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FGS







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 63

CLIMATE
As the differences between South Florida and the rest
of the United States are probably due as much to climate as to
anything else, that subject warrants an extended treatment. The
map (fig. 3) shows the average annual temperature and rainfall
throughout the area, and the following table illustrates some of
the salient features of climate for the principal weather stations.
Tampa, which is a little outside the area under investigation, is
included because its records are longer and presumably more ac-
curate than those of most of the stations farther south.
The data given (mostly obtained from the 1924 summary of
the Florida section of the U. S. Weather Bureau) are the average
temperature for the whole year and January and July, in degrees
Fahrenheit; the average annual rainfall, the percentage of it that
comes in the four warmest months (June to September inclusive)
and the six warmest months (May to October), and the excess of
late summer (August to October) over early summer (April to
June) rainfall in inches. The significance of these arbitrary rain-
fall factors will be discussed farther on.
TEMPERATURE
This is the southernmost part of the United States proper,
(the southern tip of Texas being in about the same latitude as
Miami), and also the warmest in winter, though higher maxima
in summer are found in many western states, even as far north as
Montana.
The average annual temperature in the area under considera-
tion ranges from about 71' to 77". (See map, fig. 3). It varies
considerably from year to year, as shown in Fig. 6, which gives
the average annual temperature at the principal stations in South
Florida from 1905 to 1924, taken from the annual summaries of
the Florida section of the U. S. Weather Bureau. Some years
were noticeably cooler than the average, and some warmer,
throughout the area, but we have no reason to believe that the
climate is becoming progressively colder or warmer.
As is the case nearly everywhere else near the Atlantic coast,
the isotherms have a northeast-southwest trend, probably largely
on account of the Gulf Stream. The east coast is therefore warmer












SELECTED CLIMATIC DATA FOR SOUTH FLORIDA.


Length
of
Record
(Yra.)


Tampa ...... .................,.. .--
Bradenton ......--- _.. 41

Fort Myere ..... -. ..- 62
Arcadia .-...-............ ........... .-. --... 22

Avon Park ._...-..... .... .- 27

Fellgmere ......................--.....- 12

Fort Pierce ....... 24

Jupiter .........-._...--.. ....... 27

Hypoluxo .. ...... ..- .... S

Fort Lauderdale ....... ..- ..--- 2............-_. 12
Miami ............ .._....._. -..__ 23

Home tead .--...-..- .... --- ...... ...- .-- .....-..--.....-.. 14

Key W est ................. .._..............-............... B4


Temperature


Annual j January


71.7
71.7




72.6
72,1
72.1

78.8

78,9

74.5

75.0
75,0
75.4


76.9


60.1

60.8

68.5

62.7

62.4

63.0


G4.3


66,2

67.3

67.4
69.5


July


81.2

80,9
81.0

81.8

81.3

80.9

81.,0
81.4

81-4

S1.9

80.6
88.5


Rainfall


Annual


55.18

65.47

51.57

50.04

61.92

48.90

58.08

64.33

60.39
59-89

65.60

62.75

88.66


Percent Parent LS e
Summer
June-Sept May-Oct. Excess

61.4 7T.? Iia

62.4 73.- 849

63,5 77.0 4.08
67.8 70.8 140

:59.3 75.4 2,50

53.4 72.6 6.4.

46.1 64.6 4.63

51,0 77.2 10.67

44.9 70.6 6-47

40.6 69.6 6,83

49.4 76.8 10.90

58.0 75.9 8.20

50.0 72.6 7.95


-~' --








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


than the west coast in the same latitude, and the distribution of
many tropical plants corresponds with that.
The seasonal variations of temperature for the same stations
are shown in Fig. 4. It will be noticed that there is more differ-


Fro. 3. Map showing normal mean temperature and annual rainfall
for southern Florida. Temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) is indicated
by the lines of long dashes, and rainfall (in inches) by the short dashes.
When weather stations in this area are more numerous, and the records
have been kept for a longer period, the lines can be drawn more accurately,
and they may then be more crooked than here shown.
The 60-inch rainfall line was inadvertently drawn east instead of west
of Miami.









66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--1TH ANNUAL REPORT.

ence between the different stations in winter than in summer. As
a rule the nearer the equator one goes the less is the seasonal
variation of temperature. The difference between the January and
July averages is only 14 at Key West*, as compared with 21.1'
at Tampa (and about 50" in Michigan). Our coldest weather is
usually about the middle of January, and the warmest about the
first week in August. The points where the temperature equals
the annual averages are marked by crosses on the curves and it
will be noticed that at nearly every station the temperature is
above the average just about half the year, from late April to late
October (lagging about a month behind the solar seasons).

On account of the comparatively small annual range of tem-
perature, spring of course comes on much more slowly in this

I I


4 WAYSI5L KWIW
I i I



7r... ... ... ......I..... --- ---- ------ --...... -... r.. .................. --..... I... ..



....1.. ... .---- - ------ ---~ i~B------ -- ------ -- ---------------- ------ ------------------------- ~




s AVERAGE DALY TEMPERCKIRE
17 SOUTH FLORMIA

SFEB., MAR. APR. MW :JUNE .JULY AUG.: SEPT OCT NOV. D
VLJDu wn amonmcaL Y
Fio. 4. Daily temperatures for various South Florida weather stations
throughout an average year. These curves have been constructed from monthly
averages (drawing them a little below the indicated points in the middle of the
coldest months and above in the hottest), but are believed to represent the
average conditions for every day in the year (disregarding diurnal variations) as
accurately as the published records will permit. The average points on each
curve are indicated by crossed.

*At Havana the January and July temperatures are said to be 69' and 80",
only 11* apart.







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


climate than farther north. The maximum rate of warming up
in April and May ranges from about 3.5 degrees per month at
Key West to 4.4 at Tampa (as compared with about 13' in Michi-
gan). The rise of temperature from day to day during the spring
and early summer (in the average of ten or more years, but not
necessarily in any one year) is pretty uniform, and the decline in
the fall still more so (and a little more rapid besides).
These curves are smoothed for 24-hour intervals; i. e., any
point represents the average temperature for 12 hours before and
after the time indicated. We have no adequate data on diurnal
variations, but in South Florida there is about as much difference
in temperature between day and night as between winter and
summer (or even more at Key West and in the tropics).
EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE
The absolute maximum temperature very rarely reaches 100'
F. anywhere in South Florida. As the summer days are shorter
there than they are farther north, that partly balances the more
nearly vertical position of the sun.
A considerable part of the area was once thought to be below
the "frost line," i. e., to have a minimum temperature above 32' F.
But more accurate records in recent years have demonstrated the
fallacy of that belief. Key West is the only weather station in the
United States that has no "official" record of freezing temperature,
the minimum there having been given for many years past as 41'.
But weather instruments are usually several or many feet above
the ground, and on cold nights a difference of a few feet in eleva-
tion may make a difference of a few degrees in temperature. The
writer has seen photographs taken near Miami just after a De-
cember frost in 1906, showing foliage killed up to about three
feet from the ground, and uninjured above that.* An official pub-
lication of the Cuban government states that on December 24,
1906, ice was formed on standing water at several places in Cuba,
while the official temperature at Havana was 54 F. Old-time
residents of Key West assert that they have seen frost there, so


*Further details are given a few pages farther on.







8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--8TH ANNUAL REPORT.

there is probably no point in Florida, or in the United States, ab-
solutely free from it. But a glance at that city shows that tempera-
tures too cool for comfort must be very infrequent there, for the
houses have no chimneys. (Cooking is done mostly with char-
coal.) Miami also has very few chimneys.
The northern parts of our area have freezing temperatures
nearly every winter, averaging about three times a year at Braden-
ton, but even that does not necessarily injure vegetables or fruit.
The lowest temperatures on record for various stations are said
to be as follows: Tampa 19", Bradenton 19", Arcadia 21", Avon
Park 21', Fort Myers 24', Fort Pierce 24', Jupiter 24', Hypoluxo
26', Miami 27", Ritta (on Lake Okeechobee) 29', Marco 30",
and Flamingo 29". But some of these stations have records too
short to be of much value, and besides the minimum temperatures
on the ground are probably lower, as already stated.
PRECIPITATION
Practically all the atmospheric precipitation in South Florida
consists of rain. (A few hail storms have been recorded in the
northern portions.) The annual average for the whole area is not
very different from that of the whole eastern United States, but it
varies considerably in short distances, from over 65 inches at
Miami to less than 40 at Key West. (See map, fig. 3). The lat-
ter is the driest point on record in Florida, in spite of being closely
surrounded by salt water. The variations from year to year are
more irregular than in the case of temperature, as shown by Fig.
7, which covers very nearly the same stations as the corresponding
temperature graph above it, and brings out the wet and dry years
in the last two decades pretty well..
The seasonal distribution of our rainfall is rather interesting.
Throughout Florida there is more rain in summer than in winter,
and the difference is more pronounced in the southern part of the
State than at the other end. The dry winters make Florida much
more desirable as a winter resort than it would be if most of the
rain came in winter, as it does in all the Pacific coast states. From
December to April inclusive practically none of our stations have
more than 4 inches of rain in a month.
The percentage of the total rainfall coming in the four and









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


six warmest months have been given in the table a few pages back,
and these may be compared with similar figures for northern and
central Florida, given in our 6th and 13th annual reports. The
excess of late summer over early summer rain, given in the same
table, has been found to be correlated pretty well with soil, vegeta-
tion, tornadoes, hurricanes and oil wells, in the United States, if
not in other parts of the world.* Regions with a considerable late
summer excess commonly have poor soils, vegetation mob tly ever-
green, more hurricanes than tornadoes, and no oil wells But


variations in this respect within short distances
much, or may be due to imperfect records.


may not mean


Fig. 5 shows that in South Florida there is a tendency to two


Fc. 5. Monthly rainfall for various South Florida stations throughout an
average year. Every point on any curve is intended to represent the average
rainfall for half a month preceding and half a month following the date indicated.
The average figures for each month have been plotted in the middle of the
month and the smoothest possible curves drawn through them. If the averages
for every day in the year were available the maximum and minimum amourjts
would not necessarily come in the middle of a month, but there seem to be no
such data published, and even if there were the curves resulting from them might
be so irregular as to be confusing.
In this graph and the preceding January and December appear twice, so as
to show changes during the winter better than if they were cut off abruptly at
the ends of the calendar year, as is commonly done.
'See Science II. 48:208-211. Aug. 30, 1918; 13th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv..
pp. 194-197. 1921; Engineering & Mining Jour. 112:693-694. Oct, 29, 1921,









70 FLORIDA GEOLdIPCAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

rainy periods, a lesser one in early summer and a heavier one in
late summer. Generally speaking, the west coast has its heaviest
rain in June or July, and the east coast and Keys in September
or October. But even the west coast has more rain in August,
September and October together than in April, May and June.
Several of the stations have two maxima, with less rain in August
than in July or September,
Data on the diurnal distribution of rainfall are not very com-
plete, but most of the rain in South Florida falls in the day-time,
in heavy showers of short duration. Very heavy downpours in
short periods have been recorded at many stations, some of the
most noteworthy being mentioned in the chronology a little farther
on,
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Only a few stations keep records of relative humidity. It
is about 80% over most of South Florida, and does not vary much
with the seasons, for the heavier precipitation in summer tends
to balance the heat of the sun. Consequently droughts are rare.
WIND
The average velocity of the wind is about 10 miles per hour
at Jupiter and Key West, and probably less in the interior. There
is nearly always some breeze, on account of the proximity of the
ocean. Although South Florida is hundreds of miles from the
main tornado belt of the United States, such a phenomenon oc-
curred in Dade County on the afternoon of April 5, 1925, and a
few small ones farther up the east coast in the spring of 1926.
(For details see below.)
Hurricanes occur somewhere on the coast every few years,
usually in the fall, at about the time of maximum rainfall. The
damage they do seldom extends more than a few miles inland.
There is a chapter on hurricanes in Simpson's "Out of Doors in
Florida," pp. 214-232, and some of the noted ones of the last
twenty years are mentioned in the following chronological sum-
mary. It is quite likely that hurricanes during many centuries
have been the means of bringing many plant seeds, insects, etc.,
from the West Indies to Florida.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


SOME EXTREMES OF WEATHER

Some of the unusual extremes of weather in South Florida
in the last twenty years or so will be mentioned below. The items
are taken from U. S. Weather Bureau publications and contem-
porary newspaper clippings. Of course no one should get the im-
pression from this that bad weather is frequent in that part of the
State. These are merely the extremes that attracted special notice;
and most of the time the weather is delightful. It would be hard
to find a more agreeable climate for the year round anywhere
in the world. Much has been written about the alleged enervating
effects of warm climates, but Ellsworth Huntington, in his book
"Civilization and Climate" (1915), states that people from the
Bahamas, in very nearly the same latitude, after a short visit to
Florida usually feel invigorated and refreshed.
1905. January 26, a cold wave, with freezing temperatures nearly throughout
the State, except at Key West, which reported a temperature of 44. November
dry, December wet.
1906. A hurricane on OcL 18 did considerable damage between Miami and
Key West, and killed over 100 men working on the F. E. C. Ry. extension.
Less than an inch of rain in December. Cold wave Dec. 24-26. Minimum
temperatures recorded, 14 at Fort Meade (a little north of our limits), 28" at
Tampa, 23" at Manatee, 24' at Avon Park, 300 at Jupiter and Hypoluxo, 31" at
Fort Myers, 32 at Miami, 33" at Flamingo, and 47~ at Key West. This cold
wave seems to have been exceptional, at some places at least, in hugging the
ground very closely. At Havana, Cuba, at the same time, ice is said to have
formed on small pools, while the official temperature (doubtless several feet
above the ground) was 54'.
Dr. Ernst A. Bessey, who was then stationed at the Subtropical Laboratory of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Miami, showed the writer soon afterward
some photographs taken in low places in the vicinity, showing foliage killed
within a few feet of the ground and uninjured higher up; and in a recent letter
he has given some of his recollections of the occurrence, after a lapse of 19
years. He says that a thermometer at the laboratory, in a low place, recorded
a temperature of 19" just before sunrise, and remained below 25" for perhaps
two or three hours. The cold air seemed to flow in depressions something like
a stream of water, and was dammed up in some places by roads crossing such
depressions, but did little or no damage on higher ground.
1907. January warm and dry, and March likewise, with less than an inch of
rain. The whole year rather dry and warm, with no killing frost anywhere in
South Florida.
1908. Frost in every county on Jan. 15th. March and -April warm. Heavy
rain in October, causing a flood at Fort Lauderdale, and considerable damage to
crops.
1909. A hurricane on Oct. 11th killed 15 or 20 people on the Keys, and
damaged property to the extent of over a million dollars. At Key West the
wind velocity reached nearly 100 miles an hour, and 6.13. inches of rain fell in
two hours and 15 minutes. Cold wave Dec. 30-31, freezing as far south as Miami.










72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1910. January and early February cold. April cool and dry. Between Oct.
14th and 19th a hurricane did considerable damage all along the coast, and Miami
was without mail for a week, but very few lives were lost. During that time 16
inches of rain fell in two days at Hypoluxo, and 27.81 inches during the month.
The year was cooler and drier than usual, though.
1911. Warmer than the average. June hot, but July cooler. September and
October hot, and November wetter than usual, Frost as far south as Fort Myers
on Jan. 6th, but no damage to crops.


1912. June a wet month. Rainfall
26.91 at Fort Myers, 25.19 at Hypoluxo.
22nd. The whole year was wetter than


for the month 25.62 inches at Bradenton,
Miami had 10.67 inches on Nov. 21st and
usual.


1913. A rather dry year. January warm, October and November dry.
1914. March cold and dry. Killing frost nearly to Miami on the 3d.
and June warm and dry. Nov. 21st the coldest day of fail, with a little frost.


May


1915. January wet. March cold, with killing frost at Miami on the 18th.
October and November warm. Frost in several places on Dec. 15th. The year
cooler and wetter than usual.
1916. January mild and sunny. February dry. March cold and dry, with
frost in northwest portions on the 5th. April likewise, with killing frost in
Broward County on the 10th. Same county had frost again on Nov. 20th. No.
member and December wet. A little frost on Dec. 17th.
1917. January dry. Frost on Feb. 3rd at most stations, hut not as damaging
around Lake Okeechobee as at Miami. Temperature of 37 recorded on that date
at Long Key, Monroe County. May dry. The 27th was the hottest day of the
year at Arcadia, with a temperature of 98". Drought at Miami from July to
December. October to December cold. The year cooler and drier than usual.


Frc. 6. Average annual temperature for various South Florida weather
stations from 1905 to 1924. Every point on any curve is intended to represent
the average temperature for six months preceding and six months. following the
date indicated. (But see explanation under next figure.)









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1918. January cold, especially the first week, when there was frost at most
stations. February warm and dry; October warm and wet.
1919. January cool and dry, with freezing temperature at Miami on the 5th.
February wet. Heavy rains at Fort Lauderdale and Miami on March 14th. May
wet Hurricane Sept. 9-10, doing about two million dollars' damage at Key West.
At the same time a tornado about 600 feet wide passed through Goulds, in Dade
County. October and November warm. Frost in Broward County on Dec. 30th.
The year warmer and wetter than usual.
1920. Frost at Miami first week in January. February cold and wet. March
cold. Frost south of Miami on the 2nd, which was the coldest day of the year.
April and September wet. Cold wave on Dec. 17th, with a little frosL A cool
dry year.
1921. January to March mostly mild and dry, but light frost on Jan. 16th.
May cool and wet. June and July pretty dry at Miami. Hypoluxo recorded a
temperature of 100' on June 20th. September hot and dry. October cool and
wet. Fort Lauderdale had 3134 inches of rain during that month. On the 24th
to 26th a hurricane swept across the peninsula from about Sanibel to Titusvillc,
and Sanibel Island is said to have been completely submerged for a short time.


AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL- =OUTH FLORIDA
Sm g a i 4 a I 4 a i l I

4---'-











105 6t 07: S 09 lo: ZI 12: 1:14i : : 1 I t : 13: t8 20L1 a2 ; s:2

FIc. 7. Average annual rainfall for various South Florida weather nations
from 1905 to 1924. Every point on any curve is intended to represent the total
rainfall for six months preceding and six months following the date indicated.
(But see below.)
In both of these graphs portions of some of the curves are dotted. That
indicates gaps in the records, which have been flled in by guess. Both kinds of
curves have been constructed by putting the annual averages in the middle of
the space allotted for each year, and drawing the smoothest possible curves
through those points. That makes it appear as if the twelve-month maxima and
minima always come at or near the middle of the year, which cannot be trne
In general If the figures for every month in these twenty years had been studied,
the maximum and minimum points could have been located more accurately,
but chat would have taken much longer, and might have made the curves so
irregular as to confuse the reader
b 1 A I I h 1 1 4 hI




















irregular an to confuse the reader.








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Damage of about three million dollars and a few lives lost, bat mostly north of
the area under consideration. December mild and dry, with no freezing tem.
peratwre in the whole State.
1922. January very dry. February mostly warm and dry. March and April
also dry. June wetter than usual at Fort Myers, but drier elsewhere. Bradenton
had 19.35 inches of rain in August. Heavy rains in latter part of September,
causing Lake Okeechobee to overflow. Moore Haven had 14.93 inches of rain
during the month. Rains continued in October, putting the Everglades two or
three feet under water, which remained for several weeks. Homestead had 23.89
inches of rain that month. Considered a wet year.
1923. February and March warm and dry. May wet with heavy rain and
bail storm in Hardee County and northward on the 3d. The worst hail on record
in South Florida, causing a little damage to crops. June rainy. October and
November cool and dry. December warm, wih no frost south of Arcadia. A
rather dry year.
1924. January and February cold, damp and cloudy. March cooler than
usual. Frost at Moore Haven in January, February and March, the last March
13th. May 30th the warmest day of the year at Arcadia and Avon Park, witi
temperatures of 98" and 99* respectively. June warm; July wet; August warm
and dry. Hurricane in northwest portion on the night of Oct. 20-21, accompanied
by very heavy rains, breaking several records, and flooding a large area around
Lake Okeechobee. Sands Key had 2.79 inches of rain in an hour, and Miami 4.66
inches in two hours. November started warm, and ended cold and dry. Frost
at Arcadia on the 30th. December warmer than usual.
1925. January warm and wet. Average temperature for the month 75" at
Key West. Davie, in Broward County, had 7.55 inches of rain on the 24th and
13.08 inches during the month; and Lake Okeechobee overflowed again. Frost
as far south as Miami on Feb. 13th, killing many vegetables. March mostly dry,
but heavy rain at Miami on the 23d did a little damage. On the afternoon of
April 5th the first tornado ever seen in South Florida by most of the present in-
habitants struck Hialeah, killed five people, injured 35, and did about 8300,000
damage to property. May wetter than usual. Davie had 5.60 inches of rain on
the 6th, and Miami 18.74 inches during the month. October warmer and drier
than usual. Very heavy rain at Miami on Nov. 30th, flooding the streets; 15.10
inches fell in 24 hours. Considerable damage by wind at the same time, at
various places on the coast. (In spite of the frost, tornado and cloudburst in
and near Miami, that city, like most other places in South Florida. had the
greatest boom in its whole history during 1925.)








NATURAL.RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


VEGETATION

In an area with so little diversity of topography as South
Florida, and so little land cultivated yet, the native vegetation is
in most places the most conspicuous feature of the landscape. At
the same time a great deal of the South Florida vegetation differs
considerably from that of the rest of the United States, and also
from that of the tropics, and it is very diversified besides. Further-
more, the "developers" are trying to destroy the vegetation as fast
as possible, to make room for cities and farms,* and some that
was studied by the writer in 1909, 1910, or even later, is already
gone forever. All these circumstances make it desirable to put on

*In this connection the following quotation from Simpson's "Out of Doors in
Florida" (pp. 136-137) is very appropriate:
"We advertise the beauties and attractions of Florida; we send out agents
and literature to call the people of the northland to come and spend their
winters or to be permanent residents with us. Then we destroy every vestige
of its natural beauty, we cut down the hammocks, drain the lakes and mutilate
the rivers. We clear out the mangrove borders which nature created to guard
our shores from the destruction by the sea during hurricanes and in their places
build hideous sea walls. The only attraction belonging to the State that we do
not ruin is the climate, and if it were possible to can and export it we would do
so until Florida would be as bleak and desolate as Labrador. What natural
beauty will we have left for another generation? What right have we to waste
and destroy everything that nature has lavishly bestowed on the earth?" (And
there is more along the same line there and elsewhere in the book.)
That this spirit of commercial vandalism is by no means peculiar to Florida
is shown by the following passages from an article by Struthers Burt on "The
Crime Against the West," in Harper's Magazine for April, 1926. It relates to a
valley in Wyoming, whose natural beauty is being despoiled by various kinds of
"improvements."
"At the head of the valley .... is a lake eighteen miles long which .. .
is [was] one of the most beautiful lakes in the world. ... A private irrigation
company built a dam across the outlet. ..... Today the lake is ruined beyond
repair. Thousands of feet of standing timber have been killed, and as the water
is drawn off, there are mud banks .... millions of trout are killed
annually. .
"Not long ago there was a plan to turn the ... country into a lumbering
country. ..... You no doubt know lumbered countries as we lumber in
America, ... and you know what a logging stream looks like. Still later, a
very definite attempt, indorsed by many of the local people, was made to intro-
duce sheep into the valley. You also no doubt know what happens to a country
when sheep are introduced as we introduce them in America .
'The valley . is becoming more and more a mecca for motorists . .
Buc the local Forest Service, instead of taking advantage of the two old roads on
either side of the valley, which, like all old roads, followed natural contours and
possessed some beauty, have built a thing diagonally across the valley and twenty
miles long that looks like a railway track. . For a mile on either side of the
lake there are now gas stations, 'hot dog' stands, lunch counters, and tent colonies.
.. . Wherever there is a lake it will meet the fate of this lake, wherever there
is a view it will some day have a signhoard."






76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT,

record a pretty full account of the vegetation, for the benefit of
future generations, who will not have such good opportunities to
study it as there are at present.
This more or less unique vegetation has naturally attracted
the attention of quite a number of botanists, and numerous papers
on South Florida plants have been cited in the preceding bibli-
ography. But none of them give quite the sort of information
that we ought to have. Many of them are mere lists of plants, or
narratives of expeditions, which tell very little about what the
vegetation really looks like, except in a few spots that happen to
be illustrated by photographs. The most pretentious paper on the
subject, that of Harshberger (1914) classifies the vegetation by
habitat, and lists many of the characteristic species of each hab-
itat, but with no adequate indication of relative abundance, which
is very important. Furthermore, that paper does not cover the
Keys, and does not always identify the species correctly or dis-
tinguish between native plants and weeds. Millspaugh's paper
on the sand keys (1907) gives many minute details, mapping the
location of individual plants, but covers only a very small area,
and it would be quite out of the question to apply the same
methods to the whole of South Florida.
In the following pages the principal vegetation types ob-
served by the writer will be described, and as many as possible
illustrated. There are of course all sorts of graduations between
different types, so that it is often difficult to decide just where to
draw the line between them, and no two persons might agree ex-
actly on the subject; but this difficulty is inherent in all classifica-
tions of natural phenomena. More thorough exploration or care-
ful study might increase the number of types considerably, but
it is just as well not to attempt too much the first time.
Some ecologists like to see in every area they study tenden-
cies for every type of vegetation (except the assumed ultimate or
"climax") to develop gradually into some other type by a process
of "succession." Undoubtedly the vegetation everywhere is differ-
ent now from what it was several thousand years ago, but in South
Florida the evidence of such changes, except in a few instances,
is so slight that it seems futile to speculate about them, and we
may as well assume that almost every vegetation type will remain







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


the same indefinitely, unless forced to change by physiographic
or climatic changes or the encroachments of civilization.
It is very likely that the various hammocks are tending to en-
croach on the pine lands and other open types of vegetation that
border them, as the trees at the edges make more humus, as has
been explained by the writer for areas a little farther north*; but
there are some who believe that our hammocks were once more
extensive, and have been reduced in area by fire or some other
cause.
In the following descriptions of vegetation the order is neces-
sarily somewhat arbitrary, but as far as practicable that of the
driest, coolest inland habitats will be discussed before that of
wet, tropical and marine habitats, and weeds last.
Under each type the plants are divided first into large and
small trees, vines, shrubs, herbs, etc., and the species in each group
arranged as nearly as possible in order of abundance, as de-
termined by counts in the field. The size classification is more
difficult in South Florida than in the northern states, for there are
all possible graduations between trees and herbs, and even the
same species may be either a tree or a shrub, or a shrub or herb,
in different places. And some of our cycads and small palms
and cacti do not fit the definition of either shrub or herb.
The rarer plants are omitted in every case, for there is too
much possibility of their being accidental or temporary invaders
from other types, or wrongly identified, and they constitute such
a small fraction of the total vegetation that their names would
take up more space than they are worth. In rapid reconnaissance
work it is not possible to take specimens of all unfamiliar plants
for subsequent identification; and besides the flora of South
Florida is not as well known yet as that of most other parts of the
eastern United States, so that some plants which appear at first
glance to belong to well-known species may later be described as
new. Consequently there are many interrogation points scattered
through the plant lists, to be eliminated by future study, if the

*See our 7th Annual Report, pp. 170-171. Also a paper by E. A. Beesey (1911)
cited in the bibliography.







18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

"developers" do not work faster than the botanists and destroy
too many plants before they can be sufficiently studied.
The names of evergreens are printed in italics,* but in
this mild climate where almost any plant can keep growing
throughout the year the distinction between evergreen and decid-
uous-leaved plants is not as sharp as it is farther north. However,
any plant with stiff leaves that live more than a year is regarded
as evergreen, and herbs which die down to the ground in winter in
the neighboring states are regarded as deciduous, even if some of
them are green in mid-winter in South Florida.
In nomenclature and classification the various floras by Dr.
J. K. Small are followed in most cases, but those do not agree ex-
actly with each other, as they were published at different times,
and our knowledge is constantly increasing and our ideas chang-
ing. Common names are given where known, but many of the
plants listed have such limited distribution, and no known use,
that persons other than botanists have never had any occasion to
give them any names.
It is the aim of this report to describe every type of vegeta-
tion as it was before civilized man damaged it; but in a few cases
where weeds have become pretty well established among the native
plants their names have been inserted in the proper places, but in
parentheses. After the descriptions of native vegetation there is
a chapter on weeds; a weed being defined as a plant that is wholly
or mainly confined to unnatural places like roadsides, railroads,
vacant lots and cultivated fields. These are bound to increase in
number of individuals and species as the country is settled up,
and therefore an account of their present status ought to be in-
teresting to refer to a generation hence, when they will probably
be much more numerous than at present.
In the discussions of vegetation some attention will be paid
to the prevailing modes of dissemination (seed dispersal), which
vary considerably in different types. Many trees and shrubs and
a few herbs have berries or other fleshy fruits, which are eaten
by birds, and their seeds thus carried considerable distances;

*For the last twenty years or so the writer baa been using heavy type to
distinguish evergreens in vegetation lists, but the present printers were not
equipped for that






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


while others have nuts or acorns, transported mainly by squirrels.
Many herbs and a few woody plants have seeds or fruits bearing
wings or a parachute-like tuft of hairs, which adapts them to
travel with the wind.
Another common seed-dispersal contrivance among herbs and
shrubs is a sort of catapult device, known to botanists as the
tonobole. It has dry seeds which lie loose in involucres, calyxes
or capsules borne on stiff stems which stand upright through the
winter, and when the stems are shaken by the wind, or an animal
brushing against them, the seeds fly out. (This type is scarce in
the far north, where the deep snow hinders its operation.) A few
herbs, especially weeds, have burrs or barbed fruits which stick
to the hair of animals or human clothing.
Still others which grow in or near water have seeds or fruits
adapted to floating. There are also a few very specialized con-
trivances, like the large spindle-shaped seed of the red mangrove,
which attains a considerable growth before it leaves the tree, and
is ready to take root as soon as it touches the bottom of shallow
salt water. But in a surprisingly large number of cases, including
some of the commonest weeds, we do not know yet just how the
seeds are transported.
It might be desirable also to tell something about the pre-
vailing colors of flowers, blooming seasons, etc., but in this warm
climate the blooming season for many species is rather indefinite,
and most of the woody plants have rather inconspicuous flowers.
THE SCRUB
(Fig. 8.)
The driest and poorest soils in South Florida, consisting al-
most entirely of white quartz sand, are usually occupied by a type
of vegetation known as scrub. It is most extensively developed
in the lake region in the middle of the peninsula, especially around
Lake Stearns; but it makes a nearly continuous narrow strip just
west of the narrow lagoons along the east coast as far south as the
northern edge of Dade County, and there are patches of it along
the west coast as far south as Naples, or even a little on Marco
Island, and in a few places in the flatwoods.







80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--8TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The scrub is characterized especially by an abundance of
spruce pine, though there are considerable areas in Highlands
County where that is wanting or nearly so. The rest of the vegeta-
tion is mostly large crooked evergreen shrubs, with only a few
grasses or other herbs. On account of the scarcity of grass, a small
ground fire cannot run through the scrub as it does in the long-leaf
and slash pine forests described farther on, but about once in the
lifetime of a spruce pine a combination of wind and dry weather
may cause a fire to sweep through the tops of the trees and kill
them. The pine cones soon afterward open and drop seeds for a
new crop, and the shrubs sprout up again from the roots.*
Farther north in the peninsula the transition from high pine
land to scrub is often complete in a few feet, corresponding with
an equally abrupt change in soil from cream-colored to white sand
(though the long-leaf pine sometimes grows on white sand, or the
spruce pine on cream-colored sand); but in Highlands County the
two types often intergrade in a perplexing fashion.
There are some slight differences between the scrub of the


FIG. 8. Scrub vegetation on white sand near the coast about 4 miles
north of Naples, Collier County. The most conspicnonu plants are Pinus
clausa, Ceratiola, and Serenoa. March 12, 1924.


*See our 7th Annual Report, pp. 142-144. 1915.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


interior and that of the old dunes near the east coast, but it hardly
seems worth while to separate them at present. The commonest
scrub plants in our territory are about as follows:


TREES--
Pinus clausa (spruce pine)
SMALL TREES-
Hicoria Floridana (hickory)
Quercus myrnifolia (an oak)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Quercus Chapmani (an oak)
Ilex opaca (?) (holly)
QnerUcns Cateebaci (black-jack oak)
VINES-
Smilax auricuata
SHRUBS-
Serenoa serruata (saw.palmetto)
Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Cholisma fruticas (poor grub)
Qrercu- geminata (live oak)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Sabal Ktonia (a palm)
Palafoxia Feayi
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Conradina puberula?
Garberia frusicosa
Prunus genicnmlan (a plum)
Ximenia Americana?
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Polygonella polygama?
Asimina specioea? (pawpow)


HERBS--
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Cassytha filiformis
Opuntia ammophila? (prickly pear)
Tillandsia recurvata (air-plant)
Lechea sp.
Selaginella arenicula?
Rhynchospora dodecandra (a sedge)
Petalostemon Feayi
Warea cuneifolia
Nolina Brittoniona
Cnidoscolus stimulosus
Thysanella robusta
MOSSES, ETC--
Cladonia sps. (reindeer moBs)


Most of the trees and herbs and nearly all the shrubs are
evergreen. The seeds of the pine are transported by the wind, but
most of the smaller trees have nuts or acorns, and about half the
shrubs have berries. A few of the herbs and one of the shrubs
have wind-borne seeds, but for about half the herbs we do not
know exactly how the seeds travel.

This vegetation is of very little use for either timber or forage,
but a good deal of it has been destroyed to make room for orange
groves in the interior, and for pineapple fields and houses on the
east coast.

*This is a stunted form, described in September, 1924, by Small as flex
cumulicola and by Ashe as L arenicola.







82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

HIGH PINE LAND
(Figs. 9, 37.)
This is a very common type of vegetation in northern and
central Florida, but in South Florida it is almost confined to the
lake region of Highlands County, with a few small patches on
slightly elevated spots in the flatwoods, where they can usually be
recognized from a distance by the presence of oaks. (Fig. 38.)
The topography is rolling, and the soil is nearly always a deep
dry cream-colored sand, essentially uniform as far down as most
roots go. Water falling on this soil sinks in immediately, even
in the heaviest rains. Gophers and salamanders are fairly com-
mon, and doubtless play an important part in keeping the soil
stirred up, which does not happen to any appreciable extent in the
scrub just described.
The dominant tree is the long-leaf pine, and one or more
species of medium-sized oaks are nearly everywhere in sight.
Shrubs are much less abundant than in the preceding and follow-
ing types, but herbs are generally more so, though one occasionally
finds patches of bare sand a few square feet in extent. Fire is a
frequent and important factor of the environment In pre-historic
times the fires must have been started mostly by lightning, and al-
though that may not have happened very often on any one square
mile, a fire once started might run for many miles, so that every
spot in the high pine land must have been burned over something
like once in two years, on the average. With the multiplication
of roads, orange groves, etc., any one fire cannot spread as far
now as formerly, but there are more chances of starting fires, so
that the frequency of fire at any one spot may not have changed
much.
The frequency of fire tends to keep the oaks and vines in
check, but does not injure the pine perceptibly after it is a few
years old (except when turpentined). It also limits the shrub and
herb population almost entirely to species with underground roots,
which can send up new sprouts after the tops are burned (which
usually happens in winter or early spring). For that reason
annual plants and vines are scarce, except in spots where the veg-
etation is too open for fire to travel through.*
*For additional notes on the effects of fire ee our 7th Annual Report, pp,
147, 148, 165, and various earlier papers there referred to.











NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


The most typical high pine
TREES-
Pinus palnstris (long-leaf pine)
SMALL TREES-
Quercus Catesbaei (black-jack oak)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Quercus cinerea (turkey oak)
VINES--
Smilax amriculato
SHRUBS--
Serenoa serrulaza (saw-palmetto)
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Prmnus genicalata (a plum)
Lupinus diffusus (lupine)
Sabal Econia (a palm)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Garberia fruticosa
Patafoxia Feayi
Ceanothus microphylhis
Asimina speciosa? (powpaw)
Ximenia Americana?


land plants are as follows:
HERBS--
Aristida stricia (wire-grass)
Tilladsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Polygonella gracilis
Petalostemon Feayi
Opuntia ammophila? (prickly pear)
Stenophyllus Warei (a sedge)
Acinospermum angustifolium
Thysanella robusta
Chrysopsis gramirfdolia? *
Eriogonum tomentosum
Paronychia herniarioides
Kuhnistera pinnata
Sisyrinchium solstitiale
Cracca chrysophylla
Chamaecrista sp. (partridge pea)
Gibbesia Rugelii?
Froelichia Floridana
Chrysopsis gossypina?
Aristida virgata
Warea cuneifolia
Lechea sp.
Laciniaria tenuifolia
Afzelia pertinata
Yucca filamentosa (bear-grass)
Andropogon Virginicus
(broom-sedge)
Chapmania Floridana


FrTC 9. High pine land in lake region about 5 miles E. S. E. of Avon
Park, Highlands County, showing Pinus palurtris Quercus Cusesbaei (at
right), Serenoa, Aristida stricta, etc Jan. 28, 1924.
*Stouter and more leafy than it usually is farther north.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Most of the shrubs are evergreen, but among the trees and
herbs there are more deciduous species than in most other parts
of South Florida, which presumably indicates that the soil is richer
than it looks. Other indications of pretty good soil are that none
of the shrubs listed belong to the Ericaceae (heath family), and
that there is a considerable proportion of leguminous plants among
the herbs. Most of the shrubs have berries. Among the herbs
more of the seeds are carried by the wind than in any other way,
but in about half the cases we do not know just what method of
dissemination operates.
The pine is a very important source of lumber and naval
stores, and the wire-grass affords some forage for cattle. Some-
thing like twenty per cent of this type in Highlands County has
been cleared away to make room for settlements and citrus groves,
and that process is still going on.
FLATWOODS
(Figs. 10, 11, 25, 38, 42.)
This is probably the most extensive type of vegetation in
South Florida, covering at least a third of the area. It consists
of vast open forests of pine (either long-leaf or slash), with hardly
any other tree, and a rather dense undergrowth of saw-palmetto
and other low shrubs, with about an equal number of herbs. The
soil is usually a fine grayish sand, but limestone or marl may.
approach closely to the surface without making much difference
in the vegetation. Fire is as frequent as in the high pine land.
The pines are usually nearly all of one species, in a given
area, the two not mixing much. Generally speaking, the long-leaf
pine seems to prefer the higher and drier and cooler portions, and
the slash pine the more tropical and marly places; but often there
is no visible difference in the soil, or in the rest of the vegetation.
In order to determine if possible the cause of the predominance
of one pine or the other, a careful analysis has been made of the
long-leaf and slash pine types separately, and the results are here
presented in parallel columns:










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


FIc. 10. Long-leaf pine flatwoods about 3 miles south of Fort Drum,
Okeechobee County. Trees all Pinus palustria, mostly under a foot in
diameter. Undergrowth of Sarenoa conspicuous. This is one of the few
remaining virgin stands of long-leaf pine, and it may not remain long, on
account of its accessibility. Aug. 9, 1925.


Fic. 11. Slash pine flatwoods about a mile north of Bonita Springs,
Lee County. The pines .all Pinus Caribaea) are smaller and farther apart,
and the saw-pnlmetto less abundant, than is usual in this type of vegetation,
but still more so than in the long-leaf pine flatwoods. March 12, 1924.










86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Long-leaf pine
TREES
Pinus paustris (long-leaf pine)

SMALL TREES
Quercus geminata (live oak)

SHRUBS
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Ilex glabra (gal berry)
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Pycnothymus rigidus
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Bejaria racemosa
Quercus minima (oak runner)
4scyrum tetrapeatsum
Chrysobabanus oblongifolus
Hypericum aspalachoides
Gaylussaca dumosa (huckleberry)
HERBS
Aristida strict wire-grass)
Pterocanlon undultnum (black-root)
Syngonantrhus flavidulus
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Carphephorus corymbosus
Elephantopus nudatus?
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Laciniaria tenuifolia?
Xyris flexuosa
Chrysopsis graminifolia?
Actinospermum anguseifolium
Trilisa odoratissima (deertongue)
Zamia integrifolia coontiee)
Xyris sp.
Galaflia Etliottii (pin-down)
Petalostemon carnene?
Kuhnistera pinnata (summer farewell)
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
Aster adnatus
Lachnocaulon Beyrichianum?
Pinanicula lutea (buttercup)
Stillingia sylvatica?
Eryngium aromaticnm
Chamaecrista sp. (partridge pea)
Sopbronanthe hispida
PolPyal Rugefll
Polygala setacea


Slash pine
TREES
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
SMALL TREES
Quec-cus geminata (live oak)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
SHRUBS
Serenoa serrulata (raw-palmetto)
Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Pycmothymus rigidus
Vaccinium ntidum (huckleberry)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Bejaria racemosa
Chu-ysobalanus oblongifolius
Ilex glabra gallberryy)
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Gaylussacia dumosa (huckleberry)



HERBS
Aristida strict (wire-grass)
Pterocullon undulatum (black-root)
Sabbatia Elliottii?
Polygala Rugelii
Syngonanthus flavidulus
Carphephorus corymbosus
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Eryngium aromaticun
Litrisa carnoea
Elephantopus nudatus?
Seriencarpns bifoliatus
Cassytha filiformis
X wis flexuosa?
Galactia Elliottil (pin-down)
Rhynchospora fascicularis (a sedge)
Helianthella sp.
Pteris aquilina (a fern)
Helianthus sp. (sunflower)
Trilisa odoratissima (deer-tongue)
Polygala setacea
Panicum sp. (a grass)


Considering first the two lists together, all the trees and nearly
all the shrubs are evergreen, but most of the herbs are not classed
as evergreens in Georgia. A little more than half the shrubs have







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 8,

berries, and most of the others belong to the class of "tonoboles.,
About half the herbs have wind-borne seeds. Something like a
third of the shrubs belong to the Ericaceae and allied families, and
only about one-tenth of the herbs to the Leguminosae, which does
not speak very well for the soil.
In contrasting the two lists, although the sequence indicated
cannot be guaranteed as absolutely accurate, for only a small frac.
tion of the area has been examined, it is pretty safe to say that
Ilex glabra, Vaccinium nitidum, Pieris nitida, Aristida strict,
Tillandsia usneoides, Laciniaria tenuifolia, Chrysopsis gramini-
folia, Actinospermum, Trilisa odoratissima, and Kuhnistera are
more abundant in the long-leaf pine type, and Quercus myrtifolia,
Pycnothymus, Sabbatia FEliottii, Polygala Rugelii, Er vngium aro-
maticum, Litrisa, Cassytha and Helianthella in the slash pine type.
Those in the former category seem to prefer cooler climates, or
drier or more acid soils, and the latter seem to be a little more
tropical, though some of them range aIt least a, far north as
Georgia. But we evidently do not know the whole -tory yet.
Both pines are used extensively for lumber, and for turpen.
tine as far south as the Caloosahatchee River, bIl apparently not
yet beyond that latitude. The huckleberries are ,,metimes picked
for market, even as far south as Palm Beach County. Several of
the shrubs have flowers that yield honey, and ihe wire-grass and
other herbs are eaten by cattle. Probably not more than five per
cent of the flatwoods area has been cultivated, up to the present
time.
DRY PRAIRIES
(Figs. 12, 40.)
On both sides of t,- Kissimmee River, and extending west-
ward with some interruptions nearly to Arcadia and Fort Ogden,
are vast level comparatively dry treeless prairies, covered with
grasses and low bushes, averaging about two feet in height. Prai-
ries of similar aspect are found also in Collier, Manatee and Bre-
vard* Counties, and in smaller patches as far north as Volusia
and Wakulla Counties; and their aggregate extent in Florida must
be two or three thousand square miles.
The vegetation differs from that of the flatwoods just de-
*See our 13th Annual Report pp. 138, 140, 203-204.


q








88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TR ANNUAL REPORT.

scribed in hardly a;y way except the absence of trees, and the
reason for that is obscure. The soil seems to be the same fine
gray sand as in the flatwoods, and no more subject to inundation,
but it may be that there is hardpan or something of the sort near
enough to the surface to interfere with the roots of trees. The fact
that the prairie soil is hardly one per cent cultivated would seem
to indicate that it is inferior to that of the flatwoods in some way.

Until the building of railroads to Okeechobee and Moore
Haven, ten or fifteen years ago, the prairies were rather inac-
cessible and little known, except to cattlemen. But now there are
three or four railroads through the prairies, and one traveling on
them can get views strongly suggestive of the Great Plains.
Almost anywhere in the prairies one can see a few scattered
slash pines, cabbage palmettoes or live oaks, averaging less than
one tree to the acre; but the great bulk of the vegetation is of
shrubs and herbs, in approximately equal proportions. It is sub-
ject to frequent fires, like the flatwoods, although there is no pine
straw to add fuel to the flames. Consequently practically all the
plants have large underground parts, which enable them to send
up new shoots after a fire, as in the pine forests.


r -' '* *.











Ftc. 12. Scene in dry prairies about two miles northwest of Okee-
chobee, with a few slash pines and cabbage palmnetoes in the distance.
Aug. 8. 1925,









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.

The commonest species seem to be as follows:


SHRUBS-
Serenoa errulata (saw-palmetto)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Ilex glabra gallberryy)
Gholisma fruicosa (poor g-rb)
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Ascyrum tetrapetalum
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Hypericum aspatathoides
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Gaylussacia dumosa (huckleberry


HERBS--
Aristida stricta (wiregrasu)
Syngonanthu flavidulu
Pterocaulon undulatum (black-root)
Litrisa carnosa
Polygala Rugelii
(Eleocharis Baldwinii) (road-grass)
Carphephorus corymbosus
Agatinis sp.
Elepbantopne nudatus?
Eupatorium Mohrii?
Lechca sp.
(Anastrophus pasploides) (a grass)
Sophronanthe hispida
Panicum Combsii? (a grass)
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Helianthella sp.
(Euthamia sp.)
Xyris pallescens
Finmbristylis puberula (a sedge)
Rhynchospora fascicularie (a sedge)
Lac1hnociloon Beyrichianum?
Hyptis raliata
Podestigma pedicellala
Solidago fistulosa goldenrodd)


Being composed mostly of the same species, this vegetation
has about the same characteristics as that of the flatwoods, as re-
gards proportion of evergreens, modes of dissemination, etc. But
if there is any difference, the proportion of leguminous plants is
still smaller. The saw-palmetto makes up about half the shrub-
bery and the wire-grass about half the herbage. Most of the herbs
have no common names, and no known use except for forage, and
in that respect they have more quantity than quality.








90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

MIAMI PINE LAND
(Figs. 47, 48.)
The pine lands on the Miami oolite, covering a few hundred
square miles, have much the same aspect as the slash pine flatwoods
farther north, except for the trees being a little smaller and more
crooked, but the undergrowth is quite different. This is probably
due partly to the warmer climate, but more to the very different
soil, which is mostly pitted limestone instead of sand. In other
states the vegetation on limestone is usually totally different both
in composition and in aspect from that on sand, but the South
Florida limestones do not seem to influence vegetation as much as
most other kinds do; perhaps because they are deficient in potash,
which is a more important soil constituent than lime.
Several characteristic plants of the sandy flatwoods extend
into the Miami region just about as far as the sand does (i. e., to
the neighborhood of Miami), while the plants peculiar to that
region gradually disappear northward, and go no farther than the
visible outcrops of limestone, or to about the northern edge of
Dade County.
The soil is practically always dry, for the rain that falls
quickly disappears unto the porous limestone.
Fire seems to be as frequent in the Miami pine lands as in
the flatwoods, if not more so. It is said that fire sometimes runs
up into a pine tree and singes all its leaves off without killing it.
A few of the herbs, especially the ferns, grow mostly in little pot-
holes, which give them pretty good protection from fire.
This vegetation includes a considerable number of endemic
species, which grow neither farther north nor in the tropics, and
many of these have been discovered by Dr. Small and his as.
sociates in the last 25 years. Some are chiefly confined to the
southwestern portion of the region, perhaps because it is a little
too cold for them at Miami.
In the following list the names of plants chiefly confined to
the north end of the region, on sandier soils, are preceded by N,
and the more tropical species of the southwest end by S.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES--
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
SMALL TREES-
Diphois salicfolia (bustic)
N Quercus geminata (live oak)
S Coccohriax argentea
(silver palm)
VINES--


Smilax auriculata
Rhabdadenia corallicola?
SHRUBS-
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
N Sabal Etonia (a palm)
N Quercus pamila (oak runner)
S Guettarda scabra
N Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Coccothrinax argentea
(silver palm)
Croton linearis?
Quercus minima (oak runner)
N Myrica pumila (myrtle)
N Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
N Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
N Pycnothymus rigidus
S Metopium toxiferum
(poison-wood)
Pithecolobium Guadalupense
S Byrsonima lucida
Rhus copallina? (sumae)
S Tetrazygia bicolor
Morinda Roioe
Lantana depressa
N Amorpha herbacea
N Quercus myrtifolia
N Asimina reticulata?
Dodonaea Jamaicennis


HERBS--


Zamia Floridana (coonlie)
Asistida strict (wire-grass)
Cassytha filiformis
Aneimia adiantijolia (a fern)
Pteris longifolia (a fern)
Jacquemontia Curtissii
Chanaecrista brachiata?
(partridge pea)
Opuntia Bp. (prickly pear)
N Chrysopsis graminifolia?
Chamaesyce pinetorum?
Tithymalopsis polyphyllus
Crotalaria pumila.
Buchnera elongata
Stillingia angustifolia?
Afzelia pectinata
Dichromena colorata? (a sedge)
N Polygonella gracilis
Pteris aeudata (a fern)
Melanthera ap.
Polygala coralicola?
Borreria sp.
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
S Cassia Bahamensis?
N Petalostemon Feayi
Petalostemon carnens?
Asclepias verticillata
Aldenella tenuifolia
N Eryngium aromaticum
N Actinospermum angustifolium
N Rhynchospora Grayil (a sedge)
Elephantopus ntdatus?


Most of these plants look about the same in winter as in sum-
mer, though some of the herbs that range as far north as Georgia
are not evergreen there. The pine and a few of the herbs have
wind-borne seeds, most of the shrubs as usual have berries, and
among the herbs there seem to be more tonoboles than anything
else, though in about half the cases we do not know just how the
seeds travel. Among the shrubs the only Ericaceous ones are
confined to the sandy northern portion. The proportion of Legum-
inosae among the herbs is greater than in the sandy flatwoods
just described, and about the same as in the high pine land.

The pine is used locally for lumber and fuel, but not for





92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

turpentine. For lumber it is inferior to the larger and straighter
slash pines farther north, and still more to the long-leaf pine, but
for some purposes it is more economical to use it than to pay
freight on better material. The coontie is an important source
of starch, and one or two starch factories have operated in this
region at various times. The wire-grass could be eaten by cattle,
but the honeycombed surface of the limestone makes this out of
the question as a grazing region, and Dade County has long had
a stock law, prohibiting cattle from running at large, as in regions
farther north that have more cultivated land than forest.
Something like one-tenth of the area is occupied by settle-
ments, and groves of various tropical fruits, and the clearings
would doubtless be much more extensive if it were not for the
difficulty of working the very rocky soil.
There are some slash pine forests somewhat similar to those
around Miami on the lower Keys, especially Big Pine Key. These
have not been studied much, but they seem to differ from those
just described in having fewer species of plants, which is a natural
consequence of their small area and remoteness from other pine
forests. And the absence of pot-holes on the Keys probably also
tends to make the vegetation less diversified.
Where the limestone comes to the surface in the flatwoods of
Collier County, the vegetation includes a few of the characteristic
Miami species, but it is more like that of the sandy flatwoods in
the same neighborhood. It has not yet been investigated suffi.
ciently, however.
BEACHES AND DUNES
(Figs.13-15, 46.)
On sandy beaches and low dunes within a few yards of the
Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, and on a few beaches of cal-
careous sand on the Keys, above high tide but within reach of salt
spray, and exposed to intense light as long as the sun shines, we
find a rather sparse vegetation, similar in aspect to that of northern
sea beaches, except for having more woody plants and more ever-






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


greens. It sometimes grades into the scrub vegetation already de-
scribed, but more often into cactus thickets, mangrove swamps,
or hammocks, which are described farther on. Fire is almost im-
possible, on account of the openness of the vegetation. The char-
acteristic species are about as follows:
TREES- HERBS-
Saba Palmetto (cabbage palmetto) Uniola paniculata (sea-oate)
(Cocos nucifera) (cocoanut) Seeuvium Portulacastrum
SMALL TREES- Ipomoea Pes-Caprae
Canavalia lineata
Bursera Simaruba (gumbo limbo) Caesytha filiformis
Persea litoralis? (red bay) Croton maritimus
Quercus geminata (live oak) Helianthus debilis
WOODY VINES- Sporobolus Virginicus? (a grass)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine) Panicum amarulum (a grass)
Smilax auriculata Cenchrus macrocephalus?
SHRUBS- (sand-spur)
SH S --* Muhlenbergia fillies? (a grass)
Scaevola Plumier Oenothera humifusa
Coccolobis uvifera (sea'grape) (evening primrose)
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto) Coreopsis Leavenworthii?
Suriana maritima Calonyction Tuba? (moon-flower)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) (Monarda punctata) (horse-mint)
Opuntia austrina? (prickly pear)
Ermodea littoralis
Conocarpus erecta (buttonwood)
Iva imbricata
Chamaesyce buxiifola
Chrysobalanus Icaco (cocoa plum)
Tournefortia gnaphalodes
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Jacquina Kevensis (Joe-wood)
Lycium Carolinianum
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Sophora tomentosa
Chrysobalamus oblongifolius
A large proportion of the species are tropical; and in this
area where frost is almost unknown they look much the same in
winter as in summer, though most of the herbs would not be called
evergreen if they grew in the northern states. The herbs are mostly
of rather rank growth, which apparently indicates much more soil
fertility than in the scrub. Several of the herbs, such as Ipomoea,
Canavalia, Cassytha, and Calonyction, are vines, and some of them
grow to remarkable lengths, which would not be possible in a
habitat subject to fire. Most of the grasses have long root-stocks
which grow just beneath the sand and send up shoots every few
inches.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I18TH ANNUAL REPORT.




i ,,.....: ,- .. .. ....... L.. .. ... - t, t - . ..



S ':,.. . "', '. ... ,, ". : 1 t.'" '< . .
^^^ll iB^'7' ^


Fic. 13. Dune vegetation on east coast near Boyncon, Palm Beach
County, looking east. Shows Tournefortia (right), Scaevola (lower left),
Ipomoea Pescaprae (foreground), and Uniola panichuata (upper left).
Aug. 21, 1923.


~I ~~: ~ ~. :~l.i ...
~:3 ''
~:~~7 L '1
~cl'.~' I'
u ' ,, ~
.~~~ ~.~~ .~~.. ~,
:..
-
....;.
.~u r


FIc. 14. Gulf beach on Gasparilla Island near South Boca Grande,
Lee County, showing steep wave-cut scarp about six feet high. Vegetation
mostly Ipomoea Pes-caprae in foreground, and Uniola paniculata farther
off. Nov. 21, 1924.


h .'1-
r~ !~r9~ -.i
"-~"~
~~~~ar.~~ ~-~
~-.;;aa rn~A I :~
'.- i ':
.:
I c;





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 95

The cocoanut and live oak are propagated by nuts, and most
of the other woody plants have berries. The exact method of dis-
persal of most of the herbs is unknown; but the sand-spur has
burrs, the grasses probably depend more on continuous horizontal
growth than on propagation by seeds, and the seeds of several
others are doubtless carried up and down the coast by wind and
waves. The fruit of the cocoanut is well adapted for floating, and
it is thought that some may have been carried long distances in
that way; though the species is supposed to be native of the South
Sea Islands, and could not have been in Florida before the dis-
covery of America.


Ericaceous shrubs seem to be wanting, but a member of
Leguminosae ranks fourth among the herbs.
Several of the species are cultivated for ornament, and
fruit of the sea-grape is said to be edible when cooked.


the

the


r r
-~ *,-4*t


Fic. 15. Beach vegetation (mostly Uniala paniculata) on nearly pure
calcareous sand on Upper Matacumbe Key, looking south. (Tea-table Key
seen at left, Indian Key near center.) July 26, 1910.






96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SALT FLATS

(Figs. 16, 17.)

On the west coast from Tampa Bay to the Keys there are
many flat expanses of firm sand or limestone rock close enough
to sea-level to be inundated at high tide, but protected from waves,
with a rather sparse and peculiar vegetation. As in the case of the
beaches, the plants are mostly too far apart for fire to run from
one to another. This is the nearest approach in South Florida to
the salt marshes which border the coast in all the other coast states.
It often grades into beaches and dunes or cactus thickets on higher
ground, or into mangrove swamps where the surface is lower.

The commonest species are about as follows:


TREES--
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
(very scattered)
SMALL TREES OR LARGE SHRUBS-
Conocarpus erecta (buttonwood)
Laguncula-ia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape)
SMALLER SHRUBS-
Batis maritima
Bor-ichia frurescens
Lycium Carolinianum
Borrichia arb orescens?


HERBS-
Salicornia ambigua samphiree>
Sporobolus Virginicus? (a grass)
Dondia linearis
Fimbrietylis castanea? (a sedge)
Monanthockloe littoralis (a grass)
Sesuvium Portulacastrum
Spartina juncifo mis? (a grass)
Juncus Roemeriamus (a rush)
Panicum virgatum (a grass)
Limonium Nashii? (sea-lavender)
Philoxerus vermicularie


Both Ericaceous and Leguminous plants seem to be absent
here, but grasses are relatively numerous, as in typical salt
marshes. The Salicornia, Dondia, and Monanthochloe are es-
pecially characteristic of the salt flats. The last-named is not
known on the east coast at all, but occurs also in southern Texas
and Mexico.

A few of the woody plants have fleshy fruits, but practically
nothing is known about how the seeds of the herbs are transported.
They probably float from place to place at high tide, though.






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


"1L ,cq.


Fic. 16.
Bushes mostly
23, 1924.


Sandy salt flat near south end of Pine Island, Lee County.
Avicennia and Conocarpus. Sesuvium in foreground. Jan.


-. ,-,.z : ,
I'' Jr
r., K."~i
,: C
h a 1 I


FIG. 17.
County (one
cennia, Batis,
foreground).


Salt flat on limestone rock on Summerland Key, Monroe
of the Lower Keys). Vegetation mostly Laguncularia, AviL
Salicorn-ia, and Monanthochloe (the latter plainly visible in
March 20, 1924.





98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

CACTUS THICKETS OR SHORE HAMMOCKS
(Fig. 18.)
On the west coast from about the mouth of the Manatee River
to the lower Keys there are many examples of a type of vegetation
consisting largely of stiff crooked spiny shrubs. It is usually in-
termediate in position between the sandy beaches and the denser
hammocks a little farther inland, but contains several species not
characteristic of either. The soil may be either sand, shells, marl
or rock, but even the sand probably has considerable lime in the
form of shell fragments. Fire must be very rare.
Such vegetation is very sparingly represented on the east
coast, unless on a few shell mounds, and at the south end of Mer-
ritt's Island,* but it is said to be common on some of the drier
Bahama Islands, but some of the same or very similar species are
found also in Mexico. The characteristic species are about as
follows. (The distinction between trees and shrubs is rather
arbitrary.)
















FIc. 1. Shore hammock or cactus thicket near inner shore of
Sanibel Island, about I mile east of Sanibel P. O. Agave decipiens prom-
inent in foreground, and Opuntia Dillenii (?) visible in center, a little
farther back. The small trees are mostly Pilhecolobium and Conocarpus
Jan. 24, 1924.
*See Simpson, Out of Doors in Florida, pp. 206-208; Small. Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 28:12. 1927.





NATURAL RESOGUCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES- SHRU
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto) O
Ac
SMALL TREES OR LARGE SHRUBS---
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) L
Conocarpus erects (buttonwood) B
Bursera Simaruba (gumbo limbo) C
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape) LC
Erythrina arborea (coral bean)
Xanthoxylum Fagara HERn
Ichthyomethia piscipula Se
(Jamaica dogwood) A
Bumelia angustifolia U
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove) V
Laguncularia racemos PI
(white mangrove) C
Sideroxylon foetidissimum (mastic) I
Forestiera porulosa P
Ficus area (wild fig, or rubber) Ir
Chiococca racemosa? T
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove) T
Pithecolobium Guadalupense ? C
WOODY VINES--
Gnilandina Crista? T
Dalbergia Ecastophyllum?
Pisonia aculeata

The spiny plants in the above
Xanthoxylum, Bumelia, Guilandina,


BS--
puntia austrina? (prickly
anthocereus pentagonurs
ossypium hirsatum (wild
ycium Carolinianum
orrichia frutescens
hamaesyce buxifolia
mtana involucrata?


pear)
(cactus)
cotton)


IS---
,luvium Portulacastrum
gave decipiens?
niola paniculata (sea-oats)
erbesina laciniata
hiloxerus vermicularis
anavalia lineata
omoea Pes-Caprae
anicum amarulum
esine paniculata
ilandsia utriculata (air-plant)
iUandsia Balbisiana? (air-plant)
assytha filiformis
Capraria biflora)
pidendrum Tampense (an orehi
illandsia fascictlata? (air-plant)


1)


list are Yucca, Erythrina,
Pisonia, Opuntia, Acantho-


cereus, and Agave. The vegetation has some of the characteristics
of the southwestern deserts, but just what causes this is nor certain,
for the climate is not at all arid, except on the lower Keys. As
usual, most of the woody plants are evergreen, but some of the
herbs probably renew their foliage every year. About half the
woody plants have fleshy fruits. The air-plants (including or-
chids) all have wind-borne seeds, but just how the other herbs,
with one or two exceptions, are disseminated is still a mystery.
As in the case of the beaches and dunes, there are no plants
of the Ericaceae; but two of the small trees, two of the woody
vines, and one of the herbaceous vines belong to the Leguminosae.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


PALM SAVANNAS
(Figs. 19-21.)
In some places in the interior of the peninsula, particularly
in the Indian Prairie northwest of Lake Okeechobee, there are vast
level prairies plentifully dotted with cabbage palmetto trees,
either singly or in clumps or groves, and the herbaceous vegeta-
tion consisting mostly of clumps of tall grass. Vegetation of sim-
ilar aspect is found also on Merritt's Island in Brevard County,*
and at various places near the Gulf coast from Franklin County
to Lee County; and its general appearance is much like that of
some tropical savannas. In Indian Prairie, on Merritt's Island,
and on the Gulf coast north of Tarpon Springs, the soil of the
savannas is pretty well saturated with water most of the time; but
on the west coast islands from Long Key in Pinellas Countyt to
Sanibel the savannas are usually on an undulating surface of dry
sand mixed with shell fragments.
The vegetation of the savannas contains several species which
are supposed to be rather partial to calcareous soil, and the cor-
relation is obvious enough on the west coast islands, where the
sand is full of shell fragments; but the Indian Prairie drainage




IL I '








Fir. 19. Palm savanna vegetation in Indian Prairie about 14 miles
west of the Kissimmee River on road from Arcadia to Okeechobee. 'Aug.
10, 1925.

*See our 13th Annual Report, p. 146, fig. 32.
ftbid., p. 85, fig. 4.


100







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


canal, where the road from Moore Haven to Okeechobee crosses

it, exposes nothing but sand, with little or no trace of calcareous

material.

The Indian Prairie and other wet palm savannas differ enough

from the drier and more undulating ones on the west coast to war-

rant separate treatment. The plant lists for the two types will

therefore be given below in parallel columns:


'"'' ''
~r
~
~..-
i .;..- ~. .
"' "
'''
'
'
"' :
"'
:~~~.:
:.,
~ ... ~.
.. ,:, ..
,: . ~~~ ~-~Tr~ ...
'-


Fir., 20. Palm savanna on Gasparilla Island near South Boea Grande,
Lee County. Soil of shell fragments and quarts eand in approximately
equal proportions Sabal Palmetto in background, Coccolobis uvifera at
right, and Muhlenbergia ini foregrounJd Nov. 21, 1924.


101





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Wet Wvanas


TREES
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Quercus Virginiana (live sak)
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
VINES
Smilax laurifolia ( bamboo rine)
SHRUBS
Serenoa serrulata saw-palmeltto)
Baccharis halimifolia
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Hypericum fasciculatum
Stillingia aouatica
flex giabra gallberryy)
HERBS
Spartina Bakeri (switch-grass)
i upatorium capillifolium?)
(dog4ennel)
Tillandsia utriculata (air-plant)
L Tadropogon glomeratus?
(broom-sedge)
Cladtum effrsum (saw-grass)
Coreopsis Leavenworthii
tilchnum serrulatum (a fern)
(Euthamia mp.)
fEleocharis Baldwinti) troad-grass)


Dry savannas
TREES
Sabal Palmento (cabbage palmetto)

SMALL TtEES
Coccolobis uvifera (sea.grape)

SHRUBS
Sophora tomentosa
4Wyric cerilera (myrtleW
Ernodea ittoralis
fucquinia Keyensis
)puntia sp. (prickly pear)

HERBS
Spartimu junciformis? (a grass)
Muhlenbergia filipes? (a grass)
Flaveria sp,
Salicol*nia ambigua
Samolus ebracteatus
Solidago sempervirens goldenrodd)
Mikania scandens
Carduas spinosissimus? (thistle)
Andropogon glomeratus?
(broom-sedge)
Senavium Portulacastrum
Melanthera sp.


Nearly all the woody plants are evergreen, but
herbs would not be so classed in a cooler climate.


most of
Most of


Ihe
the


*~~~ .r* r r.:
h
2, t' r I~::
#0~1
a's ~.7'~


Fic. 21. Palm savanna near west edge of Summerland Key. Trees
all Thrinaz sp. Undergrowth Spartina (?), Borricha, etc. March 20, 1924.


102





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


woody plants, especially in the dry savannas of the west coast, have
fleshy fruits, while at least half the herbs are disseminated by the
wind. There seem to be no representatives of the Ericaceae, but
one of the shrubs, and at least one herb, not abundant enough to
be listed here, in the dry savannas, belongs to the Leguminosae.
The grasses furnish some forage for cattle, and some Semi-
nole Indians are still living in some of the palmetto groves in the
Indian Prairie, where they have small patches of corn and
vegetables.
A still different type of palm savanna occurs on some of the
Keys. The following plant list is based on a brief examination of
one at the western edge of Summerland Key, near the railroad,
one day in March, 1924.
TREES- HERBS-
Thrinax Bp. (thatch palm) Spartina sp.? (a grass)
VINES- Panicnm virgatum? (a grass)
Echites sp.? Andropogon glomeratus (a grass)
SHRUBS-
Berrichia frutescens
Pithecolobium sp.
Morinda Roioc
The shrubs are inconspicuous and the grasses abundant, as
one can infer from the illustration.
LOW HAMMOCKS
(Figs. 22, 36.)
In northern and central Florida there are many hammocks
which seem to owe their existence to protection from fire, for their
soil seems to be essentially the same as that of near-by pine lands,
except for the addition of humus contributed by the plants them-
selves.* But in South Florida, outside of the Miami region and
the immediate vicinity of the coast, that condition is rare, and
hammock vegetation seems to be practically confined to spots
where there is limestone or marl near the surface, and such places
are usually low and damp.
The hammocks of South Florida might be divided also into


*See our 7th Annual Report, pp. 170-171. 1915.


103





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


non-tropical and tropical, according to the species of trees com-
posing them. Those of the Miami region and close to the coast
farther north are of the tropical type, and also are in comparatively
dry situations, while the remainder, being in damp places as above
stated, are very similar to the low (calcareous) hammocks of
central Florida.t

Such hammocks are common near the mouth of the Manatee
River, and frequent in the prairie region of Glades and Okeecho-
bee Counties. Like most other hammocks, they are dense and
shady, and not much subject to fire. The trees are mostly tall and
straight, indicating fairly rapid growth. There are hardly any
small trees, but many vines. There are about as many herbs
growing as epiphytes on the trees as on the ground.

The commonest species are about as follows:


TREES--
Sbal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Quercus obtuse? (water oak)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Persea Borbonia (red bay)
Ulmus Floridana (elm)
Iicoria sp. (hickory)
Taxodium distichum cypresse)
VINES-
Rhus radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis? (wild grape)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
Smilax rotdndifolia?
Ampelopsi arborea
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)
Berchemia scandens (rattan vine)
Gelsemium sempervirens
(yellow jessamine)


SHRUBS--
Psychotria undata (wild coffee)
Rapanea Guyanensis
Psychotria Sulzneri (wild coffee)
Icacorea paniculata
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Viburnum obovatum
Cornus stricta
Serenoa serrulata (saw-paimetto)
Lantana involucrata
Sophora tomentosa
Callicarpa Americana
(French mulberry)
HERBS-
Tillandsia tenuifolia (air.plant)
Tillandsia utriculata (air-plant)
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Oplismenus eetarius (a grass)
Rhynchospora miliace (a sedge)
Polypodium aureum (a fern)
Vittaria lineata (a fern)
Saururus cernnus
Centella repanda
Tillandsia fasciculata (air-plant)
Nephrolepis exaltata (Boston fern)
Uniola laxa (a grass)
Metastelma sp.
MOSSES-
Syrrhopodon Floridanus


fIbid., p. 175.


__


104






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


This vegetation type probably has a smaller proportion of
evergreens that any other in South Florida, which indicates pretty
good soil. Only two of the trees listed, the palmetto and red bay,
seem to have leaves that last two or more seasons, but those of the
live oak last about a year, or a little more, and those of the water
oak nearly as long. Only one of the vines is completely evergreen,
and that the last one on the list. Most of the shrubs are evergreen,
but some of them probably would not be in a colder climate, on
account of their thin leaves. Among the herbs the epiphytes (four
Tillandsias and three ferns) are evergreen, for an epiphyte, having
no connection with the soil, cannot possibly get enough mineral
food for a new crop of leaves every year; but the other herbs,
which grow in the ground, would hardly be classed as evergreen,
though in this climate the leaves of some might be green most of
the winter.




















FIc. 22. Hammock on north side of
Caloosahatchee River in Glades Co.,
a few miles above LaBelle, near
Coffee Mill Hammock. Trees mostly
Sabal Palmetto (old and young),
Quercus Virginiana, Q. obtsea, and
Acer rubrum. March 14, 1924.


105




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I8TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Among the trees the number with berries, nuts, and winged
fruits is about equal All the vines but one and all the shrubs but
one have berries. Among the herbs the epiphytes have seeds or
spores transported by the wind, but the mode of dissemination
for most of the terrestrial species is unknown.
All the tr-es and vines listed can be found also in Georgia,
but the first iour shrubs and most of the epiphytes do not range
north of 1lorida. Probably the interior of these hammocks is
sufficiently protected from frost to allow these tropical species to
thrive.
Not much use is made of any of these plants, but the soil is
excellent for vegetable growing, and a great deal of the vegetation
has been destroyed for that reason, especially in the Manatee
region.
TROPICAL HAMMOCKS
(Fig. 43.)
These seem to be confined to places where the temperature
inside of them rarely or never gets below freezing. They are
commonest southwest of Miami, but there are narrow strips close
to salt water north of there, as far up the coast as Brevard County.
A very interesting tropical hammock borders the Indian River for
a few miles south of Fort Pierce, and averages only about 100
feet wide. On a large shell mound on Snead's Island, at me
mouth of the Manatee River, there is a hammock oi which the
western half, nearest to the Gulf, is tropical and the eastern or
inland half more like the low hammocks just described.
Below Miami the largest hammock (Brickell's) borders Bis-
cayne Bay, but there are many smaller ones scattered through
the rocky pine lands of the same region. Those in the Miami
region nearly all have live oaks around their edges, and as that
species can stand considerable frost, it nay be that it serves to
protect the more tender plants within from occasional freezes, as
well as from fire.
The northernmost tropical hammocks seem to be all on shell
mounds.* That just south of Fort Pierce is on a bluff of coquina,


*See our 13th Annual Report, pp. 205-206.


106





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


and those in the Miami region and on the Keys are on limestone.
In the Miami region the hammocks seem to.be tending to
encroach on the pine forests which border or surround them, or
were doing so before civilized man came along to interfere. It
appears as if the smaller ones may have started in the distant past,
around small sink-holes, or in spots too rocky to be much subject
to fire, and gradually spread as the hardwood trees deposited
humus and paved the way for more of their descendants.*
In a typical tropical hammock most of the trees have crooked
trunks, hard heavy wood, and stiff evergreen leaves, indicating
slow growth, in spite of the limestone and abundant humus. (Pot-
ash is probably very deficient in the soil.) They make a dense
shade, and there are very few herbs growing on the ground, but
often a great profusion of air-plants on limbs and leaning trunks
of the live oak and other rough-barked trees.
When a clearing is made in such a forest by the axe or fire,
a considerable number of weeds, both woody and herbaceous,
spring up rapidly, and if there is no further disturbance they
flourish until the slow-growing native trees have time to re-estab-
lish themselves. This phenomenon is paralleled in the coniferous
forests of the northern states and Canada, where after a fire the
ground is soon occupied by a brushy growth of birch and aspen
and various briers and fire-weeds.* The most characteristic fire-
weeds of the tropical hammocks are two small trees, Tremat and
Carica, a shrub or large woody herb, Solanum verbascifolium, and
one or more of the Lantanas.
The different areas of tropical hammock, although much
alike in general appearance, vary considerably in floristic com-
position, and almost every one contains a pleasant surprise for
the botanist visiting it for the first time, in the shape of one or more
rare plants not found in the others. Nearly all the species occur
also in the West Indies, but a few seem to have been separated
from their tropical relatives long enough to develop slight differ-

*See the chapter on the origin of the hammocks, in Chas T. Simpson's "In
Lower Florida Wilds," (1920), pp. 190.209. Also E. A. Bessey, Plant World, 14:271.
273. 1911.
*See Pop. Se. Monthly 85:341. Oct, 1914.
tOne or two other species of Trema are said to function in the same way in
the tropics.


107





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


ences. A complete list of the plants would be a long one, perhaps
running into the hundreds. The following list represents only a
part of the flora, perhaps not more than a third or fourth, but
probably nine-tenths of the bulk of the vegetation. There are
many rare plants which the writer has never seen, and others
which he has not been able to identify at sight when they are not
in bloom, especially among the orchids. Even some of the trees
are difficult to identify without flowers, for some belonging to very
different families may have similar bark and foliage.
As in some of the types already described, there are all grada-
tions between trees and shrubs, sometimes even in a single species,
so that the following size classification is necessarily somewhat
arbitrary.


LARGER TREES-
Bursera Simaruha (gumbo limbo)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Coccolobis laurijolia (pigeon plum)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Sideroxylon foetidissimum (mastic)
Eugenia confusa (ironwood)
Ficus area (wild fig, or rubber)
Persea Borbonia (red bay)
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Lysiloma Bahamensis
Hicoria sp. (hickory)*
Ficus brevifolia (wild fig)
Swietenia Mahagoni (mahogany) t
Sapindus Saponaria (soapberry)
Roystonea regia (royal palm)
Krugiodendron ferreum
SMALL TREES-
Simaruba glauca (paradise tree)
Ocotea Catesbyana
Xanthoxylum Fagara
Metopinm toxifemrm (poisonwood)
Exothea paniculata
Citharexylum fruticosum
(fiddlewood)
Latrrocerasus myrtifolia
Chrysophyllum olivaeforme
(satin-leaf)
(Trema mollis)
Morus rubra (mulberry)
Ilex Kruniana
(Carica Papaya) (papaw)


WOODY VINES-
Rhus radicans? (poison ivy)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)
Dalbergia Ecastophyllum?
Vitis Caribaea? (wild grape)
Pisonia aculeata
Ampelopsis arborea
SHRUBS-
Psychotria undata (wild coffee)
cacorea paniculata
Rapanea Guyanensis
Acanthocereus pintagorsns (a cactus)
Callicarpa Americana
(French mulberry)
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Psychotria Sulzneri (wild coffee)
(Lantana Camara?)
(Solanum verbascifolium)
Panicum divaricatum (a geass)
Erythrina arborea
Rhus copallina? (sumac)
Chiococca racemosa?
Guettarda scabra
HERBS-
Nephrolepis exaltata (Boston fern)
Tillandsia utriculata (air-plant)
Tillandsia tenuifolia (air-plant)
Campyloneuron Phyllitidis (a fern)
Tillandsia fasciculata (air.plant)
Tilandsia Valenzuelana (air-plant)
Tilandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)


*In St. Lucie Co., not in Dade.
fObserved only in Monroe County.


108





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


SMALL TREES--(cont'd)
Tetrazygia bicolor
Pi.eraonia pentndura
Calyptranthes sp.
Guestarda elliptica
Eugenia sp. (stopper)
Chrysobalanws pellocrpus?
(cocoa plum)
Dipholis salicifoia
Amyris elemifera?
Drypetes crocea?
Gymnanthes lucida
Conocarpus erecta (buttonwood)
Capparis Jamaicensis*
Annona sp. (custard apple)
Eugenia sp.? (stopper)
Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis


HERBS--(cont'd)-
Polypodium polypodioides (a fern)
Tillandsia sp. (air-plant)
Pteris caudata (a fern)
Polypodium aureum (a fern)
Tillandsia recurviaa (air-plant)
Metastelma Blodgettii?
Viitr-ia lineata (a fern)
Dryopteris normalis? (a fern)
Catopsis sp.? (air-plant)
Tillandsia Bathisiona (air-plant)
Blechnum serrulatum (a fern)
Tectaria trifolWta (a fern)
(Bryophyllum pintiatum)
Epidendrum Tampense? (an orchid)
Epidendrum nocturnum (an orchid)
Pepe- omia spatulifolia
Epidendrum cochleatum?
(an orchid)
Epidendrum rigidum (an orchid)


This vegetation is nearly all evergreen, though some of the
shrubs and herbs have tender foliage that may be renewed every
year, or oftener. The great majority of the woody plants have
fleshy fruits, while nearly all the herbs have very small seeds, or
spores, adapted to be carried by the wind. In either case it is a
comparatively simple matter for the supply to be constantly re-
newed from the West Indies, by natural agencies.
Not much use is made of these plants, and the density of the
forests and the hardness of the wood has prevented farmers from
making much use of the seemingly rich soil. But roads have been
cut through some of the- finest hammocks, and near Miami much
of Brickell's Hammock and a few others has been "developed"
into very valuable building sites. The very interesting hammock
along the Indian River south of Fort Pierce, although only about
100 feet wide, has the main east coast highway running through
it for its whole length (see fig. 43, p. 174), and it will probably
soon be still further damaged to make room for houses.t

*Observed only in St. Lcie County.
tSeveral months ago there was talk of widening the highway through this
hammock, and even adding sidewalks and other improvements; which if carried
Dut will just about complete the destruction.


109






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


CAPE SABLE HAMMOCKS

Near Cape Sable, especially in what is known as the Madeira
Hammock, there is a variation of the tropical hammock type grow-
ing on marl near sea-level, without any neighboring pine land or
live oak fringe, and grading into mangrove swamps. The com-
monest plants there, as determined by very limited observations
in March, 1924, are about as follows:


TREES-
Swietenia Mahagoni (mahogany)
Coccolobis lvwrifolia (pigeon plum)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Ficus area (wild fig)
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
SMALL TREES-
Conocarpus erect (buttonwood)
Xanthoxylum Fagara
Colubrina sp.
Carica Papaya (papaw)
VINES-
Pisonia aculeata


SHRUBS-
Icacorea paniculate
Acanthocereus pentagonus (a cactus)
Panicum divaricatum (a grass)
HERBS-
Vittria lineata (a fern)
Tilndsia utriculaa (air-plant)
Tillandsia fasciculaa (air-plant)
Campylonwuron Phyllitidis (a fern)
Epidendrum rigidum (an orchid)
Iresine paniculata
Philoserni vermicularis
Diapedium assurgens?
Cyrtopodium punctatum (an orchid)
Tillandsia sp. (air-plant)


These hammocks resemble those near Miami in the abund-
ance of evergreens, epiphytes, fleshy-fruited woody plants, and
wind-borne seeds. But the commonest tree, the mahogany (or
madeira as it is called locally) has a hard woody fruit, which
may possibly be adapted to floating in salt water, like the
cocoanut.
The mahogany is a very valuable wood, and some of it has
been cut from the Cape Sable region, but its relative scarcity and
inaccessibility has prevented its being the basis of an important
industry. The commonest small tree, the buttonwood, is in con-
stant demand as one of the sources of charcoal for Key West.


110





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


KEY HAMMOCKS
(Fig. 23.)
Another variation of the tropical hammock type is the ham-
mocks on the Keys. They occur on dry limestone rock, but differ
from those in the Miami region in having the trees averaging
smaller, and usually so close together that one cannot penetrate
such a forest without cutting a path, as in the proverbial tropical
jungles. This may be partly due to the drier climate of the Keys,
or to the fact that since the building of the railroad the hammocks
on the Keys have suffered a great deal from fire, which must have
been a rare occurrence originally. Many of the trees grow so
slowly that their wood is hard and heavy. Ferns, air-plants,
orchids and other herbs are much scarcer than on the mainland.
The species of plants are fewer than on the mainland, but the
following list is doubtless far from complete, as it is made up


on Lower Matacum e gy n
the Upper Keys), showing especially
Coccoobis laurifolia and Thrinax,
with stems only a few inches in
diameter. July 27, 1910.


II1






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


mostly from car-window notes. It covers both upper and lower
Keys (which are described separately farther on). The distinc-
tion between trees and shrubs is even more difficult than on the
mainland.


TREES-
Bursera Simaruba (gumbodimbo.'
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood)
Thrinax ep. (thatch palm)*
Lysiloma Bahamensis
Ficus area? (wild fig)
Sideroxylon foetidissimum (mastic)
Swietenia Mahagoni (mahogany)
Coccolobis laurifolia?
(pigeon plum)
Eugenia confuse (ironwood)
Hippomane Mancinella
(manchineel)


VINES-
Vitis Munsoniaua (muscadine)
Guilandina sp.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)

SHRUBS-
(Solanum verbascifolium)
Genipa cluiiiolia (seven-year apple)
Acanthocereus pentagons (a cactus)
Pithecolobium sp.
Eugenia sp. (stopper)
Bumelia sp .
Panicam dvaricatum (a grass)
Rapanea Guyanensis


SMALL TREES- HER
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood) Too scarce to mention)
Mimusops emarginata
Pithecolobium Guadalupense?
(Trema mollis)
(Carica Papaya) (papaw)
Simanrba glauca (paradise tree)

Woody plants with compound and deciduous leaves seem to
be more abundant than in the tropical hammocks of the mainland,
and this may indicate richer soil. The proportion of fleshy fruits
is almost as large as in the hammocks near Miami. The thatch
palms have been used locally for covering small buildings, and
the mahogany would be important if there was enough of it. The
poison-wood is more or less poisonous to the touch, and the man-
chineel is said to be still more dangerous.

*There are probably two species of Thrinax, but from the train it is difficult
to tell which is which.


112





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 113

LAKES AND PONDS
(Fig. 24.)
Lakes are less numerous in South Florida than farther north,
although Lake Okeechobee is the largest one in the southeastern
states. The aquatic vegetation of the area under consideration
has been little studied, but it seems to present no peculiar features,
and the description of this type for the whole State in our Third
Annual Report (pp. 269-270) will apply pretty well to South
Florida. Floating plants, like Pistia (water-lettuce), and the
water-hyacinth, a recently arrived pest, are frequent, and plants
with floating leaves, such as Castalia (water-lily) and Nymphaea
(bonnets) still more so, where the water is not too deep. In shal-
low water protected from wave action we find also several reed-
like plants, such as Cladium (saw-grass) and Sagittaria, indicating
a transition to the saw-grass marshes described farther on.














FIG. 24. Clear Lake, about a mile west of West Palm Beach, looking
the vegetation can be found. The place is doubtless greatly changed by this
time, on account of the growth of the city.)

WET PRAIRIES AND SHALLOW PONDS
(Fig. 25.)
Scattered through the flatwoods and prairies, and less fre-
quently in the lake region, are innumerable shallow approximately
circular depressions, varying in extent from one to many acres,





114 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

which may hold a foot or two of water in wet weather, and become
entirely dry in spring. Occasionally they are full of cypress
trees, constituting the cypress ponds (described farther on); but
more frequently they have a few other trees, scattered shrubs, or
nothing but herbs. When treeless they are sometimes called "sand
soaks."
The soil is nearly always sandy, but there may be limestone
or marl not far from the surface, and a little muck in the deeper
portions.
The vegetation of the treeless depressions varies consider-
ably with the depth and permanence of the water, and tends to
be arranged in concentric zones, so that it is difficult to make a
satisfactory quantitative study of it.* Any list that might be got-
ten up, unless minutely divided according to depth zones, would
include some plants that grow only in the deeper parts and some
confined to the edges, so that they would never be together. But
the following list is believed to be fairly representative of the
shallow ponds of South Florida, other than cypress ponds.
r I r -Piz: X-















FIc. 25. Small wet prairie in long-leaf pine flatwoods about two
miles south of Hilolo, Okeechobee County. The numerous light spots are
the heads of Marshllia graminifolia. Aug. 9, 1925.
See our 3d Annual Report, pp. 266-268.





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES-
Sabal Ialmetto (cabbage palmetto)
(very scattered)
SMALL TREES--
Fraxinus Caroliniana (pop-ash)
Salix amphibia?. (willow)
SHRUBS-
Ilypericum fasciculatum
(guinea eypress. or eand myrtle)
Hypericum myrtifolium
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow bush)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Ascyrum tetrapetalum?
HERBS-
Mprnhallia graminifolia
(in very shallow basins)
Pontederia cordata (wampee)
(in permanent water)
Cladium effusum (saw-grass)
Anastrophas paspaloides (a grass)
Thala divaricata?
(in permanent water with
marly subsoil)


Sagittaria lancifolia
(in water)
Spartina Bakeri (switch-grass)
Rhynchospora Tracyi (a sedge)
Centella repanda
(mostly toward edges)
Litrisa carnosa
(in very shallow basins)
Polygala Baldwinii
(usually over marl)
Flaveria sp.
(usually over marl)
(Lathamia sp.)
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
Hyptis radiata
Juncus repens (a rush)
Dichromena latifolia (a sedge)
Eleocharis celldosa (round-grass)
(in permanent water)
Scleria sp. (a sedge)
Polygala cymosa
(in water)
Panicum erectifolium (a grass)
Bidens coronata?
Eriocaulon decangulare
Erigeron verus


Both of the small trees and a few of the herbs have seeds
transported by the wind, but in the majority of other cases the
mode of dissemination is unknown. Most of the shrubs are ever-
green, but the small trees and the great majority of the herbs are
not. Hypericum fasciculatum, sometimes known as "sand
myrtle," or "guinea cypress," is especially characteristic of this
habitat, and is more abundant than all the other woody plants
combined. Two of the other shrubs belong to the same family.
Among the herbs five s edges and four grasses are listed. Both
ericaceous and leguminous plants are rare or wanting.
About the only use made of any of these plants is as forage
for cattle.


115




116 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

CYPRESS PONDS
(Fig. 26.)
Just why some of the shallow wet depressions should be tree-
less and others full of trees is an unsolved problem, but it may
be due to the same soil conditions that are responsible for the
difference between flatwoods and prairies; for cypress ponds are
very rare in the prairie areas, and also in the lake region. The
depth and fluctuation of the water may have something to do with
it too, for a cypress pond must have water in it most of the time.
If the water is too deep, though, there are no trees, except around
the edges. The level of the water in a cypress pond may fluctuate
two or three feet with the seasons, but not much more than that.
And if the fluctuation is less than a foot or so, and the water shal-
low enough, we find a bay instead of a cypress pond.
In South Florida the cypress ponds (also called "cypress
heads") are most common in the flatwoods of Lee and Palm Beach
Counties, and are absent from large areas where one might ex-
pect to find them, as for example in Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee,
DeSoto and Charlotte Counties. The Big Cypress in Collier
County is probably largely of this type, but that has not yet been
visited by the writer.*
The soil under a cypress pond is usually sand, though lime-
stone may be very near the surface, as in Lee County, and the same
species of cypress is common in the coast prairie of Dade County,
where there is no sand at all.
The cypress trees in a cypress pond usually have very ab-
ruptly enlarged bases, the enlargements reaching up just about to
high-water mark; and "knees" are scarce. In the northern parts
of the State the trees around the edges are usually about as large
as those in the middle, and the pines in the surrounding pine
forests grow pretty close to the cypresses, and the slash pine (Pinus
Elliottii) often goes right into the ponds with the cypress. But in
South Florida a cypress pond usually has no pines in it, and is
bordered by a treeless strip a few yards wide, and the trees at the

*For notes on the Big Cypress see Kennard, Auk 32:1-14. 1915; Small,
Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 19:287-289. 1918; Natural History 20:488-500. 1920.






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 117

edges are generally much smaller than those in the middle, some-
times no taller than a man. Any one seeing such a pond for the
first time might imagine that the small trees at the edges were
young ones, and that the cypress growth was spreading. But the
cypress never voluntarily invades dry land, and there is no reason
to suppose that the climate is becoming wetter or the water deeper.
The little trees at the edges have probably had just as much time
to grow as the large ones in the middle, but they must be dwarfed
by some unfavorable soil condition. The reason for all this, how-
ever, is not known. Fire gets into the cypress ponds occasionally
in dry seasons, but does not seem to do much damage.
The flora of cypress ponds in South Florida does not seem to
be as diversified as it is in the northern parts of the State.* The
following seem to be the commonest species:
















Fic. 26. Cypress pond or "head" in slash pine flatwoods in Lee
County, about half way between Fort Myers and Immokalee. Pitus Caribaea
in foreground. Note the dwarfed cypresses toward the edges of the pond,
and the treeless zone around it. March 13, 1924.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TREES-
Taxodium imbricarium
(pond cypress)
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine) (rare)
SHRUBS-
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Stillingia aquatic
Hypericumr fasiculatiur


HERBS-
Tillandsia fasciculat (air-plant)
Blechnum serrlatum (a fern)
Chondrophora nudata
Eleocharis cellulosa (round-grass)
Cladium effusum (saw-grass)
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Tillandsia recurvata (air-plant)
Eriocaulon decangulare
Phragmites communis (reed-grass)
Heliotropium Leavenworthii
Polygala cymosa
Eriocaulon compressum
Panicum erectifolium? (a grass)
Hyptis radiata
Leptopoda Helenium
Oxypolis filiformis


The cypress is probably at least 100 times as abundant as
the pine. The first air-plant listed is very abundant, some ponds
having several bunches of it on nearly every tree, usually six or
eight feet from the ground; and its bright red flowers in spring
are very striking. There are also a few other showy flowers,
mostly yellow. The cypress being deciduous, makes evergreens
in the minority, and most of the herbs are deciduous too.

The seeds of the cypress are adapted for floating, and in very
wet seasons when the flatwoods are inundated some of them may
float from one pond to another. They may be also carried by
squirrels, for the cypress ponds among the rolling pine lands of
West Florida could never have been supplied by floating seeds.
Most of the herbs have seeds transported by the wind, and the
remainder by agencies as yet unknown.

The cypress, on account of its durable wood, is valuable for
poles, posts, crossties, shingles, etc. One of the shrubs, Stillingia
aquatic, which seems to have no common name, has wood lighter
than cork, and if that was generally known some use might be
made of it.


*See our 3d Annual Report, pp. 262-264.


118






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


RIVER-BANKS

South Florida has nothing corresponding to the muddy rivers
of the states farther north, which rise several or many feet in wet
weather, and deposit mud over their flood-plains. Even the largest
rivers, the Peace and Caloosahatchee, have coffee-colored water
with very little inorganic sediment, although they may fluctuate
as much as ten feet with the seasons, near the middle of their
courses. (A river obviously cannot rise much either near its
head or near its mouth.)

The plants growing on the banks and in the flood-plains of
these rivers have not been studied in detail. The following list
is based mostly on observations along the Peace River near Ar-
cadia and Fort Ogden, and on the Caloosahatchee near LaBelle.


TREES-
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Hicoria aquatic (swamp hickory) *
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Quercus obtusa? (water oak)
Ulmus Floridana?. (elm)
Liquidambar Styracifna
(sweet gum)
SMALL TREES-
Fraxinus Caroliniana (pop-ash)
Salix nigra? (willow).
VINES--
Rhns radicans (poison ivy)


SHRUBS--
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Viburnum obovatum
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Cornus strict?
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)
HERBS--
Tilladsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Tillandsia tenuifolia (air-plant)
Nymphaea macrophylla (bonnets)
(in sloughs)
Tillandsia utriculata (air-plant)
(Glottidium vesicarium)
Polypodium polypodioides (a fern)
(on trees)
Pistia spathulata (water-lettuce)
(in sloughs)


This list has a good deal in common with that for the low
hammocks, previously mentioned. But some of the species, such
as Hicoria aquatic, Gleditsia, Liquidiambar, and Salix nigra,
are seldom if ever seen elsewhere in South Florida. (Several
species of trees seem to extend farther south along and near the
Peace River than anywhere else.)

Most of the trees and vines are deciduous, and another in-

*The hickories on the Caloosahatchee River have been described by Prof.
C. S. Sargent as a variety, austrais.


119





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


dication of pretty good soil is the scarcity or absence of Ericaceae
and the presence of one tree and one large herb belonging to the
Leguminosae, and perhaps some rarer species of that family not
listed. The small trees and most of the herbs have wind-borne
seeds.

Some of the trees have useful wood, but they are not abundant
enough in this habitat to be of any commercial importance.
We also have a few rivers whose water fluctuates very little
with the seasons, but they have been investigated botanically even
less. A good example of this class is New River in Broward
County. The following plants were noted while ascending it in a
launch from Fort Lauderdale to the Everglades on April 12,
1909:


TREES-
Taxodium imbricarium? (cypress)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
SMALL TREES--
Salix amphibia? (willow)
Chrysobalanus Icaco? (cocoa plum)
Annona palustris? (custard apple)
Persea pubescens (red bay)
Ilex Cassine
VINES-
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)


SHRUBS-
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)
HERBS-
Nymphaea macrophylla (bonnets)
Acrostichum aureum (a fern)
Sagittaria lanciflia
Saururus cernaus
Tillandsia fasciculata (air-plant)
Hymenocallis sp.? (spider-lily)
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
PhragmiLes communis (reed.grass)
Cladium effusum (saw-grass)
Pontederia cordata (wampee)
Osmunda regalis (a fern)
Crinum Americanum?


Although this locality is in about latitude 26', and consider-
ably farther south than some tropical hammocks, few of the species
can be regarded as tropical.
Some of the rivers and creeks in prairie regions, such as the
Kissimmee west of Okeechobee, and Fisheating Creek west of the
lake region, meander through marshes, and have few or no trees
near them. And the same is true of some streams farther north,
such as the St. John's River in southern Brevard County, and some
rivers and creeks in southern Louisiana and northeastern Illinois.


120





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


CREEK AND BRANCH SWAMPS
(Fig. 27.)
Small streams which do not have enough water in them to
fluctuate much are generally bordered by dense swamps of vary-
ing width. These are commonest in the flatwoods west of the lake
region, and the vegetation often suggests the presence of calcareous
or phosphatic material a little below the muck and sand.
The characteristic plants are about as follows:

TREES- HERBS-
Acer rubrm (red maple) Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Pentederia cordata (wampee)
Nyssa biflora (black gum) Blechnum serrulatum (a fern)
Taxodium distichum (cypress) Ti a fola (ir
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto) TiSandsr tenufoia (air-plant)
Saururus cernaus
ercus obtusa? (water oak) Tilldsia tricul (air-plant)
uercus Virginiaa (live oak) d i ua (air n)
Liquidambar Styraciflua Dryopseris unica (a fern)
sweet gum) Omunda regalia (a fern)
U(swe F dana (elm) Tilandsia fasciculaa (air-plant)
UlmA Flor ( Nymphaea macirophylla (bonnets)
SMALL TREES--- Thalia ap.
Magnolia glauca (bay) Cyperus articulates (a sedge)
Salix amphibia? (willow) Pissia spathulata (water-lettucc)
Fraxinus Caroliniana (pop-ash) Osmunda cinnamomea (a fern)
Ilex Cassine Tillandsia recurvata (air-plant)
VINES- Polypodium polypodioides (a fern)
Smilax larifolia (bamboo vine) Cladium efusum (saw-grass)
Smcila*- layiar (bam. v1ne)1 Bidens coronata
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine) Ep dende (an orc
Eptdendrum Tampense (an orchid)
SH1RUBS-- Rhynchospora corniculata (a sedge)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle) Lorinseria areolata (a fern)
Viburnum nudum (possum haw)
Cornus strict
Phoradendron flavescens (mistletoe)
These swamps are somewhat intermediate between the river-
swamps previously mentioned, and the bays to be described next,
but seem to have more species than either, perhaps simply because
examples of this type of swamp are more numerous than the others.
The trees are pretty tall and straight, not over half the vegetation
is evergreen, and Ericaceous shrubs are scarce, all of which indi-
cates fairly good soil conditions. Ferns are rather numerous.
About half the trees and all the vines and shrubs listed have
berries, but the great majority of the herbs are disseminated by
the wind.
This vegetation is not very tropical, for at least three-fourths
of the species can be found.also in Georgia.


121





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


The wood of some of the trees would be useful if it occurred
in sufficient quantities, but the creek and branch-swamps constitute
probably not more than 5% of the total area, so they are relatively
unimportant.
















FIc. 27. Looking down Fisheating Creek from railroad bridge just
south of Palmdale, Glades County. Trees nearly all Taxodium distichum
(leafless at this season). Jan. 27, 1924.

BAYS AND NON-ALLUVIAL SWAMPS
(Fig. 28.)
A shallow depression or other perpetually wet area whose
water does not fluctuate more than a foot or so during the year,*
if not entirely treeless like the wet prairies previously described,
is likely to be filled with a dense forest known as a bay, presum-
ably from the abundance of bay trees. The water is usually stag-
nant, as in the cypress ponds, but it may seep out from an adjoin-
ing gentle slope and circulate very slowly.t On account of the
dense shade and moisture, these bays are just about the coolest
spots in South Florida. They are found in the lake region, in the
flatwoods, and among old dunes near the east coast, usually on

*See our 6th Annual Report, pp. 203, 351.
tSee 3d Annual Report, pp. 253-260.


122






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 123

sour sandy soil; and they are probably most frequent in DeSoto,
Highlands and Glades Counties.

The following are the commonest species:


TREES-
agnolia Slanuc (bay)
Nyssa bifora (black gum)
Acer rubram (red maple)
Gordonia Lasianthus red bay)
SMALL TREES--
Ilex Cassine
VINES--
Vitis Mansoniana (muscadine)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)
Smilax larifolia (bamboo vine)
SHRUBS-
Itea Virginica
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Viburnum nudum (possum haw)
Phoradendron flavescens (mistletoe)


HERBS-
Blechnnm serrulaum (a fern)
Saururns cerlAus
Peltandra Virginica
Peltandra sagittifolia?
Dryopteris unita (a fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (a fern)
Arisaema triphyllum
(Indian turnip)
Nephrolepis exalata (Boston fern)
Tillandsia tenuifolia (air-plant)
Tillandsia fasciculato (air-plant)
Tllandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Lorinseria areolate (a fern)
MOSSES, ETC.-
Sphagnum cuspidatum
Pallavicinia Lyelli
Sphagnum sps.


The proportion of evergreens here is probably a little greater
than in the branch-swamps, indicating poorer soil. Leguminous
plants seem to be entirely absent. Most of the woody plants have
berries, and most of the herbs have wind-borne seeds or spores.


:: .,..,
':'~'' "'= ....
i: :- '
'I-I-C' 5.. ~ ''''
'' '~ ''
i ~~~~ '.- .. ~ r


FIG. 28. Bay in prairie region about a mile northwest of Palmdale.
Trees nearly all Magnolia glauca, with somewhat crooked trunks. Jan. 26,
1924.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TII ANNUAL REPORT.


All the species listed except some of the ferns and air-plants
range at least as far north as Georgia, and a few of them to
Canada.
CUSTARD-APPLE SWAMPS
The custard-apple, Annona glabra, or palustris, is said to
have once formed extensive forests on the south shore of Lake
Okeechobee,* but the writer has never seen them, and if there
were ever any near Moore Haven they must have been cut away.
The same species grows also along the edges of the Everglades
and streams running out of them farther south, and in some of the
clumps of small trees in the Everglades. These Everglade clumps
might be regarded as constituting a distinct type of vegetation,
but they are not so treated here. Lists of their component species
can be found in the descriptions of the saw-grass marshes and
marl prairies, farther on.
SAW-GRASS MARSHES
(Figs. 29, 41.)
The largest saw-grass marsh in the world is the Everglades,
but there are many smaller ones, down to an acre or so in size,
scattered over peninsular Florida, especially around lakes, and
about the head of the St. John's River. Their vegetation is saw-
grass and other reed-like plants, with floating-leaved aquatics in
the more open places, where the water is deepest, and clumps of
bushes and small trees in firmer soil. The soil is typically a few
feet of peat, with water over it varying in depth with the seasons;
but either peat or water may be absent, or nearly so.
The following list is made up chiefly from observations
around Lake Okeechobee, and may not be typical for the middle
of the Everglades. The woody plants perhaps should not be in-
cluded in the marsh vegetation, but they are closely associated
with it, either on its edges, or in clumps out in the marshes. Some
of the plants listed are chiefly confined to areas that have been
partly drained. Their names are put in parentheses, and the

*For illustrations of them see Harshberger, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci.
7; pl. 10. 1914; Small, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 15: pl. 129, 131. 1914; 19: pl. 219.
1917; Am. Museum Jour. 18:684, 688. 1919.


124






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


reader who wishes to picture to himself the primeval condition
of the Everglades should ignore them:


TREES-
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
SMALL TREES-
Salix amphibia? (willow)
Annona palustris? (custard apple)
Magnolia glauca (bay)
Persea pubescent (red bay)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Chrysobalanus pelocarpus?
(cocoa plum)
VINES--
Calonyction aculeatum?
moonflowere)
SHRUBS--
(Sambucus sp.) (elder)
(Baccharis halimfolia)
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)
(Ricinus communis) (castor-bean)
Decodon verticillatus
HERBS-
Cladium ef/usum (saw-grass)
Typha latifolia (cat-tail)
Pistia spathulaza (waterlettuce)


Sattiaria lancifolia
(Eupatorium serotinum)
Phragmites communism (reed-grass)
(Piaropus crassipes)
(water-hyacinth)
(Jussiaea Peruviana)
Pontederia cordata (wampee)
Acnida australie (careless)
(Eupatorium capillifolium)
(dog-fennel)
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
Peltandra Virginica
Scirpus validus (bulrush)
Nymphaea macrophylla (bonnets)
(Chaetochloa magna)
(fox-tail grass)
Blechnum serrulatum (a fern)
Centella repanda
Eleocharis cellulosa (round-grass)
Oxypolis filiformis
Hymenocallia sp. (spider-lily)
(Syntherisma sanguinale)
(crab-grass)
Dryopteris Thelypteris (a fern)
(Capriola Dactylon)
(Bermuda grass)
Monniera Caroliniana


FIc. 29. Reed-like vegetation, mostly Phragmites, in Everglades about
a mile west of head of Miami River. April 9, 1909. (From 3d Ann. Rep,
p. 286. This is somewhere near where the city of Hialeah now stands.)


125





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


There are more grasses and sedges in this list than in most
of the others. Except for the saw-grass, which is more abundant
than all other vegetation combined in a typical undisturbed saw-
grass marsh, evergreens are in the minority, which might be in-
terpreted as meaning pretty good soil. And even the saw-grass
might not take more than a year or so to renew its foliage com-
pletely, though one could hardly determine this without cutting
a small patch of it and watching it for a year. Ericaceous shrubs
are entirely absent, but Leguminous herbs are too, unless repre-
sented among the weeds. A few of the herbs have wind-borne
seed, or spores, but more of them probably depend on water
transportation.
Paper has been made from the saw-grass at Leesburg, in
central Florida, but the venture does not seem to have been a
commercial success. The peat, composed of the remains of all the
plants listed, could be used for fuel, fertilizer filler, etc., if it
were not for the cost of labor. Possibly 2% of the Everglades
area, and other saw-grass marshes, has been cultivated in recent
years. But in wet seasons it is difficult to get rid of the water, and
in dry seasons the drained peat sometimes catches fire, and the
soil then goes up in smoke.
MARL PRAIRIES
(Fig. 30.)
The south end of the Everglades has a limestone or marl sub-
stratum instead of sand, and the same is true of the numerous
narrow glades that intersect the Miami pine land, and the coast
prairie south of it. The vegetation of these places is similar in
aspect to that of the northern part of the Everglades, and other
saw-grass marshes, but differs in composition, on account of the
calcareous soil, and also because the water is shallower, and ab-
sent about half the time. Besides the regular marsh vegetation
there are clumps of small trees and bushes in drier spots, and
some aquatics in small pools, commonly known as 'gator-holes.
There are many univalve shells in such places, chiefly Am-
pullaria and Planorbis, and some fresh-water sponges. In dry
weather the ground and bases of the plants are covered with a
soft thick calcareous deposit, which is seldom seen elsewhere.


126






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


The following list is made up from observations in some of
the transverse glades between Miami and Royal Palm Hammock,
and the edges of the Everglades and coast prairie close by, and
the clumps and 'gator-holes are included:


SMALL TREES-
Annon palustri? (custard apple)
Chrysobalauts pellocarpus?
(cocoa plum)
Salix ampbibia? (willow)
Persea pubescns (red bay)
Myrica c~iera (myrtle)
Magnolia slaca (bay)
Rapanea Guyanensis
SHRUBS-
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
HERBS-
Cludium e#usum (eaw.grass)
Centlila repanda
Spartina Bakeri (switch-grass)
Phragmites communis (reed-grass)
Schoenus nigricans (a sedge)
Eleocharis cellulosa (round grass)
Blechnum serrulatum (a fern)
Crinum Americanum?
Aletris bracteata?


Hyptis radiata
Nymphaea macrophylla (bonnets)
Potamogeton lucens?
Polygala Baldwinii
Monniera Caroliniana
Pluchea purpurascens?
Typha latifolia (cattail)
Sagirtaria lanifolia
Oxypoli Afliformis
Aeschynomene pratensis
Dichromena colorata? (a sedge)
Lippia sp.
Rhynchospora Tracyi (a sedge)
Sisyrinchiun sp. (blue-eyed grass)
Ludwigia microcarpa?
Cassyha filiformis
Peltandra Virginica
Thalia divaricata?
Pootederia cordata (wampee)
Samolus ebracteatus
Heliotropium Leavenworthii?
Flaveria sp.
Polygala coralicola?
Mesadenia lanceolata


.. . " .. .... : .. : : .. .... -..-.-r'-' - . .' ". .... :"^r'v'.^ .. .. .. "^ C "
... ... ^ .;. .. ', ...:.., .. :.., *"
X.
' ..' ; r'* *: ." ' " ' " ' " " " "


...0.7
.L~::yL;~ ;~;2:~~: je kT:~


Fic. 30. Looking north in one of the transverse glades of the Miami
pine land about % mile west of Larkin (now South Miami). Sparsina
Bakeri in foreground, Pinus Caribaea at left, hammock at right. Aug. 19,
1923.


127





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Nearly all the small trees are evergreen, but few of the herbs
would be classed as such. There are no Ericaceae, and only one
leguminous plant is listed. Two grasses are included (both near
the head of the list) and five sedges. (Saw-grass and round grass
belong to the sedge family, in spite of their names.) Among the
plants which are commoner in the marl prairies than in the typical
saw-grass marshes, presumably on account of the more calcareous
soil, are Spartina Bakeri, Phragmites, Crinum, Aletris, Hyptis,
Potamogeton, Polygala Baldwinii, Aeschynomene,: Dichromena,
Lippia, Sisyrinchium, Ludwigia, Thalia, Samolus, and Flaveria.
As in several other vegetation types, most of the woody
plants have fleshy fruits, and most of the herbs whose mode of
dissemination is known have wind-borne seeds, but in most cases
we do not know just how the seeds are transported.
Very little use is made of any of these plants, but some of
the soil they occupy is cultivated, especially for early tomatoes.
MANGROVE SWAMPS
(Figs. 31-33.).
This is a very characteristic type of vegetation in South
Florida, being present all along both coasts, wherever there is
shallow salt or brackish water not too much subject to wave ac-
tion. The finest development is probably in the Ten Thousand
Islands of the west coast. It does not seem to make much differ-
ence to the mangroves whether the soil is sand, marl or muck; and
there are even a few of them growing on the rocky outer shores
of some of the Keys.
Much has been written about the function of mangroves as
land-builders,* but the amount of land that has been added to the
area of Florida by them in the last thousand years cannot amount
to more than a few square miles, or a very small fraction of one
per cent of the total. At the inland edge of a mangrove swamp
the trees often appear to be actively putting out new aerial roots as
if invading the land, but they never get up on dry land'; and their
advance out into the water must be extremely slow too, for they
cannot grow in water that is too deep.
*Several papers on the subject in the bibliography can be located by
looking up mangrove in the index.


128






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


FIG. 31. Outer edge of mangrove swamp bordering Biscayne Bay near
Lemon City (on Cha&. T. Simpson's place). Trees all Rhizophora (red man-
grove). April 3, 1909.


FIc. 32. Interior of same swamp looking out toward the bay. Conocarpus
buttonwoodd) at right, July 31, 1910.


129






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


A list of mangrove swamp plants, based on a single locality
in Dade County, was published in the Third Annual Report
(p. 233): The following list is more complete, and is probably
the most accurate analysis of such vegetation ever published,
though it could doubtless be improved upon if the Ten Thousand
Islands could be explored more. Large and small trees are not
separated, for few of them grow large enough for lumber.


TREES--
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Conocarpus erect (buttonwood)
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Laguncularia racemosa (white
mangrove)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Coccolobis uvifera (sea.grape)
Ficus area (wild fig, or rubber)
VINES--
Rhus radicans? (poison ivy)
Rhabdadenia biflora?
Dalbergia Ecastophylum


SHRUBS-
Batis maritima
Borrichia frutescens
Opusnia austrina? (prickly pear)
Lycium Carolinianum
Acanthocereus pentagonus (a cactus)
Harisia sp.? (a cactus)
HERBS-
Acrostichum aureum (a fern)
Tillandsia fusciculata (air-plant)
Juncus Roemerianus (a rush)
Tillandsia utriculata (air-plant)
Cladium effusum (saw-graBs)
Catopsis sp.? (air-plant)
Spartina glabra? (a grass)
Tillandsia Balbisiana? (air-plant)


.. .. . : -. .r .. . . ... .. '. -. -.

1.1 .
-' .:...: I' -'- *;:*; ^
--, .
... : ..:--_,-..y, .: .... : :- .. -. : : ."
Ki .' .. ". .. ,. ..',


Fic. 33. Mangrove swamp just north of Miami Beach, in process
of clearing for building sites. Trees all or nearly all Rhizophora. Aug. 17,
1923. This view shows the shape of the taller trees better than one. of an
undisturbed swamp could.


130





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 131

This vegetation sometimes grades into salt flats, cactus
thickets, or tropical hammocks. It is one of the few types of veg-
etation in South Florida that has trees but little or no Spanish
moss. All the trees and most of the other plants are evergreen.
Most of the species are tropical, and there are no Ericaceae among
them (or very close to a mangrove swamp anywhere); but one
of the vines belongs to the Leguminosae, and possibly a shrub or
herb of that family could be found.
About half the woody plants have fleshy fruits, but most of
the herbs have seeds or spores carried by the wind.
The red mangrove has been used more or less for tan-bark,
and the buttonwood is the favorite source of charcoal for the
cooks of Key West. The black mangrove and perhaps some of
the others yield honey. Some of the mangrove swamps contain
considerable peat.*
The mangrove soil is never cultivated, but in recent years
a good deal of mangrove swamp near east coast cities has been
converted into building sites by pumping sand into them, killing
the trees if they have not been cut away previously.
SUBMARINE VEGETATION
In warm shallow salt water around the Keys, and perhaps
near the neighboring mainland, the bottom is said to be covered
in places with flowering plants belonging to some of the simpler
monocotyledonous families. The writer has had no opportunity
to study this vegetation, but it seems from the available literature
that the most characteristic plants are Ruppia maritima, Cymo-
docea manatorum (manatee grass), Halodule Wrightii, Halophila
Engelmanni, and Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), all belong-
ing to the orders Naiadales and Hydrocharitales, which precede
the grasses in the classification now most commonly used. There
are also many seaweeds, including some containing so much
lime that they resemble corals and no doubt contribute to the
building of coral reefs.t
*See our 3d Annual Report, p. 304.
tSee papers by M. A. Howe and W. R. Taylor in the bibliography; also
Science II. 35:387.842. May 31, 1912. Dr. Small has published brief notes on the
same type of vegetation in Jour. N. Y. Bot Card. 24:211. 1923; 25:73-74. 1924.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


According to Simpson,t the manatee grass and turtle grass
are very important as sources of food for fish, and some species
of fish root them out like pigs, eat the stems, and then the leaves
float ashore in countless numbers. No doubt other marine animals
feed on them too.
This completes the treatment of the native vegetation of
South Florida for the present. There are probably several other
types in the large areas still scientifically unexplored, and those
already mentioned could be described more accurately if one
could spend more time with them; but of course perfection is
seldom attained in the first attempt. We will now consider the
weeds, which are supposed to have come in in modern times, most
of them perhaps within fifty years.

WEEDS

Natural vegetation is so abundant and diversified in South
Florida that previous botanical explorers have paid little atten-
tion to the weeds.* Although only two or three percent of the
area is cultivated at the present time, weeds already constitute
at least 10% of the flora; and they will undoubtedly increase in
numbers as time goes on, even if the cleared area does not increase.
The one that is now most abundant of all, the Natal grass, was
not noticed by the writer in South Florida in 1909 and 1910, and
is not mentioned in Small's Flora of Miami; but some time be-
tween 1913 and 1923 it came in in vast numbers. It is therefore
high time to take stock of the weed population; and the same
should be done again every generation or so.
As in other parts of the world, our weeds are found mostly
in fields, yards, vacant lots, waste places, and along roads and
railroads (all of which are not often burned over). It is some-
times difficult to decide just what plants are weeds, for some

Onut of doors in Florida, pp. 275-276.
*In Small's floras of Miami and the Keys (1913) weeds are often not dis-
tinguished from natives, and in most cases they are assigned to one or more
natural habitats, such as hammocks and pine lands, as if they were actually in-
vading the native vegetation, instead of being chiefly confined to roadsides and
other clearings. But the Miami flora contains about 20% of weeds, and that of
the Keye about 30%.


132





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


species which must certainly have been here in prehistoric times
have developed a decided fondness for unnatural habitats (and
perhaps undergone slight changes at the same time, so that they
are no longer exactly like their aboriginal ancestors). But all
those listed below are solely or mainly confined to weedy places,
and some of them are well known to be recent immigrants from
foreign countries.
A few, like the guava, were first brought to this country to
be cultivated for food or ornament, and have escaped from culti-
vation to some extent. But the writer does not believe in going
to the extreme that some botanists do, of counting as a wild plant
any cultivated species that persists for a few years after the field
in which it was cultivated is abandoned, or the house around which
it was planted burns down, just to claim as many species as pos-
sible for the flora. For many such alleged escapes, like the
banana, pineapple, date and watermelon, cannot perpetuate them-
selves very long without human assistance in planting the seeds
or keeping wilder plants from choking them out.
We have as yet very few trees that can be called weeds. The
cocoanut, a native probably of Polynesia, is common along our
coasts, often planted for ornament or its fruit, and some of the
trees may be self-sown. The "Australian pine" (Casuarina),
commonly planted along roads around Miami, occasionally comes
up spontaneously. And the chinaberry (Melia), a common shade
tree, especially around negro houses a little farther north, and
often planted by birds in old fields, fence-rows, river-bottoms,
etc., has been seen growing wild once or twice in South Florida,
but seems to do better in cooler climates and richer soils.
The following weed list includes no large trees, but a few
small trees, shrubs and vines, and many herbs. The rarer species
are omitted, as in the descriptions of natural vegetation, and for
the same reasons. Their common names (if any) and usual hab-
itats are given in a few words, but of course it is not always
possible to do the matter justice in a single line.


133





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


SMALL TREES


Trema mollis
Carica Papaya (papaw)
Psidium Guajava (gnava)
Ricinus communis (castor bean)


Burned and cleared tropical hammocks
Burned and cleared tropical hammocks
Around settlements
Around settlements


VINES


Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
Calonyction sp. (moonflower)
Rubus trivialis? (dewberry)
SHRUBS
Baccharis halimifolia
Sambucus sp. (elder)
Solanum verbascifolium
Tournefortia gnaphalodes
Lantana Camara?
Solanum Blodgettii?
Suriana maritima
Daubentonia punicea


HERBS


Tricholaena rose (Natal grass)

Bidens lencantha (Spanish needles)
Ammocallis rose (periwinkle)

Piaropus crassipes (water-hyacinth)
Cenchrus sp. (sand-spur)
Anastrophus compressus (carpet-grass)
Cyperus Surinamensis (a sedge)
Jussiaea Pernviana
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed)
Urena lobata
Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel)
Euthamia sp.
Eupatorium compositifollum
(dog-fennel)
Leptilon Canadense
Eleocharis Baldwinii (road-grass)

Sporobolus Indicus (a grass)
Poinsettia heterophylla
Capriola Dactylon (Bermuda grass)
Chaetochloa magna (foxtail grass)
Phytolacca rigida (pokeberry)
Syntherisma sanguinale (crab.grass)
Polypremum procumbens
Juncus effusus (rush)
Carduns spinosissimus? (thistle)
Eupatorinm serotinum (bone-set)
Philoxerus vermicularis
Anastrophus paspaloldes (a grass)
Scoparia dules
Chamaesyce pilulifera
Lepidium Virdinicum fpeppergrass)
(and over 100 others)


Old fields, roadsides, etc.
Partly drained swamps
Fields and roadsides, northward

Partly drained swamps, etc.
Swamps and canal banks
Clearings in tropical hammock
.I R. embankments on the Keys
Roadsides, etc.
Along railroad on the Keys.
R. R. embankments on the Keys
Low grounds near Peace River


Sandy fields and roadsides, especially in
lake region and along east coast
Roadsides, cultivated grounds, etc.
Around settlements, especially along
east coast
Lakes and streams
Roadsides, railroads, etc.
Damp sandy roadsides, etc.
Roadsides, railroads, etc.
Partly drained swamps
Roadsides, etc.
Roadsides and waste places
Drained swamps and prairies
Damp roadsides in flatwoods, etc.

Dry sandy roadsides, northwestward
Fields, etc., mostly eastward
Roads and trails in damp flatwoods
and prairies
Roadsides, etc.
Roadsides, etc., mostly eastward
Roadsides, railroads, etc.
Partly drained muck
Roadsides, etc.
Fields, etc.
Along railroads, etc.
Damp ground, northwestward
Sandy fields, etc.
Drained muck, etc.
Near salt water
Low prairies
Roadsides, etc.
Roadsides and railroads
Fields and roadsides


134






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Only a few of these would ordinarily be classed as ever-
greens, though in this warm climate most of them are growing
all the time. Bidens leucantha 'for example,. a tender-looking
plant, which strays occasionally up to the northern edge of the
State, where it is cut down by every killing frost, in South Florida
blooms every day in the year.
A few of our worst weeds have burrs, which are very rare
in the native flora. Some have wind-borne seeds, and most of
the woody plants have berries, but in the majority of cases we
have not yet learned how the seeds travel from place to place.
These weeds belong to many different families, and the only
families represented by more than two species in the foregoing
list are the grasses and composites. If the list was extended
possibly the Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Cyperaceae and Mal-
vaceae would rank next.
Of those whose origin is known probably the majority came
from the tropics, but there are a few from Europe and Asia (some
of which grow as far north as Canada), and quite a number which
have generally hitherto been treated as native American species,
even though they are known only in weedy places, which could
not have existed as such in pre-historic times.*
Being weeds and outcasts, few of these plants have any useful
properties, except those which are mostly cultivated and only oc-
casionally wild, like the papaw, guava, and castor bean. The
muscadine and dewberry have edible fruit, but do not seem to
bear very abundantly in South Florida. Ten years ago it Was
thought that the Natal grass would be a fine hay crop, on account
of its rapid growth on dry sandy soils, and a great deal of it was
planted in central Florida for that purpose, but one hears little
about it now. Some of the other grasses make hay or pasture,
too.

*See dissension of native weeds in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35:3474360.
July, 1908;


I.


135





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


FLORISTICS
In the foregoing pages the aspect and composition of the
various vegetation types has been discussed, with little regard to
the relationships of the species and their geographical distribu-
tion. Some study of these matters too will be of interest, in a
region so different from most other parts of the world.
The total number of species of flowering plants represented
in the area, including weeds, must be well over 1,000, perhaps
1,500. About 870 are described in Small's Flora of Miami and
630 in his Flora of the Keys, and the two areas together must have
about 1,000;* but the distinctions between species in those works
are drawn pretty finely, and a more conservative botanist might
recognize fewer species. However, the number has been in-
creased by additional discoveries since 1913, so that 1,000 may
be a pretty close estimate.
Of ferns there are perhaps 50 species, mostly tropical. The
mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungi, algae and lower orders of
plants are numerous, but have been so little studied that one can
hardly guess at the number of species at present.
The vegetation lists on the preceding pages include only
about 400 species of ferns and flowering plants (and a few mosses,
etc.). Of the flowering plants about 28 might be classed as large
trees, 52 as small trees, 19 as woody vines, 83 as shrubs, and the
rest as herbs. A complete list for the area treated might include
twice as many woody plants and four or five times as many herbs.
Just about 10% of the species listed are weeds, introduced by
man, but a complete list would doubtless have relatively more
weeds in it. About 25% of the angiosperms are monocotyledons, a
slightly lower figure than for most other parts of the coastal
plain.t The families of flowering plants most largely represented
(using their names in the broadest sense) seem to be Compositae,
*The sandy islands just east of Miami, namely, Key Biscayne, Virginia
Key, etc., are included in both floras, though they belong properly to neither,
but are the sooth end of the east coast strip.
tSee Torreya, 5:207.210. Jan. 1906; 3d Ann. Rep. FIa. GeoL Surv., p. 357.
Small's Flora of Miami has 30.5% of monocotyledons, and his Flora of the
Keys 23A%,.


136




NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Gramineae, Leguminosae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubi-
aceae, in the order named. Most of these families in other parts
of the world include a considerable number of lime-loving plants,
and it is an interesting coincidence that they are all well repre-
sented in the cedar glades of Middle Tennessee, which are always
on limestone outcrops.* The family Cyperaceae (sedges) is less
calciphile than the others mentioned, though. The species be-
longing to it constitute less than 6% of the Miami flora and less
than 4% of the flora of the Keys, as compared with over 12% of
the species of flowering plants listed in our Third Annual Report
as growing on peat. (In that family the large genus Cyperus is
much more calciphile and tropical, and much better represented
in South Florida, than the still larger genus Carex.)
The genus most largely represented in the foregoing vegeta-
tion lists is Quercus (the oaks), with nine species, most of them
small trees. (Only one of them has decidedly lobed leaves like
most of the northern oaks.) Tillandsia (air-plants) is a close
second. Other genera with five or more species are Rhynchospora,
Panicum and Polygala. Most of the genera are represented in the
vegetation lists by only one species; and the ratio of species to
genera is about 1.4, which is about the same as in the central
Florida list in our 13th Annual Report, but less than in the northern
Florida list in the 6th Annual Report, which has 1.6 species per
genus. Of course in all these lists the rarer species are excluded,
but the ratios for complete lists might not be very different. Com-
pleteness was attempted in Small's floras of Miami and the Keys,
and the ratio of species to genera in those is 1.67 and 1.54 re-
spectively. This ratio of course varies with different authors, who
may have different conceptions of genera and species, but still
more with the area or number of species involved, being larger
in the larger floras (4.26 in Small's Flora of the Southeastern
United States, 1903).
Among the genera represented by three or more common
species in northern Florida (and farther north) and fewer or none
in southern Florida are Eleocharis, Carex, Xyris, Juncus, Sarra-
cenia, Crataegus, Prunus, Baptisia, Meibomia, Viola, Rhexia,


*See Ecology 7:51. Jan. 1926,


137





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Ludwigia, Nyssa, Asclepias, -Viburnum and Laciniaria. Terres-
trial orchids, and the families Umbelliferae and Ericaceae, show
the same tendency.
Broadly speaking, the native flora can be divided into north-
ern, tropical, and endemic elements. Some of those here called
northern range as far north as Canada, and others no farther than
Georgia. They are mostly plants of sandy pine lands, swamps
and marshes. A considerable number of trees and shrubs, such
as Pinus Elliottii, Hicoria aquatic, Quercus obtusa, Q. Catesbaei,
Magnolia grandiflora, Itea, Liquidambar, Gleditsia, Cornus
florida, and Nyssa biflora, seem to reach their southern limits in
the neighborhood of the Peace River, perhaps mostly because that
is practically the coolest part of South Florida, or else because
the soil there is more like that in the northern parts of the State.
A few others extend nearly or quite as far south in the lake region
or central prairies.
Such counties as Okeechobee, Glades and Charlotte have com-
paratively few species of trees, being too far south for most of
the northern species, and too cal for most of the tropical ones.
The strictly tropical species are chiefly confined to the Miami
limestone region and southward, and to very narrow strips along
both coasts farther north; and nearly all of them extend farther
north on the east coast than on the west, just as the isotherms do.
(See the climatic map, fig. 3.) Only a few are found in the in-
terior north of Miami, the commonest ones perhaps being Nephro-
lepsis, Rapanea, Icacorea, and Psychotria undata.
The endemic element, comprising species peculiar to Florida,
is chiefly confined to the lake region and the Miami pine lands.
They are generally rarer than the more widely distributed species,
so that only a few of them appear in the foregoing vegetation
lists. Many of them are confined to single counties, principally
Highlands and Dade. Some of our lake region endemics range
north into Polk County or farther, but several are known at pres-
ent only from Highlands, which up to about 1912 had no railroads
and was practically a terra incognita to the scientist. Dr. Small
began to visit that region in 1918, and most of its endemics were
discovered and described by him. One of the commonest shrubs
there, however, Prunus geniculata, was discovered by the writer


138





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 139

in Lake County, in 1909, and described in 1911.* In 1924f Dr.
Small described two new genera and about half a dozen supposed
new species in other genera, known only from Highlands County;
and there are at least as many others in that region which are con-
fined to Florida but not to that county or region.
Several herbs which are characteristic of dry sandy pine
lands in southern Georgia and northern Florida, when they get
as far south as Highlands County, where the climate allows them
to keep growing nearly throughout the year, become more robust,
and look almost like different species. One of the most striking
cases is Lupinus diffusus, which in northern Florida is a prostrate
herb, blooming in spring, but in Polk and Highlands Counties
grows about three feet tall and often does not branch within a foot
of the ground, blooms in winter, and is practically an evergreen
shrub. The botanists apparently have not yet made any distinction
between these two extremes, but a few other species have been de-
scribed as new for similar reasons and with apparently less
justification.
On the other hand, some trees which have their southern
limits in Highlands County are more stunted there than farther
north, probably on account of the poorer soil. A good example
is the common holly, Ilex opaca, which is represented in the scrub
near the south end of the lake region by a. stunted form, described
in September, 1924, by Small as Ilex cumulicola* and by Ashe
as Ilex arenicola.t
In the flatwoods and dry prairies east of the lake region
there are a few plants of limited range, which escaped attention
until recently, on account of the comparative inaccessibility of
that territory. Probably the most abundant of these is Litrisa
carnosa, a composite related to Carphephorus andTrilisa, which
was unknown to science until Dr. Small found it in the eastern

*Torreya 11:64:67. March, 1911.
tBull. Torrey Bot. Club 51:379-393. Sept., 1924.
Since the above was written Dr. Small has segregated the lake region
form, under the name of Lupinus cumuUcola. .
*Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 51:384. Sept, 1924.
fJour. Elisha Mitchell Si. Soc. 44:40. "Aug." [Sept.], 1924.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


part of Highlands County in August, 1922.4 It is common in
both flatwoods and prairies, in Highlands, Okeechobee, Indian
River and St. Lucie Counties, but it blooms in late summer, when
very few botanists are working in Florida. Other rather local
plants of the same general region are Hymenocallis Palmeri and
Laciniaria Garberi. A new shrub, Deeringothamnus pulchellus,
related to the pawpaws, has recently been described by Dr. Small
from the flatwoods of Charlotte County.
In Small's Flora of Miami, which includes flowering plants
only, there are about 120 species, or more than one-eighth of the
total, which are not known outside of Florida, the others ranging
northward to Georgia or beyond, or southward to the West Indies,
or both. Of these 120 about one-fourth are known only in the
Miami region, and nearly as many range southward to the Keys.
Among the endemics of that region in the strictest sense there are
5 or 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (mostly of the genus Cham-
aesyce), 5 Compositae, 3 Leguminosae, 2 Verbenaceae, and 2
Polygalaceae, but no endemic genera. Of course future explora-
tions may change all these numbers somewhat, by extensions of
known ranges and discovery or description of additional species,
but the distinctions between some of the alleged species are per-
haps already too fine, and probably few of these supposed en-
demics are so distinct that a botanist familiar with their nearest
relatives would see the differences immediately.* (Some of the
recently discovered endemics in the lake region and east of there
are much more distinct, and two or three of them have been made
the types of new genera.)
Classified by habitat, more than half the endemics of the
Miami region, whether we consider those confined to that region
or those more widely distributed in Florida, are assigned by Small
to the pine lands, about one-fourth to "Everglades" (meaning
mostly the marly glades intersecting the pine lands, rather than

3tThe writer found it near Fort Pierce in August, 1923, and immediately
recognized it as something undescribed, and soon sent specimens to Dr. Small
but they were not mentioned in his description, published over a year later.
*This may indicate that the country south of Lake Okeechobee is not old
enough geological to have developed any endemic genera or, very distinct
pieces yet.


140





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


the Everglades proper), and somewhat less than one-fourth to
hammocks.
On the Keys the number of endemics is smaller. Only about
42 species, or 6% of all the flowering plants listed from there
by Small, are supposed to be confined to Florida; though a few
more (mostly cacti) have been described by him since. Fifteen
of those are known only from the Keys, 12 others range north.
ward to the vicinity of Miami, and 15 others farther north. Ten
of the true endemics are known only from the lower Keys, two
from the upper Keys, and three from both. The families most
largely represented are Euphorbiaceae (mostly Chamaesyce),
Cactaceae, Compositae and Cyperaceae.
Of the species listed by Small as growing on the Keys and
in the tropics, but not in the Miami region, there are 137, of which
20 are known on the upper Keys, 79 on the lower, and 38 on both.
But many of them are introduced weeds. (There are also several
species, mostly weeds, which grow on the Keys and farther north
or west, but are not yet known in the Miami region.) As weeds
are not very well separated from natives by Small, these numbers
do not mean much, but we may note in passing that the families
most largely represented among the 137 tropical species are
Gramineae (24), Leguminosae (15), Amarantaceae (9), Cyper-
aceae (8), Convolvulaceae (7), Compositae (5), Euphorbiaceae
(5), and Malvaceae (5). The reason that Key West has more
weeds than Miami is doubtless that it has been settled much longer,
and has been a seaport from the start, while the shipping at Miami
has been insignificant until within the last few years.
Without a reasonably complete list of South Florida plants
it is hardly possible to estimate the proportion of northern and
tropical species in the flora, or how many extend to Georgia, Vir-
ginia, Canada, etc. But it is obvious that the proportion of trop-
ical species is much greater in the hammocks, mangrove swamps,
salt flats, and sea beaches than in the pine lands and scrub, which
have practically no counterpart in the tropics; so that it is not a
matter of climate entirely.
The weeds seem to be mostly of West Indian origin, but
quite a number are supposed to be natives of the United States,
and there are a few from Europe, Asia and Africa.


141






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 143

FAUNA
It is much more difficult to give a satisfactory account of
the fauna than of the flora of a region, even if one were thoroughly
familiar with all groups of animals; because so many of the
animals are small or elusive or migratory, and the larger ones
have been greatly reduced in numbers by the depredations of
hunters and the encroachments of civilization.
About all that can be done with this subject at present is to
compile from the best accessible sources a few notes on the prin-
cipal groups of animals, as was done for central Florida. in our
13th Annual Report (pp. 223-233), to which the reader is re-
ferred for a fuller discussion of the difficulties.
MAMMALS
As nearly as one can judge from the latest check-list of North
American mammals,* and other literature, there are about forty
species of land mammals to be expected in South Florida, besides
a few varieties, "races" or subspecies. Among them are the
opossum, mole, two shrews, several bats, bear, raccoon, weasel,
otter, two skunks, gray fox, wolf, wildcat, panther, three squirrels,
salamander$, nine or ten native mice and rats, two rabbits and
deer. Some of them, however, are very rare, and one cannot be
certain from the statements about their ranges, in a work covering
the whole of North America, whether they have actually been seen
south of Tampa and Sebastian or not. In addition to those just
mentioned, the manatee and few species of whales, porpoises and
dolphins are occasionally seen in salt water along the coasts.
Quite unlike the plants, the relationships of all our land mam-
mals are with the north instead of with the tropics, doubtless be-
cause none of them can cross the wide expanse of water between
Florida and the West Indies. A few, however, are races confined
to Florida, of species rather widely distributed in the eastern

*List of North American recent mammals, by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. U. S.
National Museum Bull 128. xvi+673 pp. 1924.
tParticularly a paper by Ontram Bangs on the land mammals of peninsular
Florida and the coast region of Georgia, in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 28:157-235.
1898. A few other papers on mammals are cited in the bibliography of this
report.
IGeomys: eee fig. 37 (page 158).





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


United States. For example, our bear, Euarctos Floridanus (orig-
inally described from Key Biscayne, one of the sand islands op-
posite Miami), ranges northward about to the northern limits of
the State, and probably does not differ much from the common
black bear (E. Americanus), which ranges from Georgia to Lab-
rador. A fox squirrel from the Ten Thousand Islands was found
by Mr. Howell a few years ago to differ a little from the ordinary
southern fox squirrel, and was named by him Sciurus niger
avicennia. Oryzomys palustris coloratus, one of the rats, is known
from Lake Okeechobee to Cape Sable, but there is another variety,
0. palustris natator, in central Florida, and the typical 0. palus-
tris ranges nearly throughout the coastal plain east of the Missis-
sippi River. Another rat, Sigmodon hispidus, which ranges
through the coastal plain from North Carolina to Louisiana, has
one variety (littorais) known only from the vicinity of the upper
St. John's River, one (spadicipygus) only from Cape Sable, and
still another (exsputus) only from Big Pine Key. The rodent
genus Neofiber, with one species, N. Alleni, confined to Florida
and extreme southern Georgia, is represented in South Florida
by the variety nigrescens, from the southern shores of Lake Okee-
chobee.
A deer from Big Pine Key has been found to differ a little
from the common deer of the eastern United States (Odocoileus
Virginianus), and in 1922 was given the subspecific name clavium
(meaning "of the keys") by Barbour and Allen.
The trapping of fur-bearing animals, principally the raccoon
and otter, is still an important industry in some of the wilder
sections, such as the Big Cypress; and it is said that several
hundred thousand dollars' worth of skins are marketed annually
at Okeechobee, Arcadia, LaBelle, Fort Myers, and perhaps other
places.
BIRDS
It is even more difficult to enumerate the birds than the
mammals, on account of their extensive migrations. Many species
which migrate up and down the Gulf Stream close to our shores
every year never set foot in Florida unless they are driven ashore
by a storm or something of the kind. Many others belong mostly


144




NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


farther north or south than the limits of this work, and enter it
only rarely, as when driven southward by extreme cold or north-
ward by hurricanes. And furthermore, the splitting of species
by ornithologists has been carried to such an extreme that it is
difficult to decide just how many species there are.
The sources of information mentioned in the 13th Annual
Report have recently been supplemented by a large quarto book
on the birds of Florida by H. H. Bailey, published in December,
1925.* From that and other works it appears that between 250
and 300 species of birds may be seen in South Florida at one
time or another.f Of the two great groups of birds, water birds
(with long bills or legs, and usually with webbed feet) and land
birds, about 40% belong to the former group, a figure a little
above the average for the United States, but below that for central
Florida.
The number of birds which breed or build nests in our area,
however, is less than half the total, perhaps not over 125. The
proportions of land and water birds seem to be nearly the same
among the breeding species as among the total. The water birds
may be divided roughly into those of fresh and salt water, though
some species seem to be equally at home in both kinds of water;
and we seem to have more breeders among the fresh-water than
among the salt-water species. More specifically, most of the
terns, cranes, bitterns, herons, egrets, rails, doves, owls, wood-
peckers, whippoorwills and jays nest with us, and most of the
gulls, ducks, geese, sandpipers, swallows, warblers and thrushes
do not. (This list includes both water and land birds).
As most birds have no trouble in flying across many miles
of ocean, we have quite a number of tropical species, seldom if
ever seen farther north. The most striking of these is probably
the flamingo, which was once found in the neighborhood of Cape
Sable; but it was such a conspicuous mark for hunters that it has
been greatly reduced in numbers, and none have been recorded
from Florida since 1921, or nesting since 1907. Two other

*Reviewed in the Ank 43:105-106. Jan. 1926.
tProf. W. E. D. Scott in 1892 listed 259 species from the vicinity of the
Caloosahatchee River alone. iSee bibliography.)


14S





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY-18TH. ANNUAL REPORT.


bright-colored birds, the roseate spoonbill and the paroquet, are
said to be extinct or nearly so.
There are a few supposed endemic species, such as Thryos-
piza mirabilis, a sparrow recently described from Cape Sable by
Mr. Howell. The burrowing owl, Speotyto Floridana, which is
almost confined to the prairies near the Kissimmee River, has
near relatives in the West Indies and in the Great Plains.*
REPTILES
One who had no information on the subject might imagine
that in the almost tropical climate of South Florida reptiles would
be very abundant, if not dangerous; but the ordinary traveler sees
very few species or individuals, and from the available literature
it appears that the number of species is not large, and there are
only a few which are not found farther north. Reptiles have the
same difficulty in crossing over from the tropics that mammals
do, and the number of species in our area is only a little greater
than that of mammals, and their geographical relationships are
about the same as in the case of mammals.
The earliest paper known to the writer which is wholly devoted
to Florida reptiles is one by Loennberg (1894), cited in the bibli-
ography. That author, a Swedish scientist, was in Florida from
September, 1892, to July, 1893, mostly in Orange County. He
says of many species, "common in South Florida," when he means
Orange County, which is outside the limits of the present report;t
but he also includes several records from Key West. Works of
wider scope, such as Cope's Crocodilians, lizards and snakes of
North America (U. S. National Museum Report for 1898), and
Ditmars' Reptile Book (1907 and later editions), have furnished
some additional records, though they are not as specific about
localities in Florida (or any other state) as one might wish. Some
unpublished notes on reptiles and amphibians have been con-
tributed by Mr. Richard F. Deckert of Miami.
From these sources it appears that the reptile fauna of South

*See our 13th Annual Report, p. 228.
tA generation and more ago the State was commonly divided into West,
Middle, East and South Florida, the last being applied to almost everything
south of Ocala.


146





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Florida includes the crocodile, alligator, about 9 lizards, 30
snakes, and 14 turtles; which is about the same number that can
be found in almost any other southeastern state. Reptiles not
ranging much farther north are the crocodile, reef gecko (on the
Keys), the lizards Plestiodon egregious and Rhineura Floridana,
the water-snakes Natrix compressicauda and Seminatrix pygaea,
another snake Liodytes Alleni, the turtle Kinosternon B'aurii, and
three or four large sea-turtles found among the Keys. (Some of
the latter, however, occasionally wander several hundred miles
up the Atlantic coast.) The first two and the sea-turtles are trop-
ical species, and the others are confined to Florida, or nearly so,
with relatives farther north, except in the case of Liodytes, which
is a monotypic genus with its nearest relatives in South America.
Some of the sea-turtles are shipped from Key West to the markets,
and one of them, Eretmochelys imbricata, the hawksbill turtle,
is the source of the toitoise-shell formerly used largely for combs,
etc.
AMPHIBIA, OR. BATRACHIANS
Not much literature on this group (frogs, toads, salamanders,
etc., formerly classed with the reptiles) is available at the present
writing, but they are probably fewer in number than the reptiles,
and represented by the common southern species. It is thought
by some that amphibians are less numerous in limestone regions
than elsewhere, and there is plenty of limestone in South Florida.
Mr. Deckert has found one species of salamander and about a
dozen toads and frogs in Dade County.
FISHES
The finny tribe is well represented in South Florida and ad-
jacent waters, but they have not been studied as much as they
should be. Lake Okeechobee is noted for its catfish, and about
a million dollars' worth of that and a few other species are shipped
every year from Okeechobee City, where there are several fish
warehouses on Taylor's Creek, with railroad connections. Many
salt-water fish are shipped from Fort Pierce, Punta Gorda, Key
West, and other coast cities. Cortez in Manatee County and
Gasparilla in Charlotte County are villages inhabited almost
entirely by fishermen and their families. There was formerly


147





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


a small plant for the manufacture of shark leather on Sanibel
Island, but it moved a few years ago to Big Pine Key.
Tourists get much sport from fishing with hook and line, es-
pecially on the west coast. The tarpon is the favorite with them,
on account of its large size, but it is seldom eaten. On January
23, 1924, while waiting for a steamer on the dock at St. James
City, Lee County, the writer watched a fisherman pulling in a
mackerel every few minutes, and the next day on Sanibel Island,
a few miles away, the same thing was being done with sheepshead
weighing several pounds apiece.
A pamphlet by W. C. Schroeder (1923) cited in the bibli-
ography, describes the fisheries of Key West. An investigation
made in 1918 (which must have been an off year, on account of
the war) showed 458 persons engaged in the fisheries of Monroe
County at that time. The various fishery products (including
turtles, lobsters, clams, sponges, etc., as well as fish) totaled
3,752,355 pounds, for which the fishermen received $290,170
(about eight cents a pound, or $620 per man per year). Most
of the fishing was done in winter, and some of the fishermen may
have had other sources of income at other seasons. Most of the
fish brought into Key West are shipped to Cuba, some northward,
and some used locally.
Schroeder states that "the variety of fish sold in Key West
is probably greater than in any other locality in the United States."
He lists 83 species of commercial importance, the principal ones
being Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus), kingfish
(Scomberomorus regalis and S. cavalla), groupers (Mycteroperca
Bonaci), grunts (Haemulon Plumieri and others), mullet (Mugil,
two species), porgies (Calamus species), yellowtail (Ocyurus
chrysurus), mutton-fish (Lutianus analis), bluefish (Pomatomus
saltatrix), jewfish (Promicrops itaiara), mangrove snapper (Lu-
tianus griseus), pork-fish (Anisotremus Virginicus), and red
snapper (Lutianus Aya).
Besides these edible species there are a great many others
noted for their grotesque appearance, beauty or rarity, and in the
last year or two large shipments have been made from Key West


See Poey (1883) in bibliography.


148





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


to aquariums in New Yorkt and Philadelphia. One of the hand-
somest small fishes of our tropical waters rejoices in the curious
name of Abudefduf saxatilis.*
A strange phenomenon which occurs every few years on the
west coast, and interferes with the fishing for a time, is known as
"poison water." It has never been explained, but it causes
millions of fish to die. The U. S. Fish Commission published
a bulletin about it in 1917;t and in August, 1925, a steamer ply-
ing between Tampa and Key West encountered so many dead
fish in a space of about twenty miles near Boca Grande that it
was delayed several hours.

INSECTS
Insects are numerous in South Florida, as in other warm
humid countries, though some entomologists who have written on
the subject report finding fewer species than they expected. Only
a few of the important species can be mentioned here, for the
writer has not had access to much of the literature.
Mosquitoes can be found nearly throughout the year, but
they are very scarce at some times and places where they might
be expected. They seem to be most abundant along the Indian
River and on the Keys, and least so in the Everglades and pine
lands. The commonest mosquito in South Florida is a small
black one (probably Aedes niger), whose bite is less annoying
than that of most other species. Although it belongs to the same
genus as the yellow-fever mosquito, it is not known to carry any
disease germs. The malaria mosquito (Anopheles) has been re-
ported from a few places, but malaria has never been very pre-
valent in South Florida, and it is much more easily dealt with
now than a generation ago, when the manner of infection was
unknown.

jThe director of the New York Aquarium has furnished a list of 87 species
of Key West fishes which he says are kept on exhibition there most of the time.
*See Simpson's "In Lower Florida Wilds," pp. 301-316, for notes on this
and associated species.
tSee H. F. Taylor in bibliography. An item in the daily papers in August,
1927, stated that millions of dead fish were floating in the Gulf off the coast of
Yucatan, supposedly on account of a submarine volcanic eruption.


149





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Horse-flies (Tabanus) and deer-flies (Chrysops) are com-
mon below Miami in summer, and are rather annoying, especially
to horses.* Bees, wasps and ants are common enough, but no
more troublesome than they are farther north. Notes on various
other insects can be found in Safford's paper on Paradise Key
(1919).
ARACHNIDS AND CRUSTACEANS
Scorpions (Centrurus and Mastigoproctus) are probably
commoner in South Florida than farther north, but the writer has
never seen a living specimen of the latter, and not more than half
a dozen of the former, and one very rarely hears of a person being
stung by them. Spiders are fairly common, and a large one,
sometimes mistaken for a tarantula, often comes into dwellings.
A large crawfish (Cambarus fallax) in the Everglades is
sometimes used for food. The salt-water crawfish or spiny lobster
(Paliurus argus), which occasionally attains a weight of eight
pounds, is an article of commerce on the Keys, over $30,000
worth having been marketed in Key West in 1918. Another im-
portant marine crustacean in the same neighborhood is the stone
crab, Menippe mercenaria. It sometimes weighs a pound, but
usually only its claws are eaten. The Key West fishermen in
1918 brought in about 18,000 pounds of them, valued at $2,750.
A quite different crab, which is somewhat of a pest, is the
land crab, Cardisoma Guanhumi. It is a West Indian species,
and is represented by a related species on the Pacific coast. It
is common along the east coast between Palm Beach and Miami,
if not farther, and often wanders a mile or so inland, and climbs
up into trees and houses. It sometimes does considerable damage
to cultivated plants, apparently from pure wantonness (for it
does not seem to eat them); and the Miami papers occasionally
carry advertisements of substances to poison it with, illustrated
by pictures of the animal. A few other crabs occur along the
coast.


*See T. E Snyder, Proc. EnLom. Soc. Wash. 18:208. 1916.


150





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


MOLLUSKS
Mollusks are probably more abundant in South Florida than
in any equal area in the United States. Almost every drainage
ditch in the flat sandy areas, within forty or fifty miles of the
coast, cuts into beds of shells, which are mostly -of species still
living ,and modern shells are washed up on the coasts, especially
the Gulf coast, by the million. Sanibel Island is one of the most
noted localities for marine shells,* but apparently they are not
as numerous now as in former years, possibly because there has
been some change in ocean currents that lessened the number
annually washed ashore, or merely because there are now more
tourists to pick up the best ones. Shells are also abundant on
the shores of Gasparilla Island (where many of them are tinged
with red or orange), and in the warm marl-bottomed waters around
the Keys.

In wet places with calcareous subsoil, as in the southern part
of the Everglades, the coast prairie, and the narrow glades be-
tween, there are many fresh-water shells, the commonest being
species of Ampullaria and Planorbis. In the tropical hammocks
of both mainland and Keys there were formerly many tree-snails
(Liguus), but many have been destroyed by the clearing or burn-
ing of some of the hammocks, and near cities and highways they
are often taken by tourists, for they are conspicuous and handsome
objects. They represent several species and an indefinite number
of varieties, often differing in neighboring hammocks or keys,
and they present many interesting problems for the evolutionists.t

The digging of clams (Venus mercenaria Mortoni) is an
important industry in the neighborhood of the Ten Thousand Is-
lands. Just off the coast, beginning within a mile of the shore,
in water four to seven feet deep, there is said to be a bed of them
about five miles wide and forty miles long, probably the largest

*See page 83 of Miss Julia Rogers' "Shell Book" (New York, 1908 and
later editions), and page 7 of Simpson's "Out of Doors in Florida."
tSee Pilsbry (1912) in bibliography, also pages 328-350 of Simpson's "Out
of Doors in Florida."


151






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


bed of hard clams in the waters of the United States, and almost
the only one in the South. Including the shell, the weight of these
clams averages nearly a pound, but sometimes exceeds two pounds.
They were formerly dug by hand and taken mostly to Key West,
but now machinery is used, and they are taken to two canneries
at opposite ends of Marco Island in Collier County.*
The large conch, Strombus gigas, found along the Keys is
used to some extent for food, and its shells for ornamental pur-
poses. The shell with living animal weighs from one to five
pounds, and in 1918 about 2,000 pounds or $100 worth of them
were sold in Key West.
SPONGES
Sponges were formerly a very important article of commerce
at Key West, but the beds in that neighborhood have become de-
pleted, and the center of the industry has been transferred to the
coast of the Gulf hammock region, in central Florida. From
1849 to 1891 Key West had almost a monopoly of the sponge
business of the United States. In 1888 there were 238,038 pounds
of sponges marketed there, representing 94% of the United States
total. By 1918 the Key West sponge business was less than half
that of 1888, and less than one-fourth of the United States total,
the other principal market being Tarpon Springs, at the south
end of the Gulf hammock region. This decline of the sponge busi-
ness may be partly responsible for the recent decrease of popula-
tion in Key West.

*One of these factories (at least in March, 1924) gave the address of its
New York office on the labels of its cans, with no indication that the product
came from Florida; perhaps because it was imagined that persons accustomed
to buying New England clams might he prejudiced against those from so far
south.


152





NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


REGIONAL CLASSIFICATION
In the foregoing discussions of the geology, soil, vegetation,
etc., certain natural regions, such as the lake region and the Miami
limestone region, have been mentioned incidentally, but without
defining them. The map (fig. 2) shows the writer's present in-
terpretation of all the natural regions of South Florida, and brief
descriptions of them will be given in the following pages. As
vegetation is pretty closely correlated with soil, topography, etc.,
and there is still an abundance of natural vegetation in this area,
that has been depended on very largely for differentiating the
regions where topographic contrasts are lacking. Most of the
counties are still too large and diversified to be used satisfactorily
for statistical purposes, but at some future time, when the pop-
ulation is denser and counties more numerous, it will be very
interesting to fit statistics of population, agriculture, etc., to the
boundaries shown on this map, and see what contrasts can be found.
In the regional descriptions the principal emphasis will be
placed on vegetation, for that is the most conspicuous feature of
most of them at present. The plant lists will be made up in the
same way as those for the vegetation types, with the most abundant
species listed first, but these lists will be less complete than those
already given, the herbs being omitted in most cases.
WEST COAST ISLANDS
(Figs. 14, 18, 20, 34, 35.)
This includes the islands and barrier beaches along the west
coast from the mouth of Tampa Bay to Cape Romano, except
Pine Island and one or two others, which do not differ in any
important particular from the neighboring mainland. The writer
has visited only Anna Maria Key, Gasparilla, Sanibel and Marco
Islands, but th&se are probably typical enough of the whole group.
They are mostly barrier beaches of sand and shells, rising only
a few feet above sea-level, except that the highest point on Marco
Island has an elevation of 60 feet or more. Their total area is
probably not over 100 square miles.
Besides the universal sand and shell fragments, there are
a few deposits of muck in mangrove swamps, etc. The water


153








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


from artesian wells is rather h
places a little salty; and in m
cisterns are used.
The vegetation comprises t


ird and sulphurous, and in some
ost of the settlements rain-water

hat of beaches and dunes, cactus


- F


FI'1.. 3t.
top of highest
trr.e 4plaiiled)


Looking west over village of Caxambas rrom old hotel on
dune on Marco Island, Collier County. A few cocoanut
in middle distance. March 12, 1921.


F


it.. 35. Vegetation on shelly inner shore of Sanibel Island, about
a mile from its eastern end. Most conspicuous plants are Scaevola, Suriana,
Coccolobis, and Sesuvium. Jat. 24, 1924.


154


m ~-W. -~-r-


::








NATURAL'RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


thickets, salt flats, palm savannas, mangrove swamps, and a little
tropical hammock. There are some slash-pine flatwoods on Marco
Island and more on Pine Island, but those are not essentially
different from those on the mainland. The commonest woody
plants of the region, excluding the flatwoods, are about as follows:


TREES--
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
SMALL TREES--
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape)
Conocarpus erecta (buttonwood)
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Bursera Simaruba (gumbo-limbo)
Xanthoxylum Fagara
Erythrina arborea
Fius area (wild fig)
Bumelia angustifolia?
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Sideroxylon foetidissimurn (mastic)
Quercuzs geminata (live oak)
Pithecolobium sp.
Persea itoralis (red bay)
VINES--
Vitis Muneoniana (muscadine)
Rhus radicans? (poison Ivy)
Smilax auriculam
Guilandina Crista


SHRUBS-
Opuntia austrina? (prickly pear)
Batis marisima
Scaevola Plumieri
Serenoa serrblsa (saw-palmetto)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)
Ernodea litorals
Jacquinia Keyensis
Acanthocereus pentagonus (a cactus)
Erythrina arborea
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Sophora tomentosa
Suriana maritima
Borrichia frutescens
Chlmaesyce buxifolia
Lycium Caroliniaum
Lantana involucrata
Forestlera porulosa
Cholisma fruticosa (poor-grub)
Chiococca racemosa?
Chrysobalanus laco (cocoa plum)
Maytenus phyllanthoides
Palafoxia Feayi
Baccharis hatlmifolia


Not much use is made of the native vegetation. Fisheries
are probably more important than agriculture, but there is a little
truck-farming on some of the islands, such as Sanibel. The tour-
ist business is important in winter, and several of the islands have
been connected with the mainland by bridges since automobiles
became common. Sanibel Island and to a lesser extent Gasparilla
are noted for the variety of marine shells on their shores.

MANATEE HAMMOCK REGION

(Fig. 36.)

Around the mouth of the Manatee River there is an area of
perhaps 50 square miles, with rather indefinite boundaries, char-
acterized by rather rich marly soil and hammock vegetation,
which deserves to be treated as a distinct region. It contains com-


155







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


mercial deposits of fuller's earth, and limestone that have been
used for building purposes. The ground-water is hard, as in
many other fertile regions, and rain-water cisterns are commonly
used outside of the cities.
Much of the area, perhaps half, is now under cultivation.
The natural vegetation that still remains is mostly of the non-
tropical low hammock type, and a plant list for the whole region
would be essentially the same as that already given for that type,
with a few weeds added.
On account of its fertile soil, and ready accessibility by
boat, this region has been settled since the middle of the last
century, and the population is now pretty dense. The cities and
towns of Bradenton (formerly spelled Braidentown), Manatee,
Palmetto and Ellenton are all in this region, and have considerable
tourist business in winter. Farming is very intensive, the value
of crops in Manatee County in 1919 having been about $245
per improved acre, as compared with $35 for the whole State and
$29.35 for the whole United States. Among the leading crops
are grape-fruit, celery, tomatoes, egg-plants and peppers (the last
three all belonging to the nightshade family).
















FI. 36. Old clearing in the big hammock south of Manatee. Trees
mostly oaks and red maple. Jan. 21, 1924.


156







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


FLATWOODS, WESTERN DIVISION
(Figs. 11, 26, 37, 38.)
This covers approximately the northwestern quarter of the
area under consideration, perhaps 4,000 square miles. Its sur-
face, except in the vicinity of the larger streams, is essentially
flat, rising gradually from sea-leveI to about 150 feet above in
northern Hardee County. The surface soil is mostly fine sand
mixed with more or less vegetable matter, but often, perhaps
usually, there is some phosphatic material or shell marl within
a few feet of the surface.
The greater part of the vegetation is of the flatwoods type,
including approximately equal areas of long-leaf and slash pine
flatwoods, which could be separated pretty well on the map if
one could explore the area thoroughly enough to trace out their
boundaries. Generally speaking, the slash pine (Pinus Caribaea)
predominates south of the Caloosahatchee River, and also near the
coast, and the long-leaf pine elsewhere.*
There are also many swamps and low hammocks along
streams, cypress ponds (mostly south of Punta Gorda), shallow
grassy ponds, and a few patches of scrub. The "Sugar-bowl"

*See the agricultural map of Florida by Dr. Eugene A, Smith opposite
page 187 of the 6th volume of the Tenth U. S. Census, drown in 1880 and pub-
lished in 1884. The slash pine was there called pitch or Cuban pine, because it
grows in western Cuba, and was not at that time distinguished from Pinus
Cubensis, which is confined to eastern Cuba. At the same time the Georgia
slash pine, Pinus Elliottii, which grows mostly in wet places, was confused with
the long-leaf pine by nearly everybody. (Pinus Elliotii occurs in our area too,
mostly near the Peace River in Hardee and DeSoto Counties, and in bays in the
northern part of Okeechobee County.)
Some of Pr. Smith's comments on the pines of South Florida are worth
reprinting. One page 205 of his work on Florida just mentioned he says: "The
pitch pine grows all along the Gulf coast, and has been designated as Pinus
Eouii Engelmann, in the northern portion of its area of occurrence, while south.
ward it is named Pinus Cubensis Grisebach, by Professor Sargent, who considered
it identical with the Cuban pine." On page 207 he continues: "South of latitude
27*, as we have seen . the pitch pine replaces in part or wholly the long-
leaf species. Through the courtesy of Professor C. S. Sargent I am enabled to
give other localities of this tree north of that parallel along the coast. [Shown on
his mnap.] . In Manatee and Brevard Counties [which were then much
larger than at present and met along the Kissimmee River] the flatwoods, which,
alternating with prairies and avannas, make up the country, are timbered with
pitch pine, and wherever the prairies, savannas and marshes prevail this tree
is characteristic. The area is little cultivated, being used almost exclusively as
grazing grounds for vast herds of cattle.


157







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


country, in Manatee or Sarasota County, and the Devil's Garden,
Okaloacoochee Slough, and Big Cypress, in Hendry and Collier
Counties, have not been visited by the writer, and are rather in-
accessible, but might deserve separate treatment. The "Sugar-
bowl" seems to be practically unknown botanically, but some ac-
counts of the others can be found in Dr. Small's narratives, cited
in the bibliography.


Frc. 37. Salamander (Geomys) hills of white sand in rather high but
level forest of Pinus palustris, Quercus Catesbaei, Serenoa, Aristida strica,
etc., about two miles north of Wauchula (now in Hardee County). March
14, 1915.



On account of the predominance of flat pine woods the plant
list for the whole region is not very different from that of the
flatwoods vegetation type already given, especially as regards the
herbs. The following list includes the woody plants only, and it
should be borne in mind that the first two pines are more abundant
than all the rest of the vegetation combined, and the saw-palmetto
more abundant than all the rest of the shrubs.


158








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES--
Pinus palustris (long'leaf pine)
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Taxodium imbricariumg
(pond cypress)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Nyssa biflora (black gum)
Pinus Elliottii (slash pine)
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Liquidambar Styraciflua
(sweet gum)
Pinus causa (spruce pine)
Gordonia Lasianthus red bay)
Quercus obtusa? (water oak)
Ulmus Floridana (elm)
Hicoria aquatic (hickory)
SMALL TREES--
Magnolia gauca (bay)
Quercus Catesbaci (black-Jack oak)
uercus geminara (live oak)
Salix amphibia? (willow)
Quercus cinerea (turkey oak)
Fraxinus Caroliniana (pop-ash)
Quercus myrstiolia (an oak)
Quercus Chapmani (an oak)
Ilex Cassine


VINES-
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine)
Vitis Munsoniana? (muscadine)
Rhus radicans (poison ivy)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)
SHRUBS--
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
flex glabra gallberryy)
Myrica ceri/era (myrtle)
Cholisma ruticosa (poor-grub)
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Hypericum fasciculatum
(sand myrtle)
Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Vaccinium nikidum (huckleberry)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Pycnothymus rigidus
Stilingia aquatic
Bejaria racemosa
Chrysobalanus oblongifolias
Rhus copallina (sumac)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Viburnum nudum (possum haw)
Ascyrum Setrapetalum?
Viburnum obovalum
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)
Baccharis halimijolia
Phoradendron flavescens (mistletoe)
Hypericum aspalathoides
(sand-myrtle)


The first two pines are being cut for lumber as fast as pos-
sible, but there is a vast amount of pine still standing away from
the railroads, though not of as good quality as most of that form-
erly obtained in the northern parts of the State. The long-leaf
pine is bled for turpentine almost throughout its range, but the
slash pine has apparently not yet (or at least up to two years ago)
been turpentined south of the Caloosahatchee River. Not much
use is made of the other plants yet, except that several of the shrubs
are good sources of honey.
Probably not over 5% of the area has been cleared for farm-
ing, and the population is sparse, except near the coast and rivers,
where the rapidly growing cities of Fort Myers, Sarasota, Wau-
chula, Arcadia and others are located.


159








160 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

..- ..,... 7. ."" :." ."" .















Fit. 38. Long-leaf pine flatwoods aftei the turpentine and lumber
men have finished their destructive exploitation, about 4 miles east of
Arcadia, DeSoto County. Jan. 22, 1924. (Thousands of square miles in
Florida have been devastated like this in the last decade or two.)
LAKE REGION
(Figs. 9, 39.)
In South Florida this is confined to Highlands County. It
extends all the way through the county from north to south, with
an average width of six or eight miles, and it is known locally
as the Ridge section. Its boundaries are pretty sharp in most
places, though there are a few low sandy ridges east of it sep-
arated from the main body by flatwoods.

Generally speaking, it is a rolling upland, with many lakes
and very few streams. The soil is everywhere sand (except where
overlaid by muck), varying in color from yellowish to white.
The writer has not seen any cuts in Highlands County deep enough
to reach the bottom of the sand, but there must be clay under it,
as there is in the very similar country in Polk County.

The natural vegetation is mostly high pine land and scrub,
with various gradations between. Some flatwoods areas belong
to this region, and there are numerous bays, swamps, and wet
prairies or shallow ponds, and a few areas corresponding to the







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


"cutthroats" of Polk County.* Along the Atlantic Coast Line
R. R., which traverses the region from end to end, the long-leaf
pine prevails from the northern edge of the county to DeSoto City,
and then is not seen again for nearly twenty miles. In the first
ten miles south of DeSoto City slash pine and spruce pine are
about equally common, the former mostly in flatwoods; but be-
tween Lake Steams and Childs and a little farther the spruce pine
is the only pine in sight, and sometimes it too is absent from
considerable areas.
For a few miles east of Childs the road to Okeechobee crosses
some rather steep "choppy" hills of white sand covered with
scrub vegetation, strongly suggesting the old dunes of the east
coast, and some explorers have regarded this as evidence that the
whole lake region of Highlands County is an old dune area. But
there is no reason to suppose that its geological history has been
essentially different from that of the same region in Polk County,
where the hills are higher and underlaid with clay.
The commonest woody plants in the lake region are about as
follows:
















Fic. 39. Small lake about 4 miles southeast of Avon Park, with
Pinus Caribaea in foreground, Myrica cerifera at left, and Ponederia in
edge of water Jan. 28, 1924.

*See our 13th Annual Report, p. 208.


161








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TREES-
Pinus palusri (long-leaf pine)
Pinus dlaust (spruce pine)
Pinus Coribae (slash pine)
Nyasa biflora (black gum)
Gordonia Lasinmhuf (red bay)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
SMALL TREES-
Querces Catesbaei (black-jack oak)
Quercus geminat (live oak)
Quercus myrtsfolia
Hicoria Floridana (hickory)
Magnolia glauca (bay)
Quercus cinerea (turkey oak)
Quercus Chapmani (an oak)
Persea humilis (red bay)


SHRUBS-
Serenoa serrulata (maw-palmetto)
Pieris nisida (hurrah bush)
Lupinus diffuse (lupine)
Prunun genieclata (a plum)
Sabal Eonia (a palm)
Chrysoblanus oblongifolius
Garberia fruricosa
Cholisma ferruginea
Ceratioia ericoides (rosemary)
Ceanothus microphyllus
Ximenia Americana
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Phoradendron flavescens (mistletoe)
Palfoaxia Feayi
Hypericum fasciculatum
Asimina speciosa? (pawpaw)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)


VINES-
Smilax auricudaa
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
It is hardly worth while to list the herbs, but as there are
comparatively few herbs in the scrub, the herb list for the high
pine land, given on an earlier page, would represent the whole
region pretty well.

The long-leaf and slash pines have been used for lumber
and turpentine, as usual, but that business seems to be on the de-
dine. Something like 10% of the area, including both high pine
land and scrub, but hardly any of the flatwoods areas, has been
cleared and planted in grapefruit and oranges, and that sort of
development is still actively in progress.

Avon Park and Sebring are winter resorts, and a few smaller
ones are developing.


162








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


THE PRAIRIE REGION
(Figs. 12, 22, 28, 40.)
The dry prairies of South Florida are mostLy in two parts,
separated by the palm savannas between Lake Istokpoga and Lake
Okeechobee, with smaller areas in Manatee and other counties, but
there seem to be no important differences between the eastern and
western portions. The region as a whole, in its natural features,
differs little from the flatwoods except in the scarcity of pines,
but there are certain economic differences which may become
either more or less pronounced as the country is settled up.
The topography is almost perfectly flat except for slight
depressions along streams and a few very shallow ponds and wet
prairies. But there are also a few unexplained elevations. The
headquarters of a cattle ranch in the prairie about seven miles
northwest of Okeechobee are on a low swell a few feet higher
than the surrounding country, and for a mile or two southeast
of there the water runs swiftly in the roadside ditches after a
heavy rain.
The soil is mostly sand, probably underlaid with hardpan
in most of the area, but the vegetation in some places seems to
indicate a marly subsoil.
Besides the prairie vegetation proper, which is much like
that of the flatwoods with pines left out, there are a few scattered
pines and cabbage palmettoes, and many oases of hammock vege-
tation, these usually bordering ponds or streams which afford
partial protection from fire. Shallow depressions have either
marsh, wet prairie or bay vegetation, depending probably on the
depth and permanence of the water.
Some of the streams, like Prairie Creek in DeSoto County,
have a fringe of trees along them, while others, like the Kissimmee
River, are bordered by extensive treeless marshes. The reason
for this difference has not been sufficiently investigated.
The following plant list includes trees and vines only, the
shrubs and herbs being practically the same as already listed
under the head of prairie vegetation.


163







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TREE-- VINES-
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto) Rhus radicane (poison ivy)
Pinus Caribaea (elash pine) Vitis aestivalis? (wild grape)
Quercus Virginian (live oak) Smilax rotandifolia ?
Taxodium distichum cypresss) Smilax laurijolia (bamboo vine)
Acer rubram (red maple) Vtid Munsoniana (muscadine)
Nysaa biflora (black gum)
Quercus obtusa? (water oak)
SMALL TREES--
Magnolia glauca (bay)
Fraxinus Caroliniana (pop-ash)
Salix amphibia? (willow)
flex Cassine?
There are quite a number of animals in this region, besides
the domestic cattle which range all over it at the rate of 15 or 20
per square mile. The burrowing owl (see references in the chap
ter on birds) is said to be especially characteristic, and the sand-
hill crane, now a rather rare bird, can be seen oftener in the
prairies than elsewhere.
As there are not enough trees for a lumber industry, and not
1% of ihe soil is cultivated, the main industry in the prairies is
cattle raising; and this has long been the principal grazing region
of South Florida. There are several large cattle ranches in the
region, mostly near the Kissimmee River. The grass makes up
in quantity what it lacks in quality, and in this climate the cattle
need little or no protection from the weather.
Before DeSoto County was divided into five counties (in
1921), it had an area of about 3750 square miles, about half of
which was prairie. The U. S. Census of 1900 reported 82,183
cattle from the county, or over 10 per inhabitant, 21.9 per square
mile, or one to every 29 acres. (The State census of 1905 re-
ported 477,056 cattle from the same area, but that must have been
a misprint, for it would mean 127 per square mile or one to
every five acres.) By 1920 the cattle had decreased to 53,192,
which was 14.2 per square mile or 2.1 per inhabitant, and over
95% of them were beef cattle, valued at about $20.75 each. The
1925 figures for the five counties, however, show an increase
of cattle in spite of the increase of farms, the total at that time
being 70,459; but their value averaged only $12.75 each.
During the World War the treelessness of the area was taken
advantage of by the government in the establishment of two avia-


164








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


tion fields (Carlstrom and Dorr) in the edge of the prairie a few
miles east of Arcadia.
There are no settlements of any consequence in the prairie
region yet, except the growing city of Okeechobee at its edge, and
that is supported mostly by the muck farms bordering Lake Okee-
chobee, the lake fisheries, and the tourist traffic passing through
between the east and west coasts.


Fie. 40. Cattle grazing in dry prairies about 5 miles north of Ir.
maoknaee, Collier County. March 13, 1924.


165








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


INDIAN PRAIRIE
.(Fig. 19.)
West of the Kissimmee River, between Lakes Istokpoga and
Okeechobee, is a region of beautiful palm savannas, covering
apparently a few hundred square miles.
The surface is flat and usually damp, and unimproved roads
through this region have several inches of water over them much
of the time. As far as known the soil is all sand, with a little
muck at the surface, and yet the abundance of cabbage palmetto
would seem.to indicate marl or something of the sort within reach
of the tree roots.
To a traveler entering this region for the first time the abund-
ant palmettoes and tall grass are a wonderful sight, hardly matched
anywhere else in' the United States, except for small areas of
palm savanna near the coasts of Florida. Dr. Small* calls this
the most remarkable growth of cabbage palmetto in existence.
Besides the ubiquitous palm savanna vegetation, there are
many islands or oases of pine woods and hammock, and the region
grades off toward both lakes into saw-grass marshes much like
the Everglades.
The plant list would be muth the same as that already given
for inland palm savannas (page 103, first column), with the addi-
tion of a small proportion of flatwoods and low hammock. Birds
of various kinds are numerous.
There is almost no permanent population in this region as
yet, but some of the hammocks are inhabitated by Seminole In-
dians, of whom there are estimated to be about 150 in Glades
County. They have a few garden patches in the hammocks, but
doubtless get much if not most of their food by hunting. There
is also some. grazing in the area, but practically no farming in
the ordinary sense.


*Jour. N, Y. Bot. Gard. 22:57. 1921.


166








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 167

THE EVERGLADES
(Figs. 29, 41.)

This vast area of marsh land, about 4,000 square miles in
extent, has attracted a great deal of attention ever since it was
known to civilized man; but except for its size it does not differ
much from hundreds of other saw-grass marshes in Florida. It
includes a narrow strip around the west side of Lake Okeechobee,
and an area forty or fifty miles wide extending from the lake to
the mangrove swamps of the Ten Thousand Islands. Lake Okee-
chobee itself may be regarded as a part of the Everglades, in
which the water is a little too deep for saw-grass to grow.*
The surface of the Everglades is essentially flat, i. e., it
conforms to the curvature of the earth, and if it were not for the
accumulation of muck the greater part of the area would be a large
shallow lake. The muck or peat varies in depth from a feather-
edge to several feet, and it rests mostly on sand northward and


" ... -- "" ".
L. 1













Fic. 41. Looking west in Everglades from dredge in North New
River Canal about 13 miles northwest of Fort Lauderdale (now in Broward
County). April 12, 1909.

*For more detailed descriptions of the Everglades see the two U. S. Senate
Documents (1911 and 1914) and the soil survey of the "Fort Landerdale area"
(1915). cited in the bibliography.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


on marl or limestone southward, though the two kinds of sub-
strata may be more or less mixed.
The prevailing vegetation has already been described under
the head of saw-grass marshes, and the southern part of tLh- Ever-
glades is largely of the marl prairie type. There rvu also many
clumps of trees and bushes, and strips of taller 'i tber near Lake
Okeechobee and the edges of the Glades.
There are many birds, especially water birds.
The supply of peat in the Everglades is practically unlimited,
and many people have wondered why it is not used for fuel or
fertilizer. The answer is probably that there is not enough cheap
labor in Florida to dig out the peat and market it in successful
competition with coal or wood. And any material used for fer-
tilizer generally has to be transported several hundred miles at
least to reach soils deficient in that particular substance.
The cutting of several canals through the Glades in the last
fifteen years or so has made small areas available for cultivation,
but it is difficult to say how much, for no available statistics sep.
arate the Everglade farms from those on terra firma in the same
counties. Possibly two per cent of the total area would be a
reasonable estimate. A considerable variety of crops has been
tried, mostly vegetables, but it is probably too early yet to say
just which crop is best adapted to such soil.


168







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


FLATWOODS, EASTERN DIVISION
(Figs. 10, 25.)
The flatwoods on the east side of South Florida are separated
from those on the west side by the lake region, prairies and Ever-
glades, occupying a space forty miles wide or more, but they are
very similar in most respects. The most conspicuous differences
perhaps are that the eastern division is less elevated and has fewer
streams, and its pine is nearly all slash pine, the long-leaf species
not being known south of Okeechobee on that side of the State.
The soil is mostly a grayish fine sand; but there is a clayey or
marly belt of unknown extent a few miles west of Fort Pierce,
and as usual many areas of muck or peat, and a few strips or
patches of white sand.
This region might be divided into two parts by a line ap-
proximately parallel to the coast and about twenty miles back
from it. The division is most marked perhaps at Indiantown,
where there seems to be a low seaward-facing scarp, rising ten
feet in a mile or two, possibly an old shore-line. The country
east of there in Martin and Palm Beach Counties, called "Hungry
Land" in some of Dr. Small's botanical narratives,* is low and
wet, and has about as much pond cypress as slash pine, and many
pretty flowers,t especially in summer; while westward of Indian-
town the country is a little higher and drier, with denser forests,
fewer flowers, and little or no pond cypress, but some river cypress
(Taxodium distichum) along Lake Okeechobee and the creeks
flowing into it.
Farther north, in St. Lucie County, the escarpment is hardly
noticeable, but the country corresponding to that east of Indian-
town has a somewhat marly soil, and a rather open growth of
pond cypress. In Indian River County there are many wet prai-
ries east of Fellsmere, and west of there some large marshes some-
thing like the Everglades, constituting the head-waters of the St.
John's River.

*See Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 22:30, 206. 1921; 23:139-140. 1922. "Hang
Land" probably has no definite boundaries, and some persons acquainted wth
that area locate it eouth rather than east of Indiantown.
tin this connection see pages 98212 of C. T. Simpoum' "Out of Doors in
Florida" a1924).


169








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


For the present the whole area will be treated as a unit. Its
prevailing vegetation types are about the same as those in the
flatwoods on the west side of the State, namely, flat pine woods,
swamps, bays, cypress ponds, marshes, low hammocks, and scrub.
The following plant list includes woody plants only; for the herb
list would he practically the same as that already given for the
slash-pine flatwoods type of vegetation.


TREES-
Pinus Caribaea (alsh pine)
Pinus palustri (long-leaf pine)
(northward only)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Taxodium imbricarium
(pond cyprese)
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Pinus clausa spreee pine)
Acer rubram (red maple)
SMALL TREES---
Magnolia glaa (b)
Salix amphibia? ( ow)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Gordonia Lasianhus (red bay)
flex Cassine
(Psidium Guajava) (guava)
VINES--
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine)
Rubus trivialis? (dewberry)
Vitie Munsonians muscadine)


SHRUBS-
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Hypericum fasciculum
(guinea cypress?)
Cholisma fnricosa (poor.grub)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Ilex glabra gallberryy)
(Baccharis halimifolia)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Stillingia aquatic
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary)
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Pycnothymus rigidus
Bejaria racemosa
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
fypericum aspaashoides
(sand myrtle?)
Aeimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Cephalanthus ocicdentalia
(elbow bush)
Ascyrun tetrapetalum?
Gaylussacia dumosa
Hypericurn opacum


The first tree listed probably makes up more than half the
total.

If we compare this list with that for the western division of
the flatwoods, to discover what differences there are in the vegeta-
tion, and why, we find that among the woody plants Pinus palustris,
Acer rubrum, Quercus Virginiana, Nyssa biflora, Pinus Elliottii,
Liquidambar, Quercus obtusa, Ulmus Floridana, Hicoria aqua-
tica, Magnolia glauca, Quercus Catesbaei, Q. cinerea, Fraxinus
Caroliniana, Quercus Chapmani, Rhus radicans, Ilex glabra,
Asimina reticulata, Stillingia aquatica, Rhus copallina, Viburnum
nudum, Viburnum obovatum, Cephalanthus and Phoradendron
are commoner in the western division (which also has a greater


170









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


variety of trees), and Pinus Caribaea, Hypericum fasciculatum,
Cholisma fruticosa and Pieris nitida, in the eastern.
The former group contains many more species, and most of
them do not range much farther south, so that the reason for the
difference may be largely climatic; the east side of the peninsula
being warmer than the west side in the same latitude. Soil may
have something to do with it too, for the three shrubs in the latter
group are characteristic of acid soils.*
The pines are being cut for lumber, but at present there is
probably more virgin pine timber in this region than in any other
equal area in the eastern United States, on account of the sparse
population. And there is little or no turpentining as yet south
of the St. Lucie canal in Martin County. Very little of the area
is cultivated, perhaps not one percent, and there is practically no
grazing south of the canal, and not as much north of there as in
the western division of the flatwoods.
EAST COAST STRIP
(Figs. 13, 33, 4246.)
As in central Florida, the east coast strip consists mostly of
a narrow sandy barrier beach, a lagoon (Indian River, Lake
Worth, Biscayne Bay, etc.) averaging about a mile wide back of
it, and a narrow strip of old dunes on the mainland, sometimes
with a mile or so of flatwoods between the dunes and the lagoon.
The southern extremity of the region is Key Biscayne or Cape
Florida, a few miles southeast of Miami.
About half the area, from Palm Beach northward, was
mapped and described in the U. S. soil survey of the "Indian
River area," in 1915. The principal soil texture types found in
that area were sand (55.6%), fine sand (17.4%), tidal marsh,
muck, coastal beach, fine sandy loam, and a few others that made

*A similar comparison of the flatwoods west and east of the lake region
in central Florida was made in our 13th Annual Report, pp. 140-141,


171









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


less than 1% each. (These figures are for the whole area, which
is partly in central Florida, and the proportions would doubtless
be a little different for the South Florida portion alone, if one
took time to estimate that separately.)

The vegetation types include some flatwoods differing very
little from those farther inland, beach and dune vegetation, scrub,
mangrove swamps, low hammocks, tropical hammocks, bays, and
a few others not easily classified. The commonest woody plants
are about as follows. The size classification is necessarily some-
what arbitrary, on account of the intergradation of trees and
shrubs. The first three trees are far more abundant than the
others.


TREES--
Pius clause (spruce pine)
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage pahnetLo)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Hicoria sp. (hickory)
Persea Borbonia (red bay)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Sideroxylon foetidissimum (mastic)
SMALL TREES-
Hicoria Floridana (hickory)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Magnolia glauca (bay)
Rhizopho~ra Mangle (red mangrove)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Salix amphibia? (willow)
Bursera Simaruba (gumboldimbo)
Gordonia Lasianthus (red bay)
Xarnhoxylum Fagara
Simaruba glauca (paradise tree)
Ficus area? (wild fig)
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape)
Chrysophyllum olivaeforme
(satin leaf)
Laurocerasus myrtifolia
Coccolobis lauifolia (pigeon.plum)
Quercus Chapmani (an oak)
Exothea paniculata
VINES-
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
Smilax auriculata
Dlbergia Ecastophyllum
Rhabdadenia bifora
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine)
Pisonia acnleata?


SHRUBS--
Serenoa serrlata (saw-palmetto)
Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary)
Chotisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Pahaoxia Feayi
Erythrina arborea
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Conradina puberula?
Hypericum fasciculatum
Rhus copallina (sumac)
Mfyrica pumia (myrtle)
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Psychoiria undata (wild coffee)
Lantana Camara
Acanthocereus pentagonus
(a cactus)
Icacorea paniculata?
Scaevola Plumieri
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet
Tournefortia gnapWhaodes
Batis maritima
Aster Carolinianus?
(Carica Papaya) (papaw)
Bejaria racemosa
Iva imbricata?
Rapanea Guyanensis
Chrysobalanus Icaco (cocoa plun
Suriana maritima
Baccharis halimifoli


)


I)


172








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Little use is made of the native vegetation, except the slash
pine and a few ornamental plants. A good deal of the scrub has
been destroyed and supplanted by pineapples and citrous fruits,
and some of nearly all types to make room for houses, roads, etc.,
for this is now one of the greatest winter resort regions in the
world. An asphalt road now runs the whole length of it on the
mainland, and for a considerable distance there is an equally
good road parallel to it on the barrier beach, with bridges con-
necting them at every town of any size. A dozen years or more
ago there was considerable traffic on the inland waterway, a canal
having been dredged through the mangrove swamps between the
lagoons; but the improvement of highways has made that mode
of transportation seem too slow in comparison, and one hears
little about the canal now.
Besides the tourist business. and intensive farming, the fish-
eries are of considerable importance. Fort Pierce seems to be the
principal shipping point for fish.


Fic. 42. Flatwoods marlyy?) between old dunes and Indian River,
I'Vlut a mile north of Quay (now in Indian River County). Trees Pint
waribriea and Sabal Palmesto. Aug. 23, 1923.


173









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Fic. 43. Looking north along asphalt road through narrow tropical
hammock bordering Indian River about ] mile south of Ankona, St Lucie
County. Aug. 22. 1923. The proposed widening of this road (perhaps
already accomplished) will destroy some very interesting vegetation.


k L -L


Fic. 44. High old dunes, possibly 75 feet above sea-level, near
Jensen (now in Martin County). Forest of Pinus clause near center. The
cleared areas on the dunes were presumably once cultivated in pineapples,
but arw now lying fallow. Aug. 22, 1923.


174










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


- .c
Mt


4-


FIc. 45. Old field, formerly cultivated in pineapples, and now cov-
ered with Natal grass, between Boynton and Delray, Palm Beach County,
looking west from the 316 mile-post (now about 297 miles from Jackson.
ville) on the Florida East Coast Ry. The crest of the old dunes, with a
thin fringe of pines, is seen in the background, about 1A mile away. Aug.
21, 1923.


N.Ji


~t~.=iiII


It.
V- *f


FIc. 46. Looking iouth along shore at Miami Beach.
caprae in foreground, Uniola paniculata and cocoanut trees
17, 1923.


Ipomoea Pes-
at right. Aug.


17S


r
'"
II
I







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


MIAMI LIMESTONE REGION
(Figs. 30, 47-49.)
This region, which is without a close counterpart anywhere
else in the world, has already been pretty well described under
the heads of geology, soil and vegetation. Excluding the portions
where the Miami oolite is covered by sand, marl or water, it ex-
tends from about the northern edge of Dade County near Ojus to
the western edge west of Homestead, and has an area of about
500 square miles. In some botanical works it has been called
the Biscayne pine land, or Everglade keys.
It is essentially flat, and perhaps nowhere more than 25 feet
above sea-level, with a surface of honeycombed limestone, whose
cavities are mostly filled with sand north of Cocoanut Grove and
with red clay in the Redlands district, around Homestead. It is
dred feet wide, some of which extend all the way through from
intersected by numerous transverse glades, averaging a few hun-


















Fic. 47. Scene in Miami pine land on right-of-way of F. E. C. Ry,
about two miles north of the center of Miami, showing some of the geological
peculiarities. The sand has been removed from the foreground for railroad
ballast, exposing the peculiar honeycombed surface of the oolitic limestone,
with vertical pits a foot or two in diameter. March 22, 1909. (The city limits
of Miami now extend far beyond this spot, and the population has multiplied
about 30 times since the picture was taken, so that the locality is probably
no longer recognizable.)


176








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


die Everglades to the coast prairie, while others open only into
the latter. These glades are a few inches or feet lower than the
pine lands, and are inundated in the wettest seasons. The rock
of the region is used extensively for road material and railroad
ballast, and locally for buildings.
The prevailing vegetation is that of the dry pine lands. Next
in order of area are the marly glades and the tropical hammocks.
The commonest woody plants are about as follows, the pine being
more abundant than all the others combined. Species chiefly
confined to the northern or southern portions are designated by
N or S, as in the plant list for the Miami pine land.


Fic. 48. View in pine land near Cutler, Dade County, after lumber
ing. A recent fire has Iemoved some of the vegetation temporarily, ex-
posng the rough surface of the limestone rock, which here has no sand
over it. and has much smaller and more irregular cavities than those shown
in the preceding figure. March 17, 1924.


177









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


TREES-
Pinus Caribaes (slash pine)
Quercus Virginiana (live oak)
Sabal Palmetto
(cabbage palmetto)
Bursera Simarnba (gumbo-limbo)
Ocotea Catesbyana
Eugenia confusa (ironwood)
Sideroxylon foetidissimum
(mastic)
Ficus area (wild fig, or rubber)
Taxodium disticbum (cypress)
S Lysiloma Bahameneis
Coccolobis laurifolia
(pigeon-plum)
Metopium toxiferum
(poison-wood)
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
SMALL TREES--
(Trema mollis)
Simaruba glauca (paradise tree)
Salix amphibia? (willow)
S Coccothrinax argentea
(silver palm)
Rapanea Guyanensis
Coccolobis lauifolia
(pigeon-plum)
S Tetrazygia bicolor
Cithharexylum villosum
(fiddle-wood)
Met opium toxifernm
(poison-wood)
Chrysobalamns pellaoarpus?
(cocoa-plum)
Ilex Knrgiana
Icacorea paniculatt
Morus rbra (mulberry)
Diphois salicifoia
Chytraculia sp.
(Carica Papaya) (papaw)
Annona palustris (custard-apple)
Guetarda elliptica?
Picramnia pentandra
Persea pubescens (red bay)
Laurocerasus myrtifolia
ChrysophrlUum olivaeforme
(satin-leaf)
Persen Borboni (red bay)
Ilex Cassine


VINES--
Rhus radicans?. (poison ivy)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine)
Vitis Caribaea? (wild grape)
Echises sp.?
Pisonia aculeata
SHRUBS-
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
N Quercus pumila (oak runner)
S Guettarda scabra
Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Coccothrinax argentea
(silver palm)
N Sabal Etonia (a palm)
Metopium toxiferam
(poison-wood)
Psychotria undata (wild coffee)
Rhus copallina? (sumac)
Baccharis halimifolia
N Chrysobalrnus oblongifolius
Croton linearis?
N Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
N Vacciium nitidum (huckleberry)
S Lantana depressa
S Terraygia bicolor
Byrsonima lucida
Pithecolobium Guadalupense


The pine has been used a good deal for lumber, but not for
turpentine yet. Its wood is rather hard and brittle, and inferior
to that of the long-leaf pine, but for some purposes it is more ex-
pedient to use it than to haul long-leaf pine lumber from points


178







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 179

150 to 200 miles away. Possibly 5% of the pine land has been
cleared and planted in grapefruit and other subtropical fruits,
and a similar amount utilized for residential purposes. As it is
almost impossible to use a plow in the rocky pine land, tree crops
have a decided advantage over annual crops. But the transverse
glades are relatively free from rock, and vegetables, especially
tomatoes, are raised in them in the dry season, as in the coast
prairie adjoining.
On account of its unsurpassed winter climate, and the in-
creasing number of people in other states who can afford to take
long vacations, this region is rapidly filling up with houses, apart-
ments and hotels.


ri


Finc 49. Curiously water-worn pillars of limestone about three feet
tall, in eastern edge of the transverse glade near Larkin (shown in fig. 30).
Photograph from Dr. S. Graenicher, April, 1924.








180 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

THE COAST PRAIRIE
(Figs. 50-53.)
Southeast and south of the Miami limestone region, extending
to the shores of Biscayne Bay and the Bay of Florida, is a per-
fectly flat area, nearly all subject to inundation by high tides and
in the rainy season, but dry enough in winter and spring. This
has been. confused with the Everglades by some writers, and its
inland edge does not differ much from the southern edge of the
Everglades; but the Lverglades are never touched by salt water,
and the mangrove and two species of cypress, which are common
in the coast prairie, seem to be wanting in the Everglades, except
at the extreme southern end, and there are various other differ-
ences. The main body of the coast prairie terminates on the
northeast at Silver Bluff, but there is a narrow strip of what ap-
pears to be the same thing in Broward County, between Ojus and
Fort Lauderdale, east of the railroads.
The soil is everywhere a gray marl, mostly calcium carbon-
ate, with rock near the surface at the inland edge, and some muck
over it southward. The vegetation is quite diversified, and not


Fic. 50. Stunted cypresses Taxodium imbricarium) in coast prairie
a few miles west of Paradise Key or Royal Palm Hammock, Dade County.
March 18, 1924.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Fi.. 51. Mangrove (Rhizophorr) bushes in coast prairie
miles soulhwest of Paradise Key. Clump of small trees of various
including Paurnris) in right background. Mach 1B. 1924.


several
species


FIG. 52. Looking west along marly shore near East Cape Sable,
Monroe County, at medium tide. The trees are all Avicennia (black man-
;rove). March 18, 1924.


181







182 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

easy to describe. At the inland edge it is mostly prairie with
scattered clumps of trees, much like the transverse glades of the
Miami pine land, and the southern edge of the Everglades. Going
south or east from Florida City (formerly called Detroit) to where
the influence of salt water becomes apparent, one soon comes to
multitudes of red mangrove bushes, a few feet tall. These look
vigorous and not at all stunted, and at first sight one might think
they were young trees which would soon grow taller; but they
and their ancestors have probably been there hundreds if not
thousands of years, without ever growing any larger than they are
now. A plant cannot live long without growing; so there must be
something (perhaps fire?) that kills these mangrove bushes every
few years and makes them start all over again. Nearer the coast
the mangroves are larger, and where their roots are in salt water
all the time they are medium-sized trees, as usual.
Going southwestward from Royal Palm Hammock toward
Cape Sable there is first a great deal of stunted pond cypress
(Taxodium imbricarium) scattered through the prairie, and dense
clumps of trees with large river cypresses (Taxodium distichum)
can be seen off to the south, probably mostly along the course taken


Fic. 53. Sticks of Conocarpus (buttonwood) piled up to be burned
for charcoal, near Flamingo, on the mainland of Monroe County. Living
trees of same species in backgorand. March 18, 1924.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


by the water discharged from the Everglades in the rainy season.
Elsewhere the pond cypress seems to prefer sandy soils, but here
it is in a soil of nearly pure calcium carbonate. It extends south-
ward only a few miles from the pine land, and then for a similar
distance there are no woody plants in the prairie except an oc.
casional clump of shrubs and small trees, some of them contain.
ing among other things the rare palm Paurotis Wrightii. Then
bushes of red mangrove and buttonwood and other salt-loving
species appear, partly replacing the saw-grass. Beyond the Mon.
roe County line the mangrove and buttonwood reach tree size,
and the vegetation is mostly mangrove swamp for a few miles,
with mahogany hammocks in the drier spots.
About Flamingo open prairies of considerable extent appear,
and there are a few cactus thickets near the shore. Near East
Cape Sable the shore is fringed with black mangroves, and by
moonlight the place looks much like some shores hundreds of
miles farther north, there being no pines or palms in sight. (Fig.
52.) The Cape Sable country might be treated as a distinct region
if it was better known.
The commonest woody plants of the coast prairie, including
the hammocks and mangrove swamps, are about as follows:


TREES-
faxodium imbricarium
%pond cypress)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
Taxodium distichum (cypress)
Ficus area (wild fig)
Swietenia Mahagoni (mahogany)
Ichthyomethia piscpula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
SMALL TREES-
Conocarpus erecta (buttonwood)
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Persea pubescens (red bay)
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood)
Paurotis Wrightii (a palm)
Magnolia glauca (hay)
Chrysobalanms Icaco (cocoa-plum)
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Salix amphibia? (willow)


VINES-
Rhus radicans? (poison ivy)
Parthenocissus quinquefolla
(Virginia creeper)
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine)
Rhabdadenia bi fora?
SHRUBS-
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Chrysobaltaus Icaco (ocoa-plum)
Borrichia frsnescen
Batis maritima
Myrica cerifera (myrtle)
Gossypium hirsatum (wild cotton)
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Opunsia austrina? (prickly pear)
Acanshocereus penagonus (a cactus)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)
Rapanea Guyanensis
Conocarpus erect (hutlonwood)
Erythrina arborea
Cephalanthus occidentalis
(elbow-bush)


183








184 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The list of herbs would be essentially the same as that al-
ready given under the head of marl prairies.
Some mahogany (known locally as madeira) has been cut
from this region at various times, and Madeira Hammock, on the
south shore, takes its name from that species. Here, as nearly
everywhere within 100 miles of Key West, charcoal making is
an important industry, and the buttonwood is preferred for that
purpose.
Somewhere near the southwestern corner of Dade County
there was once a noted bird rookery, Cuthbert Rookery, much vis-
ited by gunners in quest of egret plumes, even long after the kill-
ing of egrets was prohibited by law, for laws of course are not
very effective in uninhabited regions.
There is practically no farming in the coast prairie at pres-
ent except at its inland edge, where there are vast fields of veg-
etables, especially tomatoes, in spring. Considerable sugar-cane
was once raised near Flamingo, for syrup, but too frequent inun-
dations by salt water seem to have discouraged the growers. There
is said to be a large plantation of cocoanuts near Cape Sable.

THE TEN THOUSAND ISLANDS
(Fig. 54.)
Along the Gulf coast from Naples nearly to Cape Sable is
located the largest mangrove swamp in the United States. Inland
it grades into the Everglades and coast prairie, and its boundaries,
even the shore line, are ill-defined in many places. It is divided
by tidal channels into a multitude of islands, whence its name;
and the channels are so crooked and shallow and the distinction
between land and water so difficult to make that it has never been
accurately mapped. (But now that aeroplanes are coming into
use for map-making purposes the task ought to be simpler.) Be-
tween Cape Romano and Cape Sable or Whitewater Bay the
mangrove swamp is said to front directly on the Gulf, but north
of Cape Romano, Marco Island and a sandy peninsula extending
southward from Naples separate it from the Gulf. (Most maps
of Florida represent this northern extension of the Ten Thousand
Islands as dry land.)







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


The region is rather remote from railroads at present, but
there is a pretty good road from Naples to Marco ferry, and the
following plant list is made up from observations along that road
in March, 1924. From all accounts the most abundant tree must
be still more so in the more typical and central portions of the
region.* Large and small trees are here combined:
TREES-- SHRUBS--
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove) Batis maritima
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove) HERBS-
Laguncularia racemosa Juncus Roemerianus ( a rush)
(white mangrove) Saicornia ambigua?
Conocarpus erecia (buttonwood) Acromichtm aurem (a fern)

At one time the red mangrove was exploited to some extent
for tan-bark. A variety of the fox-squirrel, known only from
this region, and the clam industry of neighboring waters, have
been mentioned in the chapters on fauna.
This region seems to be inhabited at present only by a few
fishermen, but plans are now on foot to develop a winter resort
on the coast, just about in the latitude of Miami.






IL











Fic. 54. Salty savanna or marsh with Avicennia (about 20 feet tall),
and Juncus Roemerianus, about two miles north of Marco, Collier County.
March 12, 1924.
*See Sargent (1893) in bibliography.


185






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-1ITH ANNUAL REPORT.


THE UPPER KEYS
(Figs. 15, 23, 55, 56.)
The Florida Keys are divided into two groups, differing
considerably in geology and vegetation.* The upper Keys extend
from Soldier Key, about ten miles south of Miami, to the south
end of Big Pine Key and a little beyond, a distance of about 100
miles. They average less than a mile wide, and are divided into
several separate islands, with the gaps between them usually less
than a mile wide. The highest elevation on them is said to be
18 feet above sea-level.
The rock is a coral reef of comparatively recent age (Key
Largo limestone), and there is very little soil in the ordinary sense.
There is said to be no fresh water on any of the upper Keys, and
the few inhabitants therefore depend on rain-water, and water
brought from the mainland in tank cars.
The vegetation is mostly tropical hammock (rather scrubby)
and mangrove swamp. Air-plants are much less abundant than
















Fic. 55. Rocky outer shore of Lower Maracumbe Key at low tide.
Coroanut trees at left. July 27, 1910.
*For notes on the differences between the upper and lower Keys tee
Curtis, Garden & Forest 1:279-280. 1888; Sanford, Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. SurV.
2:196-198. 1910; Small, Jour. N. Y Bot. Gard. 12:153-156. 1911; 18:104. 1917;
22:52. 1921.


186







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


in the hammocks of the Miami region, probably largely on account
of the greater exposure to wind and salt spray. And several plants
which are common to the mainland and the lower Keys, such as
the slash pine, saw-grass, cabbage palmetto, and myrtle (Myrica
cerifera), are rare or absent on the upper Keys.

The following plant list is based mostly on car-window notes,
and is doubtless far from complete, for many of the tropical trees
and shrubs look so much alike that it is difficult to identify them
from a moving train. The distinction between trees and shrubs
is necessarily somewhat arbitrary, and some species appear under
more than one head.


TREES-
Bursera Simaruba (gumbo-limbo)
Ichthyomethia piscipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood)
Thrinax (2 species) (thatch-palm)
Lysiloma Bahamensis
Ficus area? (wild fig)
(Cocos nucifera) (cocoanut)
Sideroxylon foetidissimum (mastic)
Swietenia Mahagoni (mahogany)
Eugenia confusa (ironwood)
SMALL TREES-
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Conocarpus erect (buttonwood)
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood)
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape)
(Carica Papaya) (papaw)
(Trema mollis)
Coccolnbis laurifolia (pigeon plum)
Simarnba glauca (paradise tree)
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
VINES--
(Vitis Munsoniana) (muscadine)
Guilandina Crista
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia creeper)


SHRUBS-
Badts mariima
(Solanum verbascifolium)
(Tournefortia gnaphalodes)
(Solanum sp.)
Borrichia frutescens
Opuntia Dillenii? (prickly pear)
Acanthocereus pentagonus (a caclts)
Gossypium hirsutum (wild cotton)
Chamaesyce buxiolia?
Pithecolobium Guadalipense?
Iva imbricate
Borrichia arborecens
Mimusops emarginata
Genipa clusiifolia
(seven-year apple)
Panicum divaricatum (a grass)
HERBS--
Uniola paniculata (sea-oats)
(Bidene leucantha)
(Spanish needles)
(Tricholaena rose) (Natal grass)
Flaveria linearis
Sporobolus Virginicus? (a grass)
Sesuvium Portulacastrum
Dondia linearis
Spartina junciformis? (a grasa)
Monanthochloe littoralis (a grass)
Ipomoea Pes.Caprae
(morning-glory)
Philoxerus vermicularis
Chloris sp.? (a grass)
(Cenehrus sp.) (sand-spur)
Agave decipiens
Salicornia ambigua


187





188 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Besides these should be mentioned the rare palm, Pseudo-
phoenix Sargentii, known from Elliott's Key, Long Key, and some
of the West Indies, but now nearly exterminated in Florida, just
because of its rarity. Practically all the plants listed grow also
in the tropics, and there are no very distinct endemic species on
the upper Keys. Among the herbs the grasses are pretty well
represented, but some of them are mere weeds, which may not
have been there 100 years ago.
Some mahogany has been cut from the upper Keys, but it
has never been the basis of an important industry, because there
is not enough of it, and the cost of getting it to market is too
great. And since the building of the railroad the forests on Key
Largo have been burned so much that they are practically worth-
less at present.
The principal agricultural enterprise is the growing of limes,
which are seldom seen elsewhere in Florida, and that business ex-
panded considerably between the writer's two visits to the Keys,
in 1910 and 1924. As it is practically impossible to use a plow
or hoe in the rock, the lime groves are generally full of weeds,






d I
-.-.,*." ...' .: *1. .' L.










Fi. 56. Inner shore of Key Vacca at Marathon, showing small rocky
island about 100 yards off shore, with edges deeply undercut all around
by the solvent action of the water, combined with wave action. July 28,
1910.







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


which if left alone for a year or two would almost hide the little
trees; and a person who had never seen a lime grove before might
pass one on the train without noticing it.
On account of the scarcity of soil and water, the population
is sparse; but within the past year or two much land on Key Largo
has been sold at fancy prices for winter resort purposes, and there
is now a newspaper there, and a highway bridge connecting with
the mainland.
THE LOWER KEYS
(Figs. 17, 21, 57, 58.)

This group of islands extends from about Little Pine Key to
Key West, a distance of about forty miles, and may be regarded
as including also some small low islands farther west, the Mar-
quesas Keys and Dry Tortugas. The islands are very irregular
in outline, as every map shows, and only a few feet above sea-
level, and it is a reasonable supposition that they are the remnants
of a land-mass that once (several thousand years ago, perhaps)
stood higher and was continuous, and perhaps connected with the
mainland.


FIc. 57. Thicket vegetation on limestone rock on Ramrod Key.
showing Conocarpus, Coccolobis uvilera, Byrsonima, Andropogon tener (?),
etc. March 20, 1924.


19






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


The lower Keys are composed of a Pleistocene limestone
which is supposed to be of the same age as the Miami oolite, but
it is more solid, without the honeycomb effect so noticeable in
Dade County. It has been called the Key West oolite, and on
Big Pine Key it joins the coral rock of the upper Keys. On some
of the lower Keys there are small sinks or pot-holes, which hold
enough fresh water to afford a suitable habitat for the saw-grass
and a few other plants not known on the upper Keys, but the water
is hardly fit to drink. At Key West a little fresh water is obtained
from shallow wells, but all deep wells so far yield water too salty
to drink. Consequently the city depends mostly on rain-water,
and artesian well water hauled in tank cars from Homestead, over
100 miles away.
On a few of the Keys, notably Ramrod Key, there is enough
loamy soil for a few gardens, but farming as one of the assets
of the region is negligible. What little soil there is seems to be
quite fertile, though.
The vegetation is more diversified than that of the upper
Keys. Big Pine Key has extensive forests of slash pine, and there
are a few pines on some of the smaller keys nearby. There are
thatch-palm savannas on Summerland Key and elsewhere, ham-
mocks in protected places, a few cactus thickets, and many salt
flats and mangrove swamps. The trees are all rather stunted, and
the forests were probably never as tall and dense as on the main-
land, for this is not only the driest part of Florida, but is also
subject to hurricanes every few years.
The following plant list is based on notes taken from the
train in March, 1924, and while walking from Cudjoe to Big Pine
on the 20th of that month. Many additional species are listed in
Small's Flora of the Florida Keys (1913), but without indication
of relative abundance. The vegetation of some of the small
islands west of Key West has been described in detail by Mills-
paugh (1907).


190







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES (mostly small)-
Conocarpus ercaa (buttonwood)
Avicenia nitida (black mangrove)
Thrin (2 species?) (thatch-palm)
Metopium toxiferum (poison-wood)
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Ichthyomethia piacipula
(Jamaica dogwood)
Coocolobis uvifera (sea-grape)
Coccothrinax argentea (silver palm)
Pithecolobium sp.
Mimusops emarginata
Sabal Palmeno (cabbage palmetto)
VINES-
Smilax auricdak


SHRUBS--
Rhliophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Borrickia frutescens
Bais maritima
Ernodea liUoralis
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Morinda Roioc
Byrsonima lucid
Bumelia angustifolia
Erithalis frukicosa
Borrichia arborescens
Myrica cerife:a (myrtle)
Sopbora tomentosa
Suriana martinma
Opuntia Dillenii?
Eugenia sp.?
Rapanea Guyanenis
Genipa clustifolia?
Croton linearis?


The herbs other than weeds make up almost too small a pro-
portion of the vegetation to be worth mentioning here, but there
are several endemic species among them, as noted in the chapter
on floristics. The buttonwood and a few other trees are used ex-
tensively for charcoal for Key West, but the other native plants
are not used much. Several of the trees have very hard wood
(e. g. lignum-vitae), and might be important if they occurred in
sufficient quantity.


Fic. 58. Sacks of charcoal awaiting shipment on Cudjoe Key. In
the center can be seen a narrow opening where boats come in through the
mangrove fringe to get the charcoal. March 20, 1924.


191





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


The many varieties of fish, sponges, etc., marketed at Key
West should be counted among the resources of this region. Big
Pine Key has a deer* and a rat supposed to differ a little from
their nearest relatives on the mainland, as noted previously under
the head of mammals, and it is a reasonable assumption that these
differences (and perhaps also those exhibited by the endemic
species of plants) have developed since the Keys were separated
from the mainland by the sinking of the ocean floor.
There are very few inhabitants on the lower Keys outside
of Key West, and even that city had about 5,000 fewer inhabitants
in 1925 than in 1920, in spite of the unprecedented boom in the
peninsular part of the State. Key West grew pretty steadily up
to 1890, and then remained about stationary until 1920, in spite
of the coming of the railroad in 1912.f The sudden drop of about
20% between 1920 and 1925 has never been satisfactorily ex-
plained, but the decline of the sponge business (see chapter on
sponges, page 151) probably had something to do with it.

*See Small, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard, 12:155. 1911. Barbour & Allen, Jour.
Mammalogy 3:73. 1922.
tSee Bull. Am. Geog. Soc. 44:90-93. 1912.


ADDENDA
The following bibliographical reference was obtained too
late for insertion in its proper place on page 36:
1879
Maurice Thompson. The witchery of archery.--ii+269 pp. New York,
1879.
Largely devoted to birds, and said to contain a chapter (pp. 100-126) on
Lake Okeechobee and vicinity, which antedates Heilprin's account (mee p. 37) by
several years.


192






INDEX.


INDEX
This index is for the whole volume, though nearly all the entries in it
pertain to the paper on southern Florida which makes up the greater part of
the volume. The references cover mineral resources, economic products, vegeta-
tion types, authors cited, plants, animals, and a few other topics, but not names
of mining companies, counties, cities. lakes, rivers, etc. Technical names of
plants and animals (including families) are italicized, and a few synonyms and
crossureferences are included, for genera or species whose names have been
changed recently.
Where there is only one species in the area treated, or in Florida, or the
identity of some species is uncertain, the specific name is usually omitted to save
space. (About 315 genera and 440 species of plants. and 100 genera or larger
groups of living animals, are mentioned in the paper on southern Florida. About
400 species of plants are listed under the head of vegetation, and the rest in the
bibliography or in the regional descriptions.)
As some species are referred to in one place by common name only and
in another by technical name only, any one wishing to find everything that is
said about a given species should look up both sames. (Most of the animals
are mentioned by common names only.) But in many such cases the pages
where a plant is mentioned under a different name are given in parentheses; and
the same device is used for other indirect references.


193







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--J1TH ANNUAL REPORT.


A

Abudefdua (fish). 149
Acnshocereus, 99, 108, 110, 130, 155,
172, 183, 187
Acer rubrum, 104, 105. 119, 120, 121,
123, 125, 159, 162, 164, 170, 172
Acetabulum, 40
Acid soils, 87, 171
Acnida, (61), 125
Acoaarrhaphe (see Panrotis)
Acorns, 79, 81
Acrostichum, 120, 130, 185
Actinospermum, 83, 86, 91
Adams, A. C, 38
Adetia (see Forestiera)
Aedes (mosquito), 149
Aeschynomene pratensu 127, 128
Afzelia pectinata, 83, 91
Agalinis sp., 89
Agassiz, A., 39
Agave decipiens, 98, 99, 187
Agricultural lime, 17
Air-plants, 81, 99, 102, 104, 107.111, 118.
121, 123, 130, 137, 186
Aldenela, 91
Aletris bracteata. 127. 128
Algae, 40, 41, (131), 136
Alien, G. M, 42, 45, 192 ,
Allen, J. A, 39
Alligator, 147
Altitudes in South Florida, 53-5, 153,
157
Alum Bluff group, 48
Amarantaceae, 141
Ambrosia. 134
Ames, Oakes, 40
Ammocallis, 134
Amorpha herbacea 91
Ampelopsis arbirea, 104, 108
Amphibia, 45, 147
Ampullaril (shell), 126, 151
Amyris, 109
Anacheilium (see Epidendrum)
Anatrotphus compresses 134; paspa
loides, 89. 115, 134
Andropogon glomeratus 102, 103; tener,
189; Virginicus 83; undetermined,
86, 91. 115, 125
Anemia, 91
Animals 57, 143-157 (See also the var.
ious groups, as mammals, birds,
etc.)
Anisotremus (fish), 148
Annona (or Anona), 109, 120, 124, 125,
127, 178
Anopheles (mosquito), 149
Anthony, Mrs. E. C., 40
Ants, 150


Aquariums, 149
Aquatic vegetation, 113
Ardisig (see Icacorea)
Arisaema, 123
Arissida spiciformis, 86, 89; saric, 83,
86, 87, 91, 158; virgata, 83
Artesian wells, 51, 154
Asclepis, 137; versicflata, 91
Ascyrum, 86, 89, 115, 159, 170
Ash (tree), 115, 119. 121, 159, 164
Ashe, W. W., 81, 139
Asimina reticulaa, 86, 91, 159, 170;
speciosa, 81, 83, 162
Aster adnatus, 86; Carolinanus, 172
Ariculacea (shells), 37
Australian pine, 133
Aviation fields, 164165
Avicennia, 93, 96, 97, 99, 130, 155, 181,
183, 185, 187, 191
Avrainvillea, 41
B
Baccharis haUlmifolia, 102, 125, 134, 155,
159, 170, 172, 178
Bailey, H. H., 145
Baldwin, Mark, 43
Ball-clay (14), 24
Bamboo vine, 102, 121, 123, 159. 162.
164, 170, 172, 183
Bangs, Outram, 143
Baptisia, 137
Barbed fruits, 79, (135)
Barbour, Thomas, 42, 45, 192
Barrier beaches, 153, 171. 173
Bartsch, Paul, 44
Basis, 96, 97, 130, 155, 172, 183, 185,
187, 191
Batrachians, 39, 147
Bats, 143
Bay (tree), 123, 125, 127, 159, 162, 164,
170, 172, 183
Bay, red, 93, 194, 195, 198, 120, 123,
125, 127, 159, 162, 170, 172
Bays (vegetation). 116, 122, 123, 160,
163, 170, 172
Beaches, 59, 92, 141, 154, 171-173, 175
Bean, Bh A., 39
Bears, 143, 144
Bear-grass, 83
Bees, 150
Bejaria, 86, 159, 170. 172
Berchemia, 104
Bermuda grass, 125
Berries, 81, 84, 87, 91, 106, 121, 123, 135
Bessey, EF A, 41, 42, 71. 77, 107
Bidens coronaa, 115, 121; Bucantha,
134, 135, 187
Big Cypress country, 32, 43-45, 116, 144,
158


194








INDEX.


Birds, 37, 38, 41. 44, 45, 133. 144.146,
,166, 168, 184, 192
Biscayne pine land, 176
Bitterns, 145
Black gum, 121, 123, 159, 162, 164
Black-jack oak, 81, 83, 159. 162
Black mangrove, 93, 96, 99, 130, 131,
155, 181, 183, 185, 187, 191
Blaak.root, 86, 89
Blatchley, W. S. 35, 4446
Blechnum, 103, 109, 118, 121, 123, 125,
127
Bluefish, 148
Bone-set, 134
Bone Valley formation, 48
Bonnets, 113, 119-121. 125, 127
Borreria, 91
Borrichia arborescens, 96, 187, 191;
fruteacens, 96, 99, 102, 103, 130,
155, 183, 187, 191
Boston fern, 104. 108, 123
Brackish water, 128
Branch-swamp, 121
Brendel, Frederick, 36
Brick, 14-15, 22, 24, 25
Britton, N. L., 40
Broom-sedge, 83, 86, 91, 102, 115. 125
Brown, Nelson C, 42
Bryophyllum, 109
Buchnera, 91
Building stone, 48, 50, 156, 177
Bulrush, 125
Bumeia, 99, 112. 155, 191
Burrowing animals, 57
Burrowing owl, 146, 164
Burrs, 79, 135
Bursera, 93, 99, 108, 112, 155, 172, 178,
187
Burt. M. Struthers, 75
Bustic, 91 (see Dipholis)
Buttercup, 86 ,
Button, H. F., 61
Buttonwood, 93, 96. 99, 109, 110, 130,
131, 155, 182, 183. 185, 187, 191
Byrsonima, 91, 178. 189, 191

C
Cabbage, 6
Cabbage palmetto, 37, 86, 88, 93, 96, 99-
102, 104, 105. 108, 110, 115, 119-121,
130. 155, 162-164, 166, 170, 172, 178,
183, 187, 191
Cactaceae, 140
Cacti, 45, 77, (81), 99, 108. 110, 112,
130, 155, 172, 183, 187 (See also
Prickly pear)
Cactus thickets, 98. 99, 190
Calamu (fish), 148


Calcareous sand, 92, 95
Calcareous soil. 48, 57.59, 100, 103,
104 (See also Marl)
Calciphile plants, (128), 137
Calcium carbonate, 58, 180, 183 (See
also Limestone)
Calkins, W. W, 36
CaUicarpa, 104, 108
Calonyction, 93, 125, 134
Caloosahatchee formation, 37, 48
Calyptranthes, 109
Cambarus (crawfish), 150
Campyloneuron. 108, 110
Canals, 168, 173
Canavalia, 93, 99
Cape Sable, 40, 4346, 110, 144, 146,
181, 183
Capparis, 109
Capraria, 99
Capriola, 125, 134
Cardisoma (crab), 150
Carduus spinosissimus, 102. 134
Cwrex 137
Carica, 107, 108, 110, 112, 134, 172,
178, 187
Carpet.grass, 134
Carphephorus corymbosus, 86, 89
Carawell, Mrs. Mary H., 8
Casasia (see Genipa)
Cassia Bahamensis, 91
Cassytha, 81. 86, 87, 91, 93, 99, 127
Casiala, 113
Castor-bean, 125, 134, 135
Casuarina, 133
Catfish, 147
Catopsis, 109, 130
Cat-tail, 125, 128
Cattle, 87, (88), 92, 103. 115, 164.166,
(171)
Cattle ranches, 163, 164
Caves, 45, 55
Ceanothus microphyllus, 83, 162
Celery, 156
Cenchrus, 93, 134, 187
Centella, 104, 115, 125. 127
Centrurus (scorpion), 150
Cephalanthus, 115, 119, 120, 125, 127,
159, 170, 183
Ceratiola, 80, 81, 159, 162, 170. 172
Cereus (see Acmnthocereus, Harrisia)
Cerothamnus (see Myrica)
Chaetochloa magna, 125, 134
Chamaecrista, 83, 86, 91
Chamaesyce, 140; buxifolia, 93, 99, 155,
187; pilulifera. 134; pinetorum, 91
Chapman, A. W, 36; Frank, 39, 41
Chapmania, 83
Charcoal, 110, 131, 182, 184, 191
Chimneys, absence of, 68


195







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Chinaberry, 133
Chiocacca, 99, 108, 155 ,
Chloris, 187
Chlorophyceae (green algae), 40
Chlisma ferruginea, 162, frumacot, 81,
86, 89, 91, 155, 159, 170-172, 178
Chondrophora nudata, 118
Chrysobalanus Icaco, 93, 120, 155, 172,
178; oblongifoius, 81, 83, 86, 91,
93, 159, 162, 170, 172, 172; pelo-
carpus, 109, 125, 127, 178
Chrysophyllum, 108, 172, 178
Chrysops (insect), 150
Chrysopsis gossypina, 83; graminifolia
83, 86, 87, 91
Chytracuia, 178
Cirsium (see Carduns)
Cisterns, 52, 156
Citharexylum, 108, 178
Citrous fruits, 173 (see also Grape-fruit,
Orange)
Cladium, 102, 113, 115, 118, 120, 121,
125, 127, 130 r(see also Saw-grass)
Cladonia, 81
Clams, 46, 148, 151-152, 185
Clapp, G. H., 42, 45
Clay, 14, 49, 53
Clay products, 14-15
Clearing.s 107, 156
Clench, W. J, 46, 151
Cliffs, wave-cut, 56
Clumps (of trees in Everglades, etc.),
124, 126, 127, 168, 181-183
Cnidoscolus, 81
Coast prairie, 126, 127, 179-184
Coccolobis laurifolia, 108, 110.112, 172,
188, 187; uvifera, 93, 96, 99, 101,
102, 130, 154, 155, 172, 187, 189, 191
Coccothrinax, 91, 178, 191
Cochran, Jerome, 36
Cocoanuts, 93, 95, 133, 154, 175, 184, 186,
187
Cocoa plum, 93, 109, 120, 125, 127, 155,
172, 178, 183
Cocos 93, 187 (see Cocoanut)
Coffee, wild, 104, 108, (138), 172, 178
Cold waaves, 71
Coleoptera (insects), 36, 37, 39, 4446
Collins, F. S., 43
Colubrina, 110
Composisae, 136, 139-141
Comptie (see Coontie)
Conch (shells), 152
Concrete, 17
Conocarpas, 93, 96-99, 109, 110, 129,
130, 182, 183, 185, 187, 189-191
Conradina, 81, 172
Convolvulaceae, 141
Coquina, 106


Cooke, C. Wythe, 8
Coon (see Raccoon)
Coontie, 86, 91, 92
Cope, E. D, 146
Coral.bean, 99
Coralline algae, 41, (131)
Coral reef or rock, 186, 190
Corals, 49, 50, 55, 131
Coreopsis Leavenworthii 93, 102
Cornus florida, 137; strict, 104, 119, 121
Cotton, wild, 99, 183, 187
Crabs, 150
Crab-grass, 125, 134
Cracca chrysophylla, 83
Cranes. 145. 164
Crataeguw, 137
Crawfish, 150
Creek swamps, 121122
Crinum, 120, 127, 128
Crocodile, 147
Crooked trees 3 107'
Croslies (cypress) 118
Croralaria pumila, 91
Croton linearis, 91, 178, 191; mariimus,
punctatuss), 93
Curtiss, A. H., 37. 186
Custard-apple, 109, 120, 124, 125, 127,
128
Cuthbert Rookery, 184
Cutthroats (vegetation) 161
Cycads. 77 (see also Zamia)
Cymodocea, 131
Cyperaceae, 135, 137, 140, 141 (see also
Sedges)
Cyperus articulatus, 121; Surinameuis,
134
Cypress, 104, 113, 116-121, 125, 159, 169,
170, 178, 180, 183
Cypress knees, 116
Cypress ponds, 116-118, 157, 170
Cyrtopodium, 110
D
Dalbergia, 99, 108, 130, 172
Dall, W. H., 37, 38
Daubentonia, 134
Deciduous trees, 84
Decker. R. F, 45, 146, 147
Decodon, 125
Deer, 42, 45, 143, 144, 192
Deerflies, 150
Deeringothamnus, 139
Deer-tongue, 86
Dendropogon (see Tillandia ume.
oides)
DePourtales, L. F, 36
Dermaptera (insects). 43
Destruction of vegetation, 75, 78, 106,
109, 130, 131. 160, 162, 174, 177


196











INDEX.


Devil's Garden, 158
Dewberry, 134, 170
Diapedium assurgens, 110
Dice, Lee R, 35
Dichromena colorata, 91, 127, 128; lat.
ifolia, 115
Dipholis, 91, 109, 178
Dissemination, 78
Ditiars, R. L.. 146
Diurnal variations of temperature, 67
Dodge, C. R., 39
Dodonaea, 91
Dog-fennel, 102, 125, 134
Dogwood, Jamaica, 99, 108, 110, 112,
155. 178, 183, 187. 191
Dolphins. 143
Dondia, 96, 187
Doves, 145
Drosera, 137
Droughts. 70, 72
Drowned valleys, 55
Dry prairies, 87-89, 163-165
Dry savannas, 102
Dry Tortugas, 38 (41), 42, 44, 46. 189
Dryopteris normalis, 109; Thelypteris,
125; unita, 121, 123
Drvperte, 109
Dunes. 53-55, 57, 81, 92, 145, 154, 161,
171. 172, 174, 175
Dwarfed cypresses, 117

E
Eaton, A. A, 40
Ecaszophylhtm (see Dalbergia)
Echises. 103, 178
Edible fruits. 95
Egg-plants. 156
Egrets, 145, 184
Elaphrium (see Bursera)
Elbow-lush, 115, 119 120, 125, 127, 159,
170, 183,
Elder. 125, 134
EleFcharis 137; Baldwinii, 89, 102, 134;
cellulesa, 115, 118. 125, 127
Elephantopus, 86, 89, 91
Elevations in South Florida, 5355, 153,
157
Elm, 104, 119. 121, 159
Encvclia (Bee Epidendrum)
Endemic species, 138140, 188, 192
Epidendrum cochleatumr 109; rigidum,
109, 110; Tampense, 99, 101, 121
Epiphytes, 104, 106 (see also Air-plants)
Eretmochelvs (turtle), 147
Ericncene. 84, 87, 91, 95, 96, 99, 103,
115, 120, 121, 126, 128, 131, 137
Erigeron Canadensis (see Leptilon);
verrus, 115


I Eriocaulon compressum, 118; decamgu.
lare, 115, 118
Erigonum tomentosum, 83
Erithalis, 191
Ernodea, 93, 102, 155, 191
Eryngium aromaticum, 86, 87, 91
Erythrina, 99, 108, 155, 172, 183
Escarpment (in Martin Co.), 169
Euarctos (bear), 144
Eugenia confusa (Garbed), 108, 112,
178, 187; undetermined, 109, 112,
191
Eupatorium capillifolium, 102, 125, 134;
.Mohrii, 89; serosinum, 125, 134
Euphorbia (see Chamaesyce, Poinsettia,
Tithymalopsis)
Euphorbiaceae, 135, 137, 139.141
Euthamia, 89, 102, 115
Evening primrose, 93
Everglades, 36, 39, 4144, 124-127, 150,
167-168, 180
Everglade keys, 42. 176
Evergreens 59, 78, 80, 84, 105, 110,
121, 131
Evermann, B. W, 39
Evolution problems, (107-108, 140, 144),
151, (192)
Exothea, 108, 172

F
Farming (see Intensive, and Truck)
Ferns, 36, 3840, 44, 91, 102, 104, 105,
108-111, 118-121, 123, 125, 127, 130,
136, 185
Fertilizers, 19, 20, 50, 61, 126, 168
Ficus area, (41), 99, 108, 110, 112, 130,
155, 172, 178, 183, 187; brevifolia,
108
Fiddlewood, 10R
Fig, wild, 41, 99, 108, 110, 112, 130,
155, 172, 178, 183, 187
Fimbristylis castanea, 96; puberula, 89
Fire, effects of, 42, 77, 80, 82, 88, 90,
93. 96. 98, 103, 104, 107, 111, 117, 126,
(132), 163, 182, (188)
Fire-weeds, 107
Fishes, 35-39, 44, (46), 132, 147-149, 192
Fisheries, fishermen, fishing, 147-149,
155, 165, 173, 185, (192)
Flamingo, 145
Flatwoods 84-87, 155,157-160, 166, 169173
Flaveria, 102, 115, 127, 128, 187
Fleshy fruits, 96, 99, 103, 109, 110, 112,
128. 131
Flint, 17, 24
Floating plants, 113; seeds, 77, 118
Floristics of South Florida, 136-141
Flowers, 79, 118, 169


197






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Fluctuation of water, (113), 116, 119,
121, 122
Forage, 89, 103, 115
Forestiera poruloma, 99, 155
Foslie, M, 41
Fossil, 45, 46, 48
Fowler, H. W., 41
Foxes, 143
Fox-squirrel, 44, 144, 185
Fox-tail grass, 125, 134
Fraxinus Caroliniana, 115, 119, 121, 159,
164
Freezes, freezing, 67, 68, 71, 106
French mulberry, 104, 108
Froelichia, 83
Frogs, 39, 45, 147
Froa, 67, 71-74, 93, 106, 135
Fuel, 91, 126, 168
Fuller's earth, 15.16, 24, 25, 48, 156
Fungi, 136
Furs, 144
G
Galactia Ellottii, 86
Gallberry, 86, 89, 102, 159, 170
Garber, A. P., 36
Garberla, 81, 83, 162
'Gator-holes, 126, 127
Gayluwsacia dumosa, 86, 89, 170
Gibbesia, 83
Gifford, John, 41
Gilbert, C. H., 37
Gecko (lizard), 147
Geese (wild), 145
Gelsemium, 104
Genipa, 112, 187, 191
Geobalanus (see Chrysobalanus)
Geomys (salamander), (82), 143, 158
Glades, 56, 127, 176-177
Gleditsia, 119, 137
Glottidium, 119
Golden-rod, 89. 102
Goniolithum algaa), 41
Gophers (Gopherus), 82
Gordonia, 123, 159, 162, 170, 172
Gossypium, 99, 183, 187
Graenicher, S., 179
Graminese, 137, 141 (see also Grasses)
Grant, Robert, 38
Grape, wild, 104, 164, 178
Grape-fruit, 60, 156, 162, 179
Grasses, 86, 89. 93, 95, 96, 100, 102-104,
108, 110, 112, 115, 118, 125, 126,
128, 134, (137, 141), 187, 188
Gravel, 21, 22, 24, 25
Grazing, 166, 171 (ee also Cattle)
Griswold, L. S., 39
Groupers, Grunts (fah), 148
Guava, 133-135, 170


Guettarda elliptica, 109, 178; scabra, 91,
108, 178
Guiacum (see Lignum-vitae)
Guilandina, 99, 112, 155, 187
Guinea cypress, 115, 170
Gulls, 145
Gum (see Black gum, Sweet gum)
Gumbo-limbo, 93, 99, 108, 112, 155,
172, 178, 187
Gunter, Herman, 3, 5, 14
Gymnanthes, 109
H
Haemulon (fish), 148
Hail, 68, 74
Halimeda algaa), 40, 41
Halodule, Halophila, 131
Halymenia algaa), 43
IHamilton, John, 39
Hammocks, 42, 47, 103-112, 141, 155,
156, 163, 166, 172, 186, 190
Hardpan, 57, 163
Hard.rock phosphate, 18-20, 24, 25
Hard water, 156
Harper, Francis, 35; R. M., 8, 27, 42, 44
Harrisia (cactus), 130
Harshberger, J. W, 42, 43, 76, 124
Hawker, H. W, 43
Hawksbill turtle, 147
Hay (Natal grass), 135
Hay, O. P., 46
Hebard, M,, 40, 42, 43
Heilprin, A., 37, 192
Helenium (see Leptopoda)
Helianthella, 86, 87, 89
Helianthus debilis, 93; sp, 86
Heliotropium, 118, 127
Hemiptera (insects). 41
Henshall, J. A., 37, 38
Herbaceous vines, 93
Herbs, 77
Herons, 145
Herons. 145
Hickory, 81, 104, 108, 119, 159, 162, 172
Hicoria aquatica, 119, 137, 159; Flori,
dana. 81, 162; sp. 104, 108, 172
High pine land, 82.84, 160, 162
Highways, 17
Hills in South Florida, (53), 54, 161
Hippomane, 112
Hitchcock, A. S, 40
Holly, 81, 139
Holzinger, J. M., 38
Home-seekers, 33
Honey, 87, 131. 159
Honeycombed limestone, 176 (See also
Pot-holes)
Honey locust, 119
Horn, G. H., 36


198






INDEX.


Horse-flies, 43, 44, 150
Horse-mint, 93
Hnwe, M. A., 35, 40, 41, 131
Howell, A. H., 44. 45
Huckleberry, 81. 86. 87, 89, 91, 159,
162, 170, 178
Humidity, 70
Humus, 57, 103, 107
"Hungry Land," 169
Hunting, 166
Huntington, Ellsworth. 71
Hurrah bush, 81, 86, 89, 159, 162, 170,
172
Hurricanes, 33, 70-75, 190
Hydrocharitales, 131
Hydrotrida (see Monniera)
Y' menocallis, 120, 125, 139
Hypericum aspalathoides, 86, 89, 159,
170; fasciculatum,, 102, 15, 118, 159,
162, 170-172; myrifolium, 115;
opacum, 170
Hyptis, 89, 115, 118, 127, 128
I

leacorea, 104, 108, 110, 138, 172
Ichthyomethia, 99, 108, 110, 112, 155,
178, 183, 187. 191
liex arenicola, 81, 139; Cassine, 120,
121, 123, 159, 164, 170, 178; cumuli-
cola, 81, 139; glabra, 86, 87, 89, 102,
159, 170; Krugiana, 108, 178; opaca,
81, 139
Ilmenite, 16, 51
Indian Prairie, 45, 100-101, 103, 166
Indian turnip, 123
Indians, 103, 166
Insects, 35, 37, 149-150 (See also Cole-
optera, Orthoptera, etc.)
Intensive farming, (60), 156, 173
Ipomoea Pes-caprae, 93, 94, 99, 175, 187
Iresine, 99, 110
Iron oxide (in hardpan), 57
Ironwood, 108, 112, 178, 187
Isotherms, 63, 65, 138
ltea, 123, 137
Iva imbricat. 93. 172, 187
Lives, J. C., 35, 42
J
?qcquemontia Crtdssit, 91
Jfcquinia, 93, 102, 155
Jamaica dogwood, 99, 108, 110, 112, 155,
178, 183, 187, 191
Jay-birds, 145
Jessamine, yellow, 104
Jewfish. 148
Joe-wood, 93 (see Jacquinia)


Johnson, C. W., 35, 45
Jordan, David Starr, 37, 38
Jruncus, 137; efluus, 134; repens, 115;
Roemerianus, 96, 130, 185
Jussiaea Peruviana, 125, 134

K
Kaolin, 14, (24)
Kendall, W. C., 38
Kennard, F. H., 43, 116
Keys (in general), 35-37, 4043, 111, 112,
131, 136, 137, 140, 149, 152; Lower,
36, 37, 40, 41, 45, 46, 140, 141, 144,
147-150, 152, 189-192; Upper, 37, 41,
111, 128, 140, 186.189
Key West oolite, 50, 190
King-fish, 148
Kinasternon (turtle), 147
Krugiodendron, 108
Kuhnistrera, 83, 86, 87

L

Lnchnocaulon, 86, 89
Laciniaria, 137; Garber, 139; tenui-
folia, 83, 86, 87
Lagoons, 54, 171
Laguncularia, 93, 96, 97, 99, 130, 155,
172, 183, 185, 187
Lake region, 79, 82, 83, 160-162
Lakes, 53-54, 113, 161
Land birds, 145
Land crab, 150
Land-pebble phosphate, 19, 20, 24, 25,
48
Lansing, O. E, Jr, 41
Lantana Camara, 108, 134, 172; depressa,
91, 178; involucrata, 91, 104, 155;
undetermined, 107
Lasiacis (see Panicum divaricatum)
Laurocerasus, 108, 172, 178
Leaching, 57
Lechea, sp. 8 83, 89
Leguminosae, 84, 87, 89, 91, 95, 96, 99,
103, 115, 120, 123, 126, 128, 131,
135, 137, 139, 141
Lepidium, Leptilon, 134
Leptopoda, 118
Lettuce, 61
Lichens, (81), 136
Light, intense, 92
Lightning, 82
Lignum-vitate, 191
Liguts (shells), 42, 45, 46, 151
Lime, 17, 18, 24; in water, 51
Lime-loving plants, (128), 137
Limes (fruit), 188, 189
Lime-sinks, 55


199






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Li

Li
Li
Li
Li
Li
Li
Li
Li


Li
Li
1.L
L

1,
L
L

L
L


L
L
L

L

L
L
L


1%~





'I

I
2
I
I


imestone, 17, 24, 25, 54, 56, 58, 90, I Maple (red), 104, 119, 120, 121, 123, 123,
103, 107, 168 156, 159, 164, 170, 172
imonium, 96 Mariscus (see Cladiurn)
odytes (snake), 147 Marl, marly soil, 40-50, 57-59, 84, 103,
ppia, 127, 128 114, 115, 155, 157, 166, 168, 169.
quidarmbar, 19, 121, 137, 159 173, 176, 177, 180
thophila (see Philoxerus) Marl prairies, 126-128. 180-184
thophyllum, 41 Marshallia graminifolia, 114, 115
itrise, 86,, 8, 89, 115, 139 Marshes, 120, 124-126, 157, 163, 166-171
ive oak, 81. 83, 86, 88, 91, 93, 95, 102, Mastic (tree), 99, 108, 112, 155, 172,
304. 106-108, 119-121, 155, 159, 162, 178, 187
164, 170, 172, 178 Mtiastigoproctus (scorpion), 150
iverworts, (123), 136 Mastodon (fossil), 49
i.ards, 39, 147 Matson, G. C., 44
obsters, 39, 147 Maynard, C. J., 36
oust, honey, 119 Maytenus phylthahoides, 155
oennberg, Einar, 39, 146 Meek, S. E.. 37
ong.leaf pine, 82-87, 114, 157, 159, 169, Mcibonin, 137
170 Melanthera, 91, 102
orinsenri, 121, 123 Melia Azeda-ach, 133
.:Atmans River limestone, 49 Melvill, J. C., 36, 37
X'w hammocks, 103-106, 156, 157, 170, Menippe (crab), 150
172 Mesadenia lanceolata, 127
tdwigia, 137: microcarpa, 127, 128 Mesnsphae-:um (see Hyptis)
umber, 87, 91, 92, 159, 160, 170, 171, Metastelma, 104, 109
178 Metopium. 91, 108, 112, 178, 183, 187,
upine, 83, 162 191
upinus cumulicola, 139; diffusus, 83, Miami oolite, 49, 50, 57, 90, 176-179
138-139, 162 Miami pine land, 90.92, 177, 179
uLifanus (fish), 148 Mice, mouse, 36, 143
ycium, 93. 96, 99, 130, 155 Mikania, 102
vsiloma, 108, 112, 178, 187 Miller, G. S-. Jr., 143
Millspaugh, C. F.. 41, 76, 190
M Mimusops, 112, 187, 191
Mineral waters, 18, 24
mackerel 148 Miocene strata, 48
ladeira (mahogany), 184; Hammock, Mistletoe, 121, 123, 159, 162
110 Moles. 143
flgnolia glauca. 121, 123, 125, 127, 159, Mollusca, mollusks, 35-37, 41, 151-152
162, 164, 170, 172, 183; grandiflora, (See also Shells)
137 Monanthochloe, 96, 97, 187
mahogany, 108. 110, 183, 184, 187 3,onarda punctata, 93
malaria, 149 Monazite, 16
tfalvaceae, 135, 141 Monniera Carolinians 125, 127
Mammals, 35, 39, 143-144, 192 Monocotvledone, percentage of, 136
mammoth (fossil), 49 Mooney, C. N, 43
manatee (sea-cow), 143 Moonflower, 93, 125, 134
manatee grass, 131, 132 Moore, C. B, 41, 45
Uanatce hammock region, 155-156 Morella (see Mvrica)
Mlanchineel, 112 Marinda Roioc, 91, 103, 191
Viangrove, black, 93, 96, 99, 130. 131, Morning-glory, 187 (see also Ipomoea)
155, 181, 183, 185, 187; red, 37, 38, Mos rusbro. 108, 178
40, 41, 75, 79, 93, 96, 99, 127-131, Mosier, C. A., 44
155, 172, 180-185. 187, 191; white, Mosquitoes, 149
93, 96, 99, 130, 155, 172, 183, 185. Mosses. 81, 104. 123, 136
187 Moss, Spanish, 81, 83, 86, 104, 108, 118-
Mangrove snapper (fish), 148 121, 123, 131
Mangrove swamps, 128-131, 141, 153, 1Mossom, D. S., 8
155, 172, 173, 184, 186, 190 Mouse, mice, 36, 143


200






INDEX.


Muck, 38, 42, 48, 58, 59, 114, 121, 153,
165, 167, 169, 171, 180
Muddy rivers, 119
MugH (mallet), 148
Muhlenberg, 93, 101, 102
Mulberry, 108, 178
Mullet, 148
Muieadine, 93, 104, 108, 112, 120, 121,
123, 134, 155, 159, 162, 164, 170,
172, 178, 17
Muttonfish, 148 \
Myteroperca ( fish, 148
Myrica cerifera, 37, 102, 104, 115, 118-
121, 1235,5, 127, 155, 159, 161,
162, 170, 172, 178, 183, 187, 191;
pumila, 86, 89, 91, 159, 170, 172,
178
Myrsine (see Raponeo)
Myrtle, 37, 86, 89, 91, 102, 104, 115, 118-
121, 123, 125, 127, 155, 159, 162, 170,
172, 178, 183, 187, 17, 191
N
Naiadales (plants), 131
Nash, G. V, 40
Natal gras, 132, 134, 135, 175, 187
Native weeds, 135
Natrix (make), 147
Natural bridge (Arch Creek), 55
Nectadra (see Ocotea)
Negroes, 133
Neofber (rodent), 44, 144
Neomeris algaa), 41
Nephrol pis, 104, 108, 123, 138
Nichols, T-, 35, 44
Nightshade family, 156
Notina, 81
Nonmalluvial swamps, 122.124
Nuts, 79, 81, 106
Nmphaea macrophylla, 113, 119-121,
125, 127
Nyssa, 137; bifora, 121, 123, 137, 159,
162, 164
0
Oak, blackjack, 81, 83, 159, 162; live
81, 83, 86, 88, 91, 93, 95, 102, 104,
106-108, 119121, 155, 159, 164, 170,
172, 178; turkey, 83, 159, 162;
water, 104, 119, 121, 159, 164
Oak runner, 86, 89, 91, 159, 170, 178
Oaks (various), 8183, 86, 137, 156, 159,
162, 172
Oases, 613
Ocher, 50
Ocotea, 108, 178
Ocyurus (fish), 148
Odocoieus, 45, 144 (see also Deer)


Oenothera humifusa, 93
Okaloacoochee Slough, 43, 158
Oolite, 49, 50, 57, 90, 176-179, 190
Opjsmenua, 104
Opossum, 143
Opuntia, 81, 83, 91, 93, 98, 99, (102),
130, 155, 183, 187, 191
Oranges, 60, 81, 82, 162
Orchids, 40, 99, 108-111, 121, 137
Ureodoza (see Roystonea)
Ornamental plants, 173
Orthoptera (insects), 40, 42, 43
Oryzonpys (rats), 144
Osmunda cinnamomea, 121, 123; regain,
120, 121
Otter, 143, 144
Owls, 145, 146, 164
Oxypolis, 118, 125, 127
Oxystyla (shell), 46
P
Packard, Winthrop, 42
Pala/oxia. 8L 83, 155, 162, 172
Paliurus (lobIter), 150
PaUaviinia liverwortt), 123
Palm, royal, 39, 43, 108; silver, 91, 178,
191; thatch, 37, 103, 112, 187, 190,
191; (various species), 40, 77, 81,
91, 162, 178
Palmetto, abbage, 37, 86, 88, 93, 96 99
102, 104, 105, 108, 110, 115, 119121,
130, 155, 162-164, 166, 170, 172, 178,
183, 187, 191; saw, 37, 81, 8346, 88,
89, 91, 93, 102, 104, 108, 119, 155,
158, 159, 162, 170, 172, 178, 183, 191
Palm savannas, 100-103, 155, 166 190
Pancum maraulum, 93, 99; Combsi,
89; divariatum, 108, 110, 112, 187;
ereaifolium, 115, 118; virgatum, 96,
103; tndetnmlndn 8
Panther, 143
Papaw (Carica), 108, 110, 112, 134,
135, 172, 178, 187
Paper from saw-grass, 126
Paradise Key, 39, 44, 150 (see Royal
Palm Hammock)
Paradise tree, 108, 112, 172, 178, 187
Pa-onychia herniarioides, 83
Paroquet, 146
Parthenocissus, 104, 108, 112, 123, 159,
178, 183, 187
Partridge pea, 83, 86. 91, 104, 108, 112,
123
Pasture, 135
Paurodts (palm), 181, 183
Pawpaw (Asimina), 81, 83, 86, 159, 162,
170
Peanut 61
Peat, 18, i4, 50, 59, 126, 131, 137, 167-169


201






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Peltandra, 123, 125, 127
Peperomia, 109
Pepper-grass, 134
Peppers, 156
Periwinkle( plant), 134
Persea Borbonia, 104, 108, 172, 178;
humilis, 162; littoralis, 93, 155;
pubescens, 120, 125, 127, 178, 183
Petalostemon carneus, 86, 91; Feayi, 81
81, 83, 91
Petroleum prospects, 8
Phaethusa (see Verbesina)
Phillips, O. P., 40
Philoxeris, 96, 99, 110, 134, 187
Phoradendron, 121, 123, 159, 162
Phosphate, 18-20, 24, 25, 48
Phosphatic soils, 157
Phosphoric acid, 61
Phragmites, 118, 120, 125, 127
Physical geography defined, 31
Phytolacca rigida, 134
Piaropus, 125, 134
Picramnia, 109, 178
Pieris nitida, 81, 86, 87, 89, 159, 162,
170-172
Pigeon-plum, 108, 110, 112, 172, 178,
187
Pigweeds (Acnida?), 61
Pilsbry, H. A., 40.52, 151
Pine, long-leaf, 82.87, 114, 157, 159, 169,
170; slash, 37, 84.88,90-92, 102, 116-
118, 155, 157, 159, 161, 169, 170,
172, 173, 178, 187, 190, 191; spruce,
80, 81, 159, 161, 170, 172; variouss),
163
Pine lands, 40, 141 (see also High pine,
Flatwoods)
Pineapples, 81, 86, 173-175
Pinguicula lutea, 86
Pinus Caribaea, 85, 86, 91, 102, 117, 118
127, 157, 159, 162, 164, 170-173, 178,
191; clausa, 80, 81, 159, 162, 170,
172, 174; Elliottii, 116, 137, 157,
159; palhstris, 83, 85, 86, 158, 159,
162, 170
Pipe fishes, 37
Piscidia (see Ichthyomethia)
Pisonia, 99, 108, 110, 172, 178
Pistia, 113, 119, 121, 125
Pithecolobium, 91, 98, 99, 103, 112, 155,
178, 187, 191
Planorbis (shell), 126, 151
Pleistocene, 46, 49, 190
Plestiodon (lizard), 147
Pliocene, (37), 48
Pluchea, 127
Plum (wild), 81, 83, (138), 162
Plumes (egret), 184


Podostigma, 89
Poey, Felipe, 36, 148
Poinsettia heterophylla, 134
Poison ivy, 104, 108, 119, 130, 155, 159,
164, 178, 183
"Poison water," 149
Poison-wood, 91, 108, 112, 178, 183, 187,
191
Pokeberry, 134
Poles, cypress, 118
Pollard, C. L. 39, 40
Polygala Baldwinii, 115, 127, 128; cor.
alicola, 91, 127; cymosa, 115, 118;
Rugeli, 86, 87, 89; setacea, 86
Polygalaceae, 140
Polygonella gracilis, 83, 91; polygama,
81
Polypodium aureum, 104, 109; poly.
podioides, 109, 119, 121
Polypremum, 134
Pomatomus (bluefish), 148
Pond cypress, 118, (120), 159, 169, 170,
183
Ponds, 113-114, 116-118, 157, 160
Pontederia, 115, 120, 121, 125, 127, 161
"Poor grub," 81, 86, 89, 91, 155, 159,
170, 172
Pop-ash, 115, 119, 121, 159, 164
Porgies, Pork-fish, 148
Porpoises, 143
Possum (see Opossum)
Possum haw, 121, 123, 159
Posts, cypress, 118
Poiamogeton, 127, 128
Potash, 61, 90, 107
Potatoes (Irish), 61
Pot-holes, 50, 55, 92, (176, 177), 190
Pottery, 14-15, 24
Pourtales, L. F. De, 36
Prairies, prairie vegetation, 87-89, 113-
115, 157, 160, 163.165
Pretty flowers, (118), 169
Prickly pear, 81, 83, 91, 93, 99, 102, 130,
155, 183, 187
Promicrops jewfishh), 148
Prunus, 137; geniculatac 81, 83, 138, 162;
sphaerocarpa (see Laurocerasus)
Pseudophoenix, 188
Psidium, 134, 170
Psychotria Sulzneri, 104, 108; undata,
104, 108, 138, 172, 178
Pteridophyta, 40
Pterir aquilina, 86; caudata, 91, 109;
longifolia, 91
Pterocaulon, 86, 89
Pycnothymus, 86, 87, 91, 159, 170


202






INDEX.


Q
Quercus, 137; Catescbei, 81, 83, 137,
158, 159, 162; Chapmani. 81, 159,
162, 172; cinerea, 83, 159, 162;
geminata, 8I, 83, 86, 91, 93, 155,
162, 170, 172; minima, 86, 89, 91,
159, 170, 178; myrifolia, 81, 83, 86,
87, 91, 159, 362, 170, 172, 178; ob.
tusa, 104, 105, 119, 121, 137, 159,
164; pumila, 91, 178; Virginimaa,
102, 104, 105, 108, 119.121, 159, 164,
172, 178
R
Rabbits, 143
Ragweed, 134
Raccoon, 143, 144
Rails (birds), 145
Rain, 51, 68.69, 71, 74, 82, 90
Rain-water, 186, 190 (see also Cisterns)
Ranches (cattle), 163, 164
Rapanea, 108, 112, 127, 138, 172, 178,
183, 191
Rare earths, 16, (51)
Rats, 36, 44, 45, 143, 144, 192
Rattan vine, 104
Red buy (Gordonia and Persea), 93,
104, 105, 108, 120, 123, 125, 127,
155, 159, 162, 170, 172, 178, 183
Red clay, 58, 176
Red mangrove, 93, 96, 99, 127, 129.131,
155, 172, 10-185, 10-185, 87, 191
Red maple, 104, 119-121, 123, 125, 156,
159, 162, 164, 170, 172
Red snapper. 148
Reed-grass, 118, 120, 125. 127
Rehn, J. A. G,, 35, 40, 42, 43
Reindeer moss, 81
Reptiles, 35, 39, 146-147
Rhabdadenia bifora, 130, 172, 183;
corallicola, 91
Rhexia, 137
Rhineura (lizard), 147
Rhizophora, 93, 96, 99. 127, 129, 130,
155, 172. 18, 183, 185, 187, 191
Rhoads, S. N.. 39
Rhodophyceae (red algae), 40
Rhus capallina, 91, 108, 159, 172, 178;
radicans. 104, 108, 119, 130, 155,
159. 164, 178, 183
Rhynchospora, 137; corniculata, 121;
dodecandra, 81; fascicularis, 86, 89;
Grayii, 91; miliacea, 104; Tracyi,
113. 127
Ricinus. 125, 134
Ridge section of South Florida, 160
River-bank vegetation, 119-120
River cypress, 169 (see Taxodium dis.
tichum)


River-pebble phosphate, 20, 48
Road-grass, 89, 102, 134
Road material, 17, (24)
Rogers, Miss Julia, 151
Roseate spoonbill, 146
Rosemary, (80), 81, 159, 162, 170, 172
Round-grass, 115, 118, 125, 127
Royal palm (Roystonea), 39, 43, 108
Royal Palm Hammock, 39, 43, 44, 45,
182
Ruhber, wild, 99, 108 (see Ficus)
Rubiaceae, 137
Rubus trivialis, 134. 170
Ruppia maritime, 131
Rushes, 96, 115, 130, 134

S
Sabal Etonia, 81, 83, 91, 162. 178; Pal-
metto, 86, 93, 96, 99-102, 104, 105,
108, 110, 115, 119.121, 130, 155, 162,
164, 170, 172, 173, 178, 183, 191
Sabbatia Elliouii, 86, 87
Safford, W. E, 42, 44, 150
Sagitnaria lancifolia, 113, 115, 120, 125,
127
Salamanders (amphibia), 39, 147
Salamanders (Geomys), 82, 143, 158
Salicornia, 96, 97, 102, 185, 187
Salientia Ifrogs and toads), 45
Sulix amphibia, 115, 120, 121, 125, 127,
159, 164, 170, 172, 178, 183; nigra,
119
Salt flats, 96, 97, 141, 155, 190
Salt spray, 92, 187
Salt water, 51, 168, 128, 180, 182, 184,
190
Sambucus, 125, 134
Samodia (see next)
Samolus ebracteatus, 102, 127, 128
Samphire, 96 (see Salicornia)
Sand. calcareous, 92, 95; (mineral), 21,
22, 24, 25; (soil), 48-50, 54, 57, 79,
80, 84, 90
Sand-hill crane, 164
Sand-lime brick. 22, 24
Sand-myrtle, 115, 159, 170
Sandpipers, 145
Sand-soaks, 113
Sand-.pur, 93, 95, 134, 187
Sanford, Samuel, 44, 186
Supindus, 108
SSarcomenia algaa), 40
Sargent, C. S, 38, 119, 157, 185
Sarracenia, 137
Satin-leaf, 118, 172, 178
Saururus, 104, 120, 121, 123
Savannas, 100-103, 155, 157, 166, 190


203






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Saw-grass, 102. 113, 115, 118, 120, 121,
124-128, 127, 130, 166-168, 183, 187,
190
Saw-palmetto, 37, 81, 83-86, 88, 89, 91,
93, 102, 104, 108, 119, 155, 158, 159,
162. 170, 172, 178, 183, 191
Scaevola, 93, 94, 154, 155, 172
Schaenus, 127
Schroeder, W. C., 46, 148
Schwarz, E. A., 36, 37
Scirpus, 125
SciuruR (squirrel), 44, 144, (185)
Scleria, 115
Score beromorus (fish), 148
Scoporia, 131
Scorpions, 150
Scott, W. E. D.. 37, 38. 145
Scrub, 79.81, 141, 157, 161, 162, 170, 172,
173
Sea-beaches, 141 (see Beaches)
Sea-grape, 93, 95, 96, 99, 102, 130, 155,
172, 187, 191
Sea-lavender, 96
Sea.oats, 93 (-95), 99, (175), 187
Sea turtles, 147
Seaweeds, 131 (see Algae)
Sedges, 81, 83. 89, 91, 96, 104, 115, 121,
126-128, 134
Selaginella arenicola, 81
Seminarrix (snake), 147
Seminoles, 103, 166
Serenoa arborescens (see Paurotis) ;
serrulate, 80, 81, 83, 85, 86, 89, 91,
93, 102, 104, 108, 119, 158, 159, 162,
171), 172, 178, 183, 191
Sericocarpus bifoliatus, 86
Sesuvium, 93, 96, 97, 99, 02, 154, 187
Seven-year apple, 187
Shallow ponds, 113. 114, 116, 160, 163
Shark leather, 148
Sheepshead (fish), 148
Shell fragments, 100, 101, 153
Shell mounds. 98, 106
Shells, 39. 40, 42, 45, 48, 49, 54, 126,
151-152. 155 see also Mollusca)
Shiingles, cypress, 118
Shore hammocks. 98-99
Showy flowers, 118, (169)
Shrews, 143
Shrubs, 77
Sidfroxylon, 99, 108. 112, 155, 172, 178,
187
Signiodon (iral). 4144
Silver palm, 91. 1-78, 191
SirnaMba, 108. 112. 172. 178, 187
Simpson, C. T., 37, 39. 41. 45, 46, 75.
98, 107, 129. 132. 149, 151, 169
Simpson. J. H.. 38 (see also Holzinger)
Sink-holes. sink';. 107. 190


Siphtonales (algae), 41
Siphoonocb dus algaa), 40
Siphoslona (fish), 37
Sisvrinchium, 83, 127, 128
Ski:is, (fur), 144
Skunks, 143
Slash pine, 37, 84-88, 90-92, 102, 116.
118, 155, 157, 159, 161, 169, ]70,
172, 173, 187, 190, 191
Small, J. K., 40, 4146, 78, 81. 90, 98,
116, 124, 131, 132, 136, 138-140, 158,
166, 169, 186, 190, 192
Smilax auriculata, 81, 83, 91, 93, 155,
162, 172, 191; laurifolia, 102, 121.
123, 159, 162, 164, 170, 172, 183;
rotundifolia (?), 104, 164
Smith, Eugene A., 157
Snuils (tree), 42, 46, 151
Snakes, 39, 147
Snyder, T. E., 43, 44, 150
Soapberry, 108
Soft-rock phosphate, 24, 25
Soil fertility, 59-61; investigations and
surveys, 8, 43, 57, 171
Solanum ep., 134, 187; verbascifolium,
107, 108, 112, 134, 187
Solidago, 89, 102, 137
Solution, 56, 188
Sophora, 86, 89, 93, 102, 104, 155, 191
Spanish bayonet, 93, 99, 155, 172, 183
Spanish mackerel, 148
Spanish moss, 81, 83, 86, 104, 108, 118-
121, 123, 131
Spanish needles, 187
Sparrows, 44, 146
Sparrina Bake-i, 102, 115, 127, 128;
glabra, 130, junciformis, 96, 102,
187; sp. (undetermined), 103
Spathiger (see Epidendrum)
Spe ntyto (owl), 146
Sphagnum, 123
Spider-liy. 1211. 125
Spiders, 150
Spiny lobster, 150
Spiny plants, 98.99
Sponges, 126, 148, 192
Spoonbill (bird), 146
Sporobolus Indicrts, 134; Virginicis, 93,
96, 187
Springs, 18, 51
Sprure pine, 80. 81, 159, 161, 170, 172
Squirrels, 44. 79, 118, 143. 144, 185
Stalactites. 55
Starch factories. 92
Stearns, R. E. C., 36
Stegnmyia (see Aedes)
Stvnophyllus Warei, 83
Stillirngia anguistifolia, 91; aquatica, 102,
118, 159. 170; sylvatica, 86


204




INDEX.


Stone, building, 48, 50, 156, 177
Stone crab, 150
Stopper, 109, 112 (sec Eugenia)
Strombus (conch-shell), 152
Submarine vegetation, 131
Succinea (shell), 40
Succession of vegetation, 76
Sugar-bowl country, 157-158
Sugar-cane, 184
Sulphur, sulphurous water, 51, 154
Sumac, 91, 108, 172, 178
"Summer farewell," 86 (see Kuhnistera)
Subtropical fruits, 179
Suriana, 93, 134, 154, 155, 172
Swain, Joseph, 37
Swallows, 145
Swamp hickory, 119, (137, 159)
Swamps, 121-124, 157, 160, 170 (see also
Mangrove)
Sweet gum, 119, 121, 159
Swietenia, 108, 110, 112, 183, 187
Switch-grass, 102, 115
Syngonanthus, 86. 89
Svntherisma smaguilalis, 125, 134
Syrrhopodon, 104
T
Tabanus, Tabanidae (horse-flies), 44,
150
Tan-bark. 131, 185
Tarpon (fish), 38, 148
Taxodium ascendens (see imbricar-
ium) ; distichum, 104, 119-122, 125,
159, 164. 169, 170, 178, 182, 183;
imrbricarium, 118, 120, 159, 170, 180,
182, 183
Taylor, H. F., 44, 149; W. R, 46, 131
Tectiria (fern), 109
Temperature, 63-68
Ten Thousand Islands, 128, 130, 151,
184-185
Terns (birds), 145
Terraces, 53
Tetrazygia, 91, 109, 178
Thalassia, 131
ThaIia. 115, 121, 127
Thatch palm, 37, 103, 112, 187, 190, 191
Thistle, 102, 134
Thompson, Maurice, 192
Thrinax, (37), 102, 103, 111, 112, 187,
(190), 191
Thrushes. 145
Thryospiza (sparrow), 44, 146
Thvsanelfa. 81, 83
Tile, 24
Tillandsia Balbisiana, 99, 109, 130; fas.
ciczdata, 99. 104, 108, 110, 118, 120,
121, 123, 130; recurvata, 81, 109,
118, 121; tenuifolia, 104, 108, 119,


S23; Lsneoides, 81, 83, 86, 87, 104,
108, 118-121, 123; utriculata, 99, 102,
104, 108, 110, 119, 121, 130; Val.
cnzuelana, 108; (various), 109, 110,
137
Tithymalopsis polyphyllus, 91
Toads, 39, 45, 147
Tomatoes, 61, 128, 156, 179, 184
Tonoboles, 79, 87, 91
Tornadoes, 69, 70, 73, 74
Torrey, Bradford, 40
Tortoise-shell, 147
Tortugas, Dry, 38, (41), 42, 44, 46, 189
Tourists, 151, 155, 165, 173, (179)
Tournefortia, 93, 94, 134, 172, 187
Townsend, F. T., 36
Transverse glades, 127, 176-177, 179, 182
Trapping, 144
Tree-snails, 42, 46, 151
Trema, 107, 108, 112, 134, 178, 187
Tricholaena, 134, 187
Trilisa odoratissima, 86, 87
Tropical hammocks. 47, 104, 106.112,
155, 172, 177, 186, 190
Truck farming, 155
Tuomey, Michael, 35
Turkey oak, 83, 159, 162
Turpentine, 87, 92, 159, 160, 171
Turrle-grass, 131, 132
Turtles, 39, 147. 148
Typha, 125, 127
U
Udotea algaa), 41
Ulmus Floridana, 104, 119, 121, 159
Umbelliferae, 137
Underwood, L. M., 38
LUniola laxa, 104; paniculata, 93-95, 99,
175, 187
United States Bureau of Mines, 8, 14;
Bureau of Soils, 8; Census, 9, 14;
Geological Survey, 8; Weather Bu-
reau, 63
Univalves, 126
Upham, S. C., 36
Urena lobata. 134
UrsuT s isee Euarctos)
V
Viaccinium nitidum, 81, 86, 87, 89, 91,
159. 162, 170, 178
Valleys in South Florida, 53, 55
Vanatta, E. G., 35, 41, 42
Van Duzee, E. P., 41
Vaughan, T. W., 41
Vegetables, 59, 168, 179
Venus (clam), 151
Verbenaceae, 139


205




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18ITH ANNUAL REPORT.


I'orbesina,. 99
Vertebrates, 19 t see also Mamnals, etc.)
Viburnum', 137; nuMdum, 121, 123, 159;
obov urnm. 10.1, 119. 159
I inca ro.sea (see A.mmocallis) .
Vines. 77, 82
Viola, 137
Virgin timber. 85. 171
Virginia creeper. 101. 108, 112, 123, 159,
178, 183. 187
nitis aesti ualhs, 101, 164; Caribaea, 108,
178: ,lrtn.soninu, 93. 101, 108, 112.
120, 121. 123, 134. 155, 159. 162.
164, 170. 172, 178, 187
Vittarin, 101, 109. 110
Virvianite, 50

W
Wampee, 115. 120. 121, 125. 127, (161J
Area, 81. 83
Wasps, 150
Water birds, 145
Water hyacinth, 113, 125, 134
Water lettuce. 113. 119, 121, 125
Water lily, 113
Water oak. 101. 119, 121, 159, 164
Water snakes, 147
Weasel, 143
Wenthering, 58
Weeds, 77, 79, 107, (125), 126, 132-136,
140, 141. 188, 191
Wells, 51. 151
Wet prairies, 113-115, 160, 163, 169
Wet savannas. 102
Whales, 143
Whippoorwills. 1:45
White imaTronve.C 93. 96. 155, 172, 183,
185, 187


Wildcat. 143
Wild coffee, 104, 108, 172, 178
Wild cotton, 99, 183, 187
Wild fig tor rubber), 99, 108, 110, 112,
130. 155, 172. 178. 183, 187
Wild grape, 104, 164. 178
Wiley, IL. W.. 33, 42, 61
Willoughby, 11. L., 39
Willow. 115. 119-121. 125. 127. 159, 161,.
17 T. 172. 178. J83
Wind. 53. 70
Wind-borne seeds. 79), Ri, 87, 91, 95,
99, 103. 106. 109, 110, 115. 118, 120,
121. 123. 128, 131, 135
W\i:nzed fruits or seeds. 79, 106
Wint-r resorts. 162, 173, (179)
Wirt-grass. 83. 81, 86. 87. 89, 91, 92
Wolvch 113
Woudpeckeris. 43. 115
X


X anthox vrum Cavrl-Hlerculis,
Fagara, 99, 108. 110, 155, 172
Xirnenia. 81, 83. 162
Xolisrna (see Cholisma)
Xvris, 86. 89, 137


109;


Y
Yellow fever. 36, 149
Yellow jessamine, 104
YellowIail (fish), 148
Yuccra aloiffli, 93, 99, 155, 172, 183:
filameniosa, 83
Z
Zamiai, 86, 91
7Z onthoxylhum I see Xanthoxylu m)
Zircon, 16


206









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


ROLAND M. HARPER




From the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Florida State
Geological Survey, 1927.


FLORIDA


STATE GEOLOGICAL
HERMAN GunTR, State Geologis


SURVEY


EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT










TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


1927










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

ROLAND M. HARPER

CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction ............,....... .................. ................... .......................,, .... .. ............ 31- 33
Sources of information ................................................................ ...... 34- 47
B bibliography ................................... ............. ............ .... ,............. ................ 35- 46
Field work of the writer ...... .. ......... .................................................................... 4 7
Geology and mineral resources ................................. ............... ............. 48- 52
Underground waters ....................................... .................................... ........... 51- 52
Topography ...... ............................... .. ...... ....... .... ........ ................................ 5 3 56
Soils ....... ............. ........ ............................................................................... 57. 62
Climate 4........ ...................................................................................... 63- 74
Temperature (fig. 4) ................................. ......... ........... ...... ....... 63- 68
Precipitation (fig. 5) ...................................................... .......... ........... 68- 70
R elative hum idity ..................... ...... ..................... .. ...... ... ........ .... 70
W ind ............................ ................ ............. ................ ........... 70
Extremes of weather, 1905 to 1925 (figs. 6, 7) ......................................... 71. 74
V vegetation ...................... ....................................... ..... .................................... 75-135
M ethod of treatm ent .............. ..... .. ...... ............................... ..... ............... 76- 79
Scrub (fig. 8) ..... ...... .... ............. .......... . ,... ...................... ...... .. 79- 81
High pine land (fig. 9) ... ... .,.................-..... ................ ............................... 82 84
Flatwoods (figs. 10, 11) .. ............................................4........... 8 87
Dry prairies (fig. 12) ............ .......................................... 87- 89
Miami pine land ............................. ,........,....+.,+b.h.+4.4d+B......4*.4.... p.... 90- 92
Beaches and dunes (figs. 13-15) ............... ....................................................... 92 95
Salt flats (figs. 16, 17) ............................... ............. ...... ................ 96 97
Cactus thickets (fig. 18) ............ .............................................. 98- 99
Palm savannas (figs. 19-21) ..................................................... ........100-103
Low hammocks (fig. 22) .................. ...........................................103-106
Tropical ham mocks ............ ................... .. ............................................106.109
Cape Sable ham m oe .ks .......................................... ......... ................. ..........4.. 110
Key hammocks (fig. 23) .................. ............... ............................111-112
Lakes and ponds (fig. 24) ..... ................................... ..... .... .... .......... ............ 113
W et prairies (fig. 25) ..., ........ ....... ............... ............................................ ...113-115
Cypress ponds (fig. 26) ....... ....... ........ ............. ...............................I .......116-118
R iver-banks -......... ................. ..... ................................. ......... ........ .. ....... .119-120
Creek and branch swamps (fig. 27) ... ..........................,....................... 121-122
Bays and non-alluvial swamps (fig. 28) ..,.................................................122-124
Custard-apple swamps ..... .... ............................................... .. 124
Saw.grass marshes (fig. 29) ............................................................ ...124.126
M arl prairies (fig. 30) ............................................................ ...... .... .... 126-128











Vegetation (continued)
Mangrove swamps (figs. 31-33) ........................... ...................................12&-131
Submarine vegetation ......................................................................................131-132
W eeds ..................................... ...... ............ .... ....... ........ .............. ....... .. .... ... 32-135
FIorietice ................. ........................ .. ................................ ......... ... .......... ....1361 41
F anna ................................................................................................................ .......... 1... .143-152
M am m als ............. ........ ... ...... .................... .. ........ 4............................. 143-144
B irde .............................. ...........................................................................................144-146
Reptiles .........................................................................................................14147
A mL phibians ......................... ............. ............................ 1....... ...1 ..... .................. 147
Fisheu .............................. .. ...............................................................................147-149
Insect .................................. .................................................................................... 49-150
Arac mids and crustaceans ................................................ ...............I ............. ISO
M ollu ks .. .. .......... .................... ............................................................. ........... 51-152
Sponges ......... ............. ......1...............-........................ .......................... .. ...... 152
Regional cla ifie ation ..................................................................................... ..... 153192
West coast islands (fig. 34, 35) ......................... ................ .....153-155
Manatee hammock region (fig. 36) .................... .....................1....55-156
Flatwoode, western division (figs. 37, 38) .................. ........ ................ 157-166
Lake region (fig. 39) ...............................,,. .. ... ..... b......++>b................160-162
Prairie region (fig. 40) ............ ................ ........ ........... .....l............... 163,165
Indian Prairie ............................................... ................... ... ..... ...... .. 166
Everglade (fig. 41) ............................... .. ................. ...... 167-168
Flatwoods, eastern division .... ,....... I t*.4....... ............ .............6.. ........... 6171
East coast strip (figs. 4246) ............................................... .... .....+1..1 71-175
Miami limestone region (figs. 4749) ...................................................176179
Coast prairie (figs. 50,53) ........ E4+f.... -........ ....................... .....................180-184
Ten Thousand lalanda (fig. 54) ............................ ................d....+.+...4...,+ 184-186
Upper Keys (figs. 55, 56) ................... ........... .............................. 186
Lower Keys (figs. S7, 58) ..................................1.........I+.....l.. ..................... 189-19
Index ..................................................m ..................... .....................*...*I I '9S3-207








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
MAPS AND GaAFHS
PIGr PFAC
2. Regional map of southern Florida .................................................. 32
3. Mean temperature and annual rainfall (map) ................................. 65
4. Daily temperatures throughout an average year ......................................... 66
5. Monthly rainfall throughout an average year ................................d.................. 69
6. Annual temperature for various stations, 1905 to 1924 .............................. 72
7. Annual rainfall for various stations, 1905 to 1924 .............. .................... 73

VEGETATION TYPES
8. Scrub north of Naples, Collier County ................... ............... ..................... .. 80
9. High pine land in lake region, Highlands County ......................................... 83
10. Longleaf pine flatwoods, Okeechobee County ,................... ....................... 85
11. Slash pine flatwoods near Bonita Springs, Lee County .,.................... 85
12. Dry prairies about 2 miles northwest of Okeechobee ................................ 88
13, Dune vegetation on east coast near Boynton .......'. ...................................... 94
14. Gulf beach on Gasparilla Island, Lee County ...................................... 94
15. Beach vegetation on calcareous sand, Upper Matacumbe Key .*......... 95
16, Sandy alt flat on Pine island, Lee County ............................... 97
17. Salt flat vegetation on limestone, Lower Keys ..............................-...... ... 97
18. Cactus thicket, inner shore of Sanihel Island ................................................. 98
19. Palm savanna, Indian Prairie, Highlands County ................ .. +............. 4 104
20. Palm savanna on Gasparilla Island, Lee County ......................................
21. Palm savanna on Summerland Key, Monroe County ...............................10
22. Hammock on Caloosahatchee River, Glades County ...................................... 10
23. Scrubby tropical hammock ou Lower Matacumbe Key ............................. III
24. Clear Lake, near W est Palm Beach .................................................................. 113
25. Wet prairie in long-leaf pine flatwoods, Okeechobee County ....................114
26. Cypress pond between Fort. Myers and Immokalee ,.................... .. .+.,.....117
27. Fisheating Creek south of Palmdale, Glades County ......................................122
28. Bay in prairie region northwest of Palmdale .................. .......................... 123
29. Reed-like vegetation in Everglades, Dade County ................ ............ 25
30. Transverse glade in Miami pine land .......................................................... ....127
31. Outer edge of mangrove swamp on Biscayne Bay ............................................129
32. Interior of sam e ................................. ........................................ ................. ,............129
33. Mangrove swamp, partly cleared, north of Miami Beach ..... ..................... 130

NATuRAL REcIONS
34. Looking west from highest dune on Marco Island....... ............................154
35. Vegetation on inner shore of Sanibel Island ............... .................. ........
36. Old clearing in big hammock sonth of Manatee ................. .......... ............156
37. Salamander hills in pine land, Hardee County .......................................... ....1.58
38. Cut-over land east of Arcadia, DeSoto County ...... ....... ....... .............. 160
39. Small lake southeast of Avon Park, Highlands County ...... ................ 161
40. Cattle in dry prairies north of Immokalee, Collier County ...........,i+.............165









FIG. PACE
41. Everglades, about 13 miles northeast of Fort Lauderdale ..............................67
42. FIatwoods in east coast strip, Indian River County .....................................J..73
43. Road through tropical hammock near Ankona, St. Lucie County .........l.....174
44. High old dune, partly cleared, near Jensen .........................................1-74
45. Old field covered with Natal grass, Palm Beach County ...............................175
46. Looking south along shore at Miami Beach ..................................................... 75
47. Honeycombed rock of Miami pine land, north of Miami ...........................176
48. Rough limestone surface in cut-over land near Cutler ..............................77
49. Water-worn pillars of limestone in Larkin glade ...................................,...179
50. Stunted pond cypress in coast prairie, Dade County .................................1S. 80
51. Mangrove bushes in coast prairie, Dade County ..............................................81
52. Black mangroves on marly shore near East Cape Sable ..............................181
53. Buttonwood ready for charcoal burning, near Flamingo ...............................182
54. Black mangrove in savanna about two miles north of Marco ....................85
55. Rocky outer shore of Lower Matacumbe Key, Monroe County ....................186
56. Islands with overhaningi edges, Marathon .................................... ............. l 188
57. Tropical thicket vegetation on Ramrod Key ..... ...............-,...................189
58. Charcoal awaiting shipment on Cudjoe Key ..........................................191








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


INTRODUCTION
The main object of geography is to describe and classify the
surface of the earth, by means of the things or features found
thereon. These features are of two principal kinds: inanimate,
such as soil, topography, water and climate; and organic, such as
vegetation, fauna, population and industries. In the second group
it is customary to make a distinction between the plants and lower
animals on the one hand, and the human population or civilization
on the other, on account of the extreme complexity of the latter.
Physical geography deals with the natural features, including all
the inanimate and the plants and lower animals; and human geog-
raphy with the rest, which may be classed as artificial features,
because they are developed or modified by thinking beings.
The natural or physical features constitute the environment
of civilization. They are supposed to have existed much longer
than the human race, and to change much more slowly than civili-
zation does, except where man himself changes them, by cutting
down forests, damming up streams, killing wild animals, etc. The
artificial or human features may change very rapidly, though,
especially in an area like that covered by this report; and in order
to describe them adequately it is necessary to use a great variety
of statistics, for density and composition of population, acreage
and yield of crops, kind and value of manufactures, etc., etc.
Physical geography is indeed also capable of some statistical
treatment, in the way of soil analyses, weather records, stand of
timber, etc., but such statistics are usually much simpler than those
used in human geography.
The present report seeks to describe the physical features or
natural resources of South Florida, from the northern boundaries
of Manatee and Indian River Counties to the south end of the State,
an area of about 17,000 square miles, not counting lakes and salt
water. At present people all over the United States are looking
toward this section, and many doubtless have very hazy ideas about
the soil, water supply, climate, vegetation, fauna, etc., all of















32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.
--r1 ".. .. .. .


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Fie. 2. Map showing location of regions described in text, together with
rivers, railroad counties, townships, etc. The regional boundaries are only
approximate in some places, and those of the Big Cypress are not shown at all,
because too Ittle known at present. The dotted line northeast of Lake Okee.
chobee, in Martin County, indicates a low scarp or terrace, which may some time
be treated as a regional boundary. (See regional descriptions.) Scale about
3,040,000, or 48 miles to the inbch


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NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


which are treated in the following pages. It is of course also
important to a home-seeker or investor to know something about
what kind of neighbors he may expect to have, as well as about
agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, etc., but information about
the population and industries can be given better at some future
time, after the results of the federal agricultural census of Jan-
uary, 1925, and the state population census of February, 1925,
have been more fully analyzed or digested.

In this report, in conformity with the established policy of
this department (and practically all other state geological sur-
veys) we have tried to present the important truths impartially,
not overlooking the fact that some of the soils are below the
average in fertility, some of the water is hard, the weather is not
always perfect, some of the trees are crooked or otherwise of
little use, mosquitoes are occasionally seen, etc. Absolute ac-
curacy is not claimed, for there are still large areas in South
Florida that have never been seen by any one competent to write
a scientific description of them, and even with the best of intentions
mistakes sometimes occur. And of course a complete description
of an area of this size cannot be given in 160 pages. But if there
are any errors or .serious omissions they are unintentional, and
just as likely to be on the good as on the bad side. We believe
that the whole truth, or an approximation to it, will be more useful
to prospective settlers and investors than merely the better half
of it; and to ignore the disadvantages would be as inexcusable as
for a newspaper to omit all mention of fires, floods, hurricanes,
earthquakes, accidents, crimes, epidemics and deaths. Construc-
tive criticisms will always be welcomed, and if important enough
they can be incorporated into future publications of this office.
In order to avoid making this report too bulky and delaying
it indefinitely, no notice is here taken of publications, explorations
and occurrences subsequent to the Spring of 1926, except that
some information obtained by correspondence and reading since
then ha, been incorporated.








34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
One of the first steps in any scientific investigation is to as-
certain what has already been published on the subject, and then
build up on the foundations already laid. A great deal has been
written about the geology, scenery, and other natural features of
South Florida, especially in the last decade or two; but at the
present writing lack of time and library facilities forbid attempt-
ing a complete bibliography. However, even a partial bibliogra-
phy may be very helpful to future investigators of the same field,
and such a one is given below. It includes about 165 titles (by
94 authors), two-thirds of them published since 1900.
In order to economize time and space as much as possible,
several kinds of publications are arbitrarily excluded, but excep-
tions are sometimes made for works of special interest or import-
ance. The excluded classes are as follows:
1. Previous reports of this Survey; for they are not very
numerous yet, and they ought to be accessible in the same libraries
that have this volume.
2. Publications covering the whole State or a larger area,
particularly monographs of families, genera, etc., unless they
contain descriptions of several new species from the area treated.
3. Papers devoted to only one species of plant or animal,
unless it is a new species from South Florida.
4. Works fully cited in later ones referred to below, or in
the bibliographies in our First, Third, Sixth and Twelfth Annual
Reports.
5. Books and articles written more with a view of interest.
ing a large number of readers, or inducing people to come to
Florida, than of presenting fundamental facts. This sort of lit-
erature is very abundant at present, and of course it contains some
important truths (and scientific works may contain unintentional
errors), but if one should start citing popular works one would
never know where to stop.
6. Relatively inaccessible publications, such as old news-
papers, ephemeral magazines, and little-known scientific serials
of limited circulation.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


7. Works dealing almost entirely with human or artificial
features, such as census reports, and descriptions of cities.

In order to illustrate the development of scientific knowledge
concerning this area the bibliography is arranged as nearly as
possible in chronological order.* A reader who wishes to know
what works of any particular author have been cited here or in
footnotes can locate them by means of the index.

On account of the GeoloYical Survey's limited library facili-
ties, many of the bibliographic references have had to be obtained
by correspondence, and some errors may have crept into the
citations; but if so they can easily be straightened out by any one
who has access to a good library.
A few publications not listed in the bibliography are men-
tioned in footnotes, to illustrate some particular point.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1851
Michael Tuomey. Notice of the geology of the Florida Keys, and of the
southern coast of Florida.-Am. Jour. Sei 61: 390-394.
1856
J. C. Ives. Memoir to accompany a military map of the peninsula of Florida,
south of Tampa Bay, compiled by Lieut. J. C. Ives, Topog'l Engineers, under the
general direction of Capt. A. A. Humphreys, Topog'l Engineers, by order of the
Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War. April, 1856-(U. S. War Dept.) New
York, M. B. Wynkoop (publisher). 1856. 42 pp. and 2 folded mapa.
The main mop measures 32x42 inches, begins a little north of latitude 28,
and shows many details of vegetation, etc., pretty accurately for that early date.
One or two later vegetation maps seem to have been based on it. The same map
is reproduced on a smaller scale, with a few quotations from the text, in U. S.
Senate Document 89, 1911 (see below),

*The month of publication is usually not given in books, or in scientific
serials which appear annually or at irregular intervals, and it is often mis-stated
in periodicals, and the error overlooked or soon forgotten, and this state of
affairs sometimes causes injustice in cases of disputed priority, (See under Ilex
cumulicola, farther on.)
tFor valuable assistance in this matter the writer is indebted to Francis
Harper of the Boston Society of Natural History (for references on birds and
mammals), C. W. Johnson of the same institution (mollusks), Dr. M. A. Howe
of the New York Botanical Garden (plants), J. T. Nichols of the American
Museum of Natural History (fishes and reptiles), J. A. G. Rehn of the Philadelphia
Academy of Natural Sciences (insects), E. G. Vanatta of the same (mollusks),
Lee R. Dice of the University of Michigan mammalli, Prof. W. S. Blatchley,
former state geologist of Indiana, and for several years past a winter resident of
Florida (insects), and a few others.









36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1869
R. E. C. Stearns. Rambles in Florida.-American Naturalist 3: 281-288, 349-
356, 397405, 455470. Aun-Nov, 1869.
Mostly conchological, but contains interesting notes on the geography, flora,
fauna, etc. Some of the Keys are described in the last five pages.
1872
C. J. Maynard. Catalogue of the mammals of Florida, with notes on their
habits, distribution, etc.-BulL Essex Institute 4: 135-150. Sept. and Oct., 1872.
(Also reprinted with pages numbered 1 to 16.)
Based on three winters' travel in Florida, with two or more companions each
time, some of them scientists. The Everglades and Keys were visited on the
second trip, and the third took the party as far south as Jqpiter. Lists 36 species,
including one introduced, the brown rat. (The common mouse was not seen in
Florida at that time,)
1874
Frederick Brendel. Notes on the flora of southern Florida.-American Nat-
uralist 8:449452. Aug. 1874.
1875
(Capt.) F. Trench Townsend. Wild life in Florida, with a visit to Cuba.-
xis + 319 pp, frontispiece and map. London, 1875.
1877
L. F. DePourtales. Hints on the origin of the flora and fauna of the Florida
Keys.-American Naturalist 11:137-144. March 1877.
1878
A. W. Chapman. An enumeration of some plants-chiefly from the semi.
tropical regions of Florida-which are either new, or which have not hitherto been
recorded as belonging to the southern states.-Botanical Gazette 3;2-6, 9-12, 17-2L
1878.
W. W. Calkins. Marine shells of Florida.-Proe. Davenport (Iowa) Acad.
Nat. Set 2:232-252. 1878.
E. A. Schwarz. The Coleoptera of Florida.-Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 17:353-
472. 1878. (Remarks on geographical distribution by J. L. LeConte on pages
470-471.)
A. P. Garber. Ferns in South Florida.-Botanical Gazette 3:82-85. Oct. 1878.
1880
W. W. Calkins. Winter herborizations on Indian River, Florida.-Botanical
Gazette 5:57-58. May, 1880.
G. H Horn. Coleoptera from the Florida Keys collected by W. H. Ashmead.
--Proc. Entom. See. Phila. Acad. Sci. (Trans. Am. Entom. Soc.) 8:xvii. 1880.
1881
Jerome Coclran, M. D. Sketches of yellow fever on the Gulf Coast of Florida.
-Trans. Med. AssB. Alabama 34:451.484. 1881.
Key West described on pages 454457, and Manatee and vicinity on pages
465466.
J. Cosmo Melvil. List of the mollusca obtained in South Carolina and Flor-
ida, principally in the island of Key West, 1871-1872.-Jour. Conchology (Leeds,
England) 3:155-173. 1881.
Samuel C. Uphmr. Notes from Sunland, on the Manatee River, Gulf coast
of South Florida.-83 pp, 2 plates. Published by the author, Braidentown and
Philadelphia, 1881.
1883
Feipe Poey (y Aloy). List of food fishes brought from Key West, Fla, into
the markets of Habana.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 2:118. 1883.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


W. H. Dall. On a collection of shells sent from Florida by Mr. Henry Hemp-
hil.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mum. 6:318342, pl. 10. Dec., 1883.
1884
J. Cosmo Melvill List of the phanerogams of Key West, South Florida,
mostly observed there in March, 1872.-Mem. Manchester (England) Lit. & Phil.
Soc. III. 8:138-154. 1884.
David Starr Jordan. The fishes of he Florida Keys.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm.
4:77-80. 1884.
James A. Henshall. Camping and cruising in Florida.-248 pp., Cincinnati,
1884. (Largely about South Florida.)
1885
D. S. Jordan & C. H. Gilbert, Descriptions of ten new species of fishes from
Key West, Florida.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu. 6:24-32. 1885.
David Starr Jordan. List of fishes collected at Key West, Fla., with notes and
deacriptionts-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu. 7:103-150. 1885.
Joseph Swain & S. E. Meek. Notes on the pipe fishes of Key West, Fla, with
description of Siphostoma mckayi, a new species.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 7:237-239.
1885.
W. H. Dall. Notes on some Floridian land and fresh-water shells, with a
revision of the Auriculacea of the eastern United States.-Proc. U. S. Not. Mus.
8:255-289, pL 17, 18. July, 1885.
1886.7
Angelo Heilprin. Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the
Okeechobee wilderness. With special reference to the geology and zoology of
the Floridian peninsula. A narrative of researches undertaken under the auspices
of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia.-Trans. Wagner Inst.
1:iii-vii, 1-134, with plates 1-19 (of animals and fossils) and two of landscape
drawings not numbered. 1887. (Pages 65-127 also published in advance, in
1886.)
One of the earliest scientific descriptions of the Caloosahatchee River and
Lnke Okeechobee, with notes on the geology, flora and fauna, and the first aco
count of the rich molluscan fauna of the Caloosahatchee formation. Also covers
the Gulf coast from Cedar Keys to the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River.
1887
W. E. D. Scou. The present condition of some of the bird rookeries of the
Gulf coast of Florida. The Ank 4:135-144, 213-222, 273-284. 1887.
1887-1889
Chas. T. Simpson. contributions to the molluaca of Florida.-Proc. Daven-
port Acad. Nat. Sci. 5:45-72, 63*-72*. 1887 and 1889.
1888
E. A. Schwarz. The insect fauna of semi-tropical Florida with special regard
to the Coleoptera.-Entom, Amer. 4:165-175. 1888.
A. H. Curtiss. How the mangrove forms islands.-Garden & Forest 1:100.
April 25, 1888.
A. H. Curtiss. The flora of the Florida Keys.-Garden & Forest 1:279-280.
Aug. 8, 1888.
Points out the differences between the Upper and Lower Keys, and the sim-
ilarity of the latter to the mainland around Miami. Mentions the occurrence on
the Lower Keys of slash pine, two species of thatch palm, cabbage palmetto, saw.
plmetto, and myrtle (Myrica wcerera), which are rare or absent on the Upper
Keys-




"





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1888-1890
W. E. D. Scott A summary of observations on the birds of the Gulf coast
of Florida--Auk 5:373-379. 1888; 6:13-18, 152-160, 245.252, 318.326. 1889; 7:14-22,
114-120. 1890.
1889
Robert Grant. Tarpon fishing in Florida.--Scribner's Magazine 6:154-168.
(Illustrated.) Aug., 1889.
Describes some of the coast between Punta Gorda and Punta Rassa.
1889-1903
W. H. Dall. A preliminary catalogue of the shell-bearing marine mollusks
and brachiopods of the southeastern coast of the United States, with illustrations
of many of the species.-U. S. Nat. Museum Bull. 37. 74 plates. Reprinted in
1903, with 232 pages and 95 plates.
Contains a bibliography of 12 Dages.
1890
David Starr Jordan. List of fishes collected in the waters of southern Florida
by Dr. James A. Henshall, under the direction of the U. S. Fish Commission.-
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 8:371-379. 1890.
J. H. Simpson. Florida plants.-Rep. Sec. Agr. (U. S.) 1889:389-393. 1890.
Mostly from the vicinity of Manatee.
WI. D. DScott. On birds observed at the Dry Tortugas, Florida, during parts
o0 March and April, 1890.-Auk 7:301.314. 1890.
Lists 80 species.
1891
A. C. Adams & W. C. Kendall. Report upon an investigation of the fishing
grounds off the west coast of Florida.-Bull U. S. Fish. Comm. 9:289-312. (Illus.)
16 91.
James A Henshall. Report upon a collection of fishes made in southern
Florida during 1889.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 9:371-389. 1891.
L. M. Underwood. The distribution of tropical ferns in peninsular Florida.-
Proc. Indiana Acad. Si. 1891:83-89.
Deals largely with central Florida, but states that the most interesting part
of the State botanically is south of Lake Worth (a region which had no railroads
in those days). Mentions among other things that the mail was then brought to
Miami once a week, by a carrier who walked along the beach from Lake Worth, a
distance of about 60 miles, and crossed the intervening inlets by ferries, when
the weather permitted.
1892
W. E. D. Scott. Notes on the birds of the Caloosahatchee region of Florida.
-Ank 9:209-218. 1892.
Lists 259 species,
H. F. Wiley. The muck lands of the Florida peninsula.-(In report of
Chemist) Rep. U. S. Sec. Agriculture, 1891:163-171. Reprinted in U. S. Senate
Document 89, 1911. (See below.)
Deals with the vicinity of Lakes Tohopekaliga and Okeechobee. On page
166 is a list of a few plants growing on muck around Lake Okeechobee, most of
ihem identified only generically.
1893
C. S. Sargent. The mangrove tree.-Garden & Forest 6:97-98, 101, 103, with
2 figures. March 1, 1893.
John Af. Holzinger. List of plants new to Florida.-Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.
1:288. Oct., 1893.
Lists 17 species, all but one collected in the southern part of the State by
J3 H. Simpson.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 39

1894
C. R. Dodge. Subtropical Florida.-Scribner's Magazine 15:345.362, with 12
half-tone sketches. March, 1894.
Frank M. Chapman. Remarks on certain land mammals of Florida, with a
list of the species known to occur in the State.-Bull. Am. Mus. NaL Hist, 6:333.
346. 1894.
Samuel N. Rhoods. Contributions to the mammalogy of Florida.-Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1894:152-160.
1894-5
John Hamilton. Coleoptera taken at Lake Worth, Fla.-Canadian Entomol.
ogist 26:250-256. 1894; 27:317. 1895.
1895
Einar Loennberg, Ph. D. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in
Florida in 1892 and 1893.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum 17:317-339. 1895.
Lists 15 turtles, 7 lizards, 30 snakes, 5 salamanders, and 10 toads and frogs,
all from the peninsular part of the State, but mostly north of the limits of this
report.
(The same author also published some notes on Florida plants in Botaniska
Notiser, a Swedish magazine, in December, 1894, and a paper on Florida fishes
in another Swedish periodical in the same year.)

1896
Alexander Agassiz. The Florida elevated reef. (With notes on the geology
of southern Florida by L. S. Griswold.)-Bull. Mus. Comparative Zoology of
Harvard College, 28:29-62, pl. 1-26. Oct., 1896.

1897
Barton W. Evermann & Barton A. Bean. Indian River and its fishes.-U. S.
Senate Misc. Doe. No. 46, 54th Cong, 2nd session. 26 pp., 7 plates. Jan., 1897.
Also in Rep. U. S. Fish Comm. 1896:227-262, with 36 plates 1898.
Lists 106 species of fishes occurring in the Indian River, mostly collected
by the writers in January, 1896.
1898
(Lieut.) H. L. Willoughby. Across the Everglades. A canoe journey of ex-
ploration.-192 pp. and numerous half4one illustrations. Philadelphia, 1898 (and
later editions).
J. A. Allen. The mammals of Florida.-American Naturalist 32433-436.
1898.
1899
Samuel N. Roads. Annotated list of land and fresh-water shells collected
in the vicinity of Miami, Florida.-Nautilus 13:4348. Aug., 1899.
C. L. Pollard. Notes on some South Florida ferns.-Fern Bulletin 7:88-90.
Oet, 1899.
1902
Chas. T. Simpson. A visit to the royal palm hammock of Florida.-Plant
World 5:4-7. Jan, 1902.
This does not refer to the now well known Royal Palm Hammock, in Dade
County (formerly called Paradise Key, and now a State park), but to a much
less accessible one near the Gulf coast, in what is now Collier County.










40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

C. L. Pollard. Plant agencies in the formation of the Florida Keys.-Plant
World 5:8-10, pL 4. 1902.
Mostly, about mangroves.
John K. Small & George V. Nash, Report upon a trip to Florida.-Jonr. N. Y.
Bt. Gard. 3:29-35. Feb., 1902.
Vicinity of Miami mostly.
A. S. Hitchcock. A list of plants collected in Lee County, Florida.-Proc.
Iowa Acad. Sci 9:189-225. 1902.
1903
(Mrs.) E. C. Anthony. Notes on the ferns of the Florida east coast--Fern
Bulletin 11:21.23. Jan., 1903.
0. P. Phillips. How the mangrove adds new land to Florida.,-Jour Geogra.
phy 2:10-21, with 12 half tones. 1903.
M. A. Howe. Report .... on a trip to Florida.--Jour N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4:
4449. 1903
1994
Oakes Ames. A contribution to our knowledge of the orchid flora of southern
Florida.-Contr. Ames Bot. Lab., No. 1. 23 pp, 12 plates. Feb., 1904.
John K. Small. Report on exploration in tropical Florida.-Jonr. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 5:49-53. March, 1904.
A. A. Eaton. A preliminary list of pteridophyta collected in Dade County,
Florida, during November and December, 1903.-Fern Bulletin 12:4548. "April"
[May], 1904.
Oakes Ames. Additions to the orchid forn of Florida.-Proc. Bio!. Soc.
Waeh. 17:115-117. May, 1904.
N. L. Britton. Explorations in Florida and the Bahnmas.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 5:129-136. July, 1904.
John K. Small. Report upon further exploration of southern Florida--Jour.
N. Y. Bot. Gard. 5:157-164, figs. 24-26. Aug., 1904.
M. A. Howe. Collections of marine algae from Florida and the Bahamas.-
Jour. N. Y. Bot Card. 5:164-166. Aug, 1904.
George V. Nash. The palms of Florida.-Jor. N. Y. Bot. Card. 5:194-199.
Oct., 1904.
Bradford Torrey. Nature's Invitation.-Boston, 1904.
Pages 83-160 devoted to Florida, mostly the southern part.
1905
J, A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. A contribution to the knowledge of the
Orthoptera of southern and central Floridn.-Proc, Phila. Acad. Not. Sci. 57:29-55.
1905.
M. A. Howe. New Chlorophyceae from Florida and the Bahama.-Bull.
Torrey Bot. Club 32:241-252, pl. 11-15. May, 1905.
Describes two new species of green algae, Haltmeda scabra and Siphonocadus
rigidus, from various localities in South Florida and the Bahamas.
H. A. Pilsbry. Land shells of the Florida Keys.-Nantflus 19:3741. August,
1905.
Forty species listed, including some from Cape Sable and the Ten Thousand
Islands, with notes on distribution. One new, Succinea floridana, from Big Pine
Key, etc.
M. A. Howe. New Chloropbyceae, new Rhodophyeeae and mfscellaneous
notes,-Bull. Torrey Bat. Club 32:563-586, pl. 23-29. Nov, 1905.
Includes descriptions of Sarcomenia filametosa, n. sp, washed ashore at
Cape Florida and elsewhere, and Acesabulum Farlowi (Sohns) Howe, from Key
West, Miami, etc









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1906
John Giford. The Florida Keyl.-Nut. Geog. Magazine 17:5-16. Jan., 1906,
M. Folie & M. A. Howe. New American coralline algae,-BuIL N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 4:128-136, pL 80-93. June, 1906.
Includes descriptions of two new species from Sanda Key (Dade County),
namely, Goniolithum acretum and Lithophyflum bermudense (the former grow-
ing also in the Bahamas and the latter in Bermuda).
H. W. Fowler. Birds observed in June in the Florida Keys.-Ank. 23:396400.
1906. (33 species.)
1907
John K. Small. Exploration of southern Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
8:23-28. Feb, 1907.
C. F. Miispaugh. Flora of the sand keys of Florida.-Field Columbian
Museum, Pub. 118. (ot Series, vol. 2, No. 5), pp. 189-245. March, 1907.
An account of a very detailed study of the vegetation of all the small islands
west of Key West, by 0. E. Lansing. Jr., with maps; intended primarily for corm
prison with studies that may be made of the same areas in future years.
H. A. Pilsbry. Origin of the tropical forms of the land molluscan fauna of
southern Florida.-Proe, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 59.193. 1907.
M. A. Howe.* Further notes on Halimeda and Avrainvlllea.-Bull. Torrey
Dot. Club 34:491-516, p. 25-30. Oct, 1907.
Discusses among others fHalimeda discoidea and Arainvillea nigrians, coral.
line algae from South Florida and the tropics
1908
E. G. Vanaua. List of the land shells of Lee County, Florida.-Nautilus 21:
99-104. Jan., 1908.
Specimens collected by Clarence B. Moore, mostly along the coast from Pine
Island to Chokoloskee.
Ernas A. Bessey. The Florida strangling figs.-Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.
19:25-33, pl, 1-9. 1908.
Frank M. Chapman. Camps and cruises of an ornithoogist.-New York,
1908.
Part 3 (pp. 83-154) deals with Florida.
1909
M. A. Howe. The genus Neomeris and notes on other Siphonales.-Ball.
Torrey Bot. Club 36:75-86, p. 1.8. Feb., 1909.
Includes notes on three marine algae from South Florida and the tropics,
namely, Neomeris analata, Udocea conglutinata, and Udolea cyathiformis,
John K. Small Exploration in the Everglades.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard, 10:
48-55. March, 1909.
T. Wayland Vaughan. The geological work of mangroves in southern Florida.
-Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections $2:461-464% with 7 plates and 2 text.
figures. 1909.
Written because the subject had not been treated much in geological literature.
(Three or four botanical papers on the same subject are cited above.)
Chas. T. Simpson. Collecting in the Everglades,-Fern Bulletin 17:3-41.
"April" [May], 1909.
E. P. Van TDu.ee. Observaions on some Hemiptera taken in Florida n the
spring of 1908.-Bull. Buffalo See. Nat SeL 9:149-230. 1909.
Many new species, mostly from southern Florida
M. A. Howe. Report on an expedition to Jamaica, Cuba, and the Florida
Keys.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card. 10:115.118. 1909.









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1910
Winthrop Packard. Florida Trails.-300 pp, 40 plates. Boston, 1910.
One of the best of the popular books on Florida. Some of the chapters were
previously published in the Boston Transcript.
R. M. Harper. Tramping and camping on the southeastern rim of the Ever-
glades.-Florida Review (Jacksonville) 4:4449, 51-55, 147-157. 1910.
1911
Everglades of Florida. Acts, reports, and other papers, state and national,
relating to the Everglades of the State of Florida and their reclamation,-U. S.
Senate Doe. 89, 62nd Congress, Ist Session. 208 pp, 2 folded maps, 6 plates. 1911.
Contains among other things reproduct:ans of Lieut. Ives' map (1856), and
Dr. Wiley's article on muck lands (!992), referred to above.
John K. Small. Exploration in southern Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
12:147-156, fig. 26-31. July, 1911.
Describes Miami Beach, the Keys, ete. Notes the occurrence of a deer on the
lower Keys (described as a new variety by Barbour and Allen in 1922).
Ernst A. Bessey. The hammocks and Everglades of southern Florida.-
Plant World 14:268-276, figs. 1, 2. "Nov.". 1911.
Describes among other things the relation of hammocks to fire.
George H. Clapp. Land shells of Garden Key, Dry Tortngas, Fla.-Nautilus
25:91-92. Dec, 1911.
1912
W. E. Saford. Notes of a naturalist afloat. II. The Florida Keys.-American
Fern Journal 2:1-12. (Illnut.) "Jan." [Feb.], 1912.
John IF. Harshberger. South Florida: a geographic reconnoissance.-Bull.
Geog. Soc. Philn. 10:235-245. 1912.
H. A. Pilsb-y. A study of the variation and zoogeography of Lignus in
Florida.-Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. II. 15:427471, pl. 37-40. (3 colored plates
and a map). 1912.
Deals with the tree-snails of the southern mainland and Keys.
1912.1914
J. A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. On the Orthoptera found on the Florida
Keys and in extreme southern Florida.-Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila. 64:235-276,
figs. 1-21. 1912; 66:373-412, figs. 17. 1914.
1912-1923
E. G. Vanaua. Land shells of southern Florida.-Nantilus 26:16-22, pl. 2.
June, 1912; 26:31-34. July, 1912; 33:18. July, 1919; 34.9395. Jan., 1921; 37:65-69.
Oct., 1923.
1913
Nelson C. Brown. The tropical or Antillean region of Florida.-Forestry
Quarterly 10:673-678, 1 plate. "Dec., 1912" [Jan., 1913].
The plate contains three half-tones made from photographs by the present
writer.
John K. Small. Report on exploration of tropical Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 14:81-86. April, 1913.
John K. Small. Flora of Miami, Being descriptions of the seed-plants grow.
ing naturally on the Everglade Keys and in the adjacent Everglades, southern
peninsular Florida.-xii + 206 pp. New York (published by the author), 1913.
John K. Small. Flora of the Florida Keys. Being descriptions of the seed-
plants growing on the islands of the Florida reef from Virginia Key to Dry
Tortngas.-xii + 162 pp. New York (published by the author), 1913.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1914
John K. Small Exploration in the Everglades and on the Florida Keys.-
Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 15:69-79, pi. 129-131. April, 1914.
Describes the Everglades canals, Lake Okeechobee, etc.
Florida Everglades. Report of the Florida Everglades Engineering Commies
sion to the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades Drainage District and the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, State of Florida.-U. S. Senate Doc
379, 63d Cong, 2nd Session. 148 pp., with several unnumbered textfigures, half.
tone plates, folded maps and diagrams. Washington, 1914.
J. A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. Records of Dermaptera and Orthoptera
from west central and southwestern Florida, collected by William T. Davis.-Jour.
N. Y. Entom. Soc. 22:96-116. June. 1914,
John W. Hsrshberger. The vegetation of South Florida, south of 27' 30'
north, exclusive of the Florida Keys.-Trans. Wagner Free Inst Sci. 7:49-189,
with folded map, 2 text-figures and 10 pplates. Philadelphia, "Oct." [Dec.], 1914.
1915
Frederic H. Kennard. On the trail of the ivory-bill [ed woodpecker, in the
Big Cypiress counlry].-Auk 32:1-14, pI. 1-3. Jan, 1915.
Frederic H. Kennard. The Okaloacoochee Slough,-Auk 32:154-166, pl. 13-15.
April, 1915.
Morgan Hebard. Dermaptera and Orthoptera round in the vicinity of Miami,
Florida, in March, 1915.-Entom. News 26:397408, 457469, pl. 18-20. 1915.
1915-1916
Charles N. Mooney & Mark Baldwin. Soil survey of the Indian River area,
Florida.-Field Operations U. S. Bureau of Soils, 1913: 675-717, p. 4, and large
soil map. 1916. (Also issued as an -advance chapter, with 47 pages, plate and
map, dated July 31, 1915.)
The area described is a narrow strip along the coast from Titusville to Palm
Beach.
1915-1919
Mark Baldwin & H. W. Hawker. Soil survey of the Fort Lauderdale area,
Florida.-Field Operations U. S. Bureau of Soils, 1915:751-798, pl. A. B., (folded
maps), 26-29, and large soil map. 1919. (Also issued as an advance chapter, with
52 pages and the same illustrations, dated July 31, 1915,)
The area described is a strip about five miles wide along the North New
River Canal through the Everglades from Lake Okeechobee to Fort Lauderdale.
1916
Morgan Hehard. Spring Orthoptera found on the islands in the vicinity
of Charlotte Harbor, Florida.-Entom. News 27:14-21. Jan, 1916.
John K. Small. Exploration in southern Florida in 1915.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 17:3745, pl. 166-168. March, 1916.
Mentions the desecration of Royal Palm Hammock, among other things.
F. S. Collins & M. A. Howe, Notes on species of Halymenia.-BulL Torrey
Bot. Club 43:169-182. April, 1916.
Includes description of H. Gelinaria, n. sp., a marine alga from North Carolina
and South Florida.
John K. Small. Royal Palm Hammock [in Dade County].-Jonr. N. Y. Bot.
Gard, 17:165-172, pL 179-182. Oct. 1916.
T. E. Snvde-. Notes on horse-flies as a pest in southern Florida.-Proc.
Entom. Soc. Washington 18:208. 1916.
John K. Small. A cruise to the Cape Sable region of Florida.-Jour. N. Y.
Bot. Gard. 17:189-202, pl. 183-188. Nov. 1916.









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Reprinted with some additions and alterations, as an independent pamphlet
entitle "The Cape Sable region of Florida," with 27 pages and 6 plates, in 1919.
1917
John K. Small. Botanical explorations in southern Florida in 1916.-Jour.
N. Y. Bot. Card. 18:98-111, pl. 195-199. May, 1917.
Harden F. Taylor. Mortality of fishes on the west coast of Florida.-U. S.
Bur. Fisheries, Document 848. 24 pp. 1917.
Roland M. Harper. (Review of) Matson & Sanford's "Geology and ground
waters of Florida."-Geog. Review 4:224-226. Sept, 1917.
1918
John K. Small. Ferne of tropical Florida.-Amer. Museum Jour. 18:126-134,
with 7 half-tones. "Feb.", 1918.
A sort of preface to a book with the same tite. (See next.)
John K. Small. Ferns of tropical Florida.-ix + 80 pp. New York (pub-
lished by the author), 1918.
John K. Small. Ferns of Royal Palm Hanmmock.-vii + 38 pp. New York.
(published by the author), 1918.
J. T. Nichols. Bird-notes from Florida. [Along the coast from Miami to
SanibeL] Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Y. 30:20-27. pl. 1. Sept., 1918.
John K. Small. Botanical exploration in Florida in 1917.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 19:279-290, pl. 219-222. Nov, 1918.
Describes his first visit to the Big Cypress, among other things.
1918-19
V. S. Blatchley. Some new or senrce Coleoptera from western and southern
Florida,-Can. Entom. 50:416424. 1918; 51:2832, 65-69. 1919.
1919
John K. Small. Narrative of a cruise to Lake Okeechobee.-Am. Museum
Jour. 18:684-700, with 14 illustrations. "Dee., 1918."
I. E. Safford. Natural history of Paradise Key and the nearby Everglades
of Florida.-Smithsonian Rep. 1917:377434, with 32 text-figares, 64 plates, and
folded map. (Smithsonian PubL 2508). Washington, 1919.
A. H. Howell. Description of a new seaside sparrow from Florida.-Auk
36:86-87. Jan., 1919.
Thryospiza mirabils, from Cape Sable.
C. A. Mosier & T. A. Snyder. Notes on the seasonal activity of Tabanidae
[hore*flies] in the lower Everglades of Florida.-Proc. Entom. Soc. Wash. 21:
186-197. 1919.
A. H. Howell, Notes on the fox squirrels of southeastern United States, with
description of a new form from Florida.-Jonr. Mammalogy, 1:36-38. Nov., 1919.
The new form is Sciurus niger avicenna, from near Everglade, in Lee (now
Collier) County.
John K. Small. Coastwise dunes and lagoons. A record of botanical ex-
ploration in Florida in the spring of 1918,-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card. 20:191-207, pl
236-238. Oct., 1919.
Paul Bartsch. The bird rookeries of the Tortugae.-Smithsonian Rep. 1917:
469-500, with 38 plates. Washington, 1919.
1920
A. H. Howell. Description of a new race of the Florida water-rat (Neoflber
AUen).--Jour. Mammajogy 1:79.80. Feb., 1920.
Var. nigrescens, from the south shore of Lake Okeechobee.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


John K. Small. Of grottoes and ancient dunes. A record of botanical ex-
ploration in Florida in December, 1918.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 21:25-38, 45-54,
pi. 241-244. Feb. and Mar, 1920.
Describes his first visit to what is now Highlands County, among other things.
W. S. Blachley. Notes on the winter Coleoptera of western and southern
Florida, with descriptions of new species.-Can. Entom. 52:4246, 68-72. 1920.
Describes the Cape Sable country, among other things.
G. M. Allen. An insular race of cotton rat from the Florida Keys.-Jonr.
Mammalogy 1:235.236. Nov, 1920.
Sigmodon hispidus xsputus, from Big Pine Key.
Chas. T. Simpson. In lower Florida wilds. A naturalist's observations on
the life, physical geography, and geology of the more tropical part of the State.-
xV + 404 pp, 64 unnumbered plates, 2 maps. New York, 1920.
Reviewed in Geog. Review 4:635. Oct., 1921.
John K. Small. A botanical excursion to the Big Cypress.-Natural History
(formerly Am. Museum Jour.) 20:488-500, with 8 half-tones. 1920.
1921
George H. Clapp. Land shells of Chokoloskee Key and Cape Sable, Florida.
-Nautilus 34:108. Jan., 1921.
John K. Small. Old trails and new discoveries.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
22:2540, 49-64, pl. 253-256. 1921.
Describes some cactus hammocks on Big Pine Key, and Indian Prairie. among
other things.
Richard F. Deckers. Amphibian notes from Dade County, Florida.-Copeia
92:20.23. March, 1921.
A. H. Howell. A list of the birds of Royal Palm Hammock, Florida.-Auk
38:250.263. April, 1921.
Lists 31 water birds and 97 land birds.
Clarence B. Moore. Liguns at Marco, Florida.-Nautilus 34:139.140. April,
1921.
Chas. T. Simpson. Florida west coast Liguns. [A reply to article by C. B.
Moore cited above.]-Nautilns 5:20.22. July, 1921,
John K. Small. Historic trails by land and water.-Jor. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
22:193-222, pL 263-266. 1921.
Mentions a submerged cave southwest of Royal Palm Hammock, among other
things.
1922
Chas. T. Simpson. A search for Liguus.-Nautilus 35:65-73. Jan., 1922.
Reprinted in his "Ont of Doors in Florida" (see below).
W, S. Blabchley. Some new and rare Coleoptera from southwestern Florida.
-Can. Entom. 54:9-13, 27-33. 1922.
Relates to the vicinity of Fort Myers and ChokoloBkee.
Thomas Ba-rbour & Glover M. Allen The white-tailed deer of eastern
United States.-Jonr. Mammalogy 3:65-78. May, 1922.
Contains description of Odocoleus virginianus clavium, a new subspecies
from Big Pine Key.
John K. Small The botanical fountain of youth-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card.
23:117-133, 139-155, pl. 275-279. 1922.
C. V. Johnson. Fossil shells from the St. Lutce Canal. Florida -Nautilnu
36:10-11. July, 1922.
Richard F. Deckern. Notes on Dade County Salientia [frogs and toads].
Copeia 112:88. Nov, 1922.











46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I1TH ANNUAL REPORT,

1923
John K. Small. Land of the question mark. Report on exploration in Florida
in December, 1920.-Jour. N. Y. Bot Gard. 24: 1-23, 25-43, 62-70, with 4 unnum.
hered half-tones in text. 1923.
Oliver P. fay. The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrate animals
from the states east of the Mississippi River and from the Canadian provinces
east of longitude 95'.-Carnegie Int. Wash., Publ. 322. 499 pp, 64 text figs.
(mostly full-page maps between text and index), 2 folded maps. Feb. 24, 1923.
South Florida fossils referred to on pages 3840, 122-124, 145-146, 159-160,
163-164, 197.200, 208, 222, 225, 233, 263-264, 379.384, 412415, 426427, 430437,
440451, 458459.
IV. S. Blatchley. Notes on the Coleoptera of southern Florida with descrip-
tionI of new species.-Can. Entom. 55113-20, 30.36, 1923.
Mostly about Moore Haven and Lake Okeechobee.
Chas. T. Simpson. An expedition that failed--Nautilus 36:109-115. April
1923.
Discusses the distribution of tree snails (Liguus and Oxystyla) in the vicinity
of Cape Sable.
John K. Small. Green deserts and dead gardens.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
24:193-247, with 4 half-tones in text. 1923.
1923-1925
William J. Clench. The marine shells of Sanibel, Florida.-Nautilus 37:52-56.
Oct., 1923. Additions to the list in same, 38:93-95. Jan, 1925.
1924
Charles T. Simpson. Out of doors in Florida. The adventures of a naturalist,
together with essays on the wild life and the geology of the State.-xii + 408 pp.,
with several unnumbered half-tone plates. Miami, "1923."
Similar in treatment to his 1920 book above cited. Almost wholly devoted to
the southern half of the State.
W. S. Btachley. New Coleoptera from southern Florida, with notes on other
interesting species.-Can. Entom. 56:164-170. 1924.
John K. Small. The land where spring meets autumn. A record of explora-
tion in Florida in December, 1921.-Jour. N. Y. Bo. Gard. 25:53-94, pl. 285-287.
1924.
W. H. Schroeder. Fisheries of Key West and the clam industry of southern
Florida.-U. S. Bur. Fisheries Doc. 962, or Appendix 12 to Report of the Com-
missioner of Fisheiies for 1923. 74 pp., 29 figs., mostly half-tone plates. 1924.
Contains a pretty good bibIiography, of 6 pages.
John K. Small. Plant novelties from Florida.-BulL Torrey Bot. Club 51:
379.393. Sept. 1924.
Describes several new genera and species, mostly from Highlands County and
southeast of there.
1925
W. R. Taylor. The marine florn of the Dry Tortugas.-Revue Algologique
(Paris) 2:113-135. June, 1925.
Lists about 200 species of algae.

FIELD WORK

The writer's field work in the area under consideration up to
the end of 1925 amounted to about twelve weeks, mostly in 1909
and 1924, distributed by months as follows: January, 10 days,







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 47

February 3, March 30, April 16, July 6, August 14, November 5;
and by counties, using their present boundaries, about as follows:
Dade, 42 days, Lee, 6, Manatee and Monroe, 5 each, Highlands and
Okeechobee, 4 each, Palm Beach, 3, Hardee, DeSoto, Glades,
Indian River, St. Lucie and Broward, 2 each, and all others 1 or
less.
Besides traveling on nearly all the railroads, and making
several short trips by boat, on both fresh and salt water, he has
also traversed some country remote from railroads by automobile,
for example from Zolfo to Avon Park, Lake Childs to Okeechobee,
Venice.to Punta Gorda and Olga, Arcadia to Berman and Olga,
Fort Myers to Caxambas, Fort Myers to Immokalee, Fort Myers
to Moore Haven, Moore Haven to Okeechobee, Okeechobee to
Fort Pierce, Okeechobec to Jupiter, and Homestead to East Cape
Sable.
Over 300 miles have also been covered on foot, distributed
by counties approximately as follows: Dade, 80 miles, Okee-
chobee, 35, Highlands, DeSoto, Lee and Palm Beach about 25
each, Indian River, Hardee and Manatee about 20 each, St. Lucie,
Glades, Charlotte and Monroe about 15 each, and the rest only a
mile or two. Notes have been taken on nearly every mile, whether
riding or walking, and these form the basis of the descriptions of
vegetation in the following pages.
The largest areas that remain to be explored are in the Ever-
glades and west thereof, bounded roughly by Caxambas, Immoka-
lee, West Palm Beach and Cape Sable.
Except for one or two contributed by other persons (and duly
credited) the half-tone illustrations are all from the writer's own
photographs. It happens that all my Florida negatives previous
to 1920 are inaccessible at this writing, and although I have a
complete set of prints, many of the older ones are faded or other-
wise unsuitable for reproduction, so that some excellent pictures,
especially of the tropical hammocks near Miami (some of which
have since been obliterated by the growth of the city) have to be
omitted for this reason. Nearly every vegetation type described,
however, is illustrated by one or more views, and there are also
other views for the various natural regions, to illustrate topogra-
phy, etc.








48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

GEOLOGY
Geological mapping in South Florida is rather difficult, on
account of the generally flat surface, mostly covered with sand or
muck, and vegetation. And even if we had satisfactory well
records with abundant fossils from every township it would still
be quite a problem to locate the edges of the various formations,
for the strata are very nearly horizontal.
The oldest strata in our area that are near enough to the
surface to be identified in natural exposures are along the Manatee
River not far from its mouth, and have been referred to the Alum
Bluff group, of Miocene age. They contain important deposits of
fuller's earth, which has long been mined near Ellenton, and some
limestone which has been used locally for building stone. Strata
of similar age have been assumed to underlie the lake region in
Highlands County, but no rock outcrops are known there, and the
aspect of the country is very different from anything in Manatee
County.
From the northern edge of our area the strata seem to dip
very gently southeastward, with successively younger formations
appearing at or near the surface. Next above the Miocene is the
Pliocene, represented by the Bone Valley and Caloosahatchee
formations. The former includes the important pebble phosphate,
which as far as workable deposits is concerned is chiefly confined
to Polk County, just north of our limits. But a form known as
river pebble, washed down into streams, was formerly dredged out
of the bed of the Peace River as far south as Arcadia. The veg-
etation along many of the smaller streams in Hardee and DeSoto
Counties seems to indicate calcareous or phosphatic marl not far
from the surface, which may be of this formation.
The Caloosahatchee marl, noted among conchologists the
world over for its great variety of finely preserved shells (over
600 species having been listed), is exposed along the river of
that name near LaBelle, and along the Peace River and some of its
tributaries below Arcadia, and presumably underlies a consider-
able area between those rivers.
Nearly everywhere else in South Florida north and west of
the Everglades, drainage ditches only a few feet deep cut into beds








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


of shell marl which are presumably Pleistocene, as nearly all the
shells are identical with species now living. Quite a number of
extinct vertebrates, such as the mammoth and mastodon, have been
found in similar situations, especially near the east and west
coasts. In the northwest corner of Collier County, near Bonita
Springs, there are several acres (and perhaps a much larger area
away from the road) in which a soft, sandy limestone comes right
to the surface in the flat pine woods, and forms a series of platter-
like bodies with rounded and slightly upturned edges, each a few
square feet in area, separated by hollows a few inches deep filled
with grass and other vegetation. These "platters," which also
resemble some of the lichens that grow on rocks, or fungi that
grow appressed to rotten logs, magnified many times, appear to
be still in process of formation, like the tufa and sinter terraces
around hot springs in the Rocky Mountain region. The northern
edge of Monroe County is said to be so rocky that it is difficult
to blast out enough material to build up a roadbed across it. That
rock is probably the Lostmans River limestone, of Pleistocene
age.
In. many places in the flatwoods of Manatee and Charlotte
Counties shallow ditches expose a yellowish sandy clay or marlbe-
neath a foot or two of whitish sand.
Passing over a few little-known Pleistocene formations of
limited extent and thickness, we come to the most important form-
ation southeast of the Everglades, namely, the Miami oolite. This
is said to occur as far north as Delray, but it is hardly noticeable
north of Fort Lauderdale. There it makes a narrow belt and is
mostly concealed by the surface sand, but southward and south-
westward it gradually widens and the sand thins out. Southwest
of Coconut Grove there is practically no more sand, and in the
neighborhood of Homestead the visible area of oolite is about ten
miles wide. It is believed to extend at least half way from Home-
stead to Cape Sable, but south and west of Paradise Key (Royal
Palm Hammock) it is mostly covered by the marl of the coast
prairies. (See additional details in the chapter on soils.)
The Miami oolite is often called coral rock locally, but that
is a misnomer, for coral makes up only a very small part of it.
It is a more or less sandy limestone, often cross-bedded, especially








50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-1BTH ANNUAL REPORT.

northward. North of Miami it is full of vertical pot-holes a foot
or two in diameter, filled to the top with quartz sand, and with
the partitions between them often less than a foot thick, so that
when the sand is dug out the rock looks like a honeycomb. (See
fig. 47.) Southwest of Coconut Grove, however, the pot-holes
are smaller and more irregular. A few large buildings in Miami
have been constructed of this rock, dressed into blocks, but its
greatest use at present is for road material and railroad ballast.
Several quarries are operated in Dade County, and the rock has
been shipped as much as 200 miles northward. It is said to be very
similar to some of the rock in the Bahamas and Bermuda.
The Key West oolite, which makes up all the lower Keys, is
supposed to be of about the same age as the Miami oolite, but it
differs in appearance, having very few pot-holes. The upper Keys
are composed of genuine coral limestone, which is also Pleistocene.
The coast prairie, between the Miami oolite and the Keys, is
covered with a soft gray marl, which is probably Recent in age,
being practically a soil formation. The still more recent deposits,
such as sand and peat, will be discussed under the head of soils.
Besides the use of sand and peat as soils for growing crops
in, a few attempts to utilize the latter commercially have been
made. Many people have wondered why the vast deposits of peat
in the Everglades have not been used for fuel or fertilizer. The
chief difficulty is probably the labor cost. The same amount of
labor expended in a coal mine or a pine forest will produce much
more fuel than in a peat bog, and the difference in cost is great
enough to pay the freight for several hundred miles on what little
coal is used in South Florida. At the present time there is a fac-
tory in the drained marshes about five miles west of Fellsmere,
making fertilizer filler from peat, which is shipped out by rail.*
The sand along the east coast and perhaps elsewhere is used
locally in mortar and cement.
A few rarer minerals deserve brief mention. About twelve
miles south of Fort Myers, near a small creek, there is a deposit
of red ocher on the surface, in flat sandy pine woods. Vivianite,
or blue iron earth, a phosphate of iron, has been found in small

*For additional details about peat see our Third Annual Report.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


quantities recently near Citrus Center in Glades County. Ilmenite,
an oxide of titanium, occurs in the form of small shiny black
grains among the beach sands of the Atlantic coast at least as far
south as Fort Pierce, and has been mined for several years in
Duval and St. Johns Counties. A few other heavy minerals are
usually associated with it.
UNDERGROUND WATERS
Over the greater part of South Florida water can be found
near enough to the surface to be brought to the surface by suction
pumps, and larger supplies are obtainable from deep wells, which
overflow nearly everywhere within 50 feet of sea-level, except in
the Miami limestone region and south thereof. The water from
shallow wells in the more elevated portions is pure enough, but
that from deep wells nearly always contains enough lime, sulphur
or salt to be perceptible to the taste. The amount of salt is hardly
ever enough to make the water from the shallow wells undrink-
able, except on the Keys. Key West still depends on rain-water
for most of its domestic supply (and that is not any too abundant,
for Key West has less rain than any other place in Florida), but
some people there have shallow wells, and the railroad brings
water for its locomotives and hotels in tank cars from Homestead,
126 miles away. Plans are on foot for laying water mains
along the railroad from Homestead to Key West, the project having
been authorized by a special session of the Legislature in Novem-
ber, 1925.
Some cities on the east coast which formerly got pretty good
water from deep wells have grown so rapidly that prolonged
pumping has lowered the water enough for a little salt water from
the ocean to filter in, and consequently large quantities of bottled
water are shipped in from springs farther north for drinking pur-
poses, and considerable distilled water is used also. Sulphur in
the water seems to be more prevalent near the coast than in the
interior. It is not liked by some people who are unaccustomed
to it, and its compounds rust iron pipes, but otherwise it does little
harm. The lime is unobjectionable to the taste, but makes the
water "hard."
In some places even shallow wells yield water that is hard or









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

unpalatable, and private houses outside of the cities in such local-
ities, as for example in Manatee and Lee Counties, have rain-
water cisterns instead of wells.* The city of Moore Haven gets
its water from Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee City is just in-
stalling a pumping plant for the same purpose, and there has been
some talk of supplying West Palm Beach and Miami from the
same source.

*Cisterns are also very common in southern Louisiana and southeastern
Texas, and there are some even in the thinly settled portions of New York City,
and in southern Ontario. (Fertile soil and good water hardly ever occur to-
gether.)







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 53

TOPOGRAPHY
Generally speaking, the surface of South Florida is flat.
Outside of Highlands County there is probably no point in the
area treated more than 125 feet above sea-level, and perhaps none
over 100 feet south of Hardee County. In the flat portions some
of the streams have cut narrow valleys, which may be as much as
50 feet deep along the Peace River and some of its tributaries in
Hardee and DeSoto Counties, but are usually much less. The
flat areas away from the streams are dotted with shallow basins/
usually a foot or two in depth and several acres in extent, whose
origin has never been satisfactorily explained.
The lake region in Highlands County, often called the
"Ridge," is apparently all more than 100 feet above sea-level, and
the highest points in South Florida, near Avon Park, are probably
about 175 feet. The descent from this upland to the flat country
around it is rather abrupt in many places, so that railroads passing
from one region to the other have a long cut through the upland
and a long embankment in the lowland, each as much as a mile
long in some cases. This is especially noticeable on the Seaboard
Air Line north of Avon Park and east of Sebring, and on the
Atlantic Coast Line south of Venus. (On the latter road the eleva-
tion of Venus is given as 118 feet, and that of Palmdale, the next
station south, as 52 feet.)
This abrupt transition has been regarded by some observers
as a marine terrace, and by others as evidence that the sandy up-
lands are ancient dunes; but neither explanation seems to fit all
the facts. The hills of the lake region (at least in Polk County,
where they are very similar in appearance to those of Highlands
County) are underlaid by a pinkish sandy clay, which stands
higher than the flatwoods, and could not have been heaped up by
the wind, unless in a very dry climate. And most of the deep
sand in the region is more loamy than any known dune sand, and
furthermore its topography is different from that of any known
dune area. It is not improbable, though, that the sandy hills, how-
ever they were formed, have been gradually and imperceptibly
smoothed off by the wind, and that process may be going on today.
The lake region, as its name implies, is dotted with lakes of







54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

various sizes, ranging from a few acres to five or six square miles
in extent. (The larger lakes, such as Istokpoga and Okeechobee,
are entirely outside of the lake region, and surrounded by flat
country.) Just how the lake basins were formed is still an un-
solved problem. There does not seem to be any limestone under
them thick enough and pure enough and near enough to the sur-
face to make lime-sinks, and the hills around them could hardly
have been piled up by the wind, as stated above. But whatever
their origin, the combination of smooth hills and lakes is very
pleasing to the eye, and causes the whole lake region to be a fav-
orite winter resort.
The only other elevations of any consequence in South Florida
are the old dunes along the east and west coasts. Modern or active
dunes, such as are found along the coast of Georgia, and still bet-
ter farther north, hardly exist in South Florida, the wind hardly
ever piling up the beach sands to more than five or six feet above
high tide in our latitudes; possibly because in this warm climate
the vegetation spreads over the sand more quickly and holds it in
place better than in higher latitudes, or else because of the large
proportion of shell fragments in our beach sands.
But at some time in the past, perhaps a few thousand years
ago, the wind must have been stronger or the climate colder or
drier, for there is a nearly continuous line of steep-sided old dunes
just west of the Indian River and other coastal lagoons, from
about St. Augustine to Fort Lauderdale. They are said to reach
a height of 63 feet above sea-level at Olympia (formerly Hobe
Sound) and 47 feet at West Palm Beach, and some of those near
Jensen must be at least 50 feet high. (See fig. 44.) These dunes
usually extend about half a mile inland from the shores of the
lagoons, but outlying areas of them are found in a few places five
or six miles from the coast.
High old dunes are much scarcer on the Gulf coast. One
might imagine from the map that they would be well developed
on Sanibel Island, on account of its exposed position, but appar-
ently no part of that island is more than ten feet above sea-level.
Possibly the great abundance of shells there has something to do
with the absence of dunes. The most remarkable old dunes on
the west coast are at Caxambas, at the southeast end of Marco







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Island, in Collier County. The highest elevation there is variously
estimated at from 60 to 85 feet. (See fig. 34.)
The old dunes along the east coast apparently indicate an
uplift of a few feet in comparatively recent times.* For they are
not only higher above sea-level than any modern dunes in Florida,
but also sometimes too far inland for the wind to have much in-
fluence on them. They must have been formed when the Indian
River was part of the open ocean, and the barrier beach east of
it a submerged sand-bar.
Toward Cape Sable, however, there is evidence of a recent
sinking of the land. Some years ago a dredge piling up an em-
bankment for the road through the coast prairie to Cape Sable
is said to have cut into a cave with stalactites, at or below sea-level,
and filled with water.' There is no known way in which stalac-
tites can form under water, so the cave must have been dissolved
out of the rock when it stood above the ground-water level. The
very irregular and dissected outline of the lower Keys, and the
occurrence there of several species of plants and animals known
on the mainland but not on the Upper Keys, also point to a recent
submergence. But the upper Keys, being an old coral reef, must
have been formed under water and then elevated, perhaps at the
same time with the old dunes of the east coast.
Other evidence of submergence on the west coast is found in
the wide estuaries at the mouths of the Manatee, Peace, Caloosa-
hatchee and other rivers, which appear to be typical "drowned
valleys," and have no counterpart on the east coast.
MINOR TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS
In the Miami limestone region there are numerous examples
of topographic forms produced by solution, besides the small pot-
holes found on nearly every square yard of the surface. Among the
most conspicuous of these are the natural bridge over Arch Creek
(crossed by the main highway at the settlement of Arch Creek),
and several lime-sinks in Brickell's and other hammocks. The
Miami pine land is intersected at right angles by a considerable

*See Geog. Review 4:225. 1917.
tSee Small, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 22:203-204. 1921.








56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

number of "glades," which are elongated approximately straight
depressions from a few inches to a few feet in depth, and from
about fifty yards to half a mile in width. (SSee fig. 30.) Some
of these extend all the way across from the Everglades to the coast
prairie, while some open out only into the la ter. They were
presumably formed mostly by solution, for near their edges in
some places there are fantastically shaped pillars and arches of
limestone, with very jagged surfaces. (Fig. 49.) Smaller pillars
of the same sort are so abundant around Paradise Key, where the
Everglades and coast prairie meet, that any one walking across
the prairie can hardly avoid stepping on them.
The inner edges of some of the Upper Keys have been under-
cut in a curious manner (see fig. 56), probably mostly by the
solvent action of the water, but perhaps assisted by the gentle lap-
ping of the waves. The resulting overhanging edges may project
as much as two feet, with a vertical thickness of about the same
amount.
Where the Miami oolite approaches Biscayne Bay there are
a few wave-cut cliffs, apparently dating back to a time when the
land stood a little lower than at present. The most accessible of
these are at Silver Bluff (which probably takes its name from
them), but they are now pretty well built over.







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


SOILS
There are no detailed soil surveys for South Florida yet, ex-
cept a narrow strip along the east coast, from Palm Beach north-
ward. surveyed by the U. S. Bureau of Soils in 1913, and another
along the INorth New River Canal through the Everglades from
Lake Okeechobee to Fort Lauderdale, surveyed in 1915. Con-
sequently the present treatment of the subject must be rather
superficial.
North of the latitude of Miami and outside of the Everglades
most of the surface is covered with fine sand several feet deep.
In the flat areas it is commonly grayish in color from finely di-
vided organic matter, but in the lake region it is prevailingly
yellowish or cream-colored, or in places nearly white. The old
dunes, especially along the east coast, usually have wh:te sand at
the surface, but at a depth of a foot or two that sometimes passes
abruptly into a rusty yellowish and slightly indurated sand. The
whiteness of the surface there and in spots in the lake region and
flatwoods is probably due to long-continued leaching by summer
rains, where there are few or no burrowing animals to keep the
soil stirred up.
The gray sand of the flatwoods is sometimes underlaid by
calcareous or phosphatic marl, and sometimes by "hardpan," a
sandy material cemented together by organic matter or iron oxide,
or both. The marl is sometimes near enough to the surface to in-
fluence the vegetation perceptibly, but where the sand is deeper
it would take extensive prospecting with a soil auger to determine
the distribution of marl and hardpan subsoils.
The Miami oolite is important as a soil material in Dade
County. Although outcrops of it are recognizable along New
River, its influence on the vegetation is hardly noticeable north of
Ojus, at the north edge of Dade County. There it is mostly cov-
ered by quartz sand, as stated in the chapter on geology, but the
sand thins southward, and is scarcely seen below Coconut Grove.
From Coconut Grove to Homestead the bare limestone is exposed
nearly everywhere, but there is enough humus in its innumerable
cavities to support considerable vegetation. For several miles
around Homestead, in the so-called Redlands district, the inter-








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


stices of the rock are filled with a reddish clay. That looks as if
it might be residual from the weathering of the limestone, like the
red clay of the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and the Tennessee
Valley of Alabama, and one would expect it to be very fertile.
No chemical analysis of it has ever come to the writer's notice, but
he ventures the guess that it is similar to the laterite of India, which
is not at all noted for fertility, being very deficient in potash, one
of the essential elements. For the vegetation of the red lands
differs very little from that of the bare rock between Homestead-
and Coconut Grove, or the sand-covered rock between Coconut
Grove and Ojus; and some of the differences that do exist may be
due to climate as much as to soil.
West of Royal Palm Hammock there are disconnected areas
of rocky pine lands, Long Key* and other so-called Everglades
Keys, similar to those northeast of Homestead, except that the
surface is a little more jagged. Limestone rock seems to come to
the surface in a considerable area in southern Collier and northern
Monroe Counties, but that is too little known yet to map accurately.
The Keys proper, both upper and lower, are of solid limestone,
with very little soil in the ordinary sense.
The surface of all the oolite country is essentially flat, but
elevated a few feet above average ground-water level. As a geo-
logical formation the Miami oolite extends out into the Everglades
on the north and the coast prairie on the south; but as a soil type
its boundaries are very sharp, except at the north end where it
gradually disappears under the sand. All around the edges of the
visible rock, or Biscayne pine land, and in the numerous narrow
intersecting glades, there is a soil of soft gray marl. Northwest-
ward this soon passes beneath the Everglades muck, but southward
it is exposed over hundreds of square miles. Analyses of the marl
from near Cape Sable show it to be nearly all calcium carbonate,
which is very unusual for a soil. Somewhat similar marl occurs
around the Keys, mostly below sea-level, and a good deal of it has
been dredged up to make railroad embankments.
The road from Fort Pierce to Okeechobee goes through a few

*Sometimes called Long Pine Key, to distinguish it from Long Key in
Monroe County (which is one of the coral reef upper keys), and an island of
the same name which is a sandy barrier beach in Pinellas County.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


miles of damp marly soil, which presumably makes a belt a few
miles wide parallel to the coast, but it has a somewhat loamy ap-
pearance, and is probably much less calcareous than that in the
coast prairie. Similar-appearing material occurs beneath a foot
or two of surface sand in Manatee and Charlotte Counties. There
are probably other marly spots scattered over the flatwoods, which
have not been sufficiently explored.
The scarcity of siliceous soils south of Coconut Grove is il.
lustrated by the fact that on the Keys and at Cape Sable what look
like ordinary sandy beaches, covered with sea-oats and other com-
mon beach plants, are composed of grains of limestone and shell
fragments instead of quartz sand.
The greater part of the Everglades, and many smaller marshes
and swamps, is covered with peat or muck, ranging in thickness
from a. feather-edge to several feet. This sort of soil is much
prized for certain crops, particularly vegetables, but has to be
drained before it can be cultivated, and that is an expensive pro-
cess. The work of cutting drainage canals through the Everglades
has been going on for about 18 years, but it seems that at present
not more than 2% of the area is under cultivation.
SOIL FERTILITY
Extravagant claims have been made about the fertility of the
soil in all parts of South Florida, but without much scientific
foundation. It is difficult, however, to find standards for estimat-
ing fertility in an area so different from the rest of the United
States. Very few chemical analyses of our soils are available,
and there are differences of opinion on their interpretation. The
vegetation is nearly all evergreen, and in temperate regions ever-
greens generally mean soil too poor to allow the trees to make a
complete new crop of leaves every year. But in South Florida
the trees may be evergreen because the climate allows them to
carry on vegetative activity throughout the year. On the other
hand, many or most of the tropical trees have crooked trunks and
hard heavy wood, indicating slow growth.
Perhaps the best test of soil fertility afforded by native veg-
etation is the amount of vegetable matter produced by a given area


59







60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

in a year.* That would be easy enough to determine on an Illinois
prairie, where one could simply cut and weigh a measured area
of herbage at the end of the growing season. But in South Florida
most of the vegetation is not only evergreen but woody, so that
there is no obvious way of measuring a year's growth.
When other things are equal the value of farm land ought to
be proportional to its fertility, but other things are usually not
equal. For several years past farm land has commanded a higher
price in South Florida than in the rest of the State ($65.90 per
acre in 1920 and $135.35 in 1925, as compared with $35.78 and
$70.00 in the whole State), and even higher than some of the ex-
tremely fertile prairies and bottoms in the Mississippi Valley; but
these values must be largely psychological or speculative, es-
pecially the increase in the last five years, when prices of nearly
everything else were going down. But the proximity of much of
the South Florida farm land to railroads and high-priced residen-
tial property, and the possibility of its soon being in demand for
a town-site, tends to boost its value. (Within the past two or
three years the production of oranges and grapefruit in South
Florida is said to have fallen off considerably on account of the
cutting down of many groves to make room for houses.)
The value of the crops per acre in South Florida is high, far
above the United States average in fact.t But the intrinsic fer-
tility of the soil has much less to do with that than the amount of
labor and fertilizer applied to it.
Probably the best statistical measure of soil fertility, except
in regions where the utilization of the soil is hindered by an ex-
cess of water, or a climate too cold or too dry, or inaccessibility,
or the proximity of cities, is the proportion of the land that is
under cultivation. In South Florida the ratio of improved farm
land to total area was about 1.3% in 1920 and 2.1% in 1925, as

*See Plant World 21:3846. 1918.
tin 1919.20, according to the U. S. census figures, the value of all cross,
per acre of improved land, was 1114.20 in South Florida, 134.80 in the
whole State, and $33.35 in the whole United States. At the same time the ex.
penditures per acre in South Florida included $23.54 for labor (including board)
$23.00 for fertilizer, and $9.37 for stock feed.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


compared with 6.5% for the whole State and 26.4% for the whole
United States (80.5% in Iowa, and still more in the blue-grass
region of Kentucky).
Another good measure of the fertility of a cultivated soil
ought to be the length of time that crops can be raised on it with
little or no fertilizer. By this standard the Keys ought to be pretty
rich, for in Monroe County the expenditure for fertilizer in 1919,
per improved acre in 1920, was only 27 cents, which was far be-
low the State average; and five years later no fertilizer at all was
purchased. And around Moore Haven the farmers in the Ever-
glades, or some of them, seem to be still getting some results with-
out fertilizers.*
In the Moore Haven district the muck that bears a dense
growth of elder seems to be regarded as best, and that opinion is
probably justified, for elder is a fast-growing shrub which else-
where prefers rich soils, and it makes a remarkably dense growth
in some parts of the Everglades, and presumably a large amount
of new vegetable matter every year. Dr. H. W. Wiley, in his paper
on Florida muck soils cited in the bibliography (written about 20
years before Moore Haven appeared on the maps, and often re-
ferred to by promoters in recent years) states that although muck
is generally very deficient in mineral matter, that around Lake
Okeechobee ought to be better than the average, on account of the
limestone underlying it.

*The following extracts from an article by H. F. Button, on "Some land
booms in southern Florida," in the Rural New Yorker for Dec. 18, 1920, are of
interest in this connection. It refers particularly to the vicinity of Moore Haven.
"Like all muck soils this region is very rich in nitrogen, and produces a few
very large crops, particularly of giant pigweeds, which grow to a height of 12 to
15 fee. Cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes have all been raised here with great profit,
hut on the soils where as many as three crops have been removed the fields showed
by the growth of the truck that something was wrong. A careful study of the
growth of plants, particularly some fall-planted white potatoes, showed clear evi-
dence of potash hunger, which we learned to identify during the time when our
supplies of fertilizer were limited by the war. The peanuts, which are raised ex.
tensively here, showed the need of more phosphoric acid, just as one might expect
who has had experience with muck soils in other places. When these needs were
suggested to the real estate men they were at first indignantly denied, and when
the matter was further pressed and evidence offered, three different men came
back with the same argument, namely: That it was undoubtedly true, but that
it would never do to acknowledge that this soil lacked for anything. In other
words, they considered that it would be treason to their business to begin the use
of fertilizers, as one of the great claims of the place has been t1e richness of the
soil."







62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

After all is said, however, it is a fact that neither soil nor
climate have much to do with a farmer's profits, for in the long
run those depend almost entirely on his own efficiency, together
with a certain amount of luck in the way of weather, etc. Any im-
partial student of the subject will admit that Florida has poorer
soils on the average than any other State in the Union; and yet the
yield of crops per acre here is above the United States average as
already stated. And within the State both the value of property
per farm and of crops per acre are almost inversely proportional
to soil fertility, some of the highest yields being on the white sands
near the east coast.* But whether the yield per acre is high or low,
any farmer who is ambitious enough can cultivate enough acres
to bring in whatever income he desires.

*In this connection see also articles by the present writer on productivity
of Florida soils (Quarterly Bull. Fla. Dept. Agr., vol 30, No. 4, pp. 14-26. Nov.,
1920), and agricultural conditions in Florida in 1925 (Economic Geography 3:340
353. July, 1927).




Annual report
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00017
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: 1925-1926
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00017
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
        Cover 3
        Cover 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Administrative report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Statistics of mineral production in Florida during 1925
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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        Page 18
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        Page 25a
    Natural resources of southern Florida
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Full Text




































































,ri i 1al from
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN


m


I :;: :.-~ :,: :?,~ ;I;)~












FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist








EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT

1925-1926


NATURAL


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT

MINERAL INDUSTRIES
RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


PUBLISHED FOR

THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1927


1,


-riginal from
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN


_ _1__~__ 1_11___1__ 1























LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
To His Excellency, Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida:-
Sir:- In accordance with the law establishing the State
Geological Survey there is submitted herewith the Eighteenth An-
nual Report of the State Geologist. The report contains the ad-
ministrative section briefly setting forth the activities of the Sur-
vey, detailed statement of expenditures, and statistics of mineral
production for 1925. The main paper of the report is one en-
titled "Natural Resources of Southern Florida" which it is be-
lieved will give authoritative and useful data on this important
section of Florida.
The interest you have shown in the work of this Department
and the cordial co-operation given has been appreciated.
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.


I:; ~:: :,:?, ~ jr;))~~ 1,


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Administrative Report, by Herman Gunter.............................. ..................
Establishment of the Survey ............................................ ..........................
Previous publications ..................................................... ...............................
P personnel ............................................................................................................
Co-operation with other organizations ................................... ................
Appropriation for the Survey .....................................................................
Warrants issued, July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926 ............................................
Statistics of mineral production in Florida during 1925, by Herman Gunter
(Figure 1) ...........................................................................................................
Natural Resources of Southern Florida, by Roland M. Harper (Figures 2-58)
Index ................................................................................................................ ...........


PACE
5- 13
5
5- 8
8
8- 9
9
9- 13

14- 25
27-192
193


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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist

Establishment.-The Florida Geological Survey has been
functioning for twenty years, having been created by an Act of
the Legislature of 1907, approved June 3, 1907. The act es-
tablishing the Survey provides for the appointment of a State
Geologist by the Governor, specifies his duties and place of office.
The objects of the Survey were also outlined and a continuing
appropriation of $7,500 a year was made for its maintenance.
Other provisions of the law are that the State Geologist shall make
to the Governor annually a report of the progress made by the
Survey.
Publications.-Since its establishment the following reports
have been issued, the subjects treated being indicated by the titles
of the separate papers listed under each annual report which make
up the whole volume. The reports of the Survey are sent without
cost to the citizens of the State and may be obtained by ad-
dressing a request to the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida.
Postage should accompany requests from those living outside of
Florida or if preferred reports can be sent by express collect.
Those annual reports followed by an asterisk (*) are no
longer available for distribution as a whole volume, owing to
exhaustion of the supply. It is frequently the case, however, that
although the report as a whole is not available some of the sep-
arate papers making up the volume may be obtained. When this
is the case such separates making up the respective annual reports
as are still available are indicated by the dagger sign (f).






'. ] original fromAn
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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.*
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chapter
on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-making
clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making materials; (3) a bibli-
ography of publications on Florida geology, with a review of the more important
papers published previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey.
Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures,
one map.*
This report contains: (1) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida,
with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic map
of Florida, prepared in co-operation with the United States Geological Survey;
(2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden county, with
notes on similar deposits .found elsewhere in the state.
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) .a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate
deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply
of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual materials of
Florida, their origin, character and the formations from which derived; (2) the
water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of phosphate
rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures,
two maps.*
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphates of Floridat;
(2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912; (5)
statistics on public roads in Florida.
Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of Floridat;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins;' (3) relation between the Dunnellon
and Alachua formations; (4) geography.and vegetation of northern Floridat.
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four
maps.*
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Floridat; (2) natural re
sources of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil survey of Bradford county; (4)
soil survey of Pinellas county.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text
figures.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils, in-
cluding fossil human remains.
Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two
maps.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) additional studies in the
Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla
rivers in Florida.


_' 1 Original fr. on
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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls.,
9 figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
riders; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new species and
a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between the Choctawhatchee
and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the
marls near DeLand.
Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.*
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains and artifacts
at Vero, Floridat; (2) fossil beetles from Verot; (3) elevations in Florida; (4)
geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; 65) the age of the underlying
rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well borings; (6) review of the
geology of Florida with special reference to structural conditions.
Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figs.*
This report contains: (1) Oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of
mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from deep wells; (4) geography of
central Florida.
Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp., 10 figs., one map.
This report contains: (1) statistics on mineral production, 1919 and 1920;
(2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic map.
Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
production, 1921 and 1922; (2) a contribution to the late Tertiary and Quaternary
paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary report on the clays of
Florida.
Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two maps.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
production, 1923; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida.
Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
production, 1924; (2) History of Soil Investigation in Florida and Description
ol New Soil Map; (3) Generalized Soil Map of Florida (in colors); (4) Eleva-
tions in Florida; (5) Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida.
Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927. (this volume)
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on mineral
production, 1925; (2) Natural resources of southern Florida.
Bulletin No. 1. The Underground Water Supply of Central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.*
This bulletin contains: (1) underground water, general discussion; (2) the
underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and artesian
prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disappearing
streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands and
disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water anaylses and tables giving general
water resources, public water supplies, spring and well records.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911,
31 pp., 4 pls.*
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building materials of
Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by
the counties of the state to the close of 1910.




I;' 1 N Orig final fron M
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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed
above, press bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March 12,
1913.
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the Atlanta
Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December
31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914.
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Em-
bedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918.
No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5, 1919.
No. 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October
6, 1919.
No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
Personnel.-During the fiscal year the Survey force, in ad-
dition to the State Geologist, consisted of D. Stuart Mossom, As-
sistant Geologist, Roland M. Harper, temporary assistant, and
Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, stenographer. Mr. Mossom prepared the
paper entitled "A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of
Florida with Special Reference to Petroleum" which appeared in
the Seventeenth Annual Report and Dr. Harper contributed to that
report the paper on "History of Soil Investigation in Florida and
Description of the New Soil Map." The paper on "Natural Re-
sources of Southern Florida," in this volume, is by Dr. Harper
and is a continuation of his geographical studies of northern Flor-
ida (Sixth Annual Report) and central Florida (Thirteenth An-
nual Report).

Co-operation.-A fund of $5,000 made available by Act of
the 1925 Legislature provided for co-operation with the Bureau
of Soils, United States Department of Agriculture. As a result
field work was begun in December, 1925, on the detailed mapping
of the soils of Polk County. In addition co-operation has been
carried on with the United States Geological Survey in revising
a report of the geology of Florida to be accompanied by a geologic
map. This work was carried on by Dr. C. Wythe Cooke of the
Federal Survey and Mr. D. Stuart Mossom of the Florida Survey,
field work being completed in March, 1927. As in former years
co-operation was continued with the United States Bureau of Mines



S' -] original fron-
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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


and the Bureau of Census in the collection of statistics on mineral
production in Florida. This co-operation has been found mutually
advantageous since it avoids duplication of work and possible dis-
cerpancies in statements which might occur if statistics were col-
lected by each individual agency.
It is regretted that funds asked for co-operation in topo-
graphic mapping and in water resources investigations, in suc-
cessive budgets of the Geological Survey, have not been granted.
The topographic map is an essential in developmental work and
would prove of untold value to the State in the construction of
roads, canals, drainage, flood control, and industrial lines. The
water resources are one of the most valuable assets that the State
possesses and while the Survey has some data much is yet needed
and a special fund for detailed investigations should be made and
is urgently recommended.
Appropriation.-The law establishing the Survey has in no
wise been changed. The appropriation for the maintenance of
the Survey was increased by the Legislature of 1923 to $10,345
annually for the fiscal years July 1, 1923 to June 30, 1924, and
July 1, 1924 to June 30, 1925. For the biennium 1925 to 1927,
the appropriation was increased and apportioned as follows:
Salary of State Geologist ....................................................... $3,300
Salary of Assistant Geologist ................................................ 2,200
Temporary Assistant ....................................... 1,200
Stenographer ................................................................................ 1,500
Traveling Expenses and Field Equipment.......................... 2,500
Printing, Stationery and Engraving .................................... 2,500
P stage ......................................................................................... 400
Auto truck for field work ...................................................... 600
Co-operation U. S. Bureau of Soils, for the two years ...............$5,000
The following itemized list shows the expenditures of the
Survey from July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926. All bills and itemized
expense accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, dup-
licate copies being retained in the office of the State Geologist.
LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1925 TO JUNE 30, 1926
JULY, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .................................................... 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ................................................ 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ............................................ 103.40
R. M Harper, Assistant, salary .................................................................... 183.33
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .................................................. 125.00




1. O rigiinal fro-in
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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ............................................................. 50.00
The Record Company, publishing 16th Annual Report ...................... 1,301.00
Dixon's Transfer, hauling 6 boxes reports ............................................ 2.50
James Messer, automobile truck ........................................................... 600.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ................................................ 3.25
H. E. Bierly, 2 vols. Palaeontology, Nicholson & Lydekker ............. 8.00
Underwood Typewriter Company, 1 No. 5 typewriter ...................... 60.53
A. Hoen & Company, 100 copies State base maps ................................. 24.96
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ........................................................... 9.65
Stanley Rule & Level Plant, 4 hammers ................................................... 5.54
Orlando Potteries, display pottery .......................................................... 5.35
Underwood Typewriter Company, 1 portable typewriter .................. 40.50
Middle Florida Ice Company ........................................................................ 2.70
American Railway Express Company ..................................................... 1.41
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ................................................................ 50.00
H H Bohler, lettering Ford ........................................................................ 8.00

AUGUST, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ............................................... 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ........................................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 39.15
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................................. 183.33
R M H harper, expenses........................................................................ ....... 54.23
Mary H. Carswed, Stenographer, salary .............................................. 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ................................... 3.25
Middle Fiorida Ice Company ....... ............................................................ 2.60
American Railway Express Company ................................................... .75
W. S. Tyler Company, sieves ................................................................ 26.73
G. E. Stechert & Company, 1 book ........................... ................................ 8.08
N natural H history, subscription ..................................................................... 3.00
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ....................................... .............. .85
SEPTEMBER, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .............................................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses .............................................. 65.32
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................................. 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 7.35
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary .......................................... 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ............................................ 3.25
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................................................. 1.60
Seaboard Air Line Rwy. Co., fare to Washington and return ............ 72.74
American Railway Express Company ............................... .................. 1.88
Middle Florida Ice Company .................................................. ................ 2.60
P. C. Keesce, lettering signs, American Legion Exhibit .................. 10.00
Empire Printing & Box Company, paper trays .................................... 12.00
N. B. Davis, printing and developing films .................................. 3.88
OCTOBER, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ............................................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ......................................... 144.29
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ........................................... 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 4.50
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ............................................ 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company .................................. 3.25
Middle Florida eIe Company ................................................................. 2.70
Manufacturers Record, subscription ............................... ..................... 10.00
The American Fertilizer, subscription ......................... ..................... 3.00





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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Engineering & Mining Journal Press, subscription .......................... 5.00
D. A. Dixon Company, 3 chairs .............................................................. 35.60
Service Print Shop, printing .................................................................. 20.50
Standard Oil Company, coupon book for gasoline ............................ 19.60

NOVEMBER, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................................ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary .............................................. 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 27.32
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ................................................ 3.25
Middle Florida Ice Company ........................................................................ 2.40
McGraw-Hill Book Company ........................................................................ 3.00
Chas. G. Stott Company, 2 I. P. Sheet Holders ...................................... 4.00
L. B. Marshall, copying mineral statistics .............................................. 4.44
Hills Book & Jewelry Company, fixing kodak .................................... 7.50
James Messer, grinding valves etc., on Ford .......................................... 5.15
Gulf Publishing Company, subscription to Oil Weekly ...................... 8.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies .............................................................. 10.70
American Railway Express Company .................................................... 3.45
Tallahassee Variety Works, making chest of drawers ...................... 50.00
Rhodes Ha-dware Comp ypy .................................................... 1.70

DECEMBER, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .............................................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................................ 5.82
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary .............................................. 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses.............................................. 10.95
Mary H. Carswe'l, Stenographer, salary ............................................... 125.00
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................................. 183.33
James Messer, field car and equipment ............................................... 514.15
Western Union Telegraph Company ........................................................ 2.37
James Messer, car and equipment for soil survey work .................. 514.15
H H Bohler, lettering cars ............................................ .......................... 33.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ...................................... 3.25
C. H. Ellacott, lettering index map ....................................................... 2.50
Tophams, 2 leather note book cases .................................... .................. 12.00
American Railway Express Company, 1 box maps .............................. 3.66
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage .................................... 12.65
Newell B. Davis, photographs ...................................... ........................ 14.40
Rock Products, 3 years' subscription ............................ ................ 5.00
H. A. O'Leary, books and magazine articles ...................................... 3.38
Florida Real Estate Bureau, Florida Old and New ............................ 1.00
Wrigley Photo-Engraving Corp., zinc etching index maps .................. 6.20
Artcraft Printers, letter heads, receipts and envelopes ...................... 48.75
A. Hoen & Company, 5.000 soil maps, 200 black maps ........................ 427.63
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ...................................... 26.50
James Messer, repair work on truck .................................... .............. 3.50

JANUARY, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................................$ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................................ 79.22
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary .............................................. 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses .......................................... 41.62
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary .................................................................. 183.33
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00




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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

E. W. Knobel, Soil Specialist, December expenses .......................... 78.08
F. R. Lesh, Junior soil surveyor, December expenses ........................ 34.08
The Western Union Tel. Company ............................................................ 3.58
H. & W. B. Drew Company, 2 Paragon scales ........................................ 8.08
Southern Telephone & Construction Company .................................... 3.25
Florida Historical Society, Brevard's History of Florida .................. 27.50
H. H. Bailey, Birds of Florida .................................................................. 20.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, 500 cloth tags ............................................ 3.15
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies .............................................................. 7.20
W. L. Marshall, fixing store room ............................................................ 81.65
Economic Geology, subscription ................................................................ 4.00
Charles E. Decker. annual dues to Assn. Petroleum Geologists ........ 15.00

FEBRUARY, 1926

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .............................................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary .............................................. 183.33
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 38.93
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary .................................................................. 183.33
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
E. W. Knobel, Soil Specialist, January expenses .............................. 97.20
F. R. Lesh, Junior soil surveyor, January expenses ............................ 82.55
Samuel W. Phillips, Soil Specialist, January expenses .................... 113.67
Adonis L. Gray, Junior soil surveyor, January expenses .................... 74.40
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company ........................ 3.25
The Western Union Telegraph Company ........................................... 1.75
Messer Brothers, recharging battery ...................................................... 1.00
James Messer, work on Ford, 3 bulbs ................................................ 7.30
Line-A-Time Mfg. Company, one Line.A-Time No. 159836 ............ 20.29
American Railway Express ......................................................................... 5.60
S. McL. Estes, Inc., repairing Ford, soil work ...................................... 42.68
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ........ .................................................. 8.80
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ................................................................ 25.00
M. L. Bath Company, 100 well log forms ............................ .... 5.98

MARCH, 1926

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................................ 275.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses .......................................... 59.24
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................................ 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 77.53
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary .................................................................. 183.34
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
Samuel W. Phillips, Soil Surveyor, February expenses .................... 99.09
E. W. Knobel, Soil Specialist, February expenses .............................. 123.07
F. R. Lesh, Junior Sil Surveyor, February expenses ............................ 84.00
Adonis L. Gray, Junior Soil Surveyor, February expenses ................ 84.00
The Western Union Telegraph Company ............................................ 2.63
C. G .Metcalf Central Garage, oil and gas ............................................ 27.66
Messer Brothers, adjustment on tire ........................................................ 6.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, fare to Memphis .................. 32.21
Southern Telephone and Construction Company ................................ 3.25
W. H. May. Postmaster, envelopes and box rent .................................... 45.46
American Railway Express Company ....................................................... 1.07
Service Print Shop, 200 business cards ................................................ 3.00
D. A. Dixon Company, 5,000 second sheets ............................................ 4.50




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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


APRIL, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................................ 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses .......................................... 11.45
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................................... 100.01
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
Samuel W. Phillips, Soil Surveyor, March expenses ........................ 114.41
F. R. Lesh, Junior Soil Surveyor, March expenses .............................. 94.00
Adonis L. Gray, Junior Soil Surveyor, March expenses ................ 102.62
E. W. Knobel, Soil Specialist, March expenses .................................... 141.23
G. C. Metcalfe Central Garage, oil and gas .......................................... 23.12
Western Union Telegraph Company ...................................................... 2.43
Disb's'g Officer, U. S. War Dept. Engrs. blue prints Kissimmee River 4.45
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company ................................ 4.05
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................................................ 3.75
G. C. Mecalfe Central Garage, oil and gas .......................................... 32.57
S. W. Phillips, Soil Surveyor, April expenses ......................................... 100.98
E. W. Knobel, Soil Specialist, April expenses .................................... 135.47
F. R. Lesh, Junior Soil Surveyor, April expenses .............................. 95.00
Adonis L. Gray, Junior Soil Surveyor, April expenses ........................ 84.00
MAY, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ........................................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................................ 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ...................................... 30.37
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................................................ 4.50
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., folder and proof map ...................................... 8.00
Wrigley Photo-Engraving Corp., zinc etching ...................................... 41.18
Journal of Geology, subscription ............................................................ 5.40
Ceramic Industry, subscription ................................................................ 3.00
James Messer, repair work on Ford 3X ................................................ 11.25
James Messer, repair work on Ford 2X ................................................ 8.62
Samuel W. Phillips, Soil Surveyor, May expenses ............................ 20.88
F. R. Lesh, Junior Soil Surveyor, May expenses .................................. 24.31
C. H. Ellacott, drafting base map ............................................................ 42.00
The Western Union Telegraph Company ................................................ 9.67
Capital Office Supply Company, supplies ............................................ 1.85
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company .............................. 3.25
JUNE, 1926
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .............................................$ 275.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist. salary ............................................ 183.34
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ....................................... 31.46
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................................ 125.00
The Southern Telephone & Construction Company .......................... 3.25
Hoffberger Motor Company, repair to Fords ........................................ 4.25
American Railway Express Company ...................................................... 2.63
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent .................................... 26.50










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STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
DURING 1925

HERMAN GUNTER

COLLECTED IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF
MINES AND THE U. S. BUREAU OF CENSUS

With an output totaling $17,522,303 during 1925 the mineral
industries of Florida continued to show progressive development.
With one exception, the year 1920, this is the largest mineral pro-
duction that Florida has ever recorded, increases being reported
in every industry. The value of the output for 1924 was
$13,939,289, thus indicating an increase of $3,583,014, or a
little more than 25 per cent. The percentage of increase for the
several industries over that for 1924 is as follows: Phosphate
91/2%; Clay, including fuller's earth and kaolin, 3%; Clay pro-
ducts 30 %; Lime and limestone 40%; Crushed flint 50%; Sand
and gravel 192%; Sand-lime brick 61%; Mineral waters 12%;
Peat, ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite 66%.
CLAY
Four plants were engaged in mining the white sedimentary
kaolin in Florida during 1925. These were located in Putnam
and Lake Counties, although deposits are known to occur in other
sections.
PRODUCERS
The Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar, Fla.
Florida China Clay Co., Inc., Leesburg, Fla.
Lake County Clay Co., Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka, Fla.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Trenton, N. J., and Hawthorne, Fla.
CLAY PRODUCTS
There was a 30 per cent increase in value of clay products
over that of 1924, although there was a decrease in value of com-
mon brick and of pottery. There was, however, a decided increase
in value of face brick. The total value of common and face brick,


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ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


pottery and other clay products for the year was $327,389. The
following firms reported production:
PRODUCERS
Barber Brothers, Cottondale, Jackson County.
Build-With-Brick Company, Molino, (Plant at Brickton, Escambia County).
J. M. & J. C. Craber, Campville, Alachua County.
E. M. Davis, Ocklocknee, (Plant at Lawrence, Gadsden County).
Dolores Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.
Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna, Jackson County.
Gamble & Stockton Company, 210 St. 7-unes Bldg., Jacksonville,( Plant at
Dixston, Clay County).
Georgia-Carolina Brick Company of Florida, Stockton St. & A. C. L. R. R,
Jacksonville, (Plant at Callahan, Nassau County).
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale, Walton County.
G. C. & G. H. Guilford, Blountstown, Calhoun County.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Washington County.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney, Lake County.
POTTERY PRODUCERS
The Florida Pottery, 2107 Fourth St., St. Petersburg, Pinellas County.
Los Manos Pottery, C. R. Crandall, Prop., Palm Beach County.

FULLER S EARTH

Fuller's earth is a clay differing from other clays chiefly in
that it possesses to an exceptional degree the property of absorbing
coloring matters from mineral, animal and vegetable oils and fats
and some other liquids. This bleaching or decolorizing property,
which gives to the earth its value, can be determined only by
actual filtration test. In general appearance it is frequently diffi-
cult to distinguish fuller's earth from some other ordinary clays.
In color, when dry, it may vary from rather light greenish-white
to gray, buff or brown. Fuller's earth is ordinarily described as
non-plastic, and this may be true of some earths, but others possess
sufficient plasticity to be classed as semi-plastic. When this earth
is placed in water it usually disintegrates readily but this charac-
teristic too is shared by some other clays. The final criterion of
a good fuller's earth is its capacity for removing coloring matters
from oils as determined by filtration tests.

In 1925 the production of fuller's earth in the United States
amounted to 206,574 short tons with a valuation of $2,923,965.
As compared with 1924 these figures indicate an increase of 16
per cent in quantity and 11 per cent in value. This increase is



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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

accounted for not only by the fact that every state reporting pro-
duction in 1924 and 1925 showed an increase but also by Cali-
fornia and Nevada re-entering the list of producing states for
1925. The following states reported production: Georgia,
Florida, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts, California and Nevada.
The commercial production of fuller's earth in the United States
began at Quincy, Gadsden County, in 1895, and from that year
until 1924 Florida continuously held first place. Beginning
with 1924, however, Georgia's production increased to such an
extent as to replace Florida in this rank, so that Georgia now is
the leading state, Florida second and Texas third. The production
of these three states amounted to 85 per cent of the total for 1925.
The average per ton value in 1925 was $14.15 indicating a slight
average decrease as compared with 1924 of $14.79 per ton. The
production from Florida cannot be given separately without dis-
closing individual operations, but it is included in the total mineral
production of Florida. The following companies reported produc-
tion in 1925:
PRODUCERS
Attapulgus Clay Company, Ellenton, Manatee County.
The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.
ILMENITE, MONAZITE, RUTILE AND ZIRCON
The recovery of ilmenite and monazite from the beach sands
at Mineral City about 5 miles south of Jacksonville Beach (form-
erly Pablo Beach) began in 1916 and has continued, with some
interruptions, until Florida is now the leading state in the produc-
tion of ilmenite. The first commercial production of zircon was
reported in 1922 and that of rutile in 1925. Production of mon-
azite has not been reported since 1916 until 1925. The occur-
rence of these so-called rare earths in the beach sands is unique
and they have formed the basis of an important mineral industry.
Operations at Mineral City are conducted under the name of Buck-
man and Pritchard, Inc., owned by the Titanium Pigment Co., Inc.,
94 Fulton St., New York, a subsidiary of the National Lead Com-
pany. Statistics of output and value cannot be given separately
without disclosing individual operations but such figures are in-
cluded in the total for the State.



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STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION.


LIMESTONE, LIME AND FLINT

The output of limestone for 1925 amounted to 3,795,420
tons with a valuation of $4,348,234 As compared to the value
of this product for 1924 these figures indicate an increase of 60
per cent. The various purposes for which the limestone is re
ported as used were: Road material, concrete, asphalt filler, rail-
road ballast, riprap, building stone and agricultural. The large
increase again shows the continued progress Florida is making
in the way of permanently surfaced highways, in general con-
struction and industrial lines. To the figures on limestone should
be added those for crushed flint or miscellaneous stone and lime
which brings the total production of limestone, crushed flint, mis-
cellaneous stone, quick and hydrated lime to 4,044,583 tons with
a total valuation of $4,873,757, an increase of 35 per cent in out-
put and of 57 per cent in value over 1924.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIMESTONE PRODUCTION
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, (Quarried by A. M. Cook, Levy and Marion
Counties).
Blowers Lime & Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
The Coquina Company, Daytona Beach.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Crystal River Rock Company, Leesburg.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
Florida Lime Company. Ocala.
Florida Rock Products Company, Brooksville.
Gainesville Lime Rock Company, Gainesville.
The Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Marion County Lime Company, Ocala.
Marion County Road Department, Ocala.
Naranja Rock Company, Naranja.
Ocala Lime Rock Company, Ocala.
Oakhurst Lime Company ,(Florida Lime Company) Ocala.
The George H. Palmer Company, P. O. Box 4117, Miami.
W. T. Price, Miami.
Standard Hard Rock Company, Morriston.
T. A. Thompson, Branford.
Volusia Coquina Rock Company, Volusia.
Williston Lime Rock Company, Williston.
Williston Shell Rock Company, Williston.
COMPANIES REPORTING FLINT OR MISCELLANEOUS STONE
PRODUCTION
Baird Flint Rock Company, P. O. Box 388, Ocala.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville.
Florida Shell Rock Company, Williston.



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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Long-Pasley Lumber Company, Williston.
Tampa Rock Company, Tampa.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala.
COMPANIES REPORTING LIME PRODUCTION
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.

MINERAL WATERS

The total sales of waters in Florida in 1925 as shown by
returns from the owners of springs and wells amounted to 1,680,-
895 gallons valued at $151,366.85. Production was reported
from the following springs or wells:
Brack's Panacea Soft Water Springs, Bradenton, Manatee County.
Chumuckla Springs, McDavid, Escambia County.
Crystal Springs, Crystal Springs, Pasco County.
Crystal Mineral Springs, Whitehouse, Duval County.
Egret Water Company, Fort Pierce, St. Lucie County.
Espiritu Santo Springs, Inc., Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
Good Hope Mineral Springs, Jacksonville, Duval County.
Flamingo Water Company, Orange City, Volusia County.
Hampton Springs, Hampton Springs, Taylor County.
Purity Springs Water Con.,any, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
St. Nicholas Springs, South Jacksonville, Duval County.
So-No-Wa Springs, Bryceville, Nassau County.
Ultrafine, Miami, Dade County.
PEAT

Production of peat in 1925 increased 31 per cent in quantity
and 51 per cent in value over that for 1924. The peat marketed
in Florida is sold principally as a nitrogenous fertilizer filler. The
following companies reported production:
Ammoniate Products Corporation, 2 Rector St., New York and Fellsmere,
Indian River County, Fla.
Dundee Fertilizer Company, I. Bernet, Lessee, 1407 Marion St., Tampa and
Dundee, Polk County, Fla.
Florida Humus Company, 14 Wall Street, New York and Zellwood, Orange
County, Fla.
PHOSPHATE

The output from the hard rock field increased 20 per cent,
a marked improvement as compared to 1924. There was an in-
crease of 20 per cent in quantity and of 10 per cent in value of
output over 1924. Of the total amount marketed in the United
States Florida is credited with 84 per cent. Other states reporting




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STATISTICS ULF MINERAL PRODUCTION.


production in 1925 were South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Idaho and Wyoming. Significant gains were made by the Western
States in phosphate rock output for 1925 and another feature was
the re-entry of South Carolina into the column of producing states
after making no report for 1923 and 1924. The reported total
production for Florida for 1925 was 2,929,964 long tons valued
at $8,789,070.
The output from the hard rock field increased 20 per cent
in quantity and 12 per cent in value over 1924. This is taken to
indicate better European conditions since practically all the hard
rock phosphate is exported. The increased costs of production and
the competition of the North African phosphates is, however, seri-
ously affecting the high grade phosphate industry. No new mines
were reported being developed during the year.
Of the total output of phosphate from Florida in 1925 the
land pebble rock constituted 94 per cent. The marketed output
from this field for 1925 increased a little over 20 per cent and the
value about 91/ per cent. European conditions do not so directly
affect the land pebble district since the greater part of this
rock is used domestically. It is also true that some of the phos-
phate producers are manufacturers of fertilizers, thus consuming
a large percentage of the output from such mines.
The following table gives the production and value of Florida
phosphate rock from 1900 to 1925. Since the beginning of phos-
phate mining in 1888 to 1925 inclusive, Florida has produced
51,988,717 long tons with a total valuation of $200,963,215.
These figures are in accordance with statistics collected by the
United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of
Mines and the Florida Geological Survey.











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20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


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STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION.


PHOSPHATE MINING COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION IN 1925
American Agricultural Chemical Co...2 Rector Street, New York City, and Pierce,
Florida.
American Cyanamid Company ............511 Fifth Avenue, New York City, and
Brewster, Florida.
J. Buttgenbach & Company ....................22 Ave. Marnix, Brussells, Belgium, and
Dunnellon, Florida.
Coronet Phosphate Company ............99 John Street, New York City, and Plant
City, Florida.
C. & J. Camp ..........................................Ocala, Florida.
Dunnellon Phosphate Company ............106 East Bay Street, Savannah, Georgia, and
Dunnellon, Florida.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corp. ........P. O. Box 1118, Norfolk, Virginia, and
Bartow, Florida.
The Holder Phosphate Company ........Inverness, Florida.
Independent Chemical Co, Inc.............33 Pine Street, New York City, and Bowling
Green, Florida.
International Agricultural Corp. ..........61 Broadway, New York City, and Mulberry,
Florida.
Mutual Mining Company ......................102 East Bay Street, Savannah, Georgia, and
Floral Ciy, Florida.
Morris Fertilizer Company ..................801 Citizens & Southern Bank Building,
Atlanta, Georgia and Bartow, Florida.
Phosphate Mining Company .............110 Williams Street, New York City, and
Nichols, Florida.
Southern Phosphate Development Co...[nverness, Florida.
Southern Phosphate Corp. ..................25 Broad Street, New York City, and Lake-
land, Florida.
Swift & Company ....................................Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Illinois, and
Bartow, Florida.

SAND AND GRAVEL

The output of sand and gravel in Florida during 1925 was
the largest ever recorded in the State and amounted to 1,515,529
short tons with a valuation of $1,089,215. These figures indicate
an increase of 135 per cent in quantity and 192 per cent in value
over 1924. The various uses for which the sand and gravel were
reported were: Building, engine, railroad ballast and paving.

The sands of the State are produced from various sources,
large quantities coming from deposits fairly uniform in physical
characteristics, others dredged from lake or stream bottoms, while
large tonnages of by-product sands from the mining and washing
of kaolin and pebble phosphate are now placed on the market.
The Florida gravel comes principally from the Apalachicola River
and from the Escambia River, although deposits of clayey-gravel
occur in other sections of western Florida and have been used for



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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

surfacing highways in that part of the State. Excellent sands are
also dredged from the rivers along with the siliceous gravel.

SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION IN 1925

Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
Alafia Sand and Shell Company, P. O. Box 2933, Tampa.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster.
Cummer Lumber Company, Newberry.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Duo Sand and Rock Comany, P. O. Box 1687, West Palm Beach.
Escambia Sand and Gravel Corp., Flomaton, Ala. (Plant at Tarzan, Fla.)
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Wier Crystal Sand Company, Ocala.
Leesburg Sand and Supply Company, Leesburg.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Phosphate Mining Company, Nichols.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, P. O. Box 921, Tampa.

SAND-LIME BRICK

The sand-lime brick industry enjoyed a satisfactory business
year during 1925 since the reported output increased 44 per cent
and the value 61 per cent over that of 1924. All companies oper-
ating in past years reported increased production and one new
company, namely the Lakeland Brick and Tile Manufacturing
Company, Lakeland, made its first report on production. Ac-
cording to the returns from the several producers the total output
during 1925 was 26,993,000 brick valued at $323,385, or an
average of $11.98 per thousand.

PRODUCERS
Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen.
Lakeland Brick and Tile Manufacturing Company, Lakeland.
Palm Beach Brick and Supply Company, West Palm Beach.
Plant City Brick Company, Plant City.

Two additional sand-lime brick plants have recently been
established as follows: George E. Dunan, P. O. Box 1494, Brad-
enton and the DeSoto City Brick Company, DeSoto City. The
demand for building materials in the State is such as to induce
additional manufacturing plants.




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STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION.


SUMMARY
From the statistics of mineral production for 1925 it is seen
that on the whole a prosperous condition existed. As compared
with former years the total output was the largest ever recorded
except for 1920. Exceptional conditions existed, however, which
caused an abnormal output and value for that year, as large
quantities of phosphate held in storage during certain years of the
war were marketed thus accounting for the unusual total for 1920.

The table on the next page summarizes the value of mineral
products in the State for each year from 1916 to 1925 inclusive,
and the graph following it shows some of the same data expressed
in percentages of the State total. This method eliminates the
great fluctuations in prices during the World War period, but
does not show the increase in true values, which amounted to
about 100% in nine years (while the population of the State in-
creased less than 50%).
The curves for phosphate show the depression caused by the
war in the hard rock field, and the effects of the strike of 1919 in
the land pebble field. (A different sort of graph in our 15th
Annual Report, page 20, shows the total production of different
kinds of phosphate in Florida, in tons, for each year from 1888
to 1922, and the table on page 20 of the present volume shows
both production and value of the same from 1900 to 1925.) The
decline of phosphate and fuller's earth in the last few years is not
absolute but relative, and is due mostly to the great increase in
the production of limestone, sand and gravel, caused by the
enormous road-building activities throughout the State.












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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


I:;~: ,.Q. :?, tj)(.) L21(j


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN











STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION.


Fic 1. Graph showing values of the principal mineral products of
Florida, 1916 to 1925, expressed as percentages of the total. For absolute
values see the table on the preceding page.


1,~


Original from
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN





















































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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


ROLAND M. HARPER




From the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Florida State
Geological Survey, 1927.


FLORIDA


STATE GEOLOGICAL
HERMAN GunTn, State Geologis


SURVEY


EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT










TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


1927










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

ROLAND M. HARPER

CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction ............,....... .................. ................... .......................,, .... .. ............ 31- 33
Sources of information ................................................................ ...... 34- 47
B bibliography ................................... ............. ............ .... ,............. ................ 35- 46
Field work of the writer ...... .. ......... .................................................................... 4 7
Geology and mineral resources ................................. ............... ............. 48- 52
Underground waters ....................................... .................................... ........... 51- 52
Topography ...... ............................... .. ...... ....... .... ........ ................................ 5 3 56
Soils ....... ............. ........ ............................................................................... 57. 62
Climate 4........ ...................................................................................... 63- 74
Temperature (fig. 4) ................................. ......... ........... ...... ....... 63- 68
Precipitation (fig. 5) ...................................................... .......... ........... 68- 70
R elative hum idity ..................... ...... ..................... .. ...... ... ........ .... 70
W ind ............................ ................ ............. ................ ........... 70
Extremes of weather, 1905 to 1925 (figs. 6, 7) ......................................... 71. 74
V vegetation ...................... ....................................... ..... .................................... 75-135
M ethod of treatm ent .............. ..... .. ...... ............................... ..... ............... 76- 79
Scrub (fig. 8) ..... ...... .... ............. .......... ,... ...................... ...... .. 79- 81
High pine land (fig. 9) ... ... .,.................-..... ................ ............................... 82 84
Flatwoods (figs. 10, 11) .. ............................................4........... 8 87
Dry prairies (fig. 12) ............ .......................................... 87- 89
Miami pine land ............................. ,........,....+.,+b.h.+4.4d+B......4*.4.... p.... 90- 92
Beaches and dunes (figs. 13-15) ............... ....................................................... 92 95
Salt flats (figs. 16, 17) ............................... ............. ...... ................ 96 97
Cactus thickets (fig. 18) ............ .............................................. 98- 99
Palm savannas (figs. 19-21) ..................................................... ........100-103
Low hammocks (fig. 22) .................. ...........................................103-106
Tropical ham mocks ............ ................... .. ............................................106.109
Cape Sable ham m oe .ks .......................................... ......... ................. ..........4.. 110
Key hammocks (fig. 23) .................. ............... ............................111-112
Lakes and ponds (fig. 24) ..... ................................... ..... .... .... .......... ............ 113
W et prairies (fig. 25) ..., ........ ....... ............... ............................................ ...113-115
Cypress ponds (fig. 26) ....... ....... ........ ............. ...............................I .......116-118
R iver-banks -......... ................. ..... ................................. ......... ........ .. ....... .119-120
Creek and branch swamps (fig. 27) ... ..........................,....................... 121-122
Bays and non-alluvial swamps (fig. 28) ..,.................................................122-124
Custard-apple swamps ..... .... ............................................... .. 124
Saw.grass marshes (fig. 29) ............................................................ ...124.126
M arl prairies (fig. 30) ............................................................ ...... .... .... 126-128











Vegetation (continued)
Mangrove swamps (figs. 31-33) ........................... ...................................12&-131
Submarine vegetation ......................................................................................131-132
W eeds ..................................... ...... ............ .... ....... ........ .............. ....... .. .... ... 32-135
FIorietice ................. ........................ .. ................................ ......... ... .......... ....1361 41
F anna ................................................................................................................ .......... 1... .143-152
M am m als ............. ........ ... ...... .................... .. ........ 4............................. 143-144
B irde .............................. ...........................................................................................144-146
Reptiles .........................................................................................................14147
A mL phibians ......................... ............. ............................ 1....... ...1 ..... .................. 147
Fisheu .............................. .. ...............................................................................147-149
Insect .................................. .................................................................................... 49-150
Arac mids and crustaceans ................................................ ...............I ............. ISO
M ollu ks .. .. .......... .................... ............................................................. ........... 51-152
Sponges ......... ............. ......1...............-........................ .......................... .. ...... 152
Regional cla ifie ation ..................................................................................... ..... 153192
West coast islands (fig. 34, 35) ......................... ................ .....153-155
Manatee hammock region (fig. 36) .................... .....................1....55-156
Flatwoode, western division (figs. 37, 38) .................. ........ ................ 157-166
Lake region (fig. 39) ...............................,,. .. ... ..... b......++>b................160-162
Prairie region (fig. 40) ............ ................ ........ ........... .....l............... 163,165
Indian Prairie ............................................... ................... ... ..... ...... .. 166
Everglade (fig. 41) ............................... .. ................. ...... 167-168
Flatwoods, eastern division .... ,....... I t*.4....... ............ .............6.. ........... 6171
East coast strip (figs. 4246) ............................................... .... .....+1..1 71-175
Miami limestone region (figs. 4749) ...................................................176179
Coast prairie (figs. 50,53) ........ E4+f.... -........ ....................... .....................180-184
Ten Thousand lalanda (fig. 54) ............................ ................d....+.+...4...,+ 184-186
Upper Keys (figs. 55, 56) ................... ........... .............................. 186
Lower Keys (figs. S7, 58) ..................................1.........I+.....l.. ..................... 189-19
Index ..................................................m ..................... .....................*...*I I '9S3-207








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
MAPS AND GaAFHS
PIGr PFAC
2. Regional map of southern Florida .................................................. 32
3. Mean temperature and annual rainfall (map) ................................. 65
4. Daily temperatures throughout an average year ......................................... 66
5. Monthly rainfall throughout an average year ................................d.................. 69
6. Annual temperature for various stations, 1905 to 1924 .............................. 72
7. Annual rainfall for various stations, 1905 to 1924 .............. .................... 73

VEGETATION TYPES
8. Scrub north of Naples, Collier County ................... ............... ..................... .. 80
9. High pine land in lake region, Highlands County ......................................... 83
10. Longleaf pine flatwoods, Okeechobee County ,................... ....................... 85
11. Slash pine flatwoods near Bonita Springs, Lee County .,.................... 85
12. Dry prairies about 2 miles northwest of Okeechobee ................................ 88
13, Dune vegetation on east coast near Boynton .......'. ...................................... 94
14. Gulf beach on Gasparilla Island, Lee County ...................................... 94
15. Beach vegetation on calcareous sand, Upper Matacumbe Key .*......... 95
16, Sandy alt flat on Pine island, Lee County ............................... 97
17. Salt flat vegetation on limestone, Lower Keys ..............................-...... ... 97
18. Cactus thicket, inner shore of Sanihel Island ................................................. 98
19. Palm savanna, Indian Prairie, Highlands County ................ .. +............. 4 104
20. Palm savanna on Gasparilla Island, Lee County ......................................
21. Palm savanna on Summerland Key, Monroe County ...............................10
22. Hammock on Caloosahatchee River, Glades County ...................................... 10
23. Scrubby tropical hammock ou Lower Matacumbe Key ............................. III
24. Clear Lake, near W est Palm Beach .................................................................. 113
25. Wet prairie in long-leaf pine flatwoods, Okeechobee County ....................114
26. Cypress pond between Fort. Myers and Immokalee ,.................... .. .+.,.....117
27. Fisheating Creek south of Palmdale, Glades County ......................................122
28. Bay in prairie region northwest of Palmdale .................. .......................... 123
29. Reed-like vegetation in Everglades, Dade County ................ ............ 25
30. Transverse glade in Miami pine land .......................................................... ....127
31. Outer edge of mangrove swamp on Biscayne Bay ............................................129
32. Interior of sam e ................................. ........................................ ................. ,............129
33. Mangrove swamp, partly cleared, north of Miami Beach ..... ..................... 130

NATuRAL REcIONS
34. Looking west from highest dune on Marco Island....... ............................154
35. Vegetation on inner shore of Sanibel Island ............... .................. ........
36. Old clearing in big hammock sonth of Manatee ................. .......... ............156
37. Salamander hills in pine land, Hardee County .......................................... ....1.58
38. Cut-over land east of Arcadia, DeSoto County ...... ....... ....... .............. 160
39. Small lake southeast of Avon Park, Highlands County ...... ................ 161
40. Cattle in dry prairies north of Immokalee, Collier County ...........,i+.............165









FIG. PACE
41. Everglades, about 13 miles northeast of Fort Laudrdale ................................67
42. FIatwoods in east coast strip, Indian River County .....................................J..73
43. Road through tropical hammock near Ankona, St. Lucie County .........l.....174
44. High old dune, partly cleared, near Jensen .........................................1-74
45. Old field covered with Natal grass, Palm Beach County ...............................175
46. Looking south along shore at Miami Beach ..................................................... 75
47. Honeycombed rock of Miami pine land, north of Miami ...........................176
48. Rough limestone surface in cut-over land near Cutler ..............................77
49. Water-worn pillars of limestone in Larkin glade ...................................,...179
50. Stunted pond cypress in coast prairie, Dade County .................................1S. 80
51. Mangrove bushes in coast prairie, Dade County ..............................................81
52. Black mangroves on marly shore near East Cape Sable ..............................181
53. Buttonwood ready for charcoal burning, near Flamingo ...............................182
54. Black mangrove in savanna about two miles north of Marco ....................85
55. Rocky outer shore of Lower Matacumbe Key, Monroe County ....................186
56. Islands with overhaningi edges, Marathon .................................... ............. l 188
57. Tropical thicket vegetation on Ramrod Key ..... ...............-,...................189
58. Charcoal awaiting shipment on Cudjoe Key ..........................................191








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


INTRODUCTION
The main object of geography is to describe and classify the
surface of the earth, by means of the things or features found
thereon. These features are of two principal kinds: inanimate,
such as soil, topography, water and climate; and organic, such as
vegetation, fauna, population and industries. In the second group
it is customary to make a distinction between the plants and lower
animals on the one hand, and the human population or civilization
on the other, on account of the extreme complexity of the latter.
Physical geography deals with the natural features, including all
the inanimate and the plants and lower animals; and human geog-
raphy with the rest, which may be classed as artificial features,
because they are developed or modified by thinking beings.
The natural or physical features constitute the environment
of civilization. They are supposed to have existed much longer
than the human race, and to change much more slowly than civili-
zation does, except where man himself changes them, by cutting
down forests, damming up streams, killing wild animals, etc. The
artificial or human features may change very rapidly, though,
especially in an area like that covered by this report; and in order
to describe them adequately it is necessary to use a great variety
of statistics, for density and composition of population, acreage
and yield of crops, kind and value of manufactures, etc., etc.
Physical geography is indeed also capable of some statistical
treatment, in the way of soil analyses, weather records, stand of
timber, etc., but such statistics are usually much simpler than those
used in human geography.
The present report seeks to describe the physical features or
natural resources of South Florida, from the northern boundaries
of Manatee and Indian River Counties to the south end of the State,
an area of about 17,000 square miles, not counting lakes and salt
water. At present people all over the United States are looking
toward this section, and many doubtless have very hazy ideas about
the soil, water supply, climate, vegetation, fauna, etc., all of















32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.
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Fie. 2. Map showing location of regions described in text, together with
rivers, railroad counties, townships, etc. The regional boundaries are only
approximate in some places, and those of the Big Cypress are not shown at all,
because too Ittle known at present. The dotted line northeast of Lake Okee.
chobee, in Martin County, indicates a low scarp or terrace, which may some time
be treated as a regional boundary. (See regional descriptions.) Scale about
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NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


which are treated in the following pages. It is of course also
important to a home-seeker or investor to know something about
what kind of neighbors he may expect to have, as well as about
agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, etc., but information about
the population and industries can be given better at some future
time, after the results of the federal agricultural census of Jan-
uary, 1925, and the state population census of February, 1925,
have been more fully analyzed or digested.

In this report, in conformity with the established policy of
this department (and practically all other state geological sur-
veys) we have tried to present the important truths impartially,
not overlooking the fact that some of the soils are below the
average in fertility, some of the water is hard, the weather is not
always perfect, some of the trees are crooked or otherwise of
little use, mosquitoes are occasionally seen, etc. Absolute ac-
curacy is not claimed, for there are still large areas in South
Florida that have never been seen by any one competent to write
a scientific description of them, and even with the best of intentions
mistakes sometimes occur. And of course a complete description
of an area of this size cannot be given in 160 pages. But if there
are any errors or .serious omissions they are unintentional, and
just as likely to be on the good as on the bad side. We believe
that the whole truth, or an approximation to it, will be more useful
to prospective settlers and investors than merely the better half
of it; and to ignore the disadvantages would be as inexcusable as
for a newspaper to omit all mention of fires, floods, hurricanes,
earthquakes, accidents, crimes, epidemics and deaths. Construc-
tive criticisms will always be welcomed, and if important enough
they can be incorporated into future publications of this office.
In order to avoid making this report too bulky and delaying
it indefinitely, no notice is here taken of publications, explorations
and occurrences subsequent to the Spring of 1926, except that
some information obtained by correspondence and reading since
then ha, been incorporated.








34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
One of the first steps in any scientific investigation is to as-
certain what has already been published on the subject, and then
build up on the foundations already laid. A great deal has been
written about the geology, scenery, and other natural features of
South Florida, especially in the last decade or two; but at the
present writing lack of time and library facilities forbid attempt-
ing a complete bibliography. However, even a partial bibliogra-
phy may be very helpful to future investigators of the same field,
and such a one is given below. It includes about 165 titles (by
94 authors), two-thirds of them published since 1900.
In order to economize time and space as much as possible,
several kinds of publications are arbitrarily excluded, but excep-
tions are sometimes made for works of special interest or import-
ance. The excluded classes are as follows:
1. Previous reports of this Survey; for they are not very
numerous yet, and they ought to be accessible in the same libraries
that have this volume.
2. Publications covering the whole State or a larger area,
particularly monographs of families, genera, etc., unless they
contain descriptions of several new species from the area treated.
3. Papers devoted to only one species of plant or animal,
unless it is a new species from South Florida.
4. Works fully cited in later ones referred to below, or in
the bibliographies in our First, Third, Sixth and Twelfth Annual
Reports.
5. Books and articles written more with a view of interest.
ing a large number of readers, or inducing people to come to
Florida, than of presenting fundamental facts. This sort of lit-
erature is very abundant at present, and of course it contains some
important truths (and scientific works may contain unintentional
errors), but if one should start citing popular works one would
never know where to stop.
6. Relatively inaccessible publications, such as old news-
papers, ephemeral magazines, and little-known scientific serials
of limited circulation.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


7. Works dealing almost entirely with human or artificial
features, such as census reports, and descriptions of cities.

In order to illustrate the development of scientific knowledge
concerning this area the bibliography is arranged as nearly as
possible in chronological order.* A reader who wishes to know
what works of any particular author have been cited here or in
footnotes can locate them by means of the index.

On account of the GeoloYical Survey's limited library facili-
ties, many of the bibliographic references have had to be obtained
by correspondence, and some errors may have crept into the
citations; but if so they can easily be straightened out by any one
who has access to a good library.
A few publications not listed in the bibliography are men-
tioned in footnotes, to illustrate some particular point.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1851
Michael Tuomey. Notice of the geology of the Florida Keys, and of the
southern coast of Florida.-Am. Jour. Sei 61: 390-394.
1856
J. C. Ives. Memoir to accompany a military map of the peninsula of Florida,
south of Tampa Bay, compiled by Lieut. J. C. Ives, Topog'l Engineers, under the
general direction of Capt. A. A. Humphreys, Topog'l Engineers, by order of the
Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War. April, 1856-(U. S. War Dept.) New
York, M. B. Wynkoop (publisher). 1856. 42 pp. and 2 folded mapa.
The main mop measures 32x42 inches, begins a little north of latitude 28,
and shows many details of vegetation, etc., pretty accurately for that early date.
One or two later vegetation maps seem to have been based on it. The same map
is reproduced on a smaller scale, with a few quotations from the text, in U. S.
Senate Document 89, 1911 (see below),

*The month of publication is usually not given in books, or in scientific
serials which appear annually or at irregular intervals, and it is often mis-stated
in periodicals, and the error overlooked or soon forgotten, and this state of
affairs sometimes causes injustice in cases of disputed priority, (See under Ilex
cumulicola, farther on.)
tFor valuable assistance in this matter the writer is indebted to Francis
Harper of the Boston Society of Natural History (for references on birds and
mammals), C. W. Johnson of the same institution (mollusks), Dr. M. A. Howe
of the New York Botanical Garden (plants), J. T. Nichols of the American
Museum of Natural History (fishes and reptiles), J. A. G. Rehn of the Philadelphia
Academy of Natural Sciences (insects), E. G. Vanatta of the same (mollusks),
Lee R. Dice of the University of Michigan mammalli, Prof. W. S. Blatchley,
former state geologist of Indiana, and for several years past a winter resident of
Florida (insects), and a few others.









36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1869
R. E. C. Stearns. Rambles in Florida.-American Naturalist 3: 281-288, 349-
356, 397405, 455470. Aun-Nov, 1869.
Mostly conchological, but contains interesting notes on the geography, flora,
fauna, etc. Some of the Keys are described in the last five pages.
1872
C. J. Maynard. Catalogue of the mammals of Florida, with notes on their
habits, distribution, etc.-BulL Essex Institute 4: 135-150. Sept. and Oct., 1872.
(Also reprinted with pages numbered 1 to 16.)
Based on three winters' travel in Florida, with two or more companions each
time, some of them scientists. The Everglades and Keys were visited on the
second trip, and the third took the party as far south as Jqpiter. Lists 36 species,
including one introduced, the brown rat. (The common mouse was not seen in
Florida at that time,)
1874
Frederick Brendel. Notes on the flora of southern Florida.-American Nat-
uralist 8:449452. Aug. 1874.
1875
(Capt.) F. Trench Townsend. Wild life in Florida, with a visit to Cuba.-
xis + 319 pp, frontispiece and map. London, 1875.
1877
L. F. DePourtales. Hints on the origin of the flora and fauna of the Florida
Keys.-American Naturalist 11:137-144. March 1877.
1878
A. W. Chapman. An enumeration of some plants-chiefly from the semi.
tropical regions of Florida-which are either new, or which have not hitherto been
recorded as belonging to the southern states.-Botanical Gazette 3;2-6, 9-12, 17-2L
1878.
W. W. Calkins. Marine shells of Florida.-Proe. Davenport (Iowa) Acad.
Nat. Set 2:232-252. 1878.
E. A. Schwarz. The Coleoptera of Florida.-Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 17:353-
472. 1878. (Remarks on geographical distribution by J. L. LeConte on pages
470-471.)
A. P. Garber. Ferns in South Florida.-Botanical Gazette 3:82-85. Oct. 1878.
1880
W. W. Calkins. Winter herborizations on Indian River, Florida.-Botanical
Gazette 5:57-58. May, 1880.
G. H Horn. Coleoptera from the Florida Keys collected by W. H. Ashmead.
--Proc. Entom. See. Phila. Acad. Sci. (Trans. Am. Entom. Soc.) 8:xvii. 1880.
1881
Jerome Coclran, M. D. Sketches of yellow fever on the Gulf Coast of Florida.
-Trans. Med. AssB. Alabama 34:451.484. 1881.
Key West described on pages 454457, and Manatee and vicinity on pages
465466.
J. Cosmo Melvil. List of the mollusca obtained in South Carolina and Flor-
ida, principally in the island of Key West, 1871-1872.-Jour. Conchology (Leeds,
England) 3:155-173. 1881.
Samuel C. Uphmr. Notes from Sunland, on the Manatee River, Gulf coast
of South Florida.-83 pp, 2 plates. Published by the author, Braidentown and
Philadelphia, 1881.
1883
Feipe Poey (y Aloy). List of food fishes brought from Key West, Fla, into
the markets of Habana.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 2:118. 1883.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


W. H. Dall. On a collection of shells sent from Florida by Mr. Henry Hemp-
hil.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mum. 6:318342, pl. 10. Dec., 1883.
1884
J. Cosmo Melvill List of the phanerogams of Key West, South Florida,
mostly observed there in March, 1872.-Mem. Manchester (England) Lit. & Phil.
Soc. III. 8:138-154. 1884.
David Starr Jordan. The fishes of he Florida Keys.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm.
4:77-80. 1884.
James A. Henshall. Camping and cruising in Florida.-248 pp., Cincinnati,
1884. (Largely about South Florida.)
1885
D. S. Jordan & C. H. Gilbert, Descriptions of ten new species of fishes from
Key West, Florida.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu. 6:24-32. 1885.
David Starr Jordan. List of fishes collected at Key West, Fla., with notes and
deacriptionts-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu. 7:103-150. 1885.
Joseph Swain & S. E. Meek. Notes on the pipe fishes of Key West, Fla, with
description of Siphostoma mckayi, a new species.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 7:237-239.
1885.
W. H. Dall. Notes on some Floridian land and fresh-water shells, with a
revision of the Auriculacea of the eastern United States.-Proc. U. S. Not. Mus.
8:255-289, pL 17, 18. July, 1885.
1886.7
Angelo Heilprin. Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the
Okeechobee wilderness. With special reference to the geology and zoology of
the Floridian peninsula. A narrative of researches undertaken under the auspices
of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia.-Trans. Wagner Inst.
1:iii-vii, 1-134, with plates 1-19 (of animals and fossils) and two of landscape
drawings not numbered. 1887. (Pages 65-127 also published in advance, in
1886.)
One of the earliest scientific descriptions of the Caloosahatchee River and
Lnke Okeechobee, with notes on the geology, flora and fauna, and the first aco
count of the rich molluscan fauna of the Caloosahatchee formation. Also covers
the Gulf coast from Cedar Keys to the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River.
1887
W. E. D. Scou. The present condition of some of the bird rookeries of the
Gulf coast of Florida. The Ank 4:135-144, 213-222, 273-284. 1887.
1887-1889
Chas. T. Simpson. contributions to the molluaca of Florida.-Proc. Daven-
port Acad. Nat. Sci. 5:45-72, 63*-72*. 1887 and 1889.
1888
E. A. Schwarz. The insect fauna of semi-tropical Florida with special regard
to the Coleoptera.-Entom, Amer. 4:165-175. 1888.
A. H. Curtiss. How the mangrove forms islands.-Garden & Forest 1:100.
April 25, 1888.
A. H. Curtiss. The flora of the Florida Keys.-Garden & Forest 1:279-280.
Aug. 8, 1888.
Points out the differences between the Upper and Lower Keys, and the sim-
ilarity of the latter to the mainland around Miami. Mentions the occurrence on
the Lower Keys of slash pine, two species of thatch palm, cabbage palmetto, saw.
plmetto, and myrtle (Myrica wcerera), which are rare or absent on the Upper
Keys-




"





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1888-1890
W. E. D. Scott A summary of observations on the birds of the Gulf coast
of Florida--Auk 5:373-379. 1888; 6:13-18, 152-160, 245.252, 318.326. 1889; 7:14-22,
114-120. 1890.
1889
Robert Grant. Tarpon fishing in Florida.--Scribner's Magazine 6:154-168.
(Illustrated.) Aug., 1889.
Describes some of the coast between Punta Gorda and Punta Rassa.
1889-1903
W. H. Dall. A preliminary catalogue of the shell-bearing marine mollusks
and brachiopods of the southeastern coast of the United States, with illustrations
of many of the species.-U. S. Nat. Museum Bull. 37. 74 plates. Reprinted in
1903, with 232 pages and 95 plates.
Contains a bibliography of 12 Dages.
1890
David Starr Jordan. List of fishes collected in the waters of southern Florida
by Dr. James A. Henshall, under the direction of the U. S. Fish Commission.-
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 8:371-379. 1890.
J. H. Simpson. Florida plants.-Rep. Sec. Agr. (U. S.) 1889:389-393. 1890.
Mostly from the vicinity of Manatee.
WI. D. DScott. On birds observed at the Dry Tortugas, Florida, during parts
o0 March and April, 1890.-Auk 7:301.314. 1890.
Lists 80 species.
1891
A. C. Adams & W. C. Kendall. Report upon an investigation of the fishing
grounds off the west coast of Florida.-Bull U. S. Fish. Comm. 9:289-312. (Illus.)
16 91.
James A Henshall. Report upon a collection of fishes made in southern
Florida during 1889.-Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 9:371-389. 1891.
L. M. Underwood. The distribution of tropical ferns in peninsular Florida.-
Proc. Indiana Acad. Si. 1891:83-89.
Deals largely with central Florida, but states that the most interesting part
of the State botanically is south of Lake Worth (a region which had no railroads
in those days). Mentions among other things that the mail was then brought to
Miami once a week, by a carrier who walked along the beach from Lake Worth, a
distance of about 60 miles, and crossed the intervening inlets by ferries, when
the weather permitted.
1892
W. E. D. Scott. Notes on the birds of the Caloosahatchee region of Florida.
-Ank 9:209-218. 1892.
Lists 259 species,
H. F. Wiley. The muck lands of the Florida peninsula.-(In report of
Chemist) Rep. U. S. Sec. Agriculture, 1891:163-171. Reprinted in U. S. Senate
Document 89, 1911. (See below.)
Deals with the vicinity of Lakes Tohopekaliga and Okeechobee. On page
166 is a list of a few plants growing on muck around Lake Okeechobee, most of
ihem identified only generically.
1893
C. S. Sargent. The mangrove tree.-Garden & Forest 6:97-98, 101, 103, with
2 figures. March 1, 1893.
John Af. Holzinger. List of plants new to Florida.-Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.
1:288. Oct., 1893.
Lists 17 species, all but one collected in the southern part of the State by
J3 H. Simpson.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 39

1894
C. R. Dodge. Subtropical Florida.-Scribner's Magazine 15:345.362, with 12
half-tone sketches. March, 1894.
Frank M. Chapman. Remarks on certain land mammals of Florida, with a
list of the species known to occur in the State.-Bull. Am. Mus. NaL Hist, 6:333.
346. 1894.
Samuel N. Rhoods. Contributions to the mammalogy of Florida.-Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1894:152-160.
1894-5
John Hamilton. Coleoptera taken at Lake Worth, Fla.-Canadian Entomol.
ogist 26:250-256. 1894; 27:317. 1895.
1895
Einar Loennberg, Ph. D. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in
Florida in 1892 and 1893.-Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum 17:317-339. 1895.
Lists 15 turtles, 7 lizards, 30 snakes, 5 salamanders, and 10 toads and frogs,
all from the peninsular part of the State, but mostly north of the limits of this
report.
(The same author also published some notes on Florida plants in Botaniska
Notiser, a Swedish magazine, in December, 1894, and a paper on Florida fishes
in another Swedish periodical in the same year.)

1896
Alexander Agassiz. The Florida elevated reef. (With notes on the geology
of southern Florida by L. S. Griswold.)-Bull. Mus. Comparative Zoology of
Harvard College, 28:29-62, pl. 1-26. Oct., 1896.

1897
Barton W. Evermann & Barton A. Bean. Indian River and its fishes.-U. S.
Senate Misc. Doe. No. 46, 54th Cong, 2nd session. 26 pp., 7 plates. Jan., 1897.
Also in Rep. U. S. Fish Comm. 1896:227-262, with 36 plates 1898.
Lists 106 species of fishes occurring in the Indian River, mostly collected
by the writers in January, 1896.
1898
(Lieut.) H. L. Willoughby. Across the Everglades. A canoe journey of ex-
ploration.-192 pp. and numerous half4one illustrations. Philadelphia, 1898 (and
later editions).
J. A. Allen. The mammals of Florida.-American Naturalist 32433-436.
1898.
1899
Samuel N. Roads. Annotated list of land and fresh-water shells collected
in the vicinity of Miami, Florida.-Nautilus 13:4348. Aug., 1899.
C. L. Pollard. Notes on some South Florida ferns.-Fern Bulletin 7:88-90.
Oet, 1899.
1902
Chas. T. Simpson. A visit to the royal palm hammock of Florida.-Plant
World 5:4-7. Jan, 1902.
This does not refer to the now well known Royal Palm Hammock, in Dade
County (formerly called Paradise Key, and now a State park), but to a much
less accessible one near the Gulf coast, in what is now Collier County.










40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

C. L. Pollard. Plant agencies in the formation of the Florida Keys.-Plant
World 5:8-10, pL 4. 1902.
Mostly, about mangroves.
John K. Small & George V. Nash, Report upon a trip to Florida.-Jonr. N. Y.
Bt. Gard. 3:29-35. Feb., 1902.
Vicinity of Miami mostly.
A. S. Hitchcock. A list of plants collected in Lee County, Florida.-Proc.
Iowa Acad. Sci 9:189-225. 1902.
1903
(Mrs.) E. C. Anthony. Notes on the ferns of the Florida east coast--Fern
Bulletin 11:21.23. Jan., 1903.
0. P. Phillips. How the mangrove adds new land to Florida.,-Jour Geogra.
phy 2:10-21, with 12 half tones. 1903.
M. A. Howe. Report .... on a trip to Florida.--Jour N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4:
4449. 1903
1994
Oakes Ames. A contribution to our knowledge of the orchid flora of southern
Florida.-Contr. Ames Bot. Lab., No. 1. 23 pp, 12 plates. Feb., 1904.
John K. Small. Report on exploration in tropical Florida.-Jonr. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 5:49-53. March, 1904.
A. A. Eaton. A preliminary list of pteridophyta collected in Dade County,
Florida, during November and December, 1903.-Fern Bulletin 12:4548. "April"
[May], 1904.
Oakes Ames. Additions to the orchid forn of Florida.-Proc. Bio!. Soc.
Waeh. 17:115-117. May, 1904.
N. L. Britton. Explorations in Florida and the Bahnmas.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 5:129-136. July, 1904.
John K. Small. Report upon further exploration of southern Florida--Jour.
N. Y. Bot. Gard. 5:157-164, figs. 24-26. Aug., 1904.
M. A. Howe. Collections of marine algae from Florida and the Bahamas.-
Jour. N. Y. Bot Card. 5:164-166. Aug, 1904.
George V. Nash. The palms of Florida.-Jor. N. Y. Bot. Card. 5:194-199.
Oct., 1904.
Bradford Torrey. Nature's Invitation.-Boston, 1904.
Pages 83-160 devoted to Florida, mostly the southern part.
1905
J, A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. A contribution to the knowledge of the
Orthoptera of southern and central Floridn.-Proc, Phila. Acad. Not. Sci. 57:29-55.
1905.
M. A. Howe. New Chlorophyceae from Florida and the Bahama.-Bull.
Torrey Bot. Club 32:241-252, pl. 11-15. May, 1905.
Describes two new species of green algae, Haltmeda scabra and Siphonocadus
rigidus, from various localities in South Florida and the Bahamas.
H. A. Pilsbry. Land shells of the Florida Keys.-Nantflus 19:3741. August,
1905.
Forty species listed, including some from Cape Sable and the Ten Thousand
Islands, with notes on distribution. One new, Succinea floridana, from Big Pine
Key, etc.
M. A. Howe. New Chloropbyceae, new Rhodophyeeae and mfscellaneous
notes,-Bull. Torrey Bat. Club 32:563-586, pl. 23-29. Nov, 1905.
Includes descriptions of Sarcomenia filametosa, n. sp, washed ashore at
Cape Florida and elsewhere, and Acesabulum Farlowi (Sohns) Howe, from Key
West, Miami, etc









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1906
John Giford. The Florida Keyl.-Nut. Geog. Magazine 17:5-16. Jan., 1906,
M. Folie & M. A. Howe. New American coralline algae,-BuIL N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 4:128-136, pL 80-93. June, 1906.
Includes descriptions of two new species from Sanda Key (Dade County),
namely, Goniolithum acretum and Lithophyflum bermudense (the former grow-
ing also in the Bahamas and the latter in Bermuda).
H. W. Fowler. Birds observed in June in the Florida Keys.-Ank. 23:396400.
1906. (33 species.)
1907
John K. Small. Exploration of southern Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
8:23-28. Feb, 1907.
C. F. Miispaugh. Flora of the sand keys of Florida.-Field Columbian
Museum, Pub. 118. (ot Series, vol. 2, No. 5), pp. 189-245. March, 1907.
An account of a very detailed study of the vegetation of all the small islands
west of Key West, by 0. E. Lansing. Jr., with maps; intended primarily for corm
prison with studies that may be made of the same areas in future years.
H. A. Pilsbry. Origin of the tropical forms of the land molluscan fauna of
southern Florida.-Proe, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 59.193. 1907.
M. A. Howe.* Further notes on Halimeda and Avrainvlllea.-Bull. Torrey
Dot. Club 34:491-516, p. 25-30. Oct, 1907.
Discusses among others fHalimeda discoidea and Arainvillea nigrians, coral.
line algae from South Florida and the tropics
1908
E. G. Vanaua. List of the land shells of Lee County, Florida.-Nautilus 21:
99-104. Jan., 1908.
Specimens collected by Clarence B. Moore, mostly along the coast from Pine
Island to Chokoloskee.
Ernas A. Bessey. The Florida strangling figs.-Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.
19:25-33, pl, 1-9. 1908.
Frank M. Chapman. Camps and cruises of an ornithoogist.-New York,
1908.
Part 3 (pp. 83-154) deals with Florida.
1909
M. A. Howe. The genus Neomeris and notes on other Siphonales.-Ball.
Torrey Bot. Club 36:75-86, p. 1.8. Feb., 1909.
Includes notes on three marine algae from South Florida and the tropics,
namely, Neomeris analata, Udocea conglutinata, and Udolea cyathiformis,
John K. Small Exploration in the Everglades.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard, 10:
48-55. March, 1909.
T. Wayland Vaughan. The geological work of mangroves in southern Florida.
-Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections $2:461-464% with 7 plates and 2 text.
figures. 1909.
Written because the subject had not been treated much in geological literature.
(Three or four botanical papers on the same subject are cited above.)
Chas. T. Simpson. Collecting in the Everglades,-Fern Bulletin 17:3-41.
"April" [May], 1909.
E. P. Van TDu.ee. Observaions on some Hemiptera taken in Florida n the
spring of 1908.-Bull. Buffalo See. Nat SeL 9:149-230. 1909.
Many new species, mostly from southern Florida
M. A. Howe. Report on an expedition to Jamaica, Cuba, and the Florida
Keys.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card. 10:115.118. 1909.









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1910
Winthrop Packard. Florida Trails.-300 pp, 40 plates. Boston, 1910.
One of the best of the popular books on Florida. Some of the chapters were
previously published in the Boston Transcript.
R. M. Harper. Tramping and camping on the southeastern rim of the Ever-
glades.-Florida Review (Jacksonville) 4:4449, 51-55, 147-157. 1910.
1911
Everglades of Florida. Acts, reports, and other papers, state and national,
relating to the Everglades of the State of Florida and their reclamation,-U. S.
Senate Doe. 89, 62nd Congress, Ist Session. 208 pp, 2 folded maps, 6 plates. 1911.
Contains among other things reproduct:ans of Lieut. Ives' map (1856), and
Dr. Wiley's article on muck lands (!992), referred to above.
John K. Small. Exploration in southern Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
12:147-156, fig. 26-31. July, 1911.
Describes Miami Beach, the Keys, ete. Notes the occurrence of a deer on the
lower Keys (described as a new variety by Barbour and Allen in 1922).
Ernst A. Bessey. The hammocks and Everglades of southern Florida.-
Plant World 14:268-276, figs. 1, 2. "Nov.". 1911.
Describes among other things the relation of hammocks to fire.
George H. Clapp. Land shells of Garden Key, Dry Tortngas, Fla.-Nautilus
25:91-92. Dec, 1911.
1912
W. E. Saford. Notes of a naturalist afloat. II. The Florida Keys.-American
Fern Journal 2:1-12. (Illnut.) "Jan." [Feb.], 1912.
John IF. Harshberger. South Florida: a geographic reconnoissance.-Bull.
Geog. Soc. Philn. 10:235-245. 1912.
H. A. Pilsb-y. A study of the variation and zoogeography of Lignus in
Florida.-Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. II. 15:427471, pl. 37-40. (3 colored plates
and a map). 1912.
Deals with the tree-snails of the southern mainland and Keys.
1912.1914
J. A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. On the Orthoptera found on the Florida
Keys and in extreme southern Florida.-Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila. 64:235-276,
figs. 1-21. 1912; 66:373-412, figs. 17. 1914.
1912-1923
E. G. Vanaua. Land shells of southern Florida.-Nantilus 26:16-22, pl. 2.
June, 1912; 26:31-34. July, 1912; 33:18. July, 1919; 34.9395. Jan., 1921; 37:65-69.
Oct., 1923.
1913
Nelson C. Brown. The tropical or Antillean region of Florida.-Forestry
Quarterly 10:673-678, 1 plate. "Dec., 1912" [Jan., 1913].
The plate contains three half-tones made from photographs by the present
writer.
John K. Small. Report on exploration of tropical Florida.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 14:81-86. April, 1913.
John K. Small. Flora of Miami, Being descriptions of the seed-plants grow.
ing naturally on the Everglade Keys and in the adjacent Everglades, southern
peninsular Florida.-xii + 206 pp. New York (published by the author), 1913.
John K. Small. Flora of the Florida Keys. Being descriptions of the seed-
plants growing on the islands of the Florida reef from Virginia Key to Dry
Tortngas.-xii + 162 pp. New York (published by the author), 1913.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1914
John K. Small Exploration in the Everglades and on the Florida Keys.-
Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 15:69-79, pi. 129-131. April, 1914.
Describes the Everglades canals, Lake Okeechobee, etc.
Florida Everglades. Report of the Florida Everglades Engineering Commies
sion to the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades Drainage District and the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, State of Florida.-U. S. Senate Doc
379, 63d Cong, 2nd Session. 148 pp., with several unnumbered textfigures, half.
tone plates, folded maps and diagrams. Washington, 1914.
J. A. G. Rehn & Morgan Hebard. Records of Dermaptera and Orthoptera
from west central and southwestern Florida, collected by William T. Davis.-Jour.
N. Y. Entom. Soc. 22:96-116. June. 1914,
John W. Hsrshberger. The vegetation of South Florida, south of 27' 30'
north, exclusive of the Florida Keys.-Trans. Wagner Free Inst Sci. 7:49-189,
with folded map, 2 text-figures and 10 pplates. Philadelphia, "Oct." [Dec.], 1914.
1915
Frederic H. Kennard. On the trail of the ivory-bill [ed woodpecker, in the
Big Cypiress counlry].-Auk 32:1-14, pI. 1-3. Jan, 1915.
Frederic H. Kennard. The Okaloacoochee Slough,-Auk 32:154-166, pl. 13-15.
April, 1915.
Morgan Hebard. Dermaptera and Orthoptera round in the vicinity of Miami,
Florida, in March, 1915.-Entom. News 26:397408, 457469, pl. 18-20. 1915.
1915-1916
Charles N. Mooney & Mark Baldwin. Soil survey of the Indian River area,
Florida.-Field Operations U. S. Bureau of Soils, 1913: 675-717, p. 4, and large
soil map. 1916. (Also issued as an -advance chapter, with 47 pages, plate and
map, dated July 31, 1915.)
The area described is a narrow strip along the coast from Titusville to Palm
Beach.
1915-1919
Mark Baldwin & H. W. Hawker. Soil survey of the Fort Lauderdale area,
Florida.-Field Operations U. S. Bureau of Soils, 1915:751-798, pl. A. B., (folded
maps), 26-29, and large soil map. 1919. (Also issued as an advance chapter, with
52 pages and the same illustrations, dated July 31, 1915,)
The area described is a strip about five miles wide along the North New
River Canal through the Everglades from Lake Okeechobee to Fort Lauderdale.
1916
Morgan Hehard. Spring Orthoptera found on the islands in the vicinity
of Charlotte Harbor, Florida.-Entom. News 27:14-21. Jan, 1916.
John K. Small. Exploration in southern Florida in 1915.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 17:3745, pl. 166-168. March, 1916.
Mentions the desecration of Royal Palm Hammock, among other things.
F. S. Collins & M. A. Howe, Notes on species of Halymenia.-BulL Torrey
Bot. Club 43:169-182. April, 1916.
Includes description of H. Gelinaria, n. sp., a marine alga from North Carolina
and South Florida.
John K. Small. Royal Palm Hammock [in Dade County].-Jonr. N. Y. Bot.
Gard, 17:165-172, pL 179-182. Oct. 1916.
T. E. Snvde-. Notes on horse-flies as a pest in southern Florida.-Proc.
Entom. Soc. Washington 18:208. 1916.
John K. Small. A cruise to the Cape Sable region of Florida.-Jour. N. Y.
Bot. Gard. 17:189-202, pl. 183-188. Nov. 1916.









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Reprinted with some additions and alterations, as an independent pamphlet
entitle "The Cape Sable region of Florida," with 27 pages and 6 plates, in 1919.
1917
John K. Small. Botanical explorations in southern Florida in 1916.-Jour.
N. Y. Bot. Card. 18:98-111, pl. 195-199. May, 1917.
Harden F. Taylor. Mortality of fishes on the west coast of Florida.-U. S.
Bur. Fisheries, Document 848. 24 pp. 1917.
Roland M. Harper. (Review of) Matson & Sanford's "Geology and ground
waters of Florida."-Geog. Review 4:224-226. Sept, 1917.
1918
John K. Small. Ferne of tropical Florida.-Amer. Museum Jour. 18:126-134,
with 7 half-tones. "Feb.", 1918.
A sort of preface to a book with the same tite. (See next.)
John K. Small. Ferns of tropical Florida.-ix + 80 pp. New York (pub-
lished by the author), 1918.
John K. Small. Ferns of Royal Palm Hanmmock.-vii + 38 pp. New York.
(published by the author), 1918.
J. T. Nichols. Bird-notes from Florida. [Along the coast from Miami to
SanibeL] Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Y. 30:20-27. pl. 1. Sept., 1918.
John K. Small. Botanical exploration in Florida in 1917.-Jour. N. Y. Bot.
Gard. 19:279-290, pl. 219-222. Nov, 1918.
Describes his first visit to the Big Cypress, among other things.
1918-19
V. S. Blatchley. Some new or senrce Coleoptera from western and southern
Florida,-Can. Entom. 50:416424. 1918; 51:2832, 65-69. 1919.
1919
John K. Small. Narrative of a cruise to Lake Okeechobee.-Am. Museum
Jour. 18:684-700, with 14 illustrations. "Dee., 1918."
I. E. Safford. Natural history of Paradise Key and the nearby Everglades
of Florida.-Smithsonian Rep. 1917:377434, with 32 text-figares, 64 plates, and
folded map. (Smithsonian PubL 2508). Washington, 1919.
A. H. Howell. Description of a new seaside sparrow from Florida.-Auk
36:86-87. Jan., 1919.
Thryospiza mirabils, from Cape Sable.
C. A. Mosier & T. A. Snyder. Notes on the seasonal activity of Tabanidae
[hore*flies] in the lower Everglades of Florida.-Proc. Entom. Soc. Wash. 21:
186-197. 1919.
A. H. Howell, Notes on the fox squirrels of southeastern United States, with
description of a new form from Florida.-Jonr. Mammalogy, 1:36-38. Nov., 1919.
The new form is Sciurus niger avicenna, from near Everglade, in Lee (now
Collier) County.
John K. Small. Coastwise dunes and lagoons. A record of botanical ex-
ploration in Florida in the spring of 1918,-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card. 20:191-207, pl
236-238. Oct., 1919.
Paul Bartsch. The bird rookeries of the Tortugae.-Smithsonian Rep. 1917:
469-500, with 38 plates. Washington, 1919.
1920
A. H. Howell. Description of a new race of the Florida water-rat (Neoflber
AUen).--Jour. Mammajogy 1:79.80. Feb., 1920.
Var. nigrescens, from the south shore of Lake Okeechobee.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


John K. Small. Of grottoes and ancient dunes. A record of botanical ex-
ploration in Florida in December, 1918.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 21:25-38, 45-54,
pi. 241-244. Feb. and Mar, 1920.
Describes his first visit to what is now Highlands County, among other things.
W. S. Blachley. Notes on the winter Coleoptera of western and southern
Florida, with descriptions of new species.-Can. Entom. 52:4246, 68-72. 1920.
Describes the Cape Sable country, among other things.
G. M. Allen. An insular race of cotton rat from the Florida Keys.-Jonr.
Mammalogy 1:235.236. Nov, 1920.
Sigmodon hispidus xsputus, from Big Pine Key.
Chas. T. Simpson. In lower Florida wilds. A naturalist's observations on
the life, physical geography, and geology of the more tropical part of the State.-
xV + 404 pp, 64 unnumbered plates, 2 maps. New York, 1920.
Reviewed in Geog. Review 4:635. Oct., 1921.
John K. Small. A botanical excursion to the Big Cypress.-Natural History
(formerly Am. Museum Jour.) 20:488-500, with 8 half-tones. 1920.
1921
George H. Clapp. Land shells of Chokoloskee Key and Cape Sable, Florida.
-Nautilus 34:108. Jan., 1921.
John K. Small. Old trails and new discoveries.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
22:2540, 49-64, pl. 253-256. 1921.
Describes some cactus hammocks on Big Pine Key, and Indian Prairie. among
other things.
Richard F. Deckers. Amphibian notes from Dade County, Florida.-Copeia
92:20.23. March, 1921.
A. H. Howell. A list of the birds of Royal Palm Hammock, Florida.-Auk
38:250.263. April, 1921.
Lists 31 water birds and 97 land birds.
Clarence B. Moore. Liguns at Marco, Florida.-Nautilus 34:139.140. April,
1921.
Chas. T. Simpson. Florida west coast Liguns. [A reply to article by C. B.
Moore cited above.]-Nautilns 5:20.22. July, 1921,
John K. Small. Historic trails by land and water.-Jor. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
22:193-222, pL 263-266. 1921.
Mentions a submerged cave southwest of Royal Palm Hammock, among other
things.
1922
Chas. T. Simpson. A search for Liguus.-Nautilus 35:65-73. Jan., 1922.
Reprinted in his "Ont of Doors in Florida" (see below).
W, S. Blabchley. Some new and rare Coleoptera from southwestern Florida.
-Can. Entom. 54:9-13, 27-33. 1922.
Relates to the vicinity of Fort Myers and ChokoloBkee.
Thomas Ba-rbour & Glover M. Allen The white-tailed deer of eastern
United States.-Jonr. Mammalogy 3:65-78. May, 1922.
Contains description of Odocoleus virginianus clavium, a new subspecies
from Big Pine Key.
John K. Small The botanical fountain of youth-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Card.
23:117-133, 139-155, pl. 275-279. 1922.
C. V. Johnson. Fossil shells from the St. Lutce Canal. Florida -Nautilnu
36:10-11. July, 1922.
Richard F. Deckern. Notes on Dade County Salientia [frogs and toads].
Copeia 112:88. Nov, 1922.











46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I1TH ANNUAL REPORT,

1923
John K. Small. Land of the question mark. Report on exploration in Florida
in December, 1920.-Jour. N. Y. Bot Gard. 24: 1-23, 25-43, 62-70, with 4 unnum.
hered half-tones in text. 1923.
Oliver P. fay. The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrate animals
from the states east of the Mississippi River and from the Canadian provinces
east of longitude 95'.-Carnegie Int. Wash., Publ. 322. 499 pp, 64 text figs.
(mostly full-page maps between text and index), 2 folded maps. Feb. 24, 1923.
South Florida fossils referred to on pages 3840, 122-124, 145-146, 159-160,
163-164, 197.200, 208, 222, 225, 233, 263-264, 379.384, 412415, 426427, 430437,
440451, 458459.
IV. S. Blatchley. Notes on the Coleoptera of southern Florida with descrip-
tionI of new species.-Can. Entom. 55113-20, 30.36, 1923.
Mostly about Moore Haven and Lake Okeechobee.
Chas. T. Simpson. An expedition that failed--Nautilus 36:109-115. April
1923.
Discusses the distribution of tree snails (Liguus and Oxystyla) in the vicinity
of Cape Sable.
John K. Small. Green deserts and dead gardens.-Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.
24:193-247, with 4 half-tones in text. 1923.
1923-1925
William J. Clench. The marine shells of Sanibel, Florida.-Nautilus 37:52-56.
Oct., 1923. Additions to the list in same, 38:93-95. Jan, 1925.
1924
Charles T. Simpson. Out of doors in Florida. The adventures of a naturalist,
together with essays on the wild life and the geology of the State.-xii + 408 pp.,
with several unnumbered half-tone plates. Miami, "1923."
Similar in treatment to his 1920 book above cited. Almost wholly devoted to
the southern half of the State.
W. S. Btachley. New Coleoptera from southern Florida, with notes on other
interesting species.-Can. Entom. 56:164-170. 1924.
John K. Small. The land where spring meets autumn. A record of explora-
tion in Florida in December, 1921.-Jour. N. Y. Bo. Gard. 25:53-94, pl. 285-287.
1924.
W. H. Schroeder. Fisheries of Key West and the clam industry of southern
Florida.-U. S. Bur. Fisheries Doc. 962, or Appendix 12 to Report of the Com-
missioner of Fisheiies for 1923. 74 pp., 29 figs., mostly half-tone plates. 1924.
Contains a pretty good bibIiography, of 6 pages.
John K. Small. Plant novelties from Florida.-BulL Torrey Bot. Club 51:
379.393. Sept. 1924.
Describes several new genera and species, mostly from Highlands County and
southeast of there.
1925
W. R. Taylor. The marine florn of the Dry Tortugas.-Revue Algologique
(Paris) 2:113-135. June, 1925.
Lists about 200 species of algae.

FIELD WORK

The writer's field work in the area under consideration up to
the end of 1925 amounted to about twelve weeks, mostly in 1909
and 1924, distributed by months as follows: January, 10 days,







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 47

February 3, March 30, April 16, July 6, August 14, November 5;
and by counties, using their present boundaries, about as follows:
Dade, 42 days, Lee, 6, Manatee and Monroe, 5 each, Highlands and
Okeechobee, 4 each, Palm Beach, 3, Hardee, DeSoto, Glades,
Indian River, St. Lucie and Broward, 2 each, and all others 1 or
less.
Besides traveling on nearly all the railroads, and making
several short trips by boat, on both fresh and salt water, he has
also traversed some country remote from railroads by automobile,
for example from Zolfo to Avon Park, Lake Childs to Okeechobee,
Venice.to Punta Gorda and Olga, Arcadia to Berman and Olga,
Fort Myers to Caxambas, Fort Myers to Immokalee, Fort Myers
to Moore Haven, Moore Haven to Okeechobee, Okeechobee to
Fort Pierce, Okeechobec to Jupiter, and Homestead to East Cape
Sable.
Over 300 miles have also been covered on foot, distributed
by counties approximately as follows: Dade, 80 miles, Okee-
chobee, 35, Highlands, DeSoto, Lee and Palm Beach about 25
each, Indian River, Hardee and Manatee about 20 each, St. Lucie,
Glades, Charlotte and Monroe about 15 each, and the rest only a
mile or two. Notes have been taken on nearly every mile, whether
riding or walking, and these form the basis of the descriptions of
vegetation in the following pages.
The largest areas that remain to be explored are in the Ever-
glades and west thereof, bounded roughly by Caxambas, Immoka-
lee, West Palm Beach and Cape Sable.
Except for one or two contributed by other persons (and duly
credited) the half-tone illustrations are all from the writer's own
photographs. It happens that all my Florida negatives previous
to 1920 are inaccessible at this writing, and although I have a
complete set of prints, many of the older ones are faded or other-
wise unsuitable for reproduction, so that some excellent pictures,
especially of the tropical hammocks near Miami (some of which
have since been obliterated by the growth of the city) have to be
omitted for this reason. Nearly every vegetation type described,
however, is illustrated by one or more views, and there are also
other views for the various natural regions, to illustrate topogra-
phy, etc.








48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

GEOLOGY
Geological mapping in South Florida is rather difficult, on
account of the generally flat surface, mostly covered with sand or
muck, and vegetation. And even if we had satisfactory well
records with abundant fossils from every township it would still
be quite a problem to locate the edges of the various formations,
for the strata are very nearly horizontal.
The oldest strata in our area that are near enough to the
surface to be identified in natural exposures are along the Manatee
River not far from its mouth, and have been referred to the Alum
Bluff group, of Miocene age. They contain important deposits of
fuller's earth, which has long been mined near Ellenton, and some
limestone which has been used locally for building stone. Strata
of similar age have been assumed to underlie the lake region in
Highlands County, but no rock outcrops are known there, and the
aspect of the country is very different from anything in Manatee
County.
From the northern edge of our area the strata seem to dip
very gently southeastward, with successively younger formations
appearing at or near the surface. Next above the Miocene is the
Pliocene, represented by the Bone Valley and Caloosahatchee
formations. The former includes the important pebble phosphate,
which as far as workable deposits is concerned is chiefly confined
to Polk County, just north of our limits. But a form known as
river pebble, washed down into streams, was formerly dredged out
of the bed of the Peace River as far south as Arcadia. The veg-
etation along many of the smaller streams in Hardee and DeSoto
Counties seems to indicate calcareous or phosphatic marl not far
from the surface, which may be of this formation.
The Caloosahatchee marl, noted among conchologists the
world over for its great variety of finely preserved shells (over
600 species having been listed), is exposed along the river of
that name near LaBelle, and along the Peace River and some of its
tributaries below Arcadia, and presumably underlies a consider-
able area between those rivers.
Nearly everywhere else in South Florida north and west of
the Everglades, drainage ditches only a few feet deep cut into beds








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


of shell marl which are presumably Pleistocene, as nearly all the
shells are identical with species now living. Quite a number of
extinct vertebrates, such as the mammoth and mastodon, have been
found in similar situations, especially near the east and west
coasts. In the northwest corner of Collier County, near Bonita
Springs, there are several acres (and perhaps a much larger area
away from the road) in which a soft, sandy limestone comes right
to the surface in the flat pine woods, and forms a series of platter-
like bodies with rounded and slightly upturned edges, each a few
square feet in area, separated by hollows a few inches deep filled
with grass and other vegetation. These "platters," which also
resemble some of the lichens that grow on rocks, or fungi that
grow appressed to rotten logs, magnified many times, appear to
be still in process of formation, like the tufa and sinter terraces
around hot springs in the Rocky Mountain region. The northern
edge of Monroe County is said to be so rocky that it is difficult
to blast out enough material to build up a roadbed across it. That
rock is probably the Lostmans River limestone, of Pleistocene
age.
In. many places in the flatwoods of Manatee and Charlotte
Counties shallow ditches expose a yellowish sandy clay or marlbe-
neath a foot or two of whitish sand.
Passing over a few little-known Pleistocene formations of
limited extent and thickness, we come to the most important form-
ation southeast of the Everglades, namely, the Miami oolite. This
is said to occur as far north as Delray, but it is hardly noticeable
north of Fort Lauderdale. There it makes a narrow belt and is
mostly concealed by the surface sand, but southward and south-
westward it gradually widens and the sand thins out. Southwest
of Coconut Grove there is practically no more sand, and in the
neighborhood of Homestead the visible area of oolite is about ten
miles wide. It is believed to extend at least half way from Home-
stead to Cape Sable, but south and west of Paradise Key (Royal
Palm Hammock) it is mostly covered by the marl of the coast
prairies. (See additional details in the chapter on soils.)
The Miami oolite is often called coral rock locally, but that
is a misnomer, for coral makes up only a very small part of it.
It is a more or less sandy limestone, often cross-bedded, especially








50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-1BTH ANNUAL REPORT.

northward. North of Miami it is full of vertical pot-holes a foot
or two in diameter, filled to the top with quartz sand, and with
the partitions between them often less than a foot thick, so that
when the sand is dug out the rock looks like a honeycomb. (See
fig. 47.) Southwest of Coconut Grove, however, the pot-holes
are smaller and more irregular. A few large buildings in Miami
have been constructed of this rock, dressed into blocks, but its
greatest use at present is for road material and railroad ballast.
Several quarries are operated in Dade County, and the rock has
been shipped as much as 200 miles northward. It is said to be very
similar to some of the rock in the Bahamas and Bermuda.
The Key West oolite, which makes up all the lower Keys, is
supposed to be of about the same age as the Miami oolite, but it
differs in appearance, having very few pot-holes. The upper Keys
are composed of genuine coral limestone, which is also Pleistocene.
The coast prairie, between the Miami oolite and the Keys, is
covered with a soft gray marl, which is probably Recent in age,
being practically a soil formation. The still more recent deposits,
such as sand and peat, will be discussed under the head of soils.
Besides the use of sand and peat as soils for growing crops
in, a few attempts to utilize the latter commercially have been
made. Many people have wondered why the vast deposits of peat
in the Everglades have not been used for fuel or fertilizer. The
chief difficulty is probably the labor cost. The same amount of
labor expended in a coal mine or a pine forest will produce much
more fuel than in a peat bog, and the difference in cost is great
enough to pay the freight for several hundred miles on what little
coal is used in South Florida. At the present time there is a fac-
tory in the drained marshes about five miles west of Fellsmere,
making fertilizer filler from peat, which is shipped out by rail.*
The sand along the east coast and perhaps elsewhere is used
locally in mortar and cement.
A few rarer minerals deserve brief mention. About twelve
miles south of Fort Myers, near a small creek, there is a deposit
of red ocher on the surface, in flat sandy pine woods. Vivianite,
or blue iron earth, a phosphate of iron, has been found in small

*For additional details about peat see our Third Annual Report.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


quantities recently near Citrus Center in Glades County. Ilmenite,
an oxide of titanium, occurs in the form of small shiny black
grains among the beach sands of the Atlantic coast at least as far
south as Fort Pierce, and has been mined for several years in
Duval and St. Johns Counties. A few other heavy minerals are
usually associated with it.
UNDERGROUND WATERS
Over the greater part of South Florida water can be found
near enough to the surface to be brought to the surface by suction
pumps, and larger supplies are obtainable from deep wells, which
overflow nearly everywhere within 50 feet of sea-level, except in
the Miami limestone region and south thereof. The water from
shallow wells in the more elevated portions is pure enough, but
that from deep wells nearly always contains enough lime, sulphur
or salt to be perceptible to the taste. The amount of salt is hardly
ever enough to make the water from the shallow wells undrink-
able, except on the Keys. Key West still depends on rain-water
for most of its domestic supply (and that is not any too abundant,
for Key West has less rain than any other place in Florida), but
some people there have shallow wells, and the railroad brings
water for its locomotives and hotels in tank cars from Homestead,
126 miles away. Plans are on foot for laying water mains
along the railroad from Homestead to Key West, the project having
been authorized by a special session of the Legislature in Novem-
ber, 1925.
Some cities on the east coast which formerly got pretty good
water from deep wells have grown so rapidly that prolonged
pumping has lowered the water enough for a little salt water from
the ocean to filter in, and consequently large quantities of bottled
water are shipped in from springs farther north for drinking pur-
poses, and considerable distilled water is used also. Sulphur in
the water seems to be more prevalent near the coast than in the
interior. It is not liked by some people who are unaccustomed
to it, and its compounds rust iron pipes, but otherwise it does little
harm. The lime is unobjectionable to the taste, but makes the
water "hard."
In some places even shallow wells yield water that is hard or









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

unpalatable, and private houses outside of the cities in such local-
ities, as for example in Manatee and Lee Counties, have rain-
water cisterns instead of wells.* The city of Moore Haven gets
its water from Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee City is just in-
stalling a pumping plant for the same purpose, and there has been
some talk of supplying West Palm Beach and Miami from the
same source.

*Cisterns are also very common in southern Louisiana and southeastern
Texas, and there are some even in the thinly settled portions of New York City,
and in southern Ontario. (Fertile soil and good water hardly ever occur to-
gether.)







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 53

TOPOGRAPHY
Generally speaking, the surface of South Florida is flat.
Outside of Highlands County there is probably no point in the
area treated more than 125 feet above sea-level, and perhaps none
over 100 feet south of Hardee County. In the flat portions some
of the streams have cut narrow valleys, which may be as much as
50 feet deep along the Peace River and some of its tributaries in
Hardee and DeSoto Counties, but are usually much less. The
flat areas away from the streams are dotted with shallow basins/
usually a foot or two in depth and several acres in extent, whose
origin has never been satisfactorily explained.
The lake region in Highlands County, often called the
"Ridge," is apparently all more than 100 feet above sea-level, and
the highest points in South Florida, near Avon Park, are probably
about 175 feet. The descent from this upland to the flat country
around it is rather abrupt in many places, so that railroads passing
from one region to the other have a long cut through the upland
and a long embankment in the lowland, each as much as a mile
long in some cases. This is especially noticeable on the Seaboard
Air Line north of Avon Park and east of Sebring, and on the
Atlantic Coast Line south of Venus. (On the latter road the eleva-
tion of Venus is given as 118 feet, and that of Palmdale, the next
station south, as 52 feet.)
This abrupt transition has been regarded by some observers
as a marine terrace, and by others as evidence that the sandy up-
lands are ancient dunes; but neither explanation seems to fit all
the facts. The hills of the lake region (at least in Polk County,
where they are very similar in appearance to those of Highlands
County) are underlaid by a pinkish sandy clay, which stands
higher than the flatwoods, and could not have been heaped up by
the wind, unless in a very dry climate. And most of the deep
sand in the region is more loamy than any known dune sand, and
furthermore its topography is different from that of any known
dune area. It is not improbable, though, that the sandy hills, how-
ever they were formed, have been gradually and imperceptibly
smoothed off by the wind, and that process may be going on today.
The lake region, as its name implies, is dotted with lakes of







54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

various sizes, ranging from a few acres to five or six square miles
in extent. (The larger lakes, such as Istokpoga and Okeechobee,
are entirely outside of the lake region, and surrounded by flat
country.) Just how the lake basins were formed is still an un-
solved problem. There does not seem to be any limestone under
them thick enough and pure enough and near enough to the sur-
face to make lime-sinks, and the hills around them could hardly
have been piled up by the wind, as stated above. But whatever
their origin, the combination of smooth hills and lakes is very
pleasing to the eye, and causes the whole lake region to be a fav-
orite winter resort.
The only other elevations of any consequence in South Florida
are the old dunes along the east and west coasts. Modern or active
dunes, such as are found along the coast of Georgia, and still bet-
ter farther north, hardly exist in South Florida, the wind hardly
ever piling up the beach sands to more than five or six feet above
high tide in our latitudes; possibly because in this warm climate
the vegetation spreads over the sand more quickly and holds it in
place better than in higher latitudes, or else because of the large
proportion of shell fragments in our beach sands.
But at some time in the past, perhaps a few thousand years
ago, the wind must have been stronger or the climate colder or
drier, for there is a nearly continuous line of steep-sided old dunes
just west of the Indian River and other coastal lagoons, from
about St. Augustine to Fort Lauderdale. They are said to reach
a height of 63 feet above sea-level at Olympia (formerly Hobe
Sound) and 47 feet at West Palm Beach, and some of those near
Jensen must be at least 50 feet high. (See fig. 44.) These dunes
usually extend about half a mile inland from the shores of the
lagoons, but outlying areas of them are found in a few places five
or six miles from the coast.
High old dunes are much scarcer on the Gulf coast. One
might imagine from the map that they would be well developed
on Sanibel Island, on account of its exposed position, but appar-
ently no part of that island is more than ten feet above sea-level.
Possibly the great abundance of shells there has something to do
with the absence of dunes. The most remarkable old dunes on
the west coast are at Caxambas, at the southeast end of Marco







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Island, in Collier County. The highest elevation there is variously
estimated at from 60 to 85 feet. (See fig. 34.)
The old dunes along the east coast apparently indicate an
uplift of a few feet in comparatively recent times.* For they are
not only higher above sea-level than any modern dunes in Florida,
but also sometimes too far inland for the wind to have much in-
fluence on them. They must have been formed when the Indian
River was part of the open ocean, and the barrier beach east of
it a submerged sand-bar.
Toward Cape Sable, however, there is evidence of a recent
sinking of the land. Some years ago a dredge piling up an em-
bankment for the road through the coast prairie to Cape Sable
is said to have cut into a cave with stalactites, at or below sea-level,
and filled with water.' There is no known way in which stalac-
tites can form under water, so the cave must have been dissolved
out of the rock when it stood above the ground-water level. The
very irregular and dissected outline of the lower Keys, and the
occurrence there of several species of plants and animals known
on the mainland but not on the Upper Keys, also point to a recent
submergence. But the upper Keys, being an old coral reef, must
have been formed under water and then elevated, perhaps at the
same time with the old dunes of the east coast.
Other evidence of submergence on the west coast is found in
the wide estuaries at the mouths of the Manatee, Peace, Caloosa-
hatchee and other rivers, which appear to be typical "drowned
valleys," and have no counterpart on the east coast.
MINOR TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS
In the Miami limestone region there are numerous examples
of topographic forms produced by solution, besides the small pot-
holes found on nearly every square yard of the surface. Among the
most conspicuous of these are the natural bridge over Arch Creek
(crossed by the main highway at the settlement of Arch Creek),
and several lime-sinks in Brickell's and other hammocks. The
Miami pine land is intersected at right angles by a considerable

*See Geog. Review 4:225. 1917.
tSee Small, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 22:203-204. 1921.








56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

number of "glades," which are elongated approximately straight
depressions from a few inches to a few feet in depth, and from
about fifty yards to half a mile in width. (SSee fig. 30.) Some
of these extend all the way across from the Everglades to the coast
prairie, while some open out only into the la ter. They were
presumably formed mostly by solution, for near their edges in
some places there are fantastically shaped pillars and arches of
limestone, with very jagged surfaces. (Fig. 49.) Smaller pillars
of the same sort are so abundant around Paradise Key, where the
Everglades and coast prairie meet, that any one walking across
the prairie can hardly avoid stepping on them.
The inner edges of some of the Upper Keys have been under-
cut in a curious manner (see fig. 56), probably mostly by the
solvent action of the water, but perhaps assisted by the gentle lap-
ping of the waves. The resulting overhanging edges may project
as much as two feet, with a vertical thickness of about the same
amount.
Where the Miami oolite approaches Biscayne Bay there are
a few wave-cut cliffs, apparently dating back to a time when the
land stood a little lower than at present. The most accessible of
these are at Silver Bluff (which probably takes its name from
them), but they are now pretty well built over.







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


SOILS
There are no detailed soil surveys for South Florida yet, ex-
cept a narrow strip along the east coast, from Palm Beach north-
ward. surveyed by the U. S. Bureau of Soils in 1913, and another
along the INorth New River Canal through the Everglades from
Lake Okeechobee to Fort Lauderdale, surveyed in 1915. Con-
sequently the present treatment of the subject must be rather
superficial.
North of the latitude of Miami and outside of the Everglades
most of the surface is covered with fine sand several feet deep.
In the flat areas it is commonly grayish in color from finely di-
vided organic matter, but in the lake region it is prevailingly
yellowish or cream-colored, or in places nearly white. The old
dunes, especially along the east coast, usually have wh:te sand at
the surface, but at a depth of a foot or two that sometimes passes
abruptly into a rusty yellowish and slightly indurated sand. The
whiteness of the surface there and in spots in the lake region and
flatwoods is probably due to long-continued leaching by summer
rains, where there are few or no burrowing animals to keep the
soil stirred up.
The gray sand of the flatwoods is sometimes underlaid by
calcareous or phosphatic marl, and sometimes by "hardpan," a
sandy material cemented together by organic matter or iron oxide,
or both. The marl is sometimes near enough to the surface to in-
fluence the vegetation perceptibly, but where the sand is deeper
it would take extensive prospecting with a soil auger to determine
the distribution of marl and hardpan subsoils.
The Miami oolite is important as a soil material in Dade
County. Although outcrops of it are recognizable along New
River, its influence on the vegetation is hardly noticeable north of
Ojus, at the north edge of Dade County. There it is mostly cov-
ered by quartz sand, as stated in the chapter on geology, but the
sand thins southward, and is scarcely seen below Coconut Grove.
From Coconut Grove to Homestead the bare limestone is exposed
nearly everywhere, but there is enough humus in its innumerable
cavities to support considerable vegetation. For several miles
around Homestead, in the so-called Redlands district, the inter-








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


stices of the rock are filled with a reddish clay. That looks as if
it might be residual from the weathering of the limestone, like the
red clay of the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and the Tennessee
Valley of Alabama, and one would expect it to be very fertile.
No chemical analysis of it has ever come to the writer's notice, but
he ventures the guess that it is similar to the laterite of India, which
is not at all noted for fertility, being very deficient in potash, one
of the essential elements. For the vegetation of the red lands
differs very little from that of the bare rock between Homestead-
and Coconut Grove, or the sand-covered rock between Coconut
Grove and Ojus; and some of the differences that do exist may be
due to climate as much as to soil.
West of Royal Palm Hammock there are disconnected areas
of rocky pine lands, Long Key* and other so-called Everglades
Keys, similar to those northeast of Homestead, except that the
surface is a little more jagged. Limestone rock seems to come to
the surface in a considerable area in southern Collier and northern
Monroe Counties, but that is too little known yet to map accurately.
The Keys proper, both upper and lower, are of solid limestone,
with very little soil in the ordinary sense.
The surface of all the oolite country is essentially flat, but
elevated a few feet above average ground-water level. As a geo-
logical formation the Miami oolite extends out into the Everglades
on the north and the coast prairie on the south; but as a soil type
its boundaries are very sharp, except at the north end where it
gradually disappears under the sand. All around the edges of the
visible rock, or Biscayne pine land, and in the numerous narrow
intersecting glades, there is a soil of soft gray marl. Northwest-
ward this soon passes beneath the Everglades muck, but southward
it is exposed over hundreds of square miles. Analyses of the marl
from near Cape Sable show it to be nearly all calcium carbonate,
which is very unusual for a soil. Somewhat similar marl occurs
around the Keys, mostly below sea-level, and a good deal of it has
been dredged up to make railroad embankments.
The road from Fort Pierce to Okeechobee goes through a few

*Sometimes called Long Pine Key, to distinguish it from Long Key in
Monroe County (which is one of the coral reef upper keys), and an island of
the same name which is a sandy barrier beach in Pinellas County.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


miles of damp marly soil, which presumably makes a belt a few
miles wide parallel to the coast, but it has a somewhat loamy ap-
pearance, and is probably much less calcareous than that in the
coast prairie. Similar-appearing material occurs beneath a foot
or two of surface sand in Manatee and Charlotte Counties. There
are probably other marly spots scattered over the flatwoods, which
have not been sufficiently explored.
The scarcity of siliceous soils south of Coconut Grove is il.
lustrated by the fact that on the Keys and at Cape Sable what look
like ordinary sandy beaches, covered with sea-oats and other com-
mon beach plants, are composed of grains of limestone and shell
fragments instead of quartz sand.
The greater part of the Everglades, and many smaller marshes
and swamps, is covered with peat or muck, ranging in thickness
from a. feather-edge to several feet. This sort of soil is much
prized for certain crops, particularly vegetables, but has to be
drained before it can be cultivated, and that is an expensive pro-
cess. The work of cutting drainage canals through the Everglades
has been going on for about 18 years, but it seems that at present
not more than 2% of the area is under cultivation.
SOIL FERTILITY
Extravagant claims have been made about the fertility of the
soil in all parts of South Florida, but without much scientific
foundation. It is difficult, however, to find standards for estimat-
ing fertility in an area so different from the rest of the United
States. Very few chemical analyses of our soils are available,
and there are differences of opinion on their interpretation. The
vegetation is nearly all evergreen, and in temperate regions ever-
greens generally mean soil too poor to allow the trees to make a
complete new crop of leaves every year. But in South Florida
the trees may be evergreen because the climate allows them to
carry on vegetative activity throughout the year. On the other
hand, many or most of the tropical trees have crooked trunks and
hard heavy wood, indicating slow growth.
Perhaps the best test of soil fertility afforded by native veg-
etation is the amount of vegetable matter produced by a given area


59







60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

in a year.* That would be easy enough to determine on an Illinois
prairie, where one could simply cut and weigh a measured area
of herbage at the end of the growing season. But in South Florida
most of the vegetation is not only evergreen but woody, so that
there is no obvious way of measuring a year's growth.
When other things are equal the value of farm land ought to
be proportional to its fertility, but other things are usually not
equal. For several years past farm land has commanded a higher
price in South Florida than in the rest of the State ($65.90 per
acre in 1920 and $135.35 in 1925, as compared with $35.78 and
$70.00 in the whole State), and even higher than some of the ex-
tremely fertile prairies and bottoms in the Mississippi Valley; but
these values must be largely psychological or speculative, es-
pecially the increase in the last five years, when prices of nearly
everything else were going down. But the proximity of much of
the South Florida farm land to railroads and high-priced residen-
tial property, and the possibility of its soon being in demand for
a town-site, tends to boost its value. (Within the past two or
three years the production of oranges and grapefruit in South
Florida is said to have fallen off considerably on account of the
cutting down of many groves to make room for houses.)
The value of the crops per acre in South Florida is high, far
above the United States average in fact.t But the intrinsic fer-
tility of the soil has much less to do with that than the amount of
labor and fertilizer applied to it.
Probably the best statistical measure of soil fertility, except
in regions where the utilization of the soil is hindered by an ex-
cess of water, or a climate too cold or too dry, or inaccessibility,
or the proximity of cities, is the proportion of the land that is
under cultivation. In South Florida the ratio of improved farm
land to total area was about 1.3% in 1920 and 2.1% in 1925, as

*See Plant World 21:3846. 1918.
tin 1919.20, according to the U. S. census figures, the value of all cross,
per acre of improved land, was 1114.20 in South Florida, 134.80 in the
whole State, and $33.35 in the whole United States. At the same time the ex.
penditures per acre in South Florida included $23.54 for labor (including board)
$23.00 for fertilizer, and $9.37 for stock feed.








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


compared with 6.5% for the whole State and 26.4% for the whole
United States (80.5% in Iowa, and still more in the blue-grass
region of Kentucky).
Another good measure of the fertility of a cultivated soil
ought to be the length of time that crops can be raised on it with
little or no fertilizer. By this standard the Keys ought to be pretty
rich, for in Monroe County the expenditure for fertilizer in 1919,
per improved acre in 1920, was only 27 cents, which was far be-
low the State average; and five years later no fertilizer at all was
purchased. And around Moore Haven the farmers in the Ever-
glades, or some of them, seem to be still getting some results with-
out fertilizers.*
In the Moore Haven district the muck that bears a dense
growth of elder seems to be regarded as best, and that opinion is
probably justified, for elder is a fast-growing shrub which else-
where prefers rich soils, and it makes a remarkably dense growth
in some parts of the Everglades, and presumably a large amount
of new vegetable matter every year. Dr. H. W. Wiley, in his paper
on Florida muck soils cited in the bibliography (written about 20
years before Moore Haven appeared on the maps, and often re-
ferred to by promoters in recent years) states that although muck
is generally very deficient in mineral matter, that around Lake
Okeechobee ought to be better than the average, on account of the
limestone underlying it.

*The following extracts from an article by H. F. Button, on "Some land
booms in southern Florida," in the Rural New Yorker for Dec. 18, 1920, are of
interest in this connection. It refers particularly to the vicinity of Moore Haven.
"Like all muck soils this region is very rich in nitrogen, and produces a few
very large crops, particularly of giant pigweeds, which grow to a height of 12 to
15 fee. Cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes have all been raised here with great profit,
hut on the soils where as many as three crops have been removed the fields showed
by the growth of the truck that something was wrong. A careful study of the
growth of plants, particularly some fall-planted white potatoes, showed clear evi-
dence of potash hunger, which we learned to identify during the time when our
supplies of fertilizer were limited by the war. The peanuts, which are raised ex.
tensively here, showed the need of more phosphoric acid, just as one might expect
who has had experience with muck soils in other places. When these needs were
suggested to the real estate men they were at first indignantly denied, and when
the matter was further pressed and evidence offered, three different men came
back with the same argument, namely: That it was undoubtedly true, but that
it would never do to acknowledge that this soil lacked for anything. In other
words, they considered that it would be treason to their business to begin the use
of fertilizers, as one of the great claims of the place has been t1e richness of the
soil."







62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

After all is said, however, it is a fact that neither soil nor
climate have much to do with a farmer's profits, for in the long
run those depend almost entirely on his own efficiency, together
with a certain amount of luck in the way of weather, etc. Any im-
partial student of the subject will admit that Florida has poorer
soils on the average than any other State in the Union; and yet the
yield of crops per acre here is above the United States average as
already stated. And within the State both the value of property
per farm and of crops per acre are almost inversely proportional
to soil fertility, some of the highest yields being on the white sands
near the east coast.* But whether the yield per acre is high or low,
any farmer who is ambitious enough can cultivate enough acres
to bring in whatever income he desires.

*In this connection see also articles by the present writer on productivity
of Florida soils (Quarterly Bull. Fla. Dept. Agr., vol 30, No. 4, pp. 14-26. Nov.,
1920), and agricultural conditions in Florida in 1925 (Economic Geography 3:340
353. July, 1927).








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 63

CLIMATE
As the differences between South Florida and the rest
of the United States are probably due as much to climate as to
anything else, that subject warrants an extended treatment. The
map (fig. 3) shows the average annual temperature and rainfall
throughout the area, and the following table illustrates some of
the salient features of climate for the principal weather stations.
Tampa, which is a little outside the area under investigation, is
included because its records are longer and presumably more ac-
curate than those of most of the stations farther south.
The data given (mostly obtained from the 1924 summary of
the Florida section of the U. S. Weather Bureau) are the average
temperature for the whole year and January and July, in degrees
Fahrenheit; the average annual rainfall, the percentage of it that
comes in the four warmest months (June to September inclusive)
and the six warmest months (May to October), and the excess of
late summer (August to October) over early summer (April to
June) rainfall in inches. The significance of these arbitrary rain-
fall factors will be discussed farther on.
TEMPERATURE
This is the southernmost part of the United States proper,
(the southern tip of Texas being in about the same latitude as
Miami), and also the warmest in winter, though higher maxima
in summer are found in many western states, even as far north as
Montana.
The average annual temperature in the area under considera-
tion ranges from about 71' to 77". (See map, fig. 3). It varies
considerably from year to year, as shown in Fig. 6, which gives
the average annual temperature at the principal stations in South
Florida from 1905 to 1924, taken from the annual summaries of
the Florida section of the U. S. Weather Bureau. Some years
were noticeably cooler than the average, and some warmer,
throughout the area, but we have no reason to believe that the
climate is becoming progressively colder or warmer.
As is the case nearly everywhere else near the Atlantic coast,
the isotherms have a northeast-southwest trend, probably largely
on account of the Gulf Stream. The east coast is therefore warmer












SELECTED CLIMATIC DATA FOR SOUTH FLORIDA.


Length
of
Record
(Yra.)


Tampa ...... .................,.. .--
Bradenton ......--- _.. 41

Fort Myere ..... -. ..- 62
Arcadia .-...-............ ........... .-. --... 22

Avon Park ._...-..... .... .- 27

Fellgmere ......................--.....- 12

Fort Pierce ....... 24

Jupiter .........-._...--.. ....... 27

Hypoluxo .. ...... ..- .... S

Fort Lauderdale ....... ..- ..--- 2............-_. 12
Miami ............ .._....._. -..__ 23

Home tead .--...-..- .... --- ...... ...- .-- .....-..--.....-.. 14

Key W est ................. .._..............-............... B4


Temperature


Annual j January


71.7
71.7




72.6
72,1
72.1

78.8

78,9

74.5

75.0
75,0
75.4


76.9


60.1

60.8
68.5

62.7

62.4

6S.0

64.1

64.3
66.8


67.3

67.4
69.5


July


81.2

80,9
81.0

81.8

81.3

80.9

81 .0
81.4

81-4
81.9

80.6
88.5


Rainfall


Annual


55.18

65.47

51.57

50.04

61.92

48.90

58.08

64.33

60.39
59-89

65.60

62.75

88.66


Percent Parent LS e
Summer
June-Sept May-Oct. Excess

61.4 7T.? Iia

62.4 73.- 849

63,5 77.0 4.08
67.8 70.8 140

:59.3 75.4 2,50

53.4 72.6 6.4.

46.1 64.6 4.63

51,0 77.2 10.67

44.9 70.6 6-47

40.6 69.6 6,83

49.4 76.8 10.90

58.0 75.9 8.20

50.0 72.6 7.95


-~' --








NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


than the west coast in the same latitude, and the distribution of
many tropical plants corresponds with that.
The seasonal variations of temperature for the same stations
are shown in Fig. 4. It will be noticed that there is more differ-


Fro. 3. Map showing normal mean temperature and annual rainfall
for southern Florida. Temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) is indicated
by the lines of long dashes, and rainfall (in inches) by the short dashes.
When weather stations in this area are more numerous, and the records
have been kept for a longer period, the lines can be drawn more accurately,
and they may then be more crooked than here shown.
The 60-inch rainfall line was inadvertently drawn east instead of west
of Miami.









66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--1TH ANNUAL REPORT.

ence between the different stations in winter than in summer. As
a rule the nearer the equator one goes the less is the seasonal
variation of temperature. The difference between the January and
July averages is only 14 at Key West*, as compared with 21.1'
at Tampa (and about 50" in Michigan). Our coldest weather is
usually about the middle of January, and the warmest about the
first week in August. The points where the temperature equals
the annual averages are marked by crosses on the curves and it
will be noticed that at nearly every station the temperature is
above the average just about half the year, from late April to late
October (lagging about a month behind the solar seasons).

On account of the comparatively small annual range of tem-
perature, spring of course comes on much more slowly in this

I I


4 WAYSI5L KWIW
I i I



7r... ... ... ......I..... --- ---- ------ --...... -... r.. .................. --..... I... ..



....1.. ... .---- ------ ---~ i~B------ -- ------ -- ---------------- ------ ------------------------- ~




s AVERAGE DALY TEMPERCKIRE
17 SOUTH FLORMIA

SFEB., MAR. APR. MW :JUNE .JULY AUG.: SEPT OCT NOV. D
VLJDu wn amonmcaL Y
Fio. 4. Daily temperatures for various South Florida weather stations
throughout an average year. These curves have been constructed from monthly
averages (drawing them a little below the indicated points in the middle of the
coldest months and above in the hottest), but are believed to represent the
average conditions for every day in the year (disregarding diurnal variations) as
accurately as the published records will permit. The average points on each
curve are indicated by crossed.

*At Havana the January and July temperatures are said to be 69' and 80",
only 11* apart.







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


climate than farther north. The maximum rate of warming up
in April and May ranges from about 3.5 degrees per month at
Key West to 4.4 at Tampa (as compared with about 13' in Michi-
gan). The rise of temperature from day to day during the spring
and early summer (in the average of ten or more years, but not
necessarily in any one year) is pretty uniform, and the decline in
the fall still more so (and a little more rapid besides).
These curves are smoothed for 24-hour intervals; i. e., any
point represents the average temperature for 12 hours before and
after the time indicated. We have no adequate data on diurnal
variations, but in South Florida there is about as much difference
in temperature between day and night as between winter and
summer (or even more at Key West and in the tropics).
EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE
The absolute maximum temperature very rarely reaches 100'
F. anywhere in South Florida. As the summer days are shorter
there than they are farther north, that partly balances the more
nearly vertical position of the sun.
A considerable part of the area was once thought to be below
the "frost line," i. e., to have a minimum temperature above 32' F.
But more accurate records in recent years have demonstrated the
fallacy of that belief. Key West is the only weather station in the
United States that has no "official" record of freezing temperature,
the minimum there having been given for many years past as 41'.
But weather instruments are usually several or many feet above
the ground, and on cold nights a difference of a few feet in eleva-
tion may make a difference of a few degrees in temperature. The
writer has seen photographs taken near Miami just after a De-
cember frost in 1906, showing foliage killed up to about three
feet from the ground, and uninjured above that.* An official pub-
lication of the Cuban government states that on December 24,
1906, ice was formed on standing water at several places in Cuba,
while the official temperature at Havana was 54 F. Old-time
residents of Key West assert that they have seen frost there, so


*Further details are given a few pages farther on.







8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--8TH ANNUAL REPORT.

there is probably no point in Florida, or in the United States, ab-
solutely free from it. But a glance at that city shows that tempera-
tures too cool for comfort must be very infrequent there, for the
houses have no chimneys. (Cooking is done mostly with char-
coal.) Miami also has very few chimneys.
The northern parts of our area have freezing temperatures
nearly every winter, averaging about three times a year at Braden-
ton, but even that does not necessarily injure vegetables or fruit.
The lowest temperatures on record for various stations are said
to be as follows: Tampa 19", Bradenton 19", Arcadia 21", Avon
Park 21', Fort Myers 24', Fort Pierce 24', Jupiter 24', Hypoluxo
26', Miami 27", Ritta (on Lake Okeechobee) 29', Marco 30",
and Flamingo 29". But some of these stations have records too
short to be of much value, and besides the minimum temperatures
on the ground are probably lower, as already stated.
PRECIPITATION
Practically all the atmospheric precipitation in South Florida
consists of rain. (A few hail storms have been recorded in the
northern portions.) The annual average for the whole area is not
very different from that of the whole eastern United States, but it
varies considerably in short distances, from over 65 inches at
Miami to less than 40 at Key West. (See map, fig. 3). The lat-
ter is the driest point on record in Florida, in spite of being closely
surrounded by salt water. The variations from year to year are
more irregular than in the case of temperature, as shown by Fig.
7, which covers very nearly the same stations as the corresponding
temperature graph above it, and brings out the wet and dry years
in the last two decades pretty well..
The seasonal distribution of our rainfall is rather interesting.
Throughout Florida there is more rain in summer than in winter,
and the difference is more pronounced in the southern part of the
State than at the other end. The dry winters make Florida much
more desirable as a winter resort than it would be if most of the
rain came in winter, as it does in all the Pacific coast states. From
December to April inclusive practically none of our stations have
more than 4 inches of rain in a month.
The percentage of the total rainfall coming in the four and









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


six warmest months have been given in the table a few pages back,
and these may be compared with similar figures for northern and
central Florida, given in our 6th and 13th annual reports. The
excess of late summer over early summer rain, given in the same
table, has been found to be correlated pretty well with soil, vegeta-
tion, tornadoes, hurricanes and oil wells, in the United States, if
not in other parts of the world.* Regions with a considerable late
summer excess commonly have poor soils, vegetation mob tly ever-
green, more hurricanes than tornadoes, and no oil wells But


variations in this respect within short distances
much, or may be due to imperfect records.


may not mean


Fig. 5 shows that in South Florida there is a tendency to two


Fc. 5. Monthly rainfall for various South Florida stations throughout an
average year. Every point on any curve is intended to represent the average
rainfall for half a month preceding and half a month following the date indicated.
The average figures for each month have been plotted in the middle of the
month and the smoothest possible curves drawn through them. If the averages
for every day in the year were available the maximum and minimum amourjts
would not necessarily come in the middle of a month, but there seem to be no
such data published, and even if there were the curves resulting from them might
be so irregular as to be confusing.
In this graph and the preceding January and December appear twice, so as
to show changes during the winter better than if they were cut off abruptly at
the ends of the calendar year, as is commonly done.
'See Science II. 48:208-211. Aug. 30, 1918; 13th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv..
pp. 194-197. 1921; Engineering & Mining Jour. 112:693-694. Oct, 29, 1921,









70 FLORIDA GEOLdIPCAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

rainy periods, a lesser one in early summer and a heavier one in
late summer. Generally speaking, the west coast has its heaviest
rain in June or July, and the east coast and Keys in September
or October. But even the west coast has more rain in August,
September and October together than in April, May and June.
Several of the stations have two maxima, with less rain in August
than in July or September,
Data on the diurnal distribution of rainfall are not very com-
plete, but most of the rain in South Florida falls in the day-time,
in heavy showers of short duration. Very heavy downpours in
short periods have been recorded at many stations, some of the
most noteworthy being mentioned in the chronology a little farther
on,
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Only a few stations keep records of relative humidity. It
is about 80% over most of South Florida, and does not vary much
with the seasons, for the heavier precipitation in summer tends
to balance the heat of the sun. Consequently droughts are rare.
WIND
The average velocity of the wind is about 10 miles per hour
at Jupiter and Key West, and probably less in the interior. There
is nearly always some breeze, on account of the proximity of the
ocean. Although South Florida is hundreds of miles from the
main tornado belt of the United States, such a phenomenon oc-
curred in Dade County on the afternoon of April 5, 1925, and a
few small ones farther up the east coast in the spring of 1926.
(For details see below.)
Hurricanes occur somewhere on the coast every few years,
usually in the fall, at about the time of maximum rainfall. The
damage they do seldom extends more than a few miles inland.
There is a chapter on hurricanes in Simpson's "Out of Doors in
Florida," pp. 214-232, and some of the noted ones of the last
twenty years are mentioned in the following chronological sum-
mary. It is quite likely that hurricanes during many centuries
have been the means of bringing many plant seeds, insects, etc.,
from the West Indies to Florida.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


SOME EXTREMES OF WEATHER

Some of the unusual extremes of weather in South Florida
in the last twenty years or so will be mentioned below. The items
are taken from U. S. Weather Bureau publications and contem-
porary newspaper clippings. Of course no one should get the im-
pression from this that bad weather is frequent in that part of the
State. These are merely the extremes that attracted special notice;
and most of the time the weather is delightful. It would be hard
to find a more agreeable climate for the year round anywhere
in the world. Much has been written about the alleged enervating
effects of warm climates, but Ellsworth Huntington, in his book
"Civilization and Climate" (1915), states that people from the
Bahamas, in very nearly the same latitude, after a short visit to
Florida usually feel invigorated and refreshed.
1905. January 26, a cold wave, with freezing temperatures nearly throughout
the State, except at Key West, which reported a temperature of 44. November
dry, December wet.
1906. A hurricane on OcL 18 did considerable damage between Miami and
Key West, and killed over 100 men working on the F. E. C. Ry. extension.
Less than an inch of rain in December. Cold wave Dec. 24-26. Minimum
temperatures recorded, 14 at Fort Meade (a little north of our limits), 28" at
Tampa, 23" at Manatee, 24' at Avon Park, 300 at Jupiter and Hypoluxo, 31" at
Fort Myers, 32 at Miami, 33" at Flamingo, and 47~ at Key West. This cold
wave seems to have been exceptional, at some places at least, in hugging the
ground very closely. At Havana, Cuba, at the same time, ice is said to have
formed on small pools, while the official temperature (doubtless several feet
above the ground) was 54'.
Dr. Ernst A. Bessey, who was then stationed at the Subtropical Laboratory of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Miami, showed the writer soon afterward
some photographs taken in low places in the vicinity, showing foliage killed
within a few feet of the ground and uninjured higher up; and in a recent letter
he has given some of his recollections of the occurrence, after a lapse of 19
years. He says that a thermometer at the laboratory, in a low place, recorded
a temperature of 19" just before sunrise, and remained below 25" for perhaps
two or three hours. The cold air seemed to flow in depressions something like
a stream of water, and was dammed up in some places by roads crossing such
depressions, but did little or no damage on higher ground.
1907. January warm and dry, and March likewise, with less than an inch of
rain. The whole year rather dry and warm, with no killing frost anywhere in
South Florida.
1908. Frost in every county on Jan. 15th. March and -April warm. Heavy
rain in October, causing a flood at Fort Lauderdale, and considerable damage to
crops.
1909. A hurricane on Oct. 11th killed 15 or 20 people on the Keys, and
damaged property to the extent of over a million dollars. At Key West the
wind velocity reached nearly 100 miles an hour, and 6.13. inches of rain fell in
two hours and 15 minutes. Cold wave Dec. 30-31, freezing as far south as Miami.










72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

1910. January and early February cold. April cool and dry. Between Oct.
14th and 19th a hurricane did considerable damage all along the coast, and Miami
was without mail for a week, but very few lives were lost. During that time 16
inches of rain fell in two days at Hypoluxo, and 27.81 inches during the month.
The year was cooler and drier than usual, though.
1911. Warmer than the average. June hot, but July cooler. September and
October hot, and November wetter than usual, Frost as far south as Fort Myers
on Jan. 6th, but no damage to crops.


1912. June a wet month. Rainfall
26.91 at Fort Myers, 25.19 at Hypoluxo.
22nd. The whole year was wetter than


for the month 25.62 inches at Bradenton,
Miami had 10.67 inches on Nov. 21st and
usual.


1913. A rather dry year. January warm, October and November dry.
1914. March cold and dry. Killing frost nearly to Miami on the 3d.
and June warm and dry. Nov. 21st the coldest day of fail, with a little frost.


May


1915. January wet. March cold, with killing frost at Miami on the 18th.
October and November warm. Frost in several places on Dec. 15th. The year
cooler and wetter than usual.
1916. January mild and sunny. February dry. March cold and dry, with
frost in northwest portions on the 5th. April likewise, with killing frost in
Broward County on the 10th. Same county had frost again on Nov. 20th. No.
member and December wet. A little frost on Dec. 17th.
1917. January dry. Frost on Feb. 3rd at most stations, hut not as damaging
around Lake Okeechobee as at Miami. Temperature of 37 recorded on that date
at Long Key, Monroe County. May dry. The 27th was the hottest day of the
year at Arcadia, with a temperature of 98". Drought at Miami from July to
December. October to December cold. The year cooler and drier than usual.


Frc. 6. Average annual temperature for various South Florida weather
stations from 1905 to 1924. Every point on any curve is intended to represent
the average temperature for six months preceding and six months. following the
date indicated. (But see explanation under next figure.)









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


1918. January cold, especially the first week, when there was frost at most
stations. February warm and dry; October warm and wet.
1919. January cool and dry, with freezing temperature at Miami on the 5th.
February wet. Heavy rains at Fort Lauderdale and Miami on March 14th. May
wet Hurricane Sept. 9-10, doing about two million dollars' damage at Key West.
At the same time a tornado about 600 feet wide passed through Goulds, in Dade
County. October and November warm. Frost in Broward County on Dec. 30th.
The year warmer and wetter than usual.
1920. Frost at Miami first week in January. February cold and wet. March
cold. Frost south of Miami on the 2nd, which was the coldest day of the year.
April and September wet. Cold wave on Dec. 17th, with a little frosL A cool
dry year.
1921. January to March mostly mild and dry, but light frost on Jan. 16th.
May cool and wet. June and July pretty dry at Miami. Hypoluxo recorded a
temperature of 100' on June 20th. September hot and dry. October cool and
wet. Fort Lauderdale had 3134 inches of rain during that month. On the 24th
to 26th a hurricane swept across the peninsula from about Sanibel to Titusvillc,
and Sanibel Island is said to have been completely submerged for a short time.


AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL- =OUTH FLORIDA
Sm g a i 4 a I 4 a i l I

4---'-











105 6t 07: S 09 lo: ZI 12: 1:14i : : 1 I t : 13: t8 20L1 a2 ; s:2

FIc. 7. Average annual rainfall for various South Florida weather nations
from 1905 to 1924. Every point on any curve is intended to represent the total
rainfall for six months preceding and six months following the date indicated.
(But see below.)
In both of these graphs portions of some of the curves are dotted. That
indicates gaps in the records, which have been flled in by guess. Both kinds of
curves have been constructed by putting the annual averages in the middle of
the space allotted for each year, and drawing the smoothest possible curves
through those points. That makes it appear as if the twelve-month maxima and
minima always come at or near the middle of the year, which cannot be trne
In general If the figures for every month in these twenty years had been studied,
the maximum and minimum points could have been located more accurately,
but chat would have taken much longer, and might have made the curves so
irregular as to confuse the reader
b 1 A I I h 1 1 4 hI




















irregular an to confuse the reader.








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

Damage of about three million dollars and a few lives lost, bat mostly north of
the area under consideration. December mild and dry, with no freezing tem.
peratwre in the whole State.
1922. January very dry. February mostly warm and dry. March and April
also dry. June wetter than usual at Fort Myers, but drier elsewhere. Bradenton
had 19.35 inches of rain in August. Heavy rains in latter part of September,
causing Lake Okeechobee to overflow. Moore Haven had 14.93 inches of rain
during the month. Rains continued in October, putting the Everglades two or
three feet under water, which remained for several weeks. Homestead had 23.89
inches of rain that month. Considered a wet year.
1923. February and March warm and dry. May wet with heavy rain and
bail storm in Hardee County and northward on the 3d. The worst hail on record
in South Florida, causing a little damage to crops. June rainy. October and
November cool and dry. December warm, wih no frost south of Arcadia. A
rather dry year.
1924. January and February cold, damp and cloudy. March cooler than
usual. Frost at Moore Haven in January, February and March, the last March
13th. May 30th the warmest day of the year at Arcadia and Avon Park, witi
temperatures of 98" and 99* respectively. June warm; July wet; August warm
and dry. Hurricane in northwest portion on the night of Oct. 20-21, accompanied
by very heavy rains, breaking several records, and flooding a large area around
Lake Okeechobee. Sands Key had 2.79 inches of rain in an hour, and Miami 4.66
inches in two hours. November started warm, and ended cold and dry. Frost
at Arcadia on the 30th. December warmer than usual.
1925. January warm and wet. Average temperature for the month 75" at
Key West. Davie, in Broward County, had 7.55 inches of rain on the 24th and
13.08 inches during the month; and Lake Okeechobee overflowed again. Frost
as far south as Miami on Feb. 13th, killing many vegetables. March mostly dry,
but heavy rain at Miami on the 23d did a little damage. On the afternoon of
April 5th the first tornado ever seen in South Florida by most of the present in-
habitants struck Hialeah, killed five people, injured 35, and did about 8300,000
damage to property. May wetter than usual. Davie had 5.60 inches of rain on
the 6th, and Miami 18.74 inches during the month. October warmer and drier
than usual. Very heavy rain at Miami on Nov. 30th, flooding the streets; 15.10
inches fell in 24 hours. Considerable damage by wind at the same time, at
various places on the coast. (In spite of the frost, tornado and cloudburst in
and near Miami, that city, like most other places in South Florida. had the
greatest boom in its whole history during 1925.)








NATURAL.RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


VEGETATION

In an area with so little diversity of topography as South
Florida, and so little land cultivated yet, the native vegetation is
in most places the most conspicuous feature of the landscape. At
the same time a great deal of the South Florida vegetation differs
considerably from that of the rest of the United States, and also
from that of the tropics, and it is very diversified besides. Further-
more, the "developers" are trying to destroy the vegetation as fast
as possible, to make room for cities and farms,* and some that
was studied by the writer in 1909, 1910, or even later, is already
gone forever. All these circumstances make it desirable to put on

*In this connection the following quotation from Simpson's "Out of Doors in
Florida" (pp. 136-137) is very appropriate:
"We advertise the beauties and attractions of Florida; we send out agents
and literature to call the people of the northland to come and spend their
winters or to be permanent residents with us. Then we destroy every vestige
of its natural beauty, we cut down the hammocks, drain the lakes and mutilate
the rivers. We clear out the mangrove borders which nature created to guard
our shores from the destruction by the sea during hurricanes and in their places
build hideous sea walls. The only attraction belonging to the State that we do
not ruin is the climate, and if it were possible to can and export it we would do
so until Florida would be as bleak and desolate as Labrador. What natural
beauty will we have left for another generation? What right have we to waste
and destroy everything that nature has lavishly bestowed on the earth?" (And
there is more along the same line there and elsewhere in the book.)
That this spirit of commercial vandalism is by no means peculiar to Florida
is shown by the following passages from an article by Struthers Burt on "The
Crime Against the West," in Harper's Magazine for April, 1926. It relates to a
valley in Wyoming, whose natural beauty is being despoiled by various kinds of
"improvements."
"At the head of the valley .... is a lake eighteen miles long which .. .
is [was] one of the most beautiful lakes in the world. ... A private irrigation
company built a dam across the outlet. ..... Today the lake is ruined beyond
repair. Thousands of feet of standing timber have been killed, and as the water
is drawn off, there are mud banks .... millions of trout are killed
annually. .
"Not long ago there was a plan to turn the ... country into a lumbering
country. ..... You no doubt know lumbered countries as we lumber in
America, ... and you know what a logging stream looks like. Still later, a
very definite attempt, indorsed by many of the local people, was made to intro-
duce sheep into the valley. You also no doubt know what happens to a country
when sheep are introduced as we introduce them in America .
'The valley is becoming more and more a mecca for motorists .
Buc the local Forest Service, instead of taking advantage of the two old roads on
either side of the valley, which, like all old roads, followed natural contours and
possessed some beauty, have built a thing diagonally across the valley and twenty
miles long that looks like a railway track. For a mile on either side of the
lake there are now gas stations, 'hot dog' stands, lunch counters, and tent colonies.
.. Wherever there is a lake it will meet the fate of this lake, wherever there
is a view it will some day have a signhoard."






76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--18TH ANNUAL REPORT,

record a pretty full account of the vegetation, for the benefit of
future generations, who will not have such good opportunities to
study it as there are at present.
This more or less unique vegetation has naturally attracted
the attention of quite a number of botanists, and numerous papers
on South Florida plants have been cited in the preceding bibli-
ography. But none of them give quite the sort of information
that we ought to have. Many of them are mere lists of plants, or
narratives of expeditions, which tell very little about what the
vegetation really looks like, except in a few spots that happen to
be illustrated by photographs. The most pretentious paper on the
subject, that of Harshberger (1914) classifies the vegetation by
habitat, and lists many of the characteristic species of each hab-
itat, but with no adequate indication of relative abundance, which
is very important. Furthermore, that paper does not cover the
Keys, and does not always identify the species correctly or dis-
tinguish between native plants and weeds. Millspaugh's paper
on the sand keys (1907) gives many minute details, mapping the
location of individual plants, but covers only a very small area,
and it would be quite out of the question to apply the same
methods to the whole of South Florida.
In the following pages the principal vegetation types ob-
served by the writer will be described, and as many as possible
illustrated. There are of course all sorts of graduations between
different types, so that it is often difficult to decide just where to
draw the line between them, and no two persons might agree ex-
actly on the subject; but this difficulty is inherent in all classifica-
tions of natural phenomena. More thorough exploration or care-
ful study might increase the number of types considerably, but
it is just as well not to attempt too much the first time.
Some ecologists like to see in every area they study tenden-
cies for every type of vegetation (except the assumed ultimate or
"climax") to develop gradually into some other type by a process
of "succession." Undoubtedly the vegetation everywhere is differ-
ent now from what it was several thousand years ago, but in South
Florida the evidence of such changes, except in a few instances,
is so slight that it seems futile to speculate about them, and we
may as well assume that almost every vegetation type will remain







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


the same indefinitely, unless forced to change by physiographic
or climatic changes or the encroachments of civilization.
It is very likely that the various hammocks are tending to en-
croach on the pine lands and other open types of vegetation that
border them, as the trees at the edges make more humus, as has
been explained by the writer for areas a little farther north*; but
there are some who believe that our hammocks were once more
extensive, and have been reduced in area by fire or some other
cause.
In the following descriptions of vegetation the order is neces-
sarily somewhat arbitrary, but as far as practicable that of the
driest, coolest inland habitats will be discussed before that of
wet, tropical and marine habitats, and weeds last.
Under each type the plants are divided first into large and
small trees, vines, shrubs, herbs, etc., and the species in each group
arranged as nearly as possible in order of abundance, as de-
termined by counts in the field. The size classification is more
difficult in South Florida than in the northern states, for there are
all possible graduations between trees and herbs, and even the
same species may be either a tree or a shrub, or a shrub or herb,
in different places. And some of our cycads and small palms
and cacti do not fit the definition of either shrub or herb.
The rarer plants are omitted in every case, for there is too
much possibility of their being accidental or temporary invaders
from other types, or wrongly identified, and they constitute such
a small fraction of the total vegetation that their names would
take up more space than they are worth. In rapid reconnaissance
work it is not possible to take specimens of all unfamiliar plants
for subsequent identification; and besides the flora of South
Florida is not as well known yet as that of most other parts of the
eastern United States, so that some plants which appear at first
glance to belong to well-known species may later be described as
new. Consequently there are many interrogation points scattered
through the plant lists, to be eliminated by future study, if the

*See our 7th Annual Report, pp. 170-171. Also a paper by E. A. Beesey (1911)
cited in the bibliography.







18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

"developers" do not work faster than the botanists and destroy
too many plants before they can be sufficiently studied.
The names of evergreens are printed in italics,* but in
this mild climate where almost any plant can keep growing
throughout the year the distinction between evergreen and decid-
uous-leaved plants is not as sharp as it is farther north. However,
any plant with stiff leaves that live more than a year is regarded
as evergreen, and herbs which die down to the ground in winter in
the neighboring states are regarded as deciduous, even if some of
them are green in mid-winter in South Florida.
In nomenclature and classification the various floras by Dr.
J. K. Small are followed in most cases, but those do not agree ex-
actly with each other, as they were published at different times,
and our knowledge is constantly increasing and our ideas chang-
ing. Common names are given where known, but many of the
plants listed have such limited distribution, and no known use,
that persons other than botanists have never had any occasion to
give them any names.
It is the aim of this report to describe every type of vegeta-
tion as it was before civilized man damaged it; but in a few cases
where weeds have become pretty well established among the native
plants their names have been inserted in the proper places, but in
parentheses. After the descriptions of native vegetation there is
a chapter on weeds; a weed being defined as a plant that is wholly
or mainly confined to unnatural places like roadsides, railroads,
vacant lots and cultivated fields. These are bound to increase in
number of individuals and species as the country is settled up,
and therefore an account of their present status ought to be in-
teresting to refer to a generation hence, when they will probably
be much more numerous than at present.
In the discussions of vegetation some attention will be paid
to the prevailing modes of dissemination (seed dispersal), which
vary considerably in different types. Many trees and shrubs and
a few herbs have berries or other fleshy fruits, which are eaten
by birds, and their seeds thus carried considerable distances;

*For the last twenty years or so the writer baa been using heavy type to
distinguish evergreens in vegetation lists, but the present printers were not
equipped for that






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


while others have nuts or acorns, transported mainly by squirrels.
Many herbs and a few woody plants have seeds or fruits bearing
wings or a parachute-like tuft of hairs, which adapts them to
travel with the wind.
Another common seed-dispersal contrivance among herbs and
shrubs is a sort of catapult device, known to botanists as the
tonobole. It has dry seeds which lie loose in involucres, calyxes
or capsules borne on stiff stems which stand upright through the
winter, and when the stems are shaken by the wind, or an animal
brushing against them, the seeds fly out. (This type is scarce in
the far north, where the deep snow hinders its operation.) A few
herbs, especially weeds, have burrs or barbed fruits which stick
to the hair of animals or human clothing.
Still others which grow in or near water have seeds or fruits
adapted to floating. There are also a few very specialized con-
trivances, like the large spindle-shaped seed of the red mangrove,
which attains a considerable growth before it leaves the tree, and
is ready to take root as soon as it touches the bottom of shallow
salt water. But in a surprisingly large number of cases, including
some of the commonest weeds, we do not know yet just how the
seeds are transported.
It might be desirable also to tell something about the pre-
vailing colors of flowers, blooming seasons, etc., but in this warm
climate the blooming season for many species is rather indefinite,
and most of the woody plants have rather inconspicuous flowers.
THE SCRUB
(Fig. 8.)
The driest and poorest soils in South Florida, consisting al-
most entirely of white quartz sand, are usually occupied by a type
of vegetation known as scrub. It is most extensively developed
in the lake region in the middle of the peninsula, especially around
Lake Stearns; but it makes a nearly continuous narrow strip just
west of the narrow lagoons along the east coast as far south as the
northern edge of Dade County, and there are patches of it along
the west coast as far south as Naples, or even a little on Marco
Island, and in a few places in the flatwoods.







80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--8TH ANNUAL REPORT.

The scrub is characterized especially by an abundance of
spruce pine, though there are considerable areas in Highlands
County where that is wanting or nearly so. The rest of the vegeta-
tion is mostly large crooked evergreen shrubs, with only a few
grasses or other herbs. On account of the scarcity of grass, a small
ground fire cannot run through the scrub as it does in the long-leaf
and slash pine forests described farther on, but about once in the
lifetime of a spruce pine a combination of wind and dry weather
may cause a fire to sweep through the tops of the trees and kill
them. The pine cones soon afterward open and drop seeds for a
new crop, and the shrubs sprout up again from the roots.*
Farther north in the peninsula the transition from high pine
land to scrub is often complete in a few feet, corresponding with
an equally abrupt change in soil from cream-colored to white sand
(though the long-leaf pine sometimes grows on white sand, or the
spruce pine on cream-colored sand); but in Highlands County the
two types often intergrade in a perplexing fashion.
There are some slight differences between the scrub of the


FIG. 8. Scrub vegetation on white sand near the coast about 4 miles
north of Naples, Collier County. The most conspicnonu plants are Pinus
clausa, Ceratiola, and Serenoa. March 12, 1924.


*See our 7th Annual Report, pp. 142-144. 1915.









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


interior and that of the old dunes near the east coast, but it hardly
seems worth while to separate them at present. The commonest
scrub plants in our territory are about as follows:


TREES--
Pinus clausa (spruce pine)
SMALL TREES-
Hicoria Floridana (hickory)
Quercus myrnifolia (an oak)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Quercus Chapmani (an oak)
Ilex opaca (?) (holly)
QnerUcns Cateebaci (black-jack oak)
VINES-
Smilax auricuata
SHRUBS-
Serenoa serruata (saw.palmetto)
Ceratiola ericoides (rosemary)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Cholisma fruticas (poor grub)
Qrercu- geminata (live oak)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Sabal Ktonia (a palm)
Palafoxia Feayi
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Conradina puberula?
Garberia frusicosa
Prunus genicnmlan (a plum)
Ximenia Americana?
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Polygonella polygama?
Asimina specioea? (pawpow)


HERBS--
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Cassytha filiformis
Opuntia ammophila? (prickly pear)
Tillandsia recurvata (air-plant)
Lechea sp.
Selaginella arenicula?
Rhynchospora dodecandra (a sedge)
Petalostemon Feayi
Warea cuneifolia
Nolina Brittoniona
Cnidoscolus stimulosus
Thysanella robusta
MOSSES, ETC--
Cladonia sps. (reindeer moBs)


Most of the trees and herbs and nearly all the shrubs are
evergreen. The seeds of the pine are transported by the wind, but
most of the smaller trees have nuts or acorns, and about half the
shrubs have berries. A few of the herbs and one of the shrubs
have wind-borne seeds, but for about half the herbs we do not
know exactly how the seeds travel.

This vegetation is of very little use for either timber or forage,
but a good deal of it has been destroyed to make room for orange
groves in the interior, and for pineapple fields and houses on the
east coast.

*This is a stunted form, described in September, 1924, by Small as flex
cumulicola and by Ashe as L arenicola.







82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

HIGH PINE LAND
(Figs. 9, 37.)
This is a very common type of vegetation in northern and
central Florida, but in South Florida it is almost confined to the
lake region of Highlands County, with a few small patches on
slightly elevated spots in the flatwoods, where they can usually be
recognized from a distance by the presence of oaks. (Fig. 38.)
The topography is rolling, and the soil is nearly always a deep
dry cream-colored sand, essentially uniform as far down as most
roots go. Water falling on this soil sinks in immediately, even
in the heaviest rains. Gophers and salamanders are fairly com-
mon, and doubtless play an important part in keeping the soil
stirred up, which does not happen to any appreciable extent in the
scrub just described.
The dominant tree is the long-leaf pine, and one or more
species of medium-sized oaks are nearly everywhere in sight.
Shrubs are much less abundant than in the preceding and follow-
ing types, but herbs are generally more so, though one occasionally
finds patches of bare sand a few square feet in extent. Fire is a
frequent and important factor of the environment In pre-historic
times the fires must have been started mostly by lightning, and al-
though that may not have happened very often on any one square
mile, a fire once started might run for many miles, so that every
spot in the high pine land must have been burned over something
like once in two years, on the average. With the multiplication
of roads, orange groves, etc., any one fire cannot spread as far
now as formerly, but there are more chances of starting fires, so
that the frequency of fire at any one spot may not have changed
much.
The frequency of fire tends to keep the oaks and vines in
check, but does not injure the pine perceptibly after it is a few
years old (except when turpentined). It also limits the shrub and
herb population almost entirely to species with underground roots,
which can send up new sprouts after the tops are burned (which
usually happens in winter or early spring). For that reason
annual plants and vines are scarce, except in spots where the veg-
etation is too open for fire to travel through.*
*For additional notes on the effects of fire ee our 7th Annual Report, pp,
147, 148, 165, and various earlier papers there referred to.











NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


The most typical high pine
TREES-
Pinus palnstris (long-leaf pine)
SMALL TREES-
Quercus Catesbaei (black-jack oak)
Quercus geminata (live oak)
Quercus cinerea (turkey oak)
VINES--
Smilax amriculato
SHRUBS--
Serenoa serrulaza (saw-palmetto)
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Prmnus genicalata (a plum)
Lupinus diffusus (lupine)
Sabal Econia (a palm)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
Garberia fruticosa
Patafoxia Feayi
Ceanothus microphylhis
Asimina speciosa? (powpaw)
Ximenia Americana?


land plants are as follows:
HERBS--
Aristida stricia (wire-grass)
Tilladsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Polygonella gracilis
Petalostemon Feayi
Opuntia ammophila? (prickly pear)
Stenophyllus Warei (a sedge)
Acinospermum angustifolium
Thysanella robusta
Chrysopsis gramirfdolia? *
Eriogonum tomentosum
Paronychia herniarioides
Kuhnistera pinnata
Sisyrinchium solstitiale
Cracca chrysophylla
Chamaecrista sp. (partridge pea)
Gibbesia Rugelii?
Froelichia Floridana
Chrysopsis gossypina?
Aristida virgata
Warea cuneifolia
Lechea sp.
Laciniaria tenuifolia
Afzelia pertinata
Yucca filamentosa (bear-grass)
Andropogon Virginicus
(broom-sedge)
Chapmania Floridana


FrTC 9. High pine land in lake region about 5 miles E. S. E. of Avon
Park, Highlands County, showing Pinus palurtris Quercus Cusesbaei (at
right), Serenoa, Aristida stricta, etc Jan. 28, 1924.
*Stouter and more leafy than it usually is farther north.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Most of the shrubs are evergreen, but among the trees and
herbs there are more deciduous species than in most other parts
of South Florida, which presumably indicates that the soil is richer
than it looks. Other indications of pretty good soil are that none
of the shrubs listed belong to the Ericaceae (heath family), and
that there is a considerable proportion of leguminous plants among
the herbs. Most of the shrubs have berries. Among the herbs
more of the seeds are carried by the wind than in any other way,
but in about half the cases we do not know just what method of
dissemination operates.
The pine is a very important source of lumber and naval
stores, and the wire-grass affords some forage for cattle. Some-
thing like twenty per cent of this type in Highlands County has
been cleared away to make room for settlements and citrus groves,
and that process is still going on.
FLATWOODS
(Figs. 10, 11, 25, 38, 42.)
This is probably the most extensive type of vegetation in
South Florida, covering at least a third of the area. It consists
of vast open forests of pine (either long-leaf or slash), with hardly
any other tree, and a rather dense undergrowth of saw-palmetto
and other low shrubs, with about an equal number of herbs. The
soil is usually a fine grayish sand, but limestone or marl may.
approach closely to the surface without making much difference
in the vegetation. Fire is as frequent as in the high pine land.
The pines are usually nearly all of one species, in a given
area, the two not mixing much. Generally speaking, the long-leaf
pine seems to prefer the higher and drier and cooler portions, and
the slash pine the more tropical and marly places; but often there
is no visible difference in the soil, or in the rest of the vegetation.
In order to determine if possible the cause of the predominance
of one pine or the other, a careful analysis has been made of the
long-leaf and slash pine types separately, and the results are here
presented in parallel columns:










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


FIc. 10. Long-leaf pine flatwoods about 3 miles south of Fort Drum,
Okeechobee County. Trees all Pinus palustria, mostly under a foot in
diameter. Undergrowth of Sarenoa conspicuous. This is one of the few
remaining virgin stands of long-leaf pine, and it may not remain long, on
account of its accessibility. Aug. 9, 1925.


Fic. 11. Slash pine flatwoods about a mile north of Bonita Springs,
Lee County. The pines .all Pinus Caribaea) are smaller and farther apart,
and the saw-pnlmetto less abundant, than is usual in this type of vegetation,
but still more so than in the long-leaf pine flatwoods. March 12, 1924.










86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.


Long-leaf pine
TREES
Pinus paustris (long-leaf pine)

SMALL TREES
Quercus geminata (live oak)

SHRUBS
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Ilex glabra (gal berry)
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Pycnothymus rigidus
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Bejaria racemosa
Quercus minima (oak runner)
4scyrum tetrapeatsum
Chrysobabanus oblongifolus
Hypericum aspalachoides
Gaylussaca dumosa (huckleberry)
HERBS
Aristida strict wire-grass)
Pterocanlon undultnum (black-root)
Syngonantrhus flavidulus
Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Carphephorus corymbosus
Elephantopus nudatus?
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Laciniaria tenuifolia?
Xyris flexuosa
Chrysopsis graminifolia?
Actinospermum anguseifolium
Trilisa odoratissima (deertongue)
Zamia integrifolia coontiee)
Xyris sp.
Galaflia Etliottii (pin-down)
Petalostemon carnene?
Kuhnistera pinnata (summer farewell)
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
Aster adnatus
Lachnocaulon Beyrichianum?
Pinanicula lutea (buttercup)
Stillingia sylvatica?
Eryngium aromaticnm
Chamaecrista sp. (partridge pea)
Sopbronanthe hispida
PolPyala Rugefll
Polygala setacea


Slash pine
TREES
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto)
SMALL TREES
Quec-cus geminata (live oak)
Quercus myrtifolia (an oak)
SHRUBS
Serenoa serrulata (raw-palmetto)
Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Pycmothymus rigidus
Vaccinium ntidum (huckleberry)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Bejaria racemosa
Chu-ysobalanus oblongifolius
Ilex glabra gallberryy)
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Gaylussacia dumosa (huckleberry)



HERBS
Aristida strict (wire-grass)
Pterocaulon undulatum (black-root)
Sabbatia Elliottii?
Polygala Rugelii
Syngonanthus flavidulus
Carphephorus corymbosus
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Eryngium aromaticun
Litrisa carnoea
Elephantopus nudatus?
Seriencarpns bifoliatus
Cassytha filiformis
X wis flexuosa?
Galactia Elliottil (pin-down)
Rhynchospora fascicularis (a sedge)
Helianthella sp.
Pteris aquilina (a fern)
Helianthus sp. (sunflower)
Trilisa odoratissima (deer-tongue)
Polygala setacea
Panicum sp. (a grass)


Considering first the two lists together, all the trees and nearly
all the shrubs are evergreen, but most of the herbs are not classed
as evergreens in Georgia. A little more than half the shrubs have







NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 8,

berries, and most of the others belong to the class of "tonoboles.,
About half the herbs have wind-borne seeds. Something like a
third of the shrubs belong to the Ericaceae and allied families, and
only about one-tenth of the herbs to the Leguminosae, which does
not speak very well for the soil.
In contrasting the two lists, although the sequence indicated
cannot be guaranteed as absolutely accurate, for only a small frac.
tion of the area has been examined, it is pretty safe to say that
Ilex glabra, Vaccinium nitidum, Pieris nitida, Aristida strict,
Tillandsia usneoides, Laciniaria tenuifolia, Chrysopsis gramini-
folia, Actinospermum, Trilisa odoratissima, and Kuhnistera are
more abundant in the long-leaf pine type, and Quercus myrtifolia,
Pycnothymus, Sabbatia FEliottii, Polygala Rugelii, Er vngium aro-
maticum, Litrisa, Cassytha and Helianthella in the slash pine type.
Those in the former category seem to prefer cooler climates, or
drier or more acid soils, and the latter seem to be a little more
tropical, though some of them range aIt least a, far north as
Georgia. But we evidently do not know the whole -tory yet.
Both pines are used extensively for lumber, and for turpen.
tine as far south as the Caloosahatchee River, bIl apparently not
yet beyond that latitude. The huckleberries are ,,metimes picked
for market, even as far south as Palm Beach County. Several of
the shrubs have flowers that yield honey, and ihe wire-grass and
other herbs are eaten by cattle. Probably not more than five per
cent of the flatwoods area has been cultivated, up to the present
time.
DRY PRAIRIES
(Figs. 12, 40.)
On both sides of t,- Kissimmee River, and extending west-
ward with some interruptions nearly to Arcadia and Fort Ogden,
are vast level comparatively dry treeless prairies, covered with
grasses and low bushes, averaging about two feet in height. Prai-
ries of similar aspect are found also in Collier, Manatee and Bre-
vard* Counties, and in smaller patches as far north as Volusia
and Wakulla Counties; and their aggregate extent in Florida must
be two or three thousand square miles.
The vegetation differs from that of the flatwoods just de-
*See our 13th Annual Report pp. 138, 140, 203-204.


q








88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TR ANNUAL REPORT.

scribed in hardly a;y way except the absence of trees, and the
reason for that is obscure. The soil seems to be the same fine
gray sand as in the flatwoods, and no more subject to inundation,
but it may be that there is hardpan or something of the sort near
enough to the surface to interfere with the roots of trees. The fact
that the prairie soil is hardly one per cent cultivated would seem
to indicate that it is inferior to that of the flatwoods in some way.

Until the building of railroads to Okeechobee and Moore
Haven, ten or fifteen years ago, the prairies were rather inac-
cessible and little known, except to cattlemen. But now there are
three or four railroads through the prairies, and one traveling on
them can get views strongly suggestive of the Great Plains.
Almost anywhere in the prairies one can see a few scattered
slash pines, cabbage palmettoes or live oaks, averaging less than
one tree to the acre; but the great bulk of the vegetation is of
shrubs and herbs, in approximately equal proportions. It is sub-
ject to frequent fires, like the flatwoods, although there is no pine
straw to add fuel to the flames. Consequently practically all the
plants have large underground parts, which enable them to send
up new shoots after a fire, as in the pine forests.


r -' '* *.











Ftc. 12. Scene in dry prairies about two miles northwest of Okee-
chobee, with a few slash pines and cabbage palmnetoes in the distance.
Aug. 8. 1925,









NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.

The commonest species seem to be as follows:


SHRUBS-
Serenoa errulata (saw-palmetto)
Quercus minima (oak runner)
Ilex glabra gallberryy)
Gholisma fruicosa (poor g-rb)
Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
Ascyrum tetrapetalum
Asimina reticulata (pawpaw)
Hypericum aspatathoides
Pieris nitida (hurrah bush)
Myrica pumila (myrtle)
Gaylussacia dumosa (huckleberry


HERBS--
Aristida stricta (wiregrasu)
Syngonanthu flavidulu
Pterocaulon undulatum (black-root)
Litrisa carnosa
Polygala Rugelii
(Eleocharis Baldwinii) (road-grass)
Carphephorus corymbosus
Agalinis sp.
Elepbantopne nudatus?
Eupatorium Mohrii?
Lechca sp.
(Anastrophus pasploides) (a grass)
Sophronanthe hispida
Panicum Combsii? (a grass)
Aristida spiciformis (a grass)
Helianthella sp.
(Euthamia sp.)
Xyris pallescens
Finmbristylis puberula (a sedge)
Rhynchospora fascicularie (a sedge)
Lac1hnociloon Beyrichianum?
Hyptis raliata
Podestigma pedicellala
Solidago fistulosa goldenrodd)


Being composed mostly of the same species, this vegetation
has about the same characteristics as that of the flatwoods, as re-
gards proportion of evergreens, modes of dissemination, etc. But
if there is any difference, the proportion of leguminous plants is
still smaller. The saw-palmetto makes up about half the shrub-
bery and the wire-grass about half the herbage. Most of the herbs
have no common names, and no known use except for forage, and
in that respect they have more quantity than quality.








90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

MIAMI PINE LAND
(Figs. 47, 48.)
The pine lands on the Miami oolite, covering a few hundred
square miles, have much the same aspect as the slash pine flatwoods
farther north, except for the trees being a little smaller and more
crooked, but the undergrowth is quite different. This is probably
due partly to the warmer climate, but more to the very different
soil, which is mostly pitted limestone instead of sand. In other
states the vegetation on limestone is usually totally different both
in composition and in aspect from that on sand, but the South
Florida limestones do not seem to influence vegetation as much as
most other kinds do; perhaps because they are deficient in potash,
which is a more important soil constituent than lime.
Several characteristic plants of the sandy flatwoods extend
into the Miami region just about as far as the sand does (i. e., to
the neighborhood of Miami), while the plants peculiar to that
region gradually disappear northward, and go no farther than the
visible outcrops of limestone, or to about the northern edge of
Dade County.
The soil is practically always dry, for the rain that falls
quickly disappears unto the porous limestone.
Fire seems to be as frequent in the Miami pine lands as in
the flatwoods, if not more so. It is said that fire sometimes runs
up into a pine tree and singes all its leaves off without killing it.
A few of the herbs, especially the ferns, grow mostly in little pot-
holes, which give them pretty good protection from fire.
This vegetation includes a considerable number of endemic
species, which grow neither farther north nor in the tropics, and
many of these have been discovered by Dr. Small and his as.
sociates in the last 25 years. Some are chiefly confined to the
southwestern portion of the region, perhaps because it is a little
too cold for them at Miami.
In the following list the names of plants chiefly confined to
the north end of the region, on sandier soils, are preceded by N,
and the more tropical species of the southwest end by S.










NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


TREES--
Pinus Caribaea (slash pine)
SMALL TREES-
Diphois salicfolia (bustic)
N Quercus geminata (live oak)
S Coccohriax argentea
(silver palm)
VINES--


Smilax auriculata
Rhabdadenia corallicola?
SHRUBS-
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto)
N Sabal Etonia (a palm)
N Quercus pamila (oak runner)
S Guettarda scabra
N Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Coccothrinax argentea
(silver palm)
Croton linearis?
Quercus minima (oak runner)
N Myrica pumila (myrtle)
N Vaccinium nitidum (huckleberry)
N Cholisma fruticosa (poor grub)
N Pycnothymus rigidus
S Metopium toxiferum
(poison-wood)
Pithecolobium Guadalupense
S Byrsonima lucida
Rhus copallina? (sumae)
S Tetrazygia bicolor
Morinda Roioe
Lantana depressa
N Amorpha herbacea
N Quercus myrtifolia
N Asimina reticulata?
Dodonaea Jamaicennis


HERBS--


Zamia Floridana (coonlie)
Asistida strict (wire-grass)
Cassytha filiformis
Aneimia adiantijolia (a fern)
Pteris longifolia (a fern)
Jacquemontia Curtissii
Chanaecrista brachiata?
(partridge pea)
Opuntia Bp. (prickly pear)
N Chrysopsis graminifolia?
Chamaesyce pinetorum?
Tithymalopsis polyphyllus
Crotalaria pumila.
Buchnera elongata
Stillingia angustifolia?
Afzelia pectinata
Dichromena colorata? (a sedge)
N Polygonella gracilis
Pteris aeudata (a fern)
Melanthera ap.
Polygala coralicola?
Borreria sp.
Andropogon sp. (broom-sedge)
S Cassia Bahamensis?
N Petalostemon Feayi
Petalostemon carnens?
Asclepias verticillata
Aldenella tenuifolia
N Eryngium aromaticum
N Actinospermum angustifolium
N Rhynchospora Grayil (a sedge)
Elephantopus ntdatus?


Most of these plants look about the same in winter as in sum-
mer, though some of the herbs that range as far north as Georgia
are not evergreen there. The pine and a few of the herbs have
wind-borne seeds, most of the shrubs as usual have berries, and
among the herbs there seem to be more tonoboles than anything
else, though in about half the cases we do not know just how the
seeds travel. Among the shrubs the only Ericaceous ones are
confined to the sandy northern portion. The proportion of Legum-
inosae among the herbs is greater than in the sandy flatwoods
just described, and about the same as in the high pine land.

The pine is used locally for lumber and fuel, but not for





92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-18TH ANNUAL REPORT.

turpentine. For lumber it is inferior to the larger and straighter
slash pines farther north, and still more to the long-leaf pine, but
for some purposes it is more economical to use it than to pay
freight on better material. The coontie is an important source
of starch, and one or two starch factories have operated in this
region at various times. The wire-grass could be eaten by cattle,
but the honeycombed surface of the limestone makes this out of
the question as a grazing region, and Dade County has long had
a stock law, prohibiting cattle from running at large, as in regions
farther north that have more cultivated land than forest.
Something like one-tenth of the area is occupied by settle-
ments, and groves of various tropical fruits, and the clearings
would doubtless be much more extensive if it were not for the
difficulty of working the very rocky soil.
There are some slash pine forests somewhat similar to those
around Miami on the lower Keys, especially Big Pine Key. These
have not been studied much, but they seem to differ from those
just described in having fewer species of plants, which is a natural
consequence of their small area and remoteness from other pine
forests. And the absence of pot-holes on the Keys probably also
tends to make the vegetation less diversified.
Where the limestone comes to the surface in the flatwoods of
Collier County, the vegetation includes a few of the characteristic
Miami species, but it is more like that of the sandy flatwoods in
the same neighborhood. It has not yet been investigated suffi-
ciently, however.
BEACHES AND DUNES
(Figs.13-15, 46.)
On sandy beaches and low dunes within a few yards of the
Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, and on a few beaches of cal-
careous sand on the Keys, above high tide but within reach of salt
spray, and exposed to intense light as long as the sun shines, we
find a rather sparse vegetation, similar in aspect to that of northern
sea beaches, except for having more woody plants and more ever-






NATURAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


greens. It sometimes grades into the scrub vegetation already de-
scribed, but more often into cactus thickets, mangrove swamps,
or hammocks, which are described farther on. Fire is almost im-
possible, on account of the openness of the vegetation. The char-
acteristic species are about as follows:
TREES- HERBS-
Sabal Palmetto (cabbage palmetto) Uniola paniculata (sea-oats)
(Cocos nucifera) (cocoanut) Sesuvium Portulacastrum
SMALL TREES-- pomoea Pes-Caprae
Canavalia lineata
Bursera Simaruba (gumbo limbo) Caneytha filiformis
Persea liUoralis? (red bay) Croton maritimus
Quercus geminata (live oak) Helianthus debilis
WOODY VINES-- Sporobolus Virginicus? (a grass)
Vitis Munsoniana (muscadine) Panicum amarulum (a grass)
Smilax auriculata Cenchrus macrocephalus?
SHRUBS- (sand-spur)
SHRUBS a Muhlenbergia fiipes? (a grass)
Scaevola Plumieri Oenothera humifnesa
Coccolobis uvifera (sea-grape) (evening primrose)
Serenoa serrulata (saw-palmetto) Coreopsis Leavenworthii?
Suriana maritima Calonyetion Tuba? (moon-flower)
Yucca alfifola (Spanish bayonet) (Monarda punctata) (horse-mint)
Opuntia austrna? (prickly pear)
Ernodea lttoralis
Conocarpus erect (buttonwood)
Iva imbricata
Chamaesyce buxifolia
Chrysobalanus Icaco (cocoa plum)
Tournefortia gnaphalodes
Avicennia nitida (black mangrove)
Jacquinia Kevensis (Joe-wood)
Lycium Carolinianum
Laguncularia racemosa
(white mangrove)
Rhizophora Mangle (red mangrove)
Sophora tomentosa
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
A large proportion of the species are tropical; and in this
area where frost is almost unknown they look much the same in
winter as in summer, though most of the herbs would not be called
evergreen if they grew in the northern states. The herbs are mostly
of rather rank growth, which apparently indicates much more soil
fertility than in the scrub. Several of the herbs, such as Ipomoea,
Canavalia, Cassytha, and Calonyction, are vines, and some of them
grow to remarkable lengths, which would not be possible in a
habitat subject to fire. Most of the grasses have long root-stocks
which grow just beneath the sand and send up shoots every few
inches.