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 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Tenth annual administrative...
 Geology between the Apalachicola...
 The skull of a Pleistocene tapir...
 Eleventh annual administrative...
 Geology between the Choctawhatchee...
 Statistics on mineral production...
 Molluscan fauna from the calcareous...
 Index
 Back Matter


FGS



Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00010
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1916-1918
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00010
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Tenth annual administrative report
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee Rivers in Florida
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    The skull of a Pleistocene tapir including description of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 64c
        Page 64d
        Page 64e
        Page 64f
        Page 64g
        Page 64h
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Eleventh annual administrative report
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Geology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola Rivers in Florida
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 80b
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Statistics on mineral production in Florida during 1917
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Molluscan fauna from the calcareous marls in the vicinity of De Land, Volusia County, Florida
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Index
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Matter
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
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EXCHANGE


Digitized by GOOg e


UEIRKELEY
LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA


LIBARYH
CIrrPnri
LISrt~Jc~Y










FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

E. H. SELLARDS, PH. D., STATE GEOLOGIST




















TENTH AND ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORTS.




















PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1918.













IClENCae
LIBRARy








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

To His Excellency, Hon. Sidney J. Catts, Governor of Florida:
SIR: In accordance with the Survey law I submit herewith
my Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports as State Geologist of Flor-
ida. The reports contain the statement of expenditures by the Sur-
vey for the year ending June 30, 1917, and for the year ending
June 30, 1918, together with those investigations by the Survey
that have progressed far enough to be available for publication.
The two reports are included in one volume since by so doing there
is a reduction in the relative cost of printing and binding.
Very respectfully,
E. H. SELLARDS,
State Geologist.


T_'Y"E o cna mrriN,, C0.0f L Moo.N4>* 12518



















CONTENTS
PAGE
Tenth Annual Administrative Report ------------------------------------- 4
Geology Between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee Rivers, by E. H. Sellards
and H. Gunter ..------------------. .----------------------- 9
The Skull of a Pleistocene Tapir Including Description of a New Species
and a Note on the Associated Fauna and Flora, by E. H. Sellards------ 57
Eleventh Annual Administrative Report ------------...... ---------------. 71
Geology Between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola Rivers, by E. H. Sel-
lards and H. Gunter ----------------------------------- -- 77
Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1917------------------...103
Molluscan Fauna from the Calcareous Marls in the Vicinity of DeLand, Vo-
lusia Co., Florida, by Wendell C. Mansfield -------..... --------------II
Index -----.....--------. ---------- -------------- ------- 125

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Plates 1-2. Skull of Tapir --------------------------------------- 64
Plate 3. Palate of Tapir ------------...------------..------------64
Plate 4. Part of Lower Jaw and Teeth of Tapir ------------------....64
Fig. I. Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River --------------.......--------------25
Fig. 2. Geologic Sketch Map ----- ---------------------..................---- 29
Fig. 3. Contours on the Chattahoochee Formation -----------------------35
Fig. 4. Contours on the Alum Bluff Formation ------------------------42
Fig. 5. Exposure of Chattahoochee Limestone --------------------------55
Fig. 6. Sketch Map of West Florida ------------------------------------56
Fig. 7. Chipola River --------------.----.....---------------------.Io2
Fig. 8. Sink South of Chipley ......----------------------------------.102
Fig. 9. New Pliocene Invertebrates ---------------......----------------.122

MAP.

Map of Area Between Apalachicola and Ocklocknee Rivers, Including Profile-16
Map of Area Between Choctawhatchee and Aucilla Rivers ---------------.. 80










380636















TENTH ANNUAL ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.

EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR THE YEAR
ENDING JUNE 30, 1917, AND FOR THE YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1918.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
$7,500 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by the
State Geologist, as all survey accounts are paid upon warrants
drawn upon the Treasurer by the Comptroller as per itemized state-
ments approved by the Governor. The original of all bills and the
itemized statements of all expense accounts are on file in the office
of the Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are on file in the
office of the State Geologist. The warrants when paid are on file
in the office of the State Treasurer.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30,
1917.
JULY, 1916.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, July, 1916 ....----------..........-$.. $ 78.50
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, July, 1916--......-----....... 19.37
Charles Scribner's Sons, publications -------------------------- 4.50
University of Chicago Press, subscription------------------.. --- 3.60
G. P. Putnam's Sons, supplies .--.---------------.-----.------ 2.46
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies -----------.------------- 11.74
Groover-Stewart Drug Company, supplies -------------------- 4.00oo
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, supplies ------------------ 43.58
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies ------------------- 4.75
Alex McDougall, postage and box rent ----.-------------.------- 27.00
Southern Express Company -----------...----------.---------. 12.o6

AUGUST, 1916.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, August, 1916 -------------------------- 43.84
Milton-Bradley Company, supplies ----------------------------- I.51
Miss W. Wellborn, services ---------------------------------- 3.18
Southern Express Company .--------------------..-------.---- 10.03

SEPTEMBER, 1916.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Septem-
ber 30, 1916 ------...------------------------------...-- ...625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, September, 1916 -----------------.. -- 76.88












ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending September 30,
1916 --------------------------------------------------------- 375.00
Laura Smith, services ------....------... -----------.----..--- 142.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------.----------------------- 30.00
E. O. Painter Printing Company ...---------. ------------------. 187.05
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, engravings ---------------- 157.62

OCTOBER, 1916.

E. H. Sellards, expenses, October, 1916 ---.....---------------... 71.03
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, October, 1916 ---------------- 61.79
Charles Scribner's Sons, publications --------------------------- 13.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ---------.------------.---- -. 1.64
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, engravings ------------------ 49.9r
Wrigley Engraving Company, engravings ---------------------- 1.30
Dr. O. P. Hay, services -------------------- --------------- 50.00
Sydney Prentice, drawings ------------...--------------...---... 14-50
Erwin S. Christman, drawings -----------.... ------------------- 10o.00
J. Thomas Stewart, varnishing floors -------------..------------ 16.00
S. A. L. Railway, freight ----------..----..--------------------.. 26.84
Dan Allen, drayage *-----------------....-----------..---.--- 1.50
E. O. Painter Printing Company -----------..---------..---.--- 884.37
The Letter Shop, supplies ------.. -------.----.--.---------..---. 2.22
G. I. Davis, postage ------------------------------------- 72.48
Southern Express Company ----------.----------------- ---... 8.68

NOVEMBER, 1916.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, November, 1916 ---------------------.- 24.15
Charles Williams, supplies --------------....-------------------- 14.74
T. J. Appleyard, State Printer ----------------- ------------ 31.oo
E. G. Chesley, Jr., Furniture Company, supplies ------------------ 475
D. R. Cox Furniture Company, supplies ----------..-------------. Io4.oo
G. I. Davis, postage -------------------------------------- --- 75.00

DECEMBER, 1916.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending December
31, 1916 ---------------- ----------------.-------- 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, December, 1916 ......----------........... 1.50
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending December 31,
1916 -------------------------------------------------------- 375.00
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, December, 1916 -------------- 58.80
Laura Smith, services --------------...--......-----.-------.-- 138.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------------------------------_ 30.00
T. J. Appleyard, State Printer, supplies ------------------------- o10.50
Abercrombie & Fitch Company, supplies -.--.. ----------------.. 7.25
American Journal of Science, subscription ---------------------- 6.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies --------------------------- 4.83











6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

G. I. Davis, postage ........................
Southern Express Company --..---......... ---................

JANUARY, 1917.

E. H. Sellards, expenses, January, 1917 -------------------------
D. R. Cox Furniture Company, supplies --------.....................
G. I. Davis, postage ....................-------------------...

FEBRUARY, 1917.

E. H. Sellards, expenses, February, 1917 ....------.... --........
Yaeger-Rhodes Hardware Company, supplies --------------------
G. I. Davis, postage --....-------......... ------...........
Southern Express Company ----..............................---


MARCH, 1917.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March 31,
1917 .....................................
E. H. Sellards, expenses, March, 1917 ---------------------------
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending March 31, 1917-
Laura Smith, services ............ ...................
Ed Lomas, janitor services ------------------------------------
Southern Express Company ...........................

MAY, 1917.

Economic Geology Publishing Company, subscription ------......
University of Chicago Press, subscription -----------------------

JUNE, 1917.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June 30,
1917 ................-----------.......--------- ---------------...............................
E. H. Sellards, expenses, May-June, 1917 ----------........................
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending June 30, 1917-
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, June, 1917 ------------------
Laura Smith, services -- -..................................
Ed Lomas, janitor services ------------------------------------..


Total expenditures for the year ending June 30, 1917...----.. $7,445.75
Overcharge for year ending June 30, 1916 -----.................. 177.95

$7,623.70
Appropriation for the year ------------.....----------------7,500.00

Overcharge ..----------------------------------------. $ 123.70


87.73
17.98



30.05
2.00
10.00



894
540
25.00
10.44


625.00
48.10
375.00
122.00
30.00
6.23



3.00
3.60


625.00
27.68
375.00
40.95
86.00
30.00











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

The following is a list of the publications issued by the State
Geological Survey since its organization:

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 5 text figures, and one map.
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two maps.
Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.
Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 15i pp., 8 pls., 13 text figures, two maps.
Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports (this volume), 1918.
Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, 1908,
Io3 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp., 4 pls.
Press Bull. No. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912,
March 12, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist
at the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, December 31, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
Press Bull. No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913,
May :o, 1914.
Press Bull. No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains
Found Imbedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
Press Bull. No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
Press Bull. No. 8. The Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1917, May
2, 1918.
Press Bull. No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May Io, 1918.

DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS.

The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are distrib-
uted upon request, and may be obtained without cost by addressing
the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida. Requests by those liv-
ing outside of the State of Florida should be accompained by post-
age or if desired the reports will be sent express collect.













































GEOLOGY BETWEEN THE APALACHICOLA AND
OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS IN FLORIDA.


BY E. H. SELLARDS AND H. GUNTER.


~~


~~
--











CONTENTS.
PAGE
Location, Area and Mineral Industries .....------........----..--.------..II
Climate ....----....................------------.... ---------. .---1. 2
Vegetation ........--------------------.---------------.... -------. 3
Elevations ---------------------------------------------. 14
Description of Bench Marks ------------------------------------- 15
Elevations at Railway Stations -------------.....----------------------- 6
Mineral Industries .....--......---------........ --------------------17
Brickmaking Clays ---------.. ---..... ------......----------- ---.17
Fullers Earth -----------.... ..--------..------........----------17
Limestone .---------.. ----------------------...----.22
Phosphate ------------------------------------------ -- -- 23
Road Materials ---.------.--..---------------------------24
Water Supply ..............--------..--.-----------------.-----24
Topography and Geology ..--------------... -------------------------26
Stream Valleys .....--------------.....-----------------------.26
Steepheads ------.....-------------...........------------------27
Geology ..............-----------------.-----------------. 28
Oligocene ------------- -------------------------------------...28
Chattahoochee Formation -------. ---------------...------------28
Surface Exposures ---------------...-----------------------.30
Structure .---.--... ---............. ------------....----- -- 32
Miocene ------------------------ ----------------------37
Alum Bluff Formation ---- -------------------- ---------- -- ----37
Structure .....--...-----------------.. -------------------.. 39
Choctawhatchee Formation .----------------....- -----------------41
Structure ------------------------------------------43
Miocene-Pliocene ..................-----......-------------..--44
Formation Name -------------... .------------------------------50
Structure -------... ..--......... ---------.. --- ------------5..
Pliocene ---------------------------------- --------------------52
Pleistocene ......----------------..... ------------------------.... 52
Surface Materials -------------- ---------------------------------52
Geologic History -- -------------------------------- --- ------53
Summary of Geologic Structure ----------------------------------------54

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. I. Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River -...---..---------------..-------25
Fig. 2. Geologic Sketch Map ----------.... -----------------------....29
Fig. 3. Contours on the Chattahoochee Formation -----------------------35
Fig. 3. Contours on the Alum Bluff Formation -----....------.----.---.. 42
Fig. 4. Exposure of Chattahoochee Limestone --------- ------------ 55
Fig. 5. Sketch Map of West Florida --------------------------.----- 56

MAP.

Map of Area Between Apalachicola and Ocklocknee Rivers, including Profile.-x6








".*..". :..I :'-.: i:.:. I'.i :..".-





GEOLOGY BETWEEN THE APALACHICOLA AND OCK-
LOCKNEE RIVERS IN FLORIDA.
E. H. SELLARDS AND H. GUNTER.*

LOCATION, AREA AND MINERAL INDUSTRIES.
H. GUNTER.


The area to which this report relates embraces the three coun-
ties of Gadsden, Liberty and Franklin lying between the Ocklock-
nee and Apalachicola rivers and extending from the Florida-Geor-
gia state line to the Gulf of Mexico. The area of Gadsden county
is approximately 500 square miles, or 320,000 acres; that of Lib-
erty, 725 square miles, or 464,oo0 acres; and that of Franklin, 731
square miles, or 467,240 acres, making a total area of 1,956 square
miles, or 1,251,240 acres.
Gadsden county is one of the leading agricultural counties of
the State. In 1903 the Bureau of Soils of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture made a soil survey of this county and accompanying
this report was a map indicating the different soils and their loca-
tion. The results of this survey show that the soils of this county
are well adapted to the growing of a great diversity of staple farm
products. The production of the shade-grown leaf tobacco for
cigar wrapper purposes is of first commercial importance, while
sugar cane, corn, sweet potatoes and peanuts rank next and are
grown on a large scale.
The interior of the county, except where cut into by streams,
forms a plateau, the top of which lies from 250 to a little more
than 300 feet above sea. Numerous clear-water streams are found
in this county, which afford irrigation and some water power.
These streams cut very deeply, particularly those in the western
portion of the county, tributary to the Apalachicola river, causing
a very broken and rugged topography.
Liberty county has many streams, and those tributary to the
Apalachicola river cut across the bluff and into the plateau mak-
The field work on this report has been done jointly by the authors. The
text has been prepared as indicated under the authors' names.










12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

ing the topography very broken and resulting in a great diversity of
surface features. Some of the streams head in a very character-
istic manner forming what are locally termed "steepheads." In
the eastern and southern portions of the county the hills give way
to very gradual slopes which continue through to the Ocklocknee
river, the eastern boundary of the county, and through the county
southward into Franklin county.
The favorable location of Franklin county on the Gulf of Mex-
ico invited very early settlement and development. The Apalach-
icola river which heads in North Georgia, makes its way through
the fertile red hills of that State and through some of the best
lands of Florida finally discharging its waters into the Gulf of
Mexico at Apalachicola. Before the building and development
of the railroads this river was the principal medium of transporta-
tion and Apalachicola was the main point of export as well as im-
port for a large territory, not only for Florida but for adjoining
states.
The very gentle sandy slope extending from the north merges
in this county into flatwoods, bays and swamps. In 1915 a soil
survey was made of Franklin county by the Bureau of Soils of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, accompanying which is a map
showing different types of soils, their location and extent, as well
as the different streams, bays, swamps and other natural features.
The soils within this area are all sandy, the predominating type
being that described in the soil report as the "hyde fine sand." But
little attention as yet has been given to agriculture, the chief in-
dustries of the county being lumbering, turpentining, the catching
and shipping fish, oysters and shrimp. The canning of oysters and
shrimp is rapidly increasing and is one of the leading industries of
the county.
CLIMATE.
Records on temperature and rainfall are available at the Tal-
lahassee Station and at the Apalachicola Station from the United
States Weather Bureau. These stations may probably be accepted
as fairly representative of the area covered by this report. The
average for rainfall and temperature at Tallahassee are based on
records from 1891 to 1903.* The average for rainfall and tem-
Climatology of the United States, by Alfred Judson Henry, Bull. Q, U. S.
Dept. Agriculture.










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 13

perature at Apalachicola are based on records as contained in the
report on the soils of Franklin county by the Bureau of Soils, U.
S. Department of Agriculture.*
The annual mean temperature.at Tallahassee, in Leon county,
is 67 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean for the four seasons of the
year is as follows: Winter, 53; Spring, 67; Summer, 80; Fall, 68.
The absolute maximum summer heat recorded at this station is 97
degrees F. The minimum winter temperature recorded is 12 de-
grees F.
The annual mean rainfall at Tallahassee is 58.2 inches. This
is distributed throughout the year as follows: January, 3.5 inches;
February, 4.8 inches; March, 5.9 inches; April, 2.7 inches; May,
3.6 inches; June, 6.8 inches; July, 8 inches; August, 7.I inches;
September, 5.1 inches; October, 3:7 inches; November, 2.9 inches;
December, 4.1 inches.
The annual mean temperature at Apalachicola, in Franklin
county, is 69 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean for the four sea-
sons of the year is as follows: Winter, 55; Spring, 69; Summer,
81; Fall, 71. The absolute maximum summer heat recorded at
this station is ioo degrees F. The minimum temperature recorded
is 20 degrees F.
The annual mean rainfall at Apalachicola is 56.i inches. This
is distributed throughout the year as follows: January, 4.1 inches;
February, 2.3 inches; March, 2 inches; April, 2.8 inches; May, 4.9
inches; June, 3.3 inches; July, 6.7 inches; August, 9.3 inches; Sep-
tember, io inches; October, 2.8 inches; November, 2.6 inches; De-
cember, 5.3 inches.
VEGETATION.
The prevailing type of vegetation for this area as a whole is
the open forests of long-leaf pine. In the more sandy and better
drained areas of the long-leaf pine forests there is usually an un-
dergrowth of black-jack oaks and other deciduotis trees. How-
ever, this area may be broadly separated into three divisions: The
rolling uplands of the northern part; the belt of long-leaf pine
forests, and the alluvial swamp vegetation along the Apalachicola
river.

Soil survey of Franklin County, Florida, p. 8, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Advance Sheet, Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1915.









14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY---TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The rolling uplands of the northern part of this area, although
largely cleared at the present time, supported originally a mixed
timber growth, including short and long-leaf pine and many hard-
wood trees such as oak, hickory, dog-wood and magnolia. On
the more level and sandy lands the chief timber growth is the long-
leaf pine with more or less undergrowth of shrubby deciduous
trees. Bordering the Apalachicola river are the alluvial swamps
with a dense growth of hardwood deciduous trees conspicuous
among which are the magnolia, beech, various oaks, ash, dog-wood,
cottonwood and hickory. In the ravines and bluffs along the river
the short-leaf pine grows in abundance. Likewise along these river
bluffs and in the ravines two trees worthy of special mention, since
so far as known they do not occur outside of Florida and only in
this particular section of the State, are the two representatives of
the yew family, Tiumion taxifoliurn and Taxus floridana. These
are two very rare and beautiful conifers, the latter, however, being
the rarer of the two.
A detailed study of the vegetation of this area was made by
Dr. R. M. Harper. and the results were incorporated in his report
on the Geography and Vegetation of Northern Florida published
in the Sixth Annual Report of this Survey. Five vegetation types
were indicated for this area and the plants characterizing each type
are there listed.
ELEVATIONS.

The only precise levels available in this area are bench marks
established by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the
U. S. Army Engineers. These are placed at intervals across the
area from east to west following the line of the Seaboard Air Line
railway and the Louisville and Nashville railroad, and in a north-
west-southeast direction following the line of the Georgia, Florida
and Alabama Railway. In addition to these precise levels the pro-
files and levels of some of the railroads have been available in de-
termining elevations. The profile of the Apalachicola Northern
railroad particularly has been of much service in the geologic
study of this region. A copy of this profile on a reduced scale will
be found on the map of this area accompanying this report. All
the levels obtained have been of material assistance in the study
of the topography and geology, and the writers wish to express











GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 15

their appreciation of the assistance thus received from these vari-
ous sources, which has very much facilitated the preparation of this
report.

DESCRIPTION OF BENCH MARKS.

Midway, about 50 meters west of the Seaboard Air Line Railway station.
8 meters south of the main track. Elevation, 196.758 feet.
About 4 miles west of Midway, 1oo meters west of mile post 181, 8 meters
south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway track, level with the top of the rail,
just east of a high railway embankment. Elevation, 122.395 feet.
About 3 miles east of Quincy, too meters west of mile post 186, 8 meters
south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway track, 300 meters east of an overhead
road crossing. Elevation, 218.182 feet.
Quincy, about opposite the east end of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
station, 15 meters south of the main track. Elevation, 243.054 feet.
About 4 miles west of Quincy, 500 meters west of mile post 193. near road
crossing, 8 meters south of Seaboard Air Line Railway track. Elevation, 275.941
feet.
Mount Pleasant, 30 meters southwest of the Seaboard Air Line Railway
station, 8 meters south of the railroad track nearly opposite the U. S. mail stand.
Elevation, 296.o49 feet.
About 3 miles west of Mount Pleasant, 40 meters west of mile post 2or,
8 meters south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway track. Elevation, 185.800 feet.
River Junction, 400 meters east of the Union Passenger station, bench mark
is the highest point of the bolt in the northwest pillar of the railway water
tank. It is 2 meters south of the main track. Marked U. S. B. M. Eleva-
tion, 76.096 feet.
River Junction, opposite the three-story brick building, 300 meters north-
east of the Union Passenger station. Bench mark is the highest point of a
railroad rail (projecting 22 feet) acting as a guard at the corner of sidewalk.
Elevation, 75.932 feet.
River Junction, about 350 meters west of the Union Passenger station, 1oo
meters west of the west end of the Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad freight house, 30 meters south of the main track. Elevation, 79.577
feet.
About 2 miles west of River Junction, 65 meters west of west concrete pier
of Louisville and Nashville Railroad bridge over the Apalachicola River, I
meter north of trestle, bench mark is the top of a copper bolt set in a concrete
post. Elevation, 63.786 feet.
About 2 miles west of River Junction in the triangle formed by three
blazed trees; one of which is a 20-inch white oak, distant 20 feet; another is a
24-inch post oak, distant 100 feet; and the other is a to-inch walnut, distant
127 feet. The bench mark is a copper bolt in a concrete post, ioo meters south-
west of the west concrete pier at the west end of the Louisville and Nashville
Railroad bridge over the Apalachicola River, and about 3 meters from tile
bank of the river. Elevation, 64.o62 feet.









16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

About 3.7 miles southeast of Havana at mile post 63, 10 meters north of
Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway track. Elevation, 143.871 feet.
Havana, about Ioo meters west of the Georgia, Florida and Alabama Rail-
way station, 2 meters from north fence of a tobacco field, x5 meters south of
the Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway main track. Elevation, 247.050 feet.
Jamieson, at the west end of the Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway
station platform, 2 meters south from the main track. Elevation, 146.981 feet.


ELEVATIONS AT RAILWAY STATIONS.

For convenience of reference the following list of elevations
at railway stations has been compiled. The authority in each in-
stance is given in the table. In addition to these elevations there
is included on the map a profile across this area from north to south
following the line of the Apalachicola Northern railroad from the
Apalachicola river at River Junction to the Gulf at Apalachicola.
This profile crosses the plateau at Hardaway, where the elevation
is about 303 feet. On the map is shown the approximate location
of the Ioo, 200 and 300oo-foot contours. (Map and profile inserted
following page 16.)


LIST OF ELEVATIONS AT RAILWAY STATIONS IN GADSDEN, LIBERTY
AND FRANKLIN COUNTIES.

Locality. Authority Elevation above sea
(feet)
Altschule ..-----.. .---..-----------.. --G....... F. & A. Ry.---------... 209
Apalachicola -------------.-------...--------A. N. R. R.--------------- 5
Beverly --..---.......--......----_-------.A. N. R. R-------------. Io1
Causey -------------.....----------------..- A.- N. R. R.-------------113
Coline ----....-------- -------.........------- A.N. R. R..-------.----- 26
Collins ......----------........... ------.-----A. N. R R.------------158
Criglar -----.....--------...--------------. A. N. R. R.---------------- 54
Deerhunt .--------------------.................A. N. R. R....----------- 82
Eddy ---.....-- .-------------------.. A. N. R. R..........-----------200oo
Florence ..-------....... --------.....--------- G. F. & A. Ry....------. --.45
Fort Gadsden .----------...... ----------------A. N. R. R.------.. ------. 20
Franklin -------------------------_ -----..... A. N. R. R.-------.------- 8
Greensboro ------------------... ----------A. N. R. R.........------------28o
Gretna --------------------------.------S. S L. Ry.--....--------.294
Hardaway .....----- --------... -----. -----.....A. N. R. R.---..------.--.303
Havana ------------- ------------------...U. S. C. & G. S.--------2.. 47
Hinson ---------- --- -----------........... G. F. & A. Ry.-----------253
Hosford ------------ ---... --------...---..... N. R R..------------- 88










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 17

Jamieson --------------------------------------U. S. C. & G. S.---------1...........46
Juniper ------------------------------------ A. N. R. R.....---.------..254
Leitman ------------------------------------G. F. & A. Ry.--..--.----1.49
Liberty --------------------------------A.N. R R.--------------- 94
Midway ------------------------------------. S. A. L. Ry...........--------- 20
Millman .---------------.....--------..-------A. N. R. R........------------ 86
Mount Pleasant -----------------------------S. A. L. Ry.--------------3oi
Quincy ---------------.--......--------------..U. S. C. & G. S.-------.. 243
River Junction ----------....... ----------------Fla. Geol. Surv.----------.. 78
Sedalia ----------------------------------A. N. R. R.-----.. -------28.
Sumatra -----------------------------------A... N. R. R.---..-------.. 22
Telogia ------------------------------------ A. N. R. R...---....----.---6
Telogia Creek, south crossing of A. N. R. R.....A. N. R. R.-------------- 45
Telogia Creek, north crossing of A. N. R. R.....A. N. R. R...........------------65
Wilma -----------------.....................A. N. R.R.-----.-------.. 62
Zion --.------.----...---------------------- A. N. R. R--------------- 75


MINERAL INDUSTRIES.
BRICK-MAKING CLAYS.

A good quality of common building brick is made from the
clay in this area. Two brick-making plants, the Ocklocknee Brick
Company and the Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, are located
in the eastern part of Gadsden county, the former on the Georgia,
Florida and Alabama railway, the latter on the Seaboard Air Line
railway. Both plants are near the Ocklocknee river and use a
clay taken from the river valley.

FULLERS EARTH.

Fullers earth was first discovered in Florida near Quincy,
Gadsden county, in 1893.* The industry has steadily grown until
at the present time the largest and best equipped plants in the coun-
try are located in this county, which is the leading county of Flor-
ida in the production of this clay. According to statistics, Florida
produces approximately three-fourths of the fullers earth of the
United States, and of this amount Gadsden county produces more
than half.
The Floridin Company, with mines at Quincy and at Jamieson,
operates two of the largest and best equipped mines and plants in

*U. S. Geol. Surv., Mih. Res. of the U. S. for 1914, Pt. II, p. 36, 1915.









18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the United States. A few years ago, during 1915, the plant at
Quincy was destroyed by fire, but it has since been rebuilt on an
enlarged scale. The Fullers Earth Company, with mines and mill
at Midway, operates a modern plant which produces a large amount
of the fullers earth coming from this county.
Acknowledgment should here be made of the courtesies ex-
tended to the Geological Survey by the management of the mines,
Mr. W. L. McGowan of the Floridin Company and Mr. C. C.
Ruprecht of the Fullers Earth Company, and for their help and
kindly interest in the problem of the occurrence and age of the de-
posits which they are working. It is chiefly by the fossil animal
and plant remains found within a formation that the age of that
deposit can be determined. That this is appreciated by the man-
agement of the mines in this county is evidenced from the fact that
upon different occasions fossils have either been brought in in
person or sent to the Survey office. Furthermore, notice of the
finding of fossils has been given so that observations and study
might be made on the ground before removal from the matrix.
This help is very much appreciated on the part of the Survey, and
has assisted to no small degree in the study of the fullers earth
bearing formation.
The fullers earth of Gadsden county occurs as strata inter-
bedded between sandstone or bluish to yellowish sands, varying in
places to calcareous and shell bearing marls. The fullers earth it-
self rarely contains fossils. However, both vertebrate and in-
vertebrate remains are occasionally found in the sandstone stratum
lying between the two strata of fullers earth. It is principally
from this sandstone material after it has been dug out and hauled
to the "dump" that the i,, -i,. have been obtained. Of the verte-
brate fossils thus found the tooth of the early horse, Merychippus,
may be mentioned as the most characteristic.* Much material of
value to science has been obtained through careful search of the
mines of Gadsden county and through the help of the miners them-
selves, who are assisting in the work of preserving any fossils
found in the fullers earth bearing formation. It is hoped that this
assistance will be continued and that more determinate material
may be secured. The fullers earth beds lie within the Alum Bluff
formation which, as indicated by the fossils, is of Miocene age.
*Fla. Geol. Surv., Eighth Ann. Rept., pp. 87-88, 1916.










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 19

An account of the fullers earth deposits of Gadsden county
was given in the Second Annual Report of this Survey in 19o9.
This is now out of print and the following has been adapted from
this report, with some omissions, and additions where necessary,
in order to bring the matter relative to the deposits up to date.
Fullers earth is a clay differing from other clays chiefly in that
it is light and porous, and possesses in a high degree the quality of
absorbing greasy substances. This earth was formerly used in
removing grease and fats from cloth in the process of fulling,
from which usage it received the name of fullers earth. But little
earth is used for this purpose at the present time, soaps and alka-
lies having almost entirely replaced it.
Fullers earth, like other clays, is complex. It consists not of a
single mineral, but of a variety of minerals; the mineral particles
being mixed in widely varying proportions, resulting in a variable
chemical and mineralogical composition. Under the microscope
the Gadsden county fullers earth shows angular particles of quartz
together with green double refracting particles which Merrill re-
gards as a siliceous mineral.* In fullers earth from Arkansas,
Merrill observed sharply angular colorless mineral particles, faintly
double refracting, but lacking crystal outlines or other physical
properties such as would determine their exact mineral nature.
Angular particles of quartz and a few yellowish iron-stained
particles suggestive of residual products from decomposition
of iron magnesia silicates were also recognized in this sample.
The fullers earth from Surrey, England, according to the same
writer, consists of extremely irregular eroded particles of a sili-
ceous mineral and of minute colorless particles suggestive of a
soda lime feldspar. Thus it may be said that while fullers earth
is known to consist like most other clays of a mixture of minerals
it is often difficult to make a satisfactory determination of the
individual mineral constituents.
Chemical Constituents:-There is a wide range in variation in
the chemical constituents of different fullers earths, or fullers earth
from different localities. The range of individual constituents
may be inferred from the accompanying analyses.

Report of the U. S. Nat. Museum, 1899, p. 338.










20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

ANALYSES OF FULLERS EARTH FROM VARIOUS LOCALITIES.
I. II. III. IV. V. VL
Silica (SiO,) -----.. ---..... --...62.83 67.46 58.72 50.36 7490 63.19
Alumina (AI.0,) ----------.----10o.35 io.o8 16.90 33.38 10.5 18.76
Ferric Oxide (Fe.O.) .---------- 2.45 2.49 4.00 3.31 1.75 7.05
Lime (CaO) --------.... -----.... 2.43 3.14 4.06 .... 1.30 0.78
Magnesia (MgO) --------------- 3.12 4.09 2.56 ... 2.30 x.68
Potash (K.O) .------.---------.. 0.74 --.. 1 .8 0.21
Soda (NaO) .---.---------.. 0.20o .- 1.
Water (HO) --.-------......... 7.72 5.61 8.10 12.05 5.80 7-57
Moisture ---------------------... 6.41 6.28 .2.30 .... 1.70 ..

No. I. From Gadsden County, Florida, U. S. Geol. Sur. 17th Ann. Rept. pt.
iii (cont.) page 880.
No. II. From Decatur County, Georgia. Ibid.
No. III. From Fairburn, S. D. Ibid.
No. IV. Glacialite, Enid, Okla. G. P. Merrill, Non-metallic Minerals. U. S.
Nat. Mus., Rept. for 1899, p. 337, 1901.
No. V. From Sumter, S. C., U. S. Geol. Surv., Min. Reso., 1901, p. 933, 1902.
No. VI. From Alexander, Ark. Branner, Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXVII,
p. 62, 1898. Ries, Clays, p. 465, 90o6.

Physical Properties:-The most distinctive physical property
of fullers earth is that of clarifying oils.
Test for Fullers Earth:-Fullers earth varies in color. That
found in Florida is mostly light buff, brownish or yellowish, or
olive green, gray or blue. It is not readily distinguished in gen-
eral appearance from other clays. It is light and porous and when
dry adheres firmly to the tongue, but some other clays are also ad-
hesive. A practical test of fullers earth is necessary in order to
determine its value. A test may be made by the use of a glass tube
y2 to I inch in diameter and 2 to 3 feet long. To make the test,
support the tube in an erect position, the lower end being plugged
with asbestos fiber. The earth is powdered and packed into the
tube. A mineral oil is then passed through it. If the clay is a
fullers earth the oils will be more or less perfectly clarified, de-
pending upon the quality of the earth. It is reported that a fullers
earth that will clarify a mineral oil may not affect a vegetable oil.
while an earth used to clarify a vegetable oil may be unsatisfactory
when applied to a mineral oil. A theory of the action of fullers
earth in clarifying oils is given by Porter as follows (U. S. Geol.
Surv. Bull. 315, p. 282, 1907) : "Fullers earth has for its base a









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 2.1

series of hydrous aluminum silicates. These silicates differ in
chemical composition, but are. similar in that they all possess an
amorphous colloidal structure. These colloidal silicates possess the
power of absorbing and retaining organic coloring matter, thus
bleaching oils and fats."
Uses:-The Florida fullers earth finds its chief use in filtering
mineral lubricating oils. According to Day, "The common prac-
tice with these mineral oils is to dry the earth carefully, after it
has been ground to 60 mesh, and run it into long cylinders, through
which the crude black mineral oils are allowed to percolate very
slowly. As a result the oil which comes out first is perfectly water-
white in color, and markedly thinner than that which follows. The
oil is allowed to continue percolating through the fullers earth until
the color reaches a certain maximum shade, when the process is
stopped, to be continued with a new portion of earth. The oil is
recovered from the spent earth."* It is also used to some extent
for lightening the color of cotton seed oil, and lard oil, although
the English fullers earth is better for these purposes. The original
use of fullers earth, that of cleaning, is now one of the minor uses.
It is said to be used in the manufacture of some soaps. It is used
in cleaning furs and by druggists as an absorbent.
Methods of Mining:-Originally the overburden in the Gads-
den county fullers earth mines was removed by' pick and shovel.
At the present time, however, the overburden is removed chiefly by
steam power and hydraulicking. The depth of overburden that
can be profitably removed is determined entirely by the depth and
character of the fullers earth deposit. The overburden removed
in the mines which are now being worked varies from one or two,
to twenty or twenty-five feet. The greater part of this overburden
is more or less decayed and residual in character and is readily re-
moved. With some of the harder material, loosening by blasting
becomes necessary.
The fullers earth itself is mined in the open pit by pick and
shovel, and by steam shovel, being- loosened when necessary by
blasting. From the pit it is loaded by shovel into "dummy" cars
and is drawn either by cable or by small engine to the plant nearby.
At the plant the fullers earth is taken to the store house. The

*U. S. Geol. Surv., a1st Ann. Rept., pt. 6 (cont.), p. 592, 1901.









22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

larger pieces are first broken by pick or sledge and the material then
passed through a crusher. After passing through the crusher the
material, now broken into pieces, one to two or three inches in size,
is fed automatically into a drying cylinder heated by crude petro-
leum. These cylinders which are 30 to 40 feet long and five or six
feet in diameter, revolve slowly and by means of half cups set at
an incline move the fullers earth forward with each revolution. A
high temperature is not sought in the cylinder as used in Florida.
the object being to remove the surface moisture from the clay.
The fullers earth passes through the cylinder slowly, each piece
of clay occupying fifteen to twenty minutes in transit. The fullers
earth upon dropping from the cylinders after drying is carried to a
storage bin, and is there fed to the mills for grinding as needed.
The ground material is passed through bolters and separated into
the grades desired for commercial purposes. After bolting, the
earth is sacked for shipment and is Jabelled according to the de-
gree of fineness. The grade most used in refining mineral oils is
about 30-60 by which is meant fullers earth ground to a fineness
which permits it to pass through a thirty mesh screen but not suf-
ficient to permit it to pass a sixty mesh screen. The finer grades
find other uses.
LIMESTONE.

The limestones of this area, all of which are of the Chatta-
hoochee formation, are found principally in the western part of
Gadsden county along the Apalachicola river. There are, how-
ever, some limited surface exposures of this limestone in the north-
eastern part of this county.
The Chattahoochee Limestone is extensively exposed in the
vicinity of River Junction. The rock here might be termed an
argillaceous limestone and some years ago was used for the manu-
facture of a natural hydraulic cement. The output of cement from
this limestone for the year 1898 is given as 7,500 barrels.* The
limestones within this area are not at present utilized although in
Wakulla county, which lies just east of this area, limestones of this
formation are quarried and sold for road and concrete material
and for agricultural purposes.

*U. S. Geol. Surv. 20th Ann. Rept., pt. VI (cont.), p. 547, 1899










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 23

PHOSPHATE.

No workable phosphate beds are known in this area. The
Alum Bluff formation, however, carries some phosphate, although
probably not in commercial quantities. The type locality of this
formation is at Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola river in Liberty
county. The bluff here consists chiefly of gray phosphatic and cal-
careous sands. A detailed section of this bluff will be found on
page 45 of this report. Of special interest in connection with a
discussion of phosphate in this area is the fact that the Alum Bluff
formation, the type locality of which is in Liberty county, forms
the bed rock of the workable pebble phosphate deposits and is the
parent formation from which the pebble'phosphate deposits were
derived.*
The following are analyses of the light gray calcareous and
phosphatic sandstones of the Alum Bluff formation. Samples
from which these analyses were made were collected by the writers
in 1909 in connection with the preparation of a report on the
fullers earth of Gadsden county and were reported upon in the
Second Annual Report of this Survey, pages 275-276. No. I is
from Rock Bluff; No. 2 is from Alum Bluff; No. 3 is from an
exposure on a tributary to Sweet Water Creek on S. 5, T. I N.,
R. 7 W.

Analyses made for the State Survey in the office of the State Chemist,
B. H. Bridges, Analyst.
No. x. No. 2. No. 3.
Silica (SiO,) ------------------------------------ 48.44 53.02 34.03
Calcium carbonate (CaCOs) ------------------...... 38.57 38.57 35.35
Magnesium carbonate (MgCOI) -------------------- 1.68 1.84 26.oo
Iron and Alumina (Fe.O, and ALO.) ---------------- 2.88 3.96 3.2o
Phosphoric acid (PO) ------------------------.. Trace o.22 Trace
Sulphate (SO.) -------------.. ---------------.. Trace Trace Trace
Moisture (too degrees F.) ----------.-------------- 137 i.6o 1.32

An additional sample of the gray phosphatic rock of this forma-
tion collected in 19o9 by E. H. Sellards was analyzed in the State
Chemist's office with the following result:
Fla. Geol. Surv. Seventh Ann. Rept., pp. 34-35, 1915.









24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Silica (SiO.) ----------.-------....----. .--------.....---.... 34.03
Calcium oxide (CaO) --------------...--------------.----...--. 19.80
Magnesium oxide (MgO) -----...-----------... -------..---------- 12.39
Iron and Alumina (Fe.O and AlOi) ------------------------------ 3.ao
Phosphoric acid (P.O.) ----------------------....------------.---- Trace
Sulphate (SO.) -----...........-------- -----....---------- ----. Trace
Moisture (H0O) --------------------------------------- ------- 1.32

Samples of rock sent in to the State Chemist's office for analysis
and reported to come from this formation in Liberty county, were
found to contain from 32.66 per cent to 69.25 per cent of bone
phosphate of lime. These analyses are recorded as numbers M438.
M442 and 1M985 in the reports of the Florida State Chemist. They
probably represent localized enrichment in rock that, as a rule. is
of low grade.

ROAD MATERIALS.

The principal road building materials of this area are sandy
clays, limestones and recent oyster shells. The clays are very gen-
erally distributed over the northern part of Gadsden county and
the west central portion of Liberty county. The limestones are
found chiefly in the western part of Gadsden county, but have not
up to the present been used for road surfacing. Recent oyster
shells are extensively used as road material in the southern part
of the area in Franklin county.

WATER SUPPLY.

The water supply in this area is obtained principally from deep
and shallow wells and springs. The well from which the city wa-
ter supply at Quincy is taken has a depth of 766 feet. Other ar-
tesian wells in this vicinity range in depth from 602 to 940 feet.
Shallow wells range in depth from 50 to 90 or more feet and give
a good supply of soft water. The city well at Apalachicola has a
depth of 363 feet and the water rises in the casing to within about
6 feet of the surface. Flowing artesian wells are obtained along
the bay shore at depths of from 325 to 620 feet. The water from
the deeper wells contain more or less salt. At Carrabelle the Car-
rabelle Ice Company own a well reported I,o18 feet deep. This










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 25

well does not flow, the water standing about 6 feet below the sur-
face. Flowing wells are obtained, however, near Carrabelle and
for some miles up New river. These range in depth from 130 to
356 feet. In Liberty county at Hosford the water supply is ob-
tained from a well 495 feet in depth. The water from this well is
reported to rise to the surface.


Fig. I. The Apalachicola River looking south from Alum Bluff.


Digitized by OOg e









26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.
E. H. SELLARDS.

The uplands in this area include a plain or plateau which is
highest at the north or northwest, where it reaches an elevation of
from 300 to about 325 feet above sea. The plain as now preserved
slopes to the south, east and southeast. The slope to the south, es-
pecially just east qf the Apalachicola river, may approximate the
original dip slope of the plain. The slope to the east and southeast
possibly has been somewhat accentuated by surface erosion and
removal of the disintegrated materials by surface wash. The av-
erage rate of slope of the plain from the State line to the Gulf is
approximately 300 feet in 60 miles, or an average of about 5 feet
per mile.
This plain is cut across by the Apalachicola and the Ocklocknee
rivers, and is cut into by the numerous streams tributary to these
rivers. The most rugged land of this area is that which borders the
Apalachicola river in Gadsden and the northern part of Liberty
counties. The plateau here rises from the river abruptly. The
small streams tributary to the Apalachicola river have cut short
deep channels back into the plateau, producing over a small area
the most hilly section found in Florida.

STREAM VALLEYS.

This area presents some topographic features of exceptional
interest. The two principal streams, the Apalachicola river on the
west and the Ocklocknee river on the east, each have a northeast-
southwest course through the northern half of this area and, in
this part of their course, both streams have developed pronounced
bluffs on their left or east banks. This is notably true of the larger
of these streams, the Apalachicola river. The bluffs immediately
on the east side of this river rise to an elevation of as much as
from 150 to 225 feet above the river valley. On the west side, on
the contrary, the banks are low and the rise to the high land is
very gradual. This lack of symmetry is due in part to the fact
that the streams are working down the dip of the formations which
is to the south and southeast. Hence they impinge more strongly
on their left than on their right bank. Another and perhaps a









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 27

more effective cause for the high bluffs on the east side is found
in the history of the development of the tributaries. Those trib-
utaries that flow with the dip extend their course inland more rap-
idly than those that work against the dip. Those streams flowing
with the dip receive a better and more constant supply of water
from springs than do the other streams. This increased supply of
water facilitates both the extension and the deepening of the
stream channels. The greater development of the drainage sys-
tem is accompanied by an increased amount of erosion and surface
wash. In this way the average land level on the west or northwest
side of the main stream has been more rapidly reduced than on
the east side. Instead of the typical V-shaped valleys, the'streams
in this area, for the most part, are bordered on one side by bluffs,
more or less pronounced, while on the other side, the land rises
gradually to the plateau level.

STEEPHEADS.

A characteristic feature of this topography is the development
of what is known locally as "steepheads." These steepheads are
due to the fact that indurated sands and sandy clays overlie slightly
indurated sands and clays and shell marls. The surface waters pass
into the earth and, upon reaching the underlying clay or marl beds.
emerge as springs. The indurated sandy clays near the surface
stand up vertically, while the softer sands, at a greater depth
where the springs emerge, wash easily. The result is the forma-
tion of a nearly vertical bluff, at the base of which springs emerge
supplying small streams. This bluff or streamhead assumes in time
a semi-circular form, which is the "steephead." The steephead
thus formed is retained by the stream as it gradually extends its
way back into the plateau. The depth of the steephead from the
plateau is usually from 50 to 60 or more feet, depending upon the
depth at which the ground waters emerge as springs.









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

GEOLOGY.

The geologic formations found at the surface within this area
are chiefly of Oligocene and Miocene age, although more recent
deposits may overlie these near the coast. The materials of these
formations include limestones, sands, clays, sandy clays, and shell
marls. The shell marls are those of the Alum Bluff and Choc-
tawhatchee formations (Miocene). The limestones are chiefly
those of the Chattahoochee formation (Oligocene), although more
recent limestones are found in places near the coast.
The.following table presents a summary of the formations of
this area, as understood at the present time, all of which are of
Cenozoic age:

Pleistocene-No marine fossiliferous Pleistocene known within the area.
Pliocene-Miocene-Chiefly coarse sands and unfossiliferous sandy clays.
Pliocene-Marine Pliocene may be present near the coast.
Miocene-Choctawhatchee formation; shell marls and sands.
Miocene-Alum Bluff formation; calcareous sands and dlays.
Oligocene-Chattahoochee formation; limestones and calcareous clays.
Eocene-Not exposed at the surface, although probably reached by the deep-
est wells.

OLIGOCENE.

CHATTAHOOCHEE FORMATION.

The type locality of the Chattahoochee formation is within this
area at the Chattahoochee Landing on the Apalachicola river in
Gadsden county. The thickness of the rock exposed in the cut for
the public road at this landing is as much as 65 feet, and the full
thickness of the formation is evidently considerably greater. The
rock of this formation as exposed at this place consists of rather
impure limestone, the impurity being chiefly clay. The deposits
are stratified, ledges of rock of medium hardness alternating with
softer, more clayey or marly layers. The inclusion of clay in the
rock is about in the proper proportion to form a natural cement,
the rock nearby at River Junction having formerly been used in a
limited way for that purpose.
The Chattahoochee limestone underlies the whole of this area












GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 29


Fig. 2. Sketch map to show geology between the Apalachicola and
Ocklocknee Rivers. I. Area in which the Alum Bluff formation is oc-
casionally exposed. 2. Area in which the Chattahoochee formation is
exposed. 3. Belt in which the Choctawhatchee formation lies near the
surface, being exposed in the stream channels. 4. Undifferentiated Mio-
cene or later.









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

and" is exposed on the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee rivers. It dips
and passes below the surface before reaching the Gulf. The Apa-
lachicola river, which forms the western boundary of this area,
flows across this limestone from the State line to somewhat below
Rock Bluff in Liberty county, where the limestone passes below
water level. The Ocklocknee river at the east side of the area
flows on this formation from the State line to the crossing of the
Seaboard Air Line Railway, where the rock passes below water
level. Although exposed on these river channels, in the hills and
on tributaries for some distance back from the "main streams, the
formation elsewhere in this area is concealed by the later forma-
tions.
The fossils of the Chattahoochee formation are, for the most
part imperfect. Of vertebrates, no recognizable species have been
obtained, although broken pieces of ribs, probably of cetaceans, are
not uncommon. Invertebrates are not numerous in the formation
as exposed in this area, and are preserved, for the most part, as
casts.
SURFACE EXPOSURES OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE LIMESTONE.

As already noted, the principal surface exposures of the Chat-
tahoochee limestone are those found on the channels of the Apa-
lachicola and Ocklocknee rivers. The exposures on the Apalachi-
cola river were described in some detail in the Second Annual
Report of the Florida Survey.* Some of the more important of
the sections on the Apalachicola river, so far as they include this
formation, are here reproduced from this earlier report. Among
the localities where exposures of this formation may be seen are
Chattahoochee Landing. Aspalaga Bluff and Rock Bluff. In all
of these sections the measurements were referred to the water level
at the stage of March 5, 1909. At that time the water on the gauge
at the railroad bridge at River Junction was 7% feet, or about 51
feet above sea level.

*The Fullers Earth Deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar
deposits found elsewhere in the State. By E. H. Sellards and Herman Gun-
ter, Fla. Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rpt., pp. 253-291, 1909.











GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 31

SECTION AT CHATTAHOOCHEE LANDING.

The section at Chattahoochee Landing is made along the public road lead-
in" from Chattahoochee to the river. The exposure begins about one-fifth
mile from the river, and is measured along the public road a distance of perhaps
somewhat more than one-fourth mile to the top of the plateau. In the lower
part of the section while crossing the Chattahoochee limestone the road runs
in a direction northwest td southeast. At the top of this first part of the hill
the road turns almost at a right angle to the northeast, again turning east as
the top of the last hill is reached.
Thickness of stratum.
12. Rich red sand containing, especially toward the base, an abundance
of siliceous pebbles, light colored or stained brown by iron.
The sand becomes coarser toward the bottom. Feeble cross-
bedding and stratification is seen. A layer of iron concretions
occurs 13 feet from the base, or 15 feet from the top.-----..--28 feet
Ir. Pinkish and purple sandy clays in horizontal position----..-----. 9 feet
ro. Covered and sloping ----------------------------------------42 feet
9. Marly limestone -----------------------------------.------ 4 feet
8. Covered and sloping -------------------------- ------------14 feet
7. Light colored clayey limestone, with clay inclusions near the top--26V feet
6. Sandy pale yellow limestone ------------------------------- 4 feet
5. Lime clay stratum similar in character to that found at Aspalaga
Bluff, the top of which in that section lies at the north end of
the bluff x9y4 feet aboe the river at same stage of water.... 3j feet
4. Clayey limestone, alternating ledges of harder material with lime
clay strata intervening ----------...... --------------------.162 feet
3. Stratum of greenish calcium carbonate crystals imbedded in a soft
marly matrix ------------------------ ------------- I foot
2. White soft clayey limestone with ledges of harder, more compact
limestone. Some shells as casts and also occasional manatee
ribs are found in this part of the section----.....-------------12 feet
I. Covered from the river to the base of the section a distance of
about one-fifth mile -------------------------------------21 V feet


SECTION AT ASPALAGA BLUFF.

Aspalaga Bluff is seven miles in a direct line from the north boundary of
the State and is the first point in Florida at which the river channel strikes
the east bluff. The following section was made near the north end of that
part of the bluff facing the river. A continuous exposure is not found in any
direct line of sectioning. In order to) determine thickness of strata it is often
necessary to transfer the level for short distances along the side of the bluff.

Thickness of stratum.
12. Covered in the line of sectioning to the top of the bluff about one-
fourth mile back from the river, about -------.-----------...60 feet











32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

I Sloping and covered except for occasional outcrops of impure lime-
stones mostly containing fossils as casts---------------------51 feet
ro. White granular limestone with numerous shells as casts-------. 2 feet
9. White limestone becoming upon exposure hard and of a pinkish
color (exposed) --..--...---..........--... -----.-----... 4 feet
8. Steep slope partly covered but with frequent and almost continuous
exposures of light colored impure limestone often with clay
inclusions .------------ --------- -------------------23 feet
7. White granular limestone with numerous fossils as casts -------- I foot
6. White limestone becoming upon exposure hard and of a pinkish
color --------.---------------------------------.... 22 feet
5. Light colored limestone weathering rough---..----------------. 2 feet
4. White limestone becoming upon exposure hard and of a pinkish
color ----------------------- -------------... ... 6 feet
3. Sandy light to pale yellow limestone-.---------.....-----------. 2 feet
2. Gray to bluish calcareous clay which upon drying breaks with a
tendency to conchoidal exfoliation--------------------- 4 feet
I. Limestone at the base to water's edge yellowish and sandy with
few fossils, above lighter colored with small fossils as casts,
near the top clayey --------------------------------15~4 feet

The calcareous clay (No. 2) of the Aspalaga section forms a very char-
acteristic stratum. This stratum seen in numerous exposures from Chattahoo-
chee to Aspalaga is very porous and of light specific gravity, and except for
the presence of calcium carbonate has many resemblances to fullers earth. The
following is an analysis of a sample from Aspalaga. Analysis made for the
State Survey in the office of the State Chemist, B. H. Bridges, Analyst.
Silica (SiO.) -----------..... -- ---------...------------- 39.08
Calcium oxide (CaO) 12.oo, CaCO. (calculated) ------------------.... 21.80
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 8.86, MgCO. (calculated) -----------------. 1848
Iron and alumina (Fe.O.), AO.............................------------------------------- .6
Phosphoric acid ....---------------. ----------.-------......... oo.oo
Sulphate (SO.) ---------------..... ----- ----.. .--------------.. Trace
Moisture (ioo degrees F.) ----------------...---------------------- 1.50

STRUCTURE.
While relatively few exact elevations have been available, an
approximate determination of the actual level of the rock expos-
ures of this formation have been made at a number of localities,
which have been of service in determining the structure of this
formation. The exact level at River Junction is available through
bench marks established by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
and by the U. S. Army Engineers. The water level in the river at
Blountstown has been determined from levels on the Blountstown-
Marianna railway kindly made available through the courtesy of











GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 33

Mr. Arthur Pew. The levels at intervening points on the river
between River Junction and Blountstown are obtained approxi-
mately by averaging the fall in the water level of the river from
River Junction to Blountstown. On the Ocklocknee river, approx-
imate levels have been obtained by utilizing levels on the Seaboard
Air Line railway and on the Georgia-Florida and Alabama rail-
way, which have been kindly supplied by these two roads.
The highest exposure in the Chattahoochee Landing section
recognized as representing the Chattahoochee formation is at an
elevation of 85 feet above the river. The water level in the river
at the time this section was made was about 51 feet above the sea.*
Accordingly the top of the Chattahoochee formation, as nearly as
can be determined, is about 136 above sea at this exposure.
At Aspalaga Bluff the water level in the river is estimated to be
about 5 feet lower than at the railroad bridge at River Junction.t
In this section limestones apparently of the Chattahoochee forma-
tion are exposed to an elevation of 63 feet above the river, or 11o
feet above sea.
Rock Bluff is 12 miles in a direct line down the river from
River Junction, and the water level in the river at this bluff was
estimated to be about 8 feet lower than at River Junction, or 42
feet above seat The Chattahcochee limestone in this bluff stands
about Io feet above water level, the top of the formation at this
place being apparently about 52 feet above sea.
On the Griffin place, about 2 miles below Rock Bluff (S 31,

*At the time this section was made in 1909 the gauge on the bridge at
River Junction read 7% feet. Since that time, however, the bridge has been
rebuilt. The bottom, of the present gauge is about 4342 feet above sea level.
Assuming that the gauge on the new bridge was placed at approximately the
same level as on the old bridge, the water level at the railroad bridge on March
5, 1909, was about 51 feet above sea level. Chattahoochee Landing is less than
one mile above the railroad bridge, hence the water level differs by probably
less than one-half foot from that at the bridge. Accordingly, as an approxi-
mate measurement, it is assumed that the water level in the river at the time
this section was made was about 51 feet above sea.
tOn March 5, 1918, the water level n the river at River Junction was 4t.i
feet above sea. On the same' date the water level in the river at the landing
at Blountstown was 35.4 feet, indicating a fall in water level of 13.2 feet from
River Junction to Blountstown, a distance in a direct line of about 20 miles.
The average fall of the river in this part of its course is therefore approxi-
mately .65 feet per mile.










34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

T 2 N, R 7 W), limestone rock which probably represents the
Chattahoochee formation, was thrown out from the bottom of a
well. The well is near the mouth of Sweetwater creek, and the
rock which was reached at a depth of o1 or 12 feet, appears to lie
somewhat below water level in the river, or probably at an actual
elevation of approximately 40 feet above sea.
This locality on Sweetwater creek is the last known occurrence
of the Chattahoochee limestone on this river above water level.
The distance from Chattahoochee Landing, where the top of the
formation is 136 feet above sea, to this locality in a direct line is
about 15 miles. The dip of this formation in the direction of the
flow of the river, which in this part of its course is southwest, is
therefore 96 feet in 15 miles, or approximately an average of 6.4
feet per mile. The writers' former estimate of the rate of dip of
this formation was 7 feet per mile.* If the (lip of the limestone is
computed from 1/ mile south of River Junction, where the Chat-
tahoochee formation appears to reach an elevation of 148 feet, the
clip amounts to 105 feet in about 14 miles, or 7.5 feet per mile.
The actual average dip is probably close to the estimate formerly
given of 7 feet per mile. Minor folds in this formation which re-
sult in pronounced clips over limited areas have previously been de-
scribed.* Elevations on the top surface of this formation are in-
dicated on the sketch map, figure 2.
Limestone rock, which probably represents Chattahoochee for-
mation, is exposed on the east bank of the Ocklocknee river, about
I mile above the Fairbanks bridge near the Georgia-Florida State
line (S 12, T 3 N, R I W). In a bluff facing an abandoned chan-
nel of the river this rock was found in place at an elevation of 13
feet above water level. The water level in the river at this place
was estimated by its relation to Lake lamonia, the level of which is
known to be about 95 feet above sea. Accordingly, the top surface
of the rock at this place is about Io8 feet above sea. A similar
rock is exposed in a sink on Parrott's Mill creek about three-
fourths of a mile west of Fairbanks bridge on the Ocklocknee river
(S 15. T 3 N. R I W). The level of the top surface of the rock at
this exposure is 5 feet above the water in the river or about Ioo
feet above sea level. In a sink on Ponto creek about three-fourths
Fla. Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rpt., pp. 277-278. 190).










/0._-,-- 3 r ------- 'I



I "
M








*----- 7












Fig. 3- Elevations and contours on the top surface of the Chattahoochee formation. The elevations followed by the
0!


















0 "plus-minus" sign are inferred levels. With one exception, they have been obtained by deducting from the known level of the
0 fullers earth horizon 70 feet, that being the approximate interval between that horizon and the top of the Chattahoochee for-
Q mation.
N0



A,--- F---- -






'SIFA L _L eo ov ra




) Fig. 3. Elevations and contours on the top surface of the Chattahoochee formation. The elevations followed by the
"Plus-minus" sign are inferred levels. With one exception, they have been obtained by deducting from the known level of the
0 fullers earth horizon 70 feet, that being the approximate interval between that horizon and the top of the Chattahoochee for-
mation.










36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

of a mile west of this locality, the calcareous and phosphatic phase
of the Alum Bluff sands, including silicified oysters, is found in
place at an elevation of Io feet above the water level of the river.
In Leon county, north of Lake lamonia, the Chattahoochee lime-
stone was reached in a well at an elevation of 135 feet above sea,
while at a place nearby known as the "Cascades," the rock is ex-
posed at an elevation of 127 feet above sea. This data indicates
that the limrestones of this formation lie at a higher level on the east
side of the Ocklocknee river than immediately on the west side.
The Chattahoochee limestone is well exposed on and near the
public road one-half mile south of River Junction. The highest
exposure of the light-colored rock on this hill was found to be 165
feet above sea. Upon examining the rock, however, it appeared
probable that the uppermost part of the exposure, including about
20 feet, represents an indurated phase of the Alum Bluff forma-
tion. Accordingly, the top surface of the Chattahoochee limestone
in this exposure is probably not more than 148 feet above sea.
On the Apalachicola Northern railway about three and one-
half miles southeast of River Junction is a rock exposure which is
probably near the top of the Chattahoochee formation, or the base
of the Alum Bluff formation. The approximate level of the top
surface of the rock at this place as determined from the profile of
the Apalachicola Northern railway, is 120 feet above sea.
On the Ocklocknee river at the crossing of the Seaboard Air
Line railway limestone rock which apparently represents the Chat-
tahoochee formation is exposed at an elevation of 66 feet above
sea. This exposure is about 28 miles east-southeast of River
Junction. The dip of the formation in this direction, as deter-
mined from these exposures, accordingly appears to be 79 feet in
28 miles, or an average slightly less than 3 feet per mile.
There is reason to believe, however, that the dip is actually more
rapid than is indicated by these measurements. At the public road
crossing on Little river west of Midway the oyster shell marl
phase of the Alum Bluff formation is exposed at water level. The
level in the bed of Little river at the Georgia. Florida and Alabama
railway crossing (Quincy Branch) about five miles up stream from
this Place is about 82 feet above sea. The fall of this stream ap-
proxinmates 3 feet*per mile. While the actual elevation of the ex-
posure of shell marl near Midway is not known it may be safely








GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 37

placed as very close to 70 feet above sea. From this record it ap-
pears that the Chattahoochee formation lies as low, if not lower, on
Little river than on the Ocklocknee river. The dip of the Chat-
tahoochee formation south of east, therefore, amounts to as much,
at least, as between 75 or 80 feet in 21 miles, or about 4 feet per
mile. The dip may be greater since the top of the Chattahoochee
formation is not actually exposed in Little river. These measure-
ments which are consistent with others previously obtained indicate
that the Chattahoochee formation dips to the east from River Junc-
tion and rises somewhat again at the Ocklocknee river.
A slight interruption in the dip of this formation was first sug-
gested by the writer to account for the anomalous course of the
Ocklocknee river*. At that time it was pointed out also that the
topography supported this suggestion, since east of the Ocklocknee
there has been developed lakes occupying solution basins in the
limestone, and with these a characteristic limestone topography,
while in the belt of country immediately west of the river, on the
other hand, there are almost no indications of limestones lying near
the surface except in the extreme northeast part of Gadsden county,
and of course at the extreme west along the Apalachicola river.
Measurements subsequently made indicate that near the Georgia
line the base of the Alum Bluff formation is close to ro5 feet above
sea (sink of Ponto Branch), while a few miles farther east in Leon
County the Chattahoochee limestone rises to an elevation of 127 and
135 feet at the recorded exposures. It would seem therefore, that
as indicated both by topography and stratigraphy, there is a slight
interruption of dip near the Ocklocknee river.

MIOCENE.
THE ALUM BLUFF FORMATION.

The Alum Bluff formation which lies next above the Chatta-
hoochee, includes clays, fullers earth, calcareous and phosphatic
sands, and sandy clays. The type locality of this formation is at
Alum Bluff, in Liberty county. The formation is well shown also
at many other localities throughout the area. The maximum ex-

Florida Geol. Surv., gth Ann. Rpt., pp. 130-132, 917y.









38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

posure of this formation is found at Rock Bluff on the Apalachi-
cola river. The following section at Rock Bluff made in 1908 is
from the Second Annual Report of the Florida Survey, page 273.

SECTION AT ROCK BLUFF.

Rock Bluff lies five and one-half miles in a direct line south of southwest
of Aspalaga Bluff, or twelve and one-half miles from the State line. It is the
second point at which the river in Florida strikes the east border of the river
valley. That part of Rock Bluff which faces the river lies near the southwest
corner of Section 17, R. 7 west, T. 2 north. The basal part of thd following
section is made near the north end where the river channel first strikes the
bluff. From this point the level was transferred north across a small stream
to that part of the bluff which does now directly face the river.
Thickness of stratum.
ix. Covered in the line of the section to the top of the bluff from the
river, about V4 mile -------.-------------------------...100 feet
Io. Fullers earth (exposed) --------------------------------- 3 feet
9. Ledge with shells -------... -------.----------..----------. I foot
8. Gray sand --------------------------- ---------- ------- feet
7. Ledge with shells ------------------.....------------------- 2 feet
6. Gray sand with lime inclusions -------------------------------- 5 feet
5. Covered .-------------.......... --------------------..-- 2 feet
4. Light gray calcareous sand containing a trace of phosphate (by
transferring the level across a small branch to the north the
section is continued) ------------------------------------ 30 feet
3. Bluish green to gray sands, variable in character. Lime inclusions
begin to appear in these sands at 2o feet from the base. These
become more numerous until the material passes gradually into
the sandy-marl above -------------- --------------- 34 feet
2. Compact sandy marl with concretions near the base and with an
ostrea layer 6 feet above the base ----------------------. 8 feet
i. Chattahoochee limestone above water level --..---.. ------..... Io feet

Numbers 2 to io of this section are believed to represent the
Alum Bluff formation, which here has a thickness of go feet. In
addition, the uppermost part of the formation, including that part
which lies above the fullers earth horizon, is not exposed, or is
wanting.
The Alum Bluff formation includes, in places, marl beds, con-
taining a rich and varied invertebrate fauna. The Chipola marl
at the base of this formation at Alum Bluff is one of the localities
where large collections have been made. In addition to the marine
invertebrates, both land plants and land animals have been ob-









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 39

trained from this formation. The fossil plants are found at Alum
Bluff, on the Apalachicola river.* The vertebrates from this for-
mation have been obtained at the fullers earth mines at Midway
and at Quincy, and have been described in the Eighth Annual Re-
port of this Survey, pp. 82-92, 1916. The fossils indicate that the
formation is of Miocene age.

STRUCTURE.

The numerous exposures of this formation make it possible to
use it tosupplement the data on structure obtained from the Chat-
tahoochee formation. On the Ocklocknee river this formation re-
mains above water level to tidewater, exposures having been noted
as far down stream as Sanborn Ferry. On the Apalachicola river
the exposures below Alum Bluff are not numerous. At Estiffa-
nulga, about Io miles in a direct line below Blountstown, there is
exposed on the river bluff about 20 feet of prevailingly coarse
cross-bedded sands which have the lithologic characteristics of
the upper part of the Alum Bluff formation. Aside from petri-
fied wood, no fossils were found at this exposure. The elevation
at the top of this bluff is probably 45 or 50 feet above sea. Little
river flows on or cuts its channel into this formation from the
State line to its union with the Ocklocknee river, the gradient
of this stream being approximately equivalent to the dip of this
formation. Many'of the tributaries of the Apalachicola, Ock-
locknee and Little rivers cut across and expose the strata of this
formation.
Perhaps the most convenient horizon to use in determining the
elevation of exposures within this formation is that of the fullers
earth deposits. The fullers earth strata are not continuous, but
are found, so far as observed, at a definite horizon within the for-
mation. When typically developed the formation contains two
layers of fullers earth separated by a stratum of sandstone. The
fullers earth layers vary in thickness from 2 to 3 to 7 or 8 feet,
while the intervening sandstone is from I to 3 feet thick. The
fullers earth itself varies from light earth of commercial value to
heavy earth that is not adapted for commercial use.

*The Physical Condition and Age Indicated. by the Flora of the Alum Bluff
Formation. By Edward Wilber Berry, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 98-E, 1916.








40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

In using the fullers earth strata it is frequently impossible to
determine whether the exposure in question represents the upper
or the lower of the two layers. However, as the total combined
thickness of the two layers seldom exceeds about 15 feet, this dis-
crepancy is not serious. The exposure at Rock Bluff indicates
that there is in places at least as much as o9 feet of calcareous and
phosphatic sands of this formation below the fullers earth. On
the other hand, at the pit of the Fullers Earth Company at Mid-
way, may be seen as much as 25 feet of cross bedded and in places
slightly calcareous sand of this formation above the fullers earth.
Allowing 15 feet for the combined thickness of the fullers earth
beds, the whole thickness of this formation is not less than 125 or
130 feet, and may be considerably more.
In the public road about I miles southeast of River Junction is
an exposure of fullers earth which may represent either the upper
or the lower stratum of this horizon. A line of levels run from
the bench mark at River Junction indicated for this exposure an
elevation of 212 feet. At the abandoned mine on the S. A. L.
Railway about 7 miles east of River Junction the fullers earth, up-
per stratum, lies 177 feet above sea level. At Quincy 20 miles
east of River Junction the top of the upper stratum of fullers earth
is 145 feet above sea. Continuing this line of levels, it is found
that an exposure of fullers earth about I mile east of Little river
is at the level of 120 feet above sea. At the fullers earth mine at
Midway. the elevation of the top surface of the fullers earth is 112
feet above sea. The dip of the formation in the direction of this
line of levels which is slightly south of east from River Junction is
about Ioo feet in 25 miles or an average of approximately 4 feet
per mile. From northwest to southeast, as measured from River
Junction to Jackson Bluff, the dip in the formation is somewhat
greater, approximating 5Y feet per mile, or 137 feet in a distance
of about 25 miles.
At Attapulgus the fullers earth stratum lies 173 feet above
sea. From this locality to Midway, a distance of about 19 miles,
the dip in the formation is 59 feet. The average rate of dip in this
direction, which is approximately from north to south, is therefore
about 3 feet per mile. Near Sopchoppy river, clays resembling the
fullers earth lie in this formation at an elevation of 23 feet above
tide water. If- the line of elevation be extended from Attapulgus









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 41

to Sopchoppy the whole dip amounts to 150 feet in a distance of
about 50 miles, or an average of 3 feet per mile. Levels on the
fullers earth horizon of this formation are given on the sketch
map, figure'3.

THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION.

The Choctawhatchee formation, which is of upper Miocene
age, includes marine shell marls and marine sands. The type lo-
cality of this formation is at Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola river.
The fossiliferous shell marl of the. Choctawhatchee formation in
this bluff has a thickness of from 14 to 19 feet. The shell marl
grades above into blue sandy clay which varies in thickness in this
bluff from about 16 to 26 feet. The clay contains small flakes of
mica, and in places tastes of alum. The Choctawhatchee forma-
tion at this exposure, rests unconformably upon the Alum Bluff
formation.
At the east side of this area the Choctawhatchee marl is well
shown in the exposure at Jackson Bluff. The following section
at this bluff was made by the writers in March, 1918. The water
level in the river at the time this section was made was 27.7 feet
below the floor level at the center of the supporting arch of the
public road bridge.. The section was measured by hand level.

SECTION AT JACKSON BLUFF.

6. Sands, rather coarse, in places dark colored-----------.----- 15. feet
5. Choctawhatchee shell marl, maximum thickness ----.-------.. 16.5 feet
4. Heavy buff-colored clay, resembling fullers earth.-----...---.. 1.4 feet
3. Sandstone, coarse grained ------------------------------- 2.0 feet
2. Heavy buff-colored clay, resembling fullers earth ------------ 3.6 feet
r. Sands, calcareous and slightly phosphatic, few fossils ...-...- 22.1 feet

60.7 feet

Numbers I to 4 of this section represent the Alum Bluff forma-
tion. The two fullers earth layers with the intervening sandstone
are represented apparently by 2 to 4. The shell marl phase of the
Choctawhatchee formation is represented by number 5. The top
surface of this shell marl is irregular, and the overlying aluminous
clay is wanting. Whether this irregularity represents an uncon-


















































Fig. 4. Contours on the fullers earth horizon of the Alum Bluff formation. Elevations marked by the "plus-minus" sign
are inferred levels. AA' indicates the line of approximately uniform levels on the Choctawhatchee formation, which apparently
does not conform in structure to the Alum Bluff and Chattahoochee formations.


_ ~m~ _~ ~~









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 43

formity between this formation and the overlying sands, or is due
merely to disintegration is not clear in this section, although an
unconformity is probably indicated. The Choctawhatchee forma-
tion rests unconformably on the underlying Alum Bluff formation.
The shell marl phase of the Choctawhatchee formation con-
tains a rich and varied invertebrate fauna. No plant fossils have
been found in this formation. Bone fragments are not uncommon,
although no recognizable vertebrate fossils have been secured.
7
STRUCTURE.

The level of the base of the Choctawhatchee marl has been
taken at several localities. On the Apalachicola river the north-
ernmost exposure of the shell marl phase of the formation that has
been observed is found in the road-cut leading to Watsons Land-
ing about 2 miles north of Alum Bluff (SI, TIN, R8W). The
base of the formation at this place was found to be 56 feet above
water level in the river. The water level in the river at this place
at the time the section was made, was estimated to be 41 feet
above sea level. Hence the actual level of the base of the forma-
tion at this exposure is about 27 feet above sea.
At Alum Bluff the water level in the river was estimated from
the known levels at River Junction and at Blountstown to be 40
feet above sea. Near the north end of this bluff the base of the
Choctawhatchee marl is 36 feet above the water in the river, or
about 76 feet above sea. Near the middle of the bluff the base
of this formation is above water 30 feet, or above sea level about
70 feet.
The southernmost exposure of this formation observed on the
Apalachicola river is on the property of S. D. Johnson (S.36, TIS,
R8W). The base of the shell marl at this exposure is 22 feet
above water level in the river. The water level in the river at
this date at Blountstown was 35 feet above sea. As this locality
is down stream from Blountstown about 6 miles, the river level
probably is between 3 and 4 feet lower than at Blountstown, or
about 31 feet above sea. The level of the base of the formation at
this place is therefore about 53 feet above sea. The distance in a
direct line between Watsons Landing and Johnson's farm is about
o1 miles. The dip in the formation in this distance according to









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the measurements made amounts to 23 feet, or scarcely 2 1-3 feet
per mile.
The Choctawhatchee marl is exposed on Hosford Mill creek
on the property of R. F. Hosford about I/2 miles northwest of
the present Hosford station. The level of the marl at this ex-
posure as determined from the profile of the Apalachicola Nor-
thern railroad is 88 feet above sea. It is not known what part
of the stratum is represented in the Hosford exposure since neither
the base nor the top of the formation is exposed. No nearby bench
marks are available from which to determine the level of the ex-
posures of this formation on the Ocklocknee river. However, the
water level at the S. A. L. crossing at medium low water is about
60 feet above sea. From this crossing to the gulf, following the
general course of the river, is about 45 miles, indicating a fall of
somewhat more than a foot per mile. From this crossing to Jack-
son Bluff is about 15 miles. Hence water level at this bluff is
probably close to 40 feet above sea. The base of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation at Jackson Bluff is 29 feet above the river at
medium low stage. Assuming that the water level in the river
is 40 feet above sea, the actual level of the base of the formation
at this place is approximately 69 feet above sea, or but slightly
less than at Alum Bluff. Jackson Bluff is 20 miles east and 5
miles south of Alum Bluff. From these records it would seem
that the Choctawhatchee formation lies almost on a level from
east to west across this area.

MIOCENE-PLIOCENE

Later deposits in this part of the State overlie and rest upon
the Choctawhatchee formation. These deposits are unfossilifer-
ous, and their age is not determined, except as indicated by their
stratigraphic position, which shows them to be later than the Choc-
tawhatchee formation. Lithologically these later deposits are very
characteristic. They consist chiefly of sands and clays. The sands
are prevailingly red in color, and vary from nicely laminated, fine
sands to very coarse, often cross-bedded sands and pebbles. At
places in these deposits are found layers of clay free from sand.
These clay streaks are often variegated in color, including shades
of pink and red, as well as blue and drab.










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS 45

The maximum thickness of this material at any one exposure
is found at Alum Bluff, where the sands lying above the Choctaw-
hatchee formation, exclusive of the light-colored incoherent sands
near the surface, reach a thickness of 53 feet.
The following section at Alum Bluff was made March 14,
1918. The place of the section in the bluff is at a landslide about
one-eighth mile from the north end of the bluff:

4. Light-colored, incoherent, fine sand ........-----------...... 21.14 feet
3. Prevailingly red sands. This interval includes the following:
clayey sands at the top which stand vertical, 5.58 feet;
coarse sands, sloping, 7.41 feet; very coarse sands, lami-
nated, but slightly indurated, consisting of alternating light
and brown layers, 12.9 feet; medium coarse sands, white
and brown layers, 12.64 feet; largely covered, sloping, but
consisting as seen elsewhere in the bluff chiefly of dull red,
medium fine sands, 24.65 feet. Total thickness---------- 53.13 feet
2. Choctawhatchee formation, consisting of alum-tasting, micaceous,
drab, sandy clay, 16.4 feet; very fossiliferous shell marl,
14.85 feet. Total thickness -------------------------. 3125 feet
i. Alum Bluff formation, including calcareous and phosphptic
sands, 11.7 feet, and a covered, sloping interval, which con-
sists as seen elsewhere in the bluff of sands and Chipola
shell marl, 18.07 feet. Total thickness -----.----------. 29.77 feet
Total height of bluff ..--.------. -------------------------- 46.56 feet

The change in color in passing from the Choctawhatchee for-
mation to these overlying deposits is abrupt, and the line well
marked. The change in the materials of the formation, however,
is not so well marked. The upper part of the Choctawhatchee
formation consists of drab-colored, sandy clays, which weather on
exposure to a dull or slightly brownish color. The immediately
overlying material consists of rather fine, dull red sands or sandy
clay, which, aside from color, are not entirely unlike the weathered
product of the Choctawhatchee formation. The contact line is
exposed at several places in this bluff. Near the north end of the
bluff the dividing line between the red sand and the drab, sandy
clay is 66.8 feet above water level. At an exposure a little farther
south the dividing line is at 63.2 feet above the river, while at the
place in the bluff where the section given on the preceding page
was measured, the dividing line appears to lie 61 *feet above the
river. Near the south end of the bluff the aluminous clay of the










46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Choctawhatchee formation rises to a level of about 73 feet above
water level in the river at this stage. The. two formations may be
unconformable at this exposure, since the top of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation near the south end of the bluff is apparently as
much as Io feet higher than at the north end of the bluff.
To the north of Alum Bluff this formation extends beyond
the known limits of the Choctawhatchee marl, overlapping upon
the Alum Bluff formation. To the south and east, the deposits
may be recognized in numerous exposures. At all places where
examined the deposit has been found to be non-fossiliferous, and
when this formation rests directly upon the cross-bedded sands of
the upper part of the Alum Bluff formation, it becomes difficult
in the absence of fossils to locate the dividing line between the two
formations.
This formation is exposed in a steephead on the property of
J. H. Hunt, I mile south of Bristol. Near the surface at this place
is found Io feet of clayey, mottled sand, sufficiently indurated to
stand vertical. Beneath this sand is 4 feet of drab-colored, heavy
clay. Below the clay, the sides of the steephead are sloping and
covered, but probably include slightly indurated sands. Springs
emerge at the bottom of the steephead, which has a depth of about
50 feet. The surface level at this locality, as indicated by approxi-
mate levels, is probably about 150 feet above sea. The actual
elevation of this formation as seen at this exposure is therefore
from about Ioo to 150 feet above sea. At Alum Bluff, 3 miles
farther north, the formation, as already noted, occupies the inter-
val from 1o0 to 154 feet above sea.
This formation is also exposed in the bluffs bordering Mystic
lake, about 3 miles south of Bristol. This Jake, which has no sur-
face outlet, evidently owes its existence to the presence of the un-
derlying calcareous marls of the Choctawhatchee and probably
of the Alum Bluff formations which have dissolved, permitting
the subsidence which thus formed the lake basin.
At the S. D. Johnson place (S26, TIS, R8W), about 75 feet,
chiefly sands, overlie the Choctawhatchee shell marl. At Hosford
Mill creek, 12 miles east of Alum Bluff, 40 or 50 feet of sands
and sandy clays lie above the Choctawhatchee formation.
To the north from Alum Bluff, this formation is frequently ex-
posed in streams and in steepheads. Near the head-waters of Big











GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 47

Sweetwater creek, about 3 miles southeast of Rock Bluff postoffice
(S33, T2N, R6W), about 8o feet of sands overlie the Choctaw-
hatchee marl. The exposure here is limited, and the top of the
Choctawhatchee. formation cannot be determined, as the hill is
sloping arid covered. This exposure is the last in passing to the
north and northeast, at which the Choctawhatchee marl is known to
be present beneath this later formation. Farther to the north, so
far as known, the Choctawhatchee formation is wanting, the later
materials resting directly upon the Alum Bluff formation.
A very instructive section, a part of which is referred to this
formation, is found in a steephead about I mile southeast of Rock
Bluff. In this section the red sands and clays rest directly upon
the Alum Bluff formation, the Choctawhatchee formation being
absent. The actual contact between the two formations, however.
is concealed.
The following section is a revision of the section at this place
made by the writers in 1908. From barometer readings, the top
of the section at that time was believed to be about 200 feet above
water level in the river. However, from levels made in March.
1918, it is shown that the top of the section is 225 feet above the
level of the river, or about 267 feet above sea level.


SECTION ABOUT I MILE SOUTHEAST OF ROCK BLUFF,

II. Superficial sand, sloping (about) ------- ------------------- 5 feet
ro. Reddish, coarse sand, "Alamaha Grit" phase. The surface of the
ground near the brink of the cliff is profusely covered with
iron concretions, remaining as residual material from the de-
cay of the formation. The first I to 4 feet of the sand is dis-
colored and mottled and shows a tendency to the formation
of iron stained crusts. Iron concretions occur in the sand
from the surface to a depth of seven feet. These show a ten-
dency towards arrangement in layers. One such layer is ob-
served to extend from the mottled and decayed surface ma-
terial downwards and horizontally into material apparently not
appreciably affected by decay. The sand is usually cross-bedded,
containing white siliceous pebbles. Near the base the sands
are finer than in the upper part of the interval--------------52 feet
9. Sandy yellowish laminated clays giving rise to small springs..---.... 2 feet
8. Pink clays, free from sand and very plastic -------------------... 2 feet
7. Yellow sandy clays ---------------------------------------- 3 feet










48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

6. White water-worn, elongated siliceous pebbles imbedded in yellow
sandy clays and lying with long axis parallel with the lines of
stratification --------.... ---------..--..---------------- I foot
5. Yellow clayey sand ----..-----------..-----....----------..... 7 feet
4. Greenish, sticky, sandy clay ---------...... ------------...-------- 9 feet
3. Covered and sloping (about) -----------.-----.....------------..44 feet
2. Alum Bluff formation, including intensely blue sands and calcareous
and phosphatic sands --------------......----------------- 20 feet
i. Covered in this section from the Apalachicola River, including the
upper part of the Chattahoochee formation and the lower part
of the Alum Bluff formation (about)------------------..... 80 feet

The Choctawhatchee formation is not recognized in this sec-
tion, and is not present, unless possibly in a somewhat modified
form. The contact between the Alum Bluff formation and the
later materials is possibly within the covered interval, No. 3 of
the section.
In the section at Aspalaga Bluff, the covered interval of 6o
feet at the top may, in part, include this formation. In the sec-
tion at Chattahoochee Landing, it would seem admissible to refer
Nos. 11 and 12, including 37 feet of pinkish clay and red sands
to this formation. The contact at the Chattahoochee Landing be-
tween the Alum Bluff formation and the overlying formation is
presumably found within the covered interval of 42 feet, No. Io
in the section. If this interpretation is correct, the formation in
question is traceable to the Georgia-Florida State line.
To the east from the Apalachicola river, many exposures are
found in the streams and public road and railroad cuts showing
cross-bedded red sands which may be of this formation. In passing
from River Junction to the plateau level in Gadsden county, both
the Apalachicola Northern and the Seaboard Air Line railways,
which utilize the valley of Mosquito creek, afford exposures of
these red sands. The following section was obtained by follow-
ing the course of the Apalachicola Northern railroad from Mos-
quito creek to the plateau level near Hardaway. The base of this
section, as determined from the profile of the Apalachicola Nor-
thern railway, is 120 feet above sea, and the top is 303 feet above
sea. The top of the Alum Bluff formation presumably is found
in the covered interval, No. 3 of this section, hence at an elevation
above sea of 184 feet or more.










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 49

SECTION ON A. N. RAILWAY FROM MOSQUITO CREEK TO HARDAWAY.

8. White incoherent sand and soil--------------------------------- 5 feet
7. Red and mottled sands --------------.------..--.. -------------.o feet
6. Dark colored sandy clay, including layers of pink and purple clays-.Io feet
5. Covered in this section, or showing only reddish sands------------45 feet
4. Cross-bedded sands with white partings, including stratum of blue
sticky clay -----------------...--------------- ---.....21 feet
3. Covered, or showing only red sands--------..... -----.. --.------.28 feet
2. Alum Bluff formation, including fullers earth beds, gray marls
weathering to greenish clays, containing silicified oysters, and
light colored sandy marls (occasional exposures) -----------64 feet
I. Light colored limestone rock, probably Chattahoochee formation
tion (exposed at the base of this section) ........---------..

Many exposures of these red sands are found in and near
Quincy. The following section is seen at the public road crossing
of the Seaboard Air Line railway 3 miles east of Quincy, a short
distance west of mile post 186. The elevation at the base of this
section is 220 feet above sea.

5. Yellow soil with iron pebble concretions-------------------. 3 f feet
4. Pink-colored sandy clay ----------------------------------- 3 feet
3. Massive red sands ------------------------------------- 4 feet
2. Red sands with white partings -------------------------------- 5 feet
I. Massive red sands -----------------.....-------------------- 4V feet

20o feet

At Quincy approximately 1oo feet, consisting chiefly of sands
and sandy clays, lie above the fullers earth. The contact between
the Alum Bluff formation and this overlying material is concealed,
or at least is not apparent. Good exposures are seen on the public
road and on the branch line of the Seaboard Air Line railway run-
ning to the fullers earth plant. In Leon county, east of this area,
are many exposures which possibly should be referred to this
formation, although they have heretofore been included with the
Alum Bluff formation. These exposures in Leon county have been
described in the preceding report of this Survey, pp. 104-o18, 1917.









50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

FORMATION NAME.

The differentiation of the superficial formations has proven
one of the most difficult problems in coastal plains geology. That
this is true is evident from the number of formation names that
have been proposed and abandoned or subsequently restricted, as
well as by the voluminous discussion that this subject has given rise
to. The Lafayette formation was formerly believed to be very
extensively developed in the coastal plains. In recent years, how-
ever, it has been maintained by a number of geologists that super-
ficial materials from several different formations have been included
under this term. In 1884 Loughridge described materials in Georgia
to which Dall in 1892 applied the term Altamaha Grit. These ma-
terials were more fully described under the term Altamaha for-
mation by Veatch in 1908* and by Stephenson and Veatch in
1911.+ At this time Stephenson and Veatch recognized that the
materials referred to this formation, extending over about 21.000
square miles of Georgia from the Savannah river to the Florida
State line, possibly contained parts of various formations. Subse-
quently, these writers expressed the conclusion that the greater
part of the materials referred to the Altamaha grits belonged to
the Alum Bluff formation or to other Cretaceous and Tertiary
formations." In 1916 Matson and Berry described the Citronelle
formation, the tpye locality of which is in Alabama. This for-
mation which is of Pliocene age, is regarded as extending into the
western part of Florida. Matson has suggested that possibly the
red sands in the section at Alum Bluff represent this formation.
The red and mottled sands and sandy clays of this area are in
places similar to those that have been referred to the Lafayette for-
mation, elsewhere it resembles that which formerly was placed in
the Altamaha formation of Georgia. If Altamaha is retained as
a formation name, restricted if necessary to the deposits consisting
chiefly of red sands and clays lying above the Miocene, it is very pos-

Science, n. s. Vol. 27, Jan., 1908, pp. 71-74.
+Geol. Surv. Ga. Rpt. 26, pp. 400-423, 19r.
tU. S. G. S. Water Supply Paper, 34, p. 94, 1915.
The Pliocene Citronelle formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain; U. S. Geol.
Survey, Prof. Paper 98, pp. 167-192. 12 pls., 3 fig., September II, 1916. Ab-
stract, Washington Acad. Sci., Journ., Vol. 6, No. 19, p. 663, November 19, 1916.









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 51

sible that the similar materials of this area may be included in that
formation. If not referable to the Altamaha formation, possibly
these materials may be referred to the Citronelle formation, al-
though this should not be done until fossils can be. obtained or con-
tinuity of deposition with the Citronelle formation can be deter-
mined. If these materials can be referred to neither of these forma-
tions, they may be known as the Bristol formation from their typ-
ical exposure in the vicinity of Bristol, Florida, where they are
known to lie stratigraphically above the Choctawhatchee Miocene.

STRUCTURE.

A' study of the structure of this formation is made difficult by
the fact that only occasionally can the base of the formation be
located. Approximate levels indicate, however, that the deposits
dip to the south. At Alum Bluff, as already noted, the base of this
formation is 61 feet above water level, or about Ioi feet above sea.
At Rock Bluff the base of the formation, assuming that it extends
to the north, cannot be less than ioo feet above water level, or about
142 feet above sea. At Chattahoochee Landing, materials referred
to the Alum Bluff formation were exposed at the time the published
section was made, to a'level of 103 feet above the river, or about
154 feet above sea, above this being covered. Recently the cut on
the public road has been deepened, and exposures of the Alum
Bluff formation may now be recognized up to an elevation of 121
feet above the river, or 172 feet above sea. If this formation is
present in this section, therefore, it lies at a greater elevation than
172 feet above sea. On the public road one mile southeast of River
Junction the fullers earth horizon is exposed at 212 feet above sea.
At Hosford, 12 miles east of Alum Bluff, where the red sands
of this formation lie above the Choctawhatchee marl, the base of
the formation, as seen in the railroad cuts, appears to lie about I o
feet above sea.
From such approximate elevations on this formation as have
been obtained it appears that the formation dips to the south, the
rate of dip being approximately the same as that of the underlying
formation.









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

PLIOCENE.

Marine Pliocene deposits have not been definitely determined,
although limestone found on New River in Franklin county may be
of this period. A small collection of fossils from this rock has been
kindly identified for the Florida Geological Survey by Dr. T. W.
Vaughan of the U. S. Geological Survey. The fauna from this de-
posit, as reported by Dr. Vaughan, include the following:

Pecten comparilis, Tuomey & Holmes; Range, Miocene.
Pecten mortoni, Ravenel; Range, Miocene-Pliocene.
Pecten raveneli, Dall.; Range, Miocene-Pliocene.
Plecatula marginata, Say; Range, Miocene-Pliocene.
Pecten sp.
Ostrea sp.
Bryozoa.
Barnacles.
Correlation: Miocene or Pliocene.

The stratigraphic position of these limestones suggests that
they are probably Miocene.

PLEISTOCENE.

No marine fossiliferous Pleistocene has been found in this area.
The harbors of the westward extension of Florida are regarded as
representing the flooded mouths of stream valleys. If this is true,
the submergence which produced these harbors has possibly con-
cealed the fossiliferous Pleistocene of this part of the coast.

THE SURFACE MATERIALS.

The surface materials in this area include, in places, a consid-
erable thickness of light-colored incoherent sands. The maximum
observed deposit of this sand is found in the Alum Bluff section,
where it is 21 feet thick. The sand grains are, as a rule, small and
well rounded. On the east side of the Apalachicola river a belt of
this sand extends from near Rock Bluff to Bristol, a distance of 8
or Io miles. Both north and south of this belt there is much less
sand at the surface. On the line of the Apalachicola railway this
sand belt extends from about I mile north of Sedalia to near Hos-










GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS, 53

ford, a distance of 8 miles. On the line of the Georgia, Florida and
Alabama railway the belt of heavy sands extends from 2 miles south
of Tallahassee to Wakulla county line, having here a width of 8 or
9 miles.
The location and direction of this belt of sand, extending from
slightly north of west to somewhat south of east, suggests that it
may represent either a beach deposit or the outcropping of a very
sandy horizon of the underlying formation.
Loose surface sands are found in many other places within this
area under conditions that seem to indicate that they are residual. In
many instances the sand has, no doubt, been moved more or less by
wind or by stream action.* On slopes where surface wash is pro-
nounced, these loose sands are wanting, as they are removed as rap-
idly as formed. On the other hand, on level lands the sand often
accumulates to a considerable depth.

GEOLOGIC HISTORY.
The geologic history recorded in this area, as already noted,
is that from the Oligocene time to the Recent. During the later
part of Oligocene time, if the Chattahoochee formation is correctly
referred to that period, this part of Florida as well as parts of
Georgia, was submerged beneath a sea of moderate depth. The
deposits that accumulated in this sea, making up the Chattahoochee
formation, were chiefly calcareous, although in addition to the cal-
careous material there was included a very considerable proportion
of fine clay carried in from the land. Relatively little sand was
washed into this formation, which indicates either that the shore
line was some distance away or that the currents were very mild.
The change in conditions in passing from the Oligocene to the
Miocene in this area were gradual. The predominately calcareous
materials of the Chattahoochee formation give place gradually to
the sandy calcareous materials of the Alum Bluff formation. Dur-
ing the period of accumulation of the Alum Bluff formation, lower
and middle Miocene, the shore line was much nearer. In the type
In the railway cut at Lowry, on the Apalachicola Northern Railway, there
is exposed, about 4 feet below the present surface, an old swamp deposit with
many tree stumps in place. This. swamp had been obliterated by the shifting
of the sands, and there was on the surface at this place no evidence of a
swamp, the swamp growth having been replaced by "scrub" vegetation.










54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

exposure of this formation there is evidence of contemporaneous
erosion probably by stream wash. Land plants likewise were in-
cluded in considerable numbers indicating that the shore line at that
time was near to this locality. The presence of land vertebrates at
places in this formation indicates also the near approach of land.
Between the deposition of the Alum Bluff Miocene and the Choc-
tawhatchee Miocene is a time interval, evidence of which is found
in the eroded top surface of the Alum Bluff formation. This ero-
sion interval indicates that following the deposition of the Alum
Bluff formation this area became dry land. Subsequently the land
was again depressed and partly submerged. That the submergence
during the time of the deposition of the Choctawhatchee formation
was not complete is shown by the fact that this formation does not
cover the whole of the area, but extends inland only to near the
southern line of Gadsden county.
The Choctawhatchee formation was followed, as has been stated,
by the accumulation of a considerable thickness of sands and sandy
clays. These later deposits are cross-bedded, include in places beds
of gravel and coarse sands indicating that they were accumulated
in strong currents, either of fresh water streams, or in near-shore
marine currents.

SUMMARY OF GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE.

The data that have been obtained on the structure in this area
have shown the existence of minor folds, especially in the lime-
stones, but have not indicated the presence of any pronounced anti-
clines such as would suggest favorable structure for the accumula-
tion of petroleum deposits. The dip of the formations in the main
is to the south, or southeast, and is more rapid than the gradient
or fall of larger streams, so that in passing inland from the coast,
successively older formations are encountered. The average rate
of dip of the Chattahoochee formation on the Apalachicola river
from north-northeast to south-southwest has been shown to be about
7 feet per mile. The dip in this formation from west-northwest to
east-southeast appears not to be in excess of 4 feet per mile. The
rate of dip of the Alum Bluff formation across this area from north
to south has been shown to be about 3 feet per mile. The maximum
dip of the Alum Bluff formation in this area is probably from
northwest to southeast, and is about 5%2 feet per mile.









GEOLOGY BETWEEN APALACHICOLA AND OCKLOCKNEE RIVERS. 55

The Choctawhatchee formation which rests unconformably upon
the Alum Bluff formation dips very gradually to the south, prob-
ably not in excess of 2 1-3 feet per mile. The red sands and clays
lying above the Choctawhatchee formation conform so far as can
be determined essentially to the structure of the underlying forma-
tion dipping gradually in passing to the coast. To the north these
red sands extend beyond the limits of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion and rest directly upon the sands of the Alum Bluff formation.


Fig. 5. Exposure of the Chattahoochee formation in railway cut near
River Junction.


Digitized by GOOSg






































8" w Iran
- n - - - - -


Fig. 6. Sketch map of West Florida.













THE SKULL OF A PLEISTOCENE TAPIR INCLUDING
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES AND A NOTE
ON THE ASSOCIATED FAUNA AND FLORA.
E. H. SELLARDS.

CONTENTS.
Introduction.
The Tapiridae.
Skull of the Pleistocene tapir.
Specific description-
Tapirus veroensis n. sp.
Skull characters.
Dentition.
Relationship to Pleistocene species.
Relationship to existing species.
The Associated fossils.
Geologic horizon.
Illustrations: Plates 1-2, skull; 3-4, dentition.
The tapir skull described in this paper was obtained from Pleis-
tocene deposits at Vero, Florida. It it exceptionally well preserved
and, with some other bones and teeth from the same locality, repre-
sents an undescribed species. The skull was discovered by Mr.
Frank Ayres and was removed from the formation by Mr. Ayres,
the writer and others. This fossil was found near the base of the
stratum or horizon, which in the published section of this exposure
has been designated as No. 2.* Beneath this stratum is found a
sand and muck bed, No. 3 of the section. The fairly complete
knowledge that we now have of the associated invertebrate, verte-
brate and plant fossils at this locality adds to the interest which
attaches to this new species. Moreover, while tapirs are known to
have been rather widely distributed during the Pleistocene period.
up to this time no well preserved skull has been secured. The recov-
ery of this skull, therefore, is of great importance, since the actual
relationship of the Pleistocene species to the recent forms has been
until now in doubt. The skull was found on the day following the
close of the conference of geologists and anthropologists held at
Vero in October, 1916. It became exposed owing to high waters

Fla. Geol. Survey, 8th Ann. Rpt., pp. 127-130, I916.









58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

in the canal following the heavy rains in this locality of October
28, 1916.
THE TAPIRIDAE.

The Tapiridac as a whole have proven a conservative as well as
very persistent group. Genera referred to this family have been
obtained from as early as the Eocene and Oligocene formations of
America and Europe. The striking characteristics of the tapirs, very
pronounced in the case of the Recent and Quaternary species, are
the modifications of the skull correlated with the development of the'
upper lip to form a flexible snout or proboscis. The skull modifica-
tions include the extreme shortening of the nasal bones, which, with
the deep spiral grooves on the nasals and frontals for the attach-
ment of the muscles of the proboscis, form the most strikingly dis-
tinctive skull characters of this remarkable family. The dental
series, although relatively simple and generalized, presents in the
Recent and Quaternary species the anomaly of enlarged upper third
incisors, which, with the lower canines, form tusks, the upper
canines being reduced in size.
The existing tapirs include five species. Of these, two species
are found in Central or Middle America; two in South America;
and one in Southern Asia. Upon characters presented by the two
Middle American species, Gill in 1865 established the genus Elas-
mognathus.* This genus is characterized by a great prolongation
of the ossification of the nasal partitions (methesmoid), extending
in the adult far in front of the nasal bones. The bony mass thus
formed is embraced and supported at the base by plates rising from
the maxillaries. The generic name Elasmnognathus being preoccu-
pied, Palmer, in 1903, proposed for this group the name Tapirella.t
The two recent species of this genus are Tapirella bairdii, found in
Southern Mexico and Panama, and T. dowi, found in Guatemala
and Nicaragua. The remaining three existing species of tapirs are
placed in the genus Tapirus, in which the ossification of the nasal
partition does not extend appreciably beyond the nasal bones, and in
which there is no ascending plate from the maxillaries. The species
of this genus are Tapirus terrestris and T. roulini of South America
and T. indicus of Malay, Sumatra and Borneo.

Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1865, p. 185.
tScience, Vol. 17, p. 873, May 1903.









SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


Of Pleistocene tapirs only a few species are known although the
few specimens recovered indicate a wide geographical distribution
for the family. As early as 1860 Leidy described a tapir from the
Pleistocene of Kentucky, and assigned to it the specific name
Tapirus haysii.* This species has since been recognized at a num-
ber of localities in the eastern part of the United States. A sub-
species, T. haysii californicus, has been described by Merriam from
the Auriferous Gravels of California.t A tapir smaller than T.
haysii, found fossil at many localities in the eastern part of the
United States has been commonly referred to the existing South
American species T. terrestris. This identification, however, always
doubtful, is probably incorrect as indicated by the fossil described
in the present paper. The tapirs reached South America as early at
least as the Pleistocene, two or three species having been recognized
by Lund in the cavern deposits'of Brazil. From the Pleistocene of
China a tapir is reported which has been described as Tapirus
sinensis. t
Of the North American Pleistocene tapirs T. haysii, particularly
the sub-species T. haysii californicus, presents according to Mer-
riam, so far as can be determined by tooth characters, a closer rela-
tionship to Tapirella (Elasmognathus) bairdii than to any other
recent species. The new species described in.this paper finds its
place as shown by the skull characters, in the genus Tapirus.

SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.

The skull obtained at Vero is that of a mature individual. All
the permanent teeth had come into use, although fortunately for the
purposes of study of tooth structure, they are but slightly worn.
The lower jaws are wanting. However, the Survey collection con-
tains parts of the lower jaws of other individuals from the same
locality, as well as numerous detached upper and lower teeth.

*Holmes's Post-Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina, p. o16, pl. 17, Figs.
4, 7-o1, 186o.
tTapir Remains from Late Cenozoic Beds of the Pacific Coast Region
Univ. Cal. Pub., Vol. 7, pp. 169-175, 1913.
tSchlosser, M., tDie fossilen Saugethiere Chinas nebst einer Odento-
graphie der recenten Antilopen. Abh. k. bayer. Akad. Wiss., cl, ii, Vol. xxii,
Pt. I, Munich, 1913.









60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The skulls of recent tapirs with which the fossil tapir is here
compared are contained in the collection of the U. S. National
Museum. For the privilege of consulting this collection of
skulls the writer is indebted to the officials of the Museum.
For the measurements on the skull of Tapirella dowi as well
as some supplementary measurements of some of the other
skulls the writer is indebted to the kindness of Dr. O. P.
Hay. In selecting skulls for comparative measurements, those
of mature individuals have been used. The only exception
is in the skull of T. roulini, which is from a scarcely ma-
ture animal. The tapir skulls used in these measurements are
the following, all of which are in the National Museum collection:
Tapirus indicus, No. 14648; T. terrestris, No. 198; T. roulini, No.
12759; Tapirelld bairdii. No. 13486; T. dowi, No. 11282.
In generic and family characters the skull of the Pleistocene
tapir is in agreement with that of modern tapirs. The nasal bones
are placed equally as far back on the skull; the spiral grooves,
although shallow, are broad and well marked; and the third incisor
is enlarged at the expense of the canine. The proboscis as indicated
by these skull characters was well developed.
Although agreeing in these general features, the skull of this
Pleistocene species is found to present many differences from that
of any one of the living species. In side view the skull is notice-
ably flat topped, the nasals lying approximately in a plane with the
top of the skull. The sagittal crest is but slightly developed, being
represented by a slight ridge bounded by two raised lines. The
sides of the cranium are full and well rounded. The occipital crest
is pronounced, and the lambdoidal ridges widely separated. The
spiral groove is broad and shallow, much of it being on the nasals.
The lachrymal bone is large and rises almost vertically, in side view
obscuring the nasal process of the maxillaries. A lachrymal pit is
present. The palate is arched in transverse section, and is rela-
tively deep, exceeding in depth that of the recent species by several
millimeters. The posterior narial opening narrows backward, while
in all recent species this opening widens backward.
In these skull characters this Pleistocene species differs more or
less from all of the existing tapirs. The-immature individuals of
the modern species have flat topped skulls, with but slight develop-
ment of the crest, although in the adult stage a crest is present, and









SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


the cranium is more or less arched. The crest in the adult Tapirus
indicus forms a broad ridge. A rather more pronounced sagittal
crest is found in mature individuals of Tapirella bairdii. The max-
imum development of the sagittal crest among tapirs is found in
the skull of old individuals of Tapirus terrestris. In this species
the crest becomes very pronounced and the cranium is arched, and
rises at the center much above the plane of the nasal bones. In
T. terrestris, in particular, the development of the crest would seem
to be at the expense of brain capacity. The sides of the skull below
the crest in this species are contracted, and actually become concave
in rising to the crest. The crest of the modern species, together
with the contracted sides of the skull affords a greatly increased
space for attachment of the muscles of mastication.
Important differences are found in the proportionate develop-
ment of the facial and cranial parts of the skull. The Pleistocene
tapir has a relatively shorter face than has any one of the modern
species. This difference, apparent upon inspection, is brought out
more definitely by measurements as shown in the tables given below.
In the following table the length of the skull on the median line
is given in column I; the length of the face from the nasal-frontal
suture to the anterior tip of the premaxillaries in column 2; the
measurement from the posterior margin of the hard palate to the
tip of the snout in column 3. The proportionate length of the face
as compared to the whole length of the skull on the mid-line is given
in column 4. In column 5 is given the proportionate length of the
hard palate as compared to the whole skull.

I. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Length of Length of Length of Pro. face Pro. pal.
skull (cm.) face (cm.) palate to skull to skull
(7) (%)
Florida Tapir -------.400 mm. 214 mm. 198 mm. 53.5 49.5
T. indicas -----------435 mm. 270 mm. 219 mm. 62 50.3
T. terrestris ---------366 mm. 205 mm. 187 mm. 56 5!
T. roulini -----------350 mm. 9go mm. 183 mm. 54.2 52.2
Tapirella bairdii ----435 mm. 305 mm. 232 mm. 70.1 53.3
T. dowi ------.----- 422 mm. 289 mm. 227 mm. 68.4 53.7

The measurements just given indicate that the face of the mod-
ern tapirs, although varying in the different species, is, without










62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

exception, proportionately longer than that of this Pleistocene
species.
SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION.

TAPIRUS VEROENSIS N. SP.

Medium sized tapirs of the genus Tapirus. Spiral groove very broad, placed
well upon the nasals; excavation of groove into frontals and molars slight.
Lachrymal pit present. Face proportionately short; snout short, molar-premolar
series relatively extended; diastema reduced. Parastyle of upper cheek teeth
large. Valley between the transverse crest blocked by a pronounced ridge which
extends from the paracone backwards and slightly inwards to the wall of the
metacone pillar. A similar ridge or crest extends from the posterior side of
the metacone to the cingulum at the posterior margin of the tooth. Third mo-
lars of the upper jaws large.
Type specimen, skull from Pleistocene deposits at Vero, Florida. Para-
types, parts of lower jaw and teeth from same locality.

SKULL CHARACTERS.

The characters on which this species is referred to the genus
Tapirus rather than to Tapirella, as already stated, are found in the
skull. There is no evidence of the prolongation of the methesmoid
in front of the nasals, and there is quite certainly no bony plate
rising from the maxillaries to support this bone. The species is
thus excluded from the genus Tapirella. On the other hand the
skull presents the essential characters of the genus Tapirus, to which
accordingly the species is referred. The presence of a lachrymal
pit, already noted, unless supported by other important skeletal
characters, should not of itself exclude the species from the genus
Tapirus.
DENTITION.

The upper molar and premolar teeth of the type specimen are
perfectly preserved and but little worn. Of the incisors the en-
larged third on either side is preserved, while the first and second
incisors as well as the canines had dropped from the sockets previous
to fossilization. A striking feature of the cheek teeth is the very
large size of the parastyle, which in the molars, in particular, be-
comes a pillar closely appressed to the paracone which it approxi-
mately equals in size. On the exterior of the cheek teeth no









SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


cingulum is observed, although between the paracone and metacone
pillars there is a small tubercle and the suggestion of a cingulum
which is best marked on the third and fourth premolar and on the
first molar. At the inner side of the cheek teeth between the proto-
cone hnd hypocone pillars is a strong tubercle which in the specimen
at hand is particularly pronounced on the fourth premolar and on
the third molar.
The molar teeth are larger than the premolars, the antero-
posterior measurement of the three molars is 73 mm., while that of
the four premolars is 76 mm. The molars may be recognized by
their shape, being more nearly square than are the premolars. They
may also be recognized by the very large size of the parastyle. The
first molar is distinguished from those which follow by its smaller
size as well as by the relatively small size of the tubercle between
the paracone and hypocone pillars.
From the posterior side of the paracone of both molars and pre-
molars a raised line or ridge passes to the anterior wall of the
metacone, thus passing across and blocking the valley between the
transverse crests. A similar raised line passes from the posterior
side backwards and inwards and joins the cingulum of the posterior
margin of the tooth. The paracone is supported on the inner side
by a medium heavy buttress or ridge which passes to the floor of the
valley between the crests.
In the lower jaw from the same locality which serves as a para-
type there is preserved the third and fourth premolars and the first
molar. The lower jaw, as judged from this part preserved, appears
to have been relatively heavy and short. The height of the jaw is
50 mm; the width beneath the second molar is 33 mm. The molar
tooth has a greater transverse width than the premolars, while the
antero-posterior measurenmnt is about the same as that of Pm4.
The molars are thus relatively broader than the premolar. Both
fnolars and premolars have an anterior and posterior cingulum.
On the outer margin the anterior cingulum is connected by a raised
line with the protoconid. The transverse ridges are scarcely
notched. At the inner side of the molar tooth a slight tubercle is
developed between the anterior and posterior transverse crests.
There is also a suggestion of a tubercle on the inner side of Pii,.
At the outer side of the teeth no tubercle is developed. Pm-, lack-
ing in this specimen, is represented by a detached tooth from the
right side, No. 7026.










64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLEISTOCENE SPECIES.

Two species, as already noted, have been recognized in the
Pleistocene of North America. These are Tapirus haysii and a
smaller species commonly referred to the recent Tapirus. ferrestris.
The type specimen of Tapirus haysii is a lower molar, probably the
second, obtained from Big Bone Lick in Kentucky. This tooth is
illustrated in Holmes Post Pliocene Fossils of South Carolina, pl.
17, figs. 7 and 8, 1860. It is preserved in the Philadelphia Acad-
emy of Sciences. According to Leidy this tooth measures 12V2 by
Io04 lines or 26 by 21.3 mm. It is, therefore, a tooth from a large
tapir. In addition Leidy referred to this species a part of a lower
jaw from Mississippi and a lower molar tooth from Indiana, all rep-
resenting a large species of tapir. Among other specimens subse-
quently referred to Tapirus haysii, the best preserved includes most
of the upper and lower jaws from the Port Kennedy cave in Penn-
sylvania.
The Florida fossils represent a smaller tapir than those which
have been referred to Tapirus haysii. This is indicated by the
comparative measurements of the teeth, both of the lower molars
as indicated by the type specimen of Tapirus haysii, and the upper
molars are taken from specimens subsequently referred to that
species. These measurements are given in the following tables:

MEASUREMENTS OF LOWER MOLAR TEETH.

T. haysii Fla. tapir P. Kennedy
type
M (?) anteroposterior ----------.. ------.. 26 mm.
transverse .-------------.---.. 21.3 mm.
M,, anteroposterior ----------------------....- 23 mm. 29 mm.
transverse ----------... ------------. 18 mm. 21 mm.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE UPPER CHEEK TEETH.

P. Kennedy Fla. tapir
Pm' anteroposterior ...---....------.......--------- 21 mm. 17 mm.
transverse .------ ------..---......---- ..2o mm. 14.3 mm.
Pnm' anteroposterior -...--............---------......20.5 mm. 18.5 mm.
transverse -------.-----...----.--.------ ...26 mm. 23 mm.
Pm' anteroposterior ----------.... ----------------.22.5 mm. 19 mm.
transverse ---...--------..... -----.. -------26 mm. 24 mm.









TENTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. I.


Tapirus veroensis sp. n. Top view of skull. Slightly less than half actual
size. Actual length of skull on medium line 400oo mm.

Digitized by OOgl


FI.ORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.









TENTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 2.


Tapirus veroensis sp. n. Under side of skull. Slightly less than half na-
tural size.

Digitized by GOOg[


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.










TENTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 3.


Tapirus veroensis sp. n. Palate. Three-fourths natural size.


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.









TENTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 4.


.3


6


146


7


Tapirus veroensis sp. n. Figs. I-2. Top and side views of part of the
lower jaw. Figs. 3-4. Side and top views of second upper molar. Figs. 5-7.
Side and top views of second lower premolar. All drawings three-fourths nat-
ural size.


Digitized by GOOgle


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.










SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


Pm* anteroposterior ------------.....--------------26 mm. 20 mm.
transverse --------------....---------------.28 mm. 26 mm.
M1 anteroposterior --------------------------------25 mm. 21.9 mm.
transverse ---------------------.....-- ---..28 mm. 26 mm.
M' anteroposterior -------------......--------------26 mm. 24 mm.
transverse ------------... ----------------..-31 mm. 28 mm.
M* anteroposterior .---------... ----------------...28 mm. 25 mm.
transverse -------------...... ----------------32 mm. 29.3 mm.

It is thus seen that as indicated by the teeth the tapir found in
Florida is smaller in size than that which has served as the type of
T. haysii. In .tlddliin the illustration of the type tooth of T.
haysii apparently indicates a tubercle at the outer side of the tooth
blocking in a measure the valley between the transverse ridges. The
separation of the Florida tapir from T. haysii is based on the differ-
ence in size together with the observed difference in structure of the
lower teeth, including the absence so far as known of the tubercle
at the outer side of the cheek teeth of the Florida tapir which appar-
ently characterizes the larger species.
The relative measurements of the dental series in this specimen
from Port Kennedy as compared to Tapirus veroensis is shown in
the following table of measurements of the two species, the meas-
urements of the Port Kennedy specimen being those given by Dr.
Hay (L. C. p. 593). Column i. is the whole length of the molar-
premolar series; column 2, the length of the molar series; column 3,
the premolar series; column 4, the measurement of the space be-
tween the canine and the first premolaf.

i. 2. 3- 4.
M-Pm M Pm C-Pm
Tapirus veroensis ------------.15 mm. 73 mm. 76 mm. 43 mm.
Tapirus haysii --------------170 mm. 8mm. mm. 50 mm.

Tapirus haysii californicus, represented by a second lower
molar, as described and illustrated by Merriam, is a slightly smaller
tapir than T. haysii, although probably somewhat larger than the
Florida tapir. This tapir, like T. haysii, has a tubercle at the outer
side of the lower molar tooth between the base of the anterior and
posterior ridges. The upper molar described by Merriam from
Cape Blanco, Oregon, and placed provisionally by him as near to
T. haysii californicus, presents structural differences in the teeth by









66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

which it may be separated from T. veroensis. The parastyle of the
molars of the Oregon tapir, although well developed, is not placed
so far to the external side of the tooth as in the Florida tapir. The
ridge which braces the paracone of the Oregon tapir is heavy and is
confluent with the crest or ridge which forms the posterior margin
of the paracone pillar. In the Florida tapir, on the other hand, the
buttress which supports the paracone is limited at the posterior side
by a rather deeply incised line.
The Florida tapir, apparently, is distinct from both Tapirus
haysii and the California and Oregon tapir known as T. haysii cali-
fornicus. On the other hand it seems probable that this tapir is
identical with some of the fossil tapirs from the Pleistocene of the
United States that heretofore, owing to imperfect material, have
been provisionally referred to T. terrestris. Tapir teeth and frag-
ments of jaws referred to T. terrestris have been obtained from
several of the states of the Mississippi valley and the South Atlantic
coast, although, until more perfect material is obtained or until that
which has been obtained can be assembled and closely studied or
fully illustrated, it may be difficult to definitely determine the spe-
cific reference of these specimens. However, the two molar teeth
obtained from Ashley River. South Carolina, and referred by Leidy
to T. terrestris, present, so far as one may judge from the illustra-
tions, a very close resemblance to the Florida tapir. Unfortunately
the parastyle which should afford assistance in identifying the
species is broken away from both of these teeth. However, the
ridge which passes from the protocone partly crossing the valley
between the transverse crests is similar; also the ridge which sup-
ports the inner side of the protocone is limited at the posterior side
by a constricted line, in which respect the molars resemble those of
the Florida tapir. It is to be noted also that the one lower molar
illustrated by Leidy from the Ashley River deposits does not show
a tubercle blocking the valley between the transverse ridges in
which respect it agrees with the lower molars of the Florida tapir.
The essential agreement in size, and in such tooth characters as are
indicated by the drawings, together with their geographic distribu-
tion. suggest that the small tapir from South Carolina is probably
identical with this Florida tapir.


Digitized by GOOgle










SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


RELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING SPECIES.
While the small tapir of the Ashley River deposits may thus
provisionally be united with that from Florida, it is certain that the
Florida tapir cannot be united with the. recent Tapirus terrestris of
South America. The skull differences have already been indicated.
The face of Tapirus terrestris is relatively elongated; the crest is
strongly developed, especially in old and mature individuals. The
spiral groove of T. terrestris is more deeply intrenched into the
frontals than is that of T. veroensis. The lachrymal pit of T. vero-
ensis is lacking in T. terresiris.
Owing perhaps to the conservative pattern of tapir teeth, the
differences in tooth structure between the Recent and Pleistocene
species are less pronounced than are some of the other characters
of the skeleton. However, where there are such notable skull dif-
ferences, some characters of systematic value may be expected in
the teeth. Such is the case. Notwithstanding the elongation of
the face, the molars and premolars of T. terrestris are compressed,
giving relatively increased transverse measurements; the diastema,
on the other hand, is relatively increased. Other differences may
be noted. The cingulum at the front outer side of the cheek teeth
of T. veroensis is stronger than is that of T. terrestris. The first
upper premolar of T. terrestris is much widened at the posterior
margin. On the other hand, the anterior division of Pm' is not so
wide as is the corresponding division of the same tooth of T. vero-
ensis. The third molar of the Florida tapir is larger than that of
the recent South American species. On both molars and premolars,
the ridge or crest which runs to the posterior side of the paracone
meeting the anterior walls of the metacone is much stronger on the
teeth of the T. veroensis than on those of T. terrestris. The tubercle
which is found in the Pleistocene tapir at the inner side of the upper
cheek teeth between the transverse crest, is lacking, or nearly so, in
the Recent T. terrestris.
These differences, both in the skull and the teeth, separate this
fossil tapir from the existing South American species.

ASSOCIATED FOSSILS.

The fossils of the marine shell marl include as known at present
61 species of mollusks, of which one species is apparently an extinct









68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

form, while several others either differ more or less from the recent
representatives of the species, or are at present not fully identified.
The stratum in which the tapir skull is found contains fresh-water
and land mollusks. Of these about 28 species have been recognized,
all of which apparently are identical with existing species. Of
plants in this stratum, one species, an oak, has been found, and is
regarded as identical with the modern Quercus laurifolia Michx., or
water oak. From the overlying stratum, No. 3 of the section, 27
plant species have been obtained. Among these is found one ex-
tinct species, and 5 others that at the present time do not extend
their range into Florida.
The vertebrate fossils associated with the tapir in this stratum
are numerous in species and include representatives of diverse
groups, including fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
The lists of species of this deposit have been given in papers pre-
viously published. According to the studies of Dr. O. P. Hay, the
turtles include a considerable number of extinct species. Of birds,
two species are recorded from this horizon, both of which appar-
ently represent extinct species. Of the mammals obtained from
this horizon about seventy-five per cent are extinct.
A fauna containing so large a percentage of extinct vertebrate
species found lying above a marine invertebrate fauna containing
so high a percentage of recent species is a matter of considerable
geologic interest. The more so since the associated land and fresh-
water mollusks are, so far as known, identical with modern forms.
From this record, it appears that a vertebrate fauna largely extinct
may be expected in the Pleistocene in association with or later than
some invertebrate faunas containing largely recent species. In this
association of extinct vertebrate species with existing invertebrates.
however, it is well to note that the Vero locality does not stand
alone. A similar association of largely extinct vertebrates with
existing land invertebrates is found in the cavern deposits at Ocala,
Florida. The vertebrates from this latter locality were listed in
8th Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey, p. 103. 1916,
although to the list there given several species may now be added.
The invertebrates, which have been identified through the kindness
of Dr. Paul Bartsch, include 6 species, all of which are in existence









SKULL OF THE PLEISTOCENE TAPIR.


at the present time.* According to Shimek, the land and fresh-
water molluskan fauna has remained essentially unchanged from the
Aftonian inter-glacial stage to the present time.t The vertebrates,
as we know, have changed very decidedly since that time.
To the fossils already mentioned may be added the reported
presence of human remains in this stratum. The muck bed imme-
diately above contains human remains and artifacts in relative abun-
dance. From his own observations the writer believes that the
human remains and artifacts are present likewise at the strati-
graphic level from which this skull was taken. This subject is dis-
cussed in papers previously published.$
'GEOLOGIC HORIZON.
The determination of the horizon represented by this assemblage
of fossils is very much to be desired. In the publications relating
to the locality the correlation has varied under the treatment of
different writers from early Pleistocene to Recent. The vertebrate
fossils, it will, perhaps, be agreed include species which heretofore
have been regarded as characteristic of the Mid---or Early Pleisto-
cene. It has been suggested, however, that in the southern part of
the United States, Pleistocene veterbrate species persisted longer
than in the northern states, and that the early Pleistocene species
may have continued into the late Pleistocene. However, enticing
this suggestion may appear on theoretical grounds, it is wise to
await other proof before applying unreservedly so broad a general-
ization, especially as there seems to have been no barrier to inter-
fere with the spread of this fauna to the north-east and north-west,
if present in Florida during the late Pleistocene. It has been held
also that the horizon holding these fossils is necessarily of late
Pleistocene age because it overlies a terrace which is the latest of
the Pleistocene terraces of this part of the Atlantic Coast. This
terrace, it is said. is of the same are as Talbot of Maryland and New
Tersey which is placed as late Pleistocene. It is doubtful, however,
if the study of the terraces of Florida has progressed far enough

The species identified by Dr. Bartsch from a collection made by the writer
at Ocala include the following: Succinea campestris, Zonitoides arboreus, Z.
minusculus. Helicodiscus parallelus, Polygyra jejuna, and Vitrea indentata.
tBull. Geol. Soc. Amer. Vol. 21, pp. 110-140, 19go.
tFor a list of papers relating to this locality, see Fla. Geol. Survey, 9th
Ann. Rpt., pp. 69-70 and 141, 1917.


A









70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-TENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

to permit this definite correlation, except as supported by fossils.
When the terrace in question is followed to the north, it is observed
to approach the present shoreline and to disappear somewhat north
of St. Augustine by merging with the recent beach terrace. It is
possible that the terrace may be again located farther to the north
and its relation to the other terraces established. However, until
this is done the correlation of the terraces on field observation in
the writer's opinion, can not be considered complete.
The fact that recent species of land and fresh water mollusks
are associated with the vertebrates can not be regarded, for reasons
already given, as affording any conclusive evidence as to the age of
the beds. The high percentage of existing species in the under-
lying shell bed is suggestive as to the age of that deposit. How-
ever, no one of the students of the marine mollusks has held, so far
as the writer has observed, that the study of that group has pro-
gressed far enough to permit the discrimination of horizons within
the Pleistocene of the Coastal Plains. There remains the evidence
derived from the fossil plants. As already noted, from this horizon
there has been obtained but a single species, an oak regarded as
identical with a recent species. From the next overlying horizon,
however, a much more representative flora has been secured.
This flora is regarded by Berry as representing the late Pleistocene
and as the equivalent of the Talbot of Maryland and New Jersey.
Unfortunately the flora, except the one species referred to, is from
above rather than in the horizon under discussion. The opinion
has been expressed by Berry, and also by the present writer, that
there seems to be no considerable break between the two horizons.
However, the suggestion of a possible break interferes with apply-
ing strictly the evidence derived from the fossil plants, except as to
the one species, to the problem of the age of this stratum. The sum-
mary of the evidence thus far available seems to indicate that while
the horizon from which this skull has been taken can be shown to
be Pleistocene and to be interpolated between other Pleistocene
horizons, its exact place within the Pleistocene can not at the pres-
ent tirre be regarded as fully determined.
























FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT

CONTENTS
PAGE
Administrative Report ------------------------- ------------- ----73
Geology Between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola Rivers in Florida, by
E. H. Sellards and H. Gunter --.-......-------.------.--..----.---..77
Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida During 1917 ---------------.. 10o3
Molluscan Fauna from the Calcareous Marls in the Vicinity of DeLand, Vo-
lusia Co., Florida, by Wendell C. Mansfield -------.... ----------------.IIl

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. 7. Chipola River ------------------------------------------....
Fig. 8. Sink South of Chipley --------------------------------------- 102
Fig. 9. New Pliocene Invertebrates --------.. ----..---- -----------... 122

MAP.

Sketch Map Between Choctawhatchee and Aucilla Rivers, and Profile..---. 80
















ELEVENTH ANNUAL ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.

EXPENSES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30,
I918.
JULY, 1917.

Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses for July, 1917 ----------------$ 57.12
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for July, 1917 ----.-----------. 25.00
Laura Smith, services ------------------------------- ------- 44.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services -------.. --------..---------.-------. io.oo
E. W. Berry, services ---------------------.....------------ ---100.0o
Maurice Joyce Eng. Co., engravings --------------. ------------- 5.14
R. S. Chapin, copying ------------------------------------ 4.95
Lucius Storrs, maps ----------------------- --------------- 3.90
Southern Express Company --------------------------------- 3.39

AUGUST, 1917.
E. H. Sellards, expenses for August, 1917 ----------------------- 53.79
Herman Gunter. assistant, salary for August, 1917 ---------------. 125.00
Laura Smith, services -------------------------------------- 48.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------.-------.--------.. .-- .....o.00
Geo. D. Barnard & Co., supplies -----.. ----.--.. ---..--------... 2.56
G. I. Davis, postage .-----------...-----------.-------.-----. 25.00
Underwood Typewriter Company --------------------------- 48.03

SEPTEMBER, 1917.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Sept. 30,
1917 --...--- ---...----------------------------.......------ 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses for September, 1917 ---------------- ---- 25.70
Herman Gunter, salary for September, 1917 ----------.---------. 125.00
Herman Gunter, expenses for September, 1917 ------------------ 5.20
Ethel Manning, services ---------.----------------------- 36.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----...-------..----..----.---------. 1o.00
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, freight ------------------- 3.74
Underwood Typewriter Company, supplies --------------------- 3.50
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies -------------------------- 3.1o
Southern Express Company ..--..---... --------.----...----...- 1.32











74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

OCTOBER, 1917.
E. H. Sellards, expenses for October, 1917 ---------------------- 86.32
Herman Gunter, salary for October, 1917 ----------------------- 125.00
Ethel Manning, services ------------------------------------ 45.50
Ed Lomas, janitor -------...------.. ----------------------- l.o.00
Geo. D. Barnard & Co., supplies -------------- ---------------- 1.o8
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company --------------------------- 25.32
Southern Express Company ------------... ------------------.. 2.48
E. O. Painter Printing Co., Printing .------------.--------- -87.75

NOVEMBER, 1917.
E. H. Sellards, expenses for November, 1917 --------. ---------.. 61.91
Herman Gunter, salary for November, 1917 ---------------------- 125.00
"Ed Lomas, janitor services -.....-----...---------------.----. lo.00
E. O. Painter Printing Company, printing --------------------. 561.61
Geo. I. Davis, postmaster --------------...--------------------- 84.80
Wrigley Engraving Company -------------.....------------------ 23.04
Freight, Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway ---------..----- .6.06
Southern Express Company --------------..-------.-----------. 6.o
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company ------------...------..---. 38.93

DECEMBER, 1917.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Dec. 31,
1917 .----.. .-------------------------------. .----........... 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expense for December, 1917 ---------------------- 21.99
Herman Gunter, salary for December, 1917 .--------------------- 125.00
Ed Lomas, janitor ------------------...------------- ------ 10o.o
Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, freight .---------------. 14.96
Geo. I. Davis, postmaster ---------------------- ------------ 51.00
The American Journal Science for subscription ------------------- 6.oo00
Southern Express Company ----------------....----------------- 3.95

JANUARY, 1918.

Herman Gunter, salary for January, 1918 ---------------------. 125.00oo
Ed Lomas, janitor --------------.....----------------------... o.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company -----.. ---..... ------..---.-----.. 19.10o
T. J. Appleyard, Columbian Envelopes, etc. ..---------------. 10.0oSo

FEBRUARY, 1918.

E. H. Sellards, expenses for January, 1918 --------..-------.-----. 83.63
Herman Gunter, salary for January, 1918 .-------. ----.----..... 125.o0
Herman Gunter, expenses for January, 1918 ---------------------- 9.70
Ed Lomas, janitor ------------.....-----------------..--.--.. o0.0o
Economic Geology Publishing Company ------------------------ 3.50
Southern Express Company .--------..----.----..---..--..... 1.87











ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 75

MARCH, 1918
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March 31,
1918 -------..............--------------------------- 625.00
Herman Gunter, salary for March, I918 --------.. --------------- 125.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses for March, 1918 --------.------------- 113.73
Herman Gunter, expenses for March, 1918 ----------------------- 43.92
Ed Lomas, janitor -----------------....------------------ --.- Io.oo
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies -------..... --------------- 16.Io
Montgomery Map & Blue Print Company ---------------------.. 1.25
Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway Company, freight -------... 2.44
Southern Express Company ----------------------------------.. 389

APRIL, 1918.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, April, 1918 ------------...-------------. 19.3r
Herman Gunter, salary, April, 1918 -------------------------- 15o.0o
Herman Gunter, expenses, April, 1918 -------------------------- 3441
Ed Lomas, salary, April ----------------....------------------- 10o00
American Peat Society, subscription ---.-----------.---------.- 3.00
McGraw-Hill Book Company, publications ----------.--------.... o.oo
Southern Express Company -------------.. -------------------.. 2.71
C. Van Nostrand Company, publications ------------------------ 2.70
John Wiley and Sons, publications .----------...---------------. 4.00

MAY, 1918.
Herman Gunter, salary for May, 1918 --------------------------- 150.oo
Herman Gunter, expenses for May, 1918 ------------------------ 52.69
Lila B. Robertson, services .--------..... --.... --..--.....--..- 15.0o
Alex Quarterman, services --..---------.---------..---------- 15.oo0
Ed Lomas, salary ---------------------------------- --------- 10o.oo
University of Chicago Press, subscription ----------------------- 3.60
Groover-Stewart Drug Company, supplies ---------------------- 4.35
W. & L. E. Gurley, supplies -------------------------------- 3940
T. J. Appleyard, printing ..--.---------...---------..---------.. 17.50
Southern Express Company ----------------...--------------..- 1o.o3
D. R. Furniture Company, supplies ----..---..-- --.. ------ --.... 41.50
W. L. Marshall .------..... --------------------.------.... 2.

JUNE, 1918.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June 30,
1918 ---------------------------------------------------... 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses for May and June ------------------. 20.50
Herman Gunter, salary for June ----------------------------- 150.00
Herman Gunter, expenses for June ----------------------- ---. 33.11
Lila B.. Robertson, services ------------------------ ------ --- 38.08
Alex Quarterman, services --.------------------------------- 15.00











76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Ed Lomas, salary -------------.. ---.------------..------- Io.oo
Charles Williams, floor paint --.----. -------------------....... 6.oo
H. & W. B. Drew Company, office supplies ----------------...................... 18.93
D. R. Cox Furniture Company, office supplies ------------------ 53.00
Southern Express Company ------------------........ --..--_. .4.99
Geo. I. Davis, postmaster, postage ------------------.. --------- 27.00

Total expenditure for the year ending June 30, 1918--.----$.6,613.84
Overcharge from the preceding year ---------.---.---------. 123.70

$6,737.54
Appropriation for the year ---.--------...--------..------ $7,500.00

Balance available ------------.--------------------.. $ 76246









































GEOLOGY BETWEEN THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE AND
APALACHICOLA RIVERS IN FLORIDA.


BY E. H. SELLARDS AND H. GUNTER.


~___~~__


__












CONTENTS
PAGE
Location, Area and Mineral Industries ------....... -----...------.------- 79
Climate ......----.---.......----...-------------..-------..---.--..79
Vegetation ...--------.................----------. .--------------- 80
Elevations ------------......----- ---...............--------. .---.. 8o
Levels on Louisville and Nashville Road ----------..... -------------- 82
Mineral Industries ------.....------------...-----...--------.-----. 83
Brickmaking Clays ------------------------...---------- --- 83
Limestone .....---------------..... ------------------------.. 84
Phosphate ------------............ -----------------------..-- 84
SRoad Material .....-------------------..--------------. .------ 84
Sands and Gravels .....-------------------- ----------..----.... 84
Water Supply ....-----------------..-----------------------.. 85
Springs ----.......---- -------...---.----------------- 85
Topography and Geology -------------------....------------------- -- 86
Rivers ---------................---------. -.------.----.----. 86
Dead Lakes of Chipola River --------------......------------------- 86
Description of Formations -----------------....--------------.-----. 88
Eocene ....-------- ---.......-......--------------------------- 88
Claiborne Formation -------------------..-- ------------...-- 88
Structure ---------...........-------------.--------------. 89
Ocala Formation .....----------------------------------------.. 89
Structure .....----------------...------------------------.. 89
Oligocene ..--------.---........----....... .---------------------. 90g
Marianna Formation -------------------....-------------------- 90
Structure .....---------------..... --------------.----.. ... go
Chattahoochee Formation -----------------......------------------- go
Structure .....-----------------...--------------.....------- 9
Miocene ---------------- ---------------------------- 91
Alum Bluff Formation -------------.....------------------------ 91
Structure ------------..... -----........--------------- ----- 92
Choctawhatchee Formation -----------------......------------------ 93
Structure --------------------------------------- ------ 93
Miocene-Pliocene ? ------------..... ----..-------. -------------.. 94
Sands and Gravels ----------------------------------------- ----- 95
Topographic and Physiographic Development --------------------------- 95
Summary .....----------............ .-------------. .------------.. 97
Structural Conditions Between Choctawhatchee and Aucilla Rivers -------- 98
Contours on the Chattahoochee Formation --------.. -------..------- 99
Contours on the Alum Bluff Formation -------...... ------------------- 99

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. 7. Chipola River ---------------------------------------- 02....
Fig. 8. Sink South of Chipley ------------------------------ --- 102.

MAP.

Sketch Map, Between Choctawhatchee and Aucilla Rivers --------.------. 8o













GEOLOGY BETWEEN THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE AND
APALACHICOLA RIVERS IN FLORIDA.
E. H. SELLARDS AND H. GUNTER.*

LOCATION, AREA AND MINERAL INDUSTRIES.
H. GUNTER.

The area to which this report relates lies in western Florida
betweeH the Apalachicola and Choctawhatchee rivers. It extends
from the State line at the north to the Gulf of Mexico, and in-
cludes Jackson, Calhoun, Holmes, Washington and Bay counties.
The total area is 3,890 square miles, or 2,489,600 acres.

CLIMATE.
Records on temperature and rainfall are available at the Mari-
anna Station from the United States Weather Bureau. This sta-
tion probably may be accepted as fairly representative of the area
covered by this report. The average for rainfall and temperature
at Marianna.is based on records from 1912 to 1916.t
The annual mean temperature at Marianna, in Jackson County,
is 67.4 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean for the four seasons of the
year is as follows: Winter, 56.6; Spring, 77.3; Summer, 76.3; Fall,
57.7; the maximum summer heat recorded at this station (luring this
five year period is io6 degrees Fahrenheit. The minimum winter
temperature recorded is 22 degrees Fahrenheit.
The annual mean rainfall at Marianna is 56.3 inches. This is
distributed throughout the year as follows: January, 3.4 inches;
February, 6.3 inches: March, 5.2 inches: April, 3.5 inches: May,
3.1 inches: June, 4.4 inches: July, 8.9 inches: August, 5.5 inches:
September, 5.8 inches; October, 3.3 inches: November, 2.4 inches:
December, 4.0 inches.

*The field work on this report has been done jointly by the authors. The
manuscript has been prepared as indicated.
tClimatological Data, Florida Section. Annual Summary for years 1912-
1916. by A. J. Mitchell, U. S. Dept. Agri.., Weather Bureau Office, Jackson-
ville, Florida.









80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT.

VEGETATION.
The rolling uplands of the northern part of this area, although
largely cleared at the present time, supported originally a mixed
timber growth, including short-leaf pine and many hardwood de-
ciduous trees, such as red oak, live oak, hickory, dog-wood and
magnolia. The chief timber growth of the lands in the southern
part of the area is the long-leaf pine. In the flatwoods the under-
growth associated with this pine is chiefly saw-palmetto. In the
well drained areas the undergrowth consists largely of the black-
jack oak.
When studied in detail the vegetation of this area may be di-
vided into several more or less well-marked vegetation types, and
in his report on the vegetation of northern Florida, published in
the Sixth Annual Report of this Survey, Dr. R. M. Harper has in-
dicated eight vegetation types within this area. The plants charac-
terizing each type are there listed.

ELEVATIONS.

The only precise levels available in this area are bench marks
established by the U. S. Army Engineers. These are placed on the
west bank of the Apalachicola river in Jackson county. In addi-
tion to these precise levels the profiles and levels of railroads have
been available in determining elevations. The profile of the At-
lanta and St. Andrews Bay railway, shown on a map accompany-
ing this report, was made possible through levels obtained from Mr.
Arthur Pew, Civil Engineer, Atlanta, Georgia and Mr. B. W.
Steele, President, Dothan, Alabama. All levels obtained have af-
forded material assistance in the study of the topography and geol-
ogy, and the writers wish to express their appreciation of the as-
sistance thus received which has very much facilitated the prepara-
tion of this report.
The following is a description of the bench marks that have
been established upon precise level within this area.

About two miles west of River Junction. 65 meters west of west concrete
pier of Louisville and Nashville railroad bridge over the Apalachicola river.
I meter north of trestle, bench mark is the top of a copper bolt set in a con-
crete post. Elevation, 63.786 feet.






















































I










GEOLOGY-CIIOCTAWHATCHEE AND APALACHICOLA RIVERS. 81

About two miles west of River Junction in the triangle formed by three
blazed trees; one of which is a 2o-inch white oak, distant 20 feet; another is
a 24-inch post oak, distant too feet; and the other is a to-inch walnut, distant
127 feet. The bench mark is a copper bolt in a concrete post, 100 meters
southwest of the west concrete pier at the west end of the Louisville and
Nashville railroad bridge over the Apalachicola river and about 3 meters from
the bank of the river. Elevation, 64.o62 feet.

The elevations on the Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay railroad
may be determined approximately from the profile, (See map)
which is based on levels made by Mr. Arthur Pew. Mr. Pew made
levels also on the Marianna and Blountstown railroad from Mari-
anna to Blountstown, and on the Birmingham, Columbus and St.
Andrews railroad from Chipley to Southport. The elevation at the
end of the track on the river bank at the landing at Blountstown,
according to Mr. Pew is 63.86 feet lower than the base of the rail
at the depot at Marianna. The level at Marianna according to the
corrected levels is 115 feet. Hence the actual level at Blountstown
landing is 51.1 feet above sea. The elevation at the base of the rail
at the depot at Chipley according to the corrected levels is 103.31
feet. The maximum elevation shown by the profile across this area
is 322 feet near Round Lake.
The elevations on the Louisville and Nashville railroad have
been kindly supplied by Mr. W. H. Courtenay, Chief Engineer.
The profile and levels on this road, as checked on the bench mark
at the Apalachicola river appear to be about 5.7 feet above the
actual levels as established by the U. S. Army Engineers.* This
correction has been made in the elevations as here listed. The levels
given are at the base of the rail opposite the mile post.

According to the levels supplied by Mr. Courtenay the track level on the
bridge at the Apalachicola river is 88.5 feet. The actual level at the base
of the rail on the drawbridge as determined from the bench mark near by is
82.73 feet above sea. The difference, 5.7 feet, is the correction applied in these
levels.












82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT.


LEVELS ON THE LOUISVILLE & NASHVILLE RAILROAD FROM NEAR AR-
GYLE TO THE APALACHICOLA RIVER.


Mile Post number "L" Elevation
735 --------------------------- 252.3
736 ------------------------ 256.9
737 ------------------------- 238.0
738 ------------------------- 213.8
739 -------------------------162.3
740 ---------------------------- 134.6
741 --------------------------- 1094
742 ----------.. --------------. 73.6
743 --------------------------- 62.6
744 ------------------------- 78.3
745 ------------------------- 57.0
746 ....----.......---------- 62.3
747 --------------------------- 66.7
748 ...............-----------. 66.8
749 ------------------------- 67.8
750 -----------. -------------.. 6o.2
751 .---.--- -------------------- 644
Draw of bridge over Choctaw-
hatchee river --.--------.. 61.7
752 -------------------------- 57.8
753 ------------------------- 72.7
754 ------------------------- 87.6
755 ----------... ------------- .xo.8
756 ...--.-----..-- ------------ 107.9
757 ------------------------- 112.4
758 ------------.. -----------.. 124.o
759 --------------------------- 133.5
/6o ...........--------------. 120.9
76 --------------------------- 97.3
762 ------------------------- 82.7
763 ------------------...----- 76.1
764 ------------------------- 64.4
765 ------------------------- 674
766 ........------------.... 8o.8
767 ---------... --------------- 92.3
768 ....--- ----....------- ---.. 80.7
769 -----....------------------ 103.2
770 --------.. ----------------- 98.8
771 ----------.-----------------110.5
772 ---------.----------------. 127.0


Mile Post number "1L" Elevation
773 --------------------------- 129.
774 ------------------------- 127.3
775 ------------------------- 129.7
776 .-------..... ------....... 136.6
777 ------------------------- 143.6
778 ----------------------- -- 40.6
779 ------------------------- 131.6
780 ----..---------....------. 144.6
78r -------------------------- 53.1
782 ----------------------- 162.
783 -------------------------148.5
784 ------------------------- 152.1
785 ------------------------- 161j
786 ------..-------.--.------. 165-8
787 ------------------------ 148.8
788 ------------.---------.. 102.3
789 -------------...----------- 82.0
790 --------------------------. 96.8
791 --------.. --------------. 96.8
792 -------------------------- 8
793 --------------------------114.3
794 ------------------------- 1383
795 ------------------------- 126.3
796 ---------.. --------------. 127.6
797 --------------.. ----.--1. 124
798 .--------------.. ---------1.28.3
799 -------------------------- 143.2
800o-----------..----------- 156.2
80r -----------------5------- 158
802 .----.._-----------------_ 122.8
803 ------------------------- 128.5
804 ------------------------- 140.2
805 --------------------------- 168.9
806 ----------------------. 148.5
807 ------------------------. 113.2
808 ------------------------. 101.7
809 -------------------- ---. 100.4
810o ----....----------........ 964
81r --------... ---.... ------... 74.9
Drawbridge on Apalachicola river-82.8