Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey

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Title:
Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title:
Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer:
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1930
Frequency:
annual
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility:
Florida State Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID:
UF00000001:00018

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Full Text












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


SCIENCE ROOM


UF FLORID-A
LIBRARIES











FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist







NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
1926-1927







ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT
STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA
BEACH DEPO;ITS OPiLi\FN-ITE,',ZIRCON AND RUTILE
*.'.. ':' IN FLORIDA a,
NEW SPEG'ES 'OF OPERCULINA AND DISC C'"f lINA FROM THE
':'.."*' O IJA ,LI1IJESTONE '.','.'
NEW-SPECIES OF' CSKIN0L'INA'AND DICTYOCdNUS? FROM
FLORIDA






PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1928

































131OLOG'd

LIBRARY'


C C


PRINTED BY
THE RECORD COMPANY
ST. AUGUSTINE
FLORIIDA
U.S.A.


St
* C *


CC













LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida:
SIR: In accordance with the law establishing the State Geological Sur-
vey there is submitted herewith the Nineteenth Annual Report of the State
Geologist. The report contains the administrative section briefly setting
forth some of the activities of the Survey, a detailed statement of expen-
ditures, statistics of mineral production during 1926; and the following
papers: "Sand and Gravel Deposits of Florida", "Beach Deposits of Ilme-
nite, Zircon and Rutile in Florida", "New Species of Operculina and Dis-
cocyclina from the Ocala Limestone", and "New Species of Coskinolina
and Dictyoconus? from Florida."
The two papers last mentioned are a contribution from Dr. Thomas
Wayland Vaughan, Director, Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the
University of California, and Mrs. M. Wilcox Moberg, of the same insti-
tution. These papers are not only very much appreciated but will prove
of great help to the Florida Survey and others interested in the study of
foraminifera, those organisms that have now come to occupy an important
economic, as well as scientific, place.
In the development of the mineral resources of Florida, and in a study
of its natural history, the Survey has always shown an active interest.
This report is a continuation of those investigations carried to sufficient
degree to present in printed form. It is hoped that the report will prove
useful and helpful to our citizens.
The hearty support that you have given the Geological Department of
Florida is indeed appreciated.
Respectfully submitted,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.

33C1r










CONTENTS PAGE


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT, by Herman Gunter ........................ 13
Personnel ....................... .. ........ ................ 13
Distribution of reports.................... ......................... 13
Cooperation with other organizations ................................. 14
Relation of the Survey to the ownership of mineral-bearing lands........ 14
Samples sent to the Survey for examination ........................... 15
L library .............................................................. 15
Recomm endations ...... ........................................... 16
Stream-flow data ....................... ....... ................. 16
Underground water supply investigations ......................... 16
Topographic m apping .......................................... 17
Appropriation .............................. ....................... 18
Warrants issued July 1, 1926, to June 30, 1927 ......................... 19

STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1926,
by Herman Gunter .............................................. 23
Clay ........................................................... 23
Clay products ..................... ..... ........................... 23
Fuller's earth ....................... .. ............................. 24
Ilmenite, Monazite, Rutile and Zircon.............. .................. 25
/ Limestone, lime and flint........................... .... ............ 25
Mineral waters .................................................... 27
Peat ............................................ ............... 27
Phosphate ............................... ........ ................. 28
Table showing production of phosphate ........................... 29
Sand and gravel ................ ................................. 30
Sand-Lime brick ...................................................... 30
Table showing value of total mineral production ....................... 31

SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA, by James H. C. Martens..., 33
I introduction ......................................... ............. 33
The sand and gravel industry in Florida............................... 35
Statistics of production........................ ................. 36
Sand and gravel producers ................. .... ... ............... 36
Methods of excavation and preparation............................ 37
Conditions affecting development ................................ 38
Sand and gravel substitutes...................... ............... 39
Physical properties of sand and gravel................................. 39
Definition of sand and gravel............. ... .. .. ................ 39
Grain size ..................... ............................... 40
Shape of grains .................................................. 41
Specific gravity and weight per cubic yard ......................... 41
Color ........................................................ 42
Mineral and chemical composition of sand and gravel.................. 42
Minerals present in sand...................... ................. 42
Q uartz .......................... ........ ................. 43
Calcite ............................ ........................ 43
Calcium phosphate ........................................... 43
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PACE
Feldspar ..................................................... 44
M ica ........................................................ 44
Limonite .................................................... 44
G lauconite ................................................... 45
Ilmenite and other heavy minerals ............................ 45
Chemical composition ........................................... 45
U ses ...................... .......................................... 46
Concrete aggregate ...................... ...................... 47
Impurities ...................... .... ......................... 47
Soundness of grain ........................................... 47
Size of grain....................... ...................... 49
Strength tests ................................................ 50
Design of concrete mixtures................................... 51
Bricklaying and stone masonry.................................... 52
Plastering .................................. ................. 52
Sand-lim e brick ..................... ....... .................... 52
Road material ................................................ 53
Sand-clay roads ...................... ...................... 53
Gravel roads ............................ .................... 55
Asphalt pavements ....................................... 55
Railroad ballast .............................................. 56
Water filtration ................................................. 56
A abrasive uses ........................... ....................... 57
Engine sand ................................ ................ 57
Glass manufacture .............................................. 58
M holding sand .................................................... 59
Origin and geologic occurrence................... ................... 61
Source of m material ................... ...... ..................... 61
Types of deposits ................................................ 62
Statigraphic distribution of sand and gravel in Florida.................. 63
Table of formations occurring in Florida .......................... 63
Alum Bluff group ................................................ 63
Citronelle formation ........................................... 64
Bone Valley formation ................. ......................... 66
Pleistocene ..................................... ................ 67
R recent ........................................................... 69
Alluvial deposits ............................................. 69
Marine deposits and coastal dunes ............................. 70
Lake deposits .................... ........................... 72
Weathering and other changes subsequent to deposition................. 73
Description of deposits by counties.................................... 74
Alachua County ................................................ 74
Baker County ....................... ........................... 75
Bay County ................................................. .... 75
Bradford County ........... ..... ..... ... .. ... ................ 76
Brevard County .................... ........................... 77
Broward County .................................................. 77
Calhoun County .................................................. 77
Charlotte County ................................................. 78

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PAGE
Citrus County ....................... .......................... 78
Clay County ....................... ........................... 79
Green Cove Springs ........................................ 79
K ingsley Lake ................... .......................... 79
Lake Geneva .............. ........................... 79
Collier County ...................... .......................... 80
Columbia County ................... ........................... 80
Dade County ....................... ........................... 80
M iam i ......................... ........................... 81
DeSoto County ..................... ........................... 82
Arcadia ........................ ........................... 82
D ixie County ........................ .......................... 82
D uval County .................................................... 82
Escambia County .............. ........................... 83
P ensacola ................................... ............... 83
Santa Rosa Island ............. ........................... 83
Tarzan ........................ .......................... 83
Flagler County ..................... ........................... 84
Franklin County .................... .......................... 84
Gadsden County ..................... .......................... 85
Apalachicola River ............. .......................... 85
Ocklocknee River ............... .......................... 87
Glades County .................... ............................ 88
Gilchrist County ..................... ........................ 88
Gulf County ........................ .......................... 88
Hamilton County ................... ........................... 89
Hardee County ................................................. 89
Hendry County ..................... .......................... 89
Hernando County .................. ............................ 89
Highlands County .................. ........................... 90
Avon Park ................... ............................. 90
D eSoto City .................... ........................... 90
H illsborough County ............................................. 90
Alafia River .................... ......................... 91
Hillsborough Bay ............. ........................... 91
Plant City ................................................. 91
Lake Thonotosassa .......................... .............. 91
H olm es County ................................................ 91
B onifay ...................................................... 91
Indian River County ............. .......................... 92
V ero B each ............. .................... .............. 92
Jackson County ............................... ............... 92
Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers ........................ 92
Cottondale ............... ............................. 93
Round Lake .............. ............................. 94
Jefferson County .............. ............................. 94
Lafayette County .................. ............................ 95
Lake County ................................................... 95
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PAGE
Clerm ont .................................................. 96
Eustis ....................... ............................. 96
Leesburg ................................................... 96
Okahumpka ................... ........................... 97
Lee County ........................ ........................... 97
Leon County ....................... ......................... 98
Levy County ..................... ............................. 98
Liberty County .................... .......................... 99
M adison County ..................... .......................... 99
M anatee County .................... ........................... 99
M arion County ................................................. 100
Lake W eir ................................................. 101
M artin County ................................... .............. 101
Monroe County .............................................. 101
Nassau County .................................................. 102
Okaloosa County ............................................. 102
Okeechobee County ............................................ 102
Orange County ............................................... 103
Orlando ...................... ........................... 103
Lake Bryan .............................................. 103
Osceola County ................... ........................... 104
Palm Beach County .......................................... 104
Kelsey City ................................................ 104
Port of Palm Beach....................................... 104
W est Palm Beach ................................ .......... 104
Pasco County .................................................. 105
Pinellas County .................................................. 106
Polk County ................................................. 107
Bartow ............. .................... ............... 108
Lakeland .................................................. 108
Mulberry .................................................. 108
Brewster ................................................. 108
Lake Wales .............................................. 109
Davenport ................... ............................ 110
Auburndale ................................................ 1ll
Haines City ................................................ 111
Putnam County ................................................ Ill
Edgar .... ............................. .............. 112
Interlachen .. ....................... .................... 113
Keuka ...................... ............................. 114
Putnam Hall ............................................... 116
M cM eekin .... ............................. ............... 116
Santa Rosa County ............. ........................... 116
St. Johns County ............................................... 117
Anastasia Island ............. ......................... 117
St. Lucie County ............................................... 117
Fort Pierce ................ ........................ 118

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PAGE
Sarasota County .............................................. 118
Seminole County .............................. ............... 119
Altamonte Springs ........................................ 120
Sumter County ................. ............................ 120
Suwannee County ............................................... 120
Taylor County ................................................ 120
Union County ................................................ 121
V olusia County ................ ................ ............... 121
Daytona Beach ................................ ............. 121
Lake Helen .................................................. 122
New Smyrna .............................................. 122
W akulla County ..................................... ......... 122
Walton County .................. .... ........................ .122
Washington County ........................................... 123
Chipley ...................... ....... .... ............... 123
Vernon ................................................... 123
Wausau ................................................... 123

BEACH DEPOSITS OF ILMENITE, ZIRCON AND RUTILE IN FLORIDA,
by James H. C. Martens......................................... 124
Introduction .......................... .......... ................ 124
Discovery and development ........................................... 125
Deposits near Mineral City............................................ 127
Structure and extent ............................................. 127
Mineral composition ............... ........................ 129
Q uartz .................... .................................. 132
Ilmenite .................. ........... ................... 132
Zircon ......................... .......................... 133
Rutile ..................................................... 133
M onazite ........................... ... ................ 133
Staurolite ................ ...... .. .. .................... 134
Epidote ...................... .......................... 134
Collophane ................................................ 134
Other minerals .......................... ................ 134
Quantitative determination of mineral content ................... 134
Mining and Milling Operators, Buckman and Pritchard, Inc.......... 136
Other occurrences in Florida and Georgia............................. 141
Amelia Island ................. .. .. .............. 141
St. Simons Island, Georgia..................................... 141
Sapelo Island, Georgia ............................................ 142
Eau Gallie, Florida.......................................... 142
Venice, Florida .................. ............................. 143
Cape San Blas, Florida........................................ 145
Crooked Island, Florida ....................................... 145
Inlet Beach, Florida ........................................... 147
Santa Rosa Island, Florida ..................................... 147
Lake beaches .................................................. 147
Origin of deposits ................................................. 148












PACE
Relation of origin to distribution and extent.......................... 152
Uses of ilmenite, rutile and zircon................................... 153
Rutile and ilmenite ............................................... 153
Zircon ..................................................... 153
Monazite .................. ................................. 154
Greenspar ................................................... 154
Conclusion ................ .................................... 154

NEW SPECIES OF OPERCULINA AND DISCOCYCLINA FROM THE
OCALA LIMESTONE, by Thomas Wayland Vaughan................. 155
Introduction ......................................................... 155
List of larger foraminifera from the Ocala Limestone................... 157
Descriptions of new species....................................... 158
B bibliography ....................... ................................. 162

NEW SPECIES OF COSKINOLINA AND DICTYOCONUS? FROM FLOR-
IDA, by M. W ilcox Moberg....................... ................ 166
Introduction ........................................................ 166
Descriptions of new species ........................................ 166
Bibliography ...................................................... 170

INDEX ..................... ...................................... 177

ILLUSTRATIONS

FiG. FIGURES. PAGE
1. Variation in tonnage and value of sand and gravel produced in Floria
from 1907 to 1926 ................................................... 35
2. Map of Florida showing distribution of the Citronelle formation, sand-liiae
brick plants, and principal localities of sand and gravel production. .. 37
3. Pit of Diamond Sand Company No. 2, Keuka, Putnam County, shoN ng
section of Citronelle formation and method of mining................. 65
4. Characteristic topography and vegetation of the Citronelle formation in
the Lake Region, one mile northwest of Putnam Hall, Putnam Countl.. 66
5. Cut through Pleistocene dune at West Palm Beach, showing yellow s:1nd
underlying white ............................. ................... 67
6. Typical scrub vegetation on white sand, three miles east of Tavares, Lake
County ......................................................... 68
7. Alluvial deposits on St. Marys River, near road from Macclenny to Moiliac 69
8. Sand dunes on Anastasia Island, St. Johns County ....................... 71
9. Miami Beach. The sand here contains a large proportion of shell......... 72
10. Gulf Beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande, Lee County,
showing steep wave cut scarp about six feet high....................... 73
11. Sand above hard rock phosphate, showing well developed tap roots of long-
leaf pine. Pit of Dunnellon Phosphate Company near Hernando, Citrus
County ......................... ..... ....... ................. 78
12. Map of parts of Clay and Putnam Counties, showing by inclined shading
the distribution of the Citronelle formation, and by small circles the
localities from which samples were tested......................... 79
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Fic. PAGE
13. Dredge of Meteor Transportation and Trading Company, Miami, Dade
County ............................................................. 81
14. Map of Gadsden County and part of Liberty County, showing by small
circles the localities from which samples were tested.................. 85
15. Gravel bar in Apalachicola River, near Louisville and Nashville Railroad
bridge, Gadsden County ............................................ 86
16. Dredge and washing plant of Florida Gravel Company, near Chattahoo-
chee, Gadsden County ............................................. 87
17. Map of Jackson County, showing by small circles the localities from which
samples were tested.............................................. 92
18. Gravelly soil near Round Lake, Jackson County ........................ 94
19. Map of southern part of Lake County, showing by inclined shading the
distribution of the Citronelle formation, and by small circles the more
important localities from which samples were tested................... 95
20. Map of Marion County, showing by inclined shading the distribution of
the Citronelle formation, and by small circles the localities from which
sam ples were tested ...................... ........................... 100
21. Map of Polk County, showing by shading the distribution of the principal
sand-bearing formations, and by small circles the localities from which
sam ples were tested ............................. ..... ............ 106
22. Dredge of Diamond Sand Campany in pond formed by removal of sand,
four miles east of Lake Wales, Polk County.......................... 109
23. Steam shovel excavating clayey sand for road material, Interlachen Sand
and Gravel Company, Interlachen, Putnam County ..................... 112
24. Bank of sand which is being washed for concrete aggregate, Interlachen
Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen, Putnam County............... 114
25. Washing plant of Diamond Sand Company No. 2, Keuka, Putnam County. 115
26. Map of part of southeastern states, showing boundary between the Pied.
mont Plateau and Coastal Plain, and localities of ilmenite concentrates.. 126
27. General view of beach near Mineral City, St. Johns County ............... 127
28. Generalized section of beach south of Mineral City, St. Johns County..... 128
29. Alternating layers of heavy concentrates and quartz sand at back of beach
near Mineral City, St. Johns County................................. 129
30. Grains of monazite, ilmenite, zircon and rutile from sand at Mineral City,
St. Johns County.......................... ..... ................... 132
31. Percentages by number of grains of principal heavy minerals in natural
heavy concentrates from Florida and Georgia ......................... 135
32. Mill of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., Mineral City, St. Johns County...... 136
33. Flow sheet of mill of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., Mineral City, showing
operation on beach sand ............................................. 138
34. Flow sheet of mill of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., Mineral City, showing
operation on tailings ............................................. 140
35. Ilmenite sand and coquina outcrop on west side of Indian River, one and
one-half miles north of Eau Gallie, Brevard County................... 142
36. Beach at Venice, Sarasota County. Shows black sand which contains a
large amount of phosphate grains. Hardpan is exposed by wave erosion
on the back part of the beach.................................... 143

( 11 )























TABLES.
TABLE PACE
1. Production of sand and gravel in Florida in 1926 ....................... 35
2. Total output of sand and gravel in Florida by years from 1907 to 1926.... 36
3. Tests of sands for concrete and mortar................. ............... 47
4. Tests of gravels and gravelly sands.................. ................ 48
5. Tests of clayey sands for road material................. ............... 54
6. Tests of molding sands..................... ......... ............... 60
7. Properties of some minerals in Florida beach sands..................... 131
8. Mineralogical analyses of heavy concentrate sands from Florida and
Georgia ............................................................ 144
9. Mineralogical analyses of heavy concentrate sands from Florida and
Georgia ................ .. .................................. 146


PLATE PLATES.

1. FIGS. 1- 4. Operculina mariannensis Vaughan ........................... 163
Fie. 5. Discocyclina (Aktinocyclina) bainbridgiensis Vaughan........ 163
FIGs. 6- 7. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) chipolensis Vaughan. ........... 163
2. FIGs. 1- 5. Discocyclina (Discocyclina) citrensis Vaughan................ 165
FIGs. 6- 7. Discocyclina (Discocyclina) flintensis (Cushman) ............ 165
FIGS. 8- 9. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) chipolensis Vaughan............ 165
3. FIGs. 1- 8. Coskinolina cookei Moberg................................ 171
FIGs. 9-10. Dictyoconus? gunteri Moberg............................... 171
4. FIGS. 1- 3. Dictyoconus? gunteri Moberg............................... 173
5. FIGS. 1- 2. Dictyoconus? gunteri Moberg.............................. 175
FIG. 3. Coskinolina cookei Moberg............................... 175


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FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist.


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT
During the fiscal year the members of the State Survey, in addition to
the State Geologist, have been Mr. D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist,
and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer. Such chemical analyses as
have been necessary to the work of the Survey have been made under the
direction of the State Chemist.
Mr. Mossom began field work incident to a report on the sand and
gravel deposits of the State. These investigations were interrupted, how-
ever, when the Florida Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with
the United States Geological Survey providing for a report on the geology
of Florida. In the considerable amount of field work preparatory to this
report Mr. Mossom represented the Florida Survey. Shortly after the
completion of this field work Mr. Mossom tendered his resignation as
Assistant Geologist which became effective June 1, 1927. Investigations
of the sands and gravels were continued by Dr. J. H. C. Martens during
the fiscal year July 1, 1927, and his paper is contained in this volume.
The State Geologist, in addition to the necessary correspondence and
administrative work of the office, has directed field investigations in both
geologic and soil work. He has also prepared a number of articles for
the daily press and other periodicals.

DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS.
The publications of the Survey, including the present volume, now
number nineteen annual reports, two bulletins and twelve press bulletins.
These, in so far as they are now available, can be obtained free upon
request by the citizens of the State. The reports are distributed as issued
to the libraries of Florida and other states of the Union and some foreign
countries. The results of the Survey thus become permanently available
to those interested in the geology and mineral resources of the State. A
complete list of the publications can be had upon application to the State
Geologist, Tallahassee.
(13)







14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS.
During the fiscal year the State Survey has continued cooperation with
the United States Bureau of Mines and the United States Bureau of Census
in the collection of statistics of mineral production in Florida. Also the
cooperation begun in 1925 with The United States Department of Agri-
culture, Bureau of Soils, in the mapping of the soils of Polk County was
continued and the field work was completed in April, 1927. The generous
attitude of the Bureau of Soils made the completion of this large area pos-
sible in the two field seasons. It is expected that the report accompanied
by a detailed soil map will be available for distribution, within a reason-
able time.
The State Survey has also been fortunate in being able to cooperate
with the United States Geological Survey in a report on the general geology
and stratigraphy of Florida. Field work on this report was begun during
March, 1926, and continued through June. Additional field work was
carried on during January, February and March, 1927. This report will
be accompanied by a geologic map.
Cooperation with the Florida State Road Department in the preparation
of the report (contained in this volume) on the sand and gravel deposits
of the State has made it more complete than would have otherwise been
possible. All the physical tests of the sand and gravel samples, except
the molding sands, were made in the Testing Laboratory of the State Road
Department at Gainesville under the direction of Harvey A. Hall, Testing
Engineer. The Geological Department acknowledges with appreciation
this cooperation. Tests of the molding sands were made in the laboratory)
of the Geological Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., under the
direction of Dr. H. Ries. This cooperation is likewise appreciated.

THE RELATION OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TO THE OWNERSHIP OF MINERAL-
BEARING LANDS.
The Survey law specifically provides that it shall be the duty of the
State Geologist, and his assistants, when they discover any mineral deposits
or other substance of value to notify the owners of the land upon which
such deposits occur before disclosing their location to any other person or
persons. It is not intended by the law, however, that the State Geologist's
time shall be devoted to examinations and reports upon the value of private
mineral lands. Reports and examinations of this character are properly
the province of commercial geologists who may be employed for that pur-








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


pose. In order to accomplish the best results the work of the Survey must
be in accordance with carefully laid plans by which the State's resources
are investigated in an orderly manner. Only such examinations of private
lands can be made as constitute a part of the regularly planned operations
of the Survey.
SAMPLES SENT TO THE SURVEY FOR EXAMINATION.
Mineral specimens, samples of rock, shells and fossils will at all times
be gladly received and reported upon. Attention to inquiries are a part
of the duties of the office and through this means the Survey may in many
ways be useful to the citizens of the State. It is therefore urged that when-
ever anything unusual is found or in the case of any and all fossils, the
Survey be notified in order that such valuable material may be saved and
permanently preserved for the State. The Survey Museum now has in its
collections many valuable specimens and every means is being exerted to
add to it.
The following suggestions are offered as a guide to those who may
submit samples of either rock, minerals, or fossils:
1. The exact location should be given. This should be written out in
full and placed on the inside of the package.
2. As full a description as is possible relating to the conditions under
which the sample or fossils occur should accompany the package.
3. The name and address of the sender should be written on the out-
side of the package. Mark the package plainly to the Florida Geological
Survey, Tallahassee.
4. In the event of making a discovery of fossil bones it would be well
to notify the Survey before any extensive excavation takes place.

LIBRARY.
The Survey library now contains several thousand volumes. A well-
equipped reference library is absolutely essential and the library includes
many volumes invaluable to the immediate and future work of the Survey.
As opportunity permits these are being added to.










16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

RECOMMENDATIONS.
STREAM FLOW DATA.
One of the most valuable natural resources possessed by the State is
its water supplies, both underground and surface. Intelligent development
of the water resources can be based only on reliable records covering an
extended period of time. The quantity of water in a river, or available in
.the sub-surface formations, fluctuates from season to season and year to
year. Short-time records of stream flow measurements while of some value
are not adequate for making plans leading to a large outlay of capital in
water-power development. It would be wise to anticipate the need for such
records so that they would be available when occasion demanded. The day
of cheap power to invite industrial development is with us and' in meeting
the demand for additional electric power utilization is being made of every
possible water-power site. It is realized that Florida does not possess
water-power sites comparable to those in states having greater relief; still
a number of our streams are furnishing sites for such developments. With
stream flow data available for the State as a whole much information would
be gained that would prove of the utmost value not only in hydro-electric
development but in other lines of engineering.

UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY INVESTIGATIONS.
In almost every section of Florida it is possible to obtain abundant
supplies of pure water from wells of varying depths. Over a rather large
portion of the State flowing wells are obtained. Many of these wells are
allowed to flow freely while they serve no useful purpose. This is a waste
and should not be permitted. Measures to conserve our water supplies
should be inaugurated. Furthermore, some very deep wells have been
drilled in Florida during recent years. These penetrate salt water and
when abandoned are usually left without any precautions as to the possible
contamination of the supplies of fresh water in the upper formations. In
those regions where such wells have been drilled there is danger of per-
manently ruining the supplies of fresh water from wells of moderate depth.
In the abandonment of any wells that have reached a salt water horizon pre-
cautionary measures should be in force protecting against the possibility
of contaminating the fresh water supplies.
In view of the importance of the water resources to the State it is
urgently recommended that provisions be made whereby the State Geolog-
ical Survey can undertake detailed studies both of the surface and the









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


underground waters. In a work of this character the State could fortu-
nately secure the cooperation of the Water Resources Branch of the United
States Geological Survey.

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING.
Maps are essential in every line of geologic and engineering work.
There is constant need for detailed topographic maps on a scale of about
one inch to the mile with contour lines at 10-foot intervals of elevation.
In some portions of Florida where there is but very slight relief contour
intervals should be less. These maps would prove of inestimable value
in drainage, highway, railroad, and flood control work. To the general
public they would likewise prove of value and convenience for they are not
only accurate in every detail but they also reveal the exact physiography
and general nature of the country traversed. In addition to indicating
relief and actual elevation above sea these maps show all natural features
such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, canals, swamps, and such cultural
features including public roads, railroads, towns, villages, cities, county
and state boundaries.
Some topographic mapping has been done in Florida by the United
States Geological Survey and the United States War Department. The
areas so mapped are in central peninsular Florida and the northeastern
part of the State. The areas in northeastern Florida were mapped by the
War Department in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey
largely as a military necessity for the information gained by such detailed
work.
The usefulness of such maps merits a continuation of this work. Here-
tofore the expense of such mapping as has been accomplished in Florida
has been borne entirely by the Federal Government. The established policy
is now to continue work only in those states having a cooperative agree-
ment in which the State shares equally the expense. It is recommended that
provision be made for the Florida Survey to enter into an agreement with
the United States Geological Survey for continuing topographic mapping
in Florida.










18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

APPROPRIATION.

The law creating the Survey has not been amended or changed in any
respect. During the 1921 session df the Legislature an act was passed cre-
ating a Budget Commission of the State of Florida. This Act makes it the
duty of each of the State Departments to submit an estimate of the amount
required for their proper maintenance for the two-year period beginning
July 1, 1923. For the biennium 1925 to 1927 the appropriation for the
State Survey was as follows:

Annually
Salary State Geologist ............................... $3,300
Salary Assistant Geologist ............................ 2,200
Temporary Assistant ............................... 1,200
Stenographer ........................................ 1,500
Traveling expenses and field equipment ............... 2,500
Printing, stationery and engraving.................... 2,500
P stage ............................................. 400
Auto truck for field work............................. 600
Cooperation U. S. Bureau of Soils, for two years............. $5,000


The following itemized list shows all the expenditures of the Survey
from July 1, 1926, to June 30, 1927, or the second year of the biennium.
All bills and itemized expense accounts are on file in the office of the
Comptroller, duplicate copies being retained in the office of the State
Geologist. With the exception of regular salaries all accounts are ap-
proved by the Governor and are paid only by warrant drawn upon the
State Treasurer by the Comptroller.












ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1926, TO JUNE 30, 1927.
JULY, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary...........................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 195.51
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Hoffberger Motor Company, repair speedometer.................. 4.25
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, August rental ...... 3.25
Western Union Telegraph Company.............................. 1.60
Marshall Jones Company, "Evolution of the Horse"............... 3.15
Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills, 1,000 specimen bags................. 17.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, 100 specimen bags and 100 linen tags... 4.60
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ............................ 4.37
Newell B. Davis Studio, developing and printing ................... 1.69
AUGUST, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary...........................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, Expenses July and August........ 39.87
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 138.98
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Western Union Telegraph Company ............................. 1.87
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, September rental... 3.25
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies.................................. 5.75
Hoffberger Motor Company, repair Ford truck.................... 14.90
J. M. Holt & Son, 1 prospecting digger ........................... 4.50
Gulf Publishing Company, "Deep Well Drilling".................. 6.00
SEPTEMBER, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ..........................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, October rental ..... 3.25
Capital Office Supply Company, chair cushion. ................... 4.00
American Association Petroleum Geologists, "Geology of Salt Dome
O il Fields" ............................................... 5.00
Houghton Mifflin Company, "Reptiles and Amphibians"............ 2.99
American Fertilizer, one year's subscription...................... 3.00
Respess-Johnson Engraving Company, zinc etching block showing
areas soil surveyed .......................................... 4.25
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent...................... 27.00
American Railway Express ....................................... 4.88
OCTOBER, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary..........................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses........................ 97.87
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses................... 134.41
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, November rental... 3.25
Respess-Johnson Engraving Company, map....................... 28.05
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies................................. 1.10
Engineering & Mining Journal, one year's subscription............ 5.00
Geo. T. Baker, Treasurer, Natural History, one year's subscription.. 3.00
C. H. Ellacott, drafting geological map ........................... 6.00
W. U. Norwood, Agent, Railroad fare Tallahassee to Charlottesville 32.28
The MacMillan Company, "Wild Flowers of Florida"............... 2.86











20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

NOVEMBER, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary.......................... $ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary ..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 115.41
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ......................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, December rental... 3.25
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies................................. 2.00
D. Van Nostrand Company, "Soils and Civilization" and "Animals of
Land and Sea" ............................................. 5.40
H. W. Wilson Company, 6 Rock Products, 2 Cement Mill & Quarry. 2.56
James Messer, two Ford batteries for soil survey cars.............. 13.50
D. Appleton & Company, "The Mammoth"......................... 4.16
Hoffberger Motor Company, Repair on two Soil Survey cars........ 64.60
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work................................ 41.81
Howard M. Smith, expenses in soil work......................... 16.20
U. S. Geological Survey, Cooperation in preparing a report on the
geology of Florida ......................................... 1,119.24
American Railway Express Company ............................ 33.16
DECEMBER, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary........................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................... 8.54
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
C. F. Dodson, desk, chair and cabinet............................ 46.00
A. L. Gray, expenses in soil work................................ 26.39
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ...................... 60.24
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, January rental ...... 3.25
American Railway Express Company ............................. 3.67
Miami Publishing Company, "The Hurricane and Disaster"......... 3.50
Lysle E. Fesler, "Florida's Great Hurricane"....................... 1.00
Respess-Johnson Engraving Company, 1 zinc etching.............. 2.85
L. B. Marshall, Tabulating statistics on mineral production........ 4.44
J. P. D. Hull, annual dues Association of Petroleum Geologists.... 15.00
Florida State Historical Society, "Florida Territorial Journalism"... 9.50
Economic Geology, one year's subscription......................... 5.00
Capital Auto Supply Company, Inc., Ford Battery and wire for truck 16.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies.................................. 3.00
Gulf Publishing Company, "The Oil Weekly," one year's subscription 1.00
Adonis L. Gray, expenses in soil work............................ 40.72
Howard M. Smith, expenses in soil work......................... 74.40
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work ............................... 128.90
JANUARY, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary..........................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 168.07
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary........................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, February rental.... 3.25
W C. Dixon, freight and drayage ................................ 5.06
McNeill & Culley, tire, tube and supplies for Ford truck.......... 21.15
Fulton Bag & Cotton Mills, 1,000 cloth specimen bags.............. 17.00
American Railway Express Company ............................. 2.41
Hoffberger Motor Company, tire and adjustment on tire........... 20.75
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ................................. 50.00
Industrial School for Boys, 2,000 double post cards................ 12.50
A. L. Gray, expenses in soil work ............................... 87.83
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work ............................... 119.33
Howard M. Smith, expenses in soil work......................... 89.40
Robert Wildermuth, expenses in soil work ....................... 57.60
Kernel's Filling Station, oil and gas for soil survey car............ 47.70











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


FEBRUARY, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary..........................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 185.74
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage............................. 8.17
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, March rental....... 3.25
Industrial School for Boys, 2,000 double post cards ............... 10.00
American Railway Express Company............................. 12.60
Florida State Historical Society, "Jean Ribaut"..................... 9.00
Respess-Johnson Engraving Company, diagrams and etchings...... 26.40
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies .............,................... 4.40
Newell B. Davis Studio, developing and printing pictures.......... 4.31
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage................................ 16.49
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps .................................. 50.00
Hoffberger Motor Company, repair Ford truck.................... 3.15
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work ............................... 156.52
Howard M. Smith, expenses in soil work......................... 67.20
Robert Wildermuth, expenses in soil work........................ 72.93
A. L. Gray, expenses in soil work ............................... 66.50
Seaboard Air Line Railway, one mileage book, No. 23278.......... 30.00
The Western Union Telegraph Company .......................... 1.33
Kernel's Filling Station, oil and gas for soil survey car............. 56.83
MARCH, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary...........................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ....................... 118.64
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses.................. 184.21
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, April rental........ 3.25
Seaboard Air Line Railway Co., fare Tallahassee to Tulsa, Okla..... 37.27
American Railway Express Company ............................. 3.99
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................. 8.80
Alvah Bushnell Company, file pockets............................ 8.97
Florida Historical Society, magazines and membership one year.... 9.00
Underwood Typewriter Company, one typewriter................. 55.05
Florida Industrial School for Boys, 3,000 karlton klasp envelopes.. 37.80
Hoffberger Motor Company, overhauling truck................... 52.29
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent...................... 52.00
Burdines, "Out of Doors in Florida".............................. 3.50
Respess-Johnson Engraving Company, half-tones.................. 206.15
Newell B. Davis Studio, printing and developing films............ 3.45
Kernel's Filling Station, oil and gas for soil survey car............ 34.13
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work ............................... 186.83
Robt. Wildermuth, expenses in soil work......................... 74.40
Howard M. Smith, expenses in soil work.......................... 74.40
A. L. Gray, expenses in soil work ............................... 90.58
The Western Union Telegraph Company .......................... 2.18
Florida Industrial School for Boys, 17th annual report.............. 1,638.91
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, mileage book No. 23452..... 23.15










22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

APRIL, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................... $ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses........................ 120.65
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary..................... 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, expenses ................... 123.93
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, ticket and Pullman to Wash-
ington ..................................................... 42.74
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, May rental........ 3.25
The American Railway Express Company ......................... 6.86
Newell B. Davis Studio, films.................................... 1.35
J. A. Cushman, Subscription to Foraminiferal Research............ 7.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, Alphabet letters ....................... 1.65
Adonis L. Gray, expenses in soil work .......................... 129.98
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work ................................ 106.45
F. R. Lesh, expenses in soil work................................ 46.96
MAY, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary............................ $275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Assistant Geologist, salary...................... 183.34
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................... 125.00
U. S. Geological Survey, Cooperation in preparing a report on the
geology of Florida ......................................... 1,204.20
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., steel letter file and supplies ......... ....... 34.75
Southern Telephone & Construction Company, June rental......... 3.25
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies.................................. 1.50
University of Chicago Press, Journal of Geology, one year's sub-.
scription ................................................... 5.40
Ceramic Industry, one year's subscription ......................... 3.00
JUNE, 1927
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary..........................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ........................ 15.95
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary........................... 125.00
The Western Union Telephone Company, May.................... 4.17
Hoffberger Motor Company, repairing Ford ...................... 2.40
W. H. May, Postmaster, 2,000 envelopes.......................... 43.96
Alford-Gwynn Motor Company, two Chevrolet roadsters........... 800.00
Ernest Amos, Comptroller, 2 Certificates of Titles and 2 Exempt tags 3.00
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company, July rental ...... 3.25
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies................................. 14.10
Marcus A. Hanna, Sec. Journal of Paleontology, 1 year's subscription 6.00
Underwood Typewriter Company, Portable typewriter ............ 33.60
Everglades Drainage District, use of boat for 4 days ............... 96.34
The American Railway Express Company ......................... 2.02
The Western Union Telegraph Company ......................... 5.94














STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1926.


HERMAN GUNTER.


COLLECTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES
AND THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF CENSUS.

With an output totaling $20,724,487 during 1926 the mineral indus-
tries of Florida continued to show progressive development. With one
exception, the year 1920, this is the largest mineral production that Florida
has ever recorded. The value of the output for 1925 was $17,522,303,
thus indicating an increase of $3,202,184 or a little more than 12 per cent.

CLAY.

Four plants were engaged in mining the white sedimentary kaolin in
Florida during 1926. The total reported value of production of these
four companies was $772,124. The plants are located in Putnam and
Lake Counties, although deposits are known to occur in other sections
of the State.
PRODUCERS.
The Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar, Florida.
Florida China Clay Co., Inc., Leesburg, Florida.
Lake County Clay Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka, Florida.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Trenton, N. J., and Hawthorn, Florida.


CLAY PRODUCTS.

There was a 47 per cent increase in the value of clay products over
that of 1925, although there was a decrease in value of face brick and of
pottery. There was, however, a decided increase in the value of common
brick. The total value of common and face brick, pottery and other clay
products for the year was $465,960. The following firms reported pro-
duction:


(23)











24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

PRODUCERS.
Barber Brothers, Cottondale, Jackson County.
Build-With-Brick Company, Molino, (Plant at Brickton, Escambia County).
J. M. & J. C. Craber, Campville, Alachua County.
E. M. Davis, Ocklocknee, (Plant at Lawrence, Gadsden County).
Dolores Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.
Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna, Jackson County.
Gamble & Stockton Company, 210 St. James Bldg., Jacksonville, (Plant at
Dixston, Clay County).
Georgia-Carolina Brick Company of Florida, Stockton Street and A. C. L.
R. R., Jacksonville. (Plant at Callahan, Nassau County).
G. C. & G. H. Guilford, Blountstown, Calhoun County.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Washington County.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney, Lake County.
FULLER'S EARTH.
Fuller's earth is a clay differing from other clays chiefly in that it
possesses to an exceptional degree the property of absorbing coloring
matters from mineral, animal and vegetable oils and fats arid some other
liquids. This bleaching or decolorizing property, which gives to the earth
its value, can be determined only by actual filtration test. In general
appearance it is frequently difficult to distinguish fuller's earth from some
other ordinary clays. In color, when dry, it may vary from rather light
greenish-white to gray, buff or brown. Fuller's earth is ordinarily de-
scribed as non-plastic and this may be true of some earths but others
possess sufficient plasticity to be classed as semi-plastic. When this earth is
placed in water it usually disintegrates readily, but this characteristic, too,
is shared by some other clays. The final criterion of a good fuller's earth
is its capacity for removing coloring matters from oils as determined by
filtration tests.
The fuller's earth industry in the United States continued to show prog-
ress in 1926 both in quantity and value. The output for the United States
in 1926 was 234,152 short tons, valued at $3,356,482. As compared with
1925 the average value per ton in 1926 indicated an increase of 18 cents;
the average for 1926 being $14.33 per ton. California, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois, Massachusetts, Nevada and Texas are the only states producing
fuller's earth in 1926 and the South continues to lead in its production,
82 per cent of the output for the year was produced in Florida, Georgia
and Texas, with Georgia first and Florida second. The commercial pro-
duction of fuller's earth in the United States began at Quincy, Gadsden
County, in 1895 and since that year until 1924 Florida has continuously
held first place. Beginning with 1924, however, Georgia's production
increased to such an extent as to replace Florida in this rank, so that
Georgia now is the leading state, Florida second.









STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA.


PRODUCERS.
The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.

ILMENITE, MONAZITE, RUTILE AND ZIRCON.
The recovery of ilmenite and monazite from the beach sands at Mineral
City, about 5 miles south of Jacksonville Beach (formerly Pablo Beach),
began in 1916 and has continued, with some interruptions, until Florida
is now the leading state in the production of ilmenite. The first commer-
cial production of zircon was reported in 1922 and that of rutile in 1925.
The production of monazite has not been reported since 1916 until 1925
and there was no production reported for 1926. The occurrence of these
so-called rare earths in the beach sands is unique and they have formed
the basis of an important mineral industry. Operations at Mineral City are
conducted under the name of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., and owned by
Titanium Pigment Company, Inc., 94 Fulton Street, New York, a sub-
sidiary to the National Lead Company. Statistics on output and value can
not be given separately without disclosing individual operations, but such
figures are included in the total for the State.

LIMESTO]NEI, UM ANiD ]LINT
The output of limestone foo~'1926 amounted to 6,572,870' tores with a
valuation of $7,177,565. ,.As compared to, the volue of this ptiodpti'for
1926 these figures indicate an increqe o0'SoS perent The various, p1tr-
poses for which limestone is reported as used were: Road material,' con-
crete, railroad ballast, riprap, building stone and agricultural. The large
increase again shows the continued progress Florida is making in the way
of permanently surfaced highways, in general construction and industrial
lines. To the figures on limestone should be added those for crushed
flint or miscellaneous stone and lime, which brings the total production of
limestone, crushed flint, miscellaneous stone, quick and hydrated lime to
6,894,854 tons with a total valuation of $7,511,747, an increase of a little
over 70 per cent in output and of 54 per cent in value over 1925.













26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIMESTONE PRODUCTION.

Barley, J. L., Gainesville.
Blowers Lime & Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
Connell & Schultz, Inverness.
Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Crystal River Rock Company, Leesburg.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
Gainesville Lime Rock Company, Gainesville.
Gaskins, S. B., Gainesville.
Lake Stafford Rock Company, Brooksville.
Levy County Lime Rock Company, Williston.
Marion County Lime Company, Ocala.
Marion County Road Department, Ocala.
The Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Newsome-Smith Rock Company, Williston.
Oakhurst Lime Company, (Florida Lime Company), Ocala.
Ocala Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
George H. Palmer Co., The, P. 0. Box 4117, Miami.
Pineola Quarries, Pineola.
Price, Inc., W. T., Coconut Grove.
Princeton Rock Company, 320 Karp Bldg., Coral Gables.
Quinn Company, J. J., Miami.
Rooks & Thomas, Ocala.
Southern Construction Engineers, Inc., Sarasota.
Standard Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
Sumter County Rock .Company, Winter Haven.
Thomas & Company, A. t', Oeala. o,
Thompsoh, T'. A., ;Brnfoid.
Thon lson Williston Company, Willisron.'*
VAThzio'PCoquina Rock Company, Nationial tarJdeus.
S'White Rock Company, Stovall Bldg., Tampa.,
'Williston Shell RThck'. Cqiphny;, Raleigh.

d'
Baird Flint Rock Company, P. 0. Box 388, Ocala.
Belleview Rock Crusher, Belleview.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Florida Shell Rock Company, Williston.
Hubbard Hard Rock Company, Ocala.
Long-Pasley Lumber Company, Williston.
A. G. Pickett, Williston.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIME PRODUCTION.

Arredonda Lime Company, Gainesville.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.












STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA.


MINERAL WATERS.

The total sales of waters in Florida in 1926, as shown by returns from
the owners of springs and wells, amounted to 3,049,655 gallons valued at
s200,161.30. Production was reported from the following springs or wells:

Brack's Panacea, Bradenton, Manatee County.
Crystal Mineral Spring, Whitehouse, Duval County.
Crystal Springs, Crystal Springs, Pasco County.
Deep Rock Mineral Water Company, West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County.
Egret Water Company, Ft. Pierce, St. Lucie County.
Elder Spring, Sanford, Seminole County.
Espiritu Santo Springs Company, Inc., Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
Flamingo Spring Water Company, Orange City, Volusia County.
Good Hope Water Company, Riverview, Duval County.
Hampton Springs, Hampton Springs, Taylor County.
Kissengen Springs, Bartow, Polk County.
Manatee Spring, Manatee, Manatee County.
Orange City Mineral Spring Company, Orange City, Volusia County.
Palm Springs, Longwood, Seminole County.
Purity Springs Water Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
Qui-Si-Sana Springs, Green Cove Springs, Clay County.
Shorelands Deep Rock, Palma Sola. Manatee County.
Su-No-Wa Spring, Verdie, Nassau County.
Ultrafine Water Company, Miami, Dade County.
Wekiva Springs Corporation, Apopka, Orange County.
White Ridge Water Company, Indrio, St. Lucie County.
Wizzard Water, Palatka, Putnam County.

PEAT.

The peat marketed in Florida is sold principally as a nitrogenous fer-
tilizer filler. Figures for the total production of peat in Florida are in-
cluded in the total amount of the State's mineral production. The fol-
lowing companies have produced peat in Florida:

Ammoniate Products Corporation, 2 Rector Street, New York and Fellsmere,
Indian River County, Florida.
Dundee Fertilizer Company, I. Berner, Lessee, 1407 Marion St., Tampa, and
Dundee, Polk County, Florida.
Florida Humus Company, 14 Wall Street, New York, and Zellwood, Orange
County, Florida.












28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

PHOSPHATE.
Although the phosphate industry of Florida in 1926 showed a decrease
of eight per cent in quantity the State continued to lead in production and
furnished 84 per cent of all the phosphate rock sold or used by producers
in the United States in 1926. The cause of the increase in quantity and
value in 1925 was the stronger demand from Europe for high-grade phos-
phate during the latter part of the year.
The output from the hard-rock field has been declining for several
years on account of the increased cost of production and the keen compe-
tition of North African phosphates in the European niarkets. There are
no new mines being developed and those reporting production are less
than in 1925.
The land pebble output was 96 per cent of the entire Florida production
for 1926. The pebble rock sold in 1926 decreased in quantity but increased
in value.

PHOSPHATE MINING COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION IN 1926.
American Agricultural Chemical Company, 2 Rector Street, New York City,
and Pierce, Florida.
American Cyanamid Company, 511 Fifth Avenue, New York City, ani
Brewster, Florida.
J. Buttgenbach & Company, 22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and Dui..
nellon, Florida.
Coronet Phosphate Company, 99 John Street, New York City, and Plant
City, Florida.
Dunnellon Phosphate Company, 106 East Bay Street, Savannah, Georgia, anml
Dunnellon, Florida.
Florida 'Phosphate Mining Corporation, P. 0. Box 1118, Norfolk, Virginia,
and Bartow, Florida.
International Agricultural Corporation, 61 Broadway, New York City, and
Mulberry, Florida.
Mutual Mining Company, 102 East Bay Street, Savannah, Georgia, an,[
Floral City, Florida.
Phosphate Mining Company, 110 Williams Street, New York City, an'
Nichols, Florida.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, 25 Broad Street, New York City, an'l
Lakeland, Florida.
Swift and Company, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Illinois, and BartoN,
Florida.
The following table gives the production and value of Florida phos-
phate rock from 1900 to 1926. Since the beginning of phosphate mining
in 1888 to 1926, inclusive, Florida has produced 54,696,924 long tons with
a total valuation of $209,646,723. These figures are in accordance with
statistics collected by the United States Geological Survey, the United State-
Bureau of Mines and the Florida Geological Survey:











(Long Tons)

Land Pebble Hard Rock River Pebble Soft Rock

Year Value It l I It w
Qun it Vau un it Vau Qu tiy ale uniy Value


1900 ...... 221,403 $ 612,703
1901 ...... 247,454 660,702
1902 ...... 350,991 810,792
1903 ...... 390,882 885,425
1904 ...... 460,834 1,102,993
1905 ...... 528,587 1,045,113
1906 ...... 675,444 2,029,202
1907 ...... 675,024 2,376,261
1908 ...... 1,085,199 3,885,041
1909 ...... 1,266,117 4,514,968
1910 ...... 1,629,160 5,595,947
1911 ...... 1,992,737 6,712,189
1912 ...... 1,913,418 6,168,129
1913 ...... 2,055,482 6,575,810
1914 ...... 1,829,202 5,442,547
1915 ...... 1,308,481 3,496,501
1916 ...... 1,468,758 3,874,410
1917 ...... 2,003,991 5,305,127
1918 ...... 1,996,847 5,565,928
1919 ...... 1,360,235 5,149,048
1920 ...... 2,955,182 14,748,620
1921 ...... 1,599,835 8,604,818
1922 ...... 1,870,063 7,035,821
1923 ...... 2,348,137 7,987,752
1924 ...... 2,289,466 7,387,897
1925 ...... 2,758,315 8,081,137
1926 ...... 2,591,943 8,218,200


424,977
457,568
429,384
412,876
531,081
577,672
587,598
646,156
595,743
513,585
438,347
443,511
493,481
489,794
309,689
50,130
47,087
18,608
62,052
285,467
400,249
175,774
188,084
199,516
143,115
171,649
116,264


$ 2,229,373 59,863 $ 141,236
2,393,080 46,974 105,961
1,743,6941 5,055 9,711
1,988,243 56,578 113,156
2,672,184 81,030 199,127
2,993,732 87,847 213,000
3,440,276 41,463 116,000
4,065,375 36,185 136,121
4,566,018 11,160 33,480
4,026,333 ........... ..........
3,051,827 .......... ........ .
2,761,449 (a) (a)
3,293,168 (a) (a)
2,987,274 (a) (a)
1,912,197 (a) (a)
265,738 .................. . .
295,755 ........... ........
159,366 ....................
377,075 .....................
2,452,563 ........... ........ .
4,525,191 ........ ....... . .
1,806,671 ........... ...... . .
1,308,201 ........... ........ .
1,071,675 ........... ....... .
629,579 ..................
707,933 .....................
465,308 ......... .........


..........


.. . .





..........





(b)
8,331
14,498
13,953
4,419
446
..........

















j..........


...... ...













(b)

147,103
196,318
190,551
20,153
3,500


..........


Total

Quantity Value

706,243 $ 2,983,312
751,996 3,159,473
785,430 2,564,197 n
860,336 2,986,824 o
1,072,951 3,974,304
1,194,106 4,251,845
1,304,505 5,585,578
1,357,365 6,577,757
1,692,102 8,484,539 W
1,779,702 8,541,301
2,067,507 8,647,774
2,436,248 9,473,638
2,406,899 9,461,297 0
2,545,276 9,563,084
2,138,891 7,354,744
1,358,611 3,762,239 -
1,515,845 4,170,165 6
2,022,599 5,464,493 2
1,067,230 6,090,106 -
1,660,200 7,797,929 2
3,369,384 19,464,362 g
1,780,028 10,431,642 e
2,058,593 8,347,522 W
2,547,653 9,059,427 U
2,432,581 8,017,476 >
2,929,964 8,789,070
2,708,207 8,683,508


(a) Included in land pebble.
(b) Included in.hard rock.


.











30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SAND AND GRAVEL.
The output of sand and gravel in Florida was even larger than that
for 1925, amounting to 1,841,009 short tons with a valuation of $1,483,757.
These figures show an increase of a little more than 21 per cent in quantity
and more than 36 per cent in value. Some sand is used in glass-making,
in foundry work, for grinding and polishing purposes, water filtration
and railroad ballast, but the greater part is used for building and paving
purposes.
The sands of the State are produced from various sources, large quan-
tities coming from deposits fairly uniform in physical characteristics,
others dredged from lake or stream bottoms, while large tonnages of by-
product sands from the mining and washing of kaolin and pebble phos-
phate are now placed on the market. The Florida gravel comes prin-
cipally from the Apalachicola River and from the Escambia River, although
deposits of clayey-gravel occur in other sections of western Florida and
have been used for surfacing highways in that part of the State.

SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION.
Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster.
Carlisle, P. M., Birmingham, Ala. (Plant Callaway Bayou, Florida).
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Duo Sand and Rock Company, P. 0. Box 1687, West Palm Beach.
Escambia Sand and Gravel Corporation, Flomaton, Ala. (Plant at Tarzan,
Fla.).
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Fort Pierce Builders and Supply Company.
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Box 715, Lake Wales.
Lake Weir Silica Products Corporation, Ocala.
Leesburg Sand and Supply Company, Leesburg.
Meteor Transportation Company, Miami and Miami Beach.
Phosphate Mining Company, Nichols.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, 'P. 0. Box 921, Tampa.
SAND-LIME BRICK.
The sand-lime brick industry had a very good output for the year 1926,
but as only three companies reported production the figures for this indus-
try are included in the State's total mineral output.

PRODUCERS.
Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen, Volusia County.
Lakeland Brick and Tile Manufacturing Co., P. 0. Box 1786, Lakeland,
Polk County.
Plant City Brick Company, P. 0. Box 1992, Tampa, (plant, Plant City),
Hillsborough County.











SUMMARY

The following table summarizes the total value of the mineral products
in the State for each year from 1916 to 1926, inclusive. These figures in-
dicate at a glance the gradual and steady increase in the value of the mineral
output from Florida. It will be noted that for the year 1920 there is shown
an unusual total value. Large tonnages of phosphate mined and held in
storage during the war period were sold during 1920 which accounts for
the large value of mineral products during that year.


VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA, 1916-1926


Mineral Products 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926
Phosphate 8 8
Land Pebble .......... $ 3,874,410 $ 5,305,1271$ 5,565,988 $ 5,149,048 $14,745,620 $ 8,604,81 $ 7035,821 $ 7,987,752$ 7,387,897 $ 8081137 $ 8,218,200
Hard Rock ............ 295,755 159,3661 377.075 2,452,5631 4,525,191 1,806,671 1,308,201 1,071,675 629,579 707.933 465,308
Soft Rock .. ...................... 147,103 196,3181 190,5511 20,153 3,500 .... .. .... .........
Total ............. 4,170,165| 5,464,4931 6,090,1061 7,797,9291 19,464,3621 10,431,6421 8,347,5221 9,059,427] 8,017,4761 8,789,0701 8,683,508


Kaolin, Fuller's Earth,
Peat, Zircon, IImenite,
Monazite, Rutile ....... 784,799
Lime, Limestone and Flint 529,373
Common Brick, Pottery,
Tile, and Sand-Lime Brick 371,156
Sand and Gravel.......... 42,352
Mineral Waters ......... 15,6761


897,118 1,241,437 2,190,258 2,700,082 1,504,5741 1,666,260
713,018 365,293 296,594 569,097 638,272 857,913

324,564 238,276 340,2151 557,542 286,522 368,149
145,579 48,768 164,1011 117,601 97,324 147,924
9,850 12,8831 12,0621 27,1201 28,365 57,305
I 1 II


1,782,718 1,860,847
1,572,768 3,097,703


I 393,323
290,082
131,781


452,053
376,853
135,357


1,968,119 2,155,458
4,873,757 7,511,747

650,774 689,856
1,098,215 1,483,757
151,367 200,161


Total ............... 1$ 5,859,5211$ 7,554,622,$ 7,996,7631$10,801,1591 $23,435,8041$12,986,6991$11,445,073|$13,230.0991$13,939,2891$17,522,3021$20.724,487

















SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA


JAMES H. C. MARTENS


INTRODUCTION
This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of making available
information regarding the location, geological occurrence, and quality of
'he sand and gravel deposits of the State. Nearly all of Florida is covered
by sand, and to one not familiar with the requirements of sand for differ-
ent uses it might seem that almost unlimited supplies could be obtained
anywhere at a very small cost. However, most of the sands on the surface
are too fine in texture or too impure to be of much use, so the study of the
distribution of such deposits as do have some economic value is more im-
oortant than might appear at first sight.
Field work for this report was begun in 1925 by D. Stuart Mossom,
formerly of this Survey, and completed and brought up to date by the
writer in 1927. In going over so large an area as the whole State of Florida
it was impossible to determine the size of individual deposits, nor could any
attempt be made to locate and sample all of the deposits large enough to
be workable. The topography of Florida, in contrast with that of many
other parts of the country, is often of little help in locating sand and gravel
deposits and in determining tonnages, and to obtain accurate figures on the
extent and thickness of deposits would mean putting down many prospect
holes.
Samples to be tested were taken representing practically all of the sands
and 'gravels being produced. In addition samples were taken from such
situations as highway and railway cuts, banks and beds of rivers, prospect
holes and test pits, to show the character of the material available in dif-


(33)











34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

ferent parts of the State. No deposits were sampled which were obviously
of small extent, except in a few instances where it is so stated in the local
descriptions. Less attention was paid to the deposits far from transporta-
tion or in uninhabited parts of the State, since these are of no value at the
present time.
It is not to be understood that all the undeveloped localities for, or de-
posits of, good sand have been examined and will be described here; an
attempt was made rather to get some idea of the different types of material
available in the various regions and often, although not always, these will
have a considerable distribution beyond the particular localities sampled
or depribed in detail.
(>All of the samples collected, except the molding sands, were tested in
the State Road Department Laboratory at Gainesville, under the direction
of Mr. Harvey A. Hall, testing engineer. The molding sands were tested
at Cornell University under the direction of Dr. Heinrich Ries, in a labora-
tory maintained by the American Foundrymen's Association. To both of
these organizations, and to Mr. Hall and Dr. Ries, our thanks are due for
their cooperation with the Geological Survey in this work.
As a general summary of the distribution of sands and gravels it _ay
be said that gravel deposits, other than the pebble phosphate, are not known
in Florida east of the Apalachicola River, and that west of it they are very
scarce an-TFof limited extent while coarse sand deposits are fairly well dis-
tributed in the Central Ridge or Lake Region and in Middle and West
Florida. On the east coast abundant deposits of medium to fine sand are
found as far south as West Palm Beach, but coarse sands are lacking along
the entire east and west coast of the Peninsula, as well as through the whole
width of the southern one-third of the Peninsula.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


THE SAND AND GRAVEL INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA
STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION
It is only in recent years that sand and gravel have made up any notable
proportion of the mineral production of the state. In Table 1 is given the
tonnage and value of the sand and gravel produced in 1926, classified
according to uses. Especially noteworthy is the fact that 96 per cent of
the tonnage and 97 per cent of the value is of washed sand and gravel.
TABLE 1.
PRODUCTION OF SAND AND GRAVEL, 1926.
Sand. Short tons. Value.
Structural (concrete and mortar) .................. 1,026,818 $640,325
Paving and road making ........................ 517,917 294,427
Engine sand ...................................... 4,368 2,708
Gravel.
Structural ......................................... 170,213 404,738
Paving and road making........................... 99,015 134,035
Other uses ........................................ 22,678 7,524
Grand total ......................................... 1.841,009 $1,483,757
Total washed sand and gravel....................... 1,775,021 $1,433,037
o 1,800,000

1,600, 000
0
0 1,400, 000

1,200, 000

S1,000, 000 1-

<1
800, 000

0 600,000

400,000


00, 000 /

-4 0 9
^^ ~ --f-/


FIG. 1. Variation in tonnage" and value of sand and gravel
produced in Florida, from 1907 to 1926.












36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

By reference to Table 2 and Figure 1 we can see how the production of
sand and gravel have increased in the past twenty years. The very much
larger production for the last four years for which statistics are available is
due mostly to the great activity in both general building construction and
in road paving. There is also a tendency to use more washed sand for con-
crete and mortar and less of inferior bank sands, for which statistics may
be incomplete because they are obtained from small local pits on which no
report is made. Only a small proportion of the clayey sand used for road
surfacing is included in these statistics.

TABLE 2.

TOTAL OUTPUT AND VALUE OF SAND AND GRAVEL IN FLORIDA
FROM 1907 TO 1926..


VALUE.


QUANTITY.
(Short Tons)


............................ 15,798
............................ 28,176
............................ 43,566
............................ 34,858
............................ 112,776
............................ 115,450
............................ 87,061
............................ 177,241
............................ 123,548
............................ 86,452
................ .. ........ 262,971
................ ........... 158,489
............................ 271,794
............................ 132,749
............................ 160,445
............................ 246,849
............................ 513,245
............................ 645,917
............................ 1,515,529
............................ 1,841,009


............................$ 6,609
............................ 17,901
............................ 28,611
............................ 21,912
............................ 33,339
............................ 21,050
............................ 21,194
............................. 54,120
............................ 34,055
........... ................. 42,352
............................ 145,579
............................ 48,768
............................ 164,101
............................ 117,601
............................ 97,324
............................ 147,924
............................ 290,082
............................ 375,853
............................ 1,089,215
............................ 1,483,757


SAND AND GRAVEL PRODUCERS

The following list of sand and gravel producers of the state has been
compiled from all available sources, but there may be some omissions,
especially of small producers of bank sand:

Alafia Sand and Shell Company, Box 2935, Tampa, Florida.
Acme Sand Company, Eustis, Florida.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster, Florida.
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Co., Wilmington, N. C.
Atlantic Sand Company, West Palm Beach, Florida.
Capital City Sand & Gravel Co., Tallahassee, Florida.


YEAR.





A- L A B M A 1

MES G








SFRANc L


















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, 5tate Geologist

MAP OF FLORIDA

Citronelle Formation

A Sand-lime brick plant
Localities of 5and and gravel production
[] Bank run sand or gravel
0 Washed or dredged sand or gravel
Distribution of Citrone/le formation is from manuscript
map by CW Cooke, United 5twte5 seo/ogical SurVey
ad DS Mossorn, formerly of Mte Florlda 6eo/ogical/ survey












Fr Rure 2.
AP O.FORD


r


0


------COLUMBIA; ~-


LA Y E Tn



..... F LAGLL



L. E R;D V;~ Y~:





o I R US c



VflHE.RORE .
W CS 0 4S 8to
~ ;I,0 -N OL E


P A 0


------- ---D A-
fep
C1o

L-ORUG i
0 INDIA











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


P. M. Carlisle, Empire Building, Birmingham, Ala. (Sand pits on Callaway
Bayou, Bay County, Florida).
D. L. Dewey, Orlo Vista, Florida.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales, Florida. S. D.,Gooch, V. P. & General
Manager. (Plant No. 1 near Lake Wales; plant No. 2 at Keuka).
Duo Sand and Rock Company, P. 0. Box 1697, West Palm Beach, Florida.
Duo Sand and Gravel Company, Jacksonville, Florida.
Escambia Sand and Gravel Company, Flomaton, Ala. (Plant at Tarzan,
Escambia County, Florida).
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee, Florida. (Plant on the Apalachi-
cola River near River Junction, Florida).
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Lake Wales, Florida.
Hillsboro Sand and Shell Company, P. 0. Box 2302, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen, Putnam County, Florida.
H. W. Johnson Gravel Company, Cottondale, Florida.
Kenneth McCloud, Anastasia, Florida.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Lake Wales, Florida.
Leesburg Sand and Supply Company, Leesburg, Florida. (Plants at Lees-
burg and Edgar).
Meteor Transportation and Trading Company, Miami and Miami Beach,
Florida.
The Phosphate Mining Company, Nichols, Florida.
0. G. Posey, Daytona Beach, Florida.
Roquemore Gravel Co., Flomaton, Alabama.
I. E. Shilling Sand Company, Miami, Florida.
Tallahassee dressed Brick Company, Havana, Florida.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, P. 0. Box 921, Tampa, Florida.

METHODS OF EXCAVATION AND PREPARATION
On account of the few conditions under which the deposits occur only
a comparatively narrow range of methods of excavation and preparation
of sand and gravel is used in Florida.
At many deposits worked only in a small way for local use all of the
sand is loaded by hand into trucks either with no preparation whatever or
after a coarse sieving to remove most of the roots. Unless great care is
taken in selection, bank sand in Florida is very likely to be dirty. Sand-
clay and bank run gravel road material is commonly loaded by hand, but
at some localities steam shovels are used, loading either into trucks or into
cars for rail transportation.
The prevailing method of excavating sand and gravel for concrete and
for most other uses where a clean sand is desired is by centrifugal pump,
which is located on a floating dredge in a lake, river or artificial pond, or
is on the bank of the pond. The nearness of the water table to the surface
and the fact that most of the sand needs washing, make this the most eco-
nomical method. Washing greatly decreases the amount of vegetable mat-
ter, removes practically all of the clay, and improves the texture of the sand
by removing part of the finer grains. Where there is little clay and that not
of a type which tends to stick to the grains, there is usually sufficient water










38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

for washing in the discharge from the pump, since it is necessary to pump a
large amount of water to move the sand. The automatically regulated steel
cone washer is in use at most of the plants and gives satisfactory results. In
some instances the sand is put through two such cones in succession to get
a more thoroughly purified product. Two sand producers have installed
Dorr washers since these are better able to handle materials which are
difficult to wash.
Removal of clay lumps, pebbles and roots from sand is effected by a
screen onto which the pipe from the pump discharges. Grading of the sand
is accomplished by allowing the flowing water to carry off the fine sand in
suspension. If fine sand is desired it can be caught by passing the over-
flow from the first cone or hopper through a second one.

CONDITIONS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT.
SAilybke considering going into the sand business should not only make
careful estimates of the quantity and determinations of the quality of the
material available, but if any equipment is to be installed for mining and
washing the sand, it is also of the utmost importance to see that there will
be a market for'the output of the plant at a profitable price. aThe intrinsic
value of sand is so low that long freight hauls are prohibitive and only
nearby markets can be considered. An estimate of one of the largest sand
producers in the state of $1.00 a ton as the average freight paid on sand
will give some idea of the territory which the output of a plant will be likely
to cover. Competition is keen because the capacity of the plants is far in
excess of the demand for sand, and in some districts prices have been cut
to a very low level.
Contractors, engineers and owners are coming to use more discrimina-
tion in the choice of sand supplies for construction of all kinds, with the
result that local sources of supply of bank sand are frequently being
abandoned in favor of washed and classified sand brought in by rail. In
many instances it can be shown that the better material at a higher price
is really more economical if a certain strength or quality is to be insisted
upon in the finished structure. Special sands for special purposes are being
prepared by a few producers and it is probable that as the advantages of
using the right sand become more fully realized there will be more and-
more insistence on using sands conforming to definite specifications.
Although during the past year or two there has been a considerable de-
cline in building in many parts of Florida, this is offset to some extent, as
far as the producer of sand is concerned, by the great activity in state
highway construction.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


SAND AND GRAVEL SUBSTITUTES
Slag.-Crushed blast furnace slag from Birmingham, Alabama, is
widely used in surfacing highways in Florida and may be considered as a
substitute for gravel.
Limestone Screenings.-In some parts of south Florida, where good
coarse sand is scarce, screenings from crushers at limestone quarries are
used to a considerable extent as fine concrete aggregate.
Pebble Phosphate.-Although pebble phosphate is actually a kind of
gravel, yet its primary use is as fertilizer, and its composition is so differ-
ent from ordinary gravel that we may mention it here with the substitutes.
No definite information is available to show how pebble phosphate com-
pares with quartz gravel of similar texture for the various uses to which
gravel is applied.
Shell, from shell mounds, is widely used for road surfacing and to a
smaller extent for concrete aggregate in the coastal regions. Fortunately
the shell occurs in those places where materials for sand clay roads are
lacking.


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

DEFINITION OF SAND AND GRAVEL
Sand may be defined as a naturally occurring, incoherent, granular ma-
terial. For greater exactness limits need to be placed on the size of the
particles, but the limits given vary with different authorities. The maximum
size of sand grains is usually taken as 1/4 to 1/10 inch and the minimum
size all the way from 1/150 to 1/1400 inch. For the purpose of this report
all particles are considered sand which pass a sieve of 1/4 inch circular
opening and are retained on a sieve with 200 meshes to the inch, and open-
ings of .0029 inch.
Material coarser than 1/4 inch is gravel or pebbles, and that fine enough
to pass a 200 mesh sieve is silt and clay.
It is seldom that all the particles of a sand or gravel come within the
stated limits for size. Clay may be present in a sand to a notable amount
and then the sand would be described as a clayey sand; while if there are
pebbles larger than 1/4 inch in a sand we would call it a gravelly sand.
Likewise we have clayey and sandy gravels; in fact, gravels which do not
naturally contain clay, or sand, or both, are not found in Florida.











40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

GRAIN SIZE
The size of the grains of which a given sand is composed is one of the
most important properties in determining the suitability of the sand, for any
particular use. It is necessary to know not only the maximum and mini-
mum size, but also the proportions of the grains of the intermediate sizes.
This information is obtained by means of the mechanical analysis or sieve
test. A weighed sample of the sand to be tested is placed in the coarsest one
of a standard series of sieves with the other sieves below it in order of de-
creasing size of opening. The sieves are shaken for a specified length of
time, either by hand or in a mechanical shaker, and the amounts retained
on each of the sieves and the amount passing the finest one are weighed
and their percentage of the whole sample computed.
In stating the results of the sieve test several methods can be used. The
actual per cent retained on each sieve may be given, or the total or cumula-
tive per cent retained on each sieve and those coarser than it; or the total
per cent passing each sieve. Below are given the results of a sieve test stated
in these three different ways:

Screen Percent retained. Cumulative percent Percent passing.
retained.
10 mesh ................. 0.0 0.0 100.0
20 mesh ................. 0.5 0.3 99.5.
50 mesh ................. 46.6 47.1 52.9
80 mesh ................. 28.8 75.9 24.1
100 mesh ................. 13.2 89.1 10.9
200 mesh .................. 9.0 98.1 1.9

For the samples tested at Gainesville the following series of sieves were
used; wire sieve' with square meshes per linear inch as follows: 10, 20, 30,
80, 100; and screens with circular openings of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 11/2 inch.
For the molding sand samples tested at Cornell University sieves with 6,
12, 20, 40, 70, 14,0, 200 and 270 meshes per linear inch were used.
In the case /f the molding sands and the sand-clay road materials it
was necessary to first remove the clay and fine silt before proceeding to the
sieve analysis. This is done by washing according to a certain procedure
which is followed carefully so as to obtain uniform results.
A sand which has approximately equal amounts retained on several
sieves from the finest to the coarsest is said to be well graded, or poorly
sorted, while one which has a very large proportion between two sieves of
nearly the same size is said to be well sorted. It is found that important
relationships exist between the origin or geological occurrence of a sand or










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


gravel and its texture. By texture we refer to both the coarseness of grain
and degree of sorting. River sands are usually not very well sorted, fine
and coarse grains occurring mixed together. Coarser sands or gravel will
nearly always be found toward the head of a stream and finer material
farther downstream. Wind blown sands and sands of marine origin are
likely to be better sorted than river sands, and in general they are finer than
the sands to be found along the bed of the rivers, although not always finer
than the sands deposited by the river above its banks at times of flood.

SHAPE OF GRAINS
The shape of grains of sand and gravel appears to be of little importance
in determining the suitability of the material for most of the uses discussed
here, and this property is not given much consideration except by geologists.
When the sand is used for asphalt pavement, however, angular grains seem
to have a definite advantage over rounded ones. In Florida there is very
little choice as to shapes of grains, at least as far as the silica sands are
concerned. Thoroughly rounded quartz grains are rare, and the smaller
,rains are usually sharply angular. The gravel and sand of coarse to
intermediate e sizes may be described as subangular to moderately rounded.
* hese remarks refer to the grains of quartz, which are ordinarily the only
ones which need be considered. Any softer minerals, such as phosphate
_,"* calcite are much more easily worn away than the quartz and are con-
'equently more rounded.
The term "sharp sand" as commonly applied refers not to the shape of
a.e grains but to the absence of clay arid the consequent gritty feel of the
and as it is squeezed in the hand.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC YARD
Little variation is found in the specific gravity of sand grains, especially
when we limit ourselves to a consideration of Florida sands. Quartz has
a specific gravity of 2.65, calcite 2.72 and pebble phosphate about 2.5.
However, there are much greater variations than this in the weight per cubic
foot or cubic yard because the amount of pore space, or voids, between the
grains is widely different in different sands, and in the same sand under
different conditions. A sand, all of whose grains are about the same size,
will have a larger percentage of voids and smaller weight per cubic yard
than one in which the spaces between the larger grains are partly filled
with smaller ones. The same sand will of course have a greater weight per










42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

unit volume when closely packed than when loose. Moisture content is
another thing to be considered. A given volume of sand will usually weigh
less when damp than when dry because each grain of the wet sand is sepa-
rated from those nearest to it by a thin film of water. In other words, add-
ing moisture to a sand will cause it to swell and become less dense. Thorough
soaking, however, will cause the sand to pack and occupy practically the
same volume as when dry. Satistics gathered by the United States Geo-
logical Survey' show that a cubic yard of sand may weigh anywhere from
2000 to 4000 pounds while the average weight is 2,665 pounds for sand and
2,820 for gravel.
Errors in measurement of sand caused by moisture or loose packing
may result in a deficiency of sand in concrete mixtures, with a resultant
loss in strength in the finished concrete and lesser yardage of concrete per
barrel of cement.

COLOR
A sand composed entirely of silica is pure white, while one made up of
calcite is also white. The yellow, orange and reddish colors are caused by
a coating of iron oxide on the grains, which adheres so firmly that it is
usually not possible to completely remove it by washing. This iron stain
has no harmful effect on either sand or gravel. Gray or black color in a
Florida sand is usually, but not always, an indication of vegetable impur-
ities, and unless such sands are already known to be satisfactory they
should be tested carefully before use. In some regions the mineral grains
themselves may have a dark color. 'As examples of this in Florida we have
the phosphatic sands, and the black ilmenite sands of the east coast.



MINERAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SAND AND GRAVEL

MINERALS PRESENT IN SAND
Since sand grains are formed mainly by the breaking up of various
hard rocks they will naturally consist of the minerals which are most re-
sistant to abrasion and to the action of weathering. To be thus resistant I
mineral must be hard and must be chemically stable when exposed to the
atmosphere, to water, and to the various substances in solution in natural


lMineral Resources of the United States, 1918. Part II, p. 314.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


water. Sands which are formed partly or entirely by the breaking up of
shells or by deposition of substances from solution may have a composition
widely different from those whose minerals are derived from older forma-
tions. In the following discussion of individual minerals, only the most
common are mentioned. The variations in the mineral composition of
sands in Florida is less than in many other parts of the country, but is
nevertheless considerable. However, with the exception of the pebble phos-
phate region and the coasts of the southern part of the peninsula, there are
few places in Florida where minerals other than quartz are present in large
amounts.
Quartz.-This has the chemical composition SiO2; when pure it is
colorless or white with a glassy appearance. It is hard enough to scratch
glass or steel. Quartz is the characteristic mineral of sand and sandstone,
and when nothing is said to the contrary it is usually understood that they
consist principally of it. The clear transparent variety is called rock
*rystal; flint and chert are fine grained varieties with a dull or waxy
appearance, while still other common varieties are milky and smoky quartz.
Granite and other rocks similar to it are the original source of most of the
quartz in sand.
Calcite.-Next after quartz, calcite, which has the chemical composition,
CaCOs, is the most abundant mineral in Florida sands. Calcite is rather
soft, being easily scratched by a knife. It is white when pure but may be
colored gray or pink by impurities. The most certain means of recognition
is the easy solubility in acid with formation of bubbles of carbon dioxide.
The only sands in Florida containing calcite in notable amounts are those
along the seacoast, the reason being that the calcite is derived from shells,
foraminifera, and corals, which live in the sea. While many of the sands in
Florida which are not near the present seacoast probably contained calcite
when deposited, most of this has been dissolved away from the sands near
the surface. In general the amount of calcite in the coastal sands increases
toward the south, because of increasing distance from the source of the
quartz grains and more favorable conditions for the growth of calcareous
organisms. Some of the sand dredged in the vicinity of Miami contains
more shell fragments than quartz; while on some of the keys farther south
there are small deposits of sand which are almost entirely calcium car-
bonate.
Calcium Phosphate.-Grains of calcium phosphate are present in large
amount in all of the sands obtained as a by-product in the mining of pebble
phosphate, in the river sands in the pebble phosphate region, and on the










44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

coastal beach near Venice. Occasionally a few phosphate grains may be
noticed in sands from other parts of Florida. The exact mineral composi-
tion of the pebble phosphate and the smaller phosphate grains is not known
but they consist largely of cellophane, an amorphous calcium phosphate.
Phosphate grains are recognized by their dark gray, opaque but non-
metallic appearance and smooth surface. Objections have been raised to
the use of sands containing phosphate on the basis of a real or supposed
injurious effect of the phosphate grains on concrete. However, the mortar
strength tests made in connection with this report do not show any great
difference between the phosphatic sands and the siliceous sands, provided
that the sand is thoroughly washed. Organic matter and clay are very likely
to be associated with phosphate so that the washing is of great importance.
Feldspar.-This is the general name applied to a group of minerals
which are silicates of aluminum with calcium, sodium or potassium. In the
rocks of the Piedmont Region, from which we believe a large part of the
Florida sands to have come, feldspar is exceedingly abundant. However,
the feldspars weather easily enough so that they occur only in small amount
in Florida sands except along the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers,
which carry sand from the Piedmont Region to Florida. The grains of feld-
spar are commonly of the variety known as orthoclase and can be dis-
tinguished from quartz by having smooth flat faces giving bright reflec-
tions, rather than the irregular or rounded surfaces of the quartz. Sands
from many other localities in the state contain feldspar in such small grains
and so sparingly that it can be detected only by microscopic examination.
Mica.-This is easily recognized by its occurrence in bright shining
scales having a silvery appearance. Mica of the muscovite variety is
widely distributed in the sands of the Citronelle and in the Miocene forma-
tions of the northern part of the State, but the sand associated with the
kaolin in the Lake Region and the sand in the Apalachicola River are the
only ones of commercial importance in which mica was noticed. It is prac
tically absent from the Pleistocene sands and the Recent coastal deposits. In
large amounts it would be detrimental, but on account of the flat shape and
small weight of the flakes they are nearly all removed, along with the clay.
in washing.
Limonite is the mineralogical name for the hydrous iron oxide which
gives most of the yellow, orange, and red colors to sands. It usually occurs
as thin coatings, firmly adhering to the grains and extending into the cracks,
and is also present in the clay occurring mixed with many sands. Iron
oxide occasionally cements sand together forming hard lumps called con-










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


cretions, or even continuous layers of sandstone, and under such circum-
stances may be a hindrance in the working of deposits of sand, gravel, or
clay.
Glauconite.-While this mineral, which is a hydrous silicate of iron and
potassium, usually occurring in small grains of a green color, is not known
in any sands exposed at the surface in Florida, it is found in some sands
from wells and in some clays and limestones at the surface. It weathers
easily to limonite, and may thus be the indirect cause of the red and yellow
colors of some sands as well as the bonding action of the clayey sands.
Ilmenite and other Heavy Minerals.-Practically all quartz sand con-
tains a small proportion of grains of various minerals which are consider-
ably heavier than quartz, feldspar and calcite and may be spoken of collec-
tively as heavy minerals. Of these, ilmenite seems to be the most common
in Florida but a number of others including tourmaline, zircon, and rutile
;yre almost invariably present, while monazite, staurolite, epidote and garnet
are rather common. In rare instances the natural concentrations of ilmenite,
;:tile, and zircon in sands is great enough to permit their exploitation as a
,-i;mmercial source of these minerals, as on the east coast south of Jackson-
ville Beach. To the geologist, these "heavy detrital minerals" as they are
called, are of interest in that a study of them will often help to show where
the sand has come from. As far as most uses of sand are concerned these
in.inerals have no effect whatever, but they sometimes contain enough iron
to render a sand unfit for glass manufacture, even where the quartz grains
ai e white and free from iron stains.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
The chemical composition is evidently closely related to the mineral
composition. Since most sands are composed chiefly of quartz, the dominant
chemical constituent is silica, otherwise known as silicon dioxide.- We may
consider the "purity" of the sand to be expressed to some degree by the
percentage of substances other than silica, but whether the presence of
other substances is objectionable depends on the purpose for which the
sand is to be used and the nature of these "impurities."
Sands containing fragments of shell or coral are found, upon analysis,
to contain calcium carbonate and in some instances this may make up prac-
tically all of the deposit. Sands from the pebble phosphate formation con-
tain large but variable amounts of calcium phosphate. All siliceous sands
contain iron oxides, alumina, and titanium, but in Florida the amount of
these is usually small unless the sand is clayey.










46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The exact chemical composition of a sand is seldom of any practical
importance except when the sand is to be used for glass making. The re-
quirement as to purity of .sand for different kinds of glass is discussed in
the chapter on uses of sand.
Thus far we have been discussing the inorganic or mineral constituents
of sands. No less important from the practical point of view is the presence
of substances of animal or vegetable origin since these are. practically al-
ways harmful. Various kinds of decaying organic matter are likely to be
enclosed in sands as they are deposited in water, and may persist for long
periods of time. Material of vegetable origin from the top soil may be
carried in solution or as small suspended particles to depths of many feet
in underlying deposits of sand, while in sandy soils especially tree roots
will penetrate to great depths in search of water.
In extreme cases the subsoil may be a black or dark brown hardpan
consisting of sand partially cemented by carbonaceous material. Even the
white "scrub sands" which, as far as plant requirements are concerned, may
be said to have no organic matter, often contain enough of various organic
acids to have a decidedly harmful effect when the sand is used for concrete.
The exact chemical composition of these organic impurities can not be
stated and it is likely that they differ considerably in different types of sand
and with the vegetation growing upon it. In the chapter on the uses of sand
further attention is given to this subject.
Unfortunately it has not been practicable to make any chemical analyses
of Florida sands to use in connection with this report. A few partial analyses
obtained from various sources are quoted in connection with the local de-
scriptions.

USES
The statistics of production (Table 1, p. 35) do not show in any great
detail the uses to which Florida sands have been put, but they show in a
general way how the great mass of the production is disposed of. Morf..or
less sand mined in the State is applied to all or nearly all of the uses di,-
cussed below, while the field investigations and the tests of samples collected
show that it is possible to obtainsandssuitable for almost any purpose. Ia
many cases it is necessary to wash or otherwise treat the sand, and sometime's
more satisfactory results can be obtained by mixing two sands than by tak-
ing a single one as it copes. The following discussion of uses is written with
especial reference to conditions existing in Florida. To avoid repetitio:i,










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


little is said in this chapter about the occurrence of sand suitable for the
various uses.
CONCRETE AGGREGATE
This is probably the most important single use of sand and gravel, and
since the effect of the aggregate on the strength and endurance of the con-
crete seems to be not always fully realized the requirements -will be dis-
cussed at some length. The most important properties to be considered
in concrete aggregate are freedom from impurities, soundness or durability
of grain, and size of grain or grading.
Impurities.-Neither the fine nor the coarse aggregate should contain
organic matter of either animal or vegetable nature. Impurity of vegetable
origin is by far the most common which is met with in Florida sands. This
can often be seen by simple inspection but is sometimes revealed by chemi-
cal tests when it is not otherwise apparent. The test commonly applied
is to observe how dark a color is produced when a 3 % solution of sodium
hydroxide is added to a portion of the sand and allowed to stand 24 hours.
For more exact work a standard solution is prepared and the sample being
tested is compared with it, but usually simple examination, after standing,
will be sufficient to tell whether the color is too dark and the amount of
organic impurities excessive. This test should never be omitted on sand to
be used for concrete or mortar unless it is already known that the purity
of the particular supply under consideration can be relied upon.
The other common impurity in natural concrete aggregates is clay and
silt. This is much less injurious than organic matter, but opinions differ.
as to the amounts which should be allowed. Clay as lumps or coatings on
the grains and pebbles is always harmful, but some tests have shown that
clay up to 10% of the sand is not detrimental if thoroughly mixed in and
free from surface soil. However, specifications ordinarily limit the amount
of clay to a lower figure, such as 3 or 5 per cent, and in some cases even
less.
Soundness of Grain.-Concrete aggregate should not contain grains of
anything which is soft, or contains cracks so that it will easily disintegrate
in placing the concrete or when pressure is applied to the finished concrete.
The sand, or fine aggregate, usually consists almost entirely of quartz grains,
in the southern states, and thus there is no question about its soundness of
grain. Some of the Florida sands contain calcite or calcium phosphate in
appreciable amounts and while these minerals are softer and have less
abrasive resistance than quartz it has not been shown that concrete pave-

















TABLE NO. 4.
TESTS OF GRAVELS AND GRAVELLY SANDS.*


Sample I
No. Locality.

62 ]/4 mile south Barclay's Landing, Jackson County ....
63 A mile N. Peri Landing, Jackson County...........
64 1 miles N. Butless Landing, Jackson County......
69 Chattahoochee, Gadsden County...................
70 Chattahoochee, Gadsden County....................
92 4 miles S. E. Chipley, Washington County .........
94 1/ mile N. Alford, Jackson County.................
95 4 miles S. Cottondale, Jackson County..............
96 4 miles S. Cottondale, Jackson County..............
104 4 miles S. Cottondale, Jackson County..............
105 4 miles S. of Cottondale, Jackson County...........
121 Tarzan, Escambia County .........................
122 Tarzan, Escambia County .........................
123 Tarzan, Escambia County .........................
124 Tarzan, Escambia County .........................
127 N. E. part Santa Rosa County......................
128 N. E. part Santa Rosa County......................
133 Keuka, Putnam County ...........................
153 ] Brewster, Polk County ............................


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


Percentage passing each sieve.


1%a-in. 1-in.

........ 100.0
S....... .......
....... 100.0


98...... .......
97....... .......
97....... .......
98.7 . ..
96.1 . ..
97.0 .......
....... .......
....... .......
100.0 .......
S....... .......
....... .......


S. .. .. .. I .. ....


10
'-in. mesh


%-in.

98.1
98.9
97.3
98.4
74.7
99.8
94.5
72.7
70.8
68.5
67.6
97.3
94.4
78.3

99.0
97.4

93.5


99.7
100.0
99.7

95.3
100.0
97.4
85.9
82.9
80.2
81.1
100.0
100.0
94.3
100.......
100.0

ioo100.0


%-in.


93.9
96.9
90.9
93.0
42.9
96.1
89.3
60.0
58.3
60.2
56.5
93.4
82.2
40.4
100.0
95.4
87.9
100.0
70.4


69.8
87.0
66.7
47.2
6.7
79.3
78.4
40.7
44.6
50.0
41.7
81.3
51.9
3.3
41.9
82.1
62.3
96.9
5.5


41.3
66.4
37.5


43.4
71.6
23.2
35.5
39.0
32.1
70.2
32.7
1.0
3.3
64.2
42.1
39.9
2.2


* Tests made under the direction of Harvey A. Hall, Testing Engineer, State Road Department, Gainesville, Florida.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


ments have ever failed by abrasion, so this does not need much considera-
tion. Where the greatest density or impermeability is desired it may be
more important to insist upon a silica sand being used. In gravels it is
necessary to look out for the effects of weathering, since even pebbles of
such a hard mineral as quartz may become badly cracked, so as to be easily
crumbled by the hand. Such pebbles are more likely to be found in bank
gravels than in river gravels. Also flat pebbles, pieces of wood, charcoal,
or cinders are not desired in gravel. Shells are sometimes used as a substi-
tute for gravel and if handled properly may give satisfactory results, but
thinly laminated shells should not be used, and any very large shells should
be screened out because it is difficult to fill and surround them completely
with mortar, and they are therefore a source of weakness, and if in a con-
crete pavement will cause pits to develop in the surface.
Size of Grain.-The grains of sand for fine aggregate should be
coarse, since coarse sand will make a stronger concrete with the same
amount of cement or will effect a saving of cement over a finer sand if it
is necessary to produce a concrete of a certain specified strength. It is
necessary to modify specifications somewhat to conform with local condi-
tions, and for that reason much finer sands are used for concrete in Florida
than in many places in the north. The specifications of the Florida State
Road Department for the graduation of sand for concrete pavements are
as follows:
"The fine aggregate shall be well graded from coarse to fine, and when
tested by means of laboratory sieves, shall meet the following requirements:
Total passing 1/-inch screen ..................................... 100%
Total passing 10 mesh sieve not less than ......................... 85%
Total passing 50 mesh sieve...................................... 10-30%
Total passing 100 mesh sieve not more than........................ 5%
"In no instance shall fine aggregate be used when it varies more than
five (5) per cent from the above graduation in any or all items."
A sand containing a small proportion of fine grains is better than one
whose grains are uniformly coarse because the small grains fill in the spaces
between the large ones and give a concrete which is more easily handled
and which will be more impermeable after setting.
Gravel, crushed stone, slag or cinders may be used for coarse aggregate,
but the discussion here will refer principally to gravel. In general it may
be said that maximum strength and greatest economy of cement calls for
as coarse aggregate as can be used consistently with a proper consideration
of such features as the thickness of the concrete, the presence of reinforcing











50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

and the methods to be used in handling the concrete. Where reinforcing
is present the maximum size of pebbles is limited so that the concrete may
pack around the steel without leaving any open spaces. In massive struc-
tures, such as dams and heavy foundations, coarser aggregate can be used
than in the comparatively thin slabs in concrete pavements, because it is
necessary for strength and for smoothness of surface that the coarsest
particles be completely enclosed by the cement and fine aggregate. The
gravel produced in Florida is so fine that maximum limits do not need con-
sideration. The difficulty is rather to get material coarse enough to pass the
specifications.
The specifications of the Florida State Road Department for graduation
of coarse aggregate are as follows:
"The coarse aggregate shall be graded from coarse to fine, free from soft,
thin, elongated or laminated pieces, disintegrated stone, silt, alkali, vegetable
or other deleterious matter, and when tested by means of laboratory screens
shall meet the following requirements:
CRUSHED STONE, SLAG OR No. 1 WASHED GRAVEL.
Passing 21/-inch screen .......................................... 100%
Passing 1-inch screen ............................................. 35-55%
Passing A%-inch screen ........................................... 15-30%
Passing %-inch screen-not more than ............................ 5%
No. 2 WASHED GRAVEL.
Passing l %-inch screen .......................... .............. 100%
Passing %-inch screen-not less than ............................. 40%
Passing %-inch screen-not more than ........................... 75%
Retained on 14-inch screen-not less than ........................ 95%
No. 3 WASHED GRAVEL.
Passing 1-inch screen ............................................. 100%
Passing 1-inch screen-not less than ............................. 40%
Passing 1%-inch screen-not more than ............................ 75%
Retained on 1/-inch screen-not more than ........................ 95%
No allowance will be made from the above graduation requirements."
Strength Tests.-In addition to requiring a certain freedom from im-
purities, soundness of grain, and graduation of size of particles, it is often
specified that a certain strength of mortar or concrete shall be attained.
The mortar tensile strength test is the one most commonly made, and speci-
fications for sand often state that the tensile strength of mortar made in the
proportion of one part of cement to three parts of sand shall be at 7 and
28 days not less than 100 per cent of the strength of mortar of the same
proportions and the same consistency made with standard Ottawa sand.
Compressive strength tests which are often made on cylinders of concrete
give results which depend to some extent on both the fine and coarse
aggregate used in the mixture but so many other factors are involved that










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


an aggregate should not be entirely condemned because some particular
concrete containing it had a low strength.
Design of Concrete Mixtures.-Recent investigations at the Structural
Materials Research Laboratory in Chicago have shown that it is possible to
design concrete mixtures so that the strength can be predicted with con-
siderable accuracy, and that in many instances considerable economies in
the use of cement can be effected by using a properly designed concrete
mix. One of the outstanding features of these investigations is the establish-
ment of the relation between the quality of concrete and the quantity of
mixing water, resulting in the formulation of what is known as the water-
cement ratio law. This may be stated as follows:'
For given materials and conditions of manipulation, the strength of
concrete is determined solely by the ratio of the volume of mixing water
to the volume of cement so long as the mixture is plastic and workable.
This means that excess mixing water will reduce the strength of cement.
It also helps to explain why coarse sand will usually give a concrete of
greater strength than fine sand, because coarse sand requires less water to
give a workable mix.
If concrete of a certain strength is desired, the ratio of water to cement
which must be used can be found by referring to tables and charts based
upon the results of many experiments. Designing the mix consists in
finding what grading of aggregate is necessary to secure a concrete of
workable consistency with this water-cement ratio. The proportions to ob-
tain the right consistency may be determined entirely by trial, but it will
often be possible to calculate the design of the mix from the sieve analyses
of the fine and coarse aggregates. The details of the method of designing
the mix may be found by reference to the publication of the Portland
Cement Association referred to above.
One important fact which should be pointed out in relation to this
scientific designing of concrete mixtures is that some materials which fail
completely as aggregates when used in standard mixes such as 1:2:4 may
nevertheless make satisfactory concrete when the correct proportions of
water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates are used. A small expense for
experimental investigation may thus make it possible to effect a large sav-
ing by using local aggregates rather than transporting material a long
distance.

1Portland Cement Association, "Design and Control of Concrete Mixture,"
Second Edition, January, 1927, page 4.











52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

BRICKLAYING AND STONE MASONRY
The principal requirements of sand for these purposes is that it shall
not contain such excessive amounts of impurities as to cause disintegra-
tion of the mortar, and that the largest grains shall be slightly less than
the desired thickness of the joints. Working qualities have also to be con-
sidered, since a sand with too large a proportion of coarse grains will not
spread so easily or smoothly as one with more of the medium and fine sizes.
Small amounts of vegetable impurities do not need to be watched so care-
fully as in sand for concrete, but in tall buildings or other important struc-
tures the test with sodium hydroxide should be applied and sands giving a
dark coloration rejected.

PLASTERING
A plaster sand should be free from vegetable matter, and from soluble
salts, such as would be contained in a sand from the seashore. The amount
of clay must also be small. Very coarse grains must not be present because
of the thin layer to be applied, and the need for a smooth surface on the
wall. It is usually also desirable that the sand shall be of light color.

SAND-LIME BRICK
The manufacture of sand-lime brick consists essentially in mixing sand
and lime in a moist condition, molding under pressure, and hardening by
steam under pressure. A part of the sand may be finely ground before mix-
ing and this fine material helps to fill the spaces between the larger grains
and provides more surface for reaction with the lime to form the calcium
silicate, which is believed to act as the binding material.
Sand for sand-lime brick should be fine enough for most of it to pass a
20 mesh sieve and should consist mostly of silica. Clay in small amour.t
does not appear to be injurious but probably not more than two or three
per cent should be allowed.
Since sand and limestone of suitable quality for the manufacture of
sand-lime brick are found abundantly in some parts of Florida where brick
clays are absent and sand coarse enough for concrete aggregate difficult
to obtain, we may expect that this type of building material will be more
widely used in the State, and that the construction of other sand-lime brick
plants will follow.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


ROAD MATERIAL
Sand-Clay Roads.-Materials for sand-clay roads occur abundantly
throughout the Central Ridge or Lake Region of Florida and the northern
and western parts of the State. Although during the last few years main
trunk highways of hard surfaced types have been built throughout large
portions of the State, roads of the sand-clay type still predominate and in
the western part they are almost the only improved roads. These roads are
comparatively cheap to construct and, when in good condition, afford an
excellent riding surface. The principal objections to sand-clay roads are
that they become soft and slippery and develop ruts in wet weather, and in
dry weather are dusty and frequently form transverse ridges from a few
inches to a foot apart, giving a "washboard" type of surface. By careful
choice of materials and proper maintenance these characteristics can be
partly eliminated.
Sand should make up 70 to 90 per cent of the mixture and should be as
coarse as possible, since coarse sand will pack better and give a better wear-
ing surface. In Florida the material commonly used occurs in a natural
mixture of a red color, which is called clay, although in nearly all cases it
v, would be more accurately described as a clayey sand. The amount of clay
ki frequently in excess of the best proportion for a wearing surface, but
since the natural subgrade is usually sand a certain amount of it is likely
to become mixed with the sand-clay surface and give more nearly the ideal
proportions. The texture of the sand and the amount of clay in it varies
widely, even at pits a short distance apart in the same region. Since many
sand-clay roads are built without adequate supervision, and the main
thought is to take material at hand throughout the length of the road it is
difficult to apply laboratory tests to any useful end. Two important things
to keep in mind in locating a pit are that the sand should be as coarse as
possible and the amount of clay should be kept low.
Besides the naturally bonded red clayey sand, residual clay from lime-
stone is used in some parts of Florida to improve roads in loose sand. It
is much more difficult to blend these materials so as to make a satisfactory
road than it is to build one out of the natural mixture. In some of the
flatwoods areas where nothing better is obtainable near at hand, very in-
ferior materials, with an excessive amount of fine sand and silt, are used.
In Table 5, page 54, are given the results of a number of sieve tests
of sand-clay road materials. Those with coarse sand when washed are also
possible sources of sand for concrete.









TABLE NO. 5.
TESTS OF CLAYEY SANDS.*
Percentage Passing Each Sieve.
I Silt and Clay.
No.[ Locality. 1/4-inch 10 20 50 100 200 (Elutriation
1______ loss.)


State Road Department, Gainesville, Fla.


1 3 miles E. of Hawthorn, Putnam Co.......... ..... ..... 98.8 77.0 30.9 25.2 23.6
7 Interlachen, Putnam Co. ..................... ..... .... 84.6 53.2 21.5 17.6 14.0
9 1% miles S. E. Melrose, Putnam Co .......... ..... ..... 95.1 56.0 27.1 18.3 16.4
17 2 miles N. W. Keystone Heights, Bradford Co. 100.0 95.4 84.8 31.1 26.0
19 1/2 mile S. E. Putnam Hall, Putnam Co......... 99.0 87.9 55.1 26.5 18.0 15.3 13.2
20 1% miles S. E. Putnam Hall, Putnam Co...... 99.1 87.9 58.8 13.3 8.0 6.6 5.8
21 4 miles E. of Melrose, Putnam Co. ............ ..... ..... 78.1 42.9 24.5 19.8 18.2
24 East Lake, Marion Co. ....................... .......... 99.5 67.3 18.4 14.2 12.2
27 % mile W. Altoona, Lake Co ......................... ....... 99.2 82.6 60.7 29.4 24.2
30 1/2 mile N. E. Astatula, Lake Co. ............ 99.8 ..... 99.1 58.8 29.8 25.6 22.8
32 3 miles E. Mt. Dora, Lake Co ............... ..... ..... 99.7 88.1 43.4 18.3 16.6
34 4 miles S. W. Sanford, Seminole Co........... ..... ........ 98.4 50.3 25.4 22.5
36 4 miles W. Altamonte Springs, Seminole Co.. ..... 99.9 97.5 84.9 50.0 25.1 22.1
39 2% miles S. Orlando, Orange Co. ............ ..... ..... ..... 98.1 64.8 20.4 17.6
41 3 miles E. Clarcona, Orange Co............... ..... ..... 99.9 96.1 46.2 23.7 21.2
44 8 miles E. Clermont, Lake Co................ ........ 99.9 94.5 79.4 55.7 25.1 22.4
49 2 miles N. Lady Lake, Lake Co. .............. ..... ..... 100.0 98.0 87.0 40.8 31.6
51 21/2 miles S. Leesburg, Lake Co. .............. ..... 99.6 88.5 68.8 38.1 26.3 24.5
52 % mile E. Okahumpka, Lake Co. ............. 100.0 99.9 97.1 58.4 26.2 20.6 18.9
53 2 miles S. Okahumpka, Lake Co .............. ..... 100.0 99.3 67.5 38.9 33.6 30.3
54 9 miles S. Okahumpka, Lake Co. .............. ..... 99.5 96.4 68.4 25.5 19.1 17.1
55 3 miles N. W. Grand Island, Lake Co........ 99.9 99.7 87.4 40.0 22.5 19.3 17.8
56 11/2 miles E. Leesburg, Lake Co. ............. ..... 99.9 95.1 80.1 40.5 25.8 24.2
58 11% miles N. W. Montverde, Lake Co. .......... .. 99.9 98.8 93.8 49.9 24.2 21.2
59 2% miles W. Minneola, Lake Co ............ ..... 100.0 84.1 38.3 19.4 15.9 14.3
60 4% miles E. Howey, Lake Co. ............... ..... ..... 99.4 62.4 20.0 15.6 14.5
61 3% miles E. Okahumpka, Lake Co. ............... "99.8 98.3 69.9 28.5 20.2 19.3
73 1 mile S. W. Concord, Gadsden Co. .......... 96.1 ..... 95.0 85.5 62.9 50.5 41.2
87 1 mile N. Wacissa, Jefferson Co. ............. ..... ..... 99.2 79.3 46.1 28.3 21.6
T~.oo m~le~ te diecton f HrveyA. all TetingEngnee. Sate oadDeprtmnt, ainsvileFla


* Tfst made und.r the direction of Harvey A. Hall, Testing Engineer,











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


Gravel Roads.-Gravel roads are similar to sand-clay roads except for
the coarser texture of the material. In Florida they are much less im-
portant than the sand-clay type, because of the rarity of gravel deposits.
From Jackson County westward are some deposits of gravel which has been
used in its natural condition for road surfacing, but in general the average
proportions of pebbles is so small that the material is better called gravelly
sand or clay rather than real gravel. While the amount of sand and clay is
far in excess of that needed to bind the pebbles together, a better wearing
surface is obtained than with the ordinary sand-clay road material without
pebbles. In some instances also fine washed gravel is added to sand-clay
roads, with the result that they stand up much better in wet weather.
In addition to the use of naturally bonded gravel for road surfacing we
have to consider the use of gravel with a bituminous binder. This requires
Unwashed and screened gravel, since clay, sand, and coarse pebbles are not
desired. The usual size is about 1/4 to 1/2 inch. In this use gravel comes
into competition with Birmingham slag which is widely used in Florida.
F>'bble phosphate, which is really an unusual type of gravel, has been used
j'iLh asphalt in surfacing some county roads. While the use of phosphate
i:. this way is an economic waste it is likely to continue unless there is a
decided increase in the demand for phosphate for fertilizer. No definite
information is available as to how pebble phosphate compares in wearing
qualities with slag, hard limestone, or quartz pebbles.
Asphalt Pavements.-In sheet asphalt pavements the sand makes up the
greater part of the wearing surface and to a considerable extent determines
it, stability. It is therefore important that sand of the proper kind be used.
The requirements of sand for bituminous concrete pavement are similar to
those for sheet asphalt, and the Florida State Road Department has the
same specifications for sand for both of these types of pavement, as follows:
"The sand shall consist of clean, hard, durable grains free from clay,
loam and other foreign matter, and when tested by means of laboratory
sieves it shall meet the following requirements:
Passing Retained on Per cent.
10 mesh 98 to 100
10 mesh 20 mesh 3 to 15
20 mesh 30 mesh 4 to 15 14-50
30 mesh 40 mesh 5 to 25
40 mesh 50 mesh 5 to 30 3060
50 mesh 80 mesh 5 to 40 30-60
80 mesh 100 mesh 6 to 20 16-40
100 mesh 200 mesh 10 to 25 4
200 mesh Oto 8










56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Natural sands are rarely found which have this texture, and the common
practice is to mix a coarse sand with a fine sand to obtain the proper grad-
ing. Sharp angular grains are better than rounded grains because
they do not shift so easily under load, but all of the commercial deposits of
sand in Florida contain so large a proportion of angular grains that there
cannot be much difference in this regard. For other types of bituminous
surfaces sands of different texture may be used, and in order to use local
sources of supply some cities use for asphalt paving sand with a sieve
analysis not coming within the above limits.

RAILROAD BALLAST
Gravel is used to some extent in Florida for railroad ballast and no
doubt would be used more extensively if widely distributed and abundant
supplies of gravel were available. Gravel for this purpose should contain
little clay since this impedes drainage, causes dust, and encourages the
growth of weeds. A sand content between 20 and 50 per cent is desirable
to fill in between the pebbles and prevent shifting. For best results the clay
content should not be over 3 per cent, but on many railroads ordinary soil
is used for ballast.
WATER FILTRATION
Sands for the filtration of public water supplies must be clean, free
from clay and organic matter and must agree with certain specifications as
to size of grains. The size of grain in filter sands is defined in terms of the
"effective size" and the "uniformity coefficient." The effective size corre-
sponds to that sieve opening which will just pass 10 per cent of the sand.
The uniformity coefficient is determined by finding the size of opening
which will just pass 60 per cent of the sand and dividing this size by the
effective size. The effective size of filter sands varies from 0.20 to 0.70 mm.
and the uniformity coefficient varies from 1.25 to 1.80. These are deter-
mined from the sieve analysis. To illustrate by an example the determina-
tion of the effective size and uniformity coefficient of a sand we may take
sample No. 146 from Kelsey City, for which the sieve analysis is given
below:
Meshes per linear inch. Sieve opening mm. Total per cent passing.
10 1.651 100.0
20 .833 99.7
50 .285 66.6
80 .175 29.2
100 .147 6.5
200 .074 0.2










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


By simple inspection of this table we can see that the effective size must
be between 0.147 and 0.175 mm. since the smaller of these openings allowed
less and the larger allowed more than 10 per cent to pass. By interpolation
we find 0.151 mm. as the effective size of the sand. In the same way we
can see that the sieve opening which would just allow 60 per cent to pass is
between 0.175 and 0.285 mm. and by interpolation we find this size to be
0.268 mm. The uniformity coefficient is then found by dividing 0.268 by
0.151 which gives 1.77. By plotting the results of the sieve analysis with
a logarithmic scale for the sieve openings, somewhat more accurate results
can be obtained for the sieve openings corresponding to 10 per cent pass-
ing and 60 per cent passing. It may also be specified that not more than 2
per cent of the sand shall be soluble in hot dilute hydrochloric acid, which
closely limits the amount of calcium carbonate which may be present.
Very fine material is undesirable because it tends to clog the filter while
coarse pebbles in the sand are equally objectionable because they cause
irregularities of flow. Some of the beach and dune sands in Florida are
very suitable for filtration purposes, but public water supplies are so gen-
erally obtained from wells that there is very little occasion for filtration.

ABRASIVE USES.
Sands are used for many different abrasive purposes, but the most im-
portant of these is in the sand blast, which is used in cleaning rough cast-
ings and removing the inequalities from them. Blast sand, as this is called,
should be composed of quartz, be free from clay and of uniform grain size.
To obtain these desired properties it is usually necessary to wash, dry, and
screen the sand as it naturally occurs.
For other abrasive uses the requirements are similar to those for blast
sand. The size of grains will of course depend upon the fineness of finish
and the rapidity of cutting desired. While the shape of the grains seems to
be of no great importance the grains in some sands are much tougher than
in others so that the sand lasts longer.

ENGINE SAND
Engine sand or traction sand is used by railroad locomotives and street
railway cars to secure traction and prevent slipping of the wheels on wet or
slippery rails. Sands for this purpose should be composed mostly of
quartz, should be free from rubbish, leaves, large pebbles or anything which
would tend to clog the feed pipe, and should contain a minimum of fines











58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

and clay, which would be likely to absorb moisture and cake. The best
size is such that practically all will pass a 20 mesh sieve and be retained
on an 80 mesh sieve.

GLASS MANUFACTURE

Since sand makes up more than half of the mixture of materials used
in the manufacture of glass, a consideration of the properties of the sand
is of the first importance. The first requirement is purity of chemical
composition; the silica content must be high and the iron low. For differ-
ent grades of glass the allowable iron content and the required silica vary.
For the best optical glass 99.8 per cent of silica is required and the iron, as
Fe203 must not exceed 0.02 per cent; for ordinary window glass or pale
green bottles a minimum of 98.0 per cent silica is required and the maxi-
mum iron of 0.3 per cent, while for ordinary amber or dark green bottles the
requirements are much less strict. Specifications for the chemical composi-
tion of sands for various kinds of glass have been prepared by the commit-
tee on standards of the glass section of the American Ceramic Society.1
The iron may be present in the form of distinct grains of iron bearing
minerals, as a thin coating on the quartz grains, or in clay which is mixed
with the sand. In some instances the amount of iron can be reduced by
washing.
The texture of glass sand is also of some importance and it appears that
medium grains of approximately uniform size are best, while sand with both
very coarse and very fine grains is objectionable because it will not melt
uniformly.
It has unfortunately not been practicable to have chemical analyses
made to define accurately the glass sand resources of the State. It is certain,
however, that there are ample supplies of sand suitable for all except pos-
sibly the very highest grades of glass. An analysis2 of the very white beach
sand near Pensacola gave 99.65 per cent silica. An analysis of sand from
the bed of Ocklocknee River, Thomas County, Georgia', which was pub-
lished by the Georgia Geological Survey,3 gave the following results:

Ferric oxide (Fe203) ....................................... 0.60 '
Silica (SiO2) ....................................... 99.40


tBulletin American Ceramic Society, vol. 2, p. 182 (1923).
2United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 315, p. 382.
3Bulletin 37, p. 262.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


The part of the same river in the counties of Gadsden, Leon and Liberty
in Florida contains similar white sand.
Many of the scrub areas of the Lake Region, especially in the counties
of Orange, Lake and Marion, .are underlain by white sand which seems pure
enough for glass sand. The sand tailings which accumulate from the wash-
ing of kaolin from the Citronelle formation in Lake and Putnam Counties
are also very low in iron and should be suitable for glass sand.

MOLDING SAND

Although Florida has abundant deposits of the ordinary grades of
molding sand, suitable for iron castings, there has been little occasion to
produce molding sand in the state. The foundry industry in Florida is
small, while the main centers of foundry industry to the north have as
good or better molding sand nearer at hand. Throughout much of the
-andy upland of the Citronelle formation, and the red sand and loam of
the Alum Bluff group the subsoil is a red to orange, strongly coherent
rlayey sand which locally is suitable for molding sand.
While only eight samples were collected and tested, it is not to be
understood that these indicate the limits of the materials suitable for mold-
i;ig sand in Florida. The tests (table 6) were made in the laboratory
maintained by the American Foundrymen's Association' at Cornell Univer-
sity according to the methods tentatively adopted by that organization.


1American Foundrymen's Association. Tentatively adopted methods of Tests
and Resume of Activities of the Joint Committee and Molding Sand Research,
June 1, 1924.










TABLE NO. 6.
TESTS OF FLORIDA MOLDING SANDS.*



o Locality .k | 5




Sand 8.2 18 57 19% Over 20
1662 1 2 miles east of Avon Park 4.8 Dry 155 9 16
| station .................. ... ... ...... Trace 14.56 45.60 16.55 5.01 2.34 1.15 3.7110.76 99.66 5.4 420.7 250 13% 19
S7.8 283 170 7.8 14
I I.4 6406 13 4.6 473.2 90 13/4 Over 20
1663 3 miles south of Dade City. Molding ...... Trace I 2.27 14.12 32.50 18.66 8.34 4.06 6.2012.32 98.64 6.2 259.8 57 8 13
Sand _7.7 160 43 5% 9.9
SI 1 4.6 282 145 11 17
1664 Youngstown ............ ........... ...23 2.53 15.44 22.52 33.12 10.52 2.30 1.171 2.83 9.06 99.76 6 210.2 155 6 10.2
_____8.7 163.4 120 4 8.3
1. 4.6 Dry 49 17% 12
1665 %/ mile south of Trilby.... Molding ...... Trace 1.8913.7032.4618.23 5.63 2.15 8.6715.72 98.46 6 472. 90 18 Over 20
Sand I17.8 438.5 87.5 17 Over 20
1.61 I ,2. I | 4.6 Dry 127 11%' 16%17
1666 Orlando .................. Molding Trace .210 1.6112.6132.34 18.97 6.04 2.341 3.51122.14 99.56 6.1 Dry 47 13 19.7.
Sand 7.8 ...... 100 22 Over 20
__ _I 9.7 361.9 175 11% Over 20
1667 Lake Helen ............... .................... 3.74 16.95 27.68 13.83 8.58 7.081 7.15[15.45 100.48 4.6 Dry 46 11% 20
6.6 ...... 80 13 Over20
___ 7.8...... 79 8% 14
Molding I | 4.9 Dry |10 Dry 10.3
1668 4 miles south of Dade City. Sand ...... .59 4.40 10.98 26.99 19.63 6.48 3.08i 7.92 20.01 100.08 6.5 ... 13 0 12.2
_1 18.1 ...... 161%10 14
*Tests made under the direction of Dr. H. Ries in laboratory supported by the American Foundrymen's Association at Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


ORIGIN AND GEOLOGIC OCCURRENCE.
Sand and gravel belong to the general class of rocks known as sedi-
mentary, and are deposited in either air or water under a variety of con-
ditions. In discussing the origin of Florida sand and gravel we have two
main subclasses of deposits to consider; firstly those which are derived
from the breaking up of other rocks and are said to be of plastic or frag-
mental origin, and secondly those which are of organic origin, and are
formed by the accumulations of hard parts of animals. The following
more detailed discussion refers almost entirely to the plastic, or fragmental
sands, which are by far the most widely distributed and most important
economically. With regard to the organic deposits, we may dispose of
them for the time being by saying that they are composed, for the most
part, of calcium carbonate derived from sea water, and that the principal
classes of animals which effect this separation and whose hard parts go
to make up the calcareous sands are molluscs, foraminifera, and corals.
Sands of this origin are limited to the beaches of the southern part of
the State.
SOURCE OF MATERIAL.
The grains and pebbles of which sand and gravel are composed are
the more resistant minerals of hard rocks which have been disintegrated
or broken up by the action of the weather. The material of Florida sands
has come mostly from the bed rocks of the Piedmont and Appalachian
regions, in Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas. The quartz of the sands
is from such rocks as granite, gneiss, schist, sandstone and quartzite. A
rock.such as granite, composed principally of quartz, and feldspar, suffers
both chemical and physical changes when exposed to the weather. From
a hard solid rock it changes into a loose, incoherent mass, generally a
mixture of sand and clay. Most of the feldspar is completely destroyed
and converted into clayey material. The quartz, on the other hand, is not
easily dissolved or decomposed and most of it remains in small angular
grains and occasional larger masses which are eventually washed into
streams by the rains. The rivers carry the sand to the sea, and even there
the movement does not cease, since the grains are still carried along by
currents produced by wind and tide.
It must not be supposed that all of the sand in Florida came so directly
from its source in the bed rock of the Piedmont region. At present the
only river which actually flows from this region into Florida is the Apa-









62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

lachicola, with its branches, Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. Much of
the sand in the surface formations of Florida has no doubt formed part
of the Cretaceous and Eocene sediments in Georgia and Alabama, from
which it has been again washed away by streams and carried the rest of
the way to Florida. The net effect of the various currents near shore along
the east coast is a southward movement of sand, and it seems likely that
similar conditions have prevailed in the past.

TYPES OF DEPOSITS.
Deposits of sand may be further classified according to whether the
grains have been transported and deposited by wind or by water. Since
itJie.ofwten-nt. possible to trace out the entire history of the sand grains
in a deposit, the last movement of the material before reaching its present
position is the.principal etoe considered. Aqueous deposits, that is,
those formed in water, are byf-ar the most important in Florida from both
the geological and commercial points of view. According to the nature
of the body of water in which the sand accumulates, whether lake, river
or ocean, aqueous deposits may be described as lacustrine, fluviatile, or
marine. While river deposits do not usually cover large areas they are
often of great importance as sources of sand and gravel because of the
coarse texture of the sediment and the natural washing out of the clay. It
is only locally that lake deposits are of much importance, since they are
likely to contain too much fine sediment and organic material. The
marine sands are by far the most widespread and the most uniform in
their characteristics. They are frequently, but by no means always, too
fine in texture to be of any commercial value. Eolian sands are those
which have been blown by the wind. These form dunes at many places
along the coast. In discussing the stratigraphic distribution of sand an:l
gravel in Florida, and describing the individual deposits throughout the
State, additional facts will be brought out regarding the geology and
commercial development of these principal types of deposits.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SAND AND GRAVEL IN FLORIDA.
The entire State of Florida belongs to the physiographic province known
as the Coastal Plain. The formations exposed at the surface are of the
younger periods, ranging from Eocene to Recent. The principal ones are
shown in the following table, with the youngest at the top:


Coquina or Anastasia forma
Key West oolite
Miami oolite
Pleistocene Key Largo limestone
Fort Thompson limestone
Marls (Undifferentiated)
Sands (Undifferentiated)


Bone Valley formation
Alachua formation
Citronelle formation
Nashua marl
Caloosahatchee marl
Charlton formation


Oligocene Glendon formation
I Marianna limestone

Eocene Ocala limestone


Only a few of these formations are known to contain sand in workable
quantities, although all except some of the purest limestones contain some
sand grains mixed in with other material, if not in distinct beds. There-
fore only those formations which contain sand in workable quantities will
be described in the following pages.

ALUM BLUFF GROUP.
Since the portions of this which are of any direct significance as a
source of sand are so much weathered as to destroy any fossils which they
may have contained the exact classification is a matter of doubt. A large


tion

{ In large part contemporaneous





In large part contemporaneous


Pliocene





Miocene


Choctawhatchee marl
F Shoal River formation
.Al Bluf Grp Oak Grove sand
Alum Bluff Group Chipola formation
4 Hawthorn formation'

Tampa formatformatio Probably contemporaneous










64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

part of the red sandy clay and clayey sand of northern and northwestern
Florida, and perhaps of some of the upland in the Peninsula is a weathered
portion of some of the Alum Bluff formations. This type of material is
used extensively for sand clay roads and some of it is suitable for molding
sand.
Much of the sand in the younger formations is derived from the Alum
Bluff Group, but such beds of coarse sand as the Alum Bluff contains
appear to be associated with too much clayey and calcareous material to
be of any importance as a direct source of sand for concrete or other struc-
tural uses. In the type section at Alum Bluff some coarse sand is exposed,
but the overburden is excessive.

CITRONELLE FORMATION.
This formation is of considerable economic importance because of the
coarse sand and kaolin deposits which it contains. The origin and strati-
graphic relations have been discussed by Matson and Berry.1 Recent
mapping by Dr. C. Wythe Cooke, of the United States Geological Survey,
and D. Stuart Mossom, of this Survey, has resulted in the eastward exten-
sion of the Citronelle, and the outlining of a number of areas of it in the
central part of the Peninsula from the southern part of Clay County, south
to the northern part of Highlands County (see Figure 2). The Citronelle
seems to be for the most part a marine deposit, but probably some of the
gravels in West Florida are river deposits, although assigned to the same
formation. The sand in the Citronelle shows cross bedding in sections
which are thick enough so that they extend below the part where all evi-
dence of bedding has been destroyed by weathering.
Leaching out the iron and aluminum bearing minerals from the upper
few feet results in loose incoherent sand on the surface, succeeded below
by red or orange clayey sand in which the material removed by leaching
from above has been redeposited (see Figure 3). Even the part of the
Citronelle at some distance below the surface contains some disseminated
clay, which must be washed out to produce a high grade concrete sand.
At some localities in the Lake Region this clay is nearly free from iron
stain and therefore constitutes a source of kaolin for the ceramic indus
tries. In many places the iron stained subsoil of the Citronelle is used as
sand clay road material, and as such proves to be superior to other forma-

1United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 98, pp. 167-208.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


FiG. 3. Pit of Diamond Sand Company No. 2, Keuka, Putnam County, show-
ing section of the Citronelle formation and method of mining sand.

tions in Florida. Figure 4 shows the characteristic vegetation and topog-
:aphy of the Citronelle formation in the northern part of the Lake Region.
The workable thickness of the Citronelle sands is in places as much
ts 50 feet, and this, together with the absence of impurities not satisfac-
orily removable by washing, makes the formation especially suitable for
!arge scale production of washed sand. It should be realized, however,
hlat even in this formation fine sand is more common than coarse and
*hat kaolin may be found with the fine sand as well as with the coarse.
Before starting any sand mining operation, it is therefore important to
rind out definitely that there is sufficient sand of coarse texture, although
!he general favorable nature of the formation at the locality in question
may be well known.
In West Florida the Citronelle is more varied than in the Peninsula.
Besides coarse sand it frequently contains streaks of gravel and in a few
places in Jackson, Santa Rosa and Escambia Counties there are gravel
deposits of known or probable commercial importance. The more clayey
gravel is used for road material and the less clayey is suitable for concrete
aggregate, but as it naturally occurs it is actually more sand than gravel.
Without additional study it is often impossible to tell the red clayey
sand of the Citronelle from the residual materials of the Alum Bluff Group,
and to distinguish the loose light colored surficial sands of the Citronelle
from those of the Pleistocene to Recent age.











66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.


FIG. 4. Characteristic topography and vegetation of the Citronelle formation
in the Lake Region, one mile northwest of Putnam Hall, Putnam County.

BONE VALLEY FORMATION.
This is the formation which contains the pebble phosphate deposits,
which have already been described in considerable detail.1 It underlies
the southwestern part of Polk County and extends over into Hillsborough
and Hardee Counties. Besides the phosphatic pebbles this formation con-
sists of smaller phosphatic grains, clay, and silica sand, which occur
mixed together rather than sorted out into separate layers. Vast heaps of
sand tailings have accumulated from the working of the phosphate mines.
In recent years a few of the mines have begun to sell some of the sand as
a by-product, but even the ordinary working of one or two mines will
supply more sand than can be sold. On account of the sticky nature of
some of the clay associated with the pebble phosphate it is necessary to
rewash the sand after separation from the pebble by sieving. There is said
to be more sand in the phosphate matrix in the southern part than in the
northern part of the principal mining district in Polk County.
With present methods of treatment the tailings contain a large pro-
portion of phosphate grains, which if they could be economically separated
from the quartz grains would greatly increase the recovery of phosphate
and decrease the waste. Because the phosphate rather than the sand is

tE. H. Sellards, The Pebble Phosphates of Florida. Seventh Annual Report,
Florida Geological Survey, pp. 25-116. 1915.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


the main object of the mining operations the Bone Valley formation is
not discussed in greater detail here. On account of the heavy overburden
and difficulty of washing out the clay it would.not be practicable to mine
the pebble phosphate for structural sand and gravel alone.
The streams in and near the region where the pebble phosphate mines
are located, contain phosphatic sand with some pebbles, derived in part
from the Bone Valley and in part from the underlying Hawthorn formation.

PLEISTOCENE.
Sands of Pleistocene age are probably more widely distributed than
any of the other formations in the State. They overlie all of the older
formations and were deposited when the land was depressed below its
present elevation, so that the sea covered all except the higher parts. Most
of the Pleistocene in Florida is therefore of marine origin. Special names
have been given to Pleistocene limestones and marls, particularly in South
Florida, but the sands are all grouped together under the general name
of undifferentiated Pleistocene.
Near the east coast, and extending parallel to it, are ridges of white
and yellow sand which extend, with a few interruptions, from the north
end of the State as far south as the south line of Palm Beach County. The
higher ridges are dunes, long since inactive, and the lower ones are prob-
ably wave formed bars. A slight elevation of the land since the building


FIG. 5. Cut through Pleistocene dune at West Palm Beach, Palm Beach
County, showing yellow sand underlying white.











68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

up of these ridges has resulted in their being a short distance back from
the actual shore. The coarser sand of some of these deposits, as for ex-
ample, in the vicinity of West Palm Beach, is far superior to the beach
sand of the same region but by no means as coarse as the best sand of
the Citronelle of the central part of the Peninsula. There is a considerable
production for local use and the deposits are sufficient for an indefinite
period in the future. Unfortunately the texture is not coarse enough to
pass the most exacting specifications for concrete aggregate. Figure 5
shows a cut through a Pleistocene dune at West Palm Beach.
A large part of the area of Pleistocene sand in the interior as well as
in the coastal regions is characterized by the flatwoods type of topography
and vegetation, where the presence of a hard-pan subsoil or in other places
the small total thickness of the sand formation are unfavorable for the
production of clean sand. The sand of some of the scrub areas (Figure 6),
which seems for the most part to be of Pleistocene age, is nearly pure silica
and as such is suitable for glass manufacture. The marine Pleistocene
throughout the State provides many local supplies of an ordinary or inferior
grade of sand for plastering, bricklaying and other structural uses, but
does not contain deposits as suitable for commercial exploitation as the
Citronelle.


Photo by R. M. Harper.
FIG. 6. Typical scrub vegetation on white sand. Three miles east of Tavares,
Lake County.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


RECENT.
In a way the deposits classed as Recent are more interesting than those
of greater geological age because we can still observe them in process of
formation, and they therefore illustrate the way in which the more ancient
deposits were probably formed. Recent deposits are also of considerable
importance as sources of sand, and nearly all of the gravel produced in
Florida comes from them.
Alluvial Deposits.-These occur in the beds of rivers and smaller
streams as well as along their banks. In West Florida there are also a
few alluvial fan deposits formed by wash from gullies which do not carry
any permanent stream. In general only the streams receiving large
amounts of surface drainage will carry much sediment. Those fed prin-
cipally by springs emerging from limestone are generally clear and not
much sand is to be found in or along them. As we go up a stream toward
its source the sediment carried is likely to be coarser, because of the steeper
slope. In prospecting for sand and gravel along a stream we should con-
sider the flood plain bordering it, the bars in the edge of the stream and
the material in the main channel. Terrace deposits on the sides of the
valley far above any heights now reached by maximum floods may also
be worth looking into. These have been formed before the stream had
worn its valley down to as low an elevation as at present.


FIc. 7. Alluvial deposits on St. Marys River, near road from Macclenny to
Moniac, Baker County. Sand bar at left of picture on inside of bend, and
cut bank at right on outside of bend.










70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The Apalachicola River system is the only one in the state which carries
drainage from outside the Coastal Plain, and it also carries a larger volume
of water than any other river in the State. It has large deposits of coarse
sand, with some small gravel. The greater part of this coarse sediment
comes down the Chattahoochee River and deposits similar to those on the
main river, or perhaps better, are found on the Chattahoochee between
Georgia and Florida, above where it joins the Flint River to form the Apa-
lachicola.
The Ocklocknee River in Gadsden, Leon, and Liberty Counties has bars
of white sand of a fair degree of coarseness on most of the bends. Sand
of similar appearance occurs on Alapaha River in Hamilton County. The
St. Marys (Figure 7) River sand is white but generally too fine and too
much contaminated by organic matter to be of much value.
In most of peninsular Florida the rivers are too sluggish and swampy to
contain good deposits of clean, coarse sand. Some phosphatic sand
dredged from Alafia, Manatee and Peace Rivers has been used locally, but
unless the washing is very thorough there is too much organic impurity.
Moreover the amount of coarse sand available does not appear to be large.
Marine Deposits and Coastal Dunes.-Under the Recent marine deposits
are included the beaches along the coasts and the sand and shell in bays
and lagoons, which in some instances is recovered by dredging. On the
East Coast there is a beach all the way from the Georgia line to a little
south of Miami, except for short interruptions by inlets. In the northern
part there is little else but quartz in the sand, while to the southward the
amount of shell fragments gradually increases until at Palm Beach and
Miami they make up about half of the sand. Much of the way there are
Recent dune ridges immediately in back of the beach and the composition
of the sand in these is not greatly different from that of the beach itself.
However the calcium carbonate of the shells is gradually leached out by
rain water, so that in the more ancient dune ridges there is no shell at all.
Only a very limited use can be made of the East Coast beach sand as
structural material. It is too fine grained to be'suitable for concrete and
in most places it is not even good for plastering or bricklaying. Moreover
at the more easily accessible places the beach is valued so highly for bath-
ing that the removal of sand is not permitted.
On the west coast of the Peninsula sand beaches have a much more
limited distribution, and occur only from near Tarpon Springs, south to
about as far as Cape Romano. Most of the way the beach is on islands,
and the mainland shore is swampy. Shell occurs abundantly with the











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


Photo by R. M. Harper.
FIG. 8. Sand dunes on Anastasia Island, St. Johns County.

sand on the beach, and also in the lagoons between the islands and the
mainland, and most of it is not so finely broken as on the east coast. From
Clearwater to Venice this natural sand-shell mixture has been extensively
used for concrete aggregate, and with mixes suitably proportioned it will
give good results.
Such sand as occurs on the keys from Key Largo to Key West is com-
posed almost entirely of remains of calcareous organisms, such as molluscs,
corals, and foraminifera. Sand of similar composition has also a limited
distribution on the mainland in the region of Cape Sable.
On the Gulf coast of Middle and West Florida, from the west side of
Apalachee Bay, westward to the Alabama line, there are beaches and dunes
of quartz sand, except where the shore is broken by bays and inlets. These
deposits have been little used up to the present because of their compara-
tive inaccessibility and the general lack of development in the region in
which they occur. Except near the mouth of the Apalachicola River, where
much reddish brown mud and sand is brought into the sea, the sand of
this region is the whitest found anywhere on the beaches of Florida, and
should be suitable for glass manufacture.
While they are of human origin and therefore, strictly speaking, are
not to be classed with the deposits just discussed, the shell mounds of
Indian origin are principally on the sea coast, and may therefore be most











72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

conveniently considered with the other Recent marine formations. In
many localities where other materials are not locally available shell from
these mounds is used for road surfacing and concrete aggregate, and is
therefore to some extent a substitute for gravel. Most of the shell mounds
consist principally of oyster shell, which on account of its laminated struc-
ture can not be considered very well suited for aggregate.
Lake Deposits.-At several places in the Lake Region sand is dredged
from lakes, and in some instances concrete sand of good quality is thus
produced. It is doubtful whether this comes from what may, properly
speaking, be. called lake deposits. It seems rather that the lake merely
happens to be where there was already some coarse sand in the Citronelle
formation, and dredging from the lake is a convenient way of obtaining
the sand. Of course there may be some washing of sand from adjacent
hillsides into the lake, and some sorting of sand in the lake by waves, but
the general conditions are such that these factors do not appear to be of
great importance.
























Photo by R. M. Harper.
FIG. 9. Miami Beach. The sand here contains a large proportion of small
shell fragments.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


WEATHERING AND OTHER CHANGES SUBSEQUENT TO
DEPOSITION.

After the deposition of sands or other sediments there are many changes
which can take place to effect the physical and chemical characteristics of
the material and consequently the possibilities for commercial develop-
ment. Cementation by various substances in percolating ground water
may result either in certain beds being completely hardened or in the
formation of isolated hard lumps called concretions.
Weathering may, under some conditions, change a sand into a loam as
ihe small amounts of iron and aluminum minerals present are converted
into limonite and clay, and the sand grains themselves are broken up into
-maller sizes. Under other conditions weathering may be rather a leach-
ng out process, making a purer sand out of one which contained clay or
was iron stained. Shell fragments in marine sands are eventually removed
biy solution if the deposit is above water level.
As a result of the growth and decay of vegetation not only is organic
material mixed in with the upper layers of a sand deposit, but in areas of
poor drainage the subsoil becomes converted into a hardpan, that is, a sand
cemented by various carbonaceous compounds and iron oxides which give
it a black or dark brown color. Hardpan has been used to some extent in


Photo by R. M. Harper.
FIG. 10. Gulf beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande, Lee Coun-
ty, showing steep wave cut scarp about six feet high.











74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Florida and Georgia in the manufacture of sap brown dye. For this pur-
pose the organic matter is extracted, the sand grains themselves not being
used.
The effects of vegetation and of various weathering processes are
closely related to the topography. Hardpan subsoil is typically developed
in flatwoods areas, while the red sand clay road material, as well as the
loose light colored and comparatively pure surficial sands seldom occur
except in well drained situations.


DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITS BY COUNTIES.
In the following description of the sand and gravel deposits of each
county no attempt is made to describe all of the individual properties but
rather to use them as illustrations of particular types of deposits or methods
of production, and to give a general idea of the materials available. The
amount of field work as well as the length of the description in the report,
has been determined to some extent by the condition of development of
the different regions and the maps available, and this accounts for th'
fact that West Florida has been given less attention than might seem t',
be called for by the extent and quality of the deposits.
For some of the counties it has been possible to prepare maps showing
the extent of the principal sand-bearing formations, and in doing so us'
has been made of a manuscript geologic map prepared by Dr. C. Wyth'
Cooke of the United States Geological Survey. Where soil maps or top(.-
graphic maps are available they are of great assistance in locating san I
deposits and determining their extent.
ALACHUA COUNTY.
The western part of the county is mostly covered with fine yellow san I
which has no commercial importance but can be used locally for bricl.-
laying and plastering. In many of the hard rock phosphate mines, als)
in the western part, a white sand is found overlying the limestone an 1
more or less mixed with the phosphate. Considerable dumps of sandy
refuse have also accumulated and material from them is used to some
extent for concrete and brick laying in the vicinity of Newberry and per-
haps elsewhere. While this phosphatic sand is little better than the ordi-
nary surface sand as far as coarseness of grain is concerned, there is more
assurance of freedom from vegetable impurities.










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


Near Archer are some deposits of rather strongly bonded orange mold-
ing sand, occurring immediately below the top soil. Sample No. 1661
represents a three-foot bank of this molding sand, with 11/2 feet of loamy
soil overburden, as exposed in a cut on the Seaboard Air Line Railway 3/4
mile south of Archer Station. Here and elsewhere in the vicinity R. W.
Skinner, of Archer, has gotten out molding sand for a few foundries in
the central part of the peninsula. This type of molding sand is due to
certain conditions of weathering and is found on hills or ridges rather
than in valleys or flat country.

BAKER COUNTY.
Some of the surface sand of Pleistocene age in the eastern part of the
county is fairly clean, and has been used some locally, but the texture is
too fine for any commercial production. A bank on Trail Ridge three
miles east of Macclenny shows 12 feet of white and yellow sand (sample
No. 15) which has been used to some extent in concrete. This is as good
;s any that is likely to be found, and to obtain a sand as good as indicated
I:y this test great care must be taken to avoid mixing surface soil or hardpan
with the sand. In St. Marys River there is a large amount of sand but
it is no coarser than this bank sand, and the amount of vegetable impurity
i; large.
BAY COUNTY.
Dune and beach sand make up a narrow coastal strip, but sand from
this type of deposit has been little used because of the fine texture, and
the difficulty of access to most of the localities. The Citronelle formation,
which occupies a triangular area in the northeastern part of the county and
comes to the surface at a few places near St. Andrews Bay is elsewhere
covered with Pleistocene and Recent deposits of lesser value. In the
Citronelle there is an abundance of clayey sand suitable for road surfacing,
and locally some good sharp sand suitable for concrete aggregate.
Callaway.-On the south side of Callaway Bayou, near Callaway, and
9 miles east of Panama City, a sand deposit has been worked for use in
the latter place. The overburden is about one foot of sandy soil and the
deposit as worked 3 to 7 feet thick, with more clayey and iron stained sand
below. Sand has been removed from an area of two acres, but the deposit
is said to be 65 acres in extent, and the character of the surface soil and
the topography indicate that it may well be as large as this. Samples No.
111 from a pit owned by P. M. Carlisle of Birmingham, Alabama, and











76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

No. 112 from a pit owned by Dr. R. D. Blackshear of Panama City, have
practically identical properties.
Lynn Haven.-About five miles northeast of Lynn Haven on land of
Mrs. L. J. Pickens, near Mill Bayou, a deposit of sand (sample No. 113)
has been worked on a small scale for use in Panama City. Some two
miles to the northeast of the last locality, and approximately nine miles
from Panama City, a sand for plastering and bricklaying at Bob Jones
College was obtained on land of E. W. Pickens.
Panama City.-In the vicinity of this place are a number of Indian
shell mounds from which shell have been used for road surfacing. In
some of the shell mounds oysters predominate and in others gastropods,
especially Strombus pugilis, are very abundant. The surface sand is here
too fine to be of any value.
Youngstown.-The following section is exposed in a road material pil
on land of T. L. Parker Y2 mile north of the station:

Sandy soil, overburden............................. 1 ft.
Light grayish yellow sand (sample 110) ................ 3 ft.
Red clayey sand (sample 1664) ...................... 5 to 7 feet.

The red clayey sand could be used for molding sand as well as fo-
road material, while the loose sand above it, which has a rather wide dis-
tribution in this part of the county, could be used for concrete or mortar,
although somewhat contaminated by vegetable matter.

BRADFORD COUNTY.
From what is known of the soils' and geology of this county the occur-
rence of any commercial deposits of sand is extremely unlikely while even
fine sand not badly mixed with clay or vegetable matter is rare. Area;
of the Norfolk sand soil type may contain sand suitable for some local
uses; the most extensive and accessible area of this type is west of th,
village of New River in the angle between the river of that name andl
the railroad. Sample No. 17 represents a clayey sand, from a six-foot
bank worked for road material in the extreme southeastern part of the
county, 2 miles northwest of Keystone Heights.



iSoil Survey of Bradford County, by W. C. Byers, Arthur E. Taylor, J. B. R.
Dickey and N. M. Kirk, Seventh Annual Report, Florida Geological Survey, pp.
253.291.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


BREVARD COUNTY.
Like the other counties on the east coast, this contains no deposits of
coarse sand. Within half a mile to the west of Indian River is a ridge of
white and yellow fine sand which extends most of the way through the
county, although it is not strictly continuous. On the islands to the east
of Indian River there are beach and dune sands, usually containing abun-
dant shell fragments. By using care to select places where there is a mini-
mum of vegetable material, local supplies of sand for brick laying and
plastering can be obtained, but it is probable that for important concrete
construction it would be found more economical to use coarser sand than
can be found here. The areas indicated as belonging to the St. Lucie
band series on the soil survey map1 are likely to contain the best sand.
BROWARD COUNTY.
No sand deposits of any probable value are known except in the north-
eastern part of this county. In and around Deerfield is a white sand
similar to that at West Palm Beach but not occurring in such prominent
ridges. South of this the surface deposits of sand become finer in texture
Liid thin out until the limestone comes directly ,to the surface. The sand
cn the ocean beach contains a large proportion of finely broken shell in
midition to the silica grains. It is too fine in texture for a good concrete
aggregate and moreover the ocean front property is generally considered
to be too valuable for removal of the sand at the more easily accessible
points.
CALHOUN COUNTY.
Clayey sand, suitable for road surfacing, occurs in most parts of this
county, while surficial deposits of medium textured sharp sand, formed
by the weathering of the underlying Citronelle formation, are rather
scatteringly distributed.
The only known deposits of coarse sand in amount sufficient for com-
mercial' development are in the bed of the Apalachicola River. Several
bars, occurring on the inside of the bends of the river, and partly exposed
at low water, contain a large tonnage of sand together with a small pro-
portion of fine gravel. Up to the present, lack of markets close enough
at hand has prevented any production from this source.


1U. S. Department of Agriculture (Advance Sheets-Field Operations of the
Bureau of Soils, 1913.)









78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

CHARLOTTE COUNTY.

The sand deposits of this county are generally thin, of fine texture,
and contain vegetable impurities, so that the possibilities of developing
local supplies of good sand are very poor. At Punta Gorda sand has
been dredged out of Peace Creek for filling in the low land along the
shore, but the texture of this sand is so fine that it is not desirable for use


a,-


- 7rr7Q7t~ -~
~ -


FIG. 11. Sand above hard rock phosphate, showing tap roots of long-leaf pine.
Pit of Dunnellon Phosphate Company near Hernando, Citrus County.

in concrete or mortar. The outer ocean beaches in this county were nm
examined in connection with this report, but we might well expect to fin I
deposits of sand and shell suitable for concrete aggregate.

CITRUS COUNTY.

In the well drained central part of the county between the swaml
of Apopka Lake on the east and the coastal swamp and flatwoods on tlie
west the surface is mostly covered with fine gray and yellow sand (f
Pleistocene age (see Figure 11). As far as known this is not coarse
enough and does not occur in thick enough deposits to be of any com-
mercial importance, but is used to a small extent locally. The coast 4f
this part of Florida has no sand beaches.









SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


CLAY COUNTY.
The southwestern part of this county, which belongs to the Lake Region,
and is underlain by the Citronelle formation (Figure 12), is likely to
contain some coarse sand deposits, which, by
washing to remove the clay, can be made
suitable for concrete aggregate. This same
CLAY area also contains considerable red clayey
/sand which is used for road surfacing, but
this is usually not as coarse as that obtained
va near Interlachen, Melrose and Putnam Hall
PUTNAM in Putnam County.
Green Cove Springs.-At the old brick-
Interiachen yard /2 mile north of Green Cove Springs is
a deposit of clean white fine textured sand
(sample No. 11) which is used locally for
s =o =.-S1 Iand the overburden is 4 to 6 feet of red sandy
clay, but this has been removed over an area
F';. 12. Map of parts of Clay of 6 acres.
and Putnam Counties, show. On the Louis Ivy property one mile
i,:g by inclined shading the
0 i.tribution of the Citronelle west of Green Cove Springs a grayish sand
f, rmation, and by small (sample No. 10) has been dug for local use
en'cles the localities from
wiich samples were tested. in mortar and concrete. Small scattered pits
do not reach a depth of over five feet.
Kingsley Lake.-At Strickland's resort on Kingsley Lake sample No. 16
, is taken in shallow water a short distance from shore. The texture of
the sand is so fine and the presence of vegetable impurities so common,
that it is not believed that this deposit can be worked to advantage.
Lake Geneva.-Some of the naturally washed sand in the lake has been
used for concrete, but the common yellow surface sands of this region
contain too much clay and organic matter to be good concrete aggregate.
Sample No. 18 from 21/2 miles southeast of Lake Geneva, represents a 2 to
6-foot bank of loose sand, with more clayey material below it.









80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

COLLIER COUNTY.
The surface of this county is generally low and flat with soils prin-
cipally of the swamp and flatwoods types, so that deposits of good sand
are likely to be rare if present at all. So far as known the only sands
which have been used, or which are of such a nature that they can be used,
are along the coast in beach ridges and on the beaches themselves. The
outer beach consists of siliceous sand mixed with shells and shell frag-
ments and probably furnishes the best sand in the county. Near Naples
the beach is on the mainland for a few miles, while to the north and south
it is on the islands. In the pine woods in the northwestern part of the
county there are some small scrub areas which are caused by slightly
elevated ridges of light gray sand. Sand from one of these deposits has
been used at Naples.
On Marco Island, in the vicinity of Caxambas, are some sand dunes which
are by far the highest land in this part of the State. None of these dune,
are active at the present time, and they have long since been overgrown
with vegetation. On the surface there is 11/ to 2 feet of light gray sand.
and below that yellow sand to an unknown depth, probably 30 feet o;
more in some places. All of this sand is so fine in texture that it can not
be recommended for structural uses, and the beach sand is used in prefer -
ence to it.
Shell from shell mounds along the coast can be obtained in great quai -
tities and is used for road material and to some extent for concrete aggr -
gate. Oyster shells predominate, but some large gastropods are preser t
and are sorted out in digging the shell, since they do not pack well i.J
the road. Some of the most extensive and best known shell mounds aie
those on Marco Island.

COLUMBIA COUNTY.
In the south end of the county light gray to cream-colored sand fI
Pleistocene age forms deposits of some extent but is of little importance
on account of its fine texture. This type of sand is well exposed by high-
way and railway cuts at a number of places between Hildreth and Hi 1h
Springs.
DADE COUNTY.
Along the entire outer coast of this county there is a sand beach (Figure
9), except where it is interrupted by inlets. However, these beach deposits











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


are generally narrow and the valuation put on beach property is so high
that little of the sand is removed.
Miami.-The Meteor Transportation and Trading Company of Miami
and Miami Beach is dredging sand and limestone from along the channel
on the south side of the causeway leading to Miami Beach. The limestone
has been somewhat loosened by blasting but is too hard to excavate easily
with centrifugal pumps. A dredge of the ladder type is used and the entire
washing and screening plant is on the barge with it (see Figure 13). A
Dorr washer is used to separate as much as possible of the silt and fine
sand from the limestone lumps. Two sizes of limestone known as "rock"
and "pebble" and one grade of sand (sample 151) are produced. The
coarser particles in the sand are limestone. It is marketed as a plaster
.and, although some of the buyers use it in concrete.
The I. E. Shilling Sand Company of Miami dredge and wash a sand
sample 152) from the outer part of Biscayne Bay near Bear Pass. This
and is gray in color and is composed almost entirely of broken shells.
,t is used for various purposes, including the surfacing of certain types of
.Qituminous pavement.
A deposit of shell-bearing sand of Pliocene age has been dug into
;>eneath about 12 feet of hard limestone in the Tamiami Canal, 42 miles
vest of the intersection of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue. Similar
-and without the shells has been thrown out from the canal a few miles


Fic. 13. Dredge of Meteor Transportation and Trading Company, Miami,
Dade County.











82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

to the eastward, and probably belongs to the same formation. Small
amounts of this sand have already been used in connection with the high-
way work and if the further development of the Everglades should create
a demand it is possible that a good grade of sand could be obtained by
pumping, washing and screening out the shells.

DE SOTO COUNTY.
The flatwoods and swamp types of soil and topography prevail over
practically the whole area of this county, and it is unlikely that any sand
deposits of coarse enough texture and large enough extent to be used will
be found except in and along Peace River.
Arcadia.-Sand tailings from the old river pebble phosphate workings
cover many acres of land along Peace River. This sand, as well as the
coarse sand in the bed of the river, contains a large proportion of phos-
phate grains. Sand for building purposes in Arcadia is hauled from one
of these tailing heaps about three miles to the north of the central part
of the town. There is too much clay and fine sand for a good concrete
aggregate.
DIXIE COUNTY.
Except for a small area of dry sandy soil in the northeastern part, prac-
tically all of this county is flatwoods and swamp areas. No deposits of
any commercial value are known since the texture of the sand is fine.
organic impurities are usually present, and limestone often occurs at a
shallow depth.
DUVAL COUNTY.
Although the soils1 of this county are mostly sandy, there are no de
posits of any great value, because the texture is everywhere too fine. The
cleanest sand seems to be that making up the beaches and dune ridges or
the coast. Of about the same texture but not quite so free from clay an(
organic matter is the yellow sand underlying the Norfolk fine sand type ol
soil. The largest area of this is directly east of Jacksonville, making ul
most of the peninsula formed by the sharp bend in the river.
Sample No. 136 represents a sand which has been dredged from th,
St. Johns River at South Jacksonville by the Duo Sand and Rock Company

ISoil Survey of Duval County, Florida, by Arthur E. Taylor in charge and
T. J. Dunnewald, U. S. Department of Agriculture. (Advance Sheets-Field op-
erations of the Bureau of Soils, 1921.)










SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


It is similar to the sand of the islands formed by dredging the channel
from Jacksonville to the river mouth.
Sample No. 13 is from a sand bank 8 to 10 feet thick four miles south
of South Jacksonville.
None of these are suitable for a good quality of concrete or mortar,
but they can meet some of the local needs in the lack of better material
near at hand. The scarcity of other natural road material is made up for
to some extent by oyster shell from shell mounds which is extensively used
near the coast.
ESCAMBIA COUNTY.
The principal surface formation is the Citronelle which contains much
good sand and some fine gravel. It outcrops in bluffs on Escambia Bay
and is also exposed in many gullies, stream banks and roadside cuts.
Along some of the streams and on the coast are deposits of Pleistocene to
Recent age which are derived from the reworking of the Citronelle.
Pensacola.-The ordinary yellow surface sand is used to some extent
for mortar and plastering but has too much silt and organic matter for a
high grade concrete aggregate.
Near highway No. 1, six miles northeast of Pensacola, the gullying
of the Citronelle sands has produced some alluvial fans of naturally washed
sand near Carpenters Creek. By using moderate care in digging the clay
content is easily kept low. Sample No. 126 from land of J. E. Barrs shows
ihe physical properties of this sand.
The sand of the Gulf beach, south of Pensacola, is nearly pure white
and, for a beach sand, rather coarse. A chemical analysis by George
Steiger1 gave 99.65 per cent silica and no lime, with the other constituents
aot determined. While it would be desirable to know the amount of iron
oxide also this analysis shows that the sand is sufficiently pure for some
grades of glass. At present the white beach sand is used for stucco.
Santa Rosa Island.-Here also the beach and dune sand is very white
and more pure than the beach sand in other parts of the State. Sample
No; 118 is from a dune and No. 119 from the Gulf beach near Camp Walton.
Tarzan.-Near Escambia River at Tarzan, in the northeast corner of
the county, are important deposits of gravel and coarse sand. The Escam-
bia Sand and Gravel Company, whose office is at Flomaton, Alabama, is
the principal operator in the district. The gravel as worked has a max-
imum thickness of 26 feet with 3 or 4 feet of overburden. The pebbles
1United States Geological Survey, Bull. 315, p. 382. 1907.











84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

are rounded and composed of quartz while the deposit as a whole is very
free from clay, organic matter or other objectionable impurity. A steam
suction dredge in an artificial pond excavates the sand and gravel and raises
it to the screening and washing plant. The different sizes of gravel are
separated by shaking screens. Samples 123, 124 and 125 show the grad-
ing of the concrete gravel, pea gravel and concrete sand respectively.
Not far from this locality there are small bars of coarse sand and fine
gravel on the Escambia River itself, but this material is found only above
its junction with the Conecuh River, which is really the main stream.
Sample No. 122, from Section 22, T. 5, N. R. 31 W. and about 11/4 miles
east of the railroad, represents the coarser alluvial material from a bar in
the river. Sample No. 121 is from the same general locality but was taken
from a small test pit a little back from the river. The deposit here has
been tested to a depth of 18 feet by Dr. T. S. Kennedy of Milton. Small
amounts of gravel have been taken out for road work.

FLAGLER COUNTY.
The surface deposits of this county are all of Recent and Pleistocene
age and are similar to those of St. Johns County to the north. In th(
coastal region ridges of white and yellow fine sand are common, while the
unconsolidated coquina can be used in place of gravel for concrete aggre
gate. Both the sand and the coquina have been used locally for building
especially at and near Flagler Beach, and shell mound material has beer
used for road surfacing to a small extent near the coast.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.
The surface formations of this county are practically all of Pleistocen,
and Recent age and consist principally of fine sand and muck. The dif
ferent types of sand are well shown on the soil map.' With a few inter
ruptions sand beaches extend the entire length of the coast but are general\
inaccessible except by boat. Sand dunes of Pleistocene age, inactive a
present, and covered with scrub vegetation are common in the coast.
region and occur on both the mainland and the larger islands. They ar:
rather extensive in and about Carrabelle and sand from them has bee>
used to some extent, but is too fine to be desirable for concrete or mortal.
1Soil Survey of Franklin County, Florida. W. Edward Hearn, Inspector. South-
ern Division. Soils surveyed by Charles N. Mooney, in charge and A. L. Patrick,
U. S. Department of Agriculture. (Advance sheets-Field Operations of the Bureau
of Soils, 1915.)











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


Usually the dune sand is leached white for a few feet on the surface and
there is bright yellow sand below.
There is also some sand in the Apalachicola River, but as far south as
this it seems to be mixed with too much clay and vegetable matter to be
of any value.
To some extent oyster shells take the place of gravel and sand-clay for
road surfacing and this type of material has been rather extensively used,
especially in and near Apalachicola. Shells of various kinds from shell
mounds have also been used in the same way in the coastal region.

GADSDEN COUNTY.
Red clayey sand (sample No. 73) suitable for road surfacing occurs
in nearly all parts of the county. It belongs in part to the Citronelle
;ormation and in part to the Alum Bluff Group. The river deposits are
by far the most important as sources of sand for concrete aggregate and
theirr building uses. Surficial deposits of loose yellow sand are widely
distributed, especially in the
River Junction southern part of the county, and
GADSDEN if care is taken to exclude the
Q/ Vncyo surface soil they may meet some
of the local needs. Sample 74
-- ,. from 4 2 miles east of Quincy
LIBEr oY on the Tallahassee road shows
*Bristol c i Scale -of Miles
o 5 to I5 the properties of this type of
sand.
Fic. 14. Map of Gadsden County and part of '
Liberty County, showing by small circles Apalachicola River.-In the
the localities from which samples were bed of the Apalachicola River
tested.
on the west boundary of the
county is a deposit of sand and gravel which is worked by the Florida
Gravel Company of Chattahoochee. Coarse sand is found nearly every-
where on the river bottom but the distribution of gravel is more limited.
The usual depth through the sand and gravel to the underlying clay or
rock is 8 to 16 feet but in some places it is much more. Between the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad bridge and the junction of the
Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers, a distance of a mile or a little more,
most of the gravel has been dredged and subsequent floods have filled in
the depleted area with sand but have brought practically no gravel. Below
the railroad bridge is a large bar of sand and gravel (see Figure 15) near









86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

the east bank of the river. It ordinarily forms an island but at high stages
of the river is completely submerged. Farther down stream in Gadsden
County there may be bars similar to this.
The dredge and entire washing and screening plant (Figure 16) of the
Florida Gravel Company is on a barge. The pipe from the centrifugal
pump discharges onto a scalping screen with 11/2-inch opening which takes
out some flat and porous rock fragments as well as other trash. From the
scalping screen the feed passes onto the fanning table and from there runs
onto a stationary gravity screen with 1/2-inch square openings, inclined at
a 450 angle. A rotating baffle board distributes the gravel and prevents
excessive wear on the screen. Additional clean water, supplied by a sep-
arate pump, is sprayed onto the gravel as it is screened. The second screen
of 1/4-inch square opening is below the first and parallel to it. Material
passing the 1/4-inch screen discharges into a hopper from which the fine
sand and dirt are carried away at the top by the water, and the coarse sand
is drawn out at the bottom. Barges are used to convey the gravel to the
landing place near the Louisville and Nashville Railroad bridge west of
River Junction. Ordinarily there is far more sand than there is any market
for in this part of the State so it is allowed to run back into the river
behind the barge.


FIG. 15. Gravel bar on Apalachicola River, near railroad bridge,
Gadsden County.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


There is no difficulty in freeing the product from clay and in most
parts of the river the gravel is practically free from harmful impurities.
In places, however, so many sticks are dredged with the gravel that it is
necessary to pick them out by hand as the gravel is loaded onto the barge.
Quartz pebbles make up the greater part of both the sand and gravel. The
larger pebbles and grains are thinly coated with limonite which gives the
product a yellow to light brown color. A small proportion of feldspar
and mica are present in the sand, and these, together with the coarse texture
and the color, distinguish the "Chattahoochee" sand from all others used
in Florida.
The four samples from the Florida Gravel Company, collected in 1925,
represent the following materials:

No. 67-Coarse sand (mixed sand and pea gravel).
No. 68-Coarse sand (ordinary or straight run sand).
No. 69-Pea Gravel.
No. 70-No. 3 or %-inch gravel.
The pea gravel is used as a top dressing on sand-clay roads and in
bituminous surface treatments, while the No. 3 gravel is used in concrete.
Ocklocknee River.-Sand is dug from bars on the Ocklocknee River
near Havana, by the Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company. Sample No. 75
in the table of tests shows the physical properties of this sand, which is
used for brick laying, plastering, and concrete aggregate. Sample 72


FIG. 16. Dredge and washing plant of Florida Gravel Company, near Chatta-
hoochee, Gadsden County.









88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

from 1/4 mile north of Stuart's Bridge and sample 76 from 200 yards north
of the bridge on the main Tallahassee-Quincy road are also taken from bars
in the Ocklocknee River. From the light color of the Ocklocknee River
sand and the small amount of minerals other than quartz, it seems likely
that it is pure enough for glass manufacture. Although the amount avail-
able at any one place is not large, the supply is frequently replenished
by floods.
GLADES COUNTY.
The remarks made with regard to Hendry County will apply equally
well to Glades. The indications for any commercial sand deposits are
very poor.
GILCHRIST COUNTY.
Except for a belt of flatwoods extending most of the way from north
to south through the central part, most of this county has dry sandy soil
derived from marine Pleistocene deposits and alluvial material of the
Suwannee River. On account of the fine texture and frequent presence of
vegetable impurities the surface sands are of little value. In the extreme
eastern part of the county, rather clean white sand, probably belonging to
the Alachua formation of Pliocene age, is exposed in some of the phos-
phate mines and there are also some waste dumps of similar sand around
the mines. None of these deposits appear to be suitable for commercial
exploitation but they can meet some of the local needs,.

GULF COUNTY.
Except for a small area of the Citronelle formation in the northern
part the surface materials of this county are all sand, clay, and muck
of Pleistocene to Recent age. In a narrow strip along the coast there are
beaches and dunes consisting of rather fine sand, which is nearly white to
light yellow in color. The most extensive deposits of this type are on
the peninsula leading out to Cape San Blas and St. Josephs Point. As is
usually the case, the coastal sands are too fine in texture to be of much
use. To the north of Wewahitchka the Citronelle formation contains an
abundance of sandy-clay road material of good quality and locally some
deposits of sand suitable for use in concrete and mortar, but probably not
of coarse enough texture nor of sufficient extent to encourage commercial
exploitation.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


HAMILTON COUNTY.
Much of the western part has deep sandy soil derived from the marine
Pleistocene sand and alluvial deposits of Suwannee and Withlachoochee
Rivers. The best deposits known are those in the bed of the Alapaha River
which at time of flood carries a large amount of sand, but ordinarily flows
underground leaving its bed dry. At the crossing of the river by highway
No. 2, half way between Jasper and Jennings, the average width is 100
feet, and excavations show 4 feet of nearly white, crossbedded sand with
the bottom not exposed. Some leaves, twigs and fragments of clay are
present as impurities. This sand (sample 129) is used principally for
brick laying mortar.
HARDEE COUNTY.
In the gently rolling parts of this county fine gray sand is often found
for a depth of a few feet below the surface. The purest sands can be
recognizedd by the scrub vegetation upon them, but only by the most careful
'election can sand be found sufficiently free from organic matter to be of
;ny use.
Coarser sand than that of the usual surface deposits occur in the larger
dreams, particularly Peace Creek and Charlie Apopka Creek. However,
lie coarse sand is present only in very small amount at the upstream ends
,if the bars and commercial production would hardly be possible. Phos-
1,hate pebbles are present in the coarser creek sand.

HENDRY COUNTY.
The surface deposits of sand in this county, as far as known, are thin
and of very poor quality. Limestone and marl are found at rather shallow
depths.
Very small amounts of sand for local use have been obtained in the
vicinity of Labelle from ditches and other places where the sand had been
naturally washed, but no commercial deposits are likely to be found.

HERNANDO COUNTY.
This county has two broad belts of rolling sandy country which extend
in a north and south direction of either side of the large hammock area
surrounding Brooksville. In these sandy areas fine yellow sand can be
obtained nearly anywhere by simply going below the top soil. The texture
of these surface sands is so fine that they are not very suitable for use in











90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

concrete but by selecting the cleaner portions they can well be used for
bricklaying or plastering. The screenings from some of the limestone
quarries can, to some extent, supply the demand for coarse sand in this
county.
HIGHLANDS COUNTY.
The rolling country characteristic of the Lake Region extends as a belt
a few miles wide from north to south, a little to the west of the central
part of this county. Yellow, gray and white sands occur over most of the
surface where the topography is of this type. At many localities red clayey
sand suitable for molding sand or sand clay roads occurs at a depth of a
few feet below the surface and in a few instances it has only a thin cover-
ing of top soil. Coarse sands such as are found in Polk County to the
north are not known, but may be found since the geological formation
appears to be the same.
Avon Park.-Two miles west of Avon Park station a red clayey sand
has been dug for road construction from a pit owned by the city. Work-
ings of irregular shape extend over an area of about two acres in a low
hill. The banks show a 6-foot section of the well bonded sand with 2 feel
of incoherent loamy sand overburden and a few ironstone concretions
unevenly distributed throughout the section. Sample No. 1662 represents
the material in this pit, which was tested for molding sand.
DeSoto City.-The DeSoto City Brick Company, which has erected
sand-lime brick plant, but has not yet made any brick, is planning to us(
the local yellow sand which occurs as a fairly uniform covering over th,
hills. Sample 162 represents a three-foot bank of this sand immediately'
below the top soil, while a well 30 feet deep is said to have showed little<
change irj the sand in that depth.
Sand-clay road material similar to that at Avon Park is found nea
DeSoto City but generally has a heavy overburden.

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.
Although the surface soils are prevailingly sandy there is little or n
sand which is coarse enough to be of much importance for concrete aggr -
gate or structural uses. Perhaps some of the white scrub sand is purm
enough for glass manufacture, but no analyses of it have been made. Tle
sand of the scrub areas is also suitable for the manufacture of sand-lime
brick.











SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITS OF FLORIDA.


Alafia River.-A coarse, highly phosphatic sand is pumped from the
Alafia River about two miles above Riverview, by the Tampa Sand and
Shell Company of Tampa, and the Hillsboro Sand and Shell Company of
Tampa and St. Petersburg. The deposits are said to be nearly exhausted.
The properties of this sand are shown by the tests of sample No. 164 from
the Hillsboro Sand and Shell Company. No doubt a better sand could be
produced by thorough washing.
Hillsboro Bay.-Oyster shell for road construction is dredged from
Hillsboro Bay by the two above named companies, but no sand of any
value is found.
Plant City.-About five miles west of Plant City is the Plant City Brick
Company which is making sand-lime brick from a white sand obtained
'ocally. Scattered through the county there are many other areas of similar
,and which could be used as a source of bricklaying or plastering material.
Lake Thonotosassa.-Sample No. 65 shows the physical properties of
he sand on the shore. This is a thin narrow strip which has been sorted
,y wave action and does not indicate any large deposit of similar material.

HOLMES COUNTY.
The greater part of this county is underlain by Miocene and Oligocene
formations which are not likely to contain much sand except clayey sand
i)r road surfacing. In the southern part are remnants of the Citronelle
formation, containing streaks of clayey gravel, but as far as known, not in
workable amount. Surficial deposits, probably of Pliocene age and rather
it'regularly distributed, are the main sources of sand for building purposes.
Bonifay.-At the locality known as the "Sand Pass" which is 11/2 miles
southwest of Bonifay, on land of Mrs. Archie Sims there is an elongated
a:ea of white sand extending through a swamp and elevated slightly above
ii. The area in sight is approximately 1300 by 150 feet, while the thick-
ness is not known, although it is in excess of 4 feet, to which depth the
sample (No. 116) was taken. Some sand has been taken out for local use
in concrete. About 11/2 miles west of Bonifay, where the main highway
crosses a small swamp, a sand similar to this was seen. Possibly it
is continuous between the two localities under the cover of muck and swamp
vegetation. Judging from the absence of iron stain on the quartz and
the small percentage of dark grains this sand should be pure enough for
glass manufacture. A rather fine yellow sand is hauled from two miles
south of Bonifay for use in brick laying.










92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-19TH ANNUAL REPORT.

INDIAN RIVER COUNTY.
The only workable sand deposits are in a narrow strip west of Indian
River and between Indian River and the ocean. The soil map of the Indian
River area1 shows a strip of the St. Lucie soil type extending through the
county along the Florida East Coast Railway, and mostly on the west side
of it. This is a white siliceous sand commonly known as scrub sand.
Sand beaches extend along the coast through the whole length of the county
but are not of any great importance as a source of sand for commercial
purposes.
Vero Beach.-At Gifford station, 2 miles north of Vero Beach, there
are several small sand pits in the white scrub sand on the west side of the
Acme Fruit Company's packing house. Bank sand only is produced, being
dug by hand to a depth of 5 feet. The properties of this sand are shown
by sample No. 144. It is used
S [ for asphalt paving, plastering,
brick laying and stucco. The
deposit is only a few hundred
Sfeet wide in an east-west direc-
L. Ccoondaol tion but is very long in a north-
SO Ma'Oiunsa south direction.

-Round Lake JACKSON COUNTY.
i I The sand and gravel depos-
its of the Chattahoochee and
FIG. 17. Map of Jackson County, showing by Apalachicola rivers are the most
small circles the localities from which important in the county as far
samples were tested, important in the county as far
as commercial production is
concerned. Surficial deposits of gray, yellow and white sand, and of
sand-clay road material are widely distributed. There is also some claye)
gravel which is used on roads. These are principally of Pliocene to Recent
age but may be in part residual from Miocene and Oligocene formations.
Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers.-Most of the gravel and coarse
sand of the Apalachicola is washed down the Chattahoochee River, and the
deposits along the Chattahoochee between Georgia and Florida are as good
as, or better than any on the main river. The sand and gravel occur in
bars partly exposed at low stages of the river, but are obtained most

1U. S. Department of Agriculture, Advance sheets-Field Operations of the
Bureau of Soils, 1913.