached by a new pass or inlet opened
near the east end by a flood on the Choctawhatchee River in the
spring of 1928. Santa Rosa Island is now accessible by boat
across Santa Rosa Sound or Pensacola Bay, and it is only a short
walk across the island from the north shore to the beach.
Some of the resort places on the north shore of Santa Rosa
Sound, from which the beach on the island is easily reached, are
Camp Walton, Florosa, and Mary Esther. When the coastal
highway through this region is completed it will be on Santa
Rosa Island for about five miles between the east and west en-
trances to Choctawhatchee Bay. Bridges will cross these two
passes or entrances.
The sand of the beach and dunes on Santa Rosa Island is of
snowy whiteness, and the resemblance to snow is increased when
the details are obscured by fog. The sand is coarser than most
of the siliceous beach sand of the Florida coasts. This fact and
the unusual cleanness of the sand are probably the reasons why
it squeaks or crunches under foot while most of the other beach
sand does not. The coarseness also makes it easier to see some
of the minerals other than quartz, such as the brown grains of
staurolite and rutile, the black metallic ones of ilmenite, and the
glassy light blue ones of cyanite. (See Figure 24).
The outer part of the beach which is worked over by the
waves under ordinary conditions has a slope of 9 to 9/ degrees,
according to a single set of measurements made about a mile
from the east end of the island. In a few places the slope is
appreciably less, and it is doubtful if it much more anywhere.
Back of the steeply sloping outer part of the beach is a nearly
level space and then either a gently curving ascent or a steep
little bluff on the outer side of the shore dune, this depending





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 35.-Shore of Inlet Lake, near boundary of Bay and Walton Counties. Bluff cut
by storm waves in sandy land with scrub vegetation. The shore is sandy but has a
narrow strip of marsh vegetation, because a sand bar, fnlntly seen in the distance at
the left of the picture, shuts off the waves from the gulf during all except the most
severe storms.

on whether much sand has been blown about by the wind since
storm waves last cut into the dune.
In a number of places the sea has swept entirely across the
island during the storms in 1926 and since then, tearing gaps in
the dunes and leaving a sandy plain strewn with shells and drift-
wood. In such places there is no well defined back limit to the
beach since the plain extending nearly or quite across the island
is about the same elevation as the higher part of the beach
proper. Scattered tufts of grass are beginning to hold sand
drifted by the wind and in a few more years there will probably
be a dune ridge across these gaps. (See Figure 34).
The eastern part of Santa Rosa Island for about eight miles
from the east end is probably the best place in Florida for study-
ing the different types of sand dunes, their construction and de-
struction, the relation of plant growth to the form of the dunes,
and the variations in the dune vegetation with respect to the
age and height of the dunes and their distance from the beach.
One interesting feature observed on the part of the island op-
posite Choctawhatchee Bay is the encroachment of blowout
dunes onto the Gulf beach. Coastal dunes are generally formed
and moved by wind blowing from the sea, but here the wind blow-
ing across Choctawhatchee Bay has hit the island with enough
force so that sand has been blown onto the beach rather than
away from it. For a short distance the waves are attacking


111




112 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
this recently formed dune and spreading the sand out along the
other parts of the beach.
The coast between the East Pass into Choctawhatchee Bay
and the tip of the Peninsula southwest of the west part of St.
Andrews Bay shows a number of features not found elsewhere
in Florida. Here the Gulf beach is on the mainland for a dis-
tance of 53 miles. The coast chart shows a total of 27 creeks
and inlets connecting with the Gulf, but not all of these are
open all time, because only a small amount of water flows
out through them. Some of these are entrances into small
brackish water lakes, or perhaps more properly, bays of which
the mouths have been nearly closed by sand bars.
This part of the coast of Florida has sunk, and the small
bays as well as the large ones are drowned valleys. The ten-
dency is for the shoreline to become straighter by the cutting
away of the higher projecting portions and the filling in of the
indentations or building of bars across them. The land immed-
iately back of the beach probably averages higher than on any
other part of the outer coast of Florida.
Where the land is being cut away there are bluffs which
may show yellow or black sandy soil in contrast with the usual
white beach and dune sand of this region. On the south side of
Moreno Point along East Pass, and on the Gulf shore to the east,
is a bluff showing weathered yellow sand with white dune sand
above it. Between Phillips Inlet (Inlet Beach) and Camp Creek
Inlet in the eastern part of Walton County, there are exposures


Fig, 36.-Spring on beach due to hardpan underlying loose sand, Walton County.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA 113
of both yellow sand and dark colored 'hardpan" in the bluff back
of the beach. On the beach itself there are some fresh-water
springs (Figure 36) which are caused by the water seeping out
along the top of the impervious hardpan.
Near Inlet Beach, which is about on the boundary between
Bay County and Walton County, there are dunes of white sand,
while the beach sand itself is nearly if not quite as white as that
on Santa Rosa Island. To the west of the inlet there is an area
of fairly active blowout dunes, while to the east there are regu-
lar dune ridges parallel to the shore for nearly two miles, and
there a bluff showing yellow sand is encountered again. Scrub
vegetation begins immediately back of the bluff, and in places is
being buried by sand blown up from the beach or destroyed by
the undermining of the bluff. During the more severe storms,
wave erosion is effective along the shores of some of the bays of
this region as shown by the bluff in figure 20. "Inlet Lake"
(Ocala Lake of the Florida Department of Agriculture map) is a
small body of brackish water intersected by the boundary be-
tween Bay and Walton County. A sand-bar through which there
is only a small shallow opening separates it from the Gulf, so that
during ordinary weather the water is calm enough to allow the
growth of a narrow strip of marsh vegetation.
The region between Choctawhatchee Bay and St. Andrews
Bay is one which has been little known to tourists because of its
inaccessibility, but with the completion of the bridge across St.
Andrews Bay and a direct road from Panama City it should be-
come popular as a seashore resort. The high dry land and the
practical absence of marshes are great advantages.
For a few miles along the shore of the peninsula between
East Bay and the channel from the Gulf into St. Andrews Bay,

U.



WHITE SAND
LU u tu
SCRUJ Z


;-. EACH
YELLOWV -r*- c'
SAND "be. B-y Cont..

Fig. 37.-Cro&s section of beach nea r Beacon Beach Hotel, Bay County.





114 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
there is a sandy beach, which was examined near Beacon Beach
Hotel. Hurricane Island and submerged sand bars give consider-
able protection to this shore, so that there is usually little wave
action, and the outer beach completely free from grass and herbs
is narrow. At the back of the beach is a small recently formed
grassy dune ridge, and behind that a bluff cut by the waves in
yellow sand with scrub vegetation on it. (See Figure 37).
Crooked Island has 10 miles or a little more of beach facing
the Gulf. It is now actually a peninsula rather than an island
since it has been moved toward the land by action of wind and
waves until there is a narrow connection with the mainland at
the southeast end. Some parts of the island are so low and nar-
row that waves sweep entirely across during occasional storms.
The bottom in front of Crooked Island has a more gentle slope
than farther to the west, so that under ordinary weather condi-
tions there is not so powerful a surf. The beach itself is gently
sloping and composed of nearly white sand. At the time Crooked
Island was visited, February, 1928, there seemed to be more large,
beautiful and well preserved shells than at any other place I have
visited on the coast of northwestern Florida. A number of species
were found in much better condition on the north shore of the is-
land where the water is quiet than on the Gulf beach.
Following around the curving shore of the mainland in a
general southeasterly direction from Crooked Island, we find that
there is a sandy beach for a distance of eleven miles or so until
we get under the lee of St. Joseph's Point. This beach is easily
accessible from the road from Port St. Joe to Panama City, and
the location for the new coastal highway is at the very back of
the beach and in a few places on the beach itself.
The narrow peninsula enclosing St. Joseph's Bay has a good
beach all the way around the outer side facing the Gulf, and at
low tide it is possible to drive an automobile most of the way out
to St. Joseph's Point, although some parts may be a little soft
and rough. This peninsula is composed of two parts with their
axes at about right angles to each other. From St. Joseph's
Point to Cape San Blas, a distance of 15 miles, the general direc-
tion of the shore as well as the axis of the peninsula is nearly
north and south, with a slight outward curve, while from Cape
San Bias to the base of the peninsula, a distance of three miles,
the shore runs a little north of east with a slight inward curve.
The sand spit on the cape itself, extending south from the light-
house, is a fairly good collecting place for shells. There is shoal
water to the south of this and a three-fathom depth is not
reached for four miles.
Two sets of dune ridges parallel to the shores of the two
parts of the peninsula make up most of it except for some marsh
along the bay. The east-west set of dune ridges has been cut





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


across or truncated by wave action on the beach a mile north of
the Cape San Blas lighthouse. Pine tree stumps sticking up
through the beach sand are other evidences that erosion has
recently been, and probably still is, going on at this locality.
That this condition holds for only a short distance is indicated
by a dune ridge of recent formation parallel to the shore at the
back of the beach farther to the north. This peninsula as a whole
is an example of the land form known as a cuspate foreland."
Excellent examples of small regularly spaced beach cusps
were observed a short distance north of the lighthouse at Cape
San Blas, but these are a temporary feature depending on weather
and tide conditions.
From the base of the peninsula extending out to Cape San
Bias, a beach on which it is possible to drive except when the
tide is high, reaches a distance of 51/ miles east to Indian Pass.
About half this distance is on the narrow Indian Peninsula. The
improved road from Apalachicola to Port St. Joe runs along the
back of this beach part of the way. The beach around the shore
of Bay San Bias is wider, harder, and smoother than that to the
west of it. Clay brought down by the Apalachicola River gives
a cloudy brownish appearance to the water around there, and
also makes up a thin scum which is deposited on top of the beach
sand in pools held in by a low sand ridge.
St. Vincent Island, separated from the mainland by Indian

-4.




'.4 '. -"" ."- . .. '












Fig. 38.-Pine tree stump and top roots protruding through beach sand. showing
that land has been here recently and worn away by the sea. Dog Island, Franklin
County.
"7ulliver. F. F. Cuspate Forelands. Bull. Geol. Soc Amer. vol. 7, pp. 399-422, 106.


115





116 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Pass and St. Vincent Sound, has nine miles of beach on the south
or Gulf side. This varies considerably in width on account of the
effects of tidal currents running through West Pass.
Across the half-mile gap of West Pass is Sand Island, a little
more than a mile long, now connected with St. George's Island by
a low, narrow sand spit. The shore of Sand Island and St.
George's Island runs in a generally southeasterly direction to Cape
St. George, where it turns rather sharply and from there con-
tinues about east-northeast to near the other end, where it curves
around more toward the north. The total length of beach on the
Gulf side of St. George's Island (including Sand Island) is 29
miles. There are two or three low narrow places which may at
times be open passes. The sand is of the whiteness usual for this
part of the coast, although at times the beach itself and the wa-
ter adjacent to it may be somewhat muddied by clay carried
down the Apalachicola River. In places, especially near the two
ends of the island, the beach and active sand dunes extend all the
way across from the Gulf to Apalachicola Bay, but a typical cross
section of the island from south to north would show: (1) beach;
(2) active sand dunes; (3) inactive sand dunes covered with
scrub vegetation and having a few slash pines in the lower
places; (4) tidal marsh.
The three-mile gap between St. George's Island and Dog
Island, on which is the eastward continuation of the Gulf beach,
has shoal water so that the mainland shore is protected from the
full force of the waves. Following the outward curvature of the
shore the length of beach on the Gulf side of Dog Island is 8
miles. For about two miles at the west end and a short distance
at the northeast tip the island is a nearly bare sand spit with
beach extending the whole width. For the rest of the length of
the island, dunes in various stages of activity, or fairly well
stabilized by scrub vegetation, will be found back of the beach.
On the Dog Island beach there is a moderate surf but not
enough to keep the beach and the shallow water free from sea-
weed. Shells are fairly abundant, Cardium magnum, the large
cockle, especially so. Scarcely any of the shell seems to get brok-
en up fine enough to form a part of the sand, which is very white
and nearly pure silica. A narrow strip of beach between high
and low tide lines has a moderately steep slope, but from the top
of this there is a level bench extending back to the dunes. (See
Figure 22). At about the middle part of the Gulf side of the island
and for short distances at a few other places, the land is being
worn away, as shown by the steep wave-cut cliff at the back of
the beach, and pine tree stumps or tap roots sticking up through
the beach. (Figure 38). Beach plains and dune ridges formed so
recently that they have only grass on them and no trees or
shrubs make it equally evident that sand is being added to the
shore in other places.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Dog Island Reef, a slightly submerged sand bar, extends most
of the way across from Dog Island to Alligator Point (Peninsula
Point on coast chart), thus enclosing the east end of St. George's
Sound, and protecting the shore of St. James Island (practically
equivalent to main land) to a considerable extent. St. Teresa and
Perkins Beach are on St. James Island about opposite the channel
between Dog Island Reef and Alligator Point, and are therefore
more exposed than other parts of the sound. Each of these places
has a beach which at high tide is attractive for bathing although
there is ordinarily no surf.
From Alligator Point around to Bald Point on the south side
of the mouth of Ocklocknee Bay there is a beach of light colored
sand on the shores of the Gulf for a distance of nine miles. The
beach here is inferior to those of the outer shore farther to the
westward because of the shallow water which prevents vigorous
wave action, allows the accumulation of seaweed, and gives the
grass a chance to grow close to the water's edge. At the south
side of the mouth of Ocklocknee Bay near Bald Point there are
places where the graduation from beach to marshy shore can be
plainly seen. There the beach above high tide line is moderately
clean sand, while a little lower it is muddy.
Northeast of the mouth of Ocklocknee Bay in Wakulla
County there is a mile or so of beach and then to the east and
south for a long distance only marshy shore.

PRESERVATION OF BEACHES
Not so much thought has been given to protecting and pre-
serving beaches in Florida as in more densely populated states
like New York and New Jersey, where a larger proportion of the
land near the waterfront is occupied. In Florida there are no
large cities dumping garbage or discharging sewage where it can
wash up onto the ocean beaches. The sewage from the larger
coastal towns goes into inside waters and there is so great an
amount of dilution, and such a time interval before it can come
in contact with the outer beaches that there is little chance of it
being offensive to the senses or dangerous to health. Formerly
a heavy asphaltic oil pumped out of the bilge of passing vessels
was washed ashore in the vicinity of Palm Beach and Miami and
made the beach much less pleasant for bathing, but this oil is no
longer pumped out in front of the beaches. Pollution of ocean
beaches or the water adjacent to them is therefore not such as
to cause any alarm in Florida at the present time, and it is only
necessary to see that conditions remain at least as good as they
now are.
It is also true that in Florida there are very few places where
erosion can go on to such an extent as to completely destroy the
beach by removal of sand, for the supply of sand is so great that


117





118 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
bed rock cannot be reached and erosion simply causes the sea to
encroach upon the land. However the beach may still remain
and be free from pollution, and yet its beauty and usefulness be
seriously impaired and damage done to waterfront property.
Two very important considerations with regard to beach
protection are: (1) The stabilization of the shoreline by the
prevention of erosion and accretion; (2) The preservation of the
natural scenery, and especially the native vegetation, near the
beach.
These two problems are related, since the removal of vege-
tation and the cutting away of the shore dunes can hasten erosion
by both wind and waves. Erosion and accretion will first be
considered.
Erosion is chiefly objectionable because it may result in de-
struction of buildings, roads, and other improvements near the
beach, and because it decreases the area of the land. It should
be noted that unusual storms may result in such damage and de-
struction without there being any constant tendency to erosion.
Growth or accretion of the shore may sometimes be desirable
because of the increase in the land area, but this is often of doubt-
ful value. The land added is likely to be so low that it will
require to be built up and protected by piling in order to be se-
cure against the waves.
Jetties extending out in front of the beach at river or harbor
entrances cause deposition of sand by slackening of currents and
lessening of the force of the waves. The channel between the
jetties is kept scoured out by the tidal current running through,
and the sand piles up on the outside of the jetty. The deposition
of large amounts of sand near the jetty may decrease the supply
of sand on the beach two or three miles away. Moreover, along-
shore currents may be so deflected by the jetty as to start active
erosion on some parts of the beach which were stable before. It
is not to be supposed that improvements to navigation will be
abandoned because of possible changes in the beach, but by care-
ful study of the currents in any particular region it may be pos-
sible to either build the improvements so as to cause a minimum
of disturbance to the natural conditions, or to build protecting
works to counteract the tendency to erosion. Nor is the original
construction of jetties necessarily detrimental to the beach since
they counteract a tendency for the inlets to shift and tear away
the beach on one side and build it up on the other.
In some instances the beach is composed of material which
can be used as concrete aggregate or for various building pur-
poses. Even though this may be the cheapest thing available for
the purpose the removal of large amounts of material from the
beach should be discouraged. Not only is the land directly back
of where the excavation was made exposed to storms, but since





119


BEACHES OF IORAIDA


the tendency is always to straighten irregularities and fill up in-
dentations in the shore, erosion may be started at some place not
far away, where there is valuable property immediately back of
the beach.
Far too often the "improvement" and "development" of
ocean front property means levelling of the shore ridges, destruc-
tion of the native vegetation, and the building of unsightly shacks.
There is also a tendency for roads paralleling the shore to be
built too close to it, in some cases even so close that the first
storm of unusual severity will tear the road out Generally the
road is safe enough but in building it an unnecessarily large
amount of the cabbage palmettoes, live oak scrub and other vege-
tation forming the background of the beach has been destroyed.
Where there is scarcely enough vegetation on the sand dunes to
hold them in place, the grading of a road without taking any
particular care in stabilizing the sand laid bare may, for a time
at least, increase the activity of the sand dunes. Even in thinly
settled districts, cattle or goats pasturing on the coastal sand
dunes may destroy so much of the cover of vegetation as to make
bare places where the formation of "blowouts" can start, and the
shrubs and small trees still remaining will then be uprooted or
buried by the shifting sand. A large part of the coastal region
of Florida is so low and flat that the native vegetation is one of
the main things it has to offer in the way of scenery, and when
that is destroyed what remains may be little better than a sandy
desert.
In Florida there are still some long stretches of beach which
have been little if any spoiled by either direct or indirect acts of
man, and along the back of which no one lives. Before it is too
late it would be well for the state, counties, and municipalities to
acquire as much as possible of waterfront property which is not
already intensively occupied and reserve it for the use of the
public in somewhere nearly its natural condition.





CONTENTS



PAGE
Introduction .... ....................... ......... ........................................ .............. .... 71
D definitions ....................................................................... .............. ....... ..... 72
Types of shore In Florida ................ ................ .... ................ ............ 72
Extent of beaches ..................................................................-..--------. 77
Conditions favorable for extensive beach formation -.....................-.... 79
Composition and texture of Florida beach sand ................................-.... 81
W ave action and its results ............... ........----- ....... ................. .... ..---- 85
O offshore bars ................................................. ............. .............. .. .......... 90
Tides and their relation to beaches ................................-- .............. 91
Coastal sand dunes ........ ---.......... .......... ....-........--......... ........... .......... 91
Beaches suitable for m otoring ............................. ................ ............................. 92
Regional and local descriptions ..........- .......... ....9........... ................ ................ 95
Beaches of East Coast of Florida .-............---......-............................ 97
Beaches of Florida Keys and Cape Sable ................. .............103
Beaches of West Coast of Peninsular Florida -... ...............................105
Beaches of Northwestern Florida ........................ .............................08
Preservation of beaches ........ ......... ............. ....... .....- ............................. 17







ERRATA


Page 82-Figure 16 should read Figure 31.
Page 83-Figure 20 should read Figure 24.
Page 87-Figures 22 and 30 should read Figures 22 and 33.
Page 91-Reference to Figure 23 should be omitted.
Page 110-Fourth line from bottom, insert "is."
Page 113-Figure 20 should read Figure 35.







(69)





ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE
12. Map showing extent of beaches and other types of shore in Florida.... 73
13. Salt Marshes near Mayport, Duval County ................................... 73
14. Shore of St. George's Sound near Lanark, Franklin County ................ 74-
15. Fresh marsh at mouth of Suwannee River, Levy County ........................ 75
16. Mangrove swamp just north of Miami Beach, Dade County................ 75
17. The Rocks, 4 miles south of Matanzas Inlet, St. Johns County........... 76
18. Overhanging rocky shores of Key Vacca, Monroe County.................. 77
19. Hardpan on shore about a mile west of Apalachicola, Franklin County 78.
20. Profile across Indian River and off-shore bar near Eau Gallie. Bre-
yard County ........-.. ..--.............. ..................86
21. Cross section of beach on Santa Rosa Island, Escambia County..-....-- 868
22. Gulf beach on Dog Island, Franklin County ............................................ 87
23. Airplane view of Daytona Beach looking north, Volusia County......... 8
24. Layers of black sand, Camp Creek Inlet, Walton County ............. ..- 89
25. Two dune ridges parallel to the shore, Bay County......................... 93
26. Blowout in dune sand, southeastern part of Walton County ......... .... 9
27. General view of beach near Mineral City, St. Johns County................ 98
28. Daytona Beach at low tide, Volusia County.................... .. ......- 99
29. Looking south along shore at Miami Beach, Dade County ..............102
30. Rocky outer shore of Lower Matacumbe Key at low tide, Monroe
County ........... .......... .. ..... ................. ................ --......... 103
31. Looking west along marly shore near East Cape Sable, Monroe
County .... ...- ---------------- ...... ..-.....-....-. ................... 104
32. Beach on Sea Horse Key, Levy County ..................................................10
33. Gulf Beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande, Lee
C county ...... ... ................ ............... ...... ...... ... ....................... ............1 07
34. Drifted sand on beach plain on Santa Rosa Island...............--..... ...... 109
35. Shore of Inlet Lake near boundary of Bay and Walton counties..........111
36. Spring on beach due to hardpan underlying loose sand, Walton
C county ........... .... .. -- .-- -. ........ ... ..... ...... .. ............................... 11
37. Cross section of beach near Beacon Beach Hotel, Bay County.............113
38. Pine tree stump on beach, Dog Island, Franklin County -........-.............15


(70)





BEACHES OF FLORIDA
JAMES H. C. MARTENS


INTRODUCTION.
Without the very extensive beaches which the State of
Florida possesses it is doubtful whether the warm winter climate
alone would have attracted nearly as many winter residents and
tourists from the north. Here is the only part of the United
States where both air and water are warm enough for comfort-
able ocean bathing during the winter. Not only are the beaches
an economic asset because of the winter resorts which they have
helped to develop, but they are also a source of health and recrea-
tion for a large proportion of the permanent residents of the
State. A few localities such as Palm Beach and Daytona Beach
are known to millions who read the newspapers, but probably
very few people, even including those who have spent much time
in Florida, have any idea of the many hundreds of miles of
beaches along the coasts, and of the varied scenery which they
present.
Owing to the peninsular shape of the State, no place in Florida
is more than about 75 miles from the coast. Because not all of
the shore has a beach the maximum distance to an ocean beach
is slightly greater.
During two years of field work the writer had the opportunity
of seeing a large part of the coast of Florida, and traversed many
miles of its beaches on foot and by automobile. Notes were taken
as to the characteristics of the beach and samples of the sand
were collected for laboratory examination. In the preparation of
the more general portions of this report D. W. Johnson's "Shore
Processes and Shoreline Development"'' was of very great assist-
ance, as were also some of the works of N. S. Shaler, and others.2
The determinations of carbon dioxide on the east coast beach
sands were contributed by Dr. W. H. Beisler, Professor of Chem-
'Johnson, D. W., Shore Processes and Shoreline Development; xvli' 584 pp. New
York. 1919.
'Shaler, N. B., Sea and Land: New York. 1894. (Essay on sea beaches, pp. 38-74)
Beaches and Tidal Marshes of the Atlantic Coast; Nat. Geog. Soc. Monographs, vol. 1,
no. 5, pp. 137-168. 1895.
A few additional works dealing with beaches and other shore features of Florida
are as follows:
Gulliver, P. P., Shoreline Topograph: Am, Acad. Arts and SOl, Proc. 24: pp. 151-
258, 1899.
Mayer. A. G., Our Neglected Southern Coast: Nat. Geog. Mag. 19; pp. 850-871, Dec. 1908.
Matson, G. C., Clapp. F. G., and Sanford, S., Florida Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept.,
pp, 40-42, 196-200, 1910.
Matson. 0. C., and Sanford, S., U . Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 319. pp.
35-39, 62-64, 1914.
Kemp. J. F., Observations on a Florida Sea Beach with Reference to Oil Geology:
Econ. Geol. 14: pp. 302-323, June 1919.


(71)





72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
ical Engineering at the University of Florida, and Mr. Nelson
Takahashi, graduate student there. For making the sieve tests
the writer was allowed the use of the necessary apparatus in the
West Virginia Road Department's laboratory at Morgantown.
DEFINITIONS.
A beach may be defined as the deposit of loose sand or pebbles
washed about by the waves on the shore of an ocean, lake or
river. The beach extends in width from the upper limit reached
by the waves at high tide to a little below low tide line, and is
usually not more than a few hundred feet wide. It is very nearly
free from vegetation mostly because the wave action prevents
anything from growing. As popularly used the word beach is
often applied to a larger sand area back of the beach proper, as
defined above. We shall be concerned here with the beaches on
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, but it should be pointed
out in passing that there are beaches also on many of the lakes.
The shoreline is the boundary line between land and water:
we may speak of the high tide shore-line and the low tide shore-
line. The narrow strip of land which is alternately covered by
water and exposed to the air is called the shore.
TYPES OF SHORE IN FLORIDA.
The shore in Florida is generally occupied by a sandy beach,
but other types of shore are also found, and these may be briefly
considered before passing on to a detailed discussion of the beach.
Practically all of the shore of Florida can be included under the
four headings, named in order of their extent within the State:-
(1) Sandy Beach; (2) Marshy Shore; (3) Mangrove Swamp; (4)
Rocky Shore. Their approximate extent is shown on the accom-
panying map, (Figure 12). It should be understood that this re-
fers to the outer shore exposed to the Gulf or ocean; also that on
account of the small scale of the map much generalization is
necessary. Furthermore, short stretches of sandy beach on parts
of the coast indicated as mangrove swamp or marsh may be locally
of some importance.
The main part of this paper will be taken up with the beaches,
and the other types of shore will only be briefly mentioned in
passing.
Salt marshes occur where wave action is limited either by
very shallow water extending out far from shore, or by a protect-
ing island, reef, or sand bar, so that vegetation can grow down
to the water's edge and in the strip between high and low tide
lines. On account of the quiet water the sand on the bottom is
not washed about much nor kept clean and free from other ma-
terials as on the beaches, so that the bottom material or soil of
the salt marshes is usually a dark mud or muddy sand containing
some decaying vegetation and shells. By far the most extensive







BEACHES OF FLORIDA


r

'
4


CAPE SAW 'B .
cc'"L *:,.-; : I- -- *










MAP OF
FLORIDA
I HUWitw flIn
*SuwFwo a XTKRT
*F m'^CHmEr AN& ftT0
TVVp& mr swmsaU
SBAIDY BEACH
[ MARtSHY BlORE
SMAIGINOVeF SWAMP
n .0-V a mLW
".=A *rr


0

0
yir

C'


CAPE


Fig. 12.-Map showing extent of beaches and other types of shore in Florida.


Fig. 13.-Salt marses near Mayport, Duval County, with dunes In distance. (Photo
by R. M. Harper.)


73




74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS
salt marshes in Florida are those inside the islands or off-shore
bars of the northern part of the east coast." From about the
mouth of the Ocklocknee River eastward and southward to the
Anclote Keys the shore directly exposed to the Gulf of Mexico is
marshy because the water is shallow for such a long way out that
large waves can not reach the shore.
Figure 13 shows a small part of one of the widest areas of
salt marsh in the State, near the mouth of the St. Johns River.
The dune ridge which separates it from the river and ocean is
seen in the distance. The circular pools are a characteristic fea-
ture of salt marshes in many parts of the country.
Figure 14 shows a shore which is partly protected from wave
action by a barrier beach a few miles off shore, and has some
grassy vegetation, but is too steep for the development of marshes.












-4 .4-. "

--.-- ._ .4-.- .

Fig. 14.-hore of St. George's Sound near Lanark showing very narrow fringe of
marsh vegetation at high tide. At low tide a narrow muddy beach is exposed. Wave
action is too slight to form a good beach. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)
Figure 15 shows some of the marshes at the southern mouth
of the Suwannee River, where there is no barrier beach, but the
shallowness of the Gulf prevents the formation of any but very
small waves. This happens to be fresh-water vegetation, but the
salt marshes elsewhere on the same coast are similar in
appearance.
The mangrove swamp is similar to the marshy shore in that
there is a lack of vigorous wave action and that the vegetation
grows down to the water's edge and even in the shallow water,
but is distinguished by the vegetation consisting of mangrove
trees or bushes rather than grasses or rushes. (See Figure 16).
The mangrove swamps occur only in southern Florida (because
'The tidal marshes of this region have been described by Shaler In the last cited
paper of his.





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Pig. 15,-Fresh manrh at the mouth of Suwannee
R. M. Harper.)


River, Levy County. (Photo by


Fig. 18.-Mangrove swamp just north of Miami Beach, Dade County, being cleared
for building sites ,1923. (Photo by H. M. Harper.)


75





76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21IST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
the mangrove is a tropical tree) but on various kinds of soil.
Their extent has been mapped by Harshberger.' The largest area
of mangrove swamp in Florida, and also in the United States, is
the region of the Ten Thousand Islands on the west side of the
south end of the Peninsula, but this is probably the prevailing
type of shore on the Florida Keys also. In places there is a
gradation from a shore with mangrove trees growing in shallow
water on a marly bottom to a narrow beach of calcareous sand
free from vegetation.

...4*& v. .W -.


-,. ." 7, .. L' A ***',

4
















ig. 17.-Coqulna on beach at "The Rocks," 4 miles south of Matanzae Inlet, St.
Johns County,
Rocky shores have only a very limited extent in Florida and
could not be shown on a map of the scale reproduced here. In
no place in the State are there high rocky cliffs, but rather in-
extensive ledges reaching from low tide level to a maximum
height of ten feet or so above sea. None of the rocks exposed
are of great geological age and some of them were formed under
conditions like those prevailing today in the same region.
On the east coast from St. Augustine southward to Boca Raton
the sandy beach is interrupted in a few places by wave-worn
outcrops of coquina. (See Figure 17). This rock is itself a beach
*Harshberger, John W., The Vegetation of South Florida, south of 27' 30 north,
exclusive of the Florida Keys: Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans. vol. 7 Pt. 3 Oct., 1914.





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 18.-Inner shore of Key Vacca at Marathon, showing small rocky island about
100 yards offshore, with edges deeply undercut all around by the solvent action of the
water, combined with wave action. The rock In the foreground also projects in the same
way, (Photo by B. M. Harper.)

deposit which has become consolidated by solution and redeposi-
tion of calcium carbonate. On the Florida Keys outcrops of lime-
stone along the shore are very common but rise little above sea
level. There are places, where, as shown in Figure 30, the uneven
surface of hard limestone is exposed below and in front of a
narrow beach of calcareous sand. On the inner shores of some
of the Keys, where the water of the Bay of Florida is too shallow
for large waves, the rock is undercut by solution. At Venice on
the Gulf coast the waves are wearing away sandy phosphatic
limestone. Several instances of the exposure of hardpan by wave
erosion along the shore have been observed in Florida. This hard-
pan is a dark brown to nearly black sandy material partially
consolidated by organic matter and iron oxide and generally
formed as the subsoil in poorly drained areas. (See Figure 19).

LENGTH OF BEACH.

Without any fear of contradiction Florida can boast of having
more extensive ocean beaches than any other State. Not only
that, but the east or Atlantic coast alone has a slightly greater
extent of beach than the whole State of Texas, which is next
after Florida in the length of beaches around its coasts."
'California has a long coast line, but only a small part of it is sandy beach.


77





78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


Fig. 19.-Ledge of black hardpan on shore of bay about a mile west of Apalachicola,
Franklin County. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)
The table below shows the approximate length of beaches in
different parts of the State as determined from United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts. For comparison, lengths of
the ocean or Gulf beach in Texas and North Carolina are also
given.
East Coast of Florida from Georgia line to Cape Florida 370 miles
West coast of Peninsular Florida ...................... 178 miles
Gulf coast of Florida from Ocklocknee Bay westward ... 200 miles
Florida Keys south of Cape Florida (estimated) ............ 30 miles
Total for Florida ........ ............................................. 778 m iles
Texas ........................ ....... ....... --.........----------.. ........-......--- 360 m iles
North Carolina .............. .................................... ............ 275 m iles
This does not include any beaches on lagoons, sounds, or bays
mostly enclosed, but only beaches facing on the Gulf of Mexico
or Atlantic Ocean without any protecting land in front. There
is beach nearly the whole length of the Atlantic Coast of the
United States from Cape Cod to Cape Florida and also by far the
greater part of the way around the coast of the States on the
Gulf of Mexico, so it is mainly owing to its peninsular shape that
Florida exceeds the other States in its length of beaches. South
Carolina has about two hundred miles of beaches and Louisiana
probably has at least an equal length, although the writer's
knowledge of the latter State is not sufficient to enable him to
estimate accurately from the maps and charts examined how
much of the shore is sandy beach and how much is mud flats.
Georgia, New York, New Jersey, and Virginia each have 100





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


miles or more of sandy beaches. All of these figures refer not
to the total length of shore, but only to that part having a sandy
or pebbly beach.
If lake beaches be considered the situation is somewhat dif-
ferent. The states bordering on the Great Lakes have extensive
beaches, which in width, cleanness of sand, and in violence of the
wave action on them are not much inferior to those of the ocean.
In fact it is possible that Michigan may have as great a length
of beach on the Great Lakes as Florida has on the Gulf and ocean.
There is a well-defined beach of fine white sand for many miles
around the east side of Lake Okeechobee. While there are beaches
on many of the smaller lakes in Florida, as well as on the bays,
sounds, and lagoons, the distinction between real beaches and
shores with vegetation extending down to and below the water
line is so indefinite that it would not be possible to estimate the
extent of such beaches nor even to list any considerable proportion
of the localities without very detailed examination.
CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR EXTENSIVE FORMATION
OF BEACHES.
The conditions which seem to have favored extensive formation
of beaches in Florida are: (1) Low and rather flat land near
the coast; (2) An abundant supply of sand; (3) Wave action of
sufficient intensity.
All of Florida is included in the Coastal Plain, which extends
far to the westward around the north side of the Gulf of Mexico,
and with gradually decreasing width to the northeast as far as
Massachusetts. The Coastal Plain is made up of beds of sand,
clay, limestone, etc., which were deposited in water when the
land stood at a lower level relative to the sea than it does at
present. The elevation of the whole region is rather low and
there are no great irregularities in the surface. In rather recent
geological time the land rose slowly above the sea. As a result
of this, a large part of Florida, including all of the east coast,
has a typical shore-line of emergence or coastal plain shore-line.
The former sea bottom, now exposed as land, was smooth and
nearly flat, and is composed mostly of loose or unconsolidated
sediments.
Since the material underlying the Coastal Plain contains a
large proportion of sand, a sandy beach will be formed and persist
even if erosion goes on rapidly; but on account of the gentle slope
of the bottom the sea will erode slowly in most places and will be
likely to carry away only the finely ground particles and not much
of the sand. Moreover, on some parts of the Florida coast there
are other sources of sand in addition to the material immediately
beneath or back of the beach.
The original source of most of the sand in Florida, including
that on the beaches, is to be found in the Piedmont and Appa-


79





80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-218T-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
lachian Mountain regions of the southeastern states, where sand
has been and is being formed by the gradual decay of various
hard rocks exposed to the disintegrating action of the atmosphere.
Sand which has been carried down to the sea by the Savannah,
Altamaha and other rivers of Georgia and the Carolinas is grad-
ually shifted to the southward by the shore currents and wave
action along the Atlantic Coast. Thus there is a constant re-
plenishing of the supply of sand on the east coast of Florida.
The rivers of northwestern Florida carry down large amounts of
sand, but most of this is deposited in bays and estuaries. Some
of it is probably carried out through passes or inlets by tidal
currents, and eventually becomes a part of the beach on the Gulf
of Mexico.
In order for there to be any beach not only must there be
along the shore a loose deposit of sand, shell, or pebbles of which
the beach may be formed, and a sufficient amount of it so that
it shall not be quickly washed away, but there must also be
enough wave action to keep this material moving about. Other-
wise instead of clean sand there would be mud, and vegetation
would grow down to the water's edge and even in the shallow
water. Protection from wave action may result from the pres-
ence of off-shore bars or islands, from submerged coral reefs or
sand bars, or simply from the bottom having a very gentle slope
so that the shallow water extends a long way out.
In strong contrast to Florida is Maine which has a typical
shore-line of submergence, resulting from the sinking below the
sea of a hilly to slightly mountainous area with hard rocks at or
near the surface. Instead of being approximately straight as is
the shore-line of Florida, that of Maine is extremely irregular
with many long peninsulas and indentations. There are hundreds
of rocky islands and the mainland shore is generally rocky also.
The sea bottom is not smooth as it is around the coast of Florida,
but has hills and valleys similar to those of the part of the land
which is still above water. On the coast of Maine beaches occur
not so much on the exposed outer shore but rather in the some-
what protected bays and coves, and even in such situations the
beach is likely to be pebbles and cobblestones rather than sand.
The supply of loose material for the formation of beaches is small,
and conditions are favorable for it to be washed away from the
shore into deep water. Beaches on this kind of coast are not very
permanent, because if a severe storm washes away a few million
tons of sand pebbles this may expose the bare rock beneath the
beach. Along a coastal plain shore-line like that of Florida the
supply of sand is so great that the beach itself cannot be destroyed
by storms even though a large amount of sand may be removed
from some parts of it.
OGulliver, F. P. Bull., Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 7, p. 408. 1896. Shaler. N. ., Nat. Geo.
Soc., Monographs, vol. 1, p. 153, 1895.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


COMPOSITION AND TEXTURE OF FLORIDA BEACH SAND.
All of the beaches are sand beaches. Pebbles or cobbles are
never present except in very small numbers near a few limestone
and coquina outcrops. The beach may have a large number of
whole or only slightly broken shells, but these are nearly always
subordinate in amount to the sand. The absence of pebbles on
the Florida beaches is best explained by the lack of hard rock
outcrops along the shore; to quote the words of Shaler:' "From
New York to Florida and thence to the Rio Grande, there are no
firm materials from which pebbles can be made."
In New England, where pebbly beaches are common, the hard
bed rock from which they are derived outcrops near at hand.
Another quotation from the same authority will explain more
thoroughly the absence of pebbles from many sand beaches, in-
cluding those of Florida."
"... The sand of which the bulk of their masses is composed
is vastly more durable than the seemingly more resisting pebbles.
As we have seen, pebbles wear out rapidly. Scarcely any, even the
hardest, can stand a year of steady thrashing on the shore, but
these sands endure for ages. The reasons for this are simple. In
the first place, each grain of sand is an admirable illustration of
the principle of the survival of the fittest. If it be not perfectly
coherent and very hard, it will not be carried far before its weak-
ness is found out and it is broken into mud on the pebble beaches,
where it is generally made and borne away by the sea to the deeper
water. Then, because of their smallness, the grains lie with so
little interspaces between them that they hold the water next their
faces by capillary attraction. When a wave strikes the shore the
grains of sand are pounded together, but they do not touch each
other. If we press on the wet sand with the foot we see that the
mass whitens as the pressure is applied and a part of the inter-
stitial water is poured out; take the foot away, and the water re-
turns to the crevices between the grains. Only dry sand will rub,
grain against grain, and give the audible sound which when it is
sharp and clear is called singing. No beach will thus creak or
sing beneath the feet when it is wet."
The two principal substances making up the sand are silica
in the form of the common mineral quartz, and calcium carbonate,
mineralogically known as calcite, which is derived from the shells
of various lime-secreting animals. When pure, quartz is colorless
or white with a glassy appearance, and it is hard enough to scratch
glass or steel. Quartz is the characteristic mineral of sand and
sandstone, and when nothing is said to the contrary it is usually
understood that they consist principally of it Granite and other
rocks similar to it are the original source of most of the quartz
in sand. Calcite is rather soft, being easily scratched by a knife.
It is white when pure but is often colored gray, yellow, or pink
by impurities.
Slhaler, N. S., Sea and Land: p, 61, New York, 1894.
Sha]ler, N. S., op. cit. pp. 72-73.


81





82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Nearly all of the sand of the northern part of the State is
composed of quartz. On the Gulf coast of northwestern Florida
the sand is so nearly pure quartz and the grains are so clean that
the beaches and dunes are as dazzlingly white as fresh snow. An
analysis" of such a sand from near Pensacola gave 99.65 per cent
silica.
Southward along either the east or the west coast of the
peninsula the proportion of shells and shell fragments in the sand
gradually increases, and in the vicinity of Miami the beach sand
is much less than half quartz. Southward from Cape Florida on
Key Biscayne, quartz ceases to be of any importance as a con-
stituent of the beach sand, and on the Florida Keys farther south,
as well as at Cape Sable on the extreme southern end of the main-
land, the beach is composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate
or calcite, in the form of coral and shell fragments and the re-
mains of small one-celled animals called foraminifera. (See
Figure 16).
The analyses in Table 1 will show more definitely the varia-
tions in the proportions of shell fragments in the beach sand of
the east coast. The percent of CaCO, was computed from the
actually determined percent of CO, on the assumption that all
of the carbon dioxide was present in calcium carbonate. The per-
cent of calcium carbonate should approximate rather closely the
percent of shell in the sand. In the table the sands are listed in
the order of their geographic occurrence, from north to south.
TABLE 1.
Calcium Carbonate Content of Sands from East Coast of Florida, Analy-
ses by Dr. Walter H. Beisler and Nelson Takahashi, University of Florida).
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Sample No. Locality CO- CaCOs
8028 Amelia Island, 1/z m. S. of St. Marys River.......... 0.55 1.25
8024 near south St. Johns River etty ......................... 0.26 0.59
8037 3 mi. S. of Mineral City ............................. 0.08 0.18
8106 Flagler Beach ....... .. ................................... 24.62 55.95
8103 5.3 mi. S. of Flagler-Volusia county line.......... 9.82 22.34
8041 Daytona Beach .........-.......................... ............. 0.64 1.43
8053 Cocoa Beach ----..-----.......---.. ------------ 3.19 7.25
8020 Indialantic Beach .......................--... ------...... 9.85 22.39
8014 Fort Pierce ...-----.........- ............. .....------. 7.07 16.07
8047 Olympia Beach -------.... ---......--.................. 18.41 41.86
8013 13.2 mi. N. of Palm Beach--.......-...................-- 20.10 45.68
8049 Riviera ............ ........ ................................ .............. 18.79 42.70
8011 Lake W north ....................... ................................. 19.21 43.66
8010 Boca Raton ....:........... ................. ................... .. 18.32 41.64
8009 Hollywood ................, ...................... 23.48 53.40
8002 Miami Beach, 10 mi. N. of channel at S. end-... 32.75 73.85
8001 Miami Beach, 5 mi. N. of channel at S. end.... 17.76 40.36
8004 Islamorada ...... .................. .... ....... ... 42.88 97.45
8006 Upper Matecumbe Key...............--.......... 42.91 97.52
"United States Geol. Survey. Bull. 315, p. 382, 1907.




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


In some ways more interesting than the minerals which are
present in large amount are those which are scattered through
the sand only in small quantities. In all twenty-five or more
minerals have been found in sand from Florida beaches. I have
observed and identified by the aid of a petrographic microscope
all of the minerals in the following list:
Quartz Zoisite Spinel
Calcite Staurolite Anatase
Ilmenite Cyanite Orthoclase
Collophane Sillimanite Microcline
Zircon Andalusite Plagioclase
Rutile Magnetite Muscovite
Monazite Tourmaline Biotite
Epidote Hornblende Graphite
Garnet Leucoxene Corundum
The greatest variety of minerals is present in the sand on the
northern part of the east coast, because it is nearer to the original
source of the minerals in the Piedmont and mountain regions of
Georgia and South Carolina, and because the deposits along that
part of the coast are of such recent geological age there has been
less opportunity for weathering than elsewhere. Nearly all of
the minerals listed above occur in the sand of Jacksonville Beach,
and it is no uncommon thing for ten or fifteen different minerals
to be found in one small sample from any part of the State where
quartz sand occurs. In sands consisting mostly of broken shells,
or coral with little quartz, these other minerals do not occur ex-
cept very rarely, because, like the quartz, they are derived from
the hard rock areas a long way to the north. It must be empha-
sized that the minerals other than quartz and calcite can usually
be seen and recognized in the beach sand only by microscopic
examination, and to find some of the rarer ones it may be neces-
sary to apply some process of concentration or separation.
Some few of the minerals on the beach may be of economic
importance where the waves have separated them naturally by
washing away the lighter grains. It is this type of deposit from
which the "rare earths" (ilmenite, zircon and rutile) have been
mined at Mineral City near Jacksonville."1 As far as Florida is
concerned none of the other minerals listed are likely to have
any commercial value, except as a part of sand which is applied
to some of the ordinary uses of sand.
Staurolite, and the titanium-bearing minerals, rutile and il-
menite, are the principal ones responsible for the dark streaks
often observed in the sand of beaches, dunes, and stream beds in
Florida. Figure 20 shows an unusually thick bed of these dark
heavy minerals which have been sorted out from the much lighter
quartz by the action of waves and wind on the upper part of the
Martens, James H. 0., Beach Deposits of Ilmenite, Zircon and Rutile in FIorida,
Florida Geol. Survey, Nineteenth Ann. Rept. pp. 124-154. 1928.


83




84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
beach. Bright blue glassy-looking grains of cyanite can be easily
seen by looking closely at the beach sand on the Gulf coast almost
anywhere from Bay County to Escambia County. Zircon is one
of the minerals which is present in sand wherever quartz is, and
although in smaller grains than the quartz, it may sometimes be
seen with the unaided eye by reason of its brilliant sparkle and
luster, resembling that of the diamond. For a short distance on
the Gulf beach in the vicinity of Venice, cellophane, which is the
principal mineral of the pebble phosphate deposits, occurs in such
abundance in the sand that it gives it a gray to nearly black color.
Interesting because of the distance which they must have
floated on the sea from the site of some volcanic eruption, but of
no real importance as a constituent of the beach sand, are the
occasional pieces of pumice, whose occurrence on the shore of the
southern part of Florida has been noted by Shaler."
The sea beans cast up on the beach by the waves have also
been carried far by the wind and current, and are believed to have
come mostly from the West Indies.
The grain of the sand on Florida beaches is fine to medium.
The coarsest siliceous sand is on the beaches of the Gulf coast of
northwestern Florida, especially Santa Rosa Island and the main-
land to the east of it. A sample from Santa Rosa Island opposite
Camp Walton had 68.7 per cent retained on a sieve with 50 meshes
to the inch (opening .297 mm.) but none on a sieve with 20
meshes to the inch (opening .84 mm.). This is about as coarse
a sand as can be found on the beaches of Florida. The wide hard
beaches of the northern part of the east coast have very fine
sand, with a texture about like that of granulated sugar.
The grains of beach sand are well sorted as to size, at least
as far as the quartz grains are concerned. This means that
nearly all the grains on a particular part of the beach are of
approximately the same size, with only a moderate amount which
are much smaller or larger. It can often be noticed that coarser
particles are being left at just about the upper limit which the
waves are reaching on the beach. Since the upper limit of wave
action varies with the tide and weather a section through the
beach deposits may show a series of layers of sand differing
slightly in coarseness or of quartz sand layers alternating with
layers of whole shells or large shell fragments. Where the shells
are broken down to the size of sand grains there seems to be
little tendency for them to separate from the quartz grains. The
grains of the various heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and zircon,
always average smaller than those of quartz.
To obtain more information about the variations in texture of
the east coast beach sands the writer made several sieve tests,
using a Ro-Tap machine and shaking each sample 20 minutes in
sieves of the U. S. Standard sieve series.
SBhaler. N. S. Nat. Geog. Soc. Monographs. vol. 1. p. 163, 1895.









BEACHES OF FLORIDA


The results of these tests are shown in Table 2. Some chemical
data for the same samples have been given in Table 1, except in
the case of Nos. 8025 and 8050. As before, the samples are ar-
ranged in geographical order, from north to south. The size of
openings of the different sieves, in millimeters, is given under
the sieve numbers. The percentage for each sieve represents the
amount of material between that size and the next larger, and
the last column indicates what has passed through the finest
sieve.
TABLE 2.
Sieve tests of beach sands from the east coast.


Percentage retained on sieves.


Sieve nos.
Opening (mm.)


8028
8025
8050
8053
8020
8014
8010
8009
8001


20 40 60
.84 .42 .29'


0,1 6.1
5.6 8.0
0.0 Tr.
0.0 0.2
S3.5 23.2
| 4.8 49.1
S0.7 28.4
9.6 56.7
1.4 22.3


24.0
18.5
Tr.
0.6
28.9
30.3
38.2
22.6
47.1


The localities are as follows:-


8028.
8025.
8050.
8053.
8020.
8014.
8010.
8009.
8001.


Amelia Island, Nassau Co., m. S. of St. Mary's River.
Manhattan Beach, Duval Co.
Cocoa Beach, Brevard Co.
Cocoa Beach, Brevard Co.
Indialantic Beach, Brevard Co.
Fort Pierce Beach, St. Lucie Co.
Boca Raton, Palm Beach Co.
Hollywood, Broward Co.
Miami Beach, Dade Co., 5 m. N. of channel at S. end.


WAVE ACTION AND ITS RESULTS
Waves beat constantly upon the shore of the Atlantic Ocean,
and even on a perfectly calm day there are always ground swells
from some distant storm. On the part of Florida bordering the
Gulf of Mexico wave action is less because of the shallower water
and more protected situation. On inland lakes there are waves
only while the wind is actually blowing. To the waves are due
not only many of the features of the beach as described in the
following pages, but even the existence of the beach itself, for
without the waves the shore would be muddy and covered by
vegetation.


2001
.074i


Passing
200


80
1 .177


46.1
33.6
2.4
5.3
39.6
12.7
31.4
9.8
27.9


100
.149


18,7
20.2
22.9
25.8
3.8
1.7
1.0
1.1
0.8


5.2
133
67.6
67.8
0.7
1.4
0.2
0.2
0.3


0.3
Tr,
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.3


_


85





86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

cC






u o 2 3







P1g, 20,-Profile across Indian River and off-shore bar near Eau Gallie. Brevard


waves in deep water and in shallow water. In deep water the
U cQ







movement is one f osciation. The wave form moves forward
z Z W

: a L)



t 40
U 60 0 3 4

HORIO NT^AL SCALE MfI1LC 1CS
Fign t s-Profae across Indian River and off- hore bar near Eau th allie Brevard
County,

There is a fundamental difference between the movement of
waves in deep water and in shallow water. In deep water the
movement is one of oscillation. The wave form moves forward
on the surface of the water but the main mass of the water itself
does not move forward. When waves come into shallow water
we see surf or breakers (Figure 23). The depth of water in which
a wave will break is approximately equal to the height of the
wave, but waves sometimes break in water deeper than this. As
the top of the breaking wave falls over, the nature of the wave
motion changes from one of oscillation to one of translation, and
the water actually runs forward up the sloping surface of the
beach. When the energy of the wave is spent in overcoming fric-

W.



u 3 nj


U 0 0 I ( -
I.4n

"'- 97- 7 .


H i00ft.-m-


Fig. 21,-Cross section of beach on Banta Rosa Island. Escambla County.





BEACHES OF FLORIDA


I


87


'' ^ '. l . -" "


S '. . ' "" '.
_ V .., *. . .. .-






. I. -" .
4.5.
-LI .-' -. ..l,..
I ': --


Fig, 22.-Gulf beach on Dog Island, Franklin County, Shows wave-cut cliff in dunes,
back shore terrace, foreshore, and seaweed cast up by waves.

tion and lifting the weight of water, the water flows back down
the beach, causing the undertow."
At the upper limit reached by waves during ordinary storms
the land generally rises in a much steeper slope than on the beach
itself. In some places this is due to the waves wearing away the
land and forming a wave-cut clif (Figures 22 and 30); and in
other places a low ridge known as a beach ridge has been formed
at the back of the beach from sand and shells thrown up by waves
during unusual storms. If a ridge in such a position owes its
height mainly to sand being blown up onto it from the surface
of the beach, it is called a dune ridge.
The slope of the beach toward the sea is determined by the
attraction of gravity, which may be considered constant, and the
intensity of wave action and coarseness of the sand, which vary
from place to place. On some of the beaches there is a uniform
and gentle slope all the way from the low tide line back to the
dune ridge or wave-cut cliff at the back of the beach. In many
places the outer part of the beach slopes much more steeply than
the back part. This outer slope of the beach corresponding to
the part between ordinary high and low tide lines during calm
weather is called the foreshore. The nearly level part of the beach
back of this is formed by waves during storms and is not reached
by them at other times; it is called the backshore terrace. Fre-
quently two backshore terraces, one slightly above the other and

'See Davis, W. M., The Undertow Myth: Science II. 61: 206-208, Feb. 20. 1925: and
discussion by W. C. Jones and T. T. Quirke on pages 444 and 468 of the same volume.


'N'
S .-.--- : .".':.... ."

S .. .V.... : .'. .._ '
*** .... . ....***. .|...l.:1 .P. "












r r
: .
' ..'" ..k -' . ,




"I "

".' .'- .,
- ,- ,i.'" .' ." .
..
~ ..






88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
formed by storms of different intensity, may be observed. This
is illustrated by Figure 21, while Figure 22 shows plainly the
foreshore, a single backshore terrace and the wave-cut front of
the dunes.
The nature of material forming the beach depends to a very
large extent upon wave action. The movement of sand or other
loose material to and fro by the waves tends to continually wear


Pig. 23,--Airplane view of Daytona Beach looking north, Volusia County. (Photo
by R. H. LeSesne. )




BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig, 24,-Layers of black sand composed of heavy minerals concentrated by wave
and wand action. Whled aune sand above. Camp Creek Inlet, Walton County. Ex-
posed by the shifting Inlet cutting through the beach deposits,
and grind it down to a smaller size and to make the grains more
nearly round. This is best shown by the shell fragments or by
pieces of brick which have come on the beach accidentally. In
some places in southern Florida the water near the beach has a
milky appearance, due to the small suspended particles of lime
carbonate resulting from the wear on shells. Waves are also
very effective in sorting the particles of sand and shell according
to their size and weight. Nearly all of the mud or clay is carried
back by the undertow away from the beach and into deeper water.
The finer and lighter sand grains are left on the lower part of
the beach and the larger and heavier grains tend to be concen-
trated at about the upper limit of wave action. Dark streaks of
the heavier minerals of the sand often collect on the upper part
of the beach (Figure 24). Where the shells are finely broken
they may remain rather uniformly mixed with the quartz sand,
but otherwise the waves leave them in distinct layers or streaks.
Beach cusps are among the more interesting of the minor shore
features which owe their origin to wave action. Beach cusps are
scallops formed on the outer side of the beach by waves beating
upon it. Each cusp is approximately triangular in shape with
the apex or point toward the sea and the base connected with the
main part of the beach. The spacing or size of the cusps is
fairly regular for any particular stretch of beach at any particular
time, and depends upon the size of the waves which formed them.
The larger cusps are formed by the larger waves. From about
15 to 70 feet seems to be the usual range in spacing of cusps on


89







90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
the Atlantic and Gulf beaches of Florida. Waves of different size
from those which formed any particular set of cusps will tear
them down and build new ones of different size or leave a smooth
beach without cusps. Where the sand is fine and of uniform
texture, as it is at Jacksonville Beach and Daytona Beach, there
seems to be less of a tendency for cusps to form than where it is
coarser or contains considerable shell.13
The formation of offshore bars is such an important result of
wave action that a separate section is devoted to it.
OFFSHORE BARS.
An offshore bar or barrier beach is a narrow bar with its
surface only slightly above sea level, lying parallel to and some
distance out from, a gently sloping sandy shore. Between the
mainland and the bar lies a lagoon, which in some parts of Flor-
ida is called a "river" and in some parts a "sound" or a "lake,"
as for example Indian River, St. George's Sound, and Lake Worth.
Because of the shallow depth of the lagoon and the comparatively
short reach which the wind has, there are only small waves to
strike against the mainland shore and the inner shore of the off-
shore bar. The real beach is on the outer side of the offshore
bar. The offshore bar is formed by waves breaking in shallow
water, washing up sand from the bottom and piling it up closer
to shore until finally it rises above the surface of the water. Most
of the Atlantic and Gulf beach in Florida is on offshore bars,
some of which are real islands separated from the mainland by
open water, others islands separated from the mainland only by
marshes and narrow tidal creeks, and still others peninsulas con-
nected at one end with dry land. Figures 20 and 23 show the
general relations of the offshore bars, lagoons and mainland.
The occurrence of the beach on offshore bars has an important
relation to its accessibility, since it will generally require taking
a ferry boat, or building a bridge to cross the lagoon. A large
number of such bridges have been built in recent years, especially
on the east coast of Florida. Some of the beaches on offshore
bars or islands on the Gulf coast, to which roads and bridges have
not yet been built, can be reached by ferries.
The offshore bar is composed of beach and dune deposits,
which generally means loose sand, but in Florida it includes some
coquina also. Owing to local conditions which cause a natural
building out of the coast by deposition of sand, the offshore bar
may become wide and complex, as in the region about Cape
tFor more detailed descriptions of beach cusps with explanation of their formation
see the following:
Gulliver, F. P., Cuspate Forelands: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 7: pp, 399-422. 1896,
Jefferson, M., Beach Cusps: Journ. Geol. vol. 7, pp. 237-246, 1889.
Branner. J. C., Origin of Beach Cusps: Journ. Geol. vol. 8, pp. 481-484, 1900; vol, ,
pp. 535-536, 1901,
Johnson, D. W., Beach Cusps: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 21, pp. 599-624, 1910.




Annual report
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Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: 1928-1930
Copyright Date: 1930
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Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
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Full Text































F354
G3r
no.21-22
























UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES







P K YONGE
LIBRARY
OF
FLORIDA
HISTORY



















FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist









TWENTY-FIRST-TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORTS
1928-1930










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT
STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION
CONSERVATION OF WATER SUPPLY
PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES
BEACHES OF FLORIDA
PALM NUT OF THE EOCENE OF FLORIDA


PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,
TALLAHASSEE, 1931
























P
t~ ~

C3n-

3~~, ~)"31)












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the Twenty-first
and Twenty-second Annual Reports of the Florida State Geologi-
cal Survey, covering the period from July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1930,
combined in one volume. Since our last annual report, for 1927-
1928, the Survey has published three bulletins on technical sub-
jects, in limited editions, reserving the administrative report and
papers of more general interest for the annual report. And com-
bining two annual reports in one at this time effects still further
economies in printing, binding and mailing. The report contains
the administrative section including a resume .of the activities of
the Survey and a detailed list of expenditures; statistics of min-
eral production for the years 1928 and 1929; and four papers as
follows: The Need for Conservation of Our Water Supply; Possi-
bility of Petroleum in Florida; Beaches of Florida; and a Palm
Nut from the Upper Eocene of Florida. It is felt that each of
these are subjects of very general and current interest.
The papers on water supply and petroleum were read at meet-
ings of the Florida Engineering Society and published in their
monthly magazine (which is a quarto) but are reprinted here in
order to give them a wider circulation and in the more convenient
octavo form, and also to correct a few errors that crept into the
originals. To the paper on water supply is appended a copy of
the law passed by the Legislature of 1929, providing for the con-
servation of artesian water in Manatee, Sarasota and Charlotte
Counties.
The report also contains a reprint, with the author's permis-
sion, of a description of a very well preserved fossil palm seed
from Florida by Dean E. W. Berry of Johns Hopkins University.
The original paper was published in a scientific journal of limited
circulation, and it is hoped that by making it available to the citi-
zens .of the State in this way the search for other specimens of
the kind may be stimulated. The seed described belongs to a
genus of palms now living in the tropics, and seems to indicate a
time when Florida's climate was even milder than at present.











The work of the Survey has progressed satisfactorily, and it
is a pleasure to acknowledge the cordial interest and cooperation
you have given this Department.
Very respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida.













CONTENTS.



PAGE

ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT by Herman Gunter ..................................... 7
Personnel ........................................ .. --.. 7
Publications of the Survey ................................ ................ 8
L library ............................... ..................................... ..... 8
M museum ...................................... ............ .... ------- 9
A ccession s ........................................ ............................................ .................. 10
Cooperation with other organizations ....................... ...... ............. 11
A appropriation .............................. .......... .. ...... ...... ............. 11
Expenditures ............................................... .-------. ---..... ---... 12
STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1928-
1929, by Herman Gunter (with Figs. 1 and 2). ................................ 27
Phosphate .......................... .... ... .............. ................. 28
Limestone, including Lime and Cement ................................. ............ 30
Fuller's Earth .......................................... .................... ............ 33
C lays .......................................... ....................... 33
Sand and G ravel ................ .... ......... ...... .. ...... ............... 34
Sand-Lim e Brick ........................................ ......... ..... ... ........... 36
R are Earths ........................................... ................ ... 36
P eat ...................................... ....... .............. ........ 36
D iatom ite ................................................ .................... 37
M mineral W waters ........................................ ...-..................... 37
Iron ....................--.............-------.----.....-.. .......--- 38
Other M minerals ........................... .................................. ..-- 39
W after Pow er ........................................ .....-.................... 39
Sum m ary .............................. ...- .................... ..... ............. 39
NEED FOR CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF OUR WATER
SUPPLY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO WATERS FROM
THE OCALA LIMESTONE, by Herman Gunter and Gerald M.
Ponton, (with Figs. 3 to 11). ............................-....-...................... 43
\/THE POSSIBILITY OF PETROLEUM IN FLORIDA, by Herman Gunter
and G erald M Ponton ......................... ........................................... 59
,/BEACHES OF FLORIDA, by James H. C. Martens, (with Figs. 12 to 36).... 67
y A PALM NUT OF ATTALEA FROM THE UPPER EOCENE OF FLORIDA,
by Edward W Berry, (with Figure 39). .........................................121
Index ................................... ... .................... .......127



(5)















ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist.
INTRODUCTION
During the period covered by this report the members of the
Geological Survey, in addition to the State Geologist, have been
Gerald M. Ponton, James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologists, and
Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Secretary. In June 1929 Dr. Martens
tendered his resignation, which became effective July 1, 1929.
Since leaving Florida Dr. Martens has been connected with the
Department of Geology, University of West Virginia, at Morgan-
town. In October 1929 Frank Westendick accepted the position of
Assistant Geologist. Previous to coming to Florida Mr. Westen-
dick was connected with Alfred University, Alfred, N. Y. Tem-
porary or part time service has been rendered by A. F. Wark and
Mrs. G. M. Ponton. Since July 1, 1929 Mrs. Ponton has been
connected with the Survey in the capacity of record clerk, render-
ing half-time service. Special services have been rendered by
Dr. Joseph A. Cushman and Dr. W. Storrs Cole, both in connec-
tion with investigations of microscopic fossils as contained in the
several formations of the State. In connection with cooperative
work between the Florida Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey,
Dr. W. C. Mansfield of the latter organization, spent a short time
collecting fossils from certain localities in western Florida.
The results of Dr. Mansfield's studies have been published by the
Florida Survey as Bulletin No. 3, which came as a contribution
from the U. S. Geological Survey without expense other than the
cost of illustrating and publishing.
Mr. Ponton has given much attention to microscopic studies
of well samples, to field work and to cataloguing and exhibition of
specimens. He assisted in preparing a detailed report on The
Foraminifera of the Marianna Limestone, which was published as
Bulletin No. 5. He also read a paper before a meeting of the
Florida Engineering Society, which is reprinted in this report.
Dr. Martens has a report dealing with the Beaches of Florida
which appears in this volume. Before his resignation he also pre-
pared a manuscript dealing with the brick-making clays of a por-
tion of Florida. It is planned to publish this, probably after some
(7)











8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
revision, at a later date. Mr. Westendick has given his time large-
ly to an investigation of the higher grade, white-burning clays of
the State. Some promising results have been obtained and these
investigations are being continued.
The State Geologist has supervised and directed, in so far as
possible, all of the field work as well as actively participated in
it. The details of the office and museum are requiring an in-
creasing amount of attention. He has also been called upon to
prepare papers and to make addresses dealing with the geology
and mineral resources of the State. These facts are noted with
pleasure and satisfaction, for they are but an indication that the
Survey is serving a useful purpose.
PUBLICATIONS OF THE SURVEY
In accordance with the law establishing the Survey an annual
report is issued. Including the present volume twenty-two annual
reports have been published, also five bulletins and a number of
press bulletins. Recently the practice of issuing bulletins has been
resumed and it is planned to issue the more scientific and tech-
nical papers in that form. The annual reports are available not
only as a whole volume but any one of the papers composing them
may be had in separate form. This has been found to be an eco-
nomic factor for frequently one may be interested only in a par-
ticular paper occurring in the report as a whole and through the
practice of having these bound in separate form it is not neces-
sary to send the whole volume. All reports of the Survey, whether
bulletin or annual report, are free to the citizens of the State, to
the libraries of Florida and to certain exchange libraries of the
United States and foreign countries. In this way they serve per-
manently as reference books, for the necessarily limited edition of
each soon becomes exhausted for general distribution. Requests
for publications from residents of states other than Florida should
be accompanied by postage. A complete list of the publications
so far issued may be had by writing the State Geologist,
Tallahassee.
LIBRARY
The Survey Library contains approximately 10,000 volumes.
These include the reports of the several State Geological Surveys,
the United States Geological Survey, other National organizations,
the Canadian and other foreign Geological Surveys, and many











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.
other miscellaneous volumes. A well equipped reference library is
essential to satisfactory work, and the library now includes many
volumes invaluable to present and future investigations.
These are being added to as opportunity permits.

MUSEUM
The law establishing the Survey provides that the State
Geologist shall collect "specimens illustrating the geological and
mineral features of the State" and shall label these "for conven-
ient use and study." Efforts have consistently been made to com-
ply with these provisions in so far as available space permitted.
In its present location the Survey has one room measuring about
18 feet by 60 feet which is devoted to exhibition purposes. At
present there are sixteen cases serving the double purpose of dis-
play and storage, two wall cases of similar design and one special
case.
Another case exhibiting an aquatic mammal recovered from
the fuller's earth deposits in Gadsden County has recently been
placed in the passage-way between the office and the museum, as
there was no room in the latter. The specimen on dis-
play was found in the sandstone or "sand rock" stratum be-
tween the two layers of fuller's earth in the Powell mine of the
Floridin Company at Quincy. Notice of this was given the Sur-
vey in February 1929, by Mr. R. H. Hopkins, Superintendent.
Preparations were immediately made by members of the Florida
Survey and by Dr. George Gaylord Simpson of the American Mu-
seum of Natural History, New York, who was in Florida at the
time procuring information on vertebrate fossils, to remove the
skeleton. Every courtesy was shown by the officials of the Flori-
din Company and Mr. Hopkins gave very active and generous
cooperation, all of which was appreciated to the fullest extent and
is herewith acknowledged. Huge blocks of sandstone in which the
fossil fragments were imbedded were removed and shipped to the
American Museum in New York where the matrix could be skill-
fully removed and all the preserved portions properly cared for.
This proved to be an exceedingly tedious task but the painstak-
ing efforts were amply rewarded, resulting in the recovery of
practically a complete skeleton with the exception of the lower
jaw. A lower jaw has been modelled, however, so that the original
specimen as mounted for exhibition purposes is complete. This











10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
will be retained by the American Museum and form an important
portion of their vast collections. The specimen on display, in the
Museum of the Geological Survey is mostly a plaster cast of the
original. It forms an exact duplicate of the original, however,
and makes a most important addition to our collections. Accord-
ing to Dr. Simpson it belongs to a new genus and species resem-
bling the modern manatee but more nearly related to the East
Indian dugong. It will be described by him in detail at a later date.
The usefulness and educational value of a museum to ade-
quately exhibit the mineral resources and fossils of Florida is
gradually being more and more appreciated. This is apparent
from the increased numbers of visitors to the exhibits of the Geo-
logical Survey. Another encouraging feature is the increased use
of the Museum by classes from the schools of Tallahassee and the
Florida State College for Women. It is the desire of the mem-
bers of the Survey to cooperate in every possible way, not only
with the public in general but with instructors and teachers in
particular, so that the displays will stimulate a desire to know
more about the natural history of Florida. In a State so wonder-
fully rich in natural resources and fossil remains a more con-
certed effort should be made to the end that we might have a
building devoted to the caring for such departments as have
supervision of the natural resources and to the more advantageous
displaying of such resources. It is hoped that the growing inter-
est so manifest will continue and ultimately result in a demand
for such a building.
ACCESSIONS
The Survey will at all times welcome accessions to the
Museum. It is a matter of rather common occurrence and regret
that fossils are found and are not placed in a museum so as to
be permanently cared for. Many valuable specimens have been
lost in this way and it is therefore urged that those who may have
fossils in their possession should deposit these in a museum with-
in the State. In this way there will be a centralization of such
material and it can all be more safely preserved and form a more
comprehensive display.
It is a matter of increasing pleasure and satisfaction to note
the added interest in the donation of specimens. Among these
gifts the following should be especially mentioned: B. H. Dickson,











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 11

a fossil fish from the Marianna limestone; Chas. A. Mosier, vari-
ous collections of shells; J. L. Farnum (deceased), Liguus collec-
tion and various species of native woods; Richard F. Deckert,
Liguus collection; Herman Kurz, fossil wood; Guy F. Winthrop,
artifacts and recent skeletons; L. G. Getzen, tooth and part of
femur of Mastodon; J. Clarence Simpson, various vertebrate re-
mains from Itchtucknee Springs; Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Simpson,
various vertebrate remains from Itchtucknee Springs and River;
Dr. Chas. T. Simpson, Liguus collection; Harry Mulligan, collec-
tion of recent shells; W. B. Richards, Indian arrow heads and arti-
facts; Jack Clarkson, recent shells; and Mr. Curtis A. Perry, col-
lection of recent shells from Sanibel Island.
Through such generous contributions and cooperation the
Museum of the Geological Survey is gradually becoming more
completely representative and additions will always be welcomed.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines and the
United States Bureau of Census in the collection of statistics of
mineral production has been continued during the fiscal year.
Such cooperation, although not entirely satisfactory on account
of the delay occasioned by the cooperating Bureaus in making
final statistical returns, does make for economy and also saves
the producers the trouble of making reports to more than the one
agency. It is appropriate and timely to extend thanks to the min-
eral producers of the State for their whole-hearted spirit of co-
operation for without it such statistics could not be published.
Cooperation has also been entered into with the United
States Geological Survey in an investigation of the surface and
ground waters of Florida. This is a study that will require con-
siderable time and detail but it is hoped that it may continue until
a most thorough understanding of the ground waters can be ar-
rived at. The study of the surface waters is one that should cover
a period of successive years, particularly for the purpose of get-
ting stream flow measurements for consecutive years.
APPROPRIATION
The following appropriations were made by the Legislature
of 1929 for the biennium 1929-1931:
Annually
Salary State Geologist ............... ........................................... $4,000
Salary Assistant Geologist ........ .............................................. 2,750












12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Salary Assistant Geologist .......................................... ........... 2,750
Temporary Assistant --................ ....... ......................-. 1,800
Stenographer ............................................................ .................. 1,800
Record Clerk (part tim e) ........................................ .... .......... 900
Museum and Laboratory Aid .......................................... 600
Traveling expenses ................................................ ...... 3,500
Field Office and Museum equipment ........................................ 1,000
Printing and Engraving ................................. ........................ 4,000
Postage and Stationery ................................... .. .. ... 500
Incidentals ........................................- .................... 600
Autom obile renewals ............................................................... ..... 700
Clay laboratory supplies and operation ...................................... 500
EXPENDITURES
The following itemized list shows all the expenditures of the
Survey from July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1930. All bills and itemized
expense accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, du-
plicate copies being retained in the office of the State Geologist.
With the exception of regular salaries all accounts are approved
by the Governor and are paid only by warrant drawn upon the
State Treasurer by the Comptroller. No monies are handled by
the State Geologist.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1928, 10 JUNE 30, 1930.
JULY, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary........................----.. $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary................................ 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses............................ 28.04
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, C. O. D. package, Eastman Kodak
Stores, 7 enlargem ents................................... ................ 11.22
Western Union Telegraph Company.......-................................. 1.10
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company, August
rental ................................................ ........................... ......... 3.75
Central Scientific Company, sieve and bolting cloth............ 8.71
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage............................................. 10.72
Fisher Scientific Company, 4 red sable brushes...................... 2.73
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies.............................................. 6.10
Bass Hardware Company, supplies...................................... 11.45
A. W. Fowler and Company, grinding valves.......................... 5.50
American Railway Express Company...................................... 3.89
W. A. DeMilly and Son, insurance on Chevrolet roadster.... 22.40
Artcraft Printers, lables and statements................................ 28.80
T. S. Humphress, 6 tubes paint.......................................... .90
G. D. Harris, Volume 14; No. 53 Bulletin American Paleon-
tology .................................................................... .............. .75
Louisiana Department of Conservation, 2 mounted maps of
Louisiana ................................................................... ............ 7.50
Tropical Plant Research Foundation, "The Soils of Cuba",
w ith w all m ap .............................................. ........................ 7.00
P. Blakiston's Son and Company, 1 copy "Kingsley Skele-
ton ........................ .......... .... .. ....................... .. 6.00













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


A. F. Wark, classifying and cataloguing vertebrate speci-
m ens ............................................................... ...--- .. 225.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, cataloguing well samples.................... 37.50
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 6 publications.............. 21.00
American Geographical Society, "The Coral Reef Problem"
"The Last Glaciation" ................................. ..................... 9.50
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, windshield, horn and fan
belt ................................. .......................... 11.40
Midyette Insurance Agency, insurance on Chevrolet road-
ster .......................................................................................... 22.40
Groover-Stewart Drug Company, 2 lbs. Ceresine.................. .95
American Association of Museums, "Manual for Small Mu-
seum s," Colem an ............................................. ........... ...... 5.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, map cabinet ................................ 79.16
Tallahassee Variety Works, shelves and drawers.................... 146.07
AUGUST, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .............................. $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ............................ 229.16
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 90.83
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary ........................................ 150.00
Western Union Telegraph Company.......................................... 1.46
The Geological Society of London, 2 Quarterly Journals,
Vol. 83; Vol. 85............................................................. .. .. 3.88
U. S. Geological Survey ] Cooperative work on report...... 216.66
U. S. Geological Survey on the geology of Florida and a 208.34
U. S. Geological SurveyJ report on the Choctawhatchee
form ation .............................. 209.16
Adam s Studio, film s....................................................................... 1.47
J. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples, July................ 80.00
W. L. Marshall, 9 window shield glasses................................. 53.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage.............................................. 2.39
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Sep-
tem ber rental ......................... ....... .... ................. 3.75
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies................................................. 10.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ........................................ 1.25
Florida Engineering Society, entrance fee and 1 years dues 4.00
American Box & File Company, 100 lid top boxes.................... 34.00
Kny-Scheerer Company, cork plates........................................ 6.82
Artcraft Printers, 2000 Postal cards, 1000 notices of annual
report ....................................................................................... 9.25
A. F. Wark, classifying and cataloguing vertebrate material 225.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, cataloguing well samples.................... 18.75
Devoe & Reynolds, Inc., 8 tubes of paint................................... 3.56
Boston Society of Natural History, 3 Occasional papers,
Vol. 5, 5 Proceedings Vols., 32, 34, 36, 37 No. 1, 37 No. 2 1.86
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 3 For-
am inifera papers ............................ ..... ....... ............ 1.50
American Railway Express Company ...................................... 1.89
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., 1 cabinet....................................... .......... 33.25
Geological Society of America, Bulletin 35, Vol. 4................ 2.40
Government Printer, 1 copy "Brachiopod Morphology and
G enera" ................................................................................. 4.24
Fisher Scientific Company, micro slides, bottles and corks 18.10
American Museum of Natural History, 1 year subscription
to Natural History ................................------.......... .............. 3.00
The Western Union Telegraph Company ............................ 1.15
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage ...................................... 26.06













14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

J. A. Cushman, work on well samples, August...................... 70.00
A. W. Fowler, repair Chevrolet roadster, 607-X.................... 1.25
Bass Hardware Company, supplies....................................... 8.60
SEPTEMBER, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary......................... $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary.............................. 229.16
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, October
rental .............................................. .......................... 3.75
American Railway Express Company ...................................... 10.21
Ware Brothers Company, 1 year subscription American
F ertilizer ................................................. ................. 3.00
Fisher Scientific Company, 12 slide boxes.............................. 11.15
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., 12 binder boards.................................... 1.20
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................ ...... 9.80
Newell B. Davis Studio, 20 frames............................................ 5.75
W. H. May, Postmaster, C. O. D. "Story of Geology" ........ 4.33
Bass Hardware Company, supplies.......................................... 5.00
A. F. Wark, classifying and cataloguing vertebrate material 225.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, cataloguing well samples...................... 75.00
W. O. Hazard, photographing, 11 plates.................................... 16.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent...................... 60.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage.................. ................ 11.06
OCTOBER, 1928
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.............................. 13.30
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary................................ 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses............................ 30.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
The Record Company, 19th annual report................................ 1145.46
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company, Novem-
ber rental .............................................. ... ................... 3.75
T. S. Humphress, paint brush and paint .............................. 21.75
Florida Historical Society, 1 years membership .................. 2.00
Capital Auto Supply Company, tire, tube, charge battery.. 16.25
Merrill-Stevens Dry Dock & Repair Company, making brass
die ................................................................................ ........... 23.28
Florida State Historical Society, "Priestly Luna Papers No.
171" ........................................ ................................................ 18.00
Fisher Scientific Company, clay laboratory supplies............ 6.96
Newell B. Davis Studio, framing 7 pictures and developing
plates ............................................ ....... .................... 31.40
Bass Hardware Company, supplies.......................................... 19.95
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services........................................ 58.33
Tallahassee Variety Works, 3 cabinets.................................... 209.35
American Railway Express Company....................................... 1.57
Jos. A. Cushman, work on well samples.................................... 70.00
D. D. Cureton, work on gas furnace and 2 valves.................... 10.50
A. Pichard, 160 feet lumber....................................................... 3.00
NOVEMBER, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.............................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.............................. 21.99
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary................................ 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.......................... 9.66













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary ................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 14.80
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Decem-
ber rental .................................................. ............ ... ... 3.75
Artcraft Printers, 2000 letterheads............................. .......... 8.75
American Railway Express Company.....................-------...........-- 4.80
Harvard University Press, "Old Mother Earth" ................. 2.50
Ambroid Company, 1 pint can ambroid cement.................. 1.40
J. W Johnson, 1 pint white ink................................................ 2.44
Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1000
slides ............................................... ......... ... ......................... 30.00
U. S. Industrial Alcohol Company, 5 gallons alcohol............ 4.10
Southern Engraving Company, 27 halftones.......................... 125.60
George McLane Wood, editing and preparing for printing
C. W. Cooke's report on Geology of Florida.................... 75.00
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1 years subscription ....... 6.00
French Mirror Plate Glass Company, 30 pieces.................... 19.00
DuPre Brothers, V2 dozen plastic type cleaners.................... 3.10
H. R. Sauls, capping pipes, labor and material.................... 2.30
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, services special........................................ 75.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies......................... ................ 3.80
DECEMBER, 1928
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.............................. 97.18
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.17
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 57.55
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, January
rental ................................................ .. .... ............. 3.75
American Railway Express Company...................................... 3.66
W. F. Allen, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, 2-X tags----.............. 1.00
Capital Auto Supply Company, Battery, 607-X...................... 10.00
McCants Motor Company, installing cable............................ 1.75
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, side curtains, grease car.. 6.51
Fisher Scientific Company, laboratory supplies.................... 33.15
T. J. Appleyard, 1 steel file.......................................................... 78.00
D. Van Nostrand Company, 1 Alluvial Prospecting..........- 14.00
DuPre Brothers, 1 Multistamp, 1 box stencils........................ 17.10
Burgert Brothers, 2 photographs..................................... 4.08
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services----....................... ......... 60.50
Rock Products, 3 years subscription..................................... 5.00
George McLane Wood, editing Mansfield's report................ 25.00
Southern Engraving Company, 8 halftones, 1 line cut........ 46.61
Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1 year 2.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent......................------.........--......... 2.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage....................................... 4.08
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies........................................... .... 2.50
Chief Disbursing Clerk, U. S. Geological Survey, 5000
geologic maps ..----....................................-... .------ 1300.00
National Research Council, 10 color charts sedimentary
rocks ................................................................................ 5.50
Lanman Engraving Company, 20 halftones, Mansfield's
report ........................................................................ 115.00
Jos. A. Cushman, work on well samples.................................. 130.00
W. L. Marshall, material and labor........................................ 179.19
Tallahassee Variety Works, 6 cases and shelving.................. 402.50













16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, 2 tickets to New
Y ork ........................................ ........ 94.86
The American Association for Advancement of Science,
dues 1929 .............................................. ------ 5.00
Florida Engineering Society, dues 1929 ..................... ....--- 2.50
Bass Hardware Company, supplies........... ............... 21.00
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, dues 1929 15.00
Newell B. Davis Studio, 2 frames and mats and kodak re-
pair ........ .... ... ....... .......... ...................... 9.55
JANUARY, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.33
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary............................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.......................... 96.19
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses........... 78.85
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary....................... ...... 150.00
Wilson Construction & Supply Company, 50 cement sacks.. 5.00
American Water Works Association, dues 1929................ 10.00
Edward B. Mathews, Treasurer, Geological Society of
America, dues 1929............................. ............ 10.00
Southern Engraving Company, 2 halftones, 3 line cuts........ 24.72
Western Union Telegraph Company............................ 3.68
L. B. Marshall, copying mineral statistics, 1927.................... 4.56
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during December 8.20
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Feb-
ruary rental ...................................................... 3.75
A. W. Fowler & Company, repair Chevrolet roadster........... 43.45
Chief Disbursing Clerk, U. S. Geological Survey, cooper
tive work on Mansfield's and Cooke's reports............... 571.58
Economic Geology Publishing Company, 1 year subscrip-
tion .......... ......... ..................... ....... ................. 5.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., file and supplies......................... 45.75
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., case and materials........... 43.63
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services........................................ 37.50
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies........................ ......... 8.25
Newell B. Davis Studio, films and frames............................ 6.60
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during January 8.40
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage............................ ....... 7.46
American Railway Express Company ....... ................. 1.79
Jos. A. Cushman, work on well samples from Florida, Jan-
uary ............................................... 50.00
Western Union Telegraph Company---..........-....--------.-- 1.63
FEBRUARY, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary............................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 40.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary .................. 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 35.23
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 162.49
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary................................. 150.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, 42 lantern slides and 42 prints 45.91
The Southern Telephone & Construction Co., March rental
and long distance call.......................................................... 4.05
The Standard Pyrometric Cone Company, 500 cones ........ 6.50
Alvah Bushnell Company, 50 paperoid file pockets............ 8.88
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during February 9.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies.................................... ........ 1.50













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


The Macmillan Company, Zittel; Text Book on Paleon *
tology, V ol. I....................................... ............... ............. 9.00
American Railway Express Company.................................... 3.39
Newell B. Davis Studio, lantern slides and prints................. 7.10
Bass Hardware Company, supplies......---... --....................... 2.35
Gulf Publishing Company, 1 years subscription Oil Weekly 1.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies...............---.............-................... 2.50
F. B. Plummer, 1 years subscription "Journal of Paleon-
tology" ............................................... .. ........................ .. 6.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services ..................................... 53.62
Warren R. King, District Engineer, U. S. G. S., measuring 21
springs ............................................................ ....... .............. 210.00
Adams Studio, developing and printing films........................ 6.13
Good Luck Service Station, greasing car, gas and oil.......... 6.84
Jos. A. Cusnman, work on Florida well samples................ 50.00
The Record Company, 2 files-................... ........ .........- 8.00
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage.......................... ........... 3.60
Western Union Telegraph Company................ .................. 1.53
MARCH, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary--................................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 63.78
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary .......... .... 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................... 92.24
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary.................. 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 21.02
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary....-......................-.......... 150.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, April
rental ...---....-----------....... --------..............- .......-------...-- 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during March.... 1.00
Bass Hardware Company, supplies......................................... 2.70
Newell B. Davis Studio, plate holders, plates and film
sheaths ............... ......... ........ ... ... . ............ 14.80
McNeil & Culley, automobile casing......................... ........... 10.60
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company.........-........................ 2.49
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage.......................................... 14.20
Good Luck Service Station, greasing car, gas and oil.......... 3.85
The Miller-Bryant Pierce Company, carbons........................ 3.00
Jos. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples.................... 60.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies......................... .... ........... 14.10
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services----.....................------- ......... 60.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent...................... 62.00
Railway Express Agency, Inc..................-..----.................--- 35.04
McCants Motor Company, repair Chevrolet roadster.......... 39.05
Adams Studio, developing and printing films........................ 3.45
Brentano's Inc., Reynolds, "Vertebrate Skeleton", Tomes,
"Manual Dental Anatomy"; Parker, "Text Book of
Zoology" .........-----.........-.......- -- .. .. ---- 23.18
APRIL, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 17.60
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 8.28
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 4.40
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.................................... 150.00
The Southern Telephone & Construction Co., May rental 3.75
The Florida Historical Society, 1 year dues............................ 2.00













18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Company, cement...................... 2.00
Carnegie Institution of Washington, No. 391 Papers from
Tortugas Laboratory .......................................................... 2.50
Anniston Bag Company, 1000 bags, printed.......................... 25.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, tripod and lantern slide plates.. 6.92
Brentano's Inc., Cunningham: "Manual of Practical
Anatomy", 2 volumes .................................................... 8.52
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames, lantern slides........................ 22.81
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies............................................ 49.95
Railway Express Agency.......................... .. .......... 25.06
Adams Studio, kodak finishing...................... ............... 2.61
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................................ 2.85
Collins Furniture Company, 6 shades ................................. 20.50
Bass Hardware Company, supplies....................................... 4.25
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services...................................... 55.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during April........ 9.20
Warren R. King, District Engineer, U. S. G. S., blue prints
of stream flow ....................................... ........... 2.10
D. D. Cureton, repair furnace........................... ............. 3.50
Rhodes Hardware Company, pipe and fittings.................... 2.34
Jos. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples and draw-
ings ,............................ .......... ...-..-........... 135.00
MAY, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary...... .................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses....................... 25.24
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary................... 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 47.10
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary............... 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary............... .......... 150.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, June
rental .......................................... 3.75
Eastman Kodak Company, lantern slides......................... 4.51
George McLane Wood, proof reading Cooke's report........ 20.00
Railway Express Agency, Inc............................................... 7.91
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during May........ 31.63
Capital Auto Supply Company, luggage rack........................ 2.50
E. J. Hatcher, fountain pen.............................. ................. 5.00
C. B. McKinnon, awnings............ ............................ 80.00
McNeil & Culley, gas, oil and recharging battery.................... 3.51
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies............................................ 3.60
A. Pichard, sack plaster paris......................................... 1.75
Adams Studio, films and prints............................................... 6.45
University of Chicago Press, 1 year "Journal of Geology" 5.40
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers,
"Geophysical Prospecting" .................................... 5.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies................ .......... 1.53
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies................................................. 8.05
F. C. Gibbons, drawing maps for reproduction...................... 25.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, envelopes.......................................... 65.57
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services................................... 63.25
Charles Williams Hardware, 50 lbs. plaster paris................ 2.50
Tallahassee Variety Works, crating fossils and freight on
same ....................................... 23.10
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company .................................... .. 2.25
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................................ 6.00
Jos. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples and 24
drawings ............................................. 136.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, repairs............................ ........ 4.40












ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 19

JUNE, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.......................... 5.24
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.17
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............ 15.02
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary........................................ 150.00
F. C. Gibbons, special drafting for museum...................... 114.00
Good Luck Service Station, greasing car, gas and oil........ 4.35
Scientific American Publishing Company, 1 years subscrip-
tion ..... ....................................................... 4.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent.................... 81.00
E. I. Dupont de Nemours Company, cement........................ 4.00
Complete Service Publishing Company, 3 years subscrip-
tion "Pit and Quarry" ....................................... ................ 5.00
Fulton Bag & Cotton Mills, printed bags.................................. 36.89
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, 1 balopticon.................. 59.98
Atlanta Envelope Company, 2000 envelopes.......................... 27.50
E. Leitz, Inc., microscope and equipment........................ 220.28
Denver Fire Clay Company, furnace and repairs................ 286.70
Alford Chevrolet Company, 2 Chevrolet coupes and trade
in ..................................... ...... .. .... .... ............... .... 844.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, 2 casings and 2 tubes................ 31.00
Florida Audubon Society, 1 year's dues ................................ 1.00
The Record Company, supplies............................................. 168.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies............................................. 4.00
S. E. Gray, work on drawers in museum.................................. 18.90
H. & J. Calkins, repairs on furnace in clay laboratory........ 97.80
Artcraft Printers, 3,000 announcement cards........................ 22.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies................................................. 32.10
Empire Printing & Box Company, 200 display trays............ 20.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, cases and material.................... 335.93
The Record Company, 20th annual report......................... 2245.71
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, July
rental ............................................................ 3.75
Railway Express Agency, Inc............... ................................. 7.43
Adams Studio, kodak work................................. 4.62
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company........................ ............ .. 1.23
Bass Hardware Company, supplies...................... ............ ..... 6.05
T. R. Minton & Sons, 18 awls........................................ 6.95
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, special services.................................... 55.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during June, 1929 1.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage............................... 3.27
Jos. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples, June, 1929 94.00
Jos. A. Cushman, 18 drawings .................................................. 27.00
The Record Company, supplies........................................... 54.04
JULY, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist,expenses......................... 12.86
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 125.23
W. Storrs Cole, Assistant Geologist, salary............................ 229.17
W. Storrs Cole, Assistant Geologist, expenses...................... 69.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary..................................... 150.00
The Southern Telephone & Construction Co., August rental 3.75
Railway Express Agency, Inc....................................... 6.34
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.......................... 75.00













20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

W. B. Scott, Editor, reports Princeton University, "Expedi-
tions Patagom a" ............................. .. ..... ...... 75.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage................................... 62.38
D. D. Cureton, Jr., materials and repair furnace.................. 39.75
Empire Printing & Box Company, 250 trays............................ 4o.00
Florida Engineer and Contractor, 200 copies May and June
issue ........................................................................ ............... 20.00
Eastman Kodak Company, lantern slides and enlargements 14.54
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames and glass................................ 28.38
Denoyer-Geppert Company, mounting 100 maps.................. 125.00
McGraw-Hul Book Company, Inc., Bern "Paleontology".... 3.50
Midyette Insurance Agency, insurance on Chevrolet coupe 22.40
D. A. Dixon company, supplies............................ ........... 3.75
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies...----............................. ..-- 9.45
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during July, 1929 1.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, shelving, table and labor........ 157.69
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps..................... ......... .... 70.00
AUGUST, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.................................. $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 4.24
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary..................... ................. 150.00
Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary......--------............................ 75.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during August,
1929 ...---------.....----....------................................... 1.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Septem-
ber rental and call............................................................... 4.30
Florida Audubon Society, 3 copies Florida Naturalist.......... 2.00
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil.................................... 3.00
M cNeil & Culley, charging battery........................... .. ...... 1.25
Artcraft Printers, 500 labels......................... .------.. .......... 3.50
James H. Perkins, Treasurer, 1 years subscription "Natural
History" .................. ................................ 3.00
W. A. DeMilly & Son, insurance on Chevrolet coupe............ 22.40
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies..................................... 11.15
The Record Company, supplies.................................. ...... 17.51
The Record Company, additions to and corrections in
20th annual report .................................................. 679.54
D. D. Cureton, Jr., installing clay kiln...................................... 33.70
Fisher Scientific Company, glass stoppered bottles.............. 5.80
Railway Express Agency, Inc .....................................-...... 2.57
Leon Electric Supply Company, work on lights in museum 28.58
Newell B. Davis Studio, plates, prints, plate holders and
filter ..------................... ----...............------------- 20.47
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps- ---...................... -....... 53.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage.................---- ---.----.--. 4.84
Bass Hardware Company, supplies.........................---------....... 1.77
Jos. A. Cushman, work on Florida well samples and 68
drawings ........-.............-- -- ---------- --------- 302.00
SEPTEMBER, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 4.89
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary....................................... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.......................... 75.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Oc-
tober rental and long distance call................................. 3.90













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


W C. Dixon, freight and drayage....................... ............. .. 2.11
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent......................................... 2.00
S. E. Gray, 7 days work.............................................................. 37.80
The Record Company, letter file and folders.......................... 3.04
S. E. Gray, 21/2 day work............................................................. 13.50
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1 year subscription........ 6.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies.....-................................ 2.34
W. M. Igou, Secretary of State, 1929 General Laws.............. 3.50
Washington Academy of Science, 25 copies "A Palm Nut
of Attalea from the Upper Eoeene of Florida'.............. 6.25
American Box & File Company, 100 lid top boxes................ 34.00
Wagner Free Institute of Science, 1 copy of "A Revision of
the Ostracod Genus Kirkbya and Subgenus Amphis-
sites" R oth ...................................................... 1.00
Florida Clipping Service, September clippings .........--..... 5.00
Bass Hardware Company, supplies-...................-............. 2.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies.......................... ..---- ...... 11.10
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames and prints- ----................-..... 3.93
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., lumber.................................. 28.87
City of Tallahassee, gas for September...................-............ 1.00
OCTOBER, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................. ...... ...... $333.34
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary ..................... 229.17
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.................................... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.............................. 75.00
Cushman's Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, work
on well samples, drawings and slides-------.....................-- 251.25
S. E. Gray, making cabinet in clay laboratory.........-------............... 16.20
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, October
rental and calls... -----------..................... ............... 5.35
New York State Education Department, 2 copies "Hand-
book Paleontology for Beginners and Amateurs'.......... 3.00
Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills, 1030 bags.................................. 42.13
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1 copy "Publication
291, Contributions to the Geology and Paleontology of
W est Indies"................... ................................ 3.50
American Association for Advancement of Science, 1 years
dues and subscription to Science........................................ 8.00
W. Storrs Cole, 20 drawings, bristol and stiple board........ 31.40
Spindler and Sauppe, 500 foraminifera slides........................ 49.00
Underwood Typewriter Company, cleaning and repairing
machine .-----.......................--..-------........... 10.35
T. S. Humphress, supplies---.....................---------.............. 1.10
Florida Clipping Service, October clippings............................ 5.00
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames and prints............................ 8.20
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during October 1.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., materials............................ 22.25
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company..... -------............................ -- 3.33
Alford Chevrolet Company, greasing and oil.......................... 3.10
Railway Express Agency.............--------............... ----- 2.87
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps........................--- ---....... 35.00
D. D. Cureton, Jr., work repairing clay kiln............................ 7.50
Bass Hardware Company, supplies-----..........................-- ..-- 3.55
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies......................... ......... ..... 5.00
NOVEMBER, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.........................---- ..... $333.33













22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 25.86
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 54.42
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.16
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary................................ 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.......................... 75.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Decem-
ber rental and calls................................ ............ 4.15
Railway Express Agency............................... ............ 1.91
Bass Hardware Company, supplies......................................... 11.25
The Emil Greiner Company, repairing separatory funnel 2.24
Henry George Fiedler, "Reproduction and Artificial Prop-
agation of Fresh water mussels"......................... ...... 2.50
The Record Company, 1000 3 x 5 cards............................... 3.00
Manufacturers Record, 2 years subscription.......................... 10.00
The Macmillan Company, 'Ice Ages," Coleman .................... 2.84
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during November 27.25
Newell B. Davis Studio, prints and developing................. 1.45
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies............................................. 50.80
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage.......................................... 1.88
Regional Plan of New York, Vol. VIII................................ 3.50
Florida Clipping Service, November clippings ...................... 5.00
DECEMBER, 1929.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.................................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 66.10
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary....................... 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 96.69
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 229.16
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary........................................ 150.00
Mrs .Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.............................. 75.00
J. N. Farnum, collecting liguus............................................... 50.00
Richard F. Deckert, 10 paintings of liguus.............................. 100.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, January
rental and calls....................... .. .................... 4.50
Railway Express Agency............................................................. 8.64
Alford Chevrolet Company, parts and repairs for Coupe.... 11.90
Walter McLin, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, X-license
tags for coupes................................................. 1.00
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................................ 1.50
Henry George Fiedler, Land and Fresh water shells, Bin-
ney; Terresterial Mollusks of United States, 1, 3 and 4 17.56
D. D. Cureton, Jr., Parts and labor on clay kiln ............ 9.90
American Ceramic Society, June 1928 issue....................... 1.60
W. H. May, Postmaster, Box rent......................................... 2.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies.......................................... 4.38
Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, Index 1
to 5; subscription to 6................................ ............. 3.50
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, dues 1930 15.00
Beautiful Florida Magazine, 3 years subscription................. 2.00
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Company, 12 copper halftones.. 70.20
Florida State Historical Society, "Loyalists of East Flor-
ida", Sieberts ............................. .......... .......................... 34.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., file and supplies...................................... 41.56
Florida Engineering Society, dues for 1930............................ 3.00
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during December 22.95
Newell B. Davis Studio, 10 frames and developing................ 15.80
Florida Clipping Service, clippings..................................... 5.00
W. C. Dixon, hauling and freight .................................... 2.15













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 23

JANUARY, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 23.95
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.19
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 229.19
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 11.10
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary............................... ..... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary............................ 75.00
Capital Auto Supply Company, charging battery and rental 1.75
Frank T. Budge Company, 2 machettes and sheaths.......... 6.70
D. D. Cureton, Jr., labor and parts for clay kiln.................. 7.90
Florida Clipping Service, January clippings........................ 5.00
Fisher Scientific Company, supplies..................................... 18.44
W H. May, Postmaster, stamps.................................................. 52.00
Railway Express Agency............................... .. ....... ... 4.23
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during January 9.60
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, January
rental ....................................... 3.75
P. W. Wilson Company, material for curtains........................ 4.75
Bass Hardware Company, supplies..................................... 6.25
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies......................................... 5.80
Economic Geology Publishing Company, 1 years subscrip-
tion .......................................... ....... 5.00
Edward B. Mathews, dues Geological Society or Ameiua.. 10.00
R. H. LeSesne, 2 8 x 10 photos................................................. 6.00
The Chemical Catalogue Company, Inc., Diatomaceous
Earth, Phosphoric acid ..................................... ......... 12.50
American Water Works Association, dues 1930................... 10.00
Henry George Fiedler, Binney, Notes on American Land
Shells," Vol. 2 ................................. .. ............. 5.26
Adams Studio, prints and developing...............................-- 2.15
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies............................................... 1.00
T. R. Minton & Son, 1 clay blunging machine.................. 31.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., material............................... 6.00
FEBRUARY, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses........................... 89.18
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary................. 229.17
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 85.96
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 229.17
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses............. 22.09
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary...................................... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary............................ 75.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, 2 fares to Wash-
ington and New York......................... .... ..... 146.17
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage... ----........................ ....... 2.21
C. E. O'Connell, copying statistics 1928.....................-....... 5.56
Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3 volumes................................. 2.80
F. B. Plummer, 1 year Journal of Paleontology ........... 6.00
N. J. Parrish, 3 photographs, Florida beaches.................. 2.25
S. E. Gray, labor................................................... 3.00
Pichard Brothers, 3 bags of plaster paris............................. 4.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies................................................ 19.52
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during February 13.20
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................................ 1.40
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company................... .............- 1.23













24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Southern Telephone and Construction Company, March
rental ................................................... ............................... 3.75
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies...-.............................. 1.10
Railway Express Agency...................-........-....---...---. 3.06
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil.................................. 6.75
The Record Company, 1,000 slides............................................ 50.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings during February............ 5.00
MARCH, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.................................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 32.47
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 113.34
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary........................ 229.17
Frank Westerndick, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 15.82
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.......................................... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.............................. 75.00
Railway Express Agency.................. ..................... ...... 1.22
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company...................................... 1.69
Southern Telephone and Construction Company.................. 3.75
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ........................................ 1.60
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent...................................... 2.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies............................................. 24.46
James H. C. Martens, supplies used in work on sands.......... 46.27
American Box & File Company, 506 lid top boxes................ 20.24
H. & W. B. Drew Company, T-square...................................... 3.35
Editor, Journal American Association of State Geologists,
1 year subscription to Journal.......................-.......... 1.00
W. S. Tyler Company, 1 brass sieve........................................ 3.55
E. Leitz, Inc., 2 Ocular Micrometers...................................... 7.16
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil.................................. 24.73
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during March.... 3.80
Charles Williams Hardware, shovel......................................... 1.50
Alford Chevrolet Company, parts, labor and adjusting
valves ...................................................... ................................ 14.80
Florida Clipping Service, clippings during March................ 5.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., 1 set (4 sections) book
shelves ..-----...................-- ------................... 275.00
APRIL, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.................................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses............................ 34.19
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 49.30
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 27.50
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary........................................ 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.-............................ 75.00
Quincy Granite Company, polishing 2 specimens of silici-
fied w ood ............................................................................. 4.79
F. S. Reed and J. L. Mergner, 60 thin sections petrified
wood .............................................. ... ..... 51.00
Haakon Dehlin, cast of sea cow skelton................................... 150.00
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, May
rental ........................... ..... ..... ....... ........... .. ...... 3.75
Railway Express Agency, Inc. ...... .................. ............... 17.40
Postal Telegraph-Cable Company......................... ..... 2.39
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during April........ 23.10
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil................................... 15.50













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 25

Tallahassee Office Supply Company, Inc., supplies.............. 2.95
Charles Williams Hardware, supplies..................................... 8.30
Mrs. E. Burckmyer, drawings for Marianna foraminifera
paper .................................................................................... 17.00
D. Van Nostrand Company, "The Book of Bird Life"............ 3.50
Bass Hardware Company, supplies........................................ 6.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings during April................ 5.00
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, 1 objective and 1 eye-
piece ...... ...................................... 15.37
The Record Company, 3 rubber stamps............................. 4.25
Leon Electric Supply Company, wiring cases in museum.... 48.75
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2000 No. 5 envelopes...................... 43.92

MAY, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary............................... $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.......................... 17.15
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 26.94
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses................ 5.97
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary.............. ....... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.............................. 75.00
Charles J. Lang, material, mounting and packing skeleton
of sea cow ................. ................................... 60.00
Alford Chevrolet Company, oil and repairs....................... 2.75
R. M. Harper, making graph and proof reading................... 37.50
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary................... 25.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses............... 11.34
R. M. Harper, services classifying library................................ 100.00
Railway Express Agency....................................... .... .................. 8.30
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, June
rental ........................................... 3.75
City of Tallahassee, gas used during May................................ 20.70
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ..................................... 3.20
Newell B. Davis Studio, frames and printing.......................... 4.10
Good Luck Service Station, gas and oil................................. 22.10
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage................... ................ 2.94
The Record Company, supplies..................... .................... 5.50
Florida Historical Society, dues for 1930................................. 2.00
Florida Clipping Service, clippings during May................... 5.00
Chester Thompson's Marine Curios, shells........................ 32.05
Scientific American Publishing Co., 1 year subscription...... 4.00
National Research Council, Reprint No. 92 and No. 85........ 2.00
F. S. Reed and J. L. Mergner, 24 thin sections of fossil wood 20.40
Japan Paper Company, 2 reams rice paper........................... 4.24
The John E. Bassett & Company, 3 geological picks and
handles .................. ............ ...................... 20.06
The Williams & Wilkins Company, "The New Evolution".. 3.00
E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, 2 cartons cement.... 4.00
Miller-Bryant-Pierce Company, carbon paper.................... 3.00
The University of Chicago Press, 1 year subscription "Jour-
nal of Geology".............................................................. 5.40
Stanford University Press, Shallow water foraminifera...... 1.00
Gaylord Brothers, tissue paper and pencils............................ 5.60
Fisher Scientific Company, beakers and thermometer........ 12.53
American Box and File Company, 1110 boxes..................... 29.80
Sears Roebuck & Company, 3 folding tables........................ 7.47
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps..................... ......... 43.00















26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

JUNE, 1930.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary................................. $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.......................... 51.60
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary.................... 229.16
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 144.59
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 229.16
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 6.30
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary, salary......................................... 150.00
Mrs. Alex Y. Ponton, Record Clerk, salary.............................. 75.00
R. M. Harper, service in library............................................. 150.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, salary.................... 75.00
J. Clarence Simpson, Museum Assistant, expenses.............. 18.23
The Hunter Press, 1000 statements, 1000 cards.................... 16.00
Western Union Telegraph Company................................. 1.43
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage.......................................... 13.42
Florida Industrial School for Boys, 1000 No. 3 Bulletins,
1000 No. 4 Bulletins........................ .. ...... ....... .. 604.40
Railway Express Agency............................................ ............ 6.45
The Postal Telegraph-Cable Company.................................. 1.25
Alford Chevrolet Company, 5 tires and tubes and trade in 62.50
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, July
rental ............................................... 3.75
Bass Hardware Company, supplies.............................. .. 7.75
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies.................. .............. 2.90
Adams Studio, films and prints............................... .. 6.50
City of Tallahassee, gas used in clay kiln during June........ 15.12
Good Luck Service Station, gas, oil etc............................ 15.63
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage....................................... 2.65
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, moulding
plaster ........................................ .............. ................ 3.00
The Record Company, file folders..................... .... ..... 5.55
Florida Engineering and Construction Company, 50 copies 5.00
K. B. O'Quinn, 7 photostatic copies Pinellas County map.. 3.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies..................................... 3.05
Atlanta Envelope Company, 2090 Kraft envelopes............ 28.74
National Petroleum News, 1 years subscription...................... 3.50
American Museum of Natural History, 1 year dues.......... 3.00
U. S. Geological Survey, photographing fossils and retouch-
ing (Mansfield's report) .................................... ......... 616.18
Tallahassee Office Supply Company, supplies...................... 6.30
Florida Clipping Service, clippings ....................................... 5.00











STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
IN 1928 AND 1929.1
The Twentieth Annual Report was published shortly before
complete mineral statistics for 1928 were available, and the pres-
ent report therefore combines the two years 1928 and 1929. The
total value of products in 1927 was given in the previous report
as $18,868,612. Exact estimates for later years are impossible
tor various reasons. First, a considerable part of the clay and
limestone has no value put on it until it has been through a kiln
and converted into bricks or lime or cement, and the burning is a
manufacturing process that adds considerably to the value. On
the other hand, much of the clay and rock used on roads is dug
out by the contractors near the place where it is used, and no
value is ever put on it. Likewise a good deal of the building
stone and mineral water is used locally without going through
the channels of trade, or appearing in any sort of statistics. Un-
derground water, which is an important asset that has been the
subject of many investigations by this Survey, also has no valua-
tion put on it except as it may be distributed through public wa-
ter supplies, and even then the charge for it is sometimes by the
month instead of by the gallon.
However, whatever criterion is used to measure the value of
our mineral products, the amount was evidently a little less in
1928 than in 1927, while 1929 showed little change from the pre-
ceding year. The decline from the peak year of 1926 is due part-
ly to a slowing up of building activities in Florida after the boom
of 1925-26 and partly to a nation-wide decline in commodity
prices.
Probably the best measure of the importance of mineral in-
dustries is the number of persons engaged in them. The latest
statistics of that kind available at this time are for 1920. At the
beginning of that year persons working in mines and quarries
constituted 0.8% of all gainfully employed persons in the state,
which is a much larger proportion than in the Carolinas, Georgia
and Mississippi; and the relative rank of the states probably has
not changed much since. In total mineral production Florida
ranks about the same as Georgia, and exceeds other eastern states
except those which have coal or oil.
'Collected in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines and the United
States Bureau of the Census.


(27)











28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
The several products will be discussed in the following pages
in approximate order of importance.
PHOSPHATE
For at least 40 years phosphate rock in its various forms has
been Florida's leading mineral product; and in recent years Flori-
da has produced about three-fourths of the United States total and
about one-third of the world's total.
There are two principal phosphate fields, both in the western
half of the peninsula. The hard rock field extends from about
High Springs to Croom, with outliers farther northwest, and the
land pebble field, approximately circular in outline, is mainly in
Hillsborough and Polk Counties. Small amounts of soft rock have
been mined in the hard rock field and northwest thereof, and of
river pebble in the land pebble field and farther south, especially
along the Peace River; but production of these two forms has
practically ceased.
A graph published in our Fifteenth Annual Report (p. 20)
shows the production of various kinds of phosphate in Florida
each year from 1888 to 1922. A graph on page 25 of the Eigh-
teenth Annual Report shows the value of phosphate (and other
minerals) from 1916 to 1925, expressed as percentages of the to-
tal, and one in the present report tells the same story in a slightly
different way, from 1913 to 1928. The Twentieth Annual Report
(p. 25) gives a table of phosphate production from 1900 to 1927,
which need not be repeated here.
The reported production in 1928 and 1929 consisted almost
entirely of hard rock and land pebble, as follows:
Quantity (long tons) Value (dollars)
1928 1929 1928 1929
Hard Rock .............. 95,918 72,4241 383,672 267,2181
Land Pebble ............ 2,787,528 3,015,8742 9,040,350 9,633,8562
Total ...................... 2,833,448 3,088,298 9,424,022 9,901,074
The total produced since 1888 has been about 60 million tons;
but statistics of total value would mean very little, for our dollar
was worth about three times as much in 1897 as in 1920.
The phosphate is nearly all used for fertilizer, though a little
goes into more refined chemical products. As in former years,
most of the hard rock, which is of higher grade, is exported to
countries whose soils are deficient in phosphorus, and most of the
IIncludes a small quantity of miscellaneous material from the hard rock field.
rIncludes a small quantity reported as soft rock, but from the pebble field.











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929. 29
land pebble is used in the United States, but not so much in Flori-
da, for our soils are generally pretty well supplied with that ele-
ment. Up to about 1921 the hard rock brought about twice as
much per ton as the land pebble on account of its higher quality
and the greater difficulty of mining. But the pebble producers
have now improved their product so that it is almost equal to the
hard rock, and only a few of the hard rock producers are able to
meet the competition.
In dollars per ton both kinds combined now sell for less than
they did in 1900, though the dollar was worth about twice as much
in 1900 as it is now. This is largely the result of improvements in
the economy of mining, together with the ever-present menace of
competition of foreign countries where labor is cheaper.
Descriptions of the phosphate deposits and their probable
mode of formation have appeared in several previous annual re-
ports. The most important papers on the hard rock are in the
First (pp. 27-30), Second (235-242), Third (21-32), Fifth (23-80,
-this is the most complete,-291-294), Seventh (20-22) and
Fifteenth (18-21). For land pebble, the First (27-30), Second
(235-242) Third (33-41), Sixth (65-101, the most complete),
Seventh (20-22, 25-116), Fifteenth (18-21).
In both phosphate fields many fossils have been found, and
some have been described in the reports just mentioned. These
are of great scientific value, not measurable in dollars and cents,
and every care should be exercised in their preservation.
The producing companies at the present time are as follows:
HARD ROCK
J. Buttgenbach & Company, 22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and
Dunnellon. (Mines in Marion and Citrus Cos.)
C. & J. Camp, Dunnellon.
Mutual Mining Company, Dunnellon and Inverness.
LAND PEBBLE
American Agricultural Chemical Company, 419 Fourth Ave., New
York, and Pierce.
American Cyauanuid Company, 535 Fifth Avenue, New York,
and Brewster.
Coronet Phosphate Company, 99 John Street, New York, and Plant
City.
International Agricultural Corporation, 61 Broadway, New York
and Mulberry.
Phosphate Mining Company, 110 William Street, New York, and
Nichols.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, 44 Wall Street, New York, and
Bartow.
Swift and Company, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, and Bartow.











30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS
LIMESTONE, INCLUDING LIME AND CEMENT
Limestone is one of Florida's most abundant minerals,
though text-books of economic geology not many years ago made
no reference to its occurrence in this state. Its chief occurrences
are the large deposits of Eocene and Lower Oligocene age in Jack-
son County and the west-central part of the peninsula. There is
also a large area of Pleistocene oolitic limestone in Dade and Mon-
roe Counties, and the coquina of the east coast is still more
recent.
At first the limestone was used mainly for building purposes.
Chimneys of the Marianna limestone are very common in Jackson
and a few adjoining counties, and in Marianna there are a few
buildings constructed mainly of the same rock. The coquina of
the east coast was used for many buildings in Spanish and ter-
ritorial days, and there are a few handsome buildings in Miami
made of the local oolite. A limestone of Miocene age in Manatee
County has been used locally for building stone, and is now being
marketed under the trade name of "Floridene Stone." (See
Figure 1.)


.L_ I -
-~B~r'I


Fig. 1.-Plant and quarry of Florida Travertine Corporation, Bradenton, Manatee
County.











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929. 31
At present the greater part of our limestone that is utilized
is crushed and used for paving roads and streets. Before auto-
mobiles became common it was left unsurfaced, and dazzling white
roads were a familiar feature around Ocala and Miami. Now it
is nearly always covered with asphalt, or used in concrete. Con-
siderable quantities of crushed limestone are also used as railroad
ballast. A less important use is as fertilizer, for which it is finely
ground.
Some of our limestone is too impure to make satisfactory
lime, but the burning of lime has been carried on for many
years in Marion County, where deposits of high grade limestone
occur. Some is of suitable composition for cement, and that from
a quarry in Hernando County supplies the big cement plant at
Tampa.
A more or less silicified limestone, found in Marion, Levy and
other counties in that general region, is marketed as crushed flint,
and used mostly as material for concrete and railroad ballast.
The production of limestone in Florida reached a peak in
1926, and has since declined, largely on account of a slackening
of road-building activities. The reported production in 1928
(nearly all road metal) was 3,368,600 tons, valued at $2,624,493,
and in 1929, 2,258,130 tons, valued at $1,669,245; but the real pro-
duction must have been somewhat greater. The production of
crushed flint reached its peak in 1925, and is at present less than
one-tenth of what it was then. The value per ton is about double
that of limestone, probably because it is scarcer, and harder to
crush.
Lime production also reached its peak in 1925, and is now
about one-fourth of what it was then. The value per ton is more
than ten times that of the crude limestone, largely on account of
the cost of burning, and the loss of weight in burning. The pro-
ducers at the present time are all in Marion County.
The production of cement, which began at Tampa in the fall
of 1927, has been increasing steadily ever since, and the product
is now widely used in all sections of the state. The raw materials
are limestone from Hernando County and clay from Hernando
and Citrus. Statistics cannot be given because there is only one
producer in the state at present.
References .on limestone, lime, etc. First Annual Report (40-












32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

42, 48-51, Second (248), (Sixth 36-41, 51-58), Eighth, (30-33),
Sixteenth (27-195, most important).
LIMESTONE PRODUCERS
Alachua County
L. M. Gray, Gainesville.
Citrus County
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Dade County
Meteor Transport & Trading Company, Miami.
Pennsylvania Sugar Company, Miami.
W. T. Price, Inc., Miami.
Atlas Rock Company, Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Glades County
County Road Department, Moore Haven.
Hernando County (see also under cement)
Consolidated Rock Products Company, Lakeland. (Plant near
Brooksville.)
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala. (Plant near Brooksville.)
Jackson County
Marianna Lime Products Company, Marianna.
Florida Basic Rock Company, Marianna.
Levy County (all road material)
Connell & Schultz, Inverness.
A. A. Griffin, Wiliston.
Newsome-Smith Lime Rock Company, Williston.
Ocala-Tampa Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
Thompson-Williston Mine, Williston.
Williston Shell Rock Company, Williston.
White Rock Company, Tampa. (Plant near Williston.)
Manatee County
Florida Travertine Corporation, (building stone) Bradenton.
Marion County
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. (Plant at Newberry and
Kendrick.)
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala.
Martin County
Hobe Sound Quarry Company, Stuart.
CRUSHED FLINT PRODUCERS
Marion County
Standard Rock Company, Morriston.
LIME PRODUCERS
Marion County
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
CEMENT PRODUCERS
Florida Portland Cement Company. Tampa.
(Quarries in Hernando County, mill at Hooker's Point.)











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929. 33
FULLER'S EARTH
Fuller's earth is a non-plastic clay, of Miocene age. It is
produced in Florida at present by only three companies, two in
Gadsden County and one in Marion County, production in Manatee
County having ceased a few years ago. The Gadsden County
plants, together with one a short distance across the line in Geor-
gia, turn out over half the fuller's earth in the United States. The
totals cannot be published, but the production has shown a steady
increase for several years, as it is used mostly in oil refining, and
is not dependent on local business conditions. The mining process
is comparatively simple, steam shovels being used, but before the
product is marketed it is taken to a mill and dried and ground,
which gives it a value of over $15.00 a ton.
The producing companies are as follows:
The Floridin Company, Quincy. (Plants near Quincy and at
Jamieson.)
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway.
The Superior Earth Company, Ocala. (Plant near Emathla.)
The fuller's earth industry has been described in our First
Annual Report (pp. 33-37), Second (225-291, the most complete),
and Sixth (28-35.)
PLASTIC CLAYS
The clays of Florida, other than fuller's earth (which is a
very special type), fall into two groups. First the white clay, or
sedimentary kaolin, found principally in the northern part of the
lake region, which is all shipped out of the state to manufacturers
of pottery, wall-paper, etc. Second, the common clays found in
many parts of the State, particularly from Gainesville northwest-
ward, which generally burn red, and are burned at the locality
found into brick, or less frequently into tiling, terra cotta, etc.
The kaolin has to be washed to remove the sand that is mixed
with it, and that process brings its value up to about $14.00 a ton.
The common clay is not marketed until it is burned into brick or
something of the sort, and that manufacturing process increases
its value many times. But prices of brick are quoted by the thou-
sand instead of by the ton, so that its value per ton cannot be
given exactly.
A great deal more or less sandy clay has been used for sur-
facing sandy roads, but that is generally dug out of pits close
to where it is used, and it does not appear in the statistics at all.











34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
The production of kaolin in 1928 was 46,496 tons, valued at
$630,471; and in 1929, 40,904 tons, valued at $544,848.
The production of brick in 1928 was 39,857 thousand, valued
at $343,369, and in 1929 about two thirds as much, but separate
figures are not now available.
The value of tile, etc., in 1928 was $57,607, but in 1929 it was
not separated from brick in the returns.
The clays of Florida, other than fuller's earth, have been
treated in our annual reports as follows: Sixth (24-25), Seventh
(14-19), Fifteenth (53-260, the most complete).
PRODUCERS OF CLAY AND CLAY PRODUCTS
KAOLIN
United Clay Mines Corp., Trenton, N. J., and Hawthorn.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar.
Florida China Clay Company, Inc., Leesburg.
Lake County Clay Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka.
BRICK AND TILE
Alachua County
Campville Brick Mfg. Plant, Campville.
Clay County
Builder's Clay Products Corp., Russell.
Gamble & Stockton Co., Dixton (office Jacksonville).
Escambia County
Build-With-Brick Co., Molino.
Dolores Brick Corp., Molino.
Gadsden County
Ocklocknee Brick Co., Lawrence (office Tallahassee).
Lake County
Keystone Brick Co., Whitney.
Nassau County
Georgia-Carolina Brick Co. of Florida, Callahan, (office Jackson-
ville).
Orange County
Cheney Art Tile Co., Orlando.
Washington County
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley.
SAND AND GRAVEL
Sand abounds in nearly all parts of Florida, but varies great-
ly in fineness, sharpness, and uniformity of grain, so that some
kinds are much better adapted for use in mortar and concrete
than others. The principal localities of commercial production are
associated with formations of supposed Pliocene age in West
Florida and the lake region of the peninsula. Sand-bars along











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929.


some of the rivers and beaches around some of the lakes are also
important. (Some of the sand on beaches and bars has the pe-
culiar property of "singing" when one walks through it.) An ex-
cellent grade of sand, very white, with sharp grains, is a by-
product from the washing of the kaolin previously mentioned. In
the southern part of the state some of the so-called sand, dredged
from rivers and harbors, is mostly shell fragments.
The best gravel is dredged out of the beds of rivers that have
brought it down from the hill country farther inland, principally
the Escambia and Apalachicola. Florida is too far from crystal-
line rocks to have much gravel on uplands, but there is a remark-
able deposit of coarse flinty pebbles (hardly of commercial im-
portance) near Round Lake in Jackson County, which is one of
the highest elevations in the State.
Sand and gravel are generally combined in the mineral sta-
tistics, because there are all gradations between them, they are
often obtained from the same deposits, or at least by the same
companies, and they are used for similar purposes, either for sur-
facing roads or for making mortar and concrete. The production
reached a peak during the boom of 1925-6, when it exceeded in
value all other Florida mineral products except pebble phosphate
and limestone. It is an easy material to dig out, and therefore
can be sold for less than a dollar a ton.
References on sand and gravel in previous annual reports are
as follows: Second (247), Sixth (46-48), Nineteenth (33-123)
most important.
The production in 1928 was 893,879 tons (a little over half as
much as in the previous year), valued at $495,875, and in 1929-
788,298 tons, valued at $422,409.
SAND AND GRAVEL PRODUCERS, 1929.
Dade County
W. T. Price, Inc., Cocoanut Grove.
Meteor Transportation & Trading Company, Miami.
George H. Palmer Co., Miami.
I. E. Schilling & Co., Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Atlas Rock Co., Miami.
Escambia County
Escambia Sand & Gravel Corporation, Tarzan.
Gadsden County
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Co., (sand) Havana.
Florida Gravel Co., Chattahoochee.
Capital City Sand & Gravel Co., (sand) Tallahassee.
Hillsborough County
Alafia Sand & Shell Co., Tampa.











36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Lake County
Acme Sand Company, (sand) Eustis.
Orange County
Lake Bryan Sand Co., Vineland.
Palm Beach County
Duo Builders Supply Co., West Palm Beach.
Polk County
American Cyanamid Co., Brewster.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Lakeland Silex Brick Co., Lakeland.
Hesperides Washed Sand Co., Lake Wales.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Co., Lake Wales.
Putnam County
Diamond Sand Co., Keuka.
Interlachen Sand & Gravel Co., Interlachen.
SAND-LIME BRICK.
Sand-lime brick is a manufactured product, made from sand
and lime, either or both of which may be shipped from a con-
siderable distance to the place of manufacture. Its production
reached a peak in 1925, and has since declined. In 1928 there
were 6,327 thousand brick produced, valued at $57,866; and in
1928 3,748 thousand, valued at $39,937. The price is about the
same as that of common brick, with which it has to compete.
SAND-LIME BRICK PRODUCERS
Bond Sandstone Brick Co., Lake Helen.
Lakeland Silex Brick Co., Lakeland.
Plant City Brick Co., Plant City.
RARE EARTHS.
The production of "rare earths," ilmenite, monazite, rutile and
zircon, from the beach sands of the east coast, which began in
1916, reached a peak in 1927, but was much smaller in 1928,
and apparently discontinued in 1929. The main reason for the
discontinuance is the high value of the beaches for resorts and
recreation purposes. The deposits are described in our Sixth
Annual Report (p. 11) and Nineteenth (pp. 124-154).
PEAT.
Peat is widely distributed over the state, but is most abundant
in the lake region and the Everglades. There have been many
sporadic attempts in the last 25 years to exploit it, at first mainly
for fuel, and latterly for an ingredient of fertilizers, but none
have been very successful, and the same is true of practically
all peat projects in the United States, largely on account of the
cost of labor being much higher than in European countries
where peat is commonly used, and the cheapness of other ma-
terials which compete with it.
References on peat in previous annual reports are: First
(37-39), Third (201-375), Sixth (59-65), largely copied from the
preceding).











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929.


After a dull period of several years, there was renewed activ-
ity in 1929, with four companies in the field, producing 14,450
tons, valued at $130,050.
PEAT PRODUCERS
Plant and Land Food Co., Haines City (Plant at Dundee).
Agricultural Humus Corp., Lake Wales.
Florida Humus Co., Zellwood (Office in New York).
Southern Materials Co., Moore Haven.
A product related to peat, namely hardpan, was mined a few
years ago near Camp Walton, Okaloosa County, in West Florida,
and used to make a brown dye for wrapping paper.
DIATOMITE.
Diatomite, formerly known as "infusorial earth" or diatoma-
ceous earth, consisting of the siliceous skeletons of diatoms,
which are microscopic water plants, occurs as sedimentary beds
of various geological ages, in many parts of the world. In most
other states the diatomite is a part of the earth's crust, with later
deposits overlying it, but the Florida deposits are all associated
with peat, and are apparently in process of formation today. A
few of our peat deposits contain such a large amount of diatoms
that the peat, even the uppermost layers, is ashy gray when dry;
and weighs about 20 pounds to the cubic foot (air dry), and when
the carbonaceous material is removed by burning the residue is
a white mass of surprising lightness, weighing about 8 pounds
per cubic foot.
It is used chiefly for insulating and polishing. The best known
deposits are in Lake County, and there is only one plant at the
present time, and that operates intermittently. A similar occur-
rence has recently been reported in Santa Rosa County, but not
yet exploited.
References to this material in our previous annual reports are
as follows: First (39), Second (158-244, Third (290-291),
Sixth (26-27).
MINERAL WATERS.
Some of Florida's springs and wells are valued for the sulphur
or some other mineral ingredient in the water, and form the
nucleus of health resorts, of which Hampton Springs in Taylor
County, White Springs in Hamilton County, Espiritu Santo
Springs, Pinellas County, and Panacea Springs in Wakulla County
are perhaps the most important. But people do not make pro-
tracted stays at watering places now as much as they used to
before automobiles and good roads provided opportunities to be
constantly on the go, and mineral water now reaches the public
chiefly in bottled form.
Much of the so-called mineral water in Florida is really the
other extreme, soft water from small surface springs, bottled and











38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

shipped to cities where the local water supply is rather hard. One
spring in Volusia County has made shipments of water to Miami
in tank cars built for the purpose.1 Another company which has
been classed as a producer of mineral water owns a spring near
Tampa from which water is piped to about 3500 homes; so there
is no essential difference between that and the public water sup-
ply of most of our cities.
On account of these complications, there are no satisfactory
statistics of mineral water production. The average annual pro-
duction of bottled water (mineral or otherwise) is at least a mil-
lion gallons, valued at between five and ten cents a gallon.
References: First Annual Report (45), Sixth (104), Seventh
(24).
MINERAL WATER PRODUCERS.
Brack's Panacea Springs, Bradenton, Manatee County.
Chumuckla Springs Water, McDavid, Santa Rosa County.
Crystal Springs, Crystal Springs, Pasco County.
Deep Rock Mineral Water Company, West Palm Beach, Palm Beach
County.
Egret Springs Water Company, Ft. Pierce, St. Lucie County.
Elder Springs, Sanford, Seminole County.
Espiritu Santo Springs Company, Inc., Safety Harbor, Pinellas
County.
Flamingo Spring Water Company, Orange City, Volusia County.
Good Hope Water Company, Riverview, Duval County.
Hampton Springs, Hampton Springs, Taylor County.
Kissengen Springs, Bartow, Polk County.
Manatee Spring, Manatee, Manatee County.
Palm Springs, Longwood, Seminole County.
Pipkin Mineral Wells, Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
Purity Springs Water Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
(Water distributed through pipes.)
Qui-Si-Sana Springs, Green Cove Springs, Clay County.
St. Nicholas Mineral Springs, South Jacksonville, Duval County.
Su-No-Wa Springs, Verdie, Nassau County.
Wekiwa Springs, Apopka, Orange County.
Wizzard Water, Palatka, Putnam County.
IRON.
There has been no commercial production of iron in Florida
for many years, but some was made for the Confederate govern-
ment during the Civil War at Levyville, in Levy County, from
small boulders of ferruginous sandstone picked up on the surface.
A similar material occurs on a few hills in West Florida, and
there was formerly a little of it on top of Iron Mountain in Polk
County (now the site of the Singing Tower). But it is not at all
likely that it will ever compete with the iron ores of Georgia,
Alabama and farther north.
References: Eighth Annual Report (35), Thirteenth (158).
'A large part of Key West's water supply is shipped in tank cars from artesian wells
at Homestead.













MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929.


OTHER MINERALS.
Other minerals which have been found in small quantities in
Florida are sulphur, in a phosphate mine in Citrus County (First
Annual Report, p. 44, Third, p. 106, Fifth p. 138), gypsum, in a
few low hammocks in the central part of the state (Thirteenth,
p. 179), and vivianite in the land pebblephosphate deposits and
in Glades County. (Eighteenth, pp. 50-51).
WATER-POWER.
Another important natural resource which is not exactly a
mineral, but has been investigated by many geological surveys,
is water power. Florida is not very favorably situated for that,
on account of the low altitude of the greater part of the state,
but in the last twenty years four or five hydro-electric plants
have been built, which are now supplying current to towns and
industries near by, and some of them are linked up with a net-
work of power lines extending over several states.
The largest one, completed in 1928, is at Jackson Bluff on the
Ocklocknee River, 25 miles west of Tallahassee. Next in import-
ance are those near Inglis on the Withlacoochee, Moss Bluff on
the Ocklawaha, and on Spring Creek near Marianna. These have
a combined capacity of about 22,000 horse power. Most of them
belong to one corporation, and the value of the current is not
given. There are also a few smaller plants supplying gristmills,
etc., some of them much older than the hydro-electric plants. See
13th Ann. Rep. (pp. 88, 169).
SUMMARY
The following table shows the quantity and value of the
principal mineral products of Florida in 1928 and 1929, except
that the figures for those shipped by fewer than three producers
each are combined.
Phosphate is measured in long tons, and most other minerals
in short tons.
The state totals must be regarded as only approximate, for
considerable limestone, sand and clay is utilized locally, on roads
or otherwise, without being marketed, while the value of the
brick, lime and cement is due mostly to manufacturing processes,
and should not be credited to the mineral industries, if the oper-
ations of mining and manufacturing could be separated statistic-
ally. But this does not materially affect the comparisons between
different years.
























40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

MINERAL PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA, 1928 AND 1929.


Quantity
Pebble phosphate (long tons)...... 2,729,334
Hard rock phosphate (long tons) 92,627
Limestone (tons) ............................ 3,368,600
Kaolin (tons) .................................. 46,496
Common brick (thousands) ........ 39,857
Other clay products .................................
Sand and gravel (tons) .............. 894,879
Sand-lime brick (thousands)...... 6,327
Peat (tons) .................................... 800
Mineral waters (estimated) .......... ..............
All others (lime, cement, crushed
flint, fuller's earth, diatomite,
and rare earths) ...................... ................
Total value ...........................


1928


Value
$8,953,798
370,508
2,624,493
630,471
343,369
57,607 J
495,875
57,866
7,200
75,000


1929


Quantity
3,015,874
72,733
2,258,130
40,904

788,298
3,748
14,450
................


2,223,891 ................
15,840,078


Value
$9,633,856
267,218
1,669,245
544,848
278,849
422,409
39,937
130,050
100,000

2,479,684
15,566,096


The accompanying graph (Fig. 2) shows the values of the
same mineral products for each year from 1913 to 1928, in per-
centages of total value, excluding a few whose values have never
exceeded one percent of the total. By plotting percentages instead
of totals the great variations in value of the dollar through the
World War period are eliminated; but any one who desires the
amounts in dollars can find them in the corresponding annual
reports, except in the case of products mined by fewer than three
companies.











MINERAL STATISTICS DURING 1928 AND 1929 41
This differs from a graph in our 18th annual report (p. 25),
which covered the years 1916 to 1925, in having the percentages
plotted on a logarithmic scale, which diminishes rapidly upward.
This makes the lines for the different products more evenly
spaced, and the less important ones more easily distinguished.


Fig. 2.-Graph showing values of principal mineral products of Florida from 1913 to
1928, in percentage of the total. The percentages are plotted on a logarithmic scale, so
that a vertical distance of 0.41 inch (or 10.5 mm.) in any part corresponds with a
ratio of 2 to 1.

Some of the fluctuations from year to year are largely for-
tuitous, and have no particular significance. One of the most
striking features, however, is the slump in hard rock phosphate
during the World War, due to the stoppage of exports, for most
of it is exported to Europe, as already pointed out. The produc-
tion recovered temporarily in 1919, but has since declined, for
reasons explained in the section on phosphate, several pages back.
The increases in limestone, sand and gravel, and crushed flint
around 1925 may be explained by their use in roads and buildings
during the boom.















NEED FOR CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF OUR
WATER SUPPLY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
WATERS FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE
By HERMAN GUNTER and GERALD M. PONTON'
To the statement that of all the natural resources of Florida
water is the most important we feel everyone will agree. This
applies not only to our own State but to every other common-
wealth. Is it not strange then that on the whole so little thought
is given to the matter of water supplies. Rarely is this a subject
of more or less general consideration unless forced to the attention
of the public through an impending shortage; contamination
bringing about an epidemic; the supplies becoming saline; becom-
ing discolored through a high content of iron and organic matter;
or being temporarily affected as in case of flood. Any condition
bringing to our attention how dependent we actually are upon
water makes us appreciate all the more how wonderful Florida
is in this respect.
This very fact, however, the ease with which water can be
obtained in this State and the bountiful supply of it, has made
us more or less extravagant and wasteful. The general impression
seems to be abroad that there is no need for conservation or
protection of this priceless resource. Such is not the case as many
here realize. The responsibility therefore is with us to see that
Florida does enact protective measures. The regulations should
be simple in character, based on those in force in other States,
which have been proven to be for the good of all. Should emer-
gencies arise such regulations could be added to. Provision should
also be made for a detailed water survey of the State, including
both surface and underground. In many cases it would be most
difficult to separate the deeper underground waters from those
of the surface or waters occurring in the upper formations. It
requires time and the utmost care to work out any problem in
water resources. These data must be collected patiently and even
tediously, in smallest detail at regular periods and over long
periods.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
For a number of years the Geological Survey has collected
information about the water supplies of the State. In the prep-
aration of this paper use has been made of these records. We
are, however, indebted to a number of individuals for particular
'Read by Herman Gunter at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Florida Engineer-
ing Society held at Clearwater. March 15th, 1929, and also at the meeting of the Florida
Section of the American Water Works Association held at Jacksonville. April 10, 1929.
Reprinted with slight corrections from The Florida Engineer and Contractor (Jackson-
ville and Winter Park), Vol. 6, Nos. 4 & 5, pp. 74, 75, 82, 94, 98. May and June, 1929.
(43)











44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
help in the securing of recent records and other data about water
supplies. While we can not specifically mention all we feel espec-
ially grateful to Professor George E. Barnes of the University of
Florida for his very active cooperation and assistance; Mr.
George E. Main of Daytona Beach kindly supplied detailed data
relative to water supplies of many places in the State; Mr. Malcolm
Pirnie gave freely of his time and permitted use of the report
on Jacksonville's city supply; Major Chas. A. Browne, Orange
County Road Dept., Mr. E. L. Filby, State Board of Health, Mr.
0. Z. Tyler superintendent, Electric Department and Water Plant,
City of Jacksonville; Wm. R. Galt, City Manager, Tallahassee;
and many others who have filled in and returned the blanks
requesting information about wells throughout the State. All
this cooperation is appreciated and has helped in a very material
way to make this paper more complete than would have other-
wise been possible. Even with this, however, the authors fully
realize how inadequate our records are and feel that if this paper
does nothing more than bring to the attention of the Engineers
how incomplete these data are for the State as a whole it will at
least serve some useful purpose.
GEOLOGY.
The geology can be but briefly touched upon in this paper, in
fact it will be treated only to the extent necessary to an under-
standing of the underground water conditions as found in the Ocala
limestone. Florida lies entirely within the Coastal plain province.
The foundation of the State is a limestone of Eocene age, to the
upper portion of which has been assigned the name Ocala, from
its typical occurrence around the city of that name. This lime-
stone forms a part of an extensive formation reaching from adja-
cent States into Florida. In earlier publications it received the
name Vicksburg, from the well known exposures at Vicksburg,
Mississippi, but that proved to be a younger formation. The
general character of this formation is soft and friable very light-
colored limestone. It is usually very fossiliferous, being made up
predominantly of the very minute as well as larger shells of Fora-
minifera. With these are found also many other marine inverte-
brates, and occasionally fossil remains of the Zeuglodon, an extinct
whale-like mammal, fishes and other marine animals. Masses
and layers of flint also occur within the formation. These have
been formed through the agency of underground water, carrying
silica in solution and replacing the calcium carbonate. The thick-
ness of this Ocala limestone probably does not exceed 500 feet.
As is shown by samples of cuttings from many wells there is
with increasing depth a change in the character of the limestone,
which has been brought about by solution action and secondary
replacement, making it difficult to differentiate between the
Ocala and other Eocene sediments. However it is known that











CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS. 45
many of our deep wells have passed through the Ocala into the
older Eocene, so that with an accumulation of samples we hope
to be able to make definite divisions.
The Eocene limestones form a mild uplift or anticline, the
crest of which runs in a general north-south direction through









the center of the peninsula. The arch of this anticline rises from





the west coast to the central part of the State in the general













crest in this central area the limestone dips more rapidly to the
northward and ONthe sou A minor arch extes e d


Eat Cat. Te tp a o t l t i la




Fig. 3.-eneralized geologic map of Florida showing the distribution of the various
formations.
the center of the peninsula. The arch of this anticline rises from
the west coast to the central part of the State in the general
vicinity of Ocala at a very gentle rate. From the broad, ill-defined
crest in this central area the limestone dips moe rapidly ta the
northward and the south. A minor arch extends eastward from
the central area toward the Daytona Beach-Titusville area on the
East Coast. The top surface of the limestone is irregular on
account of erosion, which adds to' the difficulty of using it for
structural purposes. Therefore to assume that the present surface
slope of the Ocala represents the true dip of the formation may
lead to erroneous conclusions. It is possible that weathering
agencies have been more active along the crest of the anticline
than along the low-lying and more protected sides. If this is true
it follows that the original dip may have been greater than that
now indicated.












46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

GEOLOGIC TIME TABLE GEOLOGIC TIME TABLE OF FLORIDA
[RECENT
FD QUATERNARY ON ITE
PLIOCENE FLORIDA UATENAR Y TOCENE KEY LARGO LIMESTONE
CENOZOIC MIOCENE TASIA RATION
TERTIARY ERAYIECN

LEOCEN ONE VALLEY GRAVEL

MESOZ IC A FORMA TION



ISSSSPE PIAN 8TAM UMESTO
IPALEOZO .CC DEVONIAN OUCOCENE M LENE ON LIESTONE
{ SILURIAN MIANTNA LIMESTONE
BRIAN EOCENE CALA LIMESTONE
7 RO C K SYST EM S O LII GOTCEI C I [


Fig. 4.-General geologic time table of Florida. From this it is seen that Florida is
relatively young.
Following the deposition of the Ocala, which underlies, so far
as well records thus far obtained indicate, all of Florida, a part
of this central area was sufficiently elevated to become dry land.
The land as first formed was most likely an island or perhaps a
chain of islands occupying central peninsular Florida, including
that area which is now mapped as the Ocala. Subsequently a
depression came, permitting marine deposits to form around the
edge of this land mass or perhaps even completely covering it.
This is indicated by the fact that remnants of younger formations
are found here and there capping the higher elevations within the
Ocala territory and also the hard rock phosphates are believed to
have been derived from a pre-existing formation.

SOURCE.
What is the source of all the water supplied to the cities,
towns, villages, farms and homes within the State? Not infre-
quently do we hear the thought expressed that the waters of
Florida have their origin in the mountainous regions of the
States lying to the northward. It is not necessary to postulate
such a distant source, neither is it correct. The chief source of
underground water is the copious rainfall within the State itself
and the southern portions of the boundary States of Georgia and
Alabama.
The average rainfall for the State as a whole for thirty-seven
years, from 1892 to 1928, both inclusive, was 52.57 inches annual-
ly. This information is from the United States Weather Bureau












CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS. 47

reports, Florida Section, Jacksonville. The year 1927 was the
driest since the establishment of the Florida Section of the
Weather Bureau in 1891. The precipitation for 1927 was the
abnormally low figure of 40.71 inches. The year of highest an-
nual rainfall within the period mentioned was 1912 with 64.88
inches. The year 1928 had an average of about 62.43 inches, thus
being a close second.
DISPOSITION OF RAINFALL.
What becomes of this generous rainfall? A part of it is
directly evaporated without being absorbed into the earth; a part
is evaporated or transpired by plants; a part is carried off di-
rectly by streams and rivers and a part is absorbed into the earth.
The amount of rainfall evaporated in Florida would vary greatly
in different sections, being large in flatwoods and swampy re-
gions and considerably less in the limestone areas. Transpiration
by plants is not to be neglected, and from results of experiments
in other States we believe that plants in Florida will account for
say about six inches of our rainfall. With regard to that part


Fig. 5.-Map of Florida showing by means of contours the height to which artesian
water will rise as based on a study of heads of wells in various sections. The data on
which this map is based are very inadequate and therefore with the accumulation of
more detailed information it is expected that changes will be necessary and errors per-
haps detected.


MAP OF MORIDA
540WtN0 CONVURS 0 HEADS IN FT ASE
SEA LUVME W -TER IN THE OCAL UNCSVNE











48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


Fig. 6.-Areas of outcrop of Eocene formations in Florida and Georgia.
carried off by surface run-off, Florida is a State of comparatively
slight relief. Furthermore, surface formations over the State
are favorable to a large intake of water. These conditions there-
fore are conducive to absorption and less favorable to surface
run-off with the exception of extreme West Florida, where the
direct run-off is relatively high. It is therefore estimated and
assumed that evaporation, transpiration by plants and surface
run-off amounts to at least one-half the total rainfall. This is
only a very rough estimate and perhaps should not even be stated,
as we have practically no information on which to base it. But
a water resource survey would supply the necessary data. About
one-half the rainfall has been accounted for, the other is available
for the underground water supply, but we must not lose sight of
the fact that large volumes of this water are returned to the
surface through the agency of limestone springs. Some of the
largest limestone springs in the United States are located in
Florida. Continuous gaging of our rivers and streams would give
us definite data as to run-off as well as the amount of water
given up by our springs and then we would know what percentage











CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS 49

of the rainfall that actually enters the earth is finally available
for our deep wells. We do know that the sub-surface formations
carry large quantities of water as is proven by the many deep
wells that have been drilled in many sections of the State.
WATER OF THE OCALA LIMESTONE.
The most important water-bearing formation of Florida is the
Ocala limestone. It is from this formation that the deeper wells
of the State draw their supplies. These wells vary in depth from
a few feet to several hundred feet, depending entirely upon their
location and thickness of the overlying materials. As previously
brought out, however, this limestone is soft, easily eroded and
chemically freely acted upon by circulating waters. The top sur-
face therefore is extremely irregular. Frequently, too, wells
penetrate for a remarkable depth before reaching the limestone,
even in those areas where other wells have indicated its presence
at more shallow depths. We know from well records, and from
exposures, that the Ocala is very cavernous, porous and honey-
combed. These places therefore evidently mark the location
either of deep solution holes in the limestone, or of ancient valleys
or basins that have become filled in later time by sands, clays or
other materials.
That the rainfall finds a most ready entrance to the under-
ground supplies in those areas where limestones lie at or near the
surface is immediately apparent. Although perhaps not so ob-
vious, large volumes with no less certainty also gain entrance to
these supplies even in those areas covered by later geologic forma-
^,0- ,,'., ~.^~~.~ ., ,~. ,,3------------------ ---







EOCENE









5,mS0jCE STRATIGRAPHY IN D RET PARTS OF FL DA AS SHOWN BY DEP WLS.
Fig. 7.-Five logs of wells in different portions of Florida. These logs have been
made up from a study of samples of the cuttings.
made up from a study of samples of the cuttings.











50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
tions. Frequently these are relatively thin and porous, and while
they may retard somewhat they nevertheless permit the entrance
of percolating waters. Where impervious formations occur they
not only interfere with but effectively prevent the downward pas-
sage of water. Under such conditions the water may spread
laterally but ultimately find passage to the limestone in any
one of several ways. These impervious materials may be com-
paratively local in extent and the lateral spread of the water may
carry it beyond their borders to pervious formations and permit
downward movement. Sink-holes are not unusual even in
those areas apparently quite thickly mantled by impervious ma-
terials. These would act as a ready entrance to the underlying
formations. Numerous instances might be cited illustrating this
method of surface waters thus finding entrance to the deeper
limestones.


Fig. 8.-Structural map of Florida with contours drawn on top of the Ocala lime-
stene as shown by a study of samples from wells.












CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS.


MOVEMENT OR CIRCULATION OF WATER.
That the underground water is in motion, in places threading
its way through pores, crevices, cracks or other small openings
in the rock while in other places it may flow more freely through
ill-defined channels in the rocks, there is no question. The move-
ment undoubtedly in general is slow but would necessarily be
variable with different conditions and character of rock. The
question of porosity of the aquifer is of great importance. The
Ocala limestone is prevailingly a soft and very pure high calcium
limestone, easily soluble in water. This is shown by the many
analyses of waters from it, all being what are generally termed
"hard water." The solution action naturally makes the rock more
porous, indeed in places this action has been carried to such
extent as to open channels in the rock through which the waters
move as underground streams. At the same time while this
solution action is causing a part of the rock to become more
porous other parts, through secondary deposition, become harder
and less porous. Undoubtedly the Ocala limestone was quite
homogeneous originally. That it does have harder and softer
parts is established. But to conclude that the formation is char-
























GROUND WATER TABLE
SHOWING DEPRESSION CONE IN OCALA UMESTONE
JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA.
AFTER REPORT OF HAZEN &WHIPPLE BY MALCOLM PIRNIE
Fig. 9.-Illustrating the effect of heavy draft upon waters from the Ocala limestone
within a restricted area. From Malcolm Pirnie's report on the "Investigations to de-
termine the Source and Sufficiency of the Supply of Water in the Ocala limestone as a
Municipal Supply for Jacksonville."
















52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


.1


>h .
z 0 00 0 00 0 0
,.c=, w ID 10 0 0 ,







I U
cm 0 1 m-



Li '
z z z z z a 0
0 t o 3 Z
u > Li
S J Z . i f
8 0 1 < o o 2 o 4 j o




w ff > w I/ Q)
~~~" Z :~g, ~aV) 0


N I


I0 I0 -I I1 0


01 0
-2I


y











CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS 53
acteristically made up of harder and softer continuous layers or
beds is erroneous. The many sink-holes and springs are evidence
of solution action. As an indication of solvent action, Silver
Springs water with a total solids of 284 parts per million removes







MAP OF FLORIDA









Fig. 11.-Map of Florida showing areas in which artesian flow may be expected.
some 600 tons of mineral matter daily, of which the greater pro-
portion is lime. Silver Springs receives its water from rainfall
over an area relatively close to the spring. Jacksonville city water
has a hardness of about 400 parts per million. This water origin-
ates from a much greater distance, thus undoubtedly accounting
for its greater hardness. This, together with supporting evidence,
leads to the conclusion that solution action is much more rapid
shortly after the rainfall enters the Ocala limestone than in those
areas further removed.
QUANTITY AND HEAD.
Taken as a whole the Ocala limestone, and other associated
Eocene formations, contain a vast quantity of water. However,
the quantity available at any given locality must be considered
as a separate or individual problem. Even though there are large
volumes of water in these limestones different conditions confront
the different localities. A detailed study must be made of the
porosity of the aquifer, the character of the overlying formations,
and related matters. The study should not be limited to the lo-
cality in question but should include the surrounding territory
so that the water might be traced to its point of entrance into
the aquifer as rainfall. Also it can readily be seen how the
quantity might be affected if there are large springs in the neigh-
borhood, and as the coastal area is approached we are confronted











54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
with the possibility of salt water being drawn into the formation
as a result of heavy draft or depletion of the potable supplies.
While the impression is quite general that our underground water
supplies are inexhaustible, the exceptionally dry year of 1927
caused this attitude to be seriously questioned. Many cities of
Florida during that year were much concerned about the adequacy
of their supplies. We therefore feel that the safest opinion to
express in this matter is that most assuredly the supply of water
from the Ocala limestone can be depleted to such an extent as to
endanger the supply through saline contamination. In those areas
of the State, however, where potable water is obtained from the
Ocala, the danger of saline contamination can be minimized and
perhaps obviated by careful development.
The principal factors controlling the head of water in the
Ocala limestone are the altitude of the water table below the
catchment area, the resistance of the movement of water through
porous beds, and the character of the formations overlying the
Ocala limestone. The catchment area of the Ocala limestone lies
generally below 200 feet and in the higher areas the water table
is at some depth below the surface. The altitude of this water
table is probably in few places above 150 feet and over a large
part of the central portion of the peninsula it is less than 100 feet
above sea level. After a study of the well data at present avail-
able we conclude that the greatest head from the Ocala limestone
approximates 75 feet above sea level.
Fluctuations in rainfall, barometric pressure, tides, all have
their influence on heads, as also has the difference in specific
gravity between fresh and salt water. These are all very import-
ant factors. However, time does not permit a full discussion.

CONCLUSIONS.
This paper has very briefly discussed the water from the Ocala
limestone and it has been brought out that this formation carries
large volumes of water, but it has also tried to bring out the fal-
lacy of the belief that these supplies are inexhaustible or not
subject to depletion. Furthermore each locality, so far as an
adequate water supply is concerned, must be considered as a sep-
arate problem. It is our opinion that those localities now obtain-
ing satisfactory supplies from the Ocala limestone can continue
so to do by careful development. The following are a few of the
many suggestions that might be made regarding the protection
of an underground water supply at any locality:
1. Drilling too deep; 2. Improper casing; 3. Spacing of wells;
4. Needless waste of water. Many flowing wells are allowed to
flow continuously regardless of whether they serve any useful
purpose or not. Others are allowed to flow on the supposition
that they will become plugged if shut in. Wells entering the




















CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS. 55
Ocala limestone, if properly cased, will not in our opinion become
plugged. However, in no event should waste of water be per-
mitted. 5. Wells should be tested at regular intervals as to their
head and capacity and the waters should occasionally have com-
plete chemical analysis. By a complete record of the behavior
of wells information will be at hand that will suggest the most
intelligent method of development for additional water supply
or the protection .of the present supply.
There are two conditions seriously affecting the water supply
of the Ocala limestone, namely, those wells that have been drilled
too deep in search of water and have encountered salt water and
those wells that have been drilled as tests for oil, most of which
have reached salt water beds. Such wells are endangering the
fresh water supplies from the Ocala. One such well might actu-
ally contaminate the fresh water over a rather extended area.
A sane and equitable regulation would be one which would govern
the drilling and abandonment of wells in such a way as to confine
the waters of each water formation penetrated in its own strata
wherever possible.
As previously suggested in this paper regulations should be
in force covering the drilling of all wells so that this most im-
portant resource will be protected. It is highly desirable and
recommended that some provision be made for the beginning of
a detailed water resource survey of Florida. As a basis for such
a survey and to complete it in the most satisfactory manner,
topographic maps are absolutely essential. By cooperation with
the United States Geological Survey federal funds are available
to partly defray costs of both Water Resource and Topographic
Surveys.












56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

LAW REGULATING DRILLING AND OPERATION OF WELLS.
During the 1929 Legislature an act was passed regulating the
drilling and operation of wells in Manatee, Sarasota and Charlotte
Counties. The act also provides for the conservation and pro-
tection of the ground water supplies. The following is a copy
of Chapter 14581 (No. 99) Laws of Florida, 1929:
AN ACT Regulating the Drilling and Operation of Wells and the
Conservation of the Water, Petroleum and Natural Gas of
Florida in Counties Having a Population of Not Less Than
3,350 Nor More Than 3,400, and Not Less Than 10,000 Nor
More Than 10,100 and Not Less Than 23,000 Nor More Than
23,100, According to the Florida State Census of 1925, Provid-
ing for the Supervision Thereof By the State Geologist.
Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. Every person, stock company, association or cor-
poration, or municipality, owning or controlling the real estate
upon which is located a flowing artesian well, shall within ninety
days after the passage of this Act, provide each such well with a
valve or valves, capable of controlling the discharge from such well,
and shall keep such valve or valves so adjusted that only such
supply of water as is necessary for ordinary use by the owner of,
tenant, occupant or person in control of said land, in conducting
his business, shall be available.
Section 2. The owner, tenant, occupant or person in control
of an artesian well, who shall allow the same to flow continuously
without a valve, or valves or mechanical device for checking the
flow, or shall permit the water to flow unnecessarily, or shall pump
a well unnecessarily, permit the water to go to waste shall be guilty
of a misdemeanor and subject to the penalties now or hereafter
provided for such misdemeanor. The owner, tenant, occupant or
person in control of an artesian well who causes, permits or suffers
such well to flow freely, continuously and without any means of
controlling the flow, or who allows a well to be pumped unnec-
essarily, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
Section 3. For the purposes of this Act, an artesian well is
defined as any artificial hole in the ground, fifty feet or more in
depth, made for the purpose of obtaining water supplies from sub-
terranean sources; the water being raised to the surface either by
natural flow or by pumping, or by both.
Section 4. Waste is defined for the purposes of the Act to be
the causing, suffering or permitting any water flowing from, or
being pumped from, an artesian well, to run into any river, creek,
or other natural watercourse or channel, or into any bay or pond,
(unless used thereafter for the beneficial purposes of irrigation of
land, mining or other industrial purposes or domestic use) or into
any street, road or highway, or upon the land of any person, or
upon the public lands of the United States or of the State of Flor-
ida, unless it be used thereon for the beneficial purposes of the
irrigation thereof, industrial purposes, domestic use, or the prop-
agation of fish. The use of any water flowing from an artesian
well for the irrigation of land shall be restricted to a minimum by
the use of proper structural devices in the irrigation system.
Section 5. The owner or operator of any well referred to in
this Act shall before commencing the work of drillling an oil, gas
or water well, file with the Florida State Geological Survey a













CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS. 57

written notice of intention to commence drilling. Such notice shall
contain the following information:
1. Statement of location and elevation above sea level of the
floor of the proposed derrick and drill rig.
2. The number or other designation by which such well shall
be known, which number or designation shall not be changed after
filing the notice provided for in this Section without the written
consent of the State Geologist therefore.
3. The owners' or operators' estimate of the depth at which
water will be shut off, together with the method by which such
shutoff is intended to be made and the size and weight of casing to
be used.
4. The owners' estimate of the depth at which water, oil or
gas producing sand or formation will be encountered.
It shall be the duty of the owner or operator of any well re-
ferred to in this Act to keep a careful and accurate log of the drill-
ing of such well, such log to show the character and depth of the
formations passed through or encountered in the drilling of such
well and particularly to show the location and depth of water bear-
ing strata, together with the character of water encountered from
time to time and to show at what point such water was shut off,
if at all, and to so state in such log and to show completely the
amounts, kinds and size of casing used and to show the depth at
which oil bearing or gas bearing strata are encountered, the depth
and character of the same and whether all water overlying and
underlying such oil bearing strata was successfully and perman-
ently shut off so as to prevent the percolation or penetration into
such oil or gas bearing strata. Samples of the formation through
which the drill passes shall be preserved at intervals of not more
than ten (10) feet, and upon completion of the well the log and
samples shall be forwarded to the Florida State Geological Survey,
at Tallahassee. Containers for samples shall be furnished by the
State Geologist upon request. The State Geologist shall, upon
receipt of such log and samples, have the same studied and inter-
preted and shall furnish to the owner a description of such samples
and any other practical information relative thereto. The State
Geologist shall also give advice to owners whenever requested re-
lative to underground water problems.
Section 6. In the event that one or more water strata are en-
countered in drilling the water in each stratum, whenever pos-
sible, shall be confined within the layer or stratum in which it
occurs. Should any well encounter water of a character that is
unsuitable for human consumption such well shall be cased or
plugged in such a manner as to effectively prevent the possibility
of endangering the quality of the water of any other stratum.
Should the underground water supply of any district become so
depleted by heavy draft as to endanger the water supply of such
district by saline contamination, then the State Geologist, his
assistants or duly authorized representative, shall be empowered to
regulate the draft upon all wells in such district so that the water
resources can be protected and preserved. It is further provided
that should salt water be encountered in any well then such water
shall not be allowed to flow into any surface or subsurface stream
or body of fresh water or to flow over the surface of the ground in
any way in which it can reach any underground supply of fresh
water.




























58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Section 7. The State Geologist, Assistant Geologists, or any
authorized representative of the Florida State Geological Survey
shall have access to all wells at any and all times, and all com-
panies, contractors, or drillers shall permit the State Geologist,
Assistant Geologists, or authorized representative of the Florida
State Geological Survey, to inspect any and all wells both during
drilling operations and any and all times after completion of the
well or wells.
Section 8. Any person violating the provision, or provisions of
this Act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction
shall be punished according to law.
Section 9. It shall be the duty of the Attorney General, or the
County, or other prosecuting attorney, or County solicitor, within
the territory wherein the businesses or operations described herein
are being conducted, to represent the State Geologist in the en-
forcement of all of the provisions of this Act. All criminal prose-
cutions under this Act shall be by the County. or prosecuting at-
torney, or County solicitor, in and for the County within which
such offense has been committed.
Section 10. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this
Act are hereby repealed.
Section 11. This Act shall take effect ninety days after it
becomes a law.
Approved June 29, A. D. 1929.












THE POSSIBILITY OF PETROLEUM IN FLORIDA.
By HERMAN GUNTER and GERALD M. PONTON1
An attempt has been made to restrict the treatment of the
subject to actual results obtained by drilling, but the personal
equation cannot be entirely eliminated. After handling thousands
of samples of the subsurface formations one unconsciously be-
comes opinionated and thus a few opinions have crept in which
have not been substantiated by actual drilling operations, but
which I might say are based on geologic facts. It is extremely
difficult to formulate opinions which will be agreed upon by all
or which will suit all, but the fact must be stressed that opinions
with regard to oil in Florida should be based on actual facts
rather than on assumptions drawn from long-range correlations
with oil fields in distant States.
In the early days of the oil industry workers were drawn
mainly from non-technical ranks, but of late years technically
trained men are in the majority, and great strides have been made
in all lines of the industry. A better idea is prevalent of the
source of oil, and its accumulation, the kinds of structure and
rocks suitable for reservoirs, and drilling machinery has been
greatly improved as well as equipment for taking of samples of
the formations. Geologic knowledge has greatly advanced and
mechanical methods of determining hidden structure, while still
in their infancy, have established themselves on a firm basis.
In the past many new fields have been discovered by haphaz-
ard drilling and even in territory previously thought unpromising,
and most likely in the future some fields will be brought in in
a similar manner. Paradoxically some fields have been developed
where the oil instead of being on the top of a structure has been
brought in on the lower flanks or even in the syncline. Geology
is not an exact science, and oil finding must from its very nature
be an inexact operation and one which will never be carried on by
any rule of thumb.
Oil is a concealed or hidden resource and outside of proven
areas no method has been found except exploration with the drill
to determine the presence or absence of petroleum, much less the
amount that may exist.
One often hears quoted "oil is where you find it." This is
true, but many other factors must be taken in account.
It is definitely established that petroleum is disseminated gen-
erally throughout sedimentary rocks but at the same time accu-
mulations -of petroleum in commercial quantities are very rare.
'Read by G. M. Ponton at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Florida Engineering So-
ciety held in Ocala, April 18th, 1930. Reprinted with slight corrections from Florida
Engineering and Construction (Jacksonville and Winter Park), Vol. 7. No. 5, pp. 63. 69-
72. June, 1930.
(59)











60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Dr. Parker D. Trask in the May, 1928, issue of the Bulletin,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, made a prelimin-
ary report on limestones as a source of oil. He found that limey
oozes accumulated in the Bay of Florida on distillation gave 2.5
gallons of crude oil per ton. It is possible therefore that recent
sediments being deposited there may be regarded as a potential
future source bed for petroleum.
In 1925 the Committee of Eleven of the Board of Directors of
the American Petroleum Institute tabulated the unfavorable areas
and the areas in which new oil fields may be found. In this table
all of Florida is shown as an area in which oil fields may be found.
This statement by itself is misleading to the uninformed, and has
been used quite generally by some of the oil fraternity, one party
going so far as to publish "Possibilities of Oil in Florida, 100%."
Florida is underlain in its entirety by sedimentary rocks, and
it is entirely for this reason that the committee included Florida
in the favorable class. It might be well here to quote from the
American Petroleum Institute report: "It would be a mistake,
of course, to assume that all of the area designated as favorable
for the discovery of new fields is to produce oil, and such an as-
sumption is in no wise to be inferred from this discussion. The
known requisites for oil fields are such that even in the most
favorable territory only a very small proportion of the entire
area yields production. Adequate source beds must be brought
into close juxta-position with reservoir rocks, and the combina-
tion of source and reservoir must acquire a special structural
relationship before accumulation of petroleum can be affected.
Only a very small per cent of the total area will become producing
territory or contribute to our supply of crude oil."
In the sense, therefore, that Florida lies wholly within the
Coastal Plain and is underlain with sedimentary rocks, the State
as a whole can be said to be a possible area in which oil fields
may be found.
As above stated the presence or absence of oil cannot be fore-
told by any agency except by drilling; doodle-bug and divining
rod operators and clairvoyants to the contrary.
No census has been taken of the number of wells drilled in
Florida and there is no means of even more than approximating
the number. We know of 48 wells having been drilled as tests
for oil, but we see no reason for eliminating the large number
of deep wells drilled for water from this discussion. The two
classes of wells were drilled in the same manner, except that the
water wells were drilled generally more carefully. The number of
wells drilled to depths ranging down to 500 feet are many thou-
sands; 500 to 1000 feet, probably thousands; 1000 to 1500, prob-
ably hundreds; 1500 to 2000 feet, fifty, more or less; 2000 to
3000 feet, ten; 3000 to 4000 feet. eight; 4000 to 5000 feet, four;
and deeper than 5000, one.











POSSIBILITY OF PETROLEUM IN FLORIDA. 61
The number of wells drilled in Florida is quite imposing; they
are not evenly spread over the state, but most districts are rep-
resented. Has the drilling of these wells in Florida shown any
production of petroleum? The answer is, as far as our records
show, irrespective of the many reported oil strikes, and gushers,
etc.: No oil in collectible quantities has been discovered in
Florida.
Even traces of oil, generally rainbows on the drilling water,
have caused great excitement. It would not be anything out of
the ordinary to get rainbows of oil while drilling in Florida, but
many rainbows are also doubtlessly caused by oils and grease
used on the drilling machinery. At various depths in the Eocene
formations carbonaceous material of a lignitic nature is encoun-
tered, and this is often reported as asphalt.
Owing to the large number of wells drilled to comparatively
shallow depths for water in most parts of Florida and our knowl-
edge of the general character of the formations, we feel quite
safe in saying that throughout most of the State there is little
or no likelihood of finding oil at shallow depths. By shallow
depths we mean above 2000 feet, although in some parts of the
State where we have deep well records accompanied by samples
this depth could be increased. Reserved from this statement is
that part of Florida lying west of Tallahassee, partly on account
of the few well records and consequently the subsurface condi-
tions are less well known, but more especially for the reason that
the lower Eocene and Upper Cretaceous formations in West
Florida are of a different character from that existing in the rest
of Florida, as will be discussed more fully later.
In oil finding, structure is of prime importance. In many oil-
producing states structure can be mapped by accurate surface
surveys by means of elevations taken on key beds. In Florida
the top of the Ocala limestone has been contoured (using sea
level as the datum) by means of surface elevations and well logs.
The structure map in the 17th Annual Report of the Florida State
Geological Survey generally has proven quite accurate. Such in-
accuracies as have been detected are due to the fact that inter-
polation had to be made over long distances between wells on
which accurate data were preserved. The Ocala limestone is a
soft, pure limestone, easily eroded by weathering and solution
action, and therefore its top does not afford a very good key bed.
The structure map, however, sets forth the two main uplifts in
Florida, viz., the Ocala, and the Marianna-Chipley uplifts.
It has been found that the formations laid down since Eocene
time cannot be used, in light of our present knowledge, as key beds
for structure. Indeed it has been found that where locally the
younger formations show in surface exposures the possibility of
structure when wells are drilled to the Ocala, such signs of











62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
structure have apparently not been reflected in the deeper
formations.
An operator failing to find structure on the surface is faced
with the choice of haphazard drilling or the drilling of numerous
test holes to a recognizable key bed. In Florida such a key bed
would likely have to be below the top of the Eocene formation.
In many parts of Florida this would be a huge undertaking, as
for instance in Southern Florida test holes would likely have to
be well over 1000 feet in depth. Expense would also be added as
such testing would have to be under the supervision of technically
trained specialists.
We have said that no mechanical means has been discovered
by which the presence or absence of oil, much less the quantity,
can be established. In finding deeply buried structure, however,
great strides have been made with the use of the seismograph
and torsion balance in the last few years. This is especially true
with regard to the finding of new salt domes in Texas and
Louisiana.
The seismic method is based upon the fact that mechanical
waves set up in the earth by some shock, for example, explosion
of dynamite, are transmitted at greatly different velocities in
strata of different elasticity. Very sensitive seismographs at a
distance from the explosion register the earth waves as they ar-
rive on a moving film. The torsion balance operates on the prin-
ciple of recording the minor deviations of the earth's gravitation-
al attraction caused by local differences in the specific gravity of
masses lying below the surface. Other methods being experiment-
ed with are the magnetic, electro-magnetic, and radioactive.
There is no information on record to show that any seismic
or torsion balance surveys have been made in Florida. It must
be emphasized that by mechanical means merely hidden structure
(salt domes or anticlines, buried hills and ranges or faults) can
be located, but this does not imply in any sense that oil is present.
It has just been stated above that the two main uplifted areas
of Florida have been definitely established, viz., the Ocala and
Marianna-Chipley uplifts. On or near the top of the Ocala uplift
two deep wells have been drilled, viz., the Ocala Oil Corporation
well near York, with a depth of 6180 feet, and the J. S. Cosden,
Inc., well near Fairfield with a depth of 4334 feet. In the York
well the basement rocks were encountered at a depth of about
4100 feet, precluding possibility of oil below that depth. The
Fairfield well reported somewhat similar conditions, but in this
well samples were not preserved for study by the Florida Geologi-
cal Survey. Mr. Paul L. Applin, geologist for J. S. Cosden, Inc.,
has stated in conversation that the information from their well
showed little or no promise for oil. Examination of samples from
the York well show little or no likelihood of possible oil bearing
formations above the depth of 4000 feet. In both these wells the











POSSIBILITY OF PETROLEUM IN FLORIDA. t 3
entire Eocene rocks were predominately limestones and reported
as carrying water throughout, and the Upper Cretaceous forma-
tions were very similar lithogically except that approximately
the last couple of hundred feet above the basement rocks con-
tained some shale. Roughly this comparatively thin zone near
the 4000 feet depth was the most likely-looking formation in the
wells.
The Marianna-Chipley area has been tested by one deep well,
viz., that of the Chipley Oil Co., about 21/2 miles south of Chipley
and to a depth of 4912 feet. This well was most carefully drilled
and tested, and samples from every five feet were saved. In this
well showings of gas were reported by the drillers at 3540 feet.
This well while located on the uplift is perhaps not on the crest,
probably being slightly off the top on the southwestern flank.
If this is correct it cannot be definitely said that the highest point
on the western uplift has been tested.
Going south from the Ocala uplift we find that conditions
change to a great degree. The Heckscher-Yarnell interests drilled
a test near Bartow to a depth of 4545 feet, encountering the
Eocene at a depth of 275 feet, and the samples at 4545 feet still
show Eocene formations and all the rock in this Eocene interval
is almost consistently limestones with water throughout. The
drilling operations and samples showed no indication of oil in
that depth. This well adds further proof that the thickness of
the Eocene increases greatly towards the south.
Going south from Bartow the post-Eocene formations thicken
until at about the latitude of Miami they are approximately 1000
feet in thickness. We have no samples or adequate records of
wells in South Florida drilled deeper than the 2555 foot well at
Marathon and therefore, the conditions at a greater depth in
South Florida are as yet to us unknown. It is expected, however,
that the Eocene formations there will be very thick, but the con-
ditions or even the existence of other formations can only be
disclosed when and if samples from the deeper horizons become
available.
Going northwest from the Ocala area we find the Monticello
well drilled to a depth of 3838 feet. This well encountered the
Eocene at 420 feet and at 2252 feet entered the Upper Cretaceous.
This interval was almost consistently limestones with water
throughout and decidedly unpromising for oil. From 2252 to 3838
feet shales predominated with some chalk and a very few sandy
lime beds of Upper Cretaceous age. Slight gas shows were re-
ported in the driller's log at about 3400 feet, but a thick sand
bed at the bottom of the hole was productive of nothing but salt
water.
From the information now available it seems to be true that
between the Ocala area and Monticello the Upper Cretaceous sedi-











64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
ments have changed in character from water-bearing limestones
to shales. The Eocene sediments, however, apparently show no
change.
Referring again to the Chipley well, at 150 feet the top of the
Eocene was found, and to a depth of 360 feet typical Ocala lime-
stone occurred. Below this depth the limestones gave place to
sandy glauconitic marls, quite clayey at times, and this condition
prevailed to a depth of about 2000 feet, where the Upper Cre-
taceous was encountered. From this depth to 4135 feet the rocks
were all Upper Cretaceous and similar to rocks found in the Upper
Cretaceous interval in the Monticello well, being predominately
shales. At Clarksville, in Calhoun County, the well of the Cal-
houn Gas and Oil Company drilled to a depth of 1320 feet showed
the Eocene sediments to be similar to those in the Chipley well.
It will be seen that between Monticello and Chipley the Eocene
rocks have changed in character.
The changes above noted in both the Cretaceous and Eocene
sediments were quite to be expected, as they correlate closely
with sediments of the same ages in southwestern Alabama and
Mississippi. The change is in a direction more promising for oil
and gas, but many other factors must be considered such as source
beds, suitable structures, reservoir beds, etc., and the proper com-
bination of all factors before even western Florida can be con-
sidered anything but rank wild-cat territory.
Summarizing generally: In southern Florida the deepest well
on which we have detailed information is 2555 feet deep. In that
depth nothing at all promising is shown. Through the press we
have noted the well at Fort Lauderdale attaining a depth of 3010
feet and the well about 40 miles west of Miami on the Tamiami
Trail reaching a depth of 3900 feet. No samples from these wells
have been received by the Florida Geological Survey for study.
In south-central Florida the Bartow well is 4545 feet deep. If
oil occurs in that general area it will likely be at deeper levels.
In the area covered by the Ocala uplift the result of tests so
far have not proven promising, and the encountering of basement
rocks has placed another doubt on the ultimate favorableness of
that territory.
In middle-north and west Florida the sediments of the Eocene
and Upper Cretaceous are perhaps of a more promising character.
This condition, while important, is of no value whatsoever, unless
other suitable conditions exist.
In prospecting for oil, structure is perhaps of greatest im-
portance. In Florida possible structures are largely hidden and
therefore it is not logical to drill unless structure can be made
known by either drilling numerous test wells to key beds or by
means of mechanical methods such as the seismic or gravimetric.

























POSSIBILITY OF PETROLEUM IN FLORIDA. 65
The Survey has more or less complete sets of samples from
125 wells. These have proven invaluable in working out the sub-
surface geology of the State. When we realize that many thou-
sands of wells have been drilled to depths greater than 200 feet,
it can be appreciated how much more thoroughly we would know
the underground conditions if samples had been saved from all
wells. The Survey has consistently advocated the value to the
State of a law which would protect the underground water re-
sources of the State. Such a law would make compulsory the
filing of accurate logs and the preserving of samples. Many drill-
ers and owners have voluntarily supplied the Survey with logs
and samples but we regret to state that these voluntary helpers
have been greatly in the minority. Accurate logs and samples of
the many wells drilled would quite likely have given information
which could be used in locating possible concealed structures, and
thus drilling for oil in Florida would be less of a haphazard
operation.

































BEACHES OF FLORIDA


JAMES H. C. MARTENS















CONTENTS



PAGE
In production ................................ ......................... .............. ............. ........ 71
Definitions ............. ............................................ .............. 72
Types of shore in Florida ............................................................ .......... ........ 72
Extent of beaches .................. ................. ...... ............ .. ............... 77
Conditions favorable for extensive beach formation ........................................ 79
Composition and texture of Florida beach sand .................... .................... 81
W ave action and its results ...................................................... .............. 85
Offshore bars .......................-....----.................................... 90
Tides and their relation to beaches .................................--................. .. 91
C coastal sand dunes ...................................................................... ........................... 91
Beaches suitable for m otoring ................................ ............................ ........... 92
R regional and local descriptions .............................................................................. 95
Beaches of East Coast of Florida ........................................ ...... ......... 97
Beaches of Florida Keys and Cape Sable ---..................................... 103
Beaches of West Coast of Peninsular Florida .........................................105
Beaches of Northwestern Florida ......................................-- ...............108
Preservation of beaches .....................................................................117







ERRATA


Page 82-Figure 16 should read Figure 31.
Page 83-Figure 20 should read Figure 24.
Page 87-Figures 22 and 30 should read Figures 22 and 33.
Page 91-Reference to Figure 23 should be omitted.
Page 110-Fourth line from bottom, insert "is."
Page 113-Figure 20 should read Figure 35.









(69)












ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE
12. Map showing extent of beaches and other types of shore in Florida.... 73
13. Salt Marshes near Mayport, Duval County .......................................... 73
14. Shore of St. George's Sound near Lanark, Franklin County ............... 74
15. Fresh marsh at mouth of Suwannee River, Levy County .................... 75
16. Mangrove swamp just north of Miami Beach, Dade County................ 75
17. The Rocks, 4 miles south of Matanzas Inlet, St. Johns County............ 76
18. Overhanging rocky shores of Key Vacca, Monroe County... .............. 77
19. Hardpan on shore about a mile west of Apalachicola, Franklin County 78
20. Profile across Indian River and off-shore bar near Eau Gallie, Bre-
vard County ...................................... ................86
21. Cross section of beach on Santa Rosa Island, Escambia County............ 86
22. Gulf beach on Dog Island, Franklin County ........................................ 87
23. Airplane view of Daytona Beach looking north, Volusia County......... 88
24. Layers of black sand, Camp Creek Inlet, Walton County ........................ 89
25. Two dune ridges parallel to the shore, Bay County............................... 93
26. Blowout in dune sand, southeastern part of Walton County............... 93
27. General view of beach near Mineral,City, St. Johns County................ 98
28. Daytona Beach at low tide, Volusia County.................. ............ 99
29. Looking south along shore at Miami Beach, Dade County...............-....102
30. Rocky outer shore of Lower Matacumbe Key at low tide, Monroe
County --........... .---------.........- ... ...... ................103
31. Looking west along marly shore near East Cape Sable, Monroe
County -..............-.... ....--........... ................104
32. Beach on Sea Horse Key, Levy County ................ .......................105
33. Gulf Beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande, Lee
County ................. --- -------......... ----- --.....................107
34. Drifted sand on beach plain on Santa Rosa Island...............................109
35. Shore of Inlet Lake near boundary of Bay and Walton counties..........111
36. Spring on beach due to hardpan underlying loose sand, Walton
County ....... ---........----.................. ---- .. .................112
37. Cross section of beach near Beacon Beach Hotel, Bay County..............113
38. Pine tree stump on beach, Dog Island, Franklin County.......................115


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BEACHES OF FLORIDA
JAMES H. C. MARTENS


INTRODUCTION.
Without the very extensive beaches which the State of
Florida possesses it is doubtful whether the warm winter climate
alone would have attracted nearly as many winter residents and
tourists from the north. Here is the only part of the United
States where both air and water are warm enough for comfort-
able ocean bathing during the winter. Not only are the beaches
an economic asset because of the winter resorts which they have
helped to develop, but they are also a source of health and recrea-
tion for a large proportion of the permanent residents of the
State. A few localities such as Palm Beach and Daytona Beach
are known to millions who read the newspapers, but probably
very few people, even including those who have spent much time
in Florida, have any idea of the many hundreds of miles of
beaches along the coasts, and of the varied scenery which they
present.
Owing to the peninsular shape of the State, no place in Florida
is more than about 75 miles from the coast. Because not all of
the shore has a beach the maximum distance to an ocean beach
is slightly greater.
During two years of field work the writer had the opportunity
of seeing a large part of the coast of Florida, and traversed many
miles of its beaches on foot and by automobile. Notes were taken
as to the characteristics of the beach and samples of the sand
were collected for laboratory examination. In the preparation of
the more general portions of this report D. W. Johnson's "Shore
Processes and Shoreline Development"1 was of very great assist-
ance, as were also some of the works of N. S. Shaler, and others.2
The determinations of carbon dioxide on the east coast beach
sands were contributed by Dr. W. H. Beisler, Professor of Chem-

'Johnson, D. W., Shore Processes and Shoreline Development; xvif, 584 pp. New
York, 1919.
2Shaler, N. S., Sea and Land; New York, 1894. (Essay on sea beaches, pp. 38-74)
Beaches and Tidal Marshes of the Atlantic Coast: Nat. Geog. Soc. Monographs, vol. 1,
no. 5, pp. 137-168, 1895.
A few additional works dealing with beaches and other shore features of Florida
are as follows:
Gulliver, F. P., Shoreline Topograph: Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., Proc. 24: pp. 151-
258, 1899.
Mayer, A. G., Our Neglected Southern Coast: Nat. Geog. Mag. 19; pp. 859-871, Dec. 1908.
Matson, G. C., Clapp, F. G., and Sanford, S., Florida Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept.,
pp. 40-42. 196-200, 1910.
Matson, G. C., and Sanford, S., U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 319, pp.
35-39, 62-64, 1914.
Kemp, J. F., Observations on a Florida Sea Beach with Reference to Oil Geology:
Econ. Geol. 14; pp. 302-323, June 1919.
(71)











72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
ical Engineering at the University of Florida, and Mr. Nelson
Takahashi, graduate student there. For making the sieve tests
the writer was allowed the use of the necessary apparatus in the
West Virginia Road Department's laboratory at Morgantown.
DEFINITIONS.
A beach may be defined as the deposit of loose sand or pebbles
washed about by the waves on the shore of an ocean, lake or
river. The beach extends in width from the upper limit reached
by the waves at high tide to a little below low tide line, and is
usually not more than a few hundred feet wide. It is very nearly
free from vegetation mostly because the wave action prevents
anything from growing. As popularly used the word beach is
often applied to a larger sand area back of the beach proper, as
defined above. We shall be concerned here with the beaches on
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, but it should be pointed
out in passing that there are beaches also on many of the lakes.
The shoreline is the boundary line between land and water;
we may speak of the high tide shore-line and the low tide shore-
line. The narrow strip of land which is alternately covered by
water and exposed to the air is called the shore.
TYPES OF SHORE IN FLORIDA.
The shore in Florida is generally occupied by a sandy beach,
but other types of shore are also found, and these may be briefly
considered before passing on to a detailed discussion of the beach.
Practically all of the shore of Florida can be included under the
four headings, named in order of their extent within the State:-
(1) Sandy Beach; (2) Marshy Shore; (3) Mangrove Swamp; (4)
Rocky Shore. Their approximate extent is shown on the accom-
panying map, (Figure 12). It should be understood that this re-
fers to the outer shore exposed to the Gulf or ocean; also that on
account of the small scale of the map much generalization is
necessary. Furthermore, short stretches of sandy beach on parts
of the coast indicated as mangrove swamp or marsh may be locally
of some importance.
The main part of this paper will be taken up with the beaches,
and the other types of shore will only be briefly mentioned in
passing.
Salt marshes occur where wave action is limited either by
very shallow water extending out far from shore, or by a protect-
ing island, reef, or sand bar, so that vegetation can grow down
to the water's edge and in the strip between high and low tide
lines. On account of the quiet water the sand on the bottom is
not washed about much nor kept clean and free from other ma-
terials as on the beaches, so that the bottom material or soil of
the salt marshes is usually a dark mud or muddy sand containing
some decaying vegetation and shells. By far the most extensive

















BEACHES OF. FLORIDA


1-1

r>
A
SrI *E.-


MAP OF N
FLORIDA
SnOVrINO zxTzN- t4 X -EN
TTOF or S.CNU SNN O
SSANDY BEACH
MARSHY SHORE
MANGROVE SWAMP








Fig. 12Map showing extent of beaches and other








Fig. 12.-Map showing extent of beaches and other


Fig. 13-Salt marshes near Mayport, Duval County, with dunes in distance. (Photo
by R. M. Harper.)











74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS
salt marshes in Florida are those inside the islands or off-shore
bars of the northern part of the east coast.3 From about the
mouth of the Ocklocknee River eastward and southward to the
Anclote Keys the shore directly exposed to the Gulf of Mexico is
marshy because the water is shallow for such a long way out that
large waves can not reach the shore.
Figure 13 shows a small part of one of the widest areas of
salt marsh in the State, near the mouth of the St. Johns River.
The dune ridge which separates it from the river and ocean is
seen in the distance. The circular pools are a characteristic fea-
ture of salt marshes in many parts of the country.
Figure 14 shows a shore which is partly protected from wave
action by a barrier beach a few miles off shore, and has some
grassy vegetation, but is too steep for the development of marshes.
















Fig. 14.-Shore of St. George's Sound near Lanark showing very narrow fringe of
marsh vegetation at high tide. At low tide a narrow muddy beach is exposed. Wave
action is too slight to form a good beach. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)
Figure 15 shows some of the marshes at the southern mouth
of the Suwannee River, where there is no barrier beach, but the
shallowness of the Gulf prevents the formation of any but very
small waves. This happens to be fresh-water vegetation, but the
salt marshes elsewhere on the same coast are similar in
appearance.
The mangrove swamp is similar to the marshy shore in that
there is a lack of vigorous wave action and that the vegetation
grows down to the water's edge and even in the shallow water,
but is distinguished by the vegetation consisting of mangrove
trees or bushes rather than grasses or rushes. (See Figure 16).
The mangrove swamps occur only in southern Florida (because
8The tidal marshes of this region have been described by Shaler in the last cited
paper of his.

















BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 15.-Fresh marsh at the mouth of
R. M. Harper.)


Suwannee River, Levy County. (Photo by


Fig. 16.-Mangrove swamp just north of Miami Beach, Dade County, being cleared
for building sites ,1923. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)











76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

the mangrove is a tropical tree) but on various kinds of soil.
Their extent has been mapped by Harshberger.4 The largest area
of mangrove swamp in Florida, and also in the United States, is
the region of the Ten Thousand Islands on the west side of the
south end of the Peninsula, but this is probably the prevailing
type of shore on the Florida Keys also. In places there is a
gradation from a shore with mangrove trees growing in shallow
water on a marly bottom to a narrow beach of calcareous sand
free from vegetation.


Fig. 17.-Coquina on beach at "The Rocks," 4 miles south of Matanzas Inlet, St.
Johns County.
Rocky shores have only a very limited extent in Florida and
could not be shown on a map of the scale reproduced here. In
no place in the State are there high rocky cliffs, but rather in-
extensive ledges reaching from low tide level to a maximum
height of ten feet or so above sea. None of the rocks exposed
are of great geological age and some of them were formed under
conditions like those prevailing today in the same region.
On the east coast from St. Augustine southward to Boca Raton
the sandy beach is interrupted in a few places by wave-worn
outcrops of coquina. (See Figure 17). This rock is itself a beach
'Harshberger, John W., The Vegetation of South Florida, south of 27' 300 north,
exclusive of the Florida Keys: Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans. vol. 7, Pt. 3, Oct., 1914.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 18.-Inner shore of Key Vacca at Marathon, showing small rocky island about
100 yards offshore, with edges deeply undercut all around by the solvent action of the
water, combined with wave action. The rock in the foreground also projects in the same
way. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)

deposit which has become consolidated by solution and redeposi-
tion of calcium carbonate. On the Florida Keys outcrops of lime-
stone along the shore are very common but rise little above sea
level. There are places, where, as shown in Figure 30, the uneven
surface of hard limestone is exposed below and in front of a
narrow beach of calcareous sand. On the inner shores of some
of the Keys, where the water of the Bay of Florida is too shallow
for large waves, the rock is undercut by solution. At Venice on
the Gulf coast the waves are wearing away sandy phosphatic
limestone. Several instances of the exposure of hardpan by wave
erosion along the shore have been observed in Florida. This hard-
pan is a dark brown to nearly black sandy material partially
consolidated by organic matter and iron oxide and generally
formed as the subsoil in poorly drained areas. (See Figure 19).

LENGTH OF BEACH.

Without any fear of contradiction Florida can boast of having
more extensive ocean beaches than any other State. Not only
that, but the east or Atlantic coast alone has a slightly greater
extent of beach than the whole State of Texas, which is next
after Florida in the length of beaches around its coasts.5
bCalifornia has a long coast line, but only a small part of it is sandy beach.












78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


7-,


I r~(, ~
'r
..rS :
r-
t~-
-e -


Fig. 19.-Ledge of black hardpan on shore of bay about a mile west of Apalachicola.
Franklin County. (Photo by R. M. Harper.)

The table below shows the approximate length of beaches in
different parts of the State as determined from United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts. For comparison, lengths of
the ocean or Gulf beach in Texas and North Carolina are also
given.

East Coast of Florida from Georgia line to Cape Florida 370 miles
West coast of Peninsular Florida............................. 178 miles
Gulf coast of Florida from Ocklocknee Bay westward.... 200 miles
Florida Keys south of Cape Florida (estimated) ............ 30 miles
Total for Florida ...................... .......................... 778 miles
Texas ......................... ..... ... .......... 360 m iles
North Carolina ..........- .......-..... .............- 275 miles

This does not include any beaches on lagoons, sounds, or bays
mostly enclosed, but only beaches facing on the Gulf of Mexico
or Atlantic Ocean without any protecting land in front. There
is beach nearly the whole length of the Atlantic Coast of the
United States from Cape Cod to Cape Florida and also by far the
greater part of the way around the coast of the States on the
Gulf of Mexico, so it is mainly owing to its peninsular shape that
Florida exceeds the other States in its length of beaches. South
Carolina has about two hundred miles of beaches and Louisiana
probably has at least an equal length, although the writer's
knowledge of the latter State is not sufficient to enable him to
estimate accurately from the maps and charts examined how
much of the shore is sandy beach and how much is mud flats.
Georgia, New York, New Jersey, and Virginia each have 100











BEACHES OF FLORIDA li
miles or more of sandy beaches. All of these figures refer not
to the total length of shore, but only to that part having a sandy
or pebbly beach.
If lake beaches be considered the situation is somewhat dif-
ferent. The states bordering on the Great Lakes have extensive
beaches, which in width, cleanness of sand, and in violence of the
wave action on them are not much inferior to those of the ocean.
In fact it is possible that Michigan may have as great a length
of beach on the Great Lakes as Florida has on the Gulf and ocean.
There is a well-defined beach of fine white sand for many miles
around the east side of Lake Okeechobee. While there are beaches
on many of the smaller lakes in Florida, as well as on the bays,
sounds, and lagoons, the distinction between real beaches and
shores with vegetation extending down to and below the water
line is so indefinite that it would not be possible to estimate the
extent of such beaches nor even to list any considerable proportion
of the localities without very detailed examination.
CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR EXTENSIVE FORMATION
OF BEACHES.
The conditions which seem to have favored extensive formation
of beaches in Florida are: (1) Low and rather flat land near
the coast; (2) An abundant supply of sand; (3) Wave action of
sufficient intensity.
All of Florida is included in the Coastal Plain, which extends
far to the westward around the north side of the Gulf of Mexico,
and with gradually decreasing width to the northeast as far as
Massachusetts. The Coastal Plain is made up of beds of sand,
clay, limestone, etc., which were deposited in water when the
land stood at a lower level relative to the sea than it does at
present. The elevation of the whole region is rather low and
there are no great irregularities in the surface. In rather recent
geological time the land rose slowly above the sea. As a result
of this, a large part of Florida, including all of the east coast,
has a typical shore-line of emergence or coastal plain shore-line.
The former sea bottom, now exposed as land, was smooth and
nearly flat, and is composed mostly of loose or unconsolidated
sediments.
Since the material underlying the Coastal Plain contains a
large proportion of sand, a sandy beach will be formed and persist
even if erosion goes on rapidly; but on account of the gentle slope
of the bottom the sea will erode slowly in most places and will be
likely to carry away only the finely ground particles and not much
of the sand. Moreover, on some parts of the Florida coast there
are other sources of sand in addition to the material immediately
beneath or back of the beach.
The original source of most of the sand in Florida, including
that on the. beaches, is to be found in the Piedmont and Appa-











80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
lachian Mountain regions of the southeastern states, where sand
has been and is being formed by the gradual decay of various
hard rocks exposed to the disintegrating action of the atmosphere.
Sand which has been carried down to the sea by the Savannah,
Altamaha and other rivers of Georgia and the Carolinas is grad-
ually shifted to the southward by the shore currents and wave
action along the Atlantic Coast." Thus there is a constant re-
plenishing of the supply of sand on the east coast of Florida.
The rivers of northwestern Florida carry down large amounts of
sand, but most of this is deposited in bays and estuaries. Some
of it is probably carried out through passes or inlets by tidal
currents, and eventually becomes a part of the beach on the Gulf
of Mexico.
In order for there to be any beach not only must there be
along the shore a loose deposit of sand, shell, or pebbles of which
the beach may be formed, and a sufficient amount of it so that
it shall not be quickly washed away, but there must also be
enough wave action to keep this material moving about. Other-
wise instead of clean sand there would be mud, and vegetation
would grow down to the water's edge and even in the shallow
water. Protection from wave action may result from the pres-
ence of off-shore bars or islands, from submerged coral reefs or
sand bars, or simply from the bottom having a very gentle slope
so that the shallow water extends a long way out.
In strong contrast to Florida is Maine which has a typical
shore-line of submergence, resulting from the sinking below the
sea of a hilly to slightly mountainous area with hard rocks at or
near the surface. Instead of being approximately straight as is
the shore-line of Florida, that of Maine is extremely irregular
with many long peninsulas and indentations. There are hundreds
of rocky islands and the mainland shore is generally rocky also.
The sea bottom is not smooth as it is around the coast of Florida,
but has hills and valleys similar to those of the part of the land
which is still above water. On the coast of Maine beaches occur
not so much on the exposed outer shore but rather in the some-
what protected bays and coves, and even in such situations the
beach is likely to be pebbles and cobblestones rather than sand.
The supply of loose material for the formation of beaches is small,
and conditions are favorable for it to be washed away from the
shore into deep water. Beaches on this kind of coast are not very
permanent, because if a severe storm washes away a few million
tons of sand pebbles this may expose the bare rock beneath the
beach. Along a coastal plain shore-line like that of Florida the
supply of sand is so great that the beach itself cannot be destroyed
by storms even though a large amount of sand may be removed
from some parts of it.
'Gulliver, F. P., Bull., Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 7, p. 408, 1896. Shaler, N. S., Nat. Geog:
Soc., Monographs, vol. 1, p. 153, 1895.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA 81
COMPOSITION AND TEXTURE OF FLORIDA BEACH SAND.
All of the beaches are sand beaches. Pebbles or cobbles are
never present except in very small numbers near a few limestone
and coquina outcrops. The beach may have a large number of
whole or only slightly broken shells, but these are nearly always
subordinate in amount to the sand. The absence of pebbles on
the Florida beaches is best explained by the lack of hard rock
outcrops along the shore; to quote the words of Shaler:7 "From
New York to Florida and thence to the Rio Grande, there are no
firm materials from which pebbles can be made."
In New England, where pebbly beaches are common, the hard
bed rock from which they are derived outcrops near at hand.
Another quotation from the same authority will explain more
thoroughly the absence of pebbles from many sand beaches, in-
cluding those of Florida.8
".. The sand of which the bulk of their masses is composed
is vastly more durable than the seemingly more resisting pebbles.
As we have seen, pebbles wear out rapidly. Scarcely any, even the
hardest, can stand a year of steady thrashing on the shore, but
these sands endure for ages. The reasons for this are simple. In
the first place, each grain of sand is an admirable illustration of
the principle of the survival of the fittest. If it be not perfectly
coherent and very hard, it will not be carried far before its weak-
ness is found out and it is broken into mud on the pebble beaches,
where it is generally made and borne away by the sea to the deeper
water. Then, because of their smallness, the grains lie with so
little interspaces between them that they hold the water next their
faces by capillary attraction. When a wave strikes the shore the
grains of sand are pounded together, but they do not touch each
other. If we press on the wet sand with the foot we see that the
mass whitens as the pressure is applied and a part of the inter-
stitial water is poured out; take the foot away, and the water re-
turns to the crevices between the grains. Only dry sand will rub,
grain against grain, and give the audible sound which when it is
sharp and clear is called singing. No beach will thus creak or
sing beneath the feet when it is wet."
The two principal substances making up the sand are silica
in the form of the common mineral quartz, and calcium carbonate,
mineralogically known as calcite, which is derived from the shells
of various lime-secreting animals. When pure, quartz is colorless
or white with a glassy appearance, and it is hard enough to scratch
glass or steel. Quartz is the characteristic mineral of sand and
sandstone, and when nothing is said to the contrary it is usually
understood that they consist principally of it. Granite and other
rocks similar to it are the original source of most of the quartz
in sand. Calcite is rather soft, being easily scratched by a knife.
It is white when pure but is often colored gray, yellow, or pink
by impurities.
'Shaler, N. S., Sea and Land: p. 61, New York, 1894.
'Shaler, N. S., op. cit. pp. 72-73.











82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

Nearly all of the sand of the northern part of the State is
composed of quartz. On the Gulf coast of northwestern Florida
the sand is so nearly pure quartz and the grains are so clean that
the beaches and dunes are as dazzlingly white as fresh snow. An
analysis0 of such a sand from near Pensacola gave 99.65 per cent
silica.
Southward along either the east or the west coast of the
peninsula the proportion of shells and shell fragments in the sand
gradually increases, and in the vicinity of Miami the beach sand
is much less than half quartz. Southward from Cape Florida on
Key Biscayne, quartz ceases to be of any importance as a con-
stituent of the beach sand, and on the Florida Keys farther south,
as well as at Cape Sable on the extreme southern end of the main-
land, the beach is composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate
or calcite, in the form of coral and shell fragments and the re-
mains of small one-celled animals called foraminifera. (See
Figure 16).
The analyses in Table 1 will show more definitely the varia-
tions in the proportions of shell fragments in the beach sand of
the east coast. The percent of CaCO, was computed from the
actually determined percent of CO, on the assumption that all
of the carbon dioxide was present in calcium carbonate. The per-
cent of calcium carbonate should approximate rather closely the
percent of shell in the sand. In the table the sands are listed in
the order of their geographic occurrence, from north to south.
TABLE 1.
Calcium Carbonate Content of Sands from East Coast of Florida, Analy-
ses by Dr. Walter H. Beisler and Nelson Takahashi, University of Florida).
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Sample No. Locality CO2 CaCO.
8028 Amelia Island, /2 m. S. of St. Marys River.......... 0.55 1.25
8024 near south St. Johns River jetty..................... 0.26 0.59
8037 3 mi. S. of Mineral City............................. 0.08 0.18
8106 Flagler Beach ...--........................................ 24.62 55.95
8103 5.3 mi. S. of Flagler-Volusia county line........... 9.82 22.34
8041 Daytona Beach ......................... ---.......... ..... 0.64 1.43
8053 Cocoa Beach .................... .................... 3.19 7.25
8020 Indialantic Beach ................- .................... ... 9.85 22.39
8014 Fort Pierce ................................................. 7.07 16.07
8047 Olympia Beach ........................................ ...... ..... 18.41 41.86
8013 13.2 mi. N. of Palm Beach................................- 20.10 45.68
8049 Riviera .................................................................. 18.79 42.70
8011 Lake W orth ........................ ......... .................... 19.21 43.66
8010 Boca Raton .......................................... 18.32 41.64
8009 Hollywood ................................................ ............. 23.48 53.40
8002 Miami Beach, 10 mi. N. of channel at S. end.... 32.75 73.85
8001 Miami Beach, 5 mi. N. of channel at S. end.... 17.76 40.36
8004 Islamorada ........................................... 42.88 97.45
8006 Upper Matecumbe Key.......................................... 42.91 97.52
'United States Geol. Survey, Bull. 315, p. 382, 1907.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA


In some ways more interesting than the minerals which are
present in large amount are those which are scattered through
the sand only in small quantities. In all twenty-five or more
minerals have been found in sand from Florida beaches. I have
observed and identified by the aid of a petrographic microscope
all of the minerals in the following list:
Quartz Zoisite Spinel
Calcite Staurolite Anatase
Ilmenite Cyanite Orthoclase
Collophane Sillimanite Microcline
Zircon Andalusite Plagioclase
Rutile Magnetite Muscovite
Monazite Tourmaline Biotite
Epidote Hornblende Graphite
Garnet Leucoxene Corundum
The greatest variety of minerals is present in the sand on the
northern part of the east coast, because it is nearer to the original
source of the minerals in the Piedmont and mountain regions of
Georgia and South Carolina, and because the deposits along that
part of the coast are of such recent geological age there has been
less opportunity for weathering than elsewhere. Nearly all of
the minerals listed above occur in the sand of Jacksonville Beach,
and it is no uncommon thing for ten or fifteen different minerals
to be found in one small sample from any part of the State where
quartz sand occurs. In sands consisting mostly of broken shells,
or coral with little quartz, these other minerals do not occur ex-
cept very rarely, because, like the quartz, they are derived from
the hard rock areas a long way to the north. It must be empha-
sized that the minerals other than quartz and calcite can usually
be seen and recognized in the beach sand only by microscopic
examination, and to find some of the rarer ones it may be neces-
sary to apply some process of concentration or separation.
Some few of the minerals on the beach may be of economic
importance where the waves have separated them naturally by
washing away the lighter grains. It is this type of deposit from
which the "rare earths" (ilmenite, zircon and rutile) have been
mined at Mineral City near Jacksonville.-o As far as Florida is
concerned none of the other minerals listed are likely to have
any commercial value, except as a part of sand which is applied
to some of the ordinary uses of sand.
Staurolite, and the titanium-bearing minerals, rutile and il-
menite, are the principal ones responsible for the dark streaks
often observed in the sand of beaches, dunes, and stream beds in
Florida. Figure 20 shows an unusually thick bed of these dark
heavy minerals which have been sorted out from the much lighter
quartz by the action of waves and wind on the upper part of the
"oMartens, James H. 0., Beach Deposits of Ilmenite. Zircon and Rutile in Florida,
Florida Geol. Survey, Nineteenth Ann. Rept. pp. 124-154, 1928.











84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
beach. Bright blue glassy-looking grains of cyanite can be easily
seen by looking closely at the beach sand on the Gulf coast almost
anywhere from Bay County to Escambia County. Zircon is one
of the minerals which is present in sand wherever quartz is, and
although in smaller grains than the quartz, it may sometimes be
seen with the unaided eye by reason of its brilliant sparkle and
luster, resembling that of the diamond. For a short distance on
the Gulf beach in the vicinity of Venice, cellophane, which is the
principal mineral of the pebble phosphate deposits, occurs in such
abundance in the sand that it gives it a gray to nearly black color.
Interesting because of the distance which they must have
floated on the sea from the site of some volcanic eruption, but of
no real importance as a constituent of the beach sand, are the
occasional pieces of pumice, whose occurrence on the shore of the
southern part of Florida has been noted by Shaler."1
The sea beans cast up on the beach by the waves have also
been carried far by the wind and current, and are believed to have
come mostly from the West Indies.
The grain of the sand on Florida beaches is fine to medium.
The coarsest siliceous sand is on the beaches of the Gulf coast of
northwestern Florida, especially Santa Rosa Island and the main-
land to the east of it. A sample from Santa Rosa Island opposite
Camp Walton had 68.7 per cent retained on a sieve with 50 meshes
to the inch (opening .297 mm.) but none on a sieve with 20
meshes to the inch (opening .84 mm.). This is about as coarse
a sand as can be found on the beaches of Florida. The wide hard
beaches of the northern part of the east coast have very fine
sand, with a texture about like that of granulated sugar.
The grains of beach sand are well sorted as to size, at least
as far as the quartz grains are concerned. This means that
nearly all the grains on a particular part of the beach are of
approximately the same size, with only a moderate amount which
are much smaller or larger. It can often be noticed that coarser
particles are being left at just about the upper limit which the
waves are reaching on the beach. Since the upper limit of wave
action varies with the tide and weather a section through the
beach deposits may show a series of layers of sand differing
slightly in coarseness or of quartz sand layers alternating with
layers of whole shells or large shell fragments. Where the shells
are broken down to the size of sand grains there seems to be
little tendency for them to separate from the quartz grains. The
grains of the various heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and zircon,
always average smaller than those of quartz.
To obtain more information about the variations in texture of
the east coast beach sands the writer made several sieve tests,
using a Ro-Tap machine and shaking each sample 20 minutes in
sieves of the U. S. Standard sieve series.
"Shaler, N. S. Nat. Geog. Soc. Monographs, vol. 1, p. 163, 1895.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA <50
The results of these tests are shown in Table 2. Some chemical
data for the same samples have been given in Table 1, except in
the case of Nos. 8025 and 8050. As before, the samples are ar-
ranged in geographical order, from north to south. The size of
openings of the different sieves, in millimeters, is given under
the sieve numbers. The percentage for each sieve represents the
amount of material between that size and the next larger, and
the last column indicates what has passed through the finest
sieve.
TABLE 2.
Sieve tests of beach sands from the east coast.

Percentage retained on sieves.
Sieve nos. 20 40 60 80 100 200 Passing
Opening (mm.) .84 .42 .297 .177 .149 .0741 200

S 8028 0.1 6.1 24.0 46.1 18.7 5.2 0.3
8025 5.6 8.0 18.5 33.6 20.2 13.3 Tr.
8050 0.0 Tr. Tr. 2.4 22.9 67.6 0.0
8053 0.0 0.2 0.6 5.3 25.8 67.8 0.0
8020 3.5 23.2 28.9 39.6 3.8 0.7 0.2
8014 4.8 49.1 30.3 12.7 1.7 1.4 0.2
8010 1 0.7 28.4 38.2 31.4 1.0 0.2 0.8
8009 9.6 56.7 22.6 9.8 1.1 0.2 1.1
m 8001 1.4 22.3 47.1 27.9 0.8 0.3 0.3
The localities are as follows:-
8028. Amelia Island, Nassau Co., 1/2 m. S. of St. Mary's River.
8025. Manhattan Beach, Duval Co.
8050. Cocoa Beach, Brevard Co.
8053. Cocoa Beach, Brevard Co.
8020. Indialantic Beach, Brevard Co.
8014. Fort Pierce Beach, St. Lucie Co.
8010. Boca Raton, Palm Beach Co.
8009. Hollywood, Broward Co.
8001. Miami Beach, Dade Co., 5 m. N. of channel at S. end.
WAVE ACTION AND ITS RESULTS
Waves beat constantly upon the shore of the Atlantic Ocean,
and even on a perfectly calm day there are always ground swells
from some distant storm. On the part of Florida bordering the
Gulf of Mexico wave action is less because of the shallower water
and more protected situation. On inland lakes there are waves
only while the wind is actually blowing. To the waves are due
not only many of the features of the beach as described in the
following pages, but even the existence of the beach itself, for
without the waves the shore would be muddy and covered by
vegetation.












86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.


SUA L EL
X z 0








-40 o
A Z 2 3 4
A < t ;







HORIZONTAL. SCALE M I 11L
Fig. 20.-Profile across Indian River and off-shore bar near Eau Gallie, Brevard
County.

There is a fundamental difference between the movement of
waves in deep water and in shallow water. In deep water the
movement is one of oscillation. The wave form moves forward
on the surface of the water but the main mass of the water itself
does not move forward. When waves come into shallow water
we see surf or breakers (Figure 23). The depth of water in which
a wave will break is approximately equal to the height of the
wave, but waves sometimes break in water deeper than this. As
the top of the breaking wave falls over, the nature of the wave
motion changes from one of oscillation to one of translation, and
the water actually runs forward up the sloping surface of the
beach. When the energy of the wave is spent in overcoming fric-

w.I


Fig. 21--- ross section of beach on Santa Ros Island, Esca a county.
Fig. 21.-Cross section of beach on Santa Rosa Island, Escambia County.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 22.-Gulf beach on Dog Island, Franklin County. Shows wave-cut cliff in dunes,
back shore terrace, foreshore, and seaweed cast up by waves.
tion and lifting the weight of water, the water flows back down
the beach, causing the undertow.12
At the upper limit reached by waves during ordinary storms
the land generally rises in a much steeper slope than on the beach
itself. In some places this is due to the waves wearing away the
land and forming a wave-cut cliff (Figures 22 and 30); and in
other places a low ridge known as a beach ridge has been formed
at the back of the beach from sand and shells thrown up by waves
during unusual storms. If a ridge in such a position owes its
height mainly to sand being blown up onto it from the surface
of the beach, it is called a dune ridge.
The slope of the beach toward the sea is determined by the
attraction of gravity, which may be considered constant, and the
intensity of wave action and coarseness of the sand, which vary
from place to place. On some of the beaches there is a uniform
and gentle slope all the way from the low tide line back to the
dune ridge or wave-cut cliff at the back of the beach. In many
places the outer part of the beach slopes much more steeply than
the back part. This outer slope of the beach corresponding to
the part between ordinary high and low tide lines during calm
weather is called the foreshore. The nearly level part of the beach
back of this is formed by waves during storms and is not reached
by them at other times; it is called the backshore terrace. Fre-
quently two backshore terraces, one slightly above the other and
2See Davis, W. M., The Undertow Myth: Science II. 61: 206-208, Feb. 20, 1925; and
discussion by W. C. Jones and T. T. Quirke on pages 444 and 468 of. the same volume.











88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.

formed by storms of different intensity, may be observed. This
is illustrated by Figure 21, while Figure 22 shows plainly the
foreshore, a single backshore terrace and the wave-cut front of
the dunes.
The nature of material forming the beach depends to a very
large extent upon wave action. The movement of sand or other
loose material to and fro by the waves tends to continually wear


Fig. 23.-Airplane view of Daytona Beach looking north, Volusia County. (Photo
by R. H. LeSesne. )











BEACHES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 24.-Layers of black sand composed of heavy minerals concentrated by" wave
and wind action. White dune sand above. Camp Creek Inlet, Walton County. Ex-
posed by the shifting inlet cutting through the beach deposits.
and grind it down to a smaller size and to make the grains more
nearly round. This is best shown by the shell fragments or by
pieces of brick which have come on the beach accidentally. In
some places in southern Florida the water near the beach has a
milky appearance, due to the small suspended particles of lime
carbonate resulting from the wear on shells. Waves are also,
very effective in sorting the particles of sand and shell according
to their size and weight. Nearly all of the mud or clay is carried
back by the undertow away from the beach and into deeper water'
The finer and lighter sand grains are left on the lower part of
the beach and the larger and heavier grains tend to be concern
treated at about the upper limit of wave action. Dark streaks of
the heavier minerals of the sand often collect on the upper part
of the beach (Figure 24). Where the shells are finely broken
they may remain rather uniformly mixed with the quartz sand,
but otherwise the waves leave them in distinct layers or streaks.
Beach cusps are among the more interesting of the minor shore
features which owe their origin to wave action. Beach cusps are
scallops formed on the outer side of the beach by waves beating
upon it. Each cusp is approximately triangular in shape with
the apex or point toward the sea and the base connected with the
main part of the beach. The spacing or size of the cusps is
fairly regular for any particular stretch of beach at any particular
time, and depends upon the size of the waves which formed them.
The larger cusps are formed by the larger waves. From about
15 to 70 feet seems to be the usual range in spacing of cusps on











90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
the Atlantic and Gulf beaches of Florida. Waves of different size
from those which formed any particular set of cusps will tear
them down and build new ones of different size or leave a smooth
beach without cusps. Where the sand is fine and of uniform
texture, as it is at Jacksonville Beach and Daytona Beach, there
seems to be less of a tendency for cusps to form than where it is
coarser or contains considerable shell.13
The formation of offshore bars is such an important result of
wave action that a separate section is devoted to it.
OFFSHORE BARS.
An offshore bar or barrier beach is a narrow bar with its
surface only slightly above sea level, lying parallel to and some
distance out from, a gently sloping sandy shore. Between the
mainland and the bar lies a lagoon, which in some parts of Flor-
ida is called a "river" and in some parts a "sound" or a "lake,"
as for example Indian River, St. George's Sound, and Lake Worth.
Because of the shallow depth of the lagoon and the comparatively
short reach which the wind has, there are only small waves to
strike against the mainland shore and the inner shore of the off-
shore bar. The real beach is on the outer side of the offshore
bar. The offshore bar is formed by waves breaking in shallow
water, washing up sand from the bottom and piling it up closer
to shore until finally it rises above the surface of the water. Most
of the Atlantic and Gulf beach in Florida is on offshore bars,
some of which are real islands separated from the mainland by
open water, others islands separated from the mainland only by
marshes and narrow tidal creeks, and still others peninsulas con-
nected at one end with dry land. Figures 20 and 23 show the
general relations of the offshore bars, lagoons and mainland.
The occurrence of the beach on offshore bars has an important
relation to its accessibility, since it will generally require taking
a ferry boat, or building a bridge to cross the lagoon. A large
number of such bridges have been built in recent years, especially
on the east coast of Florida. Some of the beaches on offshore
bars or islands on the Gulf coast, to which roads and bridges have
not yet been built, can be reached by ferries.
The offshore bar is composed of beach and dune deposits,
which generally means loose sand, but in Florida it includes some
coquina also. Owing to local conditions which cause a natural
building out of the coast by deposition of sand, the offshore bar
may become wide and complex, as in the region about Cape
'3For more detailed descriptions of beach cusps with explanation of their formation
see the following:
Gulliver, F. P., Cuspate Forelands: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 7: pp. 399-422, 1896.
Jefferson, M., Beach Cusps: Journ. Geol. vol. 7, pp. 237-246, 1899.
Branner, J. C., Origin of Beach Cusps: Journ. Geol. vol. 8, pp. 481-484, 1900; vol. 9,
pp. 535-536, 1901.
Johnson, D. W., Beach Cusps: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 21, pp. 599-624, 1910.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA 91
Canaveral. There may also be two offshore bars with a lagoon
between them and another lagoon between the inside one and the
mainland. (See Figure 23).

TIDES AND THEIR RELATION TO BEACHES.
The main facts ,of beach and dune formation seem to be about
the same on the Great Lakes, where there is no tide, as on parts
of the ocean shore where there is a moderate rise and fall of tide.
It is true however, other things being equal, that where there is
a tide the average width of beach is greater. Currents produced
by tides may be important in carrying sand from one place to
another, especially where, as at the mouth of a bay or at an inlet
or pass connecting a lagoon or sound with the sea, the water is
forced to run through a narrow opening. Currents caused in this
way produce what are known as tidal deltas, which are bars of
sand deposited at the mouths of tidal rivers or at the outer ends
of passes or inlets. St. Johns Bar at the mouth of St. Johns River
is an example.
The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has recorded the
rise and fall of tide at several stations in. Florida, but most of
the measurements seem to have been made in bays and harbors
and therefore do not indicate very accurately the tidal range on
the beaches. The maximum average rise and fall of tide in Flor-
ida is 6.0 feet at Fernandina. At the St. Johns River entrance
it is 4.6 feet, and at St. Augustine it is 4.17 feet. On the southern
part of the east coast the rise and fall is much less, being only
1.1 feet at Miami and 1.7 feet at Cape Florida. Most of the way
around the Gulf coast of Florida the average rise and fall is
between 1.5 and 2.5 feet, but in the region of the Ten Thousand
Islands it is somewhat greater, the maximum shown on the coast
chart being 3.7 feet at Lostmans (or Lossmans) River. In the
extreme western part of Florida and the adjoining part of Ala-
bama there is only one high and one low tide daily instead of
two. All of these figures are from the coast charts of the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Tides are very important in connection with the suitability of
beaches for motoring, because only the part of the beach which
is left moist by the outgoing tide is hard enough to support the
wheels of automobiles. On some beaches, because of too shallow
water at low tide or unsightly accumulations of decaying sea-
weed, conditions are more pleasant for bathing at high tide. At
low tide is the best time for collecting shells on the beach.

COASTAL SAND DUNES
Sand dunes are not a part of the beach if that word be con-
sidered in a restricted sense, but since the coastal sand dunes











92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
border directly upon the beach and are generally passed and seen
by everyone visiting the beach that will be sufficient excuse for
devoting a few words to them at this point.
Immediately back of the beach a distinct ridge may often be
observed running parallel to the shore. Where low this may be
formed entirely by wave action during storms, and this seems
to be generally true of the shore ridges in the region of the
Florida Keys and also on most of the west coast of peninsular
Florida. On most of the Atlantic coast as well as the Gulf coast
of northwestern Florida this ridge is a dune ridge formed of sand
blown up from the beach. Winds blowing from the sea lift the
sand from the upper part of the beach where it becomes dry in
fair weather and pile it up into the ridge. There grasses and
other plants hold it in place so that most of it is not blown much
farther. Where the sea has been depositing material and so
building out the shore there is a series of parallel dune ridges.
(See Figure 25). The outer one may be referred to as the shore
dune or littoral dune but the others were formed in the same
way as the outer one.
Where the sand is highly siliceous the vegetation cover on the
dunes is rather sparse, and fires, very dry weather, or the grazing
of cattle may cause a place to become so bare that a strong wind
is able to start the movement of sand again and make what is
known as a "blowout." This is generally a circular or oval de-
pression from which the sand has been removed and piled up on
the side toward which the wind is blowing. The blowouts may
form either in the shore dune facing the beach or in the dunes
farther back. The best examples of recent blowout dunes are in
the northwestern part of the State, especially on Santa Rosa
Island. (See Figure 26).
BEACHES SUITABLE FOR MOTORING.
The question is often asked why the northern part of the east
coast of Florida has beaches so much better for automobile driv-
ing than most other parts of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is
not easy to give a final answer, but we might first note that for
a beach to be suitable for driving an ordinary automobile at
moderate or high speed it must be smooth, wide and hard. It is
a matter of common observation that only the strip of damp sand
between high and low tide lines is hard enough.
In order for a beach to be smooth it must be composed of
sand, with no greater amount of either pebbles or shells, but even
where there is nothing but fine sand the waves may at times heap
it up in some places and wear it away in others so as to produce
an uneven surface. Only those beaches in Florida where the sand
is nearly all quartz pack so hard that automobile wheels do not
sink in appreciably. Most of the way from the Georgia line to a
little south of Cape Canaveral the beach sand consists almost















BEACHES OF FLORIDA





*rx




, -
t ;' :.


Fig. 25.-Two dune ridges parallel to the shore, Bay County, one mile east of Phillips
Inlet. Note that there is more grass on the outer dune because it is moistened by
wind-blown spray.


Fig. 26.-Blow-out in dune sand. One-half mile west of Phillips Inlet. Walton
County.











94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
entirely of quartz, but from near Melbourne southward there is
generally a large percentage of finely broken shell in the sand,
which has also more of a yellowish color than that farther to the
ndrth. These shell fragments are both softer and smoother than
the quartz grains, so that they do not offer so much resistance
to the wheels. In driving from Jacksonville Beach to St. Augus-
tine it can easily be noticed that the softer places are where there
is more shell. Flagler Beach is too soft to drive on because of
local conditions which result in the presence of a considerable
proportion of finely broken shell in the sand, although both to the
north and to the south of that locality there is little shell and
the beach is suitable for motoring.
The slope of the beach is important for two reasons. If it
slopes too steeply toward the sea the beach would not be con-
venient to drive on even if hard enough and wide enough, and
would not give a sufficient width of beach between high and low
tide. Examination of coastal charts shows that excluding the
region of the Florida Keys, which on account of its limestone
formation does not concern us here, the bottom offshore has a
much steeper slope on the southern than the northern part of
the east coast. The same is true of the beach itself as determined
by direct observation at many localities. At Daytona Beach,
Jacksonville Beach, and a few localities in Georgia and South
Carolina the slope of the beach is so slight as to require practic-
ally no effort in steering an automobile parallel to the shore. The
more abundant supply of sand, which is carried by currents from
the north toward the south along the shore, is probably one of
the reasons for the more gentle slope of the beaches on the north-
ern part of the east coast of Florida. The erosive effect of the
Gulf Stream may have something to do with the rather steep
offshore slope from Jupiter Inlet to Miami and the rather narrow
steeply sloping beach of the same region. It is also worth noting
that very fine sand, when moved about by the waves, will form a
beach with a lower angle of slope than coarser sand, and it seems
likely that this is one of the main reasons for the superiority of
the Florida beaches for motoring.
Another factor to be considered is the amount of rise and fall
of tide. The greater this is, the wider will be the strip of damp
sand on the beach at low tide, the shorter will be the period at
high tide when the beach is not suitable for motoring, and the
fewer will be the occasions when conditions of wind or storm are
such as to make the beach impassable. At Fernandina the ordi-
nary tidal range is six feet, which is the greatest anywhere in
Florida; at the mouth of the St. Johns River it is 4.6 feet, while
to the south it becomes less until it is scarcely two feet at Miami.
On the Gulf coast of Florida the ordinary tidal range is from
about one to two feet.











BEACHES OF FLORIDA 90
The spacing of the inlets or passes, connecting the waters of
the lagoons or sounds, with those of the Gulf or ocean is of inter-
est as determining the uninterrupted length of beach. The great-
est distance which it is possible to drive in Florida without leaving
the beach is 35 miles, between St. Johns River and St. Augustine
Inlet. In the few greater intervals between inlets which occur
on the coasts of Florida, the softness of the sand on the beach
prevents motoring for a part or all of the distance.
On the east coast of Florida the principal localities where
there are beaches suitable for motoring are from north to south,
Amelia Island, St. Johns River to St. Augustine, Anastasia Island,
Daytona Beach, Coronado Beach near New Smyrna, and Cocoa
Beach. On the Gulf coast of northwestern Florida I do not know
of any beach which it is possible to drive upon except a stretch
of about twenty miles near Cape San Bias in Gulf County. On
the Gulf coast of the southwestern part of peninsular Florida,
Captiva, Sanibel and Marco Islands are definitely known to have
beaches hard enough for motoring and perhaps some of the other
islands not particularly examined have beaches which are about
the same. The unevenness of the surface and the usual narrow-
ness of the damp hard sand strip make these beaches, as far as
motoring is concerned, inferior to those of the east coast.
The excellent hard, smooth, wide surface of so much of the
beach of the northern half of the east coast of Florida, which
makes it eminently suitable for motoring, is due to a combination
of favorable factors, as the composition of the sand, which is
nearly all fine sharp grains of quartz, the gentle slope of the
beach toward the sea, and a sufficient tidal range to leave a wide
strip of damp sand exposed.

REGIONAL AND LOCAL DESCRIPTIONS.
Claims are often made by persons either having a certain
justifiable pride in their surroundings, or wishing to secure the
maximum of advertising to help attract tourists or sell real estate
that such and such a beach is the best in Florida or the best in
the world, and such and such a city has more beach, or better
beach, or beach situated nearer and more conveniently to the
center of population than has any other city. Some of these
claims may be partly true, since the question as to which is the
best beach is one which is not easily answered in a word. Firstly
we might notice that the beach is often very uniform in its char-
acteristics for long distances. If a certain locality is said to
have a particularly good beach, it may be that just such a beach
extends along the coast for 10, 20 or even 50 miles. Some parts
not especially named and less easily accessible than the better
known and widely advertised localities may be more beautiful
because less spoiled.











96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-21ST-22ND ANNUAL REPORTS.
Which is the best beach also depends on our point of view
and the use to which we wish to put the beach. If suitability for
motoring is the main consideration, then Daytona Beach, which
is the most widely known, appears to be actually the best, although
under favorable conditions some of the other beaches of the
northern half of the east coast are not much inferior to it in
hardness, width, and smoothness. It need hardly be said that the
beaches of southern Florida are most attractive for winter bath-
ing because of the higher temperature of the water and the sur-
rounding air, while the softer sand of the beach from Palm Beach
to Miami Beach makes this more pleasant to lie upon than the
hard packed unyielding sand at Jacksonville Beach and Daytona
Beach.
In whiteness of sand, and in the natural beauty of the sand
dune scenery back of the beach, some of the beaches of the north-
western Gulf coast excel, as for example Inlet Beach at the
boundary of Bay and Walton counties, and Santa Rosa Island in
Escambia County.
For variety and beauty of the shells cast up by the waves the
beaches of the southern part of the west coast, to mention only
Sanibel Island, Marco Island, and Cape Romano, are surpassed
by no other part of Florida, and according to some, by only a few
other places in the world.
These few localities are cited not to imply that other beaches
in Florida are lacking in interest or beauty but merely to give a
slight idea of the variety of Florida's beaches and to point out
the difficulty of proving that any particular place has the world's
best beach. Upon whether one is looking for accessibility or
remoteness, large hotels or small home-like accommodations,
whether one is more interested in fishing or motoring, whether
one prefers surf bathing or quiet waters of the bay, lagoon or
protected parts of the Gulf, and upon other factors too many and
too complex to be listed here will depend one's choice of which
beach to visit.
In the following pages are given somewhat generalized de-
scriptions of the beaches on the different parts of the Florida
coast. For convenience we may consider four general regions in
which beaches occur: (1) the east coast from the Georgia line
to Cape Florida; (2) the Florida Keys and Cape Sable; (3) the
west coast of peninsular Florida; (4) the Gulf coast of north-
western Florida. Since many of the localities named are not on
the small and very generalized map accompanying this report
(Figure 12) the reader should refer to a more detailed map of
Florida.
In the following descriptions of the beaches occurring on the
coasts of Florida the distances given were measured on the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey charts on a scale of 1:80,000.