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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administrative report
 Statistics of mineral production...
 Geology of Florida
 The extinct land mammals of...
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


FGS



Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00019
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Publication Date: 1927-1928
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00019
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Administrative report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
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    Statistics of mineral production in Florida during 1927
        Page 19
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        Page 22
        Page 23
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    Geology of Florida
        Page 29
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    The extinct land mammals of Florida
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    Index
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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    Spine
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Full Text















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


SCIENCE ROOM


I










FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist







TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT
1927-1928


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT

STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA

THE EXTINCT LAND MAMMALS OF FLORIDA


Published for
The State Geological Survey,
Tallahassee, 1929
















yLjJ4f~ 4-


THE RECORD COMPANY.
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the Twentieth Annual Report
of the State Geological Survey, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928. The
report contains the administrative section setting forth some of the activities
of the Survey and certain recommendations, a detailed statement of expendi-
tures, statistics of mineral production for the year 1927, and reports on the
"Geology of Florida" and "The Extinct Land Mammals of Florida."
The report on the Geology of Florida has been prepared in cooperation
with the United States Geological Survey in accordance with an agreement
mentioned in the preface of the report itself. Shortly after the completion
of the field work incident to the preparation of this report Mr. D. Stuart
Mossom, Assistant on the Florida Survey, resigned. The work of preparing
the manuscript therefore devolved upon Dr. Cooke, to whom credit is due.
We are indebted to Dr. George Gaylord Simpson, Associate Curator of
Vertebrate Paleontology, the American Museum of Natural History, New
York, for contributing the report on the fossil land mammals, and our thanks
are extended not only to Dr. Simpson but also to Professor Henry Fairfield
Osborn, President, the American Museum of Natural History, for permitting
this to be published. It is felt that a paper of this character, coming from
such an authoritative source, summarizing our knowledge of the fossil land
mammals of the State, will do much to stimulate interest in the collection and
preservation of these important remains and that it will also prove of much
help to those who find pleasure in studies of the past mammalian life of their
State.
My appreciation of the cordial interest you have always shown in the
work of the Florida Geological Survey is herewith acknowledged. The co-
operation you have given has been of very material assistance in the work
of this Department.
Very respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida,
December 10, 1928.













CONTENTS

PAGE
ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT, by Herman Gunter ........................... 7
Introduction ............ ............................................. 7
New Survey quarters ....................... ........................... 8
New industries .......................... ............ ................. 8
W ork of the Survey ..................... .............................. 9
Publications of the Survey ............................. ................ 9
Library ............... ............................... .............. 10
Museum ............. ............................................ 10
Accessions ........................ .................................. JO
Cooperation with other organizations ................................... 11
Recommendations ........................ ........................... 11
Stream flow data .................................................. 11
Topographic mapping .............. ............................ 12
Appropriations ........................... ........................... 12
Expenditures .............. ....... .. ........... ..... .............. 12
Warrants issued July 1, 1927, to June 30, 1928 ............................. 13

STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1927,
by Herman Gunter ................... ............................. 19
Cement .............................. ............................. 19
Clay ......................... ..................................... 19
Clay Products ......................... .............................. 19
Fuller's earth ........................ ....... .......................... 20
Table showing statistics of fuller's earth ............................. 21
Table showing fuller's earth imported ............................... 21
Ilmenite, rutile and zircon .............. ............................ 21
Limestone, lim e and flint ............................. ...... ......... 22
Mineral waters ............. ....................................... 23
Peat ................................. .............................. 23
Phosphate ................. .............. ........................... 24
Table showing production of phosphate ............... .............. 25
Sand and gravel ....................................................... 26
Sand-lime brick .................. ..................... .............. 26
Table showing value of mineral production .............................. 27

GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA, by C. Wythe Cooke and Stuart Mossom, (Plates 1 to
29, including a geologic map of Florida) ................. ............. 29

THE EXTINCT LAND MAMMALS OF FLORIDA, by George Gaylord Simpson,
(Plates 30 to 40, Text figure 1, Maps 1 to 3) ............................ 229






(5)













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist.


INTRODUCTION
The Florida State Geological Survey was created by an act of the Legis-
lature of 1907. The Act provided for the appointment of a State Geologist,
defined his duties, detailed the objects of the Survey and appropriated the sum
of $7,500 a year for its maintenance.
The establishing act has in no wise been changed or amended. During
the Legislative Session of 1921, however, an act was passed creating a Budget
Commission for the State of Florida. This Act made it the duty of the head
of each of the State Departments to submit an estimate of the amount needed
for each biennium, beginning July 1, 1923. Thus the appropriation for the
maintenance of the Survey has been increased so as to more nearly meet its
needs.
During the fiscal year the members of the Survey force, in addition to the
State Geologist, have been Mr. Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist; Dr.
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Stenog-
rapher. In connection with the cooperative work between the Florida Survey
and the U. S. Geological Survey the services of Dr. C. Wythe Cooke were
secured for a part of the year. Temporary or part time service was also
rendered by Dr. R. M. Harper, Mr. A. F. Wark, Sam Murrow and Mrs. G. M.
Ponton.
Mr. Ponton's time has been given largely to a microscopic study of well
samples, to field work, and to assistance in the cataloguing and exhibition of
specimens, as well as to indexing publications and maps. Dr. Martens pre-
pared two of the papers published in the Nineteenth Annual Report, after
which he began field work in connection with a more detailed report on the
clays of the State. He has also given considerable of his time to the instal-
lation of clay-testing machinery in the newly established clay-testing labora-
tory of the Survey. His attention has also been given to a mineralogical
study of well samples and to the collection and preparation for exhibition
some of the minerals of the State. Mrs. Carswell has attended to the usual
secretarial work, to the mailing out of reports and to tabulation of mineral
statistics. Dr. Cooke represented the National Survey in the cooperative
report on the Geology of Florida which appears in this volume. Dr. Harper
assisted for a short period in the arrangement of the library and in proof-
reading. Mr. Wark's time was spent in the Survey Museum on the collection
(7)








8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

of vertebrate fossils. Sam Murrow rendered general office, laboratory and
museum help. Mrs. G. M. Ponton has given her time to the cataloguing and
indexing of the ever-increasing collection of Foraminifera slides, invertebrate
fossils and the publications in the Survey Library.
The State Geologist has given attention, in so far as possible, to all the
field work of the Survey, as well as to the equipment of the office and museum,
and to the correspondence. He has also been called upon to make addresses
and to prepare papers upon the geology and mineral resources of the State.
That the Survey is becoming more and more recognized as a department of
service is shown by the increasing demands made upon it. In many cases
inquiries can be satisfactorily handled by brief replies, while others require
more detail and consequently more time. Some cases require examination
and investigation before supplying the information desired.

NEW SURVEY QUARTERS.
During December, 1927, the Survey moved from the Capitol building to
more adequate quarters in the Martin Building, erected to accommodate the
State Road Department and the Motor Vehicle Department. At its new loca-
tion the Survey occupies the ground floor of the south wing of the building.
One room is devoted to the exhibition of geological material and to the library.
Additional exhibition cases have been provided, so that the Survey Museum now
presents at least a suggestion of what might be done toward a more adequate
display of the State's mineral resources and fossil remains. Across the cor-
ridor are the Survey offices and microscopic laboratory room. In the base-
ment is the clay-testing laboratory which has been equipped with physical
testing apparatus.

NEW INDUSTRIES.
The first cement plant in the State was completed by the Florida Portland
Cement Company at Tampa during 1927, the first shipments being made
October 13. The annual productive capacity of the plant is 1,500,000
barrels and the manufacturing facilities are the most modern in every detail.
Operative power is supplied from its own electrical plant.
The raw materials from which the cement is manufactured are limestone
and clay, the deposits of which are located near Brooksville, Hernando
County, about 50 miles north of Tampa. The limestone, which is known as
the Tampa, is loaded into gondola railroad cars and shipped to the manu-
facturing plant at Tampa. This is true also of the clay. The advantages
offered at Tampa with respect to transportation facilities influenced the build-
ing of the plant distant from source of raw materials.
In the steady development that Florida is making cement is largely enter-
ing. Now with a cement mill within its borders using native raw materials








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. -


there is added an incentive for its increased use. This first cement plant will
mean much to the State's industrial development.

WORK OF THE SURVEY.
During the year covered by this report the investigations occupying prin-
cipal time and attention have been those relating to the clays and to the
results obtained in the drilling of wells in the State. In recent years a number
of deep wells have been completed in Florida, one of which attained the excep-
tional depth of 6,180 feet. The Survey has been fortunate in the matter of
obtaining samples of the cuttings from many of these wells. This cooperation
is voluntary on the part of interests having them drilled since there is no law
in Florida, as in many states, requiring this to be done. It is therefore appro-
priate to here acknowledge this courtesy and to express appreciation.
It is the plan of the Survey to publish a detailed report giving the results
of the studies of well samples. Such studies have not only great importance
so far as the geology of the State itself is concerned but also give an insight
on the structure and this in turn to the probable occurrence of petroleum. As
recorded in the report on the "Geology of Florida," this volume, the deep well
referred to in the preceding paragraph was drilled by the Ocala Oil Corpora-
tion near York, Marion County. At the depth of somewhere between 3,970 feet
and 4,250 feet metamorphic rocks were encountered. This is the only well,
so far as records yet definitely indicate, that has passed through the sedimen-
tary formations and revealed rocks of the metamorphic series. An examina-
tion of the cuttings by Dr. James H. C. Martens, March, 1928, indicated that
this well had passed out of the sedimentary formations. The well was aban-
doned in July, 1928, at the depth of 6,180 feet.
Field work is in progress in connection with a more comprehensive report
on the clays of Florida. The tests are to be made in the recently established
clay laboratory. It is felt that with more information on the clay resources
deposits will be located that are suitable for the better grades of burned
wares and that development of such will surely follow.

PUBLICATIONS OF THE SURVEY.
In accordance with provisions of the law creating the Survey an annual
report is issued. Including the present volume twenty annual reports have
been published, also two bulletins and a number of press bulletins. The
annual reports are not only available as a whole volume but also the different
papers making up the volume are bound separately. In this way anyone
interested only in some particular subject treated in the whole report can get
it by requesting only the separate paper. This also serves as a factor in
economy. These reports are distributed free to the citizens of the State, to
the libraries of Florida and to certain exchange libraries of the United States








10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

and foreign countries. In this way they serve permanently as reference books
even though any edition becomes exhausted for general distribution. Requests
for publications from residents of states other than Florida should be accom-
panied by postage. A complete list of the reports so far issued may be had
by writing the State Geologist, Tallahassee.

LIBRARY.
The Survey Library contains approximately 10,000 volumes. These in-
clude the reports of the several State Geological Surveys, the United States
Geological Survey, other National organizations, the Canadian and other
foreign Geological Surveys, and other miscellaneous volumes. A well-
equipped reference library is absolutely essential to satisfactory work and the
library now includes many volumes invaluable to the immediate and future
investigations. These are being added to as opportunity permits.

MUSEUM.
The State Survey law provides that the State Geologist shall collect "speci-
mens illustrating the geological and mineral features of the State" and shall
label these "for convenient use and study." An attempt has always been
made to comply with the provisions of the law in so far as available space
permitted. In its new location the Survey has been allotted a room measuring
about 20 feet by 60 feet which for the most part is devoted to exhibition pur-
poses, one end however serving as the library. At present there are ten cases
serving the double purpose of display and storage, two wall cases of similar
design and one special case. Others are to be installed and will be used for
the special purpose of showing the minerals occurring in the State.
The desirability of an adequate museum in which to exhibit the resources
of the State has long been apparent. The educational advantages accruing
from such an institution can not be overestimated. It is in fact one of the
needs of the State. Florida has a wealth of material the bringing together
and displaying of which would be marvelously interesting and educational to
both citizen and visitor. It is encouraging to note the increasing numbers.
visiting the Survey Museum and it is also particularly gratifying to see the
increased use of it by classes from the schools of the City and the Florida
State College for Women. It is hoped that interest in the natural resources
of the State will continue to such an extent as to demand ihe construction of a
building devoted entirely to caring for such State departments as have to do
with such resources and to display them advantageously.

ACCESSIONS.
Upon the death of Mr. Isaac M. Weills of Vero Beach in September, 1927,
the collection of fossils which he had gathered over a period of years were
presented to the Florida Geological Survey Museum. It was through Mr.
Weills that the Survey became interested in the collection of fossils along the








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


drainage canals near Vero Beach in 1913. Even though advanced in years
Mr. Weills's interest in collecting fossils never waned. He kept a close watch
on the canal banks and was rewarded by finding many excellently preserved
fossils. Thus it was that the Survey, through his wish, came into the posses-
sion of his collection. We gratefully acknowledge this gift through Mrs.
Weills. Also many volumes from Mr. Weills's library are now in the Survey
Library, as a gift along with the fossil specimens.
Through the courtesy of Mr. C. A. Ballough, Daytona Beach, the Survey
was presented with a portion of an elephant's tusk. This was found in a
coquina pit in the process of mining this shell material as a road metal.
Grateful acknowledgement of this gift is here made.
The Survey will at all times welcome accessions to the Museum. The
citizens of the State in this way could do much to make the Museum of more
educational value and to make the displays more complete. With the added
facilities in the new Survey quarters accessions can be safely cared for.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS.
Cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines and the United States
Bureau of Census in the collection of statistics of mineral production has been
continued during the fiscal year. It has been found that such cooperation not
only presents phases of economy but also saves the mineral producers from
making returns direct to more than one agency. It is here appropriate to
acknowledge the whole-hearted spirit of cooperation on the part of the mineral
producers of the State in making prompt returns on their various outputs.
The cooperation entered into with the United States Geological Survey in
preparing a report on the geology of Florida has been completed and the
report appears in this volume. With the report will be found a revised
geological map of the State.

RECOMMENDATIONS.
Stream Flow Data.-Investigations and surveys of the rivers and streams
of the State should be made in order that such information might be available
when plans for their improvement, whether for the purpose of power develop-
ment, flood control or irrigation, are considered. These rivers and streams
vary greatly not only in magnitude but also in seasonal flow. It is therefore
essential to have stream-flow records covering an extended period of time
before plans can be formulated for improvement and development. Some of
the streams of the State have been utilized for hydro-electric developments.
With the necessary data at hand undoubtedly other streams suitable for such
purposes would be made known. Flood control is also a problem facing
some sections of the State. Hydrologic data must be accumulated in order
to the more intelligently consider plans for flood control. Cooperation with
the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey could, to









12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

the advantage of the State, be entered into in an investigation of surface waters
as well as underground waters.
Topographic Mapping.-Maps are essential in every line of engineering
and geologic work. The preliminary step preparatory to work of this char-
acter is the collection of maps and other data. They prove of inestimable
value in detailed geologic work, drainage, flood control, highway and railroad
engineering. To the general public likewise they prove of value and con-
venience for they are not only accurate in every detail but they also reveal the
contour and general nature of the country traversed. In addition to indicating
relief and actual elevation above sea these maps show all natural features
such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, swamps, and such cultural fea-
tures as canals, public roads, railroads, towns, villages, cities, county and
state boundaries.
As an aid in the industrial expansion of the State these maps would more
than justify the cost. The Federal Government has borne the expense of all
of such topographic work as has heretofore been done in Florida. Less than
10 per cent of Florida has been surveyed topographically. The established
policy is now to continue work in only those states having a cooperative
agreement which is on the basis of an equal share in the expense.

APPROPRIATION.

The following appropriations were made by the Legislature of 1927 for
the biennium 1927-1929:
Annually
Salary State Geologist ......................................... $4,000
Salary Assistant Geologist ...................................... 2,750
Salary Assistant Geologist ...................................... 2,200
Temporary Assistant ............. ............................. 1,800
Stenographer ....................................... ; ......... 1,800
Traveling expense ............................................. 3,500
Field Office and Museum equipment ............................ 1,000
Printing and engraving ........................................ 4,000
Postage and Stationery ........................................ 500
Incidentals .................... ............................... 600
Automobile for field work ..................................... 700
For kiln to burn and test clay, for biennium..................... 2,000

EXPENDITURES.
The following itemized list shows all the expenditures of the Survey from
July 1, 1927, to June 30, 1928. All bills and itemized expense accounts are
on file in the office of the Comptroller, duplicate copies being retained in the
office of the State Geologist. With the exception of regular salaries all ac-
counts are approved by the Governor and are paid only by warrant drawn
upon the State Treasurer by the Comptroller. No monies are handled by
the State Geologist.











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1927, TO JUNE 30, 1928.
JULY, 1927.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary........................ $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses..................... 82.45
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary ................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 27.36
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ....................... 150.00
U. S. Geological Survey, one-half salary C. Wythe Cooke ......... 500.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, August rental 3.25
Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills, 1,000 bags, 5x7 ................... 16.66
Midyette Insurance Company, insurance on Chevrolet roadster... 23.60
Clipping Bureau, clippings for July ........................... 10.00
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, tires, tubes and lock............ 41.70
Newell B. Davis Studio, developing and printing four films...... 2.71
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 1.50
The American Railway Express Company ...................... 1.38
G. M. Ponton, Microscope No. 150804 ......................... 100.00
AUGUST, 1927.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses ..................... 4.87
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ........................ 150.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Sept. rental 3.25
W. H. May, Postmaster, C. 0. D. Eastman Kodak Co., repair kodak 4.87
H. & W. B. Drew Company, repair kodak ....................... 3.05
Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, Pensacola maps................ 1.50
Fisher Scientific Company, 1,000 microfossil slides.............. 15.57
W. A. DeMilly & Son, insurance on Chevrolet roadster.......... 23.60
Millhiser Bag Company; bags, 10%xl7; 12x20.................. 40.36
Clipping Bureau, clippings for August ......................... 10.00
Sam Murrow, 6% days' work .................................. 9.75
The American Railway Express Company ...................... 4.39
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies................................ 9.50
Leon Electric Supply Company, repairing light................. 1.00
Artcraft Printers, 2,000 letterheads............................. 9.00
SEPTEMBER, 1927.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.34
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.17
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 126.82
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ........................ 150.00
Western Union Telegraph Company ........................... 2.63
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, October rental.. 3.25
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent............................... 2.00
Eastman Kodak Company, bromoform .......................... 9.02
The Emil Greiner Company, separatory funnel.................. 13.09
Central Scientific Company, sieves and bolting cloth............ 19.85
Artcraft Printers, 2,000 Kraft envelopes......................... 27.50
Newell B. Davis Studio, kodak finishing ........................ 3.00
American Railway Express Company........................... 2.26
Clipping Bureau, clippings for September...................... 10.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 3.70
Sam Murrow, five days' work ................................. 7.50
Atlanta Envelope Company, 2,200 Kraft Envelopes.............. 30.25
W. H. Lowdermilk Company, "The Beginning, Its When and How" 3.25
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 91.81









14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

OCTOBER, 1927.
Herman.Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses...................... 85.79
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ....................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses..................... 39.12
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................. 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses ............. 74.77
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ........................ 150.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, Nov. rental 3.25
The Western Union Telegraph Company ...................... 1.23
Clipping Bureau, clippings for October ........................ 10.00
Newell B. Davis Studio, kodak work ........................... 1.92
American Railway Express Company .......................... 9.14
American Box and File Company, 300 lid top boxes............. 73.50
Fisher Scientific Company, clay laboratory supplies............. 232.78
U. S. Geological Survey, one-half Dr. C. Wythe Cooke's salary.... 241.66
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage .............................. 16.81
Dr. A. E. W ells, clay-testing machine........................... 15.00
The Standard Pyrometric Cone Company, 150 cones............. 9.75
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Subsurface Strati-
graphy of Coastal Plain; Correlation of Organic Shale; Texas
Jackson Foraminifera ..................................... 1.50
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 322, B.......... 3.50
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, grease, wash and polish car ...... 3.60
Ware Brothers Company, one year's subscription to American
Fertilizer ................................................ 3.00
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1 year's subscription.......... 5.00
Sam Murrow, three days' work................................. 4.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ................................. 25.00

NOVEMBER, 1927.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses...................... 58.52
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ....................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................... 14 68
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses .............. 58.71
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ....................... 150.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, December
rental and moving telephone to Martin Building........... 6.75
Grant Furniture Company, table, shades, rollers and brackets .... 25.40
D. Appleton and Company, "The Earth and Its Rhythms" ...... 4.22
Rhodes Hardware Company, six cans paint and one brush....... 10.35
Proctor and Proctor, greasing car, gas, oil and alemite cup ...... 3.80
American Railway Express Company........................... 21.10
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 88.35
Respess-Johnson Company, one zinc etching ................... 4.60
Sam Murrow, five days' work ................................. 7.50

DECEMBER, 1927.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary......................... $333.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses...................... 92.10
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary....................... 229.17
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses .. ................ 55.85
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 31.39
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ........................ 150.00
Virgil Hancock, one roll-top desk ............................. 25.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., shelving ...................... 110.00
Western Union Telegraph Company .......................... 1.01
W. C. Dixon, moving office and museum to Martin Building ..... 60.50
W. 0. Hazard, photographing fossil shells ...................... 12.65
The Science Press, American Men of Science ................... 6.00
James H. Perkins, Natural History, one year's subscription...... 3.00
L. B. Marshall, copying statistics for 1925 ...................... 4.81











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Clipping Bureau, November clippings ......................... 10.00
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., 2,500 cardboard labels.................... 38.50
W. C. Dixon, five loads fossils and books....................... 12.50
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2,000 postcards and stamps ............. 47.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, two tickets to Nashville,
Tenn., and Pullman fares ................................. 51.40
Southern Telephone and Construction Company, January rental.. 3.75
Manufacturers' Record, two years' subscription.................. 10.00
The American Railway Express Company ...................... 2.45
Clipping Bureau, December clippings ......................... 10.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 45.65
E. Leitz, Inc., M icrom eter ..................................... 4.56
A. W. Fowler Company, greasing, changing oil and repairing
lights and horn of Chevrolet roadster ...................... 10.85
W. F. Allen, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, tags for Chevrolet
roadster ............... ................................. 1.00
E. Peck Greene, coloring map ................................. 6.00
H. R. Sauls, putting sink in clay laboratory .................... 109.65
Sam Murrow, nine days' work ................................. 13.50
Artcraft Printers, printing 2,000 postcards and 2,000 small cards.. 13.50
Collins Furniture Company, bookcases ........................ 31.00
Brown Instrument Company, supplies for clay laboratory ........ 151.65

JANUARY, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.31
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses. ..................... 13.59
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.17
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary ................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 33.33
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ........................ 150.00
S. E. Gray, seven days' work on shelving in clay laboratory ...... 40.95
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., cabinet and work benches ...... 117.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage on kiln and reports........... 21 61
The Western Union Telegraph Company ....................... 2.79
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, February
rental and long distance call............................... 5.00
McNeill and Culley, charging battery .......................... 1.25
Princeton University Press, "Man Rises to Parnassus". .......... 2.50
Economic Geology, one year's subscription ..................... 5.00
J. P. D. Hull, 1928 dues to American Association of Petroleum
Geologists ............................................... 15.00
Edward B. Mathews, 1928 dues to Geological Society of America.. 10.00
Brentano's, Inc., "What Price Progress" ........................ 2.44
R. M. Harper, Services for November and December, 1927....... 100.00
Sam Murrow, 31/% days' work in January .................... .. 5.25
Wilson Construction and Supply Company, Saniseal No. 28...... 16.80
American Box and File Company, 900 open top boxes ........... 35.20
Ward's Natural Science Establislunent, 250 pasteboard trays..... 18.54
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................. 8.35
H. J. Caulkins and Company, kiln, pipe and elbow............. 195.00
A. Prichard, material for shelving ............................. 22.33
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 18.95
Clipping Bureau, January clippings ........................... 10.00
American Railway Express Company ........................... 9.55
W H. May, Postmaster, stamps ........................... .. 25.00
Leon Electric Supply Company, one 1 h. p. motor and installing
motor .................... ............................. 89.33
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage ............................. 2.85
Henry George Fiedler, Recent Foraminifera; Tertiary of Florida
and M arine M ollusca ..................................... 7.33









16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

FEBRUARY, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.33
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ..................... 229.17
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses.............. 79.62
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ....................... 150.00
Harvard University, Bulletin, Vol. XVIII, 1889 ................. 10.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., four cabinets and other material 401.48
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ................................ 50.00
Industrial Fund, Industrial School for Boys, 18th annual report.. 2,318.10
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, March rental 3.75
Collins Furniture Company, bookcases ......................... 123.25
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage.............................. 7.73
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Ries-Clays ........................ 7.00
Carnegie Institution of Washington, "The Marine Algae of
Florida, with special reference to The Dry Tortugas"........ 4.00
The Oil Weekly, one year's subscription ........................ 1.00
Economic Geology, Grabau's Stratigraphy ...................... 5.00
The City of Tallahassee, materials and labor for installing gas
meter ................................................... 53.98
E. Leitz, Inc., Mignon lamp and rheostat ...................... 15.08
Newell B. Davis Studio, two frames and kodak work............ 7.80
Fisher Scientific Company, clay laboratory equipment........... 21.40
Clipping Bureau, February clippings .......................... 10.00
The American Railway Express Company...................... 2.81
Artcraft Printers, 2,000 Karlton Klasp envelopes................ 27.50
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., 48 master keyed locks and in-
stalling ................................................. 102.64
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 42.60
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ............................ 31.60
S. E. Gray, labor in clay laboratory............................ 34.77
Sam Murrow, six days' labor.................................. 9.00
A. W. Fowler Company, repairing Chevrolet roadster, horn and
changing oil ............................................. 5.25
Harvard University, Bulletin, Vol. 12 complete ................. 5.00
D. E. Cureton, labor and fittings for installing kiln in clay
laboratory ................................... .......... 154.54

MARCH, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ..................... 19.91
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary....................... 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses..................... 24.29
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............. 44.65
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ....................... 150.00
U. S. Geological Survey, half salary C. Wythe Cooke........... 213.11
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, April rental 3.95
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ........................... 2.80
Grant Furniture Company, bookcases ......................... 111.00
Brentano's, Inc., "Things That Are Casar's" ................... 1.06
Florida State Historical Society, 'Priestley, The Luna Papers, Vol. I 18.00
Alfred C. Hawkins, 9 Refractive Index Liquids ................ 14.74
Joseph N. Farnum, 400 Liguus shells .......................... 100.00
Dr. Jos. A. Cushman, subscription to Foraminiferal Research.... 2.50
Marcus A. Hanna, Sec., one year's subscription to Journal of Pa-
leontology ............................................... 6.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 5.10
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent.................... 54.00
D. Van Nostrand Company, "The Earth and The Stars"........... 3.00
Sam Murrow, four days' work ................................. 6.00
Clipping Bureau, March clippings ............................. 10.00
Atlanta Envelope Company, 2,160 G. B. Kraft envelopes........ 29.70









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Alva Bushnell Company, 50 paperoid files ..................... 8.89
Artcraft Printers, 2,000 letterheads............................. 9.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies................................. 7.15
Bass Hardware Company, stove and plaster paris ............... 10.00

APRIL, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses...................... 34.93
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................... 59.50
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............. 32.98
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ....................... 150.00
Sam Murrow, two days' work .................................. 3.00
Reading Bureau, April clippings .............................. 10.00
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, adjusting brakes and lights...... 1.45
F. C. Gibbons, drawings and ink sketch........................ 15.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 1.00
Newell B. Davis Studio, films and molding ..................... 5.46
American Railway Express Company........................... 5.35
Central Scientific Company, supplies for laboratory ............. 7.33
E. Kary, cleaning and adjusting typewriters.................... 15.00
W. 0. Hazard, photographing 27 fossil shells................... 17.55
Anniston Bag Company, 1,000 No. 2 coin bags................... 25.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, May rental
and moving telephone in Martin building.................. 5.75
American Water Works Association, annual dues and initiation fee 15.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, card holders ...................... 1.25
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., bookcases and supplies.................. 101.55
McNeil and Culley, 3 tires.................................... 39.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2,000 No. 5 envelopes ................. 43.52
U. S. Geological Survey, expenses of C. Wythe Cooke on account
of cooperative work on the geology of Florida.............. 192.96
U. S. Geological Survey, half salary of C. Wythe Cooke......... 316.65
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., shelving and box ............. 84.00
W. C. Dixon, moving office fixtures ........................... 7.50

MAY, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................ $333.33
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ...................... 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................... 33.60
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, expenses............. 87.27
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary........................ 150.00
The Western Union Telegraph Company ....................... 4.46
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, June rental 3.75
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ............................... 14.10
Capital Auto Supply Company, one battery..................... 10.00
Merril-Stevens Dry Dock and Repair Company, steel clay forms.. 60.34
Central Scientific Company, supplies .......................... 13.01
Pensacola Chamber of Commerce, "Industrial and economic sur-
vey report of Pensacola".................................. 1.00
University of Chicago Press, one year's subscription to Journal
of G eology .............................. ................ 5.40
The Groover-Stewart Drug Company, 25 lbs. Agar Agar, 2 lbs.
Ceresine ............................................... 43.34
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hydrology.......................... 5.00
D. Van Nostrand Company, "Elements of Mineralogy and Crys.
tallography and Blow Pipe Analyses" ..................... 4.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., supplies................................ 13.00
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, spring, lock and labor Chevrolet
roadster ................................................. 2.10
Leon Electric Supply Company, lamp cord and lights............ 4.35
A. F. W ark, 22 days' cataloguing ............................. 159.68









18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Mrs. Alex M. Ponton, special services cataloguing well samples.. 75.00
Sam Murrow, eight days' work ................................ 12.00
The American Railway Express Company ...................... 1.02
Newell B. Davis Studio, backing cloth .......................... 2.00
A. W. Fowler Company, repair roadster fender, tighten and tune
motor .................................................. 2.25
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., Material and six forms.......... 3.50
Artcraft Printers, cards ....................................... .75
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................. 28.70
H. R. Sauls, sink and installing same........................... 32.00
Adams Studio, five rolls and 42 prints kodak................... 3.69
Charles Williams Hardware, wire and rod iron.................. 1.20
W C. Dixon, hauling and drayage.............................. 4.00
JUNE, 1928.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary........................ $333 33
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, salary ....................... 229.16
G. M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, expenses..................... 27.79
James H. C. Martens, Assistant Geologist, salary................ 225.00
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary........................ 150.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies........................... 12.65
American Box and File Company, 556 open top display trays..... 42.11
A. F. W ark, cataloguing ............................... ...... 225.00
Mrs. Alex M. Ponton, special services cataloguing well samples... 75.00
The Southern Telephone and Construction Company, July rental 3.75
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies .............................. 18.95
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, Inc., line engravings and
copper half tones ........................................ 109.71
A. W. Fowler Company, repairing Chevrolet roadster........... 10.65
The American Railway Express Company...................... 4.75
Bass Hardware Company, supplies............................. 4.15
Quarterman Electric Company, electric fans.................... 49.35
Remington Rand Business Service, Inc., 2,000 3x5 cards .......... 2.00
Jos. A. Cushman, "Foraminifera, their Classification and Eco-
nom ic U se" .............................................. 5.00
Fisher Scientific Company, specimen vials ..................... 20.64
Central Scientific Company, sieves and micro slide boxes....... 9.26
Henry George Fiedler, Extinct Sloth Tribe of North America;
The Dinosaurs of North America: Equidae of the Oligocene,
Miocene and Pliocene of North America.................. 10.31
The Macmillan Company, "Paleontology, Vol. 3" ............. 6.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies........................... 40.80
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., file and 700 cards........................ 35.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2,000 postcards, stamps and box rent..... 74.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, Inc., material....................... 9.70
Florida Sheet Metal Works, repair to oven...................... 3.00













STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1927.

HERMAN GUNTER.




COLLECTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES
AND THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.

The total value of the mineral output for Florida for the year 1927 was
$18,868,612, which shows a decrease of a little more than 9 per cent of the
total for the year 1926.

CEMENT.

With the firing of the kiln of the Florida Portland Cement Company, of
Tampa, on September 5, 1927, and the first shipment of cement from this
plant on October 13, 1927, Florida became one of the cement producing
states. The production figures for the year 1927 cannot be given without
divulging individual output, but are included in the total production of
minerals for the State as a whole.

CLAY.

There were four plants engaged in mining the white sedimentary kaolin
in Florida during 1927. The total reported value of production of these four
companies was $646,415. The plants are located in Putnam and Lake
Counties, although deposits are known to occur in other sections of the State.

PRODUCERS.
The Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar, Florida.
Florida China Clay Co., Inc., Leesburg, Florida.
Lake County Clay Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka, Florida.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Trenton, N. J., and Hawthorn, Florida.

CLAY PRODUCTS.

There was a little more than 2 per cent increase in the value of clay prod-
ucts over that of 1926. The total value of common and face brick and other
clay products for the year was $479,915. The following firms reported pro-
duction:
Builders Clay Products Corp., Russell, Clay County.
Build-With-Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.
Campville Brick Mfg. Plant, Campville, Alachua County.
Cheney Art Tile Co., Box 1017, Orlando, Orange County.
Dolores Brick Company, Inc., Molino, Escambia County.
(19)








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Gamble & Stockton Company, Dixton, Clay County, 210 St. James Bldg., Jack-
sonville.
Georgia-Carolina Brick Company of Florida, Callahan, Nassau County. 1330
Stockton Street, Jacksonville.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Washington County.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney, Lake County.
Mizner Industries, Inc., Palm Beach, Palm Beach County.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Lawrence, Gadsden County, Ocklocknee, Florida.

FULLER'S EARTH.1

The production of fuller's earth in the United States in 1927 showed an
increase in both output and value as compared with the figures for 1926. As
in former years, the principal output came from the Southern States. Pro-
duction was reported by sixteen producers in seven states, the total amounting
to 264,478 short tons, valued at $3,767,038. The states reporting production
were Georgia, Florida, Nevada, Illinois, Texas, Arizona, and Massachusetts.
From the three first mentioned came 79 per cent. of the total output. Georgia
continued to maintain first place and Florida second, the same relative position
since 1924.
The term fuller's earth has come to include a number of kinds of clays
or clay-like substances. The clays may vary in color from light buff or
brownish to light green or gray. Some of the fuller's earth clays are not
readily distinguishable from other more common clays. When dry, fuller's
earth will adhere rather firmly to the tongue, but this characteristic is common
also to some clays other than fuller's earth. As a rule a high-grade fuller's
earth is very light, having a low specific gravity. When placed in water,
fuller's earth will usually slake and disintegrate readily. Some fuller's
earths are plastic when wet, others are non-plastic or mealy. But all of these
and other characteristics, while helpful in forming an opinion as to the nature
of a clay, are in no wise conclusive. A practical physical test of fuller's
earth is necessary in order to determine its value as a filtering medium. In
this way only can its chief value be learned, namely, its efficiency in clarifying
mineral and vegetable oils, fats, and greases.
The clay-like substances replacing fuller's earth as a filtering agent come
principally from the Western States, chiefly California. The production from
this State in 1926, although recorded as fuller's earth, was actually colloidal
clay of the montmorillonite group.2 This clay is sold under various local
trade names as "shoshonite," "otaylite," and bentonitee." The output of this
clay increased very materially during the year 1926, and from reports its
efficiency as a filtering and clarifying agent is becoming more generally known.
The following table gives the production and value of fuller's earth in
the United States for the past several years. Importations are also shown,
and from the figures there is a decrease of 17 per cent. in quantity and 12 per
cent. in value as compared with 1926.
1Prepared for The Mineral Industry during 1927, Vol. 36, 1928.
2California, State Division of Mines and Mining, Bulletin No. 100, p. 101, 1927.










STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1927. 21


STATISTICS OF FULLER'S EARTH IN THE UNITED STATES (a)
(In tons of 2000 lbs.)


Production.
Year.
Tons. Value.

1915 .. 47,901 $ 489,219
1916 .. 67,822 706,951
1917 ..... 72,567 772,087
1918 ..... 84,468 1,146,354
1919 ..... 106,145 1,998,829
1920 ..... 128,487 2,506,189
1921 ...... 105,609 1,973,848

(a) U. S. Bur. of Mines.


Imports. Production. Imports.
S Year.
Tons. Value. Tons. Value. Tons. Value.

19,441 $152,493 1922 ..... 138,944 $2,289,719 10,569 $135,695
15,001 139,664 1923 ...... 149,134 2,247,523 7,631 113,944
16,994 176,417 1924 ..... 177,994 2,632,342 6,519 92,488
16,920 226,235 1925 .... .206,574 2,923,965| 8,015 111,295
13,873 189,711 1926 ...... 234,152 3,356,482 9.098 123,674
19,235 221,893 1927 ...... 264,478 3,767,038 7,580 109,281
9,744 119,415


FULLER'S EARTH IMPORTED AND ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED
STATES (a)

Unwrought or Unmanu- Wrought or Manufactured. Total.
factured.
Year.
Y Quantity A Average Quantity Average Quantity Average
(Short Value. i Price I (Short i Value. Price (Short Value. Price
Tons). per Ton. Tons). per Ton. Tons). per Ton.

916 ...... 1,132 $ 7,742 $ 6.84 15,669 $131,922 $ 8.42 16,801 $139,664 $ 8.31
17 ...... 1,441 11,718 8.13 15,553 164,699 10.58 16,994 176,417 10.38
118 ...... 900 10,502 11.67 11,707 155,033 13.24 12,607 165,535 13.13
)19 ...... 373 I 4,301 11.53 13,500 185,410 13.73 13,873 189,711 13.67
120 ...... I 1,738 19,793 11.38 17,497 202,100 11.55 19,235 221,893 11.54
121 ...... 483 6,172 12.78 9,261 113,243 12.23 9,744 119,415 12.26
)22 ..... 607 7,413 12.21 9,962 128,282 12.88 10,569 135,695 12.84
123 ..... 573 8,252 14.40 7,058 105,692 14.97 7,631 113,944 14.93
124 ...... 264 3,385 12.78 6,255 89,103 14.24 6,519 j 92,488 14.19
125 ...... 215 2,619 12.18 7,800 108,676 13.93 8,015 111,295 13.89
126 ...... 158 | 2,290 14.49 I 8,940 121,382 13.58 9,098 123,674 13.60
(a) Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
(a) Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.


PRODUCERS.

The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.


ILMENITE, RUTILE AND ZIRCON.

The recovery of ilmenite, rutile and zircon from the beach sands at Mineral
City, about five miles south of Jacksonville Beach, (formerly Pablo Beach)
began in 1916 and has continued, with some interruptions, until Florida is now
the leading State in the production of these rare earths. The first commercial
production of zircon was reported in 1922 and that of rutile in 1925. Opera-
tions at Mineral City are conducted under the name of Buckman and Pritchard,
Inc., and owned by Titanium Pigment Company, Inc., 94 Fulton Street, New
York, a subsidiary to the National Lead Company. Statistics on output and
value can not be given separately without disclosing individual operations,
but such figures are included in the total for the State.


I








22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

LIMESTONE, LIME AND FLINT.
The output of limestone for 1927 amounted to 7,137,230 tons with a
valuation of $5,895,857. As compared to the value of this product for 1926
these figures indicate a decrease of almost 22 per cent. The various purposes
for which limestone was reported as used were: Road material, concrete, rail.
road ballast, riprap, building stone and agricultural. To the figures on lime.
stone should be added those 'for crushed flint or miscellaneous stone and lime,
which brings the total production of limestone, crushed flint and miscellaneous
stone, quick and hydrated lime to 7,442,897 tons with a total valuation of
$6,198,258. This indicates an increase in output of a little more than 7 per
cent and a decrease in value of a little less than 1 per cent, when compared
with 1926.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIMESTONE PRODUCTION.
Barley, J. L., Gainesville.
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala.
Clover Leaf Rock Company, Lowell.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
Connell & Shultz, Inverness.
Consolidated Rock Products Company, P. 0. Box 498, Lakeland.
Coquina Company, The, Daytona Beach.
Crystal River Rock Company, Leesburg.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
Gainesville Lime Rock Company, Gainesville.
Glades County, Road Department, Moore Haven.
Keene, B. L., Fort Meade.
Leslie Engineering Company, Williston.
Levy County Lime Rock Company, Williston.
Limestone Products, Inc., 204 Professional Bldg., Ocala.
Marianna Lime Products Company, Marianna.
Marion County Lime Company, Ocala.
Marion County Road Department, Ocala.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, The. Ojus.
Naranja Rock Company, The, P. 0. Box 331, West Palm Beach.
Newsome-Smith Lime Rock Company, Inc., Williston.
Oakhurst Lime Company, Ocala.
Ocala Road Materials Corporation, Ocala.
Ocala Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
Ocala-Tampa Lime Rock Company, 304 Professional Bldg., Ocala.
Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Palmer Company, The George H., P. 0. Box 4117, Miami.
Pineola Quarries, Pineola.
Price, Inc., W. T., Coconut Grove.
Princeton Rock Company, 320 Karp Bldg., Coral Gables.
Quinn Company, J. J., Miami.
Southern Construction Engineers, Inc., Sarasota.
Stafford Lake Rock Company, Brooksville.
Standard Lime Company, Kendrick.
Standard Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
Sumter County Rock Company, Winter Haven.
Thomas-Rooks Road Material Company, Ocala.
Thompson, T. A., Branford.
Thompson Williston Company, Williston.
Volusia Coquina Rock Company, National Gardens.
White Rock Company, Stovall Bldg., Tampa.
Williston Lime Rock Company, Stovall Bldg., Tampa.
Williston Shell Rock Company, Raleigh.











STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1927. 23

COMPANIES REPORTING FLINT OIL MISCELLANEOUS STONE PRODUCTION.

Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, Wilmington, N. C., and Crystal River.
Baird Flint Rock Company, P. 0. Box 388, Ocala.
Belleview Rock Crusher, Belleview.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Florida Shell Rock Company, Williston.
Hubbard Hard Rock Company, Ocala.
Levy County Stone Company, Williston.
Long-Pasley Company, Williston.
Pickett, A. G., Williston.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston.
Thomas & Company, A. T., Ocala.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIME PRODUCTION.

Arredondo Lime Company, Gainesville.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
Dixie Lime 'Products Company, Ocala.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Limestone Products, Inc., 204 Professional Bldg., Ocala.

MINERAL WATERS. '

The total sales of waters in Florida in 1927, as shown by returns from the
owners of springs and wells, amounted to 219,977,625 gallons valued at
$117,116.25. Production was reported from the following springs or wells.
Others are known to have had sales but no returns have been made:

Bracks Panacea Springs, Bradenton, Manatee County.
Chumuckla Springs Water, McDavid, Santa Rosa County.
Egret Springs Water Company, Ft. Pierce, St. Lucie County.
Elexir Springs, Hibernia, Clay County.
Flamingo Spring Water Co., Orange City, Volusia County.
Flo-Pure Water, Sanford, Seminole County.
Kissingen Springs, Bartow, Polk County.
Manatee Spring, Manatee, Manatee County.
Mystic Springs, Inc., McDavid, Escambia County.
Palm Springs, Longwood, Seminole County.
Pipkin Mineral Wells, Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
Purity Springs Water Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
St. Nicholas Mineral Springs, South Jacksonville, Duval County.
Su-No-Wa Springs, Verdie, Nassau County.
Wekiwa Spring, Apopka, Orange County.

PEAT.

The peat marketed in Florida is sold principally as a nitrogenous fertilizer
filler. There was only one company reported production during 1927, but
there was an increase in production and also value. The figures for the total
production are included in the total amount of the State's mineral production.
The following company reported production:

Florida Humus Company, 14 Wall Street, New York, and Zellwood, Orange
County, Florida.









24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

PHOSPHATE.

The total quantity of phosphate rock sold or used by producers in the
United States in 1927 was 3,166,102 long tons, valued at $11,234,863, accord-
ing to figures compiled by the United States Bureau of Mines, Department of
Commerce, from individual reports furnished by producers.
Florida continued to lead in production, and furnished 83 per cent of all
the phosphate rock sold or used in the United States in 1927. Of the total
amount produced in Florida in 1927 land pebble rock constituted 95 per cent
of it. Florida's total output for the year 1927 was approximately the same as
that of 1926. The land pebble rock showed a decrease in both quantity and
value but the hard rock showed an increase.

PHOSPHATE MINING. COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION IN 1927.
American Agricultural Chemical Company, 2 Rector Street, New York, and
Pierce, Florida.
Amalgamated Phosphate Company, 535 Fifth Avenue, New York, and Brewster,
Florida.
J. Buttgenbach & Company, 22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and Dunnellon,
Florida.
Coronet Phosphate Company, 99 John street, New York, and Plant City, Florida.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corporation, P. 0. Box 1118, Norfolk, Va., and Bar.
tow, Florida.
International Agricultural Corporation, 61 Broadway, New York, and Mul-
berry, Florida.
Mutual Mining Company, Dunnellon, Florida.
The Phosphate Mining Company, 110 William Street, New York, and Bartow,
Florida.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, 44 Wall St., New York, and Lakeland, Florida.
Swift and Company, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, and Bartow, Florida.

The following table gives the production and value of Florida phosphate
rock from 1900 to 1927. Since the beginning of phosphate mining in 1888
to 1927 inclusive, Florida has produced 57,334,344 long tons with a total
valuation of $218,292,885. These figures are in accordance with statistics col-
lected by the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of
Mines and the Florida Geological Survey.








PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN FLORIDA, 1900-1927.
(Long Tons)

Land Pebble Hard Rock River Pebble Soft Rock Total
Year. -
Quantity I Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

1900 ......... 221,403 $ 612,703 424,977 $ 2,229,373 59,863 $ 141,236 ........ $......... 706,243 $ 2,983,312
1901 ......... 247,454 660,702 457,568 2,393,080 46,974 105,961 ................... 751,996 3,159,473
1902 ........... 350,991 810,792 429,384 1,743,694 5,055 9,711 ......... ......... 785,430 2,564,197
1903 ......... 390,882 885,425 412,876 1,988,243 56,578 113,156 ................... 860,336 2,986,824
1904 ......... 460,834 1,102,993 531,081 2,672,184 81,030 199,127 ......... ......... 1,072,951 1 3,974,304
1905 ......... 528,587 1,045,113 577,672 2,993,732 87,847 213,000 ................... 1,194,106 4,251,845
1906 ......... 675,444 2,029,202 587,598 3,440,276 41,463 116,000 ......... ......... 1,304,505 5,585,578
1907 ......... 675,024 2,376,261 646,156 4,065,375 36,185 136,121 ......... ......... 1,357,365 6,577,757
1908 ......... 1,085,199 3,885,041 595,743 4,566,018 11,160 33,480 .................. 1,692,102 8,484,539
1909 ......... 1,266,117 4,514,968 513,585 4,026,333 ......... ...... ......... 1,779,702 8,541,301
1910 ......... 1,629,160 5,595,947 438,347 3,051,827 ......... ........ ........ ......... 2,067,507 8,647,774
1911 ......... 1,992,737 6,712,189 443,511 2,761,449 (a) (a) .... ........... 2,436,248 9,473,638
1912 ......... 1,913,418 6,168,129 493,481 3,293,168 (a) (a) ......... ......... 2,406,899 9,461,297
1913 ......... 2,055,482 6,575,810 489,794 2,987,274 (a) (a) .................. 2,545,276 9,563,084
1914 ......... 1,829,202 5,442,547 309,689 1,912,197 (a) (a) ......... ......... 2,138,891 7,354,744
1915 ......... 1,308,481 3,496,501 50,130 265,738 ......... ................. ...... .. 1,358,611 3,762,239
1916 ......... 1,468,758 3,874,410 47,087 295,755 ......... ........ (b) (b) 1,515,845 4,170,165
1917 ......... 2,003,991 5,305,127 18,608 159,366 ......... ........ (b) (b) 2,022,599 5,464,493
1918 ......... 1,996,847 5,565,928 62,052 377,075 ......... ........ 8,331 147,103 2,067,230 6,090,106
1919 ......... 1,360,235 5,149,048 285,467 2,452,563 ......... ........ 14,498 196,318 1,660,200 7,797,929
1920 ......... 2,955,182 14,748,620 400,249 4,525,191 .......... ........ 13,953 190,551 3,369,384 19,464,362
1921 ......... 1,599,835 8,604,818 175,774 1,806,671 ......... ........ 4,419 20,153 1,780,028 10,431,642
1922 ......... 1,870,063 7,035,821 188,084 1,308,201 ......... ........ 446 3,500 2,058,593 8,347,522
1923 ......... 2,348,137 7,987,752 199,516 1,071,675 ......... ........ ......... ......... 2,547,653 9,059,427
1924 ......... 2,289,466 7,387,897 143,115 629,579 ......... ........ ......... ......... 2,432,581 8,017,476
1925 ......... 2,758,315 8,081,137 171,649 707,933 ......... ........ ......... ......... 2,929,964 8,789,070
1926 ......... 2,591,943 8,218,200 116,264 465,308 ......... ........ ......... ......... 2,708,207 8,683,508
1927 ......... 2,506,166 8,121,146 131,254 525,016 ........ ........ ......... ......... 2,637,420 8,646,162

(a) Included in land pebble.
(b) Included in hard rock.









26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SAND AND GRAVEL.
The total output of sand and gravel in Florida for 1927 was 1,588,907
short tons with a valuation of $930,504. These figures show a decrease of
almost 16 per cent in quantity and a little more than 59 per cent in value.
Some of the sand produced in Florida is used for grinding and polishing
purposes, water filtration and railroad ballast, but the greater part is used
for building and paving purposes.
The sands of the State are produced from various sources, large quantities
coming from deposits fairly uniform in physical characteristics, others dredged
from lake or stream bottoms, while large tonnages of by-product sands from
the mining and washing of kaolin and pebble phosphate are now placed on
the market. The Florida gravel comes principally from the Apalachicola
River and from the Escambia River, although deposits of clayey-gravel occur
in other sections of western Florida and have been used for surfacing highways
in that part of the State.
SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION.
Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
Alafia Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Duo Sand and Rock Company, P. 0. Box 1687, West Palm Beach.
Escambia Sand and Gravel Corporation, Flomaton, Ala. (Plant at Tarzan, Fla.)
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Box 715, Lake Wales.
Leesburg Sand and Supply Company, Leesburg.
Meteor Transportation Company, Miami and Miami Beach.
Palmer Company, George H., P. 0. Box 4117, Miami, Florida.
Phosphate Mining Company, Nichols.
Shilling Company, I. E., Miami.
State Road Department, Tallahassee.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, P. 0. Box 921, Tampa.

SAND-LIME BRICK.
The sand-lime brick industry showed a decrease in output for the year
1927, but as only three companies reported production the figures for this
industry are included in the State's total mineral output.
PRODUCERS.
Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen, Volusia County.
Lakeland Silex Brick Company, Lakeland, Polk County.
Plant City Brick Company, Plant City, Hillsborough County.












VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA, 1918 1927.

Mineral Products. 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927


Phosphate
Land Pebble .......... $ 5,565,988 $ 5,149,048 $14,745,620 $ 8,604,818 $ 7,035,821 $ 7,987,752 $ 7,387,897 $ 8,081,137 $ 8,218,200 $8,121,146
Hard Rock ............ 377,075 2,452,563 4,525,191 1,806,671 1,308,201 1,071,675 629,579 707,933 465,308 525,016
Soft Rock ............. 147,103 196,318 190,551 20,153 3,500 ......... ......... ......... ........ ........

Total ............... |$ 6,090,1061$ 7,797,9291$19,464,362 $10,431,642]$ 8,347,522|$ 9,059,427[$ 8,017,4761$ 8,789,0701$ 8,683,5081$ 8,646,162


Kaolin, Fuller's Earth,
Peat, Zircon, Ilmenite,
Monazite, Rutile .......
Lime, Limestone, Flint,
and Cement* ..........
Common Brick, Pottery,
Tile and Sand-lime Brick
Sand and Gravel .........
Mineral Waters .........


2,190,258

296,594

340,215
164,101
12,062


2,700,082

569,097

557,542
117,601
27,120


1,504,574

638,272

286,522
97,324
28,365


1,666,260 1,782,718 1,860,847 1,968,119

857,913 1,572,768 3,097,703 4,873,757

368,149 393,323 452,053 650,774
147,924 290,082 375,8531 1,098,215
57,305 131,7811 135,357] 151,367
I I


2,155,458 2,286,444

7,511,747 6,333,573

689,856 554.813
1,483,757 930,504
200,1611 117,116
1


$12,986,6991$11,445,073 $13,230,099 $13,939,2891$17,522,302 $20,724,487 $18,868,612


1,241,437

365,293

238,276
48,768
12,883


Total ............... I$ 7,996,763 $10,801,1591$23,435,804
*Cement first produced in 1927.































GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA


C. WYTHE COOKE and STUART MOSSOM


PREPARED IN COOPERATION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND THE
FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY













CONTENTS

PACE

Introduction ................................................... ............. 37
Composition and structure of the Floridian Plateau .......................... 39
Topography of Florida ...................................................... 42
Basem ent rocks ................ ............................................ 44
Concealed Cretaceous and Eocene rocks .................................... 45
Eocene rocks ......................... ................................... 46
Ocala limestone ........................................................ 47
Extent and general features ........................................ 47
Fauna ....................... .................................... 50
Local details .................. .................................. 52
Alachua County ........................ .... .................. 52
Marion County ............... ............................. 54
Sumter County ................... ............................ 54
Hernando County ................... .......................... 54
Citrus County ................... ............................ 56
Levy County ................. .............................. 56
Dixie County ................... .............. ................ 56
Lafayette County .............. ............................ 56
Madison County ............................. ................ 57
Suwannee County ............................................... 57
Columbia County ........................... ................. 58
Jackson County ................... ........................... 58
Holmes County ..... .............................. ............ 60
W ashington County ........................... ............... 61
Oligocene rocks ........................ ................................ 61
Vicksburg group ..................... .................. ................ 61
Marianna limestone ................................................. 63
General features ................ ............ .................. 63
Local details .................... ........................... 65
Jackson County ................ ......................... 65
Glendon limestone ................ .. .......................... 67
General features ................. ......................... 67
Local details ........................................................ 69
Holmes County .................. .......................... 69
W ashington County .............. ......................... 70
Jackson County ................... ........................ 71
Suwannee County ......................................... 72
Byram marl ............................................................. 74
General features ................................. ................ 74
Local details ..................................... ................ 75
W alton County ................ .............................. 75
Jackson County ............................................... 76




(31)










32 CONTENTS

PAGE

Miocene rocks .................................. .................... ?7
Tampa limestone .................. .................................. 78
General features .................. ................ ................ 78
Local details .................................................... 83
Hillsborough County ............................ ............. 83
Pinellas County ............................... ................ 84
Polk County .................... ............... .............. 84
Pasco County .................. ................. .............. 85
Hernando County ............................. ............... 86
Marion County ................................ .............. 88
Suwannee County .... .............. ......................... 89
Columbia County ............................. ................ 90
Ham ilton County .................. ........................ .. 91
Lafayette County ................. ........... ................. 91
Taylor County ............................. ............. ....... 91
M adison County ................. ........... .................. 91
Jefferson County ............................................. 92
Leon County ................ .............................. 92
W akulla County ............................................... 92
Gadsden County ................... ........................... 93
Jackson and Calhoun counties .................................. 95
W ashington County ............................ ............... 96
Alum Bluff group .......... ... ................................... 98
Chipola formation ................. ............................... 103
General features ................................................. 103
Local details ............................ ......... ............... 104
Okaloosa, Walton and Holmes counties ........................... 104
W ashington County .......................... .............. 104
Calhoun County ............................................. 107
Liberty County .............................................. 107
Oak Grove sand ................................................... 110
General features and local details .................................. 110
Shoal River formation ........................................... 111
General features ................................................. 111
Local details ..................................... ............... 112
Hawthorn formation ............................................... 115
General features ................................................. 115
Local details .................................... ................ 118
Liberty County ............... ............................ 118
Gadsden County ............................................ 119
Wakulla County ............................................. 122
Leon County ................................................ 123
Jefferson County ............................................. 125
Hamilton, Suwannee, and Columbia counties ...................... 125
Baker County ................................................... 128
Duval County .............................................. 128
Clay County ................ .. ............................. 128










CONTENTS 33

PAGE

Alachua County ............................................. 129
Marion County ............... .............................. 131
Lake County ............................................... 131
Orange County ............... .............................. 133
Hernando and Pasco counties..................................... 133
Polk County ................. .............. ................. 133
Hardee County .............................................. 134
Manatee County ............................................. 134
Sarasota County ............................................ 136
Choctawhatchee formation ............................................ 138
General features ................................................. 138
Local details .............................. ...................... 142
Leon County ................................................ 142
Liberty County ................ ............................. 143
Calhoun County ............................................. 144
Bay County .................... ............ ................. 144
Washington County ........................................... 145
Walton County .............................................. 145
Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia counties ...................... 146
Lee County ................................ ................. 147
Pinellas County .............. .............. ................. 148
Osceola County .............................................. 148
Pliocene rocks ............................................................ 150
Caloosahatchee marl ............................................... 152
General features .................... ............................. 152
Local details ...................... .............................. 154
Hendry County ............... .............................. 154
Glades County ................................................. 155
Okeechobee County ............... .......................... 155
Martin County ................ ............................. 155
Palm Beach County .............. ........................... 155
Charlotte County ............................................ 155
DeSoto County ............... .............. ............... 156
Sarasota County ............................................. 156
Collier and M onroe counties ............... ...... .............. 156
Volusia County .............................................. 156
Putnam County ................... ........................... 160
Bone Valley gravel ...................... ............................ 162
General features .................................................... 162
Local details ......................... ........................... 166
Near Bartow ...................... .......................... 166
Northern part of region ......................... ............... 167
M ulberry and vicinity .......................... ............... 168
Fort Meade and vicinity ....... ... .. .......... ...... ....... 170
Alachua formation .................................................. 173
General features ...................... ........................... 173
Local details .......................... ............ .............. 176
Suwannee County .............. ............................. 176











34 CONTENTS

PAGE

Columbia County .............................................. 176
Alachua County ............................................... 177
Marion County .............................................. 178
Citrus County ................. ............... ................ 179
Hernando County .............................................. 179
Citronelle formation .................... .............. ............... 180
General features ................................................... 180
Local details ...................................................... 182
Escambia County ...................... ...... ............... 182
Santa Rosa County ............................................. 182
Okaloosa County .............. ............................ 184
Walton County ................................................ 184
W ashington County ............................................. 184
Liberty County ................................................ 185
Gadsden County .................... ......................... 185
Bay County .................... .............. ............... 185
Jackson County ............................. ................. 186
Calhoun County ............................................... 186
Clay County .................................................. 186
Putnam County ................................................ 186
Marion County ................................................ 189
Lake County .................................................. 189
Orange County .................................................. 190
Polk County .................................................. 191
Highlands County .............................................. 191
Pliocene (?) rocks ........................ .............................. 192
Charlton formation ..................................................... 192
Stokes Ferry .................................................. 192
Hicks Bluff .............. ..................................... 193
Red Bluff ................ .................................. 193
Schoolhouse Bluff .............................................. 193
Rand Landing ................................................. 194
Clay Landing .................................................. 194
Nettles Landing .............................................. 194
Cow Ford ..................... .............................. 195
Sawpit Landing ................................................ 195
Folkston ....................................................... 196
Chalk Bluff .................................................... 197
Orange Bluff ................................................ 197
Pleistocene rocks .......................... ............................. 198
Anastasia formation ................................................... 19.
General features .................. ............................... 199
Local details ...................................................... 200
St. Johns County .............................. ................ 200
Flagler County .............................................. 200
Volusia County ................................................ 200
Brevard County ............................................... 200
Indian River County ........................................... 202










CONTENTS 35

PAGE

St. Lucie County ............................................ 202
Martin County ................................................ 202
Palm Beach County ............. ................................ 203
Miami oolite ............................ .. .............. .............. 204
General features ................................................... 204
Local details ...................................................... 206
Broward County ............................................... 206
Dade County .................................................. 206
M onroe County ............................................... 207
K ey Largo lim estone .................. ................ ............... 208
General features ...................... ........................... 208
Stratigraphic position ..................................... 208
Lithologic character ........................... ................ 208
Thickness .................................. ............... 209
Physiographic expression ..................................... 209
Paleontologic character ........................... ............ 210
Areal distribution .............. ............................ 210
Fort Thompson formation .................. .......................... 211
General features .................................................. 211
Local details ........................ ............................ 212
Glades County .............................................. 212
Palm Beach County ............................................. 215
Marine Pleistocene on the west coast ................................... 216
General features .............. ..................... ............. 216
Local details ......................... ........................... 216
Levy County ................................................ 216
Hillsborough County ........................... .............. 216
Pinellas County ............................................... 216-
Lee County .................................. ................. 217 -
Collier County ................................................ 217
Melbourne bone bed ................................................. 218
General features .................................................... 218
Local details ...................................................... 219
Brevard County ............................................. 219
Indian River County ............ .......................... 220
Pinellas County ............................................. 224
Volusia County ................... ........................... 226
Citrus County ................................................. 226
Terrace deposits ...................................................... 227










ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Plate 1. View of relief model of part of North America, including the Floridian
Plateau .......................................................... 33
2. Geological map of Florida ................................. (In pocket)
3. Fossils from the Ocala limestone ................................... 51
4. Typical exposure of the Ocala limestone in pit of the Florida Lime
Company at Ocala .............................................. 53
5. A, General view of a quarry near Ocala; B, Ocala limestone in quarry
of Cummer Lumber Company at Kendrick ......................... 55
6. Chimney rock quarries in Marianna limestone at Marianna............ 59
7. Fossils from the Vicksburg group .................................. 62
8. Fossils from the Tampa limestone ................................. 81
9. A, Tampa limestone on Sixmile Creek, one-fourth mile below the
bridge at Orient; B, Tampa limestone in pit of Camp Concrete Rock
Company, 5 miles east of Brooksville ............................ 87
10. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ................................. 97
11. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ................................ 99
12. Fossils from the Alum Bluff group ................................. 101
13. A, Part of Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River; B, Shell marl of Chipola
formation at water level at Alum Bluff ............................ 105
14. A, Hawthorn formation at spring on left bank of Suwannee River
above White Springs; B, Laminated sand and clay of the Hawthorn
formation ................ ................... ............... 117
15. Rock Spring, 6 miles north of Apopka ............................. 132
16. Fossils from the Choctawhatchee formation .......................... 139
17. Fossils flom the Choctawhatchee formation ......................... 141
18. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl .............................. 151
19. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl ............................... 153
20. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl ............................... 157
21. Fossils from the Caloosahatchee marl ............................... 159
22. Caloosahatchee marl on Caloosahatchee River: A, Left bank one-third
mile above La Belle; B, Right bank one-eighth mile below La Belle. 161
23. Pit in the Caloosahatchee marl on Prairie Creek; B, Topography char-
acteristic of the Citronelle formation ............................. 163
24. Views of the Bone Valley gravel: A, View in the Pembroke mine of
the Coronet Phosphate Company; B, View in phosphate mine at
M ulberry ........................................................ 165
25. A, Citronelle formation 2 miles west of Sexton, Washington County;
B, Citronelle formation at Chalk Bluff ............................ 183
26. A, Citronelle formation near Lake Geneva; B, Sand, gravel, and kaolin
in Citronelle form ation ................. ......................... 187
27. A, Coquina on Anastasia Island opposite St. Augustine; B, Sandy
coquina near Blowing Rocks, Jupiter ............................. 201
28. A, Jagged surface of Miami oolite 23 miles south of Miami; B, Miami
oolite in canal bank at'Coral Gables .............................. 205
29. Fresh-water limestone of Fort Thompson formation at Fort Thompson.. 213


(36)













GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


C. WYTHE COOKE AND STUART MOSSOM.


INTRODUCTION.

During the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the
preliminary report on the geology of Florida by George C. Matson and F. G.
Clapp, which was prepared by the United States Geological Survey and pub-
lished in the Second Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey, the
edition of that report has become exhausted and many new facts have come
to light. The State Geologist therefore requested the Director of the United
States Geological Survey to cooperate with him in the preparation of a new
report on the geology of Florida. Arrangements for cooperation were per-
fected and C. Wythe Cooke, who was already familiar with the geology of
parts of Florida and of the adjacent States, was selected as the representative
of the Federal Survey, and D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant on the Florida
Geological Survey, was detailed by the State Geologist to aid him. Mr.
Mossom's intimate acquaintance with all parts of Florida, gained during his
work on the limestones and on the structure and stratigraphy of the State, was
of great assistance in the field, but his resignation from the Florida Geological
Survey, which became effective June 30, 1927, prevented him from taking an
active part in the work of writing the book.
The writers are pleased to give credit to Dr. Wendell C. Mansfield of the
U. S. Geological Survey for being the first to recognize the southward exten-
sion of the Caloosahatchee marl into the Everglades and for detecting faunal
zones in the Choctawhatchee formation. They are also indebted to him for
many hours of painstaking work spent in identifying upper Miocene, Pliocene,
and Pleistocene fossils. He also selected the shells figured on Plates 16 to 21,
inclusive. Thanks are due to Dr. L. W. Stephenson for many helpful sugges-
tions and to Messrs. Herman Gunter, G. M. Ponton, and J. H. C. Martens for
corrections to the manuscript. The senior author wishes to express his per-
sonal appreciation of the inconspicuous but invaluable work of Miss M. Grace
Wilmarth, Secretary of the Committee on Geologic Names of the U. S. Geolog-
ical Survey, whose unflagging attention to detail has brought to light in this
and other manuscripts inconsistencies which might otherwise have escaped
attention.


(37)







TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 1.


(if
I


VIEW OF RELIEF MODEL OF PART OF NORTH AMERICA, INCLUDING
THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU.

(38)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


: ,: ,


"V









FORMATIONS OF THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU.


1)
COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU.
The name Floridian Plateau has been applied to the great projection of
the continent of North America that separates the deep water of the Gulf of
Mexico from the deep water of the Atlantic Ocean. As thus defined the
Plateau includes not only the State of Florida but an equally great or greater
area that lies submerged beneath water less than 50 fathoms (300 feet) deep.
(See Plate I.). The longer axis of the Plateau trends N. 150 W. and passes
through Key West, Bradenton, Sarasota, Cedar Keys, and Madison. Nearly
all of the Peninsula therefore lies east of the axis of the Plateau.
The Floridian Plateau has been in existence since very ancient time. It
appears to have formed part of Appalachia, the old land mass that lay east
of the epicontinental seas during the Paleozoic era, for metamorphic rocks
have been found in deep well borings in Florida. It probably remained dry
land during the Triassic and Jurassic periods and the Lower Cretaceous epoch,
but it was covered by the sea during part of Upper Cretaceous time. Dur-
ing the Cenozoic era its shore underwent many shifting, but the water of the
sea has never been very deep upon it nor, so far as can be learned, has it ever
been lifted very high above sea level.
As Florida is far from the Piedmont Plateau, which was the original source
of all the sand, gravel, and clay in the rocks of the southeastern part of the
Coastal Plain, the sediments deposited on the Floridian Plateau have generally
contained less sand, clay, or gravel than limestone, which is carried in solution
in sea water. These sediments were especially calcareous during Eocene and
part of Oligocene time, when the shore line lay not far from the present edge
of the Piedmont Plateau, and when the sediments formed were nearly pure
limestones. During the Miocene epoch more sand, most of it fine grained,
found its way southward and became mingled with the limestone to form
sandy limestone, and during the later epochs the stores of sand and clay in
the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas supplied much
material to the northern part of the Floridian Plateau, and some sand and
clay drifted as far southward as the tip of the Peninsula.
The geologic formations that make up the Floridian Plateau are named
in the following table:










40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Pleistocene


Melbourne bone bed (possibly contemporaneous with the' Fort
Thompson)
Fort Thompson formation (may be contemporaneous with the
Miami)

Anastasia formation Miami oolite Key Largo limestone


Pliocene? Charlton formation


Citronelle formation
(Relative stratigraphic
Pliocene Caloosahatchee marl
positions unknown)

Alachua formation I Bone Valley gravel

Choctawhatchee formation


Alum Shoal River formation
o Bluff Oak Grove sand
group Chipola formation Hawthorn formation
grou Chipola formation

Tampa limestone



SByram marl
Vicksburg Glendon limestone
o group
Marianna limestone




Eocene Ocala limestone
Undifferentiated limestones (buried)




Upper Cre- Undifferentiated sediments (deeply buried)
taceous




Paleozoic Metamorphic basement rocks (deeply buried)
or older








FORMATIONS OF THE FLORIDIAN PLATEAU.


The structure of the Floridian Plateau is very simple. The mica schists,
quartzites and other rocks that make up the foundation of the Plateau are
doubtless folded, crumpled, and perhaps faulted like the rocks of the Pied-
mont Plateau, but as they have been reached only by one deep well, near York,
in Marion County, where they lie about 4,100 feet below the surface, we can
only speculate about them. The sedimentary deposits that overlie the base-
ment rocks have suffered very little deformation and appear to retain very
nearly the attitude in which they were originally laid down. The principal
feature showing a departure from the normal attitude is a gentle doing that
brings the upper Eocene Ocala limestone about 150 feet above sea level in
central Florida, where it would be far below sea level if there were no reversal
of dip. The shape of the upper surface of the Eocene deposits is shown by
contour lines on the sketch map inset on the geologic map (Plate 2).1 The
shape of the surface of later deposits conforms more closely to the topography
of the submerged part of the Plateau.
The movement that raised the Ocala limestone into a dome in central
Florida took place a little at a time, between periods of quiescence. Central
Florida appears to have been above water in early and late Oligocene time
and possibly also in middle Oligocene time, for the Glendon limestone, of
middle Oligocene age, is the only known representative of that time in the
region and has been found only along its northern margin. During part of
early Miocene time central Florida was dry land, for the lower Miocene
Tampa limestone is very thin and at most places is lacking; but during later
Miocene stages it was submerged while the sandy limestone of the Hawthorn
formation was being deposited. Since Miocene time uplift has continued, and
much of the once continuous cover of Hawthorn has been eroded away.


1A more detailed structural map of Florida faces page 256 of Mossom's "Structure and stratig-
raphy of Florida," in the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey.








42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TOPOGRAPHY OF FLORIDA.

Although the highest known point in Florida is only 330 feet above sea
level, the topography of the State presents considerable diversity. The
northern part of the State, from Madison County westward, is prevailingly
hilly, the altitudes of the hills ranging generally from 200 to 300 feet above
sea level. An extensive plateau in Gadsden County around Mount Pleasant
stands at an altitude of about 300 feet. West of Quincy most of the hills are
cut in the Pliocene Citronelle formation and are covered with orange sand;
east of Quincy the soils are red loams derived from the Miocehe Hawthorn
formation. Parts of Jackson and Holmes counties that are underlain by
limestone are lower than the sandhills farther south and are flat to rolling.
Hills also extend along a central ridge from Live Oak on the north to Sebring
on the south. Some of the hills of this ridge in Polk County exceed 300 feet
in altitude. The northern part of this ridge is composed chiefly of red or
orange sand and clay of the Hawthorn formation; the remainder is chiefly
orange Citronelle sand. West of the central ridge, and separated from it by
a broad, flat-bottomed valley, is another irregular hilly belt, which lies chiefly
in Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco counties. These hills are composed of sand
and clay that are residual from the Ocala and Tampa limestones and the
Hawthorn formation. The highest measured point in the State is said to be
Le Heup Hill, in Pasco County, four miles south of Dade City. It is 330
feet high.
Much of the hilly region of Florida is dotted with innumerable lakes,
ponds, and depressions that range in size from sinks a few feet in diameter
to lakes many miles across. Because of the abundance of lakes in it the name
"Lake Country" is often applied to the region including the grove-covered
hills of the Peninsula, and the same term would be equally applicable to part
of the sand hills of western Florida. The lakes indicate the presence of
soluble limestone underground.
A few lakes in northern Florida, particularly in Leon and Jefferson coun-
ties, show by their shape that they were originally the valleys of surface
streams that have been lowered by the solution of the underlying rock to
levels below those of their original outlets. Water stands in them at depths
varying with the wetness of the season, and surplus water finds its way out
through underground channels. By far the greater number of lakes never
had surface outlets, but all the material that once filled their basins has been
carried away either in solution or as sand and mud through subterranean
channels.
Another class of lakes comprises those that fill original depressions in
the floor of the sea that once covered the coastal terraces. Lake Okeechobee,
35 miles across, and, next to Lake Michigan, the largest body of fresh water









GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


that lies wholly within the United States, is the most conspicuous example
of this class. Others, such as Sawgrass Lake and Lake Poinsett, at the head
of St. Johns River, appear to be the remnants of coastal lagoons like Indian
River and Lake Worth.
Plains cover more than half the State of Florida. Most of them are either
coastal terraces, which are former sea bottoms, or drained lake basins. Ter-
races occupy the southern third of the Peninsula and extend inland for con-
siderable distances along both the east and the west coast. Most of the ter-
races on the west side of the Peninsula north of Tampa are the products of
degradation, for they are floored by limestone of Eocene and Miocene age,
which are covered by only a thin veneer of Pleistocene or Recent sand. The
terraces along the Atlantic Coast have been built up by the sea; but farther
inland erosion has been dominant. The terraces range in altitude from sea
level to 200 feet or more above sea level.
The Everglades form a level, grassy plain that slopes gently southward
from an altitude of about 18 feet above sea level near Lake Okeechobee and
merges into the mangrove-covered keys in Florida Bay. This plain is floored
with Pliocene shell marl and limestone (Caloosahatchee marl), which is gen-
erally covered by 6 or 8 feet of peaty muck or by a thin layer of Pleistocene
limestone. Before their artificial drainage was undertaken the Everglades
were usually flooded, but now so much of their water is carried off by canals
that their higher parts stand above normal water level.
The Florida Keys comprise a long fringe of islands that curves south-
westward along the edge of the Straits of Florida from Key Biscayne Bay to
Key West and that includes outlying islands as far west as the Dry Tortugas.
The keys of the outer line of this fringe as far as Bahia Honda Channel differ
from the other keys in that they are parts of an old coral reef (Key Largo
limestone), whereas the others are composed of the same rock as the main-
land (Miami oolite), of which they are the partly submerged extension. The
foundation of all the keys is limestone, but on many of the smaller keys in
Florida Bay the rock is covered by mangrove swamps.








44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.



BASEMENT ROCKS.

The oldest rocks in Florida of which there is any record are mica schist
and quartzite that have been reached by a deep well in Marion County but
do not crop out at the surface anywhere in the State. Although little is
known about them by direct examination, it can be inferred that they form
part of the great series of metamorphic and igneous rocks that make up the
Piedmont Plateau of Alabama, Georgia, and other eastern States, and that
underlie the sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain wherever the sediments
have been cut through by streams or penetrated by wells. Bedrock of this
kind may underlie the entire State of Florida and extend beyond the shore
line to the edge of the Floridian Plateau.
Metamorphic rocks in Florida were first detected in April, 1928, by Dr.
J. H. C. Martens of the Florida Geological Survey in cuttings from the well
of the Ocala Oil Corporation in sec. 10, T. 16 S., R. 20 E., in Marion County.
Other cuttings subsequently examined by the senior author indicate that the
drill entered mica schist at a depth of about 4,100 feet, passed through it at
4,500 feet, or higher, into white quartzite, and remained in white quartzite
until drilling was discontinued (in July, 1928) at a depth of 6,180 feet.
Above the mica schist is red mud (represented by a sample marked 4,000-
4,100 feet) that may have accumulated as a residual soil before the basement
rocks sank beneath the sea. Following is a preliminary description of cut-
tings from this well that were presented to the U. S. Geological Survey by
Mr. W. J. Flesher. Except as otherwise noted, each item represents only one
sample. A more complete set of cuttings from this well in the possession of
the Florida Geological Survey differs in some respects from the set here
described.1

CUTTINGS FROM A WELL OF THE OCALA OIL CORPORATION, SOUTH OF YORK.
Eocene: Ocala limestone, in part: Feet.
W hite lim estone ..................................... 300- 570
Undifferentiated Eocene and Upper Cretaceous (?) :
Brownish, porous limestone and vitreous flint ............ 570- 585
Brownish, finely granular limestone resembling brown
sugar .................................. 585- 660
Dark-brown carbonaceous clay .......................... 674- 700
Brown sugary limestone ................................. 700- 880
Black carbonaceous clay ................................ 880- 920
Brown granular limestone .............................. 922-1000
W hite chalky limestone ................................ 1000-1165
Brown granular limestone .............................. 1165-1280
Compact brownish limestone ........................... 1280-1400
Light-brown granular limestone ......................... 1400-1600

1Gunter, Herman, Basement rocks encountered in a well in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geol-
ogists Bull.. vol. 12, pp. 1107-8. 1928.








GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


White limestone containing many small Foraminifera ..... 1600-1850
W hite calcareous clay .................................. 1850-2200
White limestone containing small Foraminifera (2 samples) 2200-2350
W hite anhydrite ....................................... 2350-2370
White limestone containing small Foraminifera .......... 2370-2400
Soft white chalky limestone ............................. 2400-2450
Light-brown limestone (3 samples at 100-foot intervals)... 2450-2700
W hite calcareous mud .................................. 2700-3600
Gray shale ....................... .................... 3600-4000
Probably Paleozoic or older:
Red m ud ........................... ................. 4000-4100
M ica schist ............................................ 4100-4200
Mica schist and granular quartz (3 samples at 100-foot
intervals) ...................................... 4200-4500
White quartzite (11 samples) ........................... 4500-6180


CONCEALED CRETACEOUS AND EOCENE ROCKS.

Between the basement rocks and the oldest rocks exposed at the surface
in Florida lies a series of sediments that aggregates 4,000 feet or more in
thickness. In the Peninsula these sediments consist predominantly of lime-
stone; in western Florida they include more sand and clay. With the infor-
mation at hand it is not practicable to divide this great mass of rocks into
formations or to assign definite ages to its different parts. It is believed,
however, that no part of these deeply buried sedimentary rocks is older than
Upper Cretaceous, for no fossils older than Upper Cretaceous have been found
in well cuttings, and no Lower Cretaceous beds have been recognized else-
where in the Coastal Plain between Virginia and Arkansas.
Fossils of Upper Cretaceous age have been found in cuttings from several
deep wells in Florida. Dr. L. W. Stephenson has questionably identified as
Ostrea cretacea Morton a young oyster taken at a depth of 3,615 feet in a well
at Falling Water, four miles south of Chipley, and Dr. J. J. Galloway reports
Ostrea mesenterica and 0. cretacea at a depth of 3,693 feet in the same well.
A small brachiopod found at a depth of 2,751 feet in a well of the Southern
States Oil Corporation near Monticello is regarded by Dr. Stephenson as prob-
ably identical with an undescribed species of Terebratulina? that is rather
plentiful in the Selma chalk at Demopolis, Ala., and in the Taylor marl in
Texas.
Buried Eocene rocks in western Florida probably include representatives
of the Midway, Wilcox, and Claiborne groups, as well as the Ocala limestone,
of Jackson age, which crops out at the surface. The well at Falling Water
passed through a great thickness of sandy, limy, clayey, and glauconitic beds
of Eocene age.' In the Peninsula a brownish, sugary limestone that underlies
the Ocala is probably Eocene.
'A detailed log of this well is given in Florida Geol. Survey Seventeenth Ann. Rept., pp. 195-
204, 1926. First appeared in Fourteenth Ann. Rept., 1922.








46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.


EOCENE ROCKS.

The foundation of Florida and the oldest rocks exposed form part of the
Eocene series. The earliest investigators properly considered the rocks of
the peninsula the southward extension of formations in Georgia and Alabama.
This view was for a time obscured by the teachings of Agassiz' and LeConte,2
who proposed the hypothesis that the peninsula, like the keys, had advanced
into the sea by the addition of successive coral reefs, the growth of which had
been shaped and modified by the influence of the Gulf Stream, but increasing
knowledge of the interior of the State soon proved that this hypothesis is
untenable. As the basal limestone of the peninsula contains many orbitoid
Foraminifera, it was early correlated with the Vicksburg or "Orbitoides lime-
stone" of Mississippi and Alabama,3 which was first considered Eocene but
was later classified as Oligocene. Jn 1915 it was discovered that much of the
"Peninsular" limestone is not Vicksburg (Oligocene) but Jackson (upper
Eocene) ,4 and that correlation is now currently accepted. In 1919 a prelim-
inary study of the Foraminifera obtained from well borings led Cushman5 to
suppose that the Eocene limestone forms only a thin veneer that is underlain
by similar limestone of Lower Cretaceous age, but Vaughan6 has shown that
the resemblance of the Foraminifera to Lower Cretaceous species is merely
superficial-an opinion now shared by Doctor Cushman.7
It is now supposed that the Eocene limestone is several hundred feet thick
and that it is underlain by Upper Cretaceous sediments which rest directly
upon very ancient quartzites and mica schists.











lAgassiz, Louis, U. S. Coast Survey Rept. for 1851, pp. 145-160, 1852.
2LeConte, Joseph, On the agency of the Gulf Stream in the formation of the peninsula and keys
of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser., vol. 23, pp. 46-60, 1857.
3Smith, E. A., On the geology of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., vol. 21, pp. 292-309, 1881.
4Cooke, C. W., The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95, pp. 107-118,
1915.
5Cushman, J. A., The age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the Foraminifera of
well borings: Florida Geol. Survey Twelfth Ann. Rept., pp. 77-103, 1919. Lower Cretaceous age
of the limestones underlying Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 9, pp 70-73, 1919.
6Vaughan, T. W., National Acad. Sci. Proc., vol. 9, pp. 253-254, 1923.
,Cushman, J. A., The occurrence of Lituonella and Coskinolina in America: Washington Acad.
Sci. Jour., vol. 17. pp. 198-199, 1927.








GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


OCALA LIMESTONE.

EXTENT AND GENERAL FEATURES.
The name Ocala limestone was first formally used by Dall, who briefly
described the rock quarried at Ocala under the heading "Nummulitic beds,
Ocala limestone (Oligocene of Heilprin)." He classified the Eocene rocks
of the peninsula as "Orbitoides limestone," "Nummulitic beds," and "Miliolite
limestone," but said that "these rocks, Nummulitic, Miliolite, etc., as regards
most of their fossil contents, are hardly to be separated from the Orbitoides
limestone and must certainly be regarded as forming part of the Vicksburg
group."' Later, he held the opinion that the "Orbitoidal limestone," or fun-
damental rock of the Floridian Plateau, for which he suggested the term
'Peninsular limestone," was intermediatein age between the typical Vicks-
burgian and the younger nummulitic Ocala limestone.2 By this time he had
concurred in the correlation of the Vicksburg group with the Oligocene of
Europe.
Matson followed Dall in referring the Ocala and the "Peninsular" lime-
stones to the concluding stages of Vicksburg time, but discriminated between
them and the Marianna limestone of western Florida, which he thought might
represent a horizon below the "Peninsular" limestone of Dall.3
In 1913 and 1914 Cooke traced the several formations of Jackson and
Vicksburg ages, comprising the old "St. Stephens limestone," from Mississippi
to Florida and made preliminary studies of the limestones of the peninsula.
At Marianna, Fla., he discovered the contact of the Ocala limestone with the
Marianna limestone, and found that the Ocala underlies the Marianna, instead
of overlying it as Matson had supposed. Cooke also found that many of the
characteristic fossils of the Ocala limestone of Florida are in Alabama re-
stricted to deposits of Jackson age, and that the typical Ocala molluscan fauna,
as listed by Dall, is decidedly Jacksonian in its affinities. He therefore con-
cluded that the Ocala limestone is of Jackson (upper Eocene) age,4 a conclu-
sion that has since been amply corroborated. He also stated that much of the
"Peninsular" limestone appears to be identical with the Ocala.
In 1925 Mossom5 cited many localities at which the Ocala limestone is
exposed and greatly extended the known area of the formation.
As it is now delimited, the Ocala limestone comprises all the rock of
Eocene age exposed in Florida, including the "Orbitoidal," "Nummulitic,"
1Dall, W. H., U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 84, pp. 101-105, 1892.
2Dall, W. H., Tertiary fauna of Florida: Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1554,
1903.
3Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Second Ann. Rept., pp. 50-67, 1909. Matson, G. C., and Sanford, Samuel, Geology and
ground waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, pp. 71-85, 1913.
4Cooke, C. W., The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95, pp. 107-
117, 1915.
5Mossom, Stuart, A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey, Sixteenth Ann. Rept., pp. 27-195, 1925.








48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

and "Miliolitic" limestones of Dall, as well as the "Peninsular" limestone of
Matson. The term "Peninsular" has no standing as a formation name, but it
may be used at times in its original descriptive sense when no attempt is made
to discriminate between the various limestones beneath the surface of the
peninsula.
The Ocala limestone ranges in color from pure white through cream-color
to yellow. Its texture is commonly granular, but parts of it have been con-
verted to hard, compact rock by the deposition of travertine or calcite in its
interspaces. In some places it consists of a loosely coherent mass of Forami-
nifera, Bryozoa, and other small organisms, a mass so porous that water can
percolate freely through it; elsewhere it is finer grained and more compact,
although still pervious to water.
The free circulation of water through the Ocala limestone has facilitated
the solution of the rock. Funnel-shaped cavities, most of them filled with
clay and sand, and some with bones, lead downward from the surface and
connect with ramifying underground passages. The solution of the limestone
has at many places been accompanied by the deposition of silica, either as
sheets or irregular masses of chert (flint) or as pseudomorphous replacements
of shells or granules. Some of these pseudomorphs preserve with great
fidelity the original form and sculpture of the shell. Such replacement com-
monly occurs only near the surface, although layers of chert are encountered
at considerable depths in some wells.
In chemical composition, as in physical character, the Ocala limestone is
remarkably uniform. It consists almost entirely of carbonate of lime, and
Tin places contains as little as four-teQths of one per cent of impurities.
The Ocala limestone is not uniform in thickness. At Claiborne, Ala., it
is little more than 50 feet thick;1 at Albany, Ga., it is about 300 feet thick.2
It is probably at least 500 feet thick in the northern part of the Peninsula, and
possibly much thicker in the southern part. The rock has been quarried to a
depth of 115 feet at Crystal River.
The Ocala limestone underlies all of Florida except, possibly, the extreme
western part. In the Peninsula it lies at or near the surface throughout an
area that is roughly 150 miles long by 60 miles wide and that extends from
Lacoochee, on the south, to Ellaville, on the north, and from Ocala and
Alachua, on the east, to the Gulf of Mexico. This area borders the Gulf from
Homosassa to the mouth of Steinhatchee River. In part of the area thus out-
lined the Ocala is covered with outliers of younger deposits. In western
Florida the Ocala comes to the surface in an area, chiefly in Jackson County,
that extends westward from Chattahoochee River about 50 miles and south-
ward from the Alabama line to Marianna. This area adjoins much larger areas

'Cooke, C. W., Geology of Alabanra, p. 275, 1926.
2Prettyman, T. M., and Cave, H. S., Petroleum and natural gas possibilities in Georgia: Georgia
Geol. Survey Bull., 40. p. 79, 1923.








OCALA LIMESTONE.


of the outcrop of the Ocala limestone in Georgia and Alabama. Smaller
patches of Ocala limestone have been discovered at Duncan, along Choctaw-
hatchee River above Westville, and along the Alabama line.
The region in which the Ocala limestone lies near the surface is generally
of low relief, but it includes hilly areas where the underlying limestone has
been protected from erosion by more resistant sand. The altitude of the ex-
posed surface of the limestone in Peninsular Florida ranges from sea level on
the Gulf coast to about 150 feet above sea level west of Ocala and at Lees
Mound, near Crystal River. In this region shallow depressions, sinks, ponds,
and lakes are abundant, but streams are few, for much of the drainage passes
through underground channels.
In Alabama local unconformities, which have little significance as to time,
occur between the Ocala and the underlying Claiborne group, but in Georgia
the deposits of Jackson age (Ocala limestone and Barnwell formation) over-
lap widely the boundaries of older Eocene and even Cretaceous sediments.
Although the base of the Ocala is so deeply buried in Florida that its contact
with older deposits can not be examined, the Ocala probably forms part of
a conformable series of limestones of Eocene age. Near Marianna the Ocala
is overlain without apparent trace of erosional unconformity by the Marianna
limestone, although there is evidence of arrested or retarded deposition at the
beginning of Oligocene time. Elsewhere the Ocala is overlain unconformably
by the Glendon limestone, the Tampa limestone, the Hawthorn formation, or
later deposits.
The Ocala limestone has been traced through Alabama as far west as
Tombigbee River, where it merges laterally into the Jackson formation, of
upper Eocene age, which extends, chiefly as clay, to the Mississippi Delta. In
Georgia the Ocala extends up the valley of Flint River as far as Dooly County,
and the lower beds reappear along Ocmulgee River and Commissioners Creek
as the Tivola tongue of the Ocala limestone. East of Flint River the upper
part of the Ocala seems to be represented by the Barnwell formation (chiefly
red sand and gray clay), which overlies the Tivola tongue of the Ocala lime-
stone or rests unconformably upon older deposits.' The equivalents of the
Ocala in the Carolinas are the Santee limestone,2 the Cooper marl and the
Barnwell sand of South Carolina,3 and the Castle Hayne marl of North
Carolina.4




'Cooke, C. W., and Shearer, H. K., Deposits of Claiborne and Jackson age in Georgia: U. S.
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 120, pp. 41-81, 1918.
2The typical Santee limestone, described by Lyell in 1845 and later by Ruffin and Tuomey, is of
Jackson age. not Claiborne, as it has been classified by T. W. Vaughan. It overlies unconform-
ably the McBean formation of Claiborne (Lisbon) age, of which it had previously been considered
a member, but it is now treated by C. W. Cooke as an independent formation.
3Cooke, C. Wythe, Unpublished manuscript.
4Kellum, L. B., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 143, 1926.








50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.


FAUNA.

The fauna of the Ocala limestone is varied. Study of the smaller Fora-
minifera is in progress. Among the larger Foraminifera the orbitoids, includ-
ing Lepidocyclina and Discocyclina (formerly called "Orthophragmina") are
most conspicuous. Vaughan lists the following species of larger Foraminifera
from Georgia (G) and Florida (F).1


LARGER FORAMINIFERA FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE.
Operculina cookei Cushman G
vaughani Cushman G
floridensis (Heilprin) F
ocalana Cushman F, G
mariannensis Vaughan F
Operculinella willcoxi (Heilprin) F
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman F, G
Discocyclina (Discocyclina) floridana (Cushman) F, G
flintensis (Cushman) F, G
citrensis Vaughan F
'(Aktinocyclina) bainbridgensis Vaughan G
(Asterocyclina) georgiana (Cushman) F, G
vaughani (Cushman) F, G
mariannensis (Cushman) F; G
var. papillata (Cushman) F, G
chipolensis Vaughan F
americana (Cushman) F, G
Lepfdocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana Cushman F, G
mortoni Cushman G
ocalana Cushman F, G -
var. attenuata Cushman F
var. pseudomarginata Cushman F
var. pseudocarinata Cushman F
var. cookei Cushman F
S'var. floridana Cushman F
(Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman F

Corals are inconspicuous in the Ocala limestone and are found only as
moulds. A Flabellum, probably F. wailesii, is common in Alabama but rarer
in Florida.
.Echinoids are abundant and well preserved. Among the species from
Florida are Echinocyamus vaughani, Rumphia eldridgei, four species of
Laganum (L. archerensis, L. johnsoni, L. floridanum, and L. dalli), Amblypy-
gus merrilli, Oligopygus wetherbyi, 0. haldermani, and 0. floridanus, Schi-
zaster armiger, and Eupatagus floridanus, all of which are described and fig-
ured by Twitchell.2 Some of them are shown on Plate 3.

IVaughan, T. W., Florida Geol. Survey Nineteenth Ann. Rept., p. 157, 1928.
2Clark, W. B., and Twitchell, M. W., The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United
States: U. S. Geological Survey Mon. 54, 1915.







TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 3.


i


5a
FOSSILS FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE.
1, Amusium ocalanumn Dall. 2, Oligopygus wetherbyi DeLoriol. 3, Oligopygus haldermani
Conrad. 4, Echinocyamus vaughani Twitchell. 5, Laganum floridanum Twitchell. 6, Laganumn
archerensis Twitchell. 7, Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell).
(All echinoids after Clark and Twitchell.)
(51)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Bryozoa are very abundant at certain localities but are less widely distrib-
uted in Florida than in Georgia and Alabama. More than 80 species of chei-
lostomatous Bryozoa have been listed from the Ocala limestone at Ocala,
Alachua and Marianna.1
Mollusks are preserved chiefly as molds and casts, or occasionally as
beautifully reproduced silicious pseudomorphs. The pectens are the only
species in which the shells commonly remain unaltered. Pecten perplanus
and its varieties, Pecten suwanneensis, and Amusium ocalanuin are charac-
teristic species.
The most significant vertebrate known from the Ocala limestone is a
zeuglodont mammal that has been identified by Dr. Remington Kellogg as
Basilosaurus n. sp: Zeuglodonts are much less common in Florida than in
western Alabama and Missisippi.
The Ocala limestone is the best road-building rock available in quantity
in the State. It is somewhat softer than the ideal rock used for this purpose,
but it binds well, and when it is surfaced with suitable material it makes a
fairly durable road. Its softness and purity make it especially suitable for
the manufacture of lime, and it is burned at several kilns. Some of the harder
parts of the rock are used for railroad ballast, and there is a very slight local
demand for it as a building stone. The rock is well adapted for use in the
manufacture of cement because of its remarkable purity, uniformity, ease of
exploiting, and the great quantity of it available, but it has not yet been used
for that purpose.
LOCAL DETAILS.
Alachua County.-The Ocala limestone occurs throughout Alachua County
but is exposed only in its southwestern half. In the northeastern part of
the county it is covered by the Hawthorn formation. The remainder of the
County is bisected by a band of residual sand and clay, most of which is re-
ferred to the Alachua formation. The numerous prairies, lakes and sinks of
Alachua County are due to the solution of the Ocala limestone.
Many of the mines in the hard-rock phosphate region go down to the
Ocala limestone. The limestone is quarried at a number of places for road
metal or to make lime. A pit of the Cummer Lumber Company, 11/4 miles
southeast of Newberry, shows 20 feet of creamy yellow, soft Ocala limestone
containing Olivula sp., Rimella smithii Dall, Lupia perovata (Conrad), Plica-
tula n. sp., Spondylus sp., Pecten suwanneensis Dall, Pteria? n. sp., Cardium
sp., and other fossils. The Gainesville Lime-Rock Company quarries the
Ocala to a maximum depth of 21 feet. Ten feet of very soft, pure, friable
limestone is visible in the pit of the Arredondo Lime Company, 51/2 miles
southwest of Gainesville. There are also pits near Wilcox, Fanning Springs
and Archer.
lCanu, Ferdinand, and Bassler, R. S., North American early Tertiary Bryozoa: U. S. Nat. Mus.
Bull. 106, 1920,







TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 4.


WE


TYPICAL EXPOSURE OF THE OCALA LIMESTONE IN PIT OF THE FLORIDA LIME COMPANY AT OCALA.
.(53)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

At Alachua Sink, 31/2 miles southeast of Gainesville, 14 feet of Ocala lime-
stone is overlain unconformably by about 23 feet of the Hawthorn formation.
The Ocala is in places hard, white, and cherty; elsewhere it is soft and granu-
lar. The species named in the following list were obtained by F. G. Clapp
in 1907 (Station 4964) and by T. W. Vaughan and C. W. Cooke in 1913 (Sta-
tion 6799). The Foraminifera were identified by Doctor Vaughan and the
Bryozoa by R. S. Bassler.

FOSSILS FROM ALACHUA SINK.
Operculina floridensis (Heilprin)
Discocyclina flintensis (Cushman)
Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman
Schizopodrella viminea (Lonsdale)
Membraniporidra spissimuralis Canu and Bassler
Stamenocella inferavicularia Canu and Bassler
Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad Pecten "perplanus" Dall
Pecten suwanneensis Dall? Tubulostium n. sp.-
Pecten indecisus Dall? Laganum johnsoni Twitchell n. var.


Marion County.-The Ocala limestone underlies all of Marion County,
but is covered in the eastern half by the Hawthorn formation and younger
deposits and in the western and northern parts by patches of the Hawthorn
and Alachua formations. The rock is extensively utilized in the manufac-
ture of lime and as road metal. These industries center in Ocala, the site of
the oldest lime pits in the State.
The Ocala limestone in Marion County is very soft, pure, creamy white,
granular, and porous. It is remarkably uniform in appearance and physical
properties. Most of it is so soft that it can be crumbled in the hand, but
harder masses are found in all pits. The surface of the rock is pitted with old
solution channels and clay-filled holes, some as much as 25 feet deep. There
are so many lime pits in the county, and they present so little variation, that
it seems hardly worth while to enumerate them.
Sumter County.-The Ocala limestone lies at or near the surface in all
of Sumter County except along the eastern boundary, where it is covered by
the Hawthorn formation, and in the southern part, where it is overlain by
the Tampa limestone.
Hernando County.-The Ocala limestone lies at or near the surface only
in the northeast and northwest corners of Hernando County. Elsewhere it is
overlapped by the Tampa limestone.
Ocala limestone has been brought up by dredges in a phosphate mine 11/2
miles southwest of Croom. The rock contains (Station 7364) Laganum n. sp.,
Turritella sp., Leda multilineata Conrad, Pecten sp., Amusium ocalanum Dall,
Cardium sp., Antigona sp., and Orbitoid Foraminifera.








TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 5.


A. GENERAL VIEW OF A QUARRY NEAR OCALA.


B. OCALA LIMESTONE IN QUARRY OF THE CUMMER LUMBER COMPANY
AT KENDRICK.
The highest part of the rim is composed of Tampa limestone.
(55)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Citrus County.-The Ocala limestone, which underlies Citrus County, is
covered by the Tampa limestone in the southern part of the county and by
the Alachua formation and Pleistocene sand in a belt west of Lake Tsala
Apopka. A wave-cut terrace on which some old beach sand remains borders
the Gulf coast and abuts against a steep cliff in which Ocala limestone is ex-
posed. The Crystal River Rock Company works this limestone to a depth
of 121 feet below the top of the cliff in sections 1 and 6, T. 19 N., Rs. 17 and
18 E., 5 miles southeast of Crystal River. The limestone is exposed also in
several quarries and old phosphate pits in the eastern part of the county be-
tween Istachatta and Holder. It makes a low rocky platform in the vicinity
of Homosassa, and it crops out, in silicified form, at many places in Tsala
Apopka Lake. The rock at Homosassa contains Lepidocyclina ocalana Cush-
man, L. ocalana subdecorata Cushman, L. pseudomarginata Cushman, L. flor-
idana Cushman, and unidentified Miliolidae.
Levy County.-Soft, cream-colored, granular, nummulitic Ocala lime-
stone underlies the bog iron ore on the old Studsill place, about 3 miles north-
west of Levyville. It is exposed in natural wells. Yellowish or cream-colored
limestone containing Lepidocyclina floridana Cushman, a few Bryozoa, and
indeterminable mollusks rises 6 feet above water level in Manatee Spring,
which bursts up from a deep hole in the Ocala limestone near Suwannee River.
Ocala limestone is exposed in Willow Sink and several other sinks in the SE.
1/4 sec. 34, T. 11 S., R. 14 E., 11/2 or 2 miles west of Chiefland. It is white
or cream-colored and contains Lepidocyclina pseudocarinata, L. floridana, L.
ocalana, echinoids, and Pecten sp. The rock rises about 13 feet above water
level and extends at least 20 feet below. The rock exposed at Wekiva Spring,
12 miles south of Bronson, is compact to granular cream-colored or yellow-
ish limestone composed chiefly of small Foraminifera. It rises 3 or 4 feet
above water and extends 23 feet below the water in the spring. A sample
taken about 4 feet beneath the surface of the water does not differ materially
from that above water.
Many quarries for road metal have been opened in the Ocala limestone
in Levy County. The pit of the Florida Shell Rock Company, 2 miles north
of Williston, shows 38 feet or more of pure, soft limestone that seems some-
what more compact and less friable than that found elsewhere in the forma-
tion.
Dixie County.-Many shallow pits in the Ocala limestone supply the local
demand for road metal in Dixie County. The entire county is underlain by
the Ocala limestone, which at most places lies near the surface.
Lafayette County.-The Ocala limestone lies at or near the surface every-
where in Lafayette County except in the western part, where it is covered by
the Tampa limestone. The best natural exposures of the Ocala are in the
banks of Suwannee River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county.
Twelve feet of limestone is visible at Troy Springs, 10 feet at Fort McComb,








OCALA LIMESTONE.


6 feet at Dowling Park, and about the same amount at many other places
along the river. Much of the rock on Suwannee River is casehardened and
weathered into tubular cavities. It contains several species of orbitoid
Foraminifera, including Lepidocyclina ocalana, L. pseudomarginata, and L.
floridana; Ostrea podagrina, Pecten suwanneensis, Rumphia eldridgei, and
many other fossils.
A large road-metal quarry has been opened in the Ocala limestone 5 miles
northwest of Mayo. Part of the rock is pure white; other parts are buff-
colored. The limestone is friable, porous, and not at all compact. The fol-
lowing fossils have been found in it (Station 11114) :
Ostrea podagrina Dall Cassidulus n. sp.
Pecten suwanneensis Dall Schizaster floridanus Clark
Pecten sp. Operculina sp.
Pinna quadrata Dall? Orbitoid foraminifera
Tubulostium n. sp. Bryozoa
Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell)
Madison County.-The exposures of the Ocala limestone in Madisonr
County are confined to the banks of Suwannee River and are visible only at
low water. Elsewhere the Ocala is buried beneath the Glendon, Tampa, and
Hawthorn formations.
Suwannee County.-The Ocala limestone borders the southern and west-
ern parts of Suwannee County as far north as the bridges of the Seaboard
Air Line Railway and State Highway Number 1 across Suwannee River.
North of this point and away from the river the Ocala is covered by the
Glendon, Tampa, and Hawthorn formations. Near Live Oak it lies about 90
feet below the surface.
About 10 feet of limestone is exposed on the left bank of Suwannee River
at and above the bridge of the old Florida Railroad (from Live Oak to Mayo)
and at intervals below to an island at the foot of the shoals. The rock is soft,
cream-colored or white, and is composed chiefly of Foraminifera, including
Operculina sp., Lepidocyclina fragilis, and L. ocalana. Ostrea podagrina
is common. Pecten sitwanneensis is locally abundant. It contains also Ovula
mrulticarinata and Rumphia eldridgei. About 7 feet more of limestone can
be seen beneath water in a large spring 300 or 400 yards above the bridge.
Associated with the Ocala limestone, and apparently immediately overlying
it, are irregular lumps of hard, cream-colored or yellow limestone containing
many casts of mollusks. This rock is similar to the Glendon limestone at
Ellaville and is probably at the same horizon. Scattered all around the
neighborhood are large angular masses of Tampa chert containing many
Cassidulus gouldii.
In the bank of Suwannee River at Branford 10 feet of cream-colored or
yellowish Ocala limestone contains many nummulities, Lepidocyclina pseudo-
carinata Cushman, L. ocalana Cushman, Amusium ocalanum Dall, and several
echinoids. The rock varies from hard to soft and granular.








58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The Ocala extends away from the river as far as O'Brien, where there is
a small outcrop of it, but not far north of O'Brien it is covered by the Tampa
and Hawthorn formations. Many small pits have been excavated in the Ocala
limestone in the southern part of Suwannee County. The T. A. Thompson
pit, 21/, miles west of Hildreth, shows at least 25 feet of soft, compact, cream-
white, pure limestone.
Itchtucknee Spring, about 3 miles northeast of Hildreth, issues as a good-
sized stream from the Ocala limestone at its contact with the Tampa limestone
and flows across the Ocala to Santa Fe River. The rock exposed at the spring
contains many orbitoid Foraminifera and a few mollusks.
Columbia County.-The Ocala limestone is found at the surface in Colum-
bia County along -Santa Fe River and in the old phosphate mines near Fort
White. Elsewhere it is covered by the Tampa and Hawthorn formations.
Jackson County.-The Ocala limestone in Jackson County extends from
Marianna to the Alabama line and from Chattahoochee River to Graceville.
Lumps of rock containing Lepidocyclina sp. and Amusium ocalanum have
been found at Glass Cross Roads, 6 miles northwest of Cottondale. Limestone
in place is exposed to a thickness of 10 feet on the road and on a hillock
south of the road from Campbellton to Marianna, 2.7 miles southeast of
Campbellton. Exposures have been noted at a point 5.2 miles from Camp-
bellton. A ledge of Ocala limestone is exposed beneath 35 feet of Marianna
limestone in the SE. 1/4 sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., on the Bellamys Ferry
Road, 1.2 miles north of the Marianna-Springfield road. The natural bridge
over Carters Mill Creek in section 20 shows 27 feet of hard white Ocala lime-
stone containing softer patches. Some of it is composed chiefly of Fora-
minifera and Bryozoa. The natural bridge of the Chipola River is also
formed of Ocala limestone. The Ocala limestone, overlain by the Marianna
limestone, crops out-in the SE. 1/4 sec. 20, T. 5 N., R. 11 W.
The best known sections of the Ocala are on the west bank of Chipola
River at Marianna. The outcrops, which are now partly covered by rubbish
piles, have been described by Cooke.1


iCooke, C. W.: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95, p. 109, 1915, and Prof. Paper 108, pp. 109-410,
1917.









TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 6.



N6 all


(B)
CHIMNEY ROCK QUARRIES IN MARIANNA LIMESTONE AT
MARIANNA.


(59)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


F









60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SECTION ON CHIPOLA RIVER AT MARIANNA.
Feet.
Oligocene; Marianna limestone:
5. Alternating hard and softer beds of light-colored limestone,
very hard and compact in places, locally semicrystalline.
The lower part contains considerable glauconite. The
upper part has been quarried for building stone and con-
tains Lepidocyclina mantelli, Pecten poulsoni, Clypeaster
rogersi, and casts of other fossils ...................... 30
Eocene; Ocala limestone:
4. Partly concealed; a ledge of hard, brownish, slightly glau-
conitic limestone containing thick-centered lepidocyclinas
at top ............................................... 6
3. Hard, creamy-white semicrystalline limestone like bed 1 but
harder; Asterocyclina mariannensis var. papillata, Arca
sp., Glycymeris sp., Amusium ocalanum, Plicatula sp.,
Venericardia sp. .................................. 11/%
2. Concealed ............................... ............... 4
1. Soft, cream-colored, porous limestone, composed largely of
Foraminifera loosely packed together; many Bryozoa, Fla-
bellum sp., Terebratulina lachryma?, Pecten indecisus,
Amusium ocalanum, Plicatula sp., etc.; forms bed of river
and extends above water level ......................... 5

Canu and Bassler2 list 56 species of Bryozoa from bed 1 of the section
at Marianna. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has identified the Foraminifera in
the following list from the same bed:

LARGER FORAMINIFERA FROM THE OCALA LIMESTONE AT MARIANNA.
Operculina ocalana Cushman Asterocyclina mariannensis var. papillata
Operculina sp., probably new (Cushman) Vaughan
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman Asterocyclina georgiana (Cushman)
Lepidocyclina georgiana Cushman Vaughan
Pseudophragmina floridana (Cushman) Asterocyclina vaughani (Cushman)
H. Douville Vaughan?
Discocyclina citrensis Vaughan Asterocyclina americana (Cushman)
Asterocyclina mariannensis (Cushman) Vaughan?
Vaughan Asterocyclina sp., apparently new

Holmes County.-The lower, sandy part of the Ocala limestone is exposed
at a few places on Choctawhatchee River near the Alabama line but nowhere
else in Florida. At Cold Spring, just above the Alabama-Florida line, an 8-
foot bank consists of light, dirty-gray, speckled, sandy marl containing mica
and a little glauconite. A very fine-grained, sandy, shaly marl, which does
not stand up in walls like the coarser beds farther upstream, shows to a height
of 4 feet above the water on the east bank at the bend a mile or two below
the Alabama line.

2Canu, Ferdinand, and Bassler, R. S., North American early Tertiary Bryozoa: U. S. Nat. Mus.
Bull. 106. 879 pn.. 279 figs.. 162 lls.. 1920.








OCALA LIMESTONE.


Typical Ocala limestone containing Asterocyclina sp. and many specimens
of Amusium ocalanum Dall crops out on the east bank of Choctawhatchee
River at a turpentine landing about a mile above the mouth of Wright or
Hurricane Creek and was struck also in digging the foundation for a bridge
at Caryville.
Washington County.-The only known outcrops of the Ocala limestone
in Washington County are in the vicinity of Duncan. Thirty feet of white to
cream-colored, soft limestone containing many orbitoid Foraminifera is ex-
posed in a large sink near Duncan Church, 7 miles southwest of Chipley.
Rock for chimneys and tombstones has been quarried from the sink. There
are at least two other quarries not far away, in sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W. An
analysis of limestone from one of the quarries shows that it contains more
than 99 per cent. of calcium carbonate.


OLIGOCENE ROCKS.

VICKSBURG GROUP.
All the geological formations of the Gulf States that are now referred to
the Oligocene series form a geologic unit, the Vicksburg group. Formerly
the "Apalachicola group" of Matson, which included deposits of Tampa and
Alum Bluff ages, was classed also as Oligocene; but first the Alum Bluff
group and later the deposits of Tampa age were transferred to the Miocene.
These changes were brought about not by any new discoveries in correlation
but by the shifting downward of the arbitrary line separating the Oligocene
from the Miocene to conform with the current classification of the standard
sections in Europe. The upper and lower limits of the Oligocene series as
now accepted coincide with sharp faunal changes as well as with considerable
shifting of the ancient shore lines and appear to be well chosen.
The marine Vicksburg group, where fully developed in Mississippi and
Alabama, consists of four formations, the Red Bluff clay at the bottom, the
Marianna limestone, the Glendon formation, and the Byram marl.1 In Florida
only three of these formations, the Marianna limestone, the Glendon lime-
stone, and the Byram marl have been definitely recognized, and all of them
are confined to the northern part of the State. The Red Bluff clay is repre-
sented in Florida by impure beds at the base of the Marianna limestone, but
it is not sufficiently distinct to be regarded as an independent formation.


'Cooke, C. W., The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, pp.
1-9. 1923.








TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 7.


FOSSILS FROM THE VICKSBURG GROUP.
(After Cooke.)
1, Pecten poulsoni Morton. 2, P. anatipes Morton. 3, Scapharca lesueuri Dall.
4, Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad. 5, Astarte triangulata Meyer. 6, Orthaulax pugnax
(Heilprin). 7, Clypeaster rogersi (Morton). 8, Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton).
(62)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


MARIANNA LIMESTONE.
GENERAL FEATURES.
The Marianna limestone was named by Matson' in 1909 from exposures
at Marianna, Jackson County, and defined as follows: "The name Marianna
limestone is here given to the soft, porous, light-gray to white limestones of
western Florida, which are characterized by an abundance of Orbitoides man-
telli and other Foraminifera associated with many other fossils, prominent
among which are Pecten poulsoni and P. perplanus." This definition, inter-
preted by the aid of localities referred specifically to the Marianna limestone
by Matson, includes not only the Marianna limestone as now restricted but
all the Ocala limestone-and most of the Glendon formation of western Florida.
The recognition of the Ocala limestone in western Florida, the detection
of it beneath the Marianna limestone, and the discovery that Pecten perplanus
(of authors) is a characteristic fossil of the Ocala and does not occur in the
Marianna limestone, made redefinition of the Marianna necessary.2
The description by Matson3 of two sections at the type locality made, it
possible to redefine the formation without departing far from the original
concept. The Marianna limestone is now defined as the white limestone or
"chimney rock" that overlies the Ocala limestone at Marianna and carries
Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pecten poulsoni.
The Marianna limestone is a soft, white, homogeneous, somewhat porous
rock. The purer parts contain, according to Mossom,4 93 to 95 per cent cal-
cium carbonate. The lower beds are less pure and are speckled with grains
of glauconite. Most exposures of the formation show several ledges of hard,
compact limestone, which stand out conspicuously from the softer beds be-
tween them. The rock weathers to a dirty gray.
The thickness of the Marianna limestone in Florida probably does not
much exceed 50 feet, although it is as much as 80 feet in Alabama. No com-
plete section of the formation is known in Florida.- An exposure at the high-
way bridge near Marianna shows about 30 feet of Marianna limestone resting
on the Ocala, and another exposure near the town shows 11 or 12 feet more.
The known outcrops of the Marianna limestone in Florida are confined
to a strip in Jackson County a few miles wide and about 15 miles long, which
extends from the vicinity of Blue Springs, east of Marianna, to Cottondale.
The formation appears to be entirely lacking in the Peninsula, which probably
stood above water while the Marianna was being deposited elsewhere. Out-


1Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Second Ann. Rept., pp. 51-52, 1909.
2CGooke, C. W., The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95, p. 109, 1915.
3Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., op. cit., p. 57.
4Mossom, Stuart, A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept p. 72, 1925.








64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

side of Florida the Marianna limestone is known only in Alabama and Mis-
sissippi. Many exposures of the characteristic "chimney rock" occur in the
area between Murder Creek, in Conecuh County, Alabama, and Pearl River,
south of Jackson, Miss., and a somewhat different facies of the formation is
recognizable as far west as the Mississippi at Vicksburg.
The area in which the Marianna limestone forms the country rock is rolling
or hilly. The disintegration of the limestone gives rise to red or yellowish
stiff clay and red or brown heavy clay loam, which are classified by the United
States Bureau of Soils as "Greenville clay."'
The Marianna limestone appears to rest conformably upon the Ocala lime-
stone; at least, no indication of erosion of the top of the Ocala before the
Marianna was deposited has been detected. An interruption in active depo-
sition, or at least a pronounced slowing up in the rate of sedimentation at the
end of Eocene time, is suggested by the presence of considerable glauconite
in the basal beds of the Marianna. Widespread crustal upwarping at the end
of Ocala time in southern United States is indicated by the absence of
deposits of Marianna age from the region east of the Apalachicola River,
whereas the Ocala or its equivalents are found as far east as Wilmington,
N. C. A conglomeratic layer near the base of the Marianna at Marianna
probably indicates temporary shoaling of the water there.
Further effects of changed conditions are shown by the sudden impover-
ishment of the marine fauna at the end of Eocene time. Very few of the
Ocala species survived in Oligocene time. The numerous species of orbitoid
Foraminifera perished completely, and the only representative of the group
in the Marianna is a new form, Lepidocyclina mantelli (Morton), which seems
to be restricted to that formation. The profusion of pectens in the Ocala also
disappeared and were replaced by Pecten poulsoni Morton, whose ancestors
appear not to have lived in the Ocala sea. Clypeaster rogersi (Morton), a
sea urchin, was also a newcomer. These three species are figured on Plate 7.
Bryozoa are less numerous in the Marianna in Florida than in Alabama, where
about one-fourth of the more than 80 species listed are reported also from the
Eocene.
In Alabama the Marianna limestone is overlain conformably by the Glen-
don limestone. The contact of the Marianna with the unaltered Glendon has
not been observed in Florida, but the stratigraphic relations of the two forma-
tions are presumably the same as in Alabama. At Marianna residual clays
that were probably derived from the Glendon overlie the Marianna limestone.
The Marianna limestone was supposed by Matson2 to be the stratigraphic
equivalent of the upper part of the bluff at Vicksburg, Miss., but later inves-
tigators have shown that the Byram marl forms the upper bed at Vicksburg.

1Jones, Grove B., and others, Soil survey of the Marianna area, Florida: U. S. Bureau of Soils,
Field Operations, 1909, p. 639, 1912.
2Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., op. cit., 52, 1909.








MARIANNA LIMESTONE.


The hard ledges below the Byram that form waterfalls are supposed to be of
Glendon age, and the softer marl and sandy shell bed at the base of the bluff
(the Mint Spring marl member) are the equivalent of the Marianna "chimney
rock."1 The lower part of the Marianna limestone as far west as Tombigbee
River appears to be the equivalent of the Red Bluff clay of Mississippi and
western Alabama.2
The softer and purer parts of the Marianna limestone, when freshly ex-
posed, can readily be cut by saws into blocks that harden into durable building
material. The rock is used principally in constructing chimneys and is there-
fore popularly known as "chimney rock." In rural districts in Alabama
where other material suitable for this use is not at hand old chimneys built
of Marianna limestone are found many miles from the quarries, but in Florida
the use of the "chimney rock" is more local. Several warehouses in Marianna
and Cottondale are built of this rock.

LOCAL DETAILS.
Jackson County.-As already stated, Jackson County is the only one in
which outcrops of the Marianna limestone have been discovered. The rock
is so uniform that exposures of it show little diversity; most of the pits that
have been opened in it are very much alike.
The locality that may be regarded as typical of the Marianna limestone
lies at Marianna, on the west side of Chipola River. Roads leading to the old
bridge and to the new bridge (built in 1927) have been cut through the rock,
and "chimney-rock" quarries in the hillside south of the old road give addi-
tional exposures of the limestone. The section at this place described on
page 60 includes 30 feet of Marianna limestone. Weathered outcrops of the
formation appear as alternating hard and softer ledges of gray limestone, but
in fresh exposures the rock is a very homogeneous soft, white limestone. The
lower part contains some glauconite. An analysis of limestone from one of
the "chimney-rock" pits shows that the rock contains 95.8 per cent of calcium
carbonate.3
The upper part of the Marianna limestone is exposed in ditches in the
eastern part of Marianna. The base of the exposure is 22 feet above the top
of the Ocala limestone at the bridge, but the stratigraphic interval, because
of dip, is probably somewhat greater. The material consists of 8 feet of light
olive-drab hackly clay containing a harder ledge of friable argillaceous lime.
stone in the middle and merging below into "chimney rock." The lower part
contains Nummulites sp., Lepidocyclina mantelli Morton, and Pecten poulsoni
Morton. The Marianna is overlain unconformably by 22 feet of coarse
orange-red pebbly sand and patches of greenish clay.

'Cooke, C. W., Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Mississippi and
Alabama: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 8, p. 195, 1918.
'The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, p. 2, 1923.
3Mossom, Stuart, Florida Geol. Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 146, 1925.








66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The Marianna limestone is exposed also in bluffs along the western bank
of Chipola River below the bridge of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad
below Marianna.
"Chimney rock" is quarried at several pits east of the river near Marianna.
According to Mossom1 20 feet of soft, chalky limestone containing 97.6 per
cent of calcium carbonate is exposed in M. R. Burton's pit, 21/2 miles northeast
of Marianna, and 15 feet of somewhat less pure limestone in Philip Sexton's
pit, 13/4 miles northeast of Marianna.
The Marianna limestone has been extensively quarried on the north bank
of Blue Spring Creek, 4 miles east of Marianna, for use as building blocks.
About 30 feet of rock is exposed, but only the lower part is quarried. The
upper part contains hard ledges that are not so well suited for sawing.
Large masses of Marianna limestone were found on the Butler road, one
mile from Blue Spring, associated with masses of partly silicified white lime-
stone (Glendon?).
On Penn Street, in Marianna, 35 feet of "chimney rock" is exposed in the
SE. 1/4 sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 10 W. Beneath the Marianna a ledge of Ocala
limestone contains large orbitoid Foraminifera and a few mollusks. The rock
is also exposed at several places within a mile farther north, on the same road.
The Marianna limestone crops out at several places along the Springfield
road in sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., and its contact with the Ocala limestone
was found in the SW. 1/4 sec. 20.
The Marianna limestone is quarried on the north side of the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad, half a mile east of Cottondale. Although 20 feet of rock
is exposed, only the lowest 10 to 15 feet is utilized. The lower part is soft,
very pure, homogeneous white limestone. The upper part, in hard and soft
ledges, contains many shells of Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pecten poulsoni
and a few remains of Clypeaster rogersi. One of the upper ledges is filled
with a small nummulite. A few feet of brownish-gray soft argillaceous lime-
stone at the very top of the section contains many impressions of a large
Lepidocyclina, presumably L. mantelli.
On the land of M. A. Spate, a mile and a half north of Cottondale, the
chalky soft Marianna limestone is covered by a foot or less of soil. Eight
feet of the limestone, which contains 93.9 per cent of calcium carbonate, is
exposed in a small quarry.
A small patch of Marianna limestone is laid bare on the floor of Rabbs
Valley, 31/2 miles southeast of Cottondale. An analysis of a sample from
the property of G. H. Cartledge shows 97.8 per cent calcium carbonate.2


1Mossom, Stuart, A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 147, 1925.
2Mossom, Stuart, op. cit., p. 149.








GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


GLENDON LIMESTONE.
GENERAL FEATURES.
The name Glendon limestone was proposed for a member of the Marianna
limestone in an unpublished manuscript written by C. W. Cooke in 1916.
The name was adopted by the United States Geological Survey and used in
an economic report the following year.1 In 1918 Cooke2 briefly described
the formation and indicated its distribution in Mississippi and Alabama.
Five years later he discovered that the chert-bearing beds of southwestern
Georgia and southeastern Alabama, which had formerly been classed as the
basal part of the Chattahoochee formation, are of Vicksburg age, and corre-
lated them with the Glendon limestone. Because the Glendon, as thus ex-
panded, is more widely distributed than the typical Marianna limestone, con-
tains a large and characteristic fauna, and transgresses older formations, he
raised it to the rank of formation.3 The distribution of the Glendon formation
in Georgia has been outlined by Prettyman and Cave4 and the stratigraphy in
Alabama has been summarized by Cooke.5
The Glendon limestone was first recognized in Florida by Cooke,6 who
in 1923 listed fossils characteristic of it from Holmes and Washington coun-
ties. The first comprehensive description of the formation is contained in
Mossom's report on the limestones and marls of the State.7 Mossom included
in the Glendon not only the true Glendon but also the limestone of the north-
ern part of the Peninsula that contains Cassidulus gouldii, an echinoid for-
merly considered as characteristic of the Glendon but now known to range
up into the Tampa.
The unweathered part of the Glendon formation consists of hard cream-
colored, yellowish, or pinkish limestone. It is generally more or less porous
and, like the Ocala, is composed largely of the remains of marine organisms.
Where the limestone has been long exposed to the weather part or all of its
soluble portion has been removed and the insoluble residue has been more or
less distorted by settling. Lumps of silicified limestone or chert, commonly
containing casts and moulds of fossil shells, are embedded in red, white, purple,
or mottled residual clay. Mingled with these products of disintegrated lime-


'Hopkins, 0. B., Oil and gas possibilities of the Hatchetigbee anticline, Alabama: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 661, p. 300, 1917.
2cooke, C. W., Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Mississippi and
Alabama: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 8, p. 195, 1918.
"Cooke, C. W., The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133,
p. 3, 1923.
4Prettyman, T. M., and Cave, H. S., Petroleum and natural gas possibilities in Georgia: Georgia
Geol. Survey Bull. 40, p. 81, 1923.
'Cooke, C. W., Geology of Alabama: Alabama Geol. Survey Special Pub. 14, pp. 285-287, 1926.
"Cooke, C. W.: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, pp. 4, 7, 1923.
7Mossom, Stuart, A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., pp. 27-195, 1925.







68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

stone are scattered patches of coarse reddish gravel, which appear to be rem-
nants of younger deposits (especially of the Citronelle formation) that for-
merly rested upon the surface of the limestone but that have been lowered
from their original position by the collapse of the dissolved rock. Where
fossiliferous cherts are absent the residual clay of the Glendon formation can
usually be distinguished from primary clays of other formations by the dis-
tortion of its beds.
In the type area (Clarke County, Ala.) the Glendon limestone is only 18
or 20 feet thick. It becomes thicker toward the east, but its thickness does
not exceed 40 feet at any exposure in Alabama. The greatest thickness
observed at any outcrop in Florida is 661/2 feet at Falling Water, near Chipley.
The Glendon formation extends from Mississippi River at Vicksburg to the
Savannah River valley in Allendale County, South Carolina. In Florida the
formation extends from a few miles west of Choctawhatchee River to Chatta-
hoochee River. It is cut into by Suwannee River below Ellaville, but it
appears to be entirely absent from the southern part of the Peninsula, which
may have formed an island in the Glendon sea.
Much of the surface of the Glendon limestone has been reduced to a nearly
level plain, which is dotted with many sinks and depressions. The soils of
this region are derived chiefly from residual clay but are modified by the
admixture of sand and gravel from younger formations. Those parts of the
Glendon area that have not been so thoroughly reduced are more hilly and
show more outcrops of rock.
The Glendon limestone in Mississippi and western Alabama rests con-
formably upon the Marianna "chimney rock." Although no contact of the
two has been found in Florida, the same relations probably exist there. Where
the Marianna is absent the Glendon rests unconformably upon the Ocala lime-
stone. In eastern Alabama the Glendon overlaps the Eocene formations as
far as the Tallahatta formation, and in Georgia it extends to the Midway, of
lower Eocene age. The Byram marl, which conformably overlies the Glendon
limestone in Mississippi and western Alabama, appears to occupy only a
small area in Florida; elsewhere the Tampa limestone and the Chipola for-
mation lie unconformably upon the Glendon.
The Glendon limestone furnishes one of the most satisfactory tie points
for the correlation of the deposits of the Coastal Plain of the United States
with formations in the West Indies and Europe. The coral reef at Bainbridge,
Ga., was long ago recognized as the stratigraphic equivalent of the reef in
the Antigua formation of the island of Antigua,1 which, in turn, bears a close
resemblance to the Rupelian deposits of Italy.2 Twelve genera of corals are
represented by closely related species in Italy and in Antigua or at Bainbridge,
and some of the species may be identical.

1Vaughan, T. W., A Tertiary coral reef, near Bainbridge, Ga.: Science, new ser., vol. 12, pp.
873-875, 1900.
2Vaughan, T. W., Fossils corals from Central America [etc.]: U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, PP.
202-203, 205-206, 1919.









GLENDON LIMESTONE.


The fauna of the Glendon formation includes many organisms besides
corals. The Foraminifera are well represented by several large species of
Lepidocyclina, including L. chattahoocheensis, L. supera, L. gigas, and L.
undosa, and by many species of smaller genera. Cushman' lists 43 foramini-
feral species and varieties of which only three are restricted to the Glendon.
The echinoid Clypeaster rogersi is less common in Florida than in Alabama,
and Cassidulus gouldii, which seems to be fairly common in the Glendon of
Georgia, has not yet been found in the Glendon of Florida, although it is very
abundant in the Tampa limestone of the Peninsula. Bryozoa appear to be
less common in Florida than in Alabama. Mollusks are very abundant but
usually not well preserved. Among the most common or characteristic
species are Glycymeris cookei, Pecteii poulsoni, Pecten anatipes and several
undescribed pectens, Ostrea vicksburgensis, Chione bainbridgensis, Orthaulax
pugnax, many cerithiums, and Tuzrritella mississippiensis, but not all of these
are restricted to the Glendon. Most of the species named are figured on
Plate 7. The flora, represented by calcareous algae, has not been studied.

LOCAL DETAILS.
Holmes County.-Clays derived from the Glendon limestone cover a large
part of Holmes County, but outcrops of the unaltered limestone are scarce.
Blue Spring, probably in sec. 6, T. 5 N., R. 16 W., on the west bank of Choc-
tawhatchee River, issues from yellow limestone containing Lepidocyclina sp.,
but no rock is visible above water level. Similar rock crops out in the bank
of the river below the mouth of Seven Runs, about half a mile below Wright
or Hurricane Creek.
Fossiliferous chert, residual from Glendon limestone, is common in the
northern part of the county, especially in the region south of Pea River.
Some of the species are named in the following list:

STATION 10104. HOLMES COUNTY, FLA., HALF A MILE SOUTH OF THE STATE
LINE ON THE ROAD FROM GENEVA, ALA., TO WESTVILLE, FLA.
COOKE AND GARDNER, COLLECTORS, JUNE 9, 1921.

Lepidocyclina undosa Cushman Pteria argentea (Conrad)
Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman var. Pecten anatipes Morton
Lepidocyclina sp. Pecten poulsoni Morton
Nummulites sp. Spondylus filiaris Dall
Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin) Arcoperna inflata Dall
Ampullina streptostoma (Heilprin) ? Cardium sp.
Ficus mississippiensis Conrad Chione sp.
Xenophora sp. Clypeaster rogersi (Morton)
Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad Crab claw


'Cushman, J. A., The Foraminifera of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
133, 1923.








70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Washington County.-The Glendon limestone or its residual product lies
at or near the surface everywhere in the northern half of Washington County
except in a small area near Duncan, where the underlying Ocala limestone
is reached by sinks. Exposures west of Holmes Creek are few. East of
Holmes Creek they are more numerous, especially in the area south of Chipley.
The chimneys of several houses in the western part of Washington County
are built of cream-colored fossiliferous Glendon limestone. The rock is said
to have come from a quarry somewhere in the western part of sec. 9, T. 3 N.,
R. 16 W., near Choctawhatchee River.
The best-known and thickest exposure of the Glendon limestone is at Fall-
ing Water, in the NW1/4 sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 4 miles south of Chipley.
Falling Water is a lime sink in which a small stream plunges over a vertical
wall 68 feet high into a cylindrical pit about 20 feet in diameter and flows
out through a low cavern at the bottom. One can climb down without diffi-
culty to within 35 feet of the bottom, but the lower part is inaccessible without
a rope or other scaling device. A well was drilled near the sink in 1919-1921
by the Chipley Oil Company to a depth of 4912 feet. The following section,
measured in 1914, has been somewhat modified by later observations:

SECTION AT FALLING WATER.
Feet.
Pliocene; Citronelle formation:
4. Yellow and red sand with coarse pebbles at the bottom, partly
mantled by weathered sand. To top of hill.............. 50
Unconformity.
Miocene; Tampa limestone:
3. Gray argillaceous sand, mottled with red and yellow .......... 10
2. Soft argillaceous limestone with pockets of greenish clay; con-
tains the following fossils (Station 10111) : Sorites duplex
Carpenter, Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad, Ostrea sp., Pecten
sp. cf. P. gabbi Dall, Pecten anguillensis Guppy, Pecten
gardnerae Cooke, Pecten crocus Cooke.................... 16
Unconformity.
Oligocene; Glendon limestone:
1. White to cream-colored, soft, granular limestone composed in
large part of Foraminifera; very uniform from top to
bottom of pit; contains Lepidocyclina sp., Cerithium silici-
fluvium Dall? Cardium sp., Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad,
Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) .......................... 65

Another well-known outcrop of the Glendon limestone is at Cedar Grove,
2.3 miles by road south of Chipley. To reach Cedar Grove drive south from
the railroad past the waterworks 1.9 mile, turn right on a secondary road and
go 0.4 mile to the sink. The Glendon limestone at Cedar Grove forms the
wall of an amphitheater-shaped sink 40 feet deep. The faces on the north
and west sides of the sink are steep, but those on the other sides have a gentle
slope. The rock is white granular limestone composed largely of Fora-








GLENDON LIMESTONE.


minifera and calcareous algae. Bryozoa are not abundant. When freshly
quarried the rock is soft and friable, but it hardens on exposures and weath-
ers very rough on the surface. At the sink are the remains of a lime kiln
and rock crusher. Some of the rock from Cedar Grove has been used in
Chipley for building ornamental walls and as road metal.
More than 50 feet of Glendon limestone can be seen on the hillside above
a sink crossed by the road to Rock Hill, about 21/2 miles south by east of
Chipley. The lower exposures are yellowish and much decomposed. The
rock has the appearance of chert but seems not to be silicified. The limestone
on top of the hill is compact, white, hard, and contains many Lepidocyclinas
and Nummulites. The fossils from this locality (Station 10049), from
Cedar Grove (Station 10046), and from a rock pile in Chipley said to have
come from Cedar Grove (Station 10114) are listed below:1

SPECIES FROM CEDAR GROVE AND SOUTHEAST OF CHIPLEY.
Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman var. Cassis caelatura (Conrad)
Lepidocyclina n. sp. Cypraea sp.
Diploastrea crassolamellata (Duncan) Lima halensis Dall
Vaughan Ostrea vicksburgensis Conrad
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) Vaughan Pecten anatipes Morton
Stylophora sp. Pecten sp. cf. P. gabbi Dall
Conomitra vicksburgensis (Conrad) ? Pecten sp.
Turbo? sp. Pecten sp.
Architectonica sp. Teredo sp.
Crucibulum sp. Calcareous algae

According to Mossom2 Glendon limestone lies at the surface and is exposed
in sink holes on the B. M. Waldon place, 31/2 miles southeast of Chipley,
and on the W. T. Laney place, 3 miles east of south of Chipley. A sample of
limestone from a sink on the Waldon place contains 92.7 per cent of calcium
carbonate, and one from the Laney place contains 97.6 per cent of calcium
carbonate.
Jackson County.-Few exposures of the Glendon limestone are known in
Jackson County. Obscure outcrops of limestone near Kynesville probably
represent the Glendon, and unfossiliferous chert in a road cut about 2 miles
south of Alford may be of the same age. East of this area the Glendon ap-
pears to be overlapped by the Byram marl for about 20 miles, but it re-
appears in the neighborhood of Chattahoochee River. Glendon chert con-
taining Lepidocyclina sp., Pecten, and other fossils, was found in a shallow
sink on the Marianna road 31. miles west of Butler. At Fairchild Landing,
on the Georgia side of Chattahoochee River, about a mile and a half above
Butler Ferry, large masses of porous and vitreous chert containing several

'Cooke. C. Wythe. The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133,
p. 7. 1923.
2Mossom, Stuart, Florida Geol. Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 189, 1925.









72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

species of Lepidocyclina are associated with gray, sandy clay that is probably
residual from the Glendon limestone. Similar conditions exist on Flint
River near Bainbridge, Ga.
Suwannee County.-A thin bed of Glendon limestone intervenes between
the top of the Ocala limestone and the bottom of the Tampa limestone along
Suwannee River below Ellaville. This bed passes below water level a short
distance above the bridge of the Seaboard Air Line Railway and is concealed
at ordinary stages at the mouth of the Withlacoochee. Its extension down-
stream has not been thoroughly traced. Because of the unconformity at its
top, which separates it from the Tampa limestone, and the unconformity at
its bottom that must separate it from the Ocala if it has been correctly diag-
nosed as Glendon, the bed probably varies considerably in thickness and may
be absent altogether at some places where it has been mapped. Its extension
to the Gulf at the mouth of Steinhatchee River, in Taylor County, as mapped,
is entirely hypothetical.
The following section was measured in 1913 at the Seaboard Air Line
Railroad bridge below the mouth of the Withlacoochee:

SECTION ON EAST BANK SUWANNEE RIVER OPPOSITE ELLAVILLE.
Feet.
Pleistocene:
5. Upper part concealed; lower part is argillaceous yellow sand
containing small pebbles; the top is level with rail at
bridge ............................................... 16%
Unconformity.
Miocene; Tampa limestone:
4. Hard, cream-colored to yellow limestone resembling bed 3
but very massive and without bedding planes; Cassidulus
gouldii Bouve very abundant........................... 10%
3. Hard, chalky-white to pink, compact, crystalline limestone;
lower 2 feet appear to be brecciated; upper part is thin-
bedded .............................................. 4
Unconformity.
Oligocene; Glendon limestone:
2. Soft, white, marly limestone, indurated in places; contains a
few Bryozoa and many fragments of Clypeaster rogersi
M orton? ............................................. 2
1. White or creamy yellow compact limestone loaded with casts
of mollusks (Station 6824); honeycombed by solution;
extends to water level ................................ 5%

The fossils in the following list show that bed 1 of the preceding section
is of Vicksburg age. Correlation of this bed with the Glendon limestone,
although not absolutely proved, is very probable.










GLENDON LIMESTONE.


STATION 6842, EAST BANK OF SUWANNEE RIVER AT THE SEABOARD AIR LINE
RAILWAY BRIDGE AT ELLAVILLE, FLA., FROM 33 FEET BELOW RAIL TO
WATER LEVEL. C. WYTHE COOKE, COLLECTOR, Nov. 22, 1913.


Lepidocyclina sp.
Balanophyllia sp.
Clypeaster rogersi (Morton) ?
Lunularia distans (Lonsdale)
Crab
Scaphander sp.
Bulla sp.
Conus sp.
Olivella affluens Casey
Mitra conquisita Conrad
Conomitra vicksburgensis (Conrad) ?
Fusinus? sp.
Turritella caelatura Conrad
Turritella mississippiensis Conrad?
Turritella sp.
Cassis sp.
Cypraea sp.
Natica sp.


Ficus mississippiensis Conrad
Archtectonica trilirata (Conrad)
Dentalium sp.
Glycymeris intercostatus (Gabb)
Pecten sp.
Pteria argentea (Conrad)
Pinna sp.
Phacoides (Here) wacissa'nus Dall
Phacoides (Miltha) sp.
Chione mississippiensis (Conrad) ?
Chione sp. cf. C. craspedonia Dall
Psammosolen sp.
Corbula laqueata Casey
Myrtaea sp.
Tellina sp.
Divaricella sp.
Cardium, 3 sp.
Thracia (Cyathodonta) vicksburgiana Dall


Although the presence of the Ocala limestone is not indicated in the
section described above, it is exposed beneath the Glendon at very low stages
of water in the river, and a very small part of the thickness attributed to the
Glendon may belong to the Ocala. The Ocala is softer and more granular
than the Glendon and contains Rumphia eldridgei (Twitchell), Cassidulus
n. sp., and Lepidocyclina sp.
Hard white or cream-colored limestone like the Glendon at Ellaville and,
like it, containing many casts of shells has been seen above the Ocala lime-
stone on the Suwannee River at Dowling Park at the bridge of the old Florida
Railroad. The fauna of this rock has not been studied.








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.


BYRAM MARL.
GENERAL FEATURES.
The Byram marl of Mississippi and Alabama has been described by
Cooke.1 The present writing is the first attempt to sketch the distribution
of the formation in Florida, although its presence there has been suspected
for some years.2
The Byram marl is the youngest formation of the Vicksburg group. It
takes its name from a village south of Jackson, Mississippi, where it is typi-
cally exposed on Pearl River, but the best-known outcrops are in the upper
part of the bluffs at Vicksburg.
In Mississippi and Alabama the marl appears to be conformable with the
underlying Glendon limestone and unconformable with all younger deposits.
In Florida it may overlap the inner boundary of the Glendon and lie un-
conformably upon the Marianna limestone, but the contact has not been
seen. The contact with the overlying Tampa limestone is exposed on Chipola
River and is unconformable.
The Byram marl in Florida consists chiefly of soft, cream-colored to yellow
very fine-grained sandy limestone. On weathered surfaces the rock is usually
changed to friable calcareous sandstone from which most of the lime has
been dissolved. The thickness of the Byram is unknown. No single ex-
posure as much as 20 feet thick has been discovered.
The Byram marl in Mississippi contains many fossils. Two hundred and
fifty-four species, of which 134 are mollusks, have been listed, and a com-
plete census would doubtless show many more. In Florida the conditions
for the preservation of fossils were less favorable, and very few are well
enough preserved for identification. The most significant species recognized
in Florida are Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad), Pecten poulsoni Morton, and
the little ark shell Anadara lesueuri (Dall) (see Plate 7). All three of these
species are restricted to the Vicksburg group. The first and last are very
abundant in the Byram marl in Mississippi but have been found also in the
Glendon limestone.
The Byram marl crops out in a small area in La Salle and Catahoula
parishes in Louisiana and extends across Mississippi and Alabama as far
as Yellow River, but it is covered at most places by overlaps of younger beds
and is exposed chiefly in valleys. In Florida the formation has been detected
near the Alabama line, at Natural Bridge, in Walton County, and in the
valley of Chipola River in Jackson County.
1Cooke, C. Wythe, Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Mississippi and
Alabama: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 8, np. 186-198. 1918. The Byram calcareous marl
of Mississippi: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, pp. 79-85, 1922. Geology of Alabama. Alabama
Geol. Survey Special Rept. No. 14, pp. 287-294, 1926.
2Cooke, C. Wythe, The correlation of the Vicksburg group: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
133, p. 3, 1923.










BYRAM MARL.


.As the Byram marl is soft and easily decomposed, the land where it
lies at the surface is usually level or gently sloping. Outcrops are confined
to places where running water carries away the sand as rapidly as it is set
free by the disintegration of the marl.

LOCAL DETAILS.

Walton County.-At Natural Bridge, near the northern line of Walton
County, 7 miles east of Florala, Ala., there are several exposures of the
Byram marl. The bridge itself is composed of cream-colored argillaceous
limestone that closely resembles the Marianna "chimney rock" in texture
but is darker. This rock rises 11 feet above the road that crosses the bridge.
It contains Pecten poulsoni Morton and an undescribed species of Pecten.
The arch of the bridge is covered by backwater from a dam, which raises the
water level 8Y2 feet. The base of the exposure at the road is 72 feet above
the water in the mill pond.
Soft cream-colored or yellow limestone extends to a height of 5 feet above
the level of the stream on the right bank about 100 feet below the dam. It con-
tains many shells of Pecten poulsoni.
The following section was measured at a large spring about 300 or 400
feet below the dam:

SECTION AT SPRING BELOW MILL AT NATURAL BRIDGE.
Feet.
Oligocene; Byram marl:
4. Sloping and concealed, about ............................. 15
3. Buff calcareous clay containing nodules of limestone; grades
upward into gray or buff argillaceous limestone. Pecten
poulsoni ........................................... 15
2. Yellowish-brown argillaceous limestone containing casts of
m any fossils ........................ ................ 21/
1. Buff calcareous clay to water level ........................ 5

The fossils in the following list were obtained from beds 2 and 3 of the
preceding section:

STATION 7190. BYRAM MARL. NEAR SPRING BELOW MILL AT NATURAL
BRIDGE, FLA., 7 MILES EAST OF FLORALA, ALA. C. W. COOKE
AND W. C. MANSFIELD, COLLECTORS, Nov. 22, 1914.
Lepidocyclina sp. Pecten poulsoni Morton
Nummulites sp. Cardium sp.
Lunularia sp. Venericardia sp.
Murex mississippiensis Conrad? Corbula sp.
Ficus sp. Panope sp.
Anadara lesueuri (Dall)








76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Jackson County.-Byram marl is found along Chipola River and its
tributaries and in sinks east of the river. The northernmost place where
it has been found along the river is at the mouth of a small stream that enters
from the southwest three-quarters of a mile above the mouth of Blue Springs
Creek 3 miles south-southeast of Marianna. Several feet of yellow calcareous
sandstone containing molds of a curved Lepidocyclina (probably L. supera)
and Pecten poulsoni can be seen. Similar sandstone crops out on the east
bank, just below water level, at the wagon bridge on the Blountstown road,
4 miles south of Marianna. Other places where it is exposed on Chipola
River are 3 miles south of the bridge of the Marianna and Blountstown Rail-
road, at a wagon bridge half a mile above the mouth of Sink Creek, at an-
other bridge 2y2 miles farther south (4 miles southwest of Alliance), and
at Richards Bend, which is probably east of Willis. At most of these places
the rock beneath water is a moderately soft sandy limestone, but some of the
lime has been leached out from that above water, which has been changed
to a friable calcareous sandstone. The rock contains nearly everywhere an
abundance of Lepidocyclina -supera?. Teredo tubes are abundant at the
bridge 4 miles southeast of Alliance but were not seen elsewhere. At Rich-
ards Bend the Byram is unconformably overlain by Tampa limestone con-
taining Sorites sp.
Yellow sandy limestone containing casts of Lepidocyclina is exposed in the
bed of Dry Creek, 7y2 miles south of Marianna on the road to Carr. It is
similar to the Byram marl on Chipola River.
There is a small exposure of the Byram marl at Dykes Mill on Rocky
Creek, 8y2 miles southeast of Marianna. It is calcareous sandstone like
that on Chipola River.
A sink on the road from Marianna to Cypress, 3.4 miles southeast of
Blue Springs, shows about 7 feet of fine-grained, very sandy yellow limestone
that weathers into soft calcareous sandstone. The rock contains (Station
10990) Nummulites sp., Lepidocyclina supera (Conrad),1 Pecten poulsoni
Morton, Anadara lesueuri (Dall) and casts of other fossils.


Identified by T. W. Vaughan.








GEOLOGY OF FLORIDA.


MIOCENE ROCKS.
The Miocene rocks of Florida were formerly divided into an upper part,
called "Newer Miocene", and a lower part, called "Older Miocene." Later
Matson and Clapp proposed the name Choctawhatchee "marl" for the upper
division and called the lower division "Apalachicola group," but this term
is no longer used because one of its subdivisions, the Alum Bluff formation
of Matson and Clapp, has been raised to the rank of group. The two-fold
division of the Miocene still holds good in western Florida, but in the Pen-
insula the separation into upper and lower parts seems to be not so sharp;
or rather, the information at hand is not sufficient to permit a satisfactory
division along the line drawn farther west. The formations now recognized
are the Tampa limestone at the base; the Alum Bluff group, composed of the
Hawthorn formation in the Peninsula, and the Chipola formation, the Oak
Grove sand, and the Shoal River formation farther west; and the Choctaw-
hatchee formation at the top.
Although it was originally classified as lower Miocene and is now again
referred to that series, during the 20-year interval between 1896 and 1916,
the Alum Bluff group and the Tampa limestone were regarded as Oligocene
by Dall and other writers. This change was due not to any error in correla-
tion but merely to a difference of opinion as to where to draw the line be-
tween the Oligocene and Miocene. In 1916 Sellards discovered that. the
vertebrate fauna of the Alum Bluff group (Hawthorn formation) is of Mio-
cene rather than Oligocene aspect,1 and his opinion is now generally accepted
as correct. The boundary between the Oligocene and the Miocene is now
placed between the Vicksburg group and the Tampa limestone.


1Florida Geol. Survey Eighth Ann. Rept., p. 92, 1916.









78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TAMPA LIMESTONE.
GENERAL FEATURES.

The attention of naturalists was early. attracted to the Tampa limestone
by the beautifully preserved fossils that were found in the "silex beds" at
Ballast Point. T. A. Conrad visited Tampa Bay in 1842 and saw the "silex
beds" and the limestone at several places in the vicinity of Tampa.' He
described several new species of fossils from the "silex beds" and referred
them to the upper Eocene. J. H. Allen2 and others commented on the
manner of preservation of the fossils at Ballast Point. Angelo Heilprin,3
in 1886, collected 47 species of mollusks at Ballast Point, and his study of
them convinced him that the "silex beds" are of lower Miocene age.
W. H. Dall was the next naturalist to investigate the Tampa region.
His studies, begun in the winter of 1886-87, resulted in a series of papers4
which culminated in a monograph on the molluscan fauna of the "silex
beds."
All these early observers laid great stress upon the differences in lith-
ology and fauna between the various rocks exposed in the vicinity of
Tampa. They attempted to discriminate between the "silex bed" (called
"Orthaulax pugnax zone" by Dall), the "Tampa limestone," and the "Cerith-
ium rock." The recent tendency has been to regard these supposed separate
entities as merely different facies or parts of a single formation.
A nearer approach to the modern concept of the formation is found in
Matson and Clapp's report on the geology of Florida," but much that is now
included in the Tampa limestone was classed by them with other formations.
On the geological map of Florida in the Fourteenth Annual Report of the
State Geological Survey, 1922, Sellards and Gunter extend the area of the
Tampa formation from Tampa northward to Hernando and Sumter counties.
Mossom, in 1925,0 placed the northern limit of the Tampa in Citrus County,
about where the boundary of the main area of Tampa limestone now stands
on the new geologic map, but called attention to resemblances between the
Tampa limestone near Brooksville and the limestone, then supposed to be
Glendon, in Hamilton and Suwafinee-counties.


1Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser., vol. 2, pp. 41-48, 399-400, 1846.
2Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser., vol. 1, pp. 38-42, 1846.
3Explorations on the west coast of Florida: Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 1, pp. 61-63,
105-126, 1887.
4The Neocene of North America: U. S. Geological Survey Bull. 84, 1892. Contributions to the
Tertiary fauna of Florida, with especial reference to the silex beds of Tampa and the Pliocene
beds of the Caloosahatchie River: Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 3, 1890-1903. A monograph
of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligocene of Tampa, Florida: U. S.
Nat. Mus. Bull. 90, 1915.
5Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G.: Florida Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept., pp. 84-91, 1909.
uMossom, Stuart, A preliminary report on the-limestones and marls of Florida: Florida Gcol.
Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., pp. 77-82, sketch map facing p. 114, 1925.








TAMPA LIMESTONE.


As here mapped the Tampa limestone includes not only the Tampa of
earlier workers but most of the "Chattahoochee" and part of the Hawthorn
formations of Matson and Clapp. The "Chattahoochee" is here united with
the Tampa because it seems to be of the same age as the Tampa, and in spite
of the fact that it contains more impurities than the typical limestone and
might by some be regarded as a distinct facies worthy of a separate name. If
future studies of the faunas bring to light unsuspected differences in age, the
"Chattahoochee" can be restored to formational rank.
The Tampa formation consists almost entirely of limestone. The rock is
not ordinarily so pure as either the Ocala or the Glendon limestone, although
selected samples may run as high in carbonate of lime. Some of it, particu-
larly that in Wakulla County and in the valley of Apalachicola River, contains
a considerable amount of magnesium carbonate. Siliceous impurities seem
to be most abundant in the upper part of the formation, which at many places
contains a good deal of very fine sand. Pockets of green or olive clay are
common throughout the limestone, and larger accumulations of similar resid-
ual clay are found where the limestone is much weathered.
The color of the Tampa limestone ranges from pure white, locally tinged
with green, to creamy yellow. The yellow facies is especially characteristic
in the counties touched by Suwannee River. Light-brown limestone is com-
mon in Wakulla County and is irregularly distributed in Hernando County.
The Tampa is extremely variable in hardness. Unlike the Ocala, which
is remarkably uniform in hardness and friability, it contains patches of hard
and soft rock that are irregularly distributed and that apparently show no
constant relation to bedding planes. This variability is especially annoying
to quarrymen, for it causes much waste of rock, the machinery that they use
not being adapted to both hard and soft rock. The irregular hardening seems
to be secondary and to have been produced by the deposition of calcium car-
bonate by circulating waters in the open pores of the limestone. In some
places this process has gone so far that nearly all the accessible rock has
become hard and brittle.
The texture of the Tampa is likewise variable. At some places, such as
the spring at Falmouth, the rock is simply a loose mass of small Foraminifera
and round grains of calcium carbonate. Elsewhere this original granular
texture has been obliterated and the rock has become so vitreous that it breaks
with conchoidal fracture. Another variety is a fine-grained, somewhat porous
limestone in which minute particles of sand can be seen with a magnifier.
Soft, chalky limestone is common in the Tampa of the Apalachicola River
valley.
All the common textural varieties of the Tampa limestone are found also
in silicified form. Residual blocks of Tampa limestone in which all the lime
has been replaced by silica are widely scattered in areas from which all other
traces of the formation have disappeared. Silicification seems to take place








80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

chiefly at or near the surface. That it is still going on may be inferred from
the presence of silicified shells or lumps of rock in the soil and overburden
and the lack of them in the freshly exposed rock. The famous "silex bed"
of Ballast Point is merely such a surficial accumulation.
The Tampa limestone occupies three large areas and a few small outlying
patches. The typical area lies principally in Hernando, Pasco, and Hillsbor-
ough counties, but it extends beyond them for short distances into Citrus and
Sumter counties. Its length from north to south is more than 60 miles. Tampa
is near its southern margin. It extends eastward from the shore of the Gulf
of Mexico a distance of 40 or 50 miles.
The largest area borders the Gulf at the north end of the Peninsula from
a point near Panacea to the mouth of Steinhatchee River and continues east-
ward, inland, as far as High Springs, a distance from west to east of about
110 miles. The northern boundary of this area lies near Wacissa, but re-
entrants extend up Withlacoochee and Alapaha rivers beyond the Georgia line.
The maximum width in Florida of this area is about 65 miles.
The third large area, which includes the typical area of what was formerly
called the "Chattahoochee limestone," is a narrow strip that extends from
Chattahoochee to Wausau, Washington County, a distance of about 45 miles.
The Tampa limestone is exposed also in the valley of Ochlockonee River
near the Georgia line. Several outliers of the Tampa rest upon the Ocala
limestone near Kendrick and between Lowell and Sparr in Marion County
and on the Glendon limestone south of Chipley.
The topography of the land underlain by the Tampa limestone shows con-
siderable diversity. Some of it is low and flat, some is rolling,'and some is
hilly. Nearly everywhere there is evidence of solution, and at many places
sink holes are conspicuous.
The typical area of Tampa outcrop includes a broad, low terrace plain
bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Bare limestone is visible at many places near
the coast, but farther inland the rock is generally covered by low, rolling
sand hills that appear to be old beach and dune accumulations of Pleistocene
age. Still farther inland the land rises higher and is more broken, lakes and
ponds are more numerous, and the soils consist of sandy loams that are resid-
ual, for the most part, from the Tampa limestone.
Nearly all of the large area of Tampa limestone is terraced, but the
country around Live Oak, particularly north of the town, is hilly.
The western strip of Tampa consists chiefly of slopes leading from uplands
capped by younger formations to lowlands underlain by the Glendon lime-
stone or the Byram marl. The broadest part, along the western bank of
Apalachicola River, is terraced.
The thickness of the Tampa limestone is uneven. The formation appears
to be absent altogether from the region lying east and northeast of Ocala but
some of the hills north of Ocala bear 10 to 15 feet of Tampa beneath a thin






TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 8.


11 12

FOSSILS FROM THE TAMPA LIMESTONE.
(All after Dall.)
1, Archais floridanus (Conrad). 2, Murex trophoniformis Heilprin. 3, Turritella
tampae Heilprin. 4, T. systoliata Dall. 5, Pyrazisinus campanulatus Heilprin. 6, Lyria
musicina Heilprin. 7, Stronibus liocyclus Dall. 8, Chione rhodia Dall. 9, Antigona
glyptoconcha Dall. 10, Trigoniocardia alicula Dall. 11, Cyrena pompholyx Dall. 12,
Ampullina amphora Heilprin.
(81)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

cover of Hawthorn sandstone. In the vicinity of Tampa the formation
appears to be not more than 100 feet thick, although Matson and Clapp
report the maximum thickness as more than 130 feet.1 Near Live Oak the
Tampa limestone is about 100 feet thick, and south of Tallahassee it is prob-
ably not more than 150 feet thick. At Chattahoochee the Tampa is at least
120 feet thick and may be considerably thicker.
The fauna of the Tampa limestone has not been thoroughly studied. The
only parts of it that have been at all adequately explored are the mollusks
and corals of the so-called "Orthaulax pugnax zone," near the top of the
formation, from a few places near Tampa. Fossils are abundant elsewhere
in the formation, but are preserved mostly as casts of the interior or as molds
of the exterior. Siliceous pseudomorphs of shells are common in the soil
and in the residual clay above the limestone but have received little attention
from collectors except at Ballast Point.
Most of the Foraminifera are small. The only species large enough to
attract the attention of the casual observer is Archaias floridanus (Conrad).
This or a similar species is found throughout the Tampa limestone and the
overlying Chipola and Hawthorn formations but is unknown in older beds.
Orbitoid Foraminifera, common in the Ocala, Marianna, and Glendon lime-
stones, are not found in the Tampa.
One or two regular echinoids, apparently undescribed, have been found
in the Tampa. Cassidulus gouldii, which appears to range downward into
the Vicksburg group, is widely distributed in the Tampa limestone. Echino-
cardium depressum Clark seems to be restricted to the Chattahoochee area.
The corals from the "silex bed" at Tampa were studied by Vaughan many
years ago, but his manuscript on them has not been published. He contrib-
uted a list of 17 species of corals to Dall's monograph on the "Orthaulat
pugnax zone." Most of these corals are reef-forming species.
The mollusks obtained from the Tampa at Ballast Point are the subject of
a monograph by Dall,2 from which the figures on Plate 8 were copied. A
noteworthy but purely local feature of this fauna is the presence of 24 species
of land and fresh-water shells in addition to nearly 300 species of marine and
brackish-water mollusks, a sure indication of near-by land. Large and robust
Turritellas among the gastropods and various species of Phacoides, such as
P. (Here) wacissanus and P. (Miltha) hillsboroensis, among the pelecypods,
are worthy of mention as widespread and conspicuous members of the fauna
of the Tampa limestone. Orthaulax pugnax, chosen by Dall to give its name
to the zone that includes the "silex bed" at Tampa, is of little value in precise
correlation, for it not only lived as early as Glendon time but it is so like
some forms of Orthaulax gabbi in the Chipola formation that its identification
is always open to suspicion.
IFlorida Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept., p. 87, 1909.
2Dall, W. H., A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligo-
cene of Tampa, Florida: U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 90, 1915.








TAMPA LIMESTONE.


In western Florida the Tampa limestone lies unconformably upon the
Byram marl or, where that is absent, upon the Glendon limestone. The
Glendon has been recognized beneath the Tampa in samples from a well
drilled 3 miles east of Woodville, and the unconformable contact of the
Glendon and the Tampa is exposed on the Suwannee at Ellaville. So far as
is known, nothing intervenes between the Tampa and the Ocala limestones in
Citrus, Sumter, and Hernando counties.
The Tampa limestone is generally regarded as the time equivalent of the
Catahoula sandstone of the Gulf States, but as this correlation is based chiefly
upon the relative stratigraphic positions of the two formations and is not sup-
ported by reliable paleontologic evidence, it should be regarded as merely
provisional. Of formations outside of the United States, the Anguilla lime-
stone of the island of Anguilla is most closely related to the Tampa. Corre-
lation of the Tampa with the Anguilla was first established by means of the
corals but has been corroborated by study of other classes of organisms. Sev-
eral species of Pecten are common to the two formations.

LOCAL DETAILS.
Hillsborough County.-Although the typical area of the Tampa limestone
is in Hillsborough County, exposures of the formation are not numerous.
Much of the county is low and flat and is covered with a veneer of Pleistocene
deposits. The limestone lies near the surface only in part of the northern
half of the county.
One of the classic localities of the Tampa limestone is the western shore
of Hillsboro Bay at Ballast Point, 4 miles below the mouth of Hillsboro River.
In 1915 several feet of light-gray to white compact limestone containing casts
of fossils could be seen along the water front. On weathering, the limestone
breaks down into greenish clay and the fossils become silicified. This is the
famous "silex bed", but the silicification seems to be merely a superficial
phenomenon that is not confined to any particular stratigraphic level. Dall1
has described more than 300 species of mollusks from Ballast Point and
labeled the horizon "Orthaulax pugnax zone." Just how distinctive this zone
may be and what proportion of its species are restricted to it can not be ascer-
tained until the fauna of the other parts of the formation has been studied.
The fossiliferous beds at Ballast Point must lie near the top of the Tampa
limestone.
A sandy facies of the Tampa limestone rises 5 or 6 feet above water level
in Sixmile Creek at Orient, where it is overlain by a shell marl of Pleistocene
age. The rock contains a few fossil shells, among which is Pecten crocus
Cooke, a species that was described from the island of Anguilla and that occurs


1Dall, W. H., A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligo-
cene of Tampa, Florida: U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 90, 1915.








84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

also with other Anguilla species in the Tampa limestone at Falling Water,
Washington County.
Tampa limestone has been dredged from the bottom of Blackwater or
Itchepuckesassa Creek at the crossing of the Seaboard Air Line Railway, 21/2
miles south of the Pasco County line. The rock contains Cassidulus gouldii
Bouve in abundance and also Sorites sp., Turritella tampae tripartita Dall,
Glycymeris cf. G. lameyi Dall, Glycymeris sp., Pecten 2 sp., Miltha sp., Teredo
sp., and the tusk of a reptile. (Station 11116).
The Tampa limestone rises 4 feet above low tide in the north bank of
Hillsboro River at Sulphur Springs. The upper 2 feet is hard white lime-
stone, but the lower 2 feet shows only greenish calcareous clay that is probably
a weathered product of limestone. The limestone is exposed also in a quarry
west of Hillsboro River 2 miles north of Harney, in secs. 13 or 14, T. 28 S.,
R. 19 E., and is overlain by 5 to 10 feet of white sand.
Pinellas County.-Exposures of the Tampa limestone occur here and there
in Pinellas County as far south as Indian Ro.cks, but south of that point noth-
ing older than Pleistocene has been found.
Matson' reports numerous exposures of cherty limestone on the Gulf coast
near Clearwater, but most of them are now covered. Greenish sandy clay on
Old Tampa Bay near Safety Harbor is probably residual from the Tampa
limestone. Three feet of hard, white sandy limestone at Indian Rocks is
probably Tampa.
There is a small exposure of gray or yellowish Tampa limestone on Anclote
River about 300 yards above the wagon bridge at Tarpon Springs. The rock
rises about a foot above high tide. The uppermost 3 inches is loaded with
silicified mollusks, which can be chipped out of the rock and some of which
weather loose naturally. A collection made by Cooke in 1915 (Station 7358)
contains 18 or more species, but only Xancus polygonatus (Heilprin), Ampul-
lina amphora (Heilprin), Chione (Chamelea) rhodia Dall, and Cyrena
pompholyx Dall have been specifically identified.
Polk County.-No natural outcrops of the Tampa limestone are known in
Polk County, although it doubtless underlies the entire county. It was ex-
posed at the bottom of a phosphate mine near Bartow many years ago and a
collection of fossils was obtained from it by George H. Eldridge.


lMatson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., op. cit., v. 90.









TAMPA LIMESTONE.


STATION 2470. TAMPA LIMESTONE. PHOSPHATE MINE ONE MILE WEST OF
BARTOW. G. H. ELDnIDGE, COLLECTOR, ABOUT 1894.
(IDENTIFIED BY W. C. MANSFIELD.)


Conus sp., cf. C. planiceps Heilprin
Cypraea sp.
Turritella tampae Heilprin
Turritella litharia Dall
Calyptraea sp. cf. C. trochiformis
Lamarck
Crepidula sp.
Fissuridea sp.
Glycymeris sp.
Arca sp.
Pecten crocus Cooke var.? (Also
station 11115)
Pecten sp. cf. P. acanikos Gardner


Spondylus sp.
Plicatula sp.
Crassatellites sp. cf. C. deformis
Heilprin
Venericardia sp. cf. V. serricosta
Heilprin
Cardium sp.
Dosinia sp.
Venus sp.
Cytherea glyptoconcha Dall
Tellina sp.
Macoma? sp.
Balanus sp.


Pasco County.-The Tampa limestone underlies all Pasco County but is
blanketed by a cover of sand and clay of variable thickness. Along the Gulf
coast the cover is very thin and the limestone is exposed at many places, but
in the highlands around Dade City, San Antonio, Pasadena, and Blanton it
is deeply buried.
Limestone and silicified limestone crop out at Cedar Island, in the Gulf
of Mexico, a mile north of Hudson and were used to build a bridge at Tampa.
Compact white or cream-colored limestone containing casts of fossils has been
quarried three-quarters of a mile east of Cedar Island. The following species
were found in it:

STATION 7356. TAMPA LIMESTONE FROM QUARRY ABOUT 1 MILE NORTH OF
HUDSON AND Y4 MILE FROM THE GULF. C. W. COOKE, COLLECTOR,
JUNE 11, 1915.
Sorites sp.
Lyria musicina (Heilprin)
Orthaulax inornatus Gabb?
Turritella tampae var. tripartita Dall
Pteria sp.
Cardium (Trigoniocardia) cf. alicula Dall (very abundant)
Cardium (Cerastoderma) phlyctaena Dall
Corbula sp.

White chalky limestone containing Cerithium sp. has been dug from
shallow pits about 4 miles north of Port Ritchey on the road to Hudson.
Crystal Springs, near the southeastern corner of the-county, issues from
the Tampa limestone.
The McLeod lime pit, in the SE. 1/4, NE. 1/4, sec. 26, T. 23 S., R. 21 E.,
exposes soft white Tampa limestone containing Cassidulus gouldii and other
fossils. The upper part is much broken and contains rounded lumps. It is








86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

overlain by very light, thin-bedded, soft, porous limestone that resembles
some of the deposits in the hard-rock phosphate mines. The bottom of the
pit, which is about 40 feet deep, may extend below the base of the Tampa
limestone.
Prospect pits 3 miles southeast of Zephyrhills encountered hard, flinty
limestone within 2 feet of the surface. The rock contains Cassidulus gouldii.
Similar limestone crops out about 1 mile farther south, on the road to Crystal
Springs, in the swamp near the head of Hillsboro River.
Hernando County.-Nearly all Hernando County is underlain by the
Tampa limestone. The formation is absent from a narrow strip bordering
Withlacoochee River and from the extreme northwest corner of the county, in
both of which areas the Ocala limestone forms the country rock. The Tampa
is covered in the southeastern part of the county by sand and clay of the
Hawthorn formation and in the eastern part by sand generally referred to the
Alachua formation. Several large quarries near Brooksville show good ex-
posures of the Tampa limestone.
The largest quarry is that of the Florida Rock Products Company,
about a mile southwest of Brooksville. The rock, which is worked to a depth
of 35 feet, occurs as lumps of hard, pure limestone cemented by softer, clayey
limestone. The hard lumps contain many fossils, most of which are pre-
served only as casts or silicious pseudomorphs. The fauna appears to include
many undescribed species. The only species that have been identified are
Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin), Venericardia serricosta (Heilprin) and Cassi-
dulus gouldii Bouve (Station 11113).
Varne's quarry, 23/4 miles southeast of Brooksville, when visited in 1915
exposed 17 feet of soft, friable, white limestone containing hard, rounded
lumps or concretions of crystalline limestone. No fossils were seen. The
rock contains small pockets of greenish clay. From 10 to 15 feet more of
limestone is exposed above the top of the quarry. Lumps of gray or brown
sandstone, probably of Hawthorn age, strew the slopes of a hill that rises
about 65 feet above the quarry. An analysis of limestone from Varne's
quarry made by R. E. Rose, State Chemist, shows 95.26 per cent of calcium
carbonate.
About 10 feet of Tampa limestone is exposed in an old quarry about 4
miles southeast of Brooksville on the Dade City road. The rock seems more
clayey and not as hard as usual, but contains many small rounded concretions
of light-brown and hard gray limestone.
The following section at the Hernando Crusher, 1 mile south of Brooks-
ville, is interesting because it shows variations due to weathering:








-TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT. PLATE 9.


A. TAMPA LIMESTONE ON SIXMILE CREEK, A QUARTER OF
A MILE BELOW THE BRIDGE AT ORIENT.


R. TAMPA LIMESTONE IN PIT OF THE CAMP CONCRETE ROCK
COMPANY, 5 MILES EAST OF BROOKSVILLE.


(87)


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY









88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SECTION AT THE HERNANDO CRUSHER.
Recent: Feet
6. Dark-gray, sandy loam .............. .................. 2
Miocene; Tampa limestone:
5. Masses of hard, white limestone in softer and more impure
material that grades downward into clay ................ 7
4. Green clay resembling fuller's earth ........................ 4
3. Very hard, light-brown to white limestone ................... 3
2. Covered .................................................. 10
1. Hard, creamy-white limestone .............................. 18

The quarry of the Camp Concrete Rock Company about 5 miles east of
Brooksville shows a 35-foot face of Tampa limestone.
Marion County.-There are several small outliers of Tampa limestone in
Marion County north of Ocala. They are not shown on the geologic map
because most of them are covered by Hawthorn beds and the others are too
small.
The northwest corner of a deep quarry of the Cummer Lumber Company
at Kendrick is rimmed with about 3 feet of hard, compact, white limestone of
Tampa age. The main rock quarried is the Ocala limestone; the Tampa
occurs only at the highest part of the quarry. It contains casts of many
mollusks, including the following species:

STATION 11115. TAMPA LIMESTONE. CUMMER LUMBER Co. LIME PIT NEAR
KENDRICK. C. WYTHE COOKE AND STUART MOSSOM, COLLECTORS,
JULY 8, 1926.
Xancus sp. aff. X. rex Pilsbry and Venericardia serricosta Heilprin
Johnson Miltha hillsboroensis (Heilprin)
Murex trophoniformis Heilprin Phacoides (Here) wacissanus Dall
Turritella tampae Heilprin Lucina sp.
Turritella pagodaeformis Heilprin? Dosinia sp.
Glycymeris sp. Venus halidona Dall
Pecten crocus Cooke Callocardia sp.
Pecten sp. cf. P. acanikos Gardner Chione? sp.
Pecten sp.

Lumps of cream-colored sandy phosphatic limestone containing Tampa
fossils were found between the Hawthorn formation and the Ocala limestone
on the hill east of the crossroads midway between Anthony and Martin. No
rock was seen in place there, but the ledge from which the boulders came
must be at least 2 feet thick. Similar rock outcrops abundantly on the knoll
three-quarters of a mile farther east, and the intervening hill is capped with
sandstone. The fossils listed below were found here.








TAMPA LIMESTONE.


STATION 7353. TAMPA LIMESTONE. ROAD FROM ANTHONY TO MARTIN JUST
EAST OF CROSSROADS MIDWAY BETWEEN THEM. C. WYTHE COOKE,
COLLECTOR, JUNE, 1915.
Sorites sp. Pecten cf. P. acanikos Gardner
Murex trophoniformis Heilprin Cardium phlyctaena Dall?
Turritella sp. Cardita sp.
Pecten crocus Cooke Miltha sp.

A thin bed of Tampa limestone was found between the Hawthorn forma-
tion and the Ocala limestone in test pits on the old Raysor property midway
between Lowell and Sparr. It contains the following fossils:

STATION 11186. TAMPA LIMESTONE. PITS ON OLD RAYSOR PROPERTY NEAR
HILL TOP, MIDWAY BETWEEN LOWELL AND SPARR. C. W. COOKE AND
STUART MOSSOM, COLLECTORS, JULY, 1926. (IDENTIFIED BY
W. C. MANSFIELD.)
Mitra sp. cf. M. silicata Dall Vernicardia sp.
Cerithium sp. Phacoides sp.
Turritella tampae Heilprin Miltha hillsboroensis (Heilprin)
Ampullina sp. Cardium sp.
Glycymeris sp. Clementia sp.
Ostrea sp. Venus halidona Dall.var.?
Pecten acanikos Gardner Sorites sp.

Suwannee County.-The Tampa limestone underlies all of Suwannee
County except a strip bordering Suwannee River below Ellaville, but it is
covered by the Hawthorn formation in the eastern part of the county. Many
natural exposures appear in the rocky banks of the Suwannee above Ellaville
and a few in sinks and springs.
The eastern bank of Suwannee River at the Seaboard Air Line Railway
bridge below the mouth of the Withlacoochee shows about 15 feet of Tampa
limestone unconformably overlying the Glendon limestone. The upper part
of the Tampa is massive, hard, cream-colored to yellow compact limestone
containing many Cassidulus gouldii. The lower part is thin-bedded and
partly conglomeratic. The complete section at this place is described on
page 72.
At Suwannee Sulphur Springs, on Suwannee River north of Live Oak, the
Tampa limestone varies from a soft, unconsolidated mass of Foraminifera to
hard limestone. The harder parts have been weathered irregularly. Fossils
are abundant, but most of them are preserved only as unrecognizable casts.
Cassidulus gouldii Bouve is very common and well preserved. Most of the
Foraminifera are small; one cellular species resembling Sorites was seen.
The rock contains Pecten alpha Dall and many unrecognizable mollusks.
Tubes of a species of Teredo are common. Ten feet or more of limestone is
exposed at ordinary stages of the river. In June, 1915, the writer here saw
17 feet of limestone. The lower 5 feet consisted of white limestone charged








90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

with impressions of shells and resembling the Glendon at Ellaville. The
identity of this rock with the Glendon has not been verified.
Newland or Falmouth Spring, at Falmouth, 9 miles west of Live Oak, is an
underground stream that has been exposed to sight for about 500 feet by
the falling away of the roof of the cavern in which it flows. The visible part
flows through a narrow ravine about 40 feet deep. The stream is evidently
tributary to Suwannee River, for at times of high water in the Suwannee the
direction of flow in Falmouth Spring is reversed and the normally clear water
becomes turbid. The rock in the ravine varies from soft, yellowish granular
marl to hard, compact, cream-colored limestone. About 25 or 30 feet is
exposed. The most conspicuous fossil is Cassidulus gouldii Bouve, but Coski-
nolina cooked Moberg, a small foraminifer, is also very abundant.
The old Lyle quarry, now owned by the Southern Utilities Company, 11/2
miles north of Live Oak, has been excavated nearly 50 feet into the Tampa
limestone. The unweathered rock is dense, compact, brittle cream-colored
limestone. It contains many fossils, most of which are preserved only as
casts, although a few are scattered as silicious pseudomorphs through the
weathered surface material. Cassidulus gouldii Bouve, Turritella systoliata
Dall and Pecten alpha Dall are the only species that have been identified
(Station 11109).
Five feet of hard, compact fossiliferous Tampa limestone overlain by 5
feet of reddish clayey sand is exposed in a cut on the Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way at milepost 85, 3 miles west of Live Oak.
Many large heads of Siderastraea sp., a coral that is common in the Haw-
thorn formation at White Springs and that occurs also at Tampa, were found
on the Mayo road 7 miles southwest of Live Oak. They may have weathered
out of the Tampa limestone.
Large blocks of porous flint, apparently derived from the Tampa lime-
stone, are visible in a shallow sink 4.9 miles north of O'Brien. The rock
contains innumerable small Foraminifera, Sorites? sp., Cardium sp., and
Chione sp.
Columbia County.-The Tampa limestone is deeply buried everywhere in
Columbia County except in a small area in the southern part and a spot on
Suwannee River near White Springs, where it is brought up in the midst of
the Hawthorn formation by a small anticline.
Partly silicified yellowish granular Tampa limestone forms the bed of
Suwannee River about 100 yards below a. large spring three-quarters of a
mile above the wagon bridge at White Springs. The rock contains Cassidulus
gouldii Bouve, Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin), Coskinolina? sp. (Station 6774)
and other fossils. This place is outside of the area where the Tampa would
normally be looked for. The Tampa has been brought above its normal
position by a small anticline. A section at this locality is given in the de-
scription of the Hawthorn formation, on page 127.








TAMPA LIMESTONE.


There are many residual boulders of Cassidulus-bearing chert derived
from the Tampa limestone between High Springs and Fort White and also
north of Fort White. At Bass station, on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad,
15 miles north of Fort White, a shallow sink contains about 2 feet of porous
cream-colored limestone enclosing Cassidulus and many gastropods. A five-
foot ledge of silicified Cassidulus rock crops out east of the tracks less than a
quarter of a mile south of Bass. Large masses of silicified Cassidulus-bearing
rock were noted also on the Lake City road one mile north of Columbia. The
road above Itchtucknee Spring contains many lumps of Cassidulus-bearing
rock. The contact of the Tampa and the Ocala must be near by, for the spring
issues from Ocala limestone.
Hamilton County.-Although the Tampa limestone underlies all of Hamil-
ton County, exposures of it are confined to the vicinity of Suwannee, Alapaha,
and Withlacoochee rivers; elsewhere the surface is formed of Hawthorn beds
or of Pleistocene sands.
Cream-colored limestone composed chiefly of Foraminifera rises 5 feet
above water level in Withlacoochee River at the bridge near Bellville, on the
road from Pinetta to Jennings, about 2 miles south of the Georgia State line.
One specimen of Sorites? but no Cassidulus was seen in it.
Cream-colored Tampa limestone forms a bluff on the east bank of Alapaha
River on the old Jasper road about 2 miles from Jennings. It resembles the
rock at Suwannee Sulphur Springs but is less fossiliferous.
There are several exposures of fossiliferous Tampa limestone in the banks
of Alapaha River near the bridge on the road from Jasper to Valdosta, Ga.
Associated with the limestone are deposits of brown carbonaceous sand that
seem to be cavity fillings that have been exposed by erosion. The river bed
is often completely dry, for during droughts all the water is carried through
underground channels.
Lafayette County.-Tampa limestone underlies the western part of Lafay-
ette County. Lumps of rock containing Cassidulus gouldii are abundant 5
or 6 miles southwest of Mayo. The southwest corner of the county contains
phosphate sands that probably lie partly on Ocala and partly on Tampa
limestone.
Taylor County.-All of Taylor County except its southern tip, where the
Ocala limestone is the country rock, seems to be underlain by the Tampa
limestone. Cassidulus-bearing rock extends .from Perry to a point on the
Cross City road a mile or two west of Steinhatchee River. Soft cream-colored
or yellow limestone seen by Mossom1 in sinks and natural bridges along
Aucilla River about 6 miles northwest of Scanlon is probably the Tampa.
Madison County.-Tampa limestone lies near the surface in the southern
and eastern parts of Madison County but elsewhere is covered by the Haw-
thorn formation.
1Mossom, Stuart, Florida Geol. Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 177, 1925.








92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Tampa limestone rises about 8 feet above low-water mark in Withlacoo-
chee River near Lee (probably on road to Westlake). Some parts of the
rock are hard; others are soft and granular. The rock varies in color from
white to cream-colored or yellow. It contains casts of many species of
mollusks.
White nodular limestone containing no recognizable fossils was seen north
of State Highway No. 1, 9 miles east of Madison, and lumps of chert, appar-
ently Tampa, were seen 5 miles east of Madison.
The bank of a small stream about midway between Day, Lafayette County,
and Lee is composed of compact to porous cream-colored' or brownish lime-
stone. The rock, which contains obscure casts of fossils, is apparently Tampa
limestone.
Jefferson County.-The southern part of Jefferson County is a low terrace
underlain by Tampa limestone; the northern part contains hills of Hawthorn
beds. Exposures of the Tampa are few because the country is flat.
Wacissa River heads in several large springs that burst up through lime-
stone. Flint rock is said to be exposed at Rock Hammock about 2 miles
downstream from the source of the river.
Leon County.-The Tampa limestone underlies all of Leon County, but
is near the surface only in its southeastern part. Lumps of dense cream-
colored limestone containing Sorites and casts of other fossils were found on
the dump of an old well on the Woodville road about 4 miles south of Talla-
hassee. Farther south the limestone crops out at many places and is usually
covered by only a thin veneer of sand. The surface of the rock in most of
this region is as level as a floor.
Compact, chalky, white Tampa limestone rises 19 feet above water in a
circular sink east of the new Crawfordville road about three-quarters of a
mile from its fork with the Woodville Road and about 31/2 miles south of
Tallahassee. No fossils were seen in it. The limestone is overlain by 17
feet of orange argillaceous sand that weathers into gray sand hills.
Lumps of hard, compact dolomitic limestone were dug from a depth of
2 or 3 feet in grading the main highway between Tallahassee and Wakulla
near Woodville. An analysis of this rock shows that it contains 13.6 per cent
of silica, 43.1 per cent of calcium carbonate, and 38.7 per cent of magnesium
carbonate.1
Wakulla County.-Tampa limestone lies near the surface over all the
eastern part of Wakulla County. It can be seen in ditches near Wakulla and
Crawfordville. Wakulla Spring rises through it and the Wakulla and St.
Marks rivers have cut their channels in it.
In a large open sink about 5 miles west of Wakulla Station, on the Craw-
fordville road, 6 to 10 feet of soft white or cream-colored limestone stands

1Mossom, Stuart, Florida Geol. Survey Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 154, 1925.









TAMPA LIMESTONE.


above water and is overlain by 8 to 13 feet of yellowish brown clayey sand.
The limestone contains casts of many fossils.
About 5 feet of Tampa limestone can be seen in the old pit of the Wakulla
Turpentine Company, three-quarters of a mile northwest of Wakulla station.
A large sink called The Swirl, about 2 miles southeast of Crawfordville,
shows about 16 feet of hard brown limestone under a cover of an equal thick-
ness of sand.
In 1900 T. W. Vaughan collected fossil shells from the Tampa limestone
on the railroad to St. Marks 15 miles south of Tallahassee. Doctor Vaughan
identified the fossils as follows:

STATION 3420. FOSSILS FROM RAILROAD 15 MILES SOUTH OF TALLAHASSEE.
Latirus floridanus Heilprin Coralliophila magna Dall?
Bittium sp. Astralium sp.
Cerithium praecursor Heilprin Fragum simrothi Dall?
Cerithium sp. Tagelus? sp.
Pyrazisinus cornutus Heilprin Tellina (Macaliopsis) merula Dall
Pyrazisinus campanulatus Heilprin Cardium sp. cf. C. parile Dall
Melongena sculpturata Dall Cardium virile Dall?
Ampullinopsis amphora Heilprin Venus halidona Dall

Gadsden County.-The Tampa limestone underlies all of Gadsden County
at depth but is exposed only in the valley of Apalachicola River from the
Georgia line to the mouth of Sweetwater Creek in Liberty County. The
Tampa in this region and in the counties west of the river was formerly called
"Chattahoochee formation," from exposures at Chattahoochee Landing, but
that name is not used in this report because the differences between the "Chat-
tahoochee" and the Tampa do not appear to be worthy of formational rank.
The following section was measured in 1913 along the road from Chatta-
hoochee Post Office to Chattahoochee Landing. The appearance of the ex-
posures has been considerably altered since then by grading the approach to
the new Victory Bridge. The upper part of the section has been revised from
notes made in 1927.









94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SECTION AT CHATTAHOOCHEE.

Pliocene; Citronelle formation: Feet.
19. Brick-red pebbly argillaceous sand containing limonitic con-
cretions ............................................ 10-15
18. Fine to coarse white pebbly sand, cross-bedded at base.... 8
Miocene; Alum Bluff group; Hawthorn formation:
17. Fine light blue-gray sandy clay and clayey sand, weathering
m ottled purple ..................... ................. 5
16. Concealed, about ........................................ 25
15. Sand in mottled white or gray and red clay................ 6
14. Concealed ............................................... 3
13. Stiff, light-green, very sandy clay; most of the sand grains
are fine and round but a few are as much as one-eighth
inch in diam eter ..................... ............... 31/2
Miocene; Tampa limestone:
12. White, granular, chalky limestone or clay; adheres to tongue 1/
11. Concealed ...... .................................... 5
10. Mottled red and white sandy clay like bed 15............. 5
9. White, very calcareous marl or chalk; a few very poor frag-
ments of pelecypods near the top ..................... 51%
8. White or gray sandy calcareous clay mottled with red on
weathered outcrops; resembles beds 10 and 15........... 6
7. Concealed ...... .................................... 5
6. Tough, dense, white or cream-colored chalky limestone,
somewhat harder at the top than below, with conchoidal
fracture that makes mammillary shapes resembling concre-
tions; weathers into gray, slightly sandy clay like bed 8.. 47
5. Creamy-gray, very calcareous clay, softer and somewhat
darker than bed 6; contains white concretions.......... 4
4. Granular or semicrystalline argillaceous limestone; crumbles
readily .............................................. 1/2
3. Creamy-white chalk like bed 6 in alternating hard and softer
layers; fossiliferous in places; numerous pellets or small
pockets of yellowish or brownish clay and sand......... 11
2. Concealed by terrace deposits to water line, about......... 25
1. A ledge of hard white chalky limestone that weathers soft
and sticky, visible at low water between Chattahoochee
Landing and the Louisville & Nashville Railroad bridge
near River Junction ................................. 2


The Tampa limestone is exposed on Apalachicola River also at Aspalaga
Bluff, 7 miles south of the State line, and at Rock Bluff, 121/2 miles from the
State line, where it rises little more than 10 feet above water level.' The
following section at Aspalaga Bluff was measured by Sellards and Gunter.


ISellards, E. H., and Gunter, Herman, The fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden County: Florida
Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept., p. 174, 1909.
2Idem, p. 271.