<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administrative report
 Mineral production in Florida during...
 Statistics of mineral production...
 On the petroleum possibilities...
 Index
 Back Cover


FGS



Annual report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00014
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1922-1923
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00014
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 2 MBs ) ( PDF )

( INSTR )


Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
        Front Cover 4
        Front Cover 5
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Administrative report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Mineral production in Florida during 1919
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Statistics of mineral production in Florida during 1920
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    On the petroleum possibilities of Florida
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Index
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Page 137
        Page 138
Full Text





Go gle




This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.
We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of thefiles We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.
+ Refrainfrom automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.
+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.
+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web
at http://books.google.com/







1~r~~



























Digit Google


RIKC*V.IVKD 1- EXCHANGEc;
FP~Stut,,&




79
I99
2.Z










FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, STATE GEOLOGIST












FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
1921-1922












ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT
MINERAL INDUSTRIES
PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES
Including a Geologic Map of Florida












PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALIAHASSEE, 19gz







































ST. AU6U91NN, FLA.
THE LRCORD CO01PANY
1922
















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

To His .:. ... .:.. H, Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida:
SIR:-In accordance with the law establishing the State Geological
Survey I submit herewith my annual report, which is the Fourteenth in
the series of annual reports thus far published by this Department. The
report contains the administrative section, which briefly sets forth the
activities of the Survey, statistics on the riineral production for the years
1919 and 1920 as well as such recommendations as it appears urgently
necessary to make. In addition, the report contains a paper entitled "On
the Petroleum Possibilities of Florida," accompanied by a general geo-
logical map of the State.
The last-mentioned paper was prepared to supply information to
the increasing number of persons requesting data on this subject. Owing
to his peculiar fitness, Dr. E. H. Sellards was engaged to prepare this
report. In the capacity of State Geologist for a period of almost twelve
years, he became intimately familiar with the geology of Florida. His
work for the Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology of Texas-
one of the greatest oil-producing states-furthermore has afforded
special opportunity for the study of petroleum geology. And it is hoped
the report may serve, in a measure, to direct future oil prospecting.
'Your cordial interest in the work of this Department is fully ap-
preciated and I thank you for it and for all assistance rendered.
Very respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
April, 1922.


















TABLE OF : .'


PAGE
Administrative Report .............. ..... ........... ......... ..... 5
Introduction ................. ...................................... 5
Purpose and Plan of the Survey .................................... 6
M useum .............. ............. ...................... 9
W ork in Progress ................ ........... ....... ....... ..... 9
Work Provided For ..................... .............. ......... 10
Co-operation with the United States Geological Survey.................. 10
Co-operation with other Departments ................................. 11
Future Investigations and Plans .................... .......... .. 12
Topographic Mapping ......................... .............. 12
W ater Powers ................... . ........... .. ..... 12
Geography and Vegetation of the State............................. 12
Limestones ...................... ........................... 13
Sands ................. .. .................. 13
Recommendations .................................................. 14
Value of Cuttingp from W ells .............. .... ............. 14
Conservation of Underground Water Supply...................... 14
Additional Funds Needed ........ .... ....... .............. 15
Financial Statement .......................... . ............ 16
Mineral Production in Florida During 191 ................................ 20
Statistics on Mineral Production During 1920............................ 26
On the Petroleum Possibilities of Florida, by E. H. Sellards and Herman Gunter
(with Figs. 1-9, and geologic map) ................. ................. 33















ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


HERMAN GUNTER, STATE GEOLOGIST.

INTRODUCTION.
The State Survey force since the publication of the last annual report,
in addition to the State Geologist, has been Dr. R. M. Harper, whose
services terminated in April, 1921, and Mr. M. K. Cooke, whose services
began August 15, 1921. Mr. Sam-Cobb has also been employed during
spare hours and has assisted in mailing out reports, arranging specimens
and attending to other details about the office and museum. By special
arrangement, Dr. E. H. Sellards, formerly State Geologist, rendered
temporary services to the Survey and has prepared the accompanying
report on the petroleum possibilities of the state.
Dr. Harper completed the preparation of the report on the Geography
of Central Florida, which was published in the Thirteenth Annual Re-
port, 1921. Mr. Cooke is engaged in the preliminary preparation of a
revision of the reports on the water supply of the state, and much of his
time has been spent in the field. In addition, he has assisted in cata-
loging and recording Survey specimens.
The State Geologist, besides his manifold executive, editorial and
consultive duties, has had those of a secretary-stenographer. The work
is a detail that should not burden the executive, but in August, 1920, the
services of a secretary were dispensed with on account of the limited
appropriation for the work of the Survey. In addition, the State Geolo-
gist has assisted in the preparation of the report on the petroleum possi-
bilities and the geological map accompanying that report.








6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

PURPOSE AND PLAN OF THE SURVEY

The State Geological Survey was established by the Legislature of
1907. Section 3 of the Act gives a broad definition of the purpose of
such Survey and specifies that investigations shall be made regarding the
"minerals, water supply and other natural resources of the state," and
further stipulates that there shall be included "in such report full de-
scription of such surveys and explorations, occurrence and location of
mineral and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water
supply and power and mineral waters, and the best and most economical
methods of development, together with analysis of soils, minerals and
mineral waters, with maps, charts and drawings of same."
There has been no change or amendment to the foregoing, which
sets forth that the purpose of the Survey is to obtain information on the
occurrence of various mineral and other natural resources. Thus the
law proposes a distinct economic aim in that such investigations should
be of assistance in the development, conservation and utilization of the
state's natural resources. The results of investigations shall be pub-
lished annually and thus become available to those interested.
That the Survey also has an educational aim is seen from Section 4.
This provides for "the collection of specimens illustrating the geological
and mineral features of the state." Sets of these are to be deposited
with each of the state colleges. Both through the printed reports and
by collections of the mineral resources and geological specimens the
Survey acts as an educational medium.
The plan of investigation, as outlined in the First Annual Report,
has been maintained, namely, that of taking up some one resource and
reporting on it rather than making incomplete reports on the varied re-
sources. Those natural resources already reported' upon are detailed
in the following list of publications: Many of the whole reports are no
longer available owing to exhaustion of supply. These are indicated by
an asterisk (*). The separate papers making up the whole volume are,
in many instances, still available. These are followed by the dagger
sign (t).
First Annual Report, 1908; 114 pp., 6 pls.*

This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chapter on
mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-making clayr,









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making materials; (3) a bibliography of
publications on Florida geology, with a review of the more important papers published
previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey.

Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one map.*
This report contains: (1) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida, with
special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic map of Flor-
ida, prepared in co-operation with the United States Geological Survey; (2) mineral
industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden county, with notes on similar
deposits found elsewhere in the state.

Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply of eastern
Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits.

Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp. 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual materials of Flor-
ida, their origin, character and the formations from which derived; (2) the water
supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of phosphate rock in
Florida during 1910 and 1911.

Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphates pf Floridat; (2) list
of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and southern Floridat;
(4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912; (5) statistics on public roads
in Florida.

Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of Floridat; (2) some
Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dunnellon and Alachua
formations; (4) geography and vegetation of northern Floridaf.

Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.*
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Floridat; (2) natural resources
of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil survey of Bradford county; (4) soil survey
of Pinellas county.

Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils, including
fossil human remains.

Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) additional studies in the
Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla
rivers in Floridat.









8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9 figures,
two maps.*
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new species and a
note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between the Choctawhatchee and
Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls
near DeLand.

Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.*
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains and artifacts at
Vero, Floridat; (2) fossil beetles from Verot; (3) elevations in Floridat; (4)
geologic section across the Everglades of Floridat; (5) the age of the underlying
rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well borings; (6) review of the
geology of Florida with special reference to structural conditions.

Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921.
This report contains: (1) Oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of mineral
production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from deep wellst; (4) geography of central
Floridat.

Fourteenth Annual Report (this volume), 1922.
Bulletin No. 1. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida,
1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.*
This bulletin contains: (1) underground water, general discussion; (2) the
underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and artesian
prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disappearing
streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands and
disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables giving general
water resources, public water supplies, spring and well records.

Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp.,
4 pls.*
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building materials of Flor-
ida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by the
counties of the state to the close of 1910.

In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above, press
bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March 12, 1913.
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the Atlanta
Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December
31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914.
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Embedded
in the Earth, January, 1915.









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918.
No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5, 1919.
Not 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October 6,
1919.
No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.

The foregoing list of publications justifies the statement that the
Survey has been active. Much has been done, and more could have been
accomplished but for the limited appropriation which has hampered the
work and the plans that have been formulated from time to time. Flor-
ida is a large state, and detailed investigations necessarily take time, so
that if the work of reporting upon the state's natural resources has ap-
parently made slow progress, it is for the reason just stated. Provision
should be made for additional assistance on the Survey staff, and an in-
crease of the fund for the maintenance of the Department should be pro-
vided. This would make the work more effective and give an impetus
to the investigations of the varied resources. The Survey has suffered
very greatly during the past few years, and not the less so during the
past year; and it has been most difficult to adjust the stipulated appro-
priation to the usual demands of maintenance. Inadequacy of compen-
sation, too, is one of serious concern. These have been met only through
sacrifice and loyalty to the work, but there is a limit to such devotion
to the cause, and attention should be given the Department.

MUSEUM
Material illustrative of the mineral products of the state are on dis-
play in the Survey museum. At present there are three double cases
which serve both the purpose of display and storage. The storage cases
are full, and much of the contents could be displayed to advantage if
additional cases for such purpose were available. The museum needs
more cases and other accessories, not only for the display of material
now on hand but to provide space for the display of collections that
could be made if these could be placed on exhibition instead of being
consigned to boxes in a storage room.

WORK IN PROGRESS
The investigations now in progress relate chiefly to a revision of a
report on the underground waters of the state. The underground water








10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

supply of central Florida was the subject of the first bulletin issued.
This has long been out of stock. In succeeding annual reports this
valuable natural resource has been reported upon for other portions of
the state. To meet the constant demandfor information on this subject
for the several counties of Florida and the need for bringing up to date
local details consequent to a growing state, it has been deemed advisa-
ble to revise the previous separate reports covering sections of Florida
and to incorporate the matter in one volume.

WORK PROVIDED FOR.
For several years there has been an insistent demand for information
on the clays of the state. With the gradually decreasing supply of tim-
ber and the increasing cost of lumber for construction has come the
growing demand for the more permanent building materials. The fact
must not be lost sight of, that Florida uses millions of brick also for the
surfacing of streets and roads. If clays could be found that would make
a satisfactory vitrified block, not only would it mean an immense saving
in the item of freight alone but it would also mean the bringing of im-
portant new industries to the state.
The need for a testing laboratory in connection with the usual work
of the Survey has been urged, and appropriation for such installation
has been requested, but without result. During the past year, however,
arrangements were made to have the clays of the state investigated by
Professor Olin G. Bell, of Cornell University.
Field work for this report will be carried on during the summer of
1922, and samples of all commercially promising deposits will be taken
and tests made in the laboratory of the university just mentioned. The
results of this work will be made available as early as possible, and it is
hoped that the investigations will be the means of bringing to light de-
posits of clay suitable for the manufacture of various products. Such
investigations would assist in establishing new industrial enterprises
and be of service to those already established.

CO-OPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
During the past year the Florida Survey continued its co-operation
with the United States Geological Survey in the matter of collecting
statistics on mineral production. By this means, duplication of work








ADM1NISTRATIVK REPORT


incident to the collection, and to the making of such returns by the pro-
ducers, is avoided; and the arrangement, in the main, has been found
satisfactory. This method also brings about uniformity in the totals
of the several industries, which might not be the case if the statistics
were collected independently.
Co-operation with thd United States Geological Survey could be car-
ried on very advantageously to a greater extent. Subjects of real im-
portance and worthy of consideration in this respect are topographic
mapping and a report on the water powers of the state. To enter into
this, however, requires an increase in available funds. A suggestion as
to the advantage of such method is the fact that the Federal Survey
will co-operate upon a basis of equal expenditure of funds.

CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS

A few years ago, in co-operation with the United States Bureau of
Soils, surveys were made of some of the counties of the state. Termi-
nation of this co-operation was forced through a lack of funds. There
is a demand, however, for a continuation of the work. And the Bureau
of Soils will bear one-half of the expense of such investigations.
Co-operation with certain of our own state departments would prove
mutually advantageous. The large amount of limestone', marl and clays
used in building many of the roads now under construction suggests
the desirability of making detailed reports on these materials and indi-
cates the possible usefulness of such information to the State Road De-
partment. An investigation of the sands and gravels of the state would
also be of importance to those having in charge the problem of road
building in Florida.
The relation between the State Geological Survey and the State De-
partment of Agriculture is shown by some of the reports that have been
prepared by the former; for instance, one dealing with the origin of
the soils of the state, and others describing the native timber growth,
the vegetation in detail and its relation to the soils and to the geology of
the several geographic regions. Reports have been prepared by mem-
bers of the Geological Survey for use of the Department of Agriculture.
With the Florida State Board of Health the Geological Survey might
co-operate. This is particularly apparent in the matter of an investiga-
tion of the underground water supplies of the state.




1








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT


FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS AND PLANS
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING
In the prosecution of any detailed work, accurate maps are an essen-
tial. They form the basis for all investigations dealing with surveys of
every character. This Department has consistently urged that the topo-
graphic mapping prosecuted by the United States Geological Survey
should be encouraged and that the Florida Survey should have a spe-
cific appropriation for the purpose of entering into co-operation with
the Federal Survey and assist in such mapping in Florida.
WATER POWERS
The ....' recognizes the importance of stream-flow records as well
as other data relative to the water-power possibilities of our several
streams. It is well known that the factor of prime consideration in the
location of industrial enterprises is cheap power. In water-power devel-
opment it is not expected that Florida will measure up to such other
Southern states as have mountainous districts within their borders, but
there are many smaller water-power sites that should be made use of.
At the present time there are only three (not to mention the several small
grist mill sites of West Florida particularly) developed water powers in
the state, as follows: On the Hillsborough River, formerly used as the
source of power for the city of Tampa, but is now used only as an auxil-
iary; on the Withlacoochee River, about ten miles below Dunnellon,
which supplies power to the phosphate mines and to several of the
larger towns in that region;.: ". the small water power .: ..*.:1.. devel-
oped in Jackson County. There are other sites that have been sur-
veyed, and this work should be encouraged to every possible extent by
having as much data available on the watersheds of our several streams,
flow measurements, and such other detailed information as can be pro-
cured; It should be made possible for the Florida Survey to co-operate
with the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Sur-
vey in preparing a report on this resource.
GEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF THE STATE
The northern and central portions of the state have been treated in
detail with respect to mapping the distribution of the vegetation and
with respect to the geography. It is planned to carry this character of
investigation to the southern portion of the state and, if found practi-
cable, to combine the previous reports, making for the state, as a whole,









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


one volume relating to this subject. The reports so far published have
served a very useful purpose and are a foundation for a solution of
some of the forest problems of Florida and determining soil possibilities
by means of vegetation. The Geological Survey has been active in dis-
seminating information in regard to our native vegetation and has co-
operated with those agencies in the state that are fostering the interests
of a conservation of these resources.

LIMESTONE
*Florida is a state having vast deposits of limestone. These are found
exposed at the surface in many of our counties from the extreme south-
ern end of the peninsula to western Florida. These deposits are not
only of scientific interest but of great economic importance. Much is
known of these deposits; but, as yet, no detailed report has been made.
It is the purpose of the Survey to take up the study of these deposits,
primarily economic, in the near future. '-.' .:. this study will also be
included that of possible cement resources. Some deposits of limestone
in the state, the Chattahoochee limestone typically exposed along the
river of that name in western Gadsden County, were formerly used in
the manufacture of natural cement.

SANDS
An investigation of the sands in a state in which they are so univer-
sally present as in Florida may at first thought seem inconsistent with
good judgment. Such, however, is not the case, and this is a resource
that merits careful investigation. Throughout the state are found de-
posits of pure white, siliceous sands that are, no doubt, adapted to the
manufacture of various grades of glass. Sands used for building pur-
poses are more widely distributed, and at certain localities are found
excellent deposits of coarser sands and gravel that are particularly good
in concrete work. From certain sands along our coast the rare earths,
including ilmenite, zircon and rutile, are recovered. The possibility of
locating deposits of moulding sands should not be overlooked. Sands
and gravels of particularly good grade are being dredged from the Apa-
lachicola River. These are used in concrete work of all descriptions. It
was this material that was used as the aggregate in the concrete bridge
now spanning the Apalachicola River.








14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

RECOMMENDATIONS
VALUE OF CUTTINGS FROM WELLS
The Florida Geological Survey has through its published reports
and correspondence, as well as by other means, emphasized the value of
preserving samples of the drilling from wells in every section of the
state, regardless of the purpose for which they were bored. This has
been effective to a degree, for many have voluntarily saved such drill-
ings and sent them for examination to the State Geologist. With the
continued interest in the question whether Florida will be added to the
list of oil-producing states, there comes the certainty that test wells,
in addition to those completed and to others that are under construction,
will be drilled. Some of the promoters have rendered most courteous
and generous co-operation and have supplied the Survey with excellent
sets of the drillings from their wells. In order, however, that the im-
portance of such work be stressed it would be most advisable to have a
statute requiring that samples from all wells drilled as tests for oil be
taken at stated intervals. Many states have such a law which provides
that samples be preserved and submitted to certain state officials whose
duty it is to examine them, make such correlations as are possible and
submit a descriptive log to the owners of the well. It is recommended
that a law of this kind be made operative in Florida.

CONSERVATION OF THE UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.
The necessity for guarding against the waste of artesian water has
been stressed in previous reports of this Survey, particularly the Fifth
Annual Report. The very apparent decrease in flow and volume of wells
throughout the state during the past few years, which in some sections
has caused special concern, but emphasizes the need for conservation of
this natural resource and the wisdom of the recommendation, made in
the report above referred to. It is urged that the law prohibiting the
waste of artesian water there suggested be enacted.

ADDITIONAL FUNDS NEEDED
A department that has continuously served the state for a period of
fifteen years might be regarded as having passed the probationary or
experimental period and entitled to be ranked with the more or less per-








ADMINISTRAITIVE REPORT


manently established state institutions. Since its organization in 1907,
the Florida Geological Survey has functioned, without any change or
amendment, under the law which created it. The total annual appro-
priation for its maintenance is $7,500. Of this amount $2,500 is speci-
fied as the salary of the State Geologist, and $5,000 for the contingent
expenses, which include the salary of any assistants, traveling expenses,
field equipment, office and museum supplies, transportation charges on
collections and other materials, printing of reports, engraving maps and
halftones for illustrating reports, postage and all other expenditures
incident to the work of the Department.
During these years, in which the appropriation has remained station-
ary, there have been decided upward trends in all commodities, the dollar
today being worth only about one-half what it was in 1907, the year in
which the Survey, was established. With this monetary shrinkage have
come greater demands upon the Survey for information on the state's
resources. The work of the Department has grown, and, in order to
render a service commensurate with the demands and the natural
resource possibilities of the state, it is imperative that an increase be made
in the amount now allotted, which has long been totally inadequate. I
urgently suggest that this matter be given consideration, for it is vitally
important to the future work of this Department. The appropriation
should be at least twice the amount now available. With an annual allot-
ment of $i5,000 the Survey could more effectively assist in the develop-
ment of the varied natural resources of the state.









16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR THE
PERIOD FROM JULY 1, 1920, TO DECEMBER 31, 1921

The following list itemizes the warrants issued showing the expendi-
tures of the Survey from July 1, 1920, to December 31, 1921. The total
amount appropriated for the maintenance of the State Geological Sur-
vey is $7,500 per annum. This amount was sufficient for the first few
years of the Survey, but is wholly inadequate for the maintenance of
an efficient department under present conditions. All accounts are ap-
proved by the Governor and are paid only by warrant drawn upon the
State Treasurer by the Comptroller, no part of the fund being handled
direct by the State Geologist. All original bills and itemized expense
accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, duplicate copies
being retained in the office of the State Geologist. The paid warrants
are on file in the office of the State Treasurer.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY 1, 1920, TO DECEMBER 31, 1921

JULY, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses for July ..................$ 7.56
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for July............................ 175.00
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services......................... 100.00
George B. Perkins, office rent................ ................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co ............. ............... 3.50
Hill's Book Store, typewriter paper ............................... 3.60
George 1. Davis, postmaster, 2,000 stamped envelopes............... 43.44
H. & W. B. Drew Co., 10 sectional bookcases ...................... 84.00
S: :: .T 1920.
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for August............................... 175.00
Sam Cobb, services during August.............................. 12.50
Mrs. W. J. McElwain, special stenographic services................... 14.00
George B. Perkins, office rent .................................. 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................ 3.50
John W iley & Sons, Inc., publications............................. 3.00
T. J. Appleyard, stationery .. .................. .............. 7.25
D. R. Cox Furniture Co., bookcases ........... ... ............. 25.50
SEPTEMBER, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Septem-
ber 30, 1920 ............................................ 625.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ............. .......... ......... .. 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co.............................. 3.50
OCTOBER, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses October.................. 39.60
E. H. Sellards, expenses October.................................. 95.50
E. H. Sellards, part payment for preparing oil report .............. 400.00
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services ........................ 16.60
Mrs. W. J. McElwain, stenographic services....... ................ 6.00










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 17

Sam Cobb, services during October ....... ............... ....... 5.00
Fred. Collins, janitor services ....................................... 5.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co .............................. 3.50
Leon Electrical Supply Co., supplies ................................ 5.90
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies .................................. 10.74
Remington Typewriter Co., 1 coupon book, 12 ribbons ............... 9.00
The Gulf Publishing Co., subscription "Oil Weekly"................. 5.00
American Railway Express Co. ................................... 3.52
Western Union Telegraph Co .................................... 2.22
W C. Dixon, freight and dra age .................................. 3.48
NOVEMBER, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses November................ 74.53
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for November 23-30.................. 46.67
E. H. Sellards, expenses November................................. 24.45
Mrs.'L B. Robertson, stenographic services ....................... 6.50
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co ............................ 3.50
Hick's Drug Store, small bottles and corks ........................ 2.00
Tallahassee Variety Works, shelf on exhibit case..................... 12.50
American Railway Express Co .................................. 2.49

DECEMBER, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending December
31, 1920 ..................................... ............... 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses December................ 129.81
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for December..................... 175.00
Sam Cobb, services during November and December................ 18.75
Fred Collins, janitor services ................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................. 3.50
The Ora Neff Co., office supplies............................... 3.14
Maurice Joyce Engraving Co., halftones........................... 43.40
Maurice Joyce Engraving Co, halftones. ......................... 107.93
W. C. Dixon, drayage ..................... .................. 1.50
T. J. Appleyard, stationery and printing .......................... 24.50
JANUARY, 1921.
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for January ........................ 175.00
Sam Cobb, services during January ............................... 5.85
Fred Collins, janitor services ...................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co .............................. 3.50
W. C. Dixon, drayage ............................... ........ 3.00
George I. Davis, postmaster, stamps.............................. 25.00
Wrigley Engraving & Electrotype Co., zinc etching blocks............. 6.41
American Peat Society, subscription ............................... 3.00
Economic Geology Publishing Co., subscription ..................... 4.00

FEBRUARY, 1921.
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for February........................ 175.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ................ ... ............... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co.............................. 3.50
American Journal of Science, subscription for January and February.. 1.00










18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Charles T. Simpson, book "Lower Florida Wilds" .................. 3.50
American Railway Express Co. ................................... 4.86
T. J. Appleyard, 250 Columbia clasp envelopes ...................... 4.50
MARCH, 1921.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March
31, 1921 .................................... ............... 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses March .................. 7.49
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for March .................... ... 175.00
Mrs. L B. Robertson, stenographic services......................... 5.85
Sam Cobb, services during February and March .................. 11.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ............ ................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................. 3.50
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage ............................... 3.50
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage Thirteenth Annual Report ........ 31.81
E. G. Chesley, four sectional bookcases.................... ..... 34.00
T. J. Appleyard, stationery and cards.............................. 14.50
George I. Davis, postmaster, stamps and box rent................... 51.50
American Railway Express Co. ................................... 7.66
E. O. Painter Printing Co., Thirteenth Annual Report.............. 1,762.07
APRIL, 1921.
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services......................... 5.20
Sam Cobb, services during April................................. 3.00
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..... ................ ... ........... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co.............................. 3.50
E. Leitz, Inc., one pocket lens ................................. .. 6.74
George I. Davis, postmaster, stamps............................. 50.00
T. J. Appleyard, envelopes and record sheets....................... 15.80
American Railway Express Co. ................................... 5.28
MAY, 1921.
Sam Cobb, services during May ................................... 7.50
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co.............................. 3.50
Charles Williams, one roll wrapping paper ............................ 6.60
University of Chicago Press, subscription.......................... 3.60
JUNE, 1921.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June
30, 1921 ....................................... ........ 625.00
Fred Collins, janitor services .................... ...... ......... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent .................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................ 3.50
Commercial Fertilizer, subscription ............................... 2.00
T. J. Appleyard, 1,000 press bulletins ............................. 14.00
George I. Davis, postmaster, stamps and box rent.................... 11.50
JULY, 1921.
E. H. Sellards, balance for preparation of oil report .............. 800.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ...................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent....................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co.............................. 3.50
Seaboard Air Line Railway, undercharge........................... 6.83
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Co., supplies ...................'...... 1.85
T. J. Appleyard, stationery ..................................... 4.50










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 19

AUGUST, 1921.
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary August 15-31, inclusive ............... 68.55
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses August ........................... 81.58
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent .................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co........... ....... .......... 3.50
Middle Florida Ice Co, two coupon books .......................... 4.00
SEPTEMBER, 1921.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending September
30; 1921 ........................ ..... ........ .... ........... 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses September............... 72.32
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, automobile mileage ................ 89.60
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary September........................... 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses September....................... 91.18
M. K. Cooke, assistant, automobile mileage ............. ............. 42.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ......................:................ 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................... 3.50
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Co, supplies ........................... 2.50
OCTOBER, 1921.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses October .................. 70.03
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, automobile mileage............... 53.44
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary October.............................. 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses October............................ 83.11
M. K. Cooke, assistant, automobile mileage......................... 55.52
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent. ............ .................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. .......................... 3.50
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies ................................... 5.48
American Railway Express Co. ................................... 13.27
Fielder & Allen Co., supplies..................... ................ 28.15
Gulf Publishing Co, subscription "Oil Weekly" ..................... 5.00
NOVEMBER, 1921.
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary November........................... 125.00
Sam Cobb, services during November ............................ 2.25
Fred Collins, janitor services ... ................ ............ 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co .............................. 3.50
H. & W B. Drew Co., supplies .. ................ ................. 2.10
Groover-Stewart Drug Co., supplies .............................. 7.29
The Letter Shop, multigraphed letters ............................ 3.25
American Railway Express Co. .................................... 2.09
DECEMBER, 1921.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending December
31, 1921 ................................................. 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses December ................. 15.18
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary December........................... 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses December......................... 9.40
M. K. Cooke, assistant, automobile mileage ......................... 16.16
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................. 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co........................... 3.50
W. C. Dixon, drayage ..................................... 28.75
George I. Davis, postmaster, stamps and box rent .................. 26.50
Capitol Stone Co., polishing limestone.................. ........... 3.50
American Peat Society, subscription ............................. 5.00












MINERAL PRODUCTION :: r. FLORIDA DURING 1919
Co-operation in the 1i-. :..:: of mineral statistics for 1919 was con-
tinued with the United States Geological Survey. This being the year
for the collection of statistics by the Bureau of Census, co-operative ar-
rangements were entered into with that Bureau by the United States
Geological Survey. This delayed somewhat the publication of the re-
turns, but avoided much duplication of work and expense, assuring also
more detailed statistics and unified results. The returns as published
in a recent bulletin of the Fourteenth Census are here abstracted.
The census does not cover enterprises which were idle, that is, in
which neither productive work nor development work was done during
the entire year, nor the products of any enterprise valued at less than
$500. This partially accounts for the discrepancies between the totals
of the Bureau of Census and those of the United States Geological Sur-
vey.
"Florida, which ranks twenty-first among the states in size (land area
54,861 square miles) and thirty-second in population (968,470 in 1920),
ranked thirty-second in value of mineral products for 1919. The state
also ranked thirty-second in the total number of persons engaged in the
mining industries and in the average number of wage earners employed.
"The industries reported for 1919, ranked according to the value of
products, were the mining or quarrying of phosphate rock, fuller's
earth, clay, limestone, and rare metals (titanium and zirconium). The
mining industries which can be shown without disclosure of individual
operations are ranked by value of products in Table 2.
"Phosphate rock mining which is localized in nine central Gulf Coast
and adjoining counties is the leading mineral industry in Florida. In
this industry Florida outranks all other states. The value of products
reported for the phosphate-rock industry in Florida in 1919 was ;; -
888,* which was 74.4 per cent of the value of all mineral products of
the state and 64.8 per cent of the value of products of the phosphate-rock
industry in the United States in 1919 ($10,300,198).
"The mining industry second in importance was fuller's earth, pro-
duced in Gadsden and Manatee Counties. In this industry also Florida
*Total value of phosphate production during 1919, as shown by returns from pro-
ducers collected by the U. S. Geological Survey in co-operation with the Florida
Geological Survey, was $7,797,929.








STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


led all other states in 1919, with a production valued at $1,779,550, which
was 19.8 per cent of the total value of mineral products for the state and
88.1 per cent of the value of all fuller's earth produced in the United
States in 1919 ($2,019,226).
"The other mining industries, clay, limestone, and the recovery of rare
metals from beach sands, were unimportant.
"A small amount of development work on non-productive mining
property was reported by one operator in Florida.in 1919.
"The relatively large number of small enterprises as determined by the
average number of wage earners employed is shown in Table 3. Of
the total number of mining enterprises in 1919 in Florida, 72.3 per cent
were in classes having less than 101 wage earners and such enterprises
employed only 33.6 per cent of the total number of wage earners. On
the other hand, enterprises employing more than 100 wage earners con-
stituted 27.8 per cent of the total number of enterprises and employed
66.4 per cent of the total number of wage earners. These larger enter-
prises were all in the phosphate rock and fuller's earth industries.
"The statistics for wage earners given in Table 4, showing the changes
in the number employed, month by torith, reflect conditions prevailing
in the industries during the census year.
"Table 5 presents for 1919 statistics in detail for the state as a whole
and for each industry that can be shown without the disclosure of indi-
vidual operations."










22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE 1
Comparative Summary, Producing Enterprises, 1919 and 1909.

Mining Industries. Percent
of
1919 1 199 Inareae.'

Number of enterprises ..................... 36 36 ..........
Number of mines and quarries ................. 55 96 .........
Persons engaged ............................. 3,694 5,761 -35.9
Proprietors and firm members, total ....... 8 9 .........
Number performing manual labor in or
about the mines and quarries ........ 2 .......... ........
Salaried employees ....................... 314 304 3.3
Wage earners (average number) .......... 3,372 5,448 -33.1
Power used (horsepower) .................. 44,969 42,366 6.1
Capital ........................................ $58,067,662 $20,794,901 179

Principal expenses:
Salaries ................................ 666,202 495,759 34.4
W ages .................................. 3,107,813 2,350,354 32.2
Contract work ........................... 121,202 217,691 -443.
Supplies and materials .................... 1,336,229 738946 148.5
Fuel and power .......................... 1,687,696 1,223,035 $3.0
Royalties and rents ....................... 140,15 197,792 -2.3
Taxes ................................... 403,529 70,493 479.S

Value of products* .......................... 1,976,413 ,84 6,665 1I.
'A minus sign (-) denotes decrease. Percentages are omitted where base is
less than 100.
*Total mineral production of Florida in 1919, according to returns collected by
the Florida Geological Survey in co-operation with the United States Geologifal
Survey, was $10,513,495. Total for 1909, according to U. S. Geological Survey was
$9,364,171.


TABLE 2
Principal Industries, Producing Enterprise, Ranked by Value of Products, 1919.

Number Wage Earners. Value of Producs.
Industry. of Enter- Average Per cent Per cent
prices Number of Amount. of
__er. Total Total

All industries ............ 36 3,372 100.0 $,97,413 00.0

Phosphate rock ............ 23 2,330 69.1 $6,67,74.4
Fuller's earth ................ 5 717 21.3 $1,779,550 19.
Limestone .................... 111 3.3 177,201 2.0
All other industries' .......... 4 214 6.3 34V774
'Includes enterprises in industries as follows: Clay, 3; rare metals (titanii
and zirconium), 1.










STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


TABLE 3
Size of Producing Enterprises, by Average Number of Wage Earners, for Selected
Industries, 1919.

Enterprises. Wage Earners.
Industry and Wage Earners Per cent Per cent
Per EnterprisE. Number. Distri- Number. Distri-
___ bution. button.

All industries ..................... 36 100.0 3,372 100.0

1 to 5 ....................... ....... 1 2.8 2 0.1
6 to 20 ................... .......... 4 11.1 58 1.7
21 to 50 ............................. 10 27.8 364 10.8
51 to 100 ............................. 11 30.6 708 21.0
101 to 500 ............................ 10 27.8 2,240 66.4

Phosphate rock ................... 23 100.0 2,330 100.0

6 to 20 ..................... .... 3 13.0 41 1.8
21 to 50 ........................ ..... 7 30.4 247 10.6
51 to 100 ............................. 6 26.1 366 15.7
101 to 500 ............................ 7 30.4 1,676 71.9

Fuller's earth ..................... 5 100.0 717 100.0

S1 to 100 ............................ 2 40.0 153 21.3
101 to S00 ......................... 3 60.0 564 78.7

Lirmestne ........................ 4 100.0 111 100.0

1 to S ......................... ,...... 1 25.0 2 1.8
6 to 20 ............................... 1 25.0 17 15.3
21 to 50 ..... ....................... .. 1 25.0 40 36.0
1S to 100 ............................. 1 25.0 52 46.8










24 ILORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14THE ANNUAL REPORT


TABLE 4
Wage Earners, by Months, for Selected Industries, 1919.
The month of maximum employment for each industry is indicated by italic figures
and that of minimum by an asterisk (*).

Aver- Number Employed on 15th Day of the Month
age or Nearest Representative Day.
num-
Industry. ber ern-
.':....... Jan. Feb. March April May June


All industries ...... 3,372 3,848 3,903 3,861 3,934 2202 *1,336

Phosphate rock ......... 2,330 2,867 2,937 2,852 2,955 1,179 *314
Fuller's earth ........... 717 602 *600 621 663 720 716
Limestone .............. 111 110 108 122 119 1a 113
All other industries ..... 214 p 258 266 197 *181 193

July Aug.. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


All industries ............. 2,330 2,745 2,961 3,650 4,2821 zz

Phosphate rock ................ 1,277 1,649 1,870 2,553 3,190 3,817
Fuller's earth .................. 748 795 799 779 778 793
Limestone ...................... 101 106 0102 105 115 *102
All other industries ............. 197 195 190 213 199 210










STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


TABLE 5
MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS OF MINES AND QUARRIES IN FLORIDA, 1919

Phos- Ful- Lim
phate ler's mne- Others Total
rock earth stone


Number of mines and quarries.............. 40 5 61 4 55


Capital invested .................... 55,740 1,382 116.4 828.3 58,067
Principal expenses:
S Salaries and wages................. 2,922 534 96.7 220.8 3,774
Salaried officers .................. 174 23 3.6 24.8 225
Superintendents and managers.... 170 25 9.8 9.0 214
S Technical employees ............. 76 4 0 0 80
Clerks, etc. ...................... 131 6 1.7 8.7 147
Laborers ...................... 2,372 476 81.7 178.3 3,108
S Supplies and materials............. 1,455 279 34.4 67.2 1,836
Fuel ......................... ... 1,278 267 9.9 59.0 1,613
S Power ............................ 70 0 4.4 0 74
Royalties and rents ................. 129 5 5.6 1.5 141
Taxes ............................. 275 117 0.7 15.8 409
Contract work ..................... 115 6 0 0 121
Value of products ................... 6,679 1,780 177.2 340.8 8,976


Persons engaged (total)................... 2,585 748 124 237 3,694
Firm members, etc. ..................... 5 0 3 0 8
Salaried officers ..................... 27 6 3 8 44
Superintendents and managers........... 65 16 5 5 91
Technical employees ................... 52 2 0 0 54
Clerks, etc. ................... ........... 106 7 2 10 125
Laborers (average number) .............. 2,330 717 111 214 3,372
Average annual earnings (dollars) :
Officers ................................ 6,450 3,835 1,200 3,094 5,115
Superintendents and managers........... 2,610 1,595 1,953 1,802 2,345
Technical employees ............... .. 1,463 2,100 .............. 1,490
Clerks, etc. ........................... 1,230 858 835 873 1,178
Laborers ............................. 1,018 664 736 835 923


Land controlled (acres) ................... 188,002 4,518 236 4,629 197,385
Mineral land operated (acres) ........... 108,925 4,260 236 4,629 118,050
Aggregate horsepower used ............... 40,996 1,880 490 1,603 44,969
Fuel used:
Hard coal (long tons)................... 0 100 0 0 100
Soft coal (short tons)................... 19,621 8,592 390 4,08532,688
Coke (short tons) ................... 146 0 0 0 146
Wood (cords) ......................... 32,022 2,052 863 44,567
Fuel oils (barrels) ..................... 57,039 :' 0 51,000 787,431
.Gasoline, etc. (barrels) ................ 10,786 712 0 112 11,610











STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
DURING 1920
COLLECTED IN CO-OPERATION BETWEEN THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
AND THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The total value of the mineral production in Florida during 1920, -as
shown by returns made by the producers, was $23,435,804. This repre-
sents an increase of $12,922,309 over that of 1919. This remarkable in-
crease is due largely to the enormous activity of the phosphate industry,
the increase in the value of phosphate alone amounting to $11,666,433.
Most of the other industries show an increase, although some show a
decrease.
BALL CLAY OR PLASTIC KAOLIN

The ball clays of Florida are white burning, refractory clays of high
plasticity. The clay is commercially produced in only two counties,
but is distributed quite generally through the central peninsular portion
of the state. The manner of occurrence is in association with a rather
coarse sand and quartz pebbles, from which it is separated by washing.
During 1920 there were three companies mining ball clay in the state.
These were: The Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Edgar, Putnam
County; the Immaculate Kaolin Company, Controller, and the Lake
County Clay Company, both located near Okahumpka, Lake County.
The figures on the value of production are not given separately, but are
included in the total mineral production of the state. There was a con-
siderable increase in quantity and value of the 1920 production over
that of the year 1919.
BRICK AND TILE
The conditions prevailing during 1919 were unfavorable to the brick
and tile industry, due to the high cost of labor, high transportation and
also to the high cost of building materials which curtailed construction.
While some of the conditions were more favorable during 1920, the
high transportation charges remained. There was a considerable in-
crease, however, in the production of common brick. The total number
of common brick manufactured in Florida during 1920 was 21,199 thou-
sand, valued at $312,150. This is a decided increase over the 1919 pro-
duction, which was 16,067 thousand, valued at $185,135.









STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


The following firms reported the production of common brick during
1920:

Barrineau Bros., Quintette, Escambia County.
Callahan Brick Co., Callahan, Nassau County.
Campville Brick Co., Campville, Alachua County.
Clay County Steam Brick Co., Green Cove Springs.
E. M. Davis, Ocklocknee, Gadsden County.
Dolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia County.
Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna, Jackson County.
Gamble and Stockton Co., Jacksonville, Duval County.
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale, Walton County.
Guilford Brick Co., Blountstown, Calhoun County.
W. J. Hall & Sob, Chipley, Washington County.
Keystone Brick Co., Whitney, Lake County.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Co., Havana, Gadsden County.
Whitney Brick & Manufacturing Co., Whitney, Lake County.

FULLER'S EARTH

The activity in the fuller's earth industry during 1920 was much
greater than that of the preceding year, which was the most active year
of the industry up to that time. There was a marked increase, both in
the quantity of the earth mined and in the value. Florida has been the
chief producer of fuller's earth since the beginning of the industry,
being credited with 85 per cent of the production of the United States
for the year 1920. The use of the Florida earth is principally in clari-
fying mineral oils, although its use in clarifying vegetable oilsis con-
tinuing. The value of production for 1920 is not given separately, but
is included in the total mineral production.
The following companies are engaged in the mining of fuller's earth
in Florida:

The Atlantic Refining Company, Ellenton, Manatee County.
The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.
The Manatee Fuller's Earth Corporation, Ellenton, Manatee County.

ILMENITE

The production of ilmenite and other rare earths from the beach
sands near Pablo Beach, Duval County, which was begun in 1916 and
which was active in 1919, was not continued in 1920. Buckman &
Pritchard, Inc., are pioneers in this industry in Florida and deserve
much credit for the work already accomplished.









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

LIMESTONE
The total amount of limestone produced in Florida for quicklime,
building, road-making, railroad ballast, and agricultural purposes, and
also including the flint rock associated with it, during the year 1920
was 349,524 tons, valued at $569,097.
The following companies reported the production of limestone, lime
or flint for the year 1920:

Blowers Lime and Phosphate Co, Ocala.
Commercial lime Co, Ocala and Reddick.
Crystal River Rock Co., Leesburg and Crystal River.
Florida Lime Co., Ocala.
E. P. Maule, Ojus and West Palm Beach.
Oakhurst Lime Co., Ocala.
Ojus Rock Co, Ojus.
State of Florida (State Road Department).
A. T. Thomas Co, Ocala.

PEAT
Production of peat in Florida was reported by the Alphano Humus
Company. The location of the plant was at Meadows, Marion County.
The peat produced was put on the market in the form of prepared humus
and was largely used as a fertilizer filler. The plant has not operated
since August, 1920. The amount of production for the year 1920 is not
listed separately, but is included with the total for the state.

PHOSPHATE

The following statement regarding the production of phosphate in
Florida during 1920 was issued by the State Geological Survey, May 9,
1921:*
"The phosphate industry of Florida in 1920 far exceeded that of any
previous year, both in point of production and of value. This fact is
brought out by statistics collected in co-operation with the United States
Geological Survey and recently tabulated. The total shipment of phos-
phate from Florida during 1920 was 3,369,384 long tons, as compared
with 1,660,200 long tons in 1919. This is an increase of 1,709,184 tons,
Which is more than twice the production for the previous year. The
year 1913 is referred to as the "peak" year of the phosphate industry

*The Phosphate Industry of Florida During 1920, by Herman Gunter, Fla. State
Geol. Survey, Press Bulletin No. 12, May 9, 1921.









STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


of the state, production that year amounting to 2,545,276 long tons, with
a valuation of $9,563,084. It is thus seen the output record for 1920 ex-
ceeds the former one by 824,108 tons and in value by $9,901,278. The
quantity of phosphate rock mined and marketed during 1920 from the
whole United States was 4,103,982 long tons. Of this amount, from the
figures above given, it will be seen that Florida produced 82 per cent.
"The following table gives the production and value of the three va-
rieties of phosphate rock produced in Florida for the years 1919 and
1920:

1919
Variety Quantity Average
(Long Tons) ValueVal
(Long Ton__) Per Ton

Hard rock ....................... 285,467 $2,452,563 $ 8.59
Soft rock ........... ........... 14,498 196,318 13.54
Land pebble ..................... 1,360,235 5,149,048 3.79
1,660,200 $7,797,929 $ 4.70


1920
Variety Quantity Average
(Long Tons) Value Per Ton

Hard rock ....................... 400,249 $4,525,191 $11.31
Soft rock ........................ 13,953 190,551 13.66
Land pebble ..................... 2,955,182 14,748,620 4.99
3,369,384 $19,464,362 $ 5.78

"The recovery of the industry from the depressing conditions attribu-
table to the recent world war is shown both in the largely increased pro-
duction from the pebble phosphate fields and the very decided increase
from the hard rock fields, as compared with the output for several pre-
ceding years. The amount of hard rock phosphate marketed during
1920 is evidence of the increased demand for this high-grade rock. Soft
phosphate maintained the record set in 1919, practically the same quan-
tity being marketed in 1920 as in that year.
"The most striking increase in production for the year was from the
pebble phosphate field, where the amount marketed totaled 1,594,947
tons more than in 1919. The average value per ton for the pebble rock










30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

increased from $3.79 in 1919 to $4.99 in 1920. The hard rock produc-
tion increased 114,782 tons. The average value of this variety increased
from $8.59 per ton in 1919 to $11.31 in 1920. For soft phosphate there
was a slight decrease in the amount marketed, the average value per ton
remaining practically the same in 1920 as in 1919.
"The total production of phosphate rock in Florida since the begin-
ning of the industry in 1888 to the close of 1920, according to statistics
collected by the Florida Geological Survey and the United States Geo-
logical Survey, is estimated to be 40,239,898 tons, with a total valuation
of $156,318,078."


LIST OF PHOSPHATE MINING COMPANIES OF FLORIDA, 1920

Acme Phosphate Co. .............. Morriston, Fla.
Alachua Phosphate Co............... Gainesville, Fla.
American Agricultural Chemical Co...2 Rector St., New York, N.Y.,and Pierce, Fla.
American Cyanamid Co..............511 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., and Brew-
ster, Fla.
American Hard Rock Phosphate Co....Floral City, Fla.
Armour Fertilizer Works ........... 209 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ill., and Bar-
tow, Fla.
P. Basset........................... Newberry, Fla.
Peter B. & Robert S. Bradley .........92 State St., Boston, Mass., and Floral City,
Fla.
J. Buttgenbach & Co..................22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and Dun-
nellon, Fla.
C. & J. Camp .......................Ocala, Fla.
Charleston, S. C., Mining & Manufac-
turing Co ........................Richmond, Va., and Ft. Meade, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co. ..............99 John St., New York, N. Y., and Plant City,
Fla.
Cummer Luoiber Co. ................ 453 St. James Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla, and
Newberry, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co. ............ 106 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Rockwell,
Fla.
FloridaPhosphateMiningCorporation.P. 0. Box 1118, Norfolk, Va. and Bartow, Fla.
Florida Soft Phosphate & Lime Co..... Ocala and Citra, Fla.
Franklin Phosphate Co. (P. J. & J.
H. Norfleet, Lessees) .............. Newberry, Fla.
Holder Phosphate Co. ............... 3353 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio, and
Inverness, Fla.
Independent Chemical Co ........... 33 Pine St., New York, N. Y., and Mulberry,
Fla.
InternationalAgriculturalCorporation.61 Broadway, New York, N. Y., and Mul-
berry, Fla.
Mutual Mining Co. ................. 102 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Floral
City, Fla.
Morris Fertilizer Co.................801 Citizens & Southern Bank Bldg., Atlanta,
Ga., and Bartow, Fla.
Norfleet & Williams (DowningPhos-
phate Co., Lessees) ..............Newberry, Fla.









STATISTICS ON MINERAL PRODUCTION


Otis Phosphate Co. (P. J, J. H. and
F. C. Norfleet, Lessees) ............Benotis, Fla.
Palmetto Phosphate Co. .............2 Rector St., New York, N. Y., and Tiger Bay,
Fla.
Phosphate Mining Co ............... 55 John St., New York, N. Y., and Nichols,
Fla.
L. N. Pipkin ........................ Mulberry, Fla.
Seminole Phosphate Co. .............Croom, Fla.
Societe Universelles de Mines, Indus-
trie, Commerce et Agriculture..... Pembroke, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Co..Invernes, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Corporation......25 Broad St., New York, N. Y., and Lakeland,
Fla.
Swift & Co. ........................ Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill., and Bartow,
Fla.
T. A. Thompson ....................Ft. White, Fla.

SAND AND GRAVEL

The sand produced in Florida is used principally for building, paving
and road-making, filtering, molding, cutting, grinding and blast pur-
poses. The gravel produced is reported as used for roofing material and
for railroad ballast. Deposits of clayey sand and gravel occurring in
the southern part of Jackson County have been quarried and used for
road-surfacing materials. The production of sand and gravel for the
year 1920 was 132,749 short tons, valued at $117,601.
The companies reporting the production are as follows:

Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Weir Washed Sand Company, Lake Weir.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.

SAND-LIME BRICK

The materials used in the manufacture of sand-lime brick are sand
and lime. The bonding power of the brick is due to the chemical reac-
tion between these ingredients. The chemical changes occur in the
presence of heat, pressure and moisture, and result in the formation of
hydro-silicates of calcium and magnesium.
The sand used in the manufacture of sand-lime brick should be com-
paratively pure, with some variation in the size of the grains. The mix-
ture of sand, lime and water is cut into the form of bricks and conveyed
to a hardening cylinder and subjected to a temperature and pressure
which vary according to the method of treatment.










32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

Two companies were actively engaged in the manufacture of sand-
lime brick in Florida during 1920, the Bond Sandstone Brick Company,
Lake Helen, and the Plant City Composite Brick Company, Plant City.
The production is included with the total mineral production of the
state.
WATER

The total sales of mineral water in Florida during 1920, as shown by
returns from the owners of the wells and springs, show a slight increase
in quantity of production and a great increase in value. There were
only three producers that made returns, so the amount and value cannot
be disclosed.
The following companies reported the sale of mineral water for 1920:


Espiritu Santo Springs, Safety Harbor.
Good Hope Water Company, Jacksonville.
Purity Springs Water Company, Tampa.


SUMMARY


Common or building brick, fireproofing brick, tile and drainage tile ......$
Lime and limestone, including lime and ground limestone for agricul-
tural use, and crushed rock for railroad ballast, concrete and road
m material ........................................................
Sand and gravel .................... ..............................
Phosphate rock .....................................................
Mineral products not separately listed, including ball clay, fuller's earth,
pottery products, sand-lime brick, mineral waters and peat..........


312,150

569,097
117,601
9,464,362
2,972,594


Total mineral production during 1920 valued at ....................$23,435,104



























ON THE PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA
(WITH FIGURES 1-10 AND GEOLOGIC MAP)
E. H. SELLARDS AND HERMAN GUNTER










TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PAGE
Introduction ................ ...... ............. .................. . 39
Oil tests in Florida ........................ ...................... 39
Literature .... .......................... ............... 41
Acknowledgments ................... .......................... .... 41
Composition and properties of oil and gas................ ............ 42
Paraffin and asphalt base ................... ....................... 43
Specific gravity ................. .......................... 43
The origin of petroleum ........... ................. .. ........... 44
The accumulation of oil and gas....................... ...... ............ 45
Migration of oil ................................... .. ............ 46
Storage of oil .............. .............. .... ........... 46
Geologic structures favorable to accumulation......................... 47
Inclined porous stratum ................ ...................... 47
Folded strata ............................................... 49
Anticlinal folds .................. .................... .......... 49
Faults ...................... ..................... ........... 50
Domes ............ ............................... 51
Salt domes ..................... ................. 51
Volcanic plugs ...... .................... .. ....... 53
The depth of oil wells ............................... ............. 53
M ethods of drilling ......................... .............. ........... 54
Rotary .................... ......... ............. .... 54
Cable ...................................... ......... ........... 54
Diamond drill .................................. ....... ........... 54
Geologic distribution of oil and gas .................. ................. 56
Geologic time table ....................... .......... ............. 56
Surface indications of petroleum .................... .................... 57
The object of geologic investigations ............... ................. 58
Geologic formations in Florida ........................... ............. 59
Lithologic characteristics and geographic distribution ........................ 60
Eocene ............................... ............. 60
Ocala formation .............................................. 60
Oligocene .......................... ..................... 61
Marianna formation ............. .......... ........... 61
Chattahoochee formation ....................................... 61
Tampa formation .................... ......................... 62
Miocene ................. ......... ..... ... .. .... . 62
Alum Bluff formation ................... ........... .......... 62
Jacksonville formation ......................................... 63
Choctawhatchee formation ............. .. ............. 64
Pliocene ............................................. ........... 64
Pleistocene ............ ......................................... 64
Geologic map discussed .............. .................. .......... 65
Structural features .................................................. 67










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA 35


S' i !".TS--CONTINUED.
PAGE
Table of Coastal Plain formations ...................... ............. 71
Geologic subdivisions ................................. ............... 69
West of the Suwannee River ............. ................... 70
Marianna-Chipley area ....................................... 70
Pensacola area ..................... ..................... 73
Quincy area ......... ....... ....................... 75
T allahassee area ................... .................. ...... 77
Peninsular Florida ................................................ 79
Live Oak area ............... ............................... 79
Ocala area ......... ......... ................. 80
Brooksville. area .......... ....... ......... .......... 84
Jacksonville area ......................................... . 84
Daytona area .... ............ .............. ............ 85
Kissimmee area ..... .................................... 86
Tampa area ............................... ............. 87
Fort Myers area ................ ........... ............. .. 91
Miami area ....................... ......... ............ 92
Key W est area ............... .................................. 94
Discussion by counties ...................... .............. ........... 95
Alachua County ....................................... 95
Baker County .............. ................... ... .............. 96
Bay County ............. ............................ 96
Bradford County ............ .............. 97
Brevard County ............................. ..................... 97
Broward County ...... .......... ........... ........... 98
Calhoun County ........................... ................... 98
Charlotte County ................................................... 100
Citrus County .................................... ................. 100
Clay County ................... .... ........... .. .. 100
Columbia County ........................... .............. 100
Dade County ..................................................... 101
DeSoto County ........... .... ............... 102
Dixie County ...................... ......... .. .......... ..... 102
Duval County .............. ................ ............... 102
Escambia County .............. ......... .............. 103
Flagler County ............ .......... ........ ..... ........ 103
Franklin County ................................................ 103
Gadsden County ............ . ............. ........ 104
Glades County ............................. .............. 105
Hamilton County ............... ................................. 105
Hardee County ....... ............ .................... 106
Hernando County ................... .......... .. ..... 106
Highlands County .................................................. 107










36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT


CONTENTS-CONTINUED.
PAGE
H illsboro County .......... ...................... .................. 107
Holmes County ....................... .. .. ....... ............. 108
Jackson County .............................. .. ..... 108
Jefferson County ............... .... ................ 109
Lafayette County .................................................. 109
Lake County ............ .................. .......... ...... 109
Lee County ............................... ...................... 110
Leon County .............. ................. ................. 110
Levy County ..................................... .............. 111
Liberty County .................. ................. ............ 111
Madison County .................. ................................... 112
M anatee County ................... ......... .. .... 112
Marion County ............... ...... .................... 113
M onroe County ................................. .................. 114
Nassau County ............................. ............. 114
Okaloosa County ........ ..... .... ... ....... ......... 115
Okeechobee County ............................... .. .......... 115
Orange County .................................................. 116
.Osceola County ................ ................................ 116
Palm Beach County ................. .. ...... .............. 118
Pasco County ................... ...... ............... 118
Pinellas County ................ .............................. 118
Polk County .................... .......................... 119
Putnam County ................................................. 120
St. Johns County ................... ............... ... ........ 120
St. Lucie County ........ ................... ............. 120
Santa Rosa County ............... ................... ..... 121
Sarasota County ............... .......... ............... 122
Seminole County ............. ............ ............ 122
Sumter County ................. ........................ 123
Suwannee County .......... ................. ............. .... 123
Taylor County .................. .............. ............. 124
Union County .................. .................................. 124
Volusia County .............. ................. ........... 125
Wakulla County ......... ...... ................. 125
Walton. County ................................................... 125
W ashington County .............. .............. .... ......... 127
General Considerations ................ ... ............. ............ 128










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


ILLUSTRATIONS.


TEXT FIGURES.
PAGE
Fig. 1--Outline map of Florida showing location of wells.................... 38
Fig. 2-Illustrating occurrence of oil in an inclined porous stratum........... 48
Fig. 3--Diagram showing conditions in Midway-Sunset field................: 49
Fig. 4-Accumulation of oil and gas in an anticline........................ 50
Fig. 5-A fault affording conditions favorable to accumulation of oil.......... 51
Fig. 6-Diagrammatic section through a salt dome.......................... 52
Fig. 7-Volcanic intrusion affording conditions favorable to oil accumulation.. 53
Fig. 8-"Falling Water" sink four miles south of Chipley........... ....... 55
Fig. 9-The Apalachicola River showing Alum Bluff........................ 63
Fig. 10-Outline map of Florida showing subdivisions....................... 68

MAP.
Geologic M ap of Florida .............................................In pocket












38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT


II fo, *
Fig. 1. Outline map of Florida showing location of wells as follows:

List of Test Wells for Oil.
No. Location. Depth. No. Location. Deth
I-Near Cantonment ................ 1452 10-Near Crystal River ............... 1.00
2-Near Pensacola two wells.. 1620 and 1702 11-2% miles south of Sumterville...... 090
3-7 miles west of DeFniak Springs.. 1888 12-2% miles south of Snmterville..... 2002
4-Near Bruce ...................... 770 1--4 miles east of Dade City.......... 20
--4 miles south of Chipley........... 4912 14-Near Oldsmar, drilling.
--Near Clarksville ................. 1320 15-10 miles south of Kissimmee....... 2000
7-Near Greenboro, about........... 1750 15-Near Melbourne. about ............ 1000
8-Burns, two wells, one unfinihed and 17-Northeast of Palmdale. drilling.
one completed at................ 2169 18-12 miles southeast of FIt Myers. drilllg.
9-10 miles southeast of Tallahassee,
drilling.

List of Water Wells.
No. Location. Depth. No. Location. Depth.
A-Perry ........................... 1207 I -Sebring .............................1220
B-Live Oak ........................ 1080 -Boca Grande ..................... 1812
C-Jacksonville ...................... 1180 K-Pt. Myers ....................... 100
D--St Augustine ..................... 1440 L--Okeechobee ....................... 1176
E--Cltr ........................... 1200 M-Palm Beach ....................... 107
F---Oala ........................... 1250 N-Marathon ...................... ... 5
G-New Smyrna ..................... 144 0-Ky West .......................298
H-Plant City .................. ....... 1100














ON THE PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA.
BY E. H. SELLARDS AND HERMAN GUNTER.

The widespread search for petroleum that is now in progress makes it
certain that all states of the Union will in time be more or less tested
with respect to their petroleum possibilities. In Florida a few test wells
have already been drilled and others are sure to be drilled in the future.
In view of these facts, this report has been prepared to give such infor-
mation as is now available, both as to the character of rocks to be ex-
pected in' drilling in Florida and as to structural conditions in the state.
So far as actual drilling is concerned, Florida has as yet been but little
tested. Some of the tests made for oil of which record has been obtained
are the following: In 1903 the Pearson Oil and Gas Company com-
pleted a test well for oil two and one-half miles south of Sumterville in
Sumter County. This well reached a total depth of 2,002 feet and is
reported to have given some shows of oil.* A well was subsequently
drilled by this company in Citrus County, about two miles north of
Crystal River, to a depth of about 1,900 feet. The Pensacola Develop-
ment Company drilled two wells in Escambia County, one located five
miles west of Pensacola and two miles north of the Navy Yard, the other
located on East Hill, Pensacola. These are reported to be 1,620 and
1,702 feet deep, respectively. Records indicate that no shows of oil were
found. In 1905 the Southern States Lumber Company drilled a test well
for oil about three miles west of Cantonment in Escambia County. This
well reached a depth of 1,452 feet. No oil shows are reported. In 1914
the Kissimmee Oil Company attempted a test south of Kissimmee on
S. 25, T. 26 S., R. 29 E. After much delay this well was finally drilled
2,000 feet or deeper. A log of this well will be found later in this report.
(See Osceola County.) In 1916 the Bonheur Development Company
began drilling near Burns in Wakulla County. Two wells have been
drilled by this company, one of which reached a depth of 2,169 feet.
Shows of oil were reported. (See Tallahassee Area.) The second well
is not completed, but has a depth of about 2,000 feet. In 1917 the Flor-

*U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 298, p. 198, 1906.
tU. S. Geol. Surv., W. S. & Irr. Paper 102, pp. 246-247 and 258-259, 1904.









40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

ida East Coast Oil, Gas and Mineral Co. began a test 3Y miles south of
Melbourne in Brevard County. This was drilled to a depth of about
1,000 feet, at which depth it was abandoned. Well No. 2 was started and
has a depth of 115 feet. Near Greensboro, Gadsden County, a well was
bored in 1917 which reached a depth of about 1,750 feet. Salt water is
reported at about 1,300 feet. (See Gadsden County.) In 1918 the
SDundee Petroleum Company completed a well a few miles south of
Sumterville in Sumter County. This has a depth of 3,090 feet and is
the deepest test so far drilled in peninsular Florida. A descriptive log
of this well will be found later in this report. (See Ocala Area.) In
1918 a deep well was begun near the west bank of the Withlacoochee
River, about five miles east of Dade City. This is reported to have a
depth of 2,200 feet and to have flowed strong sulphur water at about
2,000 feet.* In October, 1919, the Calhoun Gas and Oil Company
began their test near Clarksville, northern Calhoun County. This was
abandoned in 1920 at the depth of 1,320 feet. Samples of the drillings
were saved and a descriptive log will be found under notes on Calhoun
County. During 1920 two wells were begun in Walton County, one
about seven miles west of DeFuniak Springs at a locality known as
Rat Head, and the other about twenty-five miles southeast of DeFuniak
Springs, near Bruce. These tests have a reported depth of 1,888 feet
and 770 feet, respectively. (For logs see Walton County.) During
1920 and 1921 a very careful test to 4,912 feet was made by the Chipley
Oil Company about four miles south of Chipley, Washington County.
This is the deepest well so far drilled in Florida.
A few tests are in progress at the present time, among which are:
Central Florida Oil and Gas Company, about ten miles southeast of
Tallahassee, Leon County, which was begun in March, 1921; the well
by Mr. Rollin V. Hill, near Oldsmar, Pinellas County, begun Novem-
ber 24, 1921, and the test by the Florida Petroleum. Syndicate, about
twelve miles southeast of Ft. Myers, Lee County, which was begun
March 30, 1922.
This report includes first an introductory statement as to the nature
of petroleum and the conditions under which it occurs, followed by a
discussion of the geology of Florida and of the conditions prevailing in

*From Mr. J. M. Critchlow, Lake Alfred, Florida, owner of the well. Conver-
sation of February 15, 1922.








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


the several geologic provinces into which the state may be divided, to-
gether with additional notes arranged by counties. A geologic map has
been prepared to accompany the report. In the concluding chapter of
the report will be found a statement on the probabilities of oil and gas
production in Florida.

LITERATURE

The literature available relating to the geology of Florida includes
publications by the State Geological Survey of Florida, by the United
States Geological Survey and by various scientific societies and journals.
Among publications of the Florida Geological Survey which will be
found serviceable in this connection may be mentioned the following:
Second Annual Report, Stratigraphic Geology; Third and Fifth An-
nual Reports, water supply and well logs of eastern and southern Flor-
ida; Fourth Annual Report, water supply and well logs of west Florida;
Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Annual Reports, structural condi-
tions and well logs; of the publications of the United States Geological
Survey should be mentioned in particular the report on the geology and
underground waters of Florida (Water Supply Paper No. 319), and
several contributions in the series of Professional Papers. Many of the
Tertiary invertebrates.of Florida are described by W. H. Dall in Volume
3 of the Wagner Free Institute of Science; Publication No. 133 of the
Carnegie Institution of Washington contains an important paper on the
history of the Floridian Plateau by T. W. Vaughan. A bibliography
of the publications on Florida geology will be found in the First and
Twelfth Annual Reports of the Florida Geological Survey.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Acknowledgments for co-operation with the Florida Geological Sur-
vey in the accumulation of data utilized in this report is due to practi-
cally all those who have made test borings for petroleum in Florida in
recent years. Mention should be made in particular to E. C. Butler,
Manager of the Chipley Oil Company; J. B. Wight, President of the
Calhoun Gas and Oil Company; G F. Kribbs, of the Kissimmee Oil
Company; H. B. Goodrich, Geologist for the Dundee Petroleum Com-
pany; Bartlett G. Long, Consulting Geologist; J. L. Shepard, G. P.
Billups and J. M. Critchlow.









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

In connection with the preparation of the geologic map, the United
States Geological Survey contributed through the Director notes on the
geology of west Florida made by C. Wythe Cooke. A part of the field
work incorporated in this report was done in co-operation between the
United States Geological Survey and the Florida Geological Survey
in 1917.
As a convenience in reference, a number of well logs previously pub-
lished have been copied into this report. These logs are from earlier re-
ports of the Florida Survey and from the United States Geological Sur-
vey, and are in each instance credited to the source from which taken.
The field work for this report was done jointly by the authors chiefly
during the latter part of 1920. However, record of wells drilled since that
time have been included, thus bringing the report up to the date of
publication.
COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF OIL AND GAS
The petroleum compounds, oil and gas, are natural products found
within the earth, composed essentially of hydrogen and carbon. In
addition to hydrogen and carbon, there may be present in oils a small
amount of oxygen, nitrogen, or sulphur. The petroleum, as found in
nature, although consisting of only two essential elements, are of ex-
tremely varied composition and have been shown by chemical analysis
to form compounds which may be arranged in several series, and of
each series there are many members. The more common petroleum
compounds are those which are included in the paraffin, olefin and nap-
thene series. Less common in nature are compounds of the acetylene
and benzine, and several other series.
The petroleum compounds of the paraffin series, also known as the
methane series, consist of hydrogen and carbon combined according to
the following definite ratio: In all the compounds of this series there
are two more than twice as many hydrogen atoms as there are carbon
atoms. Members of this series, accordingly, include compounds ex-
pressed by the general formula: CnH(2n+2), in which "n" is the
number of carbon atoms. In the case of a compound having six carbon
atoms, the formula thus would be CoH(2X6+2) or C6H14.
Marsh gas, or methane, is a gas of the paraffin series of compounds,
for which the formula is CH4. Another gas of this series, ethane, has
the formula C2He.










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


In.the following table is given the name and formula of the common
gases and oils of the paraffin series. The first four of these under ordi-
nary conditions are gases, while the remainder are oils:
Name Formula
Methane gas CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4HIo
Pentane oil CsH12
Hexane CH14
Septane C7H16
Octane CsHis
Nonane C9H20
Decane C10H22
In the olefin series there are in all cases twice as many hydrogen atoms
as there are carbon atoms. The general formula for this series would
therefore be CnH2n. As in the formula previously given "n" stands for
the number of carbon atoms.
Other petroleum series that have been recognized in nature include
those expressed by the following formulas: CnH2n-4, CnH2n-o, CnH2n-s,
CnHan-io, CnH2n-la. Each of these series may consist of many members.

PARAFFIN BASE AND ASPHALT BASE

Certain of the petroleum oils, particularly those of the paraffin series,
upon evaporation leave a paraffin residue. Other petroleum oils, includ-
ing those of the olefin and napthene series, upon evaporation leave an
asphaltic residue. Accordingly in commerce, petroleums are commonly
known under these two main divisions, namely: those having a paraffin
base and those having an asphalt base. The asphalt in oils is said to be
due to the inclusion of oxygen or sulphur' in the compound. The petro-
leums with a paraffin base are of more value for refining purposes than
are those having an asphalt base. Hence, the classification of oils as
of paraffin and asphalt base is of commercial value.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

The specific gravity affords an important aid in judging the quality
and value of oil for refining purposes, the lighter oils being as a rule
more valuable than the heavy oils. Since the oils are lighter than water,

1Johnson and Huntley, Principles of Oil Production, p. 1.









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

the actual specific gravity expressed in the ordinary way is less than one.
However, in ordinary usage a special scale has been devised known as
the Baume scale, in which the gravity is expressed as whole numbers.
On the Baume scale distilled water at 600 F. has a gravity marked as 10,
and the figures on this scale are so arranged that they increase as the
gravity of the fluid decreases. Thus a heavy oil, but little lighter than
water, may read 12 to 150 B., while a lighter oil may be found to read,
say, 35" to 40" B. The gravity changes somewhat with temperature,
and in practice the gravity is commonly given as at 600 F. If taken at a
temperature other than 600 F., it may be reduced to the 609 equivalent.
Paraffin base oils are usually light, and hence on the Baume scale have
a higher reading than asphalt base oils. The color of crude oils varies
from light yellow, or straw color, to black. As a rule, oils of light color
are likewise light in gravity. The odor varies decidedly, depending
probably upon included gases. Hydrogen sulphide gas is often present
in oils from limestones, giving a disagreeable odor. A terpine odor
is occasionally detected, chiefly on light colored oils. Aromatic odors
and an odor of gasoline characterize some of the crude oils.
Another property in which oils differ much among themselves is
viscosity, or fluidity. As a rule, the light, or paraffin base oils, flow
readily. 'Some of the heavy oils are so viscous as to require heating
somewhat before they can be pumped through a pipe line.

THE ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM
The probable origin of petroleum in the earth has given rise to much
discussion. It has been found by laboratory experiments that hydrocar-
bons may be obtained from organic substances and likewise from cer-
tain of the inorganic substances. From fish oil, hydrocarbons which"
are similar to those obtained from the petroleums have been obtained
by destructive distillation. Wood and vegetable oils have : ....: been
shown to yield hydrocarbons. From cast iron, spiegeleisen and ferro-
manganese, when dissolved in a mineral acid, such as hydrochloric, there
is evolved hydrogen and smaller quantities of hydrocarbons.1 The
hydrocarbons in these experiments are probably to be ascribed to the
carbides contained in the iron. It is a matter of common knowledge also
that most carbides react with water and form hydrocarbons.

1A Treatise on Petroleum. Sir Boverton Redwood. Vol. I, Sec. 4, 1913.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


The theories as to the origin of petroleum in nature that have been
proposed may be divided into those that ascribe their origin to inorganic
sources and those that recognize an organic source for petroleum. The
inorganic theories are diverse, but those best known involve the as-
sumption of the existence of carbides deep within the earth, from which
hydrocarbons are formed.
The organic theories include those which ascribe the origin of petro-
leum to animal sources, those that ascribe the origin to vegetable sources,
and those that ascribe the.origin to vegetable and animal sources com-
bined. The theory of origin from animal remains maintains that the
petroleum originates from the slow decomposition of the fatty sub-
stances of animals imbedded in the rocks. Those who regard petroleum
as derived from vegetable matter, for the most part name the lower
plants as the probable source, including cellular marine plants, fucoids,
seamuds, algae, and diatoms. Those who recognize that the petroleum
oils may be derived in part from animal and in part from vegetable
sources, are probably in majority at the present time.
The geologic relations of petroleum deposits undoubtedly support the
organic theory of its origin. The diversity of petroleums and the vary-
ing kinds of sedimentary rock with which it is associated argues for the
probable derivation, in some instances, from animal remains, and at
other places from plant remains, or in other instances a combined origin
from animals and plants imbedded, as they often are, in the same forma-
tion.
In the application of geology to the location of petroleum deposits,
the organic theory of origin is very generally applied, and deposits high
in organic matter are universally sought as one of. the conditions favor-
able to the accumulation of oil in commercial quantities.


THE ACCUMULATION OF OIL AND GAS INTO DEPOSITS
OF COMMERCIAL VALUE

In the preceding pages it has been stated that a probable source of oil
and gas is in the organic matter, animal and plant, imbedded in the
rocks. If such is true, there yet remains the problem of accounting for
its accumulation in local deposits in sufficient amounts to be of commer-
cial value. .The organic materials in the rocks are widely disseminated,








46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

while the oil as found in nature is usually segregated into relatively re-
stricted areas.
MIGRATION OF OIL
It is a commonly accepted conclusion that oil and gas, as obtained
commercially, have migrated more or less from the original source. The
forces that influence migration include specific gravity, capillarity, and
possibly some others not well understood. The well-known difference in
specific gravity between oil, gas and water are probably among the im-
portant causes of separation of oil and gas. As oil is lighter than water,
it naturally rises to the top, and hence tends to segregate in the rock
above the water-line. Gas likewise accumulates at a level above the oil.
In the case of strata inclined from the horizontal, and capped by an
overlying impervious stratum, the oil and gas, for the same reasons,
migrate up the dip to a level higher than the water.
The capillary attraction of liquids is a force that may be of impor-
tance in the migration of oil. The capillary attraction of oil is less than
that of water. Hence, it is assumed that water, through capillary at-
traction, may force oil from rocks having small pores, such as shales,
into rocks of larger pore space, such as sandstones.
It is probable that the compacting of sediments by its own weight is
an important factor in compelling movement of included fluids. Other
causes mentioned are increased temperature as sediments accumulate,
affecting the fluidity of oil. A reduction in volume of voids in the rock
in the course of time through cementation processes would likewise
compel migration of included liquids and gases.'

THE STORAGE OF OIL
The migration of oil in the rock will effect its segregation in com-
mercial quantities only where the storage conditions are suitable. The
rocks are capable of storing a gas or a liquid in proportion to their
porosity, and any rock that is porous may under favorable conditions
serve as a reservoir. As a rule, sands and sandstones are relatively high
in porosity and much of the oil secured is taken from sands or sand-
stones. However, not all' sands or sandstones are sufficiently porous
to serve as important reservoirs. Nor is the same sandstone horizon as

IJohnson and Huntley, Oil and Gas Production, p. 46.








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


a rule uniformly porous. Locally the pore space in the sandstone may
be partly or wholly filled with a cementing substance, thus reducing or
destroying the storage capacity of the rock. Limestones not infrequently
store large quantities of oil either in the pore space incident to shell
breccias or in solution cavities; dolomitic limestones are often notably
porous rocks. On the other hand, shales which probably are the source
of much of the oil have themselves but limited storage capacities, owing
to the fine texture of the rock.

GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES fAVORABLE TO THE ACCUMULATION OF PETROLEUM
The migration of oil and gas under the influence of specific gravity,
capillarity or otherwise, into porous rocks, is not of itself sufficient to
bring about accumulation of oil in large quantities except in localities
where the structural conditions in the rocks are favorable.
If a rock is uniform in porosity and horizontal in position, it may
contain a considerable quantity of oil and gas and not afford favorable
conditions for segregating either oil or gas in commercial quantities.
In nature, however, it is rarely true that a rock formation is either en-
tirely uniform in porosity or entirely horizontal in position. On the con-
trary, variation in porosity in the rocks and departure more or less pro-
nounced from the horizontal in the rock stratum is the rule rather than
the exception. Favorable geologic structures in this sense are those
structural conditions in the rocks which bring about segregation of oil
or gas in commercial quantities.
The conditions in the rock that may bring about storage of oil or gas
are so varied as to be extremely difficult to classify or enumerate. It is
not practicable to treat this phase of the subject exhaustively. However,
a number of the best known structural conditions favorable to the ac-
cumulation of oil may be described.

AN INCLINED POROUS STRATUM
It has already been stated that rock formations rarely if ever lie en-
tirely horizontal in the earth, and that inclination from the horizontal is
a common condition. The effect of departure from the horizontal in a
formation containing oil will be apparent. If the stratum contains both
oil and water, the oil will be forced by the water up the dip. In such in-









48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

lined strata there is no obvious trap by which to retain the petroleum
and if the hydrostatic pressure is sufficient the oil may be forced to the
surface and appear as an oil seep. On the other hand, reduction in por-
osity of the rock may limit the movement of the oil and form a trap by
which it is retained at a definite level. In the case of an inclined stratum



















Fig 2. Illustrating conditions in which oil and gas may accumulate in sands in
inclined strata.

of this kind, when the necessary variation in porosity to form a trap is
lacking, the oil after exuding from the surface for a time as a seep may
deposit heavy residue in the pores of the sand upon evaporation to such
an extent as to cement the sand and thus form a trap for the retention
of the remaining oil. Such a trap under much more complicated condi-
tions has recently been described by Pack as occurring in the Sunset
Field of California.* (Fig. 3.)

*U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 116. The Sunset Midway Oil Field of California
by R. W. Pack, 1920.


Digitized by GoogIe









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Fig. 3. Diagram showing the conditions found near Fellows in the Midway-
Sunset Field of California. After Pack. The dark bands represent oil sands. Near
the surface and also separating the oil from the water are accumulations of tar as
indicated in the sketch.

FOLDED STRATA
Instead of being merely tilted, the rock strata may be folded in such
a way as to form a trap to retain oil. A simple illustration would be a
fold in otherwise horizontal strata such as is indicated by the accompany-
ing sketch. (Fig. 4.) In this sketch the strata are bent up in such a way
as to form a storage reservoir in the rock for oil and gas. In such a res-
ervoir the gas is likely to be found near the axis, the oil next below the
gas, and the water, if present, farther down the sides of the fold.
A simple symmetrical fold such as is represented in this sketch is
rarely found in nature. More commonly the folding is more or less
complicated.

ANTICLINAL FOLDS "
A fold such as is represented in Figure 4 is known as an anticline, a
term applied to folds that arch upwards. As a rule, in nature an upfold
is more or less compensated by a corresponding downfold. To the
downfold there is applied the term syncline. Of the different strata of
the formations as shown in this illustration, one is represented as a por-
ous horizon into which oil and gas enter from below or above and mi-
grate up the dip. However, upon reaching the anticline both the gas


Digitized by GoOgIe









50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

and the oil may be trapped and gradually accumulate until the anticlinal
fold is filled, provided there is sufficient oil and gas to fill it. Obviously
if the stratum contains water as well as oil, the water will accumulate in
the synclines. If, however, the stratum contains but little or no water,
there may be an accumulation of oil in the synclines.












W1,e


Fig. 4. Diagram representing an anticline affording conditions favorable to the
accumulation of oil and gas.

Folds in the rocks, both anticlines and synclines, may be either sym-
metrical in form or lacking in symmetry, that is, unsymmetrical. In
Figure 4 the fold is represented as symmetrical or essentially so. Un-
symmetrical folds are more common in the earth than symmetrical ones.
The nature of the fold, whether symmetrical or unsymmetrical, must
be taken into account when locating a well.
The folds in a formation may extend in the direction of the dip or
across the dip. If an anticlinal fold extends in the direction of the dip
theje is produced a type of structure known as a plunging anticline, by
whick is meant an anticline, the axis of which departs from the hori-
zontal. If followed down the axis any given horizon in a plunging anti-
cline will be found at successively lower levels.


FAULTS
Not infrequently a fault in rock brings about conditions favorable to
the accumulation and storage of oil. Such a condition is illustrated in


Digitized by GoogIe









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


the accompanying sketch. (Fig 5.) A porous stratum through
which oil and gas may migrate as shown in this sketch is caused by
faulting to terminate abruptly against an impervious stratum. Under
these conditions oil and gas may accumulate in the porous stratum adja-
cent to the fault.












,.ER;





Fig 5. Diagram illustrating a fault affording conditions favorable to the ac-
cumulation of oil and gas.
DOMES
In its simplest form an anticline, as already stated, is an upfold or
arch in the rock strata. A dome in its simplest form may be thought
of as a bulging up of the strata. Anticlines are usually accompanied
by compensating structures known as synclines. Domes may be, but
are not necessarily, accompanied by compensating structures, which are
basins. Domes serve as an ideal trap for oil and gas, since, being closed
on all sides, the oil and gas entering them is retained. As seen in cross-
section, a dome does not necessarily differ from a cross-section of an
anticline. In fact, a dome may be regarded as an anticline, the axis of
which is reduced to zero in length.
SALT DOMES
A very exceptional type of structure, often oil-bearing, is that known
as salt domes. These domes are known near the Gulf of Mexico in


Digitized by GoOgIe








52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Texas and Louisiana, while similar domes are found in Roumania and
some other of the European countries.
A remarkable feature of these saline domes is the fact that the central
core of the dome consists usually, if not always, of a mass of salt. The
depth to the salt core varies. In some of the domes the salt comes to, or
practically to, the surface. In other domes the depth to salt varies from
a few hundred to several thousand feet, while in a few domes the salt
mass, although considered as with little doubt present, has not been
reached in drilling.
Overlying the salt, as a rule, is gypsum, ard with or above the gypsum
is more or less sulphur. A so-called cap rock is usually present, con-
sisting of limestone or dolomite. Above these strata, where they do not
actually reach the surface, is a variable thickness of sands, clays and
other sedimentary rock.
By what process these salt domes have been formed remains undeter-
mined. Their importance as oil reservoirs arises from the fact that the
salt and associated minerals have pushed up the sedimentary rocks, re-
sulting in a dome structure favorable to the accumulation of oil.





!rregu/ar, alterna/hg beds of clay, sand, and gravel


F d with thin bedro of sands,



.jfOt _Orov- dqlpomite_ Oilro-rc

Gypsum ?

Salt

Fig. 6. Diagrammatic section through a salt dome.. After Hager.








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OP FLORIDA


VOLCANIC PLUGS

Volcanic plugs or intrusions coming up into sedimentary rock, in some
instances, push up the strata in such a way as to form storage reservoirs
for oil.


Fig. 7. Diagram illustrating conditions favorable to oil and gas accumulation
by the intrusion of volcanic rock.

While some of the ways in which conditions may arise suitable for the
storage of oil are thus accounted for, such enumeration of the structural
conditions is necessarily incomplete. Any condition in the structure or
arrangement of the strata within the earth that serves to trap and store
oil and gas may afford production in commercial quantities.

DEPTH OF OIL WELLS

A question often asked is the depth to which it is necessary to drill to
obtain oil. This question probably is prompted by the supposition that
oil can be obtained at any place, provided drilling is carried to a suffi-
cient depth. Such,'however, is not believed to be the case. In some lo-
calities oil is obtained at a very shallow depth, while in other parts of
the earth it is not reasonable to expect that oil can be obtained at any
depth. At some localities oil has been obtained in commercial quantity
at a depth of 100 feet or less. On the other hand, there are not a few


Digitized by GoogIe








54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

wells producing oil at a depth of from 4,500 to over 5,000 feet. In
drilling, the cost increases greatly with depth, and hence only those wells
that are large producers repay the expense of deep drilling. Con-
versely, small wells, if obtained at a shallow depth, may be very profit-
able.
METHODS OF DRILLING
It is not the purpose in this paper to describe methods of drilling oil
wells. It may be well to state, however, that two common methods of
well drilling are in use, one by rotary and one by cable tools. Rotary
drilling is practicable where the formations to be drilled through are
relatively soft, but operates at a disadvantage in hard-rock formations.
The cable tools are used to advantage where the formations are prevail-
ingly hard. In the cable outfit, drilling is by means of a heavy drill
which is alternately lifted and dropped, thus breaking or pounding its
way through the rock. The broken or pounded up material is removed
from the well by a bailer, the rock material being suspended in water.
For a large cable rig such as is necessary for deep wells, a derrick is
built at the well site by which to support and handle the machinery.
On the market also are a number of well-drilling rigs of small size, which
do not require a derrick, but operate by means of a portable center sup-
port.
The method of drilling by rotary is entirely different from that by
cable tools. In the rotary drill a string of pipe extends from the top to
the bottom of the well. This pipe revolves and, in doing so, cuts into
the rock. The pieces of rock loosened in this operation are floated to
the surface by means of a stream of water which is conveyed into the
well through the drill stem and flows back around, that is, on the outside
of the line of pipe.
The cable tool method of making a hole is usually regarded as desir-
able in drilling in a new territory. The character of rock drilled into
is more readily determined when drilling by cable than by rotary. Also
the mud carried by the rotary is likely to obscure small showings of oil
such as might be detected by the cable method. On the other hand,
where the formations are prevailingly soft, the cost of drilling by rotary
is much less than by cable.
The possible use of the diamond drill is worthy of consideration. This
method as at present developed is specially adapted to hard-rock forma-








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


tions, and operates at a disadvantage in soft formations. By means of
the diamond drill, a continuous core is taken in the hard-rock forma-
tions, which is of great value in prospecting for oil and gas.
With respect to the drilling conditions in Florida it may be said that
throughout much of the state a rotary drill may be used if desired. In
the Eocene limestones are found flint nodules and occasional flint layers
which may require a special bit for the rotary drill. The Tampa lime-
stone, likewise, is somewhat flinty. In extreme south Florida and on
the Florida keys are some rather hard limestones, such as the coral
limestone of Key Largo and the fresh-water limestones of the Ever-
glades. For the most part, however, the rotary may be used if desired.


Fig. 8. "Falling Water," four miles south of Chipley, Washington County. The
test well of the Chipley Oil Company was drilled near this sink.


Digitized by GoogIe









56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

THE GEOLOGIC DISTRIBUTION OF OIL AND GAS

The oil first developed was chiefly from the Carboniferous and Devon-
ian formations of Pennsylvania. Owing to this early development of
oil in the United States from these older formations, the impression has
become somewhat general that the late geologic formations are unfavor-
able as a source of petroleum. However, oil and gas are not con-
fined to the formations of any one geologic age, but have been obtained
from formations varying in age from the Ordovician to the Late Ceno-
zoic.

GEOLOGIC TIME TABLE

For convenience of reference there is included here a geologic time
table. In this table the time divisions are arranged in order, beginning
with the most recent or Cenozoic.

Quarternary. Reitcene.
SPleistocene.

Miiocene.
Tertiary. Oligocene.
Eocene.
Cretaceous.
Mesozoic Jurassic.
Triassic.
Permian.
Pennsylvanian.
Mississippian.
Paleozoic Devonian.
Silurian.
Ordovician.
Cambrian.
Algonkian.
Archean.

With the exception of the Archean, Algonkian and Cambrian, prob-
ably all the time divisions given in this list contain petroleum-bearing
formations. Notably large producing formations are found in the Ter-
tiary, Cretaceous, Pennsylvanian, Devonian and Ordovician divisions.
The oil production of Louisiana is from the Cretaceous and Tertiary
formations. In Texas, oil is obtained from the Tertiary, Cretaceous,








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Permian, Pennsylvanian and Ordovician formations. In Oklahoma, oil
is obtained chiefly from the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian forma-
tion. The Ordovician, Silurian and Pennsylvanian produce oil in the
Lima Fields of Indiana and Ohio. The Mississippian and Pennsyl-
vanian yield oil in Illinois. In the Appalachian Fields extending through
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ten-
nessee, production is obtained from formations of the Devonian, Mis-
sissippian and Pennsylvanian systems.

SURFACE INDICATIONS

Oil in the underlying formations is in some instances indicated by oil
or gas seeps at the surface. It is, however, not to be assumed that seeps
at the surface in all instances indicate oil in commercial quantities below
the surface. On the other hand, it is also not to be supposed that oil
below the surface will necessarily show as seeps. On the contrary, many
valuable oil pools have been found of which there was, so far as known,
no surface indication in the form of oil seeps.
reported oil and gas seeps are found on investigation to be
something other than seeps of oil or gas. An iron oxide scum is very
frequently mistaken for an oil scum. Iron is one of the very common
mineral ingredients in soils, and where iron is present in some appre-
ciable amount, the water of springs and small streams is very com-
monly covered with an oil-like scum. When an iron oxide scum is
broken or disturbed it does not quickly reunite. An oil scum, on the
contrary, reunites at once; an oil scum also if rubbed on the hands is
not easily removed, while the iron oxide scum is readily removed by
washing the hands.
Some gases other than petroleum gases are at times found coming
from the earth. Thus, from some springs such gases as carbon dioxide
or hydrogen sulphide are occasionally found escaping. Of these gases,
however, carbon dioxide will not support a flame, and hydrogen sulphide
may be recognized by its offensive odor. Not infrequently the presence
of marsh gas is taken as an indication of the presence of petroleum.
Marsh gas or methane is a gas of the paraffin series of petroleum com-
pounds. This gas is, however, frequently found in decaying muck in
bogs and swamps, and for that reason its presence does not necessarily
indicate a gas seep from any considerable depth. In the case of marsh








58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT


gas, the observer must use judgment as to whether or not it is probably
coming from decaying muck at the surface or from much deeper forma-
tions. Inflammable gas coming continuously with a strong flowing
spring naturally is much more likely to be coming from a considerable
depth than is gas that comes- occasionally from swamp-mud deposits.

GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS

The object of geologic investigation should be to determine whatever
may be made known in regard to the property in advance of drilling or
in addition to drilling, as the case may be. In these investigations the
geologist will take into consideration the character of underlying sedi-
ments, whether petroliferous or not, and the probable depth of the pro-
ducing horizons, if such are believed to exist. In determining probable
structural conditions, evidence as to the position of the strata may be ob-
tained by observations on the surface formations determining the direc-
tion and amount of dip. Or, data may be secured from deep well rec-
ords in case wells have been drilled. Rarely, surface topography can be
used to some extent to assist in determining underground structure.
However, surface topography must be used with care. A topographi-
cally high area may or may not be a structurally high area. Occa-
sionally a hill or mound at the surface coincides with an anticline or-
dome in the underlying formations, but it is very unsafe to assume such
coincidence without proof. On the other hand, many instances can be
cited where the anticline lies in a valley, or the structural dome is a
basin at the surface.
In examining a property the geologist will take into account all struc-
tural features that can be determined. If favorable structure of any
kind can be demonstrated or appears probable, recommendation to drill
will then depend upon the probable character of the underlying forma-
tions. If the formations are believed to be not at all petroliferous, favor-
able structure is of no significance with respect to petroleum production.
If, on the other hand, it can be shown that petroliferous formations un-
derlie the area, the location on favorable structure would be desirable.
The character of the underlying rock may be determined from cuttings,
from wells previously drilled, if there are such, or may be inferred from
outcropping of formations which, although coming to the surface some
distance away, are nevertheless known by their position and direction of









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


dip to underlie the area in question. Oil or gas seeps would indicate
petroliferous formations, but are not the only indications and are by
no means always present, even in areas underlaid by oil or a gas.


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA

The formations exposed at the surface in Florida fall within the latest
of the major divisions recognized in geology, namely, the Cenozoic.
However, some of the deeper wells in the state have reached formations
of the next older division, the Cretaceous.
Following is a table giving the names that have been applied to the
formations observed outcropping at the surface in Florida. In this table
the formations are arranged in the order of their age, the younger forma-
tions being placed at the top, or as nearly in this order as is practicable,
the relative age of certain of the formations not being fully determined:


Recent.
Pleistocene.
Palni Beach Limestone.
Miami Oolitic Limestone.
Key Largo Limestone.
Key West Limestone.
Lostmans River Limestone.
Ft. Thompson Beds.
Pliocene.
Bone Valley Formation.
Alachua Formation.
Caloosahatchee Formation.
Nashua Formation.
Charlton Formation.
Miocene.
Choctawhatchee Formation.
Jacksonville Formation.
Alum Bluff Formation.
Oligocene.
Tampa Formation.
Chattahoochee Formation.
Marianna Formation.
Eocene.
Ocala Formation.
Cretaceous, known in Florida only from well records.








60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

LITHOLOGIC CHARACTER AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE FLORIDA
FORMATIONS
A description of the Florida formations and much data on their geo-
graphic distribution have been given in previous reports of the Florida
Geological Survey. It will not be necessary, therefore, to describe
these formations in detail. It is, however, desirable to give briefly the
lithologic characteristics and geographic distribution of each of the
formations. These will be discussed in order, beginning with the oldest
of the formations found exposed at the surface.
EOCENE
OCALA FORMATION
The Ocala formation consists, for the most part, of a white limestone;
rarely in Florida does this formation contain more than a limited amount
of sand, and little or no clay. The rock is prevailingly granular in tex-
ture with an abundance of small and large shells and shell fragments.
The Ocala formation is found in two separate areas in this state. It is
found at the surface over small areas west of the Apalachicola River,
and may be seen in exposures on the Chipola River at and above Mari-
anna and for a short distance farther down stream. The Ocala at Mari-
anna is a thin formation, according to Cooke, not exceeding about 20
feet.
The second area in the state where this formation is found at or very
near the surface is in central peninsular Florida. The Ocala limestone
belt of this part of the state extends in a north-south direction through
Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Sumter, Citrus and Hernan-
do Counties. The formation as now understood has no great thickness,
probably scarcely exceeding 50 feet on an average. Locally, this lime-
stone has been altered by action of ground water to a compact, close-
grained rock. In places also it contains masses or layers of flint.
Among foraminifera, abundant in this formation, according to Cush-
man, are species of Lepidocyclina, F- '. :' Operculina and Ortho-
phragmina. Directly under the Ocala, possibly in the Claiborne, is a
horizon in which Nummulites is abundant.1 The fossils of the Ocala
formation, aside from the foraminifera, have been described by Dall2
and more recently reviewed by Cooke.3
iFla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., p. 96, 1919.
2Trans. Wagner Free Institute of Sci., Vol. III, pt. VI, pp. 1556-1558, 1903.
3U. S. Geol. Surv., Professional Paper 95, pp. 107-117, 1915.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


OLIGOCENE

To the Oligocene are referred three formations, namely, the Mari-
anna, Chattahoochee and Tampa. The Chattahoochee and Tampa forma-
tions are suspected of being in part, at least, contemporaneous. The
relation of the Marianna to the Chattahoochee has not been well estab-
lished.

MARIANNA FORMATION

The Marianna formation is prevailingly a light-colored, granular
limestone. It is known in Florida only in the limestone area west of the
Apalachicola River where it overlies the Ocala limestone, and except by
a study of the fossils is with difficulty distinguished from that formation.
The Marianna is regarded as the equivalent of a part, at least, of the
Vicksburg formation of Mississippi and Alabama. The Marianna is a
thin formation; its full thickness has not been determined, but in the
section at the public road crossing on the Chipola River at Marianna
33 feet of this formation, according to Cooke, is exposed. In this sec-
tion the base of the formation is seen, but some of the upper part prob-
ably has been removed by erosion.


CHATTAHOOCHEE FORMATION

The Chattahoochee formation differs from the Marianna in that it
contains an appreciable clay ingredient. It is in fact a clayey limestone
containing relatively few fossils. This limestone is found exposed on
and near the Apalachicola River at the Georgia-Florida state line and
for some 12 miles down this stream and at a number of localities
west of this river. It is seen again on the Ocklocknee River from the
state line to the crossing of the Seaboard Air Line Railway. East of
the Ocklocknee River it is found at the surface in places in Leon, Wa-
kulla, Jefferson, Madison, Taylor, Lafayette, Dixie and Suwannee Coun-
ties. It is apparently quite generally absent in central peninsular Flor-
ida, where formations of later age in places rest directly upon the Ocala
limestone. East of the Ocklocknee River the rock is a hard and rela-
tively pure limestone, differing in this respect from the clayey phase of
the rock as seen on the Apalachicola River. The thickness of the Chat-
tahoochee formation is probably between 100 and 200 feet.









62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT


TAMPA FORMATION

The name Tampa formation has been applied to what is probably in
a large part the equivalent of the Chattahoochee formation on the gulf
side of southern Florida. This rock is found at the surface in Hernando,
Hillsborough and northern Manatee Counties. It is well exposed on
the Hillsborough River, where it is seen to be a relatively hard lime-
stone in places, as on Tampa Bay, containing flint and chalcedony. The
fossils of the Tampa formation have been described by W. H. Dall in
Bulletin 90 of the U. S. National Museum, 1915.


MIOCENE
ALUM BLUFF FORMATION
The Alum Bluff, the oldest of the Miocene formations, is perhaps the
most widespread of the formations seen at the surface in Florida. The
materials of this formation include more or less calcareous sands and
sandstones, becoming in places sandy limestones. The formation con-
tains likewise sandy and calcareous clays, as well as non-calcareous
clays of the variety of fuller's earth. The fossils of the formation are
in part such as are found under shallow water marine conditions and are
in part land and fresh-water animals and plants, the sediments having
evidently accumulated near shore. The thickness of the formation may
in places reach 200 feet, although it is as a rule much thinner.
This formation is found extensively developed in peninsular Florida
and in west Florida, as indicated on the geologic map. The westward
extension of this formation contains extensive marine shell beds or
marls. From the Apalachicola River south through peninsular Florida,
the formation contains more or less phosphatic material, either in the
form of small brown, black or light-colored concretions, or as a finely
disseminated phosphate in a matrix of sand and clay. The phosphatic
phase of this formation, however, is not to be confused with the much
richer phosphate deposits which form the phosphates of commercial
value. The phosphates now being mined, although representing con-
centrates from the Alum Bluff formation, are in their present form of
much later date, probably Pliocene.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


The shell marl deposits of this formation in west Florida have re-
ceived distinctive names as members of this formation. The marl near
the base of the formation seen exposed at Bailey's Ferry on the Chipola
River, at Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola River, and at Jackson Bluff
on the Ocklocknee River is known as the Chipola marl. Another mem-
ber, the Oak Grove sand, is seen on Yellow River in west Florida. Some-
what higher In the formation is the Shoal River member, seen on Shoal
River.'

JACKSONVILLE FORMATION
The Jacksonville formation was named from exposures seen in exca-
vations at Jacksonville, which unfortunately are not available for exam-
ination at the present time. Subsequently the term was applied to de-
posits exposed on Black Creek, in Clay County. The Clay County de-
posits are lithologically very similar to certain phases of the Alum Bluff
formation, consisting of phosphatic marls, prevailingly yellow in color,
the phosphate being for the most part in the form of small, round peb-
bles. The fauna, however, is supposed to indicate a later age than that
of the Alum Bluff formation.


'Fla. Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rept., 1909.


Fig. 9. The Apalachicola River showing Alum Bluff.


Digitized by GoogIe









64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

CHOCTAWHATCHEE
The Choctawhatchee formation has but a limited development in west
Florida, where it consists of beds of marine shells in a sandy or clayey
matrix. These marl beds, which seldom exceed 20 to 50 feet in thick-
ness, extend in a narrow belt of occasional outcroppings from Leon
County east of the Ocklocknee River, west or slightly north of west, to
a little beyond the Choctawhatchee River.


PLIOCENE

The Pliocene of Florida consists of relatively thin marine and estua-
rine or fresh-water sediments. The marine sediments are chiefly, shell
marls with a sandy or clayey matrix. They include the Nashua marls
of the St. Johns River basin and the Caloosahatchee marls of the
Caloosahatchee basin, and the Charlton formation of the St. Marys
River Valley in northeast Florida.
The sediments, which are of estuarine and fresh-water origin, in-
clude the Bone Valley and Alachua formations. The first named is
found chiefly in Polk, Manatee and Hillsborough Counties. The de-
posits consist chiefly of sand, clay and pebble phosphate. The Alachua
formation, probably contemporaneous with the Bone Valley, is found
in Alachua, Marion and Levy Counties, and contains the hard-rock phos-
phate deposits. In addition, some of the undifferentiated surface mate-
rials are probably of Pliocene age.


PLEISTOCENE

The Pleistocene formations attain their maximum development in
Florida in the southeastern part of the peninsula, where marine and
fresh-water limestones cover a considerable area. Even at the extreme
south end of the peninsula, however, the Pleistocene attains no great
thickness. In wells on the Florida keys the Pleistocene beds are be-
lieved not to exceed about 125 feet. Description of these formations in
some : .. will be found in the earlier reports of the Florida Survey.
Superficial materials, in part, of Pleistocene age are found over large
areas in the state.








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


GEOLOGIC MAP
The surface distribution of the formations is indicated on the accom-
panying geologic map. On this map surficial materials are to a degree
neglected and the deeper formations are mapped over areas in which
they, in some instances, only occasionally outcrop. Thus in the large
area in central peninsular Florida mapped as Ocala, the outcrops of
this formation are by no means continuous, this formation being very
commonly mantled by remnants of the Alum Bluff formation, and in
places by the reworked products of the Alum Bluff and other forma-
tions which now constitute the Alachua formation. A detailed map on
a larger scale would show within the area here assigned to the Ocala,
isolated remnants of the Alum Bluff formation as well as of the Alachua
formation. Likewise the considerable area, particularly in west Florida
and on the Atlantic coast mapped as Pleistocene and Pliocene, includes,
as indicated, more or less undifferentiated formations, some of which
possibly will be found to be older than the Pleistocene or Pliocene.
The mapping of the Choctawhatchee formation, upper Miocene, pre-
sents difficulties owing to the fact that it is very thin and is frequently
cut through by streams. To the east, the shell marl phase of this forma-
tion seems definitely to end somewhat west of Tallahassee. Its exten-
sion to the west is much less definitely known, although the westernmost
fossiliferous locality seen at the surface is that at Red Bay, in Walton
County. The mapping of the formation as extending farther to the
west is therefore hypothetical. On the geologic map it is shown to ex-
tend westward to the Alaqua Creek in central Walton County. This
mapping of the westward extension of the formation is by Dr. C. '' '
Cooke.
The mapping of the Upper Miocene, as extending to the gulf through
Franklin County, is hypothetical except in so far as supported by a
fossiliferous locality on New River which indicates either Miocene or
Pliocene. (See page 103.)
The Chattahoochee and Alum Bluff formations west of the Apalachi-
cola River have been mapped by C. Wythe Cooke. These forma-
tions east of this river are mapped as the surface formations in the
northern part of Leon, Jefferson and Madison Counties. As a matter
of fact, there is quite generally spread over this area a superficial de-
posit of red sand and clay, the age and relationship of which is undeter-








66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

mined. These surface deposits were originally referred to the Lafay-
ette, but there are some reasons for regarding a part of this material as
merely the residue from the Alum Bluff formation. In Gadsden County,
as well as in some other parts of the state, these red sands and sandy
days, the distribution of which is not indicated on the geologic map,
attain a considerable thickness.
The marine and fresh-water Pleistocene of extreme southern Florida
has been represented in some detail on the map previously published by
the Survey, and in this part of the state this earlier map has been fol-
lowed without alteration.
In the interior of the state there is, with little doubt, much Pleistocene
that should be represented on a detailed map, but since in a report on
the oil possibilities we are scarcely concerned with the thin surface
formations, the Pleistocene of the interior of the state will not be further
discussed at this time.
The distribution of the Charlton formation, as shown on this map, is
essentially in accordance with the description of the formation given by
Stephenson and Veatch in their report on the geology of Coastal Plain
of Georgia.'
No attempt has been made to map the Alachua formation. These de-
posits are relatively thin and rest upon the Eocene of central peninsular
Florida. For a map showing the distribution of this formation, refer-
ence may be made to the Fifth Annual Report of this Survey. Like-
wise no attempt has been made to separate the Jacksonville and Alum
Bluff formations in northeastern Florida.
The mapping of surface materials of the Lake Region of peninsular
Florida presents' considerable difficulty. The superficial deposits in
the Lake. Region, in peninsular Florida as far south as Highlands Coun-
ty, consist of sands, gravels and clays, and in places kaolin beds, the age
of which is undetermined. It is known that in some localities materials
of this character overlie the Alum Bluff Miocene, or at least the fuller's
earth horizon of that formation. It may be, however, that these mate-
rials represent the uppermost part of the Alum Bluff formation, or they
may be a part of the Upper Miocene or Pliocene, or even possibly Pleis-
tocene. In the absence of fossils, the determination of the age of these
sediments presents unusual difficulties. Nor can it be asserted that the'

1U. S. Geol. Surv., Water'Supply Paper No. 341, 1915.








PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF PLORIDA


superficial materials of the Lake Region, as a whole, represent a unit
formation. In this map, the Lake Region is included within the map-
ping of the Miocene, but this disposition is made with the reservations
here stated.
STRUCTURAL FEATURES
It is not possible with the data that has thus far accumulated to dis-
cuss geologic structure in Florida in detail. However, certain major
structural features exist which are apparent, both from the areal geology
and from the deep-well records.
In that part of Florida adjoining Alabama, and lying west of the
Apalachicola River, there is evidently a structurally high area which ex-
tends into Florida from Alabama and Georgia. The location of this
area is indicated in the areal mapping. By referring to the geologic
maps of Alabama, Georgia and Florida, it will be seen that the trend of
the Eocene formations in Alabama is slightly south of east, bringing
them into Florida in Holmes County. These formations lie at or near
the surface in the northern part of Holmes and Washington Counties,
and in the greater part of Jackson County. Before reaching the Apalach-
icola River, however, the trend of these formations changes abruptly to
about due northeast. The dip of the Eocene formations in Holmes
County is probably southwest. The dip in the eastern part of Jackson
County is with little doubt southeast. When this part of the state is
contoured on the Oligocene formations, there is seen to be a very broad
nose extending into Florida which can be traced to, or nearly to, the
shore line of the Gulf of Mexico. (See map in Florida Survey, 11th An-
nual Report, page 80, 1918.)
With regard to Florida, east of the Apalachicola River, it will be ob-
served from the mapping of the areal geology that the late Eocene comes
to the surface in a large area in central peninsular Florida, and is then
surrounded except on the west or gulf side by later formations. It is
believed that the Alum Bluff Miocene formerly entirely covered the
Eocene and has subsequently disappeared by erosion. However, the
exposure of the Eocene indicates a true doing in this part of the state.
A consideration of the actual position of the Eocene in this part of the
state will reveal dips to the south, east and north from the areas of sur-
face exposures, detected by well records showing the depth at which
the Eocene is entered in wells. A dip to the west is probable, although









68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT


Fig. 10. Sketch map showing areas in Florida referred to in this report.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


it can not be so readily detected, since the Eocene lies at the surface to
the Gulf of Mexico and is so massive in character as scarcely to reveal
dips.
In the Twelfth Annual Report, issued in 1919, the geology of Flor-
ida was discussed with regard to the structural conditions in the state
and on the map which accompanied that report are indicated the pro-
nounced structural features of the state.
A description of a structural dome in the vicinity of Live Oak has
been given in the Thirteenth Annual Report of this survey. The area
lying between the Suwannee and Ocklocknee Rivers is described in this
report under the heading Tallahassee area, and it is shown that this area,
in the vicinity of Tallahassee, lies structurally higher than does the area
between the Ocklocknee and Apalachicola Rivers. A remarkable fea-
ture of all of the area from Tallahassee east into peninsular Florida is
the absence apparently of the Upper Cretaceous formations and the
near approach to the present surface of the Lower Cretaceous.

GEOLOGIC SUBDIVISIONS

Since the state of Florida includes a large area approximating in ex-
tent 400 miles in an east-west and somewhat more than 400 miles in a
north-south direction, it is to be expected that the formations to be
penetrated and the drilling conditions will vary a good deal from place
to place. Hence a discussion of the formations to be encountered and
the drilling conditions to be expected will be facilitated by dividing the
state into several of more or less natural geologic provinces, for
each of which the formation and drilling conditions are more or less
uniform.
If we examine that part of Florida west of the Ocklocknee River, that
is, the westward extension of Florida from near Tallahassee, we shall
find that in extreme west Florida the Eocene and Oligocene forma-
tions are deeply buried beneath later sediments, while from Walton
County east to the Apalachicola River these formations are occasionally
exposed at the surface. Between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
Rivers the Miocene and later formations are at the surface, thus con-
stituting three natural geologic divisions west of the Ocklocknee River.
East of the Ocklocknee River and extending to the Suwannee River
is a part of the state in which a thin renmant of the Miocene overlies









70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

the Oligocene. At or near the Suwannee River in going east we enter
the extensive area of central peninsular Florida where the Eocene,
except for occasional remnants of other formations, is at the surface.
This belt of Eocene extends south to Sumter and Citrus Counties, west
to the Gulf of Mexico and east to eastern Alachua and central Marion
Counties. Beneath a thin covering of Eocene limestones in most, if not
all, of this region, are found Cretaceous sediments.
To the south of this area on the Gulf side of the peninsula, including
southern Hernando, ::. i. and Hillsborough Counties, the Oligocene
lies at the surface, while farther to the south, as well as to the east, the
surface formations are those of the i': ..:.: and later periods.
On the accompanying sketch map are indicated the subdivisions into
which the state may conveniently be divided for descriptive purposes,
and in the following pages will be found an account of the formations to
be penetrated and the drilling conditions to be expected for each sub-
division.
In order to facilitate comparison with adjoining states there is in-
cluded here a table in which is given the principal formations as recog-
nized in the coastal plains of the Gulf States. The formations known
to be oil-bearing in places and under favorable structural conditions are
indicated in the table by a star. (See following page.)


GEOLOGIC SUBDIVISIONS IN FLORIDA WEST OF THE
SUWANNEE RIVER

THE MARIANNA-CHIPLEY AREA

The Marianna-Chipley Area lies west of the Apalachicola River and
includes all or part of the following counties: Jackson, Holmes, Wash-
ington and Walton. Bay and Calhoun Counties lie between this area and
the Gulf coast. The surface formations in this area, as already noted, are
those of the Oligocene and Eocene with Miocene coming into the sec-
tion to the east, south and west. Underneath the surface formations in
this area are to be found other Tertiary and the Cretaceous series of
formations.
The Tertiary formations include the following, named in the order in
which they are encountered in drilling: Ocala, Claiborne, Wilcox and
Midway. Of these the Ocala is regarded by Cooke as the equivalent of








TABLE OF PRINCIPAL GULF COASTAL PLAIN FORMATIONS.

West Texas East Texas LeaSlaaa Misslrsppi Alabama Georgia larMda
Terraces Terrace Terraces Terraces Terraces Terraces Terraces
Beaumont Beaumont Beaumont Port Hudson lafayette Palm Beach
Reynos L Ulsae (PortHudson) Natches (In part) Miami
Pleistocene Li te Linasl Key Largo
Key West
L stmeans River
_Fort Thompson


Terreas
Cltonelle
Flemasn*
(In part)


Catahoula
(Corrigsn)


Terraces Terrace
Citronelle I Cltronella


Psecagouni*
(Fleming)

Hattiesburg
CatVahula
Vicksaburg


Jackson* Jackson

Claiborne Claiborne
Yeagu Yegua
Cook Mt.* St. Maurice
Mt. Selman
Queen City
Wilcox Wilcox

Midway Midway

Arkdelphia Arkadelphia
Naeatoch* Nacatoch*
Marlbrook Marlbrook
Annona* Annona*
Brownstown Brownstown
Blossom* Blosom*
Eagle Ford Eagle Ford
Woodbine* Woodbine*
Not exposed. Not exposed.
Produces some Produces oil
gas from deep from deep
wells. wells.


Terraces
Citronelle
Lafayette
(In part)


Pacagoula Pascagoula


Hattlesburg
Catahoula
Vicksburg
Jackson


Hattlesburg
Catahoula
Vicksburg
Jackson


Claiborne Claiborne
Libon Goport
Tallahatta Lisbon
Tallahatta


Wilcox


Wilcox


Midway Midway

Ripley Ripley
Selma Selma
Eutaw Eutaw


Tuscaloosa


Terraces Terraese
Charlton Bone Valley
Alachua
caloosahatche
Nashanu
Charlton O
Marks Head Choctawhatchea
Dublin Jacksonville
Alum Bluff Alum Bluff
Chattahoochee Tampa
Vicksburg Chattahoochee 0
(Marianna) Marianna
Jackson Ocala
(Ocala)
Claiborne Not exposed
Barnwell at surface
MeBean
0

Wilcox Not exposed
at surface
Midway Not exposed
at surface
Ripley Not exppaed
Eutaw at surface


Tuscaloosa Undifferen- Not exposed
tiated. at surface


Formations known to have produced oil and gas indicated by a star.


Pliocene


Terraces
Legarto
Ips01


Oakville Fleming*
Miocene (In part)


Oligocene


Eocene


Upper
Cretaceous




Lower
Cretaceous


Frio
Fayette*
Claiborne
Yegua*
Cook Mt.*
Mt. Selman
Carriso
Wilcox

Midway*

Navarro*
Taylor*
Auxtin*
Eagle Ford
Woodbine*



Thiek deposits
variously sub-
divided. Pro-
Adnee snnl n1il


"


duem some-- a









72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

the upper part of the Jackson formation of Alabama.1 Over this area
in Florida this formation is thin and in places possibly entirely absent.
The Claiborne formation, or series of formations, is found extensively
developed in Alabama, and in that state the group is divided by Smith
into three formations as follows: The Gosport Greensand at the top,
followed by the Lisbon formation and the Tallahatta buhrstone.
The uppermost of these formations, the Gosport, has in Alabama a
thickness not exceeding 30 feet, and consists of highly fossiliferous
glauconitic sands. The Lisbon is said to include, in Alabama, about 115
feet of calcareous sandy clays and clayey sands. The Tallahatta buhr-
stone, the lowermost formation of the Claiborne, has, according to Smith,
a thickness, in eastern Alabama, of about 200 feet. The rocks of this
formation in Alabama are quite calcareous.
Thus the whole thickness of the Claiborne in eastern Alabama, ac-
cording to Smith, approximates 345 feet. The group of formations of
the Claiborne as there developed include extensive beds of greensand.
Whether the Claiborne Group will be found to thin out or to become
thicker in Florida has not been determined.
The Wilcox Group of formations, which lies next below the Claiborne,
outcrops at the surface in Alabama a few miles north of the north Flor-
ida boundary. The Wilcox Group has been separated in Alabama on
the basis of the fossils, into four formations which are in order as fol-
lows, beginning with the uppermost or latest of the series: Hatchetig-
bee, Bashi, Tuscahoma, and Nanafalia. These formations, according
to Smith, consist of cross-bedded sands, thin-bedded or laminated sands,
laminated clays and clayey sands, with beds of lignite or lignitic matter
sufficient to color the sands and clays.2
The formations are notably variable in lithology and the separate
members probably could with difficulty be distinguished in well records.
The entire series in Alabama has a thickness of approximately 900 feet.
The basal Tertiary sediments, the Midway Group, include in eastern
Alabama, according to Smith, approximately 200 feet of calcareous
sands and limestones.
A well located in the Marianna-Chipley region, starting in the Upper
Eocene or Lower Oligocene, may therefore be expected to encounter
1,500 or 2,000 feet of Tertiary sediments before entering the Cretaceous.
iUs S. Geol. Surv., Professional Paper 95, p. 117, 1915.
2Underground Water Resources, Ala. Geol. Surv., 1907, p. 16.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


THE CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTS

The nearest Cretaceous sediments exposed at the surface are found in
Alabama some 50 or 60 miles north of the Florida state line. These sedi-
ments, the Ripley, Selma, and Eutaw formations of the Upper Cre-
taceous and the Tuscaloosa formation of the Lower Cretaceous, dip
toward the coast and presumably underlie the Tertiary sediments of
west Florida.
Of these formations, the Ripley and Eutaw in Alabama include chiefly
calcareous sands and clays. The Tuscaloosa likewise is a formation
consisting largely of sands with beds of clay. The Selma, on the con-
trary, is chiefly a chalk formation with some clay. The Selma chalk, in
Alabama, according to Smith, extends but a short distance east of Mont-
gomery, and hence in eastern Alabama, north of the area under consid-
eration in Florida, consists largely of calcareous sands and clays.

WELL RECORDS

A well was begun June 29, 1919, by the Chipley Oil Company about
four miles south of Chipley as a test for oil. The exact location of this
well is the ".. of the NWY4 of Sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., and is
near the locality known as Falling Water sink. Fortunately, a very
complete and accurate record has been preserved, based on samples of
the drillings taken at five-foot intervals, and these were submitted to the
Florida Geological Survey for study through the courtesy of Mr. E. C.
Butler. The well has a total depth of 4,912 feet, being abandoned at
that depth on May 31, 1921.
The successive formations penetrated in this well are scarcely to be
recognized by the lithology of the formations and can be identified, if at
all, apparently only by the minute fossils which have not yet been studied
in detail. All data relating to the geologic succession of formations as
revealed by a study of these samples will ultimately become available.

EXTREME WEST FLORIDA-PENSACOLA AREA

The part of the State here described as the Pensacola area includes
Escambia, Santa Rosa and Okaloosa Counties. In this area the surface
formations include : - .- .. and later formations. The south and south-
west dip observed in the formations of the Marianna-Chipley district










74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

carries the Oligocene and Eocene formations to a considerable depth in
this part of the State. Thus the limestones which lie at the surface as
far west as northern Walton County and western Holmes County under-
lie Pensacola at an unknown depth.
A well drilled at or near Pensacola will penetrate several hundred feet
of sediments, chiefly sands and clays and shell marls, before reaching
the limestones which lie at the surface at Marianna, Chipley and in
Walton County. After reaching these limestones, the succession of
formations, although unknown by actual test, may be more or less simi-
lar to that of the Marianna-Chipley region, or may differ owing to
changed conditions of deposition.
The following record of a well at Pensacola indicates in a general
way the character of the sediments to a depth of 1,607 feet. The total
depth of the well is given as 1,620 feet.

Log of Well No. 2, Drilled on East Hill, Pensacola, by the Pensacola Development
Company*
Depth in feet.
V ariegated clays .................. .............................................................. ..... 0- 18
Iron-stained sandstone .................................... ..... ... ........ 18- 19
Coarse orange sands becoming white with gravel at bottom (plenty of
water standing 28 feet down from surface)................. ....................... 19- 52
Variegated clays with fine sand............................................. 52- 170
Coarse white sand (water stood only 46 feet below surface)..................... 170- 185
Gray clay .......... ........................ ................ 185- 228
Gray sand becoming finer at bottom...................................... ....... 228- 255
Blue clay .........2............. ...... ..... ....................................... 255- 291
G ray sand ........-................................................... ......... 291- 305
Soft grayish clay becoming harder at bottom........................... ....... ........ 305- 339
Sandstone ....... ............................................................ 339- 340
G reen clay .. .......... ....... ........................ ............... ..... ... ........ 340- 358
Sandstone ................ ................ ........... ........... ........... ............ 358- 359
G reen clay.......... ............................ ....................................... ....... ... .. 359- 372
Sandstone ............................................... ... ......... .......... ... .. ...... ... 372- 373
G reenish clay ............................. .... ................ ................. 373- 453
Fine green sand (water stood 36 feet below surface) ............................. 453- 468
Hard greenish clay ....................... ........... ......... ........... .... 468- 583
Greenish-gray sand (water about 40 feet below surface)................. 583- 605
Very hard clay, blue-green in color.................................. 605- 725
Gray sand (water 40 feet below surface) ......................... ........ ...... 725- 761
Very hard green clay......................... ...... .................... 761- 901
Fine greenish sand.. ............... ........................................... ............. 901- 921
H ard green clay ......................... ... .. .. ...... ............ ............................ 921- 991
R ock ............................................ ........ . ... ................ ... .............. ... .. 991- 992
Clay becoming hard, greenish in color............... ......... .. ............ 992-1145
Fine greenish sand ................... .. ..--- n ............ .... ........... 1145-1162
Very hard greenish clay................. ..... ... -............ ................................. 1162-1245


*U. S. Geol. Surv., Water Supply Paper No. 102, p. 258-9, 1903.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Gray sandstone ...................... 1245-1252
Soft greenish clay...................................... ... 1252-1255
Sandstone ................................................ .. ... .. 1255-1269
Greenish clay ........................ ............ ..... 1269-1292
Limestone and sandstone in layers......... ..... .................. ........ .......... 1292-1342
Phosphate rock ...................... 1342-1356
Sandstone ..............1 1 ...... ..... ........... ............ 1356-1367
Phosphate rock ............... ......... ...................... ... ......... 1367-1371
Hard and soft rock (limestone and sandstone)......................... ...... 1371-1421
Very fine gray sand (flow of about 10 gallons per minute of salt water at
a temperature of 1030) ........ ...... .... ............................. ............... 1421-1432
Greenish-gray clay beds from 2 to 20 feet thick, full of shells and small
sharks' teeth, alternating with limestone and sandstone beds................. 1432-1547
Sandstone rock with layers of phosphate rock (salt water found again at
depth of 1470) ....................................... ............... .. .... ... 1547-1607
No indications of oil were found.

The formations penetrated in this well can scarcely be identified from
the log. From fossils obtained from a well at Cantonment it is known
that the Miocene is present, underlying this part of the State.*

THE QUINCY AREA

The belt of country lying between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
Rivers, including Gadsden, Liberty and Franklin Counties, is in some
respects distinctive. This area is topographically high, including some
of the maximum elevations found in Florida. There are reasons for
believing, however, that structurally this area is lower than is the region
either to the east or west. The surface formations exposed in this area
range from the Oligocene to the Pleistocene or recent formations
near the coast. The Chattahoochee limestone (Oligocene) is found in
stream channels and sinks in the northern part of the area. To the south
it dips beneath later formations. The Lower Miocene, the Alum Bluff
formation, is found over the northern one-half or more of the area,
while the Upper Miocene (Choctawhatchee formation) covers a nar-
row belt extending approximately east-west across the area.
Wells located in the northern part of this area start near the top of
the Oligocene or in the Miocene. The Miocene sediments are chiefly
shell marls, clays and sands. The Oligocene represented by the Chatta-
hoochee limestone will possibly be found to have a thickness approxi-
mating 100 or 200 feet. The succession below the Chattahoochee lime-

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rept., p. 117, 1909.










76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

stone is but imperfectly known from drilling records, but may be in-
ferred from exposures and records elsewhere. A well drilled near
Greensboro, as indicated by samples seen on the dump, reached lime-
stones of Eocene age. The depth and thickness of the limestone, how-
ever, was not determined. The well was drilled to a total depth of
about 1,750 feet.
The character of materials to be drilled through in this area is indi-
cated by the following log of a well drilled at Quincy:

Partial Log of the Well of the Owl Commercial Company at Quincey
Feet.
Quartz sand, fine to coarse, white........................................................ 101 449
Clay, yellow .._................................. ........................ .......................... 110 ..
Limestone, white, soft, sandy, or marl................................................... 11 132
Clay, light brownish-................ .............................................................. ---133/2- 154
Limestone, soft, white, light gray, and greenish; lots of fossil shells... 191 200
Limestone, hard, light brownish; lots of shells..-........._..................... ... 200
Limestone, soft, white, and greenish clay.............................................. 200 210
Clay, dark brown ............. ....................... ................. .. ... .. ...... 260 263Y
Quartz sand, medium white; bits of limestone and dark-brown clay...
Sand, coarse, light gray, or greenish, limey, or soft, sandy limestone... 284 287
Limestone, hard, porous, gray, and brownish-_ ............. ............... 289 290
Same; partly silicified..-........_. ............................ ........ 290 ...
Limestone, soft, porous, white....................... ..-............... ............. 302 309
Limestone, soft, light drab, sandy..................................................... 315 316
Limestone, soft, light drab......................................... .................................. 319 322
Sam e ............-.............. --................... ...... ...
M arl, gray, sandy ................................. ... ........... ........................... 391 392
Marl, light gray, sandy, or soft limestone ............................................ 410 412
Marl, light drab, or soft limestone....................................................... 442 ...
Clay or soft shale, light gray and greenish, limey................................. 453 454
Limestone, porous, white.................................................................... ... 470 -474
Limestone, white and light, porous........................--- ...............-......... 476 480
Limestone, hard and soft, light brownish..............................-..... 491 495
Same; fragments of shells and coal (?)........................................ 495 505
Sam e ............. .................. ................ ................ ............ ............... 506 507
Same; hard layer, more or less crystalline-............................. ....... 508 529
Limestone, brown, porous, sugary-looking-........................................... 562 566
Sam e ........... .......... .................. ......................... 566 574
Limestone; white and light brownish; made up of bits of shells,
Bryozoa and Nummulites ..-.......-.......................... .................. 76 ...
Same; white and light brownish ............................. .......................... 591 593
Limestone, light brown, porous, sugary-looking; denser and gray
in places .................................................................................... 61 625
Limestone, light brown, porous, sugary................................................... 623 637
Limestone, light brownish, porous--....... ...................................... .... 672 680
Limestone, light brownish..................................... ..................... 693 699
Limestone, white; with numerous fragments------............................ 699 704
Same; with Orbitoides (?) ............ ..-.. ............--..................... 705 713
Limestone, porous, light brownish................................................... 728 .

*U. S. Geol. Surv, Water Supply Paper 319, pp. 310-311, 1913.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Feet.
Same; with Orbitoides (?); has siliceous strata.............................. 749 755
Same; with bits of shells, Bryozoa and Nummulites ........................... 755 766
Lim stone, light brownish...................... .......................... .......... 781 .
Bits of Bryozoa .... .............. ............................. ... ......... ..................... 800 -
Limestone, soft, brownish; with brown chert............................ ......... 827 840
Lim estone, light brownish................................................ ..................... 859 865
Same; with Bryozoa.................................... ...... ... ......... ... 876 881
Sam e; gray, lim ey shale.... .......... ....... ......................... ................ ...... 905 ...
Limestone, light brownish................................................. ...... 952 962
Limestone, light brownish; with bits of shells and Bryozoa.............. 983 -1001

The limestones in this well at the depth of 491 to 529 feet were identi-
fied by Bassler as Eocene on the evidence of the Bryozoan fossils.1 From
the log it would appear probable that the Eocene limestones were en-
tered at 470 feet. The thickness of the Eocene in this well is undeter-
mined.

THE TALLAHASSEE AREA

From the Ocklocknee to the Suwannee River, exclusive of Hamilton
County, is an area including Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Madison, Tay-
lor, Lafayette and Dixie Counties, which may be known as the Talla-
hassee Area. In this belt of country the Chattahoochee limestone is, as
a rule, either at the surface or sufficiently near the surface to be occa-
sionally exposed in deep sinks and stream beds, although near the Su-
wannee River, in Dixie County, there are exposures of the Ocala forma-
tion. Overlying the Oligocene is found more or less of the Miocene
which formerly covered the area. Structurally, this area is believed to
lie higher than does the area between the Ocklocknee and Apalachicola
Rivers.
Wells within this area start within, or but little above, the Chatta-
hoochee formation. Beneath the Chattahoochee it would appear that no
more than a thin development of Eocene limestone is present. Under-
neath' the Eocene, according to Cushman's identifications, the Upper
Cretaceous is entirely wanting, the drill passing at once from the Eocene
into the Lower Cretaceous.2
The following record of a well located in Wakulla County indicates
the character of the rocks to a depth of 2,169 feet:


1U. S. Geol. Surv, Water Supply Paper 319, p. 310, 1913.
2Fla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., p. 82, 1919.










78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

Record of well No. I of Bonheur Development Company. Well located at
Burns, in Wakulla County, sixteen miles south of Tallahassee. Based on samples
collected by Mr. B. M. Cates and submitted to the Florida Geological Survey. Well
begun May 1, 1916, completed June 1, 1919, to total depth of 2,169 feet.1

Depth in feet.
The limestone at the surface at this locality is the Chattahoochee forma-
tion, and is the same rock that is found on the Apalachicola River
near River Junction, and on the Suwannee River near Live Oak.
The sample from the depth of 50 feet is a light-colored limestone
which contains a few echinoderm spines and small foraminifera......... 50
The rock at this depth is a brown, porous limestone. Aside from echino-
derm spines, no fossils were found in this sample.............................. 100
Light-colored limestone predominates, although there is some limestone
of a brownish color. Thin, flat foraminifera, much broken up by the
drill, are present................................. ....... ......... ............1 0..... ........ ISO
Chiefly a brown limestone, some of it powdered fine. Echinoderm and
small, round foraminifera; also flat foraminifera.............................. 180
Dark-colored material. Contains a good deal of clay, which shrinks and
breaks on drying, and is colored black by organic matter. With the
clay is found fragments of limestone rock........... ............................... 185
Brown limestone. Some echinoderm spines and flat, thin foraminifera...... 250
Light-colored limestone. Shell fragments.............. ....................... 325
Light-colored limestone. Occasional foraminifera; otherwise few fossils 400- 600
Light-colored granular limestone. Salty water. Bryozoan. Nummulites-
like foraminifera. Small sea urchin...................... ............ .................. 700
Finely powdered limestone, perhaps somewhat water sorted in collecting.
Few fossils, altho contains some foraminifera as preceding sample... 800
Finely powdered light colored limestone, water sorted when collected
settlings from side of ditch)... ........... ...... -........................................... 900
The rock at this depth differs from that which lies above in that it is
more completely silicified. It is a limestone, altho much of the lime-
stone has been changed to silica. The limestone is light colored, the
altered, silicified rock is opaque and has a glassy or chalcedony-
like appearance. The sample contains few fossils aside from foram-
inifera as in the preceding sample................................ ............... 920
Limestone similar to the preceding or perhaps more thoroughly silicified.
The opaque or slightly brownish colored rock predominates, and there
is but little of the light-colored limestone rock. The only fossil
observed is the small foraminifera which, in this sample, is particu-
larly abundant ............................................ .......... ................................. 940
Same rock, same character and contains same foraminifera as the preced-
ing sam ple ........................ ... ...... ............. ...... .......... .......... 950
This sample for the most part is the same silicified rock and contains the
same small foraminifera as the preceding sample. It contains, how-
ever, a little more of the light-colored limestone in proportion to
the flint ......................................... ..... ... ......... 953
Light-colored limestone, including a small amount of silicified rock.
Aside from occasional small foraminifera, no fossils observed........... 960
Light-colored limestone. Small foraminifera present. No other fossils
observed ..................... .................. ............... ...... ..... ............ ... 970
Light-colored limestone, including some silicified rock. Foraminifera
present ... .................. .......... ....... ......... ..... ... ... -980

IFla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., pp. 82-84, 1919.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Light-colored limestone, including considerable silicified rock. Echino-
derm spines and small foraminifera present................................. 990
Light-colored limestone and silicified rock. Small foraminifera very
numerous. (A new casing put in showed the actual depth to this level
to be 1016 feet. The depth of samples which follow are for the cor-
rected depth) ................................................................................................ 1000
Light-colored limestone and flint fragments and small foraminifera...... 1050
Light-colored limestone and pieces of opaque flint. Foraminifera nu-
merous ......... ........... ...... .......... ........................ ....... 1100
Light-colored limestone, including some flint. Small foraminifera............ 1135
Light-colored limestone, including some flint. Fossils present include
foram inifera ......................................... ........... .... 1150
Limestone powdered fine. Fossils present include foraminifera................ 1200
Limestone powdered fine by the drill; small, flat foraminifera present..... 1287
Limestone powdered fine. Foraminifera present...................... ......... 1322
Light-colored limestone. Small foraminifera present.................................. 1400
Light-colored limestone, very finely powdered. No fossils observed...... 1450
Light-colored, rather soft lime rock. No fossils observed-...................... 1500
Light-colored limestone and opaque flint............ ............ ........ 1559
Light-colored limestone, including a good deal of opaque flint. No fossils
observed .................................. ....... ....... ......... ... ....... ...... .. ........... 1576
Essentially the same as the preceding, including considerable quantity of
flint. No fossils observed............ ....... ...................... ................ 1586
Light-colored limestone, including some flint. No fossils observed............ 1596

Log of Well Below 1,559 as Made Up by J. A. Cushman, Twelfth Annual Report,
Page 83
Depth in feet.
Similar, but with flinty chips at 1,600 feet, with large rusty iron flakes as
though casing has been put down at this point or new drilling started 1559-1661
Light-colored, crystalline limestone, with a few casts of foraminifera 1700-1800
Similar material, with bluish fragments similar to some seen at 1,450 feet,
probably from above ... ........... ....... ... ... .... ... ........1. 1800-1900
Sim ilar ....................................................... ..... ....... .. 1900-1922
Mostly rusted iron flakes from casing................................ .. 1922
Similar to 1900 feet......................... ......... .... .. 1925-1993
Hard, compact, crystalline limestone. No foraminifera........................... 1995
No identifiable foraminifera ................................................... 2000-2100
Peculiar fibrous, oily material, with light-colored material from above... 2135-2153

The fossils from these samples have been studied by Cushman, who
regards the formation below 325 feet as of Lower Cretaceous Age.1
Showings of oil were reported in this well.

GEOLOGIC SUBDIVISIONS IN PENINSULAR FLORIDA
LIVE OAK AREA
Investigations made by the United States Geological Survey in co-
operation with the Florida Geological Survey indicate a more or less
well-marked dome in the vicinity of Live Oak in Suwannee County. In

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., p. 82, 1919.









80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

the surface drainage this dome is believed to be indicated by the very
pronounced westward bend in the Suwannee River. In Hamilton Coun-
ty, north of Live Oak, the Alum Bluff formation as seen in the banks
of the Suwannee River lies at a lower level than near Live Oak. The
data on which this area is determined as structurally a dome has been
presented in the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Florida Survey, page
16, 1921.
OCALA AREA

A considerable area in central peninsular Florida consisting of Ala-
chua, Marion, Levy and Sumter Counties, and a part of Columbia and
Union Counties is included in a large structural dome or geanticline. In
this area, which may be known as the Ocala Area, the Oligocene appar-
ently is wanting, and the Alum Bluff Miocene which formerly covered
all or nearly all of the area now is found only locally, often existing as
remnants. The Eocene limestones are either at the surface in this area
or are sufficiently near the surface to be occasionally exposed in sinks,
so that the Eocene may be regarded as the country rock of this part of
the state.
As already noted, wells in this area will start either in the Alum Bluff,
Miocene, or in the Eocene. The thickness of the Tertiary formations is
very moderate. The Alum Bluff may in places attain a thickness of as
much as 100 feet, while the Eocene, according to the records which we
now have, rarely exceeds 100 or 200 feet in thickness. Next beneath the
Eocene, according to Cushman, is the Lower Cretaceous, the Upper
Cretaceous being absent. No well as yet drilled in this area is known
certainly to have passed through the Cretaceous.
The following record of a deep well in Sumter County indicates the
character and probable age of the formations in central peninsular Flor-
ida to a depth of 3,090 feet:

Well of Dundee Petroleum Company, Sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 22 E., about four miles
northeast of Bushnell, Sumter County. Samples collected by L. W. Hudson, driller,
submitted by H. B. Goodrich, Geologist. Well begun July, 1917, completed Feb-
ruary, 1918. From the surface to 380 feet no samples were taken. This interval,
however, consists chiefly or entirely of limestone.
Depth in feet.
Limestone, no fossils observed; nearly white, breaks into angular frag-
m ents ............................................................................... .................. 380
Limestone, apparently no fossils, except one echinoid; nearly white, not
crystallized ............ ...... .................. ............................... 385










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Limestone, apparently no fossils; light brown, apparently small crystals 390
Limestone, nearly white; not crystallized; no fossils................................. 400
Limestone, nearly white; for the most part not crystallized, although one
sam ple (brown crystal) ...................................................... ........ ........ 405
Limestone, nearly white; for the most part not crystallized; angular
fragm ents ....... .......... ..... .. .......................... 410
Limestone, very light; from somewhat crystallized small fragments 415
Limestone, very light; from somewhat crystallized small fragments........ 420
Limestone, whiter; not crystallized; no fossils.......................... .. .... 425
Limestone, whiter; not crystallized; some fossils as casts......................... 430
Limestone, nearly white or very light brown (second sample pure white) 435
Limestone, nearly white or very light brown (second fragment of fossils) 440
Limestone, white; not crystallized; no fossils ... ......................... 445
Limestone (not noted on re-examination) ...................... .............. 450
Limestone, white; not crystallized; no fossils............ ......... ........ 455
Limestone, white; not crystallized; fossils as cas's.......................... 460
Limestone, white; not crystallized; no fossils............ ............ ..... 465
Limestone, very light brown; not crystallized; no fossils.................. ... 470
Limestone, very light brown................................ .... ........ .... .... 475
Limestone, white; non-crystallized; no fossils .... ............... ....... .. 480
Brown limestone, light brown; angular fragments........................ ..... 490
Light-colored limestone; brownish angular fragments.................... ...... 495
Limestone, brown in color, differing from that above which was light
colored; light-brown angular fragments; fossils as casts; crystallized 505
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine........................ 545
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine; small crystals...... 550
Limestone, light brown; hard rock, powdered fine; small crystals........... 556
Limestone, light brown........ ..................... .... ........ ..... ..... 562
Lim stone, light brow n...........................5. __ ............. ........................ .... 68
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine; few crystals............ 573
Limestone, brown in color; light brown, powdered fine.......................... 579
Limestone, brown in color; finely crystallized.................. ... .. 594
Limestone, brown in color; finely crystallized.................. ...... 599
Limestone, brown in color; probably very small crystals.... .......... 604
Limestone, brown in color; probably very small crystals....................... 609
Limestone, brown in color; apparently very finely crystallized.................. 628
Limestone, brown in color; apparently very finely crystallized.................. 632
Limestone, brown in color; light brown...................................... ...... 637
Limestone, brown in color; light brown; finely crystallized................... 642
Limestone, brown in color; finely crystallized...................................... 654
Limestone, brown in color; breaks into angular fragments; perhaps crys-
tallized .......... 664
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine; fine crystals............ 669
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine; fine crystals............ 674
Limestone, brown in color; probably some crystals.............................. 679
Limestone, brown; sample contains also dark carbonaceous fragments;
sm all crystals ............................................ 684
Limestone, brown; sample contains also dark carbonaceous fragments
and pieces of chalcedony; small crystals; no fossils.... .............. 689
Limestone, brown in color; hard rock, powdered fine; crystallized........... 694
Limestone, brown in color; small crystals............. .............. ....... 700
Limestone, brown in color ........................... ........... ... ........ 706
Limestone, brown in color; probably small crystals..................................... 711
Limestone, light brown in color; rather finely powdered; some crystals 716
Limestone, light brown in color; some small gypsum crystals................. 727










82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet.
Limestone, light brown in color; breaks moderately fine; some gypsum
crystals ...................................................... ....... ........ ... ............ 742
Limestone, light brown in color; very light brown; perhaps some crystals 750
Lim estone, light brow n in color........-............-................................-..........- 756
Limestone, light brown in color; somewhat crystallized ........................... 762
Limestone, light brown in color; finely crystallized and has gypsum........ 768
Light-colored limestone; nearly white; not crystallized; no fossils............ 774
Light-colored limestone; white; not crystallized; no fossils......... ....... 780
Brown limestone, finely powdered; small crystals..... ... ... 791
Brown limestone, finely powdered; small crystals................... 814
Brown limestone, powdered fine................................... 820
Brown limestone; very light brown; no fossils.............................. 825
Brown limestone; very light brown, powdered fine; no fossils:................. 836
Brown limestone; white or very light brown; no fossils........................... 843
Brown limestone; very light brown; no fossils; apparently not crystal-
lized .................. ................................................................. ...... .......... 856
Brown limestone; medium light brown; no fossils; somewhat crystal-
lized .............................. .................................... ... ...... .... 867
Dark brown limestone; finely crystallized............ ............................. ....... 877
Dark brown limestone; very small crystals............ ................... 890
Dark brown limestone; small crystals............................... .. ... .... .... 896
D ark brown lim estone; sm all crystals.......................................................... 902
Brown-colored limestone with inclusions of black carbonaceous pieces;
perhaps m ostly crystallized ... ................................................... ........ 907
Brown limestone; finely powdered; small crystals........................... .. 915
Brown limestone (not noted on second examination) .......................... 980
Brown limestone; finely powdered; small crystals.................. .... ...... 1005
Brown limestone; powdered fine; many small crystals................... ....... 1008
Brown limestone; rather dark brown; powdered moderately fine; crys-
tals ..................................................................... ........ ....... ....... ....... ... .... 10 16
Brown limestone; light brown; powdered moderately fine; perhaps crys-
tals ................................ .. .......... ......... ... ........... _............ 1027
Light-colored limestone, with small fossils, almost dull gray.................... 1052
Light-colored limestone; white; no fossils seen................. ............. 1057
Light-colored limestone; nearly white, although somewhat gray; many
sm all fossils ...................................... ......... ....... ....... ...... ...... 1062
Light-colored limestone; sooty brown; many small fossils ................... 1067
Light-colored limestone; sooty brown; many small fossils and small
foram inifera .................................. .... .................... ............ ................... 1072
Light-colored limestone; sooty brown; many small fossils and small
foram inifera .................................. ................................................................ 1078
Light-colored limestone and pieces of charred wood; not crystallized; no
fossils ............... ...................... ... ...... ... ........... .............. ......... 1084
Light-colored limestone and pieces of charred wood; not crystallized;
no fossils; charred wood or bituminous................................................ 1094
Light-colored limestone; white or nearly white; not crystallized............... 1095
Light-colored limestone; white; small foraminifera as at 1,084.............. 1102
Light-colored limestone; white; not crystallized; no fossils........................ 1107
Light-colored limestone; white; not crystallized; no fossils.................... 1112
Light-colored limestone; white; not crystallized; fragments of fos-
sils (?) ................................................................................................ ....... 1117
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments; not crystallized; no
fossils ................................ .. ..... ........ ......... .. .-.... .......... 1123
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments, rather coarse;
non-crystallized foraminifera.......................... .... 1140










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments; not crystallized;
no fossils .................................. .... ..................... .... ... ..................... 1145
Light-colored limestone; pure white, angular; not crystallized; no fossils 1150
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments; not crystallized;
no fossils ........... .............................................. ...... .............. .......... 1170
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments; not or only partly
crystallized foraminiferaa and bryozoa).............. ............................. 1240
Light-colored limestone; white, angular fragments; pecten; foramini-
fera; not crystallized ............................. ................................. 1281
Light-colored limestone; white rock and crystallized from rock mixed...... 1305
Light-colored limestone; light brown; finely powdered; small crystals... 1331
Light-colored limestone; nearly white; break coarse; bryozoa; not crys-
tallized ............................... 1421
Light-colored limestone; nearly white; break coarse; no fossils................ 1430
Light-colored limestone; nearly white; break coarse; no fossils............... 1450
Limestone, hard rock; powdered fine; brownish; very small crystals .... 1458
Limestone, light brown; powdered fine........................... .................... 1490
Limestone; light brown; powdered fine; brownish; some crystals............ 1495
Limestone; light brown; small crystals; finely powdered ..................... 1500
Limestone; light brown; angular fragments and crystals...................... 1510
Limestone, including pieces of blue lime rock; not crystallized; no for-
am inifera ...................... .... ..... ......... .......... 1520
Limestone, including many pieces of blue lime rock, apparently not crys-
tallized ..... ......... .... ......... .. .... .......... ...... .... 1525
Limestone; bluish cast; mostly non-crystalline; spines of sea urchins...... 1530
Limestone (second sample), including pieces of carbonaceous material;
no fossils ........... .. ............ ................................ .. ...... ........ 1540
Limestone; light brown; partly crystalline............................. ....... 1540
Limestone; light brown; powdered fine; some crystals................ ... 1550
Limestone; nearly white; not crystallized; angular fragments; bryozoan 1575
Limestone; nearly white; hard rock, almost crystallized; angular frag-
m ents; no fossils.......... ...................... .... ..... 1582
Limestone; dark brown; finely powdered; small crystals........................ 1620
Limestone; light brown; small crystals; very finely powdered.................. 1669
Limestone; dark brown; more or less crystallized................................ 1670
Limestone; powdered fine; brown; probably small crystals....................... 1680
Limestone; powdered fine; brown; small crystals............ ............... 1690
Samples Examined January, 1918
Light-colored limestone; slightly brownish; breaks into angular frag-
ments ............... .......... ............. ...... ............... 1692
Limestone; brownish in color; powdered fine; small crystals..................... 1698
Limestone; brown; breaks into irregular fragments; granular.................. 1703
Brown limestone; mostly finely powdered by the drill............................ 1708
Very finely powdered hard limestone...................... .. ........................ 1750
Record wanting, drillings going away in a crevice................................. 1787
Brow n lim estone ...... .................................... ............................. 1845
Blue lim stone ..... ... ....................................... ........ ........... .. .... 1865
Brown limestone; several samples................................ ............... 1900
Record wanting, cuttings going away into a crevice ........................... 2005
Brown limestone ........................................................... 2070
Light-colored limestone .................... ...... ................... ........ 2075
Brown limestone ................. .......................... 2080
Light-colored limestone ............... .. ... ..... ........ ........ .... 2085
Brow n lim estone ............................. ....................... 2120
Light-colored limestone ........... .......... ........................... 2140
Limestone, finely powdered............................ ................. ...... .... 2150









84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet.
Light-colored, finely powdered limestone ..... ..................... ........... 2240
Slightly brownish limestone............................. ... 2370
W white lim stone ................................................ ........... ... .................... 2390
Salt water ........................................................ 2405
W hite lim estone .......................... ................ ... ........................................ 2410
Somewhat chally, light colored limestone.............................. .............. 2590
D ark lim stone ...................................................... ..................... ..... .......... 2680
Light-colored limestone ............................................................................................... 2700-3090

The first samples obtained from this well were at a depth of 380 feet,
and from that depth, according to Cushman (Twelfth Annual Report,
page 89), to the bottom of the well is probably Lower Cretaceous.

BROOKSVILLE AREA

Somewhat detached from the Ocala Area just described is a smaller
area lying to the west and including Citrus and Hernando Counties and
a part of Pasco County. This area is topographically high and is sep-
arated from the Ocala Area by the Withlacoochee Valley. The forma-
tions at the surface include remnants of the Alum Bluff, Miocene, and
occasional exposures of the underlying Eocene. Toward the southern
part of the area, Oligocene limestones come into the section.
The only deep well drilled in this area is one near Crystal River in
Citrus County which reached a depth of 1,900 feet and obtained flowing
salt water. No log of this well has been preserved.

JACKSONVILLE AREA

The underground conditions in the northeastern part of Florida are
known frdm wells at Jacksonville and also at Fernandina and in the
Lower St. Johns Valley. In this part of the state the Eocene formations
that are at the surface in central Florida drop to a level of about 500
feet below the surface. The formations drilled into at Jacksonville in-
clude Miocene or later, Eocene and Cretaceous.

Record of City Water Well at Jacksonville*
Depth in feet.
Filled ground and sand ......................................... 15
Sand with some clay....................... ......................... ......... ............. 15 33
Sandy limestone, yellowish or light buff in color.................................... 33 37
Light-colored clayey marl ........ ........................ ................ .............. 37 70
Blue, sticky clay with black phosphatic pebbles............... .................. 70 -100

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 5th Ann. Rept., pp. 177-178, 1913.










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Marls, usually green or olive green in color, containing variable
amount of sand, and clay. Black phosphatic pebbles, together
with some shell fragments occur throughout the marl. Occa-
sional thin layers of light-colored limestone are reported within
this interval. First flow of water at 270 feet, 5 gallons per
m minute ........................................ ............................... ..................... ........ 100 -320
Buff clay, resembling fuller's earth, mixed as seen in the sample
with green sandy marl ................................. ............................. 320 -340
Greenish and sandy, clayey marl................................ 340 -390
Indurated sands or sandstones.............................. 390 -396
Greenish sandy mars ........... ........................................ 396 -415
Light-colored limestone ................... .. ................ ........................... ... 415 -420
Greenish calcareous sandy clay ................. ... ........................... 420 -434
Dark-colored hard sand rock............... ....................................... 434 -435
Olive green calcareoul sandy clay............. .............. ... ......... 435 -455
Light sandy m arl......... ....... ....... .......... ...... .. ....... ................. 455 -455Y
Green sandy marl ........................... ............. ......... .. ..... .............. 455Y -462
Dark sandy clay......................... ....... ............ ....... 462 -490
Very hard dark or gray sand rock .............................. .... .... 490 -493
Silicified and very hard shell rock, with siliceous phosphatic pebbles.
After passing through this rock the flow is increased to 112 gallons
per minute, temperature 71 degrees F......................................... 493 -498
Light-colored marl ......................................... 498 -500
H ard rock .................... ........................ ....................... 500 -506
Light gray, sandy, calcareous rock, with black phosphatic pebbles...... 506 -510
Light-colored fossiliferous limestone (Vicksburg). Upon reaching
this formation, the flow is increased to 200 gallons per minute.
At 625 to 635 feet the harder stratum was drilled through, which
flowed 500 gallons per minute, temperature 74 degrees F. At
680 feet the water pressure measured, as shown by the gauge, 12
pounds ........................ ...... .. .. ...... ................................ ............ 510 -680
Limestone, prevailing brownish in color and, as a rule, harder than
above. Occasional thin layers of marl and shell. Slight in-
crease of flow at 780; water pressure at 900 feet, 15 pounds;
flow about 900 gallons per minute; temperature, 74 degrees F....... 680 -900
Limestone similar in character to above, but as a rule not so hard.
Flow at 980 feet, 1,500 to 2,000 gallons per minute....................... 900 -980

The Eocene is entered in this well at or near a depth of 500 feet and
the well terminates in the Lower Cretaceous.

DAYTONA AREA
In several counties on the eastern side of central peninsular Florida,
the Eocene limestones are covered with Miocene and later formations
to a depth of from 100 to 200 feet. The counties included within this
area are St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Volusia, Seminole, Orange, Bre-
vard and parts of Lake and Marion Counties. At Sanford, on the St.
Johns River, and at New Smyrna on the Atlantic coast, the Eocene lies
at a depth approximating 100 feet; elsewhere the depth to the Eocene
is between 100 and 200 feet.










86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Following is the log of a well at New Smyrna, indicating the charac-
ter of the formations at this place to a depth of 1,022 feet. The Eocene
is probably reached in this well at 105 feet. Whether or not the well
enters the Cretaceous and at what depth is not determined.

Record of Samples From City Well at New Smyrna*
Depth in feet.
Greenish, sandy, calcareous and phosphatic rock, some sharks' teeth and
fragm ents of shell ................ .................. ..................... .... ..................... 93- 105
Sample containing a greenish rock and some fragments of white lime-
stone ................................ ... ...... ................ .. .. ........... ... 105
Pure white granular, porous limestone........... .......... .. ......... .. 105
Light-colored granular limestone ............................... ....... .... ..... ..... 181
Limestone, slightly brownish cast ............. .............. ... .........-. 265
Limestone, mostly light brown in color.................................. .......... 285- 296
Limestone, mostly light brown in color................... ......... .. .. .. 290
Brown limestone .................. ............................ 1022

KISSIMMEE AREA

The conditions to be expected in drilling in the Kissimmee Valley and
near Lake Okeechobee are indicated by wells drilled near Kissimmee
(see Osceola County) and at Lake Okeechobee. In this part of the state
the wells start in the Pleistocene. Miocene fossils, according to Cush-
man, are recognized in the Okeechobee well from 87 to 500 feet.

Well samples from the well of the Okeechobee Company, Okeechobee, Florida.
Well located on lot 5, block 134, approximately 34 feet above sea, and about 14 feet
above the level of Lake Okeechobee; 10-inch pipe rested at 150 feet; 8-inch pipe
rested at 307 feet; 6-inch pipe rested at 484 feet. Total depth of well, 810 feet.t

Depth in feet.
Fine gray sand and soil....... .............................. ........ 0- 2
Fine sand, chocolate colored, some of it indurated with organic matter,
ordinary hard pan............. ...................... .................... ....... .......... 2- 12
Gray or slightly brownish, indurated sand (not marl)................................. 12- 15
G ray sands ............................................ ............. ... ....... ...... .... .... ....... ...... 15- 38
The sample preserved consists chiefly of black clay containing considera-
ble sand, one fragment of shell, but aside from this no indication of
m arl ............................................................... ........ ........ ... .... ... 38- 41
Sandy shell marl, shells much broken....... .......... ............................ .... ... 41- 56
Shell marl, pecten, barnacles, etc., marine shallow-water marl..................... 56- 62
Gray sandy marl with broken shell, similar to No. 6................................... 62- 65
Coarse, clear grain sand and broken shell. Ostrea, turritella, bryozoa...... 65- 81
Sandy marl with broken shell. Pecten........... ............... .. ......... ........ 81- 87
Very sandy, olive-colored marl.... ................. ......... ..... ................ 87- 94
Light gray incoherent sand................................. ........... ..... 94-139

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., p. 125, 1919. The total depth of this well is
1,440 feet. Information by letter from the contractor, E. A. Durst, Jacksonville,
Fla., under date of Nov. 19, 1919.
tFla. Geol. Surv., 12th Ann. Rept., pp. 126-127, 1919.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Depth in feet.
Light-colored, sandy marl with shell fragments. Pecten. Occasional
phosphate pebbles, black and shiny......................................................................... 139-158
Olive green sand or very sandy marl... ..... .................. .. ..... ........... 158-175
Olive green ??1i" with black, smooth, shiny pebbles, phosphatic................... 175-212
Dark-colore:., .. .. sandy marl or calcareous sands, some broken shells...... 212-240
Olive green, very sandy and calcareous clays, or clayey sands.................. 240-245
Very sandy, dark-colored marl with shell fragments................................ 245-276
Calcareous and very sandy clay or clayey sand.............................................. 276-300
Dark-colored sand, broken rock and shell fragments......................... ...... 300-380
Very sandy, dark-colored marl, sand grains small......................................... 380-403
Light-colored sand, broken rock and shell fragments ............................ 403-458
D ark clay and broken shells..................... ............ ........ ..................... ........ 458-468
Drab-colored clay ...................................... ................................. ............ 468-500
White limestone rock with fragments of echinoderm spines........................... 500-510
Chiefly sand .................................. ... .. .. ...... ... .... .......... ..... 510-608
W hite limestone with many fossils............................. ............ ............ 608-615
Limestone, powdered fine by the drill.................................. ......... .... 615-775

TAMPA AREA

The Gulf coast of south Florida west of the Peace River, including
Hillsborough, Pinellas, Polk, Manatee and Sarasota Counties, is an area
in which Miocene formations are either at the surface or are covered by
a thin veneer of Pliocene and Pleistocene. In the northern part of this
area, west and north of Tampa, the Oligocene comes to the surface on
the coast and in stream beds.
The formations entered in drilling in this area include the Pliocene,
and Pleistocene if present, the Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Lower
Cretaceous. A well drilled at Tiger Bay will serve to illustrate the kind
of sediments to be expected in drilling in this part of the state.

Description of Samples From Well No. 3 of the Palmetto Phosphate Company, Tiger
Bay, Florida*
Depth in feet.
The rock at this depth is a light-colored phosphatic marl or limestone.
In texture and appearance it is like the marl which lies beneath the
land pebble phosphates. The phosphate is in the form of smooth,
rounded, black, brown, and white pebbles. While this is the prevail-
ing material of the sample, at least one fragment consists of clear-
grained quartz, held together by a phosphatic or calcareous cement
and resembling Alum Bluff sands. Acid test showed this piece to be
but slightly, if at all, calcareous. There are also some fragments of
dark blue, hard rock which effervesce but slightly in acid. No fossils
w ere seen in this sam ple..... _................ ......... ....... ................ ........... 73
This is also a phosphatic marl or limestone. It is similar to the 73-foot
sample except that it is lighter in color, being light gray or nearly
white. The phosphatic pebbles are mostly black in color, the black

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 7th Ann. Rept., pp. 45-48, 1915.










88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet.
pebble in the light-colored marl giving a grayish cast to the rock. The
hard, blue rock that effervesces scarcely at all in acid is rather more
abundant in this than in the preceding sample. This hard rock also
contains black phosphate pebbles, and it is probable that it is merely
a silicified phase of the marl. Some casts of fossils, but no determina-
ble specimens. A considerable amount of clear-grained silicious sand
is seen among the finer m material ................................................................... 85
The material at this depth is also calcareous and phosphatic. The phos-
phate pebbles are black or brown and are smooth and rounded. The
rock contains numerous small cavities, giving it a porous appearance.
Only one fossil is seen," this being part of a small gastropod.................. 150
A phosphatic limestone or marl, with some fossil gastropods and bi-
valves preserved as casts. The rock at this depth is in general similar
to the 150-foot sample. The fossils seem more abundant, perhaps, be-
cause the sample is larger. The phosphate pebbles are black, brown,
and w hite in color................................ ................. .. ............ .................. 160
Compact brown, phosphatic limestone. The phosphate pebbles are not
abundant in this limestone and are in the form of small, black pebbles
imbedded in the rock. While the rock is prevailingly compact, some
porous fragments are seen. A few broken fossils preserved as casts... 180
This sample includes compact phosphatic limestone, with about equal
admixture of pure white, silicious sand. Whether the sand is from
a sand stratum or from the six-inch cavity found at this depth, or pos-
sibly accidentally mixed from the surface, is not known..................... 190
A sandy, calcareous and phosphatic clay. In water this material falls
to pieces and becomes liquid. In acid it effervesces. The sand is in
the form of clear-grained silica. The phosphate is mostly in the.form
of small, black pebbles. Material is light colored when dry, although
slightly bluish when wet ..................................... ...... 195
This material is similar to that at 195 feet, although there is perhaps
less phosphate, and the sand is perhaps smaller grained........................ 200
A gray, sandy, phosphatic limestone. The calcareous material seems to
predominate, although the rock is rather sandy. The sand grains are
small and well rounded. The phosphate is in the form of very minute,
dark specks, and the rock possibly also has a phosphatic cement. No
fossils seen ....... ....... .......... ........................ .......... ............. 205
A gray, sandy, phosphatic limestone. The calcareous material seems to
predominate, although the rock is rather sandy, the sand grains are
small and well rounded. The phosphate is in the form of very minute,
dark specks, and the rock possibly also has a phosphatic cement. No
fossils seen in this material, except some imperfect casts in fragments
of a porous limestone, which may have fallen down from a higher
stratum. These porous pieces occur also in the sample at 205 feet..... 240
Light-colored, sandy and phosphatic limestone. The sand grains are clear
silica. The phosphate pebbles are dark colored. A few fragments
of casts of fossils. This rock is not materially different from that at
205 and 240 feet, except that it is lighter in color.................................. 250
Bluish gray, sandy, phosphatic limestone, together with loose calcareous
sand, probably representing the ground-up rock. No fossils seen ex-
cept echinoderm spines................................... ...... ......... ..................... 255
Gray or blue, calcareous, sandy, phosphatic clay. No fossils. This ma-
terial is similar to that at 200 feet.................................... ......... 255-260
Bluish gray, sandy, phosphatic limestone, together with loose calcareous
sand, probably representing the ground-up rock. No fossils seen ex-
cept echinoderm spines.................................. ..... .............. ... ....... 265










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA 89
Depth in feet.
Light-colored, sandy, phosphatic limestone. This is very similar to the
rock above the blue clay. A few fossils, including fragments of pec-
ten. Also one-flattened water-worn pebble of the same material as
the rock above................................... ...... ............................................... 272
The greater part of the material of this sample is the bluish gray, sandy,
phosphatic limestone similar to that already described. With this is
found a light-colored, compact limestone, very slightly phosphatic,
as shown by test. The sample also contains several pieces of red iron
ore. Of fossils, only a few fragments were seen................................... 275
Light-colored, phosphatic and slightly sandy marl or limestone. The
phosphate is in the form of smooth, dark pebbles imbedded in the marl.
The rock is fossiliferous, although the fossils are badly broken ............ 320
Light-colored, phosphatic marl or limestone, more or less sandy. One
small fragment of chalcedony holding cast of shell. A few fossils,
mostly broken bivalves and gastropods. The sample includes some
bluish gray, sandy, phosphatic limestone..................... ...................... 350
Light-colored, phosphatic, sandy marl; also some bluish gray, sandy,
phosphatic marl or limestone. Some broken fossils are included............ 360
Light-colored, finely powdered marl or limestone. Fragments of echino-
derm spines are present and other small or broken fossils. A few
phosphatic pebbles are seen, being black and shiny in appearance. A
clear-grained quartz sand occurs sparingly. This material is less
phosphatic than that which lies above and resembles the Chattahoochee
limestone as seen at Newland Spring, near Falmouth, in Suwannee
County, and near Bass, in Columbia County. Test showed this pow-
dered material to contain a small amount of phosphate......................... 400
Light-colored, finely powdered marl or limestone. Fragments of echino-
derm spines are seen, and also other small fossils, including a few
bryozoa. This material is similar to that at 400 feet, although there
seem to be no phosphatic pebbles and little, if any, sand......................... 410
Light-colored, nearly white limestone, not so finely powdered as the pre-
ceding two samples. Fragments of broken shells are abundant. Bry-
ozoa are numerous. Some foraminifera are present, the most common
being orbitoides. This limestone is, with little doubt, the Ocala. Test
shows it to be not phosphatic.............. .......................... ........... 420
The limestone at this depth is practically the same as that at 420 feet. It
is light-colored or nearly white, fragments of broken shell are abun-
dant, among which pecten is recognized. Small foraminifera are
numerous, and there are also broken pieces of larger specimens. Bry-
ozoa are present.................................................... ..... .... . ................... 450
Foraminifera abundant, chiefly orbitoides, including large specimens,
most of which are broken by the drill ................ ..... ......... .............. 500
Foraminifera abundant. The material is similar to that at 500 feet......... 550
At this depth foraminifera are abundant. The predominating form is
nummulites. Orbitoides present, but not abundant. The sample in-
eludes also some pieces of a soft, granular marl..... .............. 600
Limestone, probably hard and compact, the sample being finely powdered
by the drill. Both nummulites and orbitoides are present, although
only the small specimens escaped being powdered by the drill. This
compact limestone has a slightly brownish cast......................... 630
Hard, compact limestone with brownish cast, powdered exceedingly fine
by the drill. Few fossils escaped being powdered up, although some
foraminifera and bryozoa are present.......................... .................... 636
This sample shows a mixture of finely powdered material with brownish
cast, together with coarser material from a softer rock. With the
coarser material is included some small pieces of bluish-colored chert.
Foram inifera are present ................................ .................... ................ 650










90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet.
A limestone, breaking into coarse fragments. The predominating fossil
is a small, flat echinoderm, the internal cavity of which is, jn most
cases, filled with calcite crystals. Foraminifera are also present, al-
though not num erous....... .................................... ..................... ....... ..... 665
A compact limestone with slightly brownish cast. The same small, flat
echinoderm is present, although broken up by the drill, and is not
abundant. Foraminifera are present, although not abundant................ 670
A brown limestone, rather hard but not very compact. Few if any fossils
are preserved. It is probable that the minute fossils in the rock have
dissolved out and the cavity partially refilled by calcite crystals. This
gives the rock a porous and partially crystallized appearance and
causes it to break into medium coarse fragments by the drill.............. 680
The material is chiefly light brown or grayish brown, porous limestone,
partially crystallized, the fossils having been destroyed. With this is
included light-colored rock .. ___ ..................................... ........ .............. 690
This sample consists chiefly of soft, white limestone, in which is included
a few foraminifera. A limited amount of the harder, brownish rock
from the stratum above is present.............................................................. 710
A light-colored, rather hard, although porous, limestone which seems to be
made up of a mass of broken shells and other fragments of fossils. One
small flat echinoderm present, although broken.......................... ..... 720
White granular limestone. Fossils not numerous, although a few foram-
inifera are seen; also broken pieces of a small flat echinoderm............... 740
Grayish brown limestone, rather hard and partly crystallized. A few
fossils, including a small gastropod............................................................ 760
Grayish brown limestone, rather hard and partly crystallized. Few, if
any, fossils .............. ........................................... ............................ ............ 770
The greater part of the material of this sample is brown or grayish brown
powdered up by the drill medium fine. With this are several large
pieces of ground rock which consists almost entirely of a mass of small
calcite crystals. The sample contains also some light-colored ma-
terial, including a few foraminifera.......................................................... 790
The material of this sample is similar to that of the last. The large frag-
ments consist chiefly of a mass of small calcite crystals, the mass being
brow n in color ......................................... ............................................... ...... 800
The rock at this depth is not unlike that at 800 feet, although it is darker
in color, being very dark brown; somewhat compact and partlycrystal-
lized .......... ................................................................................ ..................... 814
A light-colored limestone which powders up medium fine in drilling.
Foram inifera present ................................. ............ ......... ...... ......... 820
A light-colored limestone which powders up medium fine in drilling.
Foraminifera present, although not abundant............................... 830
The greater part of this sample is white and rather soft limestone; there
are also some pieces of a white limestone consisting chiefly of broken
fragments. With this are some dark-colored pieces which probably
scaled off of the side of the cavity. A small flat echinoderm is present 838

Description of samples of another well at this locality has been given
in the Seventh Annual Report of the Florida Survey, page 49.* In this

*Fla. Geol. Surv., 7th Ann. Rept., p. 49, 1915. Description of samples from
well of Palmetto Phosphate Company, near pit No. 1, about 2Y4 miles northwest of
Tiger Bay.









PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


well the Ocala limestone, according to Cushman, lies below 350 feet,
and from 550 to 770 the formations are of Lower Cretaceous age.

FORT MYERS AREA.

The Ft. Myers area may be regarded as including De Soto, Hardee,
Highlands, Charlotte, Glades and Lee Counties. The surface formations
in the northern part of this area are chiefly Pliocene shell marls and in
the southern and eastern parts of the area Pleistocene shell marl and
limestone.
A deep well was drilled at Ft. Myers in 1914, from which a represen-
tative set of samples was obtained. This well reached a total depth of
950 feet.*

Description of samples from the city well, Ft. Myers, Florida; drilled, 1914;
driller, Ohio Well Drilling Company, Jacksonville, Florida. Size, 10 to 8 inches;
casing 10-inch, 14 feet; 8-inch, 203 feet; principal water supply 875 feet; flowing,
yields 650 gallons per minute; depth, 950 feet; in charge of drilling, G. P. Peppard.

Depth in feet.
Light-colored limestone with fragments of fossils, also some sand and
dark, shiny phosphate pebble. Fossils include bryozoa, broken shell
fragments, etc. ............. .................................................................... .... 200.
Much the same rock. Shark's tooth, some phosphate pebble, broken shells,
some echinoderm spines and many bryozoa.............................................. 210
Similar light-colored limestone. Some fine, black phosphate pebble im-
bedded in the rock.................... ......... .................................. ....... 220
Similar light-colored limestone ................................ ........................ 230
Similar light limestone consisting of broken shell fragments, together with
fragments of rock containing minute black phosphate pebble ............... 280
Similar light-colored limestone consisting of broken fragments of different
shells, together with some pieces of hard, dark-colored rock.................. 300
Similar light-colored limestone consisting of shell fragments.................. 320
A similar light-colored limestone containing also small shiny black phos-
phate pebbles ................... .... ............. ........ .. .... .. 360
Similar light-colored limestone with an abundance of small shiny black
phosphate pebbles ...................... .. ..... .. ..... ..... .... .......... 340
Similar light-colored limestone consisting of a mass of broken shell frag-
ments, rather more finely broken up than the preceding. Phosphate
pebbles somewhat less abundant than in last sample............................ 380
Similar light-colored limestone consisting of a mass of shell fragments
broken up finely ................. ......... ........................... ............... 400
Similar light-colored limestone, some phosphate pebble as in preceding... 420
Similar light-colored limestone, including phosphate pebble, also one small
oyster shell ......................................... ........ .... ............ ............ ... 440
Similar light-colored limestone, although not so finely broken up and in-
cluding pieces of rock with the small phosphate pebbles imbedded......... 460
Buff calcareous clay, some phosphate pebble and some shell fragments...... 480


*Fla. Geol. Surv., 7th Ann. Rept., pp. 51-52, 1915.










92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-I4TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet..
Light-colored limestone consisting of shell fragments with an abundance
of black phosphate pebble and with small fragments of the sandy marl
with slightly green shade of color......... ................ ......................... ....... 500
A somewhat harder limestone, containing, however, phosphate pebble...... 520
Limestone similar to that at 520. This limestone is not so light in color
and does not contain so many shell fragments as the limestone above
320 feet ...... ........................................... ......... ................. ......................... 540
Very fine, siliceous.and calcareous sand containing minute black phosphate
pebble ........................ .............. ...... .... ..................... ......................... 600
Sam e as 600 .................. .... ......... ....... ........................... .................. ...... ... 640
Similar finely powdered material containing, however, less quartz sand... 680
Limestone with slightly brownish color and finely powdered by the drill.. 720
Finely powdered calcareous material similar to that at 600 feet............... 760
Light-colored limestone consisting of a mass of broken fossils.................... 800
Same as at 800 feet .................. ............ ... .. .. .... .... .... 840
Same as at 800 feet..................................... .................... ..... 880
Finely powdered rock including fine quartz sand, much like that at 600
feet................................. ........... .. ......... 900
Limestone consisting of a mass of broken fossils................ ..... ........ 950

MIAMI AREA

A well drilled at Miami, and recorded under the discussion of Dade
County, will serve to illustrate drilling conditions as found on the At-
lantic Coast of southern Florida. In this part of the state the regional
-dip of the formations is to the southeast. Hence, in passing to the north
and west any given formation may be expected at a somewhat lesser
depth than at Miami.
Following is the log of a well drilled at Palm Beach, about sixty-five
miles north of Miami:1

Log of Well of C . Craigin, Two and a Quarter Miles North of Palm Beach. Well
Drilled 1889-1890 by J. A. Durst
Depth in feet.
Surface soil .......... ...... ............. ............. ...... 0 5
Rock -..... ...... ................................ 5 7
First sand ....................... ........ .. ... ... .. .... .......... 7 8
M ostly fine coquina rock.............................. ................ 8 36
Quicksand and sharp pieces of stone ................................ 36 57.2
First really hard rock.................... ..... 57.2 58
Coquina, alternating with sandy strata........................... ........ 58 76.10
H ard rock ................................... ...... ... ................ ........ 76.10- 78
Very hard flint .................................................... ............... 78 78.6
Sand, white and solid, but not hard.............................. .......... 78.6 84
Quicksand bed, mixed with bits of coarser material.................. 84 96
Flint rock, thin ...................... ..... ....... .. ....... ... .... 96 96.6
Fine sand ............................. ........ .. ......... 96.6 97
Q uicksand bed .. ............. ................. ......... 97 148


IFla. Geol. Surv., 5th Ann. Rept., pp. 274-276, 1913.










PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES OF FLORIDA


Solid lim estone ................................. ..... ............ ... ... ......... .....
Soft gray lim estone......... ........ .................................... .......
H ard rock .... ... .. ..... .......... .... ....... ........... .... .........
Shell stratum ..... ...... ..... ....... -..-.... ..-............. ..
Very hard sandstone.... ............................ .. ..............................
Sandstone ......... .. ....... .. ... ...... ........... ... ....... ..... ........
Alternately hard and soft limestone....................... ........... .....-
Straw colored sandstone ................ .... ................... .... ............
Drab-colored, solid sandstone, gradually deepening in its color to a
final blue at 230 feet, with small delicate shells throughout.........
Bed of small dainty shells. Water level is 3 feet 4 inches below
w wooden curb ......................................... .......... ............ .............
Very hard drilling, required to move casing in these alternations.
Water level about 20 inches (near 242 feet). Very active quick-
sand .......................................... .... ......... ..
Took out loads of quicksand......... .......... ... .. ... ....
Sand. Water in this sand ran slowly out of pipe at 3 feet 6 inches
above ground ..... .... ... ..... .. .. .........-........ ... .
Coquina ........ ......... ... ... .. ..................... .... .........
Broken shell and sand, more shell (white and pulverized) the
last few feet. Water level just above ground level................
Rock. Water stands 2 feet 4 inches above curb in this stand............
Brown clay, first seen in this well................................. ..
Sand ........................ ... .... ................. ............ ....
B lue sandstone .............. ..... .. .... .. .. ....... .......
Blue sand, shells and pieces of rotten sticks................ .........
Blue sandstone ......................... ..... ................... .. .. ....
.Sand. Water in this sand stands 3 feet above wooden curb ...........
Blue Sandstone .......... .... ........... ..... ........ ............ ...... .........
Fine shell and sand, coarser broken shell toward bottom..................
R ock .................................... ..... ...................... ........... ..... .. ....
Coarse, broken shell, blue pebbles and pieces of coquina. Water
2 feet above curb, runs freely at 1 foot above..........-.............
Yellow sandstone.. Water 2 feet above curb................................
Broken shell, pebbles, pieces of coquina................... .........
Pulverized shell .................... ..... ... ..... .. .......... ................
Gray limestone, with some broken shell lying immediately be-
neath. Water stands 2 feet 4 inches above on penetrating
this rock ......... ......... ..... ........................................ .
Pulverized shell. Water stands at level of wooden curb...............
Alternations of rock and blue marl..........................
B lue m arl ............. .................... ............ ..... .................. .........
Alternations of blue marl and sand which afforded the greatest
flow to date and the first fresh water below 49 feet.................
B lue m arl ..... ..... .. .. .. ... ............. ...
C oquina .. ................... ........ ..... .......... ..... .......... ......
Proportion of sand in the marl increases very much.......................
Quicksand, below casing; can not drill at all. Proportion of sand
in the marl increases ....... .... ................. ................ .......
Marly sand. Head of water from 9 to 11 feet above ground.
Water rises so as to dribble from a height of 11/ feet............
Quicksand bed ............................ ........
Rock ........................ ..---.......... .......... ......
Sand or sandstone ..............................................


Depth in feet.
148 151
151 169.6
169.6 170
170 171
171 171.3
171.3 175
175 185
185 190

190 238

238 238.8


238.6 -
248 -

250 -
262 -

263 -
300 -
301.6 -
303.6 -
310 -
312.4 -
312.10-
315.2 -
320 -
321 -
340 -

340.3 -
350 -
357 -
359 -


248
250

262
263

300
301.6
303.6
310
312.4
312.10
315.2
320
321
340
340.3

350
357
359
373


- 374
- 392
- 400
- 409

- 432
- 507
- 510
- 542


542 571


571 -
614 -
618 -
618.6 -










94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-14TH ANNUAL REPORT

Depth in feet.
Lighter colored and runs to greenish, marly sand all through here.
At depth 678-688 more sand. Water from 690-700. Very
m any tiny spiral shells..................... .. ...... ................ 640 707
Brown, coarse m material ............ ..................... ........_ .... .. 707 710
Sand with enough marl with it to give a green color to the slush
as ejected ........................................... ... ......... ....................... 710 794.6
Loose sand, full of black specks and tiny bivalve and spiral shells 794.6 809
Blue marl, full of black specks ..................... ............. 809 826
Sand .............. ........ .... .......... ............... ..... ..... ............. 826 828
Sandstone .......................... ..... ....... .. ............. 828 834
Very fine, tough clay, thoroughly impervious...................... ............ 834 839
Fine-grained coquina. Get dribble of water at depth of about 844
feet 4 inches; casing driven to depth of 846 feet; tight in rock 839 860
Solid, hard lim estone ............. ...... .. .. ........... .. ............. 860 867
Fine clay, devoid of grit.......... .. ...... .. ............ 867 874
H ard rock ................... ................................................................................... 874 876
Lots of black specks here................................ .......... ... 876 878
Clays, sandy, and lots of black specks. No water........................... 878 902
Dark sand bed. Here the water supply is 115,000 gallons per diem 902 905
Thin block of stone 909 feet, about. This is the lowest sand bed
with thin block of limestone at intervals. Water comes from
between these thin flakes of limestone................. ........ 905 917.6
Lim estone ........ .............. .......... .. ........... 917.6 917.9
C oralline ....... .. .....-..- ........................... .... ..... ...... ...... 917.9 923
Hard limestone rock at 923, solid rock nearly 39 feet...................... 923 961
G ritty m arl ............................... .. ......... ......... 961 973
Solid rock ..................... .. .................... ............. 973 990.6
Sandy marl, full of tiny spirals........................................... 990.6 -1009
Limestone ...............................- ..... .. .................... 1009 -1012
Yellow sandstone ..... ... ... ........... ................. ...... ... 1012 -1023
Hard rock .... .................. ....... ... .... ........ ............ ..... .. 1023 -1025
Rock, first of the regular water strata. Alternating hard and soft
strata. Increase of water with depth. At depth of 1,042 feet,
270,000 gallons; 1,057 feet, 300,000 gallons; 1,075 feet, 350,000
gallons. Water strata found at frequent intervals......................... 1025 -1088
G ray lim estone ................................................. ............. 1088 -1110
Gray limestone, interspersed with water strata, but the flow in-
creases but slightly. At 1,160 feet flow totals 400,000 gallons... 1110 -1116
Solid gray limestone ..................... ........ .................. 1116 -1174
Blue limestone ......... .. ............. ............ ... ...... .. 1174 -1175
A ll solid --..... ...... ... ... ......... ........ ............. 1175 -1193
Blue limestone (?) .................. .... ... ............. ... ............ 1193 -1195.6
Six inches w ater stratum ............ ...................................... ...... 1195.6 -1196
Mostly gray limestone, with some hard, and some water strata.
Flow increases but little.............. ......... ............... .............. 1196 -1212

It is probable that the Eocene in this well is entered at between 915
and 1,000 feet. (Darton, Am. Jour. Sci. XLI, p. 105, 1891.) The lime-
stones beginning at 917.6 feet are probably Eocene.

KEY WEST AREA
Underground conditions on the Florida Keys and elsewhere in ex-
treme southern Florida are known to a depth of 2,555 feet by wells