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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administrative report
 Literature relating to human remains...
 Fossil beetles from Vero,...
 Elevations in Florida
 Geologic section across the Everglades...
 The age of the underlying rocks...
 Review of the geology of Florida,...
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


FGS





Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00012
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Publication Date: 1918-1919
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00012
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Administrative report
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Literature relating to human remains and artifacts at Vero, Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Fossil beetles from Vero, Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Elevations in Florida
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Geologic section across the Everglades of Florida
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    The age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well borings
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Review of the geology of Florida, with special reference to structural conditions
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
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        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Index
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Back Matter
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Back Cover
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Spine
        Page 161
Full Text





UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


II







FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST (Resigned)
HERMAN GUNTER, STATE GEOLOGIST



















TWLF ,T ANNUAL REPORT '


PUBLISHED FOR
THE'STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE, 1919.











DiIOLOai
LIBRARY




























' THE E. 0. PAINTER PRINTNC CO.
S DELAND, FLORIDA
1919


-











LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. Sidney J. Catts, Governor of Florida:
SIR: In accordance with the law under which the State Geo-
logical Survey is established, I submit, herewith, my annual report.
During the twelve years that it has been my privilege to serve as
State Geologist of Florida, there has been published by this De-
partment, including the present report, twelve volumes on the Ge-
ology and resources of the State, two bulletins on the special sub-
jects of Water Supply and Public Roads, and nine shorter bulle-
tins on various subjects; a total amounting to approximately 3,000
printed pages. In addition, there has been issued a general geo-
logical map of the State and several maps in moderate detail for
various parts of the State. It has been the object in these reports
and maps to present information of permanent value in the future
development of the State, and although the edition of each report
issued has necessarily been limited, the reports have found a place
in public and other libraries to such an extent as to insure their be-
ing permanently accessible to those who are interested in the de-
velopment of the resources of the State.
Permit me to express in this connection, my appreciation of
the uniform courtesy that has been extended to me by you as Gov-
ernor, and from your office. A similar acknowledgment is due
the other Departments of the State with which this Department
is more or less closely associated, as well as to the many citizens
of the State who have taken an active interest in and have fur-
thered the work of this Department. With the completion of this
report I am presenting my resignation as State Geologist of
Florida. Very respectfully,
E. H. SELLARDS,
State Geologist.


















CONTENTS
Page
Administrative Report ..............---------------.---- VII
Literature relating to human remains and artifacts at Vero, Florida, by
E. H. Sellards ------------------------------------------ I
Fossil beetles from Vero, Florida, by H. F. Wickham -------------------- 5
Elevations in Florida, by Herman Gunter -- ------------------------- 9
Geologic Section across the Everglades of Florida, by E. H. Sellards -------...... 67
The age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of
well borings, by Joseph A. Cushman -------------- 77
Review of the geology of Florida, with special reference to structural con-
ditions, by E. H. Sellards ------------------------------------ 105


ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig. I-Sketch map illustrating geologic section across the Everglades--.... 72
Fig. 2-Map showing location of wells ---------------------------------- 81
Fig. 3-Map illustrating structural conditions in Florida --------------- 128
Fig. 4-Thickness of formations as indicated by well records ----------- 130


MAP
Following
page
Sketch map-of the geology of Florida ------------------------------ 112








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

The following is a list of the publications issued by the State
Geological Survey since its organization:
First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
Second Annual Report, 19og, 299 pp., 5 text figures and one map.
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two maps.
Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.
Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 text figures, two maps.
Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9 text figures, one
map.
Twelfth Annual Report (this volume), 1919.
Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, 19o8,
103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp., 4 pls.
Press Bull. No. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912,
March 12, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at
the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci-
ence, December 31, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
Press Bull. No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913,
May 20, 1014.
Press Bull. No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains
Found Imbedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
Press Bull No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
Press Bull. No. 8. The Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1917, May
2, i918.
Press Bull. No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May o10, 1918.

DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS

The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are distrib-
uted upon request, and may be obtained without cost by address-
ing the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida. Requests by those
living outside of the State of Florida should be accompanied by
postage or if desired the reports will be sent express collect.







ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


TWELFTH ANNUAL ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT

EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR THE YEAR
ENDING DECEMBER 31, ii98.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
$7,500 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by the
State Geologist, as all Survey accounts are paid upon warrants
drawn upon the Treasurer by the Comptroller as per itemized
statements approved by the Governor. The original of all bills
and the itemized statements of all expense accounts are on file in
the office of the Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are on
file in the office of the State Geologist. The warrants when paid are
on file in the office of the State Treasurer. A list of the warrants
issued from January I to June 30, 1918, amounting to $3,038.44,
was given in the Eleventh Annual Report.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED FROM JULY I TO DECEMBER 31, 1918

JULY, 1918.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for July, 1918 -------------------$ 150.00
Lila B. Robertson, services -------------- -------------------- 35.00
Alex. Quarterman, services ----------------------------------- 9.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------------------------------10.00
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company ------------------------ 98.45
Wrigley Engraving Company ------------------------------ 7.50
T. J. Appleyard, printing --------------------- --------------- 8.00
Sydney Prentice, drawings ---------------------------------- 20.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies --------------------------- 2.64
Southern Express Company ------------------------------ 13.48

AUGUST, 1918.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for July-August, 1918------- 421.20
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for August, 1918 --------------- 150.00
Lila B. Robertson, services ---------------------------------- 13.28
V. M. Nicholls, copying 1917 mineral production ----------- 7.71
Ed Lomas, janitor services --------------------------------------- 10.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, freight -------------------- 7.11
E. 0. Painter Printing Company ----------------------------- 499.16
American Railway Express Company --------------------------- 1.00









V111i FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


SEPTEMBER, 1918.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for September, 1918 -----------
Fred Collins, janitor services -----------------------------

OCTOBER, 1918.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for October, 1918 ------------
Fred Collins, janitor services ------------------------------
A. N. Marquis & Company ------------- ------------------
American Railway Express Company ...-------------------

NOVEMBER, 1918.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for November, 1918 -----------
Fred Collins, janitor services -----.....-------------------------......

DECEMBER, 1918.
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for December, 1918 ------....
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses for December, 1918 ---------
Fred Collins, janitor services ------------------- ----------
American Journal of Science, subscription ------------------------
J. A. Cushman ---------------- -------------------------


150.oo
10.00


150.oo
10.00
5.50
3.11


150.00
10.00


i5o.oo
150.00
23-35

6.oo
10.00

400.00


Total expenditures from July I to December 31, 1918 -------------$2,543.93
Total expenditures for year ending December 31, 1918 ------------- $5,582.37










LITERATURE RELATING TO HUMAN REMAINS AND
ARTIFACTS AT VERO, FLORIDA

By E. H. SELLARDS.

In the July, 1916, issue of this journal the writer announced the
discovery of human refnains and artifacts in association with ex-
tinct vertebrates at Vero, Florida. Since that time there has accu-
mulated a very considerable literature relating to the locality and
to the discoveries. Among papers on this subject recently issued
is a memoir by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka which is included in Bulletin 66
of the United States Bureau of American Ethnology (pp. 23-65,
1918).
In this memoir Dr. Hrdlicka maintains the hypothesis previ-
ously proposed by him that the human remains and artifacts found
at Vero represent burials by human agency. Aside from adhering
to this hopelessly inadequate hypothesis, the paper is remarkable
for what it omits rather than for what it contains. Papers by a
number of geologists and anthropologists had been published pre-
vious to the final revision of this memoir, as is indicated by a state-
ment found on page 65 of the paper, but to the contents of these
publications there is no adequate- reference. The hypothesis pro-
posed by Dr. R. T. Chamberlain, which is in accord neither with
that of Dr. Hrdlicka nor with that of the present writer, receives
not so much as mention. The investigations of Dr. 0. P. Hay,
which support the Pleistocene age of the human remains, is only
casually referred to. The observations of Dr. G. G. MacCurdy,
which in no way support the burial hypothesis are not mentioned.
It might have been supposed that the observations and conclusions
of a specialist in paleobotany would have been of interest, since an
important part of the evidence in this instance rests with the fossil
plants. Nevertheless the fact that Professor E. W. Berry has
stated that he has personally observed artifacts in place in these
deposits lying beneath a late Pleistocene flora under conditions
such that they could not possibly have been introduced by human
agency is singularly passed over. In fact the brief reference to
I







2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELITH ANNUAL REPORT

Berry's paper fails to indicate that in addition to a description of
the fossil plants, he has placed on record observations relating to
the place of the human relics in the deposits.
In the introductory paragraph, of his "Critical Observations"
Dr. Hrdlicka states that everything relating to human occupancy
had been removed before anthropologists had an opportunity of
visiting the locality. This is not in accordance with the facts, for,
as everyone knows who has informed himself about the problem,
the human artifacts have not all been removed, and anyone who is
interested may yet see objects of human workmanship in'place in
this formation. Dr. Hrdlicka maintains that he has detected dis-
crepancies in some of the writer's statements in regard to the meas-
ured thickness of parts of the section. Fortunately the problem
does not rest on the writer's statements or observations alone, bu:
on the observations of others as well. The student who is inter-
ested in the question of the age of the human remains found at thi]
locality will do himself an injustice if'he accepts this memoir b-
Dr. Hrdlicka as a fair presentation of the subject. Rather it wi'l
be necessary to consult the literature as a whole, and for the con-
venience of any who may be interested there are here included ref-
erences to all the publications, so far as the writer is aware, that
have appeared relating to the Vero deposits. The evidence bot'i
for and against the Pleistocene age of the human remains and arti-
facts has been fully stated in these papers. In the judgment of th
writer it can riot be successfully denied that at this locality ther-
are found relics of human workmanship and human bones in as-
sociation with and contemporaneous with a fauna and flora that
elsewhere and heretofore have been considered Pleistocene.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

On the discovery of fossil human remains in Florida in association with
extinct vertebrates, by E. H. Sellards, this Journal (American Journal of Sci-
ence) Vol. 42, pp. 1-18, July, 1916.
Human remains from the Pleistocene of Florida, by E. H. Sellards, Sci-
ence, N. S. Vol. 44, pp. 615-617, October 27, 1916.
Human remains and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida, by
E. H. Sellards, Eighth Annual Report, Florida Geological Survey, pp. T21-160,
pls. 15-31; figs. I-I5, October, 1916.








HUMAN REMAINS AND ARTIFACTS AT VERO, FLORIDA


On the association of human remains and extinct vertebrates at Vero,
Florida, by E. H. Sellards, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 4-24, January-
February, 1917.
Interpretation of the formations containing human bones at Vero, Florida,
by Rollin T. Chamberlin, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 25-39, January-
February, 1917.
On reported Pleistocene human remains at Vero, Florida, by Thomas
Wayland Vaughan, Journal of Geology, Vol. '25, pp. 40-42, January-Febru-
ary, 1917.
Preliminary Report on Finds of Supposedly Ancient Human Remains at
Vero, Florida, by Ales Hrdlicka, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 43-51, Jan-
uary-February, 1917. 1
The Quaternary deposits at Vero, Florida, and the vertebrate remains
contained therein, by Oliver P. Hay, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 52-55,
January-February, 1917.
Archaeological evidences of man's antiquity at Vero, Florida, by George
Grant MacCurdy, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 56-62, January-February,
1917.
Further Notes on Human Remains from Vero, Florida, by E. H. Sellards.
Amer. Anthropologist, N. S. pp. 239-251, Vol. 19, No. 2, April-June, 1917.
The problems of man's antiquity at Vero, Florida, by George Grant Mac-
Curdy, Amer. Anthropologist, N. S. pp. 252-261, Vol. 19, No. 2, April-June,
1917.
On the finding of supposed Pleistocene human remains at Vero, Florida,
by Oliver P. Hay, Journal Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 258-
260, June 4, 1917.
Note on the deposits containing human remains and artifacts at Vero,
Florida, by E. H. Sellards, Journal of Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 659-660, October-
November, 1917.
The fossil plants from Vero, Florida, by Edward W. Berry, Journal of
Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 661-666, October-November, 1917.
Further studies at Vero, Florida, by Rollin T. Chamberlin, Journal of
Geology, Vol. 25, pp. 667-683, October-November, 1917.
A Review of some papers on fossil man at Vero, Florida, by Oliver P.
Hay, Science (N. S.), Vol. 47, pp. 370-371, April 12, 1918.
Discussion and correspondence on the antiquity of man in America, by
W. H. Holmes, Science, (N. S.) Vol. 47, PP. 561-562, June 7, 1918.
The Pleistocene man at Vero, Florida, by F. H. Sterns, Scientific Amer-
ican Supplement, No. 2214, pp. 354-355, June 8, 1918.
The Vero man and the sabre tooth, by G. R. Wieland, Science, N. S.,
Vol. 48, pp. 93-94, July 26, 1918.
Recent discoveries attributed to early man in America, by Ales Hrdlicka,
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 66, 1918. Including a report on-
artifacts by Dr. W. H. Holmes.








4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Hay, 0. P. Doctor Ales Hrdlicka and the Vero Man, Science, N. S., 48,
pp. 462, 1918.
Review of the Ninth 'Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey,
Science, N. S., Vol. 47, pp. 394-395, 1918, by N. C. Nelson.
Chronology in Florida. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum
of Natural History, Vol. 22, pt. 2, 1918, by N. C. Nelson.
The Pleistocene Man of Vero, Florida A Review of the latest evidence
and theories. Scientific American Supplement, Feb. 22, 1919. By F. H.
Sterns.










FOSSIL BEETLES FROM VERO, FLORIDA


By H. F. WICKHAM.*

In the interesting locality at Vero, Florida, now noted for the
finds of human remains in association with those of Pleistocene
mammals, several rather good specimens of insect fragments were
found. All of the Coleopterous relics, most of them elytra, have
been turned over to me by Dr. Sellards, for study, and form the
basis of the following notes.
A specific account of the locality its geological history, strat-
ification and fossils, will be found in an article by Dr. Sellards in
the Eighth Annual Report of the Florida State Geological Sur-
vey, 1916, pp. 121-160. For the purpose of the present notes, it
may be sufficient to say that the insects were found in both of the
strata yielding human bones and implements, and in association
with remains of the Columbian elephant, the American mastodon
and other extinct mammals. The Coleoptera seem worth record-
ing, partly because they throw some light on the probable climatic
and ecological conditions at the time of their deposit, and partly
because we may gather from them some ideas as to the relative
rapidity of specific or subspecific change.
Two -conclusions seem to be warranted after a study of the
beetle fragments. The first is that there is nothing to indicate any
particular difference in climatic conditions in Florida then and
now, since the assemblage of genera is the same as one might ex-
pect to find in a stream valley there today. The nearest relatives
of the species are still characteristic members of the Floridian
fauha and many of them are apparently identical. Second, it
seems evident that there has been some change in minor charac-
ters of sculpture, since it is not possible to match certain of the fos-
sils exactly with modern forms. In view of the fact that other

*This paper on Fossil Beetles and the one which precedes relating to the
literature on the locality at Vero were published in the May issue of the
American Journal of Science, 1919.







6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

researches indicate that insect evolution has been extremely slow,
so that many species, even as old as the Tertiaries, are rather dif-
ficult to discriminate from their modern allies, no more marked
divergence would, be anticipated.
-Besides a few small fragments that could not be determined,
the following species are contained in the collections:

FAMILY CARABIDJE
Diplochila laticollis Lec. Represented by a left elytron, com-
plete except that the apex is slightly twisted and broken. In some
lights the discal strike are barely visibly punctate. There are no
characters to differentiate this from a recent Iowa specimen. The
species still occurs in Florida. Found in stratum 3.
Diplochila major Lec. Approximately the basal half of a right
elytron is present. It shows no particular deviation from modern
examples taken in Iowa, Indiana and Louisiana. Still occurs in
Florida. Found in stratum 3.
Chlaenius aestivus Say. A right elytron is before me, lacking a
small part of the scutellar region and all of the tip. Part of the
pubescence is still preserved near the side. Compared with recent
specimens from Lake City, Florida, the fossil is darker, perhaps
from discoloration, and the interstitial punctuation is a little more
scabrous or mucronate. It is still a rather abundant Florida insect.
Found in stratum 3.
Chlaenius tricolor Dej. A left elytron, lacking the tip, seems
to go here very well. An abundant insect in the eastern United
States, including Florida. From stratum 3.
Chlaenius sp. A pronotum, simply labelled Vero, Florida, is
different in some respects from auy modern Chlaenius known to
me. It may, however, belong to one of the southern species with
which I am unacquainted.
Oodes amaroides Dej. An entire elytron, labelled like the pre-
ceding, is apparently just like a modern specimen from Indiana.
It still occurs in Florida.
FAMILY SCARABCEID(E
Copris inemarginatus Blatchley. Represented .by somewhat
more than the basal half of a left elytron and a smaller curled frag-
ment, taken from stratum 2, north bank, 370 feet west of the







FOSSIL- BEETLES FROM VERO, FLORIDA


bridge. Compared with a recent Iowa specimen of Copris anaglyp-
ticus Say, the fossil has narrower and sharper strike with deeper
crenate punctures giving the sculpture a rougher appearance. The
interstrial ridges in the fossil are barely visibly punctured (under a
9x lens) while in the Iowa example this punctuation is very dis-
tinct, though fine and sparse. However, in this latter feature the
fossil is matched by a specimen of C. inemarginatus Blatchley, from
Gainesville, Florida, kindly loaned me by Professor Watson, and
the determination is- made accordingly.
Strategus antaeus Fabr. From stratum 3 comes a left hind tibia
which is shorter and relatively stouter than that of recent speci-
mens from Florida and Massachusetts. The fossil is also darker,
subopaque, the upper ridge more sinuate and the surface between
this and the second ridge much more strongly and deeply punctu-
ate. Since a recent individual from Georgia approaches the fossil
closely in ridge structure and punctuation, I do not like to propose
a new name.
University of Iowa, Iowa City.









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.

HERMAN- GUNTER

The following list of elevations iri Florida is a revision of a
list published in the Fifth Annual Report of the Florida Geologi-
cal Survey, pages 81-ioi, 1913, by E. H. Sellards. The present
list, however, is very much enlarged mainly by the addition of the
results of spirit leveling in Florida'by the United States Geological
Survey and by the addition of elevations as determined by the
various railroads since the former list was published.
The elevations from the railroad- surveys are either taken
direct from the profiles, or given as submitted to the Florida Geo-
logical Survey through the courtesy of the Chief Engineer of the
different railroads, or as published in the 1913 list as taken from
the Dictionary of Altitudes, Bulletin 274, United States Geological
Survey. The precise levels which have been determined by the
United States Geological Survey arid by the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey were obtained from Bulletin 516 of the United
States Geological Survey and through correspondence with the
Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey,
Washington, D. C. The levels made by the United States Army
Engineers are obtained from Preliminary Survey for a Ship Canal
from the St. Marys River to the Gulf of Mexico, made in 1879;
Survey of the St. Johns River to Charlotte Harbor, by way of Lake
Tohopekaliga, for purpose of steamboat communication, Appendix
J, Annual Report of Chief of Engineers, 1882; Survey of the
Kissimmee River, Florida, and connecting lakes and canals flow-
ing into Lake Okeechobee, thence down the Caloosahatchee
River to the Gulf of Mexico 1899; and two levels on the Apala-
chicola River from correspondence with the Superintendent of
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The levels by the
State Drainage Commission are from a map of the Everglades
district issued in 1913.
The abbreviations used in giving the authority for the eleva-
tions are as follows: U. S. G. S. (United States Geological Sur-
vey); U. S. C. & G. S. (United States Coast and Geodetic Sur-






10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT ...

Vey) ; U. S. Army Engrs., (United States Army Engineers);
Fla. State Engrs., (Engineers of the Florida State Drainage
Commission); A. N. R. R. (Apalachicola Northern Railroad);
A. & St. A. B. Ry. (Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railway);
A. C. L. R. R. (Atlantic Coast Line Railroad); C. H. & N. Ry.
(Charlotte Harbor and Northern Railway) ; F. E.' C. Ry.
(Florida East Coast Railway); G. F. & A. Ry. (Georgia, Florida
and Alabama Railway); G. S. & F. Ry. (Georgia Southern and
Florida Railway); L.. & N. R. R. (Louisville and Nashville Rail-
road); M. & B. R. R. (Marianna and Blountstown Railroad):
S. A. L. Ry. (Seaboard Air Line Railway); F. Ry. (Florida
Railway); Fellsmere R. R., (Fellsrnere Railroad). The elevation
given for the towns, unless otherwise stated, is that of the depot
of the railroad cited as authority.
Those elevations in the tabulated list preceded by an asterisk
(*) are subject to minor corrections by the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey.
It is with due appreciation that acknowledgment is here made
of the uniform courteous co-operation of the Engineering Depart-
mnents of the several railroads operating in Florida. In supplying
the Florida Geological Survey with blue prints of their profiles
and where blue prints could not be furnished in allowing acces-
to the profiles and other records, and further in the giving of their"
time in supplying a list of elevations along their railway lines
all this has materially 'aided the Survey in its compilation world ,
and added completeness to the list here published.

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS.
No detailed topographic map of Florida has so far been issued.
The United States Geological Survey has, however, published(
several topographic maps of quadrangles in certain portions of the'
State. Much of the recent mapping has been done in co-operatiodi
with the War Department, Corps of Engineers of the United
States Army. The precise levels determined within several of' |
the quadrangles were published in Bulletin 516 of the United
States Geological Survey and are herewith republished as taken
from that Bulletin. However, for many of the' areas more re-







ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


cently surveyed the precise levels, with a detailed description of
the bench marks, are not yet available. Elevations taken from
these sheets are given only to the nearest foot as shown on the map
from which they were obtained, credit being made to the United
States Geological Survey.
Maps of the following quadrangles, lying wholly or partly in
Florida, have been surveyed up to January I, 1919. For an index
map showing the location of the published topographic sheets and
for all information relative to the maps, application should be made
to The Director, United States Geological Survey, Washington,
D. C.:
Arredondo Lawtey
Boulogne Macclenny
Cambon Mayport
Citra Moniac
Dinner Island Middleburg
Dunnellon Ocala
Folkston Orange Park
Green Cove Springs Palatka
Hague Palm Valley
Hawthorn Panasoffkee
Hilliard Starke
Interlachen Tsala Apopka
Jacksonville Welaka
Kingsland Williston

LIST OF ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.
Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet)
Abbott ------------..---------------------------------.... S. A. L. Ry.-.-- io
Agnew ----------------- ..-----------------------------U... S. G. S...--. 70
Alachua,, S. A. L. depot -----------------------U. S. G. S --.. 6o
Albion, S. A. L. depot -------------------------U. S. G. S.-- 81
Albion, in foundation of small new chimney on west
side of frame building north of railroad station;
bottom of a square cut in top of brick (C. & G. S.
"Albion") -----.- ----------------------- .U. S. C. & G S.- 88.578
Allapaha River, Hamilton County, between mile posts
172 and 173 --- ----- ----------------------------. S. & F. Ry. -.too
Alligator Creek, Hamilton County, between mile posts
176 and 177 .------------------------------ G. S. & F. Ry.- 98
Alligator Lake, Osceola County -------------------U. S. 'Army
Engrs., 1882_.. 71








12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Altamonte Springs --------------------------- A.
Altschule ----------------------------------G.
Andrews --------------- --------------------U.
Ankona -------------------------------------F.
Anthony -----------------------------------S.
Apalachicola ---------------------------------A.
Apopka --------------- ------------------ S.
Apopka -------------- ----------------------A.
Arcadia -------------------------------------A.
Arch Creek ----------------------------------F.
Arch Creek, Dade County, between mile posts 356 and
357 ---------------------------------------------F.
Archer, 21 meters west and 9 meters south of station
of Seaboard Air Line Railway, in line with tele-
graph poles ------------------------------U.
Archer, in brick chimney on south side of Mr. C. W.
Banknight's house, a short distance north of track.
and opposite freight depot of Seaboard Air Line
Ry., in ninth course above ground and in second
brick from southwest corner of chimney, about
one-fourth inch inside outer surface of brick;
intersection of cross in end of copper bolt (C. &
G. S. "Archer") -------- -----------------U.
Archer, about 3 miles west of, near fourth telegraph
pole west of mile post 116, 9 meters north of Sea-
board Air Line Railway tracks -------------- U.
Archer, 3.2 miles northeast of, near mile post ino, in
line with telegraph poles, 75 meters west of sign
"Station one mile", 9 meters west of Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks ---- ---------U.
Argyle -------------------------------------- L.
Armour ----- ---------------------------- A.
Armstrong ------------------------------------F.
Arnait ----------- ------------------- L.
Arran ------------------------------------------G.
Arredondo, S. A. L. depot ----------------------U.
Arredondo, corner of orchard of D. G. Harvard, 0.9
meter from nearest corner post; bottom of a
square cut in top of a piece of artificial stone 8
by 14 inches, buried with its upper surface Io
inches beneath surface of ground, and lettered


C. L. R. R.-.IOI
F. & A. Ry.--209.4
S. G. S.------ 94
E. C. Ry.---- 33
A. L. Ry.-- 77
N. R. R.---- 5
A. L. Ry. -- 15
C. L. R. R.--.125.2.
C. L. R. R.-- 56
E. C. Ry ...- 12.4

E. C. Ry .. 10.0


S. C. & G. S.- 82.775








S. C. & G. S.- 85.c70


S. C. & G. S.-Ioo. 9.



S. C. & G. S., 84 [86
& N. R. R.-254 3
C. L. R. R.-_ 70
E. C. Ry.-- 38
& N. R. R._252 3
F. & A. Ry.-__ 42 3
S. G. S._ 8c


"U. S. C. & G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "U") -- U.. S. C. & G. S._- 88818
Ashmore ----------------..........-------------------- G. F. & A. Ry.- 47.5


LOCALITY.








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY.


Astor ---------------------------------------------


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
-A. C. L. R. R.- 15


Atlantic ------------------------------------S. A. L. R. R._I25


Atlantic Beach ------------------------------------F.
Auburndale -------------------------------A.
Aucilla ------------------------------------- S.
Aucilla River, west end of bridge ------------- S.
Aucilla, about '2 mile east of, at the first telegraph
pole east of a cut; 26 feet south of Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks -------------------U.
Aucilla, 244 feet west of the Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way station, just outside the fence corner west
of the first road west of the station. (U. S. G. S.
Prim. Tray. Sta.) -----------------------U.
Aucilla, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 134; 26 feet
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks -- U.
Aucilla, about 5 miles west of, at mile post 136; 26
feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks _.U.
Aurantia -----------------------------------F.
Avoca -------------------------------------G.
Aycock ----------------- ------------------- L.
Bakers Mill --------- ---------------------... ..A.
Baldwin ------------------------------------- A.
Baldwin, 40 meters southwest of station, 12 meters
north of south end of station shed, midway be-
tween railway tracks, near a telegraph pole ......---U.
Baldwin, about 3/ miles west of, about % mile west
of mile post "J22", 8 meters north of the Sea-
board Air Line Railway tracks, in line with tele-


E. C. Ry..... 13.8
C. L. R. R.-_.167
'A. L. R. R._ 82.0
A. L. Ry.----- 793


S. C. & G. S.- 95.374



S. C. & G. S.. 82.592

S. C. & G. S.- 84.478

S. C. & G. S.- 88.589
E. C. Ry._-- 28
S. & F. Ry._.I2o
& N. R. R._-I28.3
C. L. R. R.--37
C. L. R. R. 83


S. C. & G. S.- 86.627


graph poles. U. S. C. & G. S .... -----------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 78.809
Barberville ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._ 44


Barnett ------------------------------------- A.
Barth -------------- -- --------------------L.
Bartow -------------------- ------__ A.
Baxter ------------------------------------- G.
Baxter ---------------- ------------ U.
Bayard ------------------------------------- F.
Bayard, about 15 meters north of the station, 10
meters east of Florida East Coast Railway tracks -U.
Bayard, about 3 miles south of, I meter from mile
post "Jax 18" io meters west of Florida East Coast
Railway tracks -------------------- _--U.
Baywood ----------------------------------- G.
Bear Head ---------------------------------- L.


C. L. R. R.--35
& N. R. R.- 36.8
C. L. R. R.-.i15
S. & F. Ry.__120
S. G. S.-- T7
E. C. Ry..... 25.5

S. C. & G. S.- 25.079


S. C. & G. S.- 21.234
S. & F. Ry.-.157
& N. R. R.-268.8







14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Bellair --------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 49
Belleview ----------------- ---------------.---.A C. L. R. R.__ 87
Benson ----------------------F. E. C. Ry.... 13.0
Beverly ---------------------- A. N. R. R.---- 10
Big Pine ----- ---------------------- F. E. C. Ry.... 8.1
Big Pottsburg Creek, Duval County, between mile posts
6 and 7 on the Mayport branch F-------- F. E. C. Ry.--.. 18.4
Big Snake Creek, Dade County, between mile posts
353 and 354 -------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry....-- 9.2
Biscayne ------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--.. 11.5
Bithlo --------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 69.1
Black Creek. ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R. 18
Black Point -- ---------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- II
Black Sink Prairie ----------------------------U. S. G. S. --- 60
Blake -------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.-.-- 12.6
Blanton -------------------- -----------------A. C. L. R. R._I05o
Blountstown Landing, end of railroad track --------M. & B. R. R._- 51.1
Bluff Springs ---------- ----------------------L. & N. R.. R._ 54.8
Boardman, A. C. L. depot ----------------------U. S. G. S.------ 73
Bocaratone ------------ ----------------------F. E. C. Ry.--- i7.
Boden's -------------- -----------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903-- 14


------------------L. & N. R. R.--- 4.-


Bonaventure ----------- ---------------------- F.
Bonifay ---------------- ---------------------L.
Bostwick, 150 feet west of, southwest corner of sta-
tion, in northwest corner of crossroads, at outer
corner of fence; iron post stamped "34 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 23" ------------------------------U.
Bostwick, 1.3 miles west of, 50 feet southwest of road
forks to northwest, about 600 feet east of old tram-
way grade; nail in root ox pine tree marked "52.5" U.
Bostwick, 2.9 miles west of, about 0.2 miles west of
creek, 15 feet southeast of culvert; nail in root of
small cypress tree, marked "36.3" -------------U..
Bostwick, 3.4 miles west of, in southeast corner of
crossroads, about 600 feet east of one bridge over
Sims Creek, and about 400 feet north of another
over same creek; iron post stamped "37 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 22" -------------------------U.
Bostwick, 4.7 miles west of, at top of hill, 500 feet
southwest of house. io feet north of road: nail
in root of small black oak tree, marked "61.7" --U.


E. C. Ry.---- 16.:,
& N. R. R. I20o.



S. C. & G. S.- 34. 72


S. C. & G. S.- 52. f9


S. C. & G. S.- 36.21





S. C. & G. S.- 36.706


S. C. & G. S.- 6T.65


Bohemia ------------







ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Bostwick, 5.7 miles west of, in angle of road forks to
northwest; nail in root of small red oak tree,
marked "84" --- -------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 83.91
Bostwick, 6.2 miles west of, in northeast corner of
crossroad, at east corner of Bannerville school
house; iron post stamped "89 Prim. Tray. Sta.
No. 21" -----------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 89.234
Bostwick, 1.1 miles east of, 400 feet west of second-
class road forks to south, 150 feet west of fence
corner, o10 feet north of road; nail in root of
large pine stump, marked "24.7" (unchecked elev.) U. S. C. & G. S._ 24.70
Bostwick, 2 miles east of, 6 feet east of T road west,
100 feet east of creek crossing; iron post stamped
"Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 24" (unchecked elev.) ----U. S. C. & G. S.- 18.975
Bostwick, 7.2 miles west of, in southwest corner of
crossroads, about 1.200 feet east of creek cross-
ing; nail in root of red oak tree, marked "87.6" --U. S. C. & G. S._ 87.55
Bostwick, 8.7 miles west of, 400 feet northeast of
bridge over Sims Creek, 10 feet east of road; nail
in root of large pine tree, marked "35.4" ---------U. S. C. & G. S.- 35.31
Boulogne ----------------- -------------------A, C. L. R. R._ 70
Boulogne ------------- -----------------------U. S. G. S.----- 59
Bowden, 300 meters north of mile post "Jax 5", 15
meters west of Florida East Coast Railway tracks,
opposite cattle shute ------------ -----------U. S. C. & G. S.- 27.152
Bowes --------------------------------------- L. & N. R. R. 128
Bowling Green ----------- --------------------A. C. L. R. R.--II6
Boynton -------------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.-... 14.5
Boynton, drainage canal north of ----------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 13.5
Bradfordville, Leon County, maximum elevation on
top of hill about 2 mile north of, on Tallahassee-
Thomasville public road ------------------Fla. Road Dept.-238
Brandon -------------------------------- S. A. L. Ry.--.... 74
Branford ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-- 43
Braswell, 130 feet northeast ofthe Seaboard Air Line
Railway depot, near telegraph pole, about 16o feet
north of main track -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-189.540
Brent --------------------------------------L. & N. R. R._ 91.3
Bronson, 75 meters east of station, 10 meters south of
Seaboard Air Line Railway track nearly opposite
the city hotel, near east end of siding ---------U S. C. & G. S.- 65.069
Bronson, south side of brick chimney at west end of
Mrs. L. E. Taylor's house, north of track and
nearly opposite railroad station, ninth course above







16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY. AU
ground, in second brick from southwest corner of
chimney; intersection of cross in end of copper
bolt: (C. & G. S. "W") --------------------- U.
Bronson, Magnetic Station in the northwest corner of
the school-house yard, about 70 meters northeast
of the court house -------------------------U.
Bronson, about three miles southwest of, near second
telegraph pole southwest of mile post 125, near
old saw mill; io meters north of Seaboard Air
Line Railway tracks just south of a wagon road
crossing track -----------------------------U.
fBrooklyn ----------------------- G.
Brooksville ----------------------------------A.
Briggsville ---------------------------------------F.
Bryceville -------------- --------------------- U.
Buena Vista ----------------------- --------- F.
Buena Vista, northeast corner of railroad station plat-
form, at center of artificial stone post 8 by 8
inches in cross section and 3 feet long, projecting
6 inches above the surface; square cut in center
marked "U. S." "B. M." (C. & G. S. "H" ____U.
Buffalo Bluff, railroad crossing; top of rail --------U.
Buffalo Bluff, 1,200 feet north of station, at end of
switch, Io feet west of railroad track, at north-
east corner of base of signal tower; nut marked
"15" ------------- ------------------------U.
Bull Creek, Osceola County, between mile posts 78
and 79 on the Okeechobee division -------------F.
Bunnell ------------------------------------- F.


Elevation
THORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


S. C. & G. S.- 72.088


S. C. & G. S._ 77.382


& G. S.- 54.580
F. Ry.--i50
R. R..I26
Ry.-. 28.0
S.-.... 69
Ry...- 14.6


S. C. & G. S.- 14.722
S. C. & G. S.- 15.8



S. C. & G. S.- 12

E. C. Ry..... 65.9
E. C. Ry...-- 23.4


Burnell -----------------------------------L. & N. R. R.-... 57.3
Burnett's Lake -------------------------------S. A. L. Ry..... 69
Bushnell ---------------------- -------------S. A. L. Ry..... 75
Cadillac -------------------------------------A. C. L. R R.- 89
Caledonia ----------------------L. & N. R. R.--I92
Callahan ------------ -- -----------A. C. L. R. R._ 20
Callahan ------------------------U. S. G. S.--- 22
Calvenia ------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_ 45
Cambon -------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 63
Cambon ------------------------------------U. S. G. S..... 59
Campbell -------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._ 75
Campton -----------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.-T72
Candler -------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_o8
Cantonment ----- -----------------------------L. & N. R. R..._42.3
Capitola ---------------------- -------------------- A. C. L. R. R.--- 57








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Carleton ------------------ ------------------U. S. G. S.----- 145
Carraway ----------------- -------------------G. S. & F. Ry.-_ 78
Caryville ------------------ ------------------L. & N. R. R.--- 57.8
Cashens ------------ -------------------------F. E. C. Ry ..... 12.8
Causey ---------------------------------------------A. N. R. R._113
Cedar Keys, southwest corner of carpenter's shop at
south end of D street; iron rod 6 feet long and
I inch in diameter, with head 2 by 2 inches, driven
in sand, with head a little below surface (C. & G.
S. "Tidal") ------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 3.05
Cedar Keys, "Bench mark is the under edge of the
sill of the front window at the southeast corner
of the new concrete store, built in 1877 by
Thomas Barnes"; lower edge of window sill (C.
& G. S. "Perkins") ------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 11.71
Cedar Keys, north iron pier of Transit of Venus
station, in surface of round pier 0.73 meter below
top; intersection of cross cut in south face of
iron pier marked "U. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "Y") U. S. C. & G. S.- 13.13
Cedar Keys, in south side of south iron pier used at
Transit of Venus station, rectangular opening in
side,of pier 0.10 meter wide and 0.15 meter high;
upper surface of bottom of square opening of
iron pier marked "U. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "Z") -U. S. C. & G. S.- 13.30
Cedar Keys, leaded in south face of brick transit pier
of Transit of Venus station, sixth course above
ground, in second brick from southwest corner of
pier; intersection of cross in end of a copper bolt
(C. & G. S. "Transit") ---------- -----U. S. C. & G. S.- 12.74
Cedar Keys, about 4 miles east of, near third tele-
graph pole east of mile post 152, 6 meters norfh
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ------U. S. C. & G. S. 8.68
Cedar Landing, water surface of Oklawaha River,


9


8


I1





7




30


March 15, 1911. U.
Center Hill ----------------------------------A.
Center Park --------------- ------------------F.
Center Park ------------- --------------------U.
Central Supply ----------- ---------------F.
Century ------------- -------------------L.
Chaffin --------- -- ---------- ------L.
Chaires ----------- -----------------------S.
Chaires, about 246 feet west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, 50 feet south of main track ----- U.


S. C. & G. S.. io
C. L. R. R.--- 91
E. C. Ry.--.. 40.5
S. G. S.------ 41
E. C. Ry._ ir.3
& N. R. R. 75.3
& N. R. R.__-o2
A. L. Ry.---- 56.8

S. C. & G. S.- 58.215


-LOCALITY.


30








18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Champaign, 2 meters east of mile post 115, 8 meters
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ....U. S. C. & G. S._121.135
Chase -------------- ----------- --F. E. C. Ry ..... 10.2
Chatmar ----------------- -------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 47.7
Chiefland -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 39.9
Chipco --------------------- -----------------A. C. L. R. R.-I04
Chipley -------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.--13.3
Chubb -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--I65
Chuluota -------- --------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 63.0
Chumuckla ----------- ----------------------L. & N. R. R.- 36.3
Citra -------------- -------------------------A. C. L. R. R._ 61
Citronelle, A. C. L. depot---------------------------- U. S. G. S.____ 26
City Point ------------------- ------------- F. E. C. Ry.---- 38.o
Clarcona ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.... 81.3


Claroy ---------------- -----------------L.
Clarksville, Duval County, about s mile northwest of
on F. E. C. Ry. ---------------------------U.
*Clayno, northwest corner of house, ioo feet south-
west of railroad crossing, 300 feet southeast of
water tank; iron post stamped "15 Prim. Trav.
Sta. No. 74" ----------- -------------------U.
*Clayno, I mile south of, 15 feet southwest of road
forks to south; nail in root of large pine tree,
marked "149.7" ----------------------------U.
*Clayno, 2.6 miles south of, 150o feet southeast of J. C.
Padgett's mail box, 250 feet south of house, 25 feet
south of road; nail in large pine tree ----------U.
*Clayno, 3.4 miles south of, in east corner of road
crossing, 300 feet north of large white house; iron
post stamped "155 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 75" -----U.
Clearwater -----------------------------------A.
Clermont ---------------- ------------ -- A.
Cleveland ----------------------------------- A.
Cocoa ------- --------------------------- F.
Cocoanut Grove --------------------- ----F.
Colegrove ----------------------------------A.
Coline ------------------ ----------------A.
Collins ----------------- ---------------------A.
Conant --------------- ----------------------A.
Cone ------------------- --------------------A.


& N. R. R.-239.3

S. G. S.__-- 22



S. C. & G. S.-153.517


S. C. & G. S.-i48.19


S. C. & G. S.1-6o.33


S. C. & G. S.-153.80o5
C. L. R. R._ 29
C. L. R. R.-_oI05
C. L. R. R. -3
E. C. Ry.--.- 26.5
E. C. Ry..- 13.0
C. L. R. R.-I25
N. R. R-- 26
N. R. R.----- 158
C. L. R. R.- 93
C. L. R. R._I25


-------------------U. S. Army


Engrs., 1903-- 14
Coquina --------------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 17
Cottondale -------------- --------------------- L. & N. R. R.--134.3


Cook's Ferry -------------------








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Cottcndale ---.--- ------------A. & ST. A. B.
Ry. ----------134.3
Cowan --------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.---173
Cow Creek, Volusia County, between mile posts 5 and
6 on the Okeechobee division ---------------- F. E. C. Ry.--- 31.o0
Cow Creek, Levy County ---- ----------------- A. C. L. R. R.-_ 30
Crane Creek, Brevard County, between mile posts 194
and 195 --------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.-- 21.5
Crawford ----------------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.- 85
Crawford ------------------- U. S. G. S..... 84
Creighton ---------------------- ------F. E. C. Ry.---- 39.6
Crestview ----------------------------------- L. & N. R. R. -223.3
Criglar ------------------------ -------------A. N. R. R.--.... 54
Crooked Lake, Polk County ----------- U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882---132
Croom --------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 58


Cross Bayou ---------------------------------A.
Crown Point ---------------------------------A.
Crystal River, 'A. C. L. depot -------------------- U.
Cummer -------------------------- -----------------A.
Cypress ----------------- -------------------- L.
*Cyril, 15o feet north of station, at railroad crossing;
joint of west rail, marked "159.8" -------------U.
*Cyril, 2 miles southwest of, 18 feet southwest of road,
io feet south and southwest, respectively, of two
pine trees painted "U. S. B. M.", in large white
letters; iron post stamped "156 Prim Tray. Sta.
No. 77" -- ---------------------------U.
*Cyril, 3.6 miles southeast of, 200 feet northeast of
small swamp, 6 feet north of road: nail in root of
pine tree located by primary traverse ---------U.
Dade City -------------- ---------------------A.
Dade City ----------- ------------------------S.
Dahoma ------------------- ----------------- U.
Dania ------------------------------ -------- F.
Danzig -------------------------------------L.
Daysville, 9 meters southwest of station and 9 meters
west of Seaboard Air Line Railway track, near
telegraph pole, 5 meters north of public highway --U.
Daytona ------------------------------------ _F.
Deep Creek, St. Johns County, between mile posts 52
and 53 ---------------------------------------F.
Deerfield ----------------------- ----- ----F.


C. L. R. R.- Io
C. L. R. R.-.iog
S. G. S;.---- 4
C. L. R. R.-I36
& N. R. R.-I36.3

S. C. & G. S.-158.3





S. C. & G. S.-I54.91p


S. C. & G. S.-151.79
C. L. R. R._- 89
A. L. Ry..-- o6
S. G. S.--- 73
E. C. Ry....- 12.0
& N. R. R.-267.3


S. C. & G. S.- 82.086
E. C. Ry.--. 7.0

E. C. Ry. 10.5
E. C. Ry. T 15.6


LOCALITY.








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Deerfield, Hillsboro canal north of --------------- F. E. C. Ry.--.... 12.4
Deerhunt ------........------- ----------------------- A. N. R. R..... 82


Deerland ------------------------------------L.
DeFuniak "Springs ----------------------------------L.
DeLand Junction ------------------------------ A.
Delespine ------------------------ --------F.
Delph ------------.....--------------------------A.
Delray -------------- --------------------F.
Dinner Island, 55 feet north of switch point -------F.
Dinsmore ------------- ---------------------A
Dinsmore ------------------ ------------------U.
Doctors Inlet ---------------- ----------------U.
Drake ---------------- ----------------------S.
Drifton ----------------- --------------------S.
Drifton, junction switch to Monticello -------------S.
Drifton, about opposite end of Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, near telegraph pole, 26 feet south
of track. (U. S. C. G. S. Prim. Tray. Sta.) ------U.
Drifton, about 9 miles west of, about 650 feet east of
mile post 144, near road crossing, 26 feet south
of Seaboard Air Line Railway track ------------U.
Duke ------------------ ---------------------A.
Dunedin -------------------- ----------------A.
Dunnellon, A. C. L. depot ---------- ------------U.
Dunns Creek, 1.5 miles west of, 25 feet southwest of
road forks to southeast; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "39.4" --- -----------------------U.
Dupont ----------------- --------------------F.
Durbin ---------------------------------------------F.
Durbin, opposite the south end of the station shed,
10 meters east of Florida East Coast Railway
tracks -------------- ---------------------U.
Dutton ---------------- ----------------------A.
Duval, about 3.5 miles south of, 0.3 miles south of rail-
way bridge No. ioA, opposite mile post Io, and
west of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ------U.
Duval, opposite switch stand at south end of switch,
0.5 mile south of mile post 14, 25 meters east of
the Seaboard Air Line Railway --------------U.
Dyal --------------------------------------A.
Dyal -------------- -------------------------U.


& N. R. R. 226.3
& N. R. R.-257.3
C. L. R. R. 27
E. C. Ry..--..- 33.0
C. L. R. R.--- 37
E. C. Ry..... 20.3
E. C. Ry.-- 26.6
C. L. R. R._ 26
S. G.' S._- 19
S. G. S....-- 13
A. L. Ry.--....--135.7
A. L. Ry.----130.1
A. L. Ry.---- 29.3


S. C. & G. S.-129.744


S. C. & G. S.-I48.687
C. L. R. R.--54
C. L. R. R.- 13
S. G. S.----- 49


S. C. & G. S._ 39.62
E. C. Ry....- 27.0
E. C. Ry .--. 61.2


S. C. & G. S. 60.043
C. L. R. R. 71


S. C. & G. S.- 16.939


S. C. & G. S.- 38.356
C. L. R. R.- 46
S. G. S.---- 47


Eagle Island ------------- --------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903-- 63







ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AUTH(

Early Bird -------------- --------------------S. A.
East Aurantia ------------- -------------------F. E.
East Mandarin ------------ -------------------U. S.
East Mayport -------------- -----------------F. E.
East Mims ------------ ----------------------F. E.
Eastport --------------- ---------------------U. S.
East Palatka -------------------------- -------.F E.'
East Palatka, front yard of residence of Mr. J. E.
Gould, in top of an 8 by 8 by 18 inch marble post
buried 16 inches in ground and lettered "U. S. B.
M."; bottom of a square cut (C. & G. S. "I") --U. S.
Eau Gallie ----------- ----------------------- F. E.
Econlochatchee River, Seminole County, between mile
posts 32 and 33 on the Okeechobee division ------F. E.
Eddy, Gadsden County -------------- -----------A. N.
Eddy, Baker County --------- ------------------G. S.
Eden ---------------- -----------------------F. E.
Ehren --------------- -----------------------A. C.
Elbow Creek, Brevard County, between mile posts 190
and 191 ------------------------------------F. E.
Eldred --------------------------------------F. E.
Elkton ------------------------------------- F. E.
Ellaville ------------- ------------------------S. A.
Ellaville, 20 meters south of Seaboard 'Air Line Rail-
way station ----------- -------------------U. S.
Ellaville, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 98, 8
meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks -U. S.
Ellaville, about 6 miles west of, at mile post IOr, 8
meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks U. S.
Ellerbee ------------ -------------------------U. S.
Ellerslie ------------------------------------- A. C.
Ellzey, in northeast corner of front yard of house
occupied by J. A. Williams, south of track and west
of railroad station; bottom of a square cut in top
of an artificial stone post 8x8x36 inches, buried
30 inches in the ground and lettered "U. S. C. &
G. S. B. M." Post broken on top, Elevation
slightly lower than original B. M. -------------U. S.
Ellzey, 14 meters west of station, ioo meters east of
mile post 136, 9 meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway track ---------------------------- U. S.
Enterprise -------------------. --------------F. E.
Enterprise ...---- --- ---- --- ___ -__ ____ _U. S


Elevation
O ITY. Above Sea
(feet).
L: Ry.--.. 85
C. Ry..--. 6
G. S...-- 23
C. Ry.-- 10.0
C. Ry.-.... 7.3
G. S.-- 16
C. Ry.-.- 17.7



C. & G. S.- 16.846
C. Ry.--- 19.5

C. Ry...-- 26.9
R. R.--- 200
& F. Ry.--130
C. Ry.---- 29.3
L. R. R.- 90o


Ry...
Ry.--.
Ry.---
Ry.--


C. & G. S.- 60.590

C. & G. S.- 84.764

C. & G. S.- 89.163
G. S.------ 148
L. R. R.-_i8







C. & G. S.- 25.377


C. & G. S.- 25.367
C. Ry.--- 26
Army


Engrs., 1903-- 17
Engrs., 1903-- 17








22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Enterprise Junction _------------------------------ A. C. L. R. R._ 26
Escambia ------------------------------------- L. & N. R. R._ 14
Espanola ----------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--....-- 31.8
Eustis ------------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.--_ 6b
Eva --------------------------------------------G. F. & A. Ry._I35
Everglade ---------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 5.9
Everglades, near border of Lake Okeechobee ---- Fla., State
Engrs. ------- 21


Evinston, 450 feet north of station --------------- U.
Fairbanks, 21 meters south of station, 9 meters west
of Seaboard Air Line Railway track, in line with
telegraph poles -------------------------------U.
Fairbanks, io feet southwest of southwest corner of
Post Office; in southeast corner of inclosure, 450
feet north of station; iron post stamped "163 Prim.
Trav. Sta. 55' --------------------------------U.
Fairbanks, about 3 miles northwest of, 150 feet south-
west of east end of dead-head switch, in corner
southwest of railroad crossing, near Milligan's still;
iron post stamped '157 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 56' _-U.
Fair Grounds --- ---------------------- L.
Falco -------------------------------------------- L.
Falmouth, about 20 meters north of the east end of
the Seaboard Air Line Railway station ---------- U.
Favorite ----------------------------------------- F.
Federal Point -------------------------------------U.


S. G. S.---- 67


S. C. & G. S.-I62.319




S. C. & G. S.-162.359



S. C. & G. S.-I56.935
& N. R. R.--129
& N. R. R.-235

S. C. & G. S.- 94.081
E. C. Ry.-- 30.4
S. G. S.--- 6


Fellsmere -------------- ---------------------Fellsmere R. R.- 27
Fellowship --------------- --------------------U. S. G. S.....i8o
Fernandina ------------------ ----------------S. A. L. Ry..- 10
Fernandina,- about 3 miles south of, 3 meters west of
mile post 3, II meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, near sign "Draw bridge one mile" _U. S. C. & G. S.- 10.
Fernandina, at the southeast corner, below the corner
stone of the Post Office building on Center Street -U. S. C. & G. S.- 18.
Fernandina, the intersection of a cross in end of a
copper bolt leaded in the south face of the brick
transit pier of the Transit of Venus Station. The
bolt is in the sixth course above the ground and in
the second brick from the S. W. corner of the pier.U. S. C. & G. S.- 15.
Fernandina. B. M. is top of a standard U. S. C. & G. S.
cap B. M., screwed to an iron pipe 18 inches long.
The lower end of the pipe was spread and the
whole imbedded in a mass of concrete about three


892

753


771








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
feet in diameter at base and about seven inches
at top. The cap- is about flush with surface of
ground and is located near southwest corner of
Front and DeSoto Sts. It is about 25 feet south
of center line of DeSoto St. and about 1oo feet
east of the waters edge. It is located between R. R.
tracks, the nearest track to the west being 43 feet
and the nearest to the eastward being 35 feet.
It is 29 feet northerly from the center of the north
side of an old frame-building formerly used as the
office of the Chief Carpenter of the Seaboard Air
Line Railway, and is 79.5 feet westerly from the N.
W. corner of the freight house platform. B. M.
26 has a straight line cut within the circle at the
center of the brass cap ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 5.246
Fernandina, B. M. is a standard U. S. C. & G. S. brass
cap B. M. secured in concrete in same manner as
B. M. 26. It is located near north east corner of
Front and DeSoto Streets. It is about 34 feet
north of center line of DeSoto Street, and 11.5
feet west of south west corner of a frame build-
ing used as the office of the Jno. G. McGiffin & Co.,
Steamship Agents. The nearest rail of rail road
tracks is 33 feet to the westward, and a fire
hydrant at southeast corner of Front and DeSoto
Streets, is 53 feet to the southward. The cap is
about flush with the surface of the ground, and is
marked by an X inside the circle at the center ___-U. S. C. & G. S.- 9.715
Fiftone, Io meters east of track in line with old fence,
on a high ridge about 50 meters south of wagon
road crossing tracks, opposite old sawmill --.--- U. S. C. & G. S.- 90:594
Flatford -- -----------------------------A. C. L. R. R._- 57
Florahome -------------------------- --------G. S. & F. Ry._i28
Florahome, 0.2 mile east of, at railroad crossing; top
of rail --------------- -U. S. C. & G. S.-13
Florahome, 150 feet southeast of station, in south-
east corner of T road south; iron post stamped
"125 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 26" -------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-124.518
Florahome, o.8 mile west of, on southwest corner of
railroad truss over creek; head of bolt marked
"92.7" ------------------------------------------ U. S. C. & G. S.- 92.63
Floral City ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 57
Florence -----------------------------------------G. F. & A. Ry.--145.5
Florida-Alabama State Line, crossing of on the








24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


A. & St. A. B. Ry.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
.....------------------------------A. & ST. A. B.-156


Florida City --------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..-._ 9.8
Forest City ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._ 92
Fort Drum ----------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 58.9
Fort Gadsden ------------------ --------------A. N. R. R.--__ 20
Fort Lauderdale ------------------------------ F. E. C. Ry.... 10.0
Fort Mason ----------- ----------------------A. C. L. R. R.-__ 66
Fort Meade ----------------- -----------------A. C. L. R. R.-I130
Fort Ogden ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-- 37
Fort Pierce ---------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 24.5
U. S. Army
Fort Vinton Island ----------- ------------------ Engrs., -------- 26
Fort White ---------------- ------------------A. C. L. R. R. 63
Francis ------------------ -------------------A. C. L. R. R. 73
Francis, southwest corner of yard of small dwelling
house belonging to R. D. Howell, north of track,
facing railroad, second house west of railroad sta-
tion, bottom of a square cut in top of an arti-
ficial stone post 8 by 8 by 36 inches buried 30 inches
in ground, lettered "U. S. C. &" "G. S. B. M."
(C. & G. S. Francis) ---------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.- 69.39
Franklin ----------------------- -------------A. N. R. R.--__ 8
Frely's Siding, about 3Y2 miles east of Greenville, 8
meters south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, 500 meters east of mile post 120 ----------U. S. C. & G. S.-II4.9;
Frontenac ----------------- ------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 34.2
Fruita ----------------- ---------------------F. E. C. Ry.--.. 29.0
Fruitland Park ------------------ -------------A. C. L. R. R.-113
Fulford ---------------- ---------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 10.3
Fullers- ---------------- --------------------S. A. L. Ry.....200.8
Fulton ----------------- ---------------------U. S. G. S.--- 4
Gabaroon ----------------- ------------------L. & N. R. R.- 5.8
Gabriella ---------------- --------------------S. A. L. Ry... 80
Gainesville, crossing S. A. L. --------------------A. C. L. R. R.--I44
Gainesville ----------------- ------------------S. A. L. Ry.----147
Gainesville ------------- ----------------------A. C. L. R. R.-185
Gainesville, 24 meters from east end of station, between
main track and switch track of Seaboard Air Line
Railway, 25 meters northeast from main track ----U. S. C. & G. S.-I4o0.
Gainesville, in the north face in the northeast corner
of the Post Office building ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-173-F
Gainesville, in the east face near the northeast corner
of the drug store building, southeast of the County
Court House ----------- ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-I79.23


14

'I


!2


;







ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Gainesville, southwest corner of Court House yard;
bottom of a square cut in top of an 8 by 8 by 26
inch marble post, buried 24 inches in ground and
lettered "U. S. C. & G. S. B. M," (C. & G. S.
"R") .--------------------------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-I76.992
Gainesville, west entrance to-brick Court House, lowest
step on right hand, near wall; bottom of a square
cut in the upper surface of step, lettered "U. S. C.
&" "G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "T") ----------U. S. C. & G. S.-178.727
Gainesville, middle of doorway leading to second story
of brick Barnett Block facing Court House square,
in middle of front of building; middle of, raised,
smooth band on outer edge of iron doorsill. (C. &
G. S. "S") -----------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-177.2IO
Gainesville, one mile west of the County Court House,
in the bottom step at the north entrncog xo lthe ,
Engineering Building of the Uqiversity if (lori.-ai. S'C & ; S. 167-903
Gainesville, one mile west of the' onmty' Court House,
in the step at the west Vntyaba.e 'to the Engineering
Building of the Uniue'rs y.of Florida.....,,-, .U, S., C. & G. S'167.985
Gainesville, about ono p't.eib~tast of. thd nct lhiietrade& i'
to the Engineering "'ltilding of th&'tUniersity' of
Florida. B. M.. is th'e top of the post marking the
C. & G. S. Magnetic Station -------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-i66.722
Gainesville, about 150 meters northeast of the north
entrance to the Engineering Building of the
University of Florida. B. M. is the top of the
stone post marking the meridian for the C. & G.
S. Magnetic Station ---------------------------.U. S. C. & G. S._i68.o6I
Gailiver ------ ----------------------------------- L. & N. R. R.- 2oo.8
Galt City ----------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.. 66.8
Geneva ------------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 73.3
Genoa --------- -------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.-145
Georgia-Florida State Line, at crossing of on the Val-
dosta-Palatka branch of the G. S. & F. Ry. between
mile posts 168 and 169 ------------------------ G. S. & F. Ry.--150
Georgia-Florida State Line, at crossing of on the Val-
dosta-Jacksonville line of the G. S. & F. Ry., be-
tween mile posts 208 and 209 --------------------G. S. & F. Ry..-i28
Getzens --------------- --------------------------- S. A. L. Ry._ 125
Gifford ------------------------------------------ F. E. C. Ry.--.. 19.5
Glencoe --------------- --------------------------- F. E.- C. Ry.---- 26.8
Glen Ethel --------------------------------------- _A. C. L. R. R.- 71
Glen St.Mary -------------------- ---------------S. A. L. Ry-..... 132.0







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Glen St. Mary, about I mile west of, near mile post
CI78, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks, in line with telegraph poles --------- U. S. C. & G. S.-127.969
Glen St.Mary, about 4 miles west of, near mile post
C175, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks, in. line with telegraph poles --------U. S. C. & G. S.-133.960
Gomez ------- -------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 26.6
Gomez Creek, Okeechobee County, near mile post\I23
on the Okeechobee division -------- ------ F. E. C. Ry.---- 57.2
Gonzalez --------------------------------L. & N. R. R.--135.8
Good Range ----------------------------L. & N. R. R.--I64
Gordon ----------------- ---------L. & N. R. R.-_227
Gotha -------------------- ------------------A. C. L. R. R.-...131.0


Goulding ---------------------L. & N. R. R.- 82.3
Goulds --------------------- F. E. C. Ry-- 12.3
Gradan -------___- --------------- L. & N. R. R.-274.3
*Graham, S Yeet'east of, southeast ccrnei of station, at
roqd tt'rcisgihg; top of west joining of railroad
frftek,- marked "144.4" -------- ------------ ..---U. S. C. & G. S.-142.9
?Grhifam, 1.8 mile5 eastt Uf, 200 feet east of Grafiai\-
, Starke and Cra!ia'm-HaITaptn crossroads, oppos'te
wide road entrance to house to south; iron post "
stamped "147 Prim Trav. Sta. No. 78 ----------U. S. C. & G. S.-145.2C
*Graham, 3 miles east of, 50o feet northwest of second-
class road to southwest, 6 feet north of road;
nail in root of pine stump, marked "139.8 --------U. S. C. & G. S. 138-32
*Graham, 4 miles east of, in west angle of road forks
to northwest, about 400 feet northwest of house, I
mile west of Hampton; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "152.8" ---------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-T51.28
Granada -------- -- -- -----------A. C. L. R. R.- 51
Grand Crossing ------------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.-_ 27
Grand Crossing ---------------- U. S. G. S.----- 23
Grandin ---------------------------------- G. S. & F. Ry.__IOO
Grandin, 200 feet north of railroad station, at north-
east corner of store, inside fence; iron post
stamped "ioI Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 27" -------------U. S. C & G. S._I00.5
Grandin, 1.6 miles west of, at bottom of grade, neaw
telephone pole, on south joint of rail: marked
"97.8" -----------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 97.8
Grand Ridge ---------------------------------L. & N. R. R.-_I29.8
Grant -------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry. 11.0
Green, Cove Springs --------------------------- A. C. L. R. R._- 28


0


2>







ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Greenland ----------------------- ------------F. E. C. Ry.--... 23.8
Greenland, about 30 meters south of the station, 10
meters west of the Florida East Coast Railway
tracks, in line with telegraph poles -------------U. S. C. & G. S._ 21.217
Greensboro ------------------------------A. N. R. R.....28o
Greens Crossing ------------------------------L. & N. R. R._223
Greenville -----------------------------------S. A. L. Ry....1 o2.9
Greenville, about 300 meters west of the Seaboard Air
Line Railway station, 8 meters south of the Sea-
board Air Line Railway main track and 8 meters
east of the S. Ga. & W. C. Railway track near
their crossing (U. S. G. S. Prim. Tray Sta.) ....U. S. C. & G. S.- 98.044
Greenville, S. Ga. & W. C. Railway crossing -------- S. A. L. Ry._- 97.0
Greenville, in the south face of the brick building
opposite the Seaboard Air Line Railway station --U. S. C. & G. S.- 99.376
Greenville, about 21/ miles west of, near mile post 126;
26 feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks U. S. C. & G S._ 93.015
Greenville, about 4Vn miles west of, in fence corner
at road crossing; 586 feet east of mile post 128;
26 feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks. ----- ---------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 91.424
Greenville, I% miles east of, 100 meters east of mile
post 122, near private road crossing, 8 meters south
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ----------U. S. C. & G. S.-Ioo.941
Greenville, about 3% miles east of, at Frely's Siding,
8 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, 500 meters east of mile post 120 ----------U. S. C. & G. S.-114.974
Greenville, about 61/2 miles east of, 125 meters east
of mile post 117, 8 meters south of Seaboard 'Air
Line Railway tracks ----------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.IOO.899
Gretna --------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry ...290.4
Grove Park ----------- ----------------------A. C. L. R. R._IOO
Grove Park, in northeast corner of lot owned by M. S.
Spray, across street south of railroad station; bot-
tom of a square cut in artificial stone pdst 8 by 8
by 36 inches, buried 30 inches in ground and let-
tered "U. S. C. & G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "P") _.U. S. C. & G. S.-Ioo.542
Guilford ------------------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.--I35
Gulf Hammock -------------------- ------A. C. L. R. R. 33
Gulf Junction ---------------------A. C. L. R. R.-. 67
Gull Point ---------------------------------- L. & N. R. R._. 11.3
Hague -------------------------------------- __A. C. L. R. R.--I74
Haines City ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-57








28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNuAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Hainesworth -------------------------------------.. A. C. L. R. R.--I73
Hainesworth -------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry._--__42
Half Moon ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 54
Hallandale ------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry..... 11.O
Hammock Ridge, S. A. L. depot -----------------U. S. G. S...-- 78
Hampton ----------------------- -- ------G. S. & F. Ry._..48
Hampton, 150 feet east of northeast corner of station,
50 feet south of northwest corner of hotel, 8
feet north of pavement, 2 feet south of old con-
crete well top, iron post stamped '150 Prim. Tray.
Sta. No. 79' ------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-l44.I86
Hampton, 46 meters southwest of station, 40 meters
south of white house, 20 meters west of Sea-
board Air Line Railway track, in line with tele-
graph poles -----------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-T48.057
Hampton, about 3 miles northeast of, 300 meters south
of mile post 76 and irrigation ditch, s5 meters
west of Seaboard Air Line Railway track, near
fence line ------------------------ -------U. S. C. & G. S.-155.72'
Hardaway ------------------------- ----- A. N. R. R.----303
Hardee ..---- ------------------------------A. C. L. R. R....--- 38.2
Harold ------- ----------------------------L. & N. R. R.-_146.8
Harp ---------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.. 25.8
Harwood -------------- ------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--..-- 33.6
Haskell ------------------------------------. A. C. L. R. R. 116
Hastings -------------__-----------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 10.5
Hastings, in yard of Thomas H.. Hastings' residence,
near back steps of veranda, on west side of house;
bottom of a square cut in top of marble post
(Coast and Geodetic Survey bench mark) -------U. S. C. & G. S._ 7.5 7
Hastings, about 300 feet south of station, in north-
east corner of yard, west side of street; iron post
stamped "9 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8 -------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 9.0 7
Hastings, 1.2 miles south of, in southeast angle of T
road south, near schoolhouse, 30 feet east of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "11.3" ----------U. S. C. & G. S.- 12.2)
Hastings, 2.8 miles south of, 400 feet southwest of
large white house, io feet west of road; nail in
top of fence post, marked "18" ---------------U. S. C. & G. S._ 19.
Hastings, 3.4 miles south of, west side of road, oppo-
site barn 200 feet east'of- road, 50 feet northwest
of second-class road forks east; iron post stamped
"17 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 9" -----------------U. S. C. & G. S.- I8. 18








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AUTH
Hastings, 4.5 miles south of, at corner of wire fence,
25 feet west of road; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "20.7" ------------------------------------U. S.
Hastings, 5.7 miles south of, 50 feet south of forks
to southeast, 15 feet east of road; nail in root of
pine tree, marked "24.6" --------------------U. S.
Hastings, 3.9 miles south of, 50 feet south of second-
class road forks to southeast, 6 feet east of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "23. 2" --------U. S.
Havana ------------------------------------------G. F.
Havana, about 325 feet west of the Georgia-Florida
and Alabama Railway station; 6 feet north from
north fence of a tobacco field, 49 feet south of the
Georgia Florida and Alabama Railway main track-U. S.
Hlavana, about 3.7 miles southeast of, at mile post 63;
33 feet north of Georgia Florida and Alabama
Railway track ----------------- ------------U. S.
Hawks Park ---------------------------------F. E.
Hawthorn, on south side (next railroad track) of
frame dwelling house of W. T. Broswell, east of
railroad station, in brick chimney, in eighteenth
course above ground, second brick from south-
west corner of chimney; intersection of cross in
end of copper bolt (C. & G. S. "N") ------------U. S.
Hawthorn, in brick chimney at north end of one-stor
hoiise of J. N. Craig, north of railroad track, half
a block from railroad station, in eighteenth course
above ground and in corner brick at northeast
corner of chimney; intersection of a cross in end
of copper bolt (C. & G. S. "0") --------------U. S.


Hayes -------------------------------------- A.
Heidtville ----------------------------------------U.
Helen -------------------------------------G.
Hernando ------------------------------- A.
Hibernia ------------------------------ U.
Highland ------------- -----------------------S.
Highland, about 1.5 miles south of, at mile post 63,
20 meters west of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks ---- --------------------------- U.
Highland, about 3 miles north of, about V mile south
of mile post 59, about iio meters north-of bridge
No. 59.6, I1 meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, near abandoned road crossing _-U.
High Springs --------------------------------A.


C.
S.
F.
C.
S.
A.


S.



S.
C.


Elevation
ORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


C. & G. S._ 21.78


C. & G. S.- 25.63,,


C. & G. S.- 23.32
& A. Ry.-.243.2



C. & G. S.-247.o50


C. & G. S.-I43.871
C. Ry.--.... 13.2






C. & G. S.-145.150






C. & G. S.-I46.84o
L. R. R.- 73
G. S......- 61
& A. Ry.-. 83.5
L. R. R... 50
G. S ..-- 16
L. Ry... -2io


C. & G. S.-I74.593



C. & G. S._-i68.68i
L. R. R.- 75









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Hilliard -------------------------------------A. C.
Hilliard -------------------------------------U. S.
Hilliardville ----------------------------------G. F.
Hillsboro ------------------------------------------A. C.
Hillsboro River, crossing S. A. L. Ry. --------S. A.
Hinson --------------------- ---------------- G. F.
Hobe Sound ------------- -------------------F. E.
Hodges ------------------------------------- S. A.
Hodges Mill, Putnam County, railroad crossing; top
of rail -------------------- -------------U. S.
Hogan ---------------------------------- ---F. E.
Hogan ---------------- ----------------------U. S.
Hollister, southwest corner of yard of dwelling house
of Mr. T. W. Ralp, facing railroad, a short dis-
tance west of railroad station, north of track;
bottom of a square cut in top of an artificial stone
post 8 by 8 by 36 inches buried 30 inches in ground
and lettered "U. S. C. &" "G. S. B. M." (C. &
G. S. "K") -------------------------------U. S.
Holly Hill --------------------------------F. E.
Holopaw ---------------------F. E.
Holts ------------------------ L. &
Homeland -----------------------------------A. C.
Homestead ---------------------------------F. E.
Homosassa, A. C. L. depot ---------------------U. S.
Hopkins -------------------------------------F. E.
Hosford ------------------- -----------------A. N.
Houston --------------- ---------------------S. A.
Houston, about 50 meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, 8 meters south of tracks, in line
with telegraph poles -----------------------U. S.
Hunter ------------------------------------U. S.
Huntington ---------------------------------A. C.
Hurds -------------------------------------F. E.
Hypoluxo -----------------------------------F. E.
Indian River City ------------------ -----------F. E.
Indian Springs -----------------------------F. E.
Inglehome ------------- ----------------------U. S.
Inverness -----------------------------------A. C.
Interlachen, on north side of a small triangular inclo-
sure in front of Mr. James M. Erskine's feed store,
opposite railroad station; bottom of a square cut
in top of an artificial stone post 8 by 8 by 36 inches,


L. R. R._ 66
G. S ....-- 70
& A. Ry.-- 63
L. R. R.- 35
L. Ry.----- 45
& A. Ry._-252
C. Ry ..-- 13.0
L. Ry .- 71


C. & G. S.-
C. Ry.. .
G. S.--


C. & G. S.- 80.268
C. Ry ... 6.9
C. Ry.--...- 79.9
N R. R.-I93.3
L. R. R.-I39
C. Ry.--._ 9.0
G. S.----- 5
C. Ry.---- 19.7
R. R..--. 88
L. Ry.--__I69.5


C. & G. S.-17o.o6)
G. S.--__ 28
L. R. R.- 56
C. Ry.---- 44.4
C. Ry..... 12.1
C. Ry...--.. 19.o
C. Ry.---- 41.5
G. S.--- 80
L. R. R.- 38









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AUTH(
buried 30 inches in ground and lettered "U. S. C.
& G. S. B. M. (C. & G. S. "L") -------------U. S.
Inwood -----------------------------------L. &
Islamorada ---------------------------F. E.
Island Grove ------------- -------------------S. A.
Isabel Lake ------------- --------------------U. S.
Eng
Island Lake ---------------- -----------------A. C.
Istachatta ------------------- ----------------A. C.
Jacksonville ------------- ---------------------A. C.
Jacksonville ----------------------------------------G. S.
Jacksonville, about 7 miles west of, 0.4 mile east of
Marietta, seven telegraph poles west of mile post
7, 15 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks ------------------------------------------ U. S.
Jacksonville, about 4 miles west of, 3 meters north of
mile post 4, IO meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks ---------------------------- U. S.
Jacksonville, in the south face near the southeast cor-
ner of the Hotel Mason on Bay street ---------U. S.
Jacksonville, in the west face of the west pillar at the
north entrance to the S. B. Hubbard hardware
store on Bay Street -----------------------U. S.
Jacksonville, in the east face of the old County Court
House, near the northeast corner -------------U S.
Jacksonville, in the west face near the entrance of the
large brick building used as a bakery near Fifth
and Main Street; 75 meters south of the Sea-
board Air Line Railway crossing ------------- U. S.
Jacksonville, in the abutment at the south end of the
Florida East Coast Railway bridge over the St.
Johns River. Top of a 3 inch brass screw set in
cement and marked 'B. M. Elev. 11.02' -----------U. S.
Jamieson -------------- ----------------------G. F.
Jamieson, at the west end of the Georgia Florida and
Alabama Railway station platform, 6 feet south
from the main. track -----------------------U. S.
Jasper --------------------------------------G. S.
Jefferson -------------------------------------------G. S.
Jennings ------------- -----------------------G. S.
Jensen -------------------------------------F .E.
Jewfish drawbridge on Long Creek Channel between
mile posts 415 and 416 ----------------------F. E.
Johnson ------------------------------------------- A. C.


Elevation
ORITY. Above Sea
(feet).

C. & G. S.-IO5.43I
N. R. R..-160.3
C. Ry....- 10.2
L. Ry..--- 69
Army
rs., 1882.-5 71
L. R. R.--54
L. R. R.- 52
L. R. R.-_ 8
& F. Ry.- 15



C. & G. S.- 47.319


C. & G. S.- 23.268

C. & G. S.- 14.416


C. & G. S 9.580

C. & G. S.- 21.480



C. & G. S. 25.367



C. & G. S.- 11.115
& A. Ry.--i4o


C. & G. S.-I46.98i
& F. Ry._I52
& F. Ry.-__65
& F. Ry.--15o
C. Ry.---- 23.5

C. Ry.-- 0 o.o
L. R. R.__IOO


S3








32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Johnson ------------------------ -------------U. S. G. S.--- 102
Johnson Pond -------------- -----------------U. S. G. S.--- 6o
Julia, St. Johns County, about Y2 mile east of -------U. S. G. S.----- 31
Juliette, A. C. L. depot -----------------------U. S. G. S.--- 56
Juniper ------------ -------------------------A. N. R. R.- 254
Jupiter ------------------------------------ F. E. C. Ry..... 12.9
Kanapaha, S. A. L. depot -------- --------------U. S. G. S.--- 87
Kanapaha, at mile post io6, opposite old saw mill, 8
meters west of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks U. S. C. & G. S._ 86.909
Kathleen ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R... 133
Keens Mill ------------- ---------------------G. S. & F. Ry.-. 38
Kenansville ----------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.--.... 75.9
Kendal ---------- -------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--.. 13.0
Kendrick, A. C. L. depot ---------------------- U. S. G. S...-- 82
Kenny ------------ --------------------------U. S. G. S.--- 31
Kent ----------------------- -----------------------G. S. & F. Ry.- 70
Kent, about 12 mile east of on G. S. & F. Ry -------U. S. G. S.----- 73
Kenwood --------------- ---------------------U. S. G. S.----- 44
Keuka ------------------- -------------------A. C. L. R. R._IOI
Keuka -------------------------------------U. S. G. S.-.-IOI
Keystone Park ---- --------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-- 32
Key West -----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry ...-- 6.8
Killarney ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--ii9
Kings Ferry ------------ ---------------------U. S. G. S.----- 20
Kingsford -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--Io5
Kings Grove ---------------- ----------------G. S. & F. Ry.__ 21
*Kingsley Lake, north end of, at intersection of Law-
tey-Green Cove Springs and -Starke-Green Cove
Springs roads, in west corner .of forks, 150 feet
south of deserted house; iron post stamped "211
Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 67" -----------------U. S. C. & G. S.-210.867
*Kingsley Lake, 1.4 miles northwest of about 0.2 mile
west of drain crossing, 6 feet north of road; nail
in root of red oak tree --------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-236.44
*Kingsley Lake, 2.6 miles northwest of, in south corner
of tram and road crossing; iron post stamped "239
Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 68" ----------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-238.3-2
*Kingsley Lake, 3.8 miles west of, east angle of Starke
Lumber Co., tramway forks to southeast, 30 feet
east of Junction; nail in top of pine stump, marked
"194" --------------------------------------- U. S. C. & G. S._I93.51
*Kingsley Lake, 5.1 miles west of, 200 feet east of
tramway crossing, in slight concave curve; nail in
root of large pine tree ---------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-173.To









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Kissimmee --------------------------------------....A. C. L. R. R.-__ 60.1
]issimmee River at Bassenger Landing. ------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1902-- 35
Lissimmee River at Ft. Kissimmee Landing -------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1902--. 51
Knights -------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry...--117
.olokee ------------ -------------------- F. E. C. Ry.--- 32.3
I omoka ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_ 86
,orono -----------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 31.5
I.aBuena ------------ -- ---------- U. S. G. S.----r4i
Lacoochee ------ ----------------- A. C. L. R. R. 72
laCrosse --------------------- S. A. L. Ry... -- 124
Lady Lake ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.. 77
Lagrange --- ------------------ U. S. Army'
Engrs., 1903-. 26
Lake Buffum, Polk County -------------U. S. Army
Engrs.., 1882--138
Lake Butler ------------- ------------------G. S. & F. Ry..-I4
Lake Charm -------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--... 60
Lake City -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._2oI
Lake City ----------------------------------- G. S. & F. Ry.--I95
Lake City -----------------------------------S. A. L. Ry... 196,5
Lake City ---------------- -------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1879-203


Lake City, in the brick wall just under the ticket office
window ----------------------------------U.
Lake City, 50 meters east of Seaboard 'Air Line Rail-
way station, io meters east of water tank, 8 meters
south of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks, near
telegraph pole ---------------------------U.
Lake City, about ij/ miles east of, crossing of Sea-
board Air Line Railway -------------- --- G.
Lake City, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 147
near west end of a small railway cut, 8 meters
north of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks -. --U.
Lake City, about 6 miles west of, at mile post 144,
8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks at Ogden Siding -------------------U.
Lake City, about 9 miles west of, at mile post 141, 8
meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
.' tracks ----------------------------------- U.
Lake City Junction -------. ..---------------- A.


S. C. & G. S.-I98.471.



S. C. & G. S.-I95.472

S. & F. Ry.__90


S. C. & G. S.-I40.279


S. C. & G. S.-io6.686


S. C. & G. S.-I49.813
C. L. R. R.- 51









34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Lake Clement -------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 9
Lake Geneva --------------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.--137


*Lake Geneva, 200 feet south of railroad station, at
northeast corner of Baldwin and Kennedy's store;
iron post stamped "130 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 62" _U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 1.2 miles north of, 15 feet west of road,
300 feet east of large sink hole; nail in root of
dead pine tree, marked "158.6" --------------U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 2.2 miles north of, 140 feet northwest
of road forks to southeast, about 700 feet east of
lake; nail in root of pine tree, marked "132" _--_U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 3.2 miles north of, 50 feet west of road,
300 feet southwest of road forks. at top of rise;
nail in root of pine snag, marked "149" -----U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 3. 8 miles north of, in southwest corner
of road crossing, northeast of lake; iron post
stamped "158 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 63" ---------U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva. 4.5 miles north of, I0 feet northeast of
road forks to southeast, 300 feet south of bridge
over lake outlet, on sandhill; nail in root of black
oak tree, marked "144.4" -------------------U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 6.1 miles north of, 250 feet north of
drain crossing, in northwest corner of intersection
of Greencove-Theressa and Starke-Lake Geneva
roads; iron post stamped "167 Prim. Tray. Sta.
No. 64" ------ ---------------------------U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 7.9 miles north of, in southwest corner
of forks of road to west, 500 feet west of lake;
nail in root of red oak tree -----------------U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 9.1 miles north of, 300 feet north of
old mill stand, 13 feet north of old tram road;
nail in root of blazed pine tree --------------- U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 9.8 miles north of, in northeast corner
of crossroads, Io feet south of charred pine snag;
iron post stamped "234 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 65" --U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, o10.6 miles north of, in southeast corner
of crossroads, I mile north of primary traverse
station No. 65; nail in root of dead pine snag _.U. S. C.
*Lake Geneva, 12 miles north of, in northeast corner
of crossroads; iron post stamped "246 Prim. Tray.
StaT No. 66" ------------------------------...U. S. C.


& G. S.-I3o.o65


& G. S.-158.59


& G. S.-.32.o6


& G. S.-I48.93


& G. S.-157.627




& G. S.-144.38





& G. S.-167.427


& G. S.-192.10


& G. S.-226.8c


& G. S.-33.786


& G. S._238.66


& G. S.246.227








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
*Lake Geneva, 13.5 miles north of, in southwest corner
of crossroads, 250 feet southwest of deserted
house, 6 feet west of road; nail in root of red
oak tree ------------------------------ --------U. S. C. & G. S..228.o6
''Lake Geneva, 15.2 miles north of, west side of Kings-
ley Lake, northwest corner of crossroads; nail in
root of red oak tree ---------------------- U. S. C. &-G. S.-215.o4
Lake Harney, Orange County -------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 5
Lake Helen ---------------------------------F. E. C. Ry._- 63.5
Lake Helen Blazes ------------------ ----------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 16
Lake Istokpoga -------------------------. U. S. Army
Engrs., I9O2--- 49
Lake Jackson -------------------------------- G. F. & A. Ry.-_io
Lake Jessup, Orange County --------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903-- 4
Lake Kissimmee ---------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882--- 59
Lake Lafayette, about 7 miles east of Tallahassee, at
mile post 158; 26 feet north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks ----------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 49.009
Lakeland -------------- ----------------------A. C. L. R. R. 2o6
Lake Lenore ------------ --------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882-_ 92
Lake Livingston, Polk County ------------------ U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882 .- 91
Lake Lochloosa, water level of ------------------ S. A. L. Ry.---....- 55
Lake Mary ------------- ---------------------A. C. L. R. R. 66
Lake Monroe, Volusia County ------------------ U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 4
Lake Okeechobee ----------- ----------------U. S. Army
Engrs., I902- 20
Lake Pickett -------------------------------F. E. C. Ry... 71.2
Lake Poinsett, Brevard County ------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 15
Lake View ------- ----------------- F. E. C. Ry.-. To.o
Lakeville ------------------------------------ A. C. L. R. R.-_ 84
Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola County --------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882- 64
Lake Washington, water surface, Brevard County --U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903-.. i6
Lake Winder, Brevard County ------------------ U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882_- 19









36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Lake Winder, Brevard County ------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 15
Lake Worth ------- ------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- i9.o
Lane Park ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.... 61
Lantana ------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry... II.o
Largo ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 50
Larkin ---------------------......----------------F. E. C. Ry.--..-- 13.0
Laurel Hill ----------------------------------L. & N. R. R. -235
LaVilla Junction -------------------- ----------A. C. L. R. R.... 19
Lawtey --------------- ----------------- S. A. L. Ry.....----140
Lawtey, 18 meters west of station and 18 meters east
of Lawtey State Bank -------------------- -U. S. C. & G. S.-i6o.99-
Lebanon ------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 29.8
Ledwith Lake -----------------------------U. S. G. S.---- 66
Lee ----------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--.... 92.4
Leesburg --------------------------------......A. C. L. R. R._- 85
Leesburg, crossing S. A. L. Ry. -----------------A. C. L. R. R._ 76
Leesburg ------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry..... 72
Leitman ------------------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.--I49
Leitner, A. C. L. depot ------ ---------------U. S. G. S..... 73
Lemon Bluff ----------- ---------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., '1903--- 15
Lemon City ----------------------- ---------F. E. C. Ry..... 18.5
Lenard --.....-----...........................-----------------------.... A. C. L. R. R.-..I5
Lennon, 36 meters east and 21 meters south of station,
19 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway
track, 40 meters west of south end of siding -..- U. S. C. & G. S.- 43.7:7
Leroy, A. C. L. depot --------------------- U. S. G. S.-- 85
Leroy Lake ----------------- ---------------U. S. G. S.--- 63
Lexington -------- --------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.- 69
Liberty ---- ----------------------------------- A. N. R. R.--.... 94
Likely --------------.......----------------------- _....F. E. C. Ry..... 17.0
Linden ---------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.- 9o
Little Allapaha River, Hamilton County, between mile
posts 178 and 179 -----------------------------G. S. & F. Ry.- 97
Little Aucilla River ----------- ----... ....---------- S. A. L. Ry..... 82.7
Little Lake Tohopekaliga ---------------------- U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882-_- 71
Little Pottsburg Creek, Duval County, between mile
posts 3 and 4 on the Mayport division -----F. E. C. Ry..... 14.5
Little River ------------------------------------....F. E. C. Ry.-.. 10.0
Little River, Dade County, between mile posts 360 and
361 -------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 9.0








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AU
Little River, Gadsden County, between mile posts 182
and 183 ------------------------ ----------S.
Little Snake Creek, Dade County, between mile posts
354 and 355 -------------- ----------------F.
Little Snake Creek, Monroe County, between mile
posts 436 and 437 -------- -----------------F.
, ttle Wekiva River, Levy County -------- A.
Live Oak ------------------------------- S.
Live Oak, A. C. L. R. R. crossing ---------------S.
Live Oak, L. 0. P. & G. R. R. crossing ------------S.
live Oak, about 2% miles east of, 50 meters east of
mile post CI3o, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air
Line Railway tracks ----------------------- U.
1i-%e Oak, 70 meters east of Union Station one meter
east of fence of a formal garden on railroad rignt
of way, 10 meters north of Seaboard Air Line


Elevation
THORITY. Above Sea.
(feet).

A. L. Ry..... 86.6

E. C. Ry.---- 9.o


Ry.... 8.3
R. R._ -28
Ry ... o104.3
Ry..-o-I03.9
Ry.. _Io6.4


S. C.


Railway main. track ------------------------U. S. C.
I ve Oak, in the south face, beneath the ticket office
window of the Union Passenger station --------U. S. C.
Live Oak, in the east face, near the northeast corner
of the Suwannee County Court House ---------U. S. C.
Live Oak, in the north face near the northeast corner'","
of the U. S. Post Office Building ----------- U. S. C.
Live Oak, about 3I2 miles west of, 25 meters east ot
mile post 85, 15 meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway track, in fence corner on east side of
hill ----------------------- --------------U. S. C.
Live Oak, about 6.7 miles west of, at mile post 88, 15
meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway track,
in fence corner --------- ------------------U. S. C.
Lloyd --------------------------------------S. A. L
Lloyd, about 492 feet east of the Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, 82 feet west of road crossing, 26
feet south of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks --U. S. C.
Lloyd, opposite the Seaboard Air Line Railway station,
33 feet south of the main track ---------------U. S. C.
Lloyd, about 3 miles west of, at mile post 15o, about
26 feet north of Seaboard Air Line Railway


& G. S.-io6.o56



& G. S.-104.678

& G. S.-I07.359

& G. S.-Io5.977

& G. S.-I12.811



& G. S.-II5.308


& G. S.- 96.637
. Ry..... 81.1


& G. S.- 80.325

& G. S.- 82.605


tracks -----------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S._ 70.889
Lochapopka Lake -----------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882---117
Lochloosa, S. A. L. depot ---------------------- U. S. G. S.---- 60








38 .FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Seu
(feet).
Lochloosa, 200 feet southeast of station, between main
public road south and railroad; iron post stamped
"Prim. Trav Sta. No. 45, 65" -----------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 65.327
Lochloosa, I mile east of, 50 feet east of road forks
to southwest, 15 feet south of road; nail in root
of pine tree, marked "86" ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 86.12
Lochloosa, 2.1 miles east of, in southeast corner of
crossroads; iron post stamped "82 Prim Tray. Sta.
No. 46" --------------- ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 82.206
Lochloosa, 3.3 miles east of, 50 feet northeast of dim
road southeast, 500 feet west of crossroads, 15
feet north of road; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "87" ------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 86.89
Lofton, about % mile west of, -ioo meters West oi
mile post 8, and 12 meters -south of Seaboard Air


Line Railway tracks -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-


34.12:


Lokosee ------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry. --- 61.9
Long Bluff --------------------- ----------- U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 19
Long Key ---------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 11.5
Long Pine ----------------------------- L. & N. R. R...-107.3
Longwood --------- -----..------------------- A., C. L. R. R.-_ 8o
Loretto --------------------------------------- U. S. G. S.---- 23
Louisa, 50 feet southwest of station, about same dis-
tance west of crossing; iron post stamped "152
Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 76" ------------------- U. S. C. & G. -S.-150.9 7
Lowell, A. C. L. depot ------------------------ U. S. G. S.-,- 95
Loxahatchee River, between mile posts 282 and 283 --F. E. C. Ry..--. 14.4


Lulu --------------------------------------- G.
Lyrata ------------------------------------- F.
MdAlpin ---------------___--------- ------------A.
McClenny ----------------------------------- S.
McClenny, about 2V miles east of, 650 meters west
of mile post "J25", 8 meters north of Seaboard
Air Line Railway tracks, in line with -telegraph
poles ------------------------------------. .....U.
McClenny, about 40 meters west bf the station, 8
meters north of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, in line with telegraph poles ------------U.
McClenny, in the north bay, of the east end of the
Baker County Court House ----------------U.
McDavid ----------- -------------------------L.
McIntosh, A. C. L. depot --------------------- U.
McKinley .........----------------------------------- S.


& F. Ry.--I52
C. Ry.- 7.4
L. R. R.-Io3
L. Ry._---130.4


S. C. & G. S.-I53.o04


S. C. & G. S.-i31.5Si

S. C. & G. S.-135.744
& N. R. R.- 36.8
S. G. S.--- 73
A. L. Ry.....122.9









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AUTH
McMeekin, about I mile north of, in northeast corner
of crossroads; nail in root of sapling, marked
"139" ------------------ ----U. S.
McMeekin, northeast corner of L. J. Stokes's store;
artificial stone post (Coast and Geodetic Survey
bench mark) ----------------------------U. S.
McMeekin, 3,1 miles'south of, in south angle of forks
to southwest; iron post stamped "117 Prim Tray.
Sta. No. 32" -----------------------------------U. S.
McMeekin, in inclosure just north of L. J. Stokes's
store,- 2 feet south of Coast and Goodetic Survey
bench mark; iron post stamped "120 Prim. Tray.
Sta." ..-----------------------------------__U. S.
McMeekin, at railroad crossing, top of rail -------U. S.
McMeekin, 1.3 miles southwest of, 30 feet southeast
of second-class road forks to northwest; nail in
root of water oak tree, marked "o6" ----------U. S.
McMeekin, 2.7 miles south of, in northeast corner of
road crossing; nail in root of pine stump, marked
"113.5" ------------------------------------------U. S.
McMeekin, 4.1 miles south of, 20 feet southeast of
forks; nail in root of pine tree, marked "104.2" --U. S.
McMeekin, 5.4 miles south of, 25 feet southeast of road
forks to northwest; nail in root of red oak tree,
marked "99.8" ----------------------------U. S.
McMeekin, 6.1 miles south of, about 300 feet east of
lake, in northeast corner of crossroads; iron post
stamped "87 Prim Tray Sta. No. 33 ----------U. S.
McMeekin, 7.1 miles south of, in northwest angle of T
road west, about 200 feet west of creek and old
mill; nail in root of red oak tree, marked "66.8" _-U. S.
McMeekin, 7. 8. miles 'south of, 50o feet west of cen-
ter of bridge over Orange Creek, 30 feet west of
road forks: nail in root of red oak tree, marked
"57.8" ...... ..----------------------------------- U. S.
McMeekin, 8.2 miles south of, about i,8oo feet south-
east of Orange Creek, in triangle of T road east;
iron post stamped "69 Prim Trav. Sta. No. 34'. --U. S.
,McMeekin, 9.8 miles south of, in southeast corner of
crossroads, about 4 miles west of Orange Springs;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "78.2" -------U. S.


Elevation
ORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


C. & G. S.-138.70


C. & G. S.-120.230


C. & G. S.-117.296



C. & G. S.-120.364
C. & G. S._I07


C. & G. S.-o105.98


C. & G. S.-1Z3.47

C. & G. S.-Io4.2o


C. & G. S.- 99.76


C. & G. S. 86.754


C. & G. S.- 66.78



C. & G. S.- 57.72


C. & G. S.- 68.612


C. & G. S.- 78.10








40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
McMeekin, 10 miles south of, about 3 miles west or
Orange Springs, 20 feet south of road forks to
northwest, 200 feet north of small lake; nail in
root of water oak, marked "75.4" -------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 75.28
-McMeekin, 11.5 miles southeast of, in northwest angle
of road forks to northwest; nail in root of pine
tree, marked "73" ------ -------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 72.75
McPherson --------------- ------------A. C. L. R. R._-84
McPherson ----------------- -----------------U. S. G. S.-- 84
Madison ---------------------- --------------S. A. L. Ry.--....13o.o
Madison, about 3 miles east -of, 40 meters west of
mile post 107, near private road crossing, 8 meters -
north of Seaboard Air. Line Railway tracks ----U. S. C. & G. S.-I31.647
Madison, 400 meters east of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way station, 6o meters east of trestle which cros-
ses track,-in angle of a road, 30 meters north of
the Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ---------U. S. C. & G. S.-129.937
Madison, about 2 miles west of, 40 meters west of mile
post 112, 8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, near a road cr6ssing--- U------U. S. C. & G. S.-II8.930;
Magnolia Bluff ------------------------------L. & N. R. R.---- 3.8
Magnolia Grove, about 5>, miles north of St. Augus-
tine, 30 meters' east of telephone booth, in line
with telegraph poles ---------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 10.709
Maitland --------------------- A. C. L. R. R.- 91
Malabar -------- ------------------------ F. E. C..Ry.--... 26.0
Mandarin ------------------U. S. G. S ---. 16
Mandeville ---------------------- U. S. G. S.-- 85
Manhattan Beach ----------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.---- 14,8
Manning --------------------- ---------------U. S. G. S.----- 133
Manning's Mill -------------------------- ---L. & N. R. R....207
Mannville ---------....------------ ------- A. C. L. R. R.- 89
Marathon -----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry ..... 7 5
Marianna -------------..---------------------- L. & N. R. R. -TI 3
Marietta, 0.4 mile east of, seven telegraph poles west
of mile post 7, 15 meters south of Seaboard Air ~
Line Railway tracks -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 47 319'
Marion -------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R..-I59
Marshall's ----...-------------------------- U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 15
Martel, A. C. L. depot -------...-----------------U. S. G.. S.... 79
Martin, A. C. L. depot -------------------------U. S. G. S....-- 81
Mascotte -----------.... ...------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.-IT5
Mattox -------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry..-- 84.0









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Mattox ------------------------- -----------U. S. G. S.--- 86
Maxville --- ---------------------------S. A. L. Ry.---- 93


Maxville, about 2.3 miles south of, 0.3 miles south of
mile post 56, 15 meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, near road crossing -----------U. S.
'Iaxville, about I mile north of, V mile s6uth of
'mile post 52, opposite "station one mile" sign, 15
meters west of Seaboard Air I ine Railway tracks _U. S.
Mai s --------------------------------------L. &
ayo -----------------------------------F. R
Iayport ------------------------------------F. E.
ltayport --- ---- ---- -------------U. S.
l' Eaytown ------------------------------------F. E.
Media --------------------------------------F. R
elbourne -----------------------------------F. E.
Mielrose, southwest corner of town hall, 200 feet north
of post office; iron post stamped "162 Prim Tray.
Sta. No. 6o" ----------------------------U. S.
"Melrose, 0.3 mile east of post office, in southwest cor-
-ner of cross-roads, near signboard "Starke 18 mi.,
McMeekin 9"; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"153.7" -----------------------------------U. S.
Melrose, 1.1 miles south of, ioo feet north of road
northeast to'house, 150 northeast of drain cross-
ing, 8 feet east of road; nail in top of stump of
twin tree, marked "115.3" -----------------------U. S.
Melrose, 2.4 miles south of, in northwest corner of
crossroads, near signboard "Interlachen 10 mi.,
Melrose 22"; iron post stamped "122 Prim. Trav.
Sta. No. 30" ------------------------------------U. S.
Melrose, 3.8 miles south of, 30 feet north of road
forks northwest, near signboards pointing north
and northwest, 15 feet east of road; nail in root
of pine tree, marked "146" ----------------U. S.
Melrose, 5.9 miles south of, Ioo feet northwest of
crossroads, io feet northeast of corner of old
schoolhouse; iron post stamped "179 Prim Tray.
*Sta. No. 31--" ---------------------- ------------U. S.
Melrose, 6.9 miles south of, 15 feet west of road forks
to northeast, 8 feet west of road; nail in root of
small black oak tree, marked "161.2" ------------U. S.


C. & G. S.-io2.oi8


C. & G. S.- 90.318
N. R. R.-269.7
y.-------- 69
C. Ry. 8.8
G. S .--- 6
C. Ry.....- 34.8
y.-------- 68
C. Ry..... 22.5


C. & G. S.-162.223



C. & G. S.-153.6i



C. & G. S.-II5.I9



C. & G. S.-122.249



C. & G. S.-145.93



C. & G. S.-178.953


C. & G. S.-16I.07









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


AUTHORITY.


Melrose, 7.5 miles south of, about I mile north of
McMeekin, in northeast corner of crossroads; nail
in root of sapling, marked "139" ----------------U.
Melrose, 1.4 miles northeast of, in northeast angle of
road forks to northeast, just behind large pine
tree; nail in root of small water oak tree, marked
"161.8 -----------------------------------U.
Melrose, 2.2 miles northeast of, 30 feet west of road
forks to southwest, about 250 feet south of drain
crossing; iron post stamped "146 Prim. Tray. Sta.
No. 61" --------------------------------------.
Melrose, 3.3 miles northeast of, at top of hill, 20o feet
west of road, 2 feet southeast of i8-inch pine;
nail in root of blazed oak tree, marked "144.5" ---U.
Meredith, 25 meters west of station, io meters north
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ----------U.
Mexico ---------__---------- ------------- A.
Miami ------------------------------------------ F.
Miami River, Dade County, between mile post 366
and 367 ----------------------------------------F.
Micanopy ---------- ------------------------------ A.
Micanopy Junction, in front of station, top of rail ---- U.
Micanopy Junction, 0.4 mile south of, in southeast
corner of railroad crossing, east of railroad track;
iron post stamped "68 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 42" __U.
Micanopy Junction, 1.3 miles southeast of, 15 feet
north of road forks to southeast; nail in root of
pine tree, marked "63" ---------------------____U.
Micanopy Junction, 2.4 miles southeast of, 25 feet
south of road forks to northeast of house; nail in
root of pine tree marked "73" -----------------U.
Micanopy Junction, 3.6 miles east of, in southeast
corner of crossroads; iron post stamped "77 Prim.


Elevation
Above Sea
(feet).


S. C. & G. S.-I138.70



S. C. & G. S.-161.7I



S. C. & G. S.-T45.867


S. C. & G. S.-I44.53

S. C. & G. S.- 92.99-
C. L. R. R.- 50
E. C. Ry.---- 10.6

E. C. Ry.-- 10To.o
C. L. R. R.-ioo
S. C. & G. S.- 72.4


S. C. & G. S.- 68.42


S. C. & G. S.- 62.7,


S. C. & G. S.- 72.9


Trav. Sta. No. 43" ------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 76.6,4
Micanopy Junction, 4.8 miles east of, in southwest
corner of crossroads; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "" --___-----------------------------------_U. S. C. & G. S.- 90.7,
Micanopy Junction, 5.8 miles east of, in east angle
of road forks to south, about 600 feet southwest
of house; nail in root of pine tree, marked "74" --U. S. C. & G. S.- 74.27
Micanopy Junction, 7.1 miles east of, about 300 feet
east of bridge over Lochloosa Creek, in east angle
of forks to north; iron post stamped "73 Prim
Trav. Sta. No. 44" -------------------------.U. S. C. & G. S.- 72.000








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY.


AUTHORITY.


Mlicanopy Junction, 8.0 miles east of road forks, 200
feet west of drain crossing, 6 feet south of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "66" ---- U.
\Iicanopy Junction, 9.4 miles east of, 300 feet south of
drain, 15 feet east of road; nail in root of pine
tree, marked"76"--------------------------U.
Miicanopy Junction, 10.47 miles east, on Seaboard Air
Line Railway; top of bolt on southeast corner of
truss 103.5, marked "8o" -------------------U.
licco -------------------------------------F.
'iccosukee ---------------------------------------A.
iddleburg -- ------------------------U.
liddleton, southwest corner of front yard at resi-
dence of Philip Weedman, near fence, at center
of marble post 8 by 8 inches in cross section and
3 feet long, projecting 6 inches above the surface
and lettered "U. S." "B. M." square cut (C. &
G. S. "F") ------------------ -------------U.
[idway --------------------------------------__S.
Midway, about 164 feet west of the Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, 26 feet south of main track -- U.
midway, about 4 miles west, about 325 feet west of
mile post 181, 26 feet south of Seaboard Air Line
Railway track, level with top of the rail, just east
of a high railway embankment -------------- U.
Millard, S. A. L depot ---------- ---------------U.
lillerton --------------------------------------- S.
military Park ----------- ---------------------F.
[ill Creek, Hamilton County, between mile posts 174
and 175 ---------------------------------------------G.
JAilligan ----------------------- ------------L.
Millman -------------------------------------A.
Milton ----------------------------- --------L.
Millwood, A. C. L. depot ------------------ ---U.
Minneola --------------------_---------------- A.


Elevation
Above Sea
(feet).


S. C. & G. S.- 65.83


S. C. & G. S._ 76.17


S. C. & G. S.- 80.02
E. C. Ry.---- 25.5
C. L. R. R. 218
S. G. S...--- 36






S. C. & G. S.- 34.590
A. L. Ky.... 197.5

S. C. & G. S.-I96.758



S. C. & G. S.-122.395
S. G. S.----- 94
A. L. Ry.-- 89
E. C. Ry.....-- 18.5

S. & F. Ry.--io5
& N. R. R.-- 57.3
N. R. R..-- 186
& N. R. R.-_ 4.3
S. G. S.---- 86
C. L. R. R.-To9


Minorville ------------ -----------------------A. C. L. R. R. -122.0
Modello -------------------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.--.. 11.2
Mohawk ---------------------------- -------- A. C. L. R. R.-130
Molino --------------------------------- ----L. & N. R. I.t- 27.3
Moncrief Spring ------------------------------ A. C. L. R. R.- 14
Monroe -------------------------------------A. C. L. R.,,R.- 20
Moproe Creek, Gadsden County between mile posts
180 and 181 -------------------------------------...S. A. L. Ry._---102.7








44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Montbrook ---------------------S. A. L.'Ry..... 82
Monticello --------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R._202
Monticello, at Court House -----------------------Fla Geol. Surv.-.237
Morriston ---------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_ 68


Mosquito Creek, Gadsden County, between mile posts
206 and 207 -------------------
Mosquito Creek, Gadsden County, between mile posts
207 and 208 ---------------
Mossy Head -------- ----
Mount Carrie -----------------
Mount Pleasant ---- -------------- ----
'Mount Pleasant, 97 feet southwest of the Seaboard
Air Line Railway station, 26 feet south of rail-
road track nearly opposite the U. S. mail stand -_
Mount Pleasant, about 3 miles west of, 130 feet west
of mile post 201, 26 meters south of Seaboard Air
Line Railway tracks ----- ------
Mouth of Bow Legs Creek -------------

Mouth of Cow Creek -------- -------

Mulat --..----------------- ---
Mule Creek, Levy County --------------
Mullet Lake ----------------------------------------

Mulberry Mound --------- ------------------

Naranja --------------------------------------------
Narcoossee ------------ ---------------------
Nashua, 600 feet north of post office, in southwest
corner of road forks, 150 feet southeast of school-
house, near signboard "Satsuma 2y mi., Sisco 2
mi.," nail in root of pine tree, marked "87.8" ----1
Neoga --------------...... ....-----------------------
Newberry -----------------------------------
New Berlin --------------..-------------------
New River ---------------------------- ----
New River, Bradford County, 200 feet south of, south-
east corner of railroad station, 300 feet east of
store and 75 feet northwest of northwest corner
of cotton gin; iron post stamped "146 Prim. Travy.
Sta. No. 73" -----------------------------


S. A. L. Ry ..-- 80.3

S. A. L. Ry.--... 77.2
L. & N. R. R.-256.8
S. A. L. Ry. --197
S. A. L. Ry.--..297.7


U. S. C. & G. S.-296.049


U. S. C. & G. S.-i85.8oc
U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882--- 73
U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882 -- 20
L. & N. R. R.-- 3.8
A. C. L. R. R.- 29
U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 5
U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 26
F. E. C. Ry...-- 12.0
A. C. L. R. R.- 72



U. S. C. & G. S.- 87.9c
F. E. C. Ry.--..-- 40.0
A. C. L. R. R.__ 72
U. S. G. S.-- -p 9
G. S. & F. Ry.--r43




J. S. C. & G. S.-I44.813








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
New River, Bradford County, I mile south of, in
northeast angle of road forks to east; nail in root
of large pine tree, marked "155.5" -------------U. S. C. & G. S.-153.93
New River, Bradford County, 1.6 miles south of, on
main Starke road, 50 feet northeast of culvert, 15
feet north of road; nail in root of large pine tree,
marked "157" ----------- ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-155.41
'ew River, Bradford County, 2.6 miles south of, in
northwest corner of crossing of old tramway and
road; nail in root of pine tree, marked "157.3" --U. S. C. & G. S.-155.76
'ew River drainage canal, Broward County --------F. E. C. Ry.._-- 9.0
-' "w Smyrna ------------------- -------------F. E. C. Ry...-- 10.3
Ninety-Five, 3.6 miles northeast of Gainesville. About
75 meters north of mile post 95, 25 meters west
of track in line with telegraph poles and opposite
old still near railroad crossing --------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-z6L-332
N ttaw --------.........------------------------------F. E. C. Ry ..-- 63.9
N,.catee ----------------........... --......-----------------A. C. L. R. R.-- 38-.
North Escambia------ ........----------..... -------------L. & N. R. R._ 2.8
Oak Hill ----------------------- ------------F. E. C. Ry.---- 18.7
Oakland --- ----------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.--ng
OakLawn, A. C. L. depot ---------------------- U. S. G. S.-- 79
O'Brien ------------------ -------------------A. C. L. R. R. 58
O ala, A. C. L. depot* ----------------------- U. S. G. S..... 99
Ocala, S. A. L. depot -------------------------------U. S. G. S..-- 68
Ocklawaha -----------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 66
Ocklocknee River, east end of bridge, Leon County --S. 'A. L. Ry...... 87.o
Odessa -------------------- ------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 57
Ocoee --------------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--..g19.o
Ogden ----------------------------------------------U: S. C. & G. S..IlI.2
Ogden, about 6 miles west of Lake City, at mile post
144, 8- meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks -------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.....io6.686
Ojus --------------- ------------------------F. E. C. Ry...- 7.2
Okahumpka -------------------------------A. C. L. R. R... 95
Okeechobee -- ---------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--.. 33.3
Okeechobee Lake -----------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882--- 20
Olive ----.--------------------------- L. & N. R. R....13r.8
Olustee, ---------------------- S. A. L. Ry...-..6r.6
Olustee, 12 meters east of Seaboard Air Line Railway
station, 8 meters north of tracks, near mile post
*Ocala, at the present time has a union depot. The elevations refer to the
old depots.









46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


CI62 ----------------------------------------U. S. C. &
Olustee, about 3 miles west of, near mile post Ci59,
8 meters north of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks ---------------------------------------U. S. C. &
Olustee, about 6 miles west of, near mile post CI56,
8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks --------------------------------------- U. S. C. &
Olustee Creek, Bradford County, between mile posts
223 and 224 ----------------------------------G. S. & F.
O'Neill, on range with telephone poles, 5 meters west
of southwest corner of station ---------------U. S. C. &
Orange Center ...-------------------- ----------- A. C. L. R.
Orange City ----------------------------------------F. E. C. R
Orange City Junction ---------------- ---------F. E. C. F
Orangedale, St. Johns County -------------------- U. S. G. S
Orange Heights ----------------------------S. A. L. R
Orange Lake, A. C. L. depot --------------------U. S. G. S
Orange Lake, water level of ---------- -----..-----S. L. R
Orange Mills ------------------- ----------- F. E. C. Ry
Orange Mills --------------------------------U. S. G. S
Orange Mills, about /2 mile northeast of on ic h
Florida East Coast Railway ----------------- U. S. G. S
Orange Park ---------------... ----------------- A. C. L. R
Orange Park --------------- -----------U. S. G. S
Orange Springs, 200 feet east of post office, in in-
closure, northwest corner of road crossing; iron
post stamped "63 Prim Tray. Sta. No. 35" ------U. S. C. &
Orange Springs, I.I miles east of, in northwest corner
of crossroads; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"66.7" ---------------------------------U. S. C. & I
Orange Springs, water surface of Oklawaha River,
March 13, 1911 -------------- -------------U. S. C. &
Orange Springs, 2.8 miles east of, at top of hill, in
east corner of forks to south; nail in root of
tree, marked "68.6' ---------------------U. S. C. &
Orange Springs, 3.4 miles east of, in southwest corner
of crossroads; iron post stamped "135 Prim. Tray.
Sta. No. 36" -- ---------------------------U. S. C. &
Orange Springs, 5.1 miles east of, on top of rise, 15o
feet east of forks to southwest, 200 feet south of
old house, 6 feet south of road; nail in root of red
oak tree, marked "132.5" -------------------------U. S. C. &


G. S.-174.002


G. S. 172.808



G. S.-I79.311

Ry.__22

G. S._ 13.412
R...-102.o
y.---- 35.8
-y.--- 39.2
.----- 30
y.-- 130
..--- 88
.y.-- 54
.----- 16.o
.--- 15

----- 15
. R. 23
------ 17


G. S.- 62.572


G. S.- 66.6(

G. S.- 13



G. S.- 68.44


G. S. 134.426




G. S.-132.38








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AUTH(
Orange Springs, 6.1 miles east of, about 0.2 mile north
of Cedar Landing, 50 feet southwest of forks, 6
feet west of road; nail in root of water oak tree,
marked "14.3" ------------------------------------U. S.
Orange Springs, 7.4 miles east of, in northwest corner
of dim crossroads, about 1.5 miles northeast of
Cedar Landing; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"25.2" --------------------------------------------U. S.
Orange, Springs, 8.2 miles east of, 30 feet north ot
tramway crossing, at southwest corner of shack;
iron post stamped "26 Prim Trav Sta. No. 37" --U. S.
Orange Springs, 9.9 miles east of, south side of road,
opposite T road north, 20 feet north of old
schoolhouse; nail in top of pine stump, marked
"48.8 ------------ ------------------------U. S.
Orange Springs, II.I miles east of, 200 feet northeast
of forks to west, 20 feet west of road, 400 feet
northwest of low place in road; nail in root of pine
tree, marked "28.8" -----------------------U. S.
Orlando -------------------------------------A. C.
Ormond -------------------------------------------F. E.
Osceola ------------------- ------------------S. A.
Oslo ---------------------------------------F. E.
Osteen --------------------------------------F. E.
Otter Creek ------------------ ---------------A. C.
Otter Creek, S. 'A. L. depot -------------------- U. S.
Otter Creek, in south side of brick chimney in east end
of two-story frame house, eighteen courses above
ground, in second brick from southeast corner of
chimney; intersection of cross in end of copper
bolt (C. & G. S. "Otter Creek") --------------U. S.
Otter Creek, about 2.5 miles northeast of, near mile
post 132, io meters north of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks 0.4 mile west of water tank ----U. S.
Owensboro -----------------------------------A. C.
Oxton ----------------------L. &
Ozona --------------------------------------A. C.
Pablo Beach -------------------F. E.
Pablo Creek, Duval County, between mile posts 15 and
16 on the Mayport branch --------- F. E.
Pace Junction --------------------------------. &
Padlock ------------------------------------- A. C.
Palatka ------- ----..---------------- -----... G. S.


Elevation
ORITY. Above Sea
(feet).



C. & G. S.- 14.12



C. & G. S._ 27.03


C. & G. S._ 25.469



C. & G. S.- 48.62


& G. S.- 28.56
R. R.-III
Ry.._.- 6.6
Ry.---- 50
Ry... 16.5
Ry.---- 48
R. R___ 27.4
. S.--- 29


C. & G. S.- 32.384


C. & G. S.- 28.720
L. R. R. 76
N. R. R._0IO.3
L. R. R.- 5
C. Ry._._ 10.3

C. Ry.---- 15.3
N. R. R.-- 13.8
L. R. R.-_24
& F. Ry-_ 7








48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
.(feet).
Palatka, at southeast corner of train shed of Union
Station, on corner of concrete curb; chiseled
square marked "23.6" ------------- ------------U. S. C. & G. S._ 23.87
Palatka, in southwest corner of courthouse square;
iron post stamped "19 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 7" --U. S. C. & G. S.- 19.390
Palatka, I mile north of, 300 feet south of mile post,
8 -feet west of railroad track, northeast corner of
base of signal tower; bolt marked "18.3" -------U. S. C. & G. S._ 18.31
Palatka, near south side of north door on west side
of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad .offices, in two-
story brick building near St. Johns River, at west
end of bridge over river; bottom of a square cut in
granite doorsill lettered "U. S.' "B. M." (C. &
G. S. "J") ----------- -------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 12.706
Palmer, near old C. &' G. S. bench mark (destroyed),
on high ground about 30 meters northeast of Sea-
board Air Line Railway station, top of iron pipe
in concrete in tin stove pipe. Cement is marked
74.684 ----------------- ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 75-351
Palmer, top of foundation, at northwest corner, 2
feet above ground, at west end of small house
north of track and a little west of railroad station;
bottom of a square cut in top of one of the stones
forming foundation of brick chimney, lettered "U.
S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "V") ----------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 76.348
Palm Springs ---------------- ----------------A. C. L. R. R._ 61
Palm Valley, St. Johns County ------------------ U. S. G. S...- 8
Pariama Park, 20 meters east of Seaboard Air Line
Railway tracks, opposite the station ------------U. S. C. & G. S._ 17.24"
Panasoffkee --------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.---- 58
Panasoffkee Lake ------------------------ U. S. G. S.----- 40
Paola -------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.- 79
Paradise ---------------- --------------------A. C. L. R. R.--92
Park Place, A. C. L. depot -------------U. S. G. S ---.. 6
Pasco --------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._ino
Paynes Prairie,. water level in sink at low stage ----U. S. G. S.----- 58
Peace Creek, at mouth of Big Charley Apopka ----U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882--- 17
Pebble ------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R._1-I36


Penial, 1,600 feet west of station, on northwest abut-
ment of bridge over drain, 2 feet below level of
railroad track; top of bolt marked "24" --------U.
Penial, railroad crossing at station; top of rail --....U.
Pensacola --- ------------------------- --- L.


C. & G. S.- 24.34
C. & G. S.- 25
N. R. R... 21.3








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
,F -oria ---------------------- ------------------U. S. G. S..--- 28
P rkins Crossing --------------------------------- L. & N. R. R. -242
P crine ---------------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry... 13
Sorry ------------------------- -------------F. Ry. --------- 30
F' simmon Bluff ----------------------------U. S. Amry
Engrs., 1903- 17
P. ers ----------------- --------------------F. E. C. Ry...-- 13.0
P ,sphoria Junction --------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.-I23
P, kett ---------------------------------- ----------- U. S. G. S.--- 28
Person -------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.- 78
P,,e Barren ..-------------------------------- L. & N. R. R.... 21.8
P;ne Crest ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R....-- 82
P .e Island -------------- -------------------S. A. L. Ry.-- 19


P; e Orchard ------------------------------L.
Fir way -------- --------------- L.
Pi. y Grove ---------------- ----------------L.
Pi: Hook -----------------------------------S.
Pl-iatation ----------------------------------F.
Pl: t City ---------------------------------------- A.
Pla.it City -- ------------------------------S.
PI' ,mer ----------------------------------- G.
Ph mmer ----------------- ------U.
Poc.taw -__---- -----------------------------F.
PoFona, 300 feet north of station, in southwest angle
of railroad crossing; iron post stamped "63 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 17" ----------------------------U.
Pomona, 8.6 miles north of, on southeast abutment of
bridge over St. Johns River, 10 feet east of rail-
road track and I1 feet below it; top of iron rod
that holds wooden structure in place, marked "9.7" U.
Pomona,. o10.9 miles north of, 300 feet west of mile
post, at crossroads; top joint of forth rail marked
"30----------------" -------------------------- U.
Pomona, 11.6 miles north of, 20 feet south of railroad
crossing, at base of southeast corner of signal
tower; bolt marked "32.4" ---------------------U.
Pomona, about 1.5 miles west of, in northeast angle of
crossroads; nail in root of pine tree marked
"66.7" -----------------------------------U.
Pompano ------------------------------------F.
Ponce De Leon -------------------------------L.
Port Orange -------------------------------F.
Port Sewall ---------------------------------F.


& N. R. R. 165
& N. R. R. 223
& N. R. R..- 78.8
A. L. Ry.....--188.3
E. C. Ry.-- 9.3
C. L. R. R.--37
A. L. Ry.----125
S. & F. Ry.-- 2T
S. G. S .--- 19
E. C. Ry.-- 70.5


S. C. & G. S.- 03.160



S. C. '& G. S.- 9.993


S. C. & G. S.- 30.2


S. C. & G. S.- 32.72


S. C. & G. S.-
E. C. Ry.--
& N. R. R....
E. C. Ry.----


66.85
15.0
62.3
12.0


E. C. Ry. --- 22.0








50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Port Tampa -------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_ 6
Possumr Bluff ------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--_ 21
Princeton ---- ------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.... 12.0


Prospect ---------------............--------- --------.......--A.
Punta Gorda --------------------------------A.
Putnam Hall ------------------ --------------G.
Putnam Hall, 50 feet north of railroad station, 10 feet
east of four water oaks in a cluster; iron post
stamped "1o6 Prim. Tray. Sta. Na. 28" ---------U.
Putnam Hall, 3.2 miles southwest of, 20 feet west of
road forks, 200 feet south of lake; iron post
stamped "10o2 Prim Tray. Sta. .No. 29" ---------U.
Putnam Hall, 4.4 miles southwest of, 20 feet north-
west of road forks, to southeast, 8 feet north of
road; nail in root of pine tree, marked "149" ----U.
Putnam Hall, I mile southwest of, opposite dim road
west, 6oo feet south of house, 3 feet east of road;
nail in root of pine tree marked "94" ----------U.
Putnam Hall, 2.4 miles southwest of, 15 feet north of
road, 300 feet south of lake; nail in top of pine


L. R. R....-43
L. R. R.--- 3
& F. Ry.-.Io2


S. C. & G. S.-IOS.563


S. C & G. S.-IO2.243


S. C. & G. S.-149-15


S. C. & G. S.- 93.97


stump marked "107.1" -- ----------------------------U. S. C. & G. S..Io7.07
Puzzle Lake ---- ----------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 6
Quay ---------- -------------------------F. E. C. Ry.-- 18.5
Quincy -----------------------------------G. F. & IA. Ry.--172
Quincy ----------------------------------- S. A. L. Ry.....245.9
Quincy, switch point of spur ------------------- S. A. L. Ry.....239.4
Quincy, end of spur --------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--145.6
Quincy, about opposite the east end of the Seaboard
Air Line Railway station, 49 feet south of the
main track -------------------------------_U S. C. & G. S.-243.o54
Quincy, about 3 miles east of, 325 feet west of mile
post 186, 26 feet south of the S. A. L. Ry., track,
975 feet east of an over-head road crossing ---'U. S. C. & G. S._218.182
Quincy, about 4 miles west of, 1625 feet west of mile
post 193, near road crossing, 26 feet south of
S. A. L. Ry., track ----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-275.941
Quintette -----------------------------------..L. & N. R. R.. -I2o
Raiford ------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.__127
Raiford -------------------------------------U. S. G. S.--129
Ramage Place, A. C. L. depot --------------------U. S. G. S.--- 09
Ratliff -------------------------------------- U. S. G. S....-- 23








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Raulerson's --------------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 15
Reddick, A. C. L. depot ---------------------------U. S. G. S.--... 92
Rice Creek, at railroad crossing opposite station; top
joint of east rail, marked "10.3"-- .-----------------U. S. C. &. G. S.- 10.3
Rice Creek, o.8 mile north of station, 55 feet west of
railroad track, just behind mile post, about 500 feet
east of main Palatka-Bostwick road; iron post
stamped "27" ---------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 26.580
Richland --- ---- -----------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 97
Riley ---------------------- -----------------A. C. L. R. R.- 73
River Junction ------------------------------L. & N. R. R. .... 82.8
River Junction -------------------- -----------S. A. L. Ry.--. 78.2
River Junction, end of S. A. L. Ry., track at wharf
on Apalachicola River --------- ----------S. A. L. Ry.-~. 70.4
River Junction, 1,300oo feet east of the Union Passen-
ger station, bench mark is the highest point of
the bolt in the northwest pillar of the railway
water tank. It is 6 feet south of the main track.
Marked U. S. B. M. ----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 76.096
River Junction, opposite the three-story brick build- -
ing, 975 feet northeast of the Union Passenger
station. Bench mark is the highest point of a
railroad rail (projecting 2% feet) acting as a guard
at the corner of sidewalk ----------------- U. S. C. & G. S.- 75.932
River Junction, about 1,138 feet west of the Union
Passenger station, 325 feet west of the west end
of the Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad freight house, 98 feet south of the main
track ------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 79.577
River Junction, about 2 miles west of, 211 feet west
of west concrete pier of Louisville and Nashville
Railroad bridge over the Apalachicola River, 3
feet north of trestle, bench -mark is the top of a
copper bolt set in a concrete post (U. S. E. No. 83) U. S. Army
Engrs., ...-------. 63.786
River Junction, about 2 miles west of, in the triangle
formed by three blazed trees; one of which is a
20-inch white oak, distant 20 feet; another is a
24-inch post oak, distant Ioo feet; and the other
is a o10-inch walnut, distant 127 feet. The bench
mark is a copper bolt in a concrete post, 325 feet
southwest of the west concrete pier at the west
end of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad








52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
bridge over the.Apalachicola River, and about 10
feet from the bank of the river. (U. S. E. No.
84) ---------------------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., -------64.062
Riverland ------......----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--- 76
Riviera ---------------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 19.4
Roberts -------------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.---144.3


Rochelle, A. C. L. depot ------------- -----------U.
Rochelle, north end of one-story dwelling owned by
S. S. Phifer; copper bolt set in brick chimney
(Coast and Geodetic Survey bench mark) ----U.
Rochelle, 15 feet southeast of main entrance to school-
house; iron post stamped "83 Prim. Tray. Sta. No.
40o" ------------------------------------------ U.
Rochelle, 4 miles south of, in southwest corner of
railroad crossing; iron post stamped "72 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 41" -----------------------------U.
Rochelle, 5 miles south.of, 20 feet northeast of rail-
road crossing; top of a piece of iron rail driven
in ground, marked "68" ---------------------U.
Rochelle, I mile north of, in southwest angle of road
to west; nail in root of pine tree, marked "98.3" --U.
Rochelle, 24 miles north of, 400 feet north of culvert,
3oo feet south of second-class road west, 8 feet
west of road; nail in root of water oak tree,
marked "91.6" ----------------------------U.
Rochelle, 3 miles north of, 20o feet west of road forks,'
to northwest; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"88.7" -----------------------------------U.
Rockdale ------------------------------------ F.
Rock Harbor --------------------- -----------F.


S. G. S....-- 80


S. C. & G. S.- 83.165


S. C. & G. S.- 82.703


S. C. & G. S.- 72.442


S. C. & G. S.- 67.59

S. C. & G. S.- 08.32



S. C. & G. S.- 9g.6o


C. & G. S.- 88.74
C. Ry.--._ 13.0
C. Ry._.. 12.4


Rock Island ---------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 12
Rockledge --- --- ------------------------F. E. C. Ry....- 29.0
Rock Springs, 'A. C. L. depot --------------------U. S. G. S.------ 75
Rodman, on top of west concrete foundation for iron
gate post, southeast corner of park; cross in con-
crete, marked "28.6" ------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 28.37
Rodman, 3.3 miles northeast of, in southeast corner of
crossing of old Palatka-Rodman road and Wilson
Lumber Co. tramway; iron post stamped "27 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 39" -------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 27.110
Rodman, 2.04 miles southeast of, in southeast corner of
crossroads, 250 feet south of drain crossing; nail








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


AUTHORITY.


in root of pine tree, marked "21.5" unchecked --U.
Rodman, 3.5 miles east of, 20 feet east of road, pine
tree located as' primary traverse point, marked
"P. T." in large white letters and bearing *warn-
ing sign marked "21.2"; nail in root, unchecked --U.
Kjdman, 4.6 miles southeast of, at Turpentine Land-
ing, 30 feet southeast of road forks to north, 20
feet east of road; iron post stamped "9 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 38" unchecked ---------------- U.
Rodman, 4.4 miles northeast of, in southeast angle of
road forks to east; naitin root of pine tree, mark-
ed "27.2" ---------------------------------------U.
RR dman, 6 miles northeast of, 25 feet southwest of
road forks to southwest, 300 feet south of old
house at road forks to west; nail in root of pine
tree, marked "42.5" -- ------------- --U.


S. C. &-G. S.- 21.24



S. C. & G. S.- 20.97



S. C. & G. S.- 8.952


S. C. & G. S.- 26.91



S. C. & G. S.- 42.23


Rogers ------------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.----- 41.7
R.ky ------------------- -----------------L. & N. R. R....-12.3
R ueo, A. C. L. depot -------------------------U. S. G. S.------ 42
Re eland -----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.... 18.6
R, *ewood, S. A. L. depot ---------------------- U. S. G. S.--- 16
Rosewood, near- front of store and post office, inside
fence, near west side of front porch; bottom of a
square cut in top of an artificial stone post 8 by 8
by 36 inches, buried 30 inches in ground and let-
tered "U. S. C. &" "G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S.
"Rosewood") -----------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 14.5;
Rosewood, about 1.5 miles east of, near second tele-
graph pole east of mile post 144, 10 meters north
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ----------U. S. C. & G. S.- 16.1;
Round Lake, maximum elevation near on profile of
Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railway ---------A. & ST. A. B.
Ry. ----------322


50


75


Roy in southeast corner of A. E. Campbell's yard, 150
feet south of railroad crossing; iron post stamped
"23 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 10" ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 23.345
Roy. i mile south of, about 6oo feet south of second-
class road crossing, 25 feet east of road; nail in
root of pine tree, marked 25.4 ------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 25.48
Roy, 2.7 miles south of, 7oo feet south of two-story
house, in north angle of road forks to northwest;.
iron post stamped "27 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. ii" _-U. S. C. & G. S.- 27.479


LOCALITY.


elevation
Above Sea
(feet).










54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY. AU
Roy, 5 miles south of, in south angle of road forks
to southwest; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"21.8" ----- -------------------------------------U.
Roy, 6.2 miles south of, 6 feet east of road; marked
"0.2" --------------------------- U.
Roy, 7.4 miles .south of, 6 feet east of road; nail in
root of pine tree, marked "14.2" -------------------U.
Roy, 8 miles south of, about 1.2 miles north of Schell's
Bluff, in northeast angle of T road north; iron
post stamped "6Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 12" ----------U
Runnymede -------------- ------------------'A.
Russell, about '/ mile northwest of on A. C. L. R. R. _U.
Saint Augustine, 700 feet north of San Sebastian
River bridge ---------------- -------------F.
Saint Augustine, 532 miles north of, at Magnolia
Grove, 30 meters east of telephone booth, in line
with telegraph poles -----------------------U.
Saint Augustine, about 2.7 miles north of, just north
of mile post "Jax 34," 8 meters west of Florida
East Coast Railway tracks, in line with telegraph
poles, said mile post 60 meters north of road cross-
ing -------------------------------------U.
Saint Augustine, A standard disk bench mark set in
the granite coping to sea wall in front of St.
Augustine, It is 1oo feet north of Capo's wharf
which is at foot of Hypolita Street. B. M. 9 is
the surface of the disk at its center. The upper
surface of the disk is even with the surface of
the coping ------------- -----------U.
Saint Augustine, Established for temporary use It
is the upper surface of a 6od spike driven in the
outer face of the sea wall in front of the city, at
the foot of Hypolita Street, just north of Paul
Capo's wharf. Two other spikes were driven into
the wall, at an angle, to support the spike used
as the B. M. -----------------------------U.
Saint Augustine, The top slide of a portable staff
erected at foot of Hypolita Street. Upon this
B. M. rests the brass angles that are fastened to
the staff, when the staff is in position for use,
The staff was installed in March, 1914 ----------U.


Elevation
THORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


S. C. & G. S.- 21.94

S. C. & G. S._ 20.27

S. C. & G. S.- 14.29


S. C. & G. S._ 6.T9T
C. L. R. R.-. 72
S. G. S.----- 13

E. C. Ry.-- 6.7


S. C. & G. S.- 10.701





S. C. & G. S.- 9.363







S. C. & G. S.- 6.6;o







S. C. & G. S. I.T75


S. C. & G. S.- 4.016









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AU
Saint Augustine, about six inches from east and south
edges of granite coping of sea wall, at corner of
entrance to basin opposite plaza; cut (C. & G. S.
"Fairfield") -------------------------------U.
Saint Augustine, in vertical face of sea wall about 1.5
feet from base 28.2 feet south of wharf; triangle
with hole in center (C. & G. S. "Hitchcock") __U.
Saint Augustine, in face of sea wall, 1.9 meters below
top, few feet south of bench mark A., of wall;
upper surface of iron rod I inch square (C. & G.
S. "Tidal") ------------------------------U.
Saint Augustine, near center of top of granite coping
of sea wall, 3 feet south of south side of basin
opposite plaza; bottom of square cut lettered "U.
S. C. &" "G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "A") --- U.
S :int Augustine, granite coping of sea wall, near
southwest corner of sixty- seventh stone south of
south side of basin opposite plaza, 107 meters
south of basin; surface of a smooth place 2 by 2
inches, lettered "U. S." "B. M.". (C. & G. S.
"B") ------------ ------------------------U.
Saint Augustine, at southeast corner of United States
reservation west of Plaza, bottom of square cut in
top of marble post. Edges of top of post are
broken off. (C. & G. S. "C") ----------------- U.
Saint Augustine, United States reservation, west of
west end of customhouse, near building, at center
of marble post 8 by 8 inches by3 feet, buried in
ground 30 inches; bottom of a square cut lettered
"U. S. C. &" "G. S. B. M." (C. & G. S. "D" _-U.
Saint Catherine --------------- ---------------A.
Saint Cloud ---------------------------------A.
Saint Johns River, at mile post 23 on the Okeechobee
division ---------------------------------- F.
Saint Leo -----------------------A.
Saint Lucie ----------------------------------F.
Saint Lucie River, at mile post 261 --------F.
Saint Marks ---------------------------------S.
Saint Marys River, at crossing of on G. S. & F. Ry.,
near Baxter, at mile -post 223, Georgia-Florida
boundary line --------- --------------------G.
Saint Marys River, at crossing of near St. George,
Ga., on the G. S. & F. Ry., between mile posts
235 and 236 -------------------------- G.


Elevation
THORITY. Above Sea
(feet).



S. C. & G. S.- 7.256


S. C. & G. S.- 1.307



S. C. & G. S.- 0.872



S. C. & G. S.- 7.046






S. C. 8 G. S.- 6.689



S C. & G. S.- 7.896





S. C. & G. S. 7.885
C. L. R. R._ 66
C. L. R. R._ 63

E. C. Ry.- .. 16.4
C. L. R. R.-_I14o
E. C. Ry.--- I .o
E. C. Ry.----- 13.9
A. L. Ry..- 8


S. & F. Ry.__III


S. & F. Ry._ 50









56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Saint Nicholas -------------------------------F. E. C. Ry....- 23.0
Saint Nicholas ------- ---------------------U. -S. G. S....... 25
Saint Petersburg -----------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-_. 20
Salerno -----------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.--.. 11.4
Salt Lake ----------------- -----------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 7
Salt Lake Run ------------------- ------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1903--- 7


Sampson, about ioo meters north of the booth, 12
meters east of Florida East Coast Railway tracks,
in line with telegraph poles --------------------U.
Sampson, about 2I% miles northwest of, on F. E. C.
Ry. ------------------------------------ U.
Sampson City -------------------------------- G.
San Antonio ---------------------------------A.
Sanderson ------------- ----------------------S.
Sanderson, about 50 meters east of the station, 8 me-
ters north of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks, in line with telegraph poles ------------U.
Sanderson, about 3 miles west of, at mile post CI69,
8 meters north of Seaboard 'Air Line Railway
tracks, in line with telegraph poles -----------U.
Sanderson, about 6 miles west of, at mile post CI66,
in line with telegraph poles, 8 meters north of
Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks ---------U.
Sanford ----------- ---------------------- A.


S. C. & G. S.- 37.75(

S. G. -S.------ 40
S. & F. Ry....I46
C. L. R. R. 165
A. L. Ry.------154.6


S. C. & G. S.-156.5-9


S. C. & G. S.._67.6


S. C. & G. S.-174.o 2
C. L. R. R._ 20


Sanford ---------------------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1Q03--- 6
San Mateo ---------------- -----------------F. E. C. Ry .--- 69.2
San Mateo -------------------------U. S. G. S.-- 66
San Pablo ----- -------------------------F. E. C. Ry..--- II..
San Pablo ------------------- --- -- U. S. G. S.----. 9
Sarta Fe ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.-.. 45
Santos, S. A. L. depot -------------------------U. S. G. S.---- 69
Sapp -------------------------------------- ------U S. G. S.------140
Satsuma, i.oO feet west of station, in southwest corner
of yard, 50 feet east of railroad track; iron post
stamped "78 Prim Tray. Sta. No. 15" ---------U. S. C. & G. S._ 78.16
Satsuma, i.T miles southwest of, at top of rise, 300
feet south of house, 10 feet east of road; nail-in
root of water oak tree, marked "93.4" -- ----- U. S. C. & G. S.- 93.63


4


3









ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Satsuma, 2.8 miles southwest of, in southwest corner of
road forks, 150 feet southeast of schoolhouse,
near signboard 'Satsuma 2%. mi., Sisco 2 mi., "600
feet north of Nishua post office; nail in root of
tree, marked "87.8" -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 87.99
Satsuma, 4.3 miles southwest of, in southeast corner
of road crossing; nail in root of large pine tree,
marked "31.1" ---------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 31.30
Satsuma, 5.3 miles southwest of, 75 feet northwest of
entrance to Oakwood Cemetery, in sharp angle ot
road to west; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"24-5" ------------------------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.- 24.73
Saxton, 400 feet north of railroad crossing, 30 feet
west of Seaboard Air Line Ry., track, 50 feet
northeast of one-story frame dwelling, on outer
corner of fence; iron post stamped "165 Prim.
Tray. Sta. 69" -- -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-164.4o3
*Saxton 4.2 miles west of, 8 feet west of Starke-San-
derson road, 150 feet north of mail boxes 26 and
27, in southwest corner of second-class road cross-
ing, at corner of picket fence, ioo feet northeast
of one story frame dwelling; iron post stamped
"141 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 70" -----------------U. S. C. & G. S.-139.354
*Saxton, 5.4 miles west of, 50 feet south of sharp
turn of road to west; nail in root of pine tree,
marked "149" ----------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-I47-30
*Saxton, 6.2 miles west of, 50 feet south of road
forks to southeast, Ioo feet southeast of culvert;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "139.1" -------- U. S. C. & G. S.-137.5I
*Saxton, 7.2 miles west of, on Starke-Raiford road, in
northwest angle of road to north, 400 feet east
of house, about same distance southeast of mail
box No. 44; iron post stamped "139 Prim Tray
Sta. No. 71" -------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-137.205
Saxton, 8.6 miles west of, 400 feet southeast of road
forks, 200 feet west of Anderbilt schoolhouse, 8
feet west of road; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"142.1" -------------------------------------- U. S. C. & G. S..-140.50
*Saxton, 9.6 miles west of, in west corner of cross-
roads, 300 feet west of house; nail in root of pine
tree, marked "142.3" ------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-I40.65
*Saxton, o10.8 miles west of, on Starke-Lake Butler
road, about 7 miles west of Starke, in west angle
of road to southwest; iron post stamped "149








58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


LOCALITY.


AU


TH


Prim. Tray Sta. No. 72" ----------------------U. S.
Schells Bluff, I mile northwest of, in northeast angle
of road forks southwest, 25 feet east of road; nail
in root of pine tree, marked "10.2" ---------------U. S.
Schells Bluff, 2.1 miles northwest of, 300 feet south
of second-class road west, 30 feet west of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "17.5" ----------U. S.
Schells Bluff, 2.5 miles northwest of, 50 feet south ot
creek, in southeast corner of sharp turn in road
to east, in inner corner of fence; iron post stamp-
ed "12 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 13" ------------------U. S.
Schells Bluff, 3.6 miles northwest of, 6 feet east of
road; nail in root of dead-top pine, marked "25.4" U. S.
Schells Bluff, 4.7 miles northwest of, 6 feet east of
road and 30 feet south of forks, 1oo feet east of
lake; nail in root of pine tree, marked "27.4" --U. S.
Schells Bluff, 5.9 miles northwest of, 6 feet south of
road; nail in root of pine tree, marked "29.5" --__U. S.
Schells Bluff, 7.3 miles northwest of, 300 feet west of
road forks to southwest, 6 feet north of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "22.2" ----U. S.
Schells Bluff, 8.6 miles northwest of, 'about 1.2 miles
south of San Mateo, 200 feet north of bridge over
creek, 20 feet east of road; iron post stamped "15
Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 14! -----------------------U. S.
Schells Bluff, 9.9 miles northwest of, about i.5 miles
east of bridge over Dunn's Creek, 20 feet east of
road; nail in root of pine tree, marked "13" ----U. S.
.Schells Bluff, 11.3 miles northwest of, on northeast
abutment of bridge over Dunn's Creek; chiseled
square in concrete marked "3.9o" -----------U. S.
Sebastian ----------------------- --- --F. E.
Sebastian River, between mile posts 212 and 213 ....-F. E.
Sedalia -------------------------------------. A. N.
Seffner ------------.... -------------------------A. C.
Sellman --------- ------------ -- 'A. C.
Seville ---- ..------------ -----------------------..... A. C.
Sharon -------------------------------------. G. S.
Sharpes --------------------------------- ---F. E.
Shiloh ----------------------...- ---- F. E.
Shingle Creek ------------------------------- A. C.
Silver Springs, S. A. L. depot -------------------U. S.
Silver Springs Junction ------------------------U. S.


Elevation
ORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
C. & G. S.-147.854


C. & G. S.- 10.33


C. & G. S.- 17.65



C. & G. S..- 12.014

C. & G. S.- 25.55


C. & G. S._ 27.52

C. & G. S.- 29.66


C. & G. S.- 22.34



C. & G. S.:_ I5.3"I


C. & G. S.- 13.18


C & G. S.- 4.14
C. Ry..... 21.3
-C. RY.-- 17.5
R. R.- 218
L. R. R.--- 74
L. R. R.--- 45
L. R. R.--- 53
F. Ry.....-53
C. Ry.---- 36.6
C. Ry.....-- 8.3
L. R. R.--- 79.6
G. S.------ 47
G. S.------ 65








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet)..
Simpson Branch ------------------------------L. & N. R. R....i98
Sims Creek, Putnam County, about 3.4 miles west of
Bostwick, center of bridge over; marked "33.4" --U. S. C. & G. S.- 33.4
Sisco -------- ---------------------- __-... U. S. G. S.....- 68
Six-Mile Creek, Duval -County, between mile potts
256 and 257 on the G.S. & F. Ry. ------------G. S. & F. Ry..- 12
Skinner, about 1% miles east of Bowden, Duval
County --------------- -------- --------U. S. G. S .....- 21
Smith Bridge, across St. Marys River, about 5y miles
north of Macclenny ----------------------U. S. G. S...-... 9go
Snake Creek, Monroe County, between mile posts 437
and 438 ------------------ ---------------F. E. C. Ry...-. 11.3
Sneads --------------------------------------L. & N. R. R.-. 114.8
South Jacksonville. ----------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---. 7.9
South Jacksonville, in the south face of the Thomas
building, on the southeast corner of, at Louisa
Street and Myrtle Avenue --- -------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 9.350
South Jacksonville, in the west face of the Bank of
South Jacksonville, on the northeast corner of, at
Hendricks Avenue and St. Johns Avenue ------U. S. C. & G. S.- 9.993
South Side ----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 15.8
Spanish Harbor ----------------------------F. E. C. Ry.----- g.4
Spencer, A. C. L. depot ------------------ ----U. S. G. S.------- 94
Spring Garden -------------------------------A. C. L. R. R._- 17
Spring Glen --------------------------------U. S. G. S...... 13
Spring Hill ---------------------------------G. F. & A. Ry.__ 93.3
Springside ----------------------------- .. G. S. & F. Ry..- 15
Springside, 150 feet southwest of railroad crossing, at
southeast corner of L. M. Upchurche's store; iron
post stamped "14 Prim Tray. Sta. No. 14" ------U. S. C. & G. S.- 13.520
Springside, 0.8 mile west of, at second-class railroad
crossing; joint of north rail, marked "16" -- U. S. C. & G. S._- 16.o
Spruce Creek, Volusia County, 276 feet north of, at
mile post 119 ---------------- -------... F. E. C. Ry..... 8.9
Spuds --------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry...- 24.0
Stanton ------------------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.-- 83
Starke ---------------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.---..50
Starke, 30 meters southwest of station, 12 meters east
of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks, 4 meters *
north of railroad crossing sign, -in line with tele-
graph poles ------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-164.95o
Statens ---------...... -------------------------- A. C. L. R. R.-.III
Steckert ------ .........------------------------------U. S. G. S.---- 48








6o FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTI ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Still Creek, Leon County, between mile posts 149 and
150 -------- -------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.....__ 66.9
Stuart --------------------------------- ----F. E. C. Ry..... 14.9
Sumatra -------------------------- --- ---. A. N. R. R..... 22
Summerfield ----------- ------------------___S. A. L. Ry ..-- 85-
Summerville -------------------------------L. & N. R. R....241.8
Sumner, S. A. L. depot -----------------------U. S. G. S.-- 9
Sumner, 26 meters west of station, 30 meters south-
east of mile post 148 and 14 meters south of Sea-
board Air Line Railway tracks ---------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 7.133
Sunbeam ---------------- ------ -------F. E. C. Ry..... 26.4
Sunbeam, 30 meters north of station, 10 meters east
of Florida East Coast Railway tracks, in line with
telegraph poles ---------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 25.381
U. S. Army
Sunset Lake --------------------------------- Engrs., 1903--- 10
Suwannee -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R. 152
Suwannee River bridge near Ellaville ------------S. A. L. Ry.--.. 67.9
Suwannee River bridge near White Springs ------- G. S. & F. Ry.__ 95
Suwannee Valley ----------------------------- G. S. & F. Ry.._io6
Svea ----------------------------------------- L. & N. R. R....24I
Swift Creek, Hamilton County, between mile posts 195
and 196 ------------------- ------------- S. & F. Ry.-_irI
Tallahassee -----------------------------------------G. F. & A Ry.__ 80.6
Tallahassee ---------------------------- -- S. A. L. Ry..... 78.8
Tallahassee, switch point of St. Marks branch ----- S. A. L. Ry.--__ 69.3
Tallahassee, at G. F. & A. Ry., crossing ---------S. A. L. Ry. .... 64.6
Tallahassee, in the southwest footing of the S. A. L.
Ry., water tank near the passenger station; bench
mark is the top of an iron anchor bolt market
by a cross ----------------------------------- U. S. C. & G. S.- 80.269
Tallahassee, in the southeast corner of the Supreme
Court Building -------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-i88.iin
Tallahassee, in the northeast corner of the State
Capitol Building ------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-214.931
Tallahassee, in the southeast corner of the brick build-U. S. C. & G. S.-216.o4o
ing used by the State Savings Bank ------
Tallahassee, about '7 miles east of, at mile post 15*,
8 meters north of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks ------------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 49.oo9
Tallahassee, about 3 2 miles east of, about a half mile
east of mile post 162; 13 feet east of a road cross-
ing; 26 feet north of the S. 'A. L. Ry., tracks --U. S. C. & G. S.- 89.386








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


LOCALITY. AU
Tallahassee, about four miles west of, near private
road crossing, about /2 mile west of mile post
169; 26 feet north of S. A. L. Ry., track ------U.
Tallahassee, about 7Y2 miles west of, near a private
road crossing, about 1-3 mile west of mile post
172, 26 feet south of S. A. L. Ry., track -------U.
Tallahassee, about 3Y miles northwest of the Geor-
gia, Florida and Alabama Railway station, about
1,344 feet northwest of mile post 53; 98 feet west
of a private road crossing; 30 feet north of G. F.
& A. Ry., tracks. Concrete post --------------U.
Tallahassee, about seven miles northwest of, just east
of a railroad cut, 26 feet north of G. F. & A. Ry.,
tracks. Concrete post ----------------------....U.
Tallahassee, about ioY2 miles northwest of, about 1-3
mile northwest of mile post 60, 26 feet north of
G. F. & A. Ry., tracks; at west end of railway
cut. -Concrete post ------------------------ U.
Tampa -------------------------------------A.
Tarpon Springs ------------------------------A.
Tarrytown ----------------------------------..
Tavares ---------------- ----------------- A,
Tavernier ---------------------------------F.
Tavernier Creek, Monroe County, between mile posts
432 and 433 -------------- ----------------F.
Taylor Branch, Okeechobee County, Between mile
posts 123 and 124 on the Okeechobee division _-F.
Taylor Creek, Okeechobee County, between mile posts
135 and 136 on the Okeechobee division -------F.
Teasdale, railroad crossing; top of rail ------------U.
Telogia ------------------------------------- A.
Telogia Creek, south crossing of A. N. R. R. A.
Telogia Creek, north crossing of A. N. R. R. -------A.
Theressa -------------------- ----------------G.
*Theressa, 15o feet south of railroad station, 30 feet
southwest of railroad crossing, at northeast corner
of one-story dwelling house; iron post stamped
"168 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 86" ---------------U.
*Theressa, 0.8 mile east of, in southeast corner of in-
tersection of Starke-Melrose and Theressa-Spring
Lake roads; nail in root of pine stump, marked
"164.2" ------- ---------------------------U.
*Theressa, 2.1 miles east of, 25 feet north of road
forks to southeast; iron post stamped "191 Prim.
Tray. Sta. No. 81" ------------------------U.


ElevatTon
THORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


S. C. & G. S.- 65.968


S. C. & G. S.-135.836





S. C. & G. S.- 89.353


S. C. & G. S.-io4.i47



S. C. & G. S..113.950
C. L. R. R.-__ 15
C: L. R. R.-- 14
C. L. R. R.... 82
C. L. R. R._ 66
E. C. Ry..... 10.3

E. C. Ry...-- 10.0 I

E. C. Ry...--- 59.2


Ry .--- 29.9
& G. S.- 65.5
R.--.... 16
R.----- 45
R. --- 165
F. Ry.-..54


S. C. & G. S.-i66.i8i



S. C. & G. S.-I62.66


S. C. & G. S.-189.837








62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
*Theressa, 3.3 miles east of, 150 feet north of road
forks, io feet east of road; nail in root of charred
pine stump, marked "188.7" -- ------------- U. S. C. & G. S.-187.11
Thomas Creek, Duval County, between mile posts 248
and 249 on the G. S. & F. Ry....------ --------G. S. & F. Ry.... zo
Thomasville ---------------------------------S. A. L. Ry..... 84
Thonotosassa --------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R. -- 49
Tibbals ------------------- ------------------F. E. C. Ry.--....-- 31
Tiger Lake, Polk County, ----------------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882-.. 59
Tildenville -------------.............---------------------A C. L. R. R.... 99
Tillman -----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 18.o
Tisonia, 70 meters north of station, 50 meters south
of mile post 17, 18 meters east of Seaboard Air
Line Railway tracks -----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 30.216
Titusville ----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.---- "14.8
Tocoi Junction, yard of residence of Mr. H. Wood,
near southeast corner of house, at center of ar-
tificial stone post 8 by 8 inches in cross section
and 3 feet long, projecting 6 inches above surface
and lettered "U. S. B. M."; square cut (C. & G.
S. "E") ---------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S. 35.593
Tohopkee ----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry....-- 78.7
Tomoka River, Volusia County, between mile posts
ioi and 102 ----------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.- 10.5
Toms Harbor -- ----- ---------- F. E. C. Ry.----- 13.3
Toronto -----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.---17
Trilby --------------------------------------A. C. L. R. R. ... 69
Tsala Apopka Lake ---------------------------U. S. G. S.------ 50
Tulane --- -------------------------------U. S. G. S.- 76
Turkey Creek ------------ -------------------S. A. L. Ry.---- 87


Turkey Creek, Brevard County, between mile posts
197 and 198 -- --------------------- F.
Turnbull Bay, Volusia County, between mile posts
121 and 122 ----------------------------------- F.
Tuscawilla Lake -----------------------------U.
Twin Oaks -------------------- --------------F.
Valkaria ----------------------------------F.
Valle ------------------------------------ --L.
Varnes ------------------------- ---A.
Verdie, S. A. L. depot ------------------------U.
Vero --------------- --------------- --.............F.
Vero, drainage canal north of -------------------F.
Volusia -------------------------------------..........F.


E. C. Ry..--- I7..

E. C. Ry.---- 8.7
S. G. S.----- 80
E. C. Ry.---- 47.3
E. C. Ry.____ 11.0
& N. R. R._- 64.3
C. L. R. R.--1T43
S. G. S.--- 75
E. C. Ry.--.... 19.5
E. C. Ry.---. i185
E. C. Ry.---- 32.0








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Wabasso -- --------------------------F. E. C. Ry..... 20.5
\WVaccassassa River ----------------------------A. C. L. R. R.--, 27
Wade -------------------------------------.. A. C. L. R. R.... 69
Wainwright ----- --------------------------S. A. L. Ry ...--29
Vakulla ---------- -------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--- 22


Waldo --------------------------------------S.
"V'aldo, 30 meters west and 12 meters north of station,
8 meters east of street, 15 meters from corner of
Waldo Hotel, on Seaboard 'Ai!r Line Railway
right of way ----------------- -----------U.
Valdo, southeast corner of school building; iron post
stamped 'Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 57' ------------U.
V. aldo, about 3 miles northeast of, 100 meters north
of mile post 82, 20 meters west of Seaboard Air
Line Railway track; in line with telegraph poles,
near road crossing -------------------------U.
Waldo, 7.9 miles southeast of, Io feet north of road
forks to southwest, about 1.5 miles northwest of
Melrose; nail in root of pine tree ------------- U.
*Waldo, 1.2 miles southeast of, 600 feet east of culvert,
in east corner of road forks to northeast; nail in
root of pine tree, marked "142.5" ----------------U.
*VWaldo, 2.2 miles southeast of, in northeast angle of
road forks, 250 feet south of house; nail in root
of water oak tree, marked "157.4" --------------U.
*Waldo, 3.4 miles southeast of, in southeast corner of
crossroads, at southwest corner of church; iron
post stamped "171 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 5S" ----U.
*Waldo, 4.6 miles southeast of, Ioo feet north of
crossroads, to feet east of road and 150 feet north
of fence .corner; nail in root of pine tree, marked


A. L. Ry.----150



S. C. & G. S.-155.252

S. C. & G. S.-T56.43o



S. C. & G. S.-141.807


S. C. & G. S.-145. 31


S. C. & G. S.-142.55


S. C. & G. S.-I57.54


S. C. & G. S.-T71.133


"156.2" ------------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-156.28
*Waldo, 5.8 miles southeast of, in southwest angle of
road to east; nail in root-of pine tree, marked
"19go ---------------------" ------------------" ------U S. C. & G. S.-190.11
*Waldo, 6.8. miles southeast of, in northwest angle of
road forks to west, about 3 miles northwest of
Melrose; iron post stamped "188 Prim Tray. Sta.
No. 59" ----------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-188.457
Walk in the Water Lake, Polk County ------------U. S. Army
Engrs., 1882--_ 68
Ward City ---------------------------------- S. A. L. Ry... 118
Walton ------------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.----- 33.5
Watertown ----------------------------------S. A. L. Ry ..-- -191.5


LOCALITY.








64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT


Elevation
AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).


Watertown, about I mile east of, near mile post C153,
8 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Railway
tracks -- -----------------------------U.
Wauchula ----------------------------------A.
Webster ------------------------------------A.
Wekiva River ------------------------------A.
Wekiva River, north fork ----------------------A.
Welaka, in southwest angle of two cross streets, corner
of Winston Steven's yard; iron post stamped "27
Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 16" ------------- ------U.
Welaka, 1.1 miles east of, in southeast corner of se-
cond-class road crossing; nail in root of water oak
tree, marked "53.2" -------------------------------U.
Welaka, 3 miles east of, at top of hill, 300 feet east
of crossroads, 15 feet- north of road; nail in root
of water oak tree, marked "55.5" -------------- U.
Welaka, 3.9 miles east of, in northeast angle of-cross-
roads, about 1.5 miles west of Pomona; nail in
root of pine tree, marked "66.7" -------------U.


S. C. & G. S.-201.345
C. L. R. R. Io07
C. L. R. R.... 89
C. L. R. R.-__ 29
C. L. R. R.-__ 29


S. C. & G. S.- 26.886


S. C. & G. S.- 53.36


S. C. & G. S._ 55.70


S. C. & G. S._ 66.85


Welborn ------------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.----1 92.7
Welborn, 50 meters northwest of Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, io meters south of track -------U. S. C. & G. S.-I92.7I31
Welborn, about 3 miles west of, near mile post CI35,
8 meters north of Seaboard Air .Line Railway
tracks -----------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.-I86.431
Welshton, A. C. L. depot ----------------------U. S. G. S. --- 82
West Farm ----------------------------------S. 'A. L. Ry...--l03.8
West Farm, 30 meters west of Seaboard Air Line
Railway station, 6 meters south of main track _-_U. S. 'C. & G. S.-I4.9o )
West Jupiter ------------- ---- ------ F. E. C. Ry._--. 9
West Palm Beach ----------------------------F. E. C. Ry .--- 20.4
West Tocoi ----------------------------------A. C. L. R. R..-- 12
Westville -------------- --------------- L. & N. R. R.... 64.3
White City --------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry.---- 32.5
White House --------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.-- 80.9
White House, about 4 miles west of, near mile post
CI94, 6 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks -------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 85.203
White House, 22 meters west of station, 7 meters
south of Seaboard Air Line Railway tracks, near
railway, crossing sign ----------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- 85.15
White Springs ----------------. --------------- G. S. & F. Ry.__-26
Whitesville, 'A. C. L. depot ---------------------U. S. G. S....--122


LOCALITY.








ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Wilcox Junction --------- -----------......-------A. C. L. R. R. .... 24.0
Wildwood -------------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--....-- 58
Williamson ---------------------------------__ L. & N. R. R ....226


Wilma ------ -------------- --------------.. .... ....A.
Windermere ----------------------------------A.
'Aindsor, in northeast corner of crossroads; iron post
stamped "114 Prim. Trav. Sta, No. 52" -----------U.
Windsor, 1.32 miles northwest of, 6 feet north of road;
nail in root of pine tree, marked "83" ----------U.
V, indsor, 2.9 miles northwest of, 300o feet south of
drain, 10 feet west of road; nail in root of pine
tree, marked "80o.1" ------------------------U.
V,-indsor, 3.6 miles northwest of, 300 feet west of
west end of bridge over Big Hatchet Creek, in
northeast corner of T road north; iron post stamp-
ed "78 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 53" --------------U.
Windsor, 4.7 miles northwest of, 25 feet, south of road,
Ioo feet southeast of drain; niail in root of pine
tree, marked "959" ------------------------U.
Windsor, 5.-4 miles northwest of, in southeast angle ot
road forks to south, 6oo feet north of house;
iron post stamped "115 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 54" -U.
Winfield -------------------------------- G.
Winn --------------------------------------G.
Winston ..---- ...------------_---------------A.
Winter Garden -----------------------------------....A.
Winter Park -------------------------------------.......................... A.
Woodburn ---------------------------------------G.
Woodburn, 5.7 miles northwest of, 50 feet west of
road forks, about 500 feet northwest of old shack;
nail in root of red oak tree marked, "92.4" ------U.
Woodburn, 6.6 miles northwest of, in south angle of
road forks south, ioo feet east of bridge,over
Sims Creek. (Bench mark set by a canal survey
of the War Department; it is a pile of concrete
with a tin can at the top. In center of can is a
nail marked "U. S. B. M." ---------------------U.
Woodburn, 7.7 miles northwest of, in southwest corner
of crossroads, 600 feet southeast of house; nail
in root of pine-tree, marked "112.1" ---------U.
Woodburn, 8.9 miles northwest of, Ito feet southwest
of creek crossing, 12 feet south of road; iron post
stamped "72 Prim. Tray. Sta. 25" ----------------U.


N. R. R.._.. 62
C. L. R. R._-_IIg.8

S. C. & G. S.- 14.293

S. C. & G. S.- 83.05


S. C. & G. S.- 80.13



S. C. & G. S.- 77.743


S. C. & G. S.- 95-95


S. C. & G. S.-.15.423
S. & F. Ry.--148
S. & F. Ry.--137
C. L. R. R.---139
C. L. R. R.---I23
C. L. R. R._. 96
S. & F. Ry.__ 16


S. C.. & G. S.- 92.44






S. C. & G. S.- 50.76


S. C. & G. S.112.JH


S. C. & G. S.- 71.623







66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Elevation
LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea
(feet).
Woodburn, 10.3 miles northwest of, in southeast angle
of road forks to northeast; nail in root of red oak
tree, marked "126.5" -----------------------LU. S. C. & G. S.-126.44
Woodburn, 1n.8 miles west of, 6 feet north of road,
about 0.2 mile northeast of Florahome-Falatka,
road; nail in root of water oak, marked "91" .--U. S. C. & G. S.- 91.oo
Woodburn, 30 feet south of railroad crossing, at in-
side corner of wire fence, west of road; iron post
stamped "15 Prim. Tray. Sta. No. 9" ----------U. S. C. & G. S.- 14.600
Woodburn, 1.4 miles-north of, 150 feet south of cross-
roads, 10 feet east of road; nail in root of pine
tree, -marked "24.7" -- ----------------- --- U. S. C. & G. S.- 24.67
Woodburn, 2.6 miles north of, in southwest angle of
road forks south; nail in root of pine tree, marked
"31.5" ---------------------------------------U S. C..& G. S.- 31.50
Woodburn,-4.7 miles northwest of, in northeast corner
of road crossing, about 2 miles north of Carraway
station; iron post stamjmd "89 Prim. Trav. Sta.
No. 20" -- ---- --------------------------------._U. S. C.-& G. S._ 88.654
Woodland, opposite switch stand at south end of sid-
ing, 10 meters west-of Florida East Coast Rail-
way tracks, near private road crossing .------U. S. C. & G. S.- 39.6(5
Woodstock -------------------------------- S. A. L. Ry.....161.2
Woodville --------------- -------------------- S. A. L. Ry.---- 26
Worthington Springs -- -------...........-------------....A. C. L. R. R ..- 66
Wyllie, about 3.5 miles northeast of, near mile post
140, 9 meters north of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks -------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.- i6.iI
Ybor City .... ----------------- A. C. L. R. R.... 20
Yamato ------------------------------------- F. E. C. Ry. 20.8
Yelvington ----------------------------------F. E. C. Ry.----- 33.0
Yelvington --- --------------------------- U. S. G. S...... 32
York, A. C. L. depot ---- --U. S. G. S.- 84
Yniestra ------- -------------------------- L. & N. R. R._-_ 5.^
Yulee, about 2.7 miles south of, 200 meters north of
shack in clump of trees on north side of a large
swamp, 12 meters east of Seaboard Air Line Rail-
way tracks -------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S. 11o.204
Yulee, 70 meters east of railway water tank, 17 meters
northeast of the Savannah-Jacksonville line and
35 meters southeast of the Baldwin-Fernandina-
line of the Seaboard Air Line Railway ---------U. S. C. & G. S..- 35.692
Zellwood ---------------- --------------------S. A. L. Ry.---- 95
Zolfo Springs ---------------------------------A. C. L. R. R.... 61
Zion ----------------- -----------------....--...A. N. R. R.----- 75










(GEOLOGIC SECTIONS ACROSS THE EVERGLADES OF
FLORIDA.

E. H. SELLARDS.

The Everglades of Florida include an area extending from
L 'ke Okeechobee nearly to the southern end of the Florida Penin-
s :la, and from within a few miles of the Atlantic coast to the
h ad waters of the Caloosahatchee River, or approximately 90 miles
north and south and 45 or 50 miles east and west. Although the
borders are somewhat indefinite, particularly to the south and south-
o .-st, the Everglades include in all 4,000 or 5,000 square miles.
3T e greater part of this area. is covered with an accumulation of
nirck or peat to a depth of several feet, a d with the exception of
occasional wooded islands supports a dense growth of saw grass
.(( ladium effiusum). The muck being soft and partly submerged,
an i the grass not easily penetrated, travel through the Everglades,
hla heretofore been difficult. Moreover, on account of the presence
of this muck there was almost no opportunity to examine the un-
derlying formation, and such geological observations as were made
previous to the drainage operations in this section, were confined
largely to the borders, the interior being practically unknown to
the geologist. At the present time, however, owing to the ex-
tensive excavations that have been made by the State of Florida in
connection with the drainage operations, this area is not only acces-
sible, but affords exceptionally favorable opportunity for' geologic
studies. The canals now extend directly across the area forming a
complete section in which the formations may be seen, either in
place along the canal, or as thrown out on the bank by the dredge.
The deposits are highly fossiliferous and afford a new and extremely
interesting collecting ground. Moreover, owing to ,the lowering
of the water, the rock forming the basin of Lake Okeechobee now
projects above water in one or two places, thus affording the first
opportunity of examining the substructure of this large area of







68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

over 700 square miles which heretofore has been concealed by the
waters of this lake.*
The geologic section which is here described extends from the
- Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean. The line of the section
follows the Caloosahatchee River to Fort Thompson, 50 miles;
thence through the canals and small lakes in a general easterly
direction to Lake Okeechobee about 25 miles. From Lake Okee-
chobee the section follows the North New River Canal in a south
easterly direction to New- River, 57 miles; thence to the Atlantic
Ocean about 8 miles; or a total distance from the Gulf to the At-
lantic of 135 miles. The oldest formations found in this section
lie at the west or Gulf side, while the newer formations lie on th(
east, and hence as a matter of convenience the section will be de
scribed from west to east. Large collections of fossils, as well a
lithologic samples of the formations were made which are avail
able for subsequent study. In making the examination of the ex -
posures along the canals and in Lake Okeechobee a small launch
was used, placed at the writer's disposal for that purpose through
the courtesy of the State Drainage Commission.

THE SUB-STRUCTURE OF THE EVERGLADES.

The Eocene limestones which are extensively exposed nor h
and west of the Everglades underlie that area although they a e
not seen at the surface. At Fort Meade, about 'oo miles norti-
west of Lake Okeechobee, limestones as shown by well drilling,
lie at a depth of 410 feet from the surface while on the Atlantic
Coast, similar limestones as shown by well, records at Palm Bea h
lie not less than 900 feet from the surface, indicating, a general
eastward dip, although possibly with local variations. At K.'y
West about o100 miles southwest of the southern border of t ie
Everglades, this limestone lies at a depth of about 700 feet fr< mn

*The area of Lake Okeechobee at stage of water 20 feet above sea, is 730
square miles, at 16 feet, 710 square miles. Report of Florida Everglaqes Coinm-
mission, p. 10, 1913, Senate Document No. 379. With the exception of Lake
Michigan it is thus the largest fresh water lake lying wholly within the United
States.







GEOLOGIC SECTIONS ACROSS THE EVERGLADES.


the surface.* This data is consistent with other data-available indi-
cating a general south and east dip of the formations. The Oli-
gocene and Miocene formations are somewhat difficult to recog-
nize in well samples, but the fact that these formations lie at the
surface along the Gulf coast as. far south as Polk and Manatee
counties, and are also believed to be represented in the wells on
the Atlantic coast, leads to the reasonable conclusion that they
rilso underlie the Everglades although at a considerable depth. The
depth at which these formations are to be expected is a matter
_f importance to the agricultural and industrial development of
Jhe Everglades country, since the limestones include the principal
-ater bearing strata of the State, and supply the greater part of
*he artesian water of peninsula Florida.
At Palm Beach on the east coast Miocene deposits are believed
) have been recognized at a depth of 400 feet, while in a well at
niiights Key the Miocene appeared to be present at from about
180 to 420 feet.* From its known distribution on the Atlantic
,oast it seems probable that the Miocene underlies the Everglades
resting upon the Eocene or Oligocene. In this connection also it
should be noted that the Miocene has been somewhat doubtfully
identified as occurring near Caloosa, on the Caloosahatchee River
west of the Everglades.t

SURFACE FORMATIONS OF THE EVERGLADES.
CALOOSAHIATCHEE MARL

With the possible exception of the Miocene exposure near
Caloosa, the oldest deposits in the section here described are the
Pliocene deposits known as the Caloosahatchee marl, the surface
outcrop of which is found along the Caloosahatchee River and
hence west of the Everglades. This formation, being readily ac-
cessible, has long been known to geologists and has been fully
described in earlier papers.ft Angelo Heilprin, who in company

*Fla. State Geol. Sur. Second Annual Report, pp. 204-206, 1909.
tFla. Geol. Survey, Sec. Ann. Rept., p.-122, 1909.
ttHeilprin, Wagner Free Inst., Vol. I, p. 32, 1887. Dall Win. H. U. S. Geol.
Bull. 84, p. 147, 1892. Matson and Clapp, Fla. State Geol. Surv. Second Annual
Report, p. 126, 19o9.







'70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

with Joseph Willcox, visited this locality in 1886, refers to this
formation as follows.* "This is without question the most re-
markable fossiliferous deposit that has as yet been discovered in
the State, and from a purely paleontological standpoint, perhaps,
the most significant in the entire United States east of the Missis-
sippi River. The fossils, which are about equally distributed be-
tween both banks, crop out in almost countless numbers, and attract
attention, apart from their prodigious development, by their great
variety, large size, and 'beautiful state of preservation. The whole
bank much resembles a fossil shell-beach, and recalled to my mind
the wall of shells extending from Little Sarasota Inlet to Casey's
Pass." At Fort Thompson this marl passes beneath later forma-
tions from which it is separated by a well marked unconformit\
which is best seen in the exposures along the river between Labellk
and Fort Thompson. The following section is seen at a cut-of,
between two bends in the river about one-half mile below For:
Thompson. The section as given here was made by the writer ii
1908.
SECTION ONE-HALF MILE BELOW FORT THOMPSON.

8. Sand and soil at top of bank about 2 feet.
7. Shell marl in which Chione cancellata predominates 2 feet.
6. Shell marl in which fresh water gastropods predominate 2 feet.
5. Shell marl, marine shells Y2 foot.
4. Unconformity.
3. Calcareous stratum weathering rough on exposure containing Pliocene
fossils 3 feet.
2. Shell marl with Pliocene fossils I foot.
I. Blue sandy clay marl with few fossils to the waters edge 3 feet.

An examination of the banks above and below this locality
shows that while the details of the section vary, the unconformity
is persistent and is well marked. As illustrating local variation
it may be noted that a few rods down stream from the point from
which this section was made, the marine shell (No. 5) is lacking.
the fresh water marl being the first member above the uncon-
formity, while about one-fourth mile down stream clay lenses as

*Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 1, p. 28, 1887.








GEOLOGIC SECTIONS ACROSS THE EVERGLADES.


much as two feet in thickness, containing broken vertebrate re-
mains fill in the irregularities at the top surface of the Caloosahat-
chee marl. Just above Labelle the shell- marl (No. 2) is absent, the
calcareous stratum resting upon the blue sandy clay marl. The
unconformity, however, is plainly seen being indicated at this local-
ity by well worn rock fragments. -
The extension of the Caloosahatchee marls to the northeast has
been shown by collections made by Mr. H. G. Hayes from the
banks of the St. Lucie Canal northeast of Lake Okeechobee.

FORT THOMPSON BEDS.

While the deposits lying above the Caloosahatchee Marl in the
vicinity of Labelle and Fort Thompson have been referred to by
.several writers they have not previously been described in detail
owing, perhaps, to imperfect exposures. The excavations that
have now been made, however, afford the opportunity of examin-
ing these deposits at several localities between Fort Thompson and
Lake Okeechobee, as well as in the Everglades. The following
section of these deposits is found just below Goodno's Landing,
Fort Thompson.

3. Fresh water limestone 2 feet.
2. Marine shell marl i/ foot.
i. Fresh water shell marl 3 feet.

The Caloosahatchee marl, as may be seen by continuing the
section down stream, either lies immediately below the fresh water
shell marl, No. i, of the section, or is separated from that marl by a
marine shell marl. By continuing the section up stream it is found
that a marine shell marl rests upon the fresh water limestone, and
that this in turn gives place to a fresh water marl.
To these deposits consisting of alternating fresh and brackish
water and marine marls and limestones is here applied the term,
the Fort Thompson Beds, the tvpe exposure of which is at Fort
Thomipson.
The fresh water limestone of this formation was referred by








72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT



















010



tuu

(OM


L^1' Sbn





14 tu i
n L^ C/
"*n 1'fl-








1---- ""
U-== iii M
__ b-==


Z i--







GEOLOGIC SECTIONS ACROSS THE EVERGLADES.


Heilprin to the post-Pliocene*. Of the fossils Heilprin says "All
the molluscan forms occurring in the limestone are indentical with
the species now living in the river". Dall writing is 1887 agrees
With Heilprin in referring the limestone to the Quarternary,t but
;n a subsequent paper jt expresses the view that this is Pliocene,
-tating that the Planorbis rock "contains only extinct species or
recentt species also common to the Pliocene marl." The shell marl
above e the Planorbis rock was, however, still referred by Dall to
,he Quaternary. Dall has not given a list of the fossils on which
'he reference of these beds to the Pliocene is based, the few forms
mentioned by him,-including Planorbis Physa and Chione cancellata,
: re either long range forms, or being only generically determined,
a.ck stratigraphic value. By far the most abrupt break in this
t*ction both in lithology and in fauna is that occurring at the un-
c nformity that has been described which clearly marks the top
surface of the Caloosahatchee marl, and unless the fossils above-
-t :e unconformity are shown conclusively to be -Pliocene, it is
natural to assume that this stratigraphic break marks the dividing
-1 .ie in this section between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene.

COFFEE MILL HAMMOCK MARL.
/ -
Lying upon the fresh water limestone, No. 3 of the preceding
section, is a shell marl, the maximum observed thickness of which
i< about two feet. Although removed by erosion at the rapids this
mrarl is very persistent. It is seen in place at Goodno's Landing,
Fort Thompson, and at Coffee Mill Hammock, twelve miles above
Labelle. The predominating fossil is Chione cancellata, shells of
which have been thrown out in great profusion by the dredge.

LAKE FLIRT MARL.

The Coffee Mill Hammock. shell marl is succeeded by a marl
which is strikingly different both in lithologic appearance and in
'the fossils which it contains. The marl consists of a calcareous

*L. C. p. 32
tAmer. Jour. Sci. (3) Vol. 34, p. 169, 1887.
ttU. S. Geol. Sur. Bull.- 84, p. 144, 1892.







74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

mud in which the fresh water shells chiefly gastropods are im-
bedded. This stratum has a thickness of three or four feet and is
best seen underlying the basin of Lake Flirt from Old Fort Thomp-
son to Coffee Mill Hammock, a distance of about eight miles.
This marl is of fresh water origin, and may be quite recent in age.

LIMESTONES IN LAKE OKEECHOBEE

Within Lake Okeechobee there is apparently a reef of rock
extending in a general northwest-southeast direction between
Observation and Rita islands. At a point about 5 miles southeast
of Observation Island the rock of this reef now stands above water
at intervals for a" mile or so, the maximum exposure at the pre-
sent low water stage being about two feet. At th'e surface this
limestone is quite hard, or is streaked in a characteristic manner
with alternate hard and soft layers. Beneath the surface, how-
ever the rock is a rather soft oolitic marl or limestone of granular
texture and light yellow color. The hard phase of this limestone
is much like the limestone found in the canal three miles west of
Lake Hicpochee, while a thin stratum of a similar limestone is found
near the surface at Coffee Mill Hammock. A few pieces of the
marl phase of this limestone seem also to have been brought ur
from the lake at the entrance of the north New River canal.
From the canals leading out of Lake Okeechobee to the south
and southeast for a distance of about 25 miles' very little rock has
as yet been removed. Such fragments as are seen along the canals,
however, represent very hard compact fresh-water limestones. On
the North New River canal dredging of the heavy limestone begins
about 26 miles from Lake Okeechobee. The rock cut through on
this part of the canal consists of a very hard compact close-grained
limestone which breaks with a sharp .fracture and will evidently
make valuable concrete material. The same limestone is cut" into
on the south canal at 24 miles from the Lake. The very hard
phase of this rock is a fresh-water limestone. As found on the
banks of the canal, however, marine and fresh ,water limestones
and marls are intermixed, indicating that there, as elsewhere, the
formation includes alternating fresh water and marine deposits.
Pieces of this fresh water limestone are found on the North River
canal as far as 42 miles from the Lake, although for the last three







GEOLOGICJSECTIONS ACROSS THE EVERGLADES.


or four miles of this distance the heavy limestone stratum gives
place largely to marls. It seems very probable that the deposits
cut through in this part of the Everglades represents the eastward
extent of the Fort Thompson Limestone with its associated fresh
water and marine shell niarls.

MIAMI FORMATIONS.

Another limestone seen on the North New River Canal is cut
into by the dredge at a distance of about 42 miles from Lake
Okeechobee. This limestone is granular and is more or less dis-
tinctly oolitic in structure and is not so hard as that seen nearer
the lake. The surface of this rock becomes very rough on ex-
posure presenting a characteristic matted appearance. This rock
is seen in the canal to within 9 miles of Fort Lauderdale (52 miles
from Lake Okeechobee). Until its extent and thickness are more
-definitely known, this limestone is, perhaps, best regarded as a
member of the Miiami formation, the typical representative of
which, is the Miami oolitic limestone which is found at the surface
in the vicinity of Miami.
The typical Miami oolitic limestone is first seen in this canal
about 6 miles from Fort Lauderdale (55 miles from Lake Okee-
chobee). For about 3 miles above this point no rock is found in
the canal banks, only sand being reached by the dredge. The
absence of rock from this part of the section indicates clearly
that a sand stratum some feet in thickness intervenes between the
limestone described in the last paragraph and the typical Miami
oolite. From its first appearance in the canal the Miami oolite is
continuous to the coast forming the country rock in this part of
the section.
The relation of the Fort Thompson beds to the Miami Oolitic
limestone was not determined owing to the lack of continuous
exposures. The succession of deposits indicates alternating fresh
water and marine conditions, but whether these conditions pre-
vailed in this area previous to the deposition of the Miami oolite
or subsequent to that time can be determined only by more de-
tailed stratigraphic and paleontologic studies than have been made
in this area.







76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS.

The formation in southern Florida west of the Everglades
deviate somewhat from their original position by slight folding
of the strata and by tilting of the land area. The minor folds of
the Caloosahatchee formation have long been observed and fre-
quently described. The folds in this formation are small and
numerous. Their general direction is north to south or northwest
to southeast. The Fort Thompson formation also presents minor
folds, although less numerous, perhaps, than the Caloosahatchee
formation. This is well seen in the banks of the canal crossing
Lake Flirt. The limestone which stands as much as 5 feet above
water level at the rapids passes below water level one or two miles
above the rapids. This limestone, however, comes to the surface
again at Coffee Mill Hammock about 8 miles east of Fort Thomp-
son.
THE COFFEE MILL HAMMOCK ANTICLINE. /

The ridge of rock cut through by the canal at Coffee Mill
Hammock represents a small anticline which has a general north-
,south direction, and may be traced by the outcropping of rock at
the surface for some miles. Lake Flirt occupies the shallow
trough between this anticline and the Fort Thompson rock ex-
posure which probably also represents a small anticline.
In the Everglades southeast of Lake Okeechobee along the
North New River canal no evidence of folds are found, the rock
lying horizontal or nearly so for a north-south distance of forty
miles. Approaching the east border of the Everglades, however,
particularly in that part of the canal which has a due east coarse,
evidence of dip of the formations to the east is apparent. 'A
general east dip is further indicated by the fact that flowing ar-
tesian wells are obtained at a comparatively shallow, depth at Fort
Lauderdale and at Miami on the Atlantic coast.










THE AGE OF THE UNDERLYING -ROCKS OF FLORIDA
AS-SHOWN BY THE FORAMINIFERA OF WELL
.BORINGS.

JOSEPH A.'CUSHMAN.

-After the discovery of foraminifera indicating older forma-
tions than had hitherto been found in Florida in well borings sent to
me through the U. S. Geological Survey* the State Geologist, Dr. E.
H. Sellards, asked me to undertake a study of various well borings.
It was hoped that a study of the foraminifera of these samples
from different parts of the State would reveal the presence of beds
of definite age and add to our knowledge of the geologic structure
of the Florida peninsula.
In all there were submitted to me well samples from fifteen
localities widely scattered over the State. While these localities
represent a very small amount of data compared to the areal extent
of Florida, they are so located that taken together they give a
skeleton on which may later be built up a detailed geologic structure.
The data for the various wells will be given and then they will be
followed by a general interpretation of what the foraminifera
have to show as to the age of the various rocks penetrated. First
however a few cautions as to the use of well samples may not be
out of place.
SPECIAL FIELD OF THE FORAMINIFERA.
In the process of well drilling the larger fossils are often
ground into fragments too small to be -of any value for specific
determinations and therefore for determining definitely the age of
the rocks penetrated. Of other groups likely to escape breakage
the bryozoa and foraminifera are probably the only two found in
quantity. Although ostracoda often escape damage by the drill
they are not usually in great enough numbers in enough various
horizons to be 6qual in value to the other two. Of the two groups
*This material from the Bushnell well was sent me by the Florida Survey
through the U. S. Geological Survey.
77'







78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

the bryozoa are much less liable to escape breakage. Many of the
foraminifera are but a millimeter in diameter and enough of these
remain intact so that most beds containing any number will give
some identifiable specimens. The exception to this is the case of
hard limestones where often the specimens do not become loosened
and the whole 'may be ground into a mass containing nothing of
value for determinations.
On the whole then the foraminifera are by far the best group
for use in the study of well samples, from their small, size, thus
more often appearing in recognizable form and their relative abun-
dance in so many of the members of all the formations of the
Coastal Plain from the Lower Cretaceous to the Pleistocene.
There are however barren stretches in all formations where
-not even foraminifera occur, especially the shore sands of various
ages and chemically deposited limestones like the oolitic forma-
tions. In addition to these the conditions of preservation may -affect
their usefulness. In certain beds greensands appear made up. of
the internal glauconitic casts of abundant foraminifera but not
enough of the external characters remain for use in determination.
Similarly in the older formations the changes made have left casts
of silica or calcite which cannot be specifically determined.
Also in. the- case of those beds which have abundant foramin-
ifera, enough is nof yet known in .regard to the foraminife,'al
faunas of various horizons to give a basis for close comparisons.
This lack of information in regard to the Coastal Plain region is,
however, being rapidly overcome and much unpublished data from
my own work has been available for the present determinations.
Another difficulty, especially in the case of southern Florida,
is that the formations were deposited under different ecological
conditions from those of northern Florida and adjacent states
where the faunas are best known. As will be shown later, the
formations of the Oligocene and older formations represented in
the wells of the extreme southern part of Florida are not to be
closely correlated with formations of our southern states but with
tropical America, the West Indies and Central America. Detailed
work in those areas is as yet hardly begun, but the comparisons
as far as they can be made, indicate that close correlations are pos-
sible.








AGE OF THE UNDERLYING ROCKS OF -FLORIDA


SOURCES OF ERROR.

In the process of drilling a well unless a casing is put in as
drilling proceeds there is great chance of error by material falling
down from levels above that at which drilling is actually taking
place. Thus there is a great source of possible error, and this will
show itself by giving too great thickniess to a bed from this, rea-
son. On the other hand, the drill may penetrate a formation some
distance before recognizable fossils are discovered and the range
of the formation placed too low. A check in both of these sources
of error is the fact that no fossils can appear in the samples until
the bed containing them is reached.
In the case of Florida and the Coastal Plain in general, wells
penetrate the same formation but once as these rocks are not
greatly folded or faulted. Therefore, when fossils of a younger
formation keep reappearing after an older formation is penetrated,
it is very safe to assume that they came from the upper levels and
do not belong with the older formations. Such specimens in the
case of larger species are apt to become of larger size and more
perfect when they fall from the walls above than were the spec-
imens from the same. formation at the time the drill was penetrat-
ing that particular bed. This is especially true of the larger num-
mulites and orbitoids of the Oligocene and upper Eocene.
On the whole, with these various sources of error constantly
in mind it is safe to assume that very accurate and reliable knowl-
edge may be obtained from the careful study of well- samples.

DATA FROM THE WELL SAMPLES.

The location of the. fifteen areas from which well samples were
studied from northwestern Florida to the Keys is as follows, the
location being plotted in the accompanying map:

I. Panama City, Washington County, 470 feet.
2. Bonheur Development Co., near Burns Station, Waukulla County,
2,153 feet.
3. Jacksonville, Duval County, 980 feet.
4. St. Augustine, St. Johns County, 1,440 feet.
5. JAnthony, Marion County, samples 50-500 feet.








80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

6. Eustis, Lake County, samples from ioo-18o feet.
7. Bushnell, Sumter County, samples from 380-3,080 feet.
8. Apopka, Orange County, samples from 50-390 feet.
9. Sanford, Seminole County, samples from 95-113 feet.
io. Cocoa, Brevard County, a sample from 190o feet.
II. Tiger Bay, Polk County, 770 feet.
12. Okeechobee, Okeechobee County, samples to 500 feet.
13. Boca Grande, Lee County.
14. Fort Myers, Lee County, 950 feet._
15. Marathon, Monroe County, 2,300 feet.

The well at Boca Grande was represented by a single, sample
that gives no definite information and is not further considered.
Of the others, some are represented by but .very few samples,
others by samples of indefinite range, and others by very full de-
tailed specimens. Thus the relative value is very different and.
-each is considered separately. For convenience of reference the
information is given in the order as indicated above., A brief sum-
mary of the probable stratigraphy is given with each well and the
-whole summarized in a general account later. -
I wish to express my thanks to Drs. T. Wayland Vaughan, T.
W. Stanton and C. W. Cooke for reading parts of the present pa-
per and for helpful suggestions. Also I wish to thank the State
Geologist, Dr. E. H. Sellards, for his interest in the work and his
courtesy in obtaining needed information.

WELL AT PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA.

Depth of well 470 feet. Samples are few and represent wide
ranges and therefore are very unsatisfactory for detailed work.

30-6o feet. No foraminifera.
60-1oo feet. Foraminifera very rare and poor.
Ioo-2oo feet. Foraminifera very rare and poor.
200-300 feet. Foraminifera small, numerous.
300-400 feet. Foraminifera few and poor.
400-470 feet. Represented by a single large specimen with casts of mollusca
and Nummulites (?) indicating Eocene.

There is little use in trying to determine the stratigraphy from
such poor data. There is a specimen of white hard material









AGE OF THE UNDERLYING ROCKS OF FLORIDA


Fig. 2. Sketch map of Florida showing locations of wells. Wells num-
bered as in the text.


t;*Lt Or MIase







82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

marked "300 feet up" in which Orbitolites occurs and may rep-
resent the Tampa formation of the upper Oligocene. Some of
the smaller foraminifera of the sample marked "200-300 feet" re-
semble those of the Cooper Marl and siniilar age, while .the rock
specimen with a possible fragmentary cast of Nummulites (?)
may represent upper Eocene also. "With the lack of definite data
little reliability should be placed upon the evidence.

WELL OF BONHEUR DEVELOPMENT COMPANY,
BURNS, WAKULLA COUNTY, FLORIDA.

Depth of well 2,153 feet. Well begun as a 14-inch hole; three
lines of casing put down; first casing 12 inches; second casing 8
inches to 700 feet; third, 5 inches to 1,502 feet.
The well starts in limestone of the Chattahoochee formation.
Samples show the following results although there is evidence of
mixing of material from above in spite of the casing which may
not have been inserted as fast as drilling:

50 feet. _Lepidocyclina fragments with suggestions of Operculina and
Gypsina.
100 feet. A single crystalline fragment of a bit of the equatorial band
of chambers of a-Lepidocyclina.
150 feet. Fragments of Lepidocyclina, Operculina, Nummulites and
Gypsina.
i8o feet. Numerous, compressed, rounded, complex foraminifera but
water-worn and changed to calcite showing little structure.
Also casts of a Rotalia with an angled contour.
250 feet. Fragments of foraminifera of same forms as noted in various
layers above.
325 feet. Conical Orbitolina with other Lower Cretaceous forms with
a few Rotalia from above, like those at 180o feet.
400 feet. Hard limestone. Little in the way of foraminifera, except
small fragments.
580 feet. Numerous conical Orbitolina but perhaps of different species
from those at 325 feet.
700 feet. Lepidocyclina, Nummulihes, Gypsina, etc., all well preserved
and evidently from near the top of the well.
920 feet. A single Orbitolina fragment.
94o feet. -Numerous well preserved Nummulites, white with iron rust
spots and a few crystallized specimens of Orbitolina.
Both evidently from different layers higher up in the well.









AGE OF THE UNDERLYING ROCKS-OF FLORIDA


950 feet. Similar, the Nummulites large, white except for rust spots
and nearly whole. Certainly from near the top of the well.
980 feet. Similar to preceding.
iooo feet. Fragments of Nummulites, Lepidocyclina, Operculina with
occasional conical Orbitolina. A mixture from higher levels.
1050 feet. Similar, mostly Nummulites and Orbitolina.
1135 feet. Similar but fragments of Operculina and Lepidocyclina in
addition.
1150 feet. Similar to preceding.
1322 feet. Few foraminifera, not distinctive. Cristellaria added.
14oo feet. Similar but with fragments from higher levels.
1450 feet. A few fragmentary poorly preserved forms.
1500 feet. Light colored chalky material, occasional foraminifera,
Cristellaria, etc., Orbitolina from above.
-1661 feet. Similar but with flinty chips at 16oo feet with large rusty iron
flakes as though casing has been put down at this point or
new drilling-started.
-18oo feet. Light colored crystalline limestone with a few casts of
foraminifera.
-19goo feet. Similar material with bluish fragments similar to some seen
at 1450 feet, probably from above.
-1922 feet. Similar.
1922 feet. Mostly rusted iron flakes from casing.
-1993 feet. Similar to 1900 feet.
1995 feet. Hard compact crystalline limestone. No foraminifera.
-2100 feet. No identifiable foraminifera.
-2153 feet. Peculiar fibrous oily material with light colored material from
above.


PROBABLE STRATIGRAPHY.

The intervals between the samples is rather wide. and conse-
quently detailed information is impossible.
The material at 50 feet suggests that the Chattahoochee has
already been wholly penetrated and the Ocala reached. At 150
feet fragments of Nummulites appear and whole specimens at
various depths below showing that the Eocene Nummulitic hori-
zons appear somewhere below the Ocala, probably somewhere be-
tween the 150 and 50-foot levels.
At 18o feet the peculiar foraminifera are unfortunately crys-
tallized with a loss of structure so the. age cannot be determined.
They indicate shallow water as they are clearly worn and rounded
by water action.


1559


1700

1800

1900

1925

2000
2135








84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAI.-SURVEY-TWELFTHI ANNUAL REPORT

At 325 feet the conical Orbitolinae indicate the Fredericksburg
Series of the. Lower Cretaceous as occurring at or somewhere
above this level.
The 4oo-foot level is in the same hard limestone that occurs
below the conical Orbitolina in other wells of Florida.
At 580 feet the large numbers of conical Orbitolina nay indi-
cate another bed of the Fredericksburg Series or the specimens
may have come from the upper layer.
Below this level the Foraminifera are rare and usually repre-
sented by casts except- those that have fallen from higher levels.
No sign of the large, low forms of Orbitolina is found, although
most of the material is finely ground by the. drill and the samples
are at comparatively .wide intervals. The entire thickness below
325 feet may be all Lower Cretaceous and certainly cannot ,be
younger.

NEW CITY. WELL AT JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL
COUNTY, FLORIDA.

A description of the samples from this well has already been
published (Florida Geological Survey, Fifth Annual Report, 1913,
pp. 177, 178). Depth of well 980 feet. Casing was put in to 500
feet.

0-510 feet. Throughout this distance the samples show no foraminifera.
510-550 feet. Lepidocyclina occurs but only in poor fragmentary specimens.
550-780 feet. Finely broken material with broken specimens of Lepidocyclina,
Operculina, Nummulites, and Gypsina occurring apparently in
in a mixed condition.
820-845 feet. Orbitolina of the conical form occurs.
845-90o feet. Orbilolina as above but in both cases with scattered fragments
from the upper layers.
900-98o feet. Orbitolina of the large, low, concave form with the smaller
conical form from above.

PROBABLE STRATIGRAPHY.

The upper portion without foraminifera must depend on other
data for solution of its age. The upper portion has been recorded








AGE OF THE UNDERLYING ROCKS OF FLORIDA


as Pleistocene with possibly some Pliocene, while at about 33 feet
the Miocene begins and continues to a- depth of at least 496 feet
as given by older records.
At 510-550 feet is either Oligocene or the Upper Ocala indi-
cated by the Lepidocyclina fragments, and those of Operculina.
These occur more frequently here and suggest that if, as is prob-
able, they are from the Upper Ocala, this formation has some-
where near its usual forty feet of thickness at this point. The
. other scattered fragments below probably originated at this level.
Below 550 feet specimens of Nummulites occur, indicating an
Eocene horizon below the Ocala as noted elsewhere. -1
No definite new 'things appear until at 820-845 feet, where
Orbitolina of the conical form appears, indicating that somewhere
in this range the Lower Cretaceous of the Fredericksburg is en-
tered. This is more clearly defined between 845 and 900 feet.
Somewhere between 900 and 980 feet the large, low forms of
Orbitolina appear, indicating that a lower portion of the Fred-
ericksburg appears or more likely that beds of the Trinity group-
are entered.

PONCE-DE LEON WELL AT ST. AUGUSTINE, ST.
JOHNS COUNTY, FLORIDA.

The description of the samples from this well is given earlier
(Florida Geological Survey, Fifth Annual Report, 1913, pp. 195,
196). Depth of well 1,440 feet. Depth of casing unknown but
probably not great.
As sent me, the samples cover but a few points in the depth
drilled but show certain significant facts:

16o-2oo feet. Few foraminifera, but Miocene indicated.
44o feet. Numerous conical Orbitolina.
785,830,Tc5I feet. All show the same Orbitolina.

PROBABLE STRATIGRAPHY.
Although there are no samples between 200 and 440 feet, the
Ocala must occur in this range as two fragments of Lepidocyclina
were found in the. sample from 995 feet evidently originating far
above. According to determinations by Dr. W. H. Dall (U. S.







86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT

Geol. Surv. Bull. 84, p; 125, 1892) fossils of Vicksburg age [prob-
ably Upper Ocala] were observed at St. Augustine at a depth of.
224 feet. This would fit into the gap in the samples I have had
and would account for the Lepidocyclina already noted. This
also coincides with the data from other adjacent areas.
There is no record of whether a horizon characterized by
abundant thick Nummulites occurs here or not. .
The Lower Cretaceous of Fredericksburg age is indicated by
the sample, from 44o feet and occurs below, but probably orig-
inated from about the same general level. How much above 440
feet the Lower Cretaceous extends cannot be determined, from
lack of material.
According to the description of the samples, a dense, light
brown limestone is encountered from 495-520 feet. This may be
similar to the hard, brown limestone occurring below the conical
Orbitolina at various places.
In the very limited material from below, none of the large, low
forms of Orbitolina- were met with but are in all probability
there. Fossiliferous limestones are. recorded in the descriptions
from I,293-1,390 feet but no samples from this range were avail-
able except at 1,351 feet, which had nothing of value.
The well records show that both the Ocala and the Lower Cre-
taceous are much nearer the surface here than at Jacksonville.

WELL OF CAMPAGNIE GENERAL DES PHOS. DE LA
FLORIDE, AT ANTHONY, MARION COUNTY,
FLORIDA.

Samples are available from depths between 50 and 5oo0 feet.
No records of the casing are available, but from the condition of
the samples it must be very complete for at least the. upper por-
tion, Samples examined show the following:

50 feet. No Lepidocyclina but very abundant large Nummulites.
75 feet. Few Nummulites.
1oo feet. Few Nummulites.
no feet. Numerous small foraminifera-Miliolidae and Orbitolina.
130 feet. Mostly hard rock fragments. No foraminifera.