Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Administrative report
 Mineral production in Florida during...
 A contribution to the late tertiary...
 A preliminary report on the clays...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover




.y tA t




t. P.'A R Y

ibOTAN ,



'ii /f12


:3"K .%-t


To His Excellency, Hon. Sidney J. Catts, Governor of Florida:
Sir:-In accordance with the law establishing the State Geo-
logical Survey I submit. herewith, my annual report, being the
Thirteenth in the series of annual reports thus far published by
this Department. The report contains a detailed financial state-
ment showing the expenditures up to June 30, 1920, together with
a result of those investigations undertaken during the past year.
Appreciation of the interest you have shown in the work of
the State Geological Survey and the assistance you have rendered
is herewith expressed.
Very respectfully,
State Geologist.
November, 1920.


Administrative report ---------------------------------------- 5
Introduction -------------------------------------- 5
Recommendations ---------------------------------------- 11
Oil prospecting ------------------------------------------ 14
Financial statement ---------------------- ------------------ 20
Statistics of mineral production during 1918 -------------------------- 25
Foraminifera from the deep wells of Florida, by Joseph A. Cushman (with
fig. I and plates 1-3) ------------------------------------------- 33
Geography of Central Florida, by Roland M. Harper (with figs. 2-43) -- 71



The act establishing the Florida State Geological Survey was
passed by the. Legislature of 1907, being approved on June 3rd
of that year. Among other provisions of the law is one requiring
the State Geologist to make annually to the Governor a report
of the progress made by the Survey. Since its establishment the
following reports 'have been issued, the subjects treated being in-
dicated by the titles of the. separate papers listed under each an-
nual report which make up the whole volume.
Those annual reports followed by an asterisk (*) are no longer
available for distribution as a whole volume, owing to exhaustion
of supply. It is frequently the case, however, that although the
report as a whole is not available some of the separate papers
making up the volume may be obtained. When this is the case
such separates making up the respective annual reports as are still
available are indicated by the. dagger sign (f).


First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.*

This report contains: (I) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chap-
ter -on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-mak-
inr clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making materials; (3)
a Ilibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a review of the more
important papers published previous to the organization of the present Geo-
loical Survey.

Second Annual Report, 1909, 299, pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures,
one map.*

This report contains: (I) a preliminary report on the geology of Flor-
ida. with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geo-
'logic map of Florida, prepared in co-operation with the United States Geo-


logical Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of
Gadsden county, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the State

Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.*

This report contains: (I) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate
deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water sup-
ply of eastern and southern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Flor-
ida peat deposits.

Fourth Annual Report, I9F2, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures,
one map.

This report contains: (i) the soils and other surface residual materials
of Florida, their origin, character and the formations from which derived;
(2) the water supply of west-central and west Floridat; (3) the production
of phosphate rock in Florida during 19Io and 1911.

Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures,
two maps.*

This report contains: (i) origin of the hard rock phosphates of Flor-
idat; (2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern
and southern Floridat; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912;
(5) statistics on public roads in Florida.

Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*

This report contains: (I) mineral industries and resources of Floridat;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dunnellon
and Alachua formations; (4) geography and vegetation of northern Flor-

Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.*

This report contains: (I) pebble phosphates of Floridat; (2) natural
resources of an area in Central Floridat; (3) soil survey of Bradford
county; (4) soil survey of Pinellas county.

Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.*

This report contains: (i) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils, in-
cluding fossil human remains.


Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two

This report contains: (I) mineral industries; (2) additional studies in
the Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and
Aucilla rivers in Floridat.

Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9
figures, two maps.*

This report contains: (I) geology between the Apalachicola and Ock-
locknee rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new
species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between
the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) mol-
luscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.

Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.

This report contains: (i) literature relating to human remains and arti-
facts at Vero, Floridat; (2) fossil beetles from Verot; (3) elevations in
Floridat; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Floridat; (5) the
age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well
boringst; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special reference to
structural conditions.

Thirteenth Annual Report (this volume) 1921.

Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.*

This bulletin contains: (i) underground water, general discussion; (2)
the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and
artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes,
disappearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and
swainp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses and
tables giving general water resources, public water supplies, spring and well

Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911,
31 pp., 4 pls.*

This bulletin contains: (i) an account of the road building materials
of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads
built by the counties of the State to the close of 191o.


In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above
press bulletins have been issued as follows:

No. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March 12,
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the At-
lanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,
December 31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May 20,
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Em-
bedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick,- April, 1915.'
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May o1, 1918.
No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5, 1919.
No. ii. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, Octo-
ber 6, Ig99.


The reports of the Florida Geological Survey are sent with-
out cost to the citizens of the State and may be obtained by ad-
dressing a request to the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida.
Postage should accompany requests from those living outside of
Florida or if preferred reports can be sent by express collect.



After serving the State of Florida for almost fifteen years,
three years as Professor of Geology and Zoology at the Univer-
sity of Florida and practically twelve years as State Geologist,
Dr. E. H. Sellards tendered his resignation which became effective
April 18, '919. Dr. Sellards did not leave the services of the
State without regret, for the work was most attractive, the field
of labor and investigation' rich and the associations formed in the
prosecution of the great work that he had accomplished most pleas-
ant. It was, however, the mounting cost of the daily necessaries
and comforts of life with the decreasing purchasing power of the
dollar that was the compelling force and deciding factor in the
acceptance of a more attractive offer with the Bureau of Economic
Geology and Technology of the State of Texas. No one was more
familiar with the geology of the State of Florida and its economic
resources than was Dr. Sellards and in his leaving the State has
lost the services of a most thorough, painstaking, conscientious
and scientific investigator.


Upon the. resignation of Dr. E. H. Sellards as State Geologist,
1\Ir. Herman Gunter, who has been with the Survey since August,
1907, was appointed as his successor. On July I, 1919, Mrs. L.
B. Robertson entered upon the duties of Secretary of the. Depart-
ment and served in this capacity until August I, 1920. Dr. Joseph
A. Cushman of the Boston Society of Natural History, a recog-
nized authority on foraminifera, minute fossils of great importance
in identifying geologic formations, has prepared a detailed report
on the species of this group as represented in samples of drilling
from several deep wells in the State. Dr. R. M. Harper has served
as Assistant on the Survey in the capacity of botanist and geog-
rapher since April I, 1920. A paper on the Geography of Central
Florida by Dr. Harper accompanies this report, which is in contin-
uation of a study and report on this subject covering northern Flor-
ida, contained in the Sixth Annual Report, published in 1914.



Through the courtesy of the State Chemist the Geological De-
partment occupied two rooms in the Chemical Building from early
in 1908, or shortly after its organization, until March I, 1920.
One of these served as office and library while the other was used
for the exhibition of geological material and for other purposes.
The legislature of 1919'provided for the. inspection and anal-
ysis of gasoline and kerosene, carrying also the provision for
appointment of an additional Assistant State Chemist to take care
of the analytical work. Although the rooms occupied by the Geo-
logical Survey were at the expense of the State and even though
they had been needed by the Chemical Division for some time, it
was not until the law mentioned became, effective that it was neces-
sary for the Geological Department to find quarters elsewhere.
There being no available space in the Capitol building or in
one owned or controlled by the State there was no other alterna-
tive than to get office and museum space in a building privately
owned. In this the Geological Survey was fortunate for the Per-
kins Building on Monroe Street was at that time under construc-
tion, and quarters were arranged to suit the convenience of the
Department, both as to office, library and museum space.
In its new location the* Survey has one room containing 750
square feet which is now used for the exhibition of geological ma-
terial and for the main working library. The other space, equal in
area, is divided into four rooms, the offices for the State Geolo-
gist, Assistant and Secretary, while the fourth serves the purpose
of mailing room and for storage.


In its new location the room used for the exhibition of geo-
logical material and for the main library occupies approximately
750 square feet. Six cases have been built which serve both the
purpose of exhibition and storage, but much other material now
in storage could be placed on exhibition if more space, and ad-
ditional cases were provided. The, present cases are filled, both
as to exhibition and storage space, and specimens collected in the
future will have to remain packed in boxes until such time as ad-


ditional space becomes available. The collection of fossils and
minerals will be added to as rapidly as they can be properly cared

The Survey library now contains several thousand volumes,
and is a fairly complete reference library for our purposes. Many
volumes, particularly those of foreign Geological Surveys, are
stored elsewhere temporarily owing to an insufficient number of
bookcases to accommodate them in the library.



The clays of Florida should be investigated and reported upon.
As is shown by the number of requests, demand for information
on the properties of the clays of the State is increasing. The phys-
ical property of a clay can only be determined by proper clay
testing machinery, with which the Geological Survey is not equip-
ped. A clay testing laboratory should be installed so that a
thorough, systematic investigation of the clays of the State could
be made. At present space in which to install clay testing machinery
is not available and the State Survey cannot make tests of clays
until adequate provisions are made.


The water powers of the State should receive attention. A
systematic study of these requires a knowledge of the drainage.
systems, which in instances are quite complicated. Gauges should
be installed on the more promising rivers and streams and records
should cover a sufficient period of time to give accurate data for
seasonal variations of flow.
Likewise, the springs of the State should be gauged. In
Florida are found the largest springs in the world, and estimates
of flow from these should be available. Estimates of the volume
of flow from many of these, particularly the larger ones, have
been made at different times but it would be of considerable inter-


est and desirable to have data on the fluctuation of flow which
could be gotten only by records covering a stated period.
Co-operation in the matter of the gauging of streams could
be arranged with the Water Resources Branch of the United States
Geological Survey and it is urged that provision be made for enter-
ing into such co-operation.


The Florida Geological Survey has co-operated with the United
States Geological Survey, as in former years, in the collection of
statistics on the mineral production in Florida. This co-operation
has been found highly desirable and advantageous since it elimi-
nates the possibilities of discrepancies in statements which might
occur when such statistics are. collected separately by each Survey.


In this day of rapid development in the State coupled with
undertakings of vast magnitude such as the enormous drainage
projects, the plans for and the construction of permanent systems
of highways, renewed activity in railroad extensions, etc., nothing
could better serve as an essential aid in this development than de-
tailed topographic maps. These maps are as accurate as the scale
used (approximately a mile to the inch) will allow, showing every
natural surface feature, such as rivers and creeks, springs, lakes,
swamps and marshes, hills and valleys, sink-holes and rock out-
crops in addition to artificial features as cities and towns, schools,
.churches and other buildings, railroads, highways, as well as minor
roads, and bridges. In fact, such maps as these prepared by the
United States Geological Survey are indispensable to the most in-
telligent development of many of the State's resources and indus-
tries. With their aid the construction engineer can lay out a right-
of-way for either highway or railroad without the expense of the
preliminary survey and the drainage engineer can lay out a system
of canals and ditches in the office almost to better advantage than
in the field. To the general public, and particularly to those who
travel, the maps are of great convenience and benefit, for a mo-
ment's glance reveals the exact physiography and general nature
of the country mapped.


As a base map on which to show the distribution of differ-
ent soil types topographic maps are of very great assistance. Not
only do they serve as an exact base map for the area to be soil
surveyed, thus reducing the cost of the soil map itself, but they
facilitate the study of the soils which, as is known, bear close re-
lations with drainage and moisture conditions. They are practically
indispensable in the preparation of detailed, final geologic maps
and reports.
The accumulation of oil or gas in commercial quantity is
greatly dependent upon favorable geologic structure of formations.
With the constant increase of interest in the problem of oil and
gas being found in Florida, topographic maps could facilitate ac-
curate work on geologic structure. In a state like Florida, with
comparative little relief and consequently but few continuous ex-
posures of the different geological formations, evidence of struc-
ture must be gotten from many single disconnected exposures. The
working out of structure so as to determine anticlines, synclines
and folds in the strata is no easy problem at best, but these maps,
showing as they do elevations by means of contours at Io-foot
intervals, would make the problem easier of solution.


It is with an appreciation and realization of the value of such
maps that the Florida Geological Survey is desirous of co-operat-
ing with the United States Geological Survey in their preparation.
As many as 24 quadrangles lying wholly or partly within the State
and covering about 250 square miles each, have already been topo-
graphically surveyed. According to an estimate by the United
States Geological Survey the mapping so far completed covers
seven per cent of the total area of the State. From the same, source
it is learned that only one other State in the entire United States
falls below this percentage. All of the areas mapped, except seven
lying in central peninsular Florida embracing a portion of the hard
rock phosphate belt, and surveyed shortly after the. discovery of
phosphate, have been mapped in recent years. In fact, it was due
primarily to military necessity for the information gained from such
maps that the War Department co-operated with the United States


Geological Survey during the recent war and prepared the greater
number of the maps embracing a portion of northeastern Florida.
The usefulness of these maps calls for the continuation of
work along these lines, with the State bearing its proportionate
part of the cost. To do this increased funds must be made
available. The willingness on the part of the United States Geo-
logical Survey to aid in this work is shown by the offer to co-
operate with the Florida Geological Survey on a dollar for dollar
basis. In addition, the expense of printing and engraving is borne
by the. Federal Survey. It is recommended that at least $5000.oo
be appropriated each year by the State for the prosecution of
field work in order that the mapping may progress and be com-
pleted within a reasonable number of years.


Interest in the probability of finding oil and gas in Florida
is increasing and much money is being spent in drilling test wells
at the present time. During the. past several years a number of
such wells have been drilled in the State, particularly in the pen-
insular portion, the deepest in that section being one near Bush-
nell, in Sumter County, which reached' a depth of 3080 feet.
The area in which prospecting is now most active is in the
northern and western portion of the State. Wells are being drilled'
near Burns in Wakulla County about fifteen.miles south of Tal-
lahassee, near Clarksville in northern Calhoun County, near Chip-
ley in northern Washington County, and two in Walton County,
near Mossy Head and Bruce. Other wells are to be commenced
in the near future, locations having been decided upon, operations
only awaiting the delivery and placing of the drilling rig and other
necessary machinery.
It is becoming more, and more generally recognized that the
accumulation of oil and gas is dependent upon the character and
structure of the underlying geological formations. A detailed
study of the geology of the region should be made before a loca-
tion for a test well is decided upon. These studies should cover
a large territory in order to make it possible to properly correlate
the different formations and the. structure within them. Some
of the promoters of the wells that have been and are being drilled


in Florida have appreciated this fact and have decided upon a
location only after considering reports on the geology covering
their properties and surrounding country.. In order, however, that
the reliability of such reports be unquestioned they should be pre-
pared by one who is a geologist of recognized standing thereby
not only demanding but meriting that confidence be placed upon
the results of his investigations.
The State Geological Survey in the regular course of its in-
vestigations has accumulated considerable data relative, to the struc-
ture of formations in Florida. Much of this has been published
in the various papers on geology as contained in the several an.
nual reports but such data are constantly being added to. A study
of the structure of formations in Florida is a rather tedious tasl
owing to the comparative slight relief with correspondingly few
continuous geologic exposures. In addition, erosion, especially by
solution and subsidence, has been most active in our formations
th us increasing the difficulty of working out structure in any
particular formation or horizon. It is thus only through detailed
work and cautious interpretations that the most reliable results
cani be obtained.
Of invaluable assistance in the furtherance of these studies
would be topographic maps on which all surface exposures and
other related data could be located and on which structure con-
tours could be plotted. In addition accurate well records, based
on samples of the drillings taken at frequent intervals, have con-
tributed important data to our knowledge of the succession of
formations in Florida. Efforts on the part of the Survey to se-
cure well samples have had results and such sets of drillings as
have been procured have been studied in detail, one paper being
published in the. Twelfth Annual Report and a second being in-
cluded in the present volume. Through the courteous co-opera-
tion of well contractors and promoters the Survey is at present
receiving excellent sets of carefully taken 'well drillings and it is
a privilege to acknowledge this co-operation which will add much
to our present knowledge of the geology of the State. It is urged
that those who contemplate drilling any wells, particularly those
that may go to exceptional depth, save samples of the cuttings and
submit them to the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Fla., who will
study them and submit a descriptive, log. Too much emphasis


can not be placed on the importance of saving samples of the drill-
ings from all the deep wells that are drilled for whatever purpose.
These. should be carefully collected at frequent intervals regard-
less of whether there is a change in the formation or not and
properly labeled as to the depth from which they were taken.
Of interest in consideration of the subject of oil in Florida
is a Press Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey which
appeared during April 1920. This bulletin relates to Peninsular
Florida, in fact that portion of the State lying from Suwannee
County eastward. The title as first published is misleading in
that it includes the entire State but from the subject matter it is
readily seen that the area lying from Suwannee County westward
is not treated. The bulletin referred to is herewith republished
with the insertion of the word "Peninsular" in the title.:


Wells have been drilled for oil in every State in the Union ex-
cept the New England States and possibly four others-North
Carolina, South Carolina, Nevada, and Idaho. Only sixteen states,
however, can be called oil-producing. A number of deep wells
have been drilled in Florida, the deepest being one near Bush-
nell, in Sumter County, which was carried to a depth of 3,080 feet.
This well and one near Waycross, in southern Georgia, which
was drilled to a depth of 3,045 feet, are two of the deepest wells
in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.


Although the deep wells drilled in Florida have yielded no
indications of oil the interest in the possibility of finding oil there
has not been diminished by their failure but has actually increased
with the increase in the prosperity of the State, so that much
money has been spent in drilling test wells in areas where oil
is not likely to be found. As additional wells will no doubt be
drilled in Florida the results of geologic field work done by O.

- i6


B. Hopkins, and other members of the United States Geological
Survey, Department of the Interior, in co-operation with the
Florida State Geological Survey, may have some value in future
The. geologists of the United States Geological Survey are not
very hopeful that oil will be found anywhere in the Atlantic Coastal
Plain, because the stratigraphy and the structure of the beds of
rock in that area are in many ways different from those, of the
beds in the Gulf Coastal Plain, where oil has been found.


The intelligent selection of a location for drilling-a test well
involves the consideration of (i) the character of the formations
that underlie within a reasonable drilling depth the area to be
tested and (2) the structure of the beds, which controls the ac-
cumulation of oil. The beds in Florida lie. nearly flat and are
poorly exposed at the surface, so that the information thus far
obtained in regard to both these features is meager. The forma-
tions that underlie the. center of the peninsula of Florida at a
relatively shallow depth do not, so far as known, appear anywhere
at the surface in the State, but beds of the same age outcrop 250
miles to the north, in central Georgia. As these formations vary
widely in character from place to place the only knowledge of
their character in this part of Florida must be obtained from
well borings.
The Ocala limestone, of Eocene age, found near Ocala, in
central Florida, is the oldest formation exposed in the State. Oil
will probably not be found in it or in any of the other younger
formations that outcrop in Florida, for none of them .contain
much bituminous matter. They consist largely of limestone. The
formations below the Ocala, which have been drilled into at a
number of places, consist chiefly of white limestone, of Lower
Cretaceous age. At Bushnell more than 2,800 feet of limestone,
interbedded with thin beds of fine sand, of Lower Cretaceous age,
has been penetrated by the drill. These limestones are probably
underlain in this part of Florida at no great depth by old crystal-
line rocks, such as form the Piedmont "area of northern Georgia.


If any showings of oil have been found in the wells so far
drilled they were small, and .the great thickness of limestone under-
lying the surface formations in Florida does not encourage an
expectation that oil will be found there in commercial quantities,
for oil is usually associated with thick deposits of shale, in which
it presumably originated. The evidence available at the present
moment does not seem to justify sanguine hopes of developing
an important oil field in this State.


The dominant structural feature of eastern Florida is an an-
ticlinal fold, or arch. which.trends south-southeastward and forms
the axis of the peninsula. The axis of this arch passes near
Live Oak, o1 to 20 miles west of Gainesville, and an equal distance
west of Ocala, and is the southern continuation of the broad an-
ticlinal area of south-central Georgia. Along this anticline there
are two high areas. The highest part of one, called the Ocala up-
lift, appears to be in eastern Levy County: that of the other is
near Live Oak. The Ocala uplift is the larger and the higher. On
this uplift the Ocala limestone is found 120 feet above sea level.
From that elevation it dips toward the east to a depth of 200
feet below sea level at St. Augustine and 500 feet below sea level
at Jacksonville.
The Ocala uplift is separated from the uplift near Live Oak
by a low area, or saddle, which runs parallel to the axis of the
anticline to a point near Santa Fe River, in southern Columbia
From that point the beds appear to rise gently to form a dome-
shaped fold near Live Oak. The Ocala limestone is found at Su-
wannee, Ellaville, Dowling Park, and Luraville, on Suwannee
River, at elevations ranging from 35 to 45 feet above sea level,
whereas the Chattahoochee limestone, which overlies it, is 120 feet
above sea level at Live Oak. As the Chattahoochee here has an
estimated thickness of 30 to 40 feet, the Ocala is probably 40 feet
higher at Live Oak than at any of the exposures on the Suwan-
nee or at Bass, a fact which suggests the inference that a dome-like
uplift centers at Live Oak. This inference is strengthened by the
fact that the top of the Chattahoochee limestone stands at an ele-


nation of only 75 to 80 feet above sea level along the Georgia-
Florida line, or about 40 feet lower than it is near Live Oak. The
existence of this dome appears to be indicated also by the swing
of Suwannee River around Live Oak; instead of continuing its
southerly course, it bends to the west-northwest near \hite Springs
and circles around Live Oak before continuing its course toward
the Gulf. The existence of the Okefenokee Swamp, which is
drained chiefly by Suwannee River, may be due in part to the de-
flection of the river by the Live Oak uplift. From an elevation
of about So feet above sea level at Live Oak, the Ocala limestone
lips eastward to about 500 feet below sea level at Jacksonville
and about 300 feet or more below sea level at Waycross.


As the Live Oak uplift is smaller and somewhat better de-
fined than the Ocala uplift it may offer more. favorable con-
ditions for the accumulation of oil or gas, if any exist in this re-
gion. The highest part of this uplift appears to be near Live Oak,
and a' well sunk near that place would therefore, be structurally
most favorably located. A well drilled here to a depth of more
than 3,000 feet will probably penetrate limestone, thin beds of fine
sand, and perhaps some shale.
"Wildcatting," as drilling for oil in an area not known to be oil
bearing is called, is the wildest kind of speculation, and it should
be indulged in only by those who are able to lose money. The
United States Geological Survey does not recommend wildcatting
in Florida; it merely suggests that the structure at Live Oak may
be as favorable as at any other place in the State for the accumu-
lation of oil, and that any company which desires to drill a test
well in Florida should consider this locality.

In view of the increasing interest in the possibilities of find-
ing oil in Florida and the insistent demand for information on this
subject provisions have been made whereby it is planned to have
a report ready for printing in our next annual report.


JANUARY I, 191'9 TO JUNE 30, 1920.

There is given below a detailed list of the warrants issued
showing the expenditures of the Survey from January I, 1919 to
June 30, 192o. A list of warrants previously issued has been
published in the various Annual Reports. The total amount ap-
propriated for the maintenance of the State Geological Survey is,
as it has been from the beginning, $7,500 per annum; which was
sufficient at first, but is wholly inadequate for maintaining an ef-
ficient department now since the dollar has shrunk to about one-
half its former value. All accounts are approved by the Governor
and are paid only by warrant drawn upon the State Treasurer
by the Comptroller, no part of the fund being handled direct by
the State Geologist. The original bills and itemized expense ac-
counts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, duplicate copies
being retained in the office of the State Geologist. The paid
warrants are on file. in the office of the State Treasurer.
JUNE 30, 1920.
JANUARY, 1919.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for January, 1919 ----------______$5.oo
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses for January. 1919 -_--------- 18.05
Fred Collins, janitor services ---------------------------------- 1o.oo

Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for February, 1919 -------------- 150.oo
Fred Collins, janitor services ----------------------------------- o.oo

MARCH, 1919.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for March, 1919 --------------150.oo
Fred Collins, janitor services ----------------------------------- o.oo
Economic Geology Publishing Co. subscription ------------------ 3.5

APRIL, 1919.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, April 1-iS, salary --_-_-_--- ___ 123.63
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary, April -S ------------------8 90.00
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, 'April, 1919 ------------------ 4.85
Daisy Gwaltney, stenographic services --------------------------- 6.oo


Fred Collins, janitor services ----------------_-------------__--_ .00
H. F. Wickham, services in identifying fossils ------------------- 25.00
Wrigley Engraving and Electrotype Co. -------------------- 18.17
H. R. Kaufman, supplies ------------------------------------ 4.20
George I. Davis, postmaster, postage ------------------------ 23.95
E. O. Painter Printing Co., printing ---_--------------------_ 371.00
Western Union Telegraph Co. --------------------------- 1.21

MAY, 1919.
Daisy Gwaltney, stenographic services -----------------___- 24.00
Fred Collins, janitor services -------- -----------------------_ o.oo
E. O. Painter Printing Co. -------------------------------- 21.25
W. C. Dickson, freight and drayage ----------------------- 3.80
George I. Davis, postmaster ----------------------------------- 33.84
George I. Davis, postmaster ------------------ -- ------ 5.70
University of Chicago Press ---------------------------------- 3.60
T. J. Appleyard, printer ---------------------------------- 31.50

JUNE, I919.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, April 19 to June 30 ------------ 501.37
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses April to June -------- 34.65
Daisy Gwaltney, stenographic services -------------------------- 36.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ------- -----------------------_ o.00
E. O. Painter Printing Co., printing -------------------------- 400.60
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage ------------------------- 13.84
Yaeger-Rhodes Hdw. Co., office supplies ------------------- 6.50
H. R. Kaufman, office supplies ---------------------------- 11.95
E. G. Chesley, Jr.. office supplies ----------------------------- 7.75
T. J. Appleyard. stationery, printing, etc. ---------------------- 30.50
George I. Davis, stamped envelopes ------------------------_ 67.24
American Railway Express --------------------------- 2.52

JULY, 1919.
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services -------------------- oo.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ------------------------- __- o1.00o
H. & W. B. Drew Co., office supplies -------------------------- 3.01
J. F. Hill, office supplies ------------------------------------- 4.50

AUGUST, 1919.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses July and August------ 36.40
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services --------------------- oo.oo
Sam Cobb, services ------------------------------- -----_ 19.50
Fred Collins, janitor services --__-------------------------_ o.00
American Peat Society, subscription ---------------------------- 3.00


H. & W. B. Drew Co., office supplies ----------------------- ---- .08
Ed. H. Hopkins, lights in storeroom --------------------------- 47.95

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary July I to Sept 30 -------- 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ---------------------- 34.06
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services -----------------__ __ oo.oo
Sam Cobb, services ------------------------------------ 2.25
Fred Collins, janitor services --------------------------------_ o.oo
W. L. Marshall, work in storeroom -------------__------___ 60.30
American Railway Express ---------- --------------- .07
G. I. Davis, postage ----- ------------ ----------------- 26.00

OCTOBER, 1919.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses October ------------ 31.22
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services --------------------100.00
Fred Collins, janitor services -----------------------_ 1o.oo
John Wiley & Sons, publications ------------------------------ 5.00
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies ------------------------------_ 25.65
American Railway Express ----------------------------------- .89
T. J. Appleyard, I,ooo press bulletins ------------------------ 20.00

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses November ----------- 29.00
Mlrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services --------------------I oo.oo
Fred Collins, janitor services ---------------------------- ------ o.oo
Miss E. W. Marshall, .copy tabulations mineral resources -------- 8.13
G. D. Harris, Bull. 31 of 'American Palaeontology --------------- 5.70
Joseph A. Cushman, special services ---------------------------- 500.00
D. R. Cox Furniture Co., bookcases -------------------------_ 60.75

DECEMBER, 1'919.
Herman Gunter State Geologist, salary Oct. I to Dec. 30 _--___--- 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses December -----------_ 32.20
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services -------------------_ oo.oo
Fred Collins, janitor services _......---- --------------____ o10.0
American Journal of Science, subscription ------------------____ 6.00
H. R. Kaufman, supplies --------------------- ---------------_ 1.20

JANUARY, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist,' expenses January ------------ 32.32
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services ------------------__-- o00.00
Fred Collins, janitor services -_--_----------------_----____________ 0.


Geo. I. Davis, postmaster, postage ------------------------------ 24.00
Economic Geology, subscription -------------------------------- 4.00
American Peat Society, subscription ---------------------------- 3.00
Scientific Materials Co., specimen jars ------------------------- 15.84
American Railway Express ------------------------------------- 3.17

Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services --------------------- oo100.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ---------------------------------- .oo
Orville Barnes, extra janitor services --------------------------- 4.50
Millhiser Bag Co., supplies ----------------------------------- 32.79
B. J. Temple, finishing floors -------------------------------- 25.00
American Railway Express ----------------------------------- 2.10
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ------------------------- 3.50
Dixon Transfer, moving office furniture ------------------------ 41.50

MARCH, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses March ---------------23.54
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary Jan. I to March 31 ------ 625.00
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services' --------------------- oo.oo
Fred Collins, janitor services --------------------------------- '15.00
Sam Cobb, services ----------------------------------- --_ 14.25
Geo. B. Perkins, office rent ----------------------------------- 41.66
D. R. Cox Furniture Co., supplies --------------------------- 34.00
E. G. Chesley, Jr., supplies -------------- ------------------- 42.25
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ------------------------- 3.50
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Co., supplies ---------_------_-------- 10.45
H. R. Kaufman, cleaning typewriter and supplies ----------------- II.oo
D. Van Nostrand Co., publication ----------------------------- 2.0o
ST. J. Appleyard, printing and supplies ------------------------ 15.59

APRIL, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses April ----- --------62.38
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for April ---------------------- 175.00
R. M. Harper, assistant, expenses April ------------------------ 53.68
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, stenographic services --------------------- oo.
Sam Cobb, services ---------------------------------------- 9.00
Fred Collins, janitor services --------------------------------- 5.o0
Geo. 'B. Perkins, office rent --------------------------------- 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ------------------------- 3.50
W.-L. Marshall, job work -------------------------------------- 9.25
Scientific Materials Co., supplies ------------------------------ 40.86
Commercial Fertilizer, subscription ------------------------------- 2.00
D. R. Cox Furniture Co., office and library supplies ----------- 90.50.


Leon Electrical Supply Co., supplies 1--- ------------------ 1.65
American Railway Express ----------------------------------- 8.74
Clark's Book Store, supplies ---------------------------------- 4.54
T. J. Appleyard, mounting maps, letter heads ------------------ 12.50
Tallahassee Variety Works, 3 showcases ------------------------ 398.15
W. C. Dixon, drayage ---------------------------------------- 2.00
E. G. Chesley, Jr., supplies ------------------------------------- 4.50

MAY, 1920.
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for May ---------------------- 175.00
Mrs. L. B. Robertson, services ------------------------------- oo.o
Geo. B. Perkins, office rent ------------------------------------ 41.66
Middle Florida Ice Company, coupon books ---------------------- o.oo
H. H. Bohler, signs ---------------------------------------- 6.oo
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ------------------------ 3.50
University of Chicago Press, subscription ------------------------ 3.60
H. & WV. B. Drew Co., supplies ------------------------------- 3.55
Sam Cobb, services ---------------------------------------- 9.00
D. R. Cox Furniture Co., supplies ------------------------------- 3.00
E. G. Chesley, Jr., supplies ------------------------------------ 5.00
Dixon Transfer, drayage -------------------------------------- 4.50

JUNE, 1920.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary April I to June 30-------- 62.00
R. M. Harper, assistant, salary for June ----------------------- I175.0o
Mirs. L. B. Robertson, services ------------_------__--_---__ Ioo.oo
Geo. B. Perkins, office rent -------------------------------_--- 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ------------------------- 3.5
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Co., supplies ---------------o-------_- 1.
Geo. I. Davis, postmaster, box rent and stamps ------------------ 31.oo
Geo. I. Davis, postmaster, 2,000 stamped envelopes --------------- 43.44
H. & W. B. Drew Co., office supplies --------------------------- 4.90
American Railway Express -------------___---- ___--___--____ 12.13
XV. L. Marshall, repairs and job work --------------------------- 5.00
Scientific Materials Co., supplies ----- -------------------------- 4.5

DURING 1918.*



The total value of the mineral production in Florida during
191.8, as shown by statistics recently compiled, is $8,oo9,646, an
increase over that for 1917, amounting to almost one-half mil-
lion dollars, the total for this latter year being $7,534,834.
The total mineral production in 1918 shows a decrease when
com)pared-with the output for 1917. This decrease in quantity
is attributable to general labor conditions, transportation fa-
cilities and to governmental restrictions in force during the war
period. Increased production costs were attended with an in-
crease in price of the commodities marketed which is shown
by the increase in the total valuation stated above.


The ball clays of Florida are white burning, refractory clays
of high plasticity. The clay is quite widely distributed in central
peninsular Florida being commercially produced in Putnam and
Lake counties. The manner of occurrence is in association with
a rather coarse sand and quartz pebbles, from which it is sep-
arated by washing. During 1918 three plants were engaged in
mining ball clay in Florida. These were the Edgar Plastic
Kaolin Company, Edgar; the China Clay Corporation, Oka-
humpka; and the Lake County Clay Company, Okahumpka.
The value of the clay produced is not separately given, but is
included in the total mineral production of the State.

*First published as Press Bulletin No. ii, October 6, 1919. Reprinted here
\with a few additions.



The conditions prevailing duringthe year 1918 were unfavor-
able to the brick and tile industry, due to governmental building
restrictions, which of necessity reduced the demand and resulted
in a decided decrease in the volume of business. The total num-
ber of common brick manufactured in Florida during 1918 was
17,56r,ooo. In addition to building brick, there was also produced
tile, drain-tile and fire-proofing brick. The total value of brick
and tile products for the year 1918 was $181,339.
The following firms in Florida reported the production of brick
during 1918:

Barrineau Bros., Quintette.
Campville Brick Company. Campville.
Clay County Steam Brick Company, Green Cove Springs.
Dolores Brick Company, Molino.
Florida State Reform School, Marianna.
Gamble & Stockton Co., io8 W. Bay St,. Jacksonville.
G. C. & C. H. Guilford, Blountstown.
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale.
Hall & McCormac, Chipley.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney.
Law & Co., Brooksville.
Lee Miller, Whitney.
Joe Messina, Palm Beach County.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Whitney Brick and Manufacturing Company. Whitney.
Wilson-Owens Brick Company, Callahan.


The Fuller's earth industry of Florida was very active dur-
ing 1918. The abnormal demand for fuel oils and gasoline had its
reflection in the increased demand for Fuller's earth. The prin-
cipal use of the Florida Fuller's earth is in clarifying and filtering
mineral oils, although during recent years experiments with this
earth in the refining of edible oils and fats have proven very sat-
isfactory, and its use for this purpose is increasing. Florida has
been the chief producer of Fuller's earth since the beginning of


the industry, and is credited with approximately four-fifths of the
total production in the United States for the year 1918. The sta-
tistics on production are not separately given, but are included with
the total mineral production of the State.
The following companies are engaged in the mining of Fuller's
earth in Florida:
The Atlantic Refining Company, Ellenton.
The Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway.
The Manatee Fuller's Earth Corporation, Ellenton.


The production of ilmenite (an oxide of titanium and iron,
used chiefly in the manufacture of steel) from the beach sands at
Pablo Beach, which was begun in 1916 by Buckman & Pritchard,
Inc., was continued during 1918. The value of this product is not
included in the summary statement of mineral production for the
year. Considerable quantities of zircon and other rare minerals are
associated with it.

The total amount of limestone produced in Florida for quick
lime, building, road-making, railroad ballast, and agricultural pur-
poses, and including also the flint rock associated with the lime-
stone, is valued at $365,293. The following companies in Florida
have reported the production of lime, limestone or flint for the
year 1918:
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Live Oak Limestone Company, Live Oak.
Florida Crushed Rock Company, Montbrook.
E. P. Maule, Ojus.
Pineola Lime Company, Pineola.
A. T. Thomas & Co., Ocala.


Production of peat in 19r8 was reported from Marion County
by the Alphano Humus Company, Ocala, Florida. The peat pro-


duced by this company is placed on the market in the form of pre-
pared humus and is used largely as a fertilizer filler. This being
the only plant reporting for this year, the production is not listed
separately, but is included with the total for the State.


The following statement on the production of phosphate in
Florida was issued by the State Geological Survey in June, 1919,
as Press Bulletin No. 10*:
"The amount of phosphate rock shipped from Florida, although
the production was very much curtailed during the European War,
was greater in 1918 than that of the preceding year. The statis-
tics, which are collected by the Florida Geological Survey in co-
operation with the United States Geological Survey, indicate that
during 1918 the total shipment of phosphate rock from Florida
was 2,067,230 long tons, as compared with 2,022,599 long tons
in 1917, an increase over that year of almost fifty thousaiid tons.
Of this amount, 1,996,847 tons were land pebble phosphate, the
* remainder being hard rock and soft phosphate. Of the total ship-
ments only 104,946 tons were consigned to foreign markets, show-
ing a decrease over the amount exported in 1917. The domestic
consignments, however, were more than 25,000 tons in excess of
those for the preceding year.
"The increase in shipment was principally from the hard rock
mines, the output from this area being more than three times that
in 1917. The shipment from the pebble field for r918 remained
practically the same as for 1917. The decided increase of ship-
ments from the hard rock over the pebble rock mines is quite the
reverse of the past few years, since it has been from the pebble
field that increases have been most rapid. During the period of
the war, production was greatly interfered with, some companies
closing for a portion of the time, others running periodically, still
others operating regularly but at a reduced- capacity of output.
Regardless of market conditions, several mines operated during
the year on a reduced scale, with the result that at the close of the
year there were quantities of rock in storage awaiting shipment.

*The Phosphate Industry of Florida During 1918, by Herman Gunter,
Fla. State Geol. Surv., Press Bulletin No. o1, June 5, I919.


% "The value of the phosphate shipped from Florida in 1918, ac-
cording to returns from the producers, is as follows: Land peb-
ble, $5,565,928; hard rock, including soft phosphate, $524,178,
making a total valuation of $6,090,106. The value of shipments
during 1917 was $5,464,493. An increase of more than $600,0ooo
is thus indicated in total value of shipments for the year 1918 over
that of 1917. The total production of phosphate rock in Florida
since the beginning of the industry in I888 to the close of 1918,
according to statistics collected by the Florida Geological Survey
and the United States Geological Survey, is estimated to be
35,210,314 tons, with a total valuation of $129,055,787.
"The quantity of rock mined during the year is necessarily not
the same as the amount shipped, for there are variable amounts on
hand and held in storage at the close of each year. The toial quan-
tity of phosphate mined in Florida in 1918 was 1,884,891 tons.
The quantity mined in 1917 was 2,328,138 tons. This decreased /
output of 443,247 tons in 9rI8, as compared with 1917, reflects
the conditions due to our entry into the war, such as difficulty in
getting labor, restrictions placed on and subsequent shortage and
increased cost of fuel and lack of shipping facilities."

Pebble Rock: 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Exported ................................. 625,821 185,846 172,427 138,010 64.558 v
Domestic................................ 1,203,381 1,122,635 1,296.331 1,865,981 1,932,289
Total shipment................... 1,829,202 1,308,481 1,468,758 2,003,991 1.96,847
Hard Rock:
Exported................................... 303,172 43,314 28,045 12,403 57,771
Domestic........ ......................... 6,517 6,816. 19,042 6,205 12,612
Total shipment ................. 309.689 50,130 47,087 *18,608 *70,383
Pebble and Hard Rock Combined:
Exported.................................... 928 993 229,160 200,472 150,413 122.330
Domestic........... ...................... 1,209,898 1,129,451 1.315,373 1,872,186 1,932,288
Totql shipment..................... 2,138,891 1,358,611 1,5'5,8451 2,022,599 2,067,930
Total shipments from beginning of mining in 1888 to 1918, inc.. 35,210.278.
*Includes soft rock phosphate.



Acme Phosphate Company _------ Morriston, Fla.
Alachua Phosphate Company -----Gainesville, Fla.
American Agricultural Chemical Co.__2 Rector St., New York, N. Y., and
Pierce, Florida.
American Cyanamid Co. ------------511 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., and
Brewster, Fla.
Armour Fertilizer Works -----------Union Stock Yards. Chicago, Ill., and
Bartow, Fla.
P. Bassett -------------------------Newberry, Fla.
Peter B. and Robt. S. Bradley-------92 State St., Boston, Mhss., and Floral
City, Fla.
J. Buttgenbach & Co. --------------- Holder, Fla.
C. & J. Camp ----------------------Ocala, Fla.
Charleston, S. C., Mining and Manu-
facturing Co. --------------------Richmond. Va., and Ft. Meade, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co. --------------99 John St., New York, N. Y., and
Plant City, Fla.
Cummer Lumber Co. ---------------Jacksonville and Newberry, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co. ------------o6 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga.. and
SRockwell, Fla.
Export Phosphate Co. --------------87 Milk St.. Boston, Mass., and Mul-
berry, Fla.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corpora-
tion -----------------------------Dickson Bldg., Norfolk. Va., and Bar-
tow, Fla.
Florida Soft Phosphate and Lime Co.--Ocala and Citra, Fla.
Franklin Phosphate Co. --------------Newherry. Fla.
Holder Phosphate Co. ---------------220 W. Ninth St., Cincilnati, O., and
Inverness. Fla.
International Agricultural Corporation-61 Brnadway. New York, N. Y., and
Mulberry, Fla.
International Phosphate Co. ----------27 State St., Boston, Mass., and Ft
Meade, Fla.
Lakeland Phosphate Co. -------------Lakeland. Fla.
Mutual Mining Co. -----------------102 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga.. and
: Floral City, Fla.
Otis Phosohate Co. ---------------Benotis, Fla.
Palmetto Phosphate Co. ------------812 Keser Bldg., Baltimore. MId., and
Tiger Bay, Fla.
Phosphate Mining Co. ---------------55 Tohn St.. New York. N. Y., and
Nichols. Fla.
Seminole Phosphate Co. -------------Croom, Fla.
Schilman and Bene -----------------Ocala, Fla.
Societe Universelle de Mines. Indus-
trie, Commerce et Agriculture ------Pembroke, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Co.__Inverness, Fla.
Swift & Co. ------------- -----Union Stock Yards. Chicago, Ill., and
Bartow, Fla.
T. A. Thompson -----------------Ft. White, Fla.



The sand produced in Florida is used principally for building,
paving and road-making, filtering, molding, cutting, grinding and
'blast purposes. The gravel produced is reported as used for roof-
ing material and for railroad ballast. *Deposits of clayey sands
and gravels occurring in the southern part of Jackson County have
also been quarried and used as road surfacing materials. The total
production of sand and gravel for 1918, as shown by returns from
the producers, was 158,489 tons, valued at $48,768.
The companies reporting the production of sand and gravel
in Florida during 1918 are the following:
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.
Akerman & Ellis, Lake Weir.
Interlachen Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.


The materials used in the. manufacture of sand-lime brick are
sand and lime. The bonding power of the brick is due to the chem-
ical reaction between these ingredients. The chemical changes oc-
cur in the presence of heat, pressure, and moisture and result in
the formation of hydro-silicates of calcium and magnesium.
The sand used in the manufacture of sand-lime should be com-
paratively pure and preferably with some. variation in the size of
the grains. The mixture of lime, sand and water is cut in the form
of bricks and conveyed to a hardening cylinder. Necessary heat
and pressure are obtained in the hardening cylinder adapted for
the purpose. The sand-lime bricks are placed in this cylinder and
subjected to a "pressure and temperature which vary according to
the method of treatment.
Two companies were actively engaged in the manufacture of
sand-lime brick in Florida during 1918 as follows:
The Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen.
The Plant City Composite Brick Company, Plant City.
The production of sand-lime brick in Florida during 1918, al-
though not separately listed, is included in making up the total min-
eral production of the State.



The total sales of mineral and spring water in Florida dur-
ing 1918, as shown by the returns from the owners of springs and
wells, amounted to 164,630 gallons, valued at $12,883.
The companies reporting the production of water for com-
mercial purposes during 19i'8 include the. following:
Espiritu Santo Springs Company, Espiritu Santo Springs, Safety Harbor,
Good Hope Water Company, Good Hope Mineral Water Well, Jackson-
ville, Fla.
Hampton Springs Water Company, Hampton Springs, Hampton Springs,
Purity Spring Water. Company, Purity Spring, Tampa, Fla.
Tampa Kissengen Well Company, Stomawa Well, Tampa, Fla.

Summary statement of mineral production in Florida during

Common or building brick, fire-prcofing brick, tile and drain tile -- $ I81,339
Lime and limestone, including lime and ground limestone for agri-
cultural use, and crushed rock for railroad ballast, concrete and
road material -------------------------------------- 365,293
Mineral waters -------------------------------------------- 12,883
Phosphate rock -----_--- --_________--------- _____-------- 6,ogo,Io6
Mineral products not separately listed, including ball clay, Fuller's
earth, pottery products, abrasive material, sand lime brick, and
sand and gravel ------__________----------- ------------- 1,360.025

Total mineral production during 1918 valued at -------------$8,oo9,646




A year ago I published the results of a preliminary study of the
forallinii fera of a number of deep wells of Florida.* A general ac-
coun-l t of tie geological formations encountered in the drilling was
given and but little attention was paid to the distribution of the
species themselves. This paper gives the systematic information
as t the fo-raminifera and especially those species of the Miocene
and Upper Eocene formations. Those of lower age are not specif-
ic:allv described here as it is a rule of paleontology that new species
should nlot be 'described from well borings because of the uncer-
taintv of depth and the impossibility of giving a type locality from
whicl future collections may be made. As a result these are
inimply placed in their genera and figures in most cases given in
order that they may be available for future comparisons. In the
p1reviouiC paper already referred to mention was made of the sources
of error which should be kept in mind in the study of well borings.
1-\\ things especially may again be noted: first that fossils may
fall dItwn from levels above that at whidh the drilling is actually
takin-g place, especially when the well is not cased; and secondly,
that fossils cannot be encountered until the depth has been reached
at which they occur. Therefore fossils appearing below a hori-
zon \ which has already been definitely fixed must have come from
above and are accidental at that level. Many of the foraminlifera
from tile \\ell borings are not well preserved and little can be
mad.le out except the genus to which they belong. Also in several
genera the different species have not been closely studied by work-
ers on the foraminifera. Among numerous genera such as Poly-
s.t'MiCl//La. ;Noi:;ici('tia, Amphistegina, etc., there are many different
f-ormis which are apparent in a study of the fossil material of
the C-oastal Plain and West Indian areas. These are usually

'Twelfth Annual Report of the Florida State Geological Survey, 1919,
PPr. 77-103.


rather definitely limited in their vertical distribution, and their
careful discrimination should make possible a definite placing of
these in their proper geological horizon. The various formations
shown by the foraminifera will be discussed in the notes that fol-
low. The location of the wells from which material was used are
given in the following list and the accompanying map shows their
distribution in the state. In the systematic portion of this paper
references are given to the original descriptions and to published
figures with a more complete reference to the distribution in the
Coastal Plain area and that of the West Indies., both of which are
related to the Florida well material.
TIhe approximate locations of the wells, and the depths from
which the material studied was obtained, are as follows, the num-
bers corresponding with those on the map. More detailed informa-
tion about each was given in the previous paper and need not be
repeated here. Samples were studied from the entire depth of the
well unless otherwise indicated.
I. Panama City, Washington County, 470 feet.
2. Bonheur Development Co., near Burns, Wakulla County,
2,153 feet.
3. Jacksonville, Duval County, 980 feet.
4. St. Augustine, St. John's County, 160 to 1,051 feet.
5. Anthony, Marion County, 50 to 500 feet.
6. Eustis, Lake County, Ioo to 18o feet.
7. Bushnell, Sumter County, 380 to 3,080 feet.
8. Apopka, Orange County, 50 to 390 feet.
9. Sanford. Seminole County, 95 to 113 feet.
o1. Cocoa, Brevard County, a sample from 190 feet.
II. Tiger Bay, Polk County, 30 to 770 feet.
12. Okeechobee, Okeechobee County, 41 to 500 feet.
13. Boca Grande, Lee County, one inadequate sample.
14. Fort Myers, Lee County, 200oo to 950 feet.
15. Marathon, Monroe County, 2,300 feet.


Fi.. I. Sketch map of Florida showing locations of wells from which
coraiminitera were obtained. \Wells numbered as in the text.


From the known distribution of the Pleistocene of Florida sev-
eral of the wells, and especially those in the southern part of the
state undoubtedly penetrate Pleistocene sands for some distance
near the surface. There are, however, no foraminifera in these
sands which would give a definite clue as to their age.

In the earlier report I thought that there was a definite develop-
ment of the Pliocene in the upper part of the well at Okeechobee.
However, a study of the foraminifera from the upper levels-41
to 56 feet-shows that most of these have a Miocene relation rather
than a Pliocene one. Therefore, the well samples give no definite
information as to the distribution of the Pliocene below the surface.

Only slight information was available at the time the previous
paper was written, but a detailed study 6f the foraminifera has
shown not only the occurrence of Miocene foraminifera in a num-
ber of wells, but that they have definite relations with the Miocene
of other regions. The accompanying table shows the distribution
of some of these Miocene species: their distribution in the Florida
wells and their occurrence in related areas. As the table shows,
certain of the levels in a number of wells are very definitely related
to, if not identical with the Choctawhatchee Marl of Florida. This
is especially marked in the well at Okeechobee, and the upper lev-
els of the wells at St. Augustine, Fort Myers and Marathon
The one species noted from the well at Jacksonville also seems
to have this same relation. A number of species, especially those
from the deeper" parts of the wells at Fort Myers, Okeechobee
and Marathon, seem to be more closely related to the Miocene of
the Gatun formation of the Panama Canal Zone. A number of
species also occur in the upper Oligocene of the Panama Canal
Zone. The relations to the Miocene Marls of Cuba, Santo Domingo
and Jamaica are also indicated.
As a result of this study, and allowing for errors in drilling,
the Miocene may be rather definitely located at the following
depths from these wells:



| 1 1 1

Tn- --- 1 ---*--- 1
1- l I -I

-... -- 1. -- r-

;- 2- -"

T e rii I I I I II I I I I I I I
"1.xtularia ra. .iO.t la. i 'm ------------ ----'"-|I---|---I ... X --- -- --- --- --- ] ---
TI:.xtularira a_ luin. ni j rLt .....- 1-------- -- | ---|| <------ X| --- ------ --| X

'..a, ln,_.dlini a 'lr', n'.-. j ti'. -- I----I -- -------- ------ --- --- --- -- --

L gri ii: la I I I I I II
,;cr..I- llrtina t.'iuln l Link.- ------------ :---------I-- -- --- - XI- ----- X--- -.
,'rt.ullaina i,,mnu. .1r ---------------- 1 --- I--- I 1.-- ---I ---I -- -- -I ---- I---

1 1 111 _l___ ------ I
I ... l :' ': I I I II I I
i:.- l -iina t'l]..ai .'r i lii.-. ------- i---- --- 1--I I |I .1 X j---I- X 1- --1--x X---- .
I I Hl i l II I
Tru n.itul la r 'a r,,. Li n --- ------.- - -- - -- ----I-- -- -- -- - --- -- I-- - I--- X l---

I I -4 I III I I I

Trun.zlu]nn a:. grml.n. I 4i ---- ----- -- '---)' --- I i ---| [--- i X------ ---I---I X
I m. 1 I I II I I I I I I

,.nInL;ln na plgr.tl.ea TI -,- -- I- -- ---- I'I! ,_ ... ''1 II- --I---I X .. ....- .. I ..
N:,,-,~rn ina D ,ll|. -lnI ,11. J ,. ... I--- I-- '-I -- 1 ---- |[ 1-11 X |I ---I X I-- -l ---I X I--

TrurUln..n m nn n ripma I. :._i-- .--- ---- ---I -I----I:I I .1 1 X|I XI XI--1--- X ---I XI---
I I : : I | I *': I I I i I I I I
nanai i na d i.r.e1i--a --- ---- 2 0) 11* J X ---

r. n..niLi l ? ? n t riamh l, n. ,, 01 F, I -- -I---I---|l .|II XI X- --- --I --- ---,---

II I I Im 1 iIi I I I I I I I

I I l I I I I
P -l'rJn,:atJl.. r-]| ,' -t t.r, L --ink ---l ------ _|---| l : ] XI---I---I--- X I -

r ni'. ,in'llncna io-.ll i c ini 1 --.- ---- ---- ---- II. -|- --I l---|--- --- -- --
A,., ;ala ~ nrI I.,s:,: nr, -I. --- -----I --- I .l( '"'ll 11 ?l| X | X l ---|---I X

NA* lri ln t .*in lat i. [nl.-I .__ - - __ .[_I X I- I-
I I i I I"h II I I I I I I I

,,th Atrat-nmt- a ,- -------------I---I- -- I .... I N I---II---I X --

1 14 1 1 1,e; II 1 o I

Figures are te depth in feet at which the species occur.


New City Well at Jacksonville, Duval County, Fla. The Miocene reaches
its lowest limit somewhere between 51o and 550 feet. In this same range
Lcpidocyclina fragments occur, indicating that the line between these forma-
tions comes somewhere in those forty feet.
Ponce de Leon Well at St. Augustine, St. Johns County, Fla. Miocene
foraminifera very definitely shown at 88, 170 and 200 feet. I had no mate-
rial between 200 and 440 feet, therefore the lower limit of the Miocene can
not be definitely determined.
Well No. 3 of the Palmetto Phosphate Company, near pit No. I, about
2% miles northwest of Tiger Bay, Fla. Although the foraminifera were
largely lacking or poorly preserved in the upper 310 feet, it is probable that a
considerable amount of this should be placed in the Miocene.
City Well at Fort hMyers. Lee County, Fla. From the specimens ob-
tained at 300, 360, 6oo and 680 feet, it is very clear that the levels between
300 and 6oo feet should be definitely referred to the Miocene: that at 680
feet may possibly be Upper Oligocene. The material at 300 feet seems to
be closely related to the Choctawhatchee Marl, while that at 360 and 6oo feet
is related to the Gatun formation of the Panama Canal Zone.
Well of the Okeechobee Ice and Electric Company at Okeechobee, Okee-
chobee County, Fla. Allowing for possibilities of error, the specimens indi-
cate Miocene from 51 feet to 458 feet. Most of the species of the Okeecho-
bee Well are clearly related to those of the Choctawhatchee Marl, and a
few to the Gatun formation of the Panama Canal Zone.
Well of Florida East Coast Railway at Marathon, on Key Vaca. Mon-
roe County Fla. Samples from 78, 180 and 398 feet all seem to be definitely
Miocene and very closely related to the Choctawhatchee Marl. especially
those from 78 and 80o feet; those from 398 feet are perhaps more closely re-
lated to the Gatun of the Panama Canal Zone. There is a considerable dif-
ference between the species found at Marathon and those found at the other
wells in the region, probably due in part to the difference in ecological condi-
tions, owing to the warmer waters in the southern part of the area.


In the Tampa formation, which is now classed as Upper Oligo-
cene, and in the upper Oligocene of Panama. Anguilla and Cuba,
there are horizons characterized by species of Orbitolites. At An-
guilla and Cuba these occur with a large form of Gypsina globulius
Reuss. In the well at Marathon this same combination of Orbito-
lites and Gypsina occurs at a depth of 589 to 628 feet and probably
represents an equivalent of West Indian Upper Oligocene. Orbito-
lites is present in the well at Panama City, and may possibly rep-
resent this s;mie general age in that well.



11I a number of wells there are fragments of Lepidocyclina that
may Ipo:sibly be of Lower Oligocene age but they are not suf-
tcientlv well preserved to admit of specific determination. There-
fire the Oligoceie must be very questionably placed in any of
these wells except in that at Marathon where at 852 and 900 feet
there occurs the genus Heterostcgiinoides which I have found in
the Oligocene of Panama and the West Indies.


The Upper Eo:cene represented by the Ocala Limestone can now
be very definitely placed in a number of wells. The four species-
Le'pid,1 'y-'c.\liata ocalatna, L. pseudomarginata, L. pscndocarinata, and
L. floriiatia, together with Hctcrostegina ocalana, mark very defi-
nitelv the faces of the Ocala Limestone which is developed in north
central Florida. The accompanying table shows the depth at which
these species occurred in a number of wells. There is no trace of
OrlthIoplragijina, or of the species of Lepidocyclina and Operculina
\\liich are characteristic of the facies of the Ocala developed in
northern Florlda and southern Georgia. As already noted in
the previous paper the Ocala Limestone seems very definitely
t:, Ihe only about 40 feet thick in the various wells in which it
w\as foundI. Below the typical Ocala there occurs a horizon
characterized by a large species of Nninmilites and this in turn
in one well-that of the Bonheur Development Company at
Burns. \Wakulla County, has a horizon marked by numerous
specimens :f Riltalia arnata which, however, does not seem
to be developed in any of the other wells.
In the well at Marathon on Key Vaca there are a number of
rather large specimens which may be Conulites americana, or a re-
lated species. C. americana is known from the Eocene of St.
Barthollomew. Leeward Islands, Haiti, Cuba and Panama. These
specimens in the Marathon Well may therefore represent an Eo-
cene horizon bel,.-w that marked by the Lepidocyclina. The well is
not cased below the point at which these appear, therefore this ac-
tual point of occurrence is somewhat vague. It. however, does
represent an Eocene which is apparently typical of Panama and the
\Vest Indies, and unlike that of northern Florida.



t C

Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman ---- ---- 510-5501-- I -- I 1131 1901360-4001--
Lepidocyclina floridana Cushman ------ ------ ------ ------ 1131 1901360-4001 ----
Lepidocyclina pseudomarginata Cush-I I I I I
man ----------------------------- 510-550 -- ----- 360-400
Lepidocyclina pseudocarinata Cushmian --- I ------- -- I ---- 190 360-40i
Lepidocyclina species ---------------- 501---- 1224 ?1 -- I I _____---_I ... _
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman ----I 50 --------. I ---- I- 113 190 360-400 --
Nummulites sp. ---------- 1501 5501---I 501138 ?--- I I-
Rotalia armata d'Orbigny ______ | 1S- -|- -__|-_____-_____|____-_-_____
Rotalia armata d'Orligny -----------I 1 ------- I --- ---- I --- I ---- I ---- I ----- I -
(onulites amer.cana Cushman ----- I ---------- ---- I_|--- I I ---_ I 1000
Figures are the depths in feet at which the species occur.


As already noted in the earlier report a number of the wells
enter what seem to be Lower Cretaceous limestones characterized
by Orbitolina and numerous other associated species. A table is
given showing the distribution of these other species in the various
wells where a species occurs in more than one well. As a rule these
are from brownish crystalline limestones which come in below the
Eocene represented by the abundant Nunninlites. The conical and
broader concave forms are present in a number of the wells and
their relations have been noted in the earlier report.



Orbitolina (conical) ----------------------------I 3251S20-1 441 110 1601 1151 5501124-1
Hap!ophragmiumrn sp. I--------------------- ------ ----1820-1 440 160 ---- ---- 1720
1845 1
Textilqria sp. ----------------------------------- ----. 4401 1 25 1 720 ....
Tritaxia sp ------------------------------------- ---- 1702-1 ---- I 3101 720 ----
I 7251 I I I
Clavu'ina ? sp. -------------------------- ----------- 401 160 '____1 I 20
Bulimina sp. ------------------------------------ 40 2F 172
I I '5 I I I I
Clavu 1ina sp.--------------------------.----'--I- I440| 160__ | 72|-
1'ulvinulina ? sp. ------------------------------I-|--|820- 7S51_ --1_-I 1151---|_--
Quinque!oculina sp. -----------------------------'---- 45-1 440 115 172
I 1900 I 1 I I I
Figures in the columns indicate the highest points in feet
at which the various species were recognized in the wells.




Genus Haplophragminm Repss. I860.
Haplophragmium sp.
Plate I, figure I.
A coarsely arenaceous species, largely coiled, but the later
clhamibers showing the uncoiling character occurred at 1,027 feet
in the Bushnell Well.
Haplophragin ium sp.
Plate i, figure 2.
\ fe\\ specimens of an elongate form, not well character-
ized were found at 1,720 feet in the well at Marathon.

Haplophraginium sp.
Plate I, figure 3.
Very irregular specimens, rather variable in shape, were found
in the well at Anthony at 160 feet, and at Jacksonville, 820-845
Haplophragmininui sp.
Plate I, figure 4.
A single, rather poorly characterized specimen wais found at
440 feet in the Ponce de Leon Well at St. Augustine.

Genus Conulitcs Carter, 1861.
Conulites americana Cushman.
Colullit,' americana Cushman, Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of Wash-
ingtcn. 101i p. -3, fig. 3 (in text).
In the well at Marathon on Key Vaca there are numerous
specimens which h seem very close to this species described from' St.
Bartholormew and Cuba, and known from Haiti and Panama.
This therefore represents an Eocene horizon, and is of interest if
the \\est Indies can be definitely correlated with Key Vaca by
placing more' than a thousand feet below the surface fossils which
in Cuba are now considerably above sea level.


Genus Orbitolina d'Orbigny, 1847.
Orbitolina species.
In a number of the wells a small conical species is found,
sometimes in considerable numbers. This occurs at the depths
indicated in the following wells: Bonheur Development Company,
Burns, first noted at 325 feet; New City well at Jacksonville, 820-
845 feet; Ponce de Leon Well, St. Augustine, at 440 feet; well
of Compagnie Generale des Phos. de la Floride, at Anthony, 160
feet; well of J. Wiggins, at Eustis, 160 feet; well of Dundee Petro-
leum Company, Bushnell, first occurrence noted at 890 feet, but
probably occurs much above this level; City Well at Apopka,
115 feet; Well No. 3, Palmetto Phosphate Company, 2 3-4
miles northwest of Tiger Bay, 550 feet; and well of Florida
East Coast Railway at Marathon, on Key Vaca, 1,248 feet.
This species seems very close to a species which is abundant in
the Fredericksburg series of the Comanchean of Texas, which in
turn is very similar to a species found in the Lower Cretaceous of
the Pyrenees of Spain.
Orbitolina sp.
In several wells at some distance below the conical species there
is a much larger species, broad, low with a concave base like
that of 0. tc.rana and species of the Lower Cretaceous of Europe.
0. tc.rana is characteristic of the Trinity series of the Comanch-
ean of Texas.
It is found at the following depths in the Florida wells: Jack-
sonville, 900-980 feet: Bushnell. I,ooo feet, Marathon, 1,720 feet.


Genus Tc.rtularia Defrancc, 1824.
Tcxtularia abbreviata d'Orbigny.
Tc.rtularia abbreviata d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, 1846,
p. 249, pl. 15. figs. 9-12 (7-12). Bagg, Bull. Amer. Paleontology, vol. 2, No.
1o, 1898, p. 18; Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, 1904, p. 470, pl. 132, fig. 4.
Cushman. Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey. 1918, p. 46; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat.
M us., 1918, p. 51, pl. 19, fig. I.


A specimen which seems to belong to this species was found
in the material from 200oo feet in the Ponce de Leon Well, St. Au-
gustine. Florida.
It is recorded from the Culebra formation of the Panama Canal
Zone, and by) Bagg from the Miocene of Maryland.

Tc.rtularia gramiic d'Orbigny.
'IT cif/rl ar;i .'iHicuin d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, 1846, p.
24P. I'1. 1.fi-is 4-6. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
18. 4. 5.; 11. .4. figs. 9, Io. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918,
Ipp. S. 45. r I. fig. I; pl. 2, fig. I; pl. 9, figs. 2-5.
Specimc;ns of this species were found in two Florida wells, the
Ponce de Leon Well, St. Augustine, at a depth of 200 feet, and
the \\ell of C)keechobee Ice and Electric Co., Okeechobee, 403-458
Besides being found in the M1iocene of Maryland, Virginia and
South Carolina, I have recorded it from the Miocene of the Choc-
tai\\lutchee Marl of Florida, at Jackscn Bluff and one mile south
of Red Bay.
Tc.tularia agglutinans d'Orbigny.
Tcit ,l, iii- aggltinans d'Orbigny, in' De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat.
CuaI.. 1iS,-j. "F:raminiferes," p. 136, pi. I, figs. 17, I8, 32-34. Cushman, Bull.
676. U S G1':.1. Survey, g918, p. 46, pl. 9, fig. 6; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
\I ,,r'. 2,. 52 . fig. 3.
The only specimens which can be referred to this species are
from the Okeechobee well at a depth of 380-403 feet.
The species is recorded from several localities in the Miocene
of the Co:astal Plain and from the Culebra formation of the Pana-
ma Canal Zone.

T,'.rt'/l,'.,ia sagittula Dcfraucc, var. fistulosa H. B. Brady.
Tc.iiltl,,ia sa.,ittula Defrance, var. fistulosa H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Chal-
Ialg, 'r, Zi :.i:.l-h.1 \, \ol. 9, 1884, p. 362, pl. 42, figs. 19-22.
Brad:y described this variety in which the outer borders of each
chamblher in the adult are prolonged into tubular projections. He
recIords it from tropical and sub-tropical localities.
It is interesting to find this species in the southernmost locality,
that of the well at Marathon on Key Vaca, at a depth of 3o0 feet.


Te.vtularia panamensis Cushman.
Textularia panamensis Cushman, Bulletin 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p.
53, pl. 20, fig. I.
A single, rather typical specimen of this species was obtained
from the well at Fort Myers, at a depth of 600 feet.
The type of this species is from the Miocene of the Gatun for-
mation of the Panama Canal Zone.

Te.tularia sp.
An elongate species, generally quadrangular in transverse sec-
tion, gradually tapering toward the initial end, was found in com-
pany with Orbitolina in several of the wells.
They are as follows: City Well at Apopka, 250 feet; Ponce
de Leon Well, St. Augustine, 440 feet; and Well No. 3, Palmetto
Phosphate Company, 2 3-4 miles northeast of Tiger Bay, 720
Genus Verneuilina d'Orbigny, 1840.
Verneuilina spinulosa Reuss.
Verneuilina spinulosa Reuss, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. I, 1850,
P. 374, pl. 47, fig. 12. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol, 9,
1884, p. 384, pl. 47, figs. 1-3. Cushman, Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of
W\ashington, 1919, p. 34.
The only one of the wells at which this species occurred is that
at Marathon, on Key Vaca, where it is found at a depth of 18o
I have recorded it from the Miocene Marl of the Yumuri River.
Matanzas, Cuba.
Genus Valvulina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Valvulina sp.
Plate I, figure 5.
A single specimen from the well of the Bonheur Development
Company at Burns, Wakulla County, at a depth of 325 feet, seems
referable to this genus.
Chrysalidina ? sp.
Plate I, figures 6 a, b.
At 1,262 feet in the well at Marathon, Florida, there is a
species, tapering in form, with rounded chambers, and in addition


to the textularian aperture at the base of the chamber, the inner
portion of the wall has a number of small perforations. This is in
some respects like Chirysalidina gradata d'Orbigny, which he de-
scribed from the Cretaceous of Europe.

Genus Tritaxia Reuss, i860.
Tritaxia sp.
\ species with concave sides, rather sharp angles, but the
edges rounded, and the whole test rather short, with the sutures
indistinct, occurs in several wells with the Orbitolina. It was re-
cordled from the following: Jacksonville, 702-725 feet; Apopka.
. o1 feet: and Tiger Bay, 720 feet.

Genus Gaudryina d'Orbigny, 1839.
Gaudryina flintii Cushman.
CGa(iirvyiia si brotfiidata Flint (not G. subrotundata Schwager, 1866),
A.nn R.p. UL. S. Nat. Mus., 1897 (1899), p. 287, pl. 33, fig. I.
Gaitdlryiiia flitfii Cushman, Bull. 71, U. S. Nat. Mus., pt. 2. 1911, p. 63.
fi'., I io -c i iin t-.xt) ; Bull. To3, U. S. Nat. M us., 1918, p. 56, pl. 20, fig. 4.
There is a single rather small specimen from the Ponce de Leon
\ell. St. Augustine, Florida, coming from a depth of 200 feet,
\which seems to represent this species.
A specimen from the Culebra formation of the Panama Canal
Zone was referred to this species, but it has not been previously
recorded in the American Miocene.

Gaudryina sp. ?
Plate I, figure 7.
There is a species with a triangular early portion, and later
very rounded biserial chambers which occurred in the well at
Marathon. Florida, at a depth of 1,650 feet.

Genus Clavulina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Clavulina communis d'Orbigny.
Cl/a:'li,,ma Ic-,,umnis d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 268; Forain.
Fo-ss Bas;. T!'rt Vienne, 1846, p. J196, pl. 12, figs. 1, 2. Cushman, Bull. jo0,
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 57, p1. 20, fig. 6.


The only records for this species from the Florida well borings
are the young specimens from Ponce de Leon Well, St. Augustine,
88 feet, and a more fully developed specimen at 200oo feet.

Clazulina species.
There is a small specimen of this genus not well marked from
the well at Fo'rt Myers, Florida, from a depth of 720 feet.

Clavulina ? sp.
Plate I, figure 8.
There is a large coarse species, with the early portion ap-
parently triserial or coiled, and at a decided angle with the later
part, which is short and circular in transverse section. These are
not well preserved. They come from limestones in which Orbitolina
occurs and may not belong to this genus.
They occur with Orbitolina in the following Florida wells:
Anthony Well, 160 feet: Ponce de Leon Well, St. Augustine, 440
feet; and Tiger Bay Well, 720 feet.

Genus Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826.
There are a number of species apparently belonging to B:'-
limiina of the arenaceous group which are characteristic of the
Lower Cretaceous, and which occur with Orbitolina.

Bulimina sp.
Plate 2. figure I.
Specimens of an elongate tapering form with close-set oblique
chambers occur at 44o feet in the Ponce de Leon Well at St Au-
gustine, Florida and at 250 feet in the well at Apopka.

Bulimina sp.
Plate 2, figure 2.
A coarse, thick, arenaceous species occurs at 138 feet in the
well of J. Wiggins, at Eustis. Lake County.


Builimnin sp.
Plate 2, figure 3.
Tliere is an elongate species with very distinct somewhat re-
iiiotel5 placed chambers which occurs at 16o feet in the well of J
\\ig ins at Eustis, Lake County.

Bilimiiia sp.
Plate 2, figure 4.
species of fusiform shape and concave apertural face, with
the rounded aperture near the middle, occurs at 2,310 feet in the
\vell at Mlarathoi. Genus Bulimijnclla Cushman, 1911.

Buliminclla sp. ?
Plate 2, figure 5.
Speciiiens from brown limestone at 1,720ofeet in the well at
Alaratlioii are distinctive and are figured. They are ofthe Bul-
1imii/ic/la clcgantissinia group.

Buliminella sp. ?
Plate 2, figure 6 a. b.
Ini the deepest part of the well at Marathon there occurred a
v\erv lo\\-spired form here figured, which seems like a very short
Buiiminini'll of the B. clcgantissima group, but very low. A some-
what similar form of much larger size is found in the deeper por-
ti:onj of the well at 1.421 feet.

Genus Virgulina d'Orbiguy, 1826.
Virgulina squanonosa d'Orbiglny.
I ircuiiia squamminosa d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 267, Mo-
deles. No. 61, 1826. Cushman, Bull. 71, U. S. Nat. Mus., pt. 2,- 1911, p. 91,
fii. 1457, b: Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 58, pl. 21, fig. 6.
The only material which can be. referred to this species is that
fr-omn the well of the Okeechobee Ice and Electric Co., Okeechobee,
Florida, at depths of 158-175 feet, and 240-245 feet.
I have previously recorded it from the Miocene. of the Gatun
foirmatioc!n of the Panama Canal Zone.



Genus Lagena lTalker and Boys, 1.784.
Lagcina striata (d'Orbiginy).
Oolina striata d'Orbigny, Foiam. Amer. Merid., 1839, p. 21, pl. 5, fig. 12.
Lagena striata Reuss, Sitz. Akad. \Viss. \Vien, vol. 46. pt. I, 1862 (1863),
p. 327, pl. 3, figs. 44, 45; pl. 4, figs. 46, 47. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Chal-
lenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884 . 460, pl. 57, figs. 22, 24. Cushman, Bull. 71,
U. S. Nat. Mus., pt. 3, 1913, P. 19, pl. 7, figs. 4. 5.
The only specimens of the genus were found in the well at
Okeechobee, at a depth of 380-403 feet.
Another variety of this species was found fossil at Panama.

Genus Cristellaria Lamarck, 1812.
Cristcllaria americania Cushminan, z'r. spinosa Cushman.
Cristcllaria aiicricaina Cushman, var. spinosa Cushman, Bulletin 676, U.
S. Geol. Survey, g918. p. 51, pl. 10, fig. 7.
Specimens of this variety were found in two of the lots, 380-
403 feet, and 403-458 feet, froit the well of the Okeechobee Ice
and Electric Company, Okeechobee, Florida.
They are very similar to the type specimens described from the
Miocene of the Choctawhatchee Marl, one mile south of Red Bay,
Cristellaria roflata (Lamiarck).
"Cornu Hammonis sen Nautili" Plancus. Conch. Min., 1739, p. 13, pl. I,
fig. III.
Len7ticilites rotulata Lamarck, Ann. Mus., vol. 5, 1804, p. i8S, No. 3; vol.
8, 18o6, pl. 62, fig. 1I.
Cristellaria rotiiata d'Orbigny, Mrem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. I, vol. 4,
1840, p. 26, pl. 2, figs. I6-18. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology,
vol. 9, 1884, p. 547, pl. 69, figs. 13a, b. Cushman, Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
1918, p. 6o, pl. 22 fig. I.

The specimens which are from the well at Marathon at a
depth of 398 feet are very similar to those that were found in
the Miocene of the Gatun formation of the Panama Canal Zone.

Genus Polymoj'phina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Polymiorpliina laciea (Walker aid Jacob).
Scrpula lactea Walker and Jacob, Adam's Essays on the microscope, 2d
ed., p. 634, pl. 24, fig. 4, 1798.


.Poliymorphina lactea (Walker and Jacob) Macgillivray. A history of the
ml..lluscous animals of the counties of Aberdeen (etc.), p. 320, 1843. Brady,
Rcer. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 559, pl. 71, fig. 11. Bagg,
Mar'yland Geol. Survey, Miocene, 1904, p. 477, pl. 133, figs. 5, 6. Cushman,
Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p. 53, pl. II, fig. 6.
Specimens which may be referred to this species were found
in the well at Jacksonville at 510-550 feet; in the. Ponce de Leon
\\'ell at St. Augustine, at 200 feet, and in the well at Marathon on
Key Vaca, at 18o feet.
I have already recorded this species from the Miocene of the
Choctawhatchee Marl, one mile south of Red Bay, Florida. It is
also known from the Miocene and Eocene of Maryland and New
Polymorphina elegantissima Parker and Jones.
Polymnorphina elegantissiima Parker and Jones, Philos. Trans., vol. 155,
I.'61, p. 438. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 566, pl.
72, figs. 12-15. Bagg, Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, 1904, p. 476, pl. 133,
fig 3. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p. 54.
A single specimen of this species is from the, Ponce de Leon
\\'ell at St. Augustine, Florida, at a depth of 170 feet.
Bagg has recorded and figured this species from the Miocene
of the Calvert formation of Chesapeake Beach, Maryland.


Genus Globigerina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny.
Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 277, No., I;
Ml-deles, 1826, No. 17, and No. 76; in Barker, Webb, and Berthelot, Hist. Nat.
Isles Canaries, 1839, pt. 2, Foraminiferes, p. 132, pl. 2, figs. 1-3, 28. H. B.
ready Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,. 1884, p. 593, pl. 77; pl. 79, figs.
1-7. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, pp. 12, 56, pl. 3, fig. 2;
pl. 12, figs. 4, 6; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 64; Publ. 291, Carnegie
Institution of \\'al ingt.:n, 1919, p. 38.
A few specimens of this common species were obtained from
the well of the Okeechobee Ice and Electric Company, at Okeecho-
bee, Florida, at a depth of 380-403 feet, and from the Well at
Marathon on Key \'aca. at deaths of 180 to 398 feet.
The species is also known\ from the American Miocene of Pan-
ama; the Coastal Plain of Florida and Virginia; Yumuri River,


Mantanzas, Cuba; Cercado de Mao, Santo Domingo, and Bow-
den, Jamaica.
Genus Orbulina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Orbulina universe d'Orbiguy.
Orbuliiia universa d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
1839, "Foraminiferes," p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 1. H. B Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger,
Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 608, pl. 78; pl. 81, figs. 8-26; pl. 82, figs. 1-3. Cush-
man, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p. 12, pl. 3, fig. 3; Bull. 103, U. S.
Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 67; Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1919,
p. 40.
The only record from the well samples examined is 380-403 feet,
at Okeechobee.
The species is known from the Miocene of the Gatun forma-
tion of the Panama Canal Zone; from Rio Gurabo, and Cercado
de Mao, Santo Domingo, and from the gorge of the Yumuri River,
Matanzas, Cuba.

Genus Discorbis Lamarck, 1804.
Discorbis bertheloti (d'Orbigny).
Rosalina bertheloti d'Orbigny, in Barker, Webb, and Berthelot, Hist. Nat.
Iles Canaries, pt. 2, 1839, "Foraminiferes," p. 135 pl. I, figs. 28-30.
Discorbis bertheloti (d'Orbigny) Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt.
5, 1915, p. 2, p. 7 fig. ; fig 23 in text; Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey,
1918, p. 58, pl. 15, figs. 1-3.
Discorbina bertheloti (d'Orbigny) H. B. Brady, Linnaean Soc. London.
Trans., vol. 24, 1864, p. 469, pl. 48, fig. lo; Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol.
9, 1884, p. 650, p.1 89, figs. 10-12.
SThis is the only species of Discorbis found in the well sam-
ples. It is from the well of the Okeechobee Ice and Electric
Company, Okeechobee, Florida, at a depth of 41-56 feet.
I have recorded this species from the Miocene of Virginia and
South Carolina, and also from the Choctawhatchee Marl, one mile
south of Red Bay, Florida.

Genus Truncatulina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Trnncatulina refulgens (Montfort).
Cibicides refulgens Montfort, Conch. Syst., vol. i, 1808, p. 122.
Truncatulina refulgens (Monffort) d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826,
p. 279, pl. 13, figs. 8-1 r; Modeles, 1826, No. 77.' H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Chal-


Ilc.iT r. Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 659, pl. 92, figs. 7-9. Cushman. Bull. 676, U. S.
Geol. Survey, 1918, p. 61, pl. iS, fig. 3.
A single specimen from the Ponce de Leon Well at St. Au-
gustine is the only record for the species in the well samples. I
have also had it from the Miocene in the Choctawhatchee Marl
from Coes Mill, Florida.

Truncatulina amcricana Cushman.
Triucatulina americana Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p.
63, pr. o2, figs. 2, 3; pl. 21, fig. '; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p 68,
pl,. 23, figs. 2a-c.
This species seems to be a common one in the Miocene and
Oligocene of America. It was originally described from the Mio-
cene of the Choctawhatchee Marl at Coes Mill, Florida, from the
Duplin Marl at Mayesville, S. C., and from Wilmington, N. C.
It is also known from the upper part of the Culebra formation
of the Panama Canal Zone.
In the borings from the Florida wells it has occurred as fol-
lows: Ponce de Leon Well, St. Augustine, at depths of 88 and 200
feet: well at Fort Myers, 300 feet; well of Okeechobee Ice and
Electric Company, Okeechobee, Florida, 41-56 feet; 87-94 feet;
240-245 feet; 245-276 feet and 403-458 feet; well at Marathon on
'Key Vaca, 180, 305 and 398 feet.

Triucatulina pygnaea Hantken.
Trincatulina pygmaea Hantken, Mitth. Jahrb. ung. geol. Anstalt, vol. 4,
175,. p. 78, pl. 10, fig. 8. Cushman, Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 68,
rp. 2.3, figs. 3a-c.
Traicatulina pygmaea H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol.
9. iS84. p. 666, pi. 95, figs. 9, 1o.
Specimens occurred in the material from two wells, that from
Fort Myers, at a depth of 360 feet, and from the well at Marathon
on Key Vaca, at 398 feet..
It has been recorded from the Miocene of the Gatun formation
and the Oligocene of the Culebra formation of the Panama Canal
Tr'ucatulina basilol.ba Cushman.
Triicatulina basiloba Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p.
64, pl. 21, fig. 2.


This species was originally described from the Miocene of
South Carolina, although the exact locality was not known. It is
therefore interesting to again find it in typical form from the Well
at Okeechobee, at a depth of 41-56 feet.
This is one of several species with the basal portions of the
chambers variously modified, which occur in the Miocene and Olig-
ocene of the Coastal Plain.

Truncatulina sp.
Plate 3, figures i a, b.
There is a large species of Truncatulina. which occurs in the
Bushnell Well at depths of 1,o67 and 1,o95 feet. Some of the
specimens are well preserved and show a raised ridge along the
line of coiling and raised borders to the chambers, the surface be-
tween punctuate. The ventral surface is strongly convex and pe-
culiarly marked.

Genus Pulviinulina Parker and Jones, 1862.
Pulvinulina umbonata (Reuss).
Rotalina umboniata Reuss, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., vol. 3, 1851,
P. 75, pl. 5, figs. 35a-c.
PuLvinulina unibonata Reuss, Denkschr. Akad. ,Wiss. Wien, vol. 25, 1866,
p. 206. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 695, pl.
o15, figs. 2a-c.
A single specimen which resembles this species in its general
characters was found in material from a depth of 200 feet in the
Ponce de Leon Well at St. Augustine, Florida.

Pulvinulina sp.
Pulvinulina hanerii H. B. Brady (not P. haunerii d'Orbigny) Rep. Voy.
Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, pl. o16, fig. 7a-c.
There is a single specimen in the Jacksonville Well which is
close to the figure quoted above, which is, however, certainly not
Pulvinmdina hanerii d'Orbigny. This particular form is at present
found in the Philippine and South Pacific regions and .is one of a
considerable number of species which occur in the Oligocene of
America and are now living in the same or closely related form
in the Indo Pacific.


Pulvinuilina ? sp.
Plate 2, figures 7 a, b.
Associated with the conical Orbitoliina in three wells there is
a species which may be assigned to Pulvinulina. It is of small
size, the dorsal side strongly convex, the ventral side less so, and
\when worn shows a peculiar series of openings about the umbili-
cal area.
It is found in material from the following: New City Well
at Jacksonville, at 820-845 feet; Ponce de Leon Well at St. Au-
gustine at 785 feet; and City Well at Apopka, Orange County, at
I 15 feet.
This is another one of the species which 'is characteristic of the
fauna of the upper Orbitolina Zone.

Genus Gypsina Carter, 1877.
Gypsina globulus (Reuss).
Ceriopora globulus Reuss, HIaidinger's Nat. Abh., vol. 2, 1847, p. 33, pl.
5, fig. 7.
Gypsina globulus H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
1884, p. 717, pl. 1oI, fig. 8. Cushman, Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of
Washington, 1919, p. 44, pl. 4, fig. 7.
Large specimens which may be referred to this species are
from the well at Marathon, on Key Vaca, at 598 feet. These are
similar to those which were found at Anguilla, Leeward Islands,
where, as in the Marathon Well, they occurred in company with
Smaller specimens of the form which is characteristic of the
Ocala limestone were found in the Jacksonville Well, at 680-702
feet, and occasionally below. These all probably came from the
level of 510-55o feet where the Ocala evidently is entered and
from which point downward there is no casing. Similar speci-
mens also occur in the well of the Bonheur Development Com-
pany at Burns, Wakulla County, at a depth of 50 feet, and in the
\\ell of the Compagnie Generale des Phos. de la Floride, at An-
thony, Marion County. also at 50 feet. This latter well is known
to start in the Ocala limestone. Other species from Burns con-
tirm the occurrence of the Ocala at 50 feet as indicated by the


The species of Gypsina referred to G. globulus in the Coastal
Plain and.West Indian region need careful study to discriminate
between the different forms found in different horizons.

Genus Rolalia Lamarck, 1804.
Rotalia beccarii (Linnaeus).
Nautilus beccarii Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th Ed., 1767, p. 1162.
Rotalia (Turbinulina) beccarii d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p.
275, No. 40; Modeles, 1826, No. 74.
Rotalia beccar.ii Parker and Jones. Philos. Trans., vol. 155, 1865, p. 388,
pi. 16, figs. 29, 30. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884,
p. 704, pl. 107, figs, 2, 3. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, pp.
18, 66; pl. 5, fig. I, pl. 6, fig. I; pl. 23, fig. 3; pl. 24, figs. I, 2; pl. 25, fig. I.
Specimens of the forms figured from the Miocene of the Coast-
al Plain were found in material from the well at Fort Myers, at a
depth of 300 feet, and the well at Okeechobee, at a depth of 41-56
This has been recorded from the Miocene of Florida in the
Choctawhatchee Marl of Coes Mill, and Jackson Bluff, as well as
from the Miocene and Pliocene of several other states.

Rotalia armata d'Orbigny.
Rotalia armata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 273, No. 22;
Modeles, 1826, No. 70.
Rotalina armata Terquem, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. 2, Mem.
III, 1882, p. 67, pl. 5 (13), figs. 14, 15.
In a single well, that of the Bonheur Development Company at
Burns, Wakulla County, numerous specimens occur at 80o feet,
and scattered below as casts which are very close to this species
of d'Orbigny, which seems characteristic of the Eocene of the
Paris Basin at some horizons.
The specimens are in such numbers in this well that it seems
as though they may be later discovered somewhere in surface
deposits of this same age in the Gulf region.
Occurring as it does below the horizon marked by character-
istic species of the Ocala, it should be looked for elsewhere in a
similar stratigraphical position.


Rotalia sp.

In the well at Marathon, on Key Vaca, a species of Rotalia oc-
curs in some numbers at 1,273 feet. It is 'unlike those found else-
where in the well samples, but is not well preserved as to details
of the surface characters.
Rotalia ? sp. I
In two wells, the New City Well at Jacksonville, at a depth
of 680-702 feet, and that of J. Wiggins at Eustis, Lake County,
at a depth of 138 feet, there is a large rotaliform species which
seems more or less involute on both faces. The sutures are marked
by raised lines. The peripheral margin is angled, the dorsal surface
just within the periphery slightly concave.


Genus Nonionina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Noniona scapha (Fichtel and Moll).
Nautilus scapha Fichtel and Moll. Test. Micr., 1798, p. 105, pl. 19, figs. d-f.
Nonionina scapha Parker and Jones, Ann. Mag: Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol.
5. 1860, p. 102, No. 4. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
1884, p. 730, pl. 109, figs. 14, 15 and 16. ? Bagg, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 2, No.
10, 1898, p. 41 (335), pl. 3 (23), figs. 4a, b; Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene,
1904, p. 460, pl. 131, figs. 1-3. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918,
p. 68, pl. 25, fig. 2; pl. 26, figs. 2, 3; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 73,
pi. 25, figs. 6a, b.
In two wells, specimens evidently this species were obtained.
These are 87-94 feet in the well at Okeechobee, and 18o feet in the
well at Marathon on Key Vaca.
This species is known from the Miocene of the Choctawhatchee
IMarl of Florida, and from the Miocene of Maryland, Virginia,
Sand South Carolina. It occurs also in the Gatun formation of the
Panama Canal Zone.

Nonionina depressula (Walker and Jacob.)
Nautilus depressulus Walker and Jacob, in Adam's Essays on the Micro-
scope, Kanmacher's Ed., 1798, p. 641, pl. 14, fig. '33.


Nonioniiia deprcssula Parker and Jones, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3,
vol. 4, 1859, pp. 339, 341. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol.
9, 1884, p. 725, pl. 109, figs. 6, 7. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Survey,
1918, pp. 19, 67, pl. i, fig. A pl. 26, fig. I; Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918,
p. 72, pl. 25, figs. 5a, b.
A single specimen which may be referred to this species was
obtained in the well sample from 88 feet in the Ponce de Leon
Well at St. Augustine.
It occurs in the Miocene of the Gatun formation of the Panama
Canal Zone and it has been recorded from the Miocene of Alabama
and Virginia.
"" Nonionina sp.
Plate 3, figures 2 a, b.
At a depth of 380-403 feet in the well at Okeechobee, there are
numerous specimens of a species of Nonionina which are very uni-
form in their characters.

Genus Polystomella Lamarck, 1822.
Polystomella crispa (Linnaeus).
"Cornu Hammonis orbiculatum" Plancus, Conch. Min., 1739, p. 10, pl.
I, fig. 2.
Nautilus crispuis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, 1767, p. 1162.
Polystomnella crispa Lamarck, Anim. sans. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, p. 625, No.
I. d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, 1846, p. 125, pl. 6, figs. 9-14.
H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 736, pl. iio. figs.
6, 7. Cushman, Bull. 676. U. S. Geol. Survey. 1918, p. 69, pl. 27, figs. I, 4, 5:
Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 76, pl. 27, figs. 2a, b.
This species in Recent Seas is characteristic of tropical and
subtropical waters. In the Miocene of America it is known, es-
pecially from the Choctawhatchee Marl of Florida, the Duplin
Marl of North and South Carolina, and from the Gatun forma-
tion of the Panama Canal Zone.
In the Florida well samples it has occurred twice, from 41-56
feet in the well at Okeechobee, and from 78 feet in the well at Mar-
athon, on Key Vaca.
Polystfomella craticulata (Ficltcl and Moll).
Nautilus craticulatus Fichtel and \loll. Test. M\icr., 1798. p. 51, pi. 5,
figs. h-k.


Polystomella craticulata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 284,
No:. 3. W. B. Carpenter, Introd. Foram., 1862, p. 279, pl. 16, figs. I, 2. H.
B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 739, pl. Ilo, figs.
16, 17. Cushman, Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 77, pl. 27, figs. 3a, b.
In its fully developed f6rm this species.is characteristic of
tropical shallow waters.
It has been recorded from the Culcbra formation of the Pana-
ma Canal Zone in a somewhat different form from the recent
species of the Indo-Pacific. This same form is.apparently present
in the Florida wells, specimens very similar having been found in
the Ponce de Leon Well at St. Augustine from 88 feet, and 680
feet in the well at Fort Myers.

Polystornella striato-punctata (Fichtel and Moll).
Nautilus striato-punctatus Fichtel and Moll. Test. Micr., 1798, p. 61, pl.
9. figs. a-c.
Polystomella striato-punctata Parker and Jones, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
ser. 3, vol. 5, 1860, p. 103, No. 6. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology,
\,:l. 9, 1884, p. 733, pl. 109, figs. 22, 23. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey, I918, pp. 19, 69, pl. 8, fig. 4; pl. 26, fig. 4; pl. 27, fig. 2; Bull. 103, U. S.
Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 74, pl. 26, figs. 3a, b; 4a, b; Publ. 291, Carnegie Institu-
tion of Washington, 1919, p. 49.
To this species have been assigned most forms of Polystomella
which have a rounded periphery and short retral processes. In the
American Miocene it is known from numerous states of the Coast-
al Plain, from the Panama Canal Zone, and from Santo Domingo.
The only well record is that from 41-56 feet in the well of the
Okeechobee Ice and Electric Company at Okeechobee.

Polystomiclla sp. ?
At 88o feet in the City Well at Fort Myers, Lee County, there
occur numerous specimens of Polystomclla which are almost all
casts and not at all well preserved. These, for the most part, have
rather short retral processes but have a large number of cham-
bers. Attention is called to them for possible later comparisons
Nvith other localities.


Genus Anmphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Amiphisteginia, lessonii d'Orbigny.
Aiphistcgina lessoniii d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 304, No.
3. pl. 17, figs. 1-4, Modeles, 1826, No. 98. H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger,
Zoology, vol. 9, I884, p. 740, pl. III, figs. 1-7. Cushman, Bull. 676, U. S. Geol.
Survey, 1918, pp. 20, 7o.'pl. 4, fig. 3; pl. 26, fig. 5; pl. 27, fig. 3; pl. 28, fig.
I; Bull. 103. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 77; Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of
Washington, 1919, p. 50, pl. 7, fig. 7.
There are various forms, varieties, or species of Amiphistegina
,in the American Tertiary which should be critically studied as from
the fragmentary evidence at hand they seem very distinct at dif-
ferent horizons.
As Aimphistegina is a tropical genus the occurrence in the wells
would naturally be expected to be confined to those of the southern
S part of Florida. This is true of the actual records, it having oc-
curred as follows: City Well at Fort Myers at 300 feet; well of
the Okeechobee Ice and Electric Company at Okeechobee at 56-62
feet; and in the well of the Florida East Coast Railway at Mara-
thon on Key Vaca, at 18o feet.
It is know from the Miocene of the Duplin Marl of South Caro-
lina, the Choctawhatchee Marl of Florida, and the Miocene of
Santo Domingo and Bowden. Jamaica,. and in the upper Oligo-
cene of the Panama Canal Zone.

Genus Asterigerina d'Orbigny, 1839.
Asterigerina angulata Cushman.
Asterigerina angulata Cushman, Publ. 291, Carnegie Institution of Wash-
ington, 1919, p. 45. pl. 13, fig. I.
Numerous specimens from a depth of 786 feet in the well at
Marathon. Key Vaca, are evidently this species, described from
the Miocene of Santo Domingo at Rio Cana, and Cercado de Mao.

Genus ANunmnulites Lamarck. 18o0.
Nummulites sp.
Numerous specimens of N'tiInirlites occur in a number of the
wells, usually just below the Ocala limestone where that formation
is represented. The records in the various Florida wells are as
follows: a fragment probably NTinmm ilites from 400-470 feet in


the well at Panama City; especially at 150 feet and at lower depths
probably derived from this level in the well of the Bonheur De-
velopment Company at Burns, Wakulla County; at 55o feet and
below in the New City Well at Jacksonville, Duval County; abun-
dant at 50 feet and scattering below in the well of the Compagnie
General des Phos. de la Floride., at Anthony, Marion County; in
the upper portions, probably above 138 feet in the well of J. Wig-
gins at) Eustis, Lake County; at 410 feet especially and scattered
below in Well No. 3 of the Palmetto Phosphate Company near
Pit No. I, about 2 3-4 miles northwest of Tiger Bay.

Genus Opcrculina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Operculina sp.
The only specimen that may be referred to this genus -is from
the well at Marathon on Key Vaca, coming from a depth of 589
feet, but this is broken and not specifically identifiable. Where
Opercdlina was recorded in the earlier paper on the well samples,
( 12th Annual Report, Florida Geological Survey, 1919, pp. 77-103)
a closer study has shown them to be Hcterostegina ocalana.

Genus Heterostegina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Heterostegina ocalana Cusihman.
Occurring with the various species of Lepidocyclina and also
characteristic of the Ocala limestone this species confirms the age
of the Ocala in the well borings. It occurred in recognizable
form as follows: well of L. E. Morrow, Sanford, Seminole
County, 113, feet; well of H. Bradford, Cocoa, Brevard County,
190 feet; and Tiger Bay at a depth of 360-400 feet. It is char-
acteristic of the Ocala, especially in north-central Florida arid
is also found in the Ocala of Georgia.

Genus Heterosteginoides Cushman, 1918.
Heterosteginoides cf. panamensis Cushman.
Heterosteginoides panamensis Cushman, Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918.
p. 97. pi. 43, figs. 1-8.
This species is common in the Culebra formation of the Pan-
ama Canal Zone, and a related species has been described from
Crocus Bay.' Anguilla, Leeward Islands.


The only well from which specimens of this genus were found
is that at Marathon on Key Vaca, where they occurred at a depth
of 852 feet. It would then seem that the well at this depth en-
tered or was in Upper Oligocene strata.
This genus may prove to be a synonym of Miogypsina which
is also characteristic of the Upper Oligocene elsewhere.

Genus Lepidocyclina Gumbel, 1868.
Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman.
This species which is typical of the Ocala limestone of Flor-
ida is found in recognizable form in the several wells: Jackson-
ville, first appearing at 510-550 feet, and fragments occur from
this point downward, probably all having their source at this
same depth as the well is not cased below this level. In the well
of L. E. Morrow at Sanford, Seminole County, at 113 feet, spec-
imens of L. ocalana occur in fragmentary form with other Ocala
species. At Cocoa, Brevard County, from the well of H. Brad-
ford, the species occurs in the only sample from 190 feet. In Ti-
ger Bay well at 360-400 feet abundant specimens of Lepidocyc-
lina, including L. ocalana, were found.
The Ocala limestone is therefore definitely placed by this and
associated species.
Lepidocyclina floridana Cushman.
This*species occurs with L. ocolana in the following wells:
L. E. Morrow, Sanford, Seminole County, at 113 feet; H. Brad-
ford, Cocoa, Brevard County, 190 feet, and at Tiger Bay, 360-
400 feet and at various points below, evidently originating from
this level.
Lepidocyclina pseudocarinata Ciishman.
There are specimens of this species from two of the wells with
the preceding: Cocoa, 190 feet. and at Tiger Bay, 36-400oo feet.

Lepidocyclina pseudomarginata Cushman.
Specimens which may be this species were obtained in the
Jacksonville Well at 51o-550 feet, and a few fragments below.
More definite specimens were in the material from the well at
Tiger Bay, at 360-400 feet.


Lcpidocyclina sp. ?
Fragments of Lcpidocyclina which are not identifiable were
obtained at numerous wells indicated in the previous report (r2th
Annual Report, 1919). These are too small and too poorly pre-
served to be of more than generic value.


Genus Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Qiinqueloculina cf. poeyana d'Orbigny.
Quinqucloculina poeyana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat.
Cuba, "Foraminiferes," 1839, p. 191, pl. II, figs. 25-27. Cushman, Bull. 676,
U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, p. 24, pl. 6, fig. 2.
A specimen from 41-56 feet in the well of the Okeechobee
Ice and Electric Company at Okeechobee, has a sculpture consist-
ing of longitudinal costae, somewhat similar to that figured in
the references given above. The specimen from the well,is, how-
ever, somewhat broader and shorter, and may not belong to this
Specimens with similar sculpture but of different shape more
like Q. pulchella d'Orbigny, occur in the well at Marathon on
Key Vaca, at a depth of 1,140 feet. By their appearance they
may have come from the sides of the well far above this point as
-they are excellently preserved and do not look like other material
from this depth.
Quinqueloculina sp.
Plate 3, figure 3.
There is a fairly large species found in several of the wells
which is very peculiar in its sculpture. The exterior is either
rough or covered with a secondary granular coating. Where this
is worn through, a peculiar sculpture is seen, consisting of short
longitudinal elongate pits filled with fine granular material of the
surface. Specimens are not well enough preserved to show the
apertural characters.
The species occurs with the conical form of Orbitolina in the
following wells: New City Well at Jacksonville, at a -depth of
845-900 feet; Ponce de Leon Well at St. Augustine, at 440 feet;


City Well at Apopka, Orange County, at I 15 feet; and \well at
Marathon, on Key Vaca at 1,720 feet.

Quinqueloculina sp.
Specimens of Quinqueloculina with a rough surface are found
at Apopka at 115 feet and in the well at Anthony 'at 375 feet.
These are not well enough preserved to be identified specifically.

Genus Massilina Schlumberger, 1893.
Massilina sp.
Plate 3, figures 4, 5.
In the material from the well at Apopka there are specimens
of this genus rather poorly characterized as far as external char-
acters are shown. It is found with the conical species of Orbi-
Genus Triloculina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Triloculina sp.
A single specimen with traces of longitudinal costae was
found in material from 138 feet in the well of J.Wiggins at Eus-
tis, Lake County.
Triloculina sp.
At a depth of 720 feet in the well at Fort Myers several
poorly preserved specimens of Triloculina were obtained. The
exterior is rough and irregular and no characters are preserved
which enable them to be specifically identified with certainty.

Genus Biloculina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Biloculina sp.
There are specimens represented mainly by internal .casts
from the well at Jacksonville at 820-845 feet, and from the Ponce
de Leon Well at St. Augustine, at 440 feet, in both localities oc-
curring with the conical form of Orbitolina.

Genuts Peneroplis Montfort, 1808.
Peneroplis arietiins (Batsch).
Nautilus (Lituus) arietinus Batsch, Conch Seesandes, 1791, p. 4, pl. 6,
figs. 15d-f.


Peneroplis arietinus H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
884, p. 204, pl. 13, figs. 18, 19, 22. Heron-Allen and Earland, Trans. Zool.
Soc., London vol. 20, 1915, p. 602.
There are numerous specimens of this species from a depth
of 720 feet in the well at Fort Myers. They are somewhat
changed in character, showing traces of replacement by calcite,
which has somewhat altered the external characters, but the form
is very characteristic.

Peneroplis discoideus Flint.
Peneroplis pertusus (Forskal), var. discoideus Flint, Ann. Rep. U. S. Nat.
1Mus., 1897 (1899), p. 304, pl. 49, figs. I, 2. Cushman, Publ. 291, Carnegie In-
stitution of Washington, 1919, p. 69.
This should take its rank with the other species of Peneroplis.
So far as known it is limited to the West Indian region, being de-
scribed by Flint from the shallow water of Key West Harbor,
Florida. I have recorded it from the Miocene of Bluff 3, Cercado
de Mao; Santo Domingo.
It occurred in material at 1,140 feet in the well at Mara-
thon on Key Vaca, but the tests.are unlike'most of the others from
this level and apparently came originally from some distance
Genus Orbitolites Lamarck, 18o0.-
Orbitolites americana Cushman.
Orbitolites americana Cushman, Bull. 103, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1918, p. 99, pl.
43. figs. 12-14; pl. 44, figs. I, 2; pl. 45.
There are fragments of Orbitolites from the well at Mara-
thon on Key Vaca at a depth of 589 feet which in the general
characters of the interior very closely resemble the species which
I have described from the Emperador Limestone and the Culebra
formation of the Panama Canal Zone.
Orbitolites is characteristic of the American Upper Oligoc'ene
in the Tampa formation of Florida and the Anguilla formation
of Anguilla and Cuba. Therefore this level of the Marathon
\ell should be Upper Oligocene.


Genus Alveolina d'Orbigny, 1826.
Alveolina ? sP.
Platd 3, figures 6 a, b.
In the well at Bushnell at 2,320 and 2,380 feet there are spec-
imens which resemble Alvcolina but instead of being fusiform are
compressed in the plane of the axis. They resemble in a general
way the Orbiculina rotclla of d'Orbigny (Foram. Foss. Bass.
Tert. Vienne, 1839, pl. 7, figs. l3, 14).


Figure I. Haplophragmium sp. X35. 1,027 feet, Bushnell Well.
Figure 2. Haplophragmium sp. X35. 1,720 feet, Marathon Well.
Figure 3. Haplophragmium sp. X35. 160 feet, Anthony Well.
Figure 4. Haplophragmiuml sp. X35. 44o 'feet, St. Augustine Well.
Figure 5. Vahlvlima sp. X35. 325 feet, Well at Burns.
Figure 6. Chrysalidina ? sp. X35. 1,262 feet, Marathon Well. a, side view;
b, apertural view.
Figure 7. Gaudryina sp. X35. I,65o feet, Marathon Well.
Figure 8. Clavulina sp. X30.


% :i.:::ii i:.. :['it i^


.. ,^


* t




6a ,





r !~""
\ r:.''"SE~1


: _~::: : :



Figure I. Bulimia ? sp. X35. 440 feet, St. Augustine Well.
Figure 2. Bulimina sp. X35. 138 feet, Eustis Well.
Figure 3. Bulimina sp. X35. 160 feet, Eustis Well.
Figure 4. Bulimina sp. X50o. 2,310 feet, Marathon WVell.
Figure 5. Buliminella sp-. X35. 1,720 feet, Marathon Well.
Figure 6. Buliminella ? sp. X50o. 2,220 feet, Marathon \ell, a, ventral view;
b, dorsal view.
Figure 7. Pulvinulina ? sp. Xso. 820-845 feet, Jacksonville Well. a, dorsal
view; b, ventral view.


..: :I- 5
" IbE







, /





-'fi- T-



Figure I. Truncatulina sp. X30. I,067 feet, Bushnell Well. a, dorsal view;
b, ventral view.
Figure 2. Nonionina sp. X75. 380-403 feet, Okeechobee Well. a, side view;
b, front view.
Figure 3. Quinqueloculina sp. X35. 1,720 feet, Marathon Well.
Figure 4, 5. Massilina sp. Xso. 115 feet, Apopka Well.
Figure 6. Alveolina ? sp. X35. 2,320 feet, Bushnell Well. a, side view; b,
edge view.

I ,




/ At
* I f



/ ~ "
A ;.. ..
A "I' -~
tI I -"U
Iii 47
Ii .~


E' [N



(Synonyms and extra-limital species in italics.)

Alveolina sp., 64, 68, 69.
Amphistegina, 33; lessonii, 37. 58.
Asterigerina angulata, 37, 58.

Biloculina sp., 62.
Bulimina sp., 40, 46, 47, 66, 67.
Buliminella elegantissima, 47; sp., 47,
66, 67.

Ceriopara globulus, 53.
Chrysalidina aradata, 45; sp., 44, 64, 65.
Cibicides refulgens, 50
Clavulina communis, 37, 45; sp., 40, 46,
64, 65.
Conulites americana, 39-41.
Cristellaria americana var., 37, 48; ro-
tulata 37, 48; spinosa, 37.

Discorbina bertheloti, 50.
Discorbis bertheloti, 37, 50.

Gaudryina flintii, 37, 45; subratundata,
45; sp., 45, 64, 65.
Globigerina bulloides, 37, 49.
Gypsina globulus, 38, 53, 54.

Haplophragmium sp., 40, 41, 64, 65.
Heterostegina ocalana, 39, 40, 59.
Heterosteginoides, 39; panamensis, 59.

Lagena striata, 48.
Leniticulites ratulata, 48.
Lepidocyclina, 38-40, 59; floridana, oca-
lana, pseudocarinata, pseudomargin-
ata, 39, 40, 6o; sp., 61.
Litius, 62

Massilina sp., 62, 68, 69.
Aliogypsina, 6o.

Nautilus arictinus, 62; beccarii, 54;
craticulatus, crispus, 56; dcprcssu-
lus, scapha, 55; striato-punctatus, 57.

Nonionina, 33; depressula, 37, 55, 56;
scapha, 37, 55; sp., 56, 68, 69.
Nummulites, 39, 40, 58.

Oolina striata, 48.
Operculina, 39, 59.
Orbiculina rotclla, 64.
Orbitolina, 40, 42, 44-46, 53, 61, 62; te.x-
ana, 42.
Orbitolites, 38, 53, 63; americana, 63.
Orbulina universe, 37, 50.
Orthophragmina, 39.

Peneroplis arietinus, 62, 61; discoideus,
pertusus, 63.
Polymorphina elegantissima, 37, 49;
lactea, 37, 48, 49.
Polystomella, 33; craticulata, 37, 56, 57;
crispa, 37, 56; striato-punctata, 37,
57; sp., 57.
Pulvinulina haicrii, umbonata, 52; sp.,
40, 52, 53, 66, 67.

Quinqueloculina poeyana, pulchella, 61;
sp,. 40, 61, 62, 68, 69.
Rosalina bertheloti, 50.
Rotalia armata, 39, 40, 54; beccarii, 37,
54; sp. 55.
Rotalina armata, 54; umbaonata, 52.

Scrpula lactca, 48.

Textularia abbreviata, 37, 42; aggluti-
nans, gramen, 37, 43; panamensis,
37, 44; sagittula fistulosa, 43; sp.,
40, 44.
Triloculina sp., 62.
Tritaxia sp., 40, 45.
Truncatulina americana, basiloba, pyg-
maea, 37, 51; refulgens, 37, 50; sp.,
52, 68, 69.
Turbinulina, 54.

Valvulina sp., 44, 64, 65.
Verneuilina spinulosa, 37, 44.
Virgulina squammosa, 37, 47-




Introduction ------------------------------------- --- 75- 83
.Plan of description and sources of information ----------------- 77- S8
Selection of illustrations, etc. -------------------------------- S- 83
Regional descriptions ------------------------------------------84-153
I. West coast islands ---------------------------------------- 84- 87
2. Gulf hammock region (Table I) --------------------------87- 93
3. Middle Florida flatwoods --------------------------------- 93-94
4. Lime-sink region (Table 2) ---- ------------------------ 95-103
5. Middle Florida hammock belt (Table 3) ----------- 104-110
6. Hernando hammock belt (Table 4) --------------------------- I-II
7. Peninsular lake region (Table 5) ---------------------------- 119-129
8. Peninsular flatwoods, western division (Table 6) -----------130-136
9. Peninsular flatwc-.ds, eastern division (Table 7) ----------136-143
o1. East coast strip c Tble 8) ------------------------------- 143-153
I-General features --------------------------------- ----- 154-287
Stratigraphy --_____-------__ ---- 155-157
Economic geology ----- -------------------------------- 157-160
Topography ------------------------------ ---- 16o-5
Hydrography, or drainage --------- ------------------ 166-170
Soils -------- -- --------------------------------------- 170-194
Upland or dry soils --------------------------_ -- 171-175
Damp soils ---------------------------------------------- 175-178
Wet soils ---------- ----- ---------------------------- 178-179
Miscellaneous soils ----------- -------------------- 179-180o
Mechanical analyses (Tables 9-14) ------------------------ o-186
Chemical analyses (Tables 15-18) ----- --------------186-194
Climate (Table 19) ------------_ --_- ------------ --------_ 194-197
Vegetation ------------------------------------------- 197-222
Places with no vegetation --------- -------------------- 99
Herbaceous vegetation ----------------------------- 199-204
Shrubby vegetation --- _-- __------_____ -----_----- 204-205
Small trees, or thickets ---------------------------- 205-206
Tall trees, or forests --------------------------- 206-217
Census of timber trees (Table 20) ------------------- 218-219
Utilization of native plants (Table 21) -_____________________ 219-222


General Features-Continued. Page.
Wild animals, or fauna ------------------------------------- 223-233
Population, etc. ---------------------------------------- 234-257
Density, composition, and nativity -------------------------34-236
Rural and urban population (Table 22) ----- ----- 237-239
Cities and towns (Table 23) -----------------------------240-241
Winter resorts, and tourist business ------------------------ 41-245
Illiteracy (Table 24) ---------------------------------- 245-248
Schools (Tables 25, 26) ------------------------------- 248-253
Noted persons ---------------------------------------- 254
Religious denominations (Table 27) ------------------------ 255-257
Political parties -------------------------------- ------- 257
Agriculture ------------ -------------------------------- 258-280
Conditions at successive census periods (Tables 28-35) ------ 258-274
Variations in size of farms ------------------------- 274-275
Crops -------------------------- --------- 275-278
Relative importance (Table 36) ----- --------------27-276
Average yields (Table 37) ---------------- --------276-278
Animal products (Table 38) ------------- -------- 278-280
Manufacturing----- --------------------------- 281-282
Transportation ------------------------------------ 282-286
Waterways --------------------- ------------- 282-283
Railroads (Table 39) --------------------------------- 283-284
Roads --------- --- --------------------- 284-286
Automobiles ---------------------------------- 286
Newspapers and other periodicals -------------------- 287
Additions and corrections --------------------------- 288
Index -_---------------------------------_ 289


Figure. Page.
2. Regional map of central Florida ------------------------------- 82
\est Coast Islands:
3. Salt marshes on east side of Way Key ----------------------- 85
4. Palm savanna vegetation on Long Key ----------------------- 85
Gulf Hammock Region:
5. Railroad through the Gulf Hammock ------------------------- 87
6. Power-house on \Vithlacoochee River ---------------------- 88
7. Head of Homosassa River ---------------------------------- 89
Lime-sink Region:
S. Silver Spring _--------------------------------- ------- 96
9. High pine land. Citrus County -------------------------------- 97
io. Shallow pond in pine forest, Citrus County --------------------- 98
i Open scrub, Citrus County ----------------------------------- 98
Middle Florida hammock belt:
12. Pit of Florida Lime Co. near Ocala ----------------------------- 104
13. Semi-calcareous hammock near Ocala ------------------------ 105
14. Palmettos in cultivated field -------------------------------- 107
Hernando hammock belt:
15. Looking north up hill near Spring Lake --------------------------- 112
16. Sink of Choocochattee Prairie ------------------------------ 113
17. Beginning of clearing in Choocochattee Hammock --------------- 114
Lake Region:
rS. Rock Spring, Orange County --------------- ----------------- 120
19. Small lake among high hills, Lake County -------------------- 121
2o. Lake Alfred, Polk CotLnty ---------------------------------- 122
2[. Palmettos on south shore of Lake Monroe --------------------- 123
22. Small lake near Ellsworth Junction, Lake County ----- 123
\\Wetern Flatwoods:
23. Open flatwoods. Pasco County ---------------------------- 131
24. Cypress pond, Pasco County ---------------------------------- 131
25. Low hammock near Peace River, Polk County ----------------- 132
Eastern Flatwoods:
26. Prairie bordering Lake Tohopekaliga -----------__---------- 137
27. Asphalt road through the wilderness, Osceola County ------------ 137
28. Edge of St. Jchn's River prairies, Brevard County ------------ 140


Figure. Page.
East Coast Strip:
29. Turnbull Hammock, Volusia County -------------------------- 144
30. Coquina rock on shore of lagoon north of New Smyrna --------145
31. Spruce pines on old dunes west of Mis --------------------- 145
32. Pool in palm savanna, M[erritt's Island ----------------------- 146
33. Outermost dunes near Melbourne Beach ----------------------- 146
34. Shell mound on Indian River opposite Melbourne ------------- 147
Vegetation types:
35. Marshy margin of Lake Apopka, Lake County --------_-_-_____ 199
36. Saw-grass marsh bordering Lake Harris ---------------------- 201
37. Mangrove swamp on Long Key ----------------------------_ 205
38. Typical scrub, Lake County -------------------------------_ 210
39. Sandy hammock, Marion County ----------------------__-_ 214
40. Calcareous hammock, Citrus County------------------------ 215
41. Red oak woods, Marion County 6----------------------------_ 6
Statistical Graphs:
42. Density of population, total and rural, 1850 to 1920 ------------- 234
43. School population curves, 1915-16 -------------------_------- 253


This report is a sequel to one on the geography and vegetation of
northern n Florida, published in the Sixth Annual Report, late in
r914, whichl covered that part of the state north of latitude 29030'.
The present investigation begins w\\ere the former left off and
covers i5 counties on the peninsula, extending south to about lati-
tude 27/'40' These Central Florida'' counties, from Levy, Marion
and \olusia on the north to Hillsbo:,rough, Polk, Osceola and Bre-
\vard on the south, cover about I3.900 square miles or 267o of the
area of the state, aidl included 3 I''c- of its total population and
34' c of its white popuilatio n in 1915.
In the six years that have elapsed since the northern Florida re-
port was written considerable additional information about the re-
sources of the state has accumulated, or been unearthed from var-
ious publications, aind: at the same time a number of improvements
in the metliods of geographical description have been made. There
-are only half as imanI natural regions to be described in central as
in northern Florida, andl the regional descriptions in the present re-
port are more condeniseld, especially as regards vegetation, for
wquatntitative plant lists. although very significant to those who know
ho\\ to interpret them. can- probably be fully appreciated only by
a small mIinority of readers. Much greater use than before is here
made of statistics. a-nd a mullltitudlie of fundamental facts about each
region, \\vhich it \\ouldI take at least ten times as long to write out in
sentences, is presented in the form of tables, with enough explana-
tionI to bring- out the salient features.
SOn the other hand the general features of the whole area are now
Streateil much 1more full\ than was d-lone for northern Florida, and
lsomle interesting general principles not widely known hitherto are
brought out bI means of statistics and otherwise. Statistics indeed

'This pirt .:.f the State is s.:.nm tiimn arlbitrarily: called "Middle Florida"
I pers.:.n unfamiliar with its traditio:'ns, I,ut MiIl'.lle Fl.orida, by long-established
i unae Idlatii-n ftr.ml a time .vhen the p-eninsla ".;as almost uninhabited) is
th:it part .:,f thel: State I et'.ee:-n the Si' annee and Apalaichicola Rivers. Central
Florida is a iore :, r les-- rlitrar-.- dr1esinati:n. ibut it is now used in the same
sense li tihe St-te .--ri,:i.iliitral Depara tment in dli'-il..n g the State into five
gr l-ps ,:i f cI:iilltles appr ,:ini.1 1.i i e -i l in1 area .


make rather dry reading, but besides their brevity, they. have the
great advantage of eliminating personal opinions, which have been
rather too prominent in much that has been written about Florida
heretofore. The source of most of our statistics is the state and
federal censuses, and these of course are not and never can be
absolutely accurate, but their errors (except in completeness of en-
umeration) are just about as likely to be in one direction as another,
thus balancing each other to a considerable extent when sufficiently
large numbers are used. And as they represent the work of a multi-
tude of enumerators, no individual investigator can hope to ap-
proach them in completeness, or to detect errors (other than typo-
graphical, etc.) in them by merely going over the same ground once
or twice.
The aim of this report is to answer as many as is possible in 200
pages or so of the questions that a' prospective settler or investor
might ask. Thei-e is already a vast amount of literature about this
and other parts of Florida, in books and magazines and in hand-
somely illustrated circulars issued by boards of trade, railroads.
real estate companies, etc., but most of that is devoted to some limit-
ed area, which is usually painted in the most glowing colors, se
that it may not help the reader much in getting at the whole truth.
Every region on earth has its advantages and disadvantages, and
the well-nigh universal policy of minimizing or ignoring the latter
in the. effort to attract settlers is rather short-sighted, for if a new-
comer finds conditions too different from what he had been led to
expect he is liable to give up in despair and give the region a bad
The information in scientific works, soil surveys, census reports,
etc., is much more likely to be accurate and impartial than that de-
signed merely to entertain the reading public, increase the business
of railroads, etc., but it is relatively inaccessible, and not easy for
the average unscientific person to digest and interpret. And in spite
of all that has been published about Florida, it would be difficult
to find in previous works any definite statement about the prevail-
iny soil types, commonest plants, density of population, percentage
of illiteracy, leading religious denominations and foreign nationali-
ties, percentage of white and colored farmers, owners and tenants,
average size 6f farms, value of farm land and buildings,'number of
animals of various kinds per farm, cost of labor and fertilizers.
leading crops and average yield of each. etc., for any of the regions


here described. But all of these points and many more are. covered,
and some not only with reference to present conditions but also
historically, i.e., the changes that have taken place in several de-
cades are outlined.

The description of each region follows as nearly as possible the
outline given under General Features in the table of contents, but
that of the smaller regions is necessarily less complete, on account
of the lack of census statistics for areas smaller than counties.
The information about geology and underground waters is taken
mostly from previous reports of this Survey, and that about soil
texture from government soil surveys, which as yet however cover
less than one-fourth of the area under consideration. The principal
soil series and texture classes in each region sufficiently covered
by soil surveys have been determined by picking them out from
the maps, 'but it is hardly worth while to calculate their percentages
until the work is more complete. Some of the chemical analyses of
soils are taken from I9th century publications, and some were made
for the Survey in 1915, from samples collected by the writer, by
L. Heimburger, one of the assistant state chemists at that time.
The climatic factors discussed are only a few of the simpler ones,
some taken direct and some computed, from publications of the
U. S. Weather Bureau, chiefly Bulletins Q and W.
The descriptions of vegetation are almost wholly from the
\writer's own observations, on about 100 different days, mostly in.
the months of February, March, April and July, and in the years
1008-1910, 1914, 191'5 and 1920. The importance of vegetation
as an indicator of soil conditions is probably more generally recog-
nized in Florida than in any other part o'f the United States; but in
order to make satisfactory correlations between vegetation and soils
it is necessary not merely to pick out certain species of plants sup-
Iposed to be characteristic of certain soils, but to study the. vegeta-
tion quantitatively, as the census does population and' agriculture.
The approximate relative abundance of the different species has
been determined by consolidating or digesting the field notes taken
in every county and region, on practically every mile of travel,
-whether by train, boat, automobile or on foot.


In each region described the principal vegetation types (which
are discussed more fully in the general part of the report) are in-
dicated, and the commonest large trees (i.e., those large enough to
be sawn into lumber), small trees, woody vines, shrubs and herbs
are listed as nearly as possible in order of abundance; which besides
bringing out the general appearance of the vegetation also shows at
once each region's resources in timber and other wild products of
the vegetable kingdom. There are of course all gradations between
trees and shrubs, and a species which is a small tree in one region
may be a large tree or a shrub in another, or even in different
habitats in the same region. But although no hard and fast lines
can be drawn, some sort of size grouping has to be used, for it is
impracticable to compare the relative abundance of plants differing
greatly in size, such as trees and grasses. Mosses, lichens, fungi,
etc., are omitted entirely, partly because they form such an insig-
nificant fraction of the total bulk of vegetation, and also because
only a few specialists (of whom the writer is not one) can identify
them positively in the field.
It did not seem worth while to assign percentages to nearly all the
species, as was done in the northern Florida report, on account of
the incompleteness of the data, but in the general discussion there
is a census of timber trees, giving within certain limits the propor-
tion that each is supposed to constitute of the total forest of each
region. And the percentage of evergreens in each region has been
estimated, as before, for that being made up of figures for a number
of species is more accurate than the percentage of any one species
The significance of evergreens is that, other things being equal,
they are most abundant on the poorest soils; for a tree growing in
very poor soil has difficulty in getting enough nourishment to make
a complete sef of leaves every year, and is almost obliged to keep
each leaf two or more years (sometimes a dozen years in the case
of some of the spruces of the far north, where the soil is frozen
about half the year) while a tree in rich soil may take up mineral
matter in solution so fast that it has to have large leaves to store
the surplus in and shed them every year to get rid of it*

*For additional notes on the relation of evergreens to soils see 6th Ann.
Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., 175-177 (footnote) : Science II. 42:500-503. Oct. 8, 1915:
Bull. Geog. Soc. Phila. 16:TIT. Dec. 1918; Geol. Surv. Ala. Special Rep. No.
II, p. 90, 1920.


To save space anll avoid boring readers not interested in botanical
matter- the plant lists are made rather short, omitting the rarer
species that one would d not be likely to encounter every day, though
in a few cases the lists have been extended just far enough to take
in certain species that are especially characteristic. The trees listed
in each case are probably only about half the number of species rep-
resented inH ani, region, but they make up at least nine-tenths of the
bulk of the forest. The shrubs and herbs are listed less completely,
partly because tlhe are less important, and partly because some of
them cannot be identified any clay in the year as the trees can, and
the writer has not yet explored this area in the fall months, when
maniv lerbs bloom that would hardly be noticed in the spring.
Fcr each plant there is given its technical name, its common name
(if any i, and its usual habitat expressed in a word or two. The
technical names of evergreens are printed in bold-face type, and in
the case of senli-v,\ergreens only the specific name (second word) is
thus printed. There is some uncertainty as to just which herbs
should be classed as evergreens, partly because some of them have
4not Ibeen suf ficiently observed in winter, and partly because it is im-
possible to draw\ a sharp line between evergreens and non-ever-
greens. Some herbs whose leaves die down completely in winter
farther north are partly evergreen in the area treated and entirely
so farther -south: and many that are hot ordinarily thought of as
evergreen have rosettes of leaves close to the ground that live
through the greater part of the winter.
The technical names of weeds and other plants that seem to grow
onlv in places that have been more or less disturbed by civilization
are enclosed in parentheses. Good examples of plants which are
ordinarilyv rega rded as indigenous but behave rather suspiciously are
the t\\o tall do,.-fennels, Enpaitoriun conipositifoliiini and E.
CapOillifV/,,it. The former is sometimes seen in apparently un-
disturbedl high pine land, but it is itiore characteristic of roadsides
or even dim trails made by log-carts, and abundant in old fields.
The latter is c'ommonln in lake basin prairies, etc., but may not have
Ieenl there in 1prelhitoric times, when such places were not closely
pastured as the\ are now.* Amnon0 the trees the persimmon, a sun-
posed native: is far more frequent in Tultivated or abandoned fields
than it i, in swamps, which may be its natural habitat.
"See 1.-1 Ann. Rel... Fla. Geol. Surv., p. 318.


There is doubtless much room for improvement in the treatment
of common names, for the writer does not often stop long enough
in one place to interrogate the residents about the names they use. for
wild plants. Such names enclosed in parentheses are either general
terms like grass and fern, or names used in Georgia or farther north,
which may or may not be in common use in central Florida. But
as a large proportion of the inhabitants of this area came from other
states, and some who will read this report are now living in other
states, these names ought to be more intelligible than they would
be in a region which has had very little immigration.
Statistics of population are taken from census reports, prin-
cipally the U. S. census of 1910. It would have been interesting to
carry the investigation back to 1830, when Florida first'figured in
census returns, but previous to 1887 the counties in central Florida
were so few and large that it would be difficult to get an adequate
representation of any one region from county statistics. However,
some figures illustrating the growth and composition of the popula-
tion in the whole area in tie early days are given in the general
discussion. Quite a number of additional data are taken from the
state census of 1915, which however does not go into as much detail
as the government censuses, and is not so free from typographical
errors. At this writing the only returns of population from the
U. S. census of 1920 available are the total population of all the
counties and some of the cities and towns, but those have been used
as far as they go. (It will probably be several months yet before a
full analysis of the 1920 population by race, nativity, etc., is ob-
The 19ro census is also the main source of statistical information
about agricultural conditions, though others, as far back as 1850.
have been utilized as far as possible. The state agricultural depart-
ment took censuses of agriculture in connection with population in
1895 and 1905. and in recentyears has taken censuses of crops,
livestock, etc., at biennial intervals. These biennial enumerations
subdivide the crops more minutely than the government censuses
(which lump together most kinds of vegetables) ever did, and
indicate the valie of each crop in each county, but give little or no
information about the number and size of farms, color and tenure
of farmers. value of land. buildings and other property, and expen-
ditures for labor, feed, fertilizers, etc. Worse still, they are marred
hb so many clerical or typographical errors that they have to be


used with caution. The principal use made of them here is to
determine the relative importance of different crops in 1913-14 and
1917-1918. Besides returning the crops in more detail, and giving
not only acreage but values by counties, another advantage of the
state census is that its crop year runs from July I to June 30, on
account of Florida's most valuable crops being harvested in winter
and spring, while the government census naturally returns the
crops by calendar years in Florida, for the sake. of uniformity with
other states, all of which have colder winters and mostly summer
On account of the appropriation for the Geological Survey re-
malinig at the same number of dollars per annum that it was when
money was worth twice as much as it is now, rigid economy has
had to be exercised in the selection of illustrations. Out of several
hundred photographs available for the purpose, the choice has been
narro\\ed down to 25 new half-tones and 14 old ones. This leaves
without t illustration such interesting physiographic features as the
supposed highest hill in the state (in Polk County), the limestone
caves of Marion County, the noted natural race-course of Daytona
Beach. salamander hills, and several beautiful lakes and rivers;
such \vegetation types as grassy dunes, peat prairies and several
other types of prairie, the characteristic low hammocks of the Gulf
hammock and lake regions, the short-leaf pine and hickory woods
of north-central Marion County, calcareous swamps of various
kinds. and the flatwoods, bays, and lake shore vegetation of the
lake region; and such artificial features as phosphate mines (both
hard rock and pebble), the "diatomaceous earth" plants of Lake
County, clay pits, sawmills, turpentine stills, roads of crushed
limestone, brick, shells, or pine-straw, stone walls, rock chimneys,
cattle ranches, orange groves, sugar-cane fields, truck farms, types
of farm-houses, cities, towns, hotels, etc. And the counties of Sum-
ter and Hillsborough do not happen to be represented at all in the
illustrations, although many pictures have been taken in both. But
somen of these features or places are well illustrated in previous pub-
lications of this Survey, or in easily accessible magazines and
Figures ', 7, 9, I-1'3, 20-22. 29, 35, 36. 39 and 41 are from
earlier reports, and the remaining 25'are new. All are made from
,lhotoraphs in the writer's private collection of American geo-
graphical views, except three that are otherwise credited. They


are printed in the text instead of on special paper for the sake of
economy, and also to bring them as near as possible. to the corre-
sponding text and save the trouble of fitting two or three on one
The map used herewith (fig. 2) is too small to show fine de-
tails, but larger maps showing the towns, railroads, etc., are easily

Fig 2. MAap showing boundaries of the regions described herein, and
various other geographical features. Scale about I:2,5oo,ooo or 40 miles to
the inch.

For various reasons, chiefly lack of time, no bibliography haF
been prepared for this report, but those in the First, Third, SixtI?
and Twelfth Annual Reports contain references to numerous im-
portant works dealing with central Florida or the whole state, and
a few other references are scattered through this report in the form
of footnotes. The natural resources of an area of about I,ooc
square miles around Ocala. with special reference, to geology, vege-



S.MID. FLA. AMOCJ(90 BE r .,

x 7 -



tatiin anlld soils. were described by Dr. E. H. Sellards and others
(including the present writer) in the Seventh Annual Report
I ip15 i. and that will be referred to occasionally herein, especially
under the head of vegetation types.
That this report has many shortcomings the writer is well aware
(and lie. rather than the Survey, should be held responsible for
them : but those who may be inclined to condemn it as a whole on
account of a fewer misstatements or omissions with respect to some
particular locality should bear in mind that it is impossible for one
person to see all parts of such a large area in a few months or to de-
scribe it fully in 200 pages, and even if time and money were unlim-
ited it would be impracticable to go to all the important places with'-
in a few weeks of the time of going to press. Many places indeed
have not been visited by the writer since 1915, so that some condi-
tions described in the present tense may be things of the past now,
on account of the rapid development of this part of the state. Cur-
rent items in daily newspapers have been of considerable assist-
ance in keeping abreast- of the times, however.
The writer ior his associates) will be glad to receive construct-
ive criticisms from any source, so that if another edition of this
work is ever called for: or if. it should ever be incorporated into
a geographiv of the whole State, it can be made as complete and ac-
curate as possible.


(Figs. 3, 4, 37. Soil analyses 0, P.)
This includes the Cedar Keys archipelago in Levy County, the St.
Martin's Keys and other small rocky islands along the coast ot
Citrus and adjoining counties, and a narrow line. of barrier-beach
islands (the Anclote Keys, Long Key, etc.) lying from half a mile
to three or four miles off shore in Pinellas County; the whole cov-
ering perhaps not more than ten or twelve square miles.
The Cedar Keys islands are mostly of sand heaped up by the wind
(to a height of about 45 feet on Sea Horse Key), but there is con-
siderable calcareous material also, in the form of shell fragments.
Between them and the mainland the water is very shallow and dot-
ted with innumerable patches of salt marsh vegetation (fig. 3), and
much of the bottom is covered with oyster bars. There is a wagon
road from Cedar Key to the mainland which up to a few years
ago was rather unique in being submerged twice at day at high tide.
There were a few bridges across the deeper places, and between
them stakes were driven along the road so that it could be followed
when the tide was up.
The "keys" of Pinellas County are also very sandy, but seem to
have a larger proportion of shell material than the Cedar Keys
group, and there is more lime-loving vegetation. Dunes are not ex-
tensively developed.
Some climatic data for Cedar Keys and Tarpon Springs are given
in Table 19, in the general part of this report. The climate re-
sembles that of the rest of central Florida in having mild winters
and wet summers, but the Gulf of Mexico doubtless makes the tem-
perature more uniform than.it is in the interior. The rarity of kill-
ing frosts is indicated by the occurrence of black mangrove at Cedar
Keys and red mangrove in Pinellas County.
The principal vegetation types are the sparse coarse grassy vege-
tation characteristic of beaches and dunes, the salt marshes and
mangrove wamos (fig. '7). scrubby thickets difficult to classify;
and sandy hammocks: The sequence of the following- plant' list
cannot be regarded as very accurate, on account of .the writer's


limited explorations in the region, but it ought to give a person fa-
miliar with the species named a pretty fair idea of what the vege-
tation looks like.


Fig 3. Salt marshes :-n east side .:,f \V.a\ Key, al,:-ut !: mile n,:rth of Ce-
dar Key stati,-n. .'.it-h -ster shells in foresr,,iunIl and black iangr..'ve i .zi-
cLt I i bushes in middle distance. Apr'l .-, 2 9-- .

Fig 4. Palm savanna \eI. eaati, ,ll ,:n st:l .' r : r i duni,-- I .c,.nt:il infl many
shell fragm .ints ,i,, Long Ke. al,,-iut 2 nl:Is ns-,rth h ,f 'Pass-a-Grille. Pinellas
Co. M arch ii i,- i.,.





Sabal Palmetto
Pinus Caribaea
Pinus clausa
Juniperus Virginiana
Quercus Virginiana
Hicoria glabra?

Avicennia nitida
Rhizophora Mangle
Conocarpus erectus
Laguncularia racemosa
Quercus geminata
Persea littoralis

Smilax auriculata
Ipomoea Pes-Caprae
Ernodea littoralis

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Yucca aloifolia
Coccolobis uvifera
Batis maritima
Quercus myrtifolia
Scaevola Plumieri
Ilex vomitoria
Sophora tomentosa
Batodendron arboreum

Uniola paniculata
Juncus Roemerianus
Spartina glabra
Opuntia sp.
Andropogon glomeratus?
Munlenbergia filipes
Chamaecrista sp.
Oenothera humifusa
Eustachys sp.
Cassytha filiformis

Cabbage palmetto
Slash pine
Spruce pine
Live oak

Black mangrove

(Red) mangrove
White mangrove
Live oak
Red bay


Spanish bayonet

(Scrub oak)



Sea oats
(A grass)
Prickly pear
(A grass)
(A grass)
Partridge pea

(A grass)

Various situations
Various situations
Stationary dunes
Sandy hammocks

Mangrove swamps, and
scattered over marshes
-Mangrove swamps
Edge of salt water
Edge of salt water
Stationary dunes, etc.
Sandy hammocks

Scrubby thickets
Beaches, etc.

Various situations
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy marshes
Scrubby thickets
Beaches and dunes
Inner shores, etc.
Sandy hammocks

Salt marshes
Salt marshes
Old dunes, etc.
Dune hollows
Dune hollows
Thickets, etc.

Something like 987c of the trees and shrubs, but not so many of
the herbs, are evergreen.

Population and Industries.

Although there are no exact figures

for the population of such a small area, the density is probably above
the state average, owing to a world-wide tendency of people to con-

gregate along the coast (where the climate or topography does not
interfere) to engage in fishing, commerce, etc. In 1915 Cedar
Key town had Soo inhabitants and Pass-a-Grille (on Long Key)
109, which together would make about 90 persons per square mile,
even if there were no other settlements. About 70% of the popu-
lation of both towns was white.


Fish of \arioMus kinlls, oysterss amd slpionges are imlfportallL pro-
ducts. Celar for pencil ii'cd l vas formerly cut in con siderable
quantities at an near Cedar Key-, but the ;upply is nearly ex-
[lhasted no ]-. The cabbage palmetto is. or has been utilized for fiber
at Cedar Keys. A considerable part iof the piopuilatiocn makes a: liv-
ing by catering to sportsmen an I tourists., particularly at Pass-a-
Grille alnd other resorts in Pinellas Ccount y. There is very little ag-
ricilture, biit a fewi cattle are raised on some of the islands, and
there is said to be even a dairy on Lcong Key.


Figs. 5-7., soil analyses 1-5.)

This extends along the Gulf coast from \akuila Count to the
southern edge of Pasco. \with another area, entirely disconnected
from the rest but hardly disti inguishable from it in any wa\'y, farther
inland aloi-ng the \Vithlaccochlee River, mosItly in Sumter Ciounty.
Within our limits the coastal and interior portions are approxi-
mately equal in extent, together cov\'ering about 15-20 square miles.
There is nothing '.very similar farther south. or in an\y other state

Fig. 5. Scene on railroad (Seaboard Air Line), through the Gulf Ham-
mock about 4 miles southwest of Ellzey, Levy County, showing out-cropping
limestone, and telegraph poles braced because they are not planted very deep in
the rock. April 16, 191o.


The portion northwest of the Suwannee River was described in the
6th Annual Report, pages 302-309, and a few of the vegetation
types in Sumter County in the 7th.


Fig. 6. Hydro-electric power-house with 20-foot dam (built in 1911), on
\Vithlacoochee River about to miles below Dunellon. March 4, 1915.

Topography and Gcology. The region is mostly flat and less
than 75 feet above sea-level, and is underlaid throughout with a
hard limestone (Oligocene), that is exposed in innumerable boulder-
like or larger outcrops.* There are occasional irregular low sandy
ridges, scarcely distinguishable from parts of region No. 4, where
the depth to the rock is unknown. The coast is unlike any other oi
equal extent in the world, as far as known, in being bordered by
marshes instead of sandy beaches; the reason being apparently that
the slope of the ocean bottom here is so gentle as to practically eli-
minate wave-action on the shore, just as if there was a barrier beach
a few miles off shore. Stern-wheel steamers from the Suwannee
River ply the open Gulf from the mouth of that river to Cedar
Keys. The same limestone rock tlfat characterizes the region is said
to crop out on the bottom of the Gulf some distance out. Some of
the rivers have rocky shoals a few miles from their mouths, and
the one on the Withlacoochee is utilized for power purposes.

*See fig. 5. The soil survey of Hernando County shows one solid area
of rock outcrop in the eastern end of the county covering about half a square


Fig. 6. Several of the smaller streams have large limestone
springs at their heads. (Fig. 7.)

Fitr 7. La.r. lime-;tonr i no':rtlihcat if Hoimoac-a a. Citrun Count., Na.:, 23, i9O9.
Soils. (-)nly a small part of thi s region has been covered 1by soil
sur\ves ( those of the "Ocala area" and Hernando Count\y so that
it is hardly worth while to try to estimate the percentages of the
different types of soil. The principal series thus far named are the
"Leon", "Norfolk", '" Portsmiouth", "Hernando" and "Parki woodl",
and the texture classes, in order of area. are fine sand ( about one-
third of the total'), s.-amp, sand. imuck, fine sandy loam, tidal
marshl. and clay loam. Rock outcrop, presumably all limestone,
constitutes about one-third of I -. of the total area as mapped.
Where tlie sand is not too Ideep. particularly inl all the low\ hammocks
and sw\\amps. the in fluency of lime is plainly sho\\wn in the native V.eg-
etation. In a fe\\ such places there are dlepl)osits of )gypstnu on or
near tie surface No chemical analyses of the soils of this region
are available, but the\" are probably more calcareo us than the a\er-
age for central Florida.
S'cactltion;. The vegetation is mostly of the flatwooIs type. with
a few lime-lo\'ing plants, but lo\ calcareous hammocks are more
frequent and extensi ve in this region tihan in an\ otlier. \\'ith the
possible exception of the east coast. (The great Gulf Hamimock in
Levy Countyv..slho:wn in fig. =. is the most tV'pical examplee) 'The


hammocks often grade into swamps, which are more or less calca-
reous too. The coast is bordered by marshes, as already stated,
and there are quite a number of shallow ponds and wet prairies,
particularly in Sumter County.
The commonest plants are about as follows:



Pinus palustris
Sabal Palmetto
Taxodium distichum
Pinus Caribaea
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Elliottii
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Pinus Taeda
Acer rubrum
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus Virginiana
Juniperns Virginiana
Pinus clausa
Ulmus Floridana
Tilia pubescens?
Fraxinus profunda?
Quercus hybrida?
Quercus Michauxii
Quercus nigra
Celtis occidentalis?

Carpinus Caroliniana
Salis longipes?
Quercus Catesbaei
Magnolia glauca
Quercus cinerea
Quercus geminata
Fraxinus Caroliniana?
Persea pubescens
Osmanthus Americana
Ostrya Virginiana

Berchemia scandens
Rhus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Smilax laurifolia
Decumaria barbara
Ampelopsis arborea

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Ilex glabra
Cornus stricta?
Pieris nitida
Cholisma ferruginea
Quercus myrtifolia
Myrica pumila
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Asimina pygmaea?
Viburnum obovatum
Vaccinium nitidum
Quercus minima
Aralia spinosa
Sabal glabra
Itea Virginica
Rosa palustris
Hypericum fasciculatum

Long-leaf pine Pine lands
Cabbage palmetto Low hammocks, etc.
Cypress Swamps and low hammocks
Slash pine Low pine lands
(Pond) cypress Cypress ponds
Slash pine Low pine lands
Sweet gum Low hammocks, etc.
Short-leaf pine Low hammocks, etc.
Red maple Swamps and low hammocks
Magnolia Hammocks
Live oak Hammocks, etc.
Cedar Low hammocks, etc.
Spruce pine Scrub
Elm Low hammocks
Lin Hammocks
Ash Swamps
Water oak Low hammocks
Swamp chestn't oak Low hammocks
Water oak Low hammocks
Hackberry Low hammocks

Black-jack oak
Turkey oak
Live oak
Red bay

Rattan vine
Poison ivy
Yellow jessamine
Virginia creeper
Bamboo vine


(Hurrah bush)

(Scrub oak)
(Elbow bush)
(Oak runner)
Prickly ash

(Wild rose)
Sand myrtle

Low hammocks
Edges of swamps, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land, etc.

Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks

Low hammocks
Swamps and flatwoods
Sandy hammocks
Scrub, etc.
Ponds and swamps
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Ponds, etc.


Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss On trees
.\risti.la stricta Wire-grass Pine lands
Cladium effusum Saw-grass Wet prairies, etc.
Pteroicau I:.n undulhtum Black-root Flatwoods
Juncus Roemerianus (Rush) Brackish marshes
Sagittaria lancifolia WVet prairies, etc.
Iris versicolor (Blue flag) Wet prairies, etc.
Tillandsia tenuifolia Air-plant Low hammocks, etc.
I Euplati.lriimn capillifolium) Dog-fennel Low prairies, etc.
SauururIs c-rnuus Rich swamps
Spairtina Bakeri Switch-grass Around prairies, etc.
i.Piaropus crassipes) WVater-hyacinth Lakes and runs
Ca;-ir ',l(. h.;hrus corymbosus .Flatwoods
Pi;]iite.leria co.rdata TWampee Ponds and swamps
Nymphaea macrophylla Bonnets Ponds and streams
hlMes-,::,haeruin rugosum Marly flatwoods, etc.
Polypodiuum polypodioides (A fern) On trees in hammocks
I-hyrnch:,,,spra miliacea (A sedge) Low hammocks
Mitchella repens Turkey-berry Hammocks
Pistia spathulata VWater-lettuce Calcareous streams
Sen:.c:eI, libatus Rich swamps
Tubiflora Carolinensis Low hammocks
About 75% of the large trees and shrubs, but not so many of
the small trees and vines, are evergreen.
Fislicrics. The shallow rock-bottomed waters of the Gulf ad-
jacent to this region afford a favorable habitat for many kinds of
fish. Besides the ordinary commercial fisheries, the region is visit-
ed in \\inter by many persons from outside the state who fish for
sport. Homosassa is a favorite winter resort for Georgia fisher-
men. The sponges brought in to Cedar Keys and Tarpon Springs
(which are in other regions) must also be counted among the sub-
marine resources of the Gulf hammock region. The bird guano
industry is described in the chapter on animals.
Population. This region does not cover enough of Levy, Citrus,
Hernando and Pasco Counties to enable us to get any accurate
statistics of the coastal portion from census reports, but the por-
tion along the Withlacoochee River is approximately coextensive
with Sumter County. Previous to 1887, when it was reduced to its
present, size, that county included a considerable part of the lake
region also, so that census returns from it for earlier periods have
little geographical value. The number of inhabitants per square-
mile increased gradually from 9.1 in r89o to 14.1 in 1920. None
of the population is classed as urban by the U. S. census, but 20.4%
of the people were living in incorporated places at the time of the
state census of 1915. In 1910 about 66% of the population was
native white, 0.4% foreign white, and 33.7% of African descent.
At the same time 3% of the native whites over Io years old, none ot
the foreign whites, and 26.9% of the negroes were unable to read
and write.


The largest towns in the Gulf hammock region in central Florida
in 1915 were Crystal River, with 900 inhabitants, Center Hill, with
495, Coleman, 389, Bushnell 343, and Webster 307. In 1916 the
leading religious denominations among the white church members
in Sumter County were Baptist, southern Methodist, Church of
God, southern Presbyterian, and Church of Christ; and among tne
negroes, Baptist, African Methodist, Colored Methodist, Primitive
Baptist, and A. MA. E. Zion.
agriculture. For statistics of agriculture we. are practically con
pelled to depend on the returns for Sumter County, for the same
reason already given under population. The leading features of
agriculture in that county in 1889-90, 1899-1900, and Iog9-Io are
shown in Table r.
Agricultural Statistics of Gulf Hammock Region (Sumter Co.), 1890-1910.
|1889- 1899- 1 1909-1910
S 1S90 1900! Total | White IColor'd
Per cent of land ii, farms _--------- 22.8 21.8 20.5 19.4 1.1
Per cent of land improved -----__------ .2 5.5 I 6.1 5.5 0.7
Improved acres per inhabitant -4----- .3. 3 3 I 3.4 4.7 1.3
Inhabitants per farm ------ ------- 5.0 8.2 S.S 7.3 15.8
Per cent of farmers white _------- --- 83.6 81.0 --- I -
Per cent of farmers, owners -------- 8 89.7 I 82.4 83.4 79.0
Per cent of farmers, managers ___ ) 0.9 1 0.4 0.5 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants --_- 13.7 9.4 I 17.1 16.1 21.0
Average number of acres per farm 80.2 109.2 | 101.2 118.2 28.1
Average improved acres per farm ___ 21.9 29.0 I 30.4 33.8 I 19.7
Value of farm land per acre ($1) _------ ---- 6.201' 17.921 17.90 18.25
Value of farm land per farm -------- i 678| 18151 2121' 512
3450| \ | I
Value of buildings per farm ___- 205 4091 4721 13
Value of implements and machinery- 301 58 1231 1441 3-
Value of live-stock. poultry, etc. --- 1641 3381 480 --__--- ----
Number of dairy cows per farm _1.6 2.3 8.4 1 10.2 0.6
Number of other cattle per farm _____ 11.1 28.5 i 14.0 I---- _____
Number of horses per farm- 1----- 1.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.0
Number of mules per farm ___________ 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Number of hogs per farm -_______ 10.1 12.5 22.7 ---
Number of sheep per farm -_________ 2.1 I 1.5 2.6 I-----
Number of poultry per farm ________- 16.3 42.5 24.3 1
Expenditures per farm for fortilizer__- 17.00' 23.801 09.00 --------
Expenditures per farm for labor ---__ _____ 39.401 189.001
Expenditures per farm for feed ------__ ____I -_--- 42.50 ------
Annual value of crops per farm ------ I 8953-
288 389|' |
Annual value of animal products ) 881
_I ss -- - -
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--_ 0.77 0.861 3.261------ ___---
Expend. labor per acre improved _---__ __-__ 1.431 6.25[--
Value of crops per acre improved -- _I_ ____| 29.501


'1 le figures for dairy cows per average farm in 190o seem rather
excessive in comparison with other times and adjacent regions, and
ilmay indicate an error of some kind, or some exceptional condition
ii:ot explained by the census, such as a temporary accumulation of
cc-\s on one or two large farms.
Tlie leading crops in 1909, in order of value, as estimated from
the U. S. census of 1910, were "vegetables" (about 72% of the
total ), corn, oranges, grape-fruit, peanuts, hay, oats, sweet potatoes,
and sugar-cane (the value for the last representing the syrup made
from it). In 1913-14, according to the state agricultural depart-
ment, the order was cucumbers, tomatoes, oranges, cabbages, corn,
(string) beans, hay, peanuts, sweet potatoes, watermelons, sugar-
cane (syrup), velvet beans, and lettuce. But of course if the lime-
sink portion of the. county in the northeast corner, could be sepa-
rated this sequence might be changed a little. (There are no data
for 1917-18, because the agricultural enumerator for Sumter
County failed to make a report that year.)

This region extends from north of our limits through Levy
County to the Withlacoochee River a few miles west of Dunnellon,
where it seems to terminate abruptly. The greater part of it is in
Middle Florida (west of the Suwannee River), and it was described
in the 6th Annual Report, pages 310-313. 'About 300 square miles
of it lies within the area of the present report, and a small part
of it is covered by the soil survey of the "Ocala area."
It is a level region, perhaps nowhere more than 75 feet above
sea-level, with many shallow ponds and bays, and some sluggish
coffee-colored creeks. The ground-water is nearly everywhere close
to: the surface, and there are no known outcrops of limestone, so that
the soil is rather sour. Most of the soil in this region within
the limits of the "Ocala area" has been classed as "Leon fine sand.''
The vegetation is mostly of the palmetto flatwoods type, inter-
spersed with numerous cypress ponds, bays, and non-alluvial
swamps. The commonest plants recognizable in February, March
and April seem to be as follows:




Pinus palustris
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Elliottii
Pinus serotina
Acer rubrum

Quercus Catesbaei
Magnolia glauca

Smilax laurifolia
Smilax WValteri

Serenoa serrulata
Pieris nitida
Ilex glabra
Hypericuni fasciculatum
Aronia arbutifolia
Bejaria racemosa
Quercus minima
Cholisma fruticosa
Vaccinium nitidum

Tillandsia usneoides
Anchistea Virginica
Sarracenia minor
Pterocaulon undulatum
Erigeron vernus
Aristida stricta
Polygala cymosa
Andropogon scoparius?
Pontederia cordata
Eriocaulon compressum
Nymphaea macrophylla
Centella repanda
Bartonia verna
Syngonanthus flavidulus

Long-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Black pine
Red maple

Black-jack oak

Bamboo vine


(Hurrah bush)
Sand myrtle

(Oak runner)
(Poor grub)

Spanish moss
(A fern)


Ponds and bays
Ponds and swamps
Damp flatwoods

Drier spots
Swamps and bays

Swamps and bays
Swamps and bays

Flatwoods, etc.
Damp flatwoods, e
Flatwoods, etc.
Edges of swamps

On trees
Cypress ponds
Cypress ponds
Creeks, etc.

About 80% of the trees and shrubs are evergreen, about one-
third of the shrubs (both individuals and species) belong to the
heath family (Ericaceae) and allied families, and leguminous

plants are very scarce, as already observed in the portions of this
region situated farther north.
This region does not cover enough of any one county to enable
us to study it statistically, but it is evidently very thinly settled.
Lumbering, turpentining and grazing seem to be the leading indus-
tries, and several of the. shrubs could furnish a great deal of honey
if there were enough people living near to take advantage of the


(Figs. 8-II, 40. Soil analyses 6-9.)
T11ns extends from a few miles north of the northern boundary oi
the state southward through the western half of the peninsula to the
neighborhood of Tampa. Its southern limits are ill-defined, or ai
least insu efficiently explored, but there is at least one area of con-
siderable size in Hillsborough County, entirely disconnected from
tie rest. It reaches the coast in Pinellas County, which seems to
be the only place in peninsular Florida where any high land otnel
than dunes and shell mounds can be seen from the ocean. Its area
in central Florida is about 2,400'square miles.
Geolo/ y. The greater part of the area is underlaid at no great
depth by a comparatively pure limestone now regarded as of upper
Eocene age, which is practically the oldest rock outcropping in
Florida. Toward the southern end of the region this is supposed
to (dip southward and be overlaid by the Tampa limestone, of
Oligocene age. Extending nearly the-whole length of the region are
irregular deposits or pockets of hard-rock phosphate, apparently de-
ri\ed mostly from a re-working of the underlying rock by geological
processes, but containing many vertebrate fossils of Pliocene age,
and designated by geologists as the Alachua formation. Practically
the \whole surface is covered by several feet of incoherent sana
\\hose age is problematical, and there may be a stratum of clay
between the sand and rock in some places, not as extensive in
central Florida as farther north, however.
Tlhe und-erground water, tapped by many artesian wells at depths
usually from 50 to uoo feet below the surface, is good to drink.
but unsuited for boiler purposes on account of the large amount of
limestone dissolved in it. For this reason the Atlantic Coast Line
R. R. uses w'ater-softeners at its tanks at Ocala Junction, Dunnellov
and Croom, and rain water cisterns are used in some of the towns
Topogratphy and Drainage. The highest elevations known are a
little over 200 feet above sea-level. The topography is. everywhere
undulating, with many basins of various sizes and shapes, pre-
sumiably formed by the solution of underlying limestone. Some of
these have sinks or caves in their bottoms, some. are sandy and al-
\ays cdry. some are inundated part of the time, and some contain
permanent water, making ponds or lakes (fig. IO). The dry basins
~" ''''' L6 bci lUI~l


I r 9


'I~ L.I






^A,-i ,


are colmmn101est n11 rtl\ard, and the lakes most 1inuiierous in Hills-
boroughl Cou ltty, \\her e the grouild- 'water is nearest to thle surface.
This southern portion is not very v lifferenlt from the lake re-
gionl fartlier east.)
Streams and swamnps are rather scarce, oni account of most of
the draie ria ei ,ing siubterranean, through h the deep sand and cavern-
ous limestone. There are several large liicstoe springs, the
most note being Silver Spring i. S ), a few miles east of
Ocala. \\ which is one of the largest in the w\orldl.
Soils. The greater part of tlie soil is a cream-colored or liglin
buff fine-graille sand. \tar-ying toward white e or brown, and usually
quite uniform in texture to a depth of several or many feet. About
half of this region in central Florida is no\w covered by soil sur-
\e\s. from which it appears that by far the greater part of the soil?
are referable to the "Norfolk" series, with a scattering of "Gaines-
ville." "Hernando." "Leon." "Fellowship." "St. Lucie," etc
(which names however may mean little to persons not thoroughly
familiar \\ ith the publications of the LT. S. Bureau of Soils, to which
they are-. at present chiefly confined The leading texture classes
are fine sand (about 75:' of the total', sand, fine sandy loam,

Fig. 9. High pine. anii' \,itih scattered oaks the most conspicu,:us :one a
live oak. iC( QuCir s gmin i,. about 5 miles \\est of Inverness, Citrus County.
March 14, 1914.


Fig. o1. Shallow basin containing water, in open pine forests about 4 miles
west of Inverness. There is no fringe of bushes around this pond, a fact doubt-
less correlated with its considerable seasonal fluctuations, which make the
.edge of the area subject to fire variable. (Compare with fig. 22.) March 14,

Fig. II.
taken from a

Interior of rather open scrub about 5 miles west of Inverness,
point about 20 feet up a tree. March 14, 1914.



s\Ianip, and lcaiimyv sand. Scrub, or white sand, under the various
designations ,of "Norfolk sand with scrub oak vegetation," "Leon
fine sanl. scrIub phase," "St. Lucie sand," and "Leon fine sand,
rolling ,lphase." makes up about 2% of the total. A few mechanical
analyses are given in the general chapter on soils, but no reliable
chemical analyses seem to be available yet.

I cigciati'i. High pine land, with or without a lower story of
black-jack orI turkey oak or both, makes up at least three-fourths of
the total native vegetation. (See figs. 9, ro.) The oaks seem to
increase in numbers wherever the pines are cut off, perhaps chiefly
because that allows the ground to dry out a little more and they
prefer the driest soils. There are a good many hammocks, mostly
along rivers and on lake peninsulas and islands, and a few patches
of scrub (fig. 11), ranging in size from a few acres to several
square miles.
As there is more high pine land than all other vegetation com-
hined. a census of plants, especially herbs, for the whole, region
bears considerable resemblance to that for high pine land in the
"Ocala area." published in the 7th Annual Report (pages 166-167).
The colmmonest species seem to be as follows, except that herbs
that bloom in late summer and fall are probably not represented
as well as they should be, for lack of observations at that time of
year. The first tree listed is, or was originally, probably at least
fifty times as abundant as its nearest competitor.


Pinus palustris
Taxi:ni-i m dJi ticl .(111
Liqiiiiaml iar Styrnaeiflua
Pinus clausa
Ouercus Inurifolia
Quercus Virginiana
Magnolia grandiflora
Q ,I r I-i. falca t
Sabal Palmetto
Pinus Taeda
Tn x:,dti u m i nl:,ricai m iii
Persea Borbonia
A er r l.iblrim
Hicoria pgnl..rala
Hi oria i 11 Ia

Q '-"' u s Ca t es :a;'t- i
Qiuerei .si' ci ri- -r
Quercus geminata
Batodendron arboreum
Osmanthus Americana

Long-leaf pine
Sweet gum
Spruce pine
Live oak
Red oak
Cabbage palmetto
Short-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Red bay
Red maple

Black-jack oak
Turkey oak
Live oak

High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Hammocks, etc.
Richer uplands, northward
Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Rich uplands

High pine land
High pine land
High pine land and scrub
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks


Quercus Margaretta
(Diospyros Virginiana)
Cornus florida
Quercus Chapmani
Salix longipes?
Crataegus Michauxii?
Ilex opaca
Magnolia glauca

Vitis rotundifolia
Rhus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Vitis aestivalis
Decumaria barbara
Smilax auriculata

Serenoa serrulata
Cholisma ferruginea
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Myrica cerifera
Myrica punila
Vaccinium nitidum
Ceratiola ericoides
Quercus myrtifolia
Ceanothus microphyllus
Ilex glabra
Phoradendron flavescens
Asimina speciosa?
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Rhus copallina
Hypericum fasciculatum
(Baccharis halimifolia)
Asimina reticulata?
Quercus Catesbaei (shrubby)
Callicarpa Americana
Viburnum obovatum
Asimina augustifolia
Rhus Toxicodendron

Post oak

(Red) haw


Poison ivy
Yellow jessamine
Wild grape

High pine land
Old fields, etc.
Rich uplands
Sandy hammocks
Edges of swamps
High pine land, old fields, etc
Sandy hammocks, etc.

Low hammocks



(Scrub oak)

Sand myrtle
Black-jack oak
French mulberry

Poison oak


Various situations
Sandy hammocks
High pine land
Low hammocks. etc.
Pine lands
High pine land, etc.
Scrub, etc.
High pine land
Low pine land
On oaks mostly
High pine land
Ponds and swamps
Low places
High pine land
High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
High pine land
High pine land

Aristida stricta
Tillandsia usneoides
Kuhnistera pinnata
(Eupatorium compositifolium)
Eriogonum tomentosum
Andropogon Virginicus
Carphephorus corymbosus
Chamaecrista fasciculata?
Actinospermum angustifolium
Eupatorium aromaticum
Pterocaulon undulatum
Pteris aquilina
Croton argyranthemus
Cladium effusum
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Lupinus diffusus
Stillingia sylvatica
Psoralea canescens
Spartina Bakeri
Helianthus Radula
Stenophyllus WVarei
(Piaropus crassipes)
(Eupatorium capillifolium)

Spanish moss
(Summer farewell)


Partridge pea

(A fern)


Queen's delight


(A sedge)

High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
High pine land
High pine land and old field
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High piKge land
High pine land
High pine land
Along streams. etc.
High pine land
High pine land'
High pine land
High pine land
Around prairies, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
Lakes and streams
Low prairies, etc.

(and about 270 others)

About 83c% of the large trees and still more of the shrubs arc
evergreen, but Ericaceae (heath-like plants) are comparatively


scarce. and Leguminosae (leguminous plants) seem to be more
al)ulmlant here than in most other parts of central Florida,
w\licli indicates that the soil is not as poor as it might look to a
ile \\-comer who had spent most of his life in clayey regions.
The long-leaf pine is, and doubtless will long continue to be,
an important sou-rce of lumber, fuel,and naval stores. Near some
of tlie phosphate mines it haS been cut off pretty completely to
furnish heat for drying the phosphate rock, leaving a very des-
olate-looking country, but it comes back as fast as it is allowed
to. without t any assistance. The wire-grass and other herbage of
tlie pine lands afford an abundance of free pasturage for cattle.
Po-plation. This region does not cover enough of any one counni
to enable us to estimate the density of population very accurately.
but there-are probably at least thirty inhabitants per square mile.
It includes most of the settlements in Levy and Citrus Counties,
from the statistics of which we can approximate the composition
anil s,--me other characteristics of the population.
lThese two counties have no places with over 2,500 inhabitants,
land tllerefore no population classed as urban by the U. S. census, but
8.;7' of the people were living in the three incorporated towns in
1915. The largest towns in the region at that time were Tarpon
Springs, with 1938 inhabitants, Clearwater, with 1932, Inverness,
\\ith about 1000 (but not returned separately from the precinct in-
cluding the town), Dunnellon 979, Williston 800, Dunedin 429,
A.-nthony 406, and \ildwood 385. (The 1920 census puts Clear-
\ater ahead of Tarpon Springs, but returns for the smaller places
have not been published yet).
In Levy and Citrus Counties in 1910 about 50.I1% of the inhabit-
ants were native white, I% foreign white, and 49% negro. At the
same time 5.9% of the native whites, 14.8%0 of the foreign whites,
and o30% of the negroes were illiterate. The. illiteracy percentage
for foreign whites is considerably higher than it usually is in pri-
Imarily agricultural regions, and probably indicates a considerable
nulmbler of foreign-born unskilled laborers employed in the phos-
phate mines. The foreigners came mostly from Italy, Greece,
England, Germany, Canada and Sweden; but of course there is no
telling how many of them are fishermen and spongers, living on
the coast of these two counties, and therefore entirely outside of
the lime-sink region. There is a large colony of Greeks, supported



mostly by the sponge, business, at Tarpon Springs in Pinellas
In I916 the leading religious denominations among the whites
were Baptist, Methodist (southern), Church of Christ, Episcopalian
and Presbyterian; and among the negroes Baptist and Af-ican
Agriculture. Agricultural conditions here are. more like those of
the typical South or cotton belt than in most other parts of central
Florida. The ratio of farm land and improved land to total area
is indeterminate, for the same reason as density of population, but
in Levy and Citrus Counties in 19oo and 191o there, were 2.56 im-
proved acres per inhabitant, a lower figure than in a purely agricul-
tural region with American standards, and indicating the employ-
ment of a considerable part of the population in mining, lumbering,
fishing, etc. (This is especially noticeable in the case of the negroes,
who have less than one improved acre per inhabitant). Although
it is impossible to get any accurate data on the subject from existing
census reports, there are probably nearly as many families sup-
ported by phosphate mining as by farming, and even more may be
engaged in exploiting the forests for lumber and turpentine.
The salient features of agriculture for the last three census
periods previous to 1920 are shown in the following table.

The leading crops in these two counties in 1909, in order of value,
were "vegetables", peanuts, corn, cotton (both kinds), sugar-cane,
oats, sweet potatoes, oranges, hay, peaches, grape-fruit, pears, and
Irish potatoes. Peanuts had probably increased in relative impor-
tance since 1899, judging by the increase in number of hogs per



Agricultural Statistics of Lime Sink Region (Levy & Citrus Cos.) 1890-1910.

ISSD- 1899- I 1909-1910
_1890 19001 Total White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant --3.83 2.56 2.56 4.4 0.64
Inhabitants per farm ----- 10.0 12.7 17.1 10.7 45.2
Per cent of farmers white------------ --- 82.3 81.4
'er cent of farmers, owners ---------- 92.4 81.7 81.2 82.8 74.6
Per cent of farmers, managers ----- -- 2.8 0.7 0.8 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants ----- 7.6 15.5 18.1 16.4 25.4
Average number of acres per farm --- 136.3 109.0 159.0 180.0 68.7
Average improved acres per farm 38.8 32.7 43.9 47.3 28.8
Value of farm land per acre ($) ----- -- 5.40 7.36 7.25 8.63
Value of farm land per farm --__- 19 588 1170 1305 594
Value of buildings per farm --_ 1 2321 340 379 168
Value of implements and machinery-_ 46 381 98 113 -32
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. 253 358- 538 ------
Number of dairy cows per farm --- 4.9 I 3.0 3.3 3.6 1.4
Number of other cattle per farm 14.7 I 26.6 26.5 --- ---
Number of horses per farm ----- 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4. 1.2
Number of mules per farm ----- 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1
Number of hogs per farm -- --- 15.2 16.9 31.4 ---
Number of sheep per farm ---------- 1.8 3.0 1.1 --
Number of poultry per farm- ---- 28.2 27.3 1 29.8 | --- ---
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer___ 3.74 11.451 29.80 ------ ---
Ex enditnroe nor farm fnr labor I9 II A0 5 i

Expenditures per farm fpr feed --
Annual value of crops per farm ___

Annual value of animal products --
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved-__
Expend. labor per acre improved --
Value of crops per acre improved -



------ 36.60
S 6201
) 2221
.04 .68
.77 1.13
------ 14.101

In 1917-18, according to the state agricultural department,
the leading crops were sea-island cotton, peanuts, corn, sweet
potatoes, velvet beans, (including hay thereof), sugar-cane,
cucumbers, cow-peas (including hay), cabbage, oranges, (grass)
hay, oats, watermelons, pecans, Irish potatoes, peaches, egg-
plants, squashes, pears, castor beans (a "war crop," not raised
much before or since), tomatoes, string beans, upland cotton,
lettuce and plums. If we had data for the lime-sink portions of
Hernando, Pasco, Hillsboro and Pinellas Counties no doubt
oranges would take a much higher rank and peanuts and cotton
a lower. This region leads the rest of central Florida in the rel-
ative importance of peanuts, as it does in hogs.






(Figs. 12-14, 39, 41. Soil analyses 10-26, A, B, Q-U)
This has its greatest development in northern Florida, and its
southern terminus in Marion County, where it covers only about
250 square miles. Unlike the portions in Alachua, Bradford,
Columbia and Hamilton Counties, which occupy a slope between
the high flatwoods on the. east and the less elevated lime-sink region
on the west, the portion south of Orange Lake has sandy lime-sink
country on both sides of it, and is more or less interrupted, like a
row of fertile islands in a sea of sand. The difference in elevation
is not very marked, but the hammock belt averages a little higher
than adjacent portions of the lime-sink region.
Geology and Topography. In this belt the Ocala limestone, ot
uppermost Eocene age, comes to the surface in many places, and as
it is usually pure enough to dissolve readily, and considerably

ruarv, 1910.

elevated above the ground-water level, there are numerous sinks,
caves, and subterranean streams. The limestone is quarried in
several places (fig. 12), and mostly burned for lime. Some of the
hills are partly capped by a friable sandstone of uncertain age.


Surface streams are few and small, and probably none of them
connect above ground with anv river. Just north of our limits there
are a few large shallow lakes which become dry or nearly so at
times. The highest elevations in the region seem to be about 190
feet above sea-level.
Soils. By both chemical and physical tests the soils average the
best in central Florida, running pretty high in clay and in lime, as
can be seen from the analyses in another chapter. In the soil
survey of the "(Ocala area" they are referred to the "Gainesville,"
"Norfolk," "Fellowship" and "Leon" series, and the texture classes,
in order of area, are loamy sand, sandy loam, sand, and clay loam,
the first constituting about 38% and the last about I %. Scrub
seems to be entirely absent.

Fig. 13. Semii-calcarecous hammock about a mile southeast oc Ocala.
13, 1915.


'ycfcta1ion. The vegetation types of the southern extremity
of the region were described in considerable detail and mapped in
the 7th Annual Report. In order of area the principal types seem
to be high pine land, red oak woods ( fig. 4). high calcareois (or
semi-calcareous) hammocks (fig. 13), short-leaf pine and hickory
woods (this mostly north of the "Ocala area),. sandy hammocks



(fig. 29), and low calcareous hammocks. The commonest plants
are about as follows:


Pinus palustris
Quercus fal.cata
Sabal Palmetto
Pinus Taeda
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus laurifolia
Persea Borbonia
Quercus Michauxii
Hicoria alba
Quercus nigra
Hicoria glabra?
Tilia pubescens?
Quercus Virginiana
Fraxinus Americana
Celtis occidentalis?

Cornus florida
Crataegus Michauxii?
Ostrya Virginiana
Cercis Canadensis
Carpinus Caroliniana
Osmanthus Americana
lex opaca
Batodendron arboreum

Rhus radican's
Smilax lanceolata
Vitis rotundifolia
Gelsemium sempervirens
Bignonia crucigera
Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Phoradendron flavescens
Serenoa serrulata
Myrica pumila
Myrica cerifera
Callicarpa Americana
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Ilex vomitoria
Cornus stricta?

Tillandsia usneoides*
Aristida strict
Pteris aquilina
Tubiflora Carolinensis
Mitchella repens
(Eupatorium compositifolium)
Oplismenus setarius
Dryopteris patens?
Smilax pumila
Eriogonum tomentosum
Houstonia rotundifolia
(Cassia Tora)
(Gnaphalium purpureum)


Long-leaf pine
Red oak
Cabbage palmetto
Short-leaf pine
Sweet gum

Red bay

Water oak
Live oak


(Red) haw




Poison ivy
(Wild smilax)
Yellow jessamine
Virginia creeper


French mulberry


Spanish moss
(A fern)

(A grass)
(A fern)


High pine land
Rich uplands
Hammocks and fields
Various situations
Sandy hammocks
Richer hammocks
Richer hammocks
Rich uplands
Low hammocks. etc.
Sandy hammocks
Rich hammocks
Various situations
Rich hammocks
Rich hammocks

Rich uplands
SOld fields, etc.
High hammocks
Calcareous hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks

Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.

High hammocks, etc.
High pine land, etc.
Swamps, etc.
Low hammocks

On nearly all trees
High pine land
High pine land
Calcareous hammocks
Old fields, etc.
Calcareous hammocks
Sandy hammocks
High pine land
High pine land, etc.
Roadsides, etc.
Cultivated fields

*About ten times as abundant as the next.


Only about 65%o of the trees are evergreen, the. lowest figure
of any region in this latitude in Florida. Ericaceous shrubs are
rather scarce, as in other calcareous regions, and leguminous plants
fairly well represented, especially among the weeds. Not much use
seems to be made of the native vegetation, except the pines for
lumber and turpentine, almost any of the trees for fuel, and the
Spanish moss for mattresses. In the early days the forest was
simply an encumbrance on the land, that the farmers had to get
rid of with much labor. At present it is customary in this and
other hammock regions in Florida to let cabbage palmettos grow in
orange groves and other cultivated ground wherever they will (see
fig. 14). Some of these may be remnants of the original forest,
but probably most of them have been planted by birds, and are
left because they indicate hammock land and are ornamental and
do not take much light and nourishment away from the crops.

Fig. 14. Cabbage palmettos in cultivated field on hillside about 2 miles
south of Ocala. March 8, 1914.

Population. As this region covers only a small part of Marion
County, and contains a city of considerable size, it is not possible
to get any accurate information about the rural population from
census reports: but in number of inhabitants per square mile and



in proportion of negroes it is unquestionably above the average for
central Florida. In the whole county in i91o there were 387o0
native whites, 1.3% foreign whites, and 60.7% negroes. The pre-
dominance of negroes is characteristic of many other fertile regions
in the South, but in all such places the whites tend to congregate
in the towns and cities, making the number of the two races more
nearly equal there. In Ocala there were in 1910 and 1915 almost
exactly as many whites as blacks, and in some of the smaller towns
the whites are decidedly in the majority.
The incorporated cities and towns in 1915 were Ocala, witli
5,370 inhabitants, Citra, with 400; McIntosh, 206; Reddick, 191;
and Belleview, 182. The 1920 census showed a slight decrease mi
Ocala, probably due mainly to the migration of negroes from all
over the South to northern manufacturing cities during the recent
world war.
In 188o (the latest year for which we have such data), when the
population of Marion County was still more concentrated in the
hammock belt than it is now, about 61/c of the inhabitants of the
county were natives of Florida, 20% of South Carolina, and 77 of
Georgia, with Alabama, North Carolina and Virginia ranking next.
Less than 0.7%o were. foreign-born, the countries most largely
represented being England, Germany, Ireland, Canada and Sweden.
Thirty years later the proportions had changed but little, the leading
nationalities being English, German, Canadian, Scotch, Russian
(mostly Jeews?), Italian, Swedish, and French.
In 19Io the percentage of illiteracy in Marion County was for
native whites over 'o years old 1.5, for foreign whites 1.7. and for
negroes 19.6. In the city of Ocala at the same time the census
enumerators found only one native white person over o1 who could
not read and write, while 6.3% of the foreigners and 5% of the
negroes were illiterate.
The leading religious denominations in the county in 1916 were,
among the whites. Baptist, southern Methodist. northern Metho-
dist(?)* southern Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Church of Christ,
Disciples of Christ, and Roman Catholics. Among the negroes,
Baptist, African Methodist, northern Methodist (?) A. M. E.
Zion, and colored Methodist.

*See explanation of statistical difficulties in the general chapter on re-
ligious denominations.


.411ric t/ rc. On account of it; fertile soil this is pr-obably tle.
most extensively cultivated region in central Florida, although the
percentage of impro' ed land cannot be estimated, for the reasons
already given. But as it probably contains most of the farms in
Mariio Couitt, tlie statistics for the average farms i1 that coLunty
ought to represent co'l liti:lns in tlhe haummI ck belt pretty well. (If
we should add to-or subtract from, as the case m lav be-the
Marion a veraes the differences between them and those for Levy
and Citrus Counties already given, \e \ woul l probably cnomlee still
nearer to tile actual conditio-ns in the hammo-ck belt, for outside of
that belt nearly all tile farmin1,g iIn thle county is done iI the lime-
sink region, i.
In 1850 about half the farms iI central Florida were in Marion
,Co.unty, a.nd tlie average farm (or plantation: ii the county had
169 acres. o:f whliich 34.8 were improved. Its land and build ings
were worth $.o55, its implements and machinery $94, and its live-
stock $51. In the n e ext ece there \as a great expanisi:n, and
the amount :of ill:rvedl land increased l mre than 70';--. In 1860,
wlheln the anite-bellum plantation system ',,of the South had I reached
its heights tlie average Mariilon Coullnt planter ovwnledI 45g acres,
of which 133.7 were improved,. land anId Ibuildiiings worth $4.620,
implements and machinerv'$2o5, aln live-stock $ 1,04. At this time
considerable sugar w\as being rod1 uced,_ an industry made possible
by the abundance of cheap labor, which does not exist ii Florida
noli-,v. Tle Civil \War of -course mad le mlany former slaves farm
pro-iprietors, andI thus reduced the average ;ie of farms considler-
ably: but unfortunately the census did no-t make any distinction
bet ,.eeln white and colored farmers until I 00. Bv 1880 the aver-
age farm iI the county had shrunk to practically the same size
as iI the pioneer days of 1850. having 1 Sv acres. With 36.8 im-
proved. The land and Iuildings were then worth $c03, implelmelnts
and mnichinery $31, and li' e-stcck $204. The expenditure for fer-
tilizers the previous : year \was 86 cents per farm or a little over
2 cents ;per iniproved acre.
Agricultural conditions at the next three U. S. census es are
shown iIn more detail in Table 3.

"But for this difficult tea and silk could probably be produuced here too.



Agricultural Statistics of Middle Florida Hammock Belt (Marion Co.), 1890-1910.
1889- 1899- 1009-1010
S 18900 1900j Total I White lColor'd

Improved acres per inhabitant -------
Inhabitants per farm------------
Per cent of farmers, white -----_----
Per cent of farmers, owners ---------

Per cent of farmers, managers --------
Per cent of farmers, tenants -
Average number of acres per farm
Average improved acres per farm
Value of farm land per acre ($) -----
Value of farm land per farm

Value of buildings per farm-----
Value of implements and machinery-__
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. --
Number of dairy cows per farm ---
Number of other cattle per farm --
Number of horses per farm ---__
Number of mules per farm ---------
Number of hogs per farm ----_
Number of sheep per farm _---
Number of poultry per farm -/

Expenditures per farm for fertilizer-_
Expenditures per farm for labor __
Expenditures per farm for feed ----
Annual value of crops per farm -----

Annual value of animal products ___--
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved---
Expend. labor per acre improved ---__
Value of crops per acre improved ----












3.24 6.13
12.5 9.2
86.7 87.8

2.2 3.7
11.1 8.5
[01.5 | 151.0
40.5 56.5
14.21 15.24
1441 2295

462 6871
104 1521
454 ___
2.6 3.8
13.7 I-
1.5 1.5
0.4 0.6
17.7 ----
3.5 ____-
30.2 ______

12.551 67.601
50.301 146.001
--___- 26.101
1 8531
376| -
|I 173
.43| 1.67
1.74) 3.62
---- 21.00






The leading crops in 1909 were "vegetables," corn, oranges,
peanuts, hay, oats, grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, cane syrup, cowpeas,
cotton (both kinds) and Irish potatoes.
In 1913-14 the order was, oranges, cantaloupes, sea-island cot-
ton, watermelons, corn, velvet beans, lettuce, tomatoes, (string)
beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cabbage, upland cotton, cucumbers,
cowpeas, cane syrup, (grass) hay, squashes, oats, egg-plants; and
in 1917-18 corn, sea-island cotton, peanuts, oranges, sweet potatoes,
Irish potatoes, string beans, syrup, velvet beans, (including hay),
upland cotton, watermelons, cowpeas, (and hay thereof), grass
hay, tomatoes, lettuce, oats, cabbage, cantaloupes, cucumbers, and
The leading animal products in 1909 were hogs, beef cattle,
poultry and eggs, milk, butter, wool, and honey.



(Figs. 15-17. Soil analyses V, \.)
In the Third Annual Report this was treated as an outlier of
the nliddle Florida hammock belt, but it differs from the southern
extension of that in Marion County in being much less calcareous
and more hilly, and in the entire absence of red oak (the commonest
hardwood tree around Ocala), and it seems to merit separate treat-
menit. It occupies high land about equally distant from the
\\ithlacoochee River and the Gulf coast, as if it was an erosion
remnant left by the deepening of the valley of that river in pre-his-
toric times. The portions immediately north and- south of Brooks-
ville have been called Annuttalaga and Choocochattee. hammocks
respectively, but they are considerably larger and more diversified
than typical hammocks. The area of the belt is about 200 square
Geology and Topography. The Chattahoochee formation, an
impure limestone of Oligocene. age, is exposed around Brooksville,
and may underlie the whole area. It is pretty well covered up,
though, by clay (utilized for brick-making at Brooksville) and sand.
The topography is decidedly hilly, for Florida. Some of the hills
are among the highest in the state, though no reliable measurements
of them are available yet. The Atlantic Coast Line depot at Brooks-
ville is said to be 126 feet above sea-level, and the business portion
of the town must be about 100 feet higher, and other elevations
near by may be. still higher. Blanton, in Pasco County, has an
altitude of Io6 feet by the railroad survey, and some of the hills
a fe\\ miles northwest of there the writer would judge from walking
over them to be nearly 200 feet higher. Mirror Lake, near the
abandoned station of Lenard, a few miles northeast of Blanton,
was claimed in an advertisement a few years ago to be 330 feet
above sea-level; but the altitude of Lenard is given as I '5 feet, and
the lake does not appear to be much higher than that, probably
not over 50 feet higher.
On account of the calcareous nature of the country rock, and the
still purer limestone of older formations below it, much of the
drainage is subterranean. There are a number of lime-sinks, the
best known of which is the Devil's Punchbowl, in the woods a few
miles northwest of Brooksville, a conical depression perhaps 1oo
feet in diameter and 50 feet deep.' Apparently no streams from



this region reach the ocean by open channels. There are several
small creeks and branches among the hills, but as far as known
they all flbw into sinks, or disappear in the sand at or near the edge
of the surrounding lime-sink region. (This phenomenon recalls
conditions in the arid regions of the southwestern United States,
where there are many well-watered mountain ranges surrounded by
deserts which no streams cross.) The permanent ground-water
level is in most places far below the surface. A well about 40 feet

Fig. 15. Looking north up hill about 75 feet high, on road from Brooks-
ville to Blanton, about a mile south of Spring Lake, Hernando County. The
most conspicuous trees are short-leaf pine (Pinus Tacda), and sweet gum.
March 9, 1915.


Fii 16 Scene in Choocochattee Prairie, about 2 miles south-southeast of
Brc.joksilck-, looking toward the sink which drains it. A few sheep can be
seen ~rra.:ing. Feb. II, 1909.

Ibeli\ the summit of a hill a few miles northwest of Brooksville,
and about 5o feet deep, was observed mi March, 1915, to be dry to
the Ibottnom.
There are quite a number of lakes, some of them small and
permanent,. much like those in the lake region to be described pres-
entl.y alnd others large and shallow, becoming prairie basins in
dlrv seasons :or whenever their lime-sink outlets are sufficiently free
from obl1structions. (Figure 16 shows the sink end of such a basin,
a type imnore frequent in the. Middle Florida hammock belt and
Tallahassee red hills.*) To the former class belongs Mirror Lake,
previously nlentioned. It covers a few acres near the top of a hill,
a11d if the water should rise only five feet higher than it was in
April. I!c-)o whichc h was probably about the average stage), it would
run over alnd down into a dry sandy valley about 50 feet lower.
The lake d-oubtless has a relatively impervious stratum of clavy
tiunder it.
Soils. IlMost of the soil seems to be above the central Florida
average in fertility. In the most typical portions, within a few miles

*This t.-pe of lake basin was discussed at considerable length by Dr. Sell-
ards in the 3rd Annual Report, pp. 43-76, pl. 6-9. (Reprinted with a few ad-
dition- in the 6th Annual Report.) See also 6th Ann. Rep., p. 271.




of Brooksville, it is usually rather loamy and retentive of moisture,
but in Citrus and Pasco Counties it is drier and sandier, though
often brownish in color. The central portion of this belt is covered
by the soil survey of Hernando County, published in 1915. In that
by far the greater part of the soils are referred to the "Hernando"
series (a name apparently not used elsewhere, so that it means
little to the reader). Other series in order of area are the "Gaines-
ville," "Norfolk," "Fellowship," "Portsmouth," "St. Lucie," and
"Leon." The prevailing texture classes are fine sandy loam (about
6o0), fine sand, loamy fine sand, and stony clay loam. The scrub,
here called "St. Lucie fine sand," makes up about 3% of the total.
Two chemical analyses are given in the general chapter on soils.
Vegetation. Hardwood forests, or mixed hardwood and pine
cover hundreds of acres in'the neighborhood of Brooksville (fig.
17), but toward the extremities of the region hammocks are chiefly
confined to depressions, and the uplands are mostly high pine land.
The vegetation is decidedly less tropical than that of some places
farther east in the same latitude, and nearly all the plants range
at least as far north as Georgia. The short-leaf or loblolly pine
(Piiis Tacda), which is probably the most characteristic tree of

Fig. 17. Part of Choocochattee Hammock in process of clearing, about
3 miles southeast of Brooksville. Trees mostly live oak and sweet gum. March
9, 1915.


the whli:le So.uthi. gr.-nvs nearly thlrotuilghout this region, but no far-
ther south. The reason for all thlsi is not apparent, but may be
connected with geological historyF in some way.* The scrub is
nearly all in one patch, a few miles south of Brooksville, and has
not been ex.,amined l, the writer. The absence of the red oak has
been imenitionled above, and the species of trees seem to be fewer
than in the MIiddle Florida lhaminick belt.
Nearly all the plants seem to be of fairly common and widely
distributed species (as in the Tallahassee red hills of northern
Florida.*i and nany other places \\here short-leaf pines abound),
and the almost abundant seem to: be as follows:




Pinus palustris
Pinus Taeda
L iq ( 1 a nimbar St. raci flua
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus Virginiana
Que-rcuis Micnauixii
Hiceoria glabra?
Qu ercus nligra
Ulmi.u alata
Tilia pIulb-esce- ?
Celtis occidlrentali?.
Ulnmis Fl'rigdana
(Diosr.pyros \irginiana)
Persea Borbonia

Querc.is Ca tes baei
Carrpinus Caroliniana
Cornus florida
Ilex opaca
Osmanthus Americana
Batodlendlron arboreum
Quercus geminata
C'otrva Virgiriiana
Magnolia glauca
Serenoa serrulatat '

Gelsemium sempervirens
Vitis roturnlitfolia
Rhius ra'licaris
(Rubus trivialis?)
Bignonia crucigera

Long-leaf pine
Short-leaf p'nel
Sweet gum
Livge ,ak
''ater oak
Li n
Red bahy
Black-jack oak
I ror,nw,,ood
Dog w aoo i
Srparkleber ry
Live oak
Ba y


Yellow jes-amine.
FP>iolo- i n i v
Dew herryv

High pine land, etc.
Various situations
Low hammocks
Various situations
Low hammocks
Old fields

High pine land
Low hammocks
Sandy hammocks
Sandy uplands
Along streams

Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Old fields, etc.

*The similarity ,of Hernandlo County ('vhich then included the present ter-
ritory of Citrus an-d Pasco as well to some places much farther north was
coinmmented on nearly forty years aego hb Dr. Eugene A. Smith (Tenth Cen-
sus U. S.. vol. 6, p. 23 18. 18.4).
tSee 6th Ann. Rep., p. 277.
t.\ form with ascendling or erect trunk, sometimes ten feet tall.




Serenoa serrulata
Viburnum semitomentosum
Myrica cerifera '
Viburnum obovatum
Myrica pumila
Phoradendron flavescens
Vaccinium nitidum
Azalea nudiflora?
Cholisma ferruginea
lex glabra
Callicarpa Americana

Tillandsia usneodies
Aristida strict
Carphephorus corymbosus
Eriogonum tomentosum
Tillandsia tenuifolia
Pterocaulon undulatum
Pontederia cordata
Helianthus Radula
Polypodium polypodioides
Houstonia rotundifolia
Pteris aquilina
Chamaecrista fasciculata
(Gnaphalium purpureum)
Tubiflora Carolinensis
(Eupatorium capillifolium)
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Salvia lyrata
Smilax pumila
Mitchella repens
Eryngium prostratum?

French mulberry

Spanish moss

(A fern)
(A fern)



Pine land, etc.
Low hammocks
Pine lands
Pine lands
Sandy hammocks
Pine lands
Hammocks, etc.

Hammocks, etc.
Pine lands
Pine lands
High pine land
Low hammocks
Pine lands
Pine lands
On trees in hammocks
Pine lands, etc.
Pine lands
Pine lands
Fields and roadsides
Low hammocks
Lake prairies, etc.
High pine Land
Lake shores, etc.

About So% of the large trees and shrubs, but not so many of thi
small trees and vines, ard evergreen. This difference is probably
due to the fact that the small trees and vines are chiefly confined
to hammocks with richer soil, as in regions 2 and 5.

Population. In attempting to estimate the density of population
we encounter the same difficulty as in most of the regions previously
described, for this belt does not cover as much as half of any one
county. But there must be at least forty persons per square mile.
As this is evidently the most populous part of Hernando and
Pasco Counties, the figures for those counties may represent
the composition of the population fairly well. In 1910 they
had 56.5% of native whites, 1.6% of foreign whites, and
41.8% of negroes. The percentage of illiteracy (in the population
over Io) was 3.1 among the native whites, 8.9 among the. foreign
whites, and 31.2 among the negroes. The last is the highest fig-
ure found in central Florida, and that for foreign whites is rather
high, too, but both may be due to a large number of unskilled la-
borers in the phosphate mines of Hernando County, which are en-
tirely outside of the hammock belt.


The largest towns are Dade City, with 1296 inhabitants in Jan-
uary, 1920, Brooksville, with ioI and Zephyrhills (formerly Ab-
bott), with 577.
In I88o nearly one-third of the inhabitants of Hernando County
\were from other states, chiefly from Georgia, South Carolina,
Alabama, North Carolina, and Virginia, in the order named.
The leading religious denominations among the white people in
1916 were Baptist, southern Methodist, Roman Catholic, northern
1Methodist (?), and southern Presbyterian; and among the negroes,
Baptist, African Methodist, and northern Methodist (?). The
Catholics seem to be chiefly concentrated near the western edge ol
the region in Pasco County, where there are several places whose
names begin with "San" or "St." founded about forty years ago,
and two Catholic schools.
Agriculture. The fertile soil attracted farmers at an early period,
and in 1850 Benton County (which corresponds with the present
Citrus, Hernando and Pasco) had 82 farms, averaging 167 acres
apiece, with 32.4 improved, land and buildings worth $966, imple-
ments and machinery $82, and live-stock $802. No returns were
received from this county in 186o, and those of 1870 are probably
not very accurate, but by 188o the farms had increased in number
to 589, and diminished in size to r35 acres with 26.2 improved, land
and buildings worth $623, implements and machinery $16.8o, and
live-stock $378. No fertilizer was reported as used there in 1879.
The cattle and hogs probably ranged mostly in the. open pine lands
o-f the lime-sink region, as they do now.
Even yet farming in Hernando and Pasco Counties is chiefly
concentrated in the hammock belt, so that the following table, based
on the returns from these counties, ought to represent conditions in
this region from 1890 to 1910 pretty well.



Agricultural Statistics of Hernando Hammock Belt (Hernando & Pasco Cos.)
1s889- 11899- 1909-1910
18901 19001 Total I White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant -------- 3.05 2.24 1.74 2.72 0.37
Inhabitants per farm --------------- 6.03 10.2 12.9 8.2 64.6
Per cent of farmers white ------------ ---- 87.3 91.6 ----- --
Per cent of farmers, owners ---- -- 85.1 83.8 84.5 76.6
Per cent of farmers, managers ------1.5 1.9 2.0 1.2
Per cent of farmers, tenants -- 7.5 13.4 14.3 13.5 22.2
Average number of acres per farm ---- 97.3 74.5 76.8 77.0 72.6
Average improved acres per farm 18.5 22.8 22.4 22.3 23.6
Value of farm land per acre ($) ----- --- 7.92 19.65 19.75 18.45
Value of farm land per farm- ) 590 1518 1520 1340
2650| \
Value of buildings per farm I-- 290 494 523 162,
Value of implements and machinery___ 271 46 87 87 51
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. 1891 330 473 ----- --
Number of dairy cows per farm __---- 2.7 I 2.5 1.6 -----------
Number of other cattle per farm ---- 10.4 24.3 22.1 -- -
Number of horses per farm ----------- 1.0 1.4 1.5- -
Number of mules per farm ----------- 0.1 0.1 0.2 --- ---
Number of hogs per farm ------------ 11.3 16.0 22.6- ---
Number of sheep per farm ---------- 0.8 1.6 1.6 ----- ---
Number of poultry per farm ------ 21.3 29.0 26.4 ----- ----
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer-__ 7.651 9.60 32.30 ----------
Expenditures per farm for labor _---- __--- 34.40 62.00 ---- ----
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- ---I ----- 36.80----- ----
Annual value of crops per farm __---_ 473 ---- ---
168 378 1 1
Annual value of animal products _.---- 123 ------ -----
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--- .421 .42 1.44 ----- -----
Expend. labor per acre improved ----- --- 1.51 2.75 -- --
Value of crops per acre improved ---- ----- 21.10 --- ------

The leading crops in 1909, by the U. S. census, were "vegetables,"
corn, oranges, sweet potatoes, cane syrup, tobacco (mostly near
Dade City), grape-fruit, peanuts, and strawberries..
In 1913-14, according to the state agricultural department, sweet
potatoes, oranges, corn, grape-fruit, tobacco, cowpeas, (including
hay), syrup, velvet beans (and hay), peanuts, (string?) beans, and
watermelons; and in 1917-18, sea-island cotton, corn, oranges,
grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, syrup, peanuts, upland cotton, cowpeas
(and hay), velvet beans (and hay), castor beans, watermelons,
peaches, and Irish potatoes.


(Figs. 18-22, 35, 36, 38. Soil analyses 37-45. C-E, J-IM.
Tliis is tie largest and ini somle respects tie most interesting
region in ceiitral Florida, with an area of about 4,000 square miles.
It extends along the axis or "backbone" of the peninsula from Clay
Couiity to DeSoo. County, anld has Ino: counterpart in any other
state, though'there is a small lake region in \Vest Florida ( describ-
ed in tie 6th Annual RI report i that resembles it ill some particulars.
Gcolo,/y. Geologists have mapped most of the area as underlaid
by Upper Oligocene strata, but that is largely hypothetical, for ex-
posure of fossiliferous rock are rare. There are also patches, belts
or pockets of Miocene and Pliocene formations in several places,
mostly not far from the St. John's River and its tributaries. Rock
Spring, in O(range Count' fig. 18 is of interest as being the local-
ity where the first Miiocene fossils \\ere found in Florida.* The
vegetation in niany lo\\ places near lakes and rivers seem to indi-
cate limestone or marl near the surface, and there are a few large
limestone springs in 'Volusia. Seminole, Orange alnd Lake Counties.
On the summit of Iron i\Moluntain there is a little ferrugino11us
sandstone or conglomerate, a kind of rock common on non-calca-
reous uplands in the coastal plain from New Jersey to Texas. hut
rare in peninsular Florida. A hard sandy clay, usually pinkish or
mottled (but bright red around Lake Wales in Polk Countv).
seems to be nearly everywhere present on the uplands. though nat-
ural exposures of it are scarce, for it is usually overlaid by a fe\w to
several feet of loose sand. This clay is used in nmaln places for road-
surfacing material, as is some of the liarl. Still purer clays are
used for brick-making at Whitney, and some kaolin is minded ilear
O(kahuipka. There are vast deposits of peat in all the counties
(described in some detail in the 3d Annual Report bor,-ering the
larger lakes and rivers and completely filling many" of the smaller
lake basins. One or t\o of the peat bogs in Lake County are rich
in diatoms, and have been used ii a small way for "infusorial
Topoiralihy. The Ockla\vaha and St. John's Rivers are border-
ed by flatx\oods sometimes several miles wide, differing little from

*See E. A. Smith, Am. Jour. Sci. 12T:309. April. iSSi ; Tenth Census U. S.
6:190. 1884; Dall & Harris. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 84:125. 18o2; Matson &
Clapp. 2nd Ann Rep. Fla. Geol. Sur\. 114. io99.



the flatwoods regions described elsewhere in this report; but most
of the region is rather hilly, with topography something like that of
the lime-sink region but on a larger scale. The highest known ele-
vation in the State is Iron Mountain in Polk County, about 325 feet,
and there are probably several other points above 300, though we

C K "

Fig. 18. Rock Spring, Orange County. The water rushes out audibly
from the base of a limestone cliff.about 15 feet high. Feb. 11, 1915.


Fi.s. 19. A small lake alount a mile v.e.t of \\'est Apripka. Lake Countl',
in a kbain o,\er 13lo feet deep amn:.- sanly hills. Surrotilmding vegetation all
high iz in e land1. March 9, 19141.
have no definite data on tha t poit yet. In the southern part of
Lake C:.ount\' there are hills that rise eewle higher al,:bove the lake-
nearest them than Iron MounIdtain di:Joes. i'See fig. 19.' *
There are a few dryir funnel-shaped dlepressionsll. suggestinlg lime-
sinks. in the uplands of O)ra le and Polk Lounties, hut it has lno1
been del:mo.nstrated that the \\ere forml:. ed bl so:,lu1ti: on. There is
said to:., be some lime-sink c,:.ountr en-, the \vest side of Lake G(eor.ge.
\\~Iich the writer r has inot vet visited. The scrubl areas described
farther o:n i are thought by so:lme tio, represent ancient dunes, like
those of tlie east coast. but their topography is not typical Iune
toporapihy at all. However, it is q]Luite possib le that the \\ind il has
imov,:ed the surface sands a little at a time through man\ celtulries
and thus rounded off the hills and liollo.-\\s.
The i:mo.st striking characteristic -of the region, and:l that \vhicli
contributes most to its scenic beauty,. is its lakes. several thousand
in number. of all sizes fronm a tfew\ rod-: to several miles in Idiameter.
Some are traversed lv or connect with rivers. while some have nlc
'"An ad'vertisingz h,.:.:klet i issued a few nmi:ntl ag:, Lv the Lake C:.o nt;.
Chamllber of Commerce i andl pail for Lyv the Countv Ciommisisio:ner;). which h
contains. a larger pr:opo:rtio:n of facts than manv publications of its kind, Ci\es
the altitude of Sugsar LO.Af Mountain. north of Minneola, as 312 feet. which
seem. reas,' iable. I See chapter on topography. farther :,n.)


outlet. They are, comparatively deep, and never go dry, though they
may fluctuate a few feet from one year to another with the amount
of rainfall. Many of the smaller ones at higher elevations beai
evidence, in the shape of young pine trees around their shores, ot
being a little lower now than they were a generation ago. Sec
fig. 22). This may be due to a permanent lowering of the ground-
water level by numerous artesian wells with outlets at lower levels.
Unlike those in the lime-sink region and hammock belts, none of the
lakes are known to have any subterranean outlets.
Streams are not very numerous, for most of the rainfall sinkFs
almost immediately into the deep sand which covers the uplands.
They are nearly all sluggish and coffee-colored,. The St. John's anO
Ocklawaha Rivers are navigable for small steamboats all the \\ay
through the lake region, and being bordered by tropical-loo..king
vegetation, are favorite scenic highways.

"HM _

Fig. 20. Lake Alfred, a clear lake in the highlands of Polk County. -shiw-
ing a fringe of maiden cane and bonnets a few yards off the sandy shore and
parallel with it. May 18, 1910.
Soils. The soil of the uplands is mostly a slightly loamy sand
several feet deep, usually creamy or light buff in color, but varying
to yellowish, brownish, and ashy gray, the last being found chiefly
a few miles south of Lakeland. near the edge of the pebble phos-
phate country. There is probably more pure white sand (scrub ) in
this region than in any other, but there are no data yet for making


Fig. 21. Looking west along shore of Lake Monroe (part of the St.
John's River system) about one-half mile west Sof Sanfo:rd. sh:owingi cabbage
palmettos. May 2.2, 1910.

Fig. 22. Small lake near Ellsworth Junction, Lake Count', showing fringe
of saw-palmetto and gallberry, and long-leaf pine saplings encroaching -on it.
Feb. 20, r19cO



an estimate of its area, for the. region has scarcely been touched by
soil surveys yet.* In Marion County, northeast of Silver Springs,
are some clayey flatwoods, of unknown extent, which probably
belong to this region. The occurrence of marl and peat in low
places has been mentioned above under the head of geology. Some
of the low hammocks seem to contain gypsum deposits, as in the
Gulf hammock region.
Vcgctation. The prevailing v-egetation type on the uplands is
high pine land, very similar to that in the lime-sink region. (Fig. 19,
though intended for a different purpose, shows it pretty well).
Scrub (fig. 38) occurs in'all sorts of situations topographically:
usually not far from lakes, but often on uplands remote from any
body of water. The level flatwoods bear the vegetation character-
istic of such places, and peat prairies and saw-grass marshes border
the larger lakes or completely fill small basins. Sahdy shores of
lakes have quite a characteristic growth of sedges and other con-
paratively small and wiry plants (as do similar places in New Eng-
land), merging gradually into that pf peat prairies in many places.
Peninsulas jutting out into lakes are commonly occupied by sandy
hammocks, and marly low places by low hammocks, much like those
in the Gulf hammock region. Small and non-calcareous streams
are usually bordered by non-alluvial swamps or bays, containing a
large portion of evergreens.
The commonest plants in the lake region seem t9 be as follows:

Pinus palustris Long-leaf pine Uplands
Sabal Palmetto Cabbage palmetto Low hammocks
Pinus Caribaea Slash pine Platwoods, etc.
Pinus clausa Snruce pine Scrub
Pinus serotina Black pine' Low pine land
Taxodium distichum Cypress Swamps
Pinns Elliottii Slash pine Bays, etc.
Taxodium imbricarium (Pond) cypress Around lakes and ponds
Liquidambar Stvraciflua Sweet gum Tow hammocks, etc.
Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia Hammocks
Acer rubrum Red Maple Swamps
Pinus Taeda Short-leaf pine Low hammocks, etc.
Gordonia Lasianthus Swamps and bays
Ouercus Virginiana Live oak Hammocks
Quercus nigra Water oak Low hammocks, etc.
Nyssa biflora Black gum Swamps and ponds
Ouercus laurifolia Sandy hammocks
Hicoria glabra? Hickory Sandy hammocks

*The National Forest in eastern Marion County is said to be mostly scrub.


Quercus- Catesbaei
Quel'rcII- cinerea
Magnoia glauca
Quercus geminata
Cholisma ferruginea
Quercus myrtifolia
Persea humilis
Snlix longipes?
Myrica cerifera
Osmanthus Americana
Prunu< umbellata
Querrcu-- Chapmani
Corriu florida
Ilex Cassine
Carpinus Caroliniana

Smilax laurifolia
V'itis rotundifolia?
Smilax anriculata
A i1elorpsis arborea
Rhus r-iadicans
Pai th.- neissus quinquefolia
I,:-rchee-nit scandens

Serenor, serrulata
Pieris nitida
Myrica cerifera
Chl rv.ys:oi lanus oblongifolius
Hypericum fasciculatum

Ceratiola ericoides
Ceanothnis microphyllus
Ilex glabra
Bejaria racemosa
Lupinus diffusus var.*
Myrica pumila
Ceplialanthus occidentalis
Vaccinium nitidum
Garberia fruticosa
Cholisma fruticosa
Prunus geniculatat
Rhue copallina
Sabal glabra

Tillandsia usneoides
Aristida stricta
Kuhnistera pinnata
Cladium effusum
Spartina Bakeri
Ptrocaulon undulatum
Pon t-edtl-i;n cordata
Panieumi hemitomon
Anehistea Virginica
Erlogonum tomentosum


Black-jack oak
Turkey oak
Live Oak

(Scrub oak)
Red bay

Hog plum



Bamboo vine

Poison ivy
Virginia creeper
Rattan vine


(Hurrah bush)

Sand myrtle




(Poor grub)

Sandy uplands '
Sandy uplands
Swamps and bays
Scrub, etc.
Sandy hammocks, etc.
Scrub, etc.
Edges of swamps
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Hammocks and swamps
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks

Various situations
Scrub, bays, etc.
Low hammocks, etc.
High pine land
Around lakes and
Scrub mostly
High pine land
High pine land
Swamps, etc.
Pine lands
High sandy hills
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks



Spanish moss
(Summer farewell)
Maiden cane
\A fern)

On most trees
High pine land
High pine land
Marshes, etc.
Around lakes and prairies
Flatwoods, etc.
Lakes, etc.
Lake margins, etc.
Bays, etc.
High pine land

*This species is ordinarily
grows Iushy, about three feet
winter. or earliest spring.

an herb, but in Polk County and elsewhere it
tall, and is full of leaves and flowers in mid-

tA!iliarently confined to the lake region, ranging from Lake County to De-
Soto In the original description (Torreya 11:64-67. March, 1911) the flowers
were said to be in few-flowered umbels; but they are really solitary and sessile
or nearly,- so.



(Eupatorium compositifolium)
Nymphaea macrophylla
Pteris aquilina
Sagittaria lancifolia
Osmunda cinnamomea
Croton argyranthemus
Doellingeria reticulata
Actinospermum angustifolium
(Piaropus crassipes)
Eriogonum Floridanum
Lupinus diffusus
Saururus cernuus
Andropogon sp.
Carphephorus corymbosus
Eriocaulon compressum
Berlandiera subacaulis
Castalia odorata
Psoralea canescens
Acnida australis
Aristida spiciformis
Andropogon Virginicus
Galactia Elliottii
Stenophyllus Warei
Centella repanda
Osmunda regalis
Helianthus Radula
Syngonanthus flavidulus
Fuirena scirpoidea
(and about 300 others)

(A fern)
(A fern)


(A grass)
(A sedge)
(A fern)

(A sedge)

High pine land and old fields
Lakes and streams
High pine land, etc.
Lakes and marshes
Swamps, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
Lakes and rivers
High pine land
High pine land
Swamps, etc.
Peat prairies, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Lake margins, etc.
High pine land
Lakes, etc.
High pine land
Low pine land
High pine land
High pine land
Lake shores, etc.
Pine lands
Flatwoods, etc.
Lake shores, etc.

About 85% of the trees and 95% of the shrubs are evergreen.
As in many other regions with mainly non-calcareous soils,
Ericaceae are relatively abundant and Leguminosae rather scarce.
The species that are more abundant in the lime-sink region than
here* probably prefer more calcareous or potassic or phosphatic or
ferruginous soils, while those with an opposite tendency t are more
characteristic of acid soils, swamps, bogs, marshes, etc.
A few of the plants in the list, such as Persca lumnilis, Prunm-.s
gcniicdlata, and Eriogoninn. Floridanum., and possibly fifty other
less abundant species not listed are confined to the lake region, or
nearly so, while probably an equal number occur in other regions
but not outside of Florida: the lake region being far ahead of other

*Such as Taxodium distichum, Liquidambar, Qucrcus laurifolia, Q-.T,
"n.iaia, Q. falcata, Hicoria alba, Quercus Margaretta, Cornus florida, CcrcLs,
Crataegus Michau.ii, Titis aestivalis, Asimna speciosa (?). Cephalanthzus,
Carphephorus corymbosus, and Eupatorinm aroinaticui: nearly all of which
are deciduous.

tLike Pinus Caribaea, P. clausa,. P. scrotina, P. Elliottii. Acer ruibrun,
Gordoina, Xyssa, Magnolia glauca, Persea humilis, Smila.r laurifolia, S. au-
riculata, Screnoa, Pieris nitida, Hypcricunt fasciculatum. Bejaria, IFaccinium
nitidium, Garberia, Cholisima fruticosa, Prumus geniculata, Cladiumi effusum:,
Spartina Bakeri, Pontcderia, Panlicum hemitoimon, Anchistea, Nymnphaea, Os-
lmunda cimnamomea, and Doellingeria; most of which are evergreen.


parts of central Florida in the matter of local or endemic species,
and contrasting especially with the hammock belts in this respect.
The pines are used for fuel, lumber, turpentine, etc., as in other
regions, but have not been exploited quite so ruthlessly, whether
\wholly because of topographic difficulties or partly from a slight
regard for the beauty of the scenery is not quite certain. Plans are
just being perfected for utilizing the saw-grass, which abounds on
thousands of acres of marshes, for the manufacture of paper. As in
many other parts of Florida that are comparatively little cultivated,
honey-yielding plants are numerous and abundant, but that fact
does not seem to have been taken advantage of as fully as it might
Population. The statistics of population are based on the. re-
turns for Lake County, which is wholly in this region, and Semi-
nole and Orange, most of whose population is in it. No accurate
estimates can be made for periods previous to 1887, when there:
were great changes in county boundaries, but in 1890 there were
9 inhabitants per square mile in the area just defined. This in-
creased, somewhat irregularly, to 19.4 in 1920. In 19Io the pop-
ulation was divided according to race and nativity into 57.5% na-
ti\ve white, 3.3% foreign white, and 39.2% negro. The foreign-
ers were mostly from England, Germany, Canada, Sweden, Scot-
land and Ireland. The. percentage of illiteracy at the same time was
I.9 among the native whites, 1.7 among the foreign whites, and
23.0 among the negroes.
The incorporated cities and towns in 1915 were Lakeland, with
7.287 inhabitants (reported as having decreased a little by 1920,
\which is hard to believe); Orlando, with 6,448; Sanford, 4,998;
DeLand, 3,490; Leesburg, 1,360; Winter Haven, 1,226; Eustis,
I.148: Winter Park, 787; Lake Helen, 786; Winter Garden, 648;
IIt. Dora, 615; Apopka, 598; Umatilla, 527; Auburndale; 511;
Orange City, 506; Tavares, 449, and Haines City, 378.
The leading religious denominations among the whites in 1916
were Southern Methodist, Baptist, Southern Presbyterian, Episco-
palian, Roman Catholic, Northern Methodist, Congregationalist,
Northern Presbyterian, Seventh Day Adventist, Disciples of Christ,
and Primitive Baptist. Among the negroes, Baptist, African Meth-
odist Episcopal, A. M. E. Zion, and northern Methodist.



Agriculture. Farming developed rather late in this region, and
is of a more specialized type than in the regions previously de-
scribed. Both in 1890 and in 1910 only about 16o of the area
was in farms and 3.2% improved. The principal features of agri-
culture in this region since the establishment of Lake County are
shown in Table 5.
Agricultural Statistics of Lake Region (Lake & Orange Cos.), 1890-1910
11889- 1899- | 1909-1910
18900 19000 Total White Color'd
Improved acres per inhabitant --- 2.22 2.28 1.65 2.511 0.33
Inhabitants per farm --- ---------- 5.971 9.13| 11.3 7.551 43.0
Per cent of farmers white ----------- ----- 92.8 89.7 ---I_ ______
Per cent of farmers, owners ------- 75.2 80.6 80.2 3.7
97.9 -
Per cent of farmers, managers ------ 18.4 11.9 12.6 5.7
Per cent of farmers, tenants ----- 2.1 6.4 7.5 7.2 10.7
Average number of acres per farm --- 66.7 84.0 92.8 98.9 39.5
Average improved acres per farm __ 13.5I 20.7 18.7 | 19.2 14.0
Value of farm land per acre ($) --- --- 19.301 41.80 41.551 46.80
Value of farm land per farm -------- 1620 3880 4110 1850
48501- I
Value of buildings per farm -------- 513 1009 1070 495
Value of implements and machinery- 1 411 57 147 1551 74
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. ----- 107| 260 408 ----__--- _
Number of dairy cows per farm 2.3 1.5 1.1 1.2 0.8
Number of other cattle per farm ----- 8.0 16.0 16.5 -- ______
Number of horses per farm-----------I 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7
Number of mules per farm ----------- 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
Number of hogs per farm __-___----1 2.2 9.3 9.8 ---- ---
Number of sheep per farm --------- 0.1 0.8 0.3 ------ -_
Number of poultry per farm _-17.7 21.4 21.7 ------ ----
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer--- 87.00 36.201 165.00 ------1___
Expenditures per farm for labor ____- -- 77.201 190.00 ------ ---
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- ----I------ 86.40 --------
Annual value of crops per farm __ I 1 926 ______ ___
3811 282 1
Annual value of animal products _--- | 1211 ------
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved -- 6.42) 1.741 8.84 ----------
Expend. labor per acre improved -_--- -----__ 3.72| 10.20 ------ -_----
Value of crops per acre improved ---_ ) ______| 49.701 ---- ---

The census of 1910 reported two farmers in central Florida who
were neither white nor negro; one in Orange County and one in
Volusia. The writer' has no information about the color of the
former, but the one in Volusia County is a Chinaman, who lives
near DeLand (therefore in the lake region), and has made some-
thing of a reputation with his oranges. By subtracting the re-
turns for negro farmers from those for all colored farmers, it


appears that lie Il1d ill I910 I 5 acres. of W\hiclh 20 were improved,
land worth $4,000 ior $34.So per acre) buildings worth $1,ooo,
and( implements. anMd miaclinerv $150. The one in Orange. County
\wa\l probably Clillese or Japanece aind( a truck-farmer, for he had
onlyl tw\o acres, all improved, w-orth $100 or $so per acre, buildings
wortll $750. and no implements or machinery \\-ortli mentioning.
In several places in this region corporations have acquired large
tracts of land a1nd( sold it inl small parcels. commonly of ten acres,
to persons \\w11:) may have never Ieen in Florida at all. to be planted
to orange, or other citrous'' fruits. For the sutn agreed upon the
corporatioCns set ou1t the trees desired, cultivate them, market the
fruit when it matures, and remit the profits I if an\ ) to the absent
owners: and thii sort of business if efficiently mllanaged may be
ver\ satisfactory to all concerned. Technically each individual
ihohling is. a farm, operated by a manager, without buildings or live-
stock; but practically the o\\ners are merely stockholders in a large
farming enterprise; and different interpretations of this point by
the census might make a considerable .difference in the per farm

The leading crops in I909.-in ore orle f value, by United States
census, were oranges la little over half the total "vegetables,"
grape-fruit, hay. corn, sweet potatoes. Irish potatoes, sugar-cane
SsyruIp), peaches, and pears. In 1913-14, according to the. State
Agricultural Department. oranges (nearly half i. celery, lettuce,
grape-f ruit, tomatoes, watermelons, i grass) hay, cori. sweet pota-
toes, peppers, I string?) beans, cabbage and cucumbers. In 1917-
iS, oranges, celery, corn, lettuce, cucunilers, peppers, tomatoes,
grape-fruit, watermelons, cabbage, Irish potatoes, "native grass"
hay. sweet potatoe, string beans, cowpeas (and hay ). egg-plants,
Natal grass hay, sea-island cotton, beets, squashes, and upland cot-
ton. Peanmuts. which h constitute something like a fifth of the to-
tal crop value in the lime-sink region, make less than a thousandth
in the lake region. perhaps on account of the scarcity of lime in the
upland soils.

"It is a common and apparently grox ing-but not altogether com-
mendable-practice to write the noun .'ilrns. the generic name of oranges, lem-
ons, kumrquat- etc., instead of the adjective ,il.,uls.



(Figs. 23-25. Soil analyses 27-36, TI, J, X.)
Besides the flatwoods already described, there is a much larger
area, covering the greater part of the peninsula south of our limits,
which may be divided into several regions when it is more thor-
oughly explored. In the latitudes under consideration it is divided
by the lake region into two parts, which may conveniently be
treated separately. The western portion, which will be discussed
first, has an area of about I,700 square miles.
Geology. The strata beneath the surface sands range from Up-
per Oligocene to Pliocene, and are more or less calcareous and phos-
phatic; and although natural exposures are comparatively rare, they
influence the soil perceptibly in many places. The Pliocene is rep-
resented by the Bone Valley formation, which includes the pebble
phosphate deposits, and is chiefly confined to Polk County. The
mining of this phosphate is perhaps the most important industry
in the region. Flowing artesian wells can be had almost anywhere
a near the coast. There are a few mineral springs, such as Espiritu
Santo near Safety Harbor and Kissingen near Bartow.
Topography. The surface is comparatively level, as implied by
the name "flatwoods," but fairly "well drained." It has the ap-
pearance of having been uplifted a little in comparatively recent
times, for near the coast and rivers one can in many places ascend
25 feet in less than a mile, and numerous creeks and branches have
cut narrow valleys below the general level. San Antonio, at the
upper edge of the region in Pasco County, is said to be, 160 feet
above sea-level. Shallow depressions a few acres in extent, which
hold a foot or two of water in wet seasons, are very common, es-
pecially northward, but there are very few lakes, the ponds being
in most cases well filled with cypress and other trees. There are
more streams in proportion to area than in the other regions, but
none of them are considered navigable.
Soils. The soil is nearly everywhere sand, of various colors
from white to brown, but the underlying rock or marl seems to be
usually within a few feet of the surface, making calcareous soils
in many low places. The'soil surveys of Pinellas and Hillsborough
Counties (1914 and 1918) cover the greater part of the area. In
those publications the soils are referred to the "Leon," "Ports-


mouth" "Parkivood," "Scranton," "Plummer." "St. Lucie" and
"Fellowshlip" series, and the leading texture classes are fine sand
(about Sotb), fine sandy loam, muck, tidal marsh, swamp, "\ watel
and grass," and peaty muckk" S\\'amp, marsh and muck together
constitute about S o, and scrub, designated as "St. Lucie fine sand,"
and "Leon fine sand, rolling phase," is about 3'1 of the total.

Fig. 23. Open flat woods with pines
about tw:o nfles west of Odessa, Pasco

mostly Pius Caribaca (slash pine),
County. April iS, 19y-.

Fig. 24. Cypress pond with no pines and very few shrubs, in flatwoods
about half way between Drexel and Odessa, Pasco County. April 18, 1909.



Chemically, most of the soils seem to be pretty well supplied with
phosphorus, as would be expected from the occurrence of so much
phosphate rock.
Vegetation. The vegetation types include flatwoods with and
without saw-palmetto (fig. 23), a little high pine land, a few
patches of scrub, many cypress ponds (fig 24), Nwet prairies, high
and low hammocks' (fig. 25), various kinds of swamps and bays,
and salt marshes along the shores of Tampa Bay. The cypress
ponds are chiefly confined to Pasco and Pinellas Counties, the
lowniammocks to Hillsborough and Polk, and the high hammocks
to the neighborhood of the Peace River. Swamps are not very ex-

Fig. 25. Low hammock near Peace River about two miles
Bartow, showing cabbage palmetto, dwarf palmetto, sweet gum,
etc. March 13, 1915.

southeast of
rattan vine,

The commonest plants seem to be as follows, the first tree named
being.apparently about I5 times as abundant as' its nearest compet-

Pinus palustris
Pinus Caribaea
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Elliottii
Pinus clausa

Long-leaf pine
SLash pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Spruce pine

Cypress ponds
Branch-swamps, etc.


Li'Iuilamb r Styraciflua
Taxo'.lium '.istichum
Acer rubrum
Sabal Palmetto
Quercus Virginiana
N.%ssa l :,ifloi :
Magnolia grandiflora
Queri.ius nigra
Quercus laurifolia
Ulnlmus Floril.ana
Q'."juercus hybrida?
Juniperus Virginiana
Gordonia Lasianthns

Magnolia glauca
QuIer.i-- ciierea
Qu.erieus i-'atesbaei
Quercus geininata
Saiix iIngiell-s?
'ar.ii us -C:'n oliniana
Persea pubescens
Co'rnus fl-,]ri-la

Siilax laurifolia
RhIu. s IT0l i0-lns
FParthenrii-s..us quinquefolia
Gelsemium sempervirens
V1 t ,- .11.1 n ll folia
.\Aii:elI,Ip-i arborea

Serenoa serrulata
.-\Asmina p.ygmaea?
Myrica cerifera
Hypernctun fasciculatum
Ilex glabra
:'h r.\I sl:b.ala i.ius oblongifolius
Myrica punila
Ceratiola encoides
Cholisnia ferruginea
Viburni.um n.udum
Vaccinimun nitidum
Pieris nitida
Stilliingi atquatica
Vilu.rnlurnl obovatum
Cholisma fruticosa
Quercus ninima'
Baccharis halim ifolia
Phoradendron flavescens
C.Querous pu. mila
C'IInus striCta?
Celphaln t hus I. occidentalis

Tillandsia usneoides
.\ rsti.la strict
iEui.at.-'rium compositifolium)
P-ter.en?>ulron undulatum
Cladium effusum
Ponte,.leria cordata
C(.'arp elrllphrus corymbosus
A nilrp'.,,,,goin scoparius?
Tillandsia recurvata
Sau .rui '1.1s c ornuus
Tillandsia tenuifolia
Juncus Roemerianus
Lupinus diffusus
Si n -.onar t ih.is flavidulus
Panuicu.rn hemitomon
Sl|ar tinia Bakeri
IKuIhnit11 -ra pinnata

Sweet gum
Red maple
Cabbage palmetto
Live oak
Black gum
Water oak



Turkey oak
Black-jack oak
Live oak
Red bay


Bamboo vine
Poison ivy
Virginia creeper
Yellow jessamine

Sand myrtle


(Possum haw)
(Hurrah bush)

(Poor grub)
(Oak runner)

(Oak runner)

(Elbow bush)


Spanish mo



Maiden can
Summer fa

Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Swamps and bays

Swamps and bays
Dry pine land
Dry pine, land
Scrub, etc.
Edges of marly swamps
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Low hammocks
Low hammocks
Low hammocks

Flatwoods, etc.
Shallow ponds, etc.
Dry pine lands


Cypress ponds
Low hammocks

Edges of swamps
On hardwood trees

Marly swamps, etc.
Swamps and ponds

ss On nearly, all trees
Pine lands
Pine lands, etc.
Pine lands
Ponds, prairies, etc.
Ponds, streams, etc.
e Flatwoods
On trees
Brackish marshes
Dry pine lands
S Ponds and wet prairies
s Margins of ponds, etc.
rewell Dry pine lands



Tillandsia fasciculata Air-plant Cypress ponds mostly
Osmunda cinnamomea (A fern) Swamps and bays
Sagittaria lancifolia Marshes and wet prairies
Actinospermum angustifolium Dry pine lands
Anchistea Virginica (A fern) Cypress ponds, etc.
Polygala Rugelii Flatwoods
Helianthus Radula Flatwoods
Sporobolus gracilis (A grass) Pine lands

About 88% of the trees and still more of the shrubs are ever-
green. Plants of the heath family are less abundant here than in
some other flatwoods regions that have less fertile soils. The pines
have been very largely exploited for lumber and naval stores, as
Population. A rough approximation of the population condi-
tions may be arrived at by subtracting the figures for Tampa and
West Tampa from those for Hillsborough County (which included
Pinellas up to 191I). On this basis there were in 1910 nearly 25
inhabitants per square mile, 12.8% of them in cities of over
2,500 population, 71.6% native white, 8.6% foreign white, and
19.7% negroes. (The foreign whites included a few hundred
Greeks at Tarpon Springs, which is in a different region, and now
in a different county.) In the population over o1 years old 1.7%
of the native whites, 19.9% of the foreign whites, and 19% of
the negroes were illiterate.
Excluding Tampa, which belongs partly to a different region,
and West Tampa, which is separated only by an imaginary line,
the largest cities and towns in 1915 were St. Petersburg, with
7,186 inhabitants: Bartow, with 3,412; Plant City, 3,229; Fort
Meade, 2,1.50; Mulberry, 1,121; Port Tampa City, 1071; Largo,
552; and Bradley, 295. The returns from the 1920 census, as far
as available, give these places the same relative rank, and St. Peters-
burg nearly double the population. But these figures should be
used with some caution, for St. Petersburg is one of the most pop-
ular winter resorts in Florida, and the 1915 census was taken in
July and that of 1920 in January. Oldsmar, in the eastern edge
of Pinellas County, which was not on the map at all in 1915, may
be larger now than some of the places listed.
Agriculture. The flatwoods region includes less than half of
Pasco and Polk Counties, and Pinellas did not exist in 1910, so
that the best we can do for agricultural statistics is to use the
figures for Hillsborough County. A considerable part of that be-


loni,, too the lime-sik region. andl tlie City of liTaiia imikes farming
more inteln n1ie in its \i111it\'. but there is some ver' intensive farm-
ingI near Plant City anVgitiy. so perhal-ps the results are not very
different from ini hat they \wotul.l be if we could separate the flat-
\\o':,. entire from other regi.-Ion1 .
Thie percentage of laknlI in farms increased froml 2.7 in 185o and
8.8 in i8o to 1i..4 il I I:)o In tle latter year 3.7'I of the area of
Hillsborough C':untV was "inipr:'\ed." or ) 4 acres per inhabitant.
S\\'itlhout Tampa it woiuldI 1le about o S acres per inihalitant.) The
prevailing col:nllitions- fill,:i iSr18 t:, Ic10) are how\\n Il1 the following
TAB.\LE '.

A_.\ li: i.tIaIIt l St Iat I-tl: e of Si ntlI\\ ,. -t_._-rl FI l t\\i '>l_- I FllH ; t, ,l ui I C'o.) 1S90-1910.
1'S '.', il' "- 1 19.09 -1910
S| l Pi lI'. |I T ,t-il I W white. Color'd
Pet vent ,If tf rm r- vhit, -- -----| .....- --4 "| 94.2 -
l'i i-lit i tif rI 'hit) D -'I---- I1--- I ___--------
P r ...lt >-.f f n , -,rWhe I | I | Si | 8I.I 84.3

Per c,-nt of ftrmri:-. m -------- I 4 I 4.2 | 4.2 5.2
P,-r cent of farnor-. tn.ntt- -- -------- 1.5 I | 5 fi.5 6. 2 10.4
A\ .:r.' 1:'g nmilib lr of ., ..s pr fo -i - .... i-- ")iin 71.11 | 7 | 50.1 32.1
A \,:.-r;-'. im lii\eI ai r< j' r fa-ir ....- 17-1 I 1 I.5 15 l I 15.9 13.6
Valun I: f farm la. i ld r rnacr-. 1 i --- ---- I 25 '1l| f3.2-51 63.40| 56.65
Valiie of fli ini lai i per farm ---179I ::ii4I 3740 1820
S.1" 1 I I
V.1 lue i.f Ilil. inill '- I,.r F'l/'ii- --- 1 i 1 0i-i49 0701 310
VailInI- i.f imilim'ient., aIn.l i.iclhiinrr ,r 421 521 125 1281 65
Vali,-u of li\.Vt-- k. PjiultrY. rt.. .29ltr 41 t. 2.52j 441 ------ ------
NIin l.t.r i f Ilairy li (c, per f:Ii I ------I 4.1 2.7 | 1 i | 1.6 0.6
Numnil.,I i cif ,'tliI.r cattle 'ipe far ...-----I 2-I15 14. | 17.1 I ______-____--
NiiIl.,ii i. Io,,-. [ i.---, l--r ---------- 1 1 I | 1.i 0 1 1.0 0.9
Nlii lnl.r i.f iii e .' ir fnriii ----------- I 1 i 12 0.2 0.1
NTi l., i-r Ii ( i, II-. bi elH fari I- ---- -------- _____-
N imlir f i l '1. i" fnin1111 ----------- :.7 i:9 ___ -----
Nuiilner rif i1,ltryv p. r jnrm. --------- :14 1 42 3 44 ------ -----
Expi,-iulituii'- Per frPi In f fei tilizr___ 17.4(1 4.75 I. .iI s,111 ______I
Exp:,.iilitiii e per farm for latli-r i ------ -- --- 31;.5i1 i 9..3"1 _
Exp.-inlditir- I. r n mi for fo .-il ------ ----- ------ 117 '1 -------_ -----
Anniml v'a il- of rtoi Ii,:r farmI-t .... 57 4 1 I----
517! t -4 i I
Anminu l '.1 III of a. imalil p''li, it-t ---.- I ] -'l --------
E\[ii \.L--| I l.2']i 2 251 6, !11| ------_ -----
Exp.'nd. fl.til iz- r p -r ai:-r- iiiipvri lo e 1.-------2 ----- I 221 -.2. --1
Valik- iof cip, -i per dir. iliprovied ..... ----- --- 44.25 1 _-----------

The leading crops, in I 0oo \\'ere ,oranges. "vegetables," grape-
fruit, corn. hay, Irish potatoes ; cane syrup. stra\'lberries, and sweet
p1otatles. In 1913-14 oranges I alout 45' ;., stra\\werries, toma-

G i:'".1R.\III v or CI"NTI.\L I -1 R I I),\


toes, corn, grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, celery, beans, Irish potatoes,
cucumbers, syrup, guavas, cabbage, cowpeas, watermelons, rice,
peaches, egg-plants, grass, hay, pepers, and peanuts. In 1917-18
oranges (about 30%), corn, strawberries, celery, sweet potatoes,
velvet beans includingn hay), Irish potatoes, syrup, cabbage, field
peas (and hay), grape-fruit, string beans, peanuts, watermelons,
"native grass" hay, tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, rice, peaches,
egg-plants, grapes (scuppernongs?), Natal grass hay, plums, pe-
cans, peppers and onions.

(Figs. 26-28. Soil analysis Y.)
The flatwoods east of the lake region cover about 3,600 square
miles in the counties under consideration (since Flagler and Okee-
chobee were cut off from Volusia and Osceola). At the north,
somewhere about the boundary between Flagler and Volusia Coun-
ties. there is a gradual transition from the peninsular flatwoods to
the East Florida flatwoods (described in the 6th Annual Report).
The most conspicuous difference between tlhe flatwoods of East
Florida and those, of the peninsula is that the cypress ponds of the
former nearly always have some slash pine in them, while in the
latter the pine usually stops several yards outside of the cypress,
leaving the ponds bordered by treeless strips. The cause of this
difference is not yet known, but is probably connected with the
Geology. The strata near the surface are so featureless that the
whole area is usually mapped as Pleistocene. Considerably older for-
mations occur at no great depth, however, the Ocala (Eocene) being
encountered in wells along the east coast within 200 feet of the sur-
face. The surface is generally covered with deep sand, but there
is marl, presumably Pleistocene, in some hammocks and low spots,
and peat in some of the prairies and around lakes. Flowing ar-
tesian water can be obtained near the coast and along the St. John's
and Kissimmee Rivers and their lakes, but in about the latitude
of Titusville the water in some of the wells is salty.
Topography. The surface is for the most part monotonously
level, and seems to be nowhere more than Ioo feet above the sea.
Near the east coast south of Titusville, however, the general level


of the flatwoods is 10 to 25 feet above the Indian River, and there
are many little ravine-like valleys carved by short streams, as if the
area had been uplifted in comparatively recent times. Near the lake
region the topography is often a little undulating, and the transi-
tion from one region to the other gradual, though there are also
places heree it is abrupt. Shallow depressions abound, ranging

Fig. 26. Prairie bordering Lake Tohopekaliga about 31/ miles east of
Kissinunee, with a few cattle grazing. Abrupt transition to flatwoods with
long-leaf pine and saw-palmetto in middle distance. Feb. 18, 19QO.

Fig. 27 A-pihalt ro,:'d throi:uh flat\oo:ds in Osceola C-iounty, about ten
miles southeast of St. Clouid tthe nearest town and a mile from the Inarest
house. April 27, 1920.



in size from lakes covering several square miles (most of these ncar
the lake region) to small wet prairies and cypress ponds. Streams
are, few and sluggish, and the rivers have extremely shallow val-
Soils. There are no soil surveys of this region yet, except a nar-
row fringe at the extreme eastern edge, but the soils are. very sim-
ilar in texture to those of the western division, and would presum-
ably be classed mostly as fine sand. Chemically the average soil
is probably less fertile than in the western division, especially inI
phosphorus (if the vegetation is a safe guide), but the Kissimm ce
River prairies are said to be much better than the flatwoods, andI
to produce some good crops without fertilizer.

Vegetation. The principal vegetation types are palmetto flat-
woods, prairies of several kinds, cypress ponds, low hammocks.
swamps, fresh marshes, and a few patches of scrub. The prairies
are several miles wide along the two largest rivers, and those alon1c
the Kissimmee (which the writer has not yet had opportunity to ex-
plore) are said to have an abundant and varied native fauna and t,:
be great cattle ranges, thus resembling some of the western plains
Other and probably different prairies border the lakes near Kis-
simmee (fig. 26), and there are numerous small wet prairies ini
shallow depressions. The cypress ponds usually have narrow prai-
rie-like margins, as stated in a preceding paragraph.
The commonest plants seem to be as follows:


Pinus palustris
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Caribaea
Sabal Palmetto
Pinus clausa
Pinus serotina
Acer rubrum
Taxodium distichum
Pinus Elliottii
Gordonia Lasianthus
Nyssa biflora
Quercus Virginiana
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia glauca
Quercus Catesbaei
Quercus geminata
Quercus cinerea
Persea pubescens
Fraxinus Caroliniana
Ilex Cassine
Hicoria glabra?
Salix longipes?

Long-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Cabbage palmetto
Spruce pine
Black pine
Red maple
Slash pine
Black gum
Live oak
Sweet gum
BLack-jack oak
Live oak
Turkey oak
Red bay

Cypress ponds
Low hammocks
Damp flatwoods
Bays, etc.
Swamps and ponds
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Drier spots
Drier spots
Drier spots
Swamps and bays
Sandy hammocks
Along streams


Smilax laurifolla
iihus radic v ,lins
'Itls a-estiva.ils?

Serenoa serrulata
Hypericum fasciculatum
Myrica cerfera
Quercus myrtifolia
Pieris nitida
Ilex glabra
Myrica punlila
Cholisma fruticosa
ChlirysolaL..ni.is oblongifolius
Vaccinium nitidum
Ceratiola ericoides
Quercus minima
Cholisma ferruginea
Bejaria racemosa
Asirnina i.,:,'maea?

Tillandsia usneoides
Ar ist idlL strict
PierO,::' ilo:n indulatum
Spartina Bakeri
Cladium effusum
Tillandsia fasciculata
Sarracent.na nLinor
Tillandsia recurvata
Doelli ngeria reticulata
Poly:gala cyymosa
Arnhistesa \'irginica
F'Pontederia cordata
eicl romeni a latifolia
Andr:lopogn sp.
Pol.gala R.ugelii
S.vng,:nn thubus flavidulus
Aletris lutea
Nymphaea macrophylla
Sahl.at a g grandiflora
iEuithainia Caroliniana)
Aristid a spiciformis
Osmunda regalis
Iris versicolor
Centella repanda
Helianthus Radula
CI,:,ndir~ :plihora nudata
GaLa:ct l a Elliottii
Tillandsia tenuifolia
Osrniinda cinnamomea
Ca rplhei-horus corymbosus
Chaptalia tomentosa

Bamboo vine
Poison ivy
Wild grape
Sand myrtle
(Scrub oak)
(Hurrah bush)
(Poor grub)

(Oak runner)



Spanish moss

(A fern)
(A sedge)


(A grass)
(A fern)

(A fern)

Low hammocks, etc.

Ponds and
Drier spots
Scrub "

wet prairies
and swamps


On most trees
Prairies, etc.
Marshes, etc.
Cypress ponds
Flatwoods and
On trees
Cypress ponds
Cypress ponds
Ponds, etc.
Shallow ponds
Lakes and stre
Ponds and prai
Flatwoods, etc.
Swamps, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Swamps, etc.



About 9)O% of the trees are. evergreen, and Ericaceae are rela-
tively numerous among the shrubs, which indicates that the average
flatwioods soil is not the richest in the world. A very instructive
comparison of the soil conditions in the eastern and western di-
visions of the flatwoods can be man e by noting which species of

plants are more abundant in one than in the other, as has already



been done in comparing the lime-sink and lake regions.* The spe-
cies that are commoner in the western division are more charac-
teristic of drier or more calcareous or more phosphatic soils, and
nearly all of them grow in Georgia if not farther north; while
those commoner eastward are more characteristic of cypress poindls.
bays, scrub, and sour soils generally, and are of somewhat tropical
affinities, some of them being confined to Florida and others nearly
so. The former list includes more trees, vines, oaks, and legumlli-
nous plants, and the latter more evergreens, pines, palms, and Eri-
caceae. In fact this plant list resembles that for the lake regi-. n
about as much as it does that for the western division of the flat-

M '.. 'v ' r" .

Fig. 28. Nearly treeless prairie in Brevard County about 7' miles \c-st
of Melbourne and four miles from the St. John's River, looking north\\cst.
The few scattered slash pines (Pinus Caribaca) are the outposts of the piner-
forests which extend eastward to the Indian River. Between this point andii
the St. John's River there are practically no trees. Feb. 5, 1915.
*The following seem to be more abundant westward: Pinms Elliotilli,
Liquidambar, Ta.rodiu.m distichum, Qucrcus J'irginiana, Maguolia grandif'lola.
Qucrcus nigra, Q. laurifolia, Ulmus Floridana. Juniperus, Magnolia glaca,
Quercus cinerca, Q. Catesbaci, Sali.r, Carpinus, Cornus florida, Rhus radicals,
Parthenocissus, Gclseinium, Ampelopsis, Asiminia pygmaca, Viburnum nudium,
Stillingia aquatica, Fiburnum cb'i:'.i.in, Phoradendron, Qucercus pumila, Corius
stricta, Tillandsia usucoides, Eupatorium comipositifolium, Pontederia, Carthlc-
phorus, Saururus, Tillandsia tenuifolia, Juncus Rocmcrianuts, Lupinus diffusus,
Panicum heinitomon, Kuhuistera, Sagittaria lancifolia, Actinospernunt, an(.
Sporobolus gracilis.
The 'reverse is true of Taxodinm imbricarium, Pinus Caribaea, Sabal Pal-


Population. As Osceola County is almost entirely in this region,
its population is probably typical enough of the whole. The num-
ber of inhabitants per square mile ranged from 1.7 in 1890 to 3.1
in I910 and 6.1 in 1915, since when there seems to have been a de-
crease, though the cutting off of Okeechobee County in 1917 makes
exact comparisons between 1915 and 1920 impossible. In 1910 the
proportion of native whites w'as 80.2%, the highest in central Flor-
ida; of foreign whites 2.9% and of negroes 16.8%. The only
incorporated places in the whole region were Kissimmee, with 4,221
inhabitants, St. Cloud, with 2,080 (all white, with a considerable
\ number of Union veterans), and Taft, with 216 (mostly negroes).
The leading religious denominations among the whites in 1916
were Baptist, Southern Methodist, Northern Methodist (?), Dis-
ciples of Christ, Northern Presbyterian, and Catholic; and among
the negroes Baptist, African Methodist, Northern Methodist (?),
Primitive Baptist, and A. M. E. Zion.
Agriculture. There are great variations in size and type of farms
in this region, from small truck farms and orange groves such as
are found all over central Florida, and larger'sugar-cane plantations
near the edge of the lake region, to enormous cattle ranches with
very little cultivated land, these last mostly near the Kissimmee
River.* On account of these variations the bare statistics for Os-
ceola County, or any similar area that we might have data for, give
a rather imperfect picture of the conditions.

nictlio., Pins clausa, P. scrotina, Gordonia, Ilex Cassine, Serenoa, HypericunL
fasciculaiuni, Quercus myiltifolia, Pieris nitida, Cholismna 'fruticosa, Bejaria,
Startiiu Bakeri, Tillandsia fasciculata, Sarracenia minor, Tillandsia recurvata,
Di'cllinw.;cria. Polygala cymnosa, Anchistea, Dichromena latifolia, Polygala Rug-
clii, .-ll/cis lutea, Nymphaea, Sabbatia grandiflora, and Aristida spiciformis.

:'M1cst of the cattlemen depend mainly on free range, and own very little
land. but there is one company with headquarters in the southeastern corner of
Polk County that is said to have 226,000 acres fenced and to own 36,000 cat-
tle. As in some of the grazing regions of the West, there have been some con-
flicts between the cattlemen and the small farmers who are gradually encroach-
ing on the free range, with occasional bloodshed.



The farms in Osceola County average the largest in central
Florida, and 4.3% of them were over I,ooo acres in extent in 1910.
If free range could be counted as farm land it would swell these
figures greatly. The ratio of farm land to total area in the county
increased from 0.6% in 1890 to 8.2% in 1910, and of improved
land from o.16 0 to 0.5% in the same interval. And although
the average size of owners' farms in 1910 was 244 acres and of
tenant farms 234, farms operated by managers (doubtless mostly
cattle ranches) averaged 2,667 acres.
The status of agriculture in Osceola County since its establish-
ment in 1887 is summarized in the following table:

Agricultural Statistics of Southeastern Flatwoods (Osceola Co.), 1890-1910.
1889- |1899- I 1909-1910
1890 1900' Total | White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant ------- 0.58 1.531 1.05 1.251 0.07
Inhabitants per farm --------------___ 40.7 | 9.73[ 18.3 15.6 | 10.3
Per cent of land in farms -----------_ 0.60 4.9 8.2 -----I ---
Per cent of land improved ------------- 0.16 0.5 | 0.5 ----
TPer cent of farmers, white ----------- 99.2 97.0 ___ ___
Per cent of farmers, owners -----(_ i 90.1 89.4 89.4 100.0
K 92.2 | I
Per cent of farmers, managers -------- 0.3 I 2.7 2.7 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants ---------- 7.8 9.6 7.9 8.2 0
Average number of acres per farm -- 88.0 155.7 307.0 315.6 35.3
Average improved acres per farm -- 23.4 14.9 19.1 19.5 7.1
Value of farm land per acre ($) --- 7.66 21.351 21.301 33.90
Value of farm land per farm i -i 11901 65501 67201 1197
Value of buildings per farm _-------- 187 5891 598 269
Value of implements and machinery-v_ 381 31 99] 101 57
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. 6211 22101 20900 ______-_____
Number of dairy cows per farm _____ 15.7 5.3 3.0 ----
Number of other cattle per farm -____ 77.9 215.7 168.0 ______---
Number of horses per farm ___________ 2.3 2.7 2.5 ----
Number of mules per farm ----------- 0.3 0.1 0.3-------
Number of hogs per farm -___________ 13.9 19.0 16.3 -----I
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 13.1 9| .8 ------
Number of poultry per farm --__ 3.0 14.9 23.1 ----
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer___ 22.80 7.651 48.001------
Expenditures per farm for labor ------ ___ 13.92 118.001------
Expenditures per farm for feed -------J __- ----_ I 80.00-------
Annual value of crops per farm ------ i 0 53
380 6471 I
Annual value of animal products ----- I 24 240--- ---
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--- .097 .521 2.521-----
Expend. labor per acre improved ------ ----- .94 6.201---
Value of crops per acre improved ---. ___I __ 1 31.001


The marked variations between different census periods are not
easy to explain, but are probably due largely to changes in the num-
ber of orange groves and truck farms, which greatly affect the av-
erage number of cattle, etc., per farm. At all three censuses, how-
ever. this region leads all the others in number of cattle per iarm.
The leading crops in 19o9 were oranges, grape-fruit, "vegeta-
bles." corn, sweet potatoes, hay, and Irish potatoes; and the princi-
pal animal product beef cattle. In 1913-14 the order of vakie of
cropls \.as oranges, grape-fruit, corn, sweet potatoes (grass) hay,
Irish potatoes, egg-plants, cane syrup, beans, celery, cabbage, vel-
vet beans (including hay), and watermelons; and in 1917-18 or-
anges. corn, Irish potatoes, grape-fruit, "native" hay, sweet pota-
toes. syrup, cabbage, pineapples, cowpeas (and hay), and straw-
(Figs. 29-34. Soil analyses 46-51, N, Z.)
This includes the islands and barrier beaches of the east coast,
and a narrow strip of mainland averaging only a mile or two in *
\ idth, a total land area in Volusia and Brevard Counties of about
500 square miles. It extends both north and south of our limits
a considerable distance without much change. The boundary be-
t\\een this and the adjacent flatwoods is not always sharp, but is
marked for a considerable part of the distance by a line of ancient
dunes of white sand.- Near the "head" (north end) of the Indian
River the dunes are two or three miles back from salt water, with
lo\\ hammocks and flatwoods east of them scarcely distinguishable
fr-om some much farther inland. And Merritt's Island, although
presumably built up in comparatively recent times by the gradual
shifting eastward of barrier beaches, has large areas of flatwoods
very similar to those of Osceola County, except for containing no
long-leaf pine (a tree which is hardly ever found on islands of any
kind ).
Gcolo^.y and Topography. Geologically the region is very young,
having probably nothing older than Pleistocene very near the sur-
face. The material is mostly sand, but there are shells and shell
fragments mixed with it in many places, sometimes predominating
and hardened into coquina rock (fig. 30).



Shell mounds built up centuries ago by the aborigines are rather
common along the lagoons, and many of them have been excavated
for road-surfacing material (Fig 34). Flowing artesian wells, with
more or less sulphurous water, can be had anywhere, and in some
places the pressure is sufficient to run dynamos or other machinery.
The ancient dunes west of the Indian River (fig. 31) are in
some places about 50 feet above sea-level, but this is probably due
largely to an uplift in comparatively recent times, for the modern
dunes next to the ocean are much lower. The outer beach in Vo-
lusia County is one of the most noted natural automobile race-
courses in the world, and speeds of 156 miles an hour have been
recorded there. The Indian River and other shallow salt lagoons
behind the barrier beaches are navigable for small vessels, and in re-
cent years they have been connected by dredging canals through
intervening marshes and strips of sand, so that there is now an in-
side passage all the way up the coast to South Carolina. There
is practically no tide in these lagoons, on account of the inlets being
small and far apart.

Fig. 29. Scene in Turnbull Hammock, a typical low hammock, about a
mile west of Daytona, Volusia County. By E. H. Sellards, May 21, g19o.
Soils. The soil survey of the "Indian River area," published in
1915, covers most of Merritt's Island and the neighboring barrier
beaches, and a little of the near-by mainland, giving a very typical



Fiig. 3o Lcooking north along rocky shore of Mosquito Lagoon, or North
Indian River, about a mile north of New. Smyrna, Volusia County. (The rock
is coquinia ) May 17, riog9.

Fig. 3r. Looking east-southeast on old dunes about a mile \west of Mirns,
Brevard County. showing spruce pines of two different ages, the younger prob-
ably having come up since the last fire. Feb. 9, 1915.


section of the soils of the east coast. Separating the Brevard
County portion from that south of our limits, we find that the soils
are referred to the "St. Lucie," "Portsmouth," "Palm Beach,"
"Parkwood," "Norfolk," and "Gainesville" series, and the prevail-
ing texture classes are sand (over 50% without the coastal beach),
fine sand, tidal marsh, fine sandy loam, coastal beach, muck, and
-- 1

Fig. 32. Small pool in vast damp
Newfound Harbor on Merritt's Island,
grass (Spartina Bakeri), Feb. 7, 1915.

calcareous palm savanna near head of
showing cabbage palmettos and switch-

Fig. 33. Looking north along crest of outermost dunes, 15 or 20 feet high,
about a mile south of Melbourne Beach, Brevard County. Vegetation mostly
saw-palmetto and sea-oats. Feb. 4, 1915.

I .,

U u~ft


clay IQani. Old dunes with scrub vegetation, mapped as "St. Lucie
saind" alnd "St. Lucie fine sand," make up a trifle more than a third
of the total. A few mechanical and chemical analyses are gixen in
the geiieral chapter on soils.

partly excavated for road material, on east side of Indian River about oppo-
site Melbourne. The shells are nearly all Chionc cancellata, a small clam, and
there are many layers of humus in the mound. Feb. 4, 1915. (For a de-
scripttio:ni and another view of the same place, taken a year or two later, see
J. F. Kemp, Econ. Geol. 14:311, pl. 5 b. 1919.)
I 'L Ita't' ion. The flatwoods of the east coast differ from those
previ'.ously described in having more slash pine than long-leaf. The
old .duies (fig. 31) are generally covered with spruce pine and other
scrub vegetation much like that of the lake region, passing into
sandy hammocks where sufficiently protected from fire by the prox-
illity of water-courses, etc. In marly places there are large areas
of low hammock (fig. 29), passing into swamps where traversed
by streams. The dunes near the ocean have vast thickets of saw-
palmnetto (fig. 33). Less extensive types are the palm savannas
con iMerritt's Island (fig. 32), and a little salt marsh and mangrove
swaamp. The shell mounds are commonly covered with dense ham-
nrmCks of a decidedly tropical character.
The commonest plants are listed below, but on account G f the
inidefiniteness of the inland boundary of the region in some places
the sequence cannot be guaranteed as accurate.





Pinus Caribaea
Sabal Palmetto

Pinus clause
Pinus palustris
Pinus serotina
Acer rubrum
Juniperus Virginiana
Quercus Virginiana
Magnolia grandiflora

Quercus myrtifolia
Hicoria glabra?
Quercus Catesbaei
Salix longipes?
Quercus geminata
Quercus cinerea
Anamomis dicrana
Magnolia glauca
Avicennia nitida
(Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis)

Smilax auriculata
Vitis rotundifolia?
Rhus radicans

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Iva frutescens
Ceratiola ericoides
Batis maritima
Pieris nitida
Myrica pumila
Ximenia Americana
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Cholisma ferruginea
Vaccinium nitidum
Bejaria racemosa
Cholisma fruticosa
Rhus copallina
Borrichia frutescens

Spartina Bakeri
Aristida strict
Tillandsia usneoides
Juncus Roemerianus
Cladium effusum
Salicornia sp.
(Bidens leucantha)
Andropogon sp.
Sagittaria lancifolia
Aristida spiciformis
Cassytha filiformis
Flaveria sp.
Pterocaulon undulatum
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Blechnum serrulatum
Erythrina herbacea
Acrostichum aureum
Pteris aquilina
Solidago fistulosa

Slash pine
Cabbage palmetto

Spruce pine
Long-leaf pine
Black pine
Red maple
Live oak

(Scrub oak)
Black-jack oak
Live oak
Turkey oak

Black mangrove


Poison ivy




(Hurrah bush)


(Poor grub)


Spanish moss


(A grass)


(A fern)

(A fern)
(A fern)

Flatwoods, etc.
Low hammocks and savan-
Old dunes
Flatwoods on mainland
Damp flatwoods
Edges of marshes
Hammocks, etc.

Old dunes
Old dunes
Driest spots
Edges of swamps
Old dunes
Driest spots
Tropical hammocks
Salt marshes
Hammocks, etc.

Old dunes
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks

Various situations
Hammocks and swamps
Edges of salt marshes
Old dunes
Sandy salt marshes
Old dunes, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Pine lands
Old dunes
Pine lands, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Salt marshes

Edges of marshes, savannas
Hammocks, etc.
Salt marshes
Fresh marshes
Sandy salt marshes
Streets and vacant lots
Fresh marshes
Old dunes, etc.
.Marly flats
Dry pine land
Edges of salt marshes
Pine lands
Damp flatwoods


Something like 96 of the vegetatiioi is evergreen. A consid-
erable nuLmber of the species are mainly tropical in distribution, and
not fouid north of Florida. Com:paratively little use is made of
the native plants. There is some lumbering and turpentining, but
that belongs ignore to the neighboring flatwvoo,,ds, i. e.. what few
sanwmills a nd turpentine stills there are along the railroad get
part of most of their ra\v material from the flatMwoods. More
honey, in proportion n to area is prod uced lhere than in other pai ts :o
central Florida. bu t it may come from orange blossoms as much
as from native plants.
Climate. Thi is is the \varmest part of central Florida, at least
in winter, on account of the proximity of the Gulf Stream. Often
a whole winter passes without frost, inl the so,-utlerni portions at
least. As compared with other regions described herein, the total
rainfall seems to be a trifle less, but the proportion of it that comes
in late summer is a little greater.
.-lnitals. Fishing is a n i rta t industry' in the Indian River
and other lagoions, but no statistics of it have come to the w writer's
notice. Titiusville seems to be the principal center. JMosquit oes
seem to be more abundant here than in the other region s, and on
l\erritt's Island they are in evidence practically every month in
the year, on account of the rarity ,of frost. But the\ are more an-
noving than dangerous, for those of the malaria-bearing species
seem to be rare or absent, being more characteristic of regions with
fertile soil.*
Population. There hae been some whie hi settlements onl the
east coast ever since the early Spanish days: and the blringinig Cf a
colony o(f Greeks and MLinorcans to NewI Smyrna by Dr. Andrew
Turnb-ull shortly before the American Revolution is a well-knowii
episode of Florida history. But the population remained sparse
until the coming of tile railroad inI the 'So's. There is ,no way ,'of
estimating the density of population accurately, but if we assume
that half of tile inhabitants of Volusia Countt and all those of Bre-
vard are concentrated in the coast strip we will not be very far -ff.
That would give about 13 per square mile in 1890, il' in 109,o0. 26
inll 1910, and 4(0 in 1920. These figures are considerably above the
average for central Florida and the whole State, showing that not-

*See 6th Annual Report. page 288, last footnote.



withstanding the poor soil, a large part of the population gets its
living from the water, as is the case on most coasts all over the
world. The winter tourist business is a very important item here
too, and what farming there is is very intensive, as will be shown
About one-third of the population would be classed as urban by
the United States census definition, but about two-thirds of the peo-
ple live in incorporated places, the largest of which in 1915 were
Daytona, with 4,250 inhabitants; New Smyrna, with 2,012; Titus-
ville, 1,310; Ormond, 857; Cocoa, 807; Daytona Beach, 582, Eau
Gallie, 543; Seabreeze, 443; Melbourne, 408; Holly Hill, 378; Port
Orange. 296: and Hawks Park, 178. All of these are on the main
line of the Florida East Coast Railway, or on the barrier beach
east of it. (Stations on that railroad in central Florida, average
about 3>' miles apart.) They are all popular winter resorts, and
their combined hotel capacity, according to the latest estimates, is
cver 6,ooo.
The composition of the population may be deduced approximately
from the figures for Brevard County, although that contains less
than half the total. In 1910 that county had 65.5% of native
whites, 4.7%o foreign whites, and 29.7% negroes. If similar figures
for the eastern half of Volusia were available the proportion of for-
eigners (already the highest in central Florida outside of Hills-
borough County) and of negroes would doubtless be increased.
In the incorporated places above listed 37% of the population in
the summer of 1915 was colored, and Daytona and Ormond had
more negroes than whites. The leading foreign nationalities in
Brevard County in 1910 were English, German, Danish, Canadian.
Irish. Italian, Scotch, and Swedish, and in Brevard and Volusia
together 'English, German, Canadian, Swedish, Italian, Irish.
Scotch, Danish, Russian, Norwegian, and Swiss. Some of the na-
tive whites are descendants of Minorcans brought from the Bal-
earic Islands by Dr. Turnbull in the latter part of the S8th century.
On account of the dense population, mostly living in towns, and
the fact that a large proportion of the people (not ascertainable
for any census since 1880, however) have come from other states
and therefore almost necessarily learned to read before making the
journey, the illiteracy percentages are low. Among the persons


over o1 years old in Brevard County in 190o, only I.I% of the na-
tive whites, 4.5% of the foreign whites, and 17.1% of the ne-
groes were illiterate. The figures for native whites and negroes
are tlhe lowest in central Florida.

The leading religious denominations among the whites in Bre-
\ard County in 1916 were Baptist, Southern Methodist, Northern
Methodist (?), Catholic, Episcopalian, Northern Presbyterian, Ad-
\ent Christian, Disciples of Christ, and Congregationalist; and
among the negroes, African Methodist Episcopal Zion, Baptist,
A. MI. E., and Northern iMethodist.

.-liriculitrc. Dr. Turnbull's Minorcan colony was primarily an
agricultural one, and it is said that in 1772 they had about 3,000
acres of hammock land planted in indigo. But the modern intensive
agriculture goes back only about thirty years. On account of the
rather dense population, the mild climate, and the fact that most of
the farms are within a mile of a railroad that can take express ship-
ments to New York in less than two days (with double track most
of the way), farming is now more intensive and specialized here
than in any other region in Florida, although the soil probably av-
erages the poorest in the State.

The ratio of improved land to total area cannot be estimated ac-
curately, because the region does not cover as much as half of any
county, but the statistics for Brevard County illustrate agricultural
conditions very well in other respects.

The specialized farming that prevails here evidently sets too fast
a pace for the average negro, as shown by the considerably higher
proportion of whites among the farmers than among the total pop-
ulatio n. The proportion of farms operated by managers is very
large, and this probably indicates that quite a number of orange
grc, es are owned by people who do not live in Florida at all, or
spend only the winter season here. (The census of 1900 was taken
in June, and that of 1910 in April.) The managers' farms in 1910
averaged 79 acres with 16.8 improved, and land and buildings worth
$ 15-.375.



Agricultural Statistics of East Coast Strip (Brevard Co.), 1890-1910.
11889- 1899- I 1909-1910
S 1890 19001 Total White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant -------- 0.68 1.41 1.02 1.31 0.33
Inhabitants per farm ----------------- 21.8 8.4 11.0 8.8 26.4
Per cent of farmers white ------------ ----- 94.1 87.6- ----
Per cent of farmers, owners ----- 80.0 76.4 79.0 5.5
Per cent of farmers, managers ---- 16.1 19.9 18.6 28.4
Per cent of farmers, tenants 0 3.9 3.7 2.4 13.2
Average number of acres per farm --- 114.5 62.0 59.7 63.8 31.4
Average improved acres per farm 14.8 11.8 11.2 11.6 8.8
Value of farm land per acre ($) ---- ---- 43.20 97.76 96.001 123.00
Value of farm land per farm -------- 10, 2680 5830 6125 3860
Value of buildings per farm ----- ----- 7851 14751 15901 656
Value of implements and machinery- 27 43 811 831 63
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. -- 233 260 249 ------ ----
Number of dairy cows per farm ------ 1.7 1.1 0.7 ---- ------
Number of other cattle per farm -18.5 15.8 11.1 --
Number of horses per farm ------ 0.6 0.4 0.5 ---- -----
Number of mules per farm ----------- 0.2 0.1 0.2 -----------
Number of hogs per farm ------ 1.8 8.3 6.9-----------
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 0 0 0 -
Number of poultry per farm 37.1 19.1 18.4 ----- ------
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer --- 54.601 62.301 148.00 ------------
Expenditures per farm for labor ------ ---- 112.001 294.00 ----------
Expenditures per farm for feed ----- ---- --- 81.00 ----- ---
Annual value of crops per farm .------ I 13551-- -- --
8521 3381-
Annual value of animal products ----- 66--------
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--- 3.68 5.261 13.15 -----I ------
Expend. labor per acre improved ----- ---- 9.481 26.101 ---- -----
Value of crops per acre improved -----I ------I 120.50) ---------

The number of improved acres per inhabitant is low, on account
of the large town population, the importance of other industries
than agriculture, and the intensive farming. The farms average
the smallest in central Florida, but have the most valuable land and
buildings. Live-stock is relatively unimportant, the rather large
number of beef cattle per farm being probably due to a few cattle
ranches in the flatwoods part of Brevard County. (It is a curious
fact that neither State nor government censuses have ever found
any sheep in this county.) The number of work animals averages
less than one per farm, showing that some farms are worked by
hand labor only. The expenditures of all kinds per farm anl per
acre are xery high, but so are the profits, in favorable seasons.



The leading crops in Brevard County in 1909 were oranges (over
half the total), grape-fruit (about one-eighth), "vegetables," sweet
potatoes. Irish potatoes, pineapples, corn, cane syrup, and hay.
In 1913-14 oranges (nearly two-thirds), grape-fruit (nearly one-
fourth), (string?) beans, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, tomatoes,
watermelons, cucumbers, strawberries, cabbage, peppers, guavas,
bananas, onions, Japanese persimmons; egg-plants, and lettuce.
In 19r7-18 oranges (about five-sixths), grape-fruit, Irish pota-
toes, velvet beans, string beans, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, corn,
sorghum, dasheens, cabbage, lima beans, cowpeas, onions, and grass
The average farm in 1909 produced only 43.3 gallons of milk,
4.5 pounds of butter (and sold 1.5, leaving only 3 pounds per farm
family per year), 25 chickens, 86.5 dozen eggs, and about one. cow
and one hog, but led all the rest of central Florida many times in
honey, producing 72.2 pounds per farm.



Under this head the various geographical features of central
Florida will be discussed by topics, and each subdivided by regions
as far as is possible or desirable. This naturally involves sonic re-
iteration of facts already brought out in the regional descriptions,
but the two treatments supplement each other just as the ground
plan and elevation of a building do, and this second part is best
adapted to illustrating general principles. It will also be useful
to persons who are interested primarily in one thing, such as min-
eral resources, water, soil, climate, timber, population or agricul-
ture, and do not care to look through ten regional descriptions to
pick out the desired information.
The treatment begins with the structure of the earth's crust,
which as far as we know has not changed materially for ages, and
proceeds to topography, which changes a little more rapidly-
though almost imperceptibly in a human lifetime-to soil and cli-
mate, to vegetation-which is changing slowly all the time even
where man does not interfere with it-and finally to such very
changeable features as population and agriculture. Soil, which is
the top of the earth's crust, might perhaps most logically be treated
immediately after stratigraphy, but in the area under consider action
its character seems to depend as much on topography as on the na-
ture of the underlying rocks, so topography is taken up first.
A complete account would treat every topic historically a,. well
as geographically; but the changes in stratigraphy, soil, topography
and climate are so slow, and exact information about them so mea-
ger, that it is hardly worth while to speculate about them at all in
a work of this kind. Vegetation changes more rapidly, and in the
last 25 years there have been published hundreds of pages o, tlhe
supposed trends of development, or "succession," of vegetation in
various parts of the country, particularly the Middle West. But
in this report vegetation -is regarded as essentially static, except
for the depredations of civilized man and some comparatively short
cycles of succession after fire in pine lands, scrub, hammocks, etc.,
which will be alluded to at the proper places.
Population and agriculture have developed from almost nothing
to their present stage in less than Ioo years, and we have abundant


inifori-iiationl about them in census reports, for several decades past.
Ho\\-e\ver. previous to 1887 most of the counties in central Florida
were so large, that statistics based on them give a very imperfect
idea of conditions in any one region, so that the statistical tables
ini the foregoing pages begin with the census of 1890. But some
data from earlier censuses for the area as a whole are given in
the following chapters. And even if the counties had been reduced
to tlieir present size much earlier, the information in the older cen-
suses is considerably less detailed than that in recent ones, and the
remote past does not concern us as much as the recent past anyway.
Sohme of the tables that follow contain the same ratios and per-
centages already given in the eight regional tables, but they are
arranged in an entirely different manner. In the preceding tables
one could follow the development of any phase of agriculture in a
given region through three census periods, while in the following
ones conditions in different regions at the same time are tabu-
laterd side by side to illustrate the influence of different environ-
ments. There are also a number of additional tables to illustrate
co inditions whose historical aspects are unknown or not considered,
such as soil analyses, climatic data, a tree census, illiteracy, schools,
religious denominations, relative importance and y'eld per acre
of different crops, and animal products of farms.
In all the statistical tables where different regions are contrasted
the highest ratio or percentage, for each feature is printed in heav-
ier type and the lowest in italics (unless two or more numbers are
so nearly equal that it is impossible to decide between them); a
scheme which assists materially in picking out the salient features
of each region and also in locating the best and worst places within
our area for any particular thing, such as large and small farms,
farm machinery, mules, sheep, bees, cotton, oranges, sugar-cane,
Although a great deal of geological work has been done in this
and other parts of Florida in recent years, our knowledge of strat-
igraphic details is still very imperfect, on account of the scarcity
of outcrops of rocks that can be identified by their fossils or other-
wise. And even if deepwe.lls had been drilled on every square mile
and all the strata penetrated by them identified and measured it
would still be quite a problem to map the formations, because they


are in most places so nearly horizontal that they make very small
angles with the comparatively level surface, so that their edges
must always be ill-defined.
The oldest formations known in central Florida appear at the
surface in the northwestern quarter, and dip gently southward and
eastward from there. The oldest rock is a nearly pure limestone of
uppermost Eocene age, known now as the Ocala formation (per-
haps a continuation of the. Marianna limestone of West Florida, the
St. Stephens limestone of southwestern Alabama, and the Vicksburg
and Jackson limestones of Mississippi), which is exposed about as
far east as Ocala and Sumterville and as far south as Tarpon
Springs. Most of the caves in our area are in this formation, be-
cause it is almost the only limestone pure enough and thick enough
and sufficiently elevated above the ground-water to form caves.
It is quarried in several places (fig. 12), either for road-surfacing
material, for fertilizing purposes, or for burning into lime. The
eastward dip of this formation seems to be very slight, for it has
been encountered within 200 feet of the surface in wells drilled near
the east coast.
Next above it is the Tampa limestone, of Oligocene age, in our
area principally confined to Hillsborough County. Its exposures
are very limited and more or less silicified, so that it is of little ec-
onomic importance. The Miocene area of central Florida seems
to be approximately co-extensive with the lake region, but ex-
posures of the strata are very scarce. Perhaps the best one is the
limestone bluff at Rock Spring (fig. 18) in the northern part of
Orange County, where the first Miocene fossils in Florida were
The Pliocene is represented by the Nashua marl along the St.
John's River between Palatka and Sanford, and by the hard rock
and pebble phosphate deposits overlying the Eocene and Oligocene
in patches west of the lake region. The Pleistocene includes some
shell marls near the coast and rivers, and probably much if not most
of the peat and surface sand.
Most of the surface is covered by fairly homogeneous unconsol-
idated sand averaging several feet in thickness. A generation ago
this was commonly regarded as a Pleistocene deposit, and called the
Columbia formation; but the trend of opinion in recent years has
*See references on page 120.


been toward treating it as a mere product of weathering front the
sandy clay or rock underlying it. There are some objections to
both hypotheses, however, and the question must be regarded as still
The most important mineral resource of central Florida is phos-
phate rock, which is of two principal kinds, occurring in distinct
regions. The "hard rock," which is the highest grade, contain-
ing usually from 77% to 80o% of tricalcium phosphate, occurs in
deposits of supposed Pliocene age in the lime-sink region, chiefly
in Citrus County and the western part of Marion (and north of our
present limits in Alachua). A variety known as "plate rock" was
formerly mined near Anthony, which is in the same region but east
of the Middle Florida hammock belt. A low-grade by-product
known as soft phosphate was formerly discarded in mining, but
is now\ saved in some places and used as a fertilizer in its raw
"Land pebble," containing usually from 65 to 77% oi tri-
calcium phosphate, occurs in the Bone Valley formation (Pliocene),
which covers considerable areas in the flatwoods south of Lakeland
and Plant City. A variety known as "river pebble" was formerly
dredged out of the Peace River, chiefly south of our present limits.
Both the principal types of phosphate deposits are of considerable
scientific interest on account of containing many well-preserved
vertebrate fossils, representing sharks, crocodiles, armadillos,
horses, elephants, mastodons, whales, etc.
In 1913, the last full year before the export of phosphate was
interrupted by the great war, there were 14 companies mining- hard
rock in Florida (some of them north of the limits of this report,
however), and 16 mining pebble phosphate. The total reported
production for the State in that year was 489,794 long tons of hard
rock and 2,055,482 of pebble, together valued at $9,563,084, or
about the same as the farm crops of central Florida in 1909. The
hard rock. being of higher grade, brings a higher price, and the only
reason the pebble can be marketed in competition with it is probably
that the latter can be mined more economically, on account of the
deposits being more continuous, the use of hydraulic mining meth-
ods. etc. Much of the hard rock at present mined is below ground-
water level and has to be taken out with a dredge. Nearly all the



hard rock and about half the land pebble is exported to Europe in
normal times.*
Since the war the business has picked up again, and several new
mines have been opened in thle flatwoods or pebble district, and inore
attention is being paid to the soft phosphate formerly wasted in the
hard rock district. Another by-product, chiefly from the pebble
district, is a sandy rock containing too little phosphorus for ferti-
lizing purposes, but making a pretty good road-surfacing material.f
Limestone is probably next in importance to phosphate in our
area. It has long been quarried in several places around Ocala, and
recently in southeastern Citrus County. Some of it is burned for
lime and some used for road material, and in a few places it has been
sawed into blocks and used for chimneys, walls, etc. A variety
known as coquina, composed of shell fragments rather loosely ce-
mented together, occurs in a few places along the east coast, and
has been used locally for building purposes.
Bog iron ore is said to have been mined and smelted near Levy-
ville in Levy County during the Civil War, for the Confederate
Deposits of kaolin or porcelain clay are being worked on the
south side of Lake Harris in Lake County, and brick is made at
Whitney in the same county, and formerly at Brooksville and a few
other places. Sandy clay suitable for road surfacing is widely dis-
tributed, particularly in the lake region.

*The exportation of so much valuable fertilizing material has been viewed
with alarm, by some writers, but it is a natural result of the normal working
of the- law of supply and demand. Substantially the same arguments might
be used against shipping coal, iron or lumber from states that have them to
those that lack them; but if other states or countries need these things and
have something of greater present value to us to offer in exchange ite is per-
fectly good business to make the trade. It seems to be generally true of min-
eral fertilizers that the soils near where they occur are pretty well supplied
with that particular substance, so that they have to be transported a consid-
erable distance to do the utmost good. By sending our phosphate to Germany,
Nebraska or California in exchange for potash both sides are benefited, pro-
vided the cost of transportation, etc., is not too great.
tFor a discussion of the Florida phosphates see papers by Dr. E. H. Sellards
in our Fifth and Seventh Annual Reports, and U.. S. Geological Survey Bul-
letin 604, by G. C. Matson (I915). The first and last of these contain many
references to earlier papers, which need not be cited here.



Sand] abounds nearly everywhere, and the pure white variety,
.such as characterizes the scrub, ought to be well suited for the man-
ufacture :.f glass. Sand-lime brick is made at Lake Helen, in Volu-
sia Colunt\.
The imarl in low hammocks and the shell mounds are used to
,o:.me extent for road-making. Gypsum is found in a few low ham-
mo:.cks, but apparently not in commercial quantities, unless in the
\viesteri part of Sumter County.*
Peat ablounds in the lake region and occurs in most of the others,
but. hals been little used as yet. It was discussed at considerable
length in the Third Annual Report, which the interested reader can
co:.nsult for details.
Artesian water is easily obtained anywhere in the area, but it
ldoes n.ot rise above the surface except near the coast and larger
rivers and lakes, and at a few other places at low elevations. The
highest artesian pressure found in the State is along the Indian
River in southern Brevard County, where the water rises about 50
feet abv:.\e sea-level, and is used in a small way for running dy-
namos, etc. Most of the water from deep wells contains consider-
able salt. line, sulphur, etc., but hardly ever enough to make it un-
fit for drinking purposes, except in some places near the upper St.
TJ.lhn' Ri\er, where the salt content is excessive. In the lime-sink
regi:.on, hI:iwever, the water. is often too "hard" for boiler purposes,
and iwater-s,:.fteners are used by the railroads. Rain-water cisterns
for private residences are used where the water is too deep to be
reached by dug wells, as in the lime-sink region, or'too highly min-
eralized, as in some places along the east coast. Force-pumps are
also freql ent in the lime-sink region and the higher parts of the lake
region. while ordinary suction pumps prevail in the flatwoods.

*The latest account of the Florida gypsum deposits, containing references
to important earlier papers, is by R. W. Stone in "Mineral Resources of the
United States for 1918" (U. S. Geological Survey), part 2, pp. 293-296.



In recent years several test wells have been put down in the hope
of striking oil-one in Sumter County reached a depth of 3,080
feet before it was abandoned-but without success as yet.*


The subject of topography is not very well adapted to syste-
matic or statistical- treatment, especially in a region where so little
is known of the processes that produced the configuration of the
surface as is the case here. In most civilized countries the greater
part of the topography is evidently the result of either glaciation or
normal erosion or easily understood variations thereof, and persons
skilled in such matters can trace the developmental cycles with con-
siderable satisfaction; but surface erosion is probably an insignifi-
cant factor in our area, on account of the low altitude of some parts
and the very sandy soil or subterranean drainage of other parts,
and the origin of some of our topographic features is still an un-
solved problem. The treatment adopted here, therefore, is neces-
sarily somewhat empirical.
Uplands. Although the topography of central Florida seems to
have been shaped mostly by other means than surface erosion, as
just stated, the steepest average slopes are generally in the most el-

*It is a curious coincidence, perhaps not easily explained, however, that
all or nearly all the successful oil wells in the United States are in regions
where there is more rain in early summer. (April to June) than in late summer
(August to October), and where the native vegetation is either predominantly
deciduous or treeless; a combination of conditions not found in Florida--though
approached in the extreme northwest of the State-or anywhere near the c',ast
northeast of here.
According to an article by John K. Barnes in the "World's Work" for
April, 1920, the cost of drilling for oil in the United States in recent years
has greatly exceeded the value of the oil produced. So apparently we would
be better off financially if no oil wells had ever been drilled!
tAt first thought it might seem impossible to apply any sort of statistics
to topography. But in areas covered by reasonably accurate topographic maps
one could at least estimate the average slope of the surface of a given region
by drawing straight lines across the map in various directions, counting the
number of contours crossed in a unit distance, averaging the results, and apply-
ing a factor of about three-fourths to make a correction for the fact that mosl
of the contours will not be intersected at right angles. It would also be pos-
sible to estimate the areas lying between sea-level and 50 feet, 5o and 100 feet.


evated portions, as in most other parts of the world. As far as we
know at present the highest point in Florida is the summit of
Iron Mountain, about two miles 'north of Lake Wales, in Polk
County, which is said to be 324.3 feet above sea-level.* There
are some very similar high steep hills in the southern part of Lake
County, particularly between \est Apopka and Clermont.i- Cler-
mont is 105 feet above sea-level, and some, of the hills northeast
of there must be 150 if not 200 feet higher; and from at least one
of them one can look directly westward over three lakes at once.
Col. Charles Ledyard Norton, in his Handbook of Florida (3d
edition, 1891, pp. 45, 274), referring to Lake County, says: "In
point of fact, the highest elevations in the State, nearly five hundred
feet above tide-water, are found in this. county;" but in the light of
present knowledge that appears to be considerably exaggerated.
The high hills of the Hernando hammock belt have been noted
in the description of that region; and'there are points in the lime-
sink region and Middle Florida hammock belt nearly if not quite
200 feet above sea-level. The. Hernando hills commonly have clay
near the surface, at least on their slopes (fig. 15), and Iron Moun-
tain and some of the hills near Ocala are a little rocky on top, but
those of Lake. County and many others have summits and slopes
alike covered with deep sand. Some of these sandy slopes are re-
markably steep, about 300, but the outlines of the hills are smooth
and rounded, as if the wind slowly and imperceptibly filled up with

"Early in 1915 the corporation owning this "mountain" and considerable
adjoining land advertised it to be 385 feet high, but this seems to have been
based on an erroneous assumption as to the altitude of points on the recently
completed branch of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, which passed a little west
if the property. Revised figures seem to have been obtained from the railroad
a little later, and in the summer of the same year the corporation published a
small topographic map of the property, giving 324.3 feet as the altitude of the
summit, which seems reasonable. This was soon accepted by the U. S. Geolog-
ical Survey as the highest point in the State, and so published in the annual
New York World Almanac, beginning with the issue for 1917 (p. 67). About
the same time, however, it became known that Iron Mountain has a close rival
in a point near Round Lake in West Florida, 322 feet above sea-level. (See
our I [th Annual Report, 1918, p. SI, and 12th, p. 53.)
tSee E. A. Smith, Tenth Census U. S. 6:237. 1884; N. S. Shaler, Bull. Mus.
Comip. Zool. Harvard Coll. 16:151. 1890; Harper, Torreya 11:65. 1911; and fig.
19 of the present report.


sand any irregularities that might tend to be formed by erosion,
burrowing animals, uprooted trees, etc.*

Lake basins. The hills of the lake region are interspersed with
many saucer-like basins of various sizes and depths, some dry and
some containing water. Just how these basins were formed is an
unsolved problem. Some have ascribed them to solution and some
to the action of strong ocean currents when the land was sub-
mergedt but neither explanation fits all the facts. Basins of some-
what similar outline but usually shallower are very common in the
lime-sink region, and as some of those are known to have been
formed by a sudden caving in of the roof of a subterranean passage
and the subsequent smoothing of the sides by rain and wind, it may
be assumed that most of them originated in some such way. But
in the lake region sinks, caves, and other solution phenomena are
very rare, and no one seem to have ever observed the beginning
of one of the basins in question. They could hardly have been
scooped out by the wind or the elevations around them piled up by
-waves, either, for many of the hills have. a hard clay substratum
in them considerably above the bottom of the basins. And lakes
a short distance, apart often differ considerably in elevation, show-
ing that they rest on an irregular surface -of clay or some other
impervious material.

Lime-sinks. This term is used for several different things.
.Some lime-sinks are small dry sandy basins of the kind just de-
scribed, with no visible outlet, while others have rock outcropping
in them and a hole at the bottom through which water escapes,
and some have steep banks and are more or less permanently filled
with water, which is usually bluish from dissolved limestone. The
dry sandy type is most common in the lime-sink region and the

*It seems probable that the wind has had a much larger share in shaping
the topography of the uplands of peninsular Florida than is commonly realized.
Although the sand does not move noticeabl: on windy days, except in culti-
vated fields (and even there there is little evidence of drifting after the wind
dies down), in the course of centuries any minor irregularities must be prettyy
thoroughly smoothed out.
tSee pages 150-156 of the paper on the topography of Florida by Prof.
Shaler, cited on the preceding page.



rocky ty-pe in the halmnmock belts. Those with permanent water in
them are apparently Ivore conimmon in northern than in central Flor-
ida, I.uRlt examples can be seen near Sumterville and Lacoochee.
In the Hernando hamnimock belt some of the intermittent lakes or
prairies have a small rocky lim1e-sink at one end or edge, through
which the water drains oft (fig. I, ). There are said to be some
lime-sinks on the \\est side of Lake George, which the writer has
Imapped as being in the lake region, but not yet explored.
Ca es. Limestone caves are not uncommon in and near the
hanumnock belt in Ilarion County, and there are a few small ones
in the southeastern part of Citrus County,* hardly large enough
to c-onMtain stalactites and stalagmites or to be easily entered.
NAatral brA/id'c in central Florida are of two types, which might
be called \\et and dry. The former is the commonest, and is caused
by a streanl entering a subterranean channel made by solution of
limestone. which it iniav follow anywhere from a few rods to a few
miles. It is of course impossible to go under such a bridge, and
sometimes one cannot even be sure \\here a disappearing stream
emerges again. Bridges of this type are reported near Homosassa
and Tarpon Springs, and there must be many unrecognized ones
made )b small streams. A rarer and very different type is formed
by blocks of limestone falling against each other when the ground
under them settles irregularly from the slow solution of still deeper
calcareous strata. A few\ of this kind can be seen in the neighbor-
hood1 of the caves .-of s-outheastern Citrus County, just mentioned.
Flat 'ocdts. Most of the country within twenty miles or so of
tile coast on both sides of the peninsula is essentially level, except
where shallowly dissected by streams. The dissection is most pro-
nounced near the Peace and Alafia Rivers, and at certain points
near the coast \here the general level of the country is 20 or 25
feet above the sea. as at Eau Gallie. Melbourne, and St. Petersburg.
The flatness is probably due to the fact that the sand and underlying
materials were deposited on a nearly level ocean bottom, and have
not been elevated higli enough or long enough to be eroded much.
BCa7C/i.s ami/ ,/d Ts. The whole Atlantic coast of central Flor-
ida alnd the Gulf coast in Pinellas County, are bordered by rather
"Fo.r adtliti..nal infcorrmati'on atb..:ut tliee see R. M. Harper, Am. Fern
Journal 6:6S-Sr. 1916 Natural History (foriimerly American Museum Jouraal)
2:201. Ul : J. K. Small, j.T.:ur. N. Y. Bct. Gard. 21 :34-37. 1920.



narrow barrier-beaches, with lagoons one to five miles wide be-
tween them and the mainland. On these beaches the wind has
piled up low sand dunes, rarely exceeding 0o or 15 feet in height,
which seem to be moving very little at the present time. (Dunes
are not as well developed in Florida, or anywhere in the tropics,
apparently, as they are north of latitude 40', perhaps because in
our climate the vegetation covers the sand too quickly for the wind
to disturb it much. The wind has considerable force on the east
coast, however, as is indicated by the pines leaning inland at an
angle of ten degrees or more in many places.)
A mile or two back from the shore, at many places along the
east coast and also near Cedar Keys, Bayport, and probably else-
where on the west coast, are old dunes of thoroughly leached white
sand, which must have been formed at a time when the land stood
a little lower and the peninsula was narrower, for dunes do not
seem to be forming at present more than half a mile from the outer-
most beaches. The absence of such features farther in the interior
would seem to indicate that the land has not been depressed much
below its present position for a very long time; long enough for the
wind to level any dunes that might have existed and for the sala-
manders and other animals to mix the pure sand with the darker
Other shore features. The absence of barrier beaches along the
Gulf hammock coast has been commented on in the description of
that region. It seems to be correlated with the very gentle slope
of the ocean bottom along there, which keeps the waves from beat-
ing on the shore just as if there was a barrier beach a few miles out;
but just why that type of shore with a minutely irregular marshy
border, should be confined to the Gulf hammock region is an un-
solved problem. Very likely if there was as much wind on the Gulf
coast as on the Atlantic coast the shore would be different; but there
is evidently not, for the pines grow perfectly erect near the Gulf
coast, instead of leaning inland as most of them do on the other side
of the peninsula.

*The many patches of scrub (described farther on under soils and also
under vegetation) in the lake region are thought by some to represent old
dunes, but in many or most cases their topography seems to preclude any such



The larger lakes have sandy beach ridges on their more exposed
shores, and sand-bars forming across their embayments, as in lakes
with sandy shores the world over, but none of our lakes are large
enough to have any perceptible development of dunes around them.
\\'\ave-cut cliffs are exhibited on a small scale in the clay bluffs
on the southeast side of Lake \eir, and perhaps on other.lakes.
Minor topographic forms. In many places close to the Indian
River. St. John's River, Tampa Bay, and other navigable waters
there are. shell mounds several to many feet high and usually an
acre or less in extent, which are commonly supposed to be Indlian
"kitchen middens," though the possibility of some of them having
been partly built up by raccoons or other four-footed animals does
not seem to have been wholly eliminated. Some are composed
chiefly of oysters and others of other mollusks, especially along
rivers. \\here there are no oysters. One on the east side of the
Indian River about opposite Melbourne fig. 34), which is being
excavated for road material (a fate shared by many others'), shows
about ten feet of shells, nearly all Chionc caniccllata, a small clam-
like bivalve. resting on yellowish sand. There are thin layers of hu-
mus among the shells every few inches, presumably indicating that
the growth of the mound was frequently interrupted long enough
for a little vegetation to grow on it. Some of the mounds have
more sand than shells in them. and must have been formed in a
somewhat different manner; but the subject has not been suf-
ficiently investigated.
Tcrraces ('? The boundary between flatwoods and uplands
is sometimes gradual and sometimes rather abrupt, as for example
at or near Bronson, DeLand and Lake Helen. In recent years
these abrupt scarps have been regarded by some geologists as Pleis-
tocene shore lines, or terraces.* but they do not appear to be contin-
uous for any great distance, as terraces should be. and they lack
some of the characteristic features of shore-lines, such as dunes.

*See Matson & Sanford, U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 319 (19i 4'i,
PPl. 31-35, 210-211, and map (plate ) : and comment on same in Geo'. P!-.v c-.
4:224-223. 1917.



Lakes. There is perhaps no essential difference between a lake
and a pond, but the former term, in Florida as elsewhere, is usually
applied to the larger and more permanent bodies of fresh water.
No close estimate of the number of lakes in central Florida has been
made, but it is certainly in the thousands. The majority are in the
lake region, as might, be expected, but they are common in several
other regions, particularly the eastern division of the flatwoods.
The largest are Lakes George, Apopka and Kissimmee, each cover-
ing something like Ioo square miles. The smaller ones, some of
which are only a few acres in extent (and not as wide as some
parts of the St. John's River) are, approximately circular and have
no visible outlets, being merely depressions extending below the
ground-water level. But they can hardly be called stagnant, for the
water is doubtless constantly seeping through the sandy soil in the
direction of the nearest river. The larger lakes are irregularly
shaped and have, streams flowing into or out of them, or both, sev-
eral being simply wide places in the St. John's and Kissimmee Riv-
Few soundings have been made in our lakes, but judging from
the slope of their shores the deepest may not be over 50 feet deep.
As a rule they do not fluctuate more than two or three feet in the
course of a year. A few which are connected with sink-hole.s may
be lowered suddenly at long intervals in the manner described
by Dr. Sellards in the 3rd and 6th Annual Reports, and those. on the
St. John's River of course share the fluctuations of that stream,
which however are only a few feet. Lake George, being just about
the, head of tide-water on the St. John's, of course cannot rise much.
but Lake Harney, about 200 miles by water from the mouth of
the river, is said to have an extreme fluctuation of about seven feet.
Besides the seasonal variations in level, some of the lakes among
the uplands are evidently lower now than they were a generation or
so ago, as shown by the encroachment of young long-leaf pines on
their shores.* This may be due to a permanent lowering of the
ground-water level by numerous flowing artesian wells bored at
lower elevations, but the matter has not been sufficiently investi-

*See 3d Annual Report, p. 266.



The water of most of our lakes is comparatively clear, and some
in Seminole and Orange Counties are used for city water supplies
in preference to the hard and sulphurous artesian water. The
clearest lake of any size in central Florida is probably Lake WVeir,
in tie southern part of Marion County. Two or three small coffee-
colored branches enter its eastern end and tinge the water there a
little, but its western end, which is in the lime-sink region, is sc
clear that one can see the bottom where it is several feet deep. This
is probably correlated with a small amount of limestone in solution,,
for a species of mussel ('Unio Czmninghami) is common in the
-western part of the lake.
Ponds and swamps. Shallow ponds, which may dry up com-,
pletely in dry seasons, varying in size from perhaps one to a hun-
dred acres, abound in the flatwoods and are fairly common in the
lime-sink region. They nearly always have considerable vegetation
in them, sometimes only maiden-cane, wampee, bonnets, and
other herbs, but more often bushes or trees or both. (Additional
details are given in the chapter on vegetation.)
The various types of marshes and peat bogs have been pretty
fully discussed in the Third Annual Report, and some of them will
be referred to farther on under the head of vegetation. The same
might be said of swamps, which are not very extensive in central
Springs. There is perhaps no equal area in the United States.
that has more large springs than central Florida. Most of them are
the points of emergence of subterranean creeks or rivers, which
usually come up through one or more irregular openings in the bot-.
tom of bowl-like basins. They are most common in the lime-sink
region and near its edges, but there are also several in the Gulf
hammock region and a few in the lake region, particularly near the
St. John's River and on the edges of the great Wekiva River swamp
in Seminole and Orange Counties.
Silver Spring (fig. 8), a few miles east of Ocala, is one of the
largest springs known, about 200 feet wide and 35 feet deep. One
discharge measurement made of it gave about 150,000 gallons a,
minute, or 333 cubic feet a second, and another, probably some dis-
tance down stream, about twice as much. The stream or "run"'
issuing from it is so large that small steamers from the Ocklawaha
River can come right up into the spring; and this has been a fa-,



vorite trip for sight-seers for many years. The spring is also used
for bathing. Blue Spring in the same county near Juliette has
nearly as large a flow, but does not make a navigable stream. Othei
well known springs in the same region are Weekiwachee Spring in
Hernando County and Sulphur Spring near Tampa. The former
is rather unique in being in the midst of a large area of scrub.
In the Gulf hammock region there are large springs at the head
of the WYaccasassa, Crystal, Homosassa (fig. 7) and Chessahow-
itzka Rivers. In the lake region the best known springs are DeLeol
and Blue Springs in Volusia County, Palm and Hoosier Springs in
the western part of Seminole County, Clay or Wekiva Spring, the
main source of the \Vekiva River, Seminole Spring, near Soriento,,
and Bugg Spring, near Okahumpka. Rock Spring, in the north-.
western part of Orange County (fig. 18), differs from most other
Florida springs, and resembles some in the Appalachian Valley,
in that the water rushes out audibly from the base of a cliff, instead
of welling up from the bottom of a basin.
The water of all these large springs is highly charged with cal-
cium carbonate, and is very clear, with a slight bluish tinge. Its
temperature usually ranges between 700 and 750 the year round.*
Some have a very perceptible sulphurous odor too, particularly those
in Seminole County. Orange, Silver, Palm, Clay and Sulphui
Springs and perhaps others are used more or less for bathing pools.
Silver Spring, the largest and most accessible of all, is provided
with glass-bottomed boats, from which the bottom can be viewed.
The water of Green or Espiritu Santo Spring in Pinellas County
and one or two smaller ones is believed to have medicinal virtues.
There, are a few salt springs near the St. John's River and some ot
its tributaries, but little is known about them.
Streams. The. streams of. central Florida may be divided,
chiefly on a basis of size, into branches, creeks, runs and rivers.
The branches, generally speaking, are those small enough to stop
running in dry weather, and they are not as numerous as in the
northern part of the State, where the effects of erosion are more ev-
ident. They are mostly clear or slightly coffee-colored. The creeks
flow throughout the year, and vary from a few feet to several yards

*The temperature of a large spring in any part of the world, unless it is a
thermal spring, is usually very close to the average annual temperature of the
locality, so that it seems warm in winter and cold in summer, by contrast.


wide. They nearly all originate in and are bordered by swamps,
and are decidedlv'co)ffee-colored.
The outlets of the large springs, varying in size from creeks to
small rivers, are commonly called runs. They are clear and bluish
like the springs, but usually do not flow more than a few\ miles be-
fore they lose themselves in some larger coffee-colored stream or in
the ocean. Helena Run. in Lake County, is said to be transparent
when it flows eastward from Bugg Spring into Lake Harris, and
coffee-colored when it flows westward from the lake toward the
\\'ithlacoochee River.*
The larger rivers are all coffee-colored in their natural state,
there being no naturally muddy water in peninsular Florida; bit a
few like the .-lafia and parts of the \Vithlacoochee are kept turbid
most of the time by washings from the phosphate mines in their vi-
cinity. The rivers are as a rule sluggish, because the highlands of
the peninsula are so narrow that streams originating in them get
down into the flatwoods before becoming large enough to be called
There are, however, a .fe\w places where ledges of rock form
rapids. particularly in the Gulf hammock region within a few miles
of the coast. One such place on the \\ithlacoochee. about ten miles
from its mouth, and the same distance below Dunnellon, has been
made the site of a hydro-electric plant (fig. 61. with a 20-fool
dlam, furnishing power to Dunnellon, Brooksville, several pJhosphate
mines, and even an orange packing house in Sumter County. There
is another such plant on the Hillsborough River a few miles from
its mouth (in what is regarded as a part of'the lime-sink region).
which however is sail to be used only for emergencies, as it cannot
furnish enough po\\er for the whole city of Tampa. There is said
to be a spring near Sumterville which furnishes power for a mill.t

'See 3rd Ann. Rep., p. 281.
tAccording to U. S. Ge,:rl. Surn. Water Supply Paper 319, p. 4)6. There has
been some talk of damming up other springs in central Florida for power pur-
poses, but just \hy a spring, shouldd be selected for that purpose, rather than
the same stream farther down where it is larger, is not clear. unless it i. merely
a manifestatir n of a ania some people hae for destroy:ing or defaciln objects
of natural beauty. Some attempts of this kind in West Florida are said to have
had the unexpected result of merely forcing the v.ater to find a new outlet
Through the ca\erno:us limestone.



Most streams in our area are too short or t:oo: near sea-level to
fluctuate much with the seasons, and: besides the excess of rainfall
in late summer (see chapter on climate, farther on l tenilds to coun
terbalance evaporation and: thus keep their flow uniform. so.) thai
floods are practically unknoliin. The St. John's River, the largest,
is unique in several ways. It rises in great marshes or w-et prairies,
resembling the Everglades. near the southern edge of Bre\ard
County, within 25 nliles of the ocean in a direct line and not ovel
20 feet above it at low water, and flows northward approximately
parallel to the coast for over 200 miles. with a fall of only alboul
an inch to the mile. In the latitudles under consideration it is much
narrower than it is where influenced: by the tide, except where it
expands into lakes. Lake Monroe, between Sanford and Enter-
prise, is said to be five feet above sea-level. with a maximum depth
(at low water?) of only eight feet. Between there and Lake Har.
ney, the next lake above, the river is said to have an extreme fluc-
tuation of seven feet. which is perhaps the greatest of any stream i?
central Florida, unless it is exceeded by the Peace or the Alafia
River; but that of course is very little compared with some of the
rivers farther north.
The Ocklawaha* and Withlacoochee Rivers resemble the St.
John's in flowing northward most of their length, a phenomenon
that deserves more attention from physiographers than it has re-
The soils of central Florida_, although prevailingly san:dy,. are
considerably diversified within certain limits. Alluvial aind red
clayey soils are scarce, but w\e ha'e soils ranging in chemical com-
position from nearly pure calcium carbonate and highly phosphatic
to nearly pure silica and peat.
The correlations between soil and vegetation in this part of the
country are so close, and the natural \vegetation nearly everywhere
so prominent, that most previous attempts to classify Florida soils

*In recent years this has o-ften been spelled "Orklawaha." presuiIabl, by tlhe
same sort of people .wh\ : write "Smuwanee' fo:r Suiwannee, "Hills.boro" fior Hills-
borough. "Okechobee" for Okeechcbce, etc. but this sh-ould especially t be dis-
couraged, for it tends t:o ie an err-iine-ous imrprcssio:n :of the first syllable.
(For the benefit of strangers it might be well to: explain that the main ac-
cent is on the third syllable. Also that Kissimn ee is accented in thec middle.)


have described most of them in terns of vegetation, such as pine
laindl hammock, swamp, scrub, and prairie;* and it is indeed diffi-
cult to avoid mentioni-n the vegetation in describing our various
soil types.
The leading texture classes of soils in each region, as far as
knlo\n. have already been noted in the regional descriptions. In
the following pages the principal soil types of the whole area will
first be classified roughly by water-content, color, etc., and then
some mechanical and chemical analyses presented. As in all class-
ifications of natural objects or phenomena, there are all possible
gradations between adjacent categories, so that no sharp lines can
be drawn; and a fe\\ types difficult to classify are not mentioned
at all.-
While sand. This consists of nearly white quartz sand, usually
rather coarse, and \\ith less than 2% of silt and clay. It varies in
depth from a few\ inches to several feet,f and commonly passes rath-
er abruptly below into yellowish sand of similar texture. It is widely
distributed in central Floritda, but most common in the lake region
and near the east coast. In the coast strip it is chiefly confined to
old dunes, but in the lake region. where it is very characteristic,
no constant relation to the topography has been made out. It has
been called "Norfolk sand with scrub oak vegetation" in the U. S.
soil survey of the "Ocala area" i I1;3), "Leon sand, rolling phase"
in that of Pinellas County i, 914 i "Leon fine sand, scrub phase"

"See for example a paper o:n the soils of Florida by Dr. E. H. Sellards in
our 4th A-\nnual Report ,'19i2), rpp. 1-79. This was published in more con-
densed form the followiing :ear in the i2th Biennial Report of the State Ag-
ricultural Department. r'p. 249-299, and has been reprinted two or three times a?
a supplement t..:- the Quarterly Bulletin of that department.
t.just before comiipleting this charter the writer had the advantage of a
visit from Mr. J. Ott.:. V-eatch of the U. S. -Bureau of Soils (formerly assistant
on the Ge:olo,:ical Surve\- of Georgia). \ who has been making a special study
rf Florida soils for the last vear or twi',. He has made some helpful criticisms,
but of course cannot be held responsible for any errors that may remain.
tIn some of the gotvernmenrt soil surveys the white sand is stated to be
a mere veneer a few inches thick, but this was probably not intended to apply
generally to large areas, for in a railroad cut about four miles west of Bartow,
if not elsewhere, it extends witholiut perceptible change to a depth of at least
eight feet
Reprinted in our 7th Annual Report, 1915.



and "St. Lucie fine sand" in Hernando County (1915), "St. Lucie
sand" and "St. Lucie fine sand" in the "Indian River area" (1915),
and "St. eitq.Lyi i l 8 rgl,, t 918). Some
ever, rather than different interpretations on the part of the soil
This sort of soil is represented in the tables a few pages farther
on by mechanical analyses 37, 38. 46 and 47, and chemical analyses
D and K (which unfortunately are incomplete). As compared
with other soils of the area it is very poor in potash, clay, humus,
and animal life, and it seems likely that in some cases at least it has
been derived from the creamy sand next to be described by long-
continued leaching out of soluble materials, a process which in the
creamy sand seems to be constantly counteracted by animal agencies,
as explained on the next page. Just what keeps these animals out
of the white sand remains to be explained; but it may be that they
are very slowly encroaching on it year by year.
The vegetation on the white sand on uplands is nearly always
of the scrub type, described farther on in the chapter on vegetation
Where it is low and flat, however, it may bear vegetation of the
flatwoods type, with pines and saw-palmetto predominating; and
there are various intermediate conditions. Whether the white color
extends down only a few inches or several feet does not make as.
much difference in the vegetation as one might imagine; which
seems to indicate that the top soil is more important to plants than
the. subsoil.
In the interior this soil is almost never cultivated, but along
the east coast great quantities of citrous fruits and pineapples and
even some vegetables are raised on it, of course with the aid of lib-
eral applications of fertilizers.
Cream-colored sand. This is by far the most extensive type of
upland soil in our area, especially in the lime-sink and lake regions
It includes most of the. "Norfolk sand," "Norfolk fine sand" and
"Norfolk sandy loam" and some of the "Gainesville fine sand"
of the government soil surveys, and is represented in the tables by
mechanical analyses 6-9, 27, 28, 39, 40, and chemical analyses E.
-F, L and M.
It consists of medium to fine-grained incoherent quartz sand,
with 3 to 8% of silt and clay, and is usually very homogeneous to
a depth of several or many feet, so that few if any roots go all the


wvay through it. The prevailing color is cream or light buff, ex-
cept that tile uppermlost inch or two is usuallyV bleached a little I)by
tlie action of v\egetati:,onl. In cuts and pits wllhere thle whole thick-
ness of tile sand is exposed it rests sonletimes on sandy clay and
sometimes on .phosplhate rock or silicified limiestione, tlie latter some-
times protruding a fe\w inlcles above tlie su face in b1oulder-like
(,utcro.ps witllChot making any perceptible difference in thie egeta-
Salamanders abolnd and gophers, ants, and sundry other bur-
rolwinig animals are common in this type of soil. so that practically
every particle of it within a f,:oot or two of tile surface must be,
turned over by them every few years. and this may be a sufficient
ex p lanation of its homogeneity.
Thle vegetation is nearly always of tile high pine land type. Al-
tlhougll the soil looks very unlpro'mising t:o on:ie accustomed to clayey
soils, it is very easily culti\ated,l and when properly fertilized yields
very satisfactory returns. Practically all the farming in the lime-
sink region, and moist of the orange grt ves in the lake region, are
'on this kind of soil.
CrIIIa-colorC!sand said '/th hiUb nus. \\here the soil just described
is protected from fire by being partly surrounded by bodies of water
or hammocks i see chapter o:n vegetation ), the forests become much
deiser I sandy hammiicks and some hulmuls accullulates. making
the top soil gray. This phase has been mapped as "Norfolk sand."
"Norfolk fine sand,"' and "Leion sand, hammock phase;" and it is
represented by mechanical analyses 41 and 42 and chemical anal-
yses C and O. Salamandlers seem to be absent and other subterra-
nean animals scarce, so that the soil is mo:re leached than the typical
phase: a nd comparatively little of i iis cultivated.
Brown, rustv,. and a.si'v sand. In many places, for example
around Dade City. Brandon. iMount Dora, IMontverde, and between
Bartow and Fort Meade, the loose sand ofc the upllands is brownish
instead :of cream-colored. Mechanical analyses 29 and 30 and
chemical analysis H. all from near Fort Meadle, pri:,bably represent
this type. In the vicinity :of F'ort Mleade. where the soil is decidedly

"There is some difference of opinion as t, \\ whether this sand is a distinct
formation or a residue material aer from the underlying Tertiary strata, as stated
in the chapter on stratigraphy: but from the geographical standpoint that is a
matter of little consequence.



chocolate-colored, it commonly has phosphate pebbles scattered
through it, or underlying it at no great depth, and it is probable
that the same sort of soil at the other localities contains more phos-
phorus than the common creamy sand, though those in the lake re-
gion are. remote from any known phosphate deposits, and the reason
for the difference in color there is not obvious.
The vegetation on the darkest phase near the Peace. River is
usually of the semi-calcareous hammock type, while elsewhere it is
mostly high pine land, but differing from typical high pine land in
having more turkey oak than black-jack-or sometimes very few
oaks of any kind-and more. Spanish moss on the pines than usual
(especially around Dade City). This being evidently a better soil
than those previously described, a goocddeal of it is cultivated.
In a few places in the lake region, for example in southern Polk
County, the prevailing sand has a rusty yellowish color, presumably
due to iron, but is similar to the creamy sand in depth, texture, and
vegetation. A more remarkable type, occurring on high uplands
a few miles south of Lakeland, is ashy gray in color, with consider-
able silt or rather very fine material in it. This is close to the pebble
phosphate country but high above it, and its derivation and compo-
sition are unknown. The gray. matter does not appear to be of the
nature of humus.* The vegetation is mostly of the high pine land
type, with turkey oaks exceptionally large and numerous. A large
part of this soil has been cleared and planted to orange groves.
Semi-calcarcous hanm ock land. This is a makeshift term used
by the writer to cover a variety of upland soil that is mostly sand,
but has enough limestone within a fewx feet of the surface or out-.
cropping to influence the vegetation perceptibly. It is an inter-
mediate condition between the creamy sand already described and
the calcareous uplands described on the next page. It is comnlon in
the vicinity of Ocala, and has been mapped as "Fellowship sand,"
"Fellowship sandy loam," Gainesville. loamy sand," "Gainesville
sandy loam," and Portsmouth sandy loam;" and it is represented
in the following tables by mechanical analyses 10-14, 17, IS, 21-24,
48-51, and chemical analyses B, G, N and S.
*This soil in color resembles some near the center of Alachua County,
mentioned incidentally in the Sixth Annual Report, p. 370; and in texture it
reminds one of the loess of southwestern Mississippi, which is supposed to have
been transported by the wind.


It is characterized by hammock vegetation with evergreen and
deciduous trees approximately equal in numbers, as described far-
ther on. A considerable portion of it is under cultivation. Sala-
mnanders seem to invade this soil only where it has been cleared and
abandoned a short time, perhaps indicating that they do not like
shady places.
Calcareous uplands. Where the soft Ocala limestone crop; out,
as near Ocala and in southeastern Citrus County, it grades into a
black sticky soil rich in humus. One. such area a little south of
Ocala has been mapped as "Fellowship clay loam," and a somewhat
similar soil occurs farther north near McIntosh, where no rock
outcrops are in evidence, and in and around lime-sinks in the Her-
nando hammock belt. It is represented by mechanical analyses
15, 16 perhaps also 17 and 18), 25 and 26, and chemical analyses
T and U.
The vegetation is of the hammock type, with the great major-
ity of the trees deciduous. The hackberry and a few other plants
of the same or allied families are very characteristic. Although this
is a -ery rich soil, it. is usually too hilly or rocky to be, cultivated
much. Lettuce and other vegetables are raised on or near it on the
west side of Orange Lake, where there is very little rock.
Clay soils. Upland soils distinctly clayey at the surface, and
containing as much as one-fourth clay, are rare in peninsular Flor-
ida. The mechanical analyses farther on which show high percent-
ages of clay are nearly all calcareous hammock soils, and the "clay'"
in them is probably mostly humus and marl. In the Middle Flor-
ida hammock belt, north of the "Ocala area" (e.g., around Fair-
field and in the central part of the Hernando hammock belt, there
are some soils clayey enough to form clods when plowed. No me-.
chanical analyses of these, are available, but chemical analyses of
two of the Hernando County soils are given under V and W. On
Such soils short-leaf pine, sweet gum and hickory are characteristic
trees, and a good deal of corn and other staple crops are. raised,
\with little or no fertilizer. The whole aspect of the country strongly
suggests some places in Georgia and Alabama.

Snu'v. Under the.head of damp sandy soils are classed most of
the soils of the Gulf hammock region and the three flatwoods re-



gions, and limited areas in all the others. They vary in color from
white to clark gray or nearly black, usually without any trace of
red, yellow or brown. In many places shallow cuts or ditches
reveal a stratum of "hardpan" (sand cemented together by some
dark brown organic substance with perhaps a ,trace of iron)
within two or three feet of the surface, and borings made by soil
investigators seem to indicate that this is present in practically
all our flatwoods areas, -unless clay or rock takes its place. The
hardpan is relatively impervious to water and not readily pen-
etrated by tree roots, but in some places it is said to be only a few
inches thick, with white sand below it, so that it can be perforated
by blasting or otherwise in preparing the land for agricultural
The. damp sandy flatwoods soils are classed in the government
reports as "Portsmouth fine sand," "Leon fine sand," "Norfolk
fine sand, flat phase," "Fellowship fine sandy loam," etc. In the
following tables they are represented by mechanical analyses 19
and 20 and chemical analysis Y. Salamanders are found only in
the driest spots, and other burrowing animals are scarce.
The whitest of the damp sand has a vegetation nearly all ever-
green, something like that of the upland scrub, and this might be
called low scrub. Most of it, however, has a low pine land or flat-
woods vegetation, consisting mostly of pine and saw-palmetto.
Within a few miles of the. larger rivers, particularly south of lati-
tude 290, the pines may be absent over many square miles, making
palmetto prairies; and sometimes the palmetto too is wanting or
nearly so, but that probably indicates a different kind of soil, either
w'et or marly, or both.
A great deal of the damp sand is too wet for successful agri-
culture until artificially drained, but its level topography facilitates
the control of irrigation water and fertilizers, and some very in-
tensive farming is carried on in places convenient to transportation
Sandy and rocky soils. In the Gulf hammock region the sand
seems to be underlaid at no great depth by limestone, and the rock
crops out in many places, sometimes thickly enough to interfere
seriously with plowing. This type is designated in the soil surveys
as "Leon sand," "Leon fine. sand," Portsmou.th fine sand," "Gaines-
ville sandy loam, pine woods phase,' "Hernando fine sandy loam,'


etc. The amount of lime in the soil must be comparatively small,
for except where the rock outcrops are. very abundant the vegeta-
tion :does not differ greatly in aspect or composition from that of
tlie iion-calcareous flatwoods. Only a small part of this soil is cul-
tivate.l at present, but it seems to be very well suited for vegetables
of many kinds.
.Saund and rock with hiiumIts. The greater part of the soil of the
great Gulf Hammock of Levy County (fig 5), and perhaps
many other level hammocks, seems to have been originally
ilnamp sand with limestone protruding through it, though the
relative amount of sand may have been less than in the flat-
wvoods, and indeed without extensive explorations it would be
hard to say how much of it belongs to the marly type described
a little farther on. Anyway, the dense forests now established
inl such places furnish their own protection from fire and form a
great :leal of humus, which differentiates the soil further from
that of the flatwoods. 'Mechanical analyses 4 and 5 ("Park-
\\ood. fine sandy loam") represent this type pretty well. W-hen
cleared it makes a good trucking soil, like the preceding.
Clayy v soils. A little north of the center of Marion County,
particularly around Burbank, there are a few square, miles of flat-
\\oo(ls with decidedly clayey soil. This type has been seen by the
writer only from the train, but its vegetation seems to differ from
that of sandy flatwoods chiefly in the scarcity of sawi-palmetto.
The land. has been utilized to some extent for truck-farming.
Towar-d Silver Spring this passes into a sort of low hammock with
short-lea f pine and cabbage palmetto,* somewhat suggesting a river
or creek bottom. This last, represented by mechanical analyses 44
and 45. is called "Fellowship clay" in the soil survey of the "Ocala
area," though it bears little resemblance to anything around Fel-
lowship P. O., which is on the uplands in a different region, sev-
eral miles away.
Marlv soils. On and near Merritt's Island there are consider-
able areas of damp or wet marly soils, whose texture, composition
and depth are little known. The vegetation is mostly of the type
designated farther on as palm savanna. Some similar vegetation,
presumably indicating similar soil conditions, occurs in the. Gulf
hammock region within a few miles of the coast, for example be-
"Described in 7th Annual Report, pp. 178-179.



tween Crystal River and Homosassa. As most of this soil is within
a few inches of sea-level, and remote from settlements, it is not
utilized much if at all.
Many if not most of the low hammocks, particularly in the Gulf
hammock region, are evidently on marly soil, called "Parkwood
clay loam," etc. This contains a large proportion of calcium car-
bonate, and its texture is shown by mechanical analyses I to 3. A
good deal of it is under intensive cultivation, for example near Cole-
man, and also near Lake. Jessup, if that is properly classed as marly
Wet prairies, ponds, etc. In the Gulf hammock region and the
three other flatwoods regions there are many areas depressed a few
inches or feet below the general level, and filled with water in wet
seasons. Some of these contain pond cypress and other woody
plants, but a great many are treeless, and known as prairies, or
sometimes as "sand soaks." The soil differs little from that of
the surrounding flatwoods, except in being saturated with water
much of the time and having a little peat or muck overlying it and
more or less mixed with it. Some such areas have been mapped in
the soil survey of Pinellas County as "water and grass." Their
present agricultural value is almost negligible.
Peat. In the lake region and less frequently elsewhere there
are many deposits of peat, often ten feet deep or more. They have
been described in considerable detail in the 3rd Annual Report,
which contains a table showing the ash and moisture content and a.
few other features of many samples from various parts of the
State.* Some of our peat, particularly around Lake Panasoffkee,
is quite calcareous, but all, as far as known, is low in potash. The
vegetation on it may be either swamp, marsh, or prairie.
All peat needs to be drained before it can be cultivated, and very
little of the deep peat in central Florida is situated so that cultiva-
tion is profitable at present. An area of several hundred acres
along the Ocklawaha River southeast of Ocala was drained seven
or eight years ago by diverting the river, and part of it put under
cultivation. Some shallow peat or muck is both richer and more
easily drained, and therefore better adapted for agricultural pur-

*This table is reprinted in the 6th Annual Report, pp. 59-62.


poses; and it is hard to draw the line between this and some of
the low hammocks already mentioned.
Salt marsh nmuck. Along both coasts, in places protected from
\\ave action by outlying or projecting land masses or the shallow-
iess of the ocean bottom, are strips or patches of salt or brackish
imarsh, characterized by coarse grasses and rushes. The soil, a fine
silt or muck, would probably be. quite fertile if it could be raised a
fe\ feet above sea-level, but being saturated with salt water twice
a day (or all the time in tideless lagoons), little can be done with it.
AndI the marshes of central Florida are doubtless less fertile
than those near the mouths of muddy rivers farther north, as shown
lbv the prevalence of the evergreen rush, Juncus Roemnerianus, rather
than the marsh grass, Spartina glabra, which has larger leaves and
renews them every year.

Beach and dune sands. On the exposed portions of both coasts,
except the greater part of that bordering the Gulf hammock re-
gcion, the sand has been piled by waves'and wind into beaches and
lo\\ dunes, which are always more or less calcareous, owing to the.
presence of fragments of sea shells. The sand is usually rather fine,
but contains very little silt or clay. Besides numerous mollusks,
crustaceans, etc., that live before high tide level, a few gophers
and ants make their homes in the beach sand, but salamanders are
absent. The available chemical analyses (0, P, Z) seem to indicate
that this soil is fairly well supplied with potash and other ingre-
.ients of fertility, but it is practically worthless for agriculture,
on account of its instability, porosity, and lack of organic matter.
Shell mounds. As already indicated under the head of topog-
raphy, these are fouiid in many places along the coast and navi-
gable rivers. They consist mostly of shells of oysters and other bi-
valves, one kind of shell usually outnumbering all the rest in any
one mound. The shells are usually little broken, and therefore
contribute little to the soil, which is usually a thin layer of humus,
withh no sand or clay visible, though some of the mounds have con-
siderable sand mixed with the shells. The vegetation seems to be
always, hammock of some kind, and on the east coast is usually de-
cidedly tropical in composition, south of Cape Canaveral at least.
Limestone cliffs and caves. Outcrops of tolerably pure and


hard limestone, where large enough to escape being swept by fire,
and well shaded, as in hammocks and deep sinks and mouths of
caves, usually have vegetation consisting mostly of ferns and
mosses; but just why ferns should be partial to such places is not
Red oak uplands. A very characteristic type of vegetation
around Ocala is the red oak woods (described in its proper place
farther on). This is not confined to one particular type of soil,
but attains its best development on a type a little different
from that of the calcareous hammocks or any other above described.
In the soil survey of the "Ocala area" most of it is called "Gaines-
ville loamy sand," though it does not seem to resemble closely
anything around Gainesville. Mechanical analyses 21 and 22 and
chemical analysis A probably represent phases of this type, and R
certainly does, for it was specially selected for that purpose. Its
most remarkable feature is the high percentage of phosphoric acid,
and it is also pretty well supplied with potash and iron.
Salamanders and gophers are rare or absent in this soil, perhaps
because it is a little too rocky as well as too shady, but there must
be other subterranean animals present, as in other fertile soils the
world over. Red oak, sweet gum and hickory are the characteris-
tic trees, and where this soil merges into the ordinary sandy uplands
the. long-leaf pine comes in. A good deal of it, perhaps half, is
cultivated, mostly in. corn, cotton or vegetables. Little or no fer-
tilizer is used with the corn and cotton.

The following mechanical or physical analyses of central Flor-
ida soils and subsoils have been extracted from Bulletin 13 of
the Division of Soils of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (A
preliminary report on the soils of Florida, by Milton Whitney,
1898), and the soil surveys of the "Gainesville. area" (1905) and
"Ocala area" (1913). In the last named the localities and depths
of the samples are not given, but they were obtained by correspond-
ence with Prof. Whitney (who has been chief of the Bureau-for-
merly Division-of Soils since its beginning), and were used in the

*For a description of one of the finest rock fern localities in our area
see the papers referred to under the head of caves on page 163.


reprint of that survey in our 7th Annual Report. The percentages
of organic matter are given in most cases, an l( of calcium carbon-
ate in a few cases, and the columns should total Ioo' v without
the calcium carbonate.*
The samples are grouped by regions. in the same orler as in the
other parts of this report. Descriptions of them follow, and the
* analyses constitute Tables 9 to 14.

Gulf Hammnock Ra'ioln

Clayey low\ hammock ("Park wood clay loalm"), Sumter
Co. Average of two localities, viz., 2'!, miles s. w. of \Vildwood
and "i mile s. e. of Coleman. Depth 0-5 inches. (Ocala area)
2. Subsoil of same two localities. 5-20 and 5-18 inches.
3. Lower sutbsoil of same, 20-36 and 18-6 inches.
4. More sandy low hammock ("Park wood fine sandy loam"),
Sumter Co. Average of two localities. viz., 2 miles n. w. of Cole-
man and 2 miles e. of Carlson's Ferry. Depths o-To and 0-12
inches. (Ocala area.)
5. Subsoil of same 10-36 and 12-36 inches.

Mechanical Analy ses of Soils and Sublsoilk in G(ulf Hammiock and Limne-sink Re-
gi(on. (From Soil Surv'"y of -"Oiala Area"i.

C ulf h.ia moc. k region Linie-sink re.gin,
ai e lo . w ,
a"ni", c! S Z1nd d)o. high1i pine land
1 2 3 41 i, S 9
Sub- Sub- Subl). Soil Sub- Soil Sub-
Soil oil oi l Soil Fine gravel *2.1 mm.i ---------| .1; 2.51 2.11 0.11 0.21 0.3 0..|I 1.1.2 0
Coars,: sand l-.5 nni .i ------ - 3.41 6.1 5.2| .'1 4.3 5.5 4.11 1.4 1.7
M eiliium Sanil 6.5-.5 ... - -- -. .7I 4.51| 20.7, 1'1.' 17.i'| ln.11 S.4 09.7
Fine rand 1.25-.1 mm.) -------- 24.0 22.0 13.11 53.5 41 i0. 5n.5| 32.2 71.11 73.5
V ryv fine. san1 11 ({. -.0.- n n .) ...... .S1 S.0.' .l| 1 l .1 1S.7| 11.> 10. 51 S.I1
Silt (.1 -.1 inm. ------------ I 3 .2 2 .31 40.0|1 5.11 .3 3.3) 1 .2 2.5| 2.3
Clay .ii.5-.iii '1 m in.i ---- -------| 24.- I 27.2 27.1.| 2.4| 1 0.4 3.| 24. *).71 5.0
Total ---------.-- --- --- I ( .ii l.21 :! 1. SI .! y I I:9 .SI I99.i;i 9 .!.| liiI.
al.ium .alboniate -------------|1.75| -;.01. 54-.7: 1 14.3S ..--- -- -- | ----

*ne sample rreported on in ulti representing rich heavi\v hIiinm mck
ni:ar Altoona, has been excluded because it totals Ies than *) -;, and it has 1een
impossible t-, locate the error after the lapse of -o nm n,, ,ears.


Lime-Sink Region

6. Cream-colored sand or high pine land ("Norfolk sandy
loam"), Marion Co. Average of two localities, viz., I mile n. w.
of Flemington and Y4 mile s. of Elmwood. Depths o-18 and o-Io
inches. (Gainesville area.)
7. Subsoil of same., gray stiff sandy clay and brown sandy
clay, 8-36 and 10-36 inches.
8. High pine land ("Gainesville fine sand") 6 miles n. of
Dunnellon, Marion Co. Depth" 0-6 inches. (Ocala area.)
9. Subsoil of same, 6-36 inches.

Middle Florida Hamniock Bclt

o1. "Light hammock' near Ocala.

iepth 0-9 inches.

II. St
12. Lc
13. Li
(Bull. 13.)
14. St
15. Ri
(Bull. 13.)
16. Ri

tbsoil of same, 9-24 inches.
)wer subsoil of same, 24-36 inches.
ght hammock Y2 mile s. of Ocala.

ibsoil of same, 12-30 inches.

Depth 0-12 inches.

ich heavy hammock near Ocala. Depth 0-12 inches.

ch heavy hammock 2Y2 miles s. of Ocala.

Depth 0-12

Mechanical Analyses of Soils and Subsoils in Middle Florida Hammock Belt,
Marion Co. (From U. S. Soil Bulletin 13.)
Light Rich heavy
Light hammock
hammock hammock
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Sub- Sub- Sub-
Soil soil soil Soil Soil Soil Soil
Fine gravel (2-1 mm.) ____Trace Trace Trace Trace 0.28 0.27 1.58
Coarse sand (1-.5 mm.) ____ 1.591 1.801 1.451 3.07 3.30 2.16 2.62
Medium sand (.5-.25 mm.) 15.63 18.251 19.631 21.44 22.29 17.011 13.08
Fine sand (.25-.1 mm.) ----- 62.87 65.371 62.401 53.54 55.29 40.941 46.32
Very fine sand (.1-.05 mm.)_- 15.70 10.071 11.65 13.30 10.64 20.261 19.83
Silt (.05-.01 mm.) -------- 1.251 1.20 1.80 2.68 2.62 5.61 3.3
Fine silt (.01-.005 mm.) -- 0.48 0.551 0.62 1.33 1.64 2.23 1.50
Clay (.005-.0001 mm.) ------ 0.611 1.391 1.26 2.39 3.06 5.55 6.801
Organic matter ----------- 1.161 0.751 0.65 1.361 0.92 4.94 2.61
Moisture, air-dry ------ 0.35f 0.221 0.301 0.491 0.32 1.611 1.39
Total ----------1 99.641 99.601 99.761 99.601 100.361 100.581 99.17




Mechanicel Analyses of Soils and Subsoils in Middle Florida Hammo>k Belt,
Mnrion Co. (From Soil Surveys of "OcanlIn" and "'Giinies'illu" areas.)
Hi-h hammocks F Int- woods
Portsmouth Gainesville Gainesville Fellolwslip tPortsmouth)
17 18 19 210 21 -22 23 -2 2.3 2
Sib- .ub- uib- S ub- Sub-
SoiI soil Soil s l SoSoil soil Soil soil S'oil -oil
Fine gravel _----- .71 0.;i ( 0.2| U. o.01 1.3 11.3 .4 li .6
Conarse s and -- 4.6. 2.3 12.91 12.S 14.0 .31 1)0.2 2.I 9.7 S.6
Medium sand --1 13.7 4.0 26.51 25.0 23.51 14.5T 12.7 5.8 2..4 24.9
Fine sand ---- 50.0 20.9 40.1 39.4 41.4 20.71 25.1 .5 41.91 45.i
V1ery fine Sand- 15.5 1s.7 10.4 1 70.7 11.8 3 S.| .0 .I1 14.5 14.01
Silt ------------ 11.3 36.0 .| 3.S 5.5 4.9 14.2 13.4 .3.3 3.2
Clay -- -4.0'1 17.1 5.21 7.51 3.11 32.4 2S.3 62.0 1.61 2.2
Total --.-----. 99.71 0.7[ 100.01 100.1 1010. 1001.0 9.S 99.7 99.8 9I9.1
Calk-ium canrbonate -..- .SCI .- .... I-- I -I --- ----- ----- --

17. High lhallmck ("Portsmouth sandy loam"*) 2j miles
s. e. of Johnson Pond. Marion Co. A black sandy loam. Depth
o-8 inches. (Gainesville area.)
18. Subsoil of same. A stiff heavy marly clay. Depth 8-36
19. High hammock (or perhaps red oak woods, the two not
being satisfactorily distinguished in the report) 2 miles s. e. of
Ocala ("Gainesville loamy sand"). Depth o-Io inches. (Ocala
o2. Subsoil of same. Depth 10-36 inches.
21. High hammock ("Gainesville sandy Iloa") 5 miles of
Ocala. Depth o-12 inches. (Ocala area.
22. Subsoil of same. Depth 12-36 inches.
23. High hammock ("Fello\wship clay loam"') 2 miles s. \v.
of Ocala. Depth 0-4 inches. (Ocala area.)
24. Subsoil of same. Depth 4-36 inches.
25. Flat\voods soil ("Portsmouth fine sand"- in n. m. cor-
ner of Marion Co., 2 1 miles e. of \acahoota. Depth o-io inches.
(Gainesville area.)
26. Subsoil of same. Depth 10-36 inches.

*This would doubtless be classified differently by the Bureau of Soils
now. See 6th Annual Report, p. 25,. footnote.
iInadvertently placed in a table headed "Gainesville sand." See 6th Annual
Report, p. 256, footnote.


Lake Region

27. "Etonia scrub" near Altoona (3 samples) and Orange City
Junction. Depths 3. 4. 4. and 6 inches. (Bull.' 13.
28. Subsoils of same 4 samples. Depths 3-30. 6-i8, 4-36.
and 6-36 inches.
29- High pine land near Grand Island. Altoona (4 samples),
Winter Haven (2 sanllesi and Eustis. Depths varying from 4
to S inclies.
30. Subsoils of same S samples. Depths varying from 18 to
36 inches.
31. "Light hammock" near \Winter Haven. Polk Co. Two
samples. o-8 and 0-9 inches.
32. Subsoil of same. to 36 inches.
33. "Rich heavy hammock" near Orange Bend, Lake Co.
Depth o-8 inches.
34. Clavev low hammock or short-leaf pine and cabbage pal-
metto bottoms ("Fello\whipl clay") 2 miles n. e. of Silver Spring.
Depth 0-4 inches. (Ccala area. I
35. Subsoil )of same. Depth 4-36 inches.

FI,/t:' :'ods. ll'est'i'r Di:'ision. (All from Bull. 3.-)

36. Hrig pine land near Bartow (average of 2 sampless'.
Depth 0-9 inches.
Me1-lialni:cal Analyses of Soil an; d Sul'soils in Lake Rc,,,iorn.
iFrom Bulltin 13 anil Soil Survey of "O rala Area "i
liish p'n Li'llt I,'cv low
S riub I i' t Ilanm'k h, .v
ia nd hm_____ imi.k Ilain nock
S 2S 9 31 32 33 34 35
S'' II ul.- Subl. Sub-
Soil I _l Soil i .iI Soil l .,| oi Soil soil
Fine r v l -------- I o.23| 1 3i 2.11 Trai..c- Tia-el 1 1 47 11 i I
Cou.l' -rse t. -------i :, 4| -| 7.i'. 7 il -.921 -,.11i -1 4 7.5 3.3
M d in nd ----- *27.43 2!.U41| 25.15s1 27.32 3'o 17, 4-1.15I :1. ) 77 13:.4 7.3
Fine saII.l --------- 5. ) 7 47 44.1!1 44-1 7 44 531 4: 4S 4-2.551 :4. 15.9
Ve-rv fine. 7.iii 5;. 1:; 7-- 14 ;37G--- 11.17 5 2 49 1"5.' 7.4
Silt -------------- | ii.551 .741 O.' |1 1 9" f (.791 i ') 2.33
1 1 1 1 I4 11.3
Fine silt ----------_ _11.21) 1 .22 0 30 037 1 :34 1 o 41 (5
Clay-v --------------- i 1.561 1 n7| .1.24 1.5,9 2.441 4.5l; 113 I )4.3
Oiganiie in.tter 1.241 1.241 1.431 0.5 1.419 19 71 1.771 ? I ?
M oi, tiu e, i l ir,1 -- 0 221| 0i S| 0I.31 0 I 1S i 5 -71 i *251 01.441 ? .
Totnl --------- I 11 I l9'S 1 [9 i l7 .l 1 0TI1 11i l. .11 1111-.1 14 1 1 I l .11



T.\BLE 13.
Mechanical Analyvses of Soils and Suibhoil in Southwestern Flat woods.
(From U. S. Soil Bulletin 13.)
High pine land Near Fort Melade

Near Bartow st quality 31 quality Mulat to Heavy gray
hammockk hammock
36 37 ;3 :( 4-1 41 42 4-13 44 45

Soil soil Soil soil Soil s.i!l soil -oil Soil soil
Gravel ---------- 1 .2l 0.17 0.52 0.52 0.10(l 0.11 0.791 0.70| 11.3:31 0.38S
IConre sand .. 2.2 1.72 2.04 3.14 0.G51 0.71 2.93 2.501 2.160 2.95
.Mediium san.d -... 20.201 18.74 16.00 17..23 4.5 i. 1 49.35.35 14.:30 10.34 13.72
:Fine sand -------. 40.011 4S.S2 47.9)5 49.29 47.SS 64.37 53.51 53.10 45.37 47.79
Very fine sand__j 23.S0i 24.321 24.73 23.14 40.! 1 24.59 23. 50 24.46 33.115 27.78
liSilt ------------- 1.10| 0.711 0. 0.62 0.5 0.73 0.05 0.62 0.9S 0.
Fine. silt -------- -I 0.1 0.23 01.3. 0.300..2:3 01.40 0 .4 4 0.501 .20
ICla ----- ------ 2.941 3.S71 2.62 2.6 2 1.06 2.15 2.07| 1.53 2.70 2.30
'Organic matter --1 2.!10 1.10 3.02 2.22 1.60 0.32 1.53] 1.43 2.51 2.61
Moisture. nir-d'ry- I O.S| 0.45 1.54 0.4S 0.471 0.310 0.2| 0.471 1.161 1.05
Total -- -- I 100.641 100). 19 1 100.561 9l 9.561 !.S.07| 100.371 100.301 9!.401 100.00|1 !91.87

37. Subsoil of same. Depth 9-30 inches.
38. "First quality high pine land" l( mile s. of

Fort MIeade.

Depth 0-20 inches.
39. Subsoil of same.. Depth 20-30 inches.
40. "Third quality high pine land" near Fort Meade.

o-8S inches.
41. Subsoil of same. Depth 18-36 inches.
42. "Mulatto hammock" near Fort Mleade.


Depth 0-12 inches.

Mechanical Analy-se of Soils and Subsoils in East Coast Strip near Rockle.lge.
(From U. S. Soil Bulletin 13.)

(Gravel ----------------------------
Coarse sand -----------------------
Medium sand ----------------------
Fine sand -----------
Very fine sand --------------------
Fine silt ------------
C'lay ---- __ _--------_----__--
)Organicf matter -------------------|
Moisture --------------------------

Sl.ruc' piner Heavy gray Red coquina
scrub hammock lha ni mock
4 4 4S 4) 5 51
4 47 4S5 51
Sub- Suh- Sub-
Soil soil Soil soi Soil soil








Total --------------.------------I

0.151 0.67| 0.04
4.74 10.051 10.96,
32.25 32.07 32.26
50.27 3S.S6 44.02
1.31 7.72 0.02
O.OS O.lI O.50
I-0.10 1 0.291 0.30
0.131 1.331 2.20
0.100 5.251 1.35
0.22 1.241 0.53
OS.S51 99.4'1 99.7 S


0!.791- !90.321 100.04|1


43. Subsoil of same. Depth not given. _
44. "Heavy gray hammock" near Fort Meade. (average of
2 samples). Depth 0-20 inches.
45. Subsoil of same. Depth 20-36 inches.

East Coast Strip. (All frojn Bull. 13.)

46. Spruce pine scrub near Rockledge, Brevard Co. Av
of 2 samples. Depth 0-6 inches.
47. Subsoil of one of these. Depth 6-36 inches.
48. Heavy gray hammock near Rockledge. Average
samples. Depth 0-18 inches.
49. Subsoil of same. Depth 18-36 inches.
50. Red coquina hammock near Rockledge. Average
samples. Depths 0-4 and 0-6 inches.
51. Subsoils of same. Depths 4-IS and 6-36 inches.


of 2

of 2

Comments on the Mechanical Analyses
The significance of the relative proportion of the different
sizes of sand grains does not seem to have been determined, except
in a very general way; but other things being equal, the soils hav-
ing the largest proportion of silt and clay generally have the most
available plant food and support the most luxuriant (or fastest
growing) vegetation, with the largest proportion of deciduous
trees. The clayey low hammocks of the Gulf hammock region
(analyses I to 3) and lake region (34, 35) lead in this respect.
the former having over 50% of silt and clay, and the latter over
25% in the soil and 65% in the subsoil, probably chiefly in the
form of marl. Some of the calcareous high hammocks of Marion
County also stand high in this respect. The white sand or scrub
of the lake region and east coast has the least clay, only about I'.
and is the poorest soil in the list, its vegetation being nearly all
evergreen. The moisture capacity and organic matter (given in
Bulletin 13, but not in the soil surveys) are seen to be highest in the
best soils, at least as far as the determinations go.

No entirely satisfactory chemical analyses of the soils of our
area are available, but some. of varying degrees of accuracy and


completeness have been obtained from various sources. The best
seeii to I)e three in the 6th volume of the Tenth U. S. Census (pp.
201, 204. 205. 214), which leave little to be desired except the ni-
trogen percentages and perhaps more exact information about the
topograpl)h and vegetation. The samples were collected by Dr.
Eugene A. Smith in the summer of 1880, and analyzed' under his
direction at the University of Alabama, by John B. Durrett, by the
acid digestion method (described by Hilgard in Tenth Census 5:72,
Soils 340-343. and elsewhere). The localities are as follows:
A. First class pine land, 9 miles north of Ocala, with long-
leaf pine, red oak, hickory and wire-grass. Depth o1 inches.
B. Dark gray high hammock soil one mile south of Ocala,
with live, white* and water oaks, hickory, bay,$ sweet and sour
gum. and magnolia. Depth io inches.
C. Light gray hammock near Leesburg, with hickory, live and
water oaks. red bay, and "evergreen." Depth 8 inches.
The analyses of these three are given in Table 15, to which
sample Q (described farther on) is added for comparison with C.
The first is evidently an intermediate condition between the high
pine land and the red oak woods described elsewhere. The second

(Chemical Analyses of Four Central Florida Soils.
Marion Co. Sandy ham'ks
Pine Ham- Lake Marion
land mock Co. Co.
Wat .ir and orpaniii. matter ------------------- 1.884 3.583 1.6751 1.29
ots K----------------------------- .189 .112 .052 .021
Sod. a N O .I --------------- ------------------- .038 .035 .015 ?
Lime i'aOi ...------- ---- --------------------I .0721 .185 .077 .06
Ma sii a I -------------------- .039 .038 .019 ?
Phlioph,:ric acid" I P.) ------------------------ .110 .110 .079 .074
-"Slpiiic n'.id" SO)-) -------------------) .091 .054 .053 ?
Bro ni oxide of manganese (MnaO) ------------- .055 .027 .032 ?
Peroxide of ii on F-O) ------------------- .321 2.0481 .214 415
Alumina A --------------------------- .9151 2.494 .6281 1
Solhbl,. silica --------------------------------- 1.6651 1.380 .2141 ?
In-olible nittr ----------------------- 94.4601 90.5851 97.350) 96.20
Total ----------------------------------- -I 99.8391100.6461100.4081 ---
'"Doiubtless OQucrcus Michau.ii.
f Probably Qiuircius laurifolia.
)Doubtless Pcrsea Borbonia.



is fairly typical of what is here called semi-calcareous hammock
land, and the. third and fourth of sandy hammocks.
Bulletin 43 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, by
A. A. Persons (1897), contains many analyses of central Florida
soils, made by J. P. Davies, by essentially the method recommended
by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists in 1895.
These have been made the basis of several published statements
about the average composition of Florida soils,* and at first glance
they appear to be valuable sources of information; but closer scru-
tiny shakes one's faith in them. The samples were collected by sev-
eral different persons, apparently mostly without previous experi-
ence or expert supervision, and some of them are not described suf-
ficiently to make it clear just what type of soil they represent. Al-
though the analyses cover almost every constituent that is commonly
considered in such work, except manganese, and are carried out to
four decimal places, they contain so many inconsistencies as to sug-
gest either careless work or typographical erors, or both. (Prof.
Persons a few years before his death informed the writer that he
was unavoidably absent from the State for several weeks while this
bulletin was going through the press, which may account for some
of the errors.) In many cases the analyses show more humus or
less potash, iron or alumina in the subsoil than in the soil, which
is strange if true, and much less potash and lime than is given in
analyses of somewhat similar soils in other publications. As there
is no analysis from central Florida in the bulletin that is free from
one or more of these defects, it has been thought best not to use any
of them.
In Whitney's Bulletin 13, previously mentioned, the averages
of partial analyses of four to ten samples of several types of soil
are given. The method of analysis is not stated (and could not
be recalled by Prof. Whitney 17 years later), but the results seem
consistent with those obtained by the A. O. A. C. method (which
reveals considerably less potash than Hilgard's acid digestion
method). The same bulletin also gives for several types of soil
the total amounts of soluble salts in the soil solution, a factor of
considerable significance. The results are set forth in Tables 16
and 17. In the former, D represents "Etonia scrub" and E high
*Some of them have been quoted in our 4th Annual Report, pp. 65-71.



pine land, both from the lake region, and F "light hammock" and
G "gray hammock," from various regions.

Partial Chemical Analyses of.Four Types of Soil.
(From U. S. Soil Bulletin 13.)
High Light Gray
Scrub pine ham- ham-
land mock mock
Nitrogen -------------------------------------- .028 .028 .042 .042
Potash (K,0) -------- ------------- .003 .007 .015 .009
Lime (CaO) ------------------------------------ .030 .060 .090 .090
Magnesia (MgO) ------------------------------- .013 .020 .040 .030
"Phosphoric acid" (P ) ------------ .008 .140 .090 .320

Percentage of Soluble Salts in Several Types of Central Florida Soils and
Subsoils. (From U. S. Soil Bulletin 13.)
LAKE REGION Soil I Subsoil
H. Scrub near Altooni ---------------------------------- .000951 .00094
I. High pine land near Grand Island ----------------------- .002091 .00104
J. High pine land near Winter Haven -_ ------- ---- .001561 .00080
K. First quality high pine land near Fort Meade ----------- .00114 ?
L. Third quality high pine land near Fort Meade---------- .00108 .00127
M. "Heavy hammock" near Fort Meade ---------------------- .001160 .00136
N. Gray hammock near Rockledge -------------------------- .002101 00100

Several samples of central Florida soils collected by the writer
in 1915 were analyzed in the same year by L. Heimburger, assistant
State chemist, in the same manner as those, made for the 6th An-
nual Report, viz., the A. O. A. C. method for organic fertilizers.*
These samples, which are all rather exceptional, and not typical of
very large areas, are listed below, in regional order as before. The.
numbers in parentheses are those under which the analyses have
been published in the report of the State Chemist for 1915.

West Coast Islands

0. (2136). Dry sand with considerable, shell material, from
palm savanna on Long Key about 4 miles north of Pass-a-Grille.
Depth 12 inches.

*For further particulars see 6th Ann. Rep., p. 397.


P. (2137). Soil with larger shell fragments, near inner side
of Long Key, about 2 miles north of Pass-a-Grille. Depth 6 inches.

Middle Florida Hammnock Belt
Q. (2104). Cream-colored sand with humus, or san-dy ham-
mock (mapped as "Leon sand") about 6 miles south of Ocala, with
vegetation nearly all evergreen (fig. 39). Depth 8 inches.
R. ,(2105). Red oak woods, with no evergreens, about I2
miles e. s. e. of Ocala (fig. 41). Depth 9 inches.
S. (2106). Semicalcare.ous hammock with many evergreens,
about a mile southeast of Ocala (fig. 13). Depth 8 inches.
T (2139). Calcareous high hammock with few evergreens,
about 2Y2 miles south of Ocala. Depth 6 inches. This soil ap-
peared to consist mostly of limestone fragments and black humus.
U. (2107). Hammock with trees mostly hackberry, on hill-
side about 2 mile south of McIntosh, Marion County. Depth 6
inches. Soil black and waxy, with many small rock fragments,
though no outcrops of limestone were observed in the vicinity.

Hernando Hammock Belt
V (2134). Long-leaf pine woods with little underbrush, on
hillside about 2 mile north of Brooksville. Depth 6 inches. Soil
blackish, and quite different from that of typical high pine land.
WV. (2135). Level forest in rather low ground about a mile
north of Brooksville, with sweet gum, ironwood, etc. Depth 6
inches. This appears loamy and rather retentive of moisture, but
when dry looks much like ordinary cream-colored sand.

Flatwoods, TWestern Division
X (2138). Rich hammock with dogwood, lin, etc., on hillside
about 2 miles north of Fort Meade. Depth 9 inches. A chocolate
loam, with many rock fragments presumably derived from under-
lying pebble phosphate beds.

Flatwoods, Eastern Division
Y (2109). Comparatively dry prairie with scattered saw-
palmetto and various herbs, about 7Y miles west of Melbourne,


Brevard Co. Depth 8 inches. Soil mostly sand, but underlaid
at no great depth by shell marl.

East Coast Strip
Z (2Io8). Crest of outermost dune, about o1 feet high, about
a mile south of Melbourne Beach, Brevard Co. (fig. 33). Depth
6 inches. A fine sand with finely divided shell fragments.
The analyses of these last twelve samples are given in Table 18.
The moisture is that retained by the soil after drying in the open
air for several weeks in the dry season, and the volatile. matter in-
cludes both organic substances (the nitrogen in which is determined
separately) and carbon dioxide liberated from limestone., which
amounts to considerable in some of the samples. (Any one suf-
ficiently interested can determine approximately from the. lime per-
centages just how much of the volatile matter is carbon dioxide.)
The. iron and alumina are combined, on account of the difficulty
of separating them, and soda, sulphur, magnesia, manganese, etc.,
are omitted entirely, because they were not regarded as of suf-
ficient importance to justify the labor of determining them.

Comments on the Chemical Analyses
In the first three analyses, made by the acid digestion method,
A, from mixed red oak and pine woods, has more potash than any
other central Florida soil on record (and the comparison might
be extended to the whole State, as long as we have no analyses of
the alluvial soils along the Apalachicola River). This soil sup-
ports a large proportion of deciduous trees, while on that repre-
sented by C, which has less than a third as much potash, the vege-
tation is nearly all evergreen. Sample Q is probably very similar
to C, but the analysis shows considerably less potash on account
of the different method used. The highest potash percentages in
the analyses made by Mr. Heimburger are in the calcareous ham-
mock soils from near Ocala and McIntosh, where deciduous trees
greatly predominate.
Sample R, taken from red oak woods with no evergreens, would
almost certainly show more potash than A does 'if analyzed by the
acid digestion method, but the A. O. A. C. method does not do jus-
tice to the potash. In fact its indications with respect to this con-



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stituent appear somewhat contradictory, for some of the samples
in the last table show more of it than one could reasonably expect.
Taking everything into consideration, however, it is safe to say
that central Florida soils generally contain less potash than those
of northern Florida or any equal area a few hundred miles farther
inland. The reason for this is probably two-fold: first, the remote.-
ness of this area from igneous rocks which are the main original
source of potash, and second, the leaching effect of the copious
late summer rains. But this lack is partly compensated by the tem-
perature, for the plant food in any soil is liberated more rapidly in
a warm climate than in a cold one.
The scrub and dune. soils are low in potash, as in almost every-
thing else.
The lime., like the potash, is as a rule most abundant in the rich-
est soils, and vice versa, but there are some important exceptions.
For example, the beach and dune sands are well supplied with cal-
cium carbonate in the form of shell fragments, but are practically
worthless for agricultural purposes, perhaps chiefly on account of
the scarcity of very fine particles for plant roots to draw nourish-
ment from (no mechanical analyses seem to be available, 'unfort-
unately), or of soil animals and bacteria. And the vegetation of
the calcareous hammocks near Ocala (sample T), with over 7%
of lime in the soil, does not seem as luxuriant as that near Mc-
Intosh (sample U), where there is less than 2%. However; prob-
ably the latter figure is more than sufficient, and any excess over
that therefore superfluous. The least lime is in the St. John's
River prairie (Y), which seems rather strange, for ditches near
where the sample was taken show shell marl within two or three
feet of the surface.
Although lime (or more strictly speaking any calcium com-
pound) is not an important plant food, it is thought to improve the
condition of the soil in various ways, and as it dissolves readily it
liberates less soluble plant foods that may be combined or mixed
with it.
The phosphorus is almost incredibly high in samples R, T, U
and X, soils with more than half of one per cent of P205 being
very exceptional.* The high percentage in X, which was taken

*See Hilgard, Tenth Census 5:78; 1884; Soils 355. 1906.



right in the phosphate country, is not surprising, but the still higher
figures for R, T, and U are not so easy to explain. Very likely
in each of these cases, however, the phosphorus is mostly combined
with iron, as ferric phosphate, which is almost insoluble.*
There is nothing in the analyses of the two soils from Long
Key (samples O and P) to indicate extreme sterility, and yet no at-
tempt seems to be made to cultivate them, and the woody plants
there are all evergreen.
Sample Q, from a sandy hammock, is deficient in nearly every-
thing, and its vegetation is nearly all evergreen. In everything ex-
cept potash its analysis resembles that for C about as closely as two
samples from different counties and regions collected by differ-
ent people about 35 years apart could be expected to; and the dif-
ference in potash illustrates the difference between the. Hilgard and
A. O. A. C. methods in that re.spect.
Sample R represents one of the richest upland soils in Florida.
S is not very different from Q, but the differences are all in the di-
rection that the vegetation indicates. T and U are rich calcareous
-soils, well supplied with potash and phosphorus also.
The analyses make V a better soil than W in almost every re-
-spect, though the vegetation indicates decidedly otherwise; a para-
dox for which no adequate explanation can be given at present.
X is a rich soil, and Y and Z are poor.

The climate of central Florida differs from that of northern
Florida, and still more from other parts of the eastern United
States, in being warmer in winter and wetter in summer, especially
late summer. The following table of climatic data for a number of
stations in the area is compiled mostly from Bulletin W (Sections
83 and 84) of the U. S. Weather Bureau, and the annual climato-
logical summary of the Florida section of the same Bureau for 1913.
The data given are the average temperature for January, July and
the whole year, in degrees Fahrenheit, the average length of the
growing season (period between killing frosts), in days, the. av-
erage annual rainfall, in inches, the percentage of the total rainfall
that comes in the four warmest months (June to September) and

*See Hilgard, Soils, p. 356.



the six warmest months (May to October), and the excess of late
summer (August to October) rainfall over that for early summer
(April to June), in inches.*

Selectd Climatological Data for Weather Stations in Central Florida, Grouped
by Regions.
Temperature Rainfall
Growing Per cent in Excess
Jan. July Year Season An- 4 in late
(days) nual 4 nos. 6 mos.umer
Cedar Keys --------- 57.6 82.2 70.3 ------ 51.53 57.2 66.1 6.9
Tarpon Springs ----- 58.7 80.8 70.9 -- 50.27 63.1 70.8 7.8
Rockwell-------- 57.1 81.8 70.7 52.55 59.2 70.1 5.4
Inverness ----------- 55.8 80.4 69.5 ---- 51.74 59.3 69.7 3.1
Tampa ------------- 57.4 80.0 70.4 335 51.49 62.7 72.7 6.4
Ocala --------- 57.4 81.4 70.2 294 51.64 59.6 71.3 4.3
Brooksville ----- 58.0 80.8 70.8 3111 55.97 62.1 72.5 4.9
St. Leo ------------ 58.3 81.5 71.5 ------ 58.22 60.9 71.5 3.7
Orange City ------ 58.2 82.3 71.1 ___- 47.33 55.9 71.4 6.4
Eustis -------------- 58.4 82.2 71.4 ----- 47.40 56.3 68.8 6.2
Clermont ------- 59.9 82.8 72.6 ---- 48.71 58.7 71.3 5.7
Tampa---------- 57.4 80.0 70.4 335 51.49 62.7 72.7 6.4
Plant City --------- 60.0 81.0 71.4 --- 55.40 61.5 74.8 6.8
Bartow ----------- 60.1 81.9 72.4 315 51.84 60.6 74.1 5.8
Fort Meade---- 59.2 80.6 71.2 ----- 58.51 62.6 76.3 6.0
Kissimmee ------- 60.3 82.0 72.0 -- 52.47 55.6 70.5 6.3
New Smyrna ------- 57.9 79.8 69.7 1 3111 50.95 49.3 68.0 9.1
Titusville ----------- 59.7 80.8 70.9 ---- 51.22| 54.3 73.5 4.5
M1\erritt's Island ---- 62.0 81.4 72.7 ---- 50.54 50.4 69.4 5.7

Throughout the area under consideration the average tempera-
ture for any or all months varies only a few degrees from one place
to another, probably not as much as it does for the same place in
different years. The growing season varies more, though, from

*For a discussion of the significance of this seasonal precipitation factor
see Science II. 48:208-21I. Aug. 30, 1918. Its relation to the distribution of
oil wells in the United States has been pointed out in the chapter on economic
geology (page 160).


294 days at Ocala (and doubtless still less a little farther north)
to practically 365 on Merritt's Island and south of there, where
often a whole year passes without frost. (The imaginary "frost
line" lies considerably farther south, however, for there is prob-
ably no place in Florida, with the possible exception of the Keys,
that has not had frost at some time within the memory of persons
now living.)
Although it is not feasible to present figures on that point, the
temperature of course varies from year to year, and some of these
variations have made the difference between success and failure
for those who are always trying to raise tender crops as far north
as possible. The severe freezes of 1895 and 1899 almost wiped
out the orange industry in Florida (which was then largely con-
centrated in the latitude of Ocala and farther north), but since then
many of the larger groves have been established farther south, and
more attention has been paid to locating them on high points oi near
lakes for protection from frost, and installing heating devices to
use at critical periods, and there has been comparatively little trouble
from that source in the last twenty years. The lake region has
an advantage over most of the others in its abundance of hills and
Snow is of course practically unknown. The extreme variations
in rainfall from place to place are not great, but the lake region
seems to be a little the driest, perhaps because farthest from the
coast. Although there may be considerable variation from year
to year, it is hardly enough to cause any serious inconvenience, for
there is nearly always enough rain to prevent drought, and at the
same time the topography and soil make floods almost impossible.
On the sandy uplands the heaviest rain sinks into the ground al-
most immediately, to appear gradually later in swamps and springs.
Over half the rain falls in the four warmest months, and over
two thirds in the six warmest months, thus counterbalancing evap-
oration to a large extent and keeping the level of lakes and streams
more constant than in most other parts of the United States. A
slight correlation can be noticed between the late summer precip-
itation excess and soil fertility, the excess being less in the hammock
belts than in the lake region and flatwoods; as if the soil itself



influenced the precipitation through the vegetation or in some other
The summer rain falls mostly in the daytime, in the form of
short, heavy showers.
Hurricanes visit this section occasionally, usually in late sum-
mer, the season of maximum precipitation. But they rarely do
much damage except near the coast, and even there they appear to
be less frequent and destructive than they are a little farther north
and south, though accurate statistics are not available. Torna-
does, popularly known as "cyclones," are almost unknown here,
those being chiefly confined to those parts of the United States that
have considerably more rain in early summer than in late summer.

The vegetation of central Florida is even more diversified than
the soil, and far more than in most areas of the same size in the
eastern United States. About thirty natural types are here recog-
nized, and that number could possibly be doubled without undue
duplication if one cared to go into such minute details. Just what
constitutes a vegetation type is a disputed point. Some botanists
have described a multitude of "plant associations," some of them
consisting chiefly of a single species and occurring in strips or
patches only a few feet wide; but in this work nothing less than sev-
eral acres in extent is considered.
Even if there was no uncertainty about the size of the unit
it would still be difficult to devise a satisfactory classification, for
different types are related to each other in all sorts of ways, and
two apparently quite different ones may be merely different stages
of the same thing. In this work they will be taken up as nearly as
possible in order of complexity, beginning with places that have no
vegetation at all, and vegetation composed wholly of herbs, and
proceeding. through shrubby types to dense forests made up of
trees, shrubs, herbs, mosses, epiphytes, parasites, etc.

*Some of the discrepancies in this respect observable in other parts of the
table may be due to records too short to be accurate enough, or even to ty-
pographical or other errors. It seems a little strange, for example, that New
Smyrna should have the lowest summer percentages and the highest late sum-
mer excess at the same time.



There are interesting analogies between all these types and dif-
ferent stages of human society. In deserts and polar regions there
is no permanent population; where.conditions are a little less for-
bidding there are tribes with simple civilization and little educa-
tion, where nearly all men have the same occupation, like the Bed-
ouins and Eskimos; and at the other end of the series are highly
civilized communities, with a very complex division of labor, and
individuals varying in ability and usefulness from criminals (anal-
ogous to the parasites of .the vegetable world) and loafers to gen-
iuses and "intellectual giants," analogous to the largest trees.*
No classification of vegetation can be final or complete, for
there are all sorts of intergradations between different types, and
some types which may be perfectly distinct or at least not inter-
mediate between any other two may escape observation on account
of occurring only in small patches or in out-of-the-way places. But
those here described probably cover at least 9o% of the uncultivated
land area treated, and the omission of any others will hardly be no-
ticed by persons not intimately acquainted with the area.
Cultivated crops are not regarded as vegetation, for they do
not follow natural laws but grow where they are put. There is
more or less characteristic weedy vegetation in old fields, vacant
lots, along roadsides, etc.. but that can be studied just as well after
the natural vegetation is all gone, and it is ignored for the present
(except that a few of the more abundant weeds have been in-
cluded in the regional plant lists). Of course it would be a mat-
ter of some interest to make a careful study of the weeds now,
and again every few decades to see what changes are taking
place, but limitations of time and money (iif not enthusiasm)
have prevented.
A good description of each vegetation type would include a list
of all but the rarest species, arranged according to size. and abun-
dance (as was done for those in the "Ocala area" in the 7th Annual
Report), together with notes on the prevailing times of blooming,
colors of flowers, modes of dissemination, rate of'growth, economic
properties, etc., but to do that would increase the bulk of this report
beyond reasonable limits, and consequently the descriptions have
been made as brief as possible. Some of them are supplemented by
*For a rough classification of human occupations in ten grades see Sci-
entific Monthly (former Popular Science Monthly) 10:295-296. March, 1920.


illustrations, which tell many things that cannot be put in words.
The principal vegetation types seem to be as follows:

These include bodies of water too deep for seeds to germinate
in, caves too clark, small rock outcrops in pine woods swept by fire,
beaches continually washed by waves, and roads, fields, and other
artificial situations.

Aquatic vegetation (fig. 35). In the deeper parts of lakes and
in sluggish rivers and runs there are quite a number of herbs, either
floating free like the water-hyacinth (which however is not native)
and water lettuce, or with floati-ng leaves like the water-lilies and
bonnets, or all submerged except the flowers (species of .Scdgit-
taria, Vallisneria, Potamogeton, etc.) or with both leaves and flow-
ers raised above the water (Sagittaria lancifolia, Scirptus, Ponte-
deria, etc.). Such vegetation is found in fresh water that does not
vary too much in level, in all countries that are not too cold or too
dry, and consists mostly of monocotyledons and rather simple dico-
tyledons. It has much the same aspect in all continents, and the gen-

Fig. 35. Marshy margin of Lake Apopka near West Apopka, Lake County,
showing water-lilies, wampee (Pontederia), etc. May 20, 1909.



era and even some of the species composing it are very widely dis-
Marginal and shore vegetation (fig. 20). In shallow margins
of lakes and along rivers where they are not subject to much fluc-
tuation, as near their mouths, we commonly find a type of vegeta-
tion intermediate between the preceding and the saw-grass marshes
(described a little farther on), and grading into both. It consists
mostly of a few coarse monocotyledons with hollow or spongy stems
or petioles, like maiden cane (Panicunm iheitonion), saw-grass,
wampee (Pontederia), and Sagittaria. lancifolia. Then above the
usual water level on sandy and peaty shores of lakes we find a
greater variety of herbs, mostly monocotyledons, often with a few
scattered shrubs among them. A list of characteristic plants of such
places was given in the 3rd Annual Report, page 267.
Grassy dunes. On dunes where the sand is constantly moving,
apparently not so much on the east coast as on the west coast, there
is a sparse vegetation of coarse, grasses and other herbs, chiefly sea-
oats (Uniola paniculata) and other plants belonging to families well
represented in tropical America. These renew their foliage every
year, necessitating comparatively rapid growth and presumably in-
dicating moderately fertile soil, though the bulk of vegetation
per square yard or acre is not large on account of its very open
structure. A little farther back from the shore, where the, sand is
not moving perceptibly, and much of the plant food has been leached
down beyond the reach of roots, the vegetation is of a much slower-
growing type, described below under the head of shrubs.
Salt marshes (fig. 3). These are characteristic of shallow
bodies of salt water protected from wave action, where the veg-
etation builds up a foundation of muck just about to high tide
level. The characteristic plants are coarse grasses and rushes,
with a few-scattered bushes. In warmer climates the woody plants
become larger and more numerous, until the marshes are replaced
by mangrove swamps (described farther on).
Satv-grass marshes (fig. 36). When a lake or a large embay-
ment of one becomes filled with peat, especially if the water is a lit-
tle calcareous, the vegetation is often composed almost wholly of
saw-grass (Cladium effusint or Mariscus Jamaicensis), an ever-
green sedge several feet tall. The same species also forms a fringe


Fig. 36. Large saw-grass marsh bordering Lake Harris, looking north
from about a mile east of Eldorado, Lake County. Pine land in distance is
over a mile away. Feb. 9, 1909.

along rivers that fluctuate little, which in favorable situations may
expand into marshes of considerable width. Some of the plants
comlmonly associated with the saw\-grass have been listed on the
lower half of page 270 in the'Third Annual Report. Such marshes,
are common in the lake region, and often cover several hundred
acres; and they may be important sources of peat when that sub-
stance becomes more popular than it is now. Plans are just now\
being perfected for manufacturing paper from saw-grass in Lake
Count\', \where there are some of the largest saw-grass marshes to
be found outside of the Everglades. For such an industry to be
permanent requires that the "grass" shall grow as fast as is cut,
which can be determined by multiplying the annual growth per acre
by the acreage available. \ith marsh vegetation that dies down to
the ground every year, like cat-tails, it is a very simple matter to
cut, dry and weigh a square yard or so of it at the end of the grow-
ing season, and convert the results to pounds or tons per acre.*
*Fo:r a study o:f several types of mni:rsh vegetation o.n Long Island made
in this \ay see Plant World 21:38-46. (.April) 191g The most luxuriant veg-
etatir.n found there was reed-grass. PhlrTagi itCs co' m min unis. which .iellied at the
rate of ahout 24 tons per acre v hen fresh and 12 tons ;whn air-dry. Saw-grass
is said to yield from 12 to 20 tons per acre i fresh) at the first cutting.


But saw-grass being evergreen, the foliage present at any one time
represents more than one year's growth, so that the proper proced-
ure would be to first mow down a small patch of it in midwinter,
and then cut and weigh a measured area from the same patch a year
Pcat prairies. These are basins reaching a few to several feet
below the ground-water level which have become filled with peat,
and are covered with herbaceous vegetation other than saw-grass,
presumably on account of the water being purer or at least le-s
calcareous than in the saw-grass marshes. They are more co:m-
mon in the lake region than elsewhere. In the course of develo:p-
ment from lake to peat prairie the vegetation has of course under-
gone considerable change, beginning with none at all and pas-ing
through the aquatic and marginal types above mentioned. That
growing on the surface of the peat at present is much like that -of
some of the lake margin prairies described on the next page, ex-
cept for the frequent occurrence of dense clumps of bay (Magnolia
glanca) and other broad-leaved evergreens, a few rods in diaiii-
eter. The most characteristic plants have been listed in the Third
Annual Report (pp. 274-275), and do not need to be repeated here.
The herbs are mostly grasses and other monocotyledons. The peat
in such places is among the purest to be found anywhere.
Basin prairies (fig. 16). The flat-bottomed lakes which drain
off at intervals through subterranean outlets, in the Hernando ham-
mock belt and farther north, are carpeted when dry with herbaceous
vegetation that has not been carefully studied, but consists largely
of plants whose indigeneity is under suspicion, for they grow also
in places that have obviously been altered artificially. The most
characteristic seem to be dog-fennel, Eupatoriium capillifolium, and
a grass, Aniastrophus paspaloides, as stated in the Third Annual Re-
port, page 261. The weediness of the vegetation is doubtless largely
due to the fact that such areas have long been closely grazed byl
cattle and sheep.
Lake margin prairies (fig. 26). Some of the larger lakes that
are so shallow that a small change in water level makes a great
difference in the position of the shore line have the area between
high and low water covered with grassy vegetation similar in aspect
to that. just mentioned, and containing some of the same plants and


usIully\ a good many additional, which make nearly as good pasture.
T'lis ty pe is commonest in the eastern division of the flatwoods,
e. .. around Lakes Harney and Tohopekaliga, but there are some
very interesting examples around Lake Tsala Apopka in Citrus
County. There are all gradations between this type and the shore
vegetation of smaller lakes already mentioned, and of course a con-
sidlerable variety of flora, depending on the soil and water. For ex-
aliple, in the eastern part of Polk County one of the most conspic-
tuous plants on the prairie-like margins of the smaller lakes is a
prickly pear (Opuntia amluophila?), while in very similar, though
perhaps a trifle wetter, situations in northern Osceola County a
pitcller-plant (Sarraccnia minor) is equally common. Around Lake
I-Iariey the vegetation shows a little influence of lime or salt or
.S7ollow prairies. Small shallow depressions that dry up com-
pletely in the dry seasons usually have vegetation resembling the
t\\o types last described. (See Seventh Annual Report, page 153
and fig. 57.) Such places are commonest in the lime-sink and
Gulf hammock regions, and they often have a few small outcrops
tf flinty limestone in them. Those, in the Gulf hammock region in
Sumter County seem to have more dog-fennel in them than the av-
erage. Those in the eastern division of the flatwoods, which ap-
proach the next type, are known locally as "sand soaks."
Flat prairies (fig. 28). Scattered through the central portion
of Volusia County, and for several miles on either side of the upper
St. John's and lower Kissimmee Rivers are. large areas resembling
the neighboring flatwoods in soil and topography, but devoid of
trees or nearly so, for no apparent reason, unless such areas are a
little more, subject to inundation than the flatwoods, or a little
more marly. Saw-palmetto and other shrubs are often less abun-
:lant in such places than in typical flatwoods, apparently indicating
more fertile soil. Going westward from Melbourne one first passes
thr-:.ugh continuous pine forests for a few miles, and then small
prairies begin to appear, gradually becoming larger, and the pines
between them smaller and more scattered, until at. a distance of
about seven miles from the Indian River or four miles from the
St. J,:lihn's River the trees are all left behind, and the prairie extends
bevn' ,:.1i the horizon both north and south. The, writer has not yet
seen the Kissimmee River prairies, on account of their remoteness



from railroads, but the boundary between them and the pine forests
is said to be pretty sharp, and they are said to have some pretty fer-
tile spots, and more abundant animal life (both wild and domesti-
cated) than most of our prairies.
This type of prairie is subject to fire practically every year.
like the flatwoods. Its chief economic importance is as pasturage
for vast herds of cattle.

Saw-pahnetto tickets (fig. 33). The outer dunes of the east
coast in the latitude of Melbourne are covered with an almost im-
penetrable growth of saw-palmetto about waist-high, with perhaps
1%o of other shrubs* of about the same height, principally a small
oak, Quercus myrtifolia. The palmetto leaves in such situations, in-
stead of being yellowish green as in the interior of the State. are
covered with a thin gray waxy coating, making a strong contrast
with the bright green oak leaves. (This color phase of the palmetto
is common within a few miles of the coast, the green type gradually
replacing it farther inland, without any apparent intergradation.)
Just why trees are absent there is not certain, but the strong \\ind
probably has something to do with it. Fire must be a rare occur-
rence; and neither the vegetation nor the soil on which it grows
seems to be utilized for anything at present.
Some of the treeless areas described on the preceding page might
be classed as palmetto thickets instead of prairies, where the growth
of palmetto is dense, but the other species associated with it would d
of course be mostly different from those on the dunes.
Scrub thickets. This term is used to cover various thickets
of shrubs no higher than a man's head, widely scattered over our
area, but usually of very limited extent. Those on the peninsulas
of Lake Tsala Apopka were described and figured in the Seventh
Annual Report (pp. 141-142, 155). Other thickets that may come
under this head are found near the mouth of the beautiful Pithla-
chascootee River in Pasco County. Wherever typical scrub (de-
scribed farther on) occurs there may be areas in it devoid of trees,

*The palmetto is not a shrub, strictly speaking, but its stiff evergreen
leaves occupy about the same position that the branches of ordinary shrubs


and therefore to be classed as thickets. The shrubs are nearly all
evergreen, and the soil very poor and seldom cultivated.

Mangrove swCamps (fig. 37). On the margins of shallow quiet
bodies of salt water from Brevard and Pinellas Counties southward
are swamps composed of salt-loving small trees and large shrubs
mainly tropical in distribution, particularly the black, red and white
mangroves (Aviccnnia, Rhizophora and Laguncularia) and button-
wood (Conocarpus). The first-named extends northward in
shrubby form to Cedar Keys and New Smyrna and perhaps far-
ther. In extreme southern Florida the first two become trees of
considerable size, and the red mangrove is used for tan-bark and
the buttonwood for fuel.

Fig. 37. Mangrove swamp on inner side of Long Key, Pinellas County.
The larger trunks at.the left belong to the black mangrove (Avicennia), and
the innumerable erect pipe-stem-like objects are its aerating organs. The seed-
lings and smaller crooked trunks are red mangrove (Rhizophora). March II,
Tropical hammocks (fig. 34). The plants growing on shell
mounds along the Indian River in southern Brevard County are
nearly all of tropical species, quite different from the species of
more northerly distribution on sandy soils nearby. The forests
are very dense, and the. trees rather small and crooked, though
they all grow larger in the hammocks south of Miami, and in the



West Indies. The trees are nearly all evergreen, and most of them
have small fleshy fruits, adapted for distribution by birds. Species
belonging to entirely different families often look much alike, and
are difficult to distinguish even when in bloom, for the flowers
are rather inconspicuous. Characteristic trees are the. gumbo-limbo
(Buirscra), mastic (Sideroxvylon), rubber or wild fig (Ficus), and
pigeon plum (Coccolobis laurifolia). Shrubs and herbs make up a
very small part of the total bulk of vegetation. Fire is very rare,
as in other hammocks, and the ground is covered with a thin layer
of humus. These hammocks are too limited in extent in central
Florida, and the trees in them too small, to be of any economic im-
Palm savannas (figs. 4, 32). These are of two principal types,
w'et and dry. The first is found principally around the head of
Indian River and Newfound Harbor on the east coast, and near the
Gulf coast in Citrus and Hernando Counties, where, there are thou-
sands of acres of damp and presumably marly flats close to sea-
level, on-which the cabbage palmetto' is almost the only tree, and
there are very few shrubs. On Merritt's Island the herbaceous veg-
etation is mostly switch-grass (Spartina Bakeri), but elsewhere
there is greater variety. These savannas are evidently subject to
fire, but probably not so often as the pine forests.
The second type occurs among the dunes of Long Key in Pi-
nellas County, and probably elsewhere along that coast. The soil
is sand with a considerable admixture of shell fragments, and the
topography is diversified with miniature hills and hollows produced
by the wind. The trees are all cabbage palmetto, and there is a
sparse, undergrowth of a few bushes.and vines and many herbs,
largely of the same species found in calcareous flatwoods and in
meadow-like dune hollows on Anastasia Island.* Some evidences
of fire were noted on Long Key, but nothing, is known of its fre-
quency. The herbage affords a little grazing.
A transition between palm savannas and low hammocks is found
near the head of the Indian River and elsewhere, especially around
Homosassa, where there are dense shady forests composed almost
entirely of cabbage palnetto.

*See 6th Ann. Rep., pp. 304, 339, 398.



Open flatwoods (fig. 23). In Georgia, Alabama and Missis-
sippi the term "flatwoods" is commonly applied to rather dense
hardwood forests on damp clayey soils, but in Florida it always
means level forests of long-leaf or slash pine.. Most of our flat-
\woods have a dense undergrowth of saw-palmetto or other shrubs,
but in the western edge of the lake region in Marion County, and in
some places in the southwestern flatwoods region, particularly in
Pasco County and near the Peace River, the shrubs are scarce or
absent, presumably indicating a better or at least a finer-grained
soil than usual. And all through the eastern flatwoods there are
patches an acre or so in extent which have little or no palmetto,
and some herbs, such as the pitcher-plant, are very characteristic of
such places. This latter phase is usually a little damper than the
rest, and might be regarded as an approach to the shallow prairies
already described.
Palmetto flatzwoods. These are of two or three kinds, depend-
ing on which species of pine predominates, but all have much the
same aspect: tall pines with very few other trees, and a dense
shrubby undergrowth from knee-high to waist-high, consisting
mostly of saw-palmetto and other evergreens. There are also many
herbs partly hidden by the shrubs. This type covers the greater
part of the three flatwoods regions and the Gulf hammock region,
and occurs in all the others, with the possible exception of the west
coast islands and the hammock belts. The pine is usually long-leaf,
but near the coast and near the larger prairies, especially if the
soil is a little calcareous, it may be completely replaced by slash pine
(Pinus Caribaea). In a few damp spots in the. eastern half of the
area black pine (P. scrotina) predominates. The characteristic
plants of the flatwoods of Marion and Sumter Counties were listed
in the Seventh Annual Report, pp. 144-146.
Fire sweeps through the flatwoods every year or two, but does
not injure the pines unless they are very small or have been turpen-
tined, and the palmettos soon send up a new crop of leaves from
their thick creeping stems. The pines are an important source of
lumber and turpentine, some of the shrubs yield honey, and the
herbage affords pasturage for many cattle. On account of the rather
damp soil, and the difficulty of grubbing out the palmetto and other
shrubs, the farmers have encroached on the flatwoods very little,



probably not more than 5% being under cultivation at the present
"Cutthroats". In the, eastern part of Polk County, about on the
line between the lake region and the flatwoods, there are several
examples of a little-known habitat or type, of vegetation called lo-
cally by the above name. It seems to have been first made known
to scientific readers by Prof. C. V. Piper about three years ago.*
About two years later some of it was pointed out to the writer,
who made a hasty examination while his host's automobile waited.
A cutthroat seems to be a place in the flatwoods kept perpetually
moist by water seeping out from slightly higher ground near by,
and is almost the only thing in central Florida comparable with the
boggy slopes that are a characteristic feature of the West Florida
pine hills.- The trees are mostly slash pine, and the bulk of the
herbage seems to consist of "cutthroat grass" (Panicium. Combsii,
also found in \Vest Florida). According to Prof. Piper this grass
is reputed to be good forage for steers but not for calves, and it is
supposed to cause "salt sickness" among cattle.
High pine land (figs. 9, o1, 19). This is one. of the most exten-
sive types of vegetation in central Florida, covering perhaps nine-
tenths of the lime-sink region and three-fourths of the lake region,
and considerable parts of most of the others. Typically it consists
of long-leaf pine, with a lower story of black-jack, turkey, and oc-
casionally other oaks, a sprinkling of saw-palmetto and other
shrubs but no woody vines, and a moderately dense carpet of wire-
grass and other herbs. Either the oaks or the shrubs may be absent
from many acres, though. The. oaks are commonest on the high-
est and driest uplands, and they seem to increase in abundance after
logging operations, perhaps chiefly because the removal of the pines
allows the soil to become drier; but they are almost wanting in some
places where nearly all the pines have been removed, as in the hard-
rock phosphate country. The characteristic plants of high pine
land in the lime-sink region have been listed in the Seventh Annual
Report (pp. 166-167), and that in the lake region does not differ

*Jour. Am. Soc. Agronomy 0o:162-164. April, 1918.
tSee 6th Annual Report, pp. 232-233.


As explained in the publication just cited, fire is a normal and
important factor in this type of vegetation. It comes at irregular
intervals, usually in early spring, but probably sweeps over each
spot about once in two years, on the average.. The herbs, being
perennials, would probably not be injured perceptibly by fires every
winter, and the shrubs also have underground stems which soon
send up new sprouts after the parts above ground are burned. The
long-leaf pine is practically immune to fire after it is four or five
years old, and any one spot to have a continuous growth of pine
would merely need to escape burning for that length of time about
once or twice in a century.
The high pine land is of great economic importance. The pines
yield lumber of the finest quality, fuel, naval stores, etc., and the
grass furnishes pasturage for thousands of cattle. The soil is
easily tilled, and much if not most of the farming in central Flor-
ida is done on what was once high pine land. Probably one-fourth
of the original vegetation has been completely eradicated in this
way, and the remainder considerably damaged by lumber and tur-
pentine and phosphate men; but it restores itself pretty well when
given a chance.
Scrub (figs. I 38). This type of vegetation is almost con-
fined to Florida, but marked resemblances to it in one way or an-
other can be found in the sand-hills of Georgia, the pine-barrens of
New Jersey, the jack-pine plains of Michigan, the chaparral of Cal-
ifornia, the heaths of northern Germany, the scrub of western Aus-
tralia, etc.; all of which have either poor soil or deficient rainfall.
No accurate estimate of its area is possible at this time, but it prob-
ably covers something like 5%o of the whole area under considera-
tion, and as much as IOo of the. lake region. It is nearly always
on old dunes and other white sands, but occasionally on creamy
sand scarcely distinguishable from that of the high pine land.
\here it adjoins high pine land the boundary is often so sharp that
one can go from one type into the. other in one step. It has been de-
scribed in many previous publications relating to Florida,* particu-

*But strange to say, two of the most complete descriptions of Florida,
namely, Col. J. L. Williams' "Territory 6f Florida" (1837), and Dr. E. A. Smith's
report on cotton production (1884), do not seem to mention the scrub at all.
( For full citations of these works see 6th Annual Report, pp. 4T5, 416.)



larly in our Seventh Annual Report (pp.
more needs to be said about it here.

142-144), so that little

Fig. 38. Typical scrub, with bare white sand in foreground, about three
miles east of Tavares, Lake County. Feb. 21, 1909.
The dominant and almost the only tree is the spruce pine (Pinus
clausa), and there is an undergrowth of evergreen shrubs ,and
small trees, averaging about the height of a man, and very little
grass or other herbage. The density of the forest varies consider-
ably in different places. On the old dunes of the east coast, and in
a few places in the interior (see Seventh Ann. Rep., fig. 62*) the
pines are so close together as to make a moderately dense, shade:
and the U. S. Geological Survey's Ocala topographic sheet (used
as a part of the base-map for the soil survey of the "Ocala area,"
reprinted in our Seventh Annual Report) shows an area over a mile
in diameter about three miles west-southwest of Ocala, labeled
"dense scrub," through which no contour lines were run. But in
the lake region it is often so open that large areas of dazzling white
sand can be seen, and such places are delightful to stroll through,
being so bizarre in appearance and so clean and free. from briers,
snakes, mosquitoes, etc.

*The same cut was used previously in the Popular Science Monthly (nowv
called the Scientific Monthly), vol. 85, p. 358, Oct., 1914.


As in the jack-pine and spruce forests of the far north, but un-
like anything else in or near Florida, fire sweeps through the scrub
about once in the life-time of a pine tree and kills the pines, which
however soon come up again from seed. Sometimes two crops
of pine of different ages can be seen close together (fig. 31).
Scrub vegetation indicates very poor soil, which is usually left
uncultivated, but it is utilized along the east coast, as noted in the
chapter on soils.
Cypress ponds (fig. 24). These are a characteristic feature
of the pine-barren portions of the coastal plain from North Caro-
lina to eastern Louisiana, and they extend south in Florida to Palm
Beach County and the "Big Cypress" of Lee County. There seems
to be nothing similar in any other country on earth. In the area
under consideration they are very abundant in the flalwoods re-
gions (except in the pebble phosphate country), rare in the lake re-
gion, and practically unknown in the others. In northern Florida
and neighboring states they usually contain more or less slash pine
(Pbinis Elliottiii) or sometimes black gum, but south of Flagler
County the pines rarely enter the ponds, and there is commonly a
treeless strip a few yards wide around each pond, where the soil
is a little too dry for cypress and too wet for the common slash
pine of the peninsula (P. Caribaea). In size the, ponds may range
from one to a hundred acres or so, and the water may be as much
as three feet deep in the larger ones in wet seasons and disappear
entirely in dry seasons. The amount of seasonal fluctuation is in-
dicated roughly by the height of the enlarged bases of the trees.
The pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens, or imbricariumi ) is
usually almost the only tree. Sometimes it grows so densely as
to exclude nearly all other woody plants, and sometimes the cy-
presses are farther apart and there is a dense undergrowth of mostly
evergreen shrubs and a fewv vines, making an approach to the bay
type of vegetation. Air-plants of three or four species are often
abundant on the trunks and limbs of the cypresses, making a very
striking picture. In the shallow water below are a number of herbs
almost confined to such situations. A list of characteristic cypress
pond plants for the whole State was published in the Third Annual
Report (pages 262-263), and that would not require much modifi-
cation to fit central Florida alone.



In dry weather fire originating in the surrounding pine forests
occasionally sweeps through a cypress pond, but the pond cypress-
unlike its better-known relative in the river and lake swamps-has
such thick bark that it is not usually materially injured thereby.
The only economic importance of this vegetation at present seems to
lie in the value of the cypress for poles, cross-ties, shingles, etc,
Bays. The same sort of depressions that ordinarily contain cy-
press pond vegetation often have instead a dense growth of shrubs
and small trees, mostly evergreen. This sort of growth, with or
without a few scattered taller trees, in shallow stagnant or slow-
flowing water, is called a bay in Georgia and Florida, probably on
account of the usual presence in it of bay trees (Magnolia glaica.
Pcrsea pubescens, or Gordonia Lasianthfus). Whether a given de-
pression is to be occupied by cypress pond or bay vegetation, or no
trees at all, seems to be determined chiefly by the depth and seasonal
fluctuation of the water, as suggested in the Sixth Annual Report
(page 203) ; bays being in those whose water fluctuates least.
The bays in the lower parts of Middle and West Florida were
described in the Third Annual Report, pp. 264-265. In central
Florida they are less common, but occur in a number of places in
the flatwoods and the lake region. A variation with fewer shrubs
and a great deal of slash pine was described under the head of
slash pine bogs on pages 256-257 of the same publication. Some
of the peat prairies have dense clumps of bay-like vegetation dot-
ting their surfaces, as indicated on a preceding page, and on pages
274-275 of the report just cited.
Typical bays are practically exempt from fire, but slash pine
bogs are burned occasionally. The bays are of very little economic
importance, except that some of the plants in them yield honey.
Non-alluvial swamps. Wherever water that has percolated
through the surface sands without coming in contact with any cal-
careous strata seeps out on the surface in sufficient quantity
throughout the year there is likely to be a dense shady swamp con-
taining bay trees, maple, black gum, bamboo vines, etc. Such
swamps (described in the 3rd Annual Report, pp. 258-260) differ
from the bays just described chiefly in having a greater flow of
water and more trees and fewer bushes. They are widely distrib-
uted through the coastal plain from Long Island to eastern Louis-
iana, but not very common in peninsular Florida, where they are


mainly confined to the lake region, and are sometimes called bay-
heads. About half the trees in them are evergreen, and fire is rare.
They are little utilized at present, but will probably be. drawn upon
for some kinds of timber when the country is more thickly settled.
Calcareous swamps. Swamps whose water is somewhat cal-
careous on account of coming from limestone springs or standing
for awhile in contact with limestone or marl differ from the sour
or non-alluvial swamps just described in having more deciduous
and usually larger trees, particularly cypress (Taxodhum dis'-
tichuum). They have been described in the Third Annual Report,
pp. 271, 279-281, and Seventh, pp. 176-178. They are most com-
mon in the Gulf hammock and lime-sink regions, and in fact are
almost the only kind of swamps in those regions. They also occur
in the lake region, around some of the larger lakes and along the
\Vekiva River and its tributaries. They grade into the low ham-
mocks to be described next, the only fundamental difference ap-
parently being the amount of water present. In the lake region they
often pass abruptly into saw'-grass marshes, on which they may
be gradually encroaching. Fire seems to be a negligible factor.
The cypress is valuable for timber, but the other trees are com-
paratively unimportant.
Low hlammocks (fig. 25). Dense shady forests with soil per-
petually moist, but not quite wet enough to be called swamps, are
called low hammocks. Those in central Florida all seem to be more
or less calcareous, and they are especially characteristic of the Gulf
hammock region, but are quite common in the lke region and east
coast strip, and occur in most of the others. They have been de-
scribed in the 7th Annual Report, pp. 175-176. On the upland
side they often pass into semi-calcareous high hammocks describeda
farther on), or even into sandy hammocks. Fire is very rare, as
in all other hammocks.
Some of the trees are valuable for timber, and the soil is gener-
ally quite fertile, perhaps partly on account of washings from the
neighboring uplands; and where it can be easily drained it is often
cultivated in vegetables. Much if not most of the truck farming
in Seminole and Sumter Counties is in places formerly occupied
by this type of vegetation, and one of the largest orange groves
in the latter is in what seems to have been a low hammock, through
probably drier than the average.



In the western edge of the lake region, northeast of Silver
Spring, there is a type of vegetation nearer to low hammock than
anything else herein described, but resembling also the swamps of
some rivers farther north. This has been described in the 7th
Annual Report (pp. 178-179) as short-leaf pine and cabbage pal-
metto bottoms.

Fig. 39. Sandy hammock about six miles south of Ocala, with holly, saw-
palmetto and other evergreens, Feb. 14, 1915.

Sandy hammuocks (fig. 39). This is an interesting type of
forest, widely distributed through the sandier parts of the coastal
plain from North Carolina to central Florida and Alabama. In
the area under consideration it seems to be best developed in the
lime-sink and lake regions. The soil appears to be essentially the
same as in the high pine land, except for such changes as have re-
sulted from a slight admixture of humus, but the vegetation is en-
tirely different, the main reason being that the hammocks are in
situations partly or wholly protected from fire by lakes, streams,
swamps or naturally denser forests. 'This point is discussed more
fully in the 7th Annual Report, pp. 170-172, where a list of char-
acteristic species can be found.
The trees are mostly broad-leaved evergreens, so that the ground
is pretty well shaded throughout the year. They seem to grow


rather slowly, and many of them have crooked trunks. Shrubs
and vines are abundant and herbs scarce. The vegetation on the
whole is more ornamental than useful, and the soil is little used
for agricultural purposes.
Calcarcous high hammocks (figs. 13, 40). Where there is
enough limestone near the surface to influence the soil perceptibly
the uplands commonly have vegetation similar in aspect to that
just described, except for having more deciduous trees and fewer
shrubs. This is a very common type in the hammock belt in Marion
County, and is found also in the Gulf hammock region, around some
sinks in the lime-sink region and Hernando hammock belt, and
(less typically) near the Peace River in the southwestern flatwoods.
The characteristic plants have been listed in the 7th Annual Report,
pp. 172-175.

Fig. 40. Hammock on limestone rock at the fern' grottoes on the With-
lacoochee River in southeastern corner of Citrus County, showing hackberry,
live oak, magnolia, box elder, grape vines, etc. March 6, 1915.
An extreme phase occurs where the limestone is nearly pure
and there is little, or no sand on top of it, for'example around caves
in Marion County and among the fern grottoes of southeastern'
Citrus County (fig. 40). Some hammocks on the west side of



Orange Lake with black waxy soil but no visible outcrops of lime-
stone might also be classed here. The trees in such' places are
mostly deciduous, and some o.f them are listed under the illustration.
Ferns of various kinds abound on the shaded rocks, and a few
herbs of the nettle family, such as Urtica clhamacdryoides and
Parietaria, are quite characteristic.
The soil of the calcareous high hammocks is very good for
farming, but some of it is too rocky, and the expense of clearing
is quite an item, too. In fields and orange groves cleared from
this type (and also from low hammocks) scattered cabbage pal-
metto trees are a common and picturesque sight (fig. 14). They
probably come up from seeds dropped by birds, and are allowed
to remain for the sake of appearances and because they cast little
shade and do not take much from the soil.
The tropical hammocks described-on an earlier page might also
be treated as calcareous hammocks, but they have been put in a
different category on account of the small size of the trees.
Sweet gum woods. This is not a very distinct type, but is note-
worthy on account of its strong resemblance to some forests several

Fig. 41. Red oak woods with some sweet gum, on reddish strongly phos-
.phatic soil about a mile and a half east-southeast of Ocala, Marion County.
Feb. 13, 1915.


hundred miles farther north. The sweet gum, short-leaf pine and
hickory are characteristic species. This is best seen in flat-bot-
tomed valleys with dark loamy soil around Brooksville, and on up-
lands northwest of Ocala, for example around Fairfield.
Such forests indicate pretty good soil for general farming,
through the scarcity of running water might be a slight drawback.
Red oak woods (fig. 41). On dry uplands with somewhat
clayey soil rich in potassium, phosphorus and iron, in central Marion
County, the red oak is the prevailing tree, as it is in some places
much farther north. Here it is commonly associated with sweet
gum, hickory, and long-leaf pine. At one extreme, this grades into
high pine land, and at the other into high hammocks, which have
neither 'red oak nor pine. Fire goes into the red oak woods just
about as far as the pine does. Further details can be found in the
7th Annual Report, pp. 168-169.
This type of vegetation indicates a strong soil, on which staple
crops can be raised for several years without fertilizer.



In contrast with the great diversity of vegetation, the species
of trees in central Florida are rather few. About two dozen that
are widely distributed in the eastern United States reach their
southern limits a little north of our area, while a much larger num-
ber of tropical species do not extend quite so far north.
In the following table the large trees already mentioned in the
regional descriptions are brought together in a single list, with a
column for each region filled with symbols showing the relative
abundance of each species there. The writer's observations are
hardly complete enough yet to warrant assigning percentages to
every species, but those over 20 are indicated by numbers, and those
under 20 by easily remembered letters corresponding to groups of
percentages, as follows:-
10-20%o, A (abundant)
3-I10o, C (common)
I-3o, F (frequent)
0.1-1%, 0 (occasional)
0.01-0.1%, R (rare)

It will be noticed that these letters are in alphabetical order,
so that in the table the letters nearest thebeginning of the alpha-
bet indicate the highest percentages. Where the occurrence of a
given species is probable but not proved an interrogation point
is used, and where it is believed to be entirely absent the space is
left blank.*
The smaller and rarer trees are omitted, as are all the shrubs
and herbs, because they are hardly important enough to justify
taking up much space with them, and also because their relative
abundance cannot be. determined so accurately.
At the top of each column is given the estimated percentage of
evergreens in the forests, which is believed to be pretty closely
correlated wiith soil fertility.
*A similar scheme was used for the trees of southern Alabama in Geol.
Surv. Ala. Special Report No. ii, pp. 102-104. Aug., 1920.


Census of Timber Trees of Central Florida.

ercnte of evergreens 75 76 65 80 85 8890 9
-D 9 7 7 68 0 9

Percentage of evergreens -pin 98 75 76- -38- 65 80 85 88
Pinus palustris (Long-leaf pine) __ T 37 56 77 33 60 60 7565 C
Pinus Caribaea (Slash pine) ----------33 C ? R ? C C A 36
Pinus Elliottii (Slash pine) ----------- C A R R F F 0
Pinus Taeda (Short-leaf pine) -------- F ? R C C O
Pinus serotina (Black pine) ---------- R O C C F
Pinus clausa (Spruce pine) ------------ F O F ? C F F A
Taxodium distichum (Cypress) ------_ C R O R F F O R
Taxodium imbricarium (Pond cypress) C A R C A
Juniperus Virginiana (Cedar) --------- F O R R R ? R O
Sabal Palmetto (Cabbage palmetto) --- 55 A 0 C 0 C F C 33
Hicoria alba ? (Hickory) ------------- R O F ?
Hicoria glabra ? (Hickory) O---- R O F F O R R F
Quercus Iichauxii (White oak?) ----- O R F F R
Quercus Virginiana (Live Oak) -------O C ? O F F O O R O
Quercus laurifolia -------------------- ? O F C F O o ?
Quercus hybrida ? O------- ------ 0 R O ? O O R R
Quercus nigra (Water oak) ----------- 0 ? R F O R R R R
Quercus falcata (Red oak) ------------- ? C
Quercus Schneckii ------------------- O R O
Ulmus Floridana (Elm) -------------- F R ? F O R R R
Ulnus alata (Elm) ----- -------- .R O F R
Celtis occidentalis? (Hackberry) 0 R F F R R R R
Magnolia grandiflora (Magnolia)---- ? F ? O F C O O R R
Magnolia glauca (Bay) _-- -------- ? O O R R O F F O R
Liquidambar Styraciflua (Sweet gum) C ? F C C O O R R
Aeer rubrum (Red maple) -- -------_ F O R R O F OO O
Acer Floridanum (Sugar maple) ---- 0 ?
Acer Negundo (Box elder) ---- ---- R R R 0 R
Tilia pubescens? (Lin)--- ----- .- O R F 0 R R R
Gordonia Lasianthus --------------? R R R F R O R
Persea Borbonia (Red bay) -------- ? R R F R R R R R
Fraxinus Americana (Ash) ----R ? R R ?O O R
Nyssa biflora (Black gum) ----R R 0 R R


In central Florida, as in most other parts of the State, the most
important industries based on native plants are the production of
lumber and naval stores from the long-leaf pine and its near rela-
tives. The government census reports give no statistics of these



industries for counties, but according to the report of the State
Commissioner of Agriculture for 1913-14 there were in the 15
counties of central Florida at that time 102 sawmills and 51 tur-
pentine stills. The State census of 1915 found in 13 counties (no
returns on this point having been received from Osceola and Polk)
o09 sawmills, with an average capital of $25,000 and 34.2 em-
ployees each, and 77 turpentine stills, with $31,500 capital and 33.9
employees each.
From a mimeographed directory of Florida sawmills made by
the United Sawmills Co. of New Orleans and Atlanta early in
1915 the following statistics of the number and average capacity
(in board feet per day) of the mills of central Florida, by regions,
have been derived.
Number and Average, Daily Capacity of Sawmills in Central Florida, 1915, by
REGIONS No. Capacity
1. West coast islands --------------------------------------- 0 ----
2. Gulf hammock region ------------------------------------ 7 65,700
3. Middle Florida flatwoods ---------------------------- 0 ---
4. Lime-sink region -------------------------------------- 44 31,136
5. Middle Florida hammock belt ---------------------------- 5 20,000
6. Hernando hammock belt ---------------------------------- 7 10,000
7. Lake region ---------------------------------------- 36 30,555
S. Southwestern flatwoods --------------------------------- 20 42,500
9. Southeastern flatwoods ---------------------------------- 10 18.500
10. East coast strip ---------------- ------------------ 1 10,000
Whole area --------------------- ------------ 1301 31,962

Of course these figures should not be taken literally, for no
doubt some. very small mills, which would bring down the average
capacity, were overlooked; and a mill near the edge of a region
might get some or most of its timber from an adjoining region.
But it is interesting to note, that the lake region, the largest of all,
has not as many sawmills as the lime-sink region, and they are a
little below the average in daily capacity. The capacity seems to
be roughly proportional to the density of the pine forests. Prob-
ably at least nine-tenths of the lumber is pine, but there are a few
mills that specialize in cypress or hardwoods.
Besides being sawn into lumber a good deal of the pine is
worked up into veneers, used in making crates and hampers to ship


oranges and vegetables in, and into crude barrels for fish or
rosin, or hewed into cross-ties without ever going through a
mill. Long-leaf pine is still the principal fuel in the rural dis-
triicts and smaller towns, and especially at ice factories and
electric light plants. A generation ago it was used on nearly
all locomotives in Florida, but that custom is now almost ob-
solete except on a few branch lines* and logging railroads.
Cypress of both species is used largely for shingles, poles, piles,
and cross-ties. Within the. last few weeks a company owning a
body of cypress (presumably pond cypress) near Cow Creek in
Volusia County has advertised for Ioo laborers to cut ties, the
supply of timber being estimated to last five years. Cedar is or
has been cut for pencil wood, mostly in the Gulf hammock region.
There were cedar mills at Cedar Keys and Webster forty or more
years ago, and more, recently there has been a large mill at Crystal
River and a small one at Rosewood.
Rail fences, chiefly of pine, can still be seen in some of the
older settled regions, particularly the, two hammock belts, but wire
fences (with posts usually of pine) are much more common at pres-
ent. Another important by-product of the long-leaf pine is pine
straw, used for road-surfacing material in high pine land where the
sand is deep and clay and rock not easily accessible, mostly in the
lake region. A few years ago a pine-straw road could be con-
structed for about $40 a mile, but the straw has to be renewed
every few years.
The terminal buds of the cabbage palmetto have been used more.
or less for food, and they yield a coarse fiber which is made into
brushes, brooms, etc., at Cedar Keys and perhaps elsewhere. Two
carloads of them are said to have been shipped north from Titus-
ville recently to be used for ceremonial purposes on Palm Sunday.
But to destroy a whole tree just for a few ounces of food or fiber
is a rather wasteful practice. Its leaves are often used to make
thatch roofs on fishermen's shacks and other more or less tem-
porary structures. The hardwoods are little used as yet, except for
*In April, 1920, the writer traveled from Tampa to Tarpon Springs behind
a wood-burning engine. In the last few years the Florida East Coast Railway
has run its engines with crude oil, which is almost as accessible to Florida as
coal-is, and incidentally less annoying to passengers.



Turning to smaller plants than trees, some of the vines and
shrubs yield berries muscadiness, blackberries, huckleberries, etc.),
and some may be. used for decorative purposes (mistletoe, holly,
wild smilax, etc.). Honey comes mostly from native shrubs and
small trees, such as saw palmetto, gallberry, and black mangrove.
In 1909, according to the U. S. census, the central Florida counties
produced 217,757 pounds of honey and 2913 pounds of beeswax,
together valued at $17,185. The corresponding figures for 1913-
14, according to the State agricultural department, were 183, 305
pounds of honey and 726 pounds of wax, with a value of $I9,822.
The greatest honey-producing section in our area is the east coast
strip, as stated in the description of that region. The industry
is one that calls for very little common labor, and it would seem to
be capable of great extension.
The Spanish moss is used in a small way for mattress making,
mostly around Ocala and Leesburg, and it could be used a great
deal more if there was enough cheap labor to be had. (The in-
dustry is much more extensively developed in Louisiana, which has
no more moss than Florida, but many more illiterate unskilled
laborers.) Nothing is known as to how much moss per acre can
be produced annually under the most favorable conditions, but the
total quantity in our hammocks and swamps is enormous, and seem-
ingly inexhaustible.
The proposed use of saw-grass for paper-making has been men-
tioned on a preceding page, and a paper mill is said to be about to
begin operations at Leesburg. The deer-tongue (Trilisa odo-
ratissima was formerly used largely for flavoring tobacco. An
old agricultural report states that 39 bales of it were shipped
from Silver Springs in the fall of 1871; and some has been
shipped from Volusia County within the last twenty years.
The grasses and other herbs of the pine lands and prairies afford
pasturage practically all the year round for large herds of cattle
and a few horses, sheep and goats, and grazing is still one of the
big industries, particularly in the southeastern flatwoods, as in-
dicated in the description of that region, and as will be further dis-
cussed under the head of agriculture. Many hogs of the "razor-
back" variety get most of their living from roots and acorns and
other seeds in the woods.


No description of central Florida would be complete without
some account of the native fauna, but the subject is difficult to
treat satisfactorily in a few pages, especially for one who makes
no pretension to being a zoologist. Although an expert ornithol-
ogist, herpetologist, ichthyologist, entomologist or conchologist
might be able after careful examination of literature and speci-
mens, or after spending a few months in the area, to prepare a
fairly complete list of the animals of his particular group occur-
ring in central Florida, there is hardly any one person in these
days of specialization who is a good authority on all groups of
animals. Furthermore, even if we knew exactly what species oc-
curred in the area as a whole, existing literature and collections
would be quite inadequate to show just which ones belonged in any
one of the ten regions, for most animals do not stay in one place
to be counted and mapped like trees, and some of the rarer or less
conspicuous ones may be seen in any one region by competent ob-
servers only at long intervals. And finally, even if it was pos-
sible to get ,absolutely complete lists for each region, they would
mean little to the layman, and those for neighboring regions might
be very much alike in the absence of data on relative abundance,
such as have been given in the foregoing pages for the commoner
Very few botanists or zoologists as yet seem to appreciate the
importance of studying wild plants and animals quantitatively
after the manner of a census, and it is of course more difficult with
animals than with plants, on account of the impossibility of count-
ing those which travel rapidly or whose safety depends on con-
cealment. And civilization increases the difficulty, for even in
such a thinly settled area as ours the more conspicuous animals,
such as bears, deer, alligators, wild turkeys, egrets and paroquets,
have been hunted almost to the point of extermination, for their
meat, hides, or plumage, or merely for "sport."* Birds are
*Among the very few quantitative studies of our animals that have been
made the second and last annual report of E. Z. Jones, Game and Fish Com-
missioner of Florida, published in the spring of 1915, deserves special men-
tion. It contains a table giving the estimated number of bears, deer, wild-
cats, coons, opossums, otters, skunks, squirrels, quail, wild turkeys, ducks,
and cranes in each county; and although some of the figures may be very
inaccurate, it is certainly a step in the right direction.



among the hardest of animals to apply census methods to, on ac-
count of the extensive migrations of many species, some spending
their summers in Canada and their winters in South America, so
that the bird population of any small area varies greatly at dif-
ferent seasons.t One might, however, make a distinction between
those which nest in a given area and those which are merely tran-
Under the circumstances therefore the best that can be done is.
to guess at the number of species of mammals and birds occurring
in our area and present a few random notes on them and other an-
imals that are abundant or especially characteristic, or useful or
troublesome. They will be taken up approximately in systematic
order, beginning with the highest types, and with occasional refer-
ences to extinct species known to have existed here in past geo-
logical epochs.:':
There are of course quite a number of scientific and popular
books and articles on the animals of our area, ranging from the
narratives of 18th century explorers who tried to describe every-
thing they saw in what was to them a wonder-land, and more
modern popular works on hunting and fishing, to monographs of
particular families or other groups for the whole country, and
short lists of mammals, birds, insects, shells, etc., for some partic-
ular neighborhood. The writer has had access to comparatively
few of these zoological works, and it would be out of the ques-
tion to list even those few. One of the earliest really scientific
works on our fauna is that of Dr. J. A. Allen on the mammals and
winter birds of East Florida.* One that covers a greater variety
of animals but only a small area geographically is Prof. W. S.
tTwo preliminary bird censuses of the United States, by W. W. Cooke,
have been published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, as Bulletins
187 (II pp., Feb. 1915), and 396 (20 pp., October, 1916) but the author died
before the publication of the second one, and little seems to have been done
in that line since.
tA good example of a detailed study of the fauna of a small area, but
with the quantitative viewpoint almost lacking, as usual, is "An ecological
survey of Isle Royale, Lake Superior," by Chas. C. Adams and others, a vol-
ume of 484 pages and numerous plates, which accompanies the Report of the
Michigan Geological Survey for 1908.
*Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 2:161-450, pl. 4-8. 1871. Reviewed
by E. Coues in Amer. Naturalist 5:364-373. 1871.


Blatchley's "A Nature Wooing at Ormond by the Sea."t Some
others will be referred to farther on in connection with particular
groups of animals.
Notes on the vertebrate fossils ca'n be found in Dr. Sellards'
papers on phosphate mentioned under economic geology (p. 158),
and in earlier works cited therein; and numerous references to fossil
shells are given in the bibliographies in the First and Twelfth An-
nual Reports.
iManimals. As in most other thinly settled parts of the eastern
United States, bears and deer can be found in almost any county
in central Florida if one goes far enough from civilization and has
good luck, and stories of the latter being killed appear in the local
papers almost every day in the hunting season. Rabbits, squir-
rels, 'coons and 'possums are probably as common here as in other
parts of the South. Noteworthy papers on our mammals have
been published by S. N. Rhoads in the Proceedings of the Acad-
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1894, 1895 and 1902,
and by Outram Bangs in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of
Natural History, vol. 28, pp. 157-235, 1898.
From an annotated list of North American land mammals by
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr.,$ it appears that at least forty species (not
counting sub-species) can be found in our area, including the opos-
sum, mole, 2 shrews, 6 bats, bear, wolf, gray fox, raccoon, weasel,
mink, 2 skunks or polecats, otter, panther, wildcat, 8 native
mice and rats, salamander, 3 squirrels, 2 rabbits, and deer. Sev-
eral of them are classed as geographical varieties or sub-species
peculiar to Florida and differing slightly from the more widely
distributed forms in neighboring states. These forty are only about
2% of the total number known in North America, but about 30%
of the species occurring in the eastern United States.
One of our most abundant mammals, very rarely seen but
easily followed up, is the "salamander" (a rodent, Geoniys Flor-
idanus). It travels underground in high pine land and old fields,
throwing up mounds of sand every few feet, but never leaving its
burrows open, at least in the-daytime. This particular species is

t245 pages, 12 plates. Indianapolis, 1902.
tU. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 79. xiv + 455 pp. "Dec. 31, 1912."



supposed to range only from the Suwannee and St. Mary's Rivers
to DeSoto County, but other forms differing very little from it
range northeastward to the Savannah River in Georgia and the
WAarrior and Tombighee in Alabama; and there are many other
species of Gcomys and related genera west of the Mississippi
River. Like some of its western relatives, it performs an impor-
tant service in stirring up the soil, as indicated in the chapter on
soils; but unlike some others, it does very little damage to crops.*
The manatee or sea-cow (Trichechus Manatus or Manatus
American us), was doubtless formerly common on our coasts, but
being practically defenseless it has been hunted for sport or for
curiosity until it is nearly extinct. Whales are occasionally
stranded on our shores.
Among extinct mammals may be mentioned the elephant, mas-
todon, bison, camel, rhinoceros, tapir, sloth, armadillo, and some
relatives of the horse, all of which roamed over what is now the
phosphate country in Pliocene or Pleistocene time, which was only
yesterday geologically speaking.
Birds. The study of birds is more popular with amateurs than
is that of mammals, and it is possible to give some rather detailed
information about them, culled mostly from Frank M. Chapman's
Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America.- It appears from
that that the number of species (not counting subspecies) that can
be seen in central Florida at one season or another is between 200
and 250, or a little more than half of all that are known in eastern

*The distribution of the southeastern salamanders, as indicated by their
"hills," was discussed in Science for January 19, 1912; but up to the present
time, nine years later, the writer has never seen one of the animals. The
soil-making activities of one of the Great Plains species were described by
Ernest Thompson Seton in the Century Magazine for June, 1904.
tThere is more than one edition, but the latest seen by the writer was copy-
righted in 1912, and is a duodecimo with xxix+ 530 pages, a double-page
colored "life-zone" map of North America, a double-page color chart, 24
plates (some of them colored), and 136 text-figures. Toward the end there
is a bibliography arranged by states, containing several references to the area
-under consideration.


North America. (If only nesting birds are counted we have about
one-fourth.) The exact number is and always will be indeter-
minate, on account of differences of opinion as to what constitutes
a species, if nothing else.i- Another reason is that there are quite
a number of birds that feed in the ocean near by but rarely if ever
nest on our coasts, or which pass over in their annual migrations
between North and South America and seldom stop, and some
whose usual migration routes lie considerably to the eastward or
westward but are occasionally blown out of their course by storms
and forced to land. Then too there must be many which barely
reach our limits from the north or south, and whose ranges are
not yet known with sufficient exactness to indicate whether they
occur within the arbitrary limits of this work or not. But all these
uncertainties should not materially affect the statistical observa-
tions which follow.
The birds of North America are divided into two great groups:
water birds, comprising (according to Chapman) 9 orders and 29
families, and land birds, with 8 orders and 37 families. The for-
mer are the more ancient and primitive types, and seem to be most
characteristic of regions that are geologically young, while the lat-
ter have evolved so recently that there are comparatively few fos-
sil records of them, and they are most abundant in regions that
have been dry land for ages. About 46%o of the birds (species,
not individuals) in central Florida are water birds, as compared
with 42% in eastern North America, 38% in the whole United
States and Canada, and only io or 12%o in the whole world.* But
the water birds as a rule have wider ranges or migrate more than
the land birds, so that even if other things were equal they should
$As there are more bird students than species of birds in civilized countries,
the temptation is .strong to keep drawing finer distinctions, making slight dif-
ferences the-basis of subspecies, and elevating subspecies to the rank of species
from time to time. Birds of widely distributed species that do 'not migrate much
are apt to be a little smaller and darker in Florida than farther north, and
already quite a number have been separated for that reason, and doubtless
more will be hereafter. Some of the mammals show the same sort of vari-
ation, as was pointed out by Dr. Allen in the paper previously cited.
*This high percentage of water birds in new lands seems analogous to
the high percentage of monocotyledons among flowering plants in the same
areas. See a statistical method for comparing the age of different floras,
in Torreya for December, 1905. Also 3d Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., p. 357.



be relatively more numerous in species in a state or similar area
than in a whole continent.
If only nesting birds were counted the results would be some-
what different. For only about 33% of our water birds, as com-
pared with 56% of our land birds, are known to breed in the area
treated; the remainder, except for a few transient or doubtful
species, being found here only in winter. So that among the nest-
ing species the land birds outnumber the water birds about two
to one.
A few birds of special interest deserve a passing mention. The
largest one, the wild turkey, is still found in solitudes far from
the homes of mankind, like the bear and deer.
The Florida burrowing owl (Spcotyto Floridana, first de-
scribed in 1874) differs from most other birds in living in holes
in the ground. It is said to be rather frequent in the Kissimmee
River prairies of Osceola, Polk, Okeechobee and DeSoto Counties,
and has been found also along the Caloosahatchee River and in
Manatee County. The same or a very closely related form has
been found in the Bahamas, and it has a near relative in Haiti and
another in the western burrowing owl which is a well-known in-
habitant of "prairie dog towns" in the Great Plains. Its habits
have been described in a few papers referred to in Chapman's
Handbook of Birds (p. 317).*
The Carolina paroquet or parrakeett" (Conuropsis Carolin-
ensis), a very showy bird that formerly ranged over a large part
of the coastal plain from Virginia to Florida, is now making its
last stand a little south of our limits, if it is not already extinct.
Its handsome plumage caused many specimens to be caught and
caged, and at the same time made it an easy mark for gunners,
and .there has also been some prejudice against it on account of its
supposed fruit-eating propensities.
The Florida jay (Aphelocoma cyanea, a different genus from
the common jaybird of the eastern 'United States and its Florida
subspecies), apparently first observed by William Bartram about
1775, and first described scientifically in 1817, is said to be chiefly
confined, now as formerly, to the coasts of Florida between lat-
*See also J. K. Small, Natural History 20:491, 496. "Sept.-Oct." (D:ec)


itudes 27 and 300. (The other species of Aphelocomin, eight or
nine in number, are all western, ranging from Texas and Idaho to
Central America.)
The dusky seaside sparrow (Passerherbulus nigrescens), al-
though described as long ago as 1873, is still known only from
marshes within a few miles of Titusville on the east coast. Chap-
man says of it (Handbook, p. 394) : "In view of the fact that
this species is abundant and that the region is in no sense isolated,
but that both to the north and south there are marshes apparently
similar to those it occupies, the restriction of its range to an area
only a few square miles in extent makes its distribution unique
among North American birds."
Besides these well-marked local species of non-migratory birds
there are several other cases in which the Florida birds differ just
a little from those of the -same species farther north, as stated a
few pages back, but it is hardly worth while to mention them in
a work of this kind.
Among extinct birds there is one noteworthy record, the find-
ing of bones identified as belonging to the great auk (Plautis im-
pennis) in a shell mound near Ormond by Prof. Blatchley in 1902.
This penguin-like bird was chiefly confined to the colder parts of
the Atlantic ocean, and there is no record of its having been seen
alive since 1842.
One avian product that deserves special mention is bird guano.
The principal source of this has been a few small islands off the
coast of Peru, where myriads of sea birds have roosted and nested
for ages, safe from most of their enemies, and where rain is prac-
tically unknown, so that there is no leaching of the valuable fer-
tilizing. constituents of the guano. The deposits have been ex-
ploited more or less for centuries, but the industry reached its
height in the third quarter of the last century.*
In recent years some artificial guano islands have been con-
structed near Cedar Keys, by building wooden platforms a few
feet above the shallow waters of the Gulf a few miles off shore.

*Probably the most accessible descriptions of the guano islands of Peru
are those by Dr. Robert E. Coker in the Proceedings of the U. S. National
Museum 56:449-511, pl. 53-69 (Sept. 1919), and in the National Geographic
Magazine 37:537-566, with 28 unnumbered half-tones (June, 1920).



The writer saw one of them from a distance in 1910, but did not
learn at that time whether the project was succeeding or not; but
has lately been informed that other such platforms have been built
near by, and that two carloads of the guano were shipped from
Cedar Keys not long ago. In our climate the rain must soon leach
out most of the nitrogenous compounds that give the Peruvian
guano its greatest value, unless the platforms are roofed over.
Reptiles. Our largest reptile is the alligator, formerly abund-
ant throughout Florida, and ranging over the coastal plain from
North Carolina to Oklahoma. It has been so mercilessly hunted
for its hide or merely for sport that it has become rather scarce
and shy, and the writer has never seen one outside of captivity
in the area under consideration.*
There are of course snakes of several species, but. they are ap-
parently not as abundant as in many -equal areas farther north,
probably because the prevailing open pine forests do not afford
much food or concealment for them, and the annual fires must be
an important factor in limiting their numbers.
A characteristic reptile in the high pine lands, and even occa-
sionally on dunes, is the "gopher" (Gophlcrus Polypliclus), a tur-
tle of strictly terrestrial habits, which digs a sloping burrow sev-
eral feet deep in the sand, the entrance being marked by a mound
of about the same size as the salamander hills already mentioned.
Its general range is a little wider than that of the salamander, but
as it is edible it has decreased in numbers with the increase of
population.-F According to Blatchley its burrows have quite a pe-
culiar fauna, including a frog and several species of insects not
found elsewhere.
Remains of several species of turtles and a crocodile have been
found in the phosphate mines.
Fishes of many species abound in both fresh and salt water,
,and they afford a livelihood to many people on both coasts, par-
ticularly at Cedar Keys and Titusville. One of the largest is the
*For a scientific study of the alligator in its native haunts, somewhere
south of Orlando, see A. M. Reese, Pop. Sci. Monthly 77:365-372 (with o1
half-tones.) Oct., 191o.
tThe Legislature of 1909 passed a law protecting gophers in the three
westernmost counties of Florida in hMay, June and July, and prohibiting the
use of hooks and the taking of specimens less than nine inches long.


tarpon (Tarpon Atlanticis), which has little food value but is
caught merely for sport by tourists. Important marine food
fishes in central'Florida waters are the mullet, red snapper, pom-
pano and Spanish mackerel.*
There seem to be no statistics available by which the fishing
business of our area can be separated from that of the rest of the
Sharks' teeth are common in the pebble phosphate and in some
other formations.
Insects. In most parts of the world, especially in warm cli-
mates, there are more species of insects than plants, so that there
must be at least a few thousand in central Florida.t A reasonably
complete list of them would take years to prepare and would have
little value for the general reader, but a few of the troublesome
ones must be mentioned. Those of greatest popular interest are
probably the mosquitoes, but to write about mosquitoes without
being backed by statistics is to risk offending some local interests,
so that the subject must be handled cautiously.
There are several species of mosquitoes present in-some parts
of our area throughout the frostless season, but probably no more
individuals than in an equal area in New Jersey or Alaska. Nat-
ural conditions are not especially favorable for them in central
Florida except in salt marshes, for the lime-sink region has very
little water, and the lakes and streams in other regions are usually
well stocked with fish that eat all the mosquito larvae within reach.
Most of our mosquitoes come from artificial or accidental breed-
ing places that could be eliminated, such as water barrels and tin
cans, and the malaria-carrying species are decidedly in the minor-
ity, probably on account of the absence of muddy water which
they seem to prefer. Consequently there is much less malaria in

*See Everman & Bean, Indian River and its fishes. U. S. Senate Doc.
46. 54th Cong., 2d Session. Jan. 1897. Also in Rep. U. S. Fish Comm.
1896:227-262 (with 36 plates). 1898.
tThere are caid to be important papers on Florida beetles by E. A.
Schwarz in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 17:353-469, 1878, and in Entomologia Amer-
icana 4:I65-175, 1888. In recent years J. A. G. Rehn and Morgan Hebard
have published taxonomic papers on some of our other insects in the Pro-
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.



our area than in some places farther north. The yellow fever
mosquito (Stegoomyia or Aedes calopis) is believed not to be in-
digenous, but to breed only in artificial habitats.
The consensus of opinion seems to be that mosquitoes are most
abundant on the east coast;* but even if they are that does not
prevent Daytona from being a summer resort for people from the
interior as well as a winter resort for northern people. A good
brief summary of the mosquito situation in Florida by Clifton F.
Hodge, a nature student of national reputation, appeared in the
Florida Entomologist (Gainesville), for July, 1920.
Sandflies (a very small species of gnat) are said to be very
annoying on the east coast at times, but the writer has never hap-
pened to encounter them there (or anywhere else).
Roaches-or cockroaches as they are called in the books-of
several species are common, as in other warm climates (and in
steam-heated buildings farther north), but they seem to be mostly
native species, that live in decaying wood, etc., and do not ordi-
narily invade houses.- And the more domesticated species have
at least one thing to be said in their favor, namely, they are said
not to tolerate the presence of bedbugs in the same house; conse-
quently the latter are very scarce in Florida.
Mites. A very common but inconspicuous animal, resembling
an insect but belonging with the spiders, is the redbug (Tromibid-
inum sp., known, farther north as chigger, or harvest mite). It is
not peculiar to Florida, but ranges northward to Maryland and
Wisconsin or thereabouts, and allied species are said to be trou-
blesome in parts of England, France, Germany, Japan, Mexico,

*From 1824 to 1845 approximately the eastern third of central Florida
was known as Mosquito County. probably taking its name from Mosquito
Lagoon on the coast of what is now Volusia and Brevard Counties. In 1901
the Florida Legislature-whose jurisdiction in such matters may be ques-
tioned-decreed that the lagoon should thereafter be known as Indian River
North; but Mosquito Inlet, near New Smyrna, the mouth of the lagoon, is
still on the maps.
tAn easily accessible pamphlet on roaches and how to deal with them
is Farmers' Bulletin 658 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, published
in 1915.


etc. Being only about the size of a pin-point, it is not easy to de-
termine its natural habitats, but it evidently frequents places that
are rarely burned, like hammocks, swamps, and roadside" shrub-
bery, and is scarce in pine lands. It is annoying but not danger-
ous, and its pernicious activities are chiefly confined to the warmer
half of the year. The instinct that leads it to burrow into human
skin is a suicidal. one, for there is very little chance of such an in-
dividual having any descendants to inherit the same tastes.*
There are several species of ticks, with habits similar to those
of the red bug, but being larger they are less abundant and more
easily dealt with. The cattle-tick which infests the ranges and
pastures has been viewed with alarm by stock-raisers in recent
years, and a campaign for its extermination is now under way,
with good prospects of success.f
Miscellaneous invertebrates. The scorpion, which looks just
like one of the pictures among the signs of the zodiac in old-fash-
ioned almanacs, is more or less common in South Florida, but the
writer has never seen but one in central Florida, that in Lake
County in 1909.
Earthworms, which abound in clayey and loamy soils in most
parts of the civilized world, and are an important factor in main-
taining the fertility of such soils, are scarce in the sand of penin-
sular Florida, but there are said to be a few native species in the
humus of our hammocks, and very likely some of the European
species occur in gardens.
Of the many mollusks, terrestrial and aquatic, univalves and
bivalves, living and fossil, only the oyster need be mentioned here.
It is common in salt water (see fig. 3), and is shipped from Cedar
Keys and elsewhere. Its shells have been used extensively on
roads near the coast, as stated in the chapter on roads, farther on,
but they are now being gradually superseded by brick and asphalt.
Sponges grow on the rocky bottom of the shallow waters along
the Gulf hammock coast, and Tarpon Springs is a great center for
the sponge industry, which is carried on by Greeks. A few are
also brought in to Cedar Keys.

*See Farmers' Bulletin 671 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1915.
Also N. Banks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 28:30-33. 1904.
fFor notes on ticks see Banks, I. c.. pp. 42-49.





When the first census of Florida was taken, in 1830, the pen-
insular portion of the State was practically uninhabited, except for
a few small settlements along the east coast. Not until about the
middle of the century were there enough people or enough coun-
ties in the area under consideration to make it possible to estimate
the density of population. In 1850 there was about one inhab-
itant 'to three square miles; and as at present, there were about
twice as many whites as negroes. The changes in density of pop-
ulation since then, for the whole area and as many of the regions
as we can get satisfactory data for from the census returns, are
shown graphically in figure 42, which is based on both Federal
and State censuses, the latter taken midway between the former,
beginning in 1885.
The number of inhabitants more than doubled between 1880
and 1890, the decade when phosphate was discovered and com-

FAs T.r. T00 0
(850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1* 900 1910 1920
Fig. 42. Historical graph showing density of total and rural population in
central Florida, some of its subdivisions, and the whole State, from 1850 to
1920, or as far as can be ascertained from the census returns.


mercial fertilizers of otherkinds became available in large quan-
tities, but almost stood still between 1895 and 1900oo when two se-
vere freezes dealt the orange industry a staggering blow.* (The
lake region actually lost population during that period.) From
1900 to 1915 approximately the former rate prevailed, but the
world war retarded the increase between 1915 and 1920, as it did
in most other parts of the United States outside of manufactur-
ing centers.
The percentage of negroes was lowest in 1885, only 28; but in-
creased soon after that, when the development of farms and phos-
phate mines created a new demand for unskilled labor, and also
at the time of the great freezes, when many white people of north-
ern origin left the State. At this writing the racial composition
for 1920 by counties has not been made public, but it is quite prob-
able that the negro percentage is now even less than it was in
1885, on account of the great northward migration of negroes
during the recent war. As in other parts of the South, negroes
have always been most numerous in the most fertile regions.
The red and yellow races constituted less than 1-20 of 1%O
of the total population in 1910. Over half of them were Chinese,
and most of the Chinese were in Tampa (and presumably in the
laundry business.)
There are (or were in 190o at least) more men than women in
every region, as is the case in practically all countries that are
being settled up rapidly, for men naturally precede women in seek-
ing homes in new .territory.

The percentage of foreign whites in the total population
ranged from 4.3 in 1850 to 1.96 in 188o, 9.1 in 1910, and 7.3 in
1915, aind is highest in and around Tampa, on account of its being
a seaport and a large city. The leading foreign nationalities rep-
resented in the whole area in I88 were English, German,
Swedish, Canadian, Irish, French and Scotch, all from much far-

*See Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agriculture 1895:143-174 (1896); Geograp.h-
ical Review 2:361-367. Nov. 1916.


their north, it will be observed; and in 1910 Cuban, Italian, Span-
ish, English, German, Turkish (probably meaning mostly
Syrian), Canadian, Greek, Swedish, Irish, Scotch, Russian and
Roumanian. This great increase of West Indian and southern
European immigration in thirty years indicates quite a deteriora-
tion in quality; but if we leave out Hillsborough County, which
had over four-fifths of all the foreigners in central Florida, the
percentage of foreign whites in 19o1 was only 2.24, and the lead-
ing nationalities English, German, Canadian, Swedish, Irish,
Scotch, Italian, Greek, Danish, Russian and French; which is not
very different from the percentage or the sequence in I88, when
Tampa was a very small place. In the city of Tampa in 1910 the
order was Cuban, Italian, Spanish, German, English, Canadian,
Roumanian, Irish, Russian, Greek, Swedish, French, Austrian,
Scotch, Mexican, Swiss, Danish. (Some religious statistics for
Tampa are given farther on.)
Recent Federal censuses have not distinguished between native
and foreign-born negroes, but in 1915 a little less than i% of the
negroes in central Florida were of foreign origin, doubtless mostly
from the Bahamas and West Indies.
In 188o only 59.9%o of the inhabitants of central Florida were
born in Florida, 14.2% in Georgia, 10.2% in South Carolina,
3% in Alabama, 1.8% in North Carolina, 0.9% in Virginia, and
smaller numbers in the other states. Marion County had more
South Carolinians than Georgians, strange to say.* Unfortu-
nately there are no similar data in later censuses, either Federal
or State, except for whole states and for cities with more than
50,000 inhabitants. The State census of 1915 made inquiry as
to the birthplace of each individual and his or her parents, but did
not publish the results, except as to the number of persons born in
and out of the United States. If the data could be tabulated sep-
arately for whites and negroes, for adults and children, and for
farmers and city people, some very interesting results would be

*See Seventh Annual Report, p. 124. At present Ohioans seem to be
very largely represented, especially west of the lake region, and Kentuckians
in the lake region.


The percentage of the total population living in incorporated
places with over 2,500 inhabitants (the arbitrary limit for urban
population used by the U. S. Census Bureau) was 11.2 in 1890,
19.4 in 1895, 13.7 in 1900, 23.9 in 1905, 33.6 in 1910, 37.1 in
1915, and 40.5 in 1920. These figures are rather high, being above
the average for the whole State (and in recent years for the whole'
South). In 1915, by the State census, 51% of the inhabitants of
central Florida, and 44.2% of those in the whole State, were living
in incorporated places (some of which had much fewer than 2,500
people). The percentage of urban population is a rough measure
of civilization, for where there is a low state of civilization there
are few or no cities; but of course it does not necessarily follow
that a city is a better place to live than the country.
Some interesting comparisons between our urban and rural
population in 1910 are given in Table 22. In this there are sep-
arate columns for Tampa (including West Tampa, which is in-
corporated separately, but for geographical purposes is as much a
part of Tampa as is Ybor City on the east side), for the eight
cities next in rank (listed farther on), and for the remainder of
the population, which is classed as rural by the census; also for the
rural and urban population of the whole State.
One who studies this table carefully can gather from it many
significant facts, especially about the amount and kind of immi-
gration to this part of the State, but it would take several pages
to discuss it in detail. It will be observed however that in many
respects the smaller cities resemble the rural districts more than
they do Tampa, that central Florida has a larger proportion of
men than the rest of the State, and that the foreigners in the
smaller cities and rural districts are of a superior type to those in
Tampa, where they partly take the place of negroes.
Although the foreigners constitute less than a third of the total
population of Tampa proper (which includes Ybor City), they
outnumber native whites and negroes combined in West Tampa
(which would hardly be possible in an isolated city, but West
Tampa is a mere suburb). Worse still, among the adult males the
foreigners outnumber the native whites in Tampa proper, and in
West Tampa.they are over three times as numerous as all native



Comparisons of Rural and Urban Population of Central Florida, 1910.
= Whole State
S- I.^------
1 ct 5 Tx' = :5 Urban Rural

Percentages of total population: .I I II
Whites ------------------------------ 78.0 60.31 62.5 1 59.51 58.8
Native white, native parents -------- 27.51 52.0o 55711 37-.2 55.0
Native white, foreign or mixed parents- 19.61 5-31 3-411 II' 2-1
Foreign white _---------------------I 30o9 30o 3-4 1 .2 17
Negroes ----------------------------- 21.8 39.6 37.511 40.5 41.2
Males --------------------------- 52.3 49.1 54.811 50.81 53.1
Percentages of adult male population: I II
Whites ------------------------------ 76.81 61.2 59.911 58.71 57.5
Native white, native parents --------- 26.51 r14 50-0o 35.31 51.2
Native white, foreign or mixed parents_- 6.o 4.6! 2.911 6.51 2-2
Foreign white --------------------- 44.-3 5.21 7.0o! 16.91 4-1
Negroes ----------------------------- 23.11 38.61 40.111 40.21 42.5
Illiterate --------------------------- 6.5 6.4 13.711 7.71 16.8
Per cent of adult males in the following I 1 1
groups: I I
Total population ----------- --- 30.61 30.2 31.211 30.81 27.6
White population ------------- I 30.1! 30.5 29.811 30.71 26.9
Native white, native parents------- 29.51 29.8 28.011 29.61 25.7
Native white. foreign or mixed parents_ 9.31 26.01 26.211 18.1 27.7
Foreign whites ----- -------------I 43.6 52.7 63.411 46.8 64.0
Negroes ------------------- 32.4! 29.3! 33.4'| 30.91 28.3
Per cent of illiterates in population over 10: I II I
Native white --- -- ---------- 1.6' 0.51 2.711 1.11 6.4
Foreign white --- --------------I 14.4! 4.4! 12.911 11.21 8.9
Negro --- _I 12.11 12.21 25.91| 15.41 30.0

men, white and black.* (The census gi

ves no figures for national-

ities in places as small as \Vest Tampa, but the people there are
probably mostly of Latin races, as in Ybor City.) And in Tampa
proper among the white children between the ages of 6 and 15
there are more with one or both parents foreign than with both
parents native.
This large proportion of recent immigrants from countries
with lower standards of civilization than ours is not peculiar to
Tampa and vicinity by any means, but is common to practically all
the larger cities of the United States. It is probably due at least

*In 191o only 20.8 per cent of the foreign white men in Tampa and 15.4 per
cent of those in West Tampa were naturalized, making the potential voters
only 70.3 per cent and 35.8 per cent respectively of the adult males.


in part to the superior school facilities in cities, which by contin-
ually uplifting the native children tend to create a vacuum at the
bottom of the social scale, which calls for the importation of ig-
norant foreigners to do the necessary menial tasks, or the monot-
onous routine work of semi-skilled laborers in factories. This
state of affairs is accentuated by compulsory education, and is
therefore more pronounced in the northern states that have had
such a system much longer than Florida has.*

*The following table will indicate something of the condition of the foreign
population in a few large northern cities in 1910. All except Boston and New
York are noted chiefly for their textile industries.


c 4 W ~^ to ; U 2
Leading foreign nationalities M g 4

Per cent of total population :1
Foreign white --------- 35.91 42.61 48.11 40.9 44.1 40.4 36.1
Native white, foreign or I
mixed parents ---- 38.3 437 37.9 39.5 33.5 38.2 40.0
Per cent of adult males: I I I
Foreign white ----------- 49.5 63.8 67.0 68.1 60.7 57.8 54.7
Native white, foreign or| 23
mixed parents --------- 24.51 24.3j 20.3 22.9 15.4 23.7 24.5
Per cent of foreigners illit.:1 I
All over 10 ------------- 10.01 23.51 22.21 11.71 20.81 13.2 14.5
Adult males only ------ 8.6! 23.21 14.81 12.01 14.51 10.71 11.8

Most of the abbreviations for nationalities will be readily understood. Fr.
Can. means French Canadians, and Can. all other Canadians.



The largest cities and towns, with their total population at dif-
ferent census periods since 1890, are shown in Table 23. They
are arranged in order of size in 1915, because the 1920 figures are
still subject to revision.

Total Population of Largest Cities and Towns in Central Florida,

1890 to 1920.

Tampa _------------------- 5.532]
West Tampa --------------- _----
St. Petersburg ------ 2731
Lakeland ------------------ 552
Orlando -----------------I 2,8561
Ocala -------------------- 2,904
Sanford ------------------- 2.0161
Daytona ---------------- 7711
Kissimmee ----------- 1,0861
DeLand-------------- 1.1131
Bartow ------------------- 1,386
Plant City --------------- 349
Fort Meade --------------- 267
St. Cloud -----------------------
New Smyrna --- -----I 2871
Dade City---------------- 3211
Tarpon Springs--------- 3271
Clearwater ----------------- ----
Zephyrhills ----------------- -----
Brooksville--------------- 5121
Leesburg _----- -- ---- 7221
Titusville ----------- --- 746
Winter Haven ------------ --
Eustis --------------- ------
Mulberry _----------------- -- -I
Port Tampa City -------------

18951 1900 19051
S(JuneI) (July)Q'
15,634 15.8391 22,8231
2,815 2,3551 3,6611
3081 1,5751 2,3161
SI 1.180 3,2991
2,993] 2.4811 3,5111
4,5971 3,3801 4,4931
1,5171 1,4501 2,8221
1.4251 1,6901 2.199i
1,1721 1,1321 1.5301
1.6091 1,4491 1.4961
1,9311 1,9831 1.9501
? 7201 1.5441
3501 2611 3221
_ I __._ I_ ?
5001 543 7501
? 509 7941
5621 541] 740
3001 343] 610
----- I ------I ?
6081 6411 709
805] 7651 844
8311 756] 948I
I--- ----- I 3751
5631 4111 5291
------I ----- 8501
1,1111 1,3671 1.0491

19101 19151 1920
April) .IJ lyl | (.Jan.)

? I



These actual figures should not be taken literally, for much
depends on the area included in the city or town. And an exten-
sion of the city limits, which is a rather frequent occurrence, may
make an abnormal apparent increase between two successive cen-
suses. The apparent decreases in the population of Lakeland, Kis-
simmee and Dade City between 1915 and 1920 are hard to under-
stand,unless the areas covered by the enumerators were smaller
at the latter period, or there was some error in tabulating the
returns. .The increases in some, popular winter resorts at the
same time are doubtless due partly to the fact that the census of
1915 was taken in summer and that of 1920 in winter. For al-
though the census is supposed to count only bona-fide residents,



many people spend about half the year in Florida and half in some
other state, and are therefore entitled to be counted in either place.
But when we take several cities together such errors (except
the seasonal one last named) ought to offset each other to a con-
siderable extent. And it is safe to say that the population of the
ten largest cities (which were not the same places each time,
though) nearly doubled between 1890 and 1895, decreased a little
in the next five years, and then more than doubled in the decades
1900-1910 and 1905-1915. The increase from 1915 to 1920 was
less than 15%, but the rural population at the same time was
practically stationary, as seems to have been the case in most other
states. The ten cities or towns next in rank did not seem to be af-
fected so much by the freezes of 1895 and 1899, strange to say,
and they just about doubled every ten years between 1895 and
1915, but gained very little in the last five years.
The mild dry winters of peninsular Florida naturally attract
many visitors from the colder states, and they are an important
source of revenue, ranking in that respect close to the products
of the phosphate mines, forests and farms. It would be very dif-
ficult to estimate the total number of "tourists" that visit central
Florida in an average year, but the average maximum number
that are expected at any one time in the height of the season may
be guessed at by means of the hotel capacity.. Of course all the
hotels are not likely to be filled at the same time, and many if not
most of them are. open all the year for the accommodation of com-
mercial travelers, etc. But at the same/time no hotel directory is
absolutely complete and up to date, and there are many winter vis-
itors who rent cottages or even live in tents, so that the indicated
hotel capacity is probably as good a measure of the tourist busi-
ness as can be found.*
*The tourists are presumably all white (and mostly adults), though the
negro population must be augmented a little also in the winter season by a
certain number of waiters, porters, etc.



A "Guide to Florida" by Harrison Rhodes and Mary W. Du-
mont, published in 1912, devotes 27 pages to a hotel directory of
the State. There is no explanation of how complete it is supposed
to be, or whether the rates quoted are American or European plan,
and in some cases either the rate or the capacity is left blank. But
the towns and hotels omitted are mostly very small ones, and the
rates in nearly every case are evidently American plan, and the
list is useful for indicating the distribution of the tourist business
and calculating the average cost of board in each region, if nothing
According to that there were within the area under consid-
eration accommodations for 15,68o visitors, at an average mini-
mum rate of $2.47 per day, American plan.* About Ii% of the
rooms were in the lime-sink region, mostly on the coast thereof
in Pinellas County, 23.2%0 in the lake region, the same in the west-
ern division of the flatwoods (mostly at St. Petersburg), 35.6%
on the east coast, and the rest scattering. The average rates per
day were about $3.00 in the lime-sink region (one hotel on the
coast contributing a large part of this), $2.21 in the lake region,
$2.00 in the western division of the flatwoods, and $2.88 on the
east coast. (Of course to convert these figures to present-day
prices they would have to be multiplied by about two, on account
of the depreciation of money during the recent war.)
A winter resort directory of the South issued by the Atlantic
Coast Line for the season of 1914-15 seems to have about the
same degree of completeness as that just mentioned, and the num-
ber of hotel accommodations in central Florida listed in it is about
20,000. A similar publication for 1920-2 increases the number
to about 24,000, 9.7%o of which are in the lime-sink region, or on
the coast thereof, 34.7% in the lake region, 21.4% in the west-
ern division of the flatwoods, and 26.5%f on the east coast. (In
all these calculations Tampa has been divided equally between the
lime-sink region and the flatwoods.) ,Hotels are most numerous
in the-lake region, but they average smaller there than on the east
*This average is not simply the sum of the rates divided by the number
ot hotels, but a weighted average obtained by multiplying each rate by the
number of rooms before adding. Where the rates given are obviously Euro-
pean they have been multiplied by three or four.


A list of the leading winter resorts is given below. In this all
places less than two miles apart (an easy walking distance) are
lumped together, and the resorts are then arranged in order of
the number of hotel accommodations in the 1920 list, down to
those which have only 200. The figures are not given here, be-
cause they are subject to correction and change, but they form
approximately a descending geometrical progression, from 3,724
down to 200oo. The regions are indicated in parenthesis.
Daytona, Daytona Beach, Seabreeze (East coast).
St. Petersburg (Coast of western flatwoods).
Orlando (Lake region).*
Tampa (Coast of lime-sink region and flatwoods).
Belleair and Clearwater (Coast of lime-sink region).
DeLand (Lake region).
Ormond and Ormond Beach (East coast).
Winter Park (Lake region).
Cocoa and Rockledge (East coast).
Lakeland (Lake region).
New Smyrna (East coast).
Ocala (Middle Florida hammock belt).
Sanford (Lake region).
Winter Haven (Lake region).
Eustis (Lake region).
Plant City (Western flatwoods).
Tarpon Springs (Coast of lime-sink region).
Bartow (Western flatwoods).
Pass-a-Grille (West coast islands).
Kissimmee (Eastern flatwoods).
Tavares (Lake region).
Melbourne and Melbourne Beach (East coast).
Leesburg (Lake region),
Florence Villa (Lake .region).
Mt. Dora (Lake region).
St. Cloud (Eastern flatwoods).
Lake Helen (Lake region).
Titusville (East coast).
Enterprise (Lake region).
*There are signs advertising Orlando attached to many roadside trees on
Cape Cod, which is a great summer resort region.



In the last year or two there have been large numbers of so-
called "tin can tourists," who come into Florida in automobiles
and camp in tent colonies on the outskirts of the cities, often in
special places provided for them and furnished with free water
and electric lights by the accommodating municipalities. This has
been going on in California in summer for several years, but it is
so new in Florida that no estimate of the number of such tour-
ists can be made.*
If the average winter visitor spends $5 a day for lodging, meals.
clothes, souvenirs, railroad fare, gasoline, etc., which seems a
conservative estimate at present prices, and there are 24,000 in the
area throughout the three or four months of the winter season,
that would make a gross income for central Florida from this
source of about $12,ooo,ooo a year. This money of course ulti-
mately goes out in exchange for groceries, manufactured prod-
ucts, etc., and this explains why Florida has what some thought-
less people regard as a large "unfavorable" balance of trade. But
even if all the food supply was raised within the area, the money
would still have to flow out in exchange for something or other,
for otherwise it would accumulate until it had very little value.
The account is partly balanced, however, by the northward nii-
gation of Florida people in summer.
Just how long the average "tourist" remains in one place
can hardly be guessed, but the "turnover" must be quite large. At
St. Petersburg, with an estimated hotel capacity in 1914 of only
2,706, it was claimed about that time that 40,000 different tourists
came there in one winter. The local Board of Trade keeps a vis-
itor's register, and in the season of 1914-15 there were 10,830
names recorded there. The principal states from which they came,
with percentages, were as follows:
Ohio 14.8, New York 12.4, Indiana 10.4, Pennsylvania 10.3,
Illinois 9.5, Michigan 8.8, Massachusetts 4.7, New Jersey 3.6,
Kentucky 2.5, Connecticut 2.5, Maine 2.0, Iowa 2.0, W\isconsin
I.7, West Virginia 1.6, Minnesota 1.3, Tennessee 1.3, New Hamp-
shire I.2, Missouri I.o. There were also I.I~o from foreign
countries (probably mostly Canada). Virginia, Alabama and

*The first such camp east of the Mississippi River is said to have been
established at New Port Richey in Pasco County in the winter of 1916-17.


Mississippi were the only states east of the Mississippi River not
represented. On the east coast the proportions are doubtless some-
what different, there being very likely more.New Yorkers and New
Englanders there.
Central Florida is not lacking in summer resorts also, such as
Daytona, Pass-a-Grille, Cedar Keys, Silver Springs, Clay Springs,
and Orange Springs, but' no statistics of their patronage are avail-
able at this writing.
A crude measure of the educational equipment of the people is
afforded by the statistics of illiteracy, which have been given by
every United States census since 1840, but are not considered very
trustworthy until recent decades. If the whole population, or any
race or national or age group, could be graded according to edu-
cation, or the number of years of schooling, each individual has
had, a curve could be constructed from the results, and this curve
would always be steepest in its higher parts (like those for school
population and size of farms given farther on), for in every city,
county, state or country there are always more persons below than
above the average in education (as in age, wealth, etc.), just as
there are more towns than cities, more gnats than camels, more
herbs than trees in the forests, more creeks than rivers, and more
hills than mountains. The illiteracy count gives only one point on
such a curve, and that usually near the bottom, among white people
in civilized communities at least, but it is much better than no in-
formation at all on the subject.
The illiteracy percentage has been determined in different coun-
tries for adults, voters, army recruits, bridal couples, etc., but in
this country the usual method is to ask of each person who has
reached the age of ten years whether or not he can read and write.
Formerly this was asked only of adults, but the 1910 census gives
the data both for adult males and for all persons over io, subdi-
viding each group according to race and nativity.
Some comparisons between the urban and rural population
with respect to illiteracy have already been given in Table 22.
Table 24 gives for each region, the whole area and the whole State
the illiteracy percentages for adult males in 1910 and for all per-
sons over io at three different census periods, subdividing them by



race and nativity. The figures for 19oo are not quite-as accu-
rate as those for 1910, for the former census did not give the total
number of persons over Io in each county, and that has been es-
timated, on the assumption that the proportions of different'age
groups were the same as in 1910. The counties used in comput-
ing the regional averages are the same as already stated in the re-
gional descriptions. Three regions are represented by two or
three counties each, five by only one, and two not at all.
As in all other tables from here on in which different regions
are contrasted, the highest number in each line is printed in heavy
type and the lowest in italics, to show which regions lead or lag
behind in any one particular.

Percentages of illiteracy in the adult male population of central Florida in
1910. and in the total population over 10 in 1900, 1910 and 1915, by regions, race
and nativity.

SZ c

ADULT MALES, 1910 | | I 1 1 I
All classes -------------- 12.41 19.51 16.21 18.91 11.41 7.81 9.41 8.5 11.31 13.9
All whites -------------- 3.5 6.31 2.01 4.11 2.21 5.5 3.71 .7 4.01 5.3
Native whites ----------- 3.61 5.71 1.7 3.7 2.21 .2 3.8 1.4] 2.2] 4.9
Foreign whites ---- - o I| 8.91 6.21 9.81 1.81 11.31 1.9] 3.711 10.31 8.2
Negroes --------- 27.41 30.21 26.01 34.9 25.61 76.ol 32.1] 21.011 24.01 25.9
O ce F o E81

19000 I
All classes -------------- 15.8 21.0 21.41 21.01
All whites ---------------1 4.01 io.i 2.61 6.11
Native whites, with native I I
parents ------------- 4.21 9.71 2.61 6.3
Native whites, foreign or| I I I
mixed parents ---------- 1.2 6.9 0.6 3.0]
Foreign whites ----------- I 26.o 4.31 6.71
Negroes ----------------- 34.9 35.21 32.31 46.01
1910 I I I I
All classes --------------1 11.01 18.x1 14.41 15.21
All whites _---------------1 2.91 6.21 1.71 3.3
Native whites ---------- 3.0 5.9 1.6] 3.11
Foreign whites ----------- o 14.81 4.81 8.91
Negroes --------------- 26.91 30.0o 22.97 31.2]
1915 1 1 1 I I
All classes-------------- 14.6] 14.0] 17.1l 13.21
White _------------ I 3.31 4.81 2.41 2.11
Colored ------- ------ 36.61 24.21 27.8| 33.41














6.611 15.0
1.711 5.4

7.811 4.3

1.511 2.1
0.911 14.7
77-911 31.1
6.31] 10.3
.411 4.1
17.11 2.2
4.51 13.5
77.-~1 21.8
4.211 9.8
0.611 2.5
13.31] 25.2

I 21.9
I 8.9




I 30.6


Between 1900 and 1910 the percentages of illiteracy declined
in every region, as they did nearly everywhere else in the United
States, but there were apparently some increases between 1910
and 1915, perhaps due to different methods of federal and State
censuses, or even to typographical errors (for the 1915 figures for
negro illiteracy in Lake County are so incredibly high that they
have been rejected).
The distribution of illiteracy is not altogether fortuitous, but
is governed by several different factors. First. it is usually more
prevalent in sparsely settled regions, where school-houses are nec-
essarily few and far apart, than in populous communities and es-
pecially in cities. Second, it depends on the racial composition of
the. population, for in a given community there is always less edu-
cation among the negroes than among the whites, and where they
are the most numerous there is likely to be the greatest contrast be-
tween them and the whites in education, wealth, etc. (This is
more evident -in Georgia and Alabama than in Florida, though.)
Foreigners are usually inferior to native whites in this respect in
cities and in mining districts (such as the phosphate regions), but
often a little superior in the purely agricultural districts of the
South. (This is doubtless because the farmer type of foreigner
comes mostly from northern Europe and the laborer type from
Latin countries.)
Another important factor is the distance of birthplace from
residence. An illiterate cannot read the advertisements of op-
portunities in distant states, or the time-tables used on railroad
journeys, so that he is not likely to travel far unless he goes with
a crowd (as many immigrants from foreign countries do). Prob-
ably nearly half the adults in central Florida were born in other
states (though the census gives us no adequate information on this
point), and must have learned to read before coming here. Flor-
ida has a considerably lower illiteracy percentage among native
whites than other southeastern states, and central Florida is su-
perior to the rest of the State in that respect, doubtless largely for



this reason.* The lowest white illiteracy percentage in the table
is that for the east coast, which has probably the most cosmopol-
itan population (and also the most intensive farming, as will be
shown in a later chapter), but that in the Middle Florida hammock
belt is next lowest, for a different reason, namely, the large per-
centage of negroes available for kinds of work that require no ed-
Compulsory school attendance laws, which are now in force to
some degree in every state, tend to reduce illiteracy among the na-
tive population, but if unskilled laborers are still needed they are
simply imported or invited from countries with low standards of
living to take the place of the forcibly "uplifted" natives, as has
happened on a large scale with disquietingresults in many north-
ern and western states.f

The biennial reports of the State Superintendent of Public In-
struction contain a vast amount of information about the public
schools of Florida and its counties, that has never been utilized
as fully as it light be. The statistical data are probably even
more accurate than the average census returns, for schools and
pupils are not easily overlooked, and educators have long been ac-
customed to keeping exact records of enrollment, attendance, ex-
penditures, etc. Furthermore, the present State Superintendent
is an experienced statistician and a stickler for accuracy, and he
has probably kept the typographical errors (which mar so many
other State publications) in his reports down to a minimum.
The school statistics used here are those for year 1915-16.
Soon after that the world war made conditions somewhat abnor-

*Ellsworth Huntington, in his book "Civilization and Climate" (1915),
noticed that Florida had a very low native white illiteracy percentage for such a
supposedly "enervating" climate, and tried to explain it on the ground that "so
many northern people have moved there to raise oranges." That is only a par-
tial explanation, though, for northerners constitute only about one-eighth of the
population of the whole State, and an equal number of people coming from
Georgia to run sawmills or turpentine stills would have about the same effect.
tThis was discussed in the comparison of rural and urban population, a few
pages back. See also Geog. Review 8:274-275. "Oct.-Nov., 1919." (January,


mal, and the passage of a compulsory attendance law in 1919 dis-
turbed the -equilibrium again, at least as regards enrollment. It
would be very interesting to present comparative statistics for
periods several years apart, but that would necessitate making al-
lowance for the great changes in the value of money in recent
years, and would take more time and space than can be spared at
present. Another advantage of using the figures for 1915-16 in-
stead of 1917-18 is that they can be compared closely with the
population figures of the State census of 1915. The figures for
1919-20 would be equally interesting, but neither they nor the
government figures for race, sex, age, etc., in 1920 have been pub-
lished yet.
The State reports unfortunately do not give separate statistics
for city and country schools. And although they tell how many
teachers in each county have homes in other counties or states,
there is no indication of how many were born in Florida or any
other state, which would be equally interesting. Information
about the marital condition of the teachers is likewise lacking
But very likely there are few if any other states that give a greater
variety of information about schools than Florida does.
Of the many kinds, of school statistics available only a few can
be safely used for computing regional statistics, for when only one
or two counties are considered some of the numbers (e.g., of male
teachers) are so small that a slight change in them would make a
considerable difference in some of the ratios or averages. But
some statistics of the value and size of school buildings, school ex-
penditures, enrollment and attendance, for the tivo races sepa-
rately, are given in Table 25 for each region treated statistically*
and for the whole area and State; and Table 26 gives some addi-
tional details about schools, teachers and pupils for central Flor-
ida, the whole State, and the whole United States at the same
In preparing these tables a few errors in figures have been de-
tected, but checked up pretty satisfactorily by comparison with
other data in the same biennial report or corresponding figures

*There are so few negro schools in Osceola and Brevard Counties that
averages based on them might be misleading; which explains the four blank
spaces in Table 25.



for other years. In Table 26, as a slight aid to the reader, abso-
lute figures are printed in heavy type, percentages in italics, and
other ratios and averages in ordinary type, while in Table 25 the
heavy and light figures have the same significance as in other ta-
bles in which different regions are contrasted.

Selected Public School Statistics of Central Florida and the Whole State, by
Races, 1915-16.
Cent'1 Florida Whole State Whole
White Negro White \egro U. S.
Number of schools taught ------------- 581I 207z 2099i 8171 281,524
Per cent by race -------------------- 73.7 263 72.0 28.0 -------
Average value of school property ($) -- 50731 10601 33501 7541 5910
Per cent of buildings brick or concrete-- 14-5 1 i.6 1 9. I 0.8
Annual expenditure per school taught-- 2330 5501 16811 468 2280
Do. per capital of total population------ 6.971 1.221 6.131 0.78 6.28
Do. per pupil in average attendance----. 40.401 9.44 35.75 6.33 41.72
Number of positions filled -------- 14921 378 4480 1385-------
Average number per school --------- 2.571 1.831 2.141 1.701 2.21
Number of teachers employed --------- 15051 3391 45981 11361 622,371
Per cent male ---------------------I 8.5 18.6 24.1 21.9 19.8
Average age of male teachers (years)-__l 301 351 28 37 -----
Average age of female teachers (years)-- 291 281 26 29
Av. experience of male teachers (mos.)-- 53 71 45 95-----
Av. experience of female teachers (mos.)- 41 54j 37 55-------
Av. monthly salary of male teachers---.. 92.401 38.20 77.32 37.32 85.36
Av. monthly salary of female teachers-- 60.101 34.00 56.651 31.23 66.88
Per cent of teachers subscribing to edu- I I I I
national journals --------------- 603 52.0 47.8 40.8 ----
Total enrollment ---------------------- '43,0381 16,7861135,8881 62,482120,351,687
Number per school taught-------------- 74.3 I 81.0 64.7 76.4 72.4
Average daily attendance ---------- 33,4711 12,o63 98,8471 45,572 15,358,927
Number per teacher ---- ----- 22.4 31.9 1 22.1 I 33.0 24.7


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The differences between different regions agree pretty well
with those brought out elsewhere in this report about the compo-
sition and density of population, illiteracy, agriculture, etc. The
western division of the flatwoods leads in several things on ac-
count of containing our largest city, for city schools of course are
usually larger and more regularly attended than country schools.
The differences between central Florida and the whole State
are not very pronounced (if comparison had been made with the
rest of the State instead of the whole State the contrasts would
have' been magnified), but they are nearly all in the direction of
larger and better schools, older, more experienced and better paid
teachers, better attendance records, etc. Comparisons with other
states would involve considerable labor, but central Florida is evi-
dently well up to the United States average in most respects.*
The government school statistics available do not separate the
races, but in the whole country about 90% of the population (and
probably a still larger proportion of the school population) is
white, so that figures for white schools would not differ much
from those for all schools. \Vhen the sparse population of our
area is considered its excellent showing in school matters is rather
In Figure 43 the school population of central Florida and the
whole State, not counting the chart or kindergarten grade, is di-
vided by races and grades. The curves are cumulative, i.e., the
distance from any point on any curve to the right hand margin
indicates the percentage of pupils in the group designated that
have entered or passed through the grade selected. Consequently
the percentage enrolled in a given grade corresponds to the hori-
zontal distance between the points where the curve cuts the upper
and lower boundaries of the grade. The curves are all steepest in
the upper grades, on account of the inevitable dropping out of pu-
pils all along, though in some counties there are a few more in the

*In comparing Florida with the rest of the United States it should be borne
in mind that most other parts of the country are colder and therefore require
more substantial schoolhouses and greater expense for heating them.


fourth grade than in the third, or in the third than in the second,
probably mostly on account of families moving in with children
who have already been to school a few years-

SCHOOL POPULATION CURVES ........- ...........:.
1915-1916 .S..... .I. C111-
------- .--
WHOLE.... ST ATE----- -------------- ---- ..- -- -------- ....--
----- -- :. --.. -- ---- .. ...... .

Z 1
Fig. 43. Graph showing percentage distribution by grades of white and
negro pupils enrolled in public schools of central Florida and the whole State,
above the chart or kindergarten grade, 1915-16.

In this diagram the same superiority of whites over negroes
and of central Florida over the rest of the State already brought
out in several other ways is apparent. A similar curve for the
whole United States would be so close to that for whites in the
whole State of Florida that it could hardly be separated on the
small scale used here.
Private Schools. There are quite a number of private schools,
but only those of collegiate grade-can be mentioned here. Very
little statistical information is given about some of them in places
where one would ordinarily look for it (such as recent issues of
the New York World Almanac), but in order of size or reputa-
tion, or both, they seem to be as follows: John B. Stetson Uni-
versity (Baptist), at DeLand, with about 37 instructors and 500
students: Southern College (Methodist), at Sutherland in Pinel-
las County, with about 24 instructors and 210 students; Rollins
College (with Congregational and southern Presbyterian affilia-

tif the entire population could be graded in this way by the census the
results would be extremely interesting, but to the best of the writer's knowl-
edge that has never been done except in Iowa.



tions), at Winter Park, with about 20 instructors and 200 stu-
dents; and St. Leo College (Catholic) at St. Leo in Pasco County.
All of these are located in regions of much scenic beauty, and they
draw a good deal of their patronage from colder climates.

If "Who's Who in America" is a reliable criterion, central
Florida leads the rest of the State in number of noted persons, as
it does in schools and many other things. The 1920 edition of
that work lists 41 persons who have homes in central Florida,
which is about one to each 7,000 of the population, as com-
pared with about one to 10,000 in the whole State, and one to
4,500 for the whole United States. If whites alone were consid-
ered the ratio would be about one to 5,ooo in central Florida, one
to 7,000 in the whole State, and one to 4,000 in the whole coun-
try. Just how many natives of our area are listed it would be
impossible to tell without examining over 20,000 biographical
sketches, as they are not indexed by birthplaces.



Statistics of churches have been gathered by every United States
census from 1850 to 1890, and later by special inquiry between the
regular census periods, in 1906 and 1916. The information is ob-
tained not by asking each person what church he belongs to, if any
(which is done in some European countries, but would be repug-
nant to American ideas), but by correspondence with church of-
ficials. It is therefore hardly as accurate as most census data, but
it will suffice to show the prospective settler what to expect here
in that particular.
A source of considerable uncertainty is that different churches
have different criteria of membership, some counting all baptized
persons, including infants, and some only those who have joined
the church voluntarily. (If the statistics were restricted to adults
we would have a fairer basis of comparison.) Another minor dif-
ficulty is that one comparatively new denomination (which has
quite a large following among persons of leisure, mostly in north-
ern cities) refused to give any information about its membership
for the enumeration of 1916, according to the census volume. For
these reasons it is hardly worth while to estimate the ratio of
church members to total population, but in most parts of the
United States it amounts to less than half.
The data for 1916 (published early in 1920) only are used
here. It would have been more or less interesting to give some
1906 figures for comparison, but the differences probably would
not be pronounced enough to warrant the extra labor, and in 1906
the white and colored Baptists were not separated in the county
tables. The leading denominations in each region have already
been indicated in the regional descriptions, but without giving per-
centages, on account of the uncertainties mentioned above and be-
low. For this reason-the regions are not contrasted in the follow-
ing table, which gives statistics for the whole State, central Flor-
ida with and without Hillsborough County, and the city of Tampa
by itself, the last to illustrate conditions in a city with a large for-
eign-born. population.



White and negro churches are tabulated separately, but there
is some uncertainty about apportioning the Northern Methodists,
both branches of Presbyterians, and some smaller denominations
between the two races, for the census did not divide these accord-
ing to race for areas smaller than states: but it has been assumed
that the ratio between white and colored members is the same in
central Florida as in the whole State. Denominations making up
less than i % of the total church membership are here grouped to-
gether under the head of "all others." The figures in the table are
percentages, and should add up to about ioo iii each half of each
Relative Strength of Leading Religious Denominations in Central Florida, 1916.

Adventist (2 branches) -------------------------
Southern Baptist -----------------------------I
Primitive Baptist ---------------------
Church of Christ ---- ---- --------
Disciples of Christ -
Congregationalist -------------------------------
;reeck Orthodox -------------------------------
Methodist (Northern) -------------------_--
Methodist (Southern) --------------------------
I'resbyterian (Northern) --------------------__
Presbyterian (Southern) ____-_____-_----__-----
Protestant Episcopal ----------------------------
Roman Catholic ---------- ------
All others
National Baptist---- -----------------------
Primitive Baptist ----------------------------
Northern Methodist ------------------
African Methodist--------------------
A. M. E. Zion ---------------------------------
Colored Methodist ___---------------------------
Presbyterian (Northern) ------------------------
Protestant Episcopal ---------------------------
All r slQC ---I


Central Florida


.- - u
E 5



50.5 46.9 48.01
2.51 6.9 3.21
5.8 6.9 8.8
28.6 26.3 25.8
8.4 11.3 12.1
2.0 1.4 1.4
0.21 0.21 ?
0.9[ ? ?
? ? ?



i-.Al <_'-r IJI^



The figures for Roman Catholics seem surprisingly small for
Tampa. with its large Latin population, but if West Tampa was
included the results would doubtless be different.* The only Greek
church reported in central Florida in 1916 is in Tarpon Springs,
and claimed 1,500 members; but it could hardly seat a third of
that number at one time. Outside of Tampa and its suburbs and
other cities the Catholics seem to be most numerous along the
western edge of the Hernando hammock belt in Pasco County,
as indicated in the description of that region. The Baptists and
southern Methodists have their greatest strength in the rural dis-
tricts, as elsewhere in the South.


Without going into historical details, or making allowance for
inevitable periodical fluctuations, we may take the results of the
presidential election of 1916 as a fair indication of the average
political complexion of the white 'population of central Florida
(for conlparatively few negroes vote in Florida now) in recent
years. In that election 67.3% of the votes cast in the area under
consideration were Democratic, 19.77o Republican, 6.6% Social-
ist, and 6.2% Prohibitionist. The proportions for most of the re-
gions vary so little from this that it is hardly worth while to tab-
ulate them,f and those for the whole State are almost exactly
the same.
In 1920, when conditions were somewhat abnormal, about
60%o of the vote in central Florida was Democratic and 30% Re-
publican, and conditions in the whole State were very similar.

*The city of Tampa contains over half the population of Hillsborough
County, butl only 28.3 per cent of the Catholics, if the census figures are cor-
rect. Most of the remainder may be in West Tampa.
tThe principal exception is Osceola County, where the Democrats had a safe
majority in 1912, only a plurality in 1916,, and a minority in 1920. (Only two
other counties in the State had Republican majorities at the last election, and
they were both farther south.)




Although farming has long been one of the most important in-
dustries in central Florida, as in most other parts of the United
States, it has had its greatest development only in the last few dec-
ades. In i850, when the number and acreage of farms was first re-
turned by the census, there were only about 6oo farms in our whole
area, and over half of them were in Marion County, presumably in
the hammock belt, which has the richest soil. Only a little over one
per cent of the whole area was in farms, and one-fifth of that im-
proved, making 2.66 improved acres per inhabitant, which would
hardly be enough to feed the population if they depended entirely
on field and garden crops for their sustenance. As there were
no railroads in peninsular Florida then it is not likely that any ap-
preciable quantity of food was imported, but fish and oysters con-
tributed something to the larder of people living near the coast, and
in the interior grazing cattle and hogs in the pine woods seems to
have yielded more revenue than tilling the soil. Large plantations
worked with slave labor, such as were common in other southern
states, were almost unknown here, except for a few in the ham-
mock belt north of Ocala.
In the next ten years the number and average size of farms
nearly doubled. Marion County still had the lion's share of the
farm land and buildings, but considerably less than half the total
number of farms and live-stock, showing that the farmers in other
counties depended more on meat than on vegetables. The develop-
ment of agriculture in central Florida as a whole from 1850 to
1880 is shown in Table 28, but the regions cannot very well be
separated on account of the large size of the counties in those days,
as already explained.
The number of farms more than doubled between 186o and
1870, but their average size decreased, doubtless because the Civil
War made many former slaves farm proprietors, and their hold-
ings were naturally smaller than those of the whites. The amount
of improved land fell off between 1870 and I88 but outside of
Marion County there was an increase, which would seem to in-
dicate that the rich hammock lands were becoming impoverished


Agricultural Statistics of Central Florida, 1850-1880.
1 1850 1860 1870_I 1880
Per cent of land in farms ---------------------- 1.2 3. 5.7 7.6
Pcr cent of land improved ----------------------- 0.2 1.0 2.0 1.6
Improved acres per inhabitant ------------------- 2.7 4.6 6.7 3.1
Inhabitants per farm------------------------- 12.6 17.3 10.0 8.7
Total acres per farm ------------------------- 172.3 291.6 187.6 136.0
Improved acres per farm -------------- 33.5 79.5 66.6 27.6
Value of land and buildings per farm ($)------ 1195 2550 5781 1354
Value of implements and machinery per farm --- 172 119 42 29
Value of livestock, poultry, etc., per farm ----- 1 696 11491 583 278
Number of slaves per farm----------------- 4.3 7.3 ------ ---
Number of horses per farm------------------- 1.8 2.2 1.1 1.2
Number of mules per farm ------------------- 0.5 1.5 0.7 0.2
Number of work oxen ---------------------- 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.7
Number of milch cows per farm ----------------- 22.4 27.4 6.1 1.7
Number of other cattle per farm -------- 74.1 102.0 50.0 26.4
Number of sheep per farm ---- ---------------- 0.8 3.2 0.4 1.4
Number of hogs per farm --- ------------- 37.4 43.0 13.5 13.2
Number of chickens per farm ------------------- ---- ------ 16.0
Number of other poultry per farm ---- ---- --- ------ ------ 5.7
Expenditure for fertilizers, per farm --------- ------ ---- ------- I ---- $2.91
Value of animals slaughtered, per farm --------- 295.60 154.001 42.401
Value of orchard products, per farm -------- 0.26 4.091 6.171
I I I $285
Value of market garden produce, per farr ------- 0.471 0.61 0.041
Value of staple crops, per farm ------------ ------ ------ ------

from long cultivation, and the farmers were seeking fresher fields
elsewhere. At the same time the number of farms nearly doubled,
perhaps indicating a large immigration of small farmers from
northern Florida or other states and countries. In 1880 commer-
cial fertilizers were just beginning to be used, the expenditure for
them the previous season having been at the rate of 11 cents for
each acre of improved land in the whole area (only about 2 cents
in Marion County, and none at all in Hernando).

CONDITIONS IN 1889-90 AND 1894-5.

The establishment of Citrus, Lake, Osceola and Pasco Coun-
ties in 1887 made it possible to use the 1890 statistics for separate
regions, as shown in Table 29. But the'percentage of farm land
and improved land cannot be estimated accurately for those re-
gions that cover less than half of any one county, which accounts
for some blanks in the first two lines of figures.



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The expenditure for fertilizers per acre was nearly twenty
times as njuch as in 1879-8o, and the results are shown in the in-
creased population, improved land, and vaiue of products. By
this time the Middle Florida hammock belt had lost its leadership
in every particular that the table shows (but doubtless still led in
improved land percentage) and the most progressive farming was
in the lake region and east coast strip.
The report of the State census of 1895, although a little pam-
phlet of only 27 pages, and less than a third of that devoted to
agriculture, gives some valuable information about conditions just
after the freeze of February, 1895. (See chapter on climate.)
This seems to be the first census to give the expenditures for farm
labor (to which the value of board furnished laborers is added).
As the expenditures and receipts are those for the year 1894, while
the number and size of farms are as of the summer of 1895, when
considerable acreage had been abandoned on account of the freeze,
the expenditures and receipts per acre are somewhat exaggerated,
as was clearly recognized at the time. But probably where a whole
farm had been abandoned and there was no one to answer for it,
its operations in 1894 were not counted at all, so that it did not
affect the ratios per farm or per acre. The amount of improved
land showed an .increase over that of 1890, in spite of the ca-
There are some omissions and inconsistencies in the returns
(perhaps mostly the fault of the printers), so that it is hardly
worth while to give statistics for separate regions. The next table
therefore gives only the results for central Florida, the rest of the
State, and the whole State. As far as statistics per farm are con-
cerned the rest of the State is practically the northern third; but
the vast uninhabited areas of South Florida of course affect the
percentage of farm land and improved land.
If labor and fertilizers were the only expenses, and every farm
occupied by only one family, it would appear that the difference
between expenses and receipts, or the value of the labor of the av-
erage farm family in a year, was about $546 in central Florida and
$553 in the rest of the State; but if we had all the facts central
Florida should rank higher in this respect than the rest of the



State. on account of having a larger proportion of white farmers,
if for no other reason. But as the northern Florida farms were
considerably larger, many of them must have required the services
of more than one family. In value of products per acre, however,
central Florida was far ahead of northern, Florida then, as now.

Agricultural Statistics of Central Florida and the Rest of the State, 1894-5.
Central Rest of WXhole
Florida State I State
Per cent of land in farms --------------------- 10.241 10.601 10.50
Per cent of land improved ------------------------- 3.041 3.431 3.33
Improved acres per inhabitant --------------------- 2.241 2.62 2.51
Inhabitants per farm _-- -------------_-- 9.73 14.05 12.21
Average number of acres per farm------------- 73.3 118.7 99.3
Average improved acres per farm -------21.8 I 36.8 31.4
Value of land, fences and buildings per farm _____---- 18201 7881 115,
Value of implements and machinery per farm-------- 55.55) 22.101 34.10
Expenditures in 1894, per farm, for
Labor, including board furnished --------------- 52.20| 28.00 36.80
Fertilizers ---------------------------------- 37.201 9.101 19.20
Value of products in 1894, per farm ---------------- 635 590 607
Expenditure in 1894, per acre improved in 1895, for) I I
Labor, etc. ----------_---------------I 2.40| 0.761 1.17
Fertilizers --------- ------------------- 1.71) 0.25! 0.61
Value of products in 1894, per acre improved in 1895-_ 29.20) 16.00! 19.30
In comparing values for 1895 with those for other periods it
is well to bear in mind that a year or two after that average com-
modity prices reached the lowest ebb ever known in the whole his-
tory of the United States, or in other words, the purchasing power
of the dollar was greatest.

CONDITIONS IN 1899-1900 AND 1904-5.
For 1899-1900 we have more complete agricultural data than
ever before. For the first time the farmers are divided according
to race, and the value of buildings separated from that of land and
fences; but there are no separate statistics for white and colored
farmers for areas smaller than states, except in regard to land
tenure. Goats and bees are also returned for the first time.*
*Cattle are subdivided rather minutely as to age and sex, but for our
purposes that has been a drawback rather than an advantage, for it necessitates
adding together several figures in the same line to get the number of cows,
steers, etc., and even then the results may not be strictly comparable with those
of other censuses.


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The Middle Florida hammock belt has negroes in the majority
among the farmers, as in total population. The eastern division
of the flatwoods leads in live-stock, as before, and the east coast
strip in value of farm land and intensity of farming, despite its
rather poor soils.
The State census of 1905, under the direction of H. S. Elliot,*
gave much the same sort of information about agriculture as did
the federal census five years before, and under the head of live-
stock made a distinction between "native" and "thoroughbred"
cattle, though the oxen and dairy cows counted may be of both
kinds. But the total value of livestock in each county is obtainable
only by adding up the figures for several different kinds, which
has not been done, as it would involve some duplication for the
reason just mentioned, and besides, the live-stock values are more
or less interspersed with other things in the county tables, making
it rather irksome to pick them out. It would be a still greater task
to get the quantity and value of various crops and animals for
the whole State, for that would necessitate adding the figures for
each kind for the whole 46 counties, which was not done in the
census volume. In getting the total value of farm products there
is still another difficulty, namely, the county totals as published
seem to include not only crops and animal products, but also the
value of all animals on hand, which makes a considerable exagger-
The number of white an.d colored farmers was given, but no
separate statistics for the two races. As in the other State cen-

*Mr. Elliot, who died June 24, 1920, had charge of practically all the sta-
tistical work of the State agricultural department during the last thirty years
of his life, and was the author of a 591-page handbook of Florida published in
19o4 (see our Third Annual Report, p. 363), and of numerous short articles.
He was well informed, careful and conscientious, but too modest to attach his
name to his handbook and census reports, and too good-natured to insist on
the printers and others who worked under his direction doing their work
properly. And some of the typographical and other errors in the census re-
ports are doubtless due to his being inadequately supplied with clerical assist-
ance. There is a brief sketch of his life in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Ag-
ricultural Department for July I, 1920, but it was gotten up on too short notice
to do him justice.


suses, typographical errors make the figures for single counties
or regions unreliable, but of course they do not affect the totals for
the whole area so much. In the next table, as in that for 1895.
only three columns of figures are given, one for central Florida,
one for the rest of the State, and one for the whole State. St.
Lucie County was cut off from Brevard shortly before this cen-
sus, making the area to be included in central Florida smaller, but
not materially affecting the ratios.

Agricultural Statistics for Central Florida and the Rest of State, 1904-5.
Central Rest of Whole
Florida StateI State
Per cent of land in farms ----------------------- 13.1 1 13.7 13.57
Per cent of land improved ----------_--_____--- -- 4.25 4.75 4.62
Per cent of farmers white --------------- ----_---- 83.0 64.2 68.7
Per cent of farmers owners and managers ----------- 91.0 69.1 I 74.2
Improved acres per inhabitant ------------------ 2.38 2.731 2.64
Inhabitants per farm ----- ------- --- 17.6 12.3 13.4
Average number of acres per farm -------------- 129.5 97.0 104.6
Average improved acres per farm ------------------- 41.8 33.6 37.3
Value of farm land per acre ($) -------------- 9.48 7.41 7.96
Value of land per farm -----------1226 721 872
Value of buildings per farm ------ -------390 193 247
Value of implements and machinery ------- 49.001 36.80 41.50
Expenditure for labor 1904-5 per farm ---------- 58.30 40.50 46.65
Expenditures for fertilizer per farm ---------------- 62.20 35.40 43.30
Expenditures for labor per acre improved------------- 1.39 1.20 1.25
Expenditures for fertilizer per acre improved-------- 1.49 1.05 1.16
Number of horses per farm --------------- 1.241 .------
Number of mules -------- ---------.23-----
Number of work oxen ------------.02 ------
Number of dairy cows ------------ ------ 0.64 ------
Number of "native" cattle ------------------------- 24.20 -----
Number of "thoroughbred" cattle ------------------ 0.281---- ---
Number of sheep ------- ------- ------- I 3.00----- -----
Number of goats ------------ ------------ 1.02 ---- ------
Number of hogs ------------------------- --13.55-- --- ---
Number of chickens ------------------ 40.30---- -----
Number of other poultry ------------------- 3.54
Number of colonies of bees ------------- 0.221

As before, central Florida leads the rest of
centage of white farmers, size and average value
tensity of farming.

the State in per-
of farms, and in-



The federal census of g19o, supplemented by a special report
on-negro population published late in 1918, affords enough mate-
rial for several tables, one for all farmers as before and two for
whites and negroes separately, besides some for crop values, crop
yields, and animal products. Statistics of a few kindsfor owners,
managers and tenants separately could also have been compiled
from the same returns if it had seemed worth while.
The blanks near the top of the first table are due to lack of
correspondence between natural boundaries and county bounda-
ries, as before. In the negro population volume the returns
from counties with less than Ioo negro farmers are less complete
that the others, so that some blanks had to be left in one of the
tables for that reason.
As these are the most complete agricultural statistics available
at this writing, they will be used to illustrate some general princi-
ples which have been passed over rather hurriedly in discussing the
earlier censuses.
The percentages of farm land and improved land are doubt-
less highest in the most fertile region, the Middle Florida ham-
mock belt, though there are no statistics to show it, because it cov-
ers only a fraction of one county. The nuniber of improved acres
per inhabitant is highest and the number of inhabitants per farm
lowest in the Gulf hammock region (if Sumter County is a fair
representative of it), indicating that agriculture is most important
(relative to other industries) there, though the hammock belt
would doubtless lead in this respect too if it did not contain the
city of Ocala. The other extreme is in Hillsborough County,
which contains the largest city.
The largest farms are in the eastern flatwoods, where there is
a superabundance of "elbow room," but five-sixths of their area
there is unimproved, mostly cattle range. The lime-sink region,
where land is cheapest (and easy to cultivate), has the most im-
proved acres per farm.* The east coast strip .represents the other

*Conditions there resemble those in the Mississippi Valley in that low ex-
penditures and returns per acre are compensated for by the cultivation of a
large number of acres per farm; this being extensive as opposed to intcnsive


extreme as far as central Florida is concerned, for reasons appar-
ent after reading the description of that region.
The east coast has the most valuable land per acre, but is sur-
passed a little in value per farm by the eastern flatwoods, where
the farms are over five times as large, on the average. The east
coast strip also has the niost valuable farm buildings, and there-
fore presumably the highest standards of living, and the lime-sink
region is the other extreme, as far as the statistics show. But in
value of implements -and machinery the east coast is lowest, on ac-
count of the small farms worked mainly by hand labor; and the
lake region ranks highest.
The eastern division of the flatwoods, being still mainly in
the pastoral stage as far as agriculture is concerned, is far in the
lead in the value of live-stock per farm, as well as in number of
cattle, horses, and sheep. The Gulf hammock region seems to lead
in dairy cows (though this may be due to some error in the census,
as suggested elsewhere), the Middle Florida hammock belt (with
the largest proportion of negroes) in mules and goats, the lime-
sink region in hogs (as in corn and peanuts), and the east coast
in bees.
The east coast has the highest expenditures for labor and fer-
tilizers and the lime-sink region the lowest, but no region in cen-
tral Florida spends as much for feed as the State average, perhaps
because there is more winter pasturage here than in northern Flor-
ida. The east coast also leads in value of crops per farm and per
acre, while the Hernando hammock belt is lowest in crops per
farm and the lime-sink region the lowest per acre. The east-
ern flatwoods and the east coast strip, although adjacent, are
opposite extremes as far as the value of animal products is con-
cerned. The value of crops is roughly proportional to the value
of land and buildings, and inversely to the illiteracy percentage,
though if different states were compared some exceptions to this
might be noticed.*

*For some statistics of farm expenses and receipts in different regions in
Florida and in several other states, with a' regional map of the State and a
discussion of general principles, see the Quarterly Bulletin of the State Ag.
ricultural Department, vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 14-26. (Nov.) 1920.




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The tables for .white and negro farmers separately present
many interesting features which it would take too long to discuss,
but most of them can be picked out readily enough with the aid of
the bold-face and italic figures. Generally speaking, the negroes
are most efficient where they are least numerous, and those on the
east coast seem to have nearly as high standards as the whites in
some other regions (as already indicated by the illiteracy figures).
The census tells little about the foreign white farmers except
their numbers, but by doing a little adding, subtracting and di-
viding we can ascertain that of those in central Florida in
1910, 90.2% owned their farms, 7.3% were managers, and
2.5% tenants: while the corresponding figures for native white
farmers were 84.1, 6.5, and 9.4. This agrees very well with the
showing with respect to illiteracy of the rural white and foreign
population brought out in an earlier chapter. The nationality or
foreign farmers is not given by counties, but a little more than
half of the.foreign white farmers in Florida in 1910 were in cen-
tral Florida, and the leading nationalities among them in the whole
State were English, German, Canadian, Swedish, Irish, Scotch,
and Danish.
The State census of 1915 dealt with population and manufac-
turing only, but for some years past the State agricultural de-
partment has been taking a census of crops, etc., every two years,
going into much more detail than the federal censuses; and t.wo
of these State censuses have been used in the foregoing pages in
determining the relative importance of different crops in each re-
gion. The nuMnber of acres in cultivation in each county has been
given in the last few biennial crop censuses, and the report for
1917-18 gave the number and acreage of farms, but nothing about
the color and tenure of farmers, the value of farm property, or
the expenses of farming. On account of the limited funds avail-
able for these crop censuses the work has to be done rather hastily,
and the results are further vitiated by typographical errors, so that
it is not safe to use them for statistical work involving ratios and


At this writing only a few preliminary returns from the fed-
eral census of Jan. I, 1920, are available, not enough to warrant
the construction of a table for.the different regions; but the fol-
lowing results will indicate in a general way the developments of
a decade ifi central Florida as a whole. The percentage of farm
land has increased to 17.9 and of improved land to 5.4, or 1.61
acres per inhabitant. The percentage of white farmers has in-
creased a little, to 85.4, while owners and managers together con-
stitute 89.3% of all farmers, a trifle less than in 1910. The farms
are a little larger now, averaging io6.8 acres with 32.2 improved,
but this may be due entirely to the larger proportion of white
The apparent value of land and buildings per farm has more
than doubled, being $8,400, but as the dollar of 1920 was probably
worth less than half that of 1910, this does not necessarily indi-
cate any increase in rural standards of living. The number of cer-
tain animals per farm is as follows: Horses 0.94, mules 0.46,
cattle 13.9, sheep 0.78, hogs 12.6. This is a decrease in everything
except mules, and'probably indicates a further approach to the
conditions prevailing in the east coast strip, where very intensive
farming is done with a minimum of live-stock. Some of the
horses may have been replaced by mechanical tractors, but that
change is likely to be much more marked in the next ten years than
in the last ten, if the supply of oil holds out. Statistics of farm
expenditures and the value of crops and animal products have not
yet been received, but it is altogether likely that they will show
a notable increase in intensity of farming.
The amount of improved land at present is only about half
enough to feed the population, and however much this may be de-
plored by our patriotic citizens, this part of the country will doubt-
less continue indefinitely to be a large importer of food; for in or-
der to become self-supporting the farm population would have to
increase faster than the city population, something that has never
happened to any notable extent in the whole history of the United
States, the tendency being constantly in the other direction.



All the foregoing agricultural statistics are based on average
farms, and tell nothing about how many are below and above the
average or how far some may depart from the average. News
items about wonderful yields of one crop or another abound in
local papers, and the census averages seems so small in comparison
with some of -these reports as to tend to give the impression that
they may be inaccurate or unfair; but it must be borne in mind that
it is only exceptional happenings that have much news value, and
the doings of the niultitudes of farmers (or any other class of peo-
ple) who rank near or below the average are not likely to be men-
tioned often.
The U. S. census gives for every state and county, and in many
cases for white and colored farmers separately, the number of
farms in several different size groups, from which curves can be
constructed showing the range of variation in that particular in
any county or group of counties. For 1860 and 1870 the group-
ing was based on improved acreage, but since then on total acre-
age, which in most parts of Florida and other "piney woods" sec-
tions is much less significant than improved acreage, for the
greater part of the farm area in this State consists of wild land
which does not differ perceptibly from neighboring land that has
never been appropriated by farmers.
For this reason, and also because the census does not give sta-
tistics of this kind for the two races separately for counties that
have less than 1oo negro farmers, no size-of-farm curves are pre-
sented here,* but some have been drawn for office use, and some
of their interesting features may be mentioned briefly.
At all times and in all countries, as far as known, there are
more farms below than above the average size, just as most people
are below the average in age, education, wealth etc., as explained
at the beginning of the chapter on illiteracy. In 1910 both in
central Florida and the whole State just about 23.5% of the white
farmers had farms above the average in size, while among .the

*For a series of such curves for southern Alabama, perhaps the only ones
of the kind ever published, see Geol. Surv. Ala., Special Report No. II, p. 131,
August, 1920.


negroes there was greater uniformity, about one-third being above
the average and two-thirds below.* In central Florida about 8%
of the negro farmers had larger farms than the average white
man, while the corresponding figure for the whole State was about
7%, and for Marion County only about 2%7. The greatest in-
equality in our area is in Osceola County, where only 97 of all
farms (for both races, but there are so few negroes that the re-
sults would be much the same for whites alone) are above the
average in size. But the largest farms are cattle ranches, with
very little improved land, and if improved land alone was consid-
ered Osceola night not show up very different from some of the
other counties.
If we only had similar graded figures for acreage of improved
land, value of land and buildings per farm, yield of different crops,
etc., the results would be very significant. But in the absence of
such data we can safely assume that the resulting curves would all
be steepest in their higher portions, as we already know to be the
case with those for ages of the population, grades of school chil-
dren (fig. 43), cities arranged in order of size, mountains in or-
der of height, rivers in order of length, etc.


Relative Importance

In the regional descriptions the relative importance of the prin-
cipal crops for 1909, 1913-14 and 1917-18 has been -indicated,
without specifying how much'of the total crop value is contributed
by each, except sometimes in the case of one or two near the head
of the list. Table 36 shows for each of the more important crops
what percent it nade in 1909 of the total crop value in each region
for which we have statistics, as nearly as can be ascertained from
the 13th U. S. census. The value of each crop in each county is
not given by the 'federal census as it isiby the State census, but it
has been estimated by assuming that the value per bushel, pound,
*From these curves it can be determined that the median sizes of farms
in the seven central Florida counties that had over Ioo negro farmers in 191o
were about 43 acres for whites and 30 for negroes; that is to say, there were
just as many farms above as below these sizes. But the average sizes for the
t\wo races, as shown in Tables 34 and 35, were 102.5 and 43.5 respectively.



or other unit is the same in each county as it is in the whole State.
The federal census is also unsatisfactory in that it lumps together
the two varieties of cotton and many kinds of vegetables, which
are important in Florida, but that at least simplifies the table. The
reasons for not using the State census figures for crop value per-
centages have been given elsewhere.
The percentages in this table are given to the nearest tenth, so
that those below .05% are represented by zero, which does not nec-
essarily mean that the crop in question is not raised in that region
at all. Crops that do not constitute as much as I% in any of the
regions treated are omitted. The highest figure in each line is
printed in heavy type, as usual, but the lowest is in many cases in-
determinate. Some of the columns add up more than IO1 % and
some considerably less, doubtless because of great variations in the
value per acre of different vegetables, which are not separated by
the census.
Relative Importance of Different Crops in Central Florida, by Regions, 1909.


CROPS 4: 44 .
"Vegetables" ------------ 72.0 29.5 66.S 19.31 37.6 20.71 8.11 4-7 30.41 17.5
Cotton (both kinds) ------ 0.1 5.4 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 13.4
Cotton seed -------------------- ---- 0 0 0 0 0 -- 1.8
Corn ------------------- 13.21 18.4 13.4 16.9 3.4 5.5 7.81 o-2 7.4 15.8
Oats -------------------- 1.3 4.1 3.31 0.6 0. 0 I 0 I0 1.01 1.2
Peanuts ----------------- 2.1 19.2 6.2 2.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 2.7 5.9
Irish potatoes ------------ 0.2 0.31 0.41 0.7 1.8 3.'I 1.71 0.411 1.31 2.3
Sweet potatoes ---------- 1.3 3.81 2.51 5.8 1.9 2.61 6.61 0.711 2.71 3.4
Tobacco ------------------ 0 0 0.11 3.4 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.8
Hay and forage --------- 1.5 1.3 5.11 0.5 3.7 3.41 5.61 0.111 3.4 2.3
Sugar cane (syrup) ------- 1.01 5.2 2.5 4.6 0.3 2.71 1.5 0.2 1.9 2.9
Strawberries ------------- 0 0 0 1.4 0.1 2.71 0 0 1.1 0.8
Oranges ----------------- 8.2 3 8.6! 16.71 51.81 43.21 54.3 51.911 32.51 11.9
Grapefruit ---- ------- 3.3 0-31 2.81 3.01 9.9 18.71 10.61 12.511 9.8! 5:3

Average Yields

The average yield per acre of the leading crops in 9go9, which
is readily ascertained from the census reports, except for vegeta-
bles and orchard fruits, is given by regions in the next table, ex-
cept that in a region where a given crop is relatively insignificant


its yield has not been computed because the chances of error are
too great. For example, if only one or two farmers in a region
raise a certain crop their yield in the census year might easily be
below or far above the normal, in accordance with the principle .
set forth a few pages back, so that averages based on them might
be very misleading.
"Vegetables" are left out of this table, because so many dif-
ferent kinds, measured in different units, are lumped together in
the government census reports. Both federal and State censuses
give the number instead of acreage of fruit trees, apparently be-
cause some farms have only a few scattered trees whose acreage
cannot be measured; but the average number of orange and grape-
fruit trees per acre is commonly reckoned at 70, and the acreage
has been computed on that basis.

Average Yield per Acre of



Corn (bushels) -----------
Oats (bushels) -----------
Rice (bushels)----------
Peanuts (bushels--------
Hay (tons) --------------
Irish potatoes (bushels) --
Sweet potatoes (bushels)--
Sugar cane (tons) -------
Sugar cane (gals. syrup) -
Oranges (boxes) ----------
Grapefruit (boxes) -------
Strawberries (quarts) ----


Certain Crops in Central Florida, 1909.

~ .~;;

16.o1 Io.61
12.21 13.91
----I ----I
14.21 22.11
1.01 1.61
51.01 72.31
85.71 82.31
4.0 7.71
1641 221
81i 138
1521 ----I
---- ---- I


0 0
.0 0
.c o


12.01 13.31 14.61 13.71 12.41 15.71 11.5 11.6
12.81 12.11 13.91 17.7 ----1 10.0I 13.1 14.0
17.71 17.51 -- 23.5 ----I ---.. 22.71 19.8
16.31 19.21 15.71 11.91 ----_ 18.5 18.4
.ol 1.21 1.11 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.0
52.41 57.41 92.3 87.01 90.8I 95.4 84.61100.8
70o.81101.51100.11 85.8 105.0 i20.o 90.4 94.7
4.4 13.51 7.41 13.9 21.2 13.4 9.4 11.1
1991 451 1711 155 1791 294 1781 196
115 1031 1191 176 153 115 1221 123
129 1461 103 144 121 98 1291 112
---- 2x130o 68o0.1737! ---- ---- 1611 1777

The yield of any crop of course fluctuates from year to year
with the weather, etc., but should not change nmch from one
decade to another, except for a slight increase as the population
becomes denser, land more valuable, and farming more intensive.
Natural fertility of soil seems to have little to do with crop yields,
probably because differences in that respect are so easily elim-
inated by the use of a few dollars' worth of labor or fertilizer, or
both. The Middle Florida hammock belt is unquestionably the





most fertile in the area under consideration, but it does not have
the highest yield of any crop shown in the table: and the averages
for central Florida are close to the State averages, although the
soil is doubtless below the State average in fertility.* Density
of population has more effect, for the western flatwoods and the
east coast strip each lead in three crops.

In several of the foregoing tables the number of animals per
farm' in different regions at different times has been given, but
little has been said about the amount of meat, milk, wool, eggs,
honey, etc., produced by them. Such information was gathered
more completely by the census of 1910 than by any preceding one,
and the results as far as they apply to central Florida are shown
in Table 38, which as usual has a column for each region, one for
the whole area, and one for the whole State.
The census does not give the total production and value of
every animal product, but sometimes only the total or only the
surplus sold; and the different kinds are lumped together more or
less in the returns of values. The results are computed on a per
farm rather than a per acre basis, for animals bear no close rela-
tion to either total farm land or improved land.
The amount of milk, butter, poultry and eggs sold is roughly
proportional to the urban population, and is therefore highest in
the western division of the flatwoods, represented by Hillsborough
County. Hogs (and therefore animals slaughtered, which are
mostly hogs), are most important in the lime-sink region, which
raises the most corn and peanuts. Animals sold on the 'hoof,
which are mostly beef cattle, of course lead in the eastern flat-
woods. Although that region has the most sheep per farm, they
must be raised mostly for mutton, for the Middle Florida ham-
mock belt exceeds it in wool per farm. The east coast leads in
honey, but is lowest in most other animal products, on account of
the intensive farming which prevails there.

*The value of crops per acre is a different matter, though. In this re-
spect central Florida is over 60 per cent above the State average, as shown
in Table 33, not by producing larger yields, but by raising a larger proportion
of more valuable crops and less cotton, corn. oats. peanuts, etc.


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By comparing the number of animals of various kinds sold or
slaughtered in a year with the number living on the average farm
at the time of the census we can get a rough approximation of the
annual birth and death rate of each species, which in central Flor-
ida in 1909-10 was about io% for cattle, sheep and goats, 33%
for hogs, and 143% for poultry.
The difference between the amount of milk, butter, chickens
and eggs produced and that sold is approximately that consumed
by the average farm family in a year, if none of these products
are bought by the farmers, and therefore gives some indication of
the standard of living. The -farmers of the east coast, however,
although they have the most expensive land and buildings and
therefore presumably a pretty high standard of living, must buy
considerable groceries with the money received for their vegeta-
bles and oranges, for otherwise the average family would have
only about 37 gallons of milk, 3 pounds of butter, 18 chickens,
and 57 dozen eggs to eat in a year, as compared with 92.6 gallons
of mIilk, 19.8 pounds of butter, 27 chickens, and 69 dozen eggs in
the lime-sink region, which probably really has the lowest stand-
ards. (Very likely the east coast farmers eat more fish and oys-
ters than those in the interior, though.) If such data could only
be obtained for whites and negroes separately we would doubtless
find considerable differences


The United States census has not published returns of manu-
facturing for single counties for several decades; and although
the State agricultural department has taken censuses of manufac-
turing at several different periods, and published the returns by
counties, omissions and typographical errors make the reports of
doubtful value for statistical purposes.* Consequently it is not
feasible to treat the subject statistically at this time, but some ran-
dom observations can be given.
Central Florida is too remote froni coal mines and waterfalls
for manufacturing to rank high among its industries, though at
some future time its vast stores of peat may be utilized as a source
of power. (Some notes on water-power were given in the chapter
on topography.) The most common kinds of manufacturing es-
tablishments are sawmills and turpentine stills, which put the raw
products of the pine forests through one or two of the first stages
in their preparation for use; and these get their power from pine
wood, which is a by-product of the same industries and therefore
costs them very little. A few statistics of sawmills have been
given in the chapter on vegetation.
Every city has various necessary establishments supplying local
needs, such as laundries, bakeries, ice factories, printing offices,
and plants supplying water, gas and electricity, and these are
classed as factories by the census, but unlike real factories they
bring in little or no wealth to the region because their products are
not shipped out to any appreciable extent, and it is hardly possi-
ble to expand such industries any faster than the population im-
mediately around them grows. (There are of course a few ex-
ceptions, such as the plant in DeLand where this report is
There are quite a number of crate factories, which have a
somewhat wider circle of patronage, and a few brick-yards. Cigar
boxes are made in Tampa to supply the factories there, and there

*For example in the 1915 census no returns of manufacturing were re-
ceived from Osceola County, and none of sawmills and turpentine stills from
Polk County; and the published figures made it appear that the cigars made
in Hillsborough County were worth about six cents apiece and those in Orange
County only about half a cent apiece.



is more or less building of ships and boats along the coast. Pre-
serves and other fruit products are made on a small scale in a few
places, and the list of small manufacturing industries.might be ex-
tended considerably if there was any convenient way of getting
information about them.
Among factories in the accepted sense of the word, those that
employ skilled or semi-skilled labor in large buildings and make
finished products to be consumed in other states, the best known
are the cigar factories, which are chiefly concentrated in the out-
skirts of Tampa and operated by Cubans. They use little or no
machinery, and fuel and power constitute only about I/6000 of
their total expenses (as compared with more than Y4 in the case of
ice factories).*
There is a large fertilizer factory. at Inglis, near the mouth of
the Withlacoochee River in Levy County, where much of the hard-
rock phosphate is exported; and a tractor factory at Oldsmar.
Plants for the manufacture of- automobile cushions from Spanish
moss and of paper from saw-grass are said to be nearing comple-
tion at Leesburg.
The U. S. census of 19Io gives a few meager details for all
manufacturing industries in Tampa combined, from which the fol-
lowing figures have been extracted. In 1909 there were 215 "fac-
tories" (nearly twice as many as in Jacksonville), with a com-
bined capital of $11,610,421, employing about 10,000 persons
(over four times as many as Jacksonville). The total expenses
were $16,281,003, and'the value of products $17,653,021.



The St. John's and Ocklawaha Rivers are navigable for most
of their length. Passenger steamers are operated throughout the
year on the St. John's as far up as Sanford, and during the tourist
season small steamers and launches have for many years carried
sight-seers up the Ocklawaha and its tributary, Silver Spring Run,
*A number of original statistics on the efficiency of Tampa cigar-makers
under different weather conditions can be found in Ellsworth Huntington's
"Civilization and Climate" (1915).


to Silver Springs. There is occasional freight traffic, perhaps less
now than formerly, still farther up the Ocklawaha to the large
lakes of central Lake County. The Kissimmee River together
with lakes and canals affords navigation all the way from Kissim-
mee to Lake Okeechobee, but as the river is very crooked and the
population near it very sparse, there has never been much traffic
on it. Much of the phosphate exported from the hard rock dis-
trict travels a few miles on the Withlacoochee River,. from Inglis,
the terminus of a short railroad, to its mouth. The lagoons along
the east coast have been connected up by short canals, and the shal-
lower stretches deepened, so that boats' drawing not more than
three or four feet have an "inside passage" the whole length of the

Central Florida is well supplied with railroads, considering its
sparse population, and it is one of the few parts of the United
States that has had any railroad building in the last five or six
years. In i88o apparently the only railroads in this area were
lines connecting Cedar Keys and Ocala with Jacksonville, and an
isolated line from Astor on the St. John's River to Fort Mason on.
Lake Eustis:'about 83 miles in all. By 1891 the mileage had in-
creased more than ten-fold, to 1,026, or about one mile to every
o10 inhabitants.
At the beginning of 1920 there were about 1,875 miles of
track on which passenger service was operated, making about one
mile to every 7.7 square miles or every 160 inhabitants. None of
the lines are double-tracked, and the average number of passenger
trains is about two each way a day (four or five on some lines in
winter, though). Nearly half the present mileage belongs to the
Atlantic Coast Line and its subsidiaries, and next in order are the
Seaboard Air Line (including Tampa Northern, Tampa & Gulf
Coast, etc.), with 28.6%, Florida East Coast, 15.2%, Tavares &
Gulf 2%, Ocklawaha Valley, Charlotte Harbor & Northern, and
Tampa & Jacksonville.
The mileage of railroads for 1920 is shown,by regions in Table
39, which gives also for each region the percentage of the total
area, population, and railroad mileage which it has, as nearly as
can be estimated.



Railroad Mileage in Central Florida, 1920, by Regions, Compared With Area and

Sileage Per cent of total
regions Area Population Mileage
1. West coast islands ------------ 2 0.1 0.3 0.1
2. Gulf hammock region------- 127 10.3 4.8 6.8
3. Middle Florida flatwoods --- 25 2.2 ? 1.3
4. Lime-sink region ----------- 365 15.5 24.6 19.6
5. Middle Fla. hammock belt ---- 43 1.4 4.0 2.3
6. Hernando hammock belt 2--S 1.3 2.6 1.5
7. Lake region -------------- 547 27.5 24.6 29.5
S. Western flatwoods --------- 390 13.5 27.5 21.0
9. Eastern flatwoods ---------- 225 25.8 4.8 12.0
10. East coast strip-------------- 121 2.8 6.7 6.5

In the early days in central Florida, as in other long-leaf pine
regions, roads cost practically nothing, for wagons could be driven
almost anywhere through the open pine forests. Where small
streams had to be crossed it was necessary merely to cut a right of
way through the swamp, and if the bottom was soft a layer of
poles could easily be put down. In the flatwvoods and other low
places ditches are often dug on both sides of the road to carry
off the water from heavy rains faster than it would flow natu-
rally, and the earth from them used at the same time to elevate the
roadbed a little. Little-used roads through the flatwoods are often
carpeted with a fine turf of a small sedge, Eleocharis Baldwinii,
which is more agreeable for both pedestrians and vehicles than the
bare sand.
On the uplands where the sand is deep and dry it soon becomes
loosened up by the wheels and rather difficult to pull through.
The simplest way of getting around this is to start a new trail a
little to one side, where the sand has not been stirred up. From
this practice there often results a maze of approximately paral-
lel roads, rather confusing to a stranger, who may have no way
of knowing whether a fork in the road indicates a junction or a
mere siding. (This of course is not peculiar to Florida, but can
be seen also in Michigan and elsewhere.)
Where it is not practicable to make new tracks, as for example
where there are fences on both sides of the road (for wherever


forests or prairies are much more extensive than cultivated fields
it is cheaper to fence the crops and give the cattle and hogs free
range than it would be to confine the cattle, and the law gives the
animals this freedom; in most parts of Florida), some method of
improving the road must be adopted if there is much traffic on it.
The cheapest road-surfacing material is pine straw (said to have
cost about $35 a mile by 1915 prices), which has been used to a
considerable extent where there is neither clay nor rock within
easy reach. This is ordinarily renewed every year or two. Near
sawmills and planing mills sawdust and shavings are often used
in the same way.
In many places, particularly in the lake region, sandy clay oc-
curs within a few feet of the surface, and when spread out to the
proper thickness and rolled it makes a very good roadbed. In sev-
eral other regions limestone rock is available, and gives still better
results. In the pebble phosphate country a sandy rock that forms
part of the overburden in the mines is sometimes used in the same
way. Even in the eastern flatwoods and the lake region there are
a few deposits of marl near the surface, and that makes as good a
road as clay. Near the coasts oyster shells, either from living
reefs or from shell mounds, have long been utilized by road-mak-
ers, as have other species of shells occurring in the mounds. Be-
fore the days of automobiles the shells were usually simply spread
out over the surface of the road from time to time and left to be
ground up and compacted by wagon wheels.
Since automobiles became common there has been a great de-
velopment of permanent roadways, and where local supplies of
rock, clay, etc., are inadequate, brick and asphalt (fig. 27) have
been imported from other states or countries in large quantities.
At the present time there is perhaps no equal area in the world that
has better roads in proportion to population than central Florida.
But in the building of highly improved roads in recent years there
has been a regrettable tendency to locate them as much as possible
along section lines or parallel thereto. This practice doubtless
simplifies negotiations with land-owners, and requires less mental
exertion than adapting the roads to the topography, but it makes
them more expensive to build and maintain and wastes the time of
people using them (for two sides of a square are over 40%



longer than the diagonal), to say nothing of the extra wear and
tear on tires and steering gear at the numerous square turns, and
the danger of accident.
On Sept. 30, 1918, according to the Second Biennial Report
of the State Road Department, there were over 1,500 miles of
roads classed as improved in the 15 central Florida counties, mak-
ing 31.9% of the State total, or about one mile to every 200oo in-
habitants. By kinds-of material used they were divided as fol-
lows: Marl and sand-clay 25%, asphalt 22.9%, brick 19.3%,
shells 16.8%, plain macadam 10.7%, surface-treated macadam
5.24%, concrete 0.14%. About two-thirds of the brick roads in
the State are in central Florida, and about two-thirds of the as-
phalt roads in Polk County alone. Shell roads are confined to the
coast counties, or nearly so. There has of course been some road-
building since 1918, but later figures are not yet available.

Central Florida is naturally as well supplied with automobiles
as it is with good roads. On March 2, 1920, according to the
State comptroller, there were 24,604 cars registered in our 15
counties, which was about 40% of the State total and about one
to every 12 inhabitants. The license records as published do not
indicate how many of the cars belong to winter visitors who get
Florida licenses at the beginning of the year and use them in some
northern state all summer, and do not even separate the races; but
probably neither tourists nor negroes constitute more than Io%
of the total. In the lake region there was about one automobile
to every nine inhabitants (and probably about I to 6 or 7 among
Ihe white population, which means that the majority of white
families own at least one, and compares favorably with the fig-
ures for Iowa and Kansas, which are often cited as extremes.)


From a 1920 newspaper directory of the United States it ap-
pears that there are in central Florida about 14 daily, 3 semi-
weekly and 46 weekly newspapers (some of the weeklies being
weekly editions of dailies, however, and not independent enter-
prises), besides io special publications (mostly weekly) for agri-
culturists, college students, ministers, motorists, labor unionists,
Cubans or negroes. Their average circulation cannot be esti-
mated closely, because the individual figures are not given in some
cases, some papers are printed only part of the year, some have a
larger circulation in winter than in summer, etc. But there must
be about 450,000 papers printed each week, enough to give every
family, white and black, a paper every day. This is doubtless
above the State average, for in 1909, according to the census, the
aggregate circulation of all periodicals printed in Florida was
about 700,000 per week, or four a week per family.* Of course
many copies, especially of Tampa papers, go outside of central
Florida, but this must be much more than counterbalanced by pub-
lications coming in from other sections and states, and the total
number of papers read may be as much as two a day per family,
or three a day per white family.
It is hardly worth while to give statistics by regions, for prob-
ably no paper has its circulation confined to one region; but out-
side of Tampa those of largest circulation are in the western di-
vision of the flatwoods, averaging about 5,700 per week normally.
Those in St. Petersburg claim a doubled circulation in the tourist
season, and one of them distributes its whole edition gratuitously
on days when the sun does not shine previous to the hour of print-

*In the whole United States at the same time the number of papers printed
was about eleven a week per family, but the number read may be much less,
for the number coming in from foreign countries must be less than the number
exported to Canada, etc.




Pages 75-76. The statistical tables (Nos. 1-8, 20-22, 24-39) contain over
2,00oo percentages, averages and other ratios, about nine-tenths of them new
and the remainder copied from census reports, etc.
Page 82. In footnotes and elsewhere there are references to about fifty
papers relating to the area treated and thirty others.
Pages iii, 161. A news item from Brooksville a few weeks ago mentioned
incidentally a Snow Hill, five miles from there (direction not specified), 368
feet above sea-level. This is probably an exaggeration, but it deserves inves-
Page 121. Last line of text. For connect read connected.
Page 129. The raising of asparagus "ferns" under partial shade (like
tobacco and pineapples) is said to be an industry of some importance around
Pierson and Leesburg.
Page 136. There are a few typographical errors in the first paragraph,
most of them easily detected.
Page 141. The sanguinary conflicts mentioned in the footnote are prob-
ably not so much between stockmen and small farmers as between cattlemen
and others who own and fence large areas and those who own little or no
land and cut the fences that interfere with the ranging ot their animals.
Page 159. Diatomaceous "earth" should have been mentioned after peat.
See page II9, also 3d Ann. Rep., pp. 290-291.
Page 160. In second paragraph of first footnote, for April read May.
(The article cited was published in April, though.)
Page 165. An important paper on the shell mounds along the St. John's
River is that by Dr. Jeffries \Vyman in the American Naturalist 2:393-403.
449-463, 1868. Clarence B. Moore has published several articles on the In-
dian mounds of Florida and other southern States in the Journal of the Acad-
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
Page 171, first footnote. Fairly typical of most 19th century classifications
of Florida soils on a basis of vegetation is a paper (presumably by H. S.
Elliot) in the Quarterly Bulletin of the State Agricultural Department for
July 1, 1909, pp. 25-36, reprinted in the IIth Biennial Report of the same de-
partment, pp. 36-49. 1911.
Page 200, line 3. For "In" read "On."
Page 219. in first line of figures, for 38 read 83.
Page 224, second footnote. Two other noteworthy treatments of animals in
geological reports, both published about three years ago, are a 30-page chap-
ter by Howard Cross in.Bulletin 27 of the Oklahoma Geological Survey (Ge-
ography of Oklahoma by L. C. Snider and others), and S. S. Visher's Ge-
ography of South Dakota (S. D. Geol. Surv. Bull. 8). In the latter both
plants and animals are classified by habitat.
Page 244. About 30,000 visitors are said to have registered at St. Pe-
tersburg in the season of 1920-21, with Ohioans in the lead, as before.
Page 245. The size-of-farm curves mentioned here were not published, for
reasons explained on page 274. The 1915 State census of Iowa grades the
whole population according to education, as stated on page 253.



This index is intended to include references to all important topics in the
whole volume (though at least nine-tenths of it pertains to pages 71-288, on
the Geography of Central Florida) that are not sufficiently indicated by the
tables of contents or common to all the regional descriptions or several or
many of the statistical tables, except the species of foraminifera, which are in-
dexed separately on page 70. Numbers in parentheses indicate pages on which
the topics in question are referred to indirectly or under different names.
Technical names of plants (about 230 species) and animals are italicized.
Where only a generic name is given it means either that there is only one
species of that genus in central Florida, or that the identity of the one men-
tioned is uncertain, or else that the statement referred to applies to several or
all of the species of the genus. In order to find all the references to some
of the commoner species it may be necessary to look up both technical and
common names in the index. The number of references to different species
will give some idea of their relative importance in the area treated, which
might not always be apparent otherwise.

Abandoned farms, 261
Abbott (Pasco Co.), 117
Aborigines, 144
Acer Floridanum, 219; Negundo (215),
219; rubrum, 90, 94, 99, 124, 126,
133, 138, 148, 219
Acid soils, 126
Acnida, 126 (201, f. 36)
Acorns, 222
Acrostichum, 148
Actinospermum, IO0, 126, 134, 140
Adams, Chas. C, work of, 224
.Advent Christians, 151
Adventists, 127, 256
Aedes calopus, 232
Africans, 91 (see Negroes)
African Methodists, 92, 102, 108, 117,
127, 141, 151, 256
Ages of teachers, 250
Agriculture, information about, 80, 258-
Air-plants, 91, 116, 133, 134, 139, 211
Alabama, o18, 117. 156, 175, 207, 214, 218.
226, 2S6, 244, 247, 274
Alachua formation, 95, (156)
Alafia River, 163, 169, 170

Alaska, mosquitoes in, 231
Aletris lutea, 139, 141
Allen, J. A., work of, 224, 227
Alligators, 223, 230
Alluvial soils, 170
Ampelopsis 'arborea, 90, 125, 133, 140
Anamomis, 148 /
Anastrophus paspaloides, 202
Anchistca, 94, 125, 126, 134, 139
Anclote Keys, 84
Andropogon glomeratus, 86; scoparius,
94, 133; sp. 126, 139, 148; Virgin-
icus, IOO, 126
Animals (wild), 204, 223-233, 288; in
soil, 162, 172, 173, 176, 193
Annuttalagga Hammock, III
Anthony (Marion Co.), 101, 157
Anticlines, 18
Ants, 173, 179
Apheloco ma, 228, 229
Apopka (Orange Co.), 34, 40, 42, 127
Aquatic vegetation, 199
Aralia spinosa, 90
Aristida spiciformis, 126, 139, 141, 148;
stricta, 91, 94, loo (ioi), o16, 116,
125, 133, 148, (187)
Armadillo (fossil),, 157, 226
Aronia, 94



Artesian wells, 95, 122, 130, (136), 144,
159, 166
Ash (tree), 90, io6, 138
Asimina angustifolia, 100; pygiiiaea, 90,
133, 138, 140; reticulata, ioo; spec-
iosa, 0oo, 126
Asphalt roads, 137, 285, 286
A. O. A. C. methods of soil analysis,
188, 189, 191
Astor (Lake Co.), 283
Atlantic Coast Line R. R., III, 161, 242,
Auburndale (Polk Co.), 127
Auk, great, 229
Australia, scrub in, 209
Austrians, 236, 239
Automobiles, 77, 144, 282, 285, 286
Avicennia, 85, 86, 148, 205
Azalea, 116


Baccharis haliiifolia, 0oo, 133
Bacteria, 193
Bahamas, 228; negroes from 236
Bakeries, 281
Balance of trade, 244
Balearic Islands, 150
Ball clay, 25 (see Kaolin)
Bamboo vine, 90, 94, 125, 133, 139, 212
Bananas, 153
Bangs, O, work of, 225
Banks, N, work of, 233
Baptists, 92, 102, io8, 117, 127, 141, 151,
253, 256, 257
Barnes, John K., 160, (288)
Barrels, 221
Barrier beaches, 84, 88, 143, 150, 164
Bartonia verna, 94
Bartow (city), 134, 195, 240, 243
Bartram, William, 229
Basin prairies, 79, 113, 202
Bathing pools, 168
Batis, 86, 148
Batodendron, 86, 99, io6, 115
Bats, 225

Bay (tree), 90o 94, loo, 1 125, 133, 138,
148, 202, 212, 219; red, 86, 90, 99,
io6, 115, 125, 138, (187)
Bayheads, 213
Bays (vegetation), 81, 93, 124, 132, 140,
Beaches, 84, 88, 143, 150, 163-164, 179
Beach ridges, 165
Bean, B. A., work of, 231
Beans, 93, 103, 110, 118, 129, 136, 143
Bears, 223-225
Bedbugs, 232
Bedouins, 198
Beef cattle, 110, 278, (see Cattle)
Bees, 262, 263, 265, 268 (see Honey)
Beeswax, 222, 279
Beets, 129
Bejaria, 94, 125, 126, 139, 141, 148
Belleair (Pinellas Co.), 243
Belleview (Marion Co.), io8
Berchemia, 90, 125, (132)
Berlandiera, 126
Berries (wild), 222
Bibliography, 82, 288
Bidens lencantha, 148
Bignonia, io6, 115
Bird guano, 91, 229-230
Birds, 107, 206, 216, 223-224, 226-229
Birth and death rate of domestic ani-
mals, 280
Bison (fossil), 226
Bivalves, 179, 233
Blackberries, 222
Black gum, 124, 133, 138. 211, 212, 219
Black-jack oak, 90, 94, 99, 1oo, 115, 125,
133, 138, 148, 174, 208
Black mangrove, 84-86, 148, 205, 222
Black pine, 94, 124, (126), 138, (141),
148, 207, 219
Black-root, 91, 94, ioo, 116, 125, 133,
139, 148
Black sticky or waxy soil, 175, 190, 216
Blanding, A. H., (208)
Blanton (Pasco Co.), III
Blatchley, W. S., work of, 225, 229, 230
Blechnum, 148
Blue flag, 91, (139)


Blue Springs (two), 168
Bluffs, 165
Boats, 282
Bog iron ore, 158
Bone Valley formation, 130, 157
Bonnets, 91, 94, 122, 126, 139
Borrichia, 148
Boston, Mass., 239
Box elder, 215, 219
Bradley (Polk Co.), 134
Branches, 168
Brevard County, 14a, 143, 145, 146, 149-
153, 159, 170, I9I. (See also Cape
Canaveral, Cocoa, Eau Gallie, Mel-
bourne, Merritt's Island, Rockledge,
Brick roads, 285, 286
Bricks, brick-yards, 26, 81, III, 119, 158,
Briers, 210
Bronson (Levy Co.), 165
Brooksville, III, 114, 117, 158, 169, 195,
240, 288
Broom-sedge, 94, 1oo, 126, 133, 139, 148
Brooms, brushes, 221
Bugg Spring, 168
Bullace (see Muscadine)
Burbank (Marion Co.), 177
Burrowing animals, 162, (172), 173.
176, (179, 180, 225)
Burrowing owl, 228
Burscra, 206
Bushnell (Sumter Co.), 92; deep well
near, 16, 17, 34, (16o)
Butter, 110, 153, 278-280
Buttonwood, 86, 205

Cabbage, 93, 103, 11o, 129, 136, 143. 1.~
Cabbage palmetto, 85-221 (see Sabal
Calcareous hammocks, 105, 175, 215-216;
soils, 89, 140, 175, (I77), 216 (see
also Marl); swamps, 213; water,
California, 209, 244
Callicarpa, ioo, io6, 116

Camels, 226, 245
Canadians, ioi, 108, 127, 150, 235, 236,
239, 244
Canals, 144, 283
Cantaloupes, 1no
Cape Canaveral, 179
Cape Cod (Mass.), 243
Careless, 126, (201)
Carphephorus, 91, ioo, II6, 126, 133, 139,
Carpinus, 90, o16, 115, 125, 133, 140,
Cassena, 125, 138
Cassia Tora, 106
Cassytha, 86, 148
Castalia, 126, (119)
Castor beans, 103, II8
Catholics, 1oS, 117, 127, 141, 151, 253,
256, 257
Cat-tails, 201
Cattle, 87, 117, 137, 143, 202, 209, 222,
258-273, 278-280, 285
Cattlemen, 141, 288
Cattle ranches or ranges, 81, 138, 141,
152, 275
Cattle-tick, 233
Caves, 8i, 104, 156, 163, 179-180, 199,
Ceanothus microphyllus, loo, 125
Cedar, 86, 87, 90, 133, 148, 219
Cedar Keys, 84-88, 91, 164, 195, 221, 230,
231, 233, 245, 283
Celery, 29, 136, 143
Celtis, 9J, io6, 115 (175), 219
Census data, errors in or inadequacy
of, 80, 93, ioS, 149, 150, 236, 238,
245-249, 253, 255-257, 261, 264-267,
272-278, 280, 281; use of, 76, 8o,
109, 155, 219, 220
Ccntella, 94, 126, 139
Center Hill (Sumter Co), 92
Central Florida defined, 75
Ccphalanthus, 90, Ioo, io6, 125, 126, 133
Ceratiola, IOO, 125, 133, 139, 148
Cercis, io6, 126
ChamaCcrista, 86, 1oo, 116



Changes in value of money, 9, 20, 8i, Clay testing, II
249, 262, 273 Clearwater, 101, 240, 243
Chaparral, 209 Clermont, 161, 195
Chapman, F. M., work of, 226, 228, 229 Cliffs, 165, 168, 179
Chaptalia, 139 Coccolobis laurifolia 206; uvifera, 86
C. H. & N. R. R., 283 Cockroaches, 232
Chattahoochee (limestone) formation, Cocoa (Brevard Co.), 150, 243
18, III Coffee weed, 106
Chessahowitzka River, 168 Coker, R. E., writings of, 229
Chickens, 153, 259, 260, 263, 265, 280 Coleman (Sumter Co), 92, 178

(See also Poultry)
Chiggers, 232
Chimneys, rock, 81, 158
Chinese in central Florida, 128, 129, 235
Chione cancellata, 147, 165
Choctawhatchee (marl) formation, 36,
38, 48-51, 54-56, 58
Choke-berry, 94
Cholisma ferruginea, 90, Ioo, 116, 125,
133, 139, 148; fruticosa, 94, 125,
126, 133, 139, 141, 148
Chondrophora nudata, 139
Choocochattee Hammock, III, 114;
Prairie, 113
Chrysobalanus, Ioo, 125, 133, 139, 148
Churches, 255-257
Church of Christ, 92, IO2, 108, 256
Church of God, 92
Cisterns, 159
Citra (Marion Co.), io8
Citrous fruits, 129, 172 (See also Grape-
fruit, Orange, etc.)
Citrus County, 84, 89, 91, 97, 101, 102,
114, 157, 163, 175, 203, 206, 215, 259
(See also Crystal River, Homosassa,
Inverness, Lake Tsala Apopka)
City water supplies, 34, 167, (244)
Civilization, 198, 237, 238, 248, 282
Civil War, 109, 158, 258
Cladium, 91, Ioo, (124), 125, 126, 133,
139, 148, 200 (See also Saw-grass)
Clam shells, 147, (165)
Clapp, F. G., work of, 119
Classification of soils, 170, 288; of veg-
etation, 197, 198
Clay, II, 25, 8i, 119, 158; soils, 175, 177
Clay Springs, 168, 245

Colored Methodists, 92, io8, 256
Columbia formation, 156
Comanchean formations, 42
Compulsory education, 239, 248, 249
Conchologists, 223
Confederate iron works, 158
Conglomerate, 119
Congregationalists, 127, 151, 253, 256
Connecticut, tourists from, 244
Conocarpus, 86, 205
Conuropsis, 228
Cooke, W. W., work of, 224
Co-operation with U. S. Geological Sur-
vey, 12
Co-operative orange groves, 129
Coquina, 143, 145, 158, 185, 186
Corn, 93-153, 18o, 270, 271, 276-278
Cornus florida, Ioo, o16, 115, 125, 126,
133, 140, (190) ; stricta, io6, 133, 140
Corporation farming, 129
Cottages for winter visitors, 241
Cotton, 102, 103, IIo, 18o, 270, 271, 276,
Coues, E., writings of, 225
Cowpeas, 103, 1io, 118, 129, 136, 143
Cows, 93, 153 (See Cattle)
Cranes (birds), 224
Crataegus, Ioo, o16, 126
Crates, crate factories, 220, 281
Cream-colored sand, 172-173
Creeks, 93, 168
Cretaceous strata, 17, 40, 42, 46
Criminals, 198
Crocodiles (fossil), 157, 230
C'oom (Hernando Co.), 95
Cross. Hf., work of, 288
Cross-ties, 212, 221


Cross-vine, io6, 115
Croton argyranthenius, 00o, 126
Crustaceans, 179
Crystal River, 168; (town), 92, 221
Cubans, 236, 282, 287
Cucumbers, 93, 103, 1no, 129, 136, 153
Cushions, moss, 282
Cushman, J. A., work of, 9, 22, 33-70
Cut-over land, IoI
Cut-throat grass, and vegetation, 208
Cyclones, 197
Cypress, 90-99, 124-140, 178, 211-213,
219-221 (See Taxodiunm)
Cypress ponds, 93, (130), 131, 132, 136,
138, 178, 211, 212


Dade City, 117, 173, 174, 240
Dairy cows, dairying, 87, 93
Dall, W. H., 119
Dams, 88, 169
Danes, 150, 236
Dasheens, 153
Davies, J. P., work of, 188
Daytona, 150, 232, 240, 243, 245
Daytona Beach, 81, (144), 150, 243
Decumaria, 90, Ioo
Deer, 223, 225
Deer-tongue, 222
DeLand, 127, 165, 240, 243, 253, 281
DeLeon Springs, 168
Democrats, 257
Denmark, immigrants from (See Danes)
Depth of lakes, 166
Devil's Punch-bowl, III
Dewberry, 115
Diatoms, diatomaceous earth, 81, 119.
Dichromena latifolia, 139, 141
Diospyros, (79), 1oo, 115
Disciples of Christ, io8,'127, 141, 151.
Doellingeria reticulata, 126, 139, 141
Dog-fennel, 79, 91, Ioo, io6, 116, 126,
133, 202, 203
Dogwood, Ioo, io6, 115, 125, 133, 190

Domes, 18, 19
Drilling for oil, 14-19, 160 (See also
Dryopteris patens, 1o6
Ducks, 224
Dumont, Mhry W, 242
Dunedin (Pinellas Co.), ioi
Dunes, 81, 84, 95, 121, 143-147, 163-165,
179, 191, 200, 209, 210
Dunnellon, 95, 101, 169
Dupatya (See Syngonanthus)
Durrett, J. B., work of, 87
Dwarf palmetto (90, 125), 132

Earthworms, 233
Eau Gallie, 150, 163
Egg-plants, 103, IIO, 129, 136, 143, 153
Eggs, 1no, 153, 278-280
Egrets, 223
Elbow-bush, go, 1oo, io6, 133
Electric lights or power, 169, 221, 244,
Eleocharis Baldwinii, 284
Elephants (fossil), 157, 226
Elliot, H. S., work of, (261), 264, (272),
Elm, go, 115, 133, 219
Endemic species, (126), 127
England, Englishmen, IoI, o18. I27, I50,
232, 235, 236, 239
Enterprise (Volusia Co.), 243
Entomologists, 223, 231
Eocene strata, 33, 39, 41, 49, 54, 95, 104,
136, 156
Episcopalians. 102, 108, 151, 256
Ericaceae, 94, 1oo, 107, 126, (134), 139,
140 (See also Azalea, Batodendron,
Bejaria, Cholisma, Pieris, Vaccin-
iu m)
Erigcron vernus, 94
Eriocaulon compressum, 94, 126
Eriogonum Floridanum, 126; tomento-
sum, 100, 106, 116, 125
Ernodca, 86
Erosion, 160, 162, 168



Eryngium, 116
Erythrina, 148
Eskimos, 198
Espiritu Santo Springs, 32, 130, 168
Establishment of Survey, 5
Etonia scrub, 184, 188 (See Scrub)
Eupatorium aroniaticum, 0oo, 126; cap-
illifolium, 79, 91, loo, 116, 202,
(203) ; co mpositifoliur, 79, 100oo,
o16, 126, 133, 140
Europe, Europeans, 158, 236, 247, 255
(See also Danes, English, etc.)
Eustachys, 86
Eustis, 127, 195, 240, 243
Euthainia, 139
Evergreens, percentage or significance
of, 78, 86, 91, 94, 100, 107, 116, 126,
134, 139, 149, 175, 218, 219
Evermann, B. W., work of. 231
Expenditures of Survey, 20-24
Explorers, early, 224
Exporting phosphate, 158
Extensive farming, 109, 266
Extinct animals, 224. 226

Factories. 239, 282
Fairfield (Marion Co.), 175, 217
Fall River, Mass., 239
Farmers, farms (See Agriculture)
Fauna of central Florida, 223-233
Feathers, 279
"Fellowship" soils, 97, 105, 114, 131, 174-
177, 183, 288
Fences, fence laws, 221, 285, 288
Ferns, 91, 94, Ioo, jo6, 116, 125, 126, 134,
139, 148, 180, 216, 288 (See also
Anchistca, Blechnunm, Dryopteris,
Osmunda, Polypodium, Ptcris)
Fern grottoes of Citrus Co. (163), 215
Ferruginous sandstone, 119; soils, 126,
Fertilizer factory, 282
Fertilizers, use of, 117, 156-158, 18o,
217, 229, 235, 259-269
Fiber from palmetto, 87, 221
Ficus (wild fig), 206

Field peas, 136
Fire (in vegetation), 98, 145, 154, 173,
177, 18o, 199, 204, 206, 207, 209, 211-
214, 217, 230, (233)
Fish, fishing, 86, 87, 91, 101, 102, 149,
221, 230-231, 258, 280
Flag, blue, 91 (See Iris)
Flagler County, 136, 211
Flat-bottomed lakes, 202
Flat prairies, 203
Flatwoods, 81, 89, 93, 124, 130-143, 163,
206, 207
Flaveria, 148
Florence Villa (Polk Co.), 243
Florida East Coast Ry. (149-151), 283
Florida Experiment Station, 188
Florida jay, 229
Flowing wells, 130, 136, 144, (159), 166
Fluctuation of water, 98, 166, 170, 199,
211, 212
Foraminifera, 9, 33-70, 289
Force-pumps, 159
Foreign-born farmers, 128, 268, 270, 272;
negroes, 236
Foreigners, IoI, Io8, 127, 134, 150, 235-
239, 244, 247, 255, 270, 272
Fort Mason (Lake Co.), 283
Fort Meade, 134, 173, 185, 195, 240
Fossils, 95, 156, 157, 225
Fox, gray, 225
Fraxinus Americana, o16, 219; Caro-
liniana, 90, 138; profunda, 90
Free range, 141, 142, (285, 288)
Freezes, 196, 235, 241, 261
French Canadians, 235, 239
French immigrants, 108, 235, 236
French mulberry, ioo, o16, 116
Fresh marshes, 138, 200
Frogs, 230
Frost, 84, 149, 194, 196
Fuel, IoI, 127, 221
Fuirena scirpoidea, 126
Fullers' earth, 26-27
Fungi, 78
"Gainesville" soils, 97, 105, 114, 146,
172, 174, 176, i8o, 182, 183


Galactia Elliottii, 126, 139
Gallberry, 90, 94, 100, n16, 123, 125, 133,
139, 222
Garberia, 125, 126
Gas plants, 281
Gelsemium, 9o,. Io, io6, 115, 133, 140
Geniuses, 198
Geomys, 226, (See Salamander)
Georgia, 16, 17, 59, io8, 114, 117, 140,
171, 175, 207, 209, 212 226, 236,
247, 248
Germans, Germany, 101, io8, 127, 150,
232, 235, 236, 239
Glass sand, 159
Gnaphalium purpureum, io6, 116
Gnats, 232, 245
Goats, 222, 262, 279, 280
Gophers (Gopherus), 173, 179, 180, 230
Gordonia, 124, 126, 133, 138, 141, 212,'
G. A. R. men (141)
Grapefruit, 93, 102, 11n, 118, 129, 135,
136, 143, 153, 276, 277
Grapes (cultivated), 136; (wild), ioo,
139, 215
Grasses, 86, 91, io6, 134, 139, 178, 179,
200, 202, 209, 222
Grassy dunes, 200
Gravel, 30-31
Grazing, 94, 113, (117), 137, (138), 141,
202, 206, 222, 258, (288)
Great auk, 229
Greeks, IoI, 134, 149, 233, 236
Greek Church, 256, 257
Green Springs (130), 168
Greene, E. P., photograph by, 96
Groceries bought by farmers, 244, 280
Growing season (84, 150), 194, 195
Guano, bird, 91, 229, 230
Guavas, 136, 153
Guinea-fowl, 263
Gulf Hammock, 87, 89, 177
Gum (See Black, Red, Sour, Sweet)
Gumbo-limbo, 206
Gypsum, 89, 124, 159


Hackberry, go, io6, 115, 175, 190, 215,
Haines City, 127
Haiti, 228
Hammocks, 81-138, 154, 159, 175, 205-
Hampers, 220
Hardpan, 176
Hard-rock phosphate, 28, 29, 95, 157,
158, 282, 283
Hard water (95), 159, 167
Hardwoods, 114, 220, 221
Harris, G. D., 119
Haw, red, Ioo, io6
Hawks Park (Volusia Co.), 150
Hay, 93, 102, 103, no, 118, 129, 135,
136, 143, 153, 276, 277
Heath family, 94, Ioo, (107, 126), 134,
(139, 140)
Heath vegetation, 209
.Heating devices for orchards, 196
Hebard, M., 231
Heimburger, L., work of, 77, 189, 191
Helena Run, 169
Helianthus Radula, ioo, 116, 126, 134,
Hernando County, 88, 89, 91, 112-118,
168. 175, 206 (See also Brooksville,
"Hernando" soils, 89, 97, 114, 176
Herpetologists, 223
Hickory, 81, 86, 99, 105, io6, 115, 124,
138, 148, 175, i8o, 187, 217, 219
Hicoria alba, 99, 06, 126, (175, 18o, 187),
219; glabra, 86, 99, io6, 115, 124, 138,
148, 219
Hides, 279
Highest hill in Florida, 81, 120, 161,
High hammocks, 105, (III), 183, 215
High pine land, 97-99, 105, 121, 124, 132,
173, 174, 208-209
Hilgard, E. W., 187, 188, 193, 194



Hillsborough County, 81, 95, 97, 130,
132, 134, 135, 156, 236, 255-257, 266,
278, 281 (See also Plant City, Port
Tampa, Tampa, West Tampa, Ybor
Hillsborough River, 169
Hodge, C. F., work of, 232
Hogs, 102, 103, In, 117, 153, 222, 258-
273, 285
Holly, Ioo, io6, 115, 222
Holly Hill (Volusia Co.), 150
Homosassa, 89, 91, 163, 206; River, 89,
Honey, 94, Ilo, 127, 149, 153, 207, 212,
222, 278-280
Honeysuckle, 116
Hoosier Spring, 168
Hopkins, O. B., work of, 16-17
Horses, 222, 226, 273; fossil, 157
Horse-wicky (See Hurrah bush)
Hotels, 81, 150, 241-244
Houstonia rotundifolia, io6, 116
Huckleberry, 90, 94, Ioo, 116, 125, 133,
139, 148, 222
Human society analogous to vegetation,
Humus, 147, 165, 172-175, 177, 179, 214
Hurrah bush, 90, 94, 125, 133, 139, 148
Hurricanes, 197
Hyacinth, water, 91, Ioo, 125, 199
Hydraulic mining, 157
Hydro-electric power, 88, 169
Hypericum fasciculatum., 90, 94, Ioo,
125, 126, 133, 139, 141


Ice factories, 221, 281
Ichthyologists, 223, (231)
Ilex Cassine, 125, 138, 141; glabra, 90,
94, 100, 116, (123), 125, 133, 139;
opaca, 1oo, io6, 115, (214); vomi-
toria, 86, io6
Illinois, tourists from, 244
Illiteracy (91), io8, 116, 127, 134, 150-
151, 239, 245-248, 252, 267, 272, 274
Ilmenite, 27

Immigrants, immigration (108, 117, 127,
149-150), 236-239, 248, 259
Impoverishment of soil, 258
Income from tourists, 244
Indiana, tourists from, 244
Indian River, 137, 143, 144, 149, 165,
203, 205, 206, 231
Indians, 165, (235), 288
Indigo, 151
Infusorial earth, 119 (See also Dia-
Inglis (Levy Co.), 282, 283
Insects, 224, 230-232, 288
Intensive farming, 150, 151, 266, (267),
Inverness, 195
Iowa, 244, 253, 286, 288
Ipoinoea Pes-Caprae, 86
Iris versivolor, 91, 139
Irishmen, o08, 127, 150, 235, 236, 239
Irish potatoes, 102, 103, Ino, 118, 129,
135, 136, 143, 153, 276, 277
Iron, iron ore. 158, 176, I8o, 217
Iron Mountain (Polk Co.), (81), 119,
120, 161
Ironwood, go, io6, 115, 125, 133, 190
Irrigation, 176
Islands, 84, 99, 143
Italians, Iol, oS8, 150, 236, 239
Itea, 90
Iva, 148
Ivy, poison, 90, ioo, io6, 115, 125, 133,
139, 148


Jack pine, 209, 211
Jackson County, 30, (161)
Japan, Japanese, 129, 232
Japanese persimmons, 153
Jaybird, 228
Jessamine, yellow, 90, Ioo, io6, 115, 133
Jews, 1o8
Jones, E. Z., 223
Juncus Roemerianus, 86, 91, 133, 140,
148, 179
Junipetus, 86, 90, 133, 140, 148, 219



Kansas, automobiles in, 286
Kaolin, 25, 119, 158
Kemp, J. F., 147
Kentuckians, 236, 244
Kindergartens, 252
Kissimmee, 141, 170, 195, 240, 243, 283
Kissimmee prairies, 138, 203-204, 228;
River, 136, 138, 141, 166, 203, 228,
Kissingen Spring, 130
Kitchen middens, 165 (See Shell
Kuhiiistera, Ioo, 125, 133, 140
Kumquats, 129


Labor on farms, cost of, 261-269
Laborers, semi-skilled, 239, 282; skilled,
282; unskilled, 116, 222, 235, 248
Lacoochee (Pasco Co.), 163
Lagoons, 144, 164, 179, 283
Laguncularia, 86, 205,
Lake Alfred, 122
Lake Apopka, 166, 199
Lake basins, 79, 95, 98, 113, 124, 162
Lake County, 25, 81, 119, 121, 123, 125,
127, 128, 161, 169, 201, 210, 233, 259,
283 (See also Astor, Clermont,
Eustis, Fort Mason, Leesburg,
Montverde, Mt. Dora, Okahump-
ka, Sorrento, Tavares, Umatilla)
Lake Eustis, 283
Lake George, 121, 163, 166
Lake Harney, 166, 170, 203
Lake Harris, 169
Lake Helen (town), 127, 159, 165, 243
Lake Jessup, 178
Lake Kissimmee, 166
Lakeland, 127, 240, 243
Lake margin prairies, 202
Lake Monroe, 123, 170 -
Lake Panasoffkee, 178
Lake shore vegetation, 81, 200
Lake Tohopekaliga, 137, 203

Lake Tsala Apopka, 203, 204
Lake Wales (town), 119
Lake Weir, 165, 167
Lakes, 81, 95, 97, 105, 113, 121. 122, 138.
162, 165-167
Largo (Pinellas Co.), 134
Latin races, 238, 247, 257
Laundries, 235, 281
Lawrence, Mass., 239
Leaching of soil, 200, 229, 230
Leesburg, 127, 222, 240, 243, 282
Leguminosae, leguminous plants, 94, Iot.
S107, 126, 140 (See also Cassia, Cer-
cis, Chantaccrista, Erythrina, Galac-
tia, Kuhnistera, Lupinus, Psoralca,
Lemons, 129
"Leon" soils, 89, 93, 97, 99, 105, 114, 130,
131, 171, 173, 176
Lettuce, 93, 103, 110, 129, 136, 153, 175
Levy County, 84, 87, 89, 91, 93, o10, 102,
177 (See also Bronson Cedar Keys,
Gulf Hammock, Inglis, Levyville,
Rosewood, Williston)
Levyville, 158
Library of Survey, 11
Lichens, 78
Lima beans, 153
Lime, limestone, 27, 87-89, 93, 95, 104,
119, 120, 156, 158, 162, 163, 169, 173,
174, 177, 179, 203, 215 (See also Cal-
careous soils)
Lime-sinks, 95, 111-113, 121, 162, 163
Lin, 90, io6, 115, 190, 219
Liquidambar, 90, 99, io6, (112, 114), 115,
124, 126, (132), 133, 138, 140, (175,
180, 187, 190), 219
Live oak 86-138, 148, 187, 215, 219 (See
Quercus geminiata and Virginiaina)
Loafers, 198
Locomotive fuel, 221
Loess, 174
Logging, 208 (See Lumber)
Long Island (N. Y.), 201, 212
Long Key (Pinellas Co.), 84-86, 189, 19o,
205, 206 ,



Long-leaf pine, 90-148, (173), 187, 190,
209, 217, 219, 221, 284 (See Pinus
Louisiana, 211, 212, 222
Lowell, Mass, 239
Lower Cretaceous strata, 17
Lowering of lakes, 166
Low hammocks, 81, 89, io6, 143, 177, 213,
Lue Gim Gong (128-129)
Lumber, lumbering, 94, IoI, 102, 107,
(127), 134, 149, 207, 209, 219
Lupine (Lupinus diffusus), Ioo, 125,
126, 133, 140

McIntosh (Marion Co.), io8, 175
Macadam roads, 286
Mackerel, 231
Maine, tourists from, 244
Magnolia, 187, 215 (See also M grand-
Magnolia glauca, 90, 94, 100 S 115, 125,
126, 133, 138, 140, 148, 202, 212, 219;
grandiflora, 90, 99, io6, 115, 124, 133,
138, 140, 148, (187, 215), 219
Maiden cane, 122, 125, 133, 200
Malaria, 149, 231
Mammals, 224-226
Manatee (Manatus), 226
Manganese in soil, 188
Mangrove (black, red or white), 84 86
148, 205, 222
Mangrove swamps, 84, 147, 200, 205
Manufacturing, 235
Maple, (219) ; red, 90, 94, 99, 124, T33.
138. 148, (212), 219
Maps. topographic, 12-14, 161
Marginal vegetation, 200, 201
Marion County, 81, 104, 107-110, l-24.
157, 163, 167, 177, 190, 207, 2i5-2r7.
236, 258, 275 (See also Anthony,
Belleview, Burbank, Citra, Dun-
nellon, Fairfield, McIntosh, Ocila.
Reddick, Rockwell, Silver Spring)
Mariscus, 200 (See Cladium)

Marl, marly soils, 119, 124, 136, 159, 175,
177, 285, 286
Marshes, 84, 88, 90, 167, 178, 179, 200-202
Massachusetts, 239, (243), 244
Mastic (tree), 206
Mastodon (fossil), 157, 226
Matson, G. C., 119, 158, 165
Mattresses, moss, 107, 222
Median size of farms, 275
Medicinal springs, 168
Melbourne, 150, 163, 243
MIelbourne Beach, 146, (147), 243
Mental exertion, 285
Merritt's Island, 143, 144, 146, 147, 149,
177, 195, 196, 206
Mesosphaerum rugosum, 91
Methodists, 92, 102, io8, 117, 127, 141,
151, 253, 256, 257
Mexicans, Mexico, 232, 236
Mice (wild), 225
Michigan, 209, 224, 244, 284
Middle Florida defined, 75
Migration of birds, 224, 227; of negroes,
io8, 235, 241
Milk, 1no, 153, 278-280
Miller, G. S:, Jr., 225
Mineral production in 1918, 25-32
Mineral springs or water, 31-32, 130
Mining, 102 (See Phosphate)
Mining districts, illiteracy in, 247
Minks, 225
Minnesota, tourists from, 244
Minorcans, 149-151
Miocene strata, 33, 36-38, 43-45, 47-52,
54-58, 63, 119, 156
Mirror Lake, III, 113
Mississippi, 156, 174, 207, 245
Missouri, tourists from, 244
Mistletoe, ioo, io6, 116, 133, 222
Mitchella, 91, io6, 116
Mites, 232-233
Moles, 225
Mollusks, 165, 179, 233 (See Clam, Mus-
sel, Oyster, Shell)
Money, changes in value of, 9, 20, SI,
249, 262, 273
Monocotyledons, 199, 200, 202, 228


Montverde (Lake Co.), 173
Moore, C. B., work of, 288
Mosquitoes, 149, 2Io, 231-232
Mosquito County, Inlet, 232; Lagoon,
145, 232
Moss, Spanish (See SpaniSh moss, Til-
landsia usneoides)
Mosses, 78, I8o
Mount Dora (town), 127, 173, 243
Muck, 178, 179
Muddy water, 231
Muhlenbergia filipes, -86
Mulberry (Polk Co.), 134, 240
Mules, 273
Mullet, 231
Muscadine, Ioo, o16, 115, 125, 133, 148,
Museum of Survey, o1
Mussels, 167
Mutton, 278 (See Sheep)
Myrica cerifera and pumila (Myrtle),
86, 90, ioo, io6, 116, 125, 133, 139,
Nashua marl, 156
Natal grass, 129, 136
National Forest (Marion Co.), 82, 124
Natural bridges, 163
Natural race-course, 144
Naturalized foreigners, 238
Naval stores, 101, 134, 209, 219 (See also
Rosin, Turpentine)
Navigable waters, navigation, (88), 122,
144, 167-168, 179, 282-283
Negroes, foreign-born, 236; illiteracy
among, 246, 247, 272; in fertile re-
gions, Io8, 234, 264; migrations of,
Io8, 235, 241; percentage of, 234,
235, 241; religious denominations,
Negundo (See Acer Negundo)
Nesting birds, 224, 227, 228
Nettle family, 216
New Bedford, Mass., 239
New England, 124, 245
New Hampshire, tourists from, 244

New Jersey, 119, 209, 231, 239, 244
New Port Richey, 244
New Smyrna, 149, 150, 195, 240, 243
New York, 239, 244, 245
Newspapers, information from, 83, (127,
134, 141, 201), 225, (244), 274, 288
Non-alluvial swamps, 93, 124, 212
"Norfolk" soils, 89, 97, 99, 105, 114, 146,
171-173, 176, 182
North Carolina, 1o8, 117, 211, 214, 236
North Indian River, 145, 232
Northward migration of negroes, io8,
Norton, C. L., writings of, 161
Norwegians, 15o
Noted persons in central Florida, 254
Nymphaea macrophylla, 91, 94, (122),
.126, 139, 141
Nyssa biflora, 124, 126, 133, 138, 219


Oaks, 140, 208, 219 (See Black-jack,
Live, Post, Red, Scrub, Swamp
chestnut, Turkey, Water, White)
Oak runner, 90, 94, 133, 139
Oats, 93, 102, 103, 110, 276-278
Ocala, 82, (107), o18, III, 156, 158, 174,
175, 182, 190, 195, 196, 222, 240, 243,
266, 283
Ocala (limestone) formation, 7-19, 39,
53, 58-60, 104, 136, 156, 175
Occupations, classification of, 198
Ocklawaha River, 119, 122, 167, 170, 178,,
282, 283
Ocklawaha Valley R. R., 283
Oenothera humifusa, 86
Ohioans, 236, 244, 288
Oil (and gas) wells, .13, 14, 16o, 195
(See also Drilling)
Oil fuel on railroads, 221
Okefinokee Swamp, 19
Oklahoma, animals of, 288
Old fields, 79, 225
Oldsmar (Pinellas Co.), 134, 282
Oligocene strata, 38, 39, 51, 52, 60, 63,
95, III, 119,' 30, 156.



Onions, 136, 153
Open flatwoods, 131, 207
Oplismenus, io6
Opossum, 223, 225
Opuntia, 86, 203
Oranges, orange groves, 81, 93, 102, 103,
107, 1no, II8, 128, 129, 135, 141, 143,
149, 153, 173, 174, 213, 216, 221, 235,
248, 276, 277, 280
Orange City, 127, 195
Orange County, 119--121, 127, 128, 156.
167, 168, 281 (See also Apopka, Or-
lando, Taft, Winter Garden, Win-
ter Park)
Orange Lake, 104, 175
Orange Springs, 245
Orchard fruits, 259, 276, 277
Orchard heaters, 196
Orlando, 127, 240, 243
Ormond, 150, 225, 229, 243
Ormond Beach, 243
Ornithologists, 223, (227)
Osceola County, 137, 141-143, 203, 228,
249, 257, 259, 275, 281 (See also Kis-
simmee, St. Cloud)
Osmanthus, 90, 99, io6, 115, 125
Osmunda cinnamoinea, 126, 134, 139;
regalis, 126, 139
Ostrya, 90, io6, 115,
Otters, 224, 225
Owls, 228
Oysters, 84, 85, 87, 165, I79, 233, 258,

Pablo Beach, 27
"Palm Beach" soils, 146
Palmetto (See Cabbage, Dwarf, Saw)
Palms, 140 (See Sabal, Serenoa)
Palm savannas, 85, 146, 147, 177, 206
Palm Springs, 168
Palmetto fiber, 87, 221; flatwoods, 93,
132, 138, 207; prairies, 176; thick-
ets, 204
Panicum Combsii, 208; (digitarioides)
hemitonion, 125, 126, 133, 140, 200
Panthers, 225

Paper from saw-grass, 127, 201, 222, 282
Parasites, 198
Parictaria, 216
"Parkwood" soils, 89, 131, 146, 177, 178,
Paroquet, parrakeet, 223, 228
Parthenocissus, 90, io6, 125, 133, 140
Partridge pea, 86, loo, 116
Pasco County, 87, 91, III, 114, 116, 117,
*130-132, 134, 204, 207, 244, 253, 257,
259 (See also Blanton, Dade City,
Lacoochee, New Port Richey, St.
Leo, San Antonio, Zephyrhills)
Pass-a-Grille, 85, 86, 243, 245
Passerherbulus, 229
Pastoral stage of agriculture, 267
Pastures, pasturage, 79, 207, 222, 267
Paterson, N. J., 239
Pawpaw, 90, loo, 133, 139
Peace River, 132, 157, 163, 170, 174,
207, 215
Peaches, 102, 103, 118, 129, 136
Peanuts, 93, 102, 103, 10o, 118, 129, 136,
Pears, 102, 103, 129
Peat, 27-28, 8i, 119, 124, 136, 156, 159,
167, 170, 178, 200-202, 281
Peat prairies, 81, 124, 202; soils, 170
Pebble phosphate, 29, 130, 157, 158, 190,
Pecans, 103, 136
Pencil wood, 87
Peninsulas, 99, 124
Pennsylvania, tourists from, 244
Peppers, 129, 136, 153.
Perennial herbs, 209
Periodicals, 287
Persea Borbonia, 99, io6, 115, 187; hu-
milis, 125, 126; littoralis, 86; pubes-
cens, 90, 133, 138, 212
Persimmon, 79, 1oo, 115
Persons, A. A., work of, 188
Peru, Peruvian guano, 229, 230
Petroleum (See Oil)
Phoradendron, 1oo, io6, 116, 133, 140


Phosphate deposits, mining, rock, etc.,
28-30, 81, 95, oI1, 102, 116, 130, 156-
158, 169, 174, 209, 225, 230, 231, 234,
282, 283, 285
Phosphatic soils, phosphorus in soils,
126, 132, 138, 140, 170, 174, 217
Phragniites, 201
Piaropus, 91, Ioo, 126, (199)
Pieris nitida, 90, 94, 125, 126, 133, 139,
141, 148
Pierson (Volusia Co.), 288
Pigeon plum, 206 /
Piles, piling, 221
Pin-down, 126, 139
Pineapples, 143, 153, 172
Pine-barrens of New Jersey, 209
Pinellas County, 84, 85, 87, 95, 102, 130,
132, 134, 164, 168, 178, 189, 205, 242,
253 (See also Clearwater, Dunedin,
Espiritu Santo, Largo, Long Key,
Oldsmar, Pass-a-Grille, St. Peters-
burg, Sutherland, Tarpon Springs)
Pines, 107, 122, 127, 140, 172-174, 176,
219, 281 (See also Black, Long-
leaf, Short-leaf, Slash, Spruce pine)
Pine-straw roads, 81, 221, 285
Pinus Caribaea, 86, 90, 124, 126, 131,
132, 138, 140, (147), 148, 207, (208),
2ii, 219; clausa, 86, 90, (98), 99,
124, 126, 132, 138, 141, (145), 148,
(i86), 210, 219, Elliottii, 90, c4,
124, 126, 132, (136), 138, 140, 211,
219; palustris, 90, 94, (97, 98), 99,
(loi), 106, 115, (121, 123), 124,
132, (137, 138), 143, (147), 148,
(173, 187, 190, 191), 219; serotina,
94, 124, 126, 138, 141, 148, 207, 219;
Taeda, (81), 90, 99, io6, 112, 114,
115, 124, (175, 177, 184), 219
Piper, C. V., work of, 208
Pistia, 91, (199)
Pitcher-plant, 94, 203, 207
Pithlachascootee River, 204
Plantations, 109, 141, 258
Plant City, 134, 135, 195, 240, 243
Plant names, treatment of, 80

Plate rock phosphate, 157
Plautus imrpennis, 229
Pleistocene strata, 36, 136, 143, 156, 165,
Pliocene strata, 36, 95, 119, 130, 156,
157, 226
"Plummer" soils, 131
Plums, 103, 136
Poison ivy, go, ioo, lo6, 115, 125, 133,
139, 148
Poison oak, 1oo
Polecats, 225
Poles (cypress), 212, 221
Polk County, 81, 119, 120-122, 125, 130,
132, 134, 141, 161, 203, 208, 228, 281
(See also Auburndale, Bartow,
Florence Villa, Fort Meade, Haines
City, Iron MIountain, Lakeland,
Lake Wales, Mulberry, Peace Riv-
er, Winter Haven)
Polygala cymnosa, 94, 139, 141; Rugelii,
134, 139, 141
Polypodium polypodioides, 91, II6
Pompano (fish), 231
Pond cypress, 90, 94, 99, 124, (130, 131),
132, (136), 138, (140), 178, 211,
212, 219, 221
Ponds, 93, 95, 130, 167, 178
Pontederia, 91, 94, 116, 125, 126, 133,
139, 140, 199, 200
Poor grub, 94, 125, 133, 139, 148
Population, information about, 80, 234-
Porcelain clay, 158 (See Kaolin)
Port Orange, 150
Port Tampa, 134, 240
"Portsmouth" soils, 89, 114, 130-131,
146, 174, 176, 183
Possum (See Opossum)
Possum haw, 133
Post oak, 1oo
Posts, 221
Potamogeton, 199
Potash, potassium, in soils or ferti-
lizers, 126, 172, 178-180, 193, 217
Potatoes (See Irish, Sweet)
Poultry, Ino, (153), 278-280



Power-houses, 88, 169
Prairies, 81, 132, 137, 138, 140, 171, 178,
190, 202-204, 207, 228
Presbyterians, 92, 102, o08, 117, 127,
141, 151, 253, 256
Preserves, 282
Prickly ash,'go
Prickly pear, 86, 203
Primitive Baptists, 92, 127, 141, 256
Printing offices, 281
Private schools, 253
Prohibitionists, 257
Protestant Episcopalians, 256 (See
Prunus geniculata, 125, 126; umbellata,
Psoralea canescens, 100, 126
Pteris aquilina, 1oo, o16, 116, 126, 148
Pterocaulon, 91, 94, 1oo, 115, 125, 133,
139, 148
Publications of the Survey, 5-8
Pumps, 159
Putnam County, 25

'Quail, 224
Quantitative studies of plants and ani-
mals, 223
Quarries, 104, 158
Queen's delight, Ioo
Quercus aquatica (See Q. nigra) ; brev-
ifolia (See cinerea) ; Catesbaei, 90,
94, 99, oo, 115, 125, 133, 138, 140,
148, (174)'; Chaplliani, 100, 125;
cinera, go, 99, 125, 133, 138, 140,
148, (174) ; digitata (See next) ;
falcata, 99, (105), 106, (III, 115),
126, (i8o, 187, 190, 191), 219;
geminata, 86, 90, 97, 99, 115,
125, 133, 138, 148; hybrida, go,
133, 219; laurifolia, 99, io6, 115,
124, 126, 133, 140, 187, 219; Mar-
garetta, Ioo, 126; Michauxii, 90,
io6, 115, 187, 219; minima, 90, 94,
133, 139; myrtifolia, 86, 90, Ioo,
125, 139, 141, 148, 204; nigra, 90, io6,
115, 124, 133, 140, 219; pumila, 133.

140; Schneckii, 219; Virginiana, 86,
90, 99, 106, (114); 115, 124, 126, 133,
138, 140, 148 (187), 219


Rabbits (wild), 225
Race-course, natural, 144
Raccoons, 165, 224, 225
Rail fences, 221
Railroad ballast, 30
Railroads, 76, 258, 283-284
Ranches, 81, 141, 152, 275
R)rids in streams, 169
Rattan vine, 90, 125, 132
Rats, 225
Red bay, 86 90, 99, io6, 115, 125, 133,
138, (187), 219
Redbud, io6, (126)
Redbugs, 232-233
Red clay soils, 170
Reddick (Marion Co.), io8
Red gum (See Sweet gum)
Red haw, Ioo, io6
Red mangrove, 84, 86, 205
Red maple, 90, 94, 99, ,124, 133, 138.
148, 219
Red oak, 99, io5, io6, III, 115, 18o, 187,
190. 191, 216, 219
Red oak-woods, 105, 18o, 187
Red snapper, 231
Reed-grass, 201
Reese, A. M., work of, 230
Rehn, J. A. G., work of, 231
Religious statistics, 255-257
Reptiles, 230
Republicans, 257
Residual soil, 173
Revenue from tourists, 244
Reversible streams, 169
Rhinoceros (fossil), 226
Rhizophora (84), 86, 205
Rhoads, S. N., work of, 225
Rhodes, Harrison, 242
Rhus copallina, Ioo, 125, 148; radicans.
90, ioo, io6, 115, 125, 133, 139, 140,
148; Toxicodendron, 1oo


Rhynchospora miliacea, 91
Rice, 136, 277 *
Rivers, 81, 138, 168-170, 282-283-
Roaches, 232
Roads, road materials, 27, 30, 81, 84,
119, 137, 147, 156, 158, 165, 199, 221,
Robertson, Mrs, L. B., 9, 21-24
Rock outcrops, 87-89, 177
Rock roads, 81, 285
Rock Spring, 119, 120, 156, 168
Rockledge (Brevard Co.), 186, 243
Rockwell (Marion Co.), 195
Rocky shoals, 88, 169
Rodents (225), 226
Rollins College, 253
Roman Catholics, o08, 117, 127, 141, 151,
-256, 257
Roofs, thatched, 221
Rosa palustris (wild rose), 90
Rosemary, Ioo, 125, 133, 139, 148
Rosewood (Levy Co.), 221
Rosin, 221
Roumanians, 236
Rubber tree, 206
Rubus trivialis, 115
Runs, 168, 169, 282
Rushes, 86, 91, 133, 148, 179, 200
Russians, o18, 150, 236, 239

Sabal glabra, 90, 125, (132) ; Palmetto,
(85), 86, 90, 99, io6, (107, 123), 124,
(132), 133, 140-141, (144, 146), 148,
(177, 184), 219
Sabbatia grandiflora, 139, 141
Sage, 116
Sagittaria, 199; lancifolia, 91, 126, 134,
140, 148, 199, 200
St. Cloud, 141, 240, 243
St. John's River, 119, 122, 123, 136, 156,
166, 170, 203, 282, 283
St. Leo (Pasco Co.), (117), 195, 253
"St. Lucie" soils, 97, 99, 114, 131, 146,
147, 172
St. Martin's Keys, 84-

St. Petersburg, 134, 163, 240, 242-244,
287, 288
Salamanders, 81, 164, 173, 175, 176, 179,
18o, 225, 226, 230
Salicornia, 148
Salix longipes, 90, 1oo, 125, 133, 138,
140, 148
Salt marshes, 84, 88, 132, 147, 179, 200,
"Salt sickness," 208
Salt springs, water, wells, 136, 159, 168,
179, 203
Salvia lyrata, 116
Samphire, 148
San Antonio (117), 130
Sand and gravel,. 30-31
Sand-bars, 165
Sand-clay roads, 285, 286
Sand-flies, 232
Sand-hills, 209
Sand-lime brick, 31, 159
Sand myrtle, 90, 94, 100, 125, 133, 139
Sand-soaks, 178, 203
Sandstone. 104, 119
Sandy hammocks, 105, 124, 173, 214-215
Sanford (city), 123, 127, 240, 282
Sanford, S., work of, 165
Sarracenia minor, 94, .139, 141, 203
Sauurus, 91, 126, 133, 140
Savannas, 85. 146, 147, 177, 206
Sawdust roads, 285
Saw-grass, 91, ioo, 124, 125, 127, 133,
139, 148, 200-202, 222, 282
Saw-grass marshes, 124, 127, 200-202,
Saw-palmetto, 86-147, 172, 176, 177, 190,
203, 204, 207, 222
Saw-palmetto thickets, (146), 204
Scaevola, 86
Scenery, 121, 127
Schools, 239, 248-253
Schwarz, E. A., work of, 231
Scirpus, 199
Scorpions, 233
Scotchmen, io8, 127, 150, 235, 236
"Scranton" soils, 131



Scrub, 98, 99, 105, 114, 115, 121, 122,
124, 132, 138, 140, 147, 154, 164,' 171,
172, 184, 186, 189, 204, 209-211
Scrub oak, 86, 90, ioo, 125, 139, 148, 171
Scrub thickets, 204
Scuppernongs, 136
Seaboard Air Line Ry, 87, 283
Seabreeze (Volusia Co.), 150, 243
Sea-cow, 226
Sea-grape, 86
Sea Horse Key, 84
Sea-island cotton, 102, Ino, 118, 129
Sea-oats, 86, 146, 2oo
Seaside sparrow, 229
Sedges, 91, ioo, 124, 126, 139, 200, 284
(See also Cladimn, Dichromena.
Eleocharis, Fuirena, Rhynchospora,
Scirpus, Stenophyllus)
Sellards, E. H., 9, 20, 83, 113, 144, 158,
166, 171, (i88), 225
Semi-calcareous hammocks, 105, 174,
Seminole County. 119, 127, 167, 168,
213 (See also Lake Jessup Palm
Springs, Sanford)
Seminole Spring, 168
Semi-skilled laborers, 239, 282
Scnccio lobatus, '91
Serenoa, 86, 90, 94, Ioo, io6, 115, 116,
(123), 125, 126, (132), 133, (137),
139, 141, (146, 147), 148, (203)
Scricocarpus bifoliatus, Ioo, 116, 148
Seton, E. T., writings of, 226
Shaler, N. S., work of, 161, 162
Shallow prairies, 203
Sharks (fossil), 157, 231
Sheep, 113, 152, 202, 222, 273, 278-280
Shells, 143, .147, 179, 224, 225
Shell marl, 156
Shell mounds, 95, 144, 147, 165, 179, 205,
285, 288
Shell roads, 81, 233, 285
Shingles '(cypress), 212, 221
Ship-building, 282
Shoals, 88, 169
Shore vegetation, 200

Short-leaf pine (Pinus Taeda), 81, 9o,
99, 105, io6, 112, 114, 115, 124, 175,
177, 184, 214, 217, 219
Shrews, 225
Shrinkage of dollar (See Money)
Sideroxylon, 206
Silk, Iog
Silver Spring, 96, 97, 167, 168, 222, 245,
282, 283
Size of farms, variations in, 274-275,
Skilled laborers, 282
Skunks, 224, 225
Slash pine (two species), 86, 90, 94,
124, 131, 132, 136, 138, 140, 147,
148, 207, 208, 211, 212, 219
Slaves, 109, 258, 259
Sloth (fossil), 226
Small, J. K., work of, 163, 228
Smilax auriculata, 86, ioo, 125, 126, 148;
lanceolata, io6, laurifolia, 90, 94,
125, 126, 133, 139; pumila, io6, 116;
WValteri, 94
Smith, Eugene A., work of, 115, 119,
161, 187, 209
Snakes, 210, 230
Socialists, 257
Soft phosphate, 29, 157, 158
Soil surveys, 76, 77, 171-183, 288
Solidago fistulosa, 148
Solution topography, 95, 162
Sophora toicntosa, 86
Sorghum, 153
Sorrento (Lake Co.), 168
Sour gum (Nyssa?), 187
South Carolina, o08, 117, 144, 236
South Dakota, 288
Southern College, 253
Spaniards (149), 236
Spanish bayonet, 86
Spanish mackerel, 231
Spanish moss, 91, 94, Ioo, io6, 107, 116,
125, 133, 139, 148, 174, 222, 282
Sparkleberry 86, 99, Io6, 115
Sparrow, dusky seaside, 229
Spartina Bakeri, 91, Ioo, 125, 126, 133,
139, 141, 146, 148, 206; glabra, 86,


Speotyto, 228
Spongers, sponges, 87, 91, Io0, 102, 233
Sporobolus gracilis, 134, 140
Sportsmen, 87, (223, 228)
Springs, II, 31-32, 89, 96, 97, 119, 167-
Spruce, 211
Spruce pine (Pinus clausa), 86, 90, (98),
99, 124, 132, 138, 145, 147, 148, 186,
210, 219
Squashes, 103, 1no, 129
Squirrels, 224, 225
Stalactites, stalagmites, 163
Standards of civilization or living, 238,
248, 267, 272, 273, 280
Statistics of topography, 160
Stegomyia, 232
Stenophyllus Warei, 100, 126
Stetson University, 253
Stillingia aquatica, 133, 140; sylvatica,
Stone, R. W., 159
Stone walls, 81
Storms (197), 227 -
Strawberries, I18, 135, 136, 143, 153,
276, 277
Streams, classification of, 168; meas-
urement of, II
String beans, 93, 103, 11o, 118, 129, 136,
Subterranean animals, 162, (172), 173,
(176, 179), 18o, (225) -
Subterranean channels or streams, 104,
163, 167
Succession of vegetation, 154
Suction pumps, 159
Sugar, sugar-cane, syrup; 81, 93, 102,
103, 109, (119, 118), 129, (135, 136,
143, 153), 276, 277
Sugar Loaf Mountain (Lake Co.), 121
Sulphur Spring (Hillsborough Co.),
Sulphurous water, 144, 159, 167. 168
Sumac, 100, 125, 148
Summer farewell, 100, 125, 133
Summer resorts, 245

Sumter County, 16, 81, 87, 88, 91-93,
159, 16o, 169, 207, 213, 266 (See also
Bushnell, Center Hill, Coleman
Sumterville, Webster, Wildwood)
Sumterville, 156, 163, 169
Suwannee River, 88
Swamp chestnut oak, go, (io6, 115, 219)
Swamps, 132, 167, 178, 212, 213
Swedes, 101, o18, 127, '150, 235, 236
Sweet gum, 19o, 199, io6, 112, 114, 115,
124, 132, 133, 138, 175, 18o, 187,
190, 216, 217, 219
Sweet potatoes, 93, 102, 103, 110, ii8, 129,
135, 136, 143, 153, 276, 277
Swiss in Florida, 150, 236
Switch-grass, 91, Ioo, 125, 133, 139, 146,
148, 2o6
Syngonanthus, 94, 126, 133, 139
Syrians in Florida, 236
Syrup, 93, Ino, 118, 129, 135, 136, 143,
153, 276, 277

Taft (Orange Co.), 141
Tampa, 95, 134, 135, 169, 195, 235-238,
240, 242, (252), 255-257, (266), 281,
282, 287
Tampa (limestone), formation, 38, 63,
95, 156
Tampa & Gulf Coast, Tampa & Jack-
sonville, and Tampa Northern R.
R.s, 283
Tanbark, 205
Tapir (fossil), 226
Tarpon fishing, 231
Tarpon Springs, 84, 91 Io1, 102, 134, 156,
163, 195, 233, 240, 243, 257
Taxodium ascendens, 211 ; distichuim,
90, 99, 124, 126, 133, 138, 140, (212),
213, 219; imnbricarium, 90, 94, 99,
124, (130, 131), 132, 138, 140, 211,
Tavares, 127, 243
Tavares & Gulf R. R., 283
Tea, 109
Teachers, 249. 250
Temperature of springs, 168



Tennessee, tourists from, 244
Tent colonies, 241, 244
Tenure of farms, 260-273
Terraces, 165
Testudo Polyphemus (230)
Texas, 9, II9
Thatched roofs, 221
Thickets, 204-205
Ticks, 233
Tide, 144, I79
Tilia, 90, io6, 115, (190), 219
Tillandsia fasciculata, 134, 139, 141; re-
curvata, 133, 139, 141; tenuifolia,
91, 116, 133, 139, 140; usneoides,
91, 94, Ioo, io6, (Io7), 116, 125, 133,
139, 140, 148
Timber, 213 (See Lumber)
"Tin-can tourists," 244
Titanium, 27
Titusville, 149, 150, 195, 221, 229, 231,
240, 243
Tomatoes, 93, 103, 11o, 129, 135-136,
Topographic mapping, 12-14
Topography, statistics of, 16o
Tornadoes, 197
Tourists, 87, 150, 241-244, 286, 287
Tractors, 273, 282
Trichechus Manatus, 226
Trilisa odoratissima, 222
Tropical hammocks, 147, 179, 205-206
Truck-farming, 81, 129, 141, 143, 177,
Tubiflora, 91, io6, 116
Turbid streams, 169
Turkey-berry, 91, io6, 116
Turkey-oak, 90, 99, 125, 133, 138, 148,
174, 208
Turkeys. wild, 223, 224
Turks in Florida, 236
Turnbull, Andrew, 149-151
Turnbull Hammock, 144, (151)
Turpentine, turpentine stills, 81, 94, 107,
127. 149, 207, 209, 220, 248, 281
Turtles, 230
Ulmus alata, 115, 219; Floridana, 90,
115, 133, 140, 219

Umatilla (Lake Co.), 127
Underground water, 95
Unio Cunninghalii, 167
Uniola paniculata, 86, (146), 200
Union veterans, 141
U. S. Bureau of Soils, 171, 18o; De-
partment of Agriculture, 224, 232,
233; Geological Survey, 12-14,
16, 17, 19, 28, 119, 161, 165, 169;
Weather Bureau, 77, 194
Unskilled laborers, 116, 222, 235, 248
Upland cotton, 103, no, 118, I29
Urtica chamaedryoides, 216


Vacciniiii nitidum, 90, 94, Ioo, 116, 125,
126, 133, 139, 148
Vallisneria, 199
Veatch, J. 0., 171
Vegetables, 80, 93, 102, 1no, 118, 129,
135, 143, 153, 172, 175, 18o, 221, 276,
277, 280
Vegetation, classification of, 78, 197;
importance of, 77
Velvet beans, 93, 103, 1no, 118, 136, 143,
Veneers, 220
Vertebrate fossils, 157
[Viburnum nudum, 133, 140; obovatum,
90, 116, 133, 140; semitomentosum,
Vicksburg limestone, 156
Vines, 116, 140, 208, 211, 215, 222
Virginia, 108, 117, 236, 244
Virginia creeper, 90, io6, 125, 133
Visher, S. S., 288
Titis aestivalis, ioo, 126, 139, (215)
rotundifolia, ioo, io6, 115, 125, 133,
Volusia County, 119, 128, 136, 143-145,
149, 15o, 168, 203, 221, 222 (See
also Daytona. DeLand, DeLeon
Springs, Enterprise, Hawks Park.
Holly Hill. Lake Helen, New Smyr-
na, Ormond, Pierson, Port Orange,


Voters, 238, 257


Waccasassa River, 168
Wampee, 91, 94, 116, 125, 133, 139, 199,
Water hyacinth, 91, Ioo, 126, 199
Water lettuce, 91, 199
Water lily, 126, 199
Watermelons, 93, 103, 110, 118, 129, 136,
143, 153
Water oak, 90, io6, 115, 124, 133, 187,
Water power, 88-169
Water-softeners, 95, 159
Waves, 179
Way Key (Levy Co.), 85
Wax, 222 (See Beeswax)
Weasels, 225
VWeathering, 157, (173)
Webber, H. J., work of (235)
Webster (Sumter Co.), 92, 221
Weeds, 79, 107, 198, 202
Weekiwachee Spring, 168
Wekiva River and Spring, 167, 168, 213
Well drilling (See Drilling)
West Indians, 236
West Tampa, 134, 237, 238, 240, 257
West Virginia, tourists from, 244
Wet prairies, 178
Whales, 157, 226
White mangrove, 86, 205
White oak, 187, 219
White sand, 171, 176, 209, 210
Whitney (Lake Co.), 119, 158
Whitney, Milton, 180, 188
Who's Who in America, 254
Wild animals, 223-233
Wildcats, 224, 225
Wildcatting, 19
Wild fig, 206

Wild grape, 100, 139, (215)
\ild rose, 90
Wild smilax, 1o6
Wild turkeys, 223, 224
Wildwood, o10
Williams, J. L., work of, 209
Williston, 101
Willow, 90, 100, 125, 133, 138, 148
Wind, 121, 162, 164, 179
Winter Garden, 127
Winter Haven, 127, 240, 243
Winter Park, 127, 243, 253
Winter resorts, 150, 240-245
Wire-grass, 91, 94, 1oo, 101, o16, 116,
125, 133, 148, 187
Wisconsin, tourists from, 244
Withlacoochee River, 87, 88, 91, 93, iii,
169, 170, 282, 283
Wolves, 225
Women, percentage of, 235, (250)
Wool, 110, 278, 279
World Almanac (New York), 161
World War (103), 157, 248
Wyman, Jeffries, work of, 288

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, 148
Ximenia, 148
Xolis;a (See Cholisma)

Yaupon, 86, io6
Ybor City, 237, 238
Yellow fever, 232
Yellow jessamine, 90, ioo, io6, 115, 133
Yucca aloifolia, 86

Zephyrhills (Pasco Co.), 117, 240
Zircon, 27
Zoologists, 223, (288)


Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00013
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: 1922-1923
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
oclc - 1332249
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00013
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Front Matter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Administrative report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Mineral production in Florida during 1921 and 1922
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    A contribution to the late tertiary and quaternary paleontology of Northeastern Florida
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
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    A preliminary report on the clays of Florida
        Page 53
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
        Page 271
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Full Text




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Administrative Report .. 5

Introduction . 5

New Survey Quarters 6

Work of the Survey . 6
Administrative 6
Bureau of Information . 6
Preparation of Reports . 7

Publications of the Survey . .. 7

Plans of the Survey . 8

Limestones and Marls 8
Peat ................ 8

Geography of Southern Florida 8

Expenditures of the Survey 9

Mineral Production in Florida during 1921 and 1922 . 14

A Contribution to the late Tertiary and Quaternary Paleontology
of Northeastern Florida, by Wendell C. Mansfield . .. 25

A Preliminary Report on the Clays of Florida, by Olin G. Bell 53

Index . .. 261


To His Excellency, Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida:
Sir:-I have the honor to submit herewith the Fifteenth Annual
Report of the State Geologist. In addition to the Administrative Report,
which contains a statement of the expenditures of the Survey from
January 1, 1922, to July 1, 1923, and a statistical summary of the mineral
industries for the years 1921 and 1922, it contains a paper on the paleon-
.tology of northeastern Florida by Wendell C. Mansfield of the United
States Geological Survey, and a report on the clays of Florida by Olin
G. Bell of Cornell University.
In the preparation of the report on clays most of the counties were
visited and from many of them samples were obtained. Owing to
limited time for field work and to the'finances of the Survey, it was not
possible to collect as many samples as we would have liked, or to make
chemical analyses. The investigation thus far conducted, however, shows
that the State has large quantities of clay suitable for the manufacture of
common building brick, drain tile, building tile and earthenware. The
very plastic ball clays are admirably adapted to the manufacture of
high-grade porcelain when mixed with less plastic clays.
With the decreased output of lumber in Florida and the consequent
rise in price, there comes an increasing demand for the more durable
building materials. Clay must enter more largely into the manufacture
of brick and building tile in this State and it is not improbable that it
will be used in the manufacture of cement. Economic and industrial
conditions point to a constant development of the clay industry.
It is hoped that this report may be the means of stimulating the
clay industries already established and promote the bringing of others
to the State.
The uniformly cordial interest that you have shown toward the
work of this Department is appreciated.
Very respectfully,
State Geologist.
November, 1923.


The Florida State Geological Survey was created by an Act of the
Legislature of 1907. The Act provided for the appointment of a State
Geologist, and specified his duties; it detailed the object of the Survey,
and appropriated $7,500 a year for its maintenance.
The Act establishing the Survey has in no wise been changed until
by the Legislature of 1923. During the session of 1921 an Act was
passed creating a Budget Commission for the State of Florida. This Act
made it the duty of each of the State Departments to submit an estimate
of the amount needed for the two-year period beginning July 1st, 1923.
The appropriation for the. maintenance of the Survey as effected by
the Appropriation Bill was increased from $7,500 annually to $10,345.
Since the publication of the Fourteenth Annual report the Geologi-
cal Survey's force has been, in addition to the State Geologist, Mr.
M. K. Cooke, Assistant, whose services terminated November 1, 1922.
Mr. Olin G. Bell was "employed as special or temporary assistant during
the three-month summer period of 1922, which time was spent in the field
preparatory to the report on the clays of Florida comprised in this
volume. Mr. Strauss L. Lloyd also rendered a few day's special service
to the field party while investigating the clays of Hernando and Citrus
counties. Sam E. Cobb, Jr.,. was employed temporarily and rendered
assistance in cataloging specimens and other general office work. Mrs.
Mabel Lee rendered half-time service as stenographer from September,
1922, to March, 1923.



Upon completion of the addition to the Capitol Building the Survey
was provided space on the south side of the lower floor of the west
extension. In its new location the Survey has one room 27 by 33 feet,
which is used for displaying geological material and for the library.
Connected with this are two rooms, the one used as office of the State
Geologist, while the other is for the Secretary. Additional room is
needed, particularly for the purpose of mailing and for the purpose
of storage. The exhibition room is likewise too small, since there is
scarcely any space for additional exhibition cases.


Administrative:-The work of the State Geologist has consisted
of making plans for proposed investigations, correspondence and con-
ferences relating to their carrying out, the obtaining of bids for the pur-
chase of supplies and of printing reports, the care of the Survey prop-
erty, the supervision of work in progress and of printing and distribu-
tion of reports, and in attendance to the usual correspondence of the
During the years the Survey has been organized no special appro-
priation for the employment of a Secretary-stenographer was made.
As a consequence during much of the time no regular stenographic
service, however much needed, has been rendered the Survey. By pro-
vision of the Legislature of 19'23, effective July 1, 1923, the Survey
will have the services of a full-time stenographer.
Bureau of Information:-A large part of the time of the State
Geologist is taken up in answering personal and written inquiries of all
kinds regarding the mineral and natural resources of the State. These
come from private landowners, prospective citizens, investors, railways,
cities, commercial bodies, teachers, students, and in fact, from all classes
of people, both citizens and non-residents. This work is considered an
important function of the Survey and replies are made as full and
explicit as possible. When necessary, printed reports are sent in addi-
tion. The Survey has embraced the opportunities for building up new
enterprises and to get before the public data relative to the State's


Preparation of Reports:-Upon completion of the field work, a
large amount of office and laboratory work is necessary in order to
get a report upon a given subject in shape for the press. In the case of
the present report on the clays, much detailed laboratory work was
necessary in order to get the results of the physical and burning tests
of the several samples. Chemical analyses are frequently made and
maps and drawings are prepared to show the location of the deposits,
and the arrangement or order of the manuscript must be considered,
as well as the final proof reading while going through the press. The
illustrations of the reports, too, are selected with care and aid in visual-
izing the occurrence and preparation of the natural product for the
Publications of the Survey:-The results of the investigations by the
Survey are issued in the form of annual reports. These reports are issued
as a whole volume and also the papers making up the volume are bound
separately. By this method anyone interested only in some particular
subject treated in the whole report can obtain it by getting only the
separate paper. These reports are distributed free to all residents and
to all boards of trade or corresponding bodies in the State, and to the
libraries of the State and to certain exchange libraries of the United
States and foreign countries. Requests for Rublications from residents
of States other than Florida should be accompanied with postage. In
addition to the annual reports the Survey has issued two bulletins and
twelve press bulletins. A complete list of the reports so far issued by the
Survey may be had by writing the State Geologist, Tallahassee.



In planning for field work regard is paid to the following: The
request for information along any given line and information ob-
tained about resources that apparently offer opportunities of develop-
ment. Thus the present report on the clays, it is thought, is very timely.
It is planned to follow this with a report on the limestones and marls.
Upon the completion of this, information would be in hand relative to
the cement resource possibilities of the State.
Peat:-A preliminary report on the peat deposits of the State was
published by the Survey in 1910, but the edition is now exhausted. Re-
quests are regularly being received for information, particularly as to
the fuel value of our peat bogs. Investigation and report upon the peat
deposits of the State with particular reference to their fuel value should
be made. There are known to be beds of peat in Florida that might
prove of large value to local industries in this respect. Their location,
extent and value should be determined.
Geography of Southern Florida:-The report on the geography of
Central Florida, in the Thirteenth Annual Report, has supplied just the
information many persons have wanted. Work is now in progress on a
similar report for Southern Florida.


JANUARY 1, 1922, TO JULY 1, 1923
Thie following itemized list shows the expenditures of the Survey
from January 1, 1922, to July 1, 1923. The total annual appropriation
during this period was $7,500. With the exception of the salary of the
State Geologist, which amount is fixed by statute, all accounts are ap-
proved by the Governor and are paid only by warrant drawn upon
the State Treasurer by the Comptroller, no part of the fund being
handled direct by the State Geologist. All original bills and itemized
expense accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller, duplicate
copies being retained in the office of the State Geologist.

JANUARY, 1922.
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary ... ................................. $ 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses ................................... 21.55
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage .............................. 55.52
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, rent for January............................. 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co., rent...................... 3.50
Yeager-Rhodes Hardware Co., supplies ........................... 2.65
Economic Geology Publishing Co.................................... 4.00
American Railway Express Co .................................. 1.15
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses..........................$ 85.49
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary..................................... 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses.................................. 18.75
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage ............................... 48.80
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..... ..................... ..... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
American Railway Express Co...................... ............. 2.39
MARCH, 1922.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March
31, 1922... .................................................. $ 625.00
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary .................................... 125.00
E. H. Sellards, field expenses ..................................... 94.00
Sam Cobb, services February and March ........................... 14.25
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
American Railway Express Co.................................... 1.45
W. H. May, postmaster, stamps and post-office box rent.............. 21.50
W. C. Dixon,. drayage .......................................... 1.75
T. J. Appleyard, letter heads .................................... 4.50
Yeager-Rhodes, Hardware Co., supplies ........................... 1.65
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies .................................... 2.36
Fielder & Allen Co., supplies ............ .. ....... .................. 14.00
D. C. Heath & Co .............. ............................... 12.00


APRIL, 1922.
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary ................................... $ 125.00
M K. Cooke, assistant, expenses .................................. 25.69
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage ............................... 72.00
Sam Cobb, services................................................ 8.50
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
American Railway Express Co.................................... 3.71
Ellis, Curtis & Kooker, maps of Florida ........................... 1.67
Wrigley Engraving & Electrotype Co............................. 16.65

MAY, 1922.
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary ....................................$ 125.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
W. H. May, postmaster, stamps .................................. 50.00
Grant Furniture Co., letter folders................................. 2.50
Wrigley Photo Engraving Corp.................................. 4.75
Commercial Fertilizer, subscription............................... 2.00
University of Chicago Press....................................... 3.60
McGraw-Hill Book Co .................... ...................... 6.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ............................ 3.50
American Railway Express Co.................................... .93

JUNE, 1922.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June
31, 1922...................................................... $ 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses.......................... 28.73
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary..................................... 125.00
M K. Cooke, assistant, expenses .................................. 68.61
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage.............................. 121.00
Olin G. Bell, assistant, salary June 13-30........................... 120.00
Olin G. Bell, assistant, expenses................................ .. 86.72
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
Western Union Telegraph Co.................................... 2.28
Alford Brothers, camp supplies................................... 3.50
T. J. Appleyard, letter heads and envelopes......................... 15.50
Milton A. Smith, 2,000 report cards............................... 9.00
Brock-Sharp Machinery Co., field equipment........................ 12.44
Smedley & Rogers Hardware Co., field equipment ................... 5.00
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies................................... 9.43

JULY, 1922.
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary ....................................$ 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses.................................. 94.20
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage.............................. 196.80
Olin G. Bell, assistant, salary.................................... 200.00
Olin G. Bell, assistant, expenses..... .. .... ...... .... 147.11
L. B. Marshall, copying mineral tabulations......................... 15.25
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent....................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ............................ 3.50


City Transfer Co., Tampa, packing, shipping clay samples...........$ 8.00
American Railway Express Co................................... 4.29
W H. M ay, postmaster, stamps ................................... 25.00
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage............................... 1.47
The Record Co., Columbia envelopes............................... 30.75
Millhiser Bag Co., cloth bags..................................... 35.97

AUGUST, 1922.
M K. Cooke, assistant, salary .....................................$ 125.00
M. K. Cooke, assistant, expenses.................................... 107.85
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage............................... 219.50
Olin G. Bell, assistant, salary ..................................... 200.00
Olin G. Bell, assistant, expenses................................... 122.69
Strauss L. Lloyd, services ..................................... ... 23.00
Mrs. Lila B. Robertson, special services ............................ 30.00
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
American Railway Express Co.................................... 30.57
Yeager-Rhodes Hardware Co., supplies ............................ 1.85
W. C. Dixon, freight and drayage ................................. 19.91
Kite Transfer, freight and drayage clay samples.................... 18.92
The Record Co................................................... 15.00

Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending September
30, 1922...................................................... $ 625.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses........................ 12.20
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary ................................... 125.00
M K. Cooke, assistant, expenses .................................. 6.25
M. K. Cooke, assistant, auto mileage ............................... 30.14
Olin G. Bell, assistant, salary, September 1-12, inclusive............. 80.00
Olin G. Bell, assistant, expenses ....................... .......... 28.23
Mrs. Mabel Lee, stenographic services............................. 27.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ............................... ........ 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent....................... ................. 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50
Hill's Transfer, drayage......................................... 2.00
Charles W illiams, supplies ....................................... 1.75
American Railway Express Co.................................... 2.46
W. H. May, postmaster .......................................... 31.50
Kite Transfer, freight and drayage ................................ 11.00
H. & W B. Drew Co., supplies .................................... 1.84
Ivan Allen-M marshall Co., supplies ................................ 12.40
The Record Co., printing ........................... .............. 836.75
The Crystal Pharmacy, photo supplies ............................. 6.74

OCTOBER, 1922.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ..........................$ 175.06
M. K. Cooke, assistant, salary. .................................. 125.00
Mrs. Mabel Lee, stenographic services........................ ...... 30.00
Fred Collins, janitor services .................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent..................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ........................... 3.50


W. C, Dixon, freight and drayage ...............................$ 8.50
A. Hoen & Co., geologic map .................................... 640.00
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., book .................................. 3.00
Leslie Tyler, freight and drayage ................................. 32.12
W. H. May, postmaster ......................................... 25.00
H. R. Kaufman, typewriter repair and supplies ...................... 1.75
American Railway Express Co .................................... 15.45
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, October salary ....................$ 208.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary........................... 208.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ......................... 32.82
M rs. M abel Lee, stenographic services............................ 30.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ............................ 3.50
Grant Furniture Co., supplies .................................... 2.50
Leslie Tyler, freight and drayage ................................ 68.82
Engineering & Mining Journal-Press, subscription .................. 4.00
John W iley & Sons, publication: .................................... 3.50
The Science Press, publication .................................. 10.00
University of Chicago Press, publication ............................ 2.10
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ............................$ 208.34
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses........................ 102.84
M rs. M abel Lee, stenographic services............................. 30.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent...................................... 41.66
Southern Telephone & Construction Co. ............................ 3.50
W. H. May, postmaster ........................................ 26.50
T. J. Appleyard, stationery ........................................ 8.75
American Railway Express Co.................................... 3.29
American Peat Society, subscription................................. 5.00
American Philosophical Society .................................... 2.08
The Ora Neff Co., supplies........................................ 3.86
JANUARY, 1923.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ...........................$ 208.33
Mrs. Mabel Lee, stenographic services ............ .................. 40.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
George B. Perkins, office rent ..................................... 41.66
Grant Furniture Co., supplies.................................... 5.25
American Railway Express Co................................... 2.35
Doubleday, Page & Co., publications............... ................ 10.00
W S. Brown, compass............................................ 2.11
Warren K. Moorehead, publications ................................ 9.18
Dixon's Transfer, moving office and museum supplies................ 61.00
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ..........................$ 208.33
Mrs. Mabel Lee, stenographic services............................. 40.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
Grant Furniture Co., supplies.................................. 2.50
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................ 3.25
Weekly Naval Stores Review, publication ........................ 3.25
Economic Geology Publishing Co., subscription. ................... 4.00


MARCH, 1923.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary............................$ 208.34
Mrs. Florence M. Epperson, special stenographic services ............ 13.00
Fred Collins, Janitor services..................................... 10.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co., balance on April ............ 1.00
W. H. May, postmaster............................................ 26.50
W. L. Marshall, repairs on shelving ............................... 4.00
American Railway Express Co..................................... 6.22
APRIL, 1923.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary............................$ 208.34
Mrs. Florence M. Epperson, special stenographic services ............ 7.80
Fred Collins, janitor services. ..................... ............. 10.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co ........................... 3.25
T. J. Appleyard, printing ....................................... 18.75
Commercial Fertilizer, subscription ................................. 2.00
MAY, 1923.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ............................$ 208.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ......................... 22.15
Southern Telephone & Construction Co ........................... 3.25
Fred Collins, janitor services ..................................... 10.00
T. J. Appleyard, envelopes, stationery, etc......................... 72.15
W. H. May, postmaster ........................................... 40.00
American Railway Express Co.................. ................ 3.78
Grant Furniture Co., 6 shades .................................... 42.00
University of Chicago Press, Journal of Geology ................... 3.60
Carnegie Institution of Washington, publication ................... 3.50
JUNE, 1923.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, salary ...........................$ 208.33
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, expenses ........................ 25.72
Sam E. Cobb, Jr., services......................................... 65.00
Fred Collins, janitor services ............. ........................ 10.00
Southern Telephone & Construction Co............................. 3.80
W. H. May, postmaster............................................ 51.50
State Road Department, blue printing .......... ................... 1.20
Underwood Typewriter Co., balance on new machine ................ 69.10
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Co., half-tones .......................... 234.93
D. A. Dixon Co., supplies.......................................... 13.40


DURING 1921 AND 1922

The total value of the minerals produced in Florida during 1921 was
$12,986,699. This represents a very decided decrease in total value of
production over that of 1920, the reduction being mainly accounted for
in the decreased output and value of phosphate. For 1922 the total
mineral production value reached $11,445,073. The continued slight
decrease in the production and value of phosphate was somewhat offset
by the increased production and value of all of the other mineral in-
dustries of the State.

This high-grade clay was discovered in Florida near Lake Eustis,
Lake County,* and Mr. Lawrence C. Johnson, of the United States
Geological Survey, is credited with first reporting its occurrence.t A
record of the beginning of mining is contained in the Mineral Resources
of the United States for the year 1893, page 614. An interesting fact
in this connection is that the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, of Me-
tuchen, N'. J., who were among the first to mine this clay in Florida, have
continued to mine through the intervening years and are heavily inter-
ested in properties in Putnam and Lake counties. Mining has been
carried on continuously since the year above mentioned and the ball
clay industry of Florida has continued to increase in importance.
The Florida ball clays mined at Edgar, Putnam County, and near
Leesburg, Lake County, are the purest found in this country. The clay
occurs intimately mixed with coarse sand and quartz pebbles, these latter
forming the larger percentage of the mass. The only treatment in the
process of refining is that of washing, which removes the sand and
*U. S. Geol. Surv., Min. Res. of the U. S., 1889 and 1890, p. 441, 1892.
tIbid, Min. Res., 1891, p. 507, 1893.


pebbles. The washed clay is shipped to northern potteries where it is
used in the manufacture of the higher grade of white wares. Although
produced commercially in only two counties of the State, these clays are
distributed through the central peninsular portion of Florida and to
some extent in northern and western Florida.
The value of the output is not given separately, but is included with
the total value of the mineral products of Florida. The following com-
panies operated in 1922:

Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J., and Edgar, Fla.
Florida China Clay Corp., 640 N. 13th St., Easton, Pa., and Leesburg, Fla.
Lake County Clay Co., Metuchen, N. J., and Okahumpka, Fla.


The greatly increased activity in building throughout the State is
reflected in the increase in production of brick and tile by the several
plants operating in Florida during 1921 and 1922. The total number of
common brick manufactured in Florida during the latter year, as re-
ported by the producers to the Florida Geological Survey, was 26,296,-
000. Two concerns report the production of face-brick and one the
manufacture of building tile. The total value of brick, tile and pottery
products in 19'22 is given at $207,449.
The following firms manufactured brick and tile during 1922:
v'Barrineau Bros., Quintette, Escambia County. *
vJ. M. & J. C. Craber, Campville, Alachua County.
.-E. M. Davis, Lawrence, Gadsden County, (P. O. Ocklocknee). -
kDolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia County. -
,,Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna, Jackson County. -
Gamble & Stockton Co., Jacksonville, Duval County.
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale, Walton County. -
rG. C. and G. H. Guilford, Blountstown, Calhoun County. "
vW. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Washington County. -
Hull & Cowan Co., Callahan, Nassau County. -
-Keystone Brick Co., Whitney, Lake County.
Morris-Blumer Co., Brooksville, Hernando County.
Y Tallahassee Pressed Brick Co., Havana, Gadsden County.-

There were two plants in Florida during 1922 that manufactured
decorated vases and other pottery. These were: The Graack Pottery,
Bradentown, and the Orlando Potteries, Orlando.



This material, deposits of which are located in Lake County and
mined several years ago near Eustis, has not been produced in Florida
for several years. Renewed activity in diatomaceous earth deposits of
Lake County is shown by the organization of The Florida Diatomite
Company, of Clermont. Samples of this earth have been received from
Mr. C. Lindley Wood, President of the company named, and from these
the material is shown to be of high quality. A small sample of both the
crude and the burned earth was submitted to Dr. Albert Mann, Dia-
tomist, Carnegie Institution, Washington, and the following paragraphs
are quoted by permission.*

"Your sample, when freed from organic matter, is a pure fresh-water diatom
material of recent origin, practically free from any clay, sand, iron or other deleteri-
ous material. The different species of diatoms composing it vary considerably in
size, contrasting thereby with such homogeneous diatom earths as those from Nevada,
etc. This may be an advantage or a disadvantage according to the commercial
purposes to which it is put.
"As the ratio of organic matter to diatom silica is unusually low I think it would
be a profitable substance to put on the market."


The demand for fuller's earth in 1922 was more active than during
the year 1921. The output of this product in 1922 was second only to
the output in 1920, th banner year of the fuller's earth industry in
Florida. According to published statistics by the United States Geologi-
cal Survey, Florida is credited with a production of 64,122 short tons,
valued at $1,122,940, or an average of $17.51 a ton.t According to the
same authority this was 46 per cent of the total output of this earth in
the United States and 49 per cent of the total value.
The following companies reported production of fuller's earth in

Attapulgus Clay Company, Ellenton, Manatee County.
Floridin Co., Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Gadsden County.
Manatee Fuller's Earth Corporation, Ellenton, Manatee County.
*Letter of Sept. 20, 1923.
tU. S. Geol. Surv, Min. Res., 1922, Pt. II, p. 70, 1923.


Ilmenite was recovered from the beach sands of the Atlantic Coast
at Mineral City, near Pablo Beach, Duval County, during 1922. Messrs.
Buckman and Pritchard, Inc., who formerly operated the plant, have
sold their interests to the National Lead Company of New York. The
output and value of ilmenite cannot be given separately without dis-
closing individual production, but it is included in the total of the State.

The increased activity in road building in Florida has resulted in a
largely increased output of limestone and crushed flint rock. The total
amount of limestone, as reported by the several producers, sold in Flor-
ida during 1922 was 656,910 tons valued at $622,378. The various
purposes for which this limestone was used were: road metal; railroad
ballast; agricultural purposes; rock for foundations, sea walls and simi-
lar work and other miscellaneous uses. To the above total should be
added the amount of lime and of crushed flint rock which brings tle
total production of limestone, quick-lime, hydrated lime and crushed
flint rock to 824,150 tons, valued at $857,913.
The companies operating in 1922 were:
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Brooksville Lime, Fertilizer and Crushed Rock Co., Brooksville.
Commercial Lime Company, Ocala and Reddick.
Crystal River Rock Co., Leesburg and Crystal River.
Cummer Lumber Co., Newberry and Kendrick.
Carl H. Fay, Cocoa.
Florida Hard Rock Corporation, Ocala.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
The Maule-Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Oakhurst Lime Company, Ocala.
Ocala Lime Rock Company, Ocala and Kendrick.
Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
F. F. Smith, Volusia.
State Road Department of Florida, Tallahassee and Pineola.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala.
Volusia Coquina Rock Company, Volusia.

There was only one plant that reported production of peat in Florida
for 1922. The use for which this peat was sold is reported as for fuel
purposes. The total production and value is included with the total for
the State. The operator reporting production was Mr. Robert Ranson,
St. Augustine.


The year 1920 is the record year for the phosphate industry both
in the quantity produced and in value. Following that year came one
of depression which was due largely to the European situation and pos-
sibly to some extent also to the large output during 1920. The total
shipment of phosphate during 1921 was 1,780,028 long tons with a total
valuation of $10,431,642. This is 1,589,356 long tons less than the out-
put for 1920 and a decrease in value of $9,032,720, or a reduction of
about 45 per cent in output and of about 46 per cent in value.
The year 1922 is marked by an increase in production of both the
hard rock and pebble rock varieties and with only a very small output
of soft phosphate. In value, however, there was a decided reduction.
The total shipments of phosphate from Florida for 1922 were 2,058,593
long tons valued at $8,347,522. This is an increase of 278,565 long tons
or about 14 per cent in production but a decrease in total value of
$2,084,120 or about 19 per cent.
The following table gives the production and value of the four
varieties of phosphate rock produced in Florida for the years 1900 to
1922, inclusive. Since the beginning of phosphate mining in 1888 to
the close of 1922 Florida has produced 44,078,519 long tons with a total
valuation of $175,097,242. These figures are in accordance with
statistics collected by the United States Geological Survey and the
Florida Geological Survey.
The chart on page 20, prepared by Dr. R. M. Harper, graphically
illustrates the production of phosphate in Florida from the beginning
of mining in 1888 to 1922. There is also indicated the causes of marked
decline in the production for certain years such as for instance, the freeze
of 1895, the panic of 1907, the-World War, 1914 to 1918, the strike in
the Florida pebble phosphate fields, 1919, and the depressed European
conditions following the World War, 1921 and 1922.









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Acme Phosphate Co. ................Morriston, Fla.
American Hard Rock Phosphate Co...Floral City, Fla.
American Agricultural Chemical Co...2 Rector St., New York, N.Y., and Pierce, Fla.
American Cyanamid Co..............511 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., and
Brewster, Fla.
Armour Fertilizer Works............209 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ill., and Bar-
tow, Fla.
Peter B. & Robert S. Bradley........92 State St., Boston, Mass., and Floral City,
J. Buttgenbach & Company........... 22 Ave. Marnix, Brussels, Belgium, and Dun-
nellon, Fla.
C. & J. Camp ......................Ocala, Fla.
Charleston, S. C., Mining & Manufac-
turing Co .........................Richmond, Va., and Fort Meade, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co...............99 John St., New York, N. Y., and Plant City,
Cummer Lumber Co................ 453 St. James Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla., and
Newberry, Fla.
Downing Phosphate Co., Lessee,
(Norfleet & Williams, Prop's) .......Newberry, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co.............106 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Dunnel-
lon, Fla.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corp.......P. O. Box 1118, Norfolk, Va., and Bartow,
Franklin Phosphate Co., (P. J. & J. H.
Norfleet, Lessees) .................Newberry, Fla.
Holder Phosphate Co.................3352 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio, and
Inverness, Fla.
Independent Chemical Co., Inc.......33 Pine St., New York, N. Y., and Bowling
Green, Fla.
International Agricultural Corp.......61 Broadway, New York, N. Y., and Mulber-
ry, Fla.
Loncala Phosphate Co............... Ocala and Floral City, Fla.
Mutual Mining Co...................102 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and Floral
City, Fla.
Morris Fertilizer Co ................801 Citizens & Southern Bank Bldg., Atlanta,
Ga., and Bartow, Fla.
Otis Phosphate Co., (P. J. & J. H.
Norfleet, Lessees) ................. Benotis, Fla.
Palmetto Phosphate Co...............2 Rector St., New York, N. Y., and Pierce,
Phosphate Mining Co................110 William St., New York, N. Y., and
Nichols, Fla.
Peninsular Phosphate Corp...........215 Fourth Ave, New York, N. Y., and Ft.
Meade, Fla.
Seminole Phosphate Co...............Croom, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Co...Inverness, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Corp............96 Wall St., New York, N. Y., and Mulberry,
Swift & Co........................Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill., and Bar-
tow, Fla.


The sand produced in Florida is used principally in building for
mixing in concrete and mortar. Other reported uses are, paving or road
making and engine sand. The gravel is reported as being used only for
paving and road making. The total production of sand and gravel in
1922 was 246,849 short tons, valued at $147,924.

Acme Sand Company, Leesburg.
Escambia Sand and Gravel Company, Flomaton, Ala., and Tarzan, Fla.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River and Leesburg.
Florida Gravel Company, Quincy and River Junction.
Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Weir Washed Sand Company, Ocala.
Leesburg Sand and Supply Company, Leesburg.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.
White Sand Company, Orlando.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala.


Two companies were actively engaged in the manufacture of sand-
lime brick in Florida during 1922. The production and value is included
in the table showing the total mineral production of the State for the
years 1921 and 1922. The companies reporting production were:

Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen.
Plant City Brick Company, Plant City and Tampa.


There was a decided increase in the output and in the total value
of mineral waters sold in 1922 over that of 1921. Sales were reported
from nine springs in the State and the total sales were 1,004,984 gallons
with a valuation of $57,305. Among the producers of mineral waters in
Florida are the following:

Name of Spring Location
Crystal Springs.....................Crystal Springs, Pasco County.
Espiritu Santo Springs ..............Safety Harbor, Pinellas County.
Elixir Springs......................Green Cove Springs, Clay County.
Flamingo Water Co.................Orange City, Volusia County.
Good Hope Mineral ............... Jacksonville, Duval County.
Gra-Rock Well ....................Miami, Dade County.
Heilbronn Springs................ ....Starke, Bradford County.
Purity Springs.................... ....Tampa, Hillsboro County.
Panacea Mineral Springs.............Panacea, Wakulla County.
Wekiva Springs .....................Apopka, Orange County.
Hampton Springs...................Hampton Springs, Taylor County.
Newport Springs...................Newport, Wakulla County.
White Sulphur Springs..............White Springs, Hamilton County.
Wi-Wauchula Springs...............Jacksonville, Duval County.


1921 1922
Mineral Product -
_____________ Quantity Value Quantity Value

Phosphate (Long tons)
Land pebble ...................... 1,599,835 $ 8,604,818 1,870,063 $ 7,035,821
Hard rock ........................ 175,774 1,806,671 188,084 1,308,201
Soft rock .......................... 4,419 20,153 446 3,500

Total Phosphates .............. 1,780,028 10,431,642 2,058,593 8,347,522
Ball Clay, Fuller's Earth, Peat, Zir-
con, Ilmenite (Short tons) .......... 86,294 1,504,574 107,684 1,666,260
Lime, Limestone and Flint (Short tons) 589,359 638,272 824,150 857,913
Common Brick, Pottery, Tile and
Sand-Lime Brick ................... ......... 286,522 ......... 368,149
Sand and Gravel (Short tons)........ 160,445 97,324 246,849 147,924
Mineral Waters (Gallons) ............ 321,472 28,365 1,004,984 57,305

Total Value .................. $12,986,699 $11,445,073






*** *..... .-*.. .. .
.* *** -. "* *. . ..
..*.* ..*.*..* S.. .

.* *.-...........
* *.* .o

*Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey.


Introduction .
Sources of the fossil material .
Faunal list and distribution of species from all localities .

Nashua marl .
Name and original description
Lists of species from the Nashua marl
Age of the Nashua marl .

Miocene at Kissimmee .
Late Pliocene or early Pleistocene deposits .
Pleistocene deposits .

. 29-35
. 29-31
. 31-34
. 34-35

. 35-37
. 37-40
. 40-42

Comments on faunas from formerly reported localities 40-41
New lists of species from two localities .. 41-42

Correlation table .. 43
List of stations with age assignments . 44
Descriptions of new species .. .. 45-48
Illustrations . 49-51




After examining the molluscan fauna from the Pliocene calcareous
marls in the vicinity of DeLand, Florida,1 a more extensive comparison
of this fauna and other faunas in northeastern Florida with that at the
type locality of the Nashua marl seemed desirable.
At some of the localities considered in this paper the number of rep-
resentative forms is small and at other localities many of the fossils are
broken. It is hoped that future work in this field may supplement these
Although some of the results obtained are not altogether conclusive,
it is believed that an advance is made in the study of the relationship of
the molluscan faunas of this part of the State.

IFla. State Geol. Survey, 11th Ann. Rept., pp. 111-123, 1918.


The collections considered in this paper are in the U. S. National
Museum, and were made by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan of the U. S. Geol.
Survey, Dr. E. H. Sellards, then State Geologist of Florida, and Messrs.
Geo. C. Matson, Frederick G. Clapp, and Otto Veatch.
Most of the material was collected in Putnam and Volusia counties;
but one collection came from St. Mary's River at the north, three from
the vicinity of Kissimmee, Osceola County, and four from localities
along the Atlantic coast, between Daytona and Eau Gallie.
A few species from DeLeon Springs were determined by Dr. Wm.
H. Dall, and are mentioned in his comprehensive work on the Tertiary
fauna of Florida1. Specific identifications of many of the fossils were
made by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, and listed in the Second Annual
Report of the Florida Geological Survey, 1909. In working over the
material, some of the specific identifications were changed, others
queried, and some unidentified forms determined.
The following are the fossil localities considered in this paper; each
collection has been given a U. S. Geological Survey station number
which precedes the description of the locality:
4837-Two miles southeast of Eau Gallie, on peninsula south of point of Merritt's
Island, Fla. Geo. C. Matson, collector.
4865-River bank, Y4-mile south of Nashua, Putnam Co., Fla., fossils from 15 ft.
of white shell marl. F. G. Clapp, collector. (Type locality of the Nashua
4866-One-half mile above A. C. L. R. R. bridge over the St. Johns River, Putnam
Co.; vertical cliff three to eight feet above high-water level. F. G. Clapp,
5003-In a ditch 4 miles west of Eau Gallie, Brevard Co., Fla. Geo. C. Matson,
5008-East side of St. Johns River, five miles below the Sanford railroad bridge,
Volusia Co., Fla. Geo. C. Matson, collector.
5009-East side of St. Johns River, 7 miles below the Sanford railroad bridge,
Volusia Co., Fla. Geo. C. Matson, collector.
5010-About half a mile south of DeLeon Springs station, Volusia Co., Fla. Eleven
to seventeen feet below the surface. F. G. Clapp, collector.
5011-Half a mile north of R. R. station, Orange City, Volusia Co., Fla. F. G. Clapp,
5012-Seven miles west of Titusville, Brevard Co., Fla. Geo. C. Matson, collector.
5016-Deep well at Kissimmee, Osceola Co., Fla. Fossils obtained at a depth
of 65 to 100 feet. C. O. Newlands (driller).
5017-Near Michael's marlpit, one mile south of point, Daytona, Volusia Co.,
Fla. Geo. C. Matson, collector.
5019-A quarter of a mile south of railroad station, Orange City, Fla. Thirteen
feet below surface. F. G. Clapp, collector.

'Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. III, 1890-1903.

o:ff i 1 T I|
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u +4. . . 4.4.... :+::: + ::: :+ :: : 4. . 4.. 4. .. +4. +4+ 4.4: : + 4 :+

S887,. Eau Galle, 2 ml. SE. of
4865, Nashua. ~% mi. S. of
486,. Above A. C. L. bridge
I008. Eau Gallie. 4 mi. W. of

... ........... .. .".' ....... .. ..4.4 ... 4.. 4.4. .4 . . . .4..4 .... ..... 4 .4.4 ................ ... ... ...4.... ... .

S.... .. ........................ ...................................... .... .. ........ ...... .01. DeLeon Spring i. S. of
...I 4 + + :: :::++ +~ : : : : : : : : : : : : : :: : : : : *-+: : : + + + i i : i 6010, 7 ml b elon otr R brid e

. .:.. . . . + . . . . . . +4 + + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sp. .
Earlier collectiono from DeoLon Springs

. .. .+ + +. 012. Titusville, 7 mi. W. of
+ . . .. +.. .+. . . . . . . .4.. + +. +4. +. +** 1016. Well, Kilasimmre
:.: 4 + ~:~ ~ 6011 Orn. C.t ... .i 4o 5017, Daytona
. .~ : : : +~. :.: + : . . . . ..: .. 5019, Orange City R. R. Sta.. mi. S. of
.. . . . + +: .. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : +: : : : : : + + + : 6 Well, Ksllimmee

'+ .+ +: + .. .. +: + + ++ + 6 DeLand towerbeda
: + + : + + : : ::: : :::::::: :: : + +: +: : :: : + : + 8 e nd, l erbed

.... ...... .. . . . ..... . . . .. .. :
+ +: : : + +: : : : : : : : : : : +: : : : +: : : : +: : : + + +: +: +: : : : : : + + +: : + +: : : + + +: : +: : : : : : +: : : + +: +: : : + +: + : : : : : : : : +: : : : +: : +: +: +: : : : : : +: : : : : : : : : n + + + +: +: + + +: : : : + + 869 DeLand, up rbed

+4 + +. .44+. 4 + ++ +4 + + + .. .. + + + + .. + + + + + + +. 4 4+ + .....+ + +++ +. + +++++. +4+ + + + +. ++ + *+ +4 +. +++ + ++++ Pl..i..cene a

+ --++-: --- -+--++-++++++ +- ++ +- ++' ++++- + + ++-- +++ +- +- + + + -+++--++-- -- -+. ++ . + ++. *-- --. '. ++++++++ +. -- +- ++ + +' +- ++ ++'+ '-++-+-- '+++ ++++++' + +++ + Rent -
...... ...... ...... ... ... . . + ++.. . . . .. .

+ +: ++ ++ : 0 +: +: +: + +:
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S + + + + +: + +: + + ++ + + + ++ +++ + + +: +. +. +.+ + + +: ++. +: +++ .. ... . . .: : : +: ++: : +: + + : +: +++++ ++ + + + + + ++ + + . . . +++++ + +en
44. 4 . 4. ..+ + + + + + + + + + 4 4 ++ + : ++ + : + + + 4 + + .+ .4. 4 4* 4 4 4 4 . 4 . 4. j +
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5143-Well at Kissimmee, Osceola Co., Fla., depth 96 feet from surface. T. W.
Vaughan, collector.
5144-From well of Mary Boss, on island in Lake Tohopekaliga, about three miles
from Kissimmee, Fla., depth 150 feet. T. W. Vaughan, collector.
5634-From lower marl stratum at city marlpit about one mile south of DeLand,
Volusia Co., Fla. E. H. Sellards, collector.
5869-From upper marl stratum at city marlpit, about one mile south of DeLand,
Volusia Co., Fla. E. H. Sellards, collector.
6096-6097-Half a mile above A. C. L. R. R. bridge over St. Johns River, Putnam
Co., Fla., 5 to 7 ft. below the surface and the same distance above high-water
level. F. G. Clapp, collector.
7056-Rose Bluff, Nassau Co., Fla., opposite to and four miles southwest of St.
Mary's, Camden Co., Ga. Otto Veatch, collector.


The name Nashua marl was proposed by G. C. Matson and F. G.
Clapp' who give the following description:
"During the progress of the field work for this report, collections
of fossils were obtained which indicate that Pliocene marls are
extensively developed in the valley of the St. Johns River, and a bed of
similar marl near Daytona has been referred to the same period. These
beds have certain faunal elements which distinguish them from the
other Pliocene beds of Florida; and, hence, they are given a distinct
name. They are here designated the Nashua marl, from a locality on the
St. Johns River, where they are best exposed. Further study may result
in uniting all of the marine Pliocene of Florida under a single name;
but for the present it appears desirable to avoid hasty correlation by the
use of local names for the beds of different localities, especially where
conditions governing deposition appear to have been unlike.
"Stratigraphic Position:-The Nashua marl is thought to rest un-
conformably upon the Miocene at DeLand; but this opinion lacks con-
firmation, as the collections from that locality have not been studied in
sufficient detail to determine the exact age of the beds. At various
localities, the contact between this formation and the overlying Pleisto-
cene sand has been observed and it is everywhere marked by a distinct
unconformity. The Pleistocene beds rest upon an undulating surface
of the Nashua marl, which is clearly due to erosion, and the contrast

IMatson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G. A preliminary report of the geology of Flor-
ida with special reference to the stratigraphy. Fla. State Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann.
Report, pp. 128-130, 1909.


between the fossiliferous marl and the overlying barren sands helps to
emphasize the break between the two.
"Lithologic Character:-The Nashua marl bears a strong lithologic
resemblance to the Caloosahatchee marl. There is the same alternation
of sand beds with shell marl. The matrix of the Nashua marl, while
usually calcareous, is always more or less sandy and sometimes consists
of nearly pure 'sand. The shells are commonly well preserved though
locally a marl consisting of broken and eroded fragments of shells is
not uncommon. However, the organic remains are so well preserved that
it is easy to obtain good collections of fossils from this formation.
"Thickness:-The Nashua marl is much thinner than the Miocene
strata. This fact, together with its distribution beneath the lowlands near
the coast, indicates that the Pliocene submergence was less extensive
than the Miocene; and the presence of shallow-water fossils shows that
the Pliocene sea did not attain any great depth over that part of the
State where the marine beds are now exposed. The Nashua marl is sel-
dom more than six or eight feet thick, but locally it attains a greater
thickness. A series of samples of sand and marl from a well at DeLand
indicates that at that locality this marl has a thickness of about thirty-
two feet.
"Physiographic Expression:-The Nashua marl occupies the St.
Johns Valley, where it underlies a broad terrace bordering the stream.
It probably occurs beneath the plain east of St. Johns River, but the
overlying Pleistocene forms such a thick mantle that the Nashua marl
has no influence on the topography. On the whole, this formation has
little or no influence on the topography of the State.
"Paleontologic Character:-The fauna of the N(ashua marl is only
imperfectly known, but it has been sufficiently studied to'show that it
resembles that of the Caloosahatchee marl. The most striking difference
between the faunas of the two formations is the existence of certain
species in the Nashua marl which occur in the 'Waccamaw' fauna of the
Carolinas, but are not known to be present in the Caloosahatchee marl.
This affinity with the fauna to the north suggests the existence of a cold
current along the Atlantic coast which permitted a southward migra-
tion of the 'Waccamaw' fauna. The lack of exposures in the south-
central portion of the peninsula prevents the tracing the connection


between the two formations and the determination of the limits of the
southward migration of the species from the 'Waccamaw' fauna.
"Structure:-The Nashua marl is exposed at only a few localities in
the St. Johns Valley and it is difficult to form any definite idea concern-
ing its structure. It has probably been subjected to the same deformation
as the Caloosahatchee marl, but the isolated exposures afford no oppor-
tunity to observe evidences of folding. The dip is doubtless seaward
and it is probably very slight.
"Local Details:-In the St. Johns Valley there are a number of
exposures of the Pliocene marl which have been designated the Nashua
marl. At the type locality, one-fourth mile south of Nashua, Putnam
County, there is an exposure of five feet of white sand, resting uncon-
formably upon about fifteen feet of white shell marl. .

4865.-A quarter of a mile south of Nashua, Putnam Co., Fla. (Type
locality of the Nashua marl). (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp,
F. G., Fla. Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rep't p. 130, 1909.)

Approved or Changed.
Terebra protexta (Conrad), not found.
Terebra dislocata (Say).
Terebra concava (Say), var. (?)
Conus marylandicus Green.
Oliva literate Lam'k.
Olivella mutica (Say).
Marginella limatula Conrad.
Marginella cf. M. floridana Dall.
Busycon maximum Conrad (?) (yo.).
Eupleura miocenica, var. near intermedia
Urosalpinx, near perrugatus Conrad.
Ilyanassa porcina (Say), var. (?)
Ilyanassa isogramma Dall (?)
Ilyanassa granifera, var. sexdentata
Ilyanassa porcina (Say), var.
Anachis avara, var. translirata Ravenel.
Cerithiopsis green C. B. Ads.
Crucibulum cf. C. auricula Gmelin (yo.).
Crepidula convexa Say, (?) (yo.).
Natica pusilla Say (?).
Littorina irrorata (Say).
Dentalium, near D. carolinense Conrad.
Arca (Noetia) limula, var. platyura

Terebra protexta Conrad.
Terebra dislocata Say.
Terebra concava Say.
Conus marylandicus Green.
Oliva literate Lamk.
Olivella mutica Say.
Marginella pardalis Dall.
Volutella amiantula Dall.
Fulgur maximum Conrad.
Eupleura miocenica var. intermedia
Murex pomum Linn.
Ilyanassa porcina Say.
Ilyanassa isogramma Dall.

Ilyanassa granifera Conrad.
Nassa scalaspira Dall.
Anachis avara var. caloosansis Dall.
Cerithiopsis green C. B. Ads.
Crucibulum auricula Gmelin.
Crepidula convexa Say.
Natica (Cryptonatica) pusilla Say.
Littorina irrorata Say.
Dentalium carolinense Conrad.
Area (Noetia) limula, var. platyura


Area, near A. campyla Dall.
Ostrea virginica Gmelin.
Pecten eboreus, var. solaroides Heilprin.
Anomia simplex Orbigny.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Crassinella dupliniana Dall.
Phacoides waccamawensis Dall.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Divaricella chipolana Dall, var. (?)
Area scalarina Heilprin.
Venus tridacnoides Lamarck. (?)
Dosinia elegans Conrad.
Chione cancellata Linne, not found.
Gemma magna Dall.
Gafrarium metastriatum (Conrad).
Mulinia, near M. caloosensis Dall.
Mulinia, near M. triquetra Conrad.
Corbula barrattiana C. B. Ads.

Area campyla Dall.
Ostrea virginica Gmelin.
Pecten madisonius Say.
Anomia simplex Orb.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Crassinella acuta Dall.
Phacoides tuomeyi Dall.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Davircella chipolana Dall, var. ?
Cardium robustum Sol.
Venus tridacnoides Lam.
Dosinia, young-D. elegans Conrad?
Chione cancellata Linn.
Gemma magna Dall.
Pitaria (?) Young.
Mulinia congesta Conrad.
Mulinia congesta var. triquetra Conrad.
Corbula cuneata Say.

Species not originally listed from this station:
Crepidula fornicata (Linne).
Ostrea sculpturata Conrad (?) (young).
Phacoides trisulcatus near var. multistriatus Conrad.
Corbula inaqualis Say, var. B.

Geologic horizon originally reported: Pliocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Pliocene.
5010.-Half a mile south of DeLeon Springs station, Volusia Co., Fla.
Eleven to seventeen feet below the surface (see Matson, G. C.,
and Clapp, F. G., 2nd Ann. Rep't Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909,
p. 132.)

Approved or Changed.
Marginella contract Conrad.
Terebra dislocata (Say) (?) (yo.).
Oliva literate Lamarck.
Melongena corona Gmelin (?) (yo.).
Crepidula convexa Say.
Crepidula aculeata Gmel.
Crepidula plana Say.
Cryptonatica pusilla Say (?)
Area transversa Say.
Area limula, var. platyura Dall.
Area limula, var. platyura Dall.
Area plicatura Conrad.
Pecten gibbus Linne.
Carditamera arata Conrad.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Phacoides multilineatus Tuomey and
Phacoides waccamawensis, delandensis
Phacoides radians Conrad.
Cardium robustum Solander.

Marginella contract Conrad.
Terebra dislocata Say.
Oliva literate Lam.
Melongena corona Gmel.
Crepidula convexa Say.
Crepidula aculeata Gmel.
Crepidula plana Say.
Cryptonatica pusilla Say.
Area transversa Say.
Area ponderosa Say.
Area limula,,var. platyura Dall.
Area plicatura Say.
Pecten gibbus Linn.
Carditamera arata Conrad.
Venericardia tridentata Say.

Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.

Phacoides waccamaensis Dall.
Phacoides radians Conrad.
Cardium robustum Solander.


Cardium isocardia Linne.
Venus rileyi Conrad.
Chione cancellata Linne.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Corbula inaequalis Say (2 vars.).

Cardium isocardia Linn.
Venus campechiensis Gmel.
Chione cancellata Linn.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Corbula inequalis Say.

Other species not originally reported from this station are:

Mangilia cerina Kurtz and Stimpson.
Olivella mutica (Say).
Marginella, near M. bella (Conrad).
Crepidula fornicata (Linne).
Rochefortia planulata Stimpson.
Gemma magna Dall. (?)
Mulinia contract ,(Conrad).

Geologic horizon originally reported: Pliocene.
Geologic horizon in this report: Pliocene (Nashua marl).

The following species are cited from DeLeon Springs with assigned
age by Dr. Wm. H. Dall, in the Transactions of the Wagner Free Insti-
tute of Science of Philadelphia, Vol. III:

Crepidula aculeata Gmel. ( (p. 357) ; Pliocene.
S(p. 1597) ; Miocene.
Ilyanassa isogramma Dall, (p. 239) ; Pliocene (?)
Littorina irrorata Say, (p. 320) ; Pliocene.
Carditamera arata Conrad, (p. 1414) ; Pliocene.
Carditamera arata Conrad, (p. 1597) ; Miocene.
Chama congregate Conrad, (p. 1400); Miocene.
Echinochama arcinella Linne, (p. 1597) ; Miocene.
Echinochama arcinella Linne, (p. 1612) ; Pliocene.

5019.-One-fourth of a mile south of the railroad station at Orange
City, Fla., basal member. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G.,
Fla. Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rep't, p. 149, 1909.)

Approved or Changed.
Melampus lineatus Say, var.
Terebra concava (Say), not found.
Olivella nitidula Dillwyn.
Oliva literate Lamarck.
Busycon maximum var. (yo.).
Litorina irrortata (Say).
Leda acuta (Conrad), var.
Area transversa Say.

Melampus lineatus Say.
Terebra concava Say.
Olivella mutica Say.
Oliva literate Lam.
Fulgur pyriformis Conrad.
Littorina irrorata Say.
Leda acuta Conrad.
Area transversa Say.

Other species from this station not listed with the above are:

Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Cardita arata (Conrad).
Phacoides multilineatus Tuomey and Holmes.


Phacoides waccamawensis delandensis Mansfield.
Gafrarium metastriatum (Conrad).
Gemma trigonia delandensis Mansfield.
Mulinia lateralis Say, (2 vars.)
Corbula inaqualis Say, (2 vars.)
Geologic horizon given with the original list: Pleistocene (?)
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Pliocene (Nashua

Following is a list of fossils collected by Mr. F. G. Clapp from one-
half mile north of the railroad station, Orange City, Fla.
Sta. No. 5011:
Terebra concava (Say).
Oliva literate Lam. var. (?)
Arca transversa Say (?)
Ostrea virginica Gmelin.
Venericardia perplana Conrad.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Venus rileyi Conrad.
Gemma trigona delandensis Mansfield.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Geologic horizon: Pliocene (Nashua marl).

Sta. No. 5869 (No. 3 of section) and 5634 (No. 1 of section). Marl-
pit about one mile south of DeLand, Volusia Co., Fla. (For original list
of species see Mansfield, W. C., Fla. State Geol. Survey, 11th Ann. Rep't,
pp. 113-115, 1918.)
Geologic horizon: Pliocene (Nashua marl).

The fossils from the type locality of the Nashua marl were identi-
fied by Dr. T. W. Vaughan, who makes the following statement1 in
referring to the geologic age: "Pliocene, [though] the presence of
Pecten madisonius suggests the presence of Mioce.:e in the same bluff.
The fauna has an additional interest in containing species found in the
'Waccamaw beds' but not in the Caloosahatchee." The present writer
believes this Pecten is P. eboreus var. solaroides Heilprin, a Pliocene
variety found in the Caloosahatchee marl. Another form is listed,
Mulinia congesta (Conrad), which is believed to be closely allied to
M. caloosaensis Dall. Even granting that this variable species (Mulinia

'Fla. State Geol. Survey, 2nd. Ann. Rep't, p. 130, 1909.


congesta) occurs in the Nashua marl, its presence has been reported
from the Croatan beds of Nbrth Carolina.
The close relationship of the fauna of the Nashua marl at its type
locality to that of the Waccamaw is indicated on the correlation sheet.
When 28 of the better preserved forms from the Nashua marl are com-
pared with other faunas, about 75 per cent occur in the Caloosahatchee,
and 57 per cent are represented in the Recent fauna. None are found to
be exclusively Miocene and five appear to be confined to the Pliocene.
The following three appear to be diagnostic Pliocene species,-Arca
limula var. platyura Dall, Arca scalarina Heilprin, and Phacoides
waccamawensis Dall, The conclusion deduced from the foregoing
facts places the Nashua marl at its type locality in the Pliocene, appar-
ently the basal Pliocene, and stratigraphically equivalent to the beds
referred to the Waccamaw marl in the Carolinas.
It is believed by the writer, relying upon data at hand, that no
faunas considered in this paper, excepting those in deep wells at or near
Kissimmee, are older than the Pliocene, and if the Miocene is present
in this area, it is found only in well borings. This belief is founded not
only upon the facies of the fauna, but upon the absence of diagnostic
Miocene species such as occur in known upper Miocene deposits of the
southeastern United States. The following five will be cited followed
by these indices of their occurrence:
A. Alum Bluff, Fla.-upper bed.
C. Coe's Mill, Fla.
D. Natural Well, or Duplin of N. C.
M. Dujlin at Mayesville, S. C.
J. Jackson Bluff, Fla.
T. Tallahassee, Fla. (16 mi. S. W.)
Area scalaris Conrad, A. C. D. M.
Phacoides tuomeyi Dall, C. D. M. J. T. (Reported in the Pliocene at Walker's
Bluff and Neill's Eddy Landing, N. C.)
Dentalium attenuatum Say, A. D. J. M.
Ecphora quadricostata Say, A. D. M.
Turritella variabilis Conrad, A. J. M. T.
Of these species, none are found with certainty among the fauna
referred to the Nashua marl.

The following is a new list of fossils said to have been taken
between depths of 65 and 100 feet in a well at Kissimmee, Osceola Co.,
Fla., C. O. Newlands, driller. Station 5016:


Terebra dislocata (Say).
Terebra (Acus) kissimmeEnsis n. sp.
Drillia aff. D. limatula (Conrad).
Oliva literate Lamarck.
Olivella mutica (Say).
Marginella apicina Menke, var.
Alectrion scalaspira (Conrad) (?)
Columbella (Alia) Matsoni, n. sp.
Turritella burden T. and H., var. (?)
Turritella aff. T. variabilis Conrad, (?) (yo.).
Crepidula fornicata (Linne).
Crepidula plana Say.
Polynices duplicatus (Say).
Dentalium, near D. attenuatum Say.
Leda acuta (Conrad).
Arca transversa Say (?) (frag.).
Cardita osceolaensis n. sp.
Phacoides crenulatus (Conrad).
Phacoides, near var. multistriatus Conrad.
Diplodonta acclinis Conrad.
Mulinia congesta (Conrad).

Geologic horizon: Miocene and probably also some post-Miocene.

The presence of the species Drillia aff. D. limatula, Turritella bur-
deni var. (?), Dentalium, near D. attenuatum, and Mulinia congesta
(Conrad) (heavy forms) indicate Miocene age.

5144.-Fossils obtained at a depth of 150 feet in the well of Mary Boss,
on an island in Lake Tohopekaliga, about 3 miles from Kissim-
mee, Florida. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., Fla. State
Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rep't, p. 133, 1909.)

Revised List.
Acteocina canaliculata (Say).
Olivella mutica (Say).
Marginella (fragment).
Epitonium aff. E. lineatum (Say) (yo.).
Turritella subannulata Heilprin (?)
Turritella burden T. and H. (?)
Crucibulum auricula Gmelin (?) (yo.).
Dentalium, near D. attenuatum Say.
Cadulus quadridentatus Dall (?)
Nucula proxima Say.
Leda trochilia Dall.
Pecten gibbus Linn6 (?) (frag.).
Anomia simplex Orbigny.
Venericardia tridentata Say (?) (yo.).
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H. (?)
Callocardia sayana (Conrad) (?) (yo.).
Chione cancellata L. (?) (yo.).

Original List.
Tornatina canaliculata Say.
Olivella mutica Say.
Marginella fragment.
Scala lineata Say.
Turritella subannulata Hpn.

Turritella apicalis Hpn.
Crucibulum auricula Gmel.
Dentalium caloosaense Dall.
Cadulus quadridentatus Dall (?)
Nucula proxima Say.
Leda n. sp., also Pliocene of Shell Creek.
Pecten gibbus Linn.
Anomia simplex Orb.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Phacoides, worn specimens.
Callocardia sayana Conrad.
Chione cancellata Linn.


Gemma trigona Dall.
Gemma magna Dall.
Parastarte triquetra -Conrad, not found.
Ensis (fragment).
Mulinia lateralis Say, var. carbuloides
Reeve (?)
Balanus sp.

Gemma trigona Dall.
Gemma sp.
Parastarte triquetra Conrad.
Ensis, fragment.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Balanus sp.

Geologic horizon given in the original report: Pliocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Probably Miocene,
including some Pliocene.

The presence of the species Dentalium, near D. attenuatum, Leda
trochilia, and Turritella burden (?) suggest Miocene. Leda trochilia is
common in the Miocene. There are in the National Museum collection,
three or four specimens from the Caloosahatchee Pliocene very near
Leda trochilia, but Leda acuta is the most common species there.


5009.-East side St. Johns River, seven miles below the railroad bridge
near Sanford, Fla. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., 2nd
Ann. Rep't Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909; p. 133.)

Approved or Changed.
Area, near A. campyla Dall.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Chione cancellata Linn. .
Transenella caloosana Dall.
Anomalocardia caloosana Dall.
Semele proficua Poulteney (?)
Abra squalis Say.
Corbula barrattiana C. B. Adams.

Area campyla Dall.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Chione cancellata Linn.
Transennella caloosana Dall.
Anomalocardia caloosana Dall.
Abra aequalis Say.
Corbula contract Say.

Other species from this station not originally reported with the
above list are:
Leda acuta (Conrad).
Tellina polita Say.
Tellina cf. T. propetenera Dall.
Mulinia lateralis var. corbuloides Reeve.
Geologic horizon given in original report: Probably Pliocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: uppermost Pliocene
or lowest Pleistocene.

Arca campyla appears to be confined to the Pliocene. The form in
this collection is nearer to this species although not typical.


5008.-East side of the St. Johns River, five miles below the Sanford
railroad bridge. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., 2nd Ann.
Rep't of Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909; p. 132.)

Approved or Changed.
Acteocina canaliculata (Say).
Olivella mutica (Say).
Busycon pyrum (Dillwyn).
Busycon perversum (Linne).
Not found.
Alectrion vibex (Say).
Crepidula fornicata Say (?) (yo.).
Nucula proxima Say.
Arca, near A. campyla Dall.
Mytilus venustus Linne.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Cardium cedalium Dall (not typical, ap-
proaching C. muricatum Linnt.
Lavicardium mortoni Conrad (?)
Anomalocardia caloosana Dall (?)
Venus campechiensis Gmel.
Chione cancellata Linne.
Tellina declivis Conrad.
Corbula barrattiana C. B. Ad's.
Mulinia lateralis, var. corbuloides Rye.
Pholas costata Lamarck.

Tornatina canaliculata Say.
Olivella mutica Say.
Fulgur pyrum Dillwyn.
Fulgur perversum Linne.
Nassa elevata Say.
Nassa vibex Say.
Crepidula fornicata Say.
Nucula proxima Say.
Area transversa Say.
Mytilus venustus Linn.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Cardium cedalium Dall.
Lmvicardium serratum Linn.
Anomalocardia caloosana Dall.
Venus campechiensis Gmel.
Chione cancellata Linn.
Tellina declivis Conrad.
Corbula contract Say.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Pholas costata Lam.

Other species from this station not originally reported in above list
Alectrion acuta (Say). This may be the same form as listed as Nassa elevata Say.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Parastarte triquetra Conrad.
Donax variabilis Say.
Gemma purpurea H. C. Lea.
Geologic horizon given with the original report: "Probably
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Upper Pliocene of
lowest Pleistocene.
The two species, Donax variabilis and Gemma purpurea, as noted,
were not listed in the original report. The two species appear to be
exclusively post-Pliocene. If they came from the same stratum as the
other listed species, the age would indicate post-Pliocene rather than

4866.-Half a mile above A. C. L. R. R. Bridge over St. Johns River,
Putnam Co., Fla. Vertical cliff three to eight feet above high-
water level. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., 2nd Ann.
Rep't Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909; p. 131.)


Approved or Changed.
Acteocina canaliculata (Say).
Urosalpinx, near U. perrugatus (Conrad).
Astyris lunata Say.
Anachis obesa (C. B. Ads.).
Anachis obesa (C. B. Ads.).
Epitonium, near E. sayana (Dall).
Crepidula convexa Say (?) (yo.).
Rissoina chesnelii (Michaud).
Arca, near A. campyla Dall.
Ostrea sculpturata Conrad (?) (yo.).
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Carditamera arata Conrad (?) (yo.).
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
not found.
Cardium cedalium Dall, var. (not typical),
near C. muricatum Linn.
Cardium robustum Solander.
Chione cancellata Linn.
Dosinia elegans Conrad.
Macrocallista nimbosa Solander.
Semele proficua Poulteney (?)
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Corbula barrattiana C. B. Adams.
Corbula contract Say, (not originally
Anomia simplex d'Orb., (not originally

Tornatina canaliculata Say.
Urosalpinx perrugatus Conrad.
Astyris lunata Say.
Crepidula convexa Say.
Rissoina chesneli Mich.
Arca campyla Dall.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Carditamera arata Conrad.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.

Cardium oedalium Dall.

Cardium robustum Sol.
Chione cancellata Linn.
Dosinia elegans Conrad.
Macrocallista nimbosa Sol.
Semele purpurea Gmel. ?
Mulinia lateralis Say ? yo.
Corbula cuneata Say.

Geologic horizon originally reported: Pliocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Uppermost Pliocene
or early Pleistocene.
Arca, near A. campyla and Cardium oedalium var. and Ostrea
sculpturata (?) strongly indicate Pliocene age rather than later.

6096-7.-Half a mile above the A. C. L. R. R. bridge over St. Johns
River, Putnam Co., Fla., five to seven feet below surface and
5 to 7 ft. above high-water level. F. G. Clapp, collector.
This lot is apparently from the same locality as station 4866, but
contains species not originally reported from there:
Acteocina canaliculata (Say).
Alectrion acuta (Say).
Anachis obesa (C. B. Ads.).
Astyris lunata Say.
Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) sp. A.
Odostomia (Chrysallida) sp. A.
Triforis modest C. B. Ads.
Cerithiopsis greenii C. B. Ads.
Seila adamsii (H. C. Lea).
Caecum regular Carpenter.


Cacum, near C. carolinianum Dall.
Caecum putnamensis n. sp.
Cecum cooper Smith.
Rissoa germa Dall.
Rissoina chesnelii (Mich.).
Crepidula fornicata (Linne).
Crepidula plana Say.
Teinostoma, near T. reclusa Say.
Nucula proxima Say.
Arca limula, var. platyura Dall (?)
Arca transversa Say, (light form).
Anomia simplex Orbigny.
Crassinella lunulata Conrad.
Cardita floridana Conrad.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Sportella protexta Conrad.
Dosinia elegans Conrad.
Chione cancellata'Linn6.
Tellina polita Say.
Semele proficula Poulteney.
Abra equalis Say.
Tagelus divisus Spengler.
Mulinia lateralis Say, var. B.
Corbula barrattianna C. B. Ads.
Corbula contract Say.
Geologic horizon: Uppermost Pliocene or lowest Pleistocene.

7056.-Rose Bluff, Nassau Co., Florida. Opposite to and 4 miles west of
St. Mary's, Camden Co., Ga. (See Ga. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 26,
p. 436, 1911, for fossil list).
Geoldgic horizon given in original report: Pleistocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Pleistocene.
The fauna at this locality is related to that at station 5869 (DeLand,
stratum No. 3 of section) as approximately 50 per cent of the Rose
Bluff species are represented in that stratum; but the fauna from Rose
Bluff contains certain species, as Arca incongrua, Ervilia concentrica,
and probably Donax variabilis, that appear to occur only in deposits of
post-Pliocene age.

5143.-Well at Kissimmee, Osceola Co., Fla.; depth 96 ft. from surface.
(See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., 2nd Ann. Rep't Geol.
Surv., 1909, pp. 149-150 for list.)
Geologic Horizon given in original report: Pleistocene.
Geologic Horizon believed to be in this report: Pleistocene.


Two species from this locality, Ostrea equestris Say, and Donax
variabilis Say, are believed to be exclusively post-Pliocene and Recent.

5003.-In a ditch 4 miles west of Eau Gallie. (See Matson, G. C., and
Clapp, F. G., 2nd Ann. Rep't Fla. Geol. Surv., 1909, p. 151 for
Geologic horizon given in original report: Pleistocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Pleistocene.
Four species, Petricola pholadiformis Lam., Donax variabilis 'Say,
Drillia thea Dall, and Transennella stimpsoni Dall reported T. caloosana
Dall-are believed to be exclusively post-Pliocene.
Two species, Arca limula var. platyura Dall (one valve), and
Corbula caloosae Dall (one valve) appear to be exclusively Pliocene.

4837.-Two miles southeast of Eau Gallie, on peninsula south of point
of Merritt's Island. (See Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., 2nd
Ann. Rep't of Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909, p. 151, for list of fossils.)
Geologic horizon given in original report: Pleistocene.
Geologic horizon believed to be in this report: Late Pleistocene.
All species are represented in the recent fauna and one species,
Donax variabilis Say, appears to be exclusively post-Pliocene and


5012.-Seven miles west of Titusville, Brevard Co., Fla.:
Glycymeris pectinata Gmel. (?) (yo.).
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Codakia speciosa Rogers.
Phacoides multilineatus T. and H.
Donax variabilis Say.
Mulinia lateralis Say.
Geologic horizon: Pleistocene.
The larger part of the collection consists of Donax variabilis Say.

5017.-Near Michaels marlpit, one mile south of point, Daytona, Volusia
Co., Fla., collected by G. C. Matson, 1908.
Acteocina canaliculata (Say).
Olivella mutica (Say).
Alectrion acuta (Say).
Odostomia (Chrysallida) sp. A.
Bittium varium Pfeiffer.


Cerithium muscarum Say (?)
Crepidula plana Say.
Crepidula fornicata (Linne).
Nucula proxima Say.
Area ponderosa Say.
Arca campechensis Dillwyn.
Area subsinuata Conrad.
Area transversa Say (2 forms).
Ostrea virginica Gmelin.
Plicatula gibbosa Lamarck.
Anomia simplex Orbigny.
Venericardia perplana Conrad.
Venericardia tridentata Say.
Chione cancellata Linne.
Chione grus (Holmes).
Anomalocardia caloosana Dall.
Venus campechiensis Gmelin.
Gemma purpurea H. C. Lea.
Parastarte triquetra Conrad.
Tellina tampensis Conrad.
Semele bellastriata Conrad (?)
Abra ;equalis Say (?)
Tagelus divisus Spengler.
Donax variabilis Say.
Mulinia lateralis, var. corbuloides Reeve.
Mulinia lateralis, vars. A. and B.
Rangia cuneata Gray.
Geologic horizon: Pleistocene.
Three species, Arca campechensis Dillw., Gemma purpurea H. C.
Lea, and Donax variabilis, appear to be exclusively post-Pliocene.
Arca subsinuata Conrad, hitherto, has been reported only from
the Pliocene of the Croatan beds, near New Bern, Craven Co., N. C.



In the correlation table given below, the station numbers arranged
along the left-hand margin have no reference to the age relation of the
contained faunas.

In some cases not all the forms from the locality are considered in
the time-range, as the omitted ones are too poorly preserved for specific

The percentage of the fauna from each locality that is believed to
exist in the recent fauna is also given. These percentages are not entirely
used as a basis for time correlation, as in some cases the number of
species from a locality is small and the percentage may not express



I I I f I.

V 0 ,

-- -- s -- ..A

4837, 2 mi. S.E. Eau Galliz ............. 9 4 7 4 7 9 0 0 1 100
4865. Nashua. Y mi. S. Type Loc....... 28 lb 2c 2, 21 16 16 0 5 0 57
4866, Y mi. above A. C. L. R. R. bridge.. 14 6 14 12 13 1- 13 0 ? ? 93
5003, 4 mi. W. of Eau GalliO............. 39 15 33 22 31 35 33 0 2 4 85
5008, 5 mi. below Sanford R. R. bridge.... 1s 9 16 12 13 17 17 0 ? 2 94
5009, 7 mi. below Sanford R. R. bridge.... 11 6 11 7 11 11 0 0 0 82
5010, Y mi. S. DeLeon Springs........... 21 16 20 1; 17 14 14 ? 1 0 67
5010, and other collections from DeLeon... 31 23 30( 25 23 20 20 ? 2 0 65
5011, Y mi. N. OrangeCity R.R. Sta.... 6 5 6 6 6 5 5 0 0 0 83
5012, 7 mi. W. of Titusville.............. 4 3 3 2 3 4 3 0 0 1 75
5016, Well, Kissimmee. ................. 12 11 10 10 9 8 S ? 0 0 67
5017, Daytona......................... 27 12 2. 1 21 26 25 0 1 3 93
5019, X mi. S. of Orange City R. R. Sta... 11 11 10 10 b 7 6 ? 0 ... 55
5143, Well, Kissimmee.................. 19 10 15 0 13 18 16 0 0 2 84
5144, Well, on island, L. Tohopekaliga.... 7 7 6 6 6 4 4 ? 0 0 57
5634, DeLand, lower bed............... 12 11 11 1] 9 10 9 ? 0 0 75
5869, DeLand, upper bed................ 45 34 42 3, 37 29 29 ? 3 2 64
6096-7, 2 mi. above A. C. L. R. R. bridge. 27 14 27 2. 25 26 2( 0 0 0 96
7056, Rose Bluff...................... 1S 12 14 I:, 12 1s 1 0 0 2 94
1 ~~~\I I II I I


the true condition. In other cases where the fauna is cosmopolitan and
the number of species large, the percentages are believed to be helpful.



Late Pliocene or early

Pliocene, (Nashua marl)

4837 (2 mi. S. E. of Eau Gallie) (late).
5017 (Daytona).
5012 (Titusville, 7 mi. W.).
5003 (Eau Gallie, 4 mi. W.).
5143 (Well, 96 ft. Kissimmee).
7056 (Rose Bluff).
4866 (% mi. above A. C. L. R. R. bridge).
Pleis- 6096-7 (% mi. above A. C. L. R. R. bridge).
5008 (5 mi. below Sanford Ri R. bridge).
5009 (7 mi. below Sanford R. R. bridge).


(r mi. north of Orange City R. R. Sta.).
(Y mi. south of Orange City R. R. Sta.).
(Upper bed at DeLand).
(Lower bed at DeLand).
(Nashua, type locality).
(DeLeon Springs).

Probably Miocenein including 5144 (Well on island in Lake Tohopekaliga).
some Pliocene I
Miocene, probably including 5016 (Well, 65 to 100 ft, Kissimmee).
some post-Miocene


Plate I, Figures 9 and 10
Shell solid, polished, attenuated, conical with about 13 (including
3 nuclear) whorls; nuclear whorls smooth and rounded; axial sculp-
ture on first 4 post-nuclear whorls of about 15 rounded riblets extending
unconstricted from suture to suture; later axial sculpture terminating
near the center of the whorl as slightly offset, rounded tubercles below
which the whorls are somewhat spirally excavated between the central
tubercles and another opposing and similar set crowding the suture;
spiral sculpture of 3 to 4 narrow impressed lines on earlier whorls,
increasing in number on later whorls, all weakly overrunning the axials;
suture distinct, narrowly grooved and flexuous; base with two pairs of
distinct impressed spiral lines, the upper set being nearer together.
Canal short; outer lip missing.
Cotypes (Cat. No. 352~80 U. S. N. M.). These measure: the larger
specimen (7 whorls),-alt. 12 mm., greatest diameter 3.6 mm.; smaller
specimen, alt. 9 mm., greatest diameter 3 mm.
Type locality: Well (depth 65-100 ft.) at Kissimmee, Osceola
Co., Fla., Geo. C. Matson, collector, 1908.
Geologic horizon: Probably Miocene.
This species is related to Terebra (Acus) concava (Say), but differs
from the latter in having no distinct subsutural band, a spiral compres-
sion at the anterior part of the whorl, a smaller initial nuclear whorl
and fewer, revolving strike on the base.

Plate I, Figures 3 and 4
Shell small, solid, about six-whorled (tip decollated) ; spire smooth,
elevated, evenly conical; whorls slightly convex, marked by three or four
narrow, dim, brownish colored, spiral bands, slightly elevated on the an-
terior portion of the body whorl; suture somewhat appressed; shoulder
of body whorl angled; base and pillar marked by thirteen wide, rounded,
raised bands separated by narrow channels, running parallel with and
extending nearly to the angled shoulder; aperture moderately wide;


pillar slightly twisted; outer lip, within, with seven denticulated ridges,
the posterior one being the largest; inner lip with callus upon which an
irregular ridge extends parallel with and close to the outer margin.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352278). This measures: length 10.2
mm.; greatest diameter 4.2 mm.
Type locality: Well (depth 65-100 ft.) at Kissimmee, Osceola
Co., Fla., G. C. Matson, collector, 1908. U. S. Geol. Surv. Sta. No. 5016.
Geologic horizon: Probably Miocene.
Discussion: This species is closely related to the northern Miocene
form, Astyris communis (Conrad); but in the former, the suture is
only slightly appressed, the spiral- bands on the base more numerous,
extending farther up the basal slope. In addition, "A. communis, in
some specimens, shows distinct-traces of narrow color-bands extending
across the whorls in a direction nearly parallel with the axis of the shell
and slightly flexuous." ('See Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. III, pt.
1, p. 138.)
When the new species is compared with Astyris profundi. Dall,
the suture of the latter is found to be more appressed, the whorls more
inflated, and the basal sculpture finer and more narrowly anteriorly
This new species is named in honor of the collector, Mr. George
C. Matson.

Plate I, Figures 1 and 2.
Shell small, thin, arched, and slightly tapering; surface almost
smooth but under magnification shows faint, irregular annulations and
growth lines; posterior end of tube very near the margin, slightly im-
pressed, forming a narrow, low, and inconspicuous ring; plug smooth,
hemispherical and extending a little beyond the margin of the tube;
mucro small, short, rounded and situated near the margin and a little
to the right of the median plane of the shell; anterior end of tube swollen,
forming a narrow ring near the margin; anterior margin entire.


Cotypes (Cat. No. U. S. N. M. 352276, spec. A; 352277, spec. B).
These measure: length,-specimen A, 2.5; specimen B, 2.3 mm.;
diameter of aperture,-specimen A, .6; specimen B, .7 mm.; diameter
posterior end,-specimen A, .5; specimen B, .5 mm.
Geologic horizon: Upper Pliocene or lower Pleistocene.
Type locality: One-half mile above A. C. L. R. R. bridge over St.
Johns River,. Putnam Co., Fla., five feet above high-water level and
seven feet below surface. F. G. Clapp, collector, U. S. Geol. Surv., Sta.
No. 6096.
Discussion: This species somewhat resembles Caecum carolinia-
num Dall, but differs from the latter- in having an anterior ring, a
more rounded plug, and lacking longitudinal sculptured strike. It is
closely related to Caecum chipolanum Gardner (an unpublished Ms.)
species from the Chipola marl member of the Alum Bluff formation, but
the latter possesses an anterior furrow and is a much heavier and more
tapering shell.

Plate I, Figures 11 and 12.
Shell very thin, small, ovate; beaks not prominent, slightly twisted
forward, situated at the anterior third of the valves; lunule long, moder-
ately impressed'; anterior side and middle of valves rounded; posterior
side steeply sloping; posterior dorsal margin nearly straight, sloping
at a low angle; anterior dorsal margin sloping and slightly undulated;
posterior margin nearly straight, truncating the end, making nearly a
right-angle with the dorsal margin and a rounded edge with the ventral;
anterior margin rounded; ventral margin arcuate. Shell sculptured
radially by 20, rather low, rounded ribs, nodulous about the beaks and
roughened distally by transverse ridges or imbricated growth lines.
Whole surface sculptured radially by fine, indistinct lines and transverse-
ly by rather fine imbricated growth structure. Inter-radial spaces about
one and one-half as wide as ribs on the anterior and center of the disk, but
narrower at posterior angle where ribs widen out. Lateral teeth small;
anterior cardinal slender and prominent. Interior surface markedly
fluted, reversing external sculpture and showing a pecten-like appear-

Type (Cat. No. 352275 U. S. N. M.) ; This measures: length of left
valve 12.4 mm.; height 8.5' mm.; diameter (double) 6 mm.
Geologic horizon: Probably Miocene.
Locality: Well at Kissimmee, Osceola Co., Fla., (depth 65-100
ft.). G. C. Matson, collector, 1908.
Discussion: The thinness of the shell approaches C. catharia Dall,
but in the new species the posterior angled edge is less drawn out, the disk
is more rounded and the shell more nearly equilateral. The shape of the
shell resembles C. vaughani Dall, but the latter is much heavier and
more robust in every way. I am unable to find a very close relative to the
described species.


Fig. 1. Cecum putnamensis n. sp. Cotype, (x 10). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352277.
Fig. 2. Cecum putnamensis n. sp. Cotype, (x 10). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352276.
Fig. 3. Columbella (Alia) matsoni n. sp. Ventral view, Type (x3).
Fig. 4. Columbella (Alia) matsoni n. sp. Dorsal view, Type (x3). Nucleus
Fig. 5. Corbula inequalis Say, var. A. Exterior of right valve (x2). Station
5869, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352286.
Fig. 6. Corbula inaqualis Say, var. A. Exterior of left valve of another speci-
men (x 2). Station 5869, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat.
No. 352286.
Fig. 7. Corbula inaqualis Say, var. B. Exterior of left valve (x2). Station
5869, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352287.
Fig. 8. Corbula inequalis Say, var. B. Exterior of right valve (x 2). Station
5869, (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352287.
Fig. 9. Terebra (Acus) kissimmeensis n. sp. Larger cotype (x 3).
Fig. 10. Terebra (Acus)kissimmeensis n. sp. Smaller cotype (x 5).
Fig. 11. Cardita (Carditamera) osceolaensis n. sp. Exterior of left valve. Type
(x 3).
Fig. 12. Cardita (Carditamera) osceolaensis n. sp. Interior of left valve. Type
(x 3).
Fig. 13. Area transversa Say. Light form. Exterior of left valve (x 1%). Sta-
tion 5869, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352281.
Fig. 14. Arca transversa Say. Light form. Right valve of another specimen
(x 1%). Station 5869, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U.. S. N. M. Cat No.




3 4




14 "


13 -



Plate II.
Figs. 1 & 2. Mulinia contract (Conrad). Left valve (x 112). Station 5869, De-
Land, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352283.
Figs. 3 & 4. Mulinia sp. near M. caloosaensis Dall. Left valve (x 126). Station
4865, Y4 mile south of Nashua, Fla. U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352284.
Figs. 5 & 6. Mulinia lateralis Say. Heavy form. Left valve (x 1%). Station
5634, DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 1). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352285.
Figs. 7 & 8. Mulinia lateralis Say. Long form. Left valve (x 1/). Station 5869,
DeLand, Fla., (stratum No. 3). U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 352282.



5 9

r ''ses15 6



' 2 -

1 -. r

4- ^











MR. HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist,
Tallahassee, Florida.

Sir:-I herewith transmit my manuscript and illustrations of A
Preliminary Report on the Clays of Florida. The field and laboratory
work have been done and the report prepared in accordance with our
agreement of February 6, 1922.
Permit me to express my appreciation of the interest you have taken
in this work during its various stages and the assistance you have given
in its prosecution.
Very respectfully,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, November 12, 1923.


INTRODUCTION ......................................................... 61-63
Scope of Report .................................................. 61-62
Field Work ...................................................... 62-63
Previous W ork on Florida Clays .................................... 63
Acknowledgments .................................................. 63
General Geology of Clays .................................... .... 64-68
Definition ................................................... 64
Origin ........................................................ 65-66
Geologic Types of Deposits .................................... 66-68
Residual Clays .......................................... 66-67
Sedim entary Clays ......................................... 67-68
Marine Clays ........................................ 68
Flood-Plain Clays ..................................... 68
Lacustrine Clays ...................................... 68
Glacial Clays ........................................ 68
Aeolian Clays ......................................... 68
Classification of Clays ............................................ 69-71
Ries's classification ............................................ 69-70
Grout and Soper's classification ..................................... 70
Parmelee's classification ...................................... 70-71
Mineralogy and Chemical Properties of Clays...................'.... 71-88
Minerals in Unburned Clays ................................. 71-77
Kaolinite .................................................. 71-72
Q uartz ................................................... 72
Feldspar ................................................ 73
Mica ................ ..................................... 73
H ydrom ica ................................................ 73
Limonite ................................................. 74
Hematite ...................................... ............ 74
Magnetite ........................ ......................... 74
Siderite .................................... ........... 74
Pyrite ................................................... 74-75
Calcite ................................. ................. 75
Gypsum .................................................. 75-76
Rutile ..................................................... 76
Ilmenite ............................................ 76
Glauconite ............................................... 76
Chlorite .................................................. 76
Dolomite ............................................ 77
Hornblende ........................................... . 77
Garnet ................................................... 77
Vivianite ............................................ 77
Pyrolusite and Psilomelane ................................. 77
M inerals in Burned Clays .............................. ........ 78
Chemical Analysis of Clays ................................... 79-81
Chemical Effect of Various Constituents in Clays................. 81-88
Silica .................................................... 81
Alumina ................................................ 81
Iron oxide ................................. ............ 81-82
Lime ......................... ............................ 82-83
M agnesia ......................................... ... 84
A lkalies .................................................. 84


Chemical Effect of Various Constituents in Clays (Continued).
Titanium ............................................ 84
W after .................................................... 84
Organic M atter ...................................... ..... 85
Sulphur ................................................ 85-86
Soluble Salts ....................... ...................... 86-88
Physical Properties of Clays....................................... 89-99
Plasticity ....... ............................................. 89-90
Color ................................................... ....... 90
Texture .................... ................................... 91
Slaking ....................................................... 91
Shrinkage .................................................. 91-93
Fusibility ............................................... ..... 93-97
Porosity .............................................. 97-99
Transverse Strength .......................................... 99
Bonding Strength ............................................. 99
Tests Made Upon Clays ................. .......................... 100-103
Kinds of Clays and Their Uses.................................... 104-106
Kinds of Clays .............................................. 104-106
Kaolin ................................................... 104
Ball-Clay ................................................ 104
*Fire-Clay ........................................... 104
Stoneware Clay ........................................... 104
Terra-Cotta Clays ............................ ......... 104-105
SSewer Pipe Clays ......................................... 105
*B rick C lays .............................................. 105
Slip Clays ................................................ 106
M miscellaneous ............................................ 106
U ses of C lay ................................................. 106
Geology of the Clays of Florida .................................. 107-119
Stratigraphy ................................................... 107
Table of Geologic Formations in Florida ............................ 107
Eocene .............................................. 107-108
Oligocene ........................... ... ................... 108
Miocene ........ ............................... ............ 108-109
Pliocene ..................................................... 109
Pleistocene.. ................................................. 109
Geologic Age, Occurrence and Distribution of the Clays.............. 109-117
Conditions of Sedimentation and Sources of Material ............... 117-119
Distribution and Description of Deposits by Counties................ 120-215
Alachua County ............................................ 122-124
Baker County ................................................ 124-125
Bay County ......................................... ........ 125
Bradford County .......................................... 125
Brevard County .............................................. 125
Broward County ............................................ 125
Calhoun County ................................................ 125-128
Charlotte County ............................................. 128
Citrus County ................................................ 128
Clay County .............................................. 128-133
Collier County (see Lee).
Columbia County ............................................. 133-134
Dade County ............................................ ..... 134
DeSoto County .............................................. 134-135


Deposits by Counties (Continued).
Dixie County ................................................. 135
Duval County ................................................ 135-138
Escambia County ............................................ 138-157
Flagler County ........................................... 157-158
Franklin County ............................................... 158
Gadsden County ................................... ......... 158-164
--..lades County .............................................. 164
Hamilton County ............................................ 164-165
H ardee County ............................................... 165-166
Hendry County (see Lee).
Hernando County ........................................... 166-170
Highlands County ............................................. 170
Hillsborough County ................... ..................... 170-172
H olmes County ...................................... ........ 172
Jackson County ................. ............................ 172-173
Jefferson County ............................................ 173-174
Lafayette County ............................................. 174
Lake County ...............t ................ ................ 174-176
Lee County .................. ................................ 176
Leon County ................................................. 177-180
Levy County ... .............................................. 180-181
Liberty County .............................................. 181-183
Madison County .............................................. 183
M anatee County ...................... ................. ...... 183-185
M arion County .......................... ..................... 185-186
Monroe County .............................................. 186
Nassau County .............................................. 186-189
Okaloosa County ............................................. 189
Okeechobee County ........................................... 189
Orange County .............................................. 189-191
Osceola County ............................................... 191-192
Palm Beach County ........... ................ ............. 192
Pasco County .................. ........................... 192-194
Pinellas County ............................................ 194
Polk County ... .................................. ............ 194-197
Putnam County .............................................. 197-199
St. Johns County .................... ..................... 200-201
St. Lucie County .......................................... . 201
Santa Rosa County ........................... ............... 201-205
Sarasota County .............................................. 206
Seminole County ........................................... 206
Sumter County ........................................... 206-207
Suw annee County ........................ .................. 207
Taylor County .............................................. 207-208
Union County ............................................... 208
Volusia County .............................................. 208-211
W akulla County .............................................. 211
W alton County .............................................. 211-213
Washington County ......................................... 214-215


Sedimentary Kaolin ............................................. 216-241
Terminology ............................ .................... 216-217
D distribution ................................................. 217-219
D escription ................................ ................. 219
Geologic Age ................................................ 221
Origin ................ ..................................... 221-226
History and Development ..................................... 226
Properties ..................................... ............. 226-232
M ineralogy .... ............................................. 232
Uses .. ....................................................... 232-233
M ethods of M ining ........................................... 233-234
Distribution by Counties ...................................... 234-241
Alachua County ........................................ 234-235
Citrus, Clay and DeSoto Counties.......................... 235
Hernando County ......................................... 235
H ighlands County ........................................ 235
Lake County ........................................... 235-238
Levy County ................ ........................... 238
M arion County .......................................... 238
Pasco County ...................................... ...... 240
Polk County ........................... .. ... .... ... ... 240
Putnam County .......................................... 240
Suwannee County ........................................ 241
W alton County ........................................... 241
Development and Possibilities of the Clay Industry in Florida........ 242-250
Early History ............................................... 242
Recent History ............................................. 242-243
Present Status ............................................. 243-245
Present Tendencies ............................. ............. 245-249
General Development and Expansion in Florida............ 245-246
Sources of Structural M materials ............................ 246-247
Substitutes for Clay Products .............................. 247-248
Attitude of Some Contractors and Builders toward Florida
Products ............................................. 248
Adaptibility of Florida Products ........................... 248-249
Reasons for Failure of Many Florida Ventures.............. 249
Possibilities and Reserves ..................................... 249-250
Methods of Prospecting for Clays ....... ....................... 251-253
APPENDIX A.' Statistics of Production of Brick........................... 254
APPENDIX B. Fusion Points of Seger Cones............................. 255-257
APPENDIX C. Directory of Florida Clay Workers........................ 258
APPENDIX D. Bibliography of Florida Clays...... ... ................... 259-260
INDEX ...... ................................ ......................... 261


1. Chart showing range of firing temperatures for clay products........... 98
2. Map showing location of clay-working plants ......................... 120
3. General View, Campville Brick Co., Campville, Alachua County......... 121
4. Clay pit. Guilford Bros. Brick Co., Blountstown, Calhoun County...... 126
5. Method of stacking a kiln for burning. Guilford Bros. Brick Co........ 126
6. Unloading a kiln. Guilford Bros. Brick Co........................... 127
7. Black Creek Barge Landing, near Middleburg, Clay County. Formerly
used for shipping brick ...................................... .. 129
8. Clay pit. Gamble and Stockton Brick and Tile Co., South Jacksonville,
Duval County ................................................ 136
9. Circular down-draft kiln. Gamble and Stockton Brick and Tile Co..... 136
10. Bluff on west bank of Escambia River at Dexland, opposite Gonzales.
Interbedded clays (Citronelle Formation?) in lower half; Pleistocene
sands in upper half ............................................. 139
11. View of a pit face showing cross-bedded clays* (probably Pleistocene),
Dolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia County..................... 141
12. General view of clay pit (Citronelle Formation?), Barrineau Bros. Brick
Co., Quintette, Escambia County ................................. 141
13. Layer of limonite overlaying cross-bedded sand. The sand is underlain
by clay. Barrineau Bros. Brick Co., Quintette, Escambia County.... 142
14. Pink pottery clay (Citronelle Formation?) exposed in bluff at Gull Point
near Pensacola, Escambia County ............................... 144
15. Unconformity between two clay beds exposed in a pit five miles north of
Pensacola, Escambia County.................................... 144
16. Mining clay with steam shovel, Dolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia
County .................................... .................... 147
17. Dump car for conveying clay from pit to press. Dolores Brick Co.,
Molino, Escambia County ............... ........................ 147
18. View of drying shed showing method of stacking brick for drying.
Dolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia County....................... 148
19. Plant and drying.sheds, Dolores Brick Co., Molino, Escambia County.... 150
20. Drying tunnels, Macmillan Brick Co., Molino, Escambia Coupty......... 150
21. A battery of circular down-draft kilns. Dolores Brick Co., Molino,
Escambia County ............................................... 150
22. General view of Barrineau Bros. Brick Plant, Quintette, Escambia County 152
23. General View, Ocklocknee Brick Co., Lawrence, Gadsden County....... 163
24. Setting a kiln. Morris and Blumer Brick Co., Brooksville, Hernando
County ....................................................... 167
25. Clay pit, Keystone Brick Co., Whitney, Lake County................... 175
26. View showing kiln sealed ready for firing. Keystone Brick Co., Whitney,
Lake County ................................................... 175
27. Clay exposed on Apalachicola. River at Estiffanulga Bluff, Liberty County 181
28. "Old Brick Yard Landing," on St. Marys River, Nassau County.......... 187
29. Loading cars, Callahan Brick and Tile Co., Callahan, Nassau County... 187
30. Orlando Pottery, Orlando, Orange County............................ 190
31. A potter at work, Orlando Pottery .................................. 190
32. Portable press in operation. Allentown Consolidated School, near Milton,
Santa Rosa County ............................................ 202
33. Partially built scove kiln in rear ground with freshly molded brick stacked
out in open air to dry in foreground. Allentown Consolidated School,
Santa Rosa County ............................................. 204
34. Firing a scove kiln. Allentown Consolidated School .................. 204
35. Brick machine, Hall Brick Co., Chipley, Washington County............ 215
36. Drying shed, Hall Brick Co., Chipley................................ 215
37. General View of Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company's Plant, Edgar, Putnam
County ...................................................... 218
38. Removing overburden. Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., Putnam County...... 219


39. Dipper on dredge boat dropping crude clay into bin from which it is
pumped up to washing plant. Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co............. 220
40. Trough leading to settling vat. Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co.............. 220
41. Filter presses, Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co .............................. 223
42. Plant of Florida China Clay Co., near Okahumpka, Lake County........ 225
43. Removal of overburden by hydraulicking. Florida China Clay Co.,
Okahumpka, Lake County ..................................... 225
44. View of dredge boat used in mining sedimentary kaolin, Florida China
Clay Co., near Okahumpka, Lake County.......................... 227
45. Near view of dipper on dredge boat. Refuse sand in background. Flor-
ida China Clay Co. ............................................ 227
46. Entrance to sand traps, Florida China Clay Co ......................... 228
47. Settling troughs, Florida China Clay Co ............................... 228
48. Settling vat, Florida China Clay Co ........... ..... .......... 231
49. Settling vat partially filled, Florida China Clay Co.................... 231
50. Empty settling vat, Florida China Clay Co............................ 232
51. Sluice for returning water from filter presses to clay pit. Florida China
Clay Co. ....................................................... 233
52. Motor used in loading cars. Florida China Clay Co.................. 237
53. Loading cars. Florida China Clay Co.............................. 237
54. Dredge boat (in background), sluiceways and sand traps (foreground).
Lake County Clay Co., Okahumpka, Lake County................... 239
55. General view of drying sheds, warehouses and loading docks. Lake
County Clay Co. ............................................... 239


In this investigation no attempt has been made to cover completely
the clay deposits of the entire State of Florida. It is intended to be only
a preliminary report which will make available at an early date data con-
cerning the clays within reach of transportation. It will, moreover,
furnish a basis or foundation upon which further and more extensive
work on the clay resources of the State can be based as it becomes ex-
pedient to do so.
This report; therefore, considers only the clay deposits known at
the time the field work was carried on and situated not more than two
miles from water or rail transportation.
Unless a clay deposit is of very exceptional quality, it is not prob-
able that it will be developed within the next few years if more than a
mile or so from a railway. No definite distance from transportation,
however, can be placed as a limit for workable deposits. The quality of
the clay, availability and cost of fuel, labor, cost of mining or manu-
facturing, cost of equipment, proximity to market, prevailing market
price, distributing facilities and numerous other local factors determine
whether or not a clay deposit can be profitably worked. Deposits of clay
not within an economic distance from transportation are potential
sources of supply and can be considered only as reserves. As general
development proceeds in the State these deposits will become useful.
Clay deposits underlying a great thickness of overburden are like-
wise not considered in this report. Here again the conditions mentioned
above apply. The greater the overburden which must be removed the
greater the cost of production. Clays which are. now at too great a. depth
to be profitably worked may become workable at some future time.
In most cases the thickness and extent of a clay. deposit were not
given any further consideration than to determine whether or not suf-
ficient clay was available to supply an average demand for a reasonable
period of time. In many deposits enough clay was seen to be at hand
to supply an average brick plant for more than thirty years. A depend-
able estimate is that 750,000 bricks can be made from an acre foot, (43,-
560 cubic feet,) of clay. A plant of 12,000,000 annual capacity would
utilize 15 acre-feet of clay per year. The thickness and extent of a clay
deposit and the cost of acquiring the property are factors, therefore,


which should be given thorough' consideration by a prospective manu-
The aim of this report is to guide the manufacturer to deposits
worthy of his notice and to furnish owners of such clay deposits knowl-
edge of their occurrence, properties, and usefulness and it is hoped that
this work will be of some assistance in furthering the development of
the clay industries of Florida.
The general geology, classification, mineralogy, chemical and phy-
sical properties, and uses of clays are briefly discussed in this report.
Much has already been' published on these topics and the discussion
which follows is by no means exhaustive. It summarizes the more im-
portant facts that have been brought out by previous investigators. This
is done to answer numerous inquiries continuously being received by
the Survey regarding the common properties of clays, and also to enable
those people who have neither time nor facilities tof consult the other
publications to have the benefit of this knowledge which may facilitate
their use of the data bearing on the Florida clays. Adequate footnote
references are made to other writers so that readers may consult the
principal papers previously published dealing with clays.
A discussion of the methods of manufacture of clay products,
descriptions of the individual brick plants and numerous other sections
have been omitted in order to conserve space. Numerous photographs,
however, have been used to show the types of machinery employed,
types of kilns in operation, methods of clay mining, and general plan
and arrangements of plants.
Fuller's earth, a clay with special properties but little or no plastic-
ity, has been discussed at considerable length in previous reports of the
Survey, particularly the Second and Sixth Annual Reports, and the
time and funds available did not permit a further treatment of it in
the present paper.

The field work was carried on during the season of 1922. At this
time all accessible clay deposits of which the State Geological Survey
had any knowledge were visited. Inquiries made in each locality during
the progress of the work brought many additional deposits to notice.
In each case the deposit was examined as thoroughly as time permitted
and if the clay seemed promising at all a representative sample was


taken for laboratory tests. The tests were made by the writer at Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York. In a few cases samples of clay from de-
posits not known at the time of the field work were later sent to the
testing laboratory.

Much work has previously been done on the clays of Florida, par-
ticularly on the sedimentary kaolins of Putnam and Lake counties and on
the fuller's earth of Gadsden and Manatee counties. Most of this
material has been published by the United 'States Geological Survey, but
some has appeared in the Annual Reports of the State Geologist of
Florida and some in scientific journals. The literature dealing with the
clays of the State has been freely used. Credit for such information has
been given in the footnote references in each case.

The writer desires to express his deep appreciation of the liberal
and patient help accorded him by numerous individuals during the
progress of this work. Dr. H. Ries kindly granted the use of the clay
testing laboratory at Cornell University, and has given the author many
helpful suggestions, Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist, rendered
much assistance in planning and carrying out the field work. Mr. T. C.
Adams, a graduate student at Cornell University, kindly permitted
the use of a chart which appears as Fig. 1. A very great number
of people in the various localities rendered invaluable aid, and many
gave liberally of their time, in guiding and directing the party to the
more important clay deposits. Among these may be mentioned Mr.
J. E. Worthington of Lake Wales, Mayor F. D. Cosner and Mr. C. B.
Taylor of Dade City, Mr. W. A. Fulton- of Brooksville, Dr. T. S. Ken-
nedy of Williston, Mr. W. B. Powell of Tavares, Secretary of the Lake
County Chamber of Commerce, Mayor C. A. Vaughn and Mr. Allen
Strait of Umatilla, Mr. C. H. Tedder, Secretary of the Chamber of Com-
merce, Live Oak, Mr. H. D. Mendenhall, Consulting Engineer, of Lake-
land, and numerous others. The brick and pottery manufacturers and
superintendents of clay mining plants were uniformly courteous and
generous in their assistance while the party was visiting their plants.




The general usage of the term clay is a very broad one and includes
a large variety of substances. This liberal usage of the term has devel-
oped as a result of clay being one of the most abundant natural prod-
ucts. It is found in some form in practically every locality and is used
for a great variety of purposes. No one definition of clay, therefore,
can satisfactorily fulfill all requirements. This is partly due to the fact
that the present knowledge of clays is far from complete, but more
especially due to the fact that clays vary greatly in their properties and
uses. No two clays are exactly alike.
In any sense of the term clay is a substance occurring in nature
which is plastic when wet, capable of being molded, preserves its shape
upon being dried, and changes to a hard rock-like substance on being
fired. Ries' defines clay "as an earthy material occurring in nature
whose prominent property is plasticity when wet." Merrill2 describes
clay "as a whole, as heterogeneous aggregates of hydrous aluminous
silicates, free silica, and ever-varying quantities of free iron oxides and
calcium magnesium carbonates, all in finely comminuted condition.
Orton3 says: "Strictly speaking, however, the term applies to a single
mineral, viz., silicate of alumina or kaolinite." Wheeler4 says: "The
scientific definition of the term clay is a more or less pure variety of
the mineral kaolinite, the hydrous silicate of alumina." He also gives the
following as the popular definition of a clay: "Clay is an earthy material
that becomes plastic when wet."
Thus it is seen that the principal definitions take two forms, viz.,
those based upon the property of plasticity and those based upon the
mineral composition. Both of these are correct in that all clays are

'Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 1, 1908.
2Merrill, G. P., The Non-Metallic Minerals, p. 221, 1910.
SOrton, E., The Clays of Ohio, Their Origin, Composition and Varieties. Ohio
Geol. Survey, VII, Part I, p. 46, 1893.
4Wheeler, H. A., Clay Deposits, Mo. Geol. Survey, XI, p. 17, 1896.


plastic to a greater or less degree and probably all contain some form
of hydrous aluminum silicate, in widely varying quantities.*

A clay is in all cases a secondary product resulting from the decorr
position and disintegration of pre-existing rock. If the clay remains
in the space formerly.occupied by the parent rock it is said to be residual.
If, however, the clay is transported, either by wind or water, and then
deposited it is termed a transported or sedimentary clay.
The breaking down of one rock and the resultant formation of clay
is one of the processes of rock weathering. This includes both chemical
action (decomposition) and mechanical action (disintegration) which
are often carried on at the same time and are very closely related. Weath-
ering takes place chiefly through such atmospheric agencies as rain,
frost, wind, changes in temperature, through organic agencies as plants
and animals, and through the action of atmospheric gases.
Igneous rocks are the primary sources of all other rocks and are
then the original sources of all clays. Limestone or shale residual clays
are only indirectly derived from igneous rocks and have previously
gone through one or more processes of weathering and sedimentation.
Rocks containing feldspar may weather into clay. In fact, it was for-
merly believed that all clay resulted from the weathering of feldspathic
rocks. Ries1 has pointed out that "there are some rock species, how-
ever, that contain no feldspar (such as serpentine), and others with very
little (as some gabbros), which, on weathering, produce some of the
most plastic clays known." In the process of weathering the more in-
soluble portions, such as some of the aluminum silicates, accumulate
and the more soluble constituents, as lime, magnesia, potash, soda, and
sometimes silica, are carried away.
During the weathering process the clay which consists of very fine
particles may be left intimately mixed with larger particles of sand and
other material. If this mixture is carried away by the action of running
water a separation of the clay from the coarser material may result. Such
a separation, has often been the cause of the formation of large bodies

*Soil investigators have still other definitions for clay based on fineness of grain
rather than plasticity or chemical composition, one being all soil particles less than
.005 mm. in diameter, and another that part of the soil which will remain suspended
in an 8-inch column of water for 24 hours. Slightly coarser and non-plastic material
is distinguished as silt. (See Hilgard, Soils, pp. 57-62, 83-85, 1906.) H. G.


of clay free from sand. In other cases velocity and current conditions
may be such as to transport and deposit some sand with the clay result-
ing in the formation of a sandy clay.
After a clay deposit has been formed it may be modified in various
ways. For example, the more soluble elements may be leached from it
and carried away by circulating waters. Other mineral matter may,
under certain conditions, be carried in and deposited by the same process.
There are in general two important types of clay deposits. One is
termed residual because it is the residue resulting from the weathering
or decomposition of a rock in place. .The other is termed sedimentary
or transported as the material has been transported from a former posi-
tion and deposited as sediment by the action of water or wind. It is not
always possible to distinguish these two types in the hand specimen. In
Florida it is also sometimes difficult to apply the fundamental distinc-
tions in the field as sufficient evidence is often inaccessible.
A residual clay is found where the decay of the parent rock has gone
on without interruption for a long period of time and where the result-
ing products have not been carried away by erosion. Such deposits usu-
ally take the form of a clay mantle or covering which is co-extensive
with the parent rock. Their thickness is often very .irregular depending
upon the depth to which weathering has proceeded and the amount of
erosion which has followed.
Residual clays may result from a variety of sedimentary, igneous or
metamorphic rocks. The most important residual clays are derived
from the decomposition of rocks high in feldspathic constituents. Such
clays, if high grade, usually must be purified by washing in order to
remove undesirable ingredients as quartz, mica, etc. They are frequently
highly colored by iron compounds and these are not completely re-
Deposits of residual clay are usually characterized by a gradual
passage from pure clay at or near the surface to the unaffected parent
rock below. In this passage from the surface downward first a zone of
fully formed clay is encountered which gradually passes into a zone of
badly decayed angular rock fragments, then into a zone of only partially
altered fragments and finally into the fresh unaltered parent rock. There
is no sharp line of demarcation or contact between the zones above men-


tioned.1 This, however, is not the case in clays residual from limestone.
In limestone residual clays, on the other hand, there is a sudden
change from clay to the limestone parent rock below. Most surface water,
particularly rainwater, carries dissolved in it some carbon dioxide gas,
(CO2) resulting in the formation of an acid, (carbonic acid, H2CO3),
which attacks the calcium carbonate of the limestone forming a com-
pound, (calcium bicarbonate, Ca(HCO3)2), which is soluble in water.
This process in Florida and elsewhere is greatly augmented by the addi-
tion of organic acids furnished by plants and decaying vegetable mate-
rial. Thus limestone is decomposed and the soluble portion carried away
in solution. Most limestones, however, have varying amounts of im-
purities, such as clay substance, which is not affected by the weak acids
and is insoluble in water. It therefore remains as residual clay when the
limestone is dissolved. Thus when the decomposition of the limestone
has occurred to any depth there is a sharp contact between the clay
and the underlying limestone because this change is not due to a gradual
breaking down of the minerals in the rocks, as in the case of the feld-
spathic rocks.
Sedimentary clays are those which have been transported by the
action of water or wind from their point of origin and deposited else-
where in the form of stratified beds. Thus clay particles are swept from
the land surface in the process of erosion apd carried to lakes, estuaries,
or the sea, etc., where they settle to the bottom of the quiet water as
sediments. Such deposits may have no genetic relationship with the
beds below or above. Deposits of sedimentary clay are sometimes of
great thickness, but are more frequently rather thin. They may be of
great purity or they may be accompanied by much impure material as
mineral fragments (sand, mica flakes, etc.) or vegetable matter. These
clays may often have a great lateral extent or they may be confined
within a small area. They are at times interbedded with other sediments
and may even be crossbedded. Some deposits exhibit marked irregular-
ities of thickness, becoming thicker in one place and thinning out in

1For a complete discussion of the processes involved in the formation of resi-
dual clay see any of the following: Buckman, H. O., The Chemical and Physical
Processes Involved in the Formation of Residual Clay, Trans. Am. Ceramic. Soc.,
Vol. 13, p. 336, 1911.
Merrill, G. P., Rocks, Rock Weathering and Soils, p. 289, 1913.
Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 7, 1908.


another. Likewise distinct changes in the character of the clay may occur
from place to place in the same bed.
There are several forms of sedimentary clay deposits based upon
the conditions of sedimentation. The following with the exception of
the last two, glacial and aeolian clays, are all found in Florida.
Marine Clays-Fresh water in rivers, etc., may contain much clay
substance, consisting of the very finest and lightest particles, which it
carries in suspension. This acts as a solution of clay in water. When this
fresh water becomes mixed with sea water the clay flocculates and is de-
posited on the sea floor, or, as is frequently the case, in estuaries or
lagoons along the coast. Extensive clay deposits are frequently thus
Flood-Plain Clays-Streams carrying clay material in suspension
or rolling it along on the stream floor often deposit much of it in the
adjacent lowlands during periods of flood. Subsequent overflows de-
posit additional layers. Extensive flood-plain deposits are often formed
in this manner along the larger streams and in their deltas. Flood-plain
clays are extremely variable in their nature and are often calcareous or
Lacustrine Clays-Clay material carried by streams into lakes or
ponds gradually settles to the bottom of the quiet water to form a de-
posit of clay on the lake floor. Such clays may be of great purity or they
may be mixed with a great amount of.sand or other impurities.
Glacial Clays-These are sometimes termed till or bowlder clay.
These are deposits, which are of heterogeneous character and usually
impure, formed by the grinding of rocks or rock fragments by glacial
action and deposited by the ice as it melted or by the resulting water in
the redeposition of the material. Deposits of this type are only found
in glaciated regions. None exist in Florida.
Aeolian Clays-Deposits of clay formed by the action of the wind
are termed aeolian clays. In arid regions clay in the form of dust is
blown about and sometimes accumulates in extensive beds. Some loess
clays are believed to have been deposited in this manner. No such clays
are known in Florida.




Clays may be classified in a variety of ways, according to their
origin, mode of occurrence, properties, or uses. No classification yet
proposed, however, has satisfactorily treated such a diversity of factors.
A classification based upon the origin would l:e of special interest to
the geologist, while a ceramist would Le more keenly interested in one
based upon their physical properties. A classification based upon the
uses of clays is probably the least satisfactory of any due to the fact
that there is a very great range in the kind of clay used for any one
purpose, and that one clay may be used for several different purposes.
In the past three decades no less than nine' separate classifica-
tions have appeared in the literature dealing with clays. While none of
these are satisfactory in every respect, three of them deserve careful
Ries's2 classification is based primarily on the geological occurrence
and secondarily on the firing qualities of clays. It follows:

A. Residual clays. (By decomposition of rocks in situ.)
I. Kaolins or china clays. White-burning.
(a) Veins, derived from pegmatite.
(b) Blankets, deposits, derived from extensive areas of igneous or
metamorphic rocks.
(c) Pockets in limestones, as indianaite.
II. Red-burning residuals, derived from different kinds of rock.
B. Colluvial clays, representing deposits formed by wash from the foregoing
and of either refractory or non-refractory character.
1Orton, E., Clays of Ohio, Ohio Geol. Survey, VII, p. 52, 1893.
Wheeler, H. A., Clay Deposits, Missouri Geol. Survey, XI, p. 25, 1896.
Ladd, G. E., Preliminary Report on the Clays of Georgia, Georgia Geol. Sur-
vey, Bull. 6A, p. 12, 1898.
Buckley, E. R., The Clays and Clay Industries of Wisconsin, Wis. Geol. Survey
Bull. 7, Part I, p. 14, 1901.
Orton, E., Jr., Quoted by Beyer, S. W., and Williams, I. A., Technology of Clays,
Iowa Geol. Survey, Vol. XIV, p. 40, 1903.
Grimsley, G. P., Clays, Limestones, and Cements, West Va. Geol. Survey, Vol.
III, p. 70, 1905.
Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 27, 1908.
Grout, Frank F., and Soper, E. K., Preliminary Report on the Clays and Shales
of Minnesota, Minn. Geol. Survey, Bull. II, p. 18, 1914.
Parmelee, C. W., Further Investigation of Illinois Fire Clays, Bull. 38, Ill. Geol.
Survey, p. 10, 1921.
2Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 27, 1908.


C. Transported clays.
I. Deposited in water.
(a) Marine clays or shales. Deposits of great extent.
White-burning clays. Ball clays.
Fire-clays or shales. Buff-burning.
Impure clays or shales Calcareous.
I Non-calcareous.
(b) Lacustrine clays. (Deposited in lakes or swamps.)
Fire-clays or shales.
Impure clays or shales, red-burning.
Calcareous clays, usually of surface character.
(c) Flood-plain clays.
Usually impure and sandy.
(d) Estuarine clays. (Deposited in estuaries.) Mostly impure and
finely laminated.
II. Glacial clays, found in the drift, and often stony. May be either red or
III. Wind-formed deposits. (Some loess.)
IV. Chemical deposits. (Some flint clays.)
(a) Replacement deposits.
(b) Chemical deposits.
Grout and Soper' have used the physical properties as a basis of
classification and refractoriness the basis of subdivision. It is as follows:
I. Refractory (above cone 27). Uses.
(a) Earthy, usually residual, non-plastic ....................China clay.
(b) Plastic ................................................ Ball clay.
(c) Flint-like, non-plastic... ... .............................Fire clay.
II. Semi-refractory (above cone 10).
(a) Safely vitrifying.
fSewer Pipe.
Red burning .............................. .... Paving rick.
Buff or Cream-burning............................... Stoneware.
(b) Rapidly fusing ................................Low-grade fire clay.
III. Non-refractory (below cone 10).
(a) Safely vitrifying.
Red-burning.................................... an ti brick.
5 Vitrified brick.
Buff or cream-burning....... .......Fountin and sewer brick.
(b) Rapidly fusing..................................... Common brick.
Note-Subdivisions of II and III may be made on the basis of degree of
plasticity, or some other physical character.

Recently Parmelee2 has proposed a classification which is based on
the uses of clays according to their physical properties. Parmelee points

1Grout, Frank F., and Soper, E. K., Preliminary Report on the Clays and
Shales of Minnesota, Minn. Geol. Survey, Bull. 11, p. 18, 1914.
2Parmelee, C. W., Further Investigation of Illinois Fire Clay, Bull. 38, Ill. Geol.
Survey, p. 10, 1921.


out that this classification treats only the uses of clays for burned prod-
ucts and such other uses, as paper and cloth filler, pigments, manufac-
ture of Portland cement, etc., are not considered. He further states that:
"This does not exclude clays from uses not specified. For example, a
superior fire clay may be suited for the manufacture of common brick.
Its primary usefulness, however, may be regarded as for fire brick since
it will be most valuable manufactured into that product."
Parmeleel states that a revised form of this classification is to ap-
pear in an early issue of the Journal of the American Ceramic Society,
and the classification as first published will, therefore, not be quoted here.

'Parmelee, C. W., private communication.




Clay is composed essentially of a hydrous aluminum silicate, usually
in the form of kaolinite with perhaps some of the minerals closely re-
lated to it, varying amounts of colloidal matter, of either organic or min-
eral character, and fragments of a great many different minerals rep-
resenting chemically oxides, carbonates, silicates, hydroxides, etc. It
will be seen then that clays may vary widely in their mineral and chemi-
cal compositions.
Kaolinite was formerly believed to be the basis of all clay, but this
view is now known to be erroneous. It is, however, very abundant in
many clays. In one hundred and twelve samples of unburned clay ex-
amined miroscopically by Somers1 he reports kaolinite as scarce in only
fourteen. It is a hydrous aluminum silicate represented by the formula
A1203, 2SiO2, and is composed then of 46.3 per cent silica (SiOa), 39.8
per cent alumina (A2O03), and 13.9 per cent water (H20). It is insolu-
ble in hydrochloric acid and slowly soluble in hot sulphuric acid. It
is always a secondary product and results from the alteration of other
ISomers, R. E., Microscopic Study of Clays, in U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 708,
p. 292, 1922.


aluminous silicates, as feldspar. It is white in color, slightly plastic, has a
hardness of 2-2.5 and a specific gravity of 2.2-2.6.
Crystals of kaolinite are of very rare occurrence in clays but have
been described by several writers.2 According to Hickling3 the kaolinite
occurs in irregularly hexagonal prisms with rough faces which show
strong transverse striations that correspond to the basal cleavage.
There are several minerals very closely related to kaolinite. These
are all hydrous aluminum silicates, but it is doubtful if all commonly
placed in this class are really distinct species. They sometimes occur
in crystalline form, but more frequently occur in the amorphous condi-
tion. These minerals are halloysite, indianaite, pholerite, rectorite, new-
tonite, allophane, cimolite, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, collyrite, and
schr6tterite. Some of these minerals can be identified by their optical
There are many other minerals not related to kaolinite which are
often found in clays and do not decompose readily. They may be briefly
treated as follows:
Quartz-SiO2. This mineral is found in practically every clay, though
usually in very fine grains and sometimes in very small quantities. It
may also occur in the amorphous form. In residual clays the grains are
usually angular while in the sedimentary clays they are somewhat
rounded, due to the rolling and tossing about they have received by the
water action. In quantity in clays quartz ranges from less than one per
cent. in some white sedimentary clays to more than eighty per cent in
some other clays. Quartz fuses at 1830 C. (cone 35),2 but in the
presence of other minerals which act as a flux it may soften at a lower
temperature. In clays it affects the fusibility, shrinkage, plasticity, and
bonding strength, depending upon the amount and texture of the quartz

2Dick, M., Mining Magazine, Vol. VIII, p. 15, 1876.
Reusch, H., Jahrb. f. Min., Vol. II, p. 70, 1887.
Johnson, S. W., and Blake, J. M., American Journal of Science, II, Vol. XLIII, p.
351. 1867.
SHickling, G., China Clay; Its Nature and Origin, Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.
(England), Vol. 36, 1908-9.
1Larsen, E. S., The Microscopic Determination of the Non-opaque Minerals, U.
S. Geol. Survey Bull. 679, 1921.
2Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 55, 1908.


Feldspar-This mineral as a rule is not abundant in clays, though
it decomposes more readily than quartz and thus usually occurs in
smaller grains. Feldspar occurs in several forms which differ slightly
in their chemical compositions. While these different species of feldspar
vary to some extent in their melting points it may be said that feldspar
fuses at about 13100 C. (cone 9)", although in the presence of alkalies
this temperature is much lower. Clarke4 gives the melting point of feld-
spar as ranging from 1265 to 15500 C. He points out, however, that
these observations were made upon artificial preparations of great
Chemical Composition
Feldspar Species -I- -------I
_________ SiO2 I A203 I K20 Na20 | CaO
Orthoclase ..................... 64.70 18.40 16.90 0.00 0.00
Albite ......................... 68.00 20.00 00.00 12.00 [ -eQ-
Oligoclase ..................... 62.00 24.00 00.00 9.00 5.00
Labradorite .................... 53.00 30.00 00.00 4.00 13.00
Anorthite ..................... 43.00 37.00 00.00 0.00 20.00

Mica-This is another mineral which occurs in the form of several
different species which likewise have a variation in their different
compositions. Mica occurs in most clays and is very difficult to
remove. In washing, on account of its light scaly character, it floats off
with the clay particles. Mica acts as a flux in clays at a high tempera-
ture. It is abundant in the clays of Florida. Few clays of the State are
free from it, while in some of those in the western counties it is present
in large quantities. The chief mica is muscovite because it is less easily
Hydromica-Hydromica is, according to Somers2 a distinctly mica-
ceous mineral which represents a transition stage of weathering between
sericite and kaolinite, with kaolinite as the final product. Somers reports
hydromica as scarce in only twenty-two and unidentifiable in twelve of
the clays examined by hii. Hydromica is peculiarly abundant in many

MRies, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 55, 1908.
4Clarke, F. W., Data of Geochemistry, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 695, p. 360, 1920.
1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 55, 1908.
2Somers, R. E., Microscopic Study of Clays, in U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 708,
p. 296, 1922.


Limonite-This is an iron mineral represented by the formula
2Fe203, 3H20. Its occurrence in clays is widespread and in a variety
of forms. When present in a finely divided state it gives to the clay a
yellowish or brownish color. It is always a secondary product resulting
from the alteration of other minerals. It may occur in clays disseminated
in fine grains, as a coating or thin film covering the clay particles, as
concretions, or limonitic crusts and layers. It exerts a strong coloring
and fluxing action in the burning process, if abundant and uniformly
distributed. The presence of a very small per cent may produce a notice-
able coloring effect and is therefore an injurious ingredient of a clay
desired for whiteware. If limonite occurs in small lumps and these are
not finely crushed, they appear in the burned product as unsightly black
splotches. Limonite concretions are very common in many Florida clays
and limonite or other hydrous iron oxides in other forms is widely dis-
tributed over the State.
Hematite-Fe2Os. This is another iron mineral which may be
found in clays, but as it alters to limonite easily on being exposed to
moisture and air, it is not so common. Its effect in clays is similar to
that of limonite.
Magnetite-FeaO4. A magnetic ore found in some clays as black
magnetic grains. It is not, however, a common constituent of clays.
Siderite-FeCOs. This is the iron carbonate which occurs in some
clays and shales as concretionary masses or as disseminations. It
changes to limonite if exposed to the weathering agencies. If in a finely
divided state and evenly distributed through the clay, it is said to give
a blue or slate-gray color to the raw clay. In burning the carbon dioxide,
(CO2), is driven off. The resulting effect is probably similar to that of
Pyrite-FeS2. This mineral, the iron sulphide, is common in some
clays and was noted in some of the Florida clays. It is pale or brassy
yellow in color, has a metallic lustre, and occurs as small cubical grains
or as nodular lumps. Pyrite is an injurious ingredient as it not only has
an effect similar to that of the other iron minerals but the sulphur dioxide
(S02) may, in burning, unite with steam to form sulphuric acid
(H2S04), which in turn may combine with calcium or magnesium com-
pounds to form soluble salts. These may cause a white efflorescence or
coating on the ware. If the pyrite occurs in large masses it may be
screened or picked out by hand. Pyrite is sometimes an impurity in coal


and when such coal is used as fuel in firing clay products it may cause
the same injurious scumming effects as when it is an ingredient of the
Calcite-CaCOs. The presence of this mineral in clays can be easily
detected by the application of a few drops of hydrochloric acid which
causes the calcite to effervesce briskly. Calcite is quite abundant in some
clays and may occur as disseminations, as concretions, or as fragments
of limestone. These larger pieces can be separated by hand in mining.
Calcite acts as a flux in burning and if present in fine lumps is converted
into lime (CaO) which slakes upon being exposed to air and causes
the ware to crumble unless hard-fired. If the calcite is present in a finely
divided state and evenly distributed through the clay it has no especial
injurious effect. -Some of the Florida clays are quite calcareous. At
higher temperatures the lime resulting from the burning of calcite will
unite with the other elements of the clay, especially the alumina and
silica, giving a reaction which has a marked effect on the color as well
as the fusibility of the clay. If the lime be in excess of the iron, when
iron is present, it has a tendency to give the ware a buff color. Ries'
states that this effect is most marked when the percentage of lime is
three times that of iron.
Gypsum-CaSO4, 2H20. This mineral, the calcium sulphate, is not
widely distributed in clays, but in some deposits it occurs abundantly.
It is regarded as an injurious ingredient when present. Ries2 says:
"The effect of gypsum on clay is that of a flux, especially if the brick
is burned to vitrification, but if the clay is not burned sufficiently hard
to drive off the sulphuric acid which the gypsum contains combined
with the lime, then soluble sulphates may be left in the clay, which will
be brought to the surface of the brick where they cause an unsightly
white coating upon evaporation of the moisture." Gypsum has a pearly
lustre and occurs in plate-like crystals or in fibrous form and exhibits
no effervescence when acid is applied. It may be secondary in origin
in clays and is formed by the action of sulphuric acid upon calcium
carbonate. Gypsum specks in burned clay do not cause the ware to
slake as is the case when calcite is present. Ries3 states that he has

1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 87, 1908.
2Ries, H., Clays of Maryland, Md. Geol. Survey, Special Publication, Vol. IV,
Part III, p. 225, 1902.
3Ries, H., Private Communication.


collected clays in Florida that had crystals of selenite (one form of
gypsum) as much as a half an inch in diameter.
Rutile-TiO2. This mineral is probably widely distributed in clays,
usually in small amounts. Few attempts have been made to identify it
in clays. It rarely occurs in large quantities. Somers4 reports rutile
as unidentifiable in three of the one hundred and twelve clays examined
miroscopically by him, moderate in three, scarce in fifty-three, common
in twenty, and abundant in thirty-three. Its effect is negligible except in
white-burning clays. It usually occurs in microscopic grains.
Ilmenite-TiFe203. It is not definitely known that this mineral
occurs in clays, but its occurrence is probable in those clays which have
been derived from soda-rich and basic eruptive rocks. Ilmenite is a
constituent of some of the sands along the east coast of Florida and its
presence is to be expected in some of the clays of that region. Its effect
is perhaps similar to that of rutile.
Glauconitc-This mineral, often called greensand, is a hydrated
silicate of ferric iron and potassium with aluminum and water in vari-
able proportions, and usually mixed with other minerals. It is easily
fusible and hence a high percentage of it is not desirable. It is olive to
grayish-green in color. It occurs in many of the clays of the Atlantic
coastal plain region and has been reported in clays in New Jersey1,
Maryland2, and Georgia3.
Chlorite-This term is applied to a group of secondary minerals
which are hydrous aluminum silicates with ferrous iron and magnesium.
Ferric iron may sometimes be present. It is found in small quantities
in some clays. Its presence in the Cretaceous clays of Georgia4 and the
Leda clays of Canada5 has been reported.
Dolonmile-CaMg (C03)2. Dolomite is very similar in composi-
tion and properties to calcite. Alone it is highly refractory, but acts as
a flux with other minerals. Dolomite is common in some of the clays of
the Manatee River region.
4Somers, R. E., Microscopic Study of Clays, in U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 708, p.
292, 1922.
1New Jersey Geol. Survey, Final Report, VI, p. 46, 1904.
2Maryland Geol. Survey, Eocene, p. 52, 1901.
3Veatch, Otto, Clay Deposits of Georgia, Georgia Geol. Survey, Bull. 18, p.
41, 1909.
4Ladd, G. E., American Geologist, Vol. XXIII, p. 240, 1899.
5Merrill, G. P., Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils, p. 335, 1913.


Hornblende-This is a complex silicate frequently found in some
impure clays. It weathers readily and colors the clay red, owing prob-
ably to its iron content.
Garnet-This is another complex silicate, which occurs as grains
in some impure clays. Its effect is similar to that of hornblende.
Vizianite-FesP20s, 8H20. A hydrous ferrous phosphate which
may occur in some clays. It is not a common constituent of clays, but
occurs in some Atlantic coast clays as small blue spots. Its presence in
large quantities has not been determined.
Pyrolusite-Mn02 I
Psilomelane-H4MnO.-, These manganese oxides are usually sec-
ondary in origin and occur frequently in residual clays, but they are not,
however, of very widespread distribution. In clays they rarely exceed
one per cent. They exert a coloring effect similar to that of iron and are
often the coloring agents on those clays used in mineral paint or
Very few attempts have been made to study the minerals in burned
clay. Porcelain and some other types of high-grade products have
been studied microscopically to some extent, but only about six investi-
gators1 seem to have carried on any experiments on clay alone. Somers
apparently did the most exhaustive work so far attempted on American
Somers' work shows that quartz usually stands out with much
greater clearness in the burned than in the raw clay. He states that in a
few cases a fluxing action appears to have taken place between the fine-
grained material and the silica.

IVernadsky, W., Soc. franc, mineralogie Bull., Vol. 13, p. 256, 1890.
Glasenapp, M., Ueber Aenderungen der Mikostruktur der Tone durch Ein-
wirkung hoher Hitzegrade: Tonindustrie Zeitung, Vol. 31, p.
1167, 1907.
Klein, A. A., The Constitution and Microstructure of Porcelain: American
Ceramic Soc. Trans., Vol. 18, p. 377, 1916.
Mellor, J. W., Can the firing temperature of a body be determined from the
microscopic appearance?: Eng. Ceramic Soc. Trans., Vol. 16, pt.
1, p. 71, 1917.
Somers, R. E., Microscopic Study of Clays, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 709, p.
300, 1922.
Schurecht, H. G., The Microscopic Examination of the Mineral Constituents of
some American Kaolins, Jour. of Am. Ceramic Society, Vol. 5,
p. 3, 1922.


Hydromica, as the results of the same investigator show, either
practically disappears at 1150 C. or loses the greater part of its inter-
ference color. Somers states that: "This change of the hydromica on
heating suggests that it furnishes some of the flux for the clay, and
other things being equal, there may be a connection between the degree
of density at the temperature mentioned and the quantity of hydromica
Somers further states that: "If it is not fluxed, kaolinite appears
to retain its shape and at least a part of its original interference color.
Tourmaline and probably epidote disappear even at 1150 C., but rutile,
zircon, and probably titanite seem to be unaffected even at 1300' C."
A white Florida clay fired at 1150. C. exhibited the formation of
sillimanite. Somers believed it to have formed from large flakes of
kaolinite or the low-grade hydromica. Other similar clays treated in
the same manner did not develop sillimanite.

There are in common usage two methods of clay analysis. One of
these is known as the ultimate analysis and the other as the rational
The ultimate analysis is the one most frequently used. It is the one
which considers the various ingredients of a clay as oxides, yet their
exact condition may be in much more complex forms. Calcium car-
bonate (CaCO3) is thus considered as being broken up into carbon
dioxide (C02) and lime (CaO), with the percentage of each given separ-
ately. The sum of these two percentages would, on the other hand, be
equal to the amount of calcium carbonate in the clay. The common
method of expressing the ultimate analysis of a clay is as follows:

Silica ........... .... ..... (SiO2)
Alumina ..................... (Al203)
Ferric Oxide ................. (Fe2Os)
Ferrous Oxide ................ (FeO)
Lime ........................ (CaO).
Magnesia .................... (MgO) Fluxing Impurities.
Potash ....................... (K20) Al
Soda ........................ (Na20) Alalies
Titanic acid .................. (TiO2)
Sulphur trioxide .............. (SOs)
Carbon dioxide ............... (CO2)
W ater ....................... (H2O)
Organic matter ............... .......


The ultimate analysis does not indicate what compounds are pres-
ent in a clay, but at the same time some data can be derived from it.
Ries' lists the following facts as obtainable from chemical analysis:
"1. The purity of the clay, showing the proportions of silica, alumi-
na, combined water and fluxing impurities present. High-grade clays
often show a percentage of silica, alumina, and chemically combined
water approaching quite closely to kaolinite.
2. The approximate refractoriness of a clay; for other things being
equal, a clay with high total fluxes, is commonly less refractory than
one with low total fluxes. In this connection it is to be remembered that
texture, irregularity of distribution of the constituents, and condition
of kiln atmosphere are among conditions affecting the result.
3. The color to which the clay burns. This must be judged with
caution. Assuming the constituents to be evenly distributed, then a clay
with 1 per cent or less of ferric oxide is likely to burn white, but at high
temperatures titanium if present produces discoloration. One with 2-3
per cent of ferric oxide is likely to burn buff; one with several per cent
or more of ferric oxide will usually burn red if there is no excess of
lime or alumina: It should be remembered that condition of the kiln
atmosphere, texture of the clay, and sulphur in the fire gas may all affect
the results.
4. The quantity of chemically combined water. Clays with a large
amount sometimes show a high shrinkage, but there are many excep-
tions to this.
5. Excess of silica. A high percentage of silica (80-90 per cent)
may indicate a sandy clay, and possibly one of low shrinkage, but does
not necessarily point to a very lean one. High silica in a fire clay usually
shows only moderate refractoriness provided it is evenly distributed.
6. Organic matter. This should be determined, as it causes trouble
in burning if present to the extent of several per cent, requiring thorough
oxidation in firing before the clay is allowed to pass to the vitrification
7. Sulphur trioxide. Since this may be the cause of swelling in im-
properly burned wares, and also indicate the presence of soluble sul-
phates, it should always be determined.
1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 62, 1908. New
Jersey Final Report, Vol. VI, p. 50, 1904.


8. The presence of several per cent of lime and carbon dioxide
shows the clay to be of calcareous character, and not only often of blff-
burning character but with a narrow margin between vitrification and
9. Titanium oxide should be determined, especially in fire clays,
as a small quantity may reduce the fusion point of fire clay several cones.
It might be seen from the above that the ultimate analysis yields us
much, and yet it leaves us practically in the dark as to the plasticity, air
and fire shrinkage, density and hardness of burning, tensile strength, etc."
In modern clay investigation emphasis is placed on the physical
tests and the ultimate analysis is rarely made because it is of little prac-
tical value except in rare cases.
The rational analysis attempts to resolve the clay into its consti-
tuent minerals, and in one sense of the word gives a more accurate con-
ception of the true character of the material. The ordinary analysis
divides the clay into: clay substance, quartz, and feldspar. The method
as at present used is not by any means satisfactory, nor is it altogether
safe to figure the mineral composition from the ultimate analysis.'
Methods of making both the ultimate and rational analysis are con-
veniently outlined in a number of publications dealing with clays and
clay technology.2

Silica-Silica may occur in a clay in the free state as quartz or it
may occur in a combined state in the form of the silicate minerals. The
common silicate minerals found in clays are kaolinite, hydromicas, feld-
spar, mica, hornblende, etc. The total silica is usually given in.the ulti-
mate analysis and includes both the free and the combined forms. Except
in the case of kaolinite the silicate minerals occur in a more or less sandy
condition and exert an influence upon the plasticity and shrinkage as
does quartz. All of these affect the fire shrinkage and fusibility of the

1Washington, H. S., The Calculation of the "Rational .Analysis" of Clays,
Jour. Am. Ceramic Society. Vol. I, p. 405, 1918.
2Washington, H. S., Manual of the Chemical Analysis of Rocks, 1919.
Hillebrand, W. F., The Analysis of Silicate and Carbonate Rocks, U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 700, 1919.
Hillebrand, W. F., Some Principles and Methods of Rock Analysis, U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 176, 1900.


clay. Indeed, sand is often added to some brick clays having a high
shrinkage in order to reduce the shrinkage.
Contrary to the belief of some, the addition of quartz does not raise
the fusion point of a clay. Quartz alone is very refractory, but in te
presence of highly aluminous low-flux clays its refractoriness is re-
duced. A high percentage of silica for a very refractory clay is ift
Alumina-Alumina is one of the common constituents of all clays
and is derived not only from kaolinite but many of the other silicates as
well. Alone it is highly refractory, but in the presence of fluxes its fusion
point is lowered.
Iron Oxide-This includes both the ferric oxide, Fe203, and tHe
ferrous oxide, FeO. The iron oxides in clay are derived from such
iron minerals as limonite, hematite, pyrite, siderite, and also from such
silicates as mica, hornblende, garnet, glauconite, etc.
Iron acts as a strong coloring agent in both the burned and un-
burned clay. Its range of color influence is from a very faint creaitR,
through yellow and buff, to all shades of red, brown, and blue to bladt.
The resulting color, however, is not solely determined by the quantfy
of iron oxide present but also by the texture and distribution in the cla,
the form of the iron, whether ferric or ferrous, condition of the kffi
atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, and the neutralization effet
of other constituents as lime. A
The iron oxides likewise exert a strong fluxing action, thus lower-
ing the fusion point of the clay. Ries' states that "this effect will be
more pronounced if the iron is in a ferrous condition or if silica s
present." The iron oxide probably enters into combination with silica,
forming an easily fusible silicate.
Iron may therefore be either a desirable or an undesirable ingredient
of. clays. In the lower grades of ware its coloring and fluxing action is
beneficial. The fluxing action reduces the temperature at which burning
must be done. In other wares, such as white wares and refractory prod-
ucts, it is detrimental. It is obvious that in white-burning clays the iron
content must be very low. q

Ries H. Clays Their Occurrence Properties and Uses p. 85 1908.
IRies, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 85, 1908.


Lime-Lime is found in one form or another in many clays, but all
forms may be classed as carbonates, silicates, or sulphates. Calcite, or to
a lesser extent dolomite, is the usual source of lime carbonate, gypsum
is usually the source of the sulphate. Some silicates such as some of the
feldspars and garnet may contain lime in combination, but the lime con-
tent of such silicates is usually quite low, and they therefore supply but
little. When lime is present in the form of the carbonate, (CaCOs), it
may be detected by the application of an acid, as hydrochloric or nitric,
which will react with the carbonate to produce an effervescence due to
the escape of the carbon dioxide, (C02).
When in the form of the carbonate, lime is the most effective. If
in a finely divided state it acts as a flux. When not in a finely divided
state the carbonate changes to quicklime on burning with the loss of
the carbon dioxide gas. The quicklime later takes up moisture from the
atmosphere and slakes with accompanying swelling or crumbling.
Ries' states that: "If the temperature is raised higher than is re-
quired simply to drive off the carbon dioxide, and if some of the min-
eral particles soften, a chemical reaction begins between the lime, iron,
and some of the silica and alumina of the clay, the result being the forma-
tion within the clay of a new silicate of very complex composition. The
effects of this combination are several: In the first place the lime tends
to destroy the red coloring of the iron and imparts instead a buff color
to the burned clay. This bleaching action is most marked when the
percentage of lime is three times that of iron. It should be remembered,
however, that all buff-burning clays are not calcareous, and that a clay
containing a low percentage of iron oxide may also give a buff body.
Another effect of lime, if present in sufficient quantity, is to cause the
clay to soften rapidly, thereby sometimes drawing the points of incipient
fusion and viscosity close together and giving what is termed a short
firing range.
This rapid softening of the calcareous clays is one of the main
objections to their use, and on this account also it is not usually safe
to attempt the manufacture of vitrified products from them, but the
presence of several per cent of magnesia will counteract this. It has also
been found possible to increase the interval between the points of incip-
ient fusion and viscosity by the addition of quartz and feldspar."
1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 87, 1908.


It is believed by many that a highly calcareous clay is entirely un-
desirable. This, however, is not always the case. Wisconsin clays2,
highly calcareous, produce a good building brick. When a vitrified
ware is not attempted and the lime is in a finely divided and evenly dis-
tributed state, a good clay may contain as much as 20 to 25 per cent. It
is interesting to note that the calcareous Wisconsin clays used in the
manufacture of brick, are burned, with a few exceptions, at a much
higher temperature than the non-calcareous ones1.
The lime contained in the silicates have no noticeable detrimental or
beneficial effects. While they may act as fluxes, they do not cause the
ware to soften rapidly.
When lime is present in the form of the sulphate it will, when
heated sufficiently high, be broken up into calcium oxide, (CaO), and
sulphur trioxide, (SOa). The sulphur trioxide may cause blisters or
cracks in the ware as it escapes.
Magnesia-Magnesia may occur in the same form as lime, but the
silicates in this case are the most important sources. In this form it
acts in much the same manner as calcium silicate, but is not quite so
active. While magnesia acts as a flux in firing it does not cause the clay
to soften as rapidly as calcium and the points of incipient fusion and
viscosity are more widely separated. Magnesium-bearing minerals
which might occur in clays are biotite (black mica), hornblende, chlorite,
dolomite, etc. The chlorite may be abundant in some partially decom-
posed residual clays and the dolomite in some sedimentary ones.
Alkalies-This term is used to include potash (K20), soda (Na20),
and ammonia (NHs). Ammonia is present in some raw clay, but as it
is easily volatile it readily escapes when the ware is heated. Soda and
potash, called the fixed alkalies, are present in almost every clay. The
complex silicates, as mica, greensand, orthoclase, etc., are the principal
sources of the alkalies in clays. Some alkali carbonate may be held in
clay by adsorption. They are regarded as the most active fluxes present
in clays. Except in the case of refractory clays, they are desirable consti-
tuents when in the form of silicates. By their fluxing action they bind
the clay particles together in a dense hard body at a lower temperature
than would otherwise be possible. It is for this reason that feldspar
is used'as a flux in many high-grade wares. There is practically no
coloring effect exerted by the alkalies.
2Clays of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Geological Survey, Bull. XV, p. 18, 1906.
'Clays of Wisconsin, Wis. Geol. Survey, Bull. 15, p. 36, 1906.


Titanium-Titanium is often regarded as an uncommon constituent
of clays but in reality it is of frequent occurrence. Rutile and ilmenite are
the most important sources of titanium dioxide in clays. Unfortunately
tests for titanium are rarely made in a chemical analysis. It exerts a
blue and yellow coloring effect and Ries' has shown that it lowers the
refractoriness of clay. Veatch2 states that titanium was shown in the
analysis of some Georgia clays, but when those clays were examined
microscopically no titanium minerals could be identified with certainty.
Water-This includes the mechanically combined water or moisture
and the chemically combined water. The mechanically combined water is
that held in the spaces between the clay particles by capillary action and
can be driven off by heating the clay to the boiling point of water. The
loss of this water causes the clay to shrink to a certain extent. This
shrinkage, known as air shrinkage, ceases when the clay particles have
all come in contact. The chemically combined water exists in combina-
tion with other elements and can only be driven off at a temperature
ranging from 4000 to 600 C.
Organic Matter-Organic matter, usually in the form of vegetable
particles, occurs in many clays. It is a strong coloring agent in the un-
burned state and imparts to the clay a gray, blue, brown or black color.
The same clays may, on burning, be red, buff, cream, or white, depending
upon the other coloring agents. In such cases the carbonaceous matter
has masked the other substances like iron in the raw state.
Carbon may interfere with the proper oxidation of iron and expul-
sion of sulphur when present. Clays with a high content of organic mat-
ter are of common occurrence in Florida.
It has been shown by the experiments of Orton and Griffin3 that
between 8000 and 900" C. is the best temperature interval for burning
off the carbon, as below this the oxidation of it does not proceed as
rapidly, and above this there is danger of vitrification beginning and
the oxidation being stopped. All the moisture should first be driven out
of the clay, then the heat raised as rapidly as possible to.a temperature
between 800* and 900" C. and held there until the ware no longer shows
a black core denoting ferrous iron.
1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 104, 1908.
2Veatch, Otto, Clay Deposits of Georgia, Georgia Geol. Survey, Bull. 18, p.
48, 1909.
3Second Report of Committee on Technical Investigation, National Brick
Makers' Association, Indianapolis, 1905.


Sulphur-The determination of sulphur is rarely made in the analy-
sis of a clay unless it is being considered for the manufacture of Port-
land cement. It sometimes occurs, however, in clays and when present
is usually in the form of sulphate or sulphide. Orton and Staley' con-
cluded, from a series of experiments carried on by them, that sulphur
retained in the clay during the period of burning, regardless of its form
or cause of retention, is not likely to cause any physical disturbance
until a fairly complete degree of vitrification is reached, but when a dense
vitrified state is reached it soon becomes less dense, on account of the
formation of multitudes of minute vesicles in the viscous body, and
finally the body becomes spongy and worthless. They further conclude:
"That in clays of low sulphur content, and of favorable structure for
oxidation, the amount of sulphur left in the clay at vitrification is very
small. Hence the period of good structure is long, the vesicular struc-
ture develops slowly, and the clay is said to stand overfiring well.
"In some clays of high sulphur content or of dense structure un-
favorable for oxidation, or of high content of iron and carbon, the escape
of sulphur is prevented, the clay has a narrow period of usefulness, or
none at all, and the vesicular structure becomes enormously exag-
Soluble Salts-Soluble salts is a term applied to those compounds
readily soluble in water which are found in practically all clays to a
greater or less degree. Upon being dried the moisture in the clay carries
these compounds to the surface where it leaves them, upon evaporation,
as an efflorescence. This effloresence or white coating may also occur
in the burned product after exposure to moisture.
The term "effloresence" and "scum" have hitherto been used inter-
changeably to describe the accumulation of the salts (coating) upon the
surface where they have been brought in solution and deposited upon
the evaporation of the water. Parmelee2 suggests that the usage of the
term effloresence be limited only to include those surface deposits of
salts that accumulate on raw clays in their original beds or in storage
bins; all those surface deposits which occur in the drying of the ware,

IThird Report of Committee on Technical Investigation, National Brick
Makers' Association, Indianapolis, 1908.
2Parmelee, C. W., Soluble Salts and Clay Wares, an address before the Indiana-
Illinois Division of the American Face Brick Association. Chicago, April 11, 1922.


except those cases where the ware is dried by the waste heat from burn-
ing kilns; all coatings of soluble salts in masonry work in walks, piers,
etc., which have originated through the solvent action of water upon
materials in the clay wares or has been contributed by the mortar used;
and those coatings of soluble salts brought to the surface during the
early stage of burning (water-smoking period). He also suggests that
the term scum be limited to designate all those surface coatings of soluble
salts which have originated through deposits upon the surface of vola-
tile substances. This distinction is adhered to in the following discus-
sion of soluble salts:
Soluble salts brought out in the drying of the ware are termed
"dryer white," those appearing in the process of burning are "kiln
white," and those which come to the surface of the finished product
after being exposed to moisture are "wall white".
While soluble salts are present in all clays they may occur in various
forms and may result from several causes. Not all of these, however,
are harmful. It also sometimes happens that other conditions intervene
in behalf of the manufacturer to reduce the harmful effect of the more
objectionable ones.
These soluble salts may occur as the hydrated silicic acid, as
aluminum salts, as the sulphates of iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium,
potassium, etc., also as sodium chloride or common salt. Some of the
compounds of vanadium at times occur as soluble salts. The calcium
and magnesium sulphates are the most troublesome and incidentally
are the ones most frequently found.
The soluble salts may be present in the clay in its raw state; they
may result from the decomposition of certain mineral impurities in the
clay as pyrite, upon exposure to moisture and air; they may be introduced
by gases coming from fuel used in drying or burning; or they may be
brought into the clay by the water used in tempering. In any case
where soluble salts occur the water used should be considered.
Parmelee1 has pointed out that clay particles are of very minute size
and when these are subjected to prolonged contact.with water they are
more or less taken into solution. Thus, the same writer adds, the de-
termination of the amount of the soluble salts in clays is seriously com-

1Loc. cit.


plicated by the progressive solubility of clay in contact with water, so
that the duration of the contact and the temperature are extremely im-
portant factors.
If pyrite is present in a clay it oxidizes when exposed to air and
moisture to form the soluble iron sulphate. Its presence may often be
detected by a yellow or brownish-yellow effloresence on the raw clay. It
is oxidized during burning to red or brown. The iron sulphate decom-
poses with the formation of sulphuric acid which then attacks the calci-
um, magnesium, or iron compounds to form the sulphates of these ele-
ments. In some cases organic acids present in many clays may attack
calcium carbonate (often in the form of limestone) to form some of the
soluble salts.
The maximum amount of soluble salts which may be present in a
clay without detrimental results is not known. It is placed by some in-
vestigators at as low as one-tenth of one per cent. Dr. Mickler1 says:
"The amount of scum (efflorescence) formed on finished goods bears no
definite relation to the proportion of soluble salts contained, but there
is quite a definite relation between the amount of the magnesium and
sodium sulphates and that of scum (effloresence)." On this point
Staley2 writes "that he added calcium sulphate to a fine-grained, red-
burning shale in amounts increasing to 3 per cent of the dry clay and
was unable to produce effloresence even with slow drying. When he
added 1 per cent of magnesium sulphate it appeared in large quantities
and a 1 per cent mixture of equal parts of the sulphates of calcium
and magnesium give an even greater amount of effloresence." He ex-
plains this by pointing out that magnesium sulphate is very soluble in
water while calcium sulphate has only a slight solubility. He also states
that calcium sulphate hastened the rate of drying which would act
toward a decrease in effloresence.
There are several methods of preventing the troublesome effect
of soluble salts. The numerous remedies which have been suggested
and used depend upon the character, origin, and occurrence of the salts
in the clay in question. In some cases use of the clay in the unweathered
condition is desirable. In other cases prolonged and thorough weather-
ing will permit the objectionable compounds to be leached out. Rapid

1Quoted in Clayworkers' Handbook, p. 213, 1906.
2Staley, Homer F., Use of Barium Fluoride for the Prevention of Dryer Scum
on Bricks. Trans. Am. Ceramic Soc., Vol. XVII, p. 200, 1915.


firing may prevent the concentration of the salts on the surface of the
Bick or using a reducing flame in the kiln may counteract the ill effects
altimes. Coating the ware with some organic substance such as rubber,
tar, or flour is often satisfactory. Washing the clay in much the same
runner as is followed in the sedimentary kaolin mines in Lake and Put-
rndm Counties will usually accomplish the desired result, but this method
i4Isomewhat expensive except for high-grade wares. Probably one of
tIf most satisfactory methods of prevention is to convert the soluble
slIts into insoluble compounds. This can be accomplished by reactions
with barium compounds. For example, if a clay containing calcium
sAlphate is treated with barium chloride the insoluble barium sulphate
a9d calcium chloride results. The calcium chloride is decomposed in
burning without harmful results. There are several ways in which this
general method can be applied.








Clays possess certain characteristics which are of a physical nature
and which are variable in different clays. The value of a clay for the
manufacture of clay products depends upon these physical properties.
Herein lies the necessity for determining the possibilities and limitations
of a clay by a series of physical tests. These also determine the kind
of product for which the clay is best suited. The more important physical
properties will be briefly treated.

Plasticity is one of the most important properties of a clay, for
without it the manufacture of ordinary clay products would be greatly
limited. Plasticity has been defined as the property possessed by a clay
of forming a plastic mass when mixed with water; this definition is satis-
factory only when applied to clay because plasticity is not a property
of clay alone. Ries' defines plasticity as "the property which many bodies
possess of changing form under pressure, without rupturing, which
form they retain when the pressure ceases, it being understood the
amount of pressure required, and the degree of deformation possible, will
vary with the material."
The degree of plasticity varies greatly in different clays. Clays
showing a high degree of plasticity are said to be "fat," while those which
are only slightly plastic are "lean" or "short." No satisfactory method
for measuring plasticity has as yet been devised. The description of
the plasticity of a clay is largely a matter of individual judgment and
varies with the personal equation.
The amount of water required to develop the maximum plasticity
in any clay varies with the material. It ranges from eight or ten per
cent in some to over forty per cent in others.
The cause of plasticity is not thoroughly understood, and while
many theories have been advanced to explain it no one of them seem to fit
every case.
The structure of. the clay particles has been used in several attempts
to explain plasticity. The fineness of grain theory is that plasticity is due
iRies, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 119, 1908.


solely to the fineness of the clay particles. Other substances, however,
when ground equally fine do not have the plasticity that clay has. The
plate structure theory is that clay is made up of very fine plates which
afford plasticity when mixed with water. All clays, however, do not
show this platy structure. The interlocking particles theory is that the
tiny particles interlock and thus afford plasticity.
An attempt has also been made to explain by virtue of the presence
of hydrous aluminum silicates, that is to say the plasticity is due to the
hydrous aluminum silicate condition, and that the application of heat
drives off the chemically combined water thus destroying plasticity. The
degree of plasticity, however, does not stand in any relation to the chemi-
cal composition.
Efforts have likewise been made to explain plasticity by molecular
attraction and by the presence of colloidal matter. This supposes that
these colloids take up water and thus become jelly-like and plastic.
It does not seem likely, in the examination of a series of clays, that
any of the theories as yet suggested is the sole cause of plasticity. It is
more probable that plasticity is due to a combination of them.
Some clays are too highly plastic to be handled with maximum
facility in the common types of machinery. In such cases a non-plastic
substance, as sand, is added to the clay to reduce the plasticity.

The color of a clay is quite variable, ranging from white through
gray, yellow, brown, red to black. Vegetable matter and the nature of
the iron compounds present usually determines the color of a clay, though
manganese is sometimes an important factor.
The color of the raw clay is not always indicative of the color of
the burned product. If the raw clay is red because of the presence of
iron compounds, the burned product is likely also to be red. The pres-
ence, however, of sufficient calcium carbonate would tend to neutralize
the coloring effect of the iron and cause a buff or cream color instead.
The presence of carbonaceous matter will have little influence, if any,
on the color of the burned product. It moreover masks the true-color of
the raw clay. The colors in burned clays are not as variable as in the raw
one, White, cream, buff, yellow, and red are the common colors in
burned products.


The size of grains composing clay varies from small pebbles to ex-
tremely minute particles. In fact, these finer particles are at times
so small as to remain in suspension in water an indefinite period. The
size of grains, or texture, has an important influence in clays on their
plasticity, shrinkage, porosity, fusibility and strength.
Several methods of determining the texture of clays are commonly
followed, and these are very similar to the methods used in the me-
chanical analysis of soils.1

Some clays when immersed in water will crumble to a powder in a
few minutes, while others will at first break up into small masses which
subsequently crumble. This process is known as slaking, and the test is
usually made by mixing the clay with equal parts of ground potter's flint.
The time necessary for a clay to slake varies from a few minutes in soft
porous ones to several days or even weeks in others.
A clay which slakes easily can be tempered more readily, and in
case of a clay which must be washed, one which slakes readily is more
rapidly disintegrated in the process.

All clays exhibit a reduction in size in drying and burning which is
termed shrinkage. The first is the air-shrinkage and the latter is the fire-
shrinkage. Both fire- and air-shrinkage are commonly measured in two
ways, by volume or by linear determinations. The volume (or cubic)
shrinkage is obtained by determining the volume of the test piece when
first molded and again after drying or burning. The linear shrinkage is
measured directly on the ware and expressed in percentage terms of the
original length.
In clay containing no water the clay particles are all in contact
with each other. There are spaces, however, left between the particles.
When the clay is brought into contact with water, these interstitial spaces
are filled without the clay changing form. The water necessary to fill
these interstitial spaces is termed the pore water. If additional water is

'U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bur. of Soils. Bull. 4, p. 9, 1896.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bur. of Soils. Bull. 64, 1900.


added it causes an increase in volume or swelling of the clay. This addi-
tional water absorbed by the clay is in the form of a film surrounding
each particle of clay.
After a clay is mixed with water and molded, its water begins to
evaporate. As evaporation progresses the particles composing the clay
come again in contact, resulting in a shrinkage of the mass. This will
continue until all the water forming a film around the clay grains has
escaped and the clay particles are in contact with each other. This is the
point of maximum air-shrinkage if the water lost is the shrinkage water.
The only moisture.remaining in the clay is the pore water which can only
be driven off by heating the ware to 100 C. for a few hours.
The air-shrinkage in clays ranges from less than one per cent to
more than fifteen per cent. Six or seven per cent is about the average.
Sand is often added to clays to reduce an excessive shrinkage.
All clays shrink to some extent during certain stages of the burning
process. The fire-shrinkage varies within wide limits in different clays
and ranges from one or two per cent in some to more than forty per
cent in others. At certain temperatures some clays may expand to some
extent. Fire-shrinkage results from the driving off of any organic
matter present, decomposition of some of the chemical compounds and
the volatilization of certain substances as water in the hydrous minerals
and carbon dioxide in the carbonate minerals present, etc.
Fire-shrinkage probably begins at the point where chemically com-
bined water begins to pass off and continues, but not uniformly, until
the point of vitrification is reached, which is the point of maximum
After the expulsion of the volatile elements the clay is left in a
porous condition until the fire-shrinkage recommences. Ries1, in experi-
menting with New Jersey clays, found: "That most of the volatile sub-
stances, such as chemically combined water contained in the hydrous
aluminum silicates, mica, or limonite, and organic matter, pass off before
500 C. and that an additional appreciable amount is expelled between
500 C. and 6000 C. Between 6000 C. and 1100 C. there was a small but
steady loss. Although the loss in weight between 500' C. and 900 C. is
considerable, there is little or no shrinkage, so that after the volatile

1Ries, H., The Clays and Clay Industry of New Jersey, New Jersey Geological
Survey Report, Vol. VI, p. 94, 1904.


elements have been driven off, the clay must be very porous, and remains
so until the fire-shrinkage begins again. In these tests, with one ex-
ception, no shrinkage occurred between 600C. and 9000C., but between
900 C. and 1000 C. there was a decrease in size and a still greater re-
duction between 1000 C. and 1100 C. It can be seen from this that up
to 6000 C. a clay should be heated slowly, butt from that point up to
1000 C. the temperature can be raised quite rapidly unless much carbon-
aceous matter is present. Further heating should be done slowly as the
shrinkage recommences at the last-mentioned temperature."
In some clays having an excessive fire-shrinkage'and where severe
losses occur from warping and cracking a substance having no fire-
shrinkage, a sand or grog (ground bricks, etc.), is often added. Sand,
however, may act as a flux at high temperatures.


All clays fuse or melt at some temperature and the temperature
at which this action takes place is quite variable in different clays. In
fact, clays are often classified on the basis of their refractoriness. Every
mineral has a definite temperature at which it will fuse and this point is
usually different for different minerals, but in the case of a mixture of
minerals the point of fusion may be different from that of any mineral
in the mixture. Thus the fusion point of clay, which is a mixture of
several minerals, may fuse at a temperature different from the melting
point of any of its mineral components. In such cases the minerals act
as a flux on each other. Clays soften slowly due to different mineral
grains entering into fusion at different temperatures.
Ries1 says that in the case.of clays "the temperature of fusion de-
pends on (1) the amount of fluxes; (2) the size of grain of the refrac-
tory and non-refractory particles; (3) the homogeneity of the mass; (4)
the condition of the fire, whether oxidizing or reducing; and (5) the
form of chemical combination of the elements contained in the clay."
Three stages are commonly recognized in the heating of a clay to
its fusion point. The first is incipient vitrification, in which there has been
sufficient softening to cause the grains to stick together. In this stage the
individual grains can no longer be recognized. All the pore spaces, how-
ever, have not closed. The second stage'is known as complete vitrifica-

1Ries, H., Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses, p. 166, 1908.


tion and is accompanied by a sufficient softening of the mass to close all
the pore spaces and render the mass impervious. The point of maximum
shrinkage is also attained in this condition. The stage of viscous vitrifi-
cation is characterized by further softening or swelling of the clay
until it flows or becomes viscous.
It is often quite difficult to recognize just when these three periods
have been reached as the change from one to the other is frequently
very gradual. In other cases the transition is quite sudden. The tempera-
ture necessary to change a clay from one of these conditions to the other
is dependent upon the composition of the clay and is therefore variable.
The difference in temperature between the points of incipient vitrifica-
tion and viscosity may be less than 30 C. in calcareous ones to more than
275 C. in refractory clays.
In the manufacture of clay products it is not possible to regulate the
temperature of the kiln within narrow limits. It therefore becomes
necessary to use a clay in which the points of incipient vitrification and
viscosity are somewhat separated, particularly if a vitrified ware is to be
produced. If a clay with a short firing range, as the range in temperature
between incipient vitrification and viscosity is termed, is used there is
danger of either not reaching the point of complete vitrification or going
too far beyond this point and melting the contents of the kiln.
Orton' has very completely discussed the nature of the vitrification
process and points out.that "any clay which is greatly overloaded with
quartz sand, or with large proportions of carbonate of lime, or almost
any other common mineral . vitrifies with great difficulty, and
with a very imperfect degree of vitrification at best. It is not only not
at all uncommon in practical work to find clays which will work well
for ordinary porous clay products such as building bricks, and still not
vitrify to anything approximating industrial requirements, but it may
fairly be said that there are more clays used industrially which fall out-
side of the commercially vitrifiable class than fall in it. . The
preliminary stages of burning are vitally important in preparing the min-
erals to combine and fuse into a solid solution. By the time the tempera-
ture reaches 900 C. the compounds, silicatess, both hydrous and anhy-
drous, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulphides, free carbon, hydrocar-

1Orton, Edward Jr., The Legal Definition of Vitrification, Trans. American
Ceramic Society, Vol. XVI, p. 497, 1914.


bons, etc.), derived from the original minerals should have been con-
verted into stable forms, .. and nothing should be left except
what may enter into a silicate solution. The normal beginning of the
reaction in the vitrification process is from little spots or foci scattered
throughout the body, . each focus being represented by some
easily fusible mineral grain, or the juxtaposition of two or more min-
eral grains which combine to form a. eutectic or the most fusible ratio in
which these minerals can combine. . The spread of the glassy
cement from focus to focus in a clay of good vitrifying character is slow
and steady, and the proportion of grains which will not readily dissolve
is such that they readily form a sort of skeleton or frame work, holding
the mass in its shape, while the glassy cement slowly decomposes them
and fills up the voids, causing the well-known phenomenon called
shrinkage. . Practically all silicates when passing from the solid
state to a state of complete fusion, give off some gaseous matter. It
may be the gas which they have held in solution and which is then
occluded, or it may be from remnants of volatile matter not hitherto ex-
pelled, or it may be due to the swelling of gases caught in the intersti-
tial voids of the mass during the shrinkage and unable to escape. Prob-
ably all three causes are responsible in most cases. This swelling
agency is at work as soon as the formation of glassy cement be-
gins. . If the process of fusion be carried along steadily until
a fluid bath is obtained, the liquid will pass into a frothy stage in which
the gas bubbles work their way to the top and escape, . but with
continued heat and liquidity the bubbles finally cease to form. . .
It can thus be seen that the clay product, in reaching its point of greatest
density, does not reach the point where the gases are fully expelled but
only the highest point attainable without causing their evolvement to
seriously begin. This maximum density is found at a point where
the reduction in volume due to shrinkage is equalized by the ex-
pansion due to gases evolved. One force balances the other and for a
time the volume of the clay remains constant. This time may be long or
short. In some clays of most excellent vitrifying habit, a heat treatment
represented by five or six cones may occur with scarcely any change in
size. In others the volume diminishes rapidly and at the minimum point
begins at once to swell again, with no appreciable interval. Such clays
cannot be burned profitably into hard products. There is no margin in
which the burner can regulate his kiln, and a part of every kiln would