<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administrative report
 Statistics of mineral production...
 History of soil investigation in...
 Elevations in Florida
 A review of the structure and stratigraphy...
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


FGS



Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00016
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Publication Date: 1924-1925
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00016
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Administrative report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Statistics of mineral production in Florida during 1924
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 20
    History of soil investigation in Florida and description of the new soil map
        Page 21
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    Elevations in Florida
        Page 41
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    A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida with special reference to the petroleum possibilities
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    Back Matter
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Full Text













UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES











FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

HERMAN GUNTER, STATE GEOLOGIST







SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
1924-1925


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT

MINERAL INDUSTRIES

HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION IN FLORIDA

ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA

STRUCTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY OF FLORIDA


PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1926


















13101-Od'
L1BRAR'd










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
To His Excellency, Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida:-
Sir:- In compliance with the law establishing the Survey, I
have the honor to submit herewith the Seventeenth Annual Report
of the State Geologist. Owing to unforeseen circumstances we have
been somewhat delayed in issuing the present volume, but manu-
script is now well along for our Eighteenth Annual Report and
that will appear within a reasonable time, thus having the effect of
bringing our reports up to date. This report contains a statement
of expenditures from July 1, 1924 to June 30, 1925; statistics of
the mineral industries for the year 1924; a history of soil investi-
gation in Florida; a paper on elevations in Florida; and a report
on the structure and stratigraphy of Florida with special reference
to the petroleum possibilities.
It is felt that the subjects treated in this volume are very time-
ly. The paper on soils explains the generalized soil map of the
State which was published last December in cooperation with the
Agricultural Department in response to many requests for in-
formation on this subject. There has been a very keen interest
shown in the matter of altitudes in Florida and in the present re-
port will be found as complete a list of elevations as we have been
able to compile. The paper relating to petroleum possibilities has
been prepared for the purpose of giving to the public detailed data
about the geology of Florida and its bearing on the probability of
finding oil. At present there is renewed interest in the problem of
oil in Florida and it is hoped this report will be found helpful in
interpreting the geology and structure of the State.
Since the Survey has by its accomplishments demonstrated
its usefulness to the citizens, and its effect on the material develop-
ment of the State is becoming better understood, it is hoped that
more liberal appropriations will be made for the prosecution of the
work coming under its supervision.
Please accept my appreciation of the generous support and
cordial cooperation you have given this Department and to assure
you that this relationship has been a source of much encourage-
ment.
Respectfully submitted,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.






























TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PACE
A dm inistrative R report ................................................................................................... 7
Statistics of Mineral Production in Florida During 1924, Herman Gunter,
(Figs. 1 and 2.) ....................................................................................................... 11
History of Soil Investigation in Florida and Description of the New Soil Map,
Roland M. Harper, (Fig. 3.) ............................................................................... 21
Elevations in Florida, Herman Gunter, (Fig. 4.) ................................................. 41
A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida with Special Reference
to the Petroleum Possibilities, Stuart Mossom, (Fig. 5-one Map) ......... 169






















ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FROM

JULY 1, 1924 TO JUNE 30, 1925.

The following itemized list shows the expenditures of the
Survey from July 1, 1924 to June 30, 1925. The total annual
appropriation during this period was $10,345. All bills and
itemized expense accounts are on file in the office of the Comp-
troller, duplicate copies being retained in the office of the State
Geologist.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1924 TO JUNE 30, 1925.
JULY, 1924.
Over D raw n ...................................................................................... $ 5.31
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................... 250.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................. 47.09
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.67
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ......................... 74.14
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................. 133.90
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ....................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. .................................... 3.25
American Railway Express Co. .................................................... 3.08
Middle Florida Ice Company ..................................................... 3.30
B. & S. Sales Company, supplies ................................................. 14.00
Eimer & Amend, Museum jars ..................................................... 31.50
Dixon Transfer, freight & drayage ......................................... 2.01
AUGUST, 1924
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ....................................$ 250.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................. 34.99
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.66
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ......................... 71.87
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................. 133.20
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ......................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. .................................... 3.25
American Railway Express Company .......................................... 6.79
Middle Florida Ice Company ....................................................... 2.60
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers.... 2.00
Arthur H. Thomas Company, supplies ................................... 8.19
Dixon Transfer, freight and drayage ..................................... 5.74












8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

SEPTEMBER, 1924.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................... $ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.66
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ......................... 131.81
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................. 134.80
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ......................... 110.00
Newell B. Davis, developing and printing ............................... 9.78
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. .................................. 3.25
American Railway Express Company ..................................... 6.23
Middle Florida Ice Company ....................................................... 2.60
W. C. Dixon, frei..ght and drayage ........................................... 1.79
OCTOBER, 1924.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary .................................$ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.67
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................. 7.91
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ......................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
Middle Florida Ice Company ....................................................... 2.70
Hills Book Store, repair camera, etc. ...................................... 15.40
Western Union Telegraph Company ......................................... 1.49
Bass Hardware Company, supplies ........................................... 3.75
Tallahassee Variety Works, 24 trays ......................................... 16.50
S. E. Gray, shelving and making bases ................................... 33.74
Florida State Historical Society ................................................. 10.00
John W iley & Sons ......................................................................... 6.50
S. E. Gray, shelving ....................................................................... 6.00
D. A Dixon, supplies ..................................................................... 4.45
Wards Natural Science Establishment ................................. 17.50
NOVEMBER, 1924.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ....................................$ 250.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................. 38.46
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary .......................... 166.67
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ........................... 11.20
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................... 24.08
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................. 166.67
R. M. Harper, Assistant, expenses ........................................... 56.47
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ......................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
Middle Florida Ice Company ....................................................... 2.30
American Railway Express Company ....................................... 15.52
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps ............................................... 39.00
Newell B. Davis, developing and printing ............................... 2.28
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies .............................................. 3.35
W. L. Marshall, work on shelving, etc. .................................. 13.35
Am erican Fertilizer ....................................................................... 3.00
Geo. F. Baker, Jr. Treas. Subscription ..................................... 3.00
J. W. Gidley, plaster models ..................................................... 125.00
M manufacturers Record ................................................................... 6.50
DECEMBER, 1924.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ....................................$ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ......................... 166.67
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary .................................................. 166.67
Florence M. Epperson, Stenographer, salary ......................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ......................... 3.25
T. J. Appleyard, cards ................................................................... 17.50












ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 9

The Service Print Shop, 2000 letter heads ................................. 11.00
Miss Nancy Choate, printing sign ............................................... 6.00
Leon Electric Co., electric lamps ................................................. 4.50
H. R. Kaufman, supplies ............................................................... 1.80
W. L. Marshall, repair work ....................................................... 6.00
W. H. May, Postmaster, P. 0. box rent ..................................... 1.50
Maurice Joyce Engraving Co. half tones ................................. 105.25
Western Union Telegraph Company ......................................... 2.43
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, half tones ..................... 28.71
JANUARY, 1925
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ....................................$ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.66
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................. 166.67
Florence M. Epperson, salary Jan 1-9, Inc. ............................ 31.93
Augusta De Milly, Stenographer, salary, Jan 26-31, Inc......... 21.29
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
Scott Reynolds, lettering ............................................................. 6.00
D. A. Dixon Company, supplies ................................................. 2.45
Florida Engineer & Contractor ................................................. 1.00
L. B. Marshall, copying tabulations ........................................... 5.31
A. J. Olmstead, panorama of model ............................................. 3.50
R ock Products ............................................................................... 2.00
Economy ic Geology ........................................................................... 4.00
FEBRUARY, 1925.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ..................................$ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.67
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ......................... 47.25
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, auto mileage ................. 81.76
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ............................... 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
H. & W. B. Drew Company ..................................................... 1.58
E. B. Douglas Company ............................................................... 3.50
Office Necessity Company ........................................................... 4.00
Newell B. Davis Photo Laboratory ........................................... 3.23
MARCH, 1925.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................... $ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.66
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................. 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
W. H. May, Postmaster, stamps and box rent ......................... 26.50
Wrigley-Photo Engraving Corporation ................................... 28.60
Alvah Bushnell Company ............................................................. 8.87
American Railway Express Company ....................................... 1.45
Dixon's Transfer, freight and drayage ..................................... 1.90
APRIL, 1925.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ...................................$... 250.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................. 27.86
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ............................. 166.66
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................. 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25.
Tallahassee Furniture Company, framing 4 pictures ............. 11.00
Florida Historical Society ........................................................... 12.50
Office Necessity Company, supplies ........................................... 4.75
Tallahassee Variety Works, 2 book cases ................................. 15.00










10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

MAY, 1925.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ....................................$ 250.00
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, salary ......................... 166.66
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................. 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
Wrigley-Photo Engraving Corp. .................................................. 26.39
Service Print Shop, post cards ................................................... 22.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company ......................................................... 10.17
University of Chicago Press ....................................................... 5.40
C. V. M osby Company ................................................................... 3.00
G. E. Stechert & Company ...................................................... 3.82
The Macmillan Company .......................................................... 7.00
Tallahassee Furniture Company, file and cards ........................... 28.00
N ew ell B. D avis ............................................................................. 2.15
W. H. May, postmaster, stamps ................................................. 50.00
W. H. May, postmaster, 2000 2-cent envelopes ....................... 43.96
JUNE, 1925.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ................................... $ 250.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ............................. 24.84
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary ................................................. 166.67
D. Stuart Mossom, Asst. Geologist, expenses ......................... 14.00
Mary H. Carswell, Stenographer, salary ................................. 110.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Company ....................... 3.25
W. H. May, Postmaster, box rent ............................................. 1.50
McGraw-Hill Book Company ..................................................... 12.00
Ceram ic Industry ........................................................................... 3.00
The Service Print Shop ................................................................. 57.00
T. J. Appleyard, 4 books rebound ............................................... 10.00
D. Stuart Mossom, auto mileage ............................................... 35.56
Middle Florida Ice Company ....................................................... 2.40
American Railway Express Company ....................................... 8.91
















STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
DURING 1924.


HERMAN GUNTER.


COLLECTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND THE U. S. BUREAU OF CENSUS.

The value of the mineral output in Florida during 1924 was
$13,909,204, as compared to $13,230,099 for 1923. The value of
the output of phosphate showed a decided decrease, whereas in
the other industries there were increases in both output and*value
which compensated for the reduced output and value of phosphate.
The mineral industry, particularly construction materials, enjoyed
a very prosperous year, many establishing new high production
records.
CLAY
Three plants were actively engaged in mining sedimentary
kaolin in Florida during 1924. These were the Edgar Plastic
Kaolin Company, Edgar; Florida China Clay Company, Inc.,
Leesburg; Lake County Clay Company, Okahumpka. The plant
of the United Clay Mines Corporation located at Crossley, midway
between Johnson and McMeekin in Putnam County, began opera-
tion during the latter part of the year.
CLAY PRODUCTS.
The total number of common and face brick manufactured in
Florida during 1924, as reported by the producers, was 25,
650,000. In addition to building brick there was produced also
faience tile, pottery and other clay products. The total value of
brick and clay products for the year was $254,318. The following
firms reported production.










12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

BRICK AND TILE PRODUCERS, 1924.
Barber Brothers, Cottondale, Jackson County.
The Build-With-Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.
J. M. & J. C. Craber, Campville, Alachua County.
E. M. Davis, Lawrence, Gadsden County, (P. 0. Ocklocknee).
Dolores Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.
Gamble & Stockton Company, Jacksonville, Duval County.
G. C. & G. H. Guilford, Blountstown, Calhoun County.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Washington County.
Hull & Cowan Company, Callahan, Nassau County.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney, Lake County.
POTTERY PRODUCERS, 1924.
Florida Pottery, 2107 Fourth Street, St. Petersburg, Pinellas Co.
Orlando Potteries, Orlando, Orange County.
FULLER'S EARTH
The total production of fuller's earth in the United States in
1924, was 177,994 short tons, valued at $2,632,342 or an average
value per ton of $14.79. In addition to this domestic production
there was imported into the United States during 1924, 7,302
tons. The exports of fuller's earth for the same year amounted to
about 6,300 tons.
The states reporting production for 1924 were: Georgia,
Florida, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts and Alabama. This year
records the largest output of fuller's earth in the United States
since the beginning of the industry. For the first time Florida
yielded first place in production and value to another state, namely,
Georgia. The largest increase in production from the deposits of
southern Georgia accounts for this change in rank.
The production in Florida, although not separately listed, is
included in the total mineral production of the state.
The following companies reported production:
FULLER'S EARTH PRODUCERS, 1924.
The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.
Attapulgas Clay Company, Ellenton, Manatee County.
ILMENITE AND ZIRCON
The production of ilmenite and zircon from the beach sands
at Mineral City about five miles south of Pablo Beach, Duval











STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1924 13

County, continued during 1924. Minerals other than ilmenite and
zircon occur with the beach sands but those mentioned are the
only two recovered. Operations at Mineral City are carried on
under the name of Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., and owned by
the National Lead Company of New York. Statistics on produc-
tion and value are not given separately but are included in the
total for the state.

LIMESTONE, LIME AND FLINT

The output of limestone in Florida for 1924 amounted to
2,891,610 tons with a valuation of $2,717,486. The various
purposes for which the limestone is reported as used were: Road
metal, concrete, railroad ballast, riprap, building stone and agri-
cultural. The increase in this product is an index to the progress
the State is making with respect to permanent highways, in building
generally and other industrial lines. To the above figures should
be added those for crushed flint, miscellaneous stone and for quick-
lime, which brings the total production of limestone, crushed flint
rock, miscellaneous stone, quick and hydrated lime to 2,987,951
tons with a total valuation of $3,097,703, an increase of 98 per
cent in output and of 97 per cent in value over 1923.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIMESTONE PRODUCTION, 1924.
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, Citrus County.
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala, Marion County
Cummer Lumber Company, Newberry, Alachua County and Jacksonville.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River, Citrus County and Leesburg.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Florida Rock Products Company, Brooksville, Hernando County.
Florida Shell Rock. Company, Williston, Levy County.
Gainesville Lime Rock Company, Gainesville, Alachua County.
The Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus, Dade County.
Marion County Road Department, Ocala, Marion County.
Marion County Lime Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Mickler and McLeod, Lacoochee, Pasco County.
Naranja Rock Company, Naranja, Dade County.
Ocala Lime Rock Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Ojus Rock Company, Ojus & Naranja, Dade County.
Geo. H. Palmer Company, Miami, Dade County.
Pineola Rock Company, Pineola, Citrus County.
T. A. Thompson, Branford, Suwannee County.
The Volusia Coquina Rock Company, Volusia and Daytona Beach.











14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

COMPANIES REPORTING FLINT OR MISCELLANEOUS STONE
PRODUCTION, 1924.
Baird Flint Rock Company, Anthony, Marion County.
Florida Hard Rock Corporation, Ocala, Marion County
A. A. Griffin, Williston, Levy County.
Levy County Stone Company, Williston, Levy County.
Long-Pasley Company, Williston, Levy County.
E. A. Osborn, Williston, Levy County.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala, Marion County.

COMPANIES REPORTING LIME PRODUCTION, 1924.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala, Marion County.

MINERAL WATERS.

The total sales of mineral and spring waters in Florida in
1924, as shown by returns from the owners of springs and wells,
amounted to 1,861,897 gallons valued at $135,357.39. Pro-
duction was reported from the following springs or wells:
Brack's Get Well Springs, Bradenton, Manatee County.
Crystal Mineral Springs, White House, Duval County.
Crystal Springs, Crystal Springs, Pasco County.
Chumuckla Springs, McDavid, Santa Rosa County.
.Egret Water Company, Ft. Pierce, St. Lucie County.
Espiritu Santo Springs, Inc. Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
F nholloway Sulphur Springs, Fenholloway, Taylor County.
Flamingo Spring Water Company, Orange City, Volnsia County.
Good Hope Mineral Water, Riverside, Jacksonville, Duval County.
Gr- --ock Mineral Water Company, Miami, Dade County.
Hampton Springs, Hampton Springs, Taylor County.
Heilbronn Spring, Starke, Bradford County.
Purity Springs Water Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
Saint Nicholas Mineral Springs, South Jacksonville, Duval County.
Su-no-wa Springs, Bryeeville, Nassau County.
Wizzard Water, Palatka, Putnam County.
PEAT.

Three plants reported production of peat during 1924. The
total output amounted to 2,758 short tons valued at $23,928. The
peat marketed was sold as a nitrogenous fertilizer filler.

COMPANIES REPORTING PEAT PRODUCTION, 1924.
Ammoniate Products Corporation, 2 Rector St. New York and Fellsmere
Florida.
Dundee Fertilizer Company, I. Berner, Lessee, 1407 Marion Street, Tampa and
Dundee, Florida.
Florida Humus Company, 14 Wall Street, New York and Zellwood, Florida.








STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1924 15

PHOSPHATE.

The Florida phosphate industry for 1924 showed a decline
both in production and value as compared to 1923. The total
quantity sold decreased five per cent and the value 12 per cent.
The reported total production for Florida for 1924 was 2,432,581
long tons valued at $8,017,476. Of the total domestic production
Florida is credited with. having sold 85 per cent. States, other
than Florida, reporting production in 1924 were Tennessee, Ken-
tucky, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.

Practically all the hard rock phosphate produced is exported.
According to statistics the quantity sold from the hard rock field
decreased 28 per cent and the value 41 per cent. The increased
production of phosphate in European countries, particularly
northern Africa, is largely accountable for the decrease indicated.

In the land pebble field conditions were somewhat better
than in the hard rock, although below normal. The decrease in
quantity of pebble rock sold amounted to 2 per cent and in value
8 per cent. The competition of foreign phosphate does not so
directly affect, the land pebble rock as the hard rock since large
quantities of the former phosphate are used domestically. In
1924 the land pebble rock amounted to 94 per cent of the total
Florida production.

The following table gives the production and value of Florida
phosphate rock from 1900 to 1924, inclusive. Since the beginning
of phosphate mining in 1888 to the close of 1924 Florida has
produced 49,058,753 long tons with a total valuation of $192,-
174,145. These figures are in accordance with statistics collected
by the United States Geological Survey and the Florida Geological
Survey.










PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN FLORIDA, 1900-1924.

(Long Tons)

Land Pebble Hard Rock River Pebble Soft Rock Total
Year Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

1900....| 221,403 $ 612,703 424,977 $2,229,373 59,863 $ 141,236 ................ $.......... 706,243 $ 2,983,312
1901.... 247,454 660,702 457,568 2,393,080 46,974 105,691 ................ ................ 751,996 3,159,473
1902.... 350,991 810,792 429,384 1,743,694 5,055 9,711 ................ ................ 785,430 2,564,197
1903.... 390,882 885,425 412,876 1,988,243 56,578 113,156 ................................ 860,336 2,986,824
1904.... 460,834 1,102,993 531,081 2,672,184 81,030 199,127 ............. ................ 1,072,951 3,974,304
1905.... 528,587 1,045,113 577,672 2,993,732 87,847 213,000 ............. ................ 1,194,106 4,251,845
1906.... 675,444 2,029,202 587,598 3,440,276 41,463 116,000 ............. ................ 1,304,505 5,585,578
1907.... 675,024 2,376,261 646,156 4,065,375 36,185 136,121 ................ ................ 1,357,365 6,577,757
1908.... 1,085,199 3,885,041 595,743 4,566,018 11,160 33,480 ............. ............... 1,692,102 8,484,539
1909.... 1,266,117 4,514,968 513,585 4,026,333 ................ ................ ............... ................ 1,779,702 8,541,301
1910.... 1,629,160 5,595,947 438,347 3,051,827 ................ ................ ................ ................ 2,067,507 8,647,774
1911.... 1,992,737 6,712,189 443,511 2,761,449 (a) (a) ............... .................. 2,436,248 9,473,638
1912.... 1,913,418 6,168,129 493,481 3,293,168 (a) (a) ................ .............. 2,406,899 9,461,297
1913.... 2,055,482 6,575,810 489,794 2,987,274 (a) (a) ................................ 2,545,276 9,563,084
1914.... 1,829,202 5,442,547 309,689 1,912,197 (a) (a) ............. ................ 2,138,891 7,354,744.
1915.... 1,308,481 3,496,501 50,130 265,738 ................ ................ ................ ................ 1,358,611 3,762,239
1916.... 1,468,758 3,874,410 47,087 295,755 ................................. (b) (b) 1,515,845 4,170,165
1917.... 2,003,991 5,305,127 18,608 159,366 ............... ................ (b) (b) 2,022,599 5,464,493
1918.... 1,996,847 5,565,928 62,052 377,075 ................ ................ 8,331 147,103 2,067,230 6,090,106
1919.... 1,360,235 5,149,048 285,467 2,452,563 ................ ................ 14,498 196,318 1,660,200 7,797,929
1920.... 2,955,182 14,748,620 400,249 4,525,191 ................ ................ 13,953 190,551 3,369,384 19,464,362
1921.... 1,599,835 8,604,818 175,774 1,806,671 ........... ................ 4,419 20,153 1,780,028 10,431,642
1922.... 1,870,063 7,035,821 188,084 1,308,201 .............. ................ 446 3,500 2,058,593 8,347,522
1923.... 2,348,137 7,987,752 199,516 1,071,675 ................ ................ ............... ................ 2,547,653 9,059,427
1924.... 2,289,466 7,387,897 143,115 629,579 ................ ................ ................ ................ 2,432,581 8,017,476
(a) Included in land pebble.
(b) Included in hard rock.












STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1924 17

PHOSPHATE MINING COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION 1924,
American Agricultural Chemical Co.....2 Rector St., New York City, and Pierce, Fla.
American Cyanamid Co.......................511 Fifth Ave., New York City, and Brews.
ter, Florida.
Armour Fertilizer Co.............................209 W. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111. and
Bartow, Fla.
J. Buttgenbach Co...................................22 Ave., Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and
Dunnellon, Fla.
C. & J. Camp.............................................O... cala, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co...........................99 John St, New York City and Plant City,
Fla.
Cummer Lumber Co...............................453 St. James Building, Jacksonville and
Newberry, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co .........................106 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Dunnellon,
Fla.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corp...........P. 0. Box 1118, Norfolk, Va., and Bartow,
Fla.
Independent Chemical Co., Inc.............33 Pine St., New York City and Bowling
Green, Fla.
International Agricultural Corp...........61 Broadway, New York City and Mulberry,
Fla.
Loncala Phosphate Co............................O...cala and Floral City, Fla.
Mutual Mining Co..................................1...02 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Floral
City, Fla.
Morris Fertilizer Co................................801 Citizens & Southern Bank Building,
Atlanta, Ga., and Bartow, Fla.
Phosphate Mining Co............................ 110 Williams St., New York City and
Nichols, Fla.
Peninsular Phosphate Corp.........215 Fourth Ave. New York City and Fort
Meade, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Coa.. Inverness, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Corp......................25 Broad St., New York City and Lakeland,
Fla.
Swift & Co................................................ Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill., and Bar-
tow, Fla.

SAND AND GRAVEL.

The sand and gravel industries made continued increases
for 1924. The total production for the year was 645,917 short
tons valued at $375,853, which is an increase in output of 25.9 per
cent and in value of 29.6 per cent over 1923.

COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION OF SAND AND GRAVEL, 1924.
Acme Sand Company, Eustis, Lake County.
P. M. Carlisle, Panama City, Bay County.
Escambia Sand & Gravel Corporation, Tarzen, Escambia County.
Florida East Coast Railroad, St. Lucie County.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee, Gadsden County.
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Lake Wales, Polk County.
Interlachen Gravel Company, Interlachen, Putnam County.
Lake Weir Crystal Sand Company, Ocala, Marion County.
Leesburg Sand & Supply, Leesburg, Lake County.











18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Muscle Shoals, Birmingham & Pensacola Rwy., Pensacola, Escambia County.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana, Gadsden County.
Tampa Sand & Shell Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
SAND-LIME BRICK.

Sand-lime brick have been produced in Florida for a number
of years and their use in recent years is increasing particularly in
peninsular Florida. The quantity produced during 1924, according
to statistics by the Bureau of Census, was 18,706,000 valued at
$200,535 or an average of $10.72 per thousand.
COMPANIES REPORTING, PRODUCTION SAND-LIME BRICK, 1924.
Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen, Volusia County.
Palm Beach Brick & Supply Co., West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County.
Plant City Brick Company, Plant City, Hillsborough County.





























Fig. 1. Exposure of Ocala limestone, near Duncan, Washington County.















SUMMARY OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA FOR 1921, 1922, 1923 AND 1924.

1921 1922 1923 1924
Mineral Products
Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
I II
Phosphate (Long tons) I i
Land pebble ..................... 1,599,8351$ 8,604,8181 1,870,063 $ 7,035,821 2,348,137 $ 7,987,752 2,289,466 $ 7,387,897
Hard rock ........................................ 175,7741 1,806,6711 188,084 1,308,201 199,516 1,071,675 143,115 629,579 0
Soft rock ................................................ 4,4191 20,1531 4461 3,500 ... .....................I .. ........... .................
Total Phosphates ................. 1,780,0281 10,431,6421 2,058,5931$ 8,347,522 2,547,653 $ 9,059,427 2,432,681 $ 8,017,476 n
Ball Clay, Fuller's Earth, Peat, Zir- 0
con, Ilmenite (Short tons) .......... 86,294 1,504,574 107,684 $ 1,666,260 115,990 $ 1,782,718 122,786 $ 1,860,847
Lime, Limestone and Flint (Short I
tons) .............. ................................ 589,3591 638,272 824,150 857,913 1,507,999 1,572,768 2,987,951 3,097,703
Common Brick, Pottery, Tile and
Sand-Lime Brick ..... ................ ... ..... 286,522 .............. 368,149 .............. 393,323 .............. 452,053 0
Sand and Gravel (Short tons) .......... 160,4451 97,3241 246,849! 147,9241 513,245 290,082 645,917 375,853 z
Mineral Waters (Gallons) .............. 321,472 28,365 1,004,984 57,305 1,697,197 131,781 1,861,897 135,357 0

Total Value .................................. |12,986,6991 1$11,445,0731 1$13,230,0991 1|13,939,289 0













20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


Fig. 2. Hardwood forest on red clay soil, about seven miles northwest of Marianna, Jackson
County. (R. M. H.)




























HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION IN FLORIDA

AND DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SOIL MAP

ROLAND M. HARPER
















HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION IN FLORIDA AND
DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SOIL MAP.



ROLAND M. HARPER.



SYNOPSIS
HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
Previous to 1880
Tenth Census investigations (Smith and others)
Wiley, Persons, Whitney and others, 1891 to 1904
Soil surveys and other government publications
Work of the State Geological Survey
Publications of the writer, 1914.1921
Florida Experiment Station bulletin, 1925
EXPLANATION OF PRESENT MAP
Methods of presentation
Limitations
Errors on the map
Generalized soil types described
CONCLUSION
Ever since Florida has been a part of the United States its
soils have attracted considerable attention from explorers and
settlers, on account of being so different from those of most other
parts of the country. As the greater part of the state has been
covered with natural vegetation practically up to the present time,
and the agricultural value of the different soils is indicated pretty
well by the vegetation, it long ago became customary to describe
soils in terms of vegetation.
One of the earliest attempts to classify the soils of Florida was
made over 100 years ago by Charles Vignoles, an English engineer.
in his book "Observations upon the Floridas" (199 pp., New York,
1823). He told very little about the soil itself, but described the
flat pine lands, elevated pine lands, low and high hammocks, oak
and hickory lands, scrub lands, savannas, swamps, "galls," and
marshes.










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


Col. John Lee Williams, in his two valuable books, "A view
of West Florida,"' (Philadelphia, 1827), and "Territory of
Florida" (New York, 1837), had some similar matter, but em-
phasized the vegetation more than the soil, and apparently over-
looked the scrub entirely.
An article by L. D. Stickney, entitled "Florida Soil, Climate
and Productions," on pages 59-65 of the report of the United
States Commissioner of Agriculture for 1862, is too short to be of
much importance, but is interesting on account of having been pub-
lished during the Civil War.
As soon as possible after the war the state began advertising
to attract settlers, and in 1873 published a 160-page "Immigrants'
Guide," by Dennis Eagan, Commissioner of Lands and Immigra-
tion, which naturally mentioned soils incidentally.
The Tenth United States census, of 1880, under Gen. Francis
A. Walker, director, and Dr. E. W. Hilgard, our greatest 19th cen-
tury authority on soils, made a special investigation of the cotton
industry, which necessitated a more complete inventory of the agri-
cultural resources of the South than had ever been attempted be-
fore, and stimulated several different people to prepare general
descriptions or handbooks of various southern states, most of
which were published before the regular census volumes, some of
them by the federal government and some by the state. The Flor.
ida one, by George B. Carse and James H. Foss (with a chapter on
trees by Dr. A. W. Chapman of Apalachicola) comprised 82 pages,
and was published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1882
(afterwards listed as Report 21). A narrative of a trip from
Jacksonville to Kissimmee, Tampa, Cedar Keys, etc., with the title
"Observations on the Soils and Products of Florida," by William
Saunders, was published in 1883, as Special Report No. 62 of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The investigation of the cotton industry in Florida for the
Tenth census was conducted by Dr. Eugene A. Smith, who was
(and still is) state geologist of Alabama; and it included what may
be said to be the first scientific study of the soils of the state. He
spent about six weeks in Florida, in the summer of 1880, and made









24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

good use of previous literature, such as the works of J. L. Williams
above mentioned. Incidentally he made some important geologi-
cal discoveries, which were published in the American Journal
of Science in 1881. His cotton report covers 83 quarto pages,
with three full-page maps, in the 6th volume of the Tenth census,
published in 1884.
In that report the state was divided into several natural re-
gions, which were described as to soil, vegetation, agriculture, etc.,
and each county was treated in a similar manner, with the aid of
several local correspondents. There were also pretty full chemi-
cal analyses of seven soil samples and a few marls and phos-
phatic rocks, all made under Dr. Smith's direction by the methods
devised by Dr. Hilgard. The colored agricultural map of the
state was based primarily on vegetation and topography, but re-
mained for many years the nearest approach to a state soil map.
Curiously enough, the scrub was overlooked by Dr. Smith, as it
was by Col. Williams.
A brief report on the muck lands around Lakes Tohopekaliga
and Okeechobee, with a few chemical analyses, by Dr. H. W.
Wiley, chief chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, ap-
peared in the report of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1891, and
has been quoted in full or in part in some later publications.
Bulletin 43 of the Florida Experiment Station, by A. A.
Persons (1897), is mostly devoted to chemical analyses of soils
from many parts of the state, but the samples were collected by
several different persons, apparently mostly without previous ex-
perience or adequate instructions, and some of them are not de-
scribed sufficiently to show just what type of soil they represent.
And the author was out of the state for several weeks while the
bulletin was going through the press, and the analyses contain so
many inconsistencies as to suggest either careless computation by
the young men who did the work, or typographical errors, or both.*
One of the most interesting 19th century publications on our
soils is Bulletin 13 of the Division (now Bureau) of Soils of the


*See our 13th Annual Report, p. 188.










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


U. S. Department of Agriculture, "A Preliminary Report on the
Soils of Florida," by Milton Whitney (chief of the division), with
31 pages, 3 text-figures and 6 plates, published in 1898. The
author made a brief reconnaissance in January, 1897, and did not
try to cover the whole state, but described some of the red lands
near Quincy, the pine lands of the peninsula (including flatwoods
and first, second and third quality high pine land), the hammock
lands near Fort Meade, and the scrub of the lake region and east
coast. His bulletin contains probably the first "mechanical"
analyses* of Florida soils ever published, and a few chemical
analyses and moisture determinations.
In H. S. Elliot's (anonymous) handbook of Florida, pub-
lished by the State Agricultural Department in 1904, eight pages
(156-164) are devoted to soils, which are divided in the traditional
manner into first, second and third class pine lands, swamps, and
hammocks, with no mention of scrub. A "General Classification of
Florida Soils," presumably by the same author, appeared on pages
35-49 of the 11th Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, in 1911, and went into a little more detail, describing
first, second and third class pine lands, swamps, Everglades, low
hammocks, high hammocks, and prairies.
During the present century the U. S. Bureau of Soils has
made detailed surveys of several counties and similar areas in
Florida, and published the results in their annual reports of
"Field Operations," with a colored map of each county on a scale
of an inch to the mile, and several pages of descriptive text. In
these reports the soils are divided first into "series," based on
origin, color, moisture, etc., with geographical names, usually
taken from some place or county where the soil was first studied
(such as Norfolk, Orangeburg, Gainesville, Leon, Gadsden, St.
Lucie, etc.), and then into types or texture classes, such as fine
sand, clay loam, etc. There are also a few miscellaneous classes
not specified as to color and texture, such as swamp, muck, tidal

*A mechanical (or physical) analysis is made mostly by passing the soil
through a series of sieves, and determines the percentage of sand of different sizes,
silt, clay, etc. It is much more quickly made than a chemical analysis, and is
almost as useful, for as a rule the fertility of a soil is approximately proportional
t3 its fineness.










16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

marsh and coastal beach. Usually no chemical data are given,
but the earlier surveys gave mechanical analyses of most of the
types. The prevailing vegetation and crops of each type are
usually mentioned.
The first government soil survey made in Florida was that of
Gadsden County, by E. 0. Fippin and A. S. Root, published in
1905. About 18 others have been published since, and two others
are in progress, one of these having been assisted by local funds,
and the other by funds from the Geological Survey, appropriated


Fig. 3. Map of Florida showing areas that have been soil surveyed and
those in progress.










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


by the Legislature of 1925. Three soil surveys in which the
Geological Survey co-operated, namely, those of Bradford and
Pinellas Counties and the "Ocala area," were reprinted in our 7th
Annual Report in 1915. Part of the field work for the last-named
was done by Emil and Herman Gunter of this Survey, who pre-
pared at the same time a vegetation map of the whole area, which
was published, together with considerable additional matter about
the natural resources of the area that did not appear in the govern-
ment edition, particularly a study of the vegetation types by the
present writer.
In the twenty years and more that the government soil work
has been going on in Florida only about one-third of the state has
been covered, and even if the funds now provided for co-operation
by this Survey should make it possible to map two counties every
year, it would still take over twenty years longer to finish the work.
A few other government publications which give a little infor-
mation about Florida soils may be mentioned here. Bulletins 55,
78, 85 and 96 of the U. S. Bureau of Soils contain generalized
soil maps of the whole United States or the eastern half of it, but
do not show much detail for Florida. Part 5, Section A, of the
Atlas of American Agriculture, published by the Office of Farm
Management of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1919
(erroneously dated Dec. 15, 1918), devoted to cotton, contains a
colored soil map of the cotton states, showing eight types in Florida
(based partly on the observations of the present writer, who was
working in the Office of Farm Management while the map was in
preparation). A very similar map appeared in "Soils and Agri-
culture of the Southern States," an independent book by H. H.
Bennett of the U. S. Bureau of Soils, published in 1921.*
The Florida Agricultural Department and Experiment Station
have published several other bulletins on soils besides those here
mentioned, but mostly dealing with particular types of soil and
their management rather than with geographical distribution.
Soils have received considerable attention in the previous
reports of this Survey, being mentioned incidentally at least in
*Reviewed in the Geographical Review (New York) 11:634-635. Oct. 1921.










28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT
nearly every volume. The second annual report, published about
the end of 1909, which is mostly devoted to a study of the geology
of the state by G. C. Matson and F. G. Clapp, contains about 31/2
pages on soils. In a report on the water supply of eastern Florida
by Sellards and Gunter, in the third annual report, there is a short
chapter on soils, with half-tone illustrations of the vegetation of
flatwoods, scrub, high pine land, Everglades, prairies, hammocks,
old dunes, etc. Nearly half of that volume corisists of a pre-
liminary report on peat by the present writer; and although the
peat was considered mostly from the standpoint of fuel, its use as
a soil to grow crops in was discussed on pages 310-312. The soils
of different parts of the state were mentioned incidentally in the
regional descriptions.
In the fourth annual report (pp. 1-79, pl. 1-12, and map,
1912), Dr. E. H. Sellards discussed the soils of the state and their
origin, following in the main the old classification based on vege-
tation, but describing the various soils also, and quoting several
analyses from Persons and others. Much the same material, con-
densed, but with the addition of descriptions and a map of 18
natural regions, appeared in the 12th biennial report of the Florida
agricultural department (pp. 249-301), 1913. It was also re-
printed, with perhaps slight alterations, and usually. without the
map, in several subsequent publications of that department, mostly
as supplements to the Quarterly Bulletin.
In the sixth annual report (1914), the writer described the
soils, vegetation and other natural features of twenty regions in
Northern Florida, including numerous mechanical and chemical
analyses of soils, some copied from previous publications and
some new.
The vegetation map of the "Ocala area" in our seventh annual
report has been previously mentioned, under the head of govern-
ment publications.
In the monthly magazine Soil Science, for August, 1917
(vol. 2, pp. 9-107) the present writer published a preliminary
"soil census" of Alabama and West Florida, giving the prevailing
soil series and texture classes in each region, with tables of per-
centages, computed from the government soil surveys, which then










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


covered only two counties in West Florida (and none have been
added since), but a much larger proportion of the area of
Alabama. The commonest trees and estimated percentage of
evergreens, together with the proportion of improved land and ex-
penditure per improved acre for fertilizers in 1909-10 were also
given.
In the Quarterly Bulletin of the State Agricultural Depart-
ment for October, 1920 (published in November), the writer
contributed an article on the productivity of the soil of Florida,
with a small regional map of the state. That did not describe the
soils, but gave the principal expenditures, and the value of crops
and animal products, per improved acre, in each region that was
large enough; the object being to show that although Florida soils
are below the United States average in fertility, the crop yields in
most regions, and especially in the most sterile, are above the
average. It has been reprinted a few times since, usually in com-
bination with Dr. Sellards' classification of soils mentioned on the
preceding page.
In a study of the geography of central Florida, in our
thirteenth annual report (1921), the writer included a paragraph
on soils in each regional description, and a 24-page chapter on
soils, with descriptions, and several mechanical and chemical
analyses, some old and some new.
In July, 1925, the Florida Experiment Station published an
"Extension Bulletin," No. 42, on the soils of Florida, by 0. C.
Bryan, with 26 pages and 15 half-tone illustrations and a two-page
black and white map of the state. In that the soils were classified
in series, much as in the government soil surveys, and the crops
adapted to each series are mentioned. The soil map divides the
state into eight regions or soil groups, and bears considerable re-
semblance to Dr. Smith's 1884 map previously mentioned, which
was based on vegetation.
DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT MAP
About the same time, in response to many requests for infor-
mation about the soils of various parts of the state, which it took










30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

too long to answer by letter, the Geological Survey under-
took the preparation of a generalized soil map, which accompanies
this report.* The writer would have preferred to begin with a
smaller map, so that any discrepancies in parts of the state which
are not covered by detailed soil surveys and have not been
thoroughly explored would not be too conspicuous. But a base-
map with a scale of one to a million which had been used for our
geological map was still available, and it was cheaper to print the
soil colors on that than to make a new and smaller base-map.
Even if we had had detailed soil maps of every county, on a
scale of an inch to a mile (one to 63,360), it would have been im-
possible to show all the details on the state map, which has a scale
of about 16 miles to the inch. Consequently it was necessary to
generalize, and combine many different soil types. One method
of generalizing, which has been used on some reconnaissancee"
soil maps, is to combine all soils belonging to the same series.
But the series names would mean nothing to persons not familiar
with the publications of the U. S. Bureau of Soils, and the soils of
a single series may range all the way from sand to clay. Further-
more, even a series grouping would give many minute patches too
small to show on a state map, and the soils of the greater part of the
state have not yet been classified into series anyway.
The classification here used divides the soils of the state into
eleven groups, differing in texture, color, moisture and fertility.
The old vegetation terms have been avoided as far as possible, but
we could not very well discard them entirely without using some
awkward terminology. In the legend on the map the principal
vegetation of each group or area is noted in a few words, and the
fertility of the soil is indicated approximately by the percentage of
cultivated land. (These figures are revised a little in the text.)
Users of this map should bear constantly in mind the follow-
ing points.
1. No one person has been on every square mile of Florida,
and to examine the soils of the whole state in as much detail as is
done in the county soil surveys would be the task of a lifetime.
*Copies of it were first distributed about the middle of December, 1925.










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


Consequently there are large areas which have not yet been seen
by the writer and his associates (though we have been in every
county more than once), and the.mapping has had to be done partly
by guess (which can be said also of practically every geological,
topographic or other map). Almost any one who has lived in one
county a few years can find some inaccuracies in mapping in the
neighborhood that he knows better than we do, but at the same time
he can get some useful information about other parts of the state
that we are better acquainted with than he is. If not scrutinized
too closely this map ought to give the public a better idea of the
general distribution of the dry and damp, rich and poor soils of
Florida than any previous map does, and better than can be given
by many pages of description.

2. Every area mapped in one color contains small streaks
or patches of most of the other kinds of soil, some better and some
worse than the average, which cannot be shown on a map of this
size. So it would not be safe to use this map as a guide for buying
and selling small tracts of land without seeing them.

3. Very distinct types of soil often grade imperceptibly into
each other, but even if we had all the facts in the case it would be
impossible to blend the colors in the right way without enlisting
the services of highly skilled artists and engravers. So nearly all
the soil boundaries have necessarily been made pretty sharp,
though that does not correspond exactly with the facts.

A few minor inaccuracies which have been noted since the
map was published should be mentioned.

The black-and-white base map, originally prepared by the
U. S. Geological Survey, has a good deal of swamp symbol on it
for which we are not responsible, probably taken from the original
land surveys, made about 100 years ago. (But that symbol is
almost wanting in Wakulla, Liberty, and parts of adjoining coun-
ties, which were included in the Forbes Purchase, and not laid off
into townships and sections until some time later.) As the state
was almost uninhabited at that time, the surveyors may have
classed some land as swamp without seeing it; or perhaps some of









32 PLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

the work was done in wet weather, when some flat country was
inundated that we do not ordinarily call swamp.
The St. Augustine-Bunnell cut-off of the Florida East Coast
Ry., represented on the map by a dotted line, was completed and
in operation before the map was issued. The new line of the Sea-
board Air Line is represented as running about northwest and
southeast through Okeechobee City, but it really runs straight east
and west there, for a mile or two at least.
The boundary between Alachua and Levy Counties is shown
as following a crooked old road, although it was adjusted to
section lines by the legislature of 1909. A new county, Gilchrist,
was formed from the western portion of Alachua in November,
1925, too late to show on this map. The Dry Tortugas, small
islands about 65 miles west of Key West, were accidentally left off.
The name of the Ocklawaha River, in Marion County, is mis-
spelled "Oklawaha" (a practice which seems to be increasing in
recent years, but is regrettable, for it tends to give a wrong idea of
the pronunciation). "Falatlakaha," a creek in Lake County, should
be Palatlakaha, and "Contoohatchee," a small river or creek in
Orange and Seminole Counties, should be Econlockhatchee. The
Hillsborough River, in the county of that name, should have been
spelled the same way as the county.
The engravers accidentally omitted one of the elementary
colors from the western half of the coast of Wakulla County arnd
from Marco Island and Cape Romano, in Collier County, making
them green instead of yellowish brown (color No. 11).
The light yellow color (deep dry sand) around Auburndale
should have been extended northward to include Polk City. At the
time the color part of the map was drawn we knew that Polk City
was in that kind of country, but it is such a new place that the old
base-map on which the colors were drawn did not show its location,
and we guessed it to be farther south than it is.
Some of No. 8 (limestone) should probably have been put in
Collier County and the northern part of Monroe, and some of No.
9 (marl) in the southern part of the Everglades; but those sections










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


are so little known that we are not yet able to indicate the soil
boundaries very well.
The various soil types or groups will now be described more
fully than was possible on the map itself.
1. Deep Dry Sand. This has an area of about 9,000 square
miles, or 15% of the total, and corresponds approximately with
the high pine land (of the peninsula) of the older classifications,
or the two lake regions (West Florida and peninsular), Bellair
sand region, Panacea country, and peninsular lime-sink region,
which have been described by the writer in previous reports of this
Survey. A typical section shows three feet or more of loose cream-
colored more or less loamy fine sand, resting sometimes on sandy
reddish clay and sometimes on limestone or phosphate rock. Usu-
ally the topography is undulating, the ground-water far below the
surface, and swamps and streams scarce, though lakes and ponds
are common in some portions. In plowed fields the sand is some-
times blown about a little by winter winds, but the damage from
that cause is negligible.
Where the clay is near enough to the surface to be reached by
tree roots, or mixed with the sand in larger proportions, the soil is
darker and more fertile, and approaches that of the hammock
belts. At the other extreme the sand is nearly white, and very
p or. The latter phase would deserve to be mapped separately,
but for the fact that it is usually in very narrow strips or small
patches, except in the Ocala National Forest, and that is almost
uninhabited, and the boundaries of the white sand at present
unknown. The white phase is also common in Highlands County,
but its boundaries are less distinct there than they are farther north,
and we have not yet explored that county sufficiently to map it
accurately.
The typical vegetation of the deep dry sand is open forests of
long-leaf pine, with a few oaks about half as tall as the pines, and
an undergrowth of wire-grass and other herbs. The richer portions
have more red oak and other hardwood trees, and areas protected
from fire by being wholly or partly surrounded by water usually










34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

have hammock vegetation.* The white sand has a very character-
istic vegetation known as scrub, consisting of :spruce pine, many
evergreen shrubs, and very little grass. (This is mostly east and
south of Ocala.) Salamanders are common in the deep dry sand,
except in the scrub areas, and gophers are frequent., These and
other animals doubtless help materially in keeping the soil
*stirred up.
Before the :days of commercial fertilizers, say. about fifty
years ago, probably not more than 5 % of this soil was cultivated.
By 1920 the amount of cultivated land was something like 20%,
ranging from about 40% in Suwannee County to 5% in Lake and
Highlands. Since 1920 the cultivated land has decreased north-
ward and increased southward, with the average remaining about
the same. The prevailing crops seem to be cotton, corn and peanuts
northward, 'and oranges and grapefruit southward. Probably
most of the oranges in the state are grown on this kind of soil.
2. Sandy Uplands With Clay Subsoil. This is chiefly con-
fined to West Florida, where it coincides approximately with the
pine hills and lime-sink region,f and covers about 7,000 square
miles. The soil is commonly a grayish sand or sandy loam, witi
clayey subsoil usually within a foot or two of the surface. In the
pine hills the topography is normally dissected, with valleys some-
times 50 feet deep, and running water on nearly every square mile;
but in the lime-sink region there are more shallow ponds than
streams. The upland vegetation is not very different in appearance
from that of the first type, though there are differences in com-
position that a botanist would quickly detect.
Very little could be raised on this soil without fertilizers, and
in 1880 less than one per cent of it was cultivated. By 1920 that
had, increased to about 5% in the pine bills and 10% in the lime-
sink region. The prevailing crops seem to be corn, cotton, sweet
potatoes and peanuts. Satsuma oranges and blueberries have
become popular in some sections in recent years, but we have no

*See our 7th Annual Report, page 165.
tFor descriptions of these regions see our 6th Annual Report, pp. 201-209.
229-241.










HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


satisfactory statistics for them yet. In Gadsden County tobacco
has been a favorite crop for some time.
3. Flatwoods With Clay or Hardpan Subsoil. This type of
soil is a grayish sand, usually so low and flat that it is damp most
of the time, and with clay or hardpan (a blackish material re-
sembling peat but with a much larger proportion of sand) within
two or three feet of the surface. The area is probably about 11,000
square miles, or one-fifth of the state. The clay subsoil is most
prevalent north of the latitude of Ocala, and the highest portions,
about 200 feet above sea-level, for example near Jasper and Lake
City, do not differ much from the second type, described above.
The relative extent of clay and hardpan cannot be determined
without extensive prospecting, for the vegetation seems to be about
the same on both. Shallow cypress ponds and sluggish streams
bordered by swamps, and fluctuating very little with the seasons,
are very common.
The natural vegetation is mostly long-leaf pine, with hardly
any oaks, and an undergrowth of saw-palmetto and various low
shrubs, grasses and herbs. In some places the saw-palmetto and
other shrubs are scarce or absent, and that is supposed to indicate
more clayey soil. Many water-loving trees occur in the ponds and
swamps, which occupy perhaps one-fifth of the area.
The proportion of cultivated land increased from about 2%
in 1880 to 5% in 1920. The principal crops, in order of value,
seem to be cotton, strawberries, corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes and
sugar-cane. Southward various vegetables and citrous fruits are
raised in certain localities.
4. Flatwoods With Calcareous or Phosphatic Subsoil. This
covers about one-fourth of the state, or 14,000 square miles, mostly
in the peninsula and within 50 feet of sea-level. It differs from the
preceding chiefly in its subsoil, but in many places the boundaries
between the two are very indefinite, because the country is thinly
settled and excavations deep enough to show the subsoil are scarce.
But the two types can often be separated by their vegetation, es-
pecially northwest of Lakeland. The calcareous phase, with many
small outcrops of limestone, is best developed in the Gulf Ham-
mock region, which borders the coast from St. Mark's to Tarpon










36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Springs, with an outlier in Sumter County; and the phosphatic
phase in the pebble phosphate country, in Polk County.
The vegetation of the calcareous and phosphatic flatwoods had
much the same aspect as that of the flatwoods with clay or hardpan
subsoil, but slash pine almost entirely replaces long-leaf south of
the latitude of Lake Okeechobee, and in swamps, hammocks, and
other low places are found many plants believed to be partial to
calcareous or phosphatic soils. Several hundred square miles of
this or the preceding type, or both, mostly in Okeechobee, High-
lands, Glades and DeSoto Counties, are devoid of trees, but have
about the same shrubs and herbs as the flatwoods.
The cultivated land at present amounts to about two per cent
in the flatwoods, but much less in the prairies, which are used
mostly for cattle ranges. Farming is rather intensive, and there
is a considerable variety of crops, especially in the southern por-
tions, where it is profitable to raise early vegetables for the
northern markets.
5. Miscellaneous Hammocks. This is a heterogeneous
area of about 3,000 square miles, corresponding approximately
with the Middle Florida, Ocala, Brooksville and Manatee ham.
mock regions, with a considerable variety of soils, ranging frorl
black waxy calcareous uplands to sour sandy flatwoods, but these
varieties are mostly in patches too small to show separately o0
the map. The vegetation is as diversified as the soil.
On the whole this group is above the state average in fertility.
It is difficult to estimate the proportion of cultivated land from
county statistics, but it is probably not far from 15%. In Middle
Florida (i. e., between the Apalachicola and Suwannee Rivers) the
crops are mostly those common in the South, such as corn, cotton,
tobacco, peanuts, sweet potatoes and sugar-cane; but farther south
there is more specialization, especially in Manatee County, where
large quantities of celery, tomatoes, peppers, egg-plants and grape-
fruit are produced.
6. Red Loam, Non-calcareous. This comprises a few hun-
dred square miles of red "clay" hills in the northern part of the









HISTORY OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


state, mostly in Walton and Gadsden Counties, and not very
different from some of the red hills of southern Georgia and
Alabama. The hills do not rise above the surrounding country,
but are rather dissected slopes, with plenty of swift streams. The
red soil is best seen on slopes, but there is a good deal of sand in
level places, both uplands and lowlands. The vegetation is mostly
various pines and oaks, making denser forests than in the typical
long-leaf pine country.
The area is probably about one-fourth cultivated, mostly in
common southern crops with rather low yields per acre; but there
is considerable tobacco in Gadsden County, and that brings a
higher price than the other crops, because it requires more labor.
7. Red Loam, Calcareous or Phosphatic. This soil is super-
ficially similar to the preceding, but differs in having limestone or
phosphatic rock not far from the surface, and cropping out in many
places. The calcareous and phosphatic phases, each about 500
square miles in extent, could have been separated pretty well if it
had been feasible to use one more color. The calcareous pha -e is
chiefly confined to the Marianna red lands of Jackson Count3, and
the phosphatic to Holmes Valley in Washington County and the
Tallahassee red hills in Leon (also extending a few miles ;ato
Jefferson County and Georgia.)
The vegetation includes short-leaf pines, several oaks, and
many other trees, about half of them deciduous, making rather
dense forests, in which shrubs and herbs are not conspicuous.
Before the days of commercial fertilizers this was the chief
agricultural soil in Florida. In 1880 Jackson, Leon and Jefferson
Counties together had nearly one-third of the cultivated land in the
state, as compared with about one-sixth in 1925. In 1880 about
one-fourth the area of the Marianna red lands and half the Talla-
hassee red hills was cultivated, and the proportion is probably
no greater today. There are also many old fields and pastures,
gradually reverting to forest. In Leon County in 1919-20 the ex-
penditure for fertilizer was only 20 cents per improved acre; and
as most of that was doubtless used in the sandy parts of the county,
the rate in the red hills must have been much less. In fact over
seven-eighths of the farmers reported no fertilizer at all. The










38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

principal crops seem to be cotton, corn, pecans, peanuts, sieet
potatoes, sugar-cane and cow-peas.
8. Limestone. In Dade County and on the Keys, and prob-
ably also in southern Collier and northern Monroe, with smaller
areas in Citrus, Marion, Jackson, and a few other counties, lime-
stone crops out at the surface, or is covered only by a thin layer of
sand, marl or humus. The total area in which the soil is dominated
by limestone, too near the surface and too compact to plow, is per-
haps 500 square miles. In Dade and Collier Counties the pre-
vailing vegetation on the limestone is slash pine and saw-palmetto,
much as in the sandy flatwoods a little farther north, but there are
many tropical hammocks in Dade, and the vegetation of the Keys
is mostly hammock. The small limestone areas in the northern
half of the state are mostly covered with dense forests of a warm-
temperate type. The census of 1880 found no farms in Dade
County, although it was much larger then than now. At present
about 10% of the limestone area is cultivated. As it is almost
impossible to use plows there, there are few annual crops, and
grape-fruit, oranges, limes, mangoes, avocadoes, and other tropi-
cal tree fruits are preferred.
9. Marl. The largest continuous body of marl in Florida is
at the south end of the mainland, constituting the coast prairie,
about 100 square miles in extent. Probably much of the south
end of the Everglades could be put in the same category, and
there are small areas on the Keys, and in many parts of the cal-
careous flatwoods. The small area mapped as marl a few miles
west of Fort Pierce seems to be much less calcareous than the
coast prairie, but it has been very little studied, and its boundaries
have been located mostly by guess.
The vegetation on the marl is mostly grasses and sedges, with
scattered cypress trees in some places, and mangroves and other
tropical hardwoods near the coast. On account of being low and
flat and subject to inundation by high tides or heavy rains, only
about one per cent of the marl is cultivated. Early tomatoes are
an important crop around the edges of the limestone pine land in
Dade County, and sugar-cane was formerly raised near Cape
Sable.










HISTORY: OF SOIL INVESTIGATION.


10. Muck. This includes the Everglades, several smaller
areas shown on the map, and innumerable areas too small to map,
in practically 'every county, with a total area of perhaps 6,000
square miles. It varies from pretty pure peat several yards deep
to very shallow peat mixed with sand or marl. The vegetation of
the Everglades is mostly saw-grass and other rush-like plants, and
there is a little salt marsh along the coasts, but the other muck
areas are mostly covered with trees and shrubs, among which one
or more species of cypress, bay or black gum is usually present.
Being saturated with water in the natural state, the muck
cannot be cultivated until it is drained, and not more than two
per cent of it seems to be under cultivation at present. It often
contains an abundance of nearly. every essential soil constituent
except potash, which has to be supplied artificially before many
crops can be raised. The principal crops are vegetables of various
kinds, but almost everything that is grown in Florida has been
grown on muck to some extent.
11. Miscellaneous Coast Soils. Along the Atlantic and
Gulf coasts there are narrow strips of beaches, dunes, marshes,
hammocks, and mangrove swamps, too small to separate from each
other on a state map, and mostly having very little agricultural
value. The vegetation is as diversified as the soil, and mostly ever-
green (as on poor soils generally). The total area may be 2,000
square miles.
Some of the calcareous hammocks near the coast in Volusia
County were cultivated by Dr. Turnbull's colony of Minorcans
over 150 years ago, and it is said that in 1772 they had about
3,000 acres planted in indigo (a crop long since abandoned in
this country). In the last 25 or 30 years, since the building of the
Florida East Coast Ry., some of the old dunes from Brevard
County southward have been cleared and intensively cultivated in
citrus fruits, pineapples, etc., with high yields per acre, but re-
quiring large expenditures for labor and fertilizers, and for rent
or interest on the land, which is held at fancy prices on account
of its proximity to railroads and cities.










40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

CONCLUSION
Many people who have never been in Florida seem to have
the impression that the state is mostly swamp. According to the
estimates above given, the flatwoods, muck, marl and other level
areas together constitute about 33,000 square miles, leaving about
22,000 square miles of rolling or hilly uplands. (These figures
include the shallow ponds, but not the thousands of lakes.) The
amount of swamp in the uplands is very small, but the muck, marl,
and other soils perpetually saturated or subject to inundation
probably constitute about one-fifth of the total land area of the
state.
About 80% of the area could be classed roughly as sand,
3% as red clay, and 12% as muck, and the remainder mostly marl
and limestone.
Although Florida has some patches of very rich soil, the
average fertility is probably less than in any other state in the
Union. The cultivated or improved land constituted less than
2% in 1880, and in 1920 it was only 6.5%, which was less than
in any other state except some of the western ones which have very
fertile soil but not enough water to irrigate much of it. And the
amount of cultivated land-and other farm land-was about the
same in 1925 as in 1920, in spite of a 30% increase of population
in the interval.
Potash is the chief lack in most of our soils, on account of the
remoteness from igneous rocks and shales, and the heavy summer
rains. The expenditure for fertilizers per improved acre in Florida
amounted to $4.50 in 1919-20 (as compared with 65 cents in the
whole United States) and $5.54 in 1924-25.
But soil fertility has very little to do with agricultural pros-
perity, and the value of crops per acre in Florida has long been
above the U. S. average, and in 1925 the value of the average farm
in Florida was above the United States average, in spite of the fact
that nearly one-fourth of our farmers are negroes. And some of
our poorest farmers are on the richest soils, and vice versa.




























ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA

HERMAN GUNTER











ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


HERMAN GUNTER

The following elevations in Florida is a revision of a list pub-
lished in the Twelfth Annual Report of the Florida Geological
Survey, pages 9-66, 1919. The present list, however, is very much
enlarged mainly by the addition of the results of leveling in
Florida by the United States Geological Survey, the United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey, the United States War Department
Engineers, by surveys made under the direction of the Chief
Engineer of the Everglades Drainage District, and by the addition
of elevations as determined by the various railroads since the
former list was published.
The elevations from the railroad surveys are either taken
direct from the profiles, or given as submitted to the Florida
Geological Survey through the courtesy of the Chief Engineer of
the different railroads, or as published in the Fifth Annual Report
of this Survey, 1913, taken from the Dictionary of Altitudes,
Bulletin 274, United States Geological Survey. The precise levels
which have been determined by the United States Geological
Survey and by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey were
obtained from Bulletin 516 of the United States Geological Survey
and through correspondence with the Director of the United States
Geological Survey and the Superintendent of the United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. The levels made
by the War Department United States Engineers, are obtained
from surveys as follows: Preliminary Survey for a Ship Canal
from the St. Marys River to the Gulf of Mexico, made in 1879;
Survey of the St. Johns River to Charlotte Harbor, by way of Lake
Tohopekaliga, for the purpose of steamboat communication,
Appendix J. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1882;
Survey of the Kissimmee River, Florida and Connecting Lakes
and Canals flowing into Lake Okeechobee thence down the Caloosa-
hatchee River to the Gulf of Mexico, 1899, and from blue print
lists of elevations furnished by the United States Engineer's office,









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Jacksonville, as follows: Bench marks established by War Depart-
ment Survey of 1909 between Fernandina and Miami along the
Florida Coast Line Canal; tracings describing bench marks along
the St. Johns River from Palatka to Lake Harney, established
under the direction of the United States District Engineer, Jackson-
ville District, during different years from 1891 to 1918; blue
print sheets describing bench marks on the west coast of Florida,
as follows: Boca Ciega Bay, Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay,
Manatee River, Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor and Caloosahat-
chee River. From the War Department, U. S. Engineer, Mont-
gomery District, were obtained blue prints showing location and
elevation of bench marks along the Chattahoochee and Apalachi-
cola Rivers.
The abbreviations used in giving the authority for the eleva-
tions are as follows: U. S. G. S. (United States Geological Sur-
vey) ; U. S. C. & G. S. (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey);
U. S. Army Engrs. (United States Army Engineers); Ever. Drain.
Engrs. (Engineers of the Everglades Drainage District); A. N. R.
R. (Apalachicola Northern Railroad); A. & St. A. B. Ry. (Atlanta
and St. Andrews Bay Railway); A. C. L. R. R. (Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad); C. H. & N. Ry. (Charlotte Harbor and Northern
Railway, now the Seaboard Air Line Railway); F. E. C. Ry.
(Florida East Coast Railway); G. F. & A. Ry. (Georgia, Florida
and Alabama Railway); G. S. & F. Ry. (Georgia Southern and
Florida Railway); L. & N. R. R. (Louisville and Nashville Rail-
road); M. & B. R. R. (Marianna and Blountstown Railroad); S. A.
L. Ry. (Seaboard Air Line Railway); F. Ry. (Florida Railway,
now abandoned); Fellsmere R. R. (Fellsmere Railroad). The
elevation given for the various towns, unless otherwise stated, is
that of the base of the rail opposite the depot of the railroad cited
as authority.
In addition to the above one elevation, that for Iron Mountain,
on the property of the Mountain Lake Corporation, near Lake
Wales, Polk County, was determined by private survey for the
corporation mentioned under the direction of Olmstead Brothers,
Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass. This topographic survey
was made in 1916 by W. N. Brown, Civil Engineer, Washington,










44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

D. C. The datum used was an Atlantic Coast Line Railroad bench
mark near Lake Wales which was assumed to be referred to mean
sea level.* The highest point surveyed was Iron Mountain which
was found to have an elevation of 324.3 feet, and is the highest
elevation in Florida of which record has been obtained.
Comparable to this is the elevation given for Round Lake,
Jackson County, which according to the profile of the Atlanta and
St. Andrews Bay Railway, is 322 feet above sea. This particular
elevation is apparently the top of the hill just north of the town
and not the base of the rail opposite the railroad station. Other
hills in the vicinity, it is estimated, are somewhat higher than the
one for which the elevation is given. In other sections of Florida
the claim is also made for record elevations, as for instance, the
hill regions of Pasco, Hernando, Lake and Madison counties. To
determine the question as to the highest point in Florida, a recon-
naissance of these known high areas would be necessary, probably
even necessitating the running of a stadia line from nearby rail-
roads. This completed, a checked spirit level line should be run
from the nearest bench mark or other established point to which-
ever location seems to be the higher in the different regions. The
Florida Geological Survey, owing to lack of funds, has not been in
a position to do this character of work directly or in co-operation
with the U. S. Geological Survey. Co-operation with the latter
agency can be entered into upon the basis of any equal expenditure
of funds. Lacking such funds, the Florida Survey, in response
to the many inquiries, has revised its pamphlet containing a list of
the elevations in Florida as determined by the several agencies
credited as authority. The booklet is not issued with a view to
settling any disputes as to the highest point in Florida, but with
the thought in mind of giving to the engineers of the State, as well
as all others interested, as complete a compilation of elevations as
was possible.
DATUM.
Those elevations credited to the United States Geological
Survey and the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey are pre-
cise levels based on mean sea level. With respect to the elevations
*Correspondence November 1, 1925.









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


by the War Department, United States Engineer's Office, Jackson-
ville, those between Fernandina and Miami along the Florida Intra
Coastal Canal are based on a bench mark furnished by the U. b.
Coast and Geodetic Survey and understood to refer to mean low
water at Fernandina. Subsequent work has caused some doubt
as to the accuracy of these bench marks and consequently the Dis-
trict Engineer has recommended that they be used only for rough
work. The bench marks on the St. Johns River from Palatka to
Lake Harney are based on the plane of mean low water at Atlantic
Beach, established from a few observations of high and low water.
Readings by automatic guage are in progress so that it will be pos-
sible to establish a correct zero within a reasonable time and such
corrections as necessary can then be made to agree with the then
established plane. The benches established along the west coast
of Florida are referred to mean low water, Gulf datum. The
elevations by the Engineers of the Everglades Drainage District
are referred to mean low water, Atlantic datum and Gulf datum,
0 on the Gulf datum being equal to minus 1.37 feet on the Atlantic
datum. The datum for the Gulf of Mexico was taken at Punta
Rassa and that for the Atlantic Ocean at Stuart.
For the elevations determined by the various railroads it
must be borne in mind that these in most instances are only ap-
proximate,, since for the purpose of a railroad survey it is not
necessary to refer elevations to sea level. In fact it is not unusual
that the datum plane for a given survey is assumed, however, many
of the levels are referred to sea level. It is known that differences
in elevations by the same railroad for a given town at differ-
ent times, as well as differences in elevations by different railroads
for the same town, have been submitted. In the case of more than
one railroad entering the same town the difference in elevation can
frequently be explained by the difference in topographic location
of the depots. Wherever possible corrections have been made of
apparent differences in elevations as determined by one or more
railroads for the same town.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Grateful acknowledgment is here made of the uniformly
courteous co-operation of the Director of the United States Geolog-










46 FLCRIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

ical Survey, the Superintendent of the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey, -the United States Engineer Offices, War Depart-
ment, and the engineering departments of the several railroads
operating in Florida. In supplying the Florida Geological Survey
with detailed lists of elevations, with blue prints of their profiles,
or allowing access to the profiles and other records when blue
prints could not be furnished, and further in giving their time in
correspondence concerning various elevations, all .this has very
materially aided the Survey in its compilation work and added
completeness to the list here published. Assistance has also been
given by State and private engineers which is also acknowledged.


Fig. 4. Map of Florida showing areas topographically surveyed.











ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS.

No detailed topographic map of the whole state of Florida
has been made. The United States Geological Survey has, how-
ever, published several topographic sheets covering certain por-
tions of the State. The more recent mapping was done in co-opera-
tion with the War Department, Corps of Engineers of the United
States Army. The index map on the preceding page shows the
name and location of each sheet or'quadrangle and also gives in-
formation as to how these may be obtained.


LIST OF ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.
Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Abbott (See Zephyrhills) .................. ......... A. L. Ry............. 88
Achan (C. H. & N. Ry.) ................ I I ............................S. A. L. Ry. ..........128
A dam ........................................................................................ ..... A L R y. ............ 74
A gnew ....................... ............................................................. U S. G S............. 70
Alachua ............... .............................. .....................................S. A L. R y............. 77
Alachua ..........................................................................................A C. L. R y............ 81.6
Alafia, Hillsborough County ....................................................S. A. L. Ry.........111
Alafia, (C. H. & N. RTy.) Charlotte County ......................S. A. L. Ry............. 29
Albion ..............................................................................................S. A L R y............. 96
Albion, in foundation of small new chimney on west side
of frame building north of railroad station; bottom
of a square cut in top of brick (C. & G. S. "Albion") U. S. C. & G. S..... 88.579
Allapaha River, Hamilton County, between mile posts
172 and 173 ....................:.................. ..............................G. S. & F Ry......... 100
Alligator Creek, Hamilton County. between mile posts
176 and 177 ....................... ..................... .............................G. S. & F. Ry......... 98
Alligator Lake, Osceola County .............................................U. S. Army
; I .Engrs., 1882........ 71
Altam onte Springs ................ .......................................A.... .... A C. L. R. R. ........101
Altoona .............. : ......................... ..... ...... ............ ....................A C. L. R R ....107.37
Altschule ............................................. ............................. ................G. F. & A Ry........209.4
Alturas ................................................................ ....:...... .....S. A L. R y........ ...171
Alva, Top of concrete near edge, on east abutment of '
swing span rest on new highway bridge. ....................U. S. Army.
Engrs., 1887........ 11.281
Amelia City, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 2. Top of 6"
stove pipe filled with' concrete. On top of Bluffs at
Amelia City, 20 feet vest of blazed live oak. About
60 feet northwest of Thos.: Cook's residence .,:....i.....U. S. Army
,Engrs., 1909........ 14.456












48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Amelia River, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 1. Triangle
cut in south cap stone old brick pier at east end S.
A. L. Ry. draw-bridge over Kingsleys Cut (Amelia
River) about 4 miles west of Fernandina. ............... U. S. Army
Engrs., ............. 11.366
A ndrew s .......................................................................................U S. G S............. 94
A nkona ....................................................................................... E. C. R y ......... 33
Ankona Station, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 31. Top of
6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, level
with surface of, ground. Located at Ankona Station,
20 feet east of Florida East Coast Railway mile
post 249 ............................................ ................................... U S. A rm y
Engrs., 1909.... 30.382
Anthony ....................................S................................... A. L. Ry............. 76
Apalachicola ............................................................................... A. N R. R .......... 5
Apalachicola River, See Chattahoochee and River Junc-
tion.
A popka .............................. ..................................................... A L. R y.............145
A popka .......................................................................................... A C. L. R R .........125.2
A rcadia .........................................................................................A C. L. R R ......... 56
Arcadia, (C. H. & N. Ry.) ....................................................S.. A. L. Ry............. 29
A rch Creek ...................................................................................F.. E. C. R y............. 12.4
Arch Creek ..................................................................................... A L. Ry.......... 9
Archer, 21 meters west and 9 meters south of station of
Seaboard Air Line Railway, in line with telegraph
poles. ....................................................................................... U S. C. & G S..... 82.775
A rcher ..........................................................................................S... A L. R y............. 88
Archer, in brick chimney of south side of Mr. C. W.
Banknight's house, a short distance north of tract
and opposite freight depot of Seaboard Air Line Ry.,
in ninth course above ground and in second brick
from southwest corner of chimney, about one-fourth
inch inside outer surface of brick; intersection of
cross in end of copper bolt (C. & G. S. "Archer")....U. S. C. & G. S..... 85.069
Archer, about 3 miles west of, near fourth telegraph pole
west of mile post 116, 9 meters north of Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks .................................................U.. S. C. & G. S.......100.594
Archer, 3.2 miles northeast of, near mile post 110, in
line with telegraph poles, 75 meters west of sign
"Station one mile," 9 meters west of Seaboard Air
Line Railway tracks ......................................................... U. S. C. & G. S..... 84.186
A rgyle ...........................................................................................L & N R R .........254.8
Argyle, about 2 miles west of, in Walton County, on the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 410 feet west of












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
mile post 125, about 1/4 mile east of a road crossing
and 35 feet south of the track. A concrete post with
disk in top ..........................................................................,...U. S. C. & G. S.....250.098
Argyle, In Walton County, on the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad, at milepost 127, about 80 feet west of
a grade crossing, and 25 feet north of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top ......................................U. S. C. & G. S.....257.499
Argyle. About 3 miles east of the depot in Walton
County, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
525 feet east of milepost 130, about 1-3 mile west of
grade crossing and 30 feet north of the track, A con-
crete post with disk in top ..............................................U. S. C. & G. S.....160.922
Arm our .......................................................................................... A C. L. R R ....... 70
Arm strong .................................................................................... F. E. C. Ry............. 38.0
Arnait ............................................................................................ L. & N R R .........252.3
A rno ................................................. .............................................. S. A L R y........... 91
Arran ................................................................................................ F. & A R y......... 42.5
Arredondo .................................................................................. S. A L. Ry............. 91
Arredondo, corner of orchard of D. G. Harvard, 0.9
meter from nearest corner post; bottom of a square
cut in top of a piece of artificial stone 8 by 14 inches,
buried with its upper surface 10 inches beneath sur-
face of ground, and lettered "U. S. C. & G. S. B. M."
(C. & G. S. "U") ................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 88.818
Ashm ore .......................................................................................... F. & A R y....... 47.5
A stor ............................................................................................. A C. L. R R ......... 15
Astor Park .................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 51.99
Athena ............................................................................................ A C. L. R R ......... 66.2
A tlantic ............................................................................................ S. A L. R y.............146
Atlantic Beach ........................................................................... F. E. C. Ry...............13.8
Atlantic Beach, 1.0 mile southwest of, at southeast corner
of T-road on Jacksonville to Atlantic Beach High-
way, in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T.
B. M 12.5" .......................................................................... U S. G S............. 12.35
Atlantic Beach. 2 miles south of, on south side of T-road,
on Mayport-Jacksonville Highway, in base of pine
tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M. 12.3" ..........U. S. G. S............... 12.18
Atlantic Beach, 2.7 miles west of, 27.3 feet east of county
bridge over Pablo Creek, 22.5 feet east of large oak
on bank of Pablo Creek, 16 feet west of live oak,
28.3 feet south of a point in center of Jacksonville-
Mayport Highway, top of 6-inch stove pipe filled
with concrete, (Florida Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 4) ....U. S. G. S.......... 3.446
Auburndale ................................................................................. A. C. L. R. R .......167












50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY., AUTHORITY. I Above Sea
(feet).
A uburndale .................................................. ..........................:.......S. A L. Ry.............141
A ucilla .................................................. ... ............... ..............S. A L. R y........;.... 86
Audilla, about 1', mile east of, at the first telegraph pole
east of a cut; 26 feet south of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks ................ . ....... .......... ... U. S. C. & G. S..... 95.380
.Aucilla, 244 feet west of the Seaboard Air Line Railway .
station, just outside the fence corner west of the
first road west of the station (U: 'S. G. S. Prim.
Trav. Sta.) ................................. .. S C. & G. S....... 82.595
Aucilla, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 134; 26' feet
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ............U. S. C. & G. S..9'84.481
Aucilla. about 5' miles west of, at mile post 136; 26 feet
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ..............U. S. C. & G. S..... 88.592
Aucilla River, west end of bridge ....... ....................................S. A. L. Ry............. 79.3
A urantia ......................................................................................F. E. C. R y............. 28
A voca ........................................................ .......................................G S. & F. R y.........120
Avon Park ........................................................................... ......A C. L. Ry...........154.9
A von Park .................................................................................... S. A L. Ry. .......... 156
Aycock ...................................... L. & N. R. R .........128.3
Aycock, Jackson County, on the Louisville and Nashville
Railroad, 7 telegraph poles' east of the depot, at a
grade crossing and 45 feet 'north of the track. A '
concrete post with disk in top. ................... .......U. S. C. '& G. S.....132.874
Babson Park ........................................ .................................. A. C. L. R. R.........147.2
Baird (C. H. & N. Ry.) ............................................................S. A. L. Ry.............140
Bakers M ill ....................................................................................A C. L. R R .........137
Baldwin ..........................................................................................A C. L. R R ......... 83
Baldwin .......................................................................................... S. A L. R y......... 86
Baldwin, 40 meters southwest of station, 12 meters north
of south end of station shed, midway between rail-
way tracks, near a telegraph pole ............................... U. S. C. & G. S....... 86.627
Baldwin, about 3%/, miles west of, about, 1-2 mile west
of mile post "J22," 8 meters north of the Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks, in line with telegraph poles,
U. S. C. & G. S. .................................................................U. S. C. & G. S....... 78.809
Baldwin, 5.0 miles northwest of, at Y road north about
0.74 mile north of Brandy Branch Schoolhouse, west.
side of road; iron post stamped "eley. 63" ...U. $G.S...... 63.176
Baldwin, 5.0 miles northwest of,, thenpe :0.74 mile due
south of, 30 feet southwest, of :southwest, corner ,of, ,
Brandy Branch Schoolhouse in top.,pf pine stump 2 ,
feet in diameter;, copper nail marked "'U., S. T. .B, .
M .1 ..... ... ;............................... ..................... ........... ............U S. G S............ 70.43












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
AUTHORITY. .Above Sea
)feet,


Baldwin, about 5.8 miles northwest, of, 1.54 miles north of
Brandy Branch Schoolhouse, at T-road west, east
side of road, in root of pine stump 2 feet in diame-
ter; copper nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." ..................U. U G. S............ 65.11
Balm ................................... .......................................................... S. A. L. Ry.............128
Bamboo ..........................................................................................S. A. L. Ry............. 67
Barberville ...................................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 44
Barnett .............................................................................................A. C. L. R. R .........135
Barth .........................................................................................L. & N. R. R......... 36.8
Barth, Escambia County, on the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad, about 1/ mile south of the depot, at
milepost 18, and 35 feet west of the track. A con-
crete post with disk in top. ........................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 29.094
Bartow ..........................................................................................A. C. L. R. R.........126
Bartow ......................................................................................... S. A. L. Ry.............115
Baskins ................ .............................................................. S. A. L. Ry............. 72
Baxter .............................................................................................. S. & F. R y......... 120


Baxter, 0.46 mile south of, at bend in road west side of
road, in root of pine stump 1 foot in diameter; cop-
per nail ..................................... ............................................ U .
Baxter, 1.47 miles S. of, at S. E. corner of T-road N., in
root of pine stump 1 foot in diameter; copper nail.....U.
Baxter, 300 feet southeast of Georgia Southern Railroad
station, 175 feet west of road crossing, 35 feet south
of center of track, near railroad right of way; iron
post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 9. S 1917 Elev.
117" (Recovered by U. S. C. & G. S.) .........................U.
Baxter, 6.21 miles south of, on Baxter and Kenney road,
about 700 feet north of the residence of Barney Tay-
lor, in center of:road fork, in root of pine stump;
copper nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." ...........................U.
Baxter, 5.09 miles south of east side of road, in cleared
field 15 feet from right of way, in root of pine stump
1.5 feet in diameter; copper nail ...............................U.
Baxter, 4.26 miles south of, about 0.5 mile south of W.
M. Raulerson's residence,, northeast corner of T-road
east, in root of pine tree 3 feet in diameter; copper
nail .... ... ............. .. ...... ..,...... .................................... U .
Baxter, 3.71 miles south of west side of road, 200 feet
north of W. M. Raulerson's residence; iron post
stamped "Elev. 126" ........................................................,.U.
Baxter, 2.68 miles south qf, ,00feqt iqouth of small .creek
west side of road, inropt, of jpne pxne tree, copper ,
,nail ........................................................................ ..... ....... U .


S. G. S.............117.80

S. G. S...............122.08




S. G. S.............116.860



S. G. S.............119.63


S. G. S.............119.19



S. G S.............119.83


S. G. S............125.797


S., G. S ...........118.39


LOCALITY. ,












52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
Baxter, 2.24 miles south of, directly opposite T-road (feet).
east in top of pine stump 12 inches in diameter;
copper nail ............................................................................ U S. G S.............123.53
Bayard ........................................................................................... F. E. C. R y.............. 25.5
Bayard, 3.8 miles northeast of, on. east side of road, in
base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M.
35.1" .......................................................................................... S. G S........... 34.90
Bayard, 5.4 miles northeast of, on east side of Bayard to
Dewey road, at road fork leading northwest of
"Stockade;" iron post stamped "B. M. 19," marked
"B. M 19.4" ......................................................................... U. S. G. S............. 19.208
Bayard, 2.2 miles northeast of, on east side of road, 160
feet north of road east, in base of pine tree; copper
nail, marked "T. B. M. 32.0" ....................................... U. S. G. S............. 31.81
Bayard, 2.8 miles northeast of, at northwest corner of
crossroads; iron post stamped "34" ............................U. S. G. S............. 33.641
Bayard, about 15 meters north of the station, 10 meters
east of Florida East Coast Railroad tracks; copper
bolt (U. S. C. & G. S. B. M. L-3) ........... ..................U. S. G. S............. 25.194
Bayard, at northwest corner of crossroads, and about 60
feet east of Florida East Coast Railway tracks, op.
posite south end of Wing's Hotel; iron post stamped
"Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 2-K El. 24" ................................. U. S. G. S............. 24.284
Bayard, 1.1 miles northeast of, on east side of road, in
base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M.
20.3" ....................................................................................... .U S. G S............. 20.07
Bayard, about 3 miles south of, 1 meter from mile post
"Jax 18" 10 meters west of Florida East Coast Rail-
way tracks ............................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 21.234
B aynard ........................................................................................... A L. R y.............110
Bayw ood ........................................................................................ G S. & F. R y.........157
Bear H ead ..................................................................................... L. & N R R .........268.8
B ecker ........................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 26
Bee R idge ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 36
B ell ................................................................................................ S. A L R y............. 70
B elleair .......................................................................................... A C. L R R ......... 49
B elleair .......................................................................................... S. A L R y............. 42
Belleview ....................................................................................S... A L. R y ............. 83
Benhaden (See Hilliardville)
Benson (Dade County) ........................................................... E. C. Ry.......... 13
Benson Springs (See Enterprise)
Bessent, 0.5 mile north of, on west side of Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad, opposite north end of curve, in foot
of telegraph pole; railroad spike ..................................U. S. G. S.............143.37












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Beverly .......................................................................................... A N R R ............. 10
Big Pine ......................................................................................... E C. R y.......... 8.1
Big Pottsburg Creek, Duval County, between mile posts
6 and 7 on the Mayport branch ....................................... E. C. Ry............. 18.4
Big Snake Creek, Dade County, between mile posts 353
and 354 .................................................................................. E C R y............. 9.2
Biscayne ......................................................................................... E C R y............. 11.5
Biscayne Bay, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 47. Top of nail
placed in concrete monument. Monument made by
placing concrete in a joint of stove pipe. B. M. is
located about three fifths of a mile north of Little
River, between second and third pine tree, on south
side of avenue leading from rock road to Spradling's
residence. Pine trees being counted from inter-
section of rock road and avenue leading to Sprad-
ling's residence ....................................................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909........ 9.109
Bithlo ............................................................................................. E C. R y............. 69.1
Black Creek ................................................................................A C. L. R R ......... 18
Wilack Point .................................................................................. E C. R y ............ 11
Blake ............................................................................................... E C R y............. 12.6
Blanton .......................................................................................... A C. L R R .........105
Blountstown Landing, end of railroad track ....................M. & B. R. R......... 51.1
Bluff Springs ................................................................................ L. & N. R. R......... 54.8
Bluff Springs, about 1 mile north of, on the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad two telegraph poles south
of mile-post 4, 820 feet north of a grade crossing
and 35 feet west of the track. A concrete post with
disk in top ............................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 60.069
Bluff Springs, about 1 mile north of, on the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad 245 feet north of milepost 6,
and 40 feet west of the track. A concrete post with
disk in top ..........................................................................U. S. C. & G. .S..... 46.073
Boardman, A. C. L. depot ......................................................U. S. G. S............. 73
Boca Grande (C. H. & N. Ry.) ............................................ A. L. Ry.......... 6
Boca Raton ..................................................................................F. E. C. Ry............. 17.9
Boca R aton ................................................................................S... A L. Ry............. 15

Boden's .......................................................................................... U. S. Arm y
Engrs., 1903.... 14
Bohem ia ....................................................................................... L & N R R ......... 4.3
Bohemia, Escambia County, on the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad, about 130 feet from the track, in the












54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


northeast brick pillars of the front porch of the
house occupied by D. B. Gonzales. A brass disk ......U. S. C. & G. S..... 11.762
Bonaventure .............................. .................................................. F. E. C. Ry............. 16.5
Bonaventure, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 22. Top of 6"
cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, 'level
with surface of ground. Located 49 feet east of
Bonaventure depot of F. E. C. Ry............................. U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909........ 16.250


B onifay ............................................................................................L. &
Bonifay, About 2 miles West of, in Holmes county, on
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, at 'milepost
149, and 40 feet south of the track. A-concrete post
with disk in top ................................................................ U S.
Bonifay, In Holmes county, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, 325 feet east of the depot and 230 feet
north of the track, in the south end of the concrete
sidewalk in front of and at the southeast corner of
the brick building of the Jeter Hardware Company,
about 9 inches from the building. A brass disk ......U. S.
Bonifay, In Holmes county, on the Louisville & Nash.
ville Railroad, about 130 feet south of the track in
the north face of the brick building of the Bonifay
Milling Company at the northwest corner. A brass
disk ......... ........................................ ............... ......................U S.
Bonifay, About 3 miles east of, in Holmes County, on
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 625 feet east of
milepost 154, about 35 feet west of a grade crossing
and 50 feet south of the track. A concrete post with
disk in top ....................... ........ ......................................U. S.
Bostwick, 150 feet west of, southwest corner of station,
in northwest corner of crossroads, at outer corner of
fence; iron post stamped "34 Prim. Trav. Sta. No.
23" ............................... ......:...... ....... ........................... .......U S.
Bostwick, 1.3 miles west of,. 50 feet southwest of road
-forks to northwest, about 600 feet east of old tram-
way grade; nail in root of pine tree marked "52.5"....U. S.
Bostwick, 2.9 miles west of, about 0.2 miles west of creek,
15 feet southeast of culvert; nail in root of small
cypress tree; marked "36.3" ............................................U. S.
Bostwick, 3.4 miles west of, in southeast corner of cross-
.roads, about 600 feet east of one bridge over Sims
Creek, and' about 400 feet north of .another over same
creek; iron post stamped "37 PFim. Trhv. :Sta. No. :


N. R. R...........120.8



C. & G. S.....126.046






C. & G. S.....126.171




C. & G. S.....119.619





C. & G. S..... 80.53



C. & G. S..... 34.089


C. & G. S..... 52.21


C. & G. S..... 35.92


22" .................................. _.............. ........... ..... ...... ;..;............ U. S. C. & G. S..... 36.413


LOCALITY.












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Bostwick, 4.7 miles west of, at, top of hill, 500 feet,south-.... .
west of house, 10 feet north of road;, nail in root of .
small black oak tree, marked "61.7" ........................... U. S. C. & G. S,.... 61.36
Bostwick, 5.7 miles west of,. in angle of road. forks to
northwest; nail in root of small red oak tree, .
marked "84" ....................................... .............................. U. S. C. & G. S..... 83.62
Bostwick, 6.2 miles west of, in northeast corner of cross-
road, at east corner of Bannerville. school house;
iron post stamped "89 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 21" .....U. S. C. & G. S..... 88.941
Bostwick, 1.1 miles east of, 400 feet west of second-class
road forks to south, 150 feet west of fence corner,
10 feet north of road; nail in root of large pine
stump, marked "24.7" (unchecked elevation) ............U. S. C. & G. S ..... 24.42
gBostwick, 2 miles east of, 6 feet east of T road west.100
feet east of creek crossing; iron post stamped "Prim.:
Tray. Sta. No. 24" (unchecked elevation) ................U. S. C. & G. S..... 18.692
Bostwick, 7.2 miles west of, in southwest corner of cross-
roads, about 1,200 feet east of creek crossing; nail
in root of red oak tree marked "87.6" ................. ......U. S. C. & G. S.... 87.29
Bostwick, 8.7 miles west of, 400 feet northeast of bridge
over Sims Creek, 10 feet east of road; nail in. root
of large pine tree, marked "35.4" .....................U. S. C. & G. S..... 35.01
Boulogne ............................ ............... .................................... A. C. L. R R ........ 70


1loulogne, 1 mile southeast of, in center of road fork of
east and west road, about 300 feet east of small cabin,
in north root of oak tree 12 inches in diameter;
copper nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." .......................U. S. G.
Boulogne, 0.5 mile south of, at point where roads cross
in creek, in'center of fork, in root of 12 inch pine
tree, copper nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." ............... U SG.
Boulogne,.5.16 miles east -of, north side of road, 20 feet
east of point where road divides, in south root of
pine tree 15 inches in diameter; copper nail ..........S... U. S.G.
Boulogne, 6.33 miles. east of, on Boulogne and Kings
Ferry road, about 1,500 feet w6st of road forks, north
side of road, top of clay!mound;. iron post stamped
"Elev. 20" ....... ..... .......................................................... S. G .
Boulogne, 7.77 miles east of, on .Boulogne and Kings
Ferry road, 20 feet west of .tramway, south side of
road, in north root of pine: tree, 18 inches.in, diame-
ter; copper nail ... .......................... .........:... ..........U. S. ,G.
Boulogne, 10 meters south of the-station, 101meters west,
of:Atlantic Coast Line' Railroad tracks; bronze tablet
in top of concrete post (U. S. C. & G. S. B. M. P7)....U. S. G.


S............. 64.04


S............. 25.32


S.............


14.88


S............. 19.862



,S.......... 7.09


S:............ 58.871













56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY. At
Boulogne, 0.84 mile east of, in northeast corner of cross-
road, in east root of pine tree 18 inches in diameter;
copper nail ......................................................................... U.
Boulogne, 2.13 miles east of, in northeast corner of cross-
road, in north root of oak tree 15 inches in diameter;
copper nail ......................................................................... U .
Boulogne, 2.63 miles east of, in southwest corner of
crossroads, in west root of oak tree 15 inches in
diameter; copper nail .................................................. U.
Boulogne, 3.03 miles east of, on Boulogne and Kings
Ferry road at crossroad, 20 feet west of fence corner;
iron post stamped "Elev. 90" ...........................................U.
Boulogne, 4.37 miles east of, on Kings Ferry road in
southwest corner of crossroad, in north root of pine
tree 18 inches in diameter; copper nail ......................U.
Boulogne, 3.9 miles southwest of, at top of hill, southwest
corner of crossroad; iron post stamped "Elev. 68" ....U.
Boulogne, about 2.4 miles southwest of, at road forks,
120 feet east of small cabin, east of road, in west
root of oak tree 15 inches in diameter; copper nail....U.
Bowden, 300 meters north of mile post "Jax 5," 15'
meters west of Florida East Coast Railway tracks,
opposite cattle shute ......................................................... U.


Elevation
ITHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


S. G. S............. 58.73


S. G. S............. 72.45


S. G. S............. 96.42


S. G. S............. 90.200


S. G. S............. 57.59

S. G. S............. 67.869


S. G. S............. 73.73


S. C. & G. S..... 27.152


Bowes ................................................................................................L & N R. R.........128
Bowling Green ...........................................................................A. C. L. R. R.........116
Boyette ........................................................................................... A. L. Ry............. 80
Boynton ..........................................................................................S. A. L. Ry............. 19
Boynton .......................................................................................... E. C. Ry............. 14.5
Boynton, drainage canal north of .......................................... E. C. Ry............. 13.5
Bradenton ....................................................................................S... A. L. Ry............. 21
Bradley Junction, (C. H & N Ry.) .................................... S. A L. Ry............. 141
Brandon ......................................................................................... A L. Ry............. 44
Brandy Branch ............................................................................S. A. L. Ry............. 75
Branford ...................................................................................... A C. L. R. R......... 43
Braswell, 130 feet northeast of the Seaboard Air Line
Railway depot, near telegraph pole, about 160 feet
north of m ain track .......................................................... U. S. C. & G. S.....189.540
Braswell ......................................................................................... . A L. Ry.............192
Brent ................................................................................................L. & N. R. R......... 91.3
Brent, about 11/4 miles north of, on the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad at Oakfield Crossing, near mile-
post 38 and 50 feet. west of the track. A concrete
post with disk in top ........................................................ U. S. C. & G. S.....118.077
Brewster (See Chicora)












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Bridgeport ...................................................................................... A L. R y............. 13
Bridges, (C. H. & N. Ry.) ..................................................... S A. L. Ry............. 79
Briggsville ................................................................................... E. C. Ry............. 28
Bronson ......................................................................................S... A L. R y............. 75
Bronson, 75 meters east of station, 10 meters south of
Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks nearly opposite
the city hotel, near east end of siding ........................U. S. C. & G. S..... 65.069
Bronson, south side of brick chimney at west end of Mrs.
L. E. Taylor's house, north of track and nearly op-
posite railroad station, ninth course above ground,
in second brick from southwest corner of chimney;
intersection of cross in end of copper bolt; (C. &
G. S. "W") ..........................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 71.634
Bronson, Magnetic Station in the northwest corner of
school-house yard, about 70 meters northeast of the
court house ..........................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 77.382
Bronson, about three miles southwest of, near second
telegraph pole southwest of mile post 125, near old
saw mill; 10 meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks just south of a wagon road crossing
track. .......................................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 54.580
Brooker ........................................................................................... S. A L. R y ............122
Brooklyn, (see Keystone Heights) ....................................... S. & F. Ry.........150
Brooksville ................................................................................... S. A L. R y............144 14
Brooksville ................................................................................. A C. L. R R .........126
Brow ards ................................................... ...............................S... A L. R y ............. 33
Brownings Landing, 21% miles from mouth of Manatee
River. Top of a 20d wire nail driven flush in a root
on the west side of a lone pine tree, 28 feet from
N. W. corner of Brownings warehouse and 20 feet
from the north bank of the river. Three nails are
driven in a blaze above, pointing to B. M. ...............U. S. Army
Engrs., 1916........ 12.86
Browns ........................................................................................... A L R y............ 66
Bruing ............................................................................................. A L R y............. 70
Bryan ............................................................................................ S. A L. R y ............. 104
Bryceville .....................................................................................U S. G S............. 69
Buda ................................................................................................. A L R y............ 72
Buena V ista .................................................................................. F. E. C. R y............. 14.6
Buena V ista ................................................................................... A L R y............. 10
Buena Vista, Northeast corner of railroad station plat-
form, at center of artificial stone post 8 by 8 inches
in cross section and 3 feet long, projecting 6 inches












58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY.- AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
above the surface; square cut in center marked "U.
S" "B. M." (C. & G. S. "H") ............ ............... .....U...... S. C. & G. S..... 14.721
Buffalo Bluff, railroad crossing; top of rail ........................U. S. C. & G. ...... 15.6
Buffalo Bluff; 1,200 feet north of station, at end of switch,
10 feet west of railroad track, at northeast corner of
base of signal tower;* nut marked "15" ......................U. S. C. & G. S..... 14.89
Bull Creek, Osceola County, between mile p6sts 78 and
79 on the Okeechobee division ....: ........................F. E. C. Ry............. 65.9
Bunnell ........ ...... ................. ..............................F. E. C. R y............. 23.4
Burnell ............................................................................................L & N R R ........... 57.3
Burnetts Lake ................................ .............. ................S. A L. Ry....... ..... 91
Burnetts Wood Landing, On' Manatee 'River, top of 20d
wire nail driven in gash made on the N. W. side of a
lone pine tree which is blazed above B. M. with three
nails driven in blaze in shape of a V, pointing'
towards B. M. Located 201/2 miles above mouth of
river ............. ............................... ........................................ U S. A rm y
Engrs., 1916........ 9.76
Bushnell ...............................:.......................................................S... A L. R y............. 74
Cadillac ......................................... ................................................ A C. L R R ......... 89
Caledonia .................................. ............................................ ; ......L. & N R R .. ......192
Callahan .................................... ................................................ A C. L. R R ......... 20


C allahan ......................................... ............................................. S. A .
Callahan, 20 meters southeast of junction of Atlantic
Coast Line and Seaboard Air Line tracks, 18 meters
east of north bound track of the Atlantic Coast Line;
bronze tablet in concrete post (U. S. C. & G. S.
B M G -7) ..................................................... ..................... U S.
Callahan, about 2 miles north of, on the Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad, 35 feet southwest of milepost 265
Chin. and 100 feet west of the southbound track.
A concrete post with disk in top ...............................U. S.
Callahan, ].0 mile east of, at southwest corner of cross-
roads, northwest corner of small wooden bridge;
copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M." ........................... U. S.
Callahan, 1.9 ;miles east of, in center of road forks, in
north side of 18 inch pine stump; copper nail ........U. S.
Callahan, 2.86 miles east of, on top of small mound in
northwest corner of crossroads; iron post stamped
"E lev. 26" ................................................................................ S.
Callahan, 3.66 miles east of, in center of roadforks, 60
feet east of point where roads separate, in north root ,
of pine tree 15 inches, in diameter; copper nail,
marked "U. S. T. B. M." .................................................U. S.


L. Ry............ 26





G S............. 22.26')



G S............. 17.785


G S............. 13.58

G S............. 21.94


G S............. .26.348



G S............. 13.81












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Callahan, 4.96 miles east of, 200 feet southeast of point
where public road crosses tram road at roadforks,
east side of road, in west side of pine 15 inches in
diameter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M. ........U. S. G. S............. 23.36
Callahan, 6.13 miles east of, 800 feet east of Thomas
Creek, 75 feet west of Thomas School, 20 feet north
of public road iron post stamped "Elev. 17" ..............U. S. G. S............. 16.579
Callahan, 7.3 miles east of, on Callahan and Tisonia road,
north side of, in north root of pine tree 18 inches in
diameter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M."........U. S. C. & G. S..... 23.01
Callahan, 8.65 miles east of, on Callahan and Tisonia
road, 60 feet east of road forks, north side of road
to east in west root of pine tree 18 inches in diame-
ter; copper nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." ............. U. S. C. & G. S..... 23.75
Callahan, 9.88 miles east of, on Callahan and Tisonia
road, 200 feet southeast of dipping vat, south side of
road, in north side of pine tree 20 inches in diame-
ter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M." .............U. S. C. & G. S..... 26.01
Calvenia ............................. ..................... ............................... A. C. L. R R ......... 45
Cam bon .................................................. ...................................... A C. L. R R ......... 63
Cam pbell ...................................................................................... A. C. L. R R ......... 75
Cam pton .......................................................................................... L. & N R R .........172
Cam pville ..................................................................................... S. A L. R y.............144
Canal Port .............................................. .................................... S. A L. R y............. 17
Candler .......................................................................................... A C. L R R .........108
Cantonm ent .................................................................................. L. & N R. R .........142.3
Cantonment, about 1/4 mile north of, on the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad 4 telegraph poles south of
milepost 28 and 60 feet west of the track. A con-
crete post with disk in top. ............................................U. S. C. & G. S.....135.767
Capitola ........................................................................................ A C. L R R ......... 57
Carbur ........................................................ ................................. A C. L. R R ......... 62.3
Carlton ......................................................................................... . S. G S ............. 145
Carraway ...................................................................................... S. & F. R y......... 78
Cary, on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, 650 feet north
of milepost 275 Chm., 100 feet northwest of the
section-boss' house and 60 feet east of the north-
bound track. A concrete post with disk in top ........U. S. C. & G. S..... 23.937
Caryville ............................................................ ..................... ... L. & :N R R ......... 57.8
Caryville, Washington County, on the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad, at mile post 143 and 245 feet
south of the track, 2 feet above ground, in the north
face of the northeast corner of the brick building
occupied by Mrs. J. T. Miller. A brass disk ............U. S. C. & G. S..... 60.328












60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Caryville, About 3 miles east of, in Washington County
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 460 feet
west of milepost 146, about 1/4 mile east of a grade
crossing, and 45 feet south of the track. A concrete
post with disk in top .......................................................... U. S. C. & G. S.....103.648
C ashens .............................................. ..... ...........................F. E C R y............. 12.8
C assia ............................. ........................ ....................................A C. L R R ......... 75.9
C ausey ............................................................................................ A N R R .............113
Cedar Brush Shoals, On Manatee River between Cedar
Island and Cypress River, 16 miles from the Gulf.
Top of four galvanized wire nails driven horizon-
tally on the river side of a palmetto stump, located
near the river and 20 feet up river from the pal-
metto, on which the front range target is nailed.
Six nails are driven below the B. M. in shape of an
inverted V ............................................................................. U. S. Arm y
Engrs, 1916........ 4.10
Cedar Keys, Southwest corner of carpenter's shop at
south end of D. street; iron rod 6 feet long and 1
inch in diameter, with head 2 by 2 inches driven in
sand, with head a little below surface (C. & G. S.
"Tidal") ................................................................................ U S. C. & G S..... 3.05-
Cedar K eys ................................................................................... A L. R y............. 13
Cedar Keys, "Bench mark is the under edge of the sill
of the front window at the southeast corner of the
new concrete store, built in 1887 by Thomas Barnes;"
lower edge of window sill (C. & G. S. "Perkins")......U. S. C. & G. S..... 11.716"
Cedar Keys, north iron pier of Transit of Venus station,
in surface of round pier 0.73 meter below top;
intersection of cross cut in south face of iron pier
marked "U. S. B. M. (C. & G. S. "Y") ........................U. S. C. & G. S..... 13.130
Cedar Keys, in south side of south iron pier used at
Transit of Venus Station, rectangular opening in
side of pier 0.10 meter wide and 0.15 meter high;
upper surface of bottom of square opening of iron
pier marked "U. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "Z") ..............U. S. C. & G. S..... 13.300
Cedar Keys, leaded in south face of brick transit pier of
Transit of Venus station, sixth course above ground,
in second brick from southwest corner of pier; inter.
section of cross in end of a copper bolt (C. & G. S.
"Transit") .............................................................................. U S. C. & G S..... 12.749
Cedar-Keys, about 4 miles east of,,near third telegraph
pole east of mile post 152, 6 meters north of Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks ................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 8.688












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Cedar Landing, water surface of Oklawaha River, March
15, 1911 ................................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 10
Center Hill ....................................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 91
Center Hill ..................................................................................S.. A. L. Ry............. 91
Center Park ................................................................................... E. C. Ry............. 40.5


Center Park, 2.3 miles east of Florida East Coast Rail-
way station, on south side of track, in base of tele-
graph pole; railroad spike, marked "T. B. M. 26.8"....U. S. G. S............. 26.7:
Center Park, 80 feet east of Florida East Coast Railway
station, on south side of railway track, in base of
telegraph pole; railroad spike, marked "T. B. M.
41.2" ........................................................................................ U S. G S............. 41.1'
Center Park, at intersection of north right-of-way line of
Florida East Coast Railway, and east of right-of-way
line of road, opposite east end of station; iron b. m.
post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 4-K, Elev. 41" ......U. S. G. S............. 40.6
Center Park, 0.4 mile southwest of, on north side of road,
and about 40 feet east of road east, in base of pine
tree; copper nail marked "T. B. M. 34.7" ................U. S. G. S............. 34.5
Center Park, 1.2 miles south of, on east side of road, in
base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M.
36.9" ........................................................................................ U S. G S............. 36.7;
Center Park, 0.5 mile east of Florida East Coast Railway
station, in north end of second beam of east wooden
abutment; top of iron bolt, marked "T. B. M. 33.4"....U. S. G. S............. 33.3
Center Park, 3.0 miles southeast of, on east side of road,
and about 80 feet north of small stream; iron post
stam ped "B. M 29.6" ......................................................U. S. G S............. 29.5'
Center Park, 2.2 miles southeast of, 90 feet east from
road, in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T.
B. M 32.5" .......................................... ...............................U S. G S............. 32.4A
Center Park, 7.3 miles southeast of, on south side of road,
in base of pine tree; copper nail marked "T. B. M.
34.4" .................................................................................... ......U S. G S............. 34.2
Center Park, 4.1 miles southeast of, 1.1 miles north east
of Stockade on east side of road, in base of pine
tree; copper nail marked "T. B. M. 35.3" ....................U. S. G. S............. 35.1
Center Park, 5.2 miles southeast of, at southeast corner
of crossroads at "Stockade" just inside of fence; iron
post stamped "38" marked "B. M. 37.8" ..................... U. S. G. S............. 37.6]
Central Supply .............................................................................F. E. C. R y............. 11.3
Century ..........................................................................................L. & N R R ........... 75.3
Century, Escambia County, Fla. on the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad at milepost 2, at a road crossing


2



0



77


1


3


2


78


18


5


2


0












62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above' Sea
(feet).
about 400 feet south of the depot, and ten feet east (fee
of the track, on the top of a concrete commutator
block. A brass disk ........................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 75.581
Chaffi n ............................................................................................ L & N R R .........102
Chaires ............................................................................................ S. A L. R y............. 60
Chaires, about 246 feet west of Seaboard Air Line .Rail-
way station, 50 feet south of main track .....................U. S. C. & G. S..... 58.215
Cham paign ................................................ ......... ... ..... ....... S. A L. Ry.............124
Champaign, 2 meters east of milepost 115, 8 meters north
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ............ ...........U. S. C. & G. S.....121.135
Chapm an ..................................................................................... S. A L. Ry............. 64
Chase ............................................................................................... F. E. C. R y............. 10.2
Chattahoochee, Victory Bridge, about 1,500 feet upstream
from, on west bank of the Apalachicola River, bench
mark No. 82 is a concrete monument about 50 feet
from bank of river ............................................................U. S. Army Engrs.,
1913-1915 ......... 68.09
Chattahoochee, Victory Bridge, about 2,250 feet upstream
from, on west bank of Apalachicola River, bench
mark No. 81 a concrete monument about 50 feet
from bank of river ............................................................U. S. Army Engrs,
1913-1915 ......... 68.36
Chattahoochee, Victory Bridge, about 4,175 feet upstream
from, on west bank of Apalachicola River, bench
mark No. 80 is a concrete monument about 10 feet
from bank of river ...........................................................U. S. Army Engrs.,
1913-1915 ......... 68.98
Chattahoochee, Victory Bridge, about 4,925 feet upstream
from, on west bank of Chattahoochee River, bench
mark No. 79 is a concrete monument about 10 feet
from bank of river ..............................................................U. S. Army Engrs.,
1913-1915 ......... 67.67
Chattahoochee, Victory Bridge, about 4,600 feet upstream
from, in forks of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers and
about 300 feet from such junction point midway be-
tween the two rivers, bench mark No. 78 is a con-
crete monument .....................................................................U. S. Army Engrs.,
1913.1915 ........ 64.22
Chattahoochee River, See Neal's Landing.
Chatm ar ..........................................................................................A C. L. R R ....... 47.7
Chiaha ................ .......................................................................... A. C. L. R R ....... 35
Chicora (C. H. & N. Ry) ......................................................S. A. L. Ry............. 150
Chiefland .......................................................................................A. C. L. R R ........ 43.5
Chipco ............................................................................................A. C. L. R R .......104












ELEVATIONS" IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY.' AUTHORITY. Above Sea
S .. ;, ^, ", .. .. .. (feet).
Childs ....................................... .......................... ........ ... .... C. L R R ......132.6
Chipley ................................. ,...., ... .. .... ...................L. & N. R R .......103.3 .


Chipley, about 2% miles, west of, in Washinpgton .Conn.
ty, on the, Louisville & Nashville Railroad, mile
east of milepost 157, .at a grade crossing and 45 ,
feet north of the track. A concrete post with disk
in top ....,...................... ......... ..... ........................................U .
Chipley, Washington County, in the concrete sidewalk
-near the north end of the stone step to the entrance
at the northwest' corner of the First National Bank.
A brass disk ....................................................................... U .
Chipley, Washington County, 18 inches above the side-
walk, in the south face of the brick building oc-
cupied by the Chipley State Bank at 'the southeast
corner. A brass disk ...........................................U.
Chipley, abont 3 miles east of, in Washington County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 1 telegraph
pole east of milepost 163, about 720 feet west of a
grade crossing, and 35 feet south of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top .....................................U.


S. C.,& G. S..... 80.518



S. C. &. G. S.....114.016



S. C. & G. S.....110.636





S. C. & G. S.....129.094


Chuluota ............................................................ ........................ F. E C R y............. 63.9
Chum uckla ................................................................................L. & N R R ........ 36.3
Citra ............................................................................................... A C L R R ......... 61
Citra ............................................................................................... S. A L R y............. 69
Citronelle, A. C..L. depot ....................................................U. S. G. S............ 26
Citrus Center, % mile west of Citrus Landing on Ca-
loosahatchee canal Lock No. 2. Gulf datum.
Upper miter sill ........................................................Ever. Drain.
Engrs. ................ 5.0
Lower miter sill ........................................................Ever. Drain.
Engrs. .................. 4.0
City P point ........................................................................... ........ F. E C. R y............. 38
Clara .................................................................... ....................... A C L R R ......... 40.2
Clarcona .. ................................. ...... ................. A. C. L. R. R ..... 103.7
Claroy ........................................................................................ L. & N. R. R.........239.3
Clarksville, Duval County, about % mile northwest of
on F. E. Q. y. .................................................................. U S. G S............. 22
Clayno ...... .............. .................................................................... S. A L R y.............153
Clayno, northwest corner of house,: 100 feet southwest
of railroad crossing, 300 feet southeast,of water tank;
iron post stamped "155 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 74"........U. S. C. & G., S.....153.800
Clayno, 1 mile south- of, 15 feet southwest of road forks












61.. FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
L REALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
to soath; nail in root of large pine tree, marked
"149.7" ..................................................................................U. S. C. &. G. S.....148.47
Clayno, 2.6 miles south of, 150 feet southeast of J. C.
Padgett's mail box, 250 feet south of house, 25 feet
south of road; nail in large pine tree ......................U. S. C. & G. S.....160.59
Clayno, 3.4 miles south of, in east corner of road cross-
ing, 300 feet north of large white house; iron post
stamped "155 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 75"........................U. S. C. & G. S.....154.063
Clearwater .................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 29
Clearwater ..................................................................................S... A L. Ry............. 26
Clerm ont ...................................................................................... A C. L. R R .........105
Cleveland .....................................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 3
Coachm an .............................................. ................................... S. A L. R y............. 31
Cocoa ................,........................................................................... F. E. C. R y............. 26.5
Cocoa, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 21. Top of 6" cylin-
der of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, level with
surface of ground. Located 65 feet west of Indian
River and 21 feet north of north property line of
Williard Avenue in town. ...................................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 4.907
Cocoanut Grove ............................................................................F. E. C. Ry............. 13
Cocoanut Grove, Bench mark is southeast corner of cap
of west pillar "Rossmoor" opposite new rock church
on west side of highway ..................................................Ever. Drain Dist.. 19.28.
Colegrove ..................................................................................... A C. L. R R .........125
Colem an ............................... ...... .............................................. A L. R y............. 58.7
Coline ............................................................................................ A N R R ............. 26
College Station, near Winter Park ......................................S. A. L. Ry............. 73
Collins ...........................................................................................A.. N R R .............158
C onant ........................................................................................ A C. L R R ......... 93
Cone ............................................................................................ A C L R R .........125
Conners ........................................................................................ S. A L R y .............100
Cook's Ferry, on St. John's River ..........................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903.... 14
Coquina ........................................................................................ F. E. C. R y............. 17
Coronet .......................................................................................... S. A L. R y .............120
Cortez, on Sarasota Bay, top of concrete platform at
Kerosene pump on west side of Gutherie's wharf
at shore end .......................................................................U S. A rm y
Engrs., 1916.... 4.945
Cottage Hill, about 1 mile north of, on the Louisville
& Nashville Railroad, at milepost 26, and 35 feet
east of the track. A concrete post with disk in
top ................................................... ......................................U S. C. & G S.....130.928












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. ve Sea
%feet).
Cottm an ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y .............142
Cottondale ................................................................................... L. & N R R .........134.3
Cottondale, Jackson County, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, 900 feet east of Cottondale Junction,
behind the freight depot and 180 feet north of the
track in the east corner of the cement building used
by the Williams Drug Company. A brass disk........U. S. C. & G. S.....135.292
Cottondale, about 21/2 miles east of, in Jackson County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 200 feet
east of milepost 172 and 60 feet south of the track.
A concrete post with disk in top ..................................U. S. C. & G. S.....145.059


Cottondale .................................................................................. A. & St. A. B. Ry..134.3
Cow an ......................................................... ............................. L. & N R R .........173
Cow Creek, Volusia County, between mile posts 5 and
6 on the Okeechobee division ......................................F. E. C. Ry............. 31.0
Cow Creek, Levy County ......................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 30
Crane Creek, Brevard County, between mile posts 194
and 195 ..............................................................................F.. E. C. R y............. 21.5
Craw ford ....................................................................................... G S. &. F. R y..... 85
Craw ford ................................ ... ................. .........................S. A L R y............. 90
Crawford, at junction of Seaboard Air Line and Georgia
Southern and Florida railroads; top of east rail,
m arked "85.7" .................................................................... U S. G. S.............. 85.7
Crawford, 150 feet north by 200 feet west of junction
of Seaboard Air Line and Georgia Southern and
Florida railroads, at fence corner; iron post stamped
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 3 S, 1917, 84"................................U. S. G. S............... 84.21
Crawford, on Seaboard Air Line Railroad, Milepost 31,
60 feet south of, in telephone pole, spike marked
"U. S. B. M 72.0" ............................................................ U. S. G. S............ 72.0:
Crawford, on Seaboard Air Line Railroad, Milepost 30;
390 feet south of, northwest corner of trestle; top
of bolt head, marked "U. S. B. M. 57.6"......................U. S. G. S............ 57.6
Crawford, on Seaboard Air Line Railroad. Milepost 29;
30 feet south of, in telephone pole; spike marked
"U. S. B M 27.2" ............................................................ U S. G. S ............ 27.2
Crawford, on Seaboard Air Line Railroad. Milepost 29;
1,170 feet north of, 60 feet west of track; iron post
stam ped "24" ..................................................................... U S. G. S............ 23.5
Crawford, on Seaboard Air Line Railroad. Milepost 28;
top of west rail in front of, marked "20"......................U. S. G. S............... 20.0
Crawford, 1.65 miles west of, along Georgia Southern
and Florida Railroad crossing, north side of track,


84


1


2


0


23












66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
25 feet east of public road, in base of north side of
telegraph pole; railroad spike, marked "U. S. T.
B M ." .................................................................................. U S. G S............ 90.14
Creighton ........ ...............................................................................F. E. C. R y............. 39.6
Crestview ...................................................................................... L. & N R R .........223.3
Crestview, about 1%' miles west of, in Okaloosa County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 5 telegraph
poles east of milepost 92; and 35 feet north of the
track. A concrete post with disk in top......................U. S. C. & G. S.....145.817
Crestview, Okaloosa County, about 2 feet above the
sidewalk, in the southeast corner of the Okaloosa
Hotel. A brass disk ........................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....233.855
Crestview, about 2 miles east of, in Okaloosa County,
on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 3 tele-
graph poles west of milepost 96 and 35 feet south
of the track. A concrete post with disk in top............U. S. C. & G. S.....112.300
Crestview, about 31% miles east of, in Okaloosa County,
on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 1/ mile
east of milepost 97, in the top of the south end of
the east concrete pier of the bridge over the Shoal
River, A brass disk .........................................................U.. S. C. & G. S..... 82.890
C riglar ......................................................................................... A N R R ............. 54
Criglar Siding, about 1/ mile east of, in Jackson County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 230 feet east
of milepost 186, and 65 feet south of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top ......................................U. S. C. & G. S.....128.828
Crooked Lake, Polk County, now Lake Caloosa ..............U. S. Army
Engrs. 1882....132
Croom ................................................ ................................... A C. L. R R ......... 58
Cross B ayou ............................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 10
Cross City ........................................................................... A. C. L. R. R......... 53
Crown Point ................................................................................ A C. L. R R .....130.3
Crystal River, A. C. L. depot ..............................................U. S. G. S............ 4
Crystal Springs ......................................................................... S. A L. Ry............. 72
Cum m er ................................ .. ............................................... A. C. L. R R .........136
Cypress ........................................................................................ L & N R R .........136.3
Cypress, in Jackson County, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, 1 mile east of milepost 189, oppo-
site the depot and 50 feet north of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top......................................U. S. C. & G. S.....132.122
Cyril, 150 feet north of station, at railroad crossing;
joint of west rail, marked "159.8"....................................U................... S. C. & G. S.....157.7
Cyril, 2 miles southwest of, 18 feet southwest of road,
10 feet south and southwest, respectively, of two












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
pine trees painted "U. S. B. M.", in large white
letters; iron post stamped "156 Prim. Trav. Sta. No.
77" .......................................................................................... U S. C. & G S.....154.366
Cyril, 3.6 miles southeast of, 200 feet northeast of small
swamp, 6 feet north of road; nail in root of pine
tree located by primary traverse ................................U. S. C. & G. S.....151.24
D ade City .................................................. ............................... A. C. L. R R ......... 89
D ade City .............................................. ........................................ S. A L. R y............. 98
D ahom a .................................................................................. U S. G S............. 73
D ahom a .......................................................................................S. A L. R y............. 82
D allas ............................................................................................ A L R y.............101
D ania ..............................................................................................F. E C R y............. 12
Dania, bench mark is top of southwest corner of con-
crete footing of the northwest post of F. E. C. Ry.
water tank No. 483................................................................Ever. Drain.
Engrs., ................ 6.07
Dania ............................................................................................ S. A L R y............. 19
Danzig ............................................................................................ L. & N R R .........267.3
Daysville ....................................................................................... A L. R y............. 84
Daysville, 9 meters southwest of station and 9 meters
west of Seaboard Air Line Railway track, near tel-
egraph pole, 5 meters north of public highway........U. S. C & G. S..... 82.086
Daytona .....................................................................................F.. E. C. Ry.......... 7.0
Deep Creek, St. Johns county, between mileposts 52 and
53 .................................... ..................................................F... E C R y............. 10.5
D eerfield ....................................................................................... E C. R y............. 15.6
Deerfield, Hillsborough canal north of ............................F. E. C. Ry............. 12.4
D eerfield .......................................................................................S. A L R y............. 14
Deerfield, bench mark is on west side of north abut-
ment at junction of wing wall ....................................... ver. Drain.
Engrs. .............. 10.16
Deerfield, bench mark on east side of south abutment
at junction of wing wall ..................................................Ever. Drain.
Engrs .......... 9.89
Deerhunt ..................................................................................... A. N R R ............. 82
Deer Lake ........................................... .................................... A L. R y............. 75
Deerland ...................................................................................... L. & N R R .........226.3
Deerland, about 21/2 miles west of, in Okaloosa county,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, at milepost
100, near a grade crossing and 25 feet south of the
track. A concrete post with disk in top.....................U. S. C. & G. S.....217.929
Deerland, Okaloosa County, on the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad, midway between mileposts 102 and
103, about 40 feet west of a road crossing and 25












63 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


feet south of the track. A concrete post with disk
in top ................................................................................... U S. C .
Deerland, about 21/ miles east of, in Okaloosa County on
Louisville and Nashville Railroad, at Clarey Hill
siding and at milepost 105, about 25 feet south of
the track. A concrete post with disk in top................U. S. C.


& G. S.....228.359



& G. S.....240.600


DeFuniak Springs ....................................................................-L. & N. R. R.........257.3
DeFuniak Springs, about 4 miles west of, in Walton
County, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
at milepost 118, about 325 feet west of a grade
crossing and 20 feet south of the track. A concrete
post with disk in top ........................................................ U. S. C. & G. S.....263.881
DeFuniak Springs, about 1 mile west of, in Walton
County on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
100 feet west of milepost 121, about 625 feet east
of a grade crossing and 25 feet south of the track.
A concrete post with disk in top ...............................U... S. C. & G. S.....255.065
DeFuniak Springs, Walton County, on the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad, at milepost 122, about 130 feet
south of the track in the northeast concrete pier
supporting the city water tank. A brass disk............U. S. C. & G. S.....252.070
DeFuniak Springs, in Walton County, on the Louisville
& Nashville Railroad, in the east end of the concrete
depot platform along side the east supporting pillar
of the shed. A brass disk. ............................................... U. S. C. & G. S.....259.875
DeFuniak Springs, in Walton County, in the south face
of the First National Bank in the southeast corner,
about 2 feet above the sidewalk. A brass disk........U. S. C. & G. S.....265.131
Deland Junction ........................................................................ A C. L. R R......... 27
DeLand Landing, B. M. No. 1. On top of 1/4" bronze rod
imbedded in 6 inch concrete cylinder buried in the
ground to within 6 inches of the top of the cylinder.
On top of the cylinder there is cut U. S. E. Slab
of concrete surrounds cylinder at the surface of
ground. Located south of the Deland road and
95.5' east of Clyde S. S. Wharf. Established by
P. B. Bird, Jan. 1918 ......................................................... S. Arm y
Engrs .............. 6.34
DeLand Landing, B. M. No. 2. On top of 4" bronze
rod imbedded in 6 inch diam. concrete cylinder
buried in ground to within 6 inches of top of cyl-
inder. At the ground and facing the river is a slab
of concrete partly around the cylinder on the river
side. Cut in this slab are the letters U. S. Located


LOCALITY.












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
approximately in the forks of the road to Crows (feet).
Bluff and the one to the Clyde S. S. Wharf. Estab.
lished by P. B.-Bird. Jan. 1918 ...................................U.. S. Army
Engrs. ............... 8.20
DeLand Landing, B. M. No. 3. On cap piece of lumber
10" by 12" on the east side of warehouse and wait-
ing room of Clyde Line building on river. Point
is referenced by the center one of four nails in top
of the cap piece of lumber. Established by P. B.
Bird, Jan. 1918 ..................................................................U. S. Army
Engrs. ................ 8.94
Delespine .....................................................................................F. E. C. Ry............. 33.0
D ellw ood ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 17
D elph ........................................................................................... A. C. L. R R ......... 37
Delray ............................................................................................ S. A L. R y ............. 20
Delray ........................................................................................... F. E. C. R y ............. 20.3
Delray, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 41. Consists of
a 5" stove pipe filled with cement, with galvanized
spike in center of top. Lettered U. S. B. M. Top
of B. M. 4 inches from surface of ground. Situated
512 feet east of intersection of Dade Street and At-
lantic Ave., 23 feet south of I. H. Burton's residence,
8 feet east of cocoanut palm ..........................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 6.289
Delray, bench mark is top of south end of west wall-
65 feet concrete highway bridge, just south of mile-
post 15 ..................................................................................Ever. D rain
Engrs. .............. 11.60
D enham ........................................................................................ S. A L R y............. 74
Dinner Island, 55 feet north of switch point ....................F. E. C. Ry............. 26.6
Dinsm ore ....................................................................................A... C. L. R R ......... 26
Dinsmore, on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, 130
feet northeast of the station, 15 feet north of a road
crossing and 65 feet east of the northbound track.
A concrete post with disk in top ................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 19.091
D ixie ..........................................................................................S.. A L R y.............142
D doctors Inlet ............................................ ................................ U S. G S............ 13
D ow dells ...................................................................................... S. A L R y............. 80
Doylton, on Manatee River, 18% miles from Gulf. Top
of two 20d galv. wire nails driven flush on the root
of a water oak that projects toward the house............U. S. Army
Engrs., 1916.... 5.06
D rake ............................................................................................ S. A L R y.............139
D rexel .............................. .............................................................. S. A L R y............. 77












70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
D rifton ........................................................................................... A L. R y.............133
Drifton, junction to Monticello ............................................S. A. L. Ry.............129.3
Drifton, about opposite end of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way station, near telegraph pole, 26 feet south of
track. (U. S. C. & G. S. Prim. Tray. Sta.) ..............U. S. C. & G. S.....129.744
Drifton, about 6 miles west of, about 650 feet east of
mile post 144, near road crossing, 26 feet south of
Seaboard Air Line Railway track .................................U. S. C. & G. S.....148.687


Duke .............................................................................................A C. L. R. R.........
Dundee ...................................................................................... A. C. L. R. R.........
Dunedin .......................................................................................-A. C. L. R. R .........
Dunnellon .................................................................................... A C. L. R. R.........
Dunns Creek, 1.5 miles west of, 25 feet southwest of road
forks to southeast; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"39.4 ...................................................................................... U. S. C. & G. S.....
Dupont .......................................................................................... E. C. Ry.............
Durant ............................................................................................. A. L. Ry.............
Durbin ........................................................................................... E. C. Ry.............
Durbin, opposite the south end of the station shed, 10
meters east of Florida East Coast Railway tracks;
copper bolt (U. S. C. & G. S. B. M N-3).................U. S. G. S...............


154
156
13
50.2


60.161


Durbin, 1.1 miles west of, on south side and about 60 feet
from Durbin-Orangedale road, near road turning
south, in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T.
B. M 38.0" .......................................................................... U S. G S............ 37.81
Durbin, 2.1 miles west of, on south side of Durbin-
Orangedale road and 50 feet east of road south, in
base of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M.
24.7" ................................. ............................................... U S. G S............... 24.57
Durbin, 3.0 miles west of, at southwest corner of road
forks on Durbin-Orangedale road, in base of pine
tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M. 20.5".................U. S. G. S............ 20.37
Durbin, 5.5 miles southwest of, 30 feet south of Durbin-
Orangedale road, in base of pine tree; copper nail,
marked "T. B. M. 30.0" ................................................U. S. G. S............ 29.85
Durbin, 6.5 miles southwest of, on Durbin-Orangedale
road, 75 feet east of road turning north, in base of
of red oak; copper nail, marked "T. B. M. 24.2"....... U. S. G. S............ 24.08
Durbin, 8.9 miles southwest of, on north side of Durbin.
Orangedale road, in base of pine tree; copper nail
marked, "T. B. M. 29.7" .............................................U. S. G. S............. 29.55


.................................................... ........................ ..........A C.L .R R ......... 71


Dutton












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Duval, 1.50 miles east thence 2.00 miles northeast of,
at southwest corner of crossroads, near east and west
fence; iron post stamped; "B. M. 25.1".....................U... S. C. & G. S..... 25.008
Duval, 1.50 miles east thence 2.00 miles northeast,
thence 1.00 mile east of, on north of road, in base
of pine tree; copper nail marked "T. B. M. 23.1"......U. S. C. & G. S..... 23.01
Duval, at south end of station shed, in base of telegraph
pole; railroad spike, marked "T. B. M. 38.9"............U. S. G. S............ 38.85
Duval, 1.1 miles east of, about 170 feet west of cross-
roads, on northside of road, in base of pine tree;
copper nail, marked, "T. B. M. 23.3".........................U. S. G. S............ 23.16
Duval, 1.50 miles east thence 0.80 miles northeast of,
on west side of road, in base of pine tree; copper
nail, marked "T. B. M. 28.0" .....................................U. S. G. S............ 27.95
Duval, 3.70 miles east thence 2.30 miles northeast of, at
northeast corner of crossroads, in base of pine tree,
nail marked "T. B. M. 22.4" ...............................................U. S. G. S............ 22.29
Duval, 6 miles southeast thence 2.30 miles north of
1.15 miles southeast of crossroads, on north side of
road, in base of pine tree; nail marked "T. B. M.
22.6" ................................................................................... U S. G S...... ...... 22.44
Duval, 6 miles southeast of, thence 1 mile north of, at
private road east and fourth class road west, south-
west corner of crossroads; iron post, stamped "17"....U. S. G. S............ 17.159
Duval, opposite switchstand at south end of switch, 0.5
mile south of milepost 14, 25 meters east of the
Seaboard Air Line Railway; copper bolt (U. S. C.
& G. S. B. M X-21) .......................................................... U. S. C. & G. S..... 38.520
Duval, about 3.5 miles south of, 0.3 miles south of rail-
way bridge No. 10A, opposite mile post 10, and west
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ..........................U. S. C. & G. S..... 16.939
D yal .............................................. ............................................ A C L R R ......... 46
Dyal, 5.05 miles east of, on Fernandina road, in north-
west corner of T-road west, in north root of 12-
inch pine tree; copper nail ....................................... U. S. C. & G. S..... 18.29
Dyal, 3.82 miles east of, about 400 feet southwest of
the residence of Charles Sauls, west side of road,
25 feet northwest of fence corner; iron post stamped
"Elev. 25" ...........................................................................U.. S. G. S............ 25.032
Dyal, 2.34 miles east of south side of road, 50 feet east
of T-road south, in root of pine tree 12-inches in
diam eter copper nail ........................................................ U. S. G. S............ 19.53
Dyal, 1.32 miles east of, south side of road 500
feet west of crossroads, in north root of 15-inch












72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
pine tree; copper nail ...................................................U. S. G. S............ 20.10
Dyal, on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, in a fence
corner 100 feet southeast of the station and 65 feet
west of the track. An iron post stamped..................U. S. C. & G. S..... 46.781
Eagle Island .............................................................................. U S. Arm y
Engrs., 1903.... 63
Eagle Lake ............................................ ................................... A C. L. R R.........177.1
Early Bird ................................................................................... A L. Ry............. 81
East Aurantia ..............................................................................F. E. C. Ry.......... 6
East M andarin .............................................................................. U S. G S............. 23
East M ayport .............................................................................. F. E. C. Ry............. 10.0
East M im s ....................................................................................F. E. C. Ry.......... 7.3
East Ormond, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 13. Top
of 6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe,
level with surface of ground. Southwest of Bostram
Residence in E. Ormond, Fla. % mile south Hotel
Orm ond ................................................................................ U S. A rm y
Engrs., 1909.... 15.113
Eastport ................................................. ..................................... U S. G S............ 16
Eastport Junction ...................................................................... S. A. L. Ry............. 24
East Palatka ................................................................................ F. E. C. R y............. 17.7
East Palatka, front yard of residence of Mr. J. E. Gould,
in top of an 8 by 8 by 18 inch marble post buried 16
inches in ground and lettered "U. S. B. M."; bottom
of a square cut (C. & G. S. "I")..................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 16.846
Eau G allie ......................................... .................................... F. E C. R y............. 19.5
Eau Gallic, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 23. Top of
6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, level
with surface of ground. Located near East Coast
Lumber and Supply Co.'s dock. 50 feet from west
shore Indian River in the town of Eau Gallie............U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 6.985
Econlockhatchee River, Seminole County, between mile-
posts 32 and 33 on the Okeechobee division................F. E. C. Ry............. 26.9
Eddy, Gadsden County ........................................................... A. N. R. R............. 200
Eddy, Baker County ................................................................G. S. & F. Ry.........130
Eddy, Hendry County ..............................................................A. C. L. R. 'R......... 45.5
E den ............................................................................................... E C. R y............. 29.3
Edenfield ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 68
Edgar .............................................................................................A C. L. R R ......... 91.1
Edison ..........................................................................................S... A L. R y............ 110
Edison Junction .......................................................................... A. L. Ry.............117












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Egmont Key, cross on step of Light House....................... S. Army
Engrs., 1896.... 9.36
Egmont Key, niche in the east side of the N. E. corner
of a small concrete cable hut, located 200 feet south
of the Engineers wharf and 150 feet N. E. of cable
shed. Gulf datum .............................................................. t. S. Army
Engrs., 1896.... 5.72
Ehern ...........................................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 90
Ekal .............................................................................................. -S. A L. R y............. 58
Elbow Creek, Brevard County, between mile posts 190
and 191 ........................................... .................................... E C R y............. 17.5
El D estino .................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 72.8
Eldorado ...................................................................................... A L R y............. 66
Eldred ............................................................................................ F. E. C. R y............. 31.9
Elkton ............................................................................................ .F. E. C R y............. 36.7
Ellaville ........................................................................................ S. A L. R y............. 64
Ellaville, 20 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway
station .................................................................................... U S. C. & G S..... 60.590
Ellaville, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 98, 8 meters
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks................U. S. C. & G. S..... 84.764
Ellaville, about 6 miles west of, at mile post 101, 8
meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks....U. S. C. & G. S..... 89.163
Ellenton ........................................................................................ S. A L. R y............. 11
Ellerbee ....................................................................................... U S. G S...............148
Ellerslie .......................................................................................A C. L. R R .........118
Ellsworth Junction ..................................................................... A. L. Ry............. 80
Ellzey ............................................................................................. A L R y............. 37
Elizey, in northeast corner of front yard of house oc-
cupied by J. A. Williams, south of track and west
of railroad station; bottom of square cut in top
of an artificial stone post 8 by 8 by 36 inches, buried
30 inches in the ground and lettered "U. S. C. &
G. S. B. M." Post broken on top. Elevation slightly
lower than original B. M ....................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 25.482
Ellzey, 14 meters west of station, 100 meters east of mile
post 136, 9 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way track ..............................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 25.367
Eloise ............................................................................................ A. C. L. R R .........144.9
Enterprise (now Benson Springs) ........................................ E. C. Ry............. 26
Enterprise ...................................................................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903.... 17
Enterprise, center nail of five driven in the top step
at entrance to Thayers (Formerly Saul's) store












74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
which is at the N. W. corner of street leading from
wharf on the lake and street to Osteen Ferry. Elev.
Indian River Datum, M. L. W., ocean, Indian River
Inlet, survey of 1903, watershed above Lake Monroe,
25.618. Established by P. B. Bird, 1903 ....................U. S. Army
Engrs., ............... 27.618
Enterprise, top of concrete cylinder, 6 inches diam.,
buried in the ground to within 3 inches of top
which is marked U. S. B. M. Located in the N. W.
corner of W. S. Thayer's yard which is diagonally
across the street from his store. Indian River
Datum, survey of 1903, watershed above Lake Mon-
roe, Elev. 23.625. Established by P. B. Bird, Jan-
uary 1918 ......................................... .................................. U S. A rm y
Engrs. .............. 25.625
Enterprise, on top of concrete cylinder 6 inches diam.
and buried in the ground to within 3 inches of top
which is marked U. S. E. D. and located in the
S. W. corner of Winm. S. Thayer's yard. Indian River
Datum, survey of 1903, watershed above Lake Mon-
roe, Elev. 21.402. Established by P. B. Bird, Jan-
uary, 1918 ............................................................................ U. S. A rm y
Engrs. ................ 23.402
Enterprise Junction .................................................................. A. C. L. R. R ......... 26
E rie ...............................................................................................S.. A L R y............. 29
Escam bia ...................................................................................... L. & N R R ......... 14
Espanola ................................................. .......................................F. E. C. R y............. 31.8
Ethel ............................................................................................. A C. L. R R ......... 80.5
Eugene .......................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 49.8
Eustis ................................................................................................. A C. L. R R ......... 71.6
Eva ................................................................................................. G F. & A R y.........135
Eve .................................................................................................. S. A L R y............. 72
Everglades, near border of Lake Okeechobee....................Ever. Drain.
Engrs. ............. 21
Evinston, 450 feet north of station ........................................U. S. G. S............ 67
Excelsior Park ............................................................................ A. C. L. R R .........118.8
Fairbanks .......................................................................................S. A L. R y .............163
Fairbanks, 21 meters south of station, 9 meters west of
Seaboard Air Line Railway track in line with tel-
egraph pole .......................................................................U... S. C. & G. S.....162.319
Fairbanks, 10 feet southwest of southwest corner of
Post Office; in southeast corner of inclosure, 450
feet north of station; iron post stamped "163 Prim.
Tray. Sta. 55" ...................................................................U.. S. C. & G. S.....162.359












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Fairbanks, about 3 miles northwest of, 150 feet south.
west of east end of dead-head switch, in corner
southwest of railroad crossing, near Milligan's still;
iron post stamped "157 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 56"........U. S. C. & G. S.....156.916
Fair Grounds ..............................................................................L. & N R. R......... 129
Fairville ....................................................................................... S. A L. R R .........100
Falco ............................................................................................. L. & N R R .........235
Falm south ....................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 90
Falmouth, about 20 meters north of the east end of the
Seaboard Air Line Railway station ..............................U. S. C. & G. S..... 94.081
Fanlew ........................................................ ............................... A. C. L. R R ......... 43.3
Favorite ....................................................................................... E C. R y............. 30.4
Federal Point .............................................................................. U. S. G. S............ 6
Felda .............................................................................................. A C. L R R ......... 47.5
Fellsm ere .................................................. .................................. Fellsm ere R. R..... 27
Fellow ship .................................................. ..............................U.. S. G S...............180
Fernandina .................................................................................... A L. R y ............. 10
Fernandina, about 3 miles south of, 3 meters west of
mile post 3, 11 meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, near sign "Draw bridge one mile"....U. S. C. & G. S..... 10.892
Fernandina, at the southeast corner, below the corner
stone of the Post Office building on Center Street...U. S. C. & G. S..... 18.753
Fernandina, the intersection of a cross in end of a
copper bolt leaded in the south face of the brick
transit pier of the Transit of Venus Station. The
bolt is in the sixth course above the ground and
in the second brick from the S. W. corner of the
pier ....................................................................................... U S. C. & G. S..... 15.771
Fernandina, B. M. is top of a standard U. S. C. & G. S.
cap B. M., screwed to an iron pipe 18 inches long.
The lower end of the pipe was spread and the
whole imbedded in a mass of concrete about three
feet in diameter at base and about seven inches at
top. The cap is about flush with surface of ground
and is located near southwest corner of Front and
DeSoto Sts. It is about 25 feet south of center line
of DeSoto Street, and about 100 feet east' of the
water's edge. It is located between R. R. tracks, the
nearest track to the west being 43 feet and the
nearest to the eastward being 35 feet. It is 29 feet
northerly from the center of the north side of an
old frame building formerly used as the office of
the Chief Carpenter of the Seaboard Air Line Rail.
way, and is 79.5 feet westerly from the N. W. cor-












75 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
ner of the freight house platform. B. M. 26 has a
straight line cut within the circle at the center
of the brass cap ...............................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 5.246
Fernandina, B. M. is a standard U. S. C. & G. S. brass
cap B. M. secured in concrete in same manner as
B. M. 26. It is located near northeast comer of
Front and DeSoto Streets. It is about 34 feet north
of center line of DeSoto Street, and 11.5 feet west
of south west corner of a frame building used as
the office of the Jno. G. McGiffin & Co., Steam-
ship Agents. The nearest rail of railroad tracks
is 33 feet to the westward, and a fire hydrant at
southeast corner of Front and DeSoto Streets, is 53
feet to the southward. The cap is about flush with
the surface of the ground, and is marked by an X
inside the circle at the center ......................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 9.715
Fiftone .................................................. ....................................... A L R y............. 91
Fiftone, 10 meters east of track in line with old fence,
on a high ridge about 50 meters south of wagon
road crossing tracks, opposite old sawmill ................U. S. C. & G. S..... 90.594
Fivay Junction ..........................................:................................. A L. R y............. 77
Flatford ....................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 57
Flomaton, (Alabama), about 1/4 mile south of, on the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad, at the Alabama.
Florida State Line, and in Escambia county, Fla.......U. S. C. & G. S..... 69.839
Flora ............................................................................................S.. A L R y............. 43
Florahom e ...................................................................................G S. & F. Ry ......... 128
Florahome, 0.2 mile east of, at railroad crossing; top
of rail ................................................................................ U S. C. & G S.....113
Florahome, 150 feet southeast of station, in southeast
corner of T-road south; iron post stamped "125
Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 26"..................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....124.161
Florahome, 0.8 mile west of, on southwest corner of
railroad truss over creek; head of bolt marked
"92.7" .................................................................................... U S. C. & G S..... 92.26
Floral City ............................................. ................................... A C. L. R R ......... 57
Florence ........................................................................................ G F. & A Ry.........145.5
Florence Villa ........................................................................... A. C. L. R. R....-....149.5
Florida-Alabama State Line, crossing on the A. & St.
A B. Ry. ............................................................................... A. & St. A B. Ry. 156
Florida City ................................................................................ F. E. C. Ry.......... 9.8
Florinda .......................................................................................S. A L. R y .............100
Folkston, (Georgia), on the Atlantic Coast Line Rail-
road, % miles north of the railroad bridge over St.












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Marys River, 660 feet south of a semaphore pole
and 100 feet west of the track, near the fence. A
concrete post with disk in top ...................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 47.966
Folkston, (Georgia) on the Atlantic Coast Line Rail-
road, opposite the south end of the station, 65 feet
south of the signal tower and 50 feet east of the
northbound track. A concrete post with disk in
top ................... ...................................................................... U S. C. & G S..... 81.050
Forest City .................................................................................... C. L. R R .........113.4
Fort Bass'enger ........................................................................S.. A L. Ry............. 50
Fort Denaud, cross-cut on top of the S. E. corner of
concrete pier at south end of draw of bridge................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1887.... 12.297
Fort D rum .................................................................................. F. E. C. R y............. 58.9
Fort Florida, St. Johns River, on top of a 6 inch diam.
concrete cylinder buried in the ground to within
3 inches of the top and located at the S. E. corner
of the Douglas residence. Top of cylinder marked
U. S. B. M. El. 16.67. Established by C. D. Jenk-
ins, January 1912 .............................................................. U S. Arm y
Engrs., ............. 21.11
Fort G adsden .......................................... ................................ A N R R ............. 20
Fort Green (C. H. & N. Ry.) ................................................S. A. L. Ry.............120
Fort Green Springs (C. H. & N. Ry.)................................ A. L. Ry.............122
Fort Lauderdale ...................................... ................................F. E. C. Ry............. 10.0
Fort Lauderdale ........................................................................ S. A L. Ry............. 7
Fort M ason ................................................. .............................. A. C. L. R R ......... 75.75
Fort M eade ...............................................................................A.. C. L. R. R .........130
Fort Myers, on N. W. corner of base of column to Bank
of Fort Myers, located at S. W. corner of Jackson
and First Streets ................................................................ U S. Arm y
Engrs., 1887.... 9.169
Fort O gden ........................................ ...................................... A C. L. R R ......... 37
Fort O gden .................................................................................. S. A L. R y............. 32
Fort Pierce ................................................................................... E. C R y............. 24.5
Fort Pierce, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 30. Top of
6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe,
level with surface of ground. Located 37 feet in
front of store of P. P. Cobb and 35 feet west of
Indian River in the city of Fort Pierce ....................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 4.638
Fort Pierce, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 30-a, top of
6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, 3.5
feet below surface of ground. A 6" terra cotta pipe












78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
placed around B. M. upper end of pipe being 2 feet
above top of concrete cylinder. Upper end of pipe
fitted with plug ..................................................................U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 4.638
Fort Thompson, about 2% miles above, Lock No. 3.
Gulf datum.
Upper miter sill ................................................................Ever. Drain
Engrs .............. 1.0
Lower miter sill .............................................................Ever. Drain.
Engrs .............. 4.0
Fort Vinton Island .................................................................U... S. Army Engrs. 26
Fort W hite .........;........................................................................ A C. L. R R ......... 63
Fraleigh's Siding, about 31/2 miles east of Greenville, 8
meters south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, 500 meters east of mile post 120.....................U. S. C. & G. S.....114.983
Francis ..........................................................................................A C L. R R ......... 73
Francis, southwest corner of yard of small dwelling
house belonging to R. D. Howell, north of track,
facing railroad, second house west of railroad sta-
tion, bottom of a square cut in top of an artificial
stone post 8 by 8 by 36 inches buried 30 inches
in ground, lettered "U. S. C. & G. S. B. M." (C &
G. S. Francis) .....................................................................U.. S. C. & G. S..... 69.396
Franklin .................................. ...............................................A.. N R R ............ 8
Frontenac ................................................. .................................. F. E. C. R y............. 34.2
Frostproof .................................................................................. A C. L. R R .........107
Fruita ................................... ................................................. F. E C. R y............. 29.0
Fruitland Park .......................................................................A.. C. L. R R.........113
Fruitville ....................................................................................... S. A L R y............. 20
Fulford .........................................................................................F. E C. R y............. 10.3
Fulford, bench mark top of corner of north abutment
6 inches north of north end of east wall of highway
bridge over Big Snake Creek just north of Ful-
ford .........................................................................................Ever. D rain. Engrs 7.93

Fullers .......................................................................................... S. A L. R y.............200.8
Fulton ............................................................................................ I S. G S............ 4
Gaberonne ....................................................... .......................... L. & N R R ......... 5.8
G abriella ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 66
Gadsden Point, Hillsborough Bay, five nails driven hori-
zontally 18 inches above ground on the S. E. face of
a pine tree, 14 in. diameter. Above the nails are five
notches three inches apart in a vertical row. The
tree has nine limbs cut off on the south side and












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
bears N. 80 40 W, and 240 feet from Gadsden
Point Station. There is a pine stump 17 feet from
the B. M. and on line between Stations Gadsden
and Loane. Est. from M. L. W. datum .....................U... S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 5.00
Gadsden Point, Hillsborough Bay, five nails driven 8
inches above ground horizontally, in the east face of
a water oak tree, 900 feet northeasterly from B. M.
No. 1. 27 feet westerly is another water oak: 64
feet northwesterly is a large water oak that forks
2 ft. above ground and southwesterly is a pine
tree. Est. from M. L. W. datum.................................U... S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 5.00
G ainesboro ................................... ......................................... A L. R y............. 83
Gainesville, Crossing S. A. L. ................................................A. C. L. R. R.........144


G ainesville ...................................................................................S.. A .
G ainesville ................................................................................... A C.
Gainesville, 24 meters from east end of station between
main track and switch track of Seaboard Air Line
Railway, 25 meters northeast from main track.......... U. S.
Gainesville, in the north face of the northeast corner
of the Post Office building .......................................... U. S.
Gainesville, in the east face of the northeast corner
of the drug store building, southeast of the County
Court H house ...................................................................... U S.
Gainesville, southwest corner of Court House yard; bot-
tom of a square cut in top of an 8 by 8 by 26 inch
marble post, buried 24 inches in ground and lettered
"U. S. C. & G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "R") .................U. S.
Gainesville, west entrance to brick Court House, lowest
step on right hand, near wall; bottom of a square
cut in the upper surface of step, lettered "U. S. C.
&" "G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "T") ..............................U. S.
Gainesville, middle of doorway leading to second story
of brick Barnett Block facing Court House square,
in middle of front of building; middle of raised,
smooth band on outer edge of iron doorsill. (C.
& G S. "S") ........................................................................U S.
Gainesville, one mile west of the County Court House,
in the bottom step at the north entrance to the
Engineering Building of the University of Florida....U. S.
Gainesville, one mile west of the County Court House,
in the step at the west entrance to the Engineering
Building of the University of Florida .......................U... S.


L. Ry ............141
L. R. R.........185


C. & G. S.....140.794

C. & G. S.....173.871


C. & G. S.....179.232



C. & G. S.....176.991



C. & G. S.....178.727




C. & G. S.....177.211


C. & G. S....167.903


C. & G. S.....167.985












80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY. AUTHOR
Gainesville, about 100 meters east of the north entrance
to the Engineering Building of the University of
Florida, B. M. is the top of the post marking the
C. & G. S. Magnetic Station ...........................................U.. S. C.
Gainesville, about 150 meters northeast of the north
entrance to the Engineering Building of the Uni.
versity of Florida. B. M. is the top of the stone
post marking the meridian for the C. & G. S. Mag-
netic Stqtion ....................................................................... U S. C.
G alliver ........................................................................................... L. & N .
Galliver, Okaloosa County, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, across the track from the depot at
milepost 84, and 35 feet south of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top.................................. U. S. C.
Galliver, about 2% miles east of, Okaloosa County, on
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, about % mile
west of mile post 87, in the top of the south head
wall of a brick culvert. A brass disk...........................U. S. C.
G ait City ...................................................................................... L. & N .
Gait City, in Santa Rosa County, on the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad, A mile of the depot and 35
feet north of the track. A concrete post with disk
in top ............................................... ................................. U S. C .
G arrisons ...................................................................................... S. A L .
G arw ood ......................................... ...................................... S. A L .
G ary ............................................................................................... S. A L .
Gasparilla .................................................................................... S. A L.
Geigers Landing, St. Johns River, on top of concrete
cylinder buried in the ground to within 3 inches
of the top which is marked U. S. B. M. El. 4.32
and located under two palmetto trees which have
grown together at the bottom. Trees are 36.5 feet
S. W. from S. W. corner of warehouse on river at
Geigers Landing. Established by C. D. Jenkins,
Jan. 1912 .............................................................................. U. S. Ar
G eneva .......................................................................................... F. E. C.
Geneva-Sanford Highway Bridge, B. M. No. -1. Cross
cut in top of concrete pier on down side (Sanford
side) of Geneva-Sanford highway bridge at mouth
of Lake Jessup. Established by P. B. Bird, Feb,
1918 ........................................................................................ U S. A r
Geneva-Sanford Highway Bridge, B. M. No. 2. Cross
cut in top of concrete pier on up river or Sanford
side of Geneva-Sanford highway bridge at mouth


Elevation
LITY. Above Sea
(feet).



& G. S....166.722




& G. S.....168.061
R. R.........200.8



& G. S.....202.539



& G. S..... 97.680
R. R......... 66.8



& G. S..... 60.653
Ry.............130
Ry.............128
Ry............. 15
Ry.......... 6.5


my Engrs 8.78
Ry............. 73.3




my Engrs 12.41












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
of Lake Jessup. Established by P. B. Bird, Feb.,
1918 ........................................................................................ U. S. A rm y Engrs 12.43
Geneva-Sanford Highway Bridge, B. M. No. 3. Cross cut
in top of concrete pier on down river or Geneva
side of Geneva-Sanford highway bridge at mouth of
Lake Jessup. Established by P. B. Bird, Feb., 1918....U. S. Army Engrs 12.18
Geneva-Sanford Highway Bridge, B. M. No. 4. Top
of concrete cylinder, 5 inches diam. buried in
ground to within 1 inch of the top which is marked
U. S. B. M. and located 20 ft. north of roadway and
230 ft. from water line of river, 3 palmetto trees
surround B. M., one is 4 ft. S., one 2 ft. N. W. and one
2 ft. N. of B. M. Elev. determined from difference
in elevation of B. M.'s at Sanford and Cooks Ferry.
Established by V. B. Watters, 1910. Elevation Fer-
nandina datum 6.567. (Interpolated for Elev. 8.48)
Feb. 1918 ................................................................................U S. Arm y Engrs 8.48
G enoa ............................................................................................ G S. & F. R y.........145
Georgetown, B. M. No. 1. On top of 14" bronze rod
in top of 6 inch concrete cylinder which is buried
in the ground while the top of the cylinder is even
with the surface of the ground. Located 15 feet
west of the northwest corner of E. M. Augier's store.
Established by P. B. Bird, Jan. 1918 ..........................U. S. Army
Engrs .............. 6.49
Georgetown, B. M. No. 2. On top of 14" bronze rod
the ground while the top of the cylinder is even with
in the ground while the top of the cylinder is even
with the surface of the ground. Located 132 feet
approximately south of B. M. No. 1. Established
by P. B. Bird, 1918 ............................................................ U. S. Arm y
Engrs .............. 7.51
Georgetown, B. M. No. 3. On top of 14" bronze rod in
top of 6-inch concrete cylinder which is buried in
the ground while the top of the cylindtr is even with
the surface of the ground. Located 14 feet from
south side of Post Office building. Established by P.
B. Bird, 1918 ...................................................................... U S. Arm y
Engrs ................ 10.49
Georgia-Florida State Line, at crossing of on the Val-
dosta-Palatka branch of the G. S. & F. Ry. between
mile post 168 and 169 .......................................................G. S. & F. Ry.........150
Georgia-Florida State Line, at crossing of on the Val.
dosta-Jacksonville line of the G. S. & F. Ry., be.












82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
tween mile post 208 and 209 ........................................G. S. & F. Ry.........128
G etzens ................................................ ..................................... S. A L. R y............. 138
G ifford ......................................................................................... F E. C. R y............. 19.5
Glades ............................................................................................ F. E. C. R y.......... 5.9
Glencoe ....................................................................................... F. E. C. R y............. 26.8
Glen Ethel .................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 71
Glen St. Mary .............................................................................. A. L. Ry.............134
Glen St. Mary, about 1 mile west of, near mile post
C178, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, in line with telegraph poles .............................U. S. C. & G. S.....127.969
Glen St. Mary, about 4 miles west of, near mile post
C175, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railroad
tracks in line with telegraph poles .............................U. S. C. & G. S.....133.960


Glen St. Mary, about 7 miles north of, on west side of
north and south road leading from Jacksonville
road to Cuyler School, about 0.7 mile north of school
house, in root of 12 inch pine stump, copper nail
and w asher ......................................................................... U .
G olden R od ..................................... .........................................
G oldstein ............................ ........................................................
G om ez ......................................................................................... F.
Gomez Creek, Okeechobee County, near mile post 123
on the Okeechobee division ........................................F.
G onzalez .................................................................................... L .
Gonzalez, about 1 mile north of, on the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad, at milepost 30, about 50 feet
from a grade crossing and 25 feet east of the track.
A concrete post with disk in top .................................U.
Gonzalez, about 1 mile south of, on the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad, at milepost 32, about 300 feet
north of a road crossing and 25 feet east of the
track. A concrete post with disk in top...................U.
G oodno ....................................................................................... A .


S. C.
A. L.
A. L.
E. C.


& G. S.....118.84
Ry............. 74
Ry............. 43
Ry............. 26.6


E. C. Ry............. 57.2
& N. R. R.........135.8



S. C. & G. S.....154.967



S. C. & G. S.....145.951
C. L. R. R......... 27.0


Good Range .................................................................. L. & N. R. R.........164
G ordon ......................................................................................... & N R R .........227
Gordonville .................................................................................A C. L. R R .........142.4
G otha ............................................................................................ A C. L. R R .........169.2
Goulding ...................................................................................... L. & N R R ......... 82.3
Goulding, Escambia County, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, 360 feet south of the depot, 50 feet
south of milepost 41, about 165 feet north of a road
crossing, 50 feet east of the track. A concrete post
with disk in top .............................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 86.512












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA'


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


G oulds ......................................................................................... F. E C R y............. 12.3
G radan .......................................................................................... .L. & N R R .........274.3
Graham, 8 feet east of, southeast corner of station, at
road crossing; top of west joining of railroad track,
marked "144.4" .....................................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....142.4
Graham, 1.8 miles east of, 200 feet east of Graham.
Starke and Graham-Hampton crossroads, opposite
wide road entrance to house to south; iron post
stamped "147 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 78"...................U. S. C. & G. S.....144.74
Graham, 3 miles east of, 50 feet northwest of second.
class road to southwest 6 feet north of road; nail
in root of pine stump, marked "139.8"........................ U. S. C. & G. S.....137.88
Graham, 4 miles east of, in west angle of road forks
to northwest, about 400 feet northwest of house,
1 mile west of Hampton; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "152.8" .................................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....150.86
Granada ....................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 51
Grand Crossing .......................................................................... G. S. & F. Ry......... 27


Grand Crossing, 25 feet south of Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad track, on east side of road, in base of
post of warning sign; railroad spike, marked "T.
B M 25.1" ...................................................................... U .
Grand Crossing, 1.3 miles southwest of, at northwest
corner of crossroads, in base of corner fence post;
railroad spike, marked "T. B. M. 22.5".......................U.
Grand Crossing, 2.0 miles southwest of. at northwest
corner of crossroads near fence line; iron B. M.
post stam ped "25" ........................................................... U.
Grand Crossing, 3 miles south of, on east side of north
and south road, 50 feet north of east and west road;
railroad spike marked "T. B. M. 21.8" ..........................U.
Grand Crossing, 4 miles south of, on north side of east
and west road, in line with west right-of-way line
of road south ,in base of telephone pole, railroad
spike, marked "T. B. M. 27.9" ......................................U.
Grand Crossing, 5 miles south of, on east side of north
and south road, 60 feet north of road west, in base


S. G. S............ 25.080


S. G. S............ 22.41


S. G. S............ 24.876


S. G. S............ 21.80



S. G. S............ 27.89


of pine tree; copper nail, marked "T. B. M. 15.5"...U. S. G. S............ 15.46
Grandin ........................................................................................ G S. & F. R y.........100
Grandin, 200 feet north of railroad station, at northeast
corner of store, inside fence; iron post stamped
"101 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 27" ....................................U...U. S. C. & G. S.....100.149
Grandin, 1.6 miles west of, at bottom of grade, near


LOCALITY.












84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--17TH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


telephone pole, on south joint of rail, marked
"97.8" ................................................................................... U S. C. & G S..... 97.4


Grand Island ......................................... .................................. A. C. L. R. R.........108.60
Grand Ridge ..............................................................................L... & N R R .........129.8
Grand Ridge, in Jackson County, on the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad, 200 feet west of the depot at a
grade crossing, and 60 feet north of the track. A
concrete post with disk in top ....................................U. S. C. & G. S.....132.044
Grand Ridge, about 21/ miles east of, in Jackson County,
on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 1/2 mile
west of Inwood Siding, 325 feet east of milepost
195, and 45 feet south of the track. A concrete post
with disk in top ..................................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....141.952
G rant ....................................................... .....................................F. E C R y............. 11.0
Grant Station, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 25. Top of
6" cylinder of concrete enclosed in stove pipe, level
with surface of ground. Located 100 feet east of
center line F. E. C. Ry., and 12 feet north of
northeast Lars Jorgansen's Store at Grant Station
on F. E. C. Ry. ................................................................... U S. Arm y
Engrs. 1909.... 7.589
Green Cove Springs ................................................................. A. C. L. R. R......... 28


Green Cove Springs, milepost 31, on Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad, 100 feet south of, Jacksonville to. Palatka;
railroad spike driven in root of black pine stump
N o. 1 ......................................................................................U .
Green Cove Springs, 0.7 mile south of, and 0.7 mile south
of Milepost 31 on west side of track and north side
of road, in base of post of warning sign; railroad
spike, marked "T. B. M. 23.0 ft." ................................U.
Green Cove Springs, on west side of courthouse, just
inside of court house yard fence and 20 feet south
of gate; iron B. M. post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta.
N o. 10-K El. "23" .......................................................... U.
Green Cove Springs, on stone landing of portico on
front side of Clay County Courthouse, at west side
and near edge; cross cut "El. above M. L. W. of
ocean 28.22. U. S. E." ................................................... U.
Green Cove Springs, 0.6. miles west of, on west .side of
road south and 100 feet south of east and west road,
in base of pine tree, marked "t. b. m. 37.5", copper
n ail ........................................... ................................ .......... U .
Green Cove Springs, 1.5 miles west of, on north side
of east and west road and west side of road north, in


S. G. S............ 26.64



S. G. S............ 22.57



S. G. S............ 22.605



S. G. S............ 24.72



S. G. S............ 37.03












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
base of telephone pole; railroad spike, marked "t.
b. m 48.2" .......................................... .............................. U S. G S............ 47.70
Green Cove Springs, 2.6 miles west of, on south side
of road in base of pine tree; copper nail marked
."t. b. m 69.9" .................................................................U. S. G. S............ 69.40
Green Cove Springs, 3.9 miles west of, on north side
of road at road fork northeast, and about 250 feet
southwest of house, in base of pine tree; copper
nail, marked "T. B. M. 79.9" ......................................U...U. S. G. S............ 79.43
Green Cove Springs, 4.2 miles west of, on n-rth side
of road, and 600 feet east of Peters Creek; iron
post stamped, "B. M. 66.6" .........................................U. S. G. S............ 66.186
Green Cove Springs, 5.2 miles west of, on south side of
road in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked
"t. b. m 75.9" .................................................................. U S. G. S............ 75.45
Green Cove Springs, 6.3 miles west of, on north side
of road and west side of Dowling-Shands logging
railroad at road crossing, in base of telephone pole;
railroad spike, marked "t. b. m. 59.4" ....................... U. S. G. S............ 88.93
Green Cove Springs, 7.8 miles west of, at southwest
corner of road fork south and 0.3 mile west of
Ohio Hotel, in base of pine stump; copper nail,
m arked "t. b. m 92.9" .................................................... U. S. G. S.............. 92.45
Green Cove Springs, 8.7 miles west of, on north side
of east and west road and 25 feet east of road north,
in base of red oak tree; copper nail marked "t. b. m.
94.2" .................................................................................... U S. G S............ 93.76
Green Cove Springs, 9.4 miles west of, on north side
of east and west road and 80 feet east of road fork
northeast of Russell; iron b. m. post stamped "77"
marked "B. M 77.0" ....................................................... U. S. G. S............ 76.589
Green Cove Springs, 10.4 miles west of, on south side
of road opposite shanty house, in base of red oak
tree; copper nail marked "t. b. m. 83.4" .....................U. S. G. S............ 82.93
Green Cove Springs, 11.4 miles west of, on south side
of road and 170 feet from road fork south to Waller
P. 0., in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked
"T. B. M 98.8" .................................................................. U. S. G. S.............. 98.40
Green Cove Springs, 12.9 miles west of, at northeast
corner of crossroads of Waller-Middleburg road and
Green Cove-Starke road; iron b. m. post, stamped
"Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 13-K. "Elevation "99" "B.
M .. 99.2" ...........................................................................U.. S. G. S............ 98.777
Green Cove Springs, 14.9 miles west of, on south side












86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
of road at road fork leading to house, in base of
pine stump; copper nail marked "P. B. M. 150.2"....U. S. G. S...............149.83
Green Cove Springs, 15.8 miles west of, on north side
of road and 100 feet west of Bull Creek, in base
of black gum tree; copper nail, marked "t. b. m.
80.1" ...................................................................................... U S. G S............ 79.70


Green Cove Springs, 16.5 miles west of, on south side
of road and 80 feet west of road fork south; iron
B. M. post stamped "143," marked "B. M. 142.7" ......U. S.
Green Cove Springs, 17.6 miles west of, on south side
of road, 190 feet west of north fork of Black Creek,
in base of pine tree; copper nail marked "t. b. m.'
122.5" .............................................. ..................................U.. S.
Green Cove Springs, 18.5 miles west of, on north side
of road, in base of pine tree; copper nail, marked
"t. b. m 162.3" .................................................................U S.
Green Cove Springs, 19.8 miles west of, on south side
of road and 200 feet east of two story house, in
base of red oak tree; copper nail, marked "t. b. m.
205.8" ................................................................................... U S.
G reenfield ..................................................................................... S. A .
G reenland ................................................................................... F. E .
Greenland, about 30 meters south of the station, 10
meters west of the Florida East Coast Railway
tracks in line with telegraph poles ............................U. S.
G reenleaf ................................................. ............................... S. A .


G S...............142.249



G S...............122.10


G S...............161.85


C.
L.


Greensboro ................................................................................. A. N R
Green's Crossing ....................................................................... L. & N .
Greenville ..................................................................................S... A L.
Greenville, about 300 meters west of the Seaboard Air
Line Railway station, 8 meters south of the Sea.
board Air Line Railway main track and 8 meters
east of the S. Ga. & W. C. Railway track near their
crossing (U. S. G. S. Prim. Tray. Sta.) ...................U. S. C.
Greenville, S. Ga. & W. C. Railway crossing ...................... A. L.
Greenville, in the south face of the brick building op-
posite the Seaboard Air Line Railway station ...........U. S. C.
Greenville, about 21% miles west of, near mile post
126; 26 feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks ................................................................................... U S. C.
Greenville, about 41/ miles west of, in fence corner at
road crossing; 586 feet east of mile post 128; 26
feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks .....U. S. C.
Greenville, 11% miles east of, 100 meters east of mile


. S............... 205.42
Ry............. 75
Ry............. 23.8


& G. S..... 21.217
Ry............. 77
SR............. 280
R. R.........223
Ry.............106


& G. S..... 98.054
Ry............. 97.0

& G. S..... 99.383


& G. S..... 93.018


& G. S..... 91.430












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
post 122, near private road crossing, 8 meters south (fet).
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ......................U. S. C. & G. S.....100.948
Greenville, about 31/% miles east of, at Frely's Siding,
8 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks,
500 meters east of mile post 120 ..................................U. S. C. & G. S.....114.974
Greenville, about 61% miles east of, 125 meters east of
mile post 117, 8 meters south of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks .................................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....100.909
G reer .................................................. ...........................................S. A L. R y............. 91
G retna ............................................................................................ A L. R y.............294
G ross ............................................................................................ S. A L R y............. 28
Gross, 6.42 miles east of, 1.1 miles southeast of Lessie,
on Kings Ferry road, at road fork south, south side
of road; iron post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta. No.
12 1918" ............................................................................... U S. G S............ 11.512
Gross, 1 mile north of, 150 feet north of 1 mile post,
48 feet west of center of railroad; copper nail in
stum p .................................................................................... U S. G S............ 21.81
Gross, 1.7 miles southeast of, along Savannah and Jack-
sonville line, at road crossing railroad, 40 feet north-
west of center of railroad crossing, in base of tel-
egraph pole; bolt, marked "U. S. T. B. M." ................U. S. G. S............ 18.43
Gross, 40 feet west of railroad station, 28 feet north of
public road; iron post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta.
No. 23 K. Elev. 25, 1917" (U. S. C. & G. S. B. M.
D -8) ..........................................................................................U S. G S............... 24.452
Gross, 1.02 miles southwest of, 330 feet southwest of
wooden bridge over small creek, 60 feet northeast
of road forks, east side of road, in west root of
pine tree 8 inches in diameter; copper nail ..............U. S. G. S............ 18.74
Gross, 1.93 miles southwest of, at bend in road, 50 feet
east of small wooden bridge, 250 feet east of road
fork, north side of road, in north pine tree 12 inches
in diameter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M."....U. S. G. S............ 19.36
Gross. 3.0 miles west of, 150 feet west of road forks,
north side of road, in east root of pine tree 13 inches
in diameter; copper nail, marked "U. S. B. M."......U. S. G. S............ 25.70
Gross, 4.25 miles west of, in southwest corner of Ever-
green Schoolhouse, yard; iron post stamped "Elev.
58" ...........................................................................................U S. G S............... 57.337
Gross, 5.36 miles west of, 1.06 mile west of Evergreen
schoolhouse, in northwest comer of crossroads, in
south root of pine tree 15 inches in diameter; cop-
per nail marked "U. S. T. B. M." ...............................U. S. G. S............... 13.32












88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT
Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Groveland .............................................................. ..........A. C. L. R. R.........129.4
Grove Park ..................................................................................A. C. L. R. R.........103.2
Grove Park, in northeast corner of lot owned by M.
S. Spray, across street south of railroad station;
bottom of a square cut in artificial stone post 8 by
8 by 36 inches, buried 30 inches in ground and let-
tered "U. S. C. & G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "P") ........U. S. C. & G. S.....100.541
Guilford .....................................................................................G. S. & F. R y.........135
Gulf Coast Junction ................................................................. S. A. L. Ry............. 46
Gulf Hammock ......................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 33
Gulf Junction ..........................................................................- A. C. L. R. R......... 67
Gull Point .................................................................................. L. & N R R ......... 1 .3
Gull Point, Escambia County, on the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad, 80 feet from the Postoffice and
100 feet north of a grade crossing. A concrete post
with disk in top ................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 21.201
Gull Point, about 1% miles north of, on the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad, 920 feet west of the west
end of the Escambia Bay trestle and 25 feet north of
the track. A concrete post with disk in top ..............U. S. C. & G. S..... 5.988
Gull Point, about 2% miles north of, on the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad, in southwest concrete pier
of the Escambia Bay drawbridge. A brass disk........U. S. C. & G. S..... 2.641
G unnells ........................................................................................S. A L. R y............. 90
Gunntown .................................................................................. A. C. L. R R ......... 17.5
H ague ........................................................................................... A C L R R .........174
H aines City ................................................................................. A. C. L. R R .........166.1
Hainesworth ................................................................................A. C. L. R. R.........173
H ainesw orth ................................................................................. A L. R y.............180
Half Moon ...................................................................................A. C. L. R. R......... 54
Halifax River, near Port Orange Bridge, Fla. Intra-
Coastal B. M. No. 14. Top of 6" cylinder of
concrete enclosed in stove pipe, level with surface
of ground, at east end of Port Orange Bridge ............U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 10.105
H allandale ................................................................................ F. E. C. Ry............. 11.0
Hallandale ................................................................................. S. A. L. Ry .......... 7.5
H all City ...................................................................................... A. C. L. R R ......... 44.0
H alsem a ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y............. 91
Hammock Ridge, S. A. L. depot ..........................................U. S. G. S............ 78
Hammock Ridge ........................................................................ A. L. Ry............. 80
Hammock Road Siding .......................................................... A. L. Ry............. 95
H am pton ........................................................................................ G S. & F. R y.........148












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


H am pton .....................................................................................S.. A L R y .............147


Hampton, 150 feet east of northeast corner of station,
50 feet south of northwest corner of hotel, 8 feet
north of pavement, 2 feet south of old concrete
well top, iron post stamped "150 Prim. Tray. Sta.
N o. 79" ................................................................................ U .
Hampton, 46 meters southwest of station, 40 meters
south of white house, 20 meters west of Seaboard
Air Line Railway track, in line with telegraph
poles ................................................................................. U .
Hampton, about 3 miles northeast of, 300 meters south
of mile post 76 and irrigation ditch, 15 meters west
of Seaboard Air Line Railway track near fence
line ...................................................................................... U .
H ardaw ay ..................................................................................... A .
H ardeetown ............................................................................... A .


S. C. & G. S.....148.057



S. C. & G. S.....144.168



S. C. & G. S.....155.728
N. R. R............. 303
C. L. R. R......... 41.5


H arold ................................................. ...................................... L. & N R R .........146.8
Harold, about 4 miles west of, in Santa Rosa County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 130 feet
east of a grade crossing and 25 feet south of the
track. A concrete post with disk in top ..................U. S. C. & G. S.....131.246
Harold, Santa Rosa County, on the Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, opposite the depot, 3 telegraph poles
east of milepost 73, and 40 feet north of the track.
A concrete post with disk in top ...............................U. S. C. & G. S.....150.321
Harold, about 23% miles east of, in Santa Rosa County,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 325 feet
west of mile post 76, at a road crossing, and 30
feet south of the track. A concrete post with disk
in top .................................................................................. U S. C. & G S.....162.588
H arp ............................................... .....................................L... & N R R ......... 25.8
H arrisburg .................................................................................... A C. L. R R ......... 47.0
H arw ood .....................................................................................F. E. C. Ry............. 33.6
H askell .........................................................................................A C. L. R R .........116
H astings ........................................................................................ F. E. C. Ry............. 10.5
Hastings, in yard of Thomas H. Hastings' residence, near
back steps of veranda, on west side of house; bot-
tom of a square cut in top of marble post (Coast
and Geodetic Survey bench mark) ............................U. S. C. & G. S..... 7.264
Hastings, about 300 feet south of station, in northeast
corner of yard, west side of street; iron post stamped
"9 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 8" ............................................. U. S. C. & G. S..... 8.824
Hastings, 1.2 miles south of, in southeast angle of T-road












90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
south, near schoolhouse, 30 feet east of road; nail
in root of pine tree, marked "11.3" ............................. U. S. C. & G. S..... 12.02
Hastings, 2.8 miles south of, 400 feet southwest of large
white house, 10 feet west of road, nail in top of fence
post m arked "18" ..............................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 18.85
Hastings, 3.4 miles south of, west side of road, opposite
barn 200 feet east of road, 50 feet northwest of
second-class road forks east; iron post stamped "17
Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 9" .................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 17.855
Hastings, 3.9 miles south of, 50 feet south of second-
class road forks to southeast, 6 feet east of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "23.2" .................U. S. C. & G. S..... 23.32
Hastings, 4.5 miles south of, at corner of wire fence
25 feet west of road; nail in root of pine tree
m arked "20.7" .................................................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 21.52
Hastings, 5.7 miles south of, 50 feet south of forks to
southeast, 15 feet east of road; nail in root of pine
tree, m arked "24.6" ............................................................ S. C. & G. S..... 25.37
H avana ................................................ ........................................ F. & A R y.......243.2
Havana, about 325 feet west of the Georgia-Florida and
Alabama Railway station; 6 feet north from north
fence of a tobacco field, 49 feet south of the Georgia-
Florida and Alabama main track. Concrete post ......U. S. C. & G. S.....247.050
Havana, about 3.7 miles southeast of, at mile post 63;
33 feet north of Georgia-Florida and Alabama rail-
way track. Concrete post ................................................U. S. C. & G. S.....143.871
H awks Park .............................................. ............................... F. E. C. Ry............. 13.2
H awthorn ...................................................................................... S. A L. R y .............146
H awthorn .....................................................................................A. C. L. R R .........144.0
Hawthorn, on south side (next railroad track) of frame
dwelling house of W. T. Broswell, east of railroad
station, in brick chimney, in eighteenth course above
ground, second brick from southwest corner of chim-
ney; intersection of cross in end of copper bolt
(C. & G. S. "N ") .............................................................. U. S. C. & G. S.....145.151
Hawthorn, in brick chimney at north end of one-story
house of J. N. Craig, north of railroad track, half
a block from railroad station, in eighteenth course
above ground and in corner brick at northeast
corner of chimney;. intersection of a cross in end
of copper bolt (C. & G. S. "O") ....................................U. S. C. & G. S.....146.840
H ayes ........................................................ .....................................A C L R R ......... 73
H eart Pine ................................................. .............................. S. A L. R y............. 24
H edges ......................................................... ................................ S. A L R y............. 26












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
H eidtville .................................................................................... U S. G. S............ 61
H elen ................................................... ......................................G. F. & A Ry......... 83.5
H ernando ....................................................................................... C. L. R R ......... 50
H esperides ..................................................................................S... A L. R y.............118
H ibernia ..........................................................................................U S. G S............ 16
H icoria ......................................................................................... A. C. L. R R .........153.7


H ighland ....................................................................................S... A .
Highland, about 3 miles north of, about 1 mile south
of mile post 59, about 110 meters north of bridge
No. 59.6, 11 meters west of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks, near abandoned road crossing ..................U. S.
Highland, about 1.5 mile south of, at milepost 63, 65
feet west of Seaboard Air Line Railroad track;
bronze tablet set in concrete post, stamped (U. S.
C. & G. S. B. M H-2) .......................................................U. S.
Highland, 60 feet east of Seaboard Air Line Railroad
tracks and 35 feet southeast of station, in foot of
telegraph pole; railroad spike ......................................U. S.
Highland, 1.0 mile west of, on Highland and Sapp
road, at T-road northeast, in root of 10 inch pine
tree; copper nail and washer ........... ............U. S.
Highland, 2.1 miles west of, on Highland and Sapp road,
at road forks, 60 feet southwest of, in root of 10-
inch pine tree; copper nail and washer ...................U... S.
Highland, 2.9 miles west of, on Highland and Sapp
road, at T-road northeast; iron post stamped "147"....U. S.
Highland, 3.8 miles west of, where Highland road forks
to go round newly fenced farm, in root of 8 inch
pine tree; copper nail and washer .............................U... S.
Highland, 4.9 miles west of, at site of old sawmill, in
northeast corner of old well curb; copper nail and
w asher .................................................................................. U S.
Highland, 6.4 miles west of, at junction of Highland
and Black Creek roads, 400 feet east of New River
ford, south side of road; iron post stamped "131"....U. S.
Highland, 7.3 miles west of, on Black Creek road and
2.3 miles southeast of Sapp, 150 feet west of road
forks, to southeast, on south side of road, in root
of 12-inch pine tree; copper nail and washer ............U. S.
Highland, 8.3 miles west of, 1.5 miles southeast of Sapp,
on Black Creek road, 350 feet east of crossroads,
in root of 15.inch tall pine snag; copper nail and
w asher .................................................................................. U S.


L. Ry.............201



C. & G. S.....168.681



G S...............174.622


G. S...............205.82


G. S...............165.58


G S...............144.20

G. S...............146.668


G. S...............136.46


G. S...............139.32


G S...............131.118




G. S...............137.36



G. S...............139.54












92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


H igh Springs ........................................................ .....................A C. L. R R ......... 75
H illiard .......................................................................................... A C L R R ......... 66
Hilliard, 6 miles west of by 3 miles south, on river
road about 1,200 feet east of residence of J. J.
Johnson, 90 feet south by 15 feet east of crossroad,
east side of road; iron post stamped "Prim. Tray.
Sta. No. 14 S. Elev. 1917" .........................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 70.520
Hilliard, 6.76 miles west of by 0.89 mile south along
river road in northwest corner of crossroad, in east
root of lone pine tree 18 inches in diameter; copper
nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M." ...................................U. S. C. & G. S..... 70.67
Hilliard, 4.83 miles west of, in southwest corner of
crossroad; iron post stamped "Elev. 84" .................U. S. G. S............... 84.190
Hilliard, 3.36 miles west of, in southwest corner of
crossroads, in top of pine stump 12 inches in diam-
eter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M." ..............U. S. G. S.......... 90.44
Hilliard, 2.79 miles west of, in northeast corner of T-
road north, in top of pine stump 12 inches in diam-
eter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T. B. M." ............. U. S. G. S............ 98.94
Hilliard, 1.31 miles west of station, 100 feet west of
southwest corner of crossroads in north root of
pine tree 15 inches in diameter; copper nail,
marked "U. S. T. B. M ." ............................................. U. S. G. S.............. 90.45
Hilliard, 0.66 mile west of railroad station, at southwest
corner of T-road south, in northwest corner of
small wooden bridge; iron bolt head marked "U.
S. T. B. M ." ........................................................................ U S. G S............ 83.20
Hilliard, 5.7 miles northeast of, on Hilliard and Kings
Ferry road, 150 feet north of road forks, west side
of road, in west root of cedar tree 18 inches in
diam eter; copper nail ...................................................... U. S. G.. S............ 23.83
Hilliard, 100 feet southwest of railroad station, 50 feet
southwest of southbound track, 3 feet north of side-
walk; iron post stamped "Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 4
Mac. 1917 Elev. 69" (U. S. C. & G. S. B. M. K-7)...U. S. G. S............ 69.360
Hilliard, 0.8 mile southeast of, at forks, east side of
road in west root of pine tree 10 inches in diam-
eter; copper nail ................................... ..........................U S. G. S............ 54.67
Hilliard, 1.88 miles southeast of, in center of road
forks in east root of pine tree 12 inches in diameter;
copper nail .......................................................................... U S. G S............ 61.01
Hilliard, 3.19 miles southeast of, on west side of road,
directly opposite T-road northeast in north root of












ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


3-foot dead pine tree; copper nail ..............................U. S. G. S............ 45.17
Hilliard, 3.81 miles southeast of, 400 feet northeast of
Braddock School, in southwest corner of crossroads;
iron post stamped "Elev. 47" ....................................... U. S. G. S............ 46.75(
Hilliard, 4.76 miles southeast of, 0.9 mile west of Cum-
mers Camp, at road forks, south side of road, in
north root of 12-inch pine tree; copper nail .............U. S. G. S............ 20.27
Hilliard, 5.69 miles southeast of, at Cummers Camp,
200 feet west of railroad crossing, north side of
road, in south root of 20-inch oak tree; copper nail....U. S. G. S............ 19.74
Hilliard, 7.1 miles southeast of, 1.45 miles east of Cum-
mers Camp, 60 feet east of old tramway grade south
side of road, iron post stamped "Elev. 22" ..............U. S. G. S............ 21.65;
Hilliard, 8.0 miles southeast of, 2.38 miles east of Cum-
mers Camp, at road forks, north side of road, in
south root of 2.5 foot pine stump; copper nail............U. S. G. S ............ 23.92
Hilliard, 8.9 miles southeast of, 3.2 miles east of Cum-
mers Camp road forks, at west side of swamp, south
side of road in east root of ]2 inch gum tree; cop.
per nail ........................... ............................................. U S. G S............ 13.99
Hilliard, 30 meters southeast of the Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad station, 30 meters northeast of the north-
bound track, 1 meter from fence corner and 1 meter
south of walk leading northeast from station, in top
of concrete post; bronze tablet (U. S. C. & G. S.
B. M L-7) .........................................................................U S. G S............ 67.69'
Hilliard, 0.98 mile northeast of, on Hilliard and Kings
Ferry road, in southwest corner of crossroads, in
east root of pine tree 12 inches in diameter; copper
nail ................................................ ..................................... U S. G S........... 53.73
Hilliard, 1.86 miles northeast of, on Hilliard and Kings
Ferry road, in southwest corner of crossroads, in
east root of 15 inch oak tree; copper nail ..................U. S. G. S............ 57.76
Hilliard, 3.29 miles northeast of, on Hilliard and Kings
Ferry road, 75 feet west of the Italia School, iron
post stam ped "Elev. 15" ..................................................... U. S. G. S............ 15.16(
Hilliard, 4.39 miles northeast of, on Hilliard and Kings
Ferry road, north side of road, directly opposite
T-land south in east root of 3-foot pine stump; cop-
per nail ............................................................................... U S. G S............ 15.26
Hilliard, 6.76 miles west of, on river road, in southeast
corner of T-road east, in east root of pine tree 15


0









3


7


6












9-1 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-17TH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
inches in diameter; copper nail, marked "U. S. T.
B M ." .................................................................................. U S. C. & G S..... 69.75
Hilliard, 5.63 miles west of, on south side of road, 50
feet from center of road, in north root of pine
tree 12 inches in diameter; copper nail, marked
"U. S. T. B. M." ............................................................U.. S. C. & G. S..... 72.84
Hilliardville (Benhaden) ........................................................G. F. & A. Ry......... 63
H illsborough ................................................................................ A. C. L. R R......... 35
Hillsborough River, crossing S. A. L. Ry. .........................S. A. L. Ry............. 45
Hillsborough Lighthouse, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No.
43. Located on top of southwest anchorage bolt
in pier on south side of light at Hillsborough Inlet.
This pier being the first pier west of a north and
south line extending through center of light ..............U. S. Army
Engrs., 1909.... 11.869
Hillsborough Lighthouse, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No.
44. About 5 miles south of Hillsborough Light-
house. Located at middle of canal section 84, 13.5
feet south of C. and G. Triangulation station. Sit-
uated on sand ridge 100 feet from beach. B. M.
consists of stove pipe filled with cement with 60d
galvanized round nail inserted head of nail just
above cem ent ................................................................... U S. Arm y
Engrs., 1909.... 13.234
H ines ................................................... ........................................ A C. L R R ......... 52.8
H inson .......................................................................................... G F. & A R y.........252
Hobe Sound (Olympia) ..........................................................F. E. C. Ry............. 13.0
Hobe Sound, Fla. Intra-Coastal B. M. No. 35. Situated
at Hobe Sound, Fla. 36.6 feet south of southwest
corner of Godfrey's store and 12 feet west of side-
walk leading into store. B. M. consists of stove
pipe filled with cement with lag screw in center
of top. Top of bench mark is one inch from sur.
face of ground .................................................................... U S. Arm y
Engrs., 1909-.. 7.763
H odges ........................................................................................ S. A L. R y ............. 88
Hodges Mill, Putnam county, railroad crossing; top of
rail ............................................................................................U S. C & G S..... 12
H odgson ........................................................................................ S. A L R y............. 62
H ogan ........................................................................................... F E C R y............. 24.0
Hogan, about 60 feet west of Florida East Coast Railway
station, in base of telegraph pole, on south side
of track; railroad spike, marked "T. B. M. 23.1"......U. S. G. S............ 22.95
Hogan, 0.5 mile east of station of Florida East Coast