Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Administrative report
 Mineral industries of Florida during...
 Additional studies in the Pleistocene...
 Fossil birds found at Vero,...
 Vertebrata mostly from Stratum...
 Review of the evidence on which...
 Geology between the Ocklocknee...
 Supplement to studies in the Pleistocene...
 General index

Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00009
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1915-1916
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00009
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation


This item has the following downloads:

VID00009 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    List of Illustrations
        Page 4
    Administrative report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Mineral industries of Florida during 1916
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Additional studies in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Fossil birds found at Vero, Florida
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 42b
        Page 42c
        Page 42d
    Vertebrata mostly from Stratum No. 3 at Vero, Florida, together with descriptions of new species
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 68b
    Review of the evidence on which the human remains found at Vero, Florida are referred to the Pleistocene
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 76a
        Page 76b
        Page 76c
        Page 76d
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla Rivers in Florida
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 136b
        Page 136c
        Page 136d
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Supplement to studies in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    General index
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
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To His Excellency, Hon. "' .':. J. Catts, Governor of Florida:

Sir:-In accordance with the Survey law I submit herewith my
Ninth Annual Report as State Geologist of Florida. The report
contains the statement of expenditures by the Survey for the year
ending June 30, 1916, together with those investigations by the
Survey that have progressed far enough to be available for publica-
tion. Very respectfully,
State Geologist.

SLm c O -wnTx t mfi co.o Lmn rkxO t 1247?

Administrative report ------------------------------- 5
Mineral Industries of Florida during 1916, by E. H. Sellards-_ 9
Additional Studies in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida ----- 17
The Fossil Plants from Vero, Florida, by Edward W. Berry__ 19
Fossil Birds Found at Vero, Florida, with Descriptions of New
Species, by R. W. Shufeldt ------------------------ 35
Vertebrata Mostly from Stratum No. 3, at Vero, Florida, to-
gether with Descriptions of New Species, by Oliver P. Hay 43
Review of the Evidence on which the Human Remains found
at Vero, Florida, are referred to the Pleistocene, by E. H.
Sellards ..--..-------------- ------------------ 69
Geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla Rivers in Florida,
by E. H. Sellards ------------------------------ 85
Supplement to Studies in the Pleistocene at- Vero, Florida-- 141

.' I I


Pls. I and 2. Fossil birds ----------------------- -------------------- 42
PL. 3 Fossil mammals and turtles ---.............. ------------ 68
Pls. 4.and 5. Views in the canal bank at Vero, Florida-.---.... -------.. 76
Pls. 6, 7 and 8. Views in Leon, Jefferson and Wakulla counties.---.....- 136

Fig. i. Place of human bones in the canal bank--------------------- 73
Fig. 2. Sketch map of West Florida .---...............----....--- -- .88
Fig. 3. Geologic sketch map --------------........----------------.-- 98
Fig. 4. Elevation of top surface of Chattahoochee limestone ---...---.. 103
Fig. 5. Minor structural features due to solution in the limestone --.... 1o6
Fig. 6. Sketch map of Lake Lafayette ....--....---- ---...........- 123
Fig. 7. Sketch map of Miccosukee Basin ------.. ------... ----..-.-----. 125
Fig. 8. Topography around Orchard Pond ----------...-------------- 129
Fig. 9. Sketch map of lake basins .....---...-----.................. 131
Fig. To. Sketch map of Lake Jackson .....--- ---........-------------- 131
Fig. II. St. Marks drainage system reconstructed -------------------... 134
Fig. 12. St. Marks drainage system ------------..... ------.----------- 135
Fig. 13. Wakulla drainage system -------------------------------------- 136

Map showing contour lines ........---------- --..... ----.------..------ oo
Map of Jefferson and Wakulla counties ------------.. ---------------. oo



ENDING JUNE 30, 1916.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
$7,500 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by the
State Geologist, as all survey accounts are paid upon warrants
drawn upon the Treasurer by the Comptroller as per itemized state-
ments approved by the Governor. The original of all bills and the
itemized statements of all expense accounts are on file. in the office
of the Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are on file in the
office of the State Geologist. The warrants when paid are on file
in the office of the State Treasurer.


July, 1915

William J. Gerhard, publications ------------------------- $ 1.65
T. J. Appleyard, printing --------------.-------------------- 40.00
American Peat Society, subscription ---------------------------- 3.00
Southern Express Company --------------..------------------- 6.26
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ------ ------------------- 4.70
Glen Photo Stock Co., supplies -------------..------------------ .98
Board of Public Works, supplies -----------------..------------ 18.20

August, 1915

E. H. Sellards, expenses, August, 1915 -------------------------- 1593
Southern Express Company ----------------- ----------------- 19.51
Alex McDougall, postage ----------.... -----------------------.. 27.10
Miss W. Wellborn, services ----------------------------------- 3.03
Wrigley Engraving Company, engravings .--------------- ---_.. 8.41
Maurice Joyce -Engraving Company, engravings ---------------.. 168.40

September, 1915

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending September
30, 1915 ----------------------------------------------------- 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, September, 1915 ---..............---... 10.05


Ierman' Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending September 20,
1915 -------------------------- ------------------.---------- 375.00
Laura Smith, services .....---------... --------................ 87.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------------------------------- 30.00
S. A. L. Railway, freight ---------..------------------------------ 47.93
E. 0. Painter Printing Company --.....-..............-------.. 1,426.34
W. E. Knibloe, services .----.... -----.......... ------.....--... 25.00
Alex McDougall, stationery --.......................-- ------- ... 1o9.68
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ---. ---.. -----... ---------- 3.38
Dan Allen, freight and drayage -------------------.----------- 5.00

October, 1915

E. H. Sellards, expenses, October, 1915 .........---.. ..----- --- -- 96.65
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, October, 1915 ------------.. 68.89
Southern Express Company ----------........--- ---------------- 9.77
Alex McDougall, postage -----------....-------...-----------... 123.40
T. J. Appleyard, printing ----------------..-------- --------.... 28.00
Keystone Supply Company, supplies ------------------------------ 5.30

November, 1915

E. H. Sellards, expenses, November, 1915 ----------------------- 71.38
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, November, 1915 ------------- 25.37
Southern Express Company ----------.------.--------.. --------- 6.o5
Letter Shop, supplies -------.--------------------------------. 2.25
Underwood Typewriter Company, supplies --------------------- 54-58
Dan 'Allen, freight and drayage ------------------------------ 1.45
Jules Eliott, supplies -----------------------..---------------. 60.00

December, 1915.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending December
31, I915s --------------.. -------------- -----------.-------.. 625.o0
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending December 31,
1915 --------------------- -------------------------------- 375.00
Laura Smith, services .--..----------.......................... 9o.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ------------------------------ --_- 30.00

January, 1916

E. H. Sellards, expenses, December, 1915, January, 1916---..---. 63.47
Herman Gunter, expenses, January, 1916 ...........--- ----------- 21.O
Southern Express Company -----------------------........------ 6.23
W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., publications -------------------------- 5.50
American Peat Society, subscription ----------------------------- 3.00
Alex McDougall, postage ------------------------------ 26.oo


Groover-Stewart Drug Company, supplies ...........-------...... 2.35
Abercrombie & Fitch Company, supplies ---------------------- 31.80
American Journal of Science, subscription ..............--------- 7.00

February, 1916

E. H. Sellards, expenses, February, 1916 --....---.......... ----- 108.02
Herman Gunter, expenses, February, 1916 ----------------.------- 79.58
Southern Express Company ...................-------.. ----....- 6.96
S. A. L. Railway, freight ......--........-----......------..... 7.71

March, 1916

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March 31,
1916 ------------------------- ------.---------..-- -----.- 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, March, 19I6 ----....... .---------..... -- 92.oo
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending March 31, 1916 375.oo
Laura Smith, services ....--....... ------.......-----------.. 118.oo
Ed Lomas, janitor services --------------------------- ---------- 30.00
The MacMillan Company, publication ----------............................ 2.12
McGraw-Hill Book Company, publication -----------------------. 2.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ------.. --------------.----- 13.22
G. E. Stechert & Company, publications ------------------------- 4.82
Southern Express Company ..................................... 1144
Economic Geology Publishing Company, subscription ------------- 3.00
Alex McDougall, postage --------------.....--------------------- 10.00

April-May, 1916

E. H. Sellards, expenses, April-May, 1916 ------------------------ 83.25
Herman Gunter, expenses, April ----------------------------- 33-26
S. A. L. Railway, freight .---------------------............. --- 12.86
Southern Express Company ....----------------------.---------- 20.21

June, 19x6

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June 30,
1916 .......................----------- ...........................----------- 65.oo
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending June 30, 1916 375.00
Laura Smith, services ----------------....-------------------- .116.oo
Ed Lomas, janitor services ----------------------------------- 30.00

Total expenditures for the year ending June 30, 1916---......$7,685.44
Appropriation for the year .----------... -------------$7,500.00
Balance from the preceding year .------------..-----... 7.49
Overcharge ------------------.....----......----... 177.95-$7,685.44


The following is a list of the publications issued by the State
Geological Survey since its organization:

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 5 text figures, and one map.
Third Annual Report, Igo9, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two maps.
Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 PP., 90 figures, one map.
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.
Ninth Annual Report (this volume), 1917.
Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, 1908,
103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp., 4 pls.
Press Bull. No. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912,
March 12, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at
the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, December 31, 1913.
Press Bull. No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
Press Bull. No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913,
May 20, 1914.
Press Bull. No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains
Found Imbedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
Press Bull. No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.


The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are distrib-
uted upon request, and may be obtained without cost by addressing
the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida. Requests by those living
outside of the State of Florida should be accompanied by postage
or if desired the reports will be sent express collect.



Ball clay or plastic kaolin -........----.----............ ---------.... Io
Brick and tile ...------- ...........-......----------------- o
Fuller's earth -..................-------------..--------------..-
Ilmenite and monazite -.------........-----............. --------.... .
Lime, limestone and flint rock .....-----.......... -------....... --...... 12
Oil prospecting ..........----------------...........----------- 12
Peat _..............------.......--..............----- .. 13
Phosphate --.......---------..-------. -------------... 13
Sand and Gravel ----------------------------------.------- 15
Sand-Lime Brick -..............--------................------- 15
Water .......-----....... ..------------------------.... ----- 16
Summary statement of mineral production .......-------------------------......................... 16



The value of minerals produced in Florida during 1916 shows
an increase over that of the preceding year. The total mineral
production during 1915 is valued at $5.035,010, while that for 1916
is valued at $5,859,821.


Three plants were engaged in mining ball clay in Florida during
1916. These were the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Edgar; the
Lake County Clay Company, Okahumpkee; and the Richmond
China Clay Corporation, Okahumpkee. The ball clays of Florida
are white burning, refractory clays notable for their plasticity.
They occur in association with sand from which they are separated
by washing. The value of the ball clay produced, although not
separately given, is included in the total mineral products of the

The total number of common brick manufactured in Florida
during 1916 was 31,029,ooo00. In addition to building brick there
was produced also drain-tile and fire-proofing brick. The total
value of brick and tile products for the year 1916 was $226,362.
The following firms in Florida reported the production of brick
during 1916:

Barrineau Brothers, Quintette.
Campville Brick Company, Campville.
Clay County Steam Brick Company, Green Cove Springs.
Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna.
Gamble and Stockton Company, o18 West Bay St., Jacksonville.
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale.
G & G. H. Guilford, Blountstown.
Hall and McCormac, Chipley.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney.


0. O. Mlickler Brick Company, Callahan.
Lee Miller, Whitney.
Platt Brothers, South Jacksonville.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.
Dolores Brick Company, Molino.


The total production of fuller's earth in the United States dur-
ing 1916, as reported by the U. S. Geological Survey, was 67,822
short tons, an increase over the preceding year of 19,921 tons. In
addition to that produced there was imported into the United States
during 1916, 15.ool short tons. Some fuller's earth in former
years has been exported from the United States, although the
amount can not be determined owing to the fact that this product is
not listed separately from other clays.
The States producing fuller's earth during 1915 were Arkansas,
California, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts and Texas. Of these
Florida is the chief producer, the output from this State amounting
to more than three-fourths of the whole output for the United
States. The value of the fuller's earth produced in the United
States during 1916 was $706,951.
The production in Florida, although not separately listed, is
included in making up the total mineral production of the State.
The following companies were engaged in ::...... fuller's earth
in Florida during 1 1i6: The Floridin Company, (Juincy and
Jamieson; the Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, and the Manatee
Fuller's Earth Corporation, Ellenton.

The minerals ilmenite and monazite have been produced to a
limited extent for the first time in Florida during the past year.
These minerals are obtained from the beach sand at Pablo Beach
in Duval County. The firm operating there is Buckman and
Ilmenite is a constituent of the sand on the Atlantic Beach as
far south as Miami. It is found also very generally in the sands
in the lake region of Florida, and is present to some extent through-
out the State. The distribution of monazite is less well known,
since it is present only in very small amounts, and is not detected
in the sand except by a very careful examination.



The total quantity of quick and hydrated lime made in Florida
during 1916 amounted to 8,666 tons, valued at $49,536. The lime
produced in Florida is chiefly quick lime, although some hydrated
lime is being made.
The total amount of limestone produced in Florida for all pur-
poses except that of burning for quick lime, including building, road
making. railroad ballast and agricultural limestone, is valued at
$479,837. The following companies in Florida have reported the
production of lime or limestone for the year 1916. The first three
companies named produced both lime and limestone, the remaining
companies of the list produced limestone:

Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Marion Lime Company, Ocala.
Standard Lime Company, Kendrick.
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Brooksville Stone and Lime Company, Brooksville.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Live Oak Limestone Company, Live Oak.
Florida Crushed Rock Company, Montbrook.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Manatee Limestone Company, Manatee.
E. P. Maule, Ojus.
R. L. Nunn, Brooksville.
Palmetto Rock Company, Riverland.
Pineola Lime Company, Pineola.
Stone Products Company, Bartow.
George Sykes Company, Miami.
A. T. Thomas & Company, Ocala.
White Rock Quarry Company, Naranja.


Oil prospecting in Florida is being carried on at the present time
to a limited extent, and test wells for oil and gas are now being
drilled in Gadsden. Wakulla, Osceola and Brevard counties. Test
wells of moderate depth have previously been drilled in Escambia,
Washington, Citrus and Sumter counties. None of the wells thus
far drilled have been successful, although showings of oil have
been reported in some of them.
There is a constant demand for information in regard to the
possible occurrence of oil and gas in Florida; this demand is met


so far as possible by the Survey. No geologic problem, perhaps,
presents greater difficulties than the search for oil and gas. This
is particularly true in Florida, where the surface is prevailingly
level or but moderately hilly, and where good continuous surface
exposures of the underlying formations are not numerous. How-
ever, even in a flat country the underlying structure may in a meas-
ure be determined through the aid of the occasional surface expos-
ures of recognizable strata supplemented by well records. This
problem of structure in Florida is receiving attention through co-
operative study between the State Geological Survey and the Fed-
eral Geological Survey and the results will be published as soon as
they can be made available. From the reports of the Survey
already issued much information may be obtained regarding the
geologic structure of the State.


Peat is being produced in Beswick, Florida, by the Ranson
Humus Company. This being the only plant in operation in the
State, the production is not separately listed. The peat produced
by this company is placed on the market in the form of prepared
humus and peat litter.


Notwithstanding the interruption of normal export shipping
conditions the production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1916
shows a slight increase over that of the preceding year. The total
shipment of phosphate rock in Florida during. 1916, as reported by
the producers, was 1,515,845 long tons. Of this amount 1,468,758
tons were land pebble phosphate, the remainder being hard rock and
soft phosphate. Of the total shipments only 200,472 tons were
exported, or slightly less than during the preceding year. The
domestic shipments, on the other hand. were in excess of those for
the preceding year, both for hard rock and for land pebble.
The value of the phosphate shipped from Florida ..i .: 1916
was as follows: Land pebble, !.:: 7.410o; hard rock, $295.755:
total, $4,170,165. The value of the total shipments during the
preceding year was $3,762,239.
Summary of shipment of phosphate in Florida from 1913 to
1916, inclusive:


Pebble Rock- 1913. 1914, 1915. 1916.
Exported .....----..---... ---.. 887,398 625,821 185,846 172,427
Domestic .---........-- --. .... ... 1,68,o84 1,203,381 1,122,635 1,296,331
Total Shipment ..-- ------ ..... 2,055,482 1,829,202 1,308,481 1,468,758
Hard Rock-
Exported -..............--------- 476,898 303.172 43,314 28,045
Domestic ..........----------.... 12,896 6,517 6,816 19,042
Total shipment -........--------. 489,794 309,689 50,130 47,087
Pebble and Hard Rock Combined-
Exported ........-------------.. 1,364,296 928.993 229,160 200,472
Domestic ..........------------- .1.80o,98o 1,209,898 1,129,451 15,15,373
Total shipment ----...--------. -- 2,545,276 -. '.:- 1,358,611 1,515,845
Total shipments from beginning of mining in 1888 to 1916, inc.....- 31,120,449


Acme Phosphate Company ----------- Morriston, Fla.
Amalgamated Phosphate Company ......Richmond, Va., and Brewster, Fla.
American Agricultural Chemical Com-
pany ..----..... ----- -------------- Rector St., New York, N. Y., and
Pierce, Fla.
Armour Fertilizer Works ..-----------Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill., and
Bartow, Fla.
P. Bassett (Successor to Central Phos.
Co.) -------------- --------------- Newberry, Fla.
Peter B. and Robert S. Bradley-----... 92 State St., Boston, Mass., and Floral
City, Fla.
J. Buttgenbach & Co. ..------.. -..... Holder, Fla.
C. & J. Camp -----..------------..--Ocala, Fla.
Charleston, S. C., Miining and Manufac-
turing Company ------------------. Richmond, Va., and Ft. Meade, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co. -........-- --- ) John St.. New York, N. Y., and
Lakeland, Fla.
Cummer Lumber Co. ----------------- acksonville and Newberry, Fla.
Dominion Phosphate Co. _-----...Bartow, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co. .----.----- Rockwell, Fla.
Dutton : Co.. _-------------Gainesville. Fla.
Export : : .. Co ..---------- 53 State St., Boston, Mass., and Mul-
berry, Fla.
Florida Mining Co. .-----------------... Broadway. New York, N. Y., and
Mulberry, Fla.
Florida T".....:. Mining Corporation Dickson Bldg., Norfolk, Va., and Bar-
tow, Fla.
Franklin Phosphate Co. --------------..ewberry, Fla.
Holder Phosphate Co. .----..- -------21 W. Ninth St., Cincinnati, 0., and
Ocala and Inverness, Fla.


International Phosphate Co. -----------27 State St., Boston, Mass., and Ft.
Meade, Fla.
Interstate Chemical Corporation -----.--- Broad St., Charleston, S. C., and
Bowling Green, Fla.
Istachatta Phosphate Co. -------------- stachatta, Fla.
Lakeland Phosphate Co --------------. akeland, Fla.
Leland Phosphate Co. ----------------Croom, Fla.
Mutual Mining Co. ----------------o02 E. Bay St., Savannah, Ga., and
Floral City, Fla.
Meredith-Noble Phosphate Co. .-------Somerville. N. J., and Morriston and
Romeo, Fla.
Palmetto Phosphate Co. ---------------812 Keyser Bldg., Baltimore, Md., and
Tiger Bay, Fla.
Phosphate Mining Co -----------5---- 55 John St., New York, N. Y., and Nich-
ols, Fla.
Prairie Pebble Phosphate Co. ---------- t Broadway. New York, N. Y., ard
Mulberry, Fla.
Schilmann & Bene --------------------Ocala, Fla.
Societe Franco-Americaine des Phos-
phate de Medulla (Successor to
Standard Phosphate Co.) ----------- Christina, Fla.
Societe Universelle de Mines. Industries
Commerce et Agriculture -----------Paris. France, and Pembroke, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Co. --Ocala and Inverness, Fla.
Swift & Co. --------------------------Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill., and
Bartow, Fla.
T. A. Thompson ---------------------Ft. White, Fla.


The sand produced in Florida is used for building and paving
and for railroad ballast. The gravel produced finds its chief use
for road -.:.1 : and for road ballast. The total production of sand
and gravel for 1916 was 86,452 tons, valued at '. ...2.
The companies reporting the production qf sand and gravel in
Florida during 1916 are the following:

Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.
Interlachen Gravel Company, Interlachen.
Lake Wier Sand Company, Ocala.
Logan Coal and Supply Company, Jacksonville.
Tampa Sand and Shell : ..*,: ... Tampa.
A. T. Thomas Company, Ocala.


Four companies were actively engaged in the manufacture of
sand-lime brick in Florida during 1916. The total production dur-


ing 1916, including common and front brick, was valued at
$90,794. The companies reporting the production of sand-lime
brick in Florida during 1916 are as follows:

The Bond Sandstone Brick Company, Lake Helen.
The Composite Brick Company, 425 St. James Bldg., Jacksonville.
The Valrico Sandstone Company, Valrico.


The total sales of mineral and spring water in Florida during
1916, as shown by the returns from the owners of springs and
wells, amount to 202,970 gallons, valued at $15,676. This repre-
sents an increase over the preceding year when the sales amounted
to 118,920 gallons, valued at i : ,16.
The companies reporting the production of water for commer-
cial purposes during 1916 include the following:

Cedar Springs, Jacksonville.
Chumuckla Mineral Springs and Hotel Company, Chumuckla Mineral
Springs, Chumuckla, Florida.
Espiritu Santo Springs Company, Espiritu Santo Springs, Safety Harbor.
L. H. McKee, Quisiana Spring, Green Cove Springs, Florida.
Magnesia Spring Water Company, Magnesia Spring, Grove Park, Fla.
Purity Springs Water Company, Purity Spring, Tampa, Florida.
Tampa Kissingen Wells Company, Stomawa Mineral Well, Tampa, Florida.

::' .- 1916.

Common or building brick, fire-proofing brick and tile-------------... .$ 226,362
Lime, including quick and hydrated ------- ------------------------ 49,536
Limestone, including limestone for agriculture -------.------------- 479,837
Mineral waters --------------- ---- -------------------------- 15,676
Phosphate rock -------------------------------------- 4,170,165
Sand and gravel --------.------------- ------------------ -- 42,352
Sand-lime brick ----------------....------ -------------......-. 90,794
Mineral products not separately listed ...........-------- ---------.. 784.799

Total mineral production valued at -------- -------......................






Plates I and 2. Fossil birds.
Plate 3. Mammals and Turtles.
Plates 4 and 5. Views of the canal bank.
Text Fig. i. Position of human bones in the bank.


The discovery of human remains associated with an extinct
mammalian fauna at Vero has excited a great deal of local and
general interest, and various theories regarding the age of these
remains and the manner of their occurrence have already been
advanced, as well as admirable accounts of the local geology by
Sellards and others (i). It is therefore unnecessary for me to
repeat any of these details in connection with my study of the fossil
Plant remains in the form of laminae of impure peat or scattered
fruits, chiefly acorns, are present from the bottom to the top of the
deposits overlying the shell marl which forms the base of the sec-
tion. The lower'sands (designated No. 2 by Sellards) have yielded
no leaves and but few acorns, but the upper bed (Sellards No. 3)
contains many leaf layers alternating with sand laminae, and it is
from the latter horizon that all of the plants enumerated in the fol-
lowing pages have been collected, except one species of acorn, which
is common to both beds.
Recent and extinct mammalian and other bones occur in both
layers, and human remains are also found in both beds. After a
thorough study of the local sections and the paleontologic evidence,
I am convinced that there is no hiatus between beds 2 and 3, and
that there is no great difference in age from the bottom to the top
of the section, although it records changing physical conditions and
necessarily becomes more and more recent as the top of the section
is approached. The lower sand marks the recession of the sea in

(i) Sellards, E. H., Am. Jour. Sci. (IV), vol. 42, pp. 1-18, 1916.
Eighth Ann. Rept. Florida Geol. Surv., pp. 122-160, pls.
15-31, i916.
Science, N. S. vol. 44, pp. 615-617, 1916.
Journ. Geol. vol. 25, PP. 4-24, tf. I-4, 1917.
Chamberlin, R. T., Journ. Geol. vol. 25, pp. 25-39, tf. 1-9, 1917.
Vaughan, T. W., Idem., pp. 40-42.
Hrdlicka, A., Idem., pp. 43-51, tf. I, 2.
Hay, 0. P., Idem., pp. 52-55.
MacCurdy, G. G., Idem., pp. 56-62, tf. 1-6.


which the underlying shell marl was formed. The upper, beds (No.
3) mark successive seasonal layers of valley filling in the narrow
valley of a small stream. This stream was apparently always
small, and the marvelous abundance of fossils at this one point
seems to be due to a bar or sinkhole or similar cache formed near
the junction of the two lateral branches which united near this
point to form the main stream. The determinable plants are repre-
sented almost exclusively by fruits or seeds, as the leaves, with the
exception of the coriaceous oaks, which are abundant, were too
thoroughly decayed before they were buried to retain their identity.
The study of such remains is beset with many difficulties. The
material has to be sorted without allowing it to dry. It then has to
be impregnated with paraffin simultaneously with drying. Finally
identification is hampered by the lack of recent material for compar-
ison, and when identified the determination of the exact range of
the still existing species on which so much hinges is a matter of
great uncertainty in the present state of our knowledge of plant
geography. I am under obligations to Mr. W. L. McAtee, of the
Biological Survey, for determining five species of fruits for me,
and I am indebted to Mr. R. M. Harper for data regarding the
present distribution in Florida of some of the forms.
After giving an annotated list of the species identified, their
bearing on the age and physical conditions at the time of deposition
of the deposits will be discussed.

ORDER (::' ; i i i.r LES.

The occurrence of this species in the Vero deposits is based on
three seeds, and for that reason the identification may be questioned.
The seeds are mature and are identical in form and texture with
those of this species and are clearly not referable to Pinus caribaea
or Pinus clausa, which grow around Vero at the present time.
The loblolly pine is found at the present time along the Atlantic
coast from Cape May, New Jersey, southward to Cape Malabar on
the east coast and Tampa Bay on the west coast of peninsular


Florida. It is present in Polk County in the Lake region of the
central part of the peninsula, and probably extends with the south-
ward extension of this region into DeSoto County. In the Missis-
sippi embayment region it extends northward to Arkansas and
southwestern Tennessee. Cones, scales and seeds have been re-
corded from the late Pleistocene of New Jersey (I) and Alabama


The occurrence of this species in the Vero deposits is based on a
single characteristic cone scale. In the existing flora this pine is a
West Indian and Central American species which extends north-
ward over the southern half of the Florida peninsula. Farther
north it has been frequently confused with Pinus Elliottii, a per-
fectly distinct species, which ranges northward to South Carolina.
The former is common at Vero in the existing flora and has not
previously been found fossil to my knowledge.


Fossil occurrence based on several immature seeds which are
not specifically determinable. They suggest the abortive seeds in
the distal part of the cones of ;: *.:.;.. clausa, but might equally well
represent abortive seeds of some other species. Pinus clausa, the
sand or spruce pine, is common along sandy shores and on old inland
beach ridges in the vicinity of Vero at the present time.



The bald cypress, which is one of the most abundant trees in the
Pleistocene of our Southern States and is already well characterized
in the late Pliocene of Alabama (i), is represented in the Vero
deposits by a number of seeds and cone scales, but these remains are
not abundant enough to suggest the presence of a cypress pond.

(i) Berry, E. W., U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 98L, p. 195, pi. 45, figs. 1-6, 1916.
(1) Berry, E. W., Am. Jour. Sci. (IV), vol. 29, p. 391, igio.
(2) Berry, E. W., Torreya, vol 10, p. 263, 1910.


The bald cypress is now found from southern Delaware to
eastern Texas in the Coastal Plain and its Pleistocene range was
somewhat more extensive. In Florida it is found nearly through-
out the State in swamps and low stream valleys. At Vero it is not
known in the immediate vicinity of the coast, but there are extensive
swamps about 12 miles west of the town, which are, however, sev-
eral miles beyond the drainage basin of Van Valkenburg's Creek.
It has been recorded from Dade County by Harper.

Two capitate clusters of the perigynia of some species of Carex
were found fossil at Vero. It is not possible to identify them as to
species, but the generic reference is positive. Various existing
species of Carex are found at Vero and throughout Florida.


A characteristic leaf of this species was found fossil at Vero.
The water lettuce occurs as a free floating plant in still water or slow
moving streams throughout the tropics. In the United States it
occurs sporadically from Florida to Texas. It is recorded from the
Lake region of the central peninsula and from Lake Okeechobee,
but I did not see it in the Vero region.


The fossil remains at Vero comprise 3 leaf bases, fragments
of the serrated petioles and several stones, all characteristic and
readily determinable.


The Saw Palmetto is a shrubby gregarious species now found
from South Carolina to Louisiana and common nearly throughout
Florida, forming the prevailing scrub of the pine lands or flatwoods.
It is exceedingly abundant around Vero on undrained sands, but
has not heretofore been found fossil.



This species is represented in the Vero deposits by fragments
of the clasping petiole bases and by stones. It was evidently as
abundant a tree at the time the Vero deposits were formed as it is
now in this region.
The cabbage palmetto ranges from the mouth of the Cape Fear
River in North Carolina along the coast to the mouth of the Apa-
lachicola River and reaches its maximum development in the Florida
peninsula. As far as I know it has not heretofore been found





Nutlets and leaves represent this species in the Vero deposits.
The wax myrtle ranges from Cape May, New Jersey, to Texas
along the coast, as well as in the Antilles. It is very common as a
small tree in sandy swamps near Vero.




This species is apparently represented in the Vero deposits by
the characteristic persistent winter buds.


Corkwood is a shrub or small tree of muddy shores now found
along the Gulf coast from west Florida to Texas. It is not found
at the present time in peninsular Florida.





This species is represented in the Vero deposits by characteristic
elongated acorns and turbinate cupules. Some. of the leaf frag-
ments suggest the leaves of this species, but these latter are not cer-
tainly identified. Some of the cupules are suggestive of the closely
allied Quercus geminata Small.
The live oak is one of the most abundant trees in the Pleistocene
deposits of our southern states, and its ancestors are already well
defined in the Pliocene of this region. It has been recorded from
the early Pleistocene of Kentucky and Alabama and from the late
Pleistocene of Alabama.
In the existing flora it ranges from Virginia to northeastern
Mexico and does not forsake the region of the coast except in the
Rio Grande valley. It occurs in hammocks nearly throughout
Florida, and is not uncommon along the Indian River at Vero.


This species, represented by both leaves, acorns and cupules, is
the most abundant fossil form at Vero. It is also the only plant
represented from the bottom to the top of the section.
The water oak is found at the present time near the coast from
the southeastern corner of Virginia to Louisiana in sandy swamps
and stream valleys. It is present along the Florida coasts, except
those south of the Everglades. Sargent gives its southern range
as Mosquito Inlet on the east coast and Cape Romano on the west
coast, and while it extends farther south it is not nearly as abundant
around Vero as it is Ioo miles farther north, nor as abundant now
as it apparently was at the time of the formation of the Vero



This species is represented in the Vero deposits by many char-
acteristic leaves and by a few less certainly identified acorns and
Its habitat now is sandy pine lands from North Carolina to
Texas. I found it common around Vero, although Sargent gives
its southern limit on the east coast as Cape Malabar, which is about
50 miles north of Vero.


This species is represented in the Vero deposits by a consider-
able number of immature acorns and cupules and is not certainly
determined on that account, although the acorns are identical with
the corresponding immature acorns and cupules of this species. I
-regard the identification as reasonably well authenticated.
Quercus chapman ranges from South Carolina to West Florida
in sandy pine lands near the coast in the existing flora. It is com-
paratively rare except in West Florida from Apalachicola to Pensa-
cola Bay, and is unknown within hundreds of miles of Vero. This
type of oak was already in existence in the Miocene (I) and the
Vero occurrence may represent a collateral descendant of this Mio-
cene ancestry.




Achenes, identified for me by W. L. McAtee, represent this
genus in the Vero deposits. They are not specifically determined.
Polygonum contains over 200 existing species, mostly herbaceous
and widely distributed. T M,.. are swamp plants and a number
occur in Florida.

(i) Berry, E. W., U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 98 F, p. 66, pl. II, figs. I, 2,





This species is represented in the Vero deposits by a follicle. It
ranges from Massachusetts to Texas in the existing flora and is
found in swamps and wet hammocks throughout Florida. It has
been recorded (I) from the Pliocene of New Jersey.



This species is represented in the Vero deposits by a single seed.
The Pond Apple is essentially a tropical form and this is the only
one of the numerous tropical species of Anona that reaches the
United States. It occurs in ponds and swampy hammocks north-
ward along the Florida coast as far as Cape Malabar.


A carpel of this species was found in the Vero deposits. The
water shield is one of the most interesting survivals from the Pleis-
tocene and its present geographical range is exceeded by few if any
of the higher plants. It is an inhabitant of ponds and slow streams
and in America it is found on both coasts and from Canada to Cuba
and Central America. It is also present in Asia, Africa and Aus-
tralia and was exceedingly common in Europe during the Pleisto-
cene, occurring at this time also in North America.
There is no reason why it should not be present in suitable situ-
ations throughout Florida, but I do not know of any records in the
Lake region or within some hundreds of miles of Vero.

(i) Hollick, A., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 19, p. 331, 1892.






This record is based upon three drupes found in the Vero depos-
its. ,The Gallberry or Inkberry is at present found in sandy soil
near the coast from Massachusetts to Florida, and I found it
abundant along the drainage canal at Vero.




This species is represented by a characteristic samara in the
Vero deposits. The red maple is an inhabitant of swamps and
stream valleys ranging from Canada to Florida and Texas. Its
range in Florida extends southward to about latitude 26 degrees,
and it is still common around Vero. It has been recorded (I) from
the late Pleistocene of Alabama.




A much reticulate stone, identified for me by W. L. McAtee,
represents an extinct species, the characters of which it is hardly
possible to adequately define from a single fruit.
The geologic history of Zizyphus is a most interesting one. As
early as the Upper Cretaceous there were at least ten species in
.'i-'th America and the genus is a common Tertiary type both on

(I) Berry, E. W., Am. Jour. Sci. (IV), vol. 29, p. 397, 191o.


this continent and Europe. The modern species are mostly Indo-
Malayan and the only North American species, except for the nat-
uralized Zisyphus vulgaris, is the Texas Buckthorn Zizyphus obtusi-
folia (Hooker) A. Gray, a western arid species, which is found
from West Texas to Arizona.
What appears to be the same species as the Vero form was
recorded some years ago from the late Pleistocene (Talbot forma-
tion) of New Jersey (I) and indicates the probable abundance of a
new element in the Pleistocene flora of southeastern North America,
one that has only recently become extinct.



Large stout simple tendrils, together with fragments of stems.
undoubtedly represent this species in the Vero deposits. The mod-
ern representatives inhabit sandy swamp borders and thickets from
Maryland to Florida and Texas and are still common at Vero.


The Vero deposits have yielded 5 characteristic grape seeds
which are not those of the preceding species, and which represent
either Vitis austrina Small of the northern peninsula or I'itis cor-
iacea Shuttlw of the West Indies and southern Florida.



This species is represented in the Vero deposits by drupes which
are not certainly identified because of their immaturity. It is cer-
tain, however, that they represent this genus, which in the existing
flora is not recorded nearer Vero than the West Florida region.

(i) Berry, E. W., Torreya, vol. o1, p. 266, 91io.






This species is represented in the Vero deposits by both drupes
and stones. In the existing flora it is an inhabitant of swamps
from Long Island to Florida and Louisiana. In peninsular Florida
it is known from only the Lake region of DeSoto and Polk Counties
and northward. Two southern varieties, augustifolium T. & G.
and serotinum Ravenel, are sometimes distinguished by systematit's,
but I have no material of these for comparison.
Viburnum nudum has been recorded (I) from the late Pleisto-
cene of North Carolina.


This record is based upon drupes and stones from the Vero
deposits. It is close to this essentially more northern existing
species, but may not be identical with it. Viburnum dentatum is an
inhabitant of meadows and swamps and ranges -from New Bruns-
wick to the upland of Georgia. It does not occur in Florida at the
present time.




Two small fruits characteristically those of Xanthium and
probably Xanthium glabratum (D. C.) Britton. were found in the
Vero deposits. Some years ago I collected a fruit of Xanthium
from the late Pleistocene along the Chattahoochee River, the occur-
rence of which I did not publish as I was not positive that it had not
been accidentally mixed with the Pleistocene material.

(x) Berry, E. W., Torreya, vol. 14, p. i6o, 1914.



The foregoing comprise more or less positively identified
remains of 27 species of plants. Nineteen of these have not been
previously found fossil, while the following eight have already
been discovered in Pliocene or Pleistocene deposits:
Pinus taeda. Brasenia purpurea.
Taxodium distichum. Acer rubrum.
Quercus virginiana. Zizyphus sp.
Magnolia virginiana. Viburnum nudum.

The problem, in so far as it relates to the evidence of the plants,
depends on the correct evaluation of the change which this plant
assemblage shows when compared with the flora now growing at
Of the plants found fossil the following are still found at Vero,
and I have included in this list as probably found in the present
flora of Vero the 4 forms of Pinus, Carex, Polygonum and
Xanthium which are not specifically identified. This list comprises:
Pinus caribaea. Quercus brevifolia.
Pinus sp. Polygonum sp.
Carex sp. Magnolia virginiana.
Serenoa serrulata. Ilex glabra.
Sabal palmetto. Acer rubrum.
Myrica cerifera. Vitis cf rotundifolia.
Quercus virginiana. Xanthium sp.
Quercus laurifolia.

In addition to the foregoing 15 species still found at Vero the
following two species are found growing within Io or 12 miles of
Taxodium distichum. Anona glabra.

Three species approach to within about 50 miles of Vero, being
recorded from the southern extension of the Lake region flora of
the central peninsula in DeSoto County. These are:

Pinus taeda Viburnum nudum.
Pistia spathulata.

The following six species are not now found growing in penin-
sular Florida.


Leitneria floridana? Vitis sp.
Quercus chapman? Benzoin cf melissaefolium.
Brasenia purpurea. Viburnum cf dentatum.

Of these Leitneria floridana is a very local form not found
nearer than the Apalachicola River, and the chief center of growth
of Quercus chapman is also in west Florida, while the true Vi-
burnum dentatum does not occur nearer than the upland region of
Finally, the Vero deposits have yielded a fruit probably identical
with similar remains from the late Pleistocene of New Jersey rep-
resenting an entirely extinct species of Zizyphus, a genus abundant
in southeastern North America during the Tertiary, but not now
represented except by a single species of the arid southwest (Texas
to Arizona).
Two of the fossil species have been recorded from the Pliocene.
These are Taxodium distichum and Magnolia i.... One,
Quercus virginiana, is found in the early Pleistocene of both Ken-
tucky and Alabama and the following occur in the late Pleistocene:

Pinus taeda: Acer rubrum.
Taxodium distichum. Zizyphus sp.
Quercus virginiana. Viburnum nudum.
Brasenia purpurea.

These latter, while they constitute but 26 per cent of the known
fossil flora at Vero, are especially significant in connection with the
fact that they all occur elsewhere in the physiographically youngest
of the Pleistocene terrace deposits, namely, the Talbot of New
Jersey and Maryland, the Chowan of North Carolina and the cor-
responding lowest terrace at several localities in Alabama, while the
Vero deposits constitute the youngest physiographic terrace plain
of the region and are referred to the Pensacola terrace by Matson
In my judgment and in the ordinary acceptance of that term,
this flora is unquestionably of late Pleistocene age.
Regarding its bearing on the interesting problem of the age of
the human and associated mammalian and other remains at Vero,
my study of the locality furnishes the following conclusions. The

(1) Matson, G. C., U. S. Geol. Surv., Water Supply Paper 319, Pp. 31-35, 1913.


underlying shell marl, which forms a definite and undisputed datum
plane, is late Pleistocene in age. Its species all exist in nearby
waters at the present time, and many of them have been recorded
from shell marls found from southern New Jersey to the Florida
keys and forming a part of the lowest and latest well-defined terrace
plain previously mentioned as having been named Talbot in Mary-
land, Chowan in North Carolina and Pensacola in Florida. It fol-
lows that the vertebrate remains which are so numerous at Vero
cannot possibly be of middle or early Pleistocene age unless they are
regarded as having been reworked from older deposits, and I cannot
conceive that this was possible, nor do the vertebrate paleontologists
who have examined the deposits consider that such was the case.
In fact, I believe that if it had not been for the over estimate of the
age of this vertebrate fauna, that Dr. Chamberlin would not have
advanced his hypothesis of the reworking and mechanical mixing
of these bones, nor that Dr. Hrdlicka would have insisted on the
human burial theory to account for the presence of the human
skeletal remains. While no human bones were collected during the
time that I studied the deposits, I did collect a number of bone
implements and fragments of pottery in association with the plant
fossils that could not possibly have reached their resting place
through the agency of human burial. Nothing is more reason-
able than to suppose that the larger elements in the
Middle Pleistocene fauna of more northern areas should
have lingered for thousands of years in this more genial
southern clime until the presence of man in considerable
numbers and the changing climate, as is attested by the fossil plants,
should have brought about the extinction of a large percentage of
the fauna. The fauna itself confirms the rather limited data fur-
nished by the fossiL flora of this change in : ::.: :, since it indicates
a more mesophytic habitat than exists today in the vicinity of Vero.
Regarding the burial theory of Dr. Hrdlicka, it may be said that a
part of the plant material came from immediately above one of the
human skeletons, and I cannot conceive of the possibility of not
being able to see evidence of artificial burial in material made up of
alternate layers of sand and matted leaves and other vegetable
debris. I therefore see no reason to doubt that relative modern
men were contemporaneous with this partially extinct fauna of
Middle Pleistocene aspect which survived in Florida to the late
Pleistocene. With regard to the exact age of the Vero deposits


there are it seems to me but two alternatives, and these apply equally
and are-in large part derived from a study of the physiography and
the faunas and floras of the corresponding topographic forms in the
other states of the Coastal plain. These alternatives are that they
are about the same age as the Peorian interglacial deposits of the
Mississippi Valley or are immediately post Wisconsin and corre-
spond with what the Scandinavian geologists have named Litorina




(Plates I and IL, Figs. 1-25.)


Important and interesting fossils of plants, certain invertebrates
and vertebrates were obtained at Vero, Florida, in 1913. Vero is
situated on the Atlantic coast, in the eastern-central part of the
State. The excavations and exploration (still in progress) under-
taken in that locality, which is referred to the Pleistocene, are now
becoming generally known through various publications which have
appeared on the subject. Chief among these is a paper by Dr. E.
H. Sellards, the State Geologist of Florida, which appeared in the
Eighth Annual Report of the Florida State Geological Survey
(pp. 121-160, pls. 15-21), 1916.
During the early part of November, 1916, Doctor Sellards
wrote me in regard to the lot of fossil bird bones which had been
collected from Stratum No. 3 of the Vero excavations, and re-
quested me to describe them for a report (Nov. 4, 1916). This
material was received by me shortly afterwards, and I immediately
undertook an examination of it. To do this as thoroughly as pos-
sible demanded the use of skeletons of a large number of species
of existing birds representing the avifauna of the eastern parts of
the United States. Such skeletons as appeared to b necessary
were loaned me by the Division of Birds of the U. S. National
Museum, a favor for which I am deeply indebted. My thanks are
likewise extended to Dr. Charles W. Richmond, Assistant Curator
of Birds, and to Mr. J. H. Riley, his assistant, for many favors in
this connection, particularly for doing all in their power in the
matter of facilitating my work through their promptness in getting
the loaned skeletons into my hands.
In describing these fossil bones, they will be taken up in the
order they occur on the annexed plates, with the unfigured speci-
mens arrayed at the close of the list. All of the bird bones from
Vero are included in this paper except the large Jabiru weillsi pre-
viously described by Dr. Sellards.



(Plate I., Figs. I, 2.)

One of the most conspicuous bones in this part of the collection
is the imperfect specimen of a left ulna of Cathartes aura; it is in
two pieces (Plate I., Fig. 2), the bits of the shaft joining them hav-
ing been lost. So far as it goes, the specimen is practically perfect,
barring a slight chipping of the extremeties. It agrees in all partic-
ulars with the ulna of the Turkey Buzzard as it occurs at the present
day; even the distances between the papillae for the ends of the sec-
ondary feathers of the wing are the same in number, and occupy
identically the same positions on the shaft.


(Plate I, Fig. 4. Plate II., Fig. 25. Compare with Fig. 3.)
Pleistocene, Vero, Fla., Stratum 2.

There is present in the collection the right humerus of a small
anserine bird, closely related to our Teals of the genus Querquedula.
Comparisons have been made with several species of that genus;
but it differs in one way and another from all of them, while it
agrees in general character. It appears to be most nearly like the
humerus as we find it in Querquedula discors, but differs from it in
being somewhat shorter throughout; that is, the extremities of the
bone are relatively larger and the shaft stouter. This humerus
belonged to a species of Querquedula now extinct, and I propose
for it the name of Querquedula floridana, the type bone being the
humerus here described and figured. Extreme length, 6.6 cms.;
extreme width of head (to apex of radial crest), 1.6 cms. Sigmoid
curve of the shaft rather more pronounced than in Q. discors.
Distally, the tubercles somewhat chipped-otherwise quite perfect.

ARDEA ? (sp. ?) Stratum 3.

(Plate I., Fig. 5.)

No. 6774. Represented by the distal two-thirds of a bird's left
tarso-metatarsus, with the condyles considerably broken away, but
the shaft perfect. This bone has been compared with the corre-


spending one in the skeletons of a great variety of waders of differ-
ent families and genera. It belonged to some species of a heron,
quite closely related to those of the genus Ardea of the same general
size, and larger than such a form as the existing Nycticorax n.
naevius. This specimen is somewhat too imperfect for reference,
or to base a new species upon. It should be set aside until addi-
tional material is discovered that may throw more light on the
question with respect to the species, living or extinct, to which it
probably belonged or represents.

HERONS ? (sp. ?) Stratum 3.

(Plate I., Figs. 5, 6, 9-I.)

No. 7554. This is a rather large, elongate vertebra from the
anterior end of the chain of the cervical vertebrae of the neck of
some heron of medium size; it is more or less perfect anteriorly,
but broken off posteriorly. Comparisons have been made with the
corresponding bone in the skeleton of the neck in a large number
of waders of all kinds, as heron, egrets, spoonbills, and their various
allies. Of all these it comes nearest to Herodias egretta. The
specimen is, however, in the absence of other bones from the same
bird, too fragmentary to refer it with certainty to any existing
species, or to base a new species upon.
In the same lot occur two other vertebrae (Figs. 9 and Io, Plate
I.), and also a distal piece of a tarso-metatarsus (Fig. ii, Plate I.).
All three of these are too small to have belonged to birds of the size
which furnished the tibiotarsus shown in Figure 5, or the vertebra
shown in Figue 6 of this plate. These two small vertebrae (Figs.
9 and Io) may have been from the same skeleton to which the piece
of a tarso-metatarsus, shown in Figure 1I, belonged; but there is no
certainty about this. All three may quite possibly have belonged
to some average-sized wader of the heron order; but it is impossible
to be certain about this until additional material comes to light at
Vero, of the same kind and character, and representing the same


TYTO PRATINCOLA (Barn. Owl), Stratum 3.

Plate I., Figs. 7 and 8. (Fig. 7 fossil).

... 6934. This' is the distal moiety of a right tibiotarsus of an
adult specimen of the Barn Owl (Tyto pratincola). It agrees, with
surprising exactness, with the corresponding part of a tibiotarsus of
this species of owl in a skeleton in the collection of bird skeletons
in the Division of Birds, of the U. S. National Museum (No.
19,636), with which I have compared it.

LARUS ? (sp. ?), Stratum 3.

(Plate I., Fig. 12.)

No. 6773. In the lot at hand there are two fossil bones of birds
bearing this number, one of whict has already been described above
(Fig. 5, P1. I.), and the present one, which is the distal moiety of
the right tarso-metatarsus of some water bird, and possibly, if not
probably, of a gull (Larus), or some form related to the gulls. It is
about the size of the corresponding bone in the skeleton of an adult
Larus atricilla; but its shaft is much broader above, and more com-
pressed in the antero-posterior direction. It should be set aside
until some material be discovered in the same locality, which may
throw light upon it.

ARDEA SELLARDSI, sp. nov., Stratum 3.

(Plate II., Fig. 15.)

No. 7551. This is the distal third of a right tibiotarsus of a
heron, somewhat smaller than Ardea herodias, and apparently dis-
tinct from it. (3 +). It presents all the characters found in the
same bone, or part of a bone, which we find in A. herodias, while
at the same time its shaft is slightly stouter; the anterior tendinal
groove narrower and more distinct; the anterior intercondylar val-
ley narrower and deeper superiorly, and some minor differences.
The condyles in the specimen are considerably abraded, and, more-
over, broken off posteriorly.
This fossil is the type bone of a new species of extinct heron,
for which I propose the name of Ardea sellardsi, naming it for Dr.
Elias Howard Sellards, in recognition of the valuable work he is


performing and has performed as State Geologist of the State of

(Plate II., Fig. 17.)

No, 6932. There are two pieces of fossil bird bones bearing this
number in the collection; one of them is shown on Plate II., Fig. 17,
and will be described below. The other is a piece of a long bone-
that is, a portion of a humeral shaft of a rather large bird, and it is
so fragmentary as to be valueless as a specimen for reference. The
other (Plate II., Fig. 17) is the distal third of the left tarso-metatar-
sus of an adult Ardea herodias and probably differed in no marked
respect from that species as we now meet with it in the existing
avifauna of Florida. Possibly it may have been a subspecies of
Ardea herodias; but there is no telling in regard to that from a
fossil bone.

MYCTERIA AMERICANA (?) Pleistocene, Stratum 3.

(Plate II., Fig. xg.)

No. 7000. An imperfect distal third of a right tarso-metatar-
sus of a large wader, more or less imperfect, and trochleae nearly all
broken off. Upon comparing this imperfect fragment with the cor-
responding bone from a skeleton of Mycteria americana in the col-
lections of the U. S. National Museum (No. 1507), it is found to
agree very closely with it in nearly all the characters, and such
differences as the fossil bone presents in this comparison may be
entirely due to individual variation. In the fossil, the shaft is a
trifle stouter and the tendinal groove somewhat wider, while, as a
matter of fact, the differences are very slight. The probabilities are
that No. 7000, here described, belongs to a specimen of Mycteria

HUMERUS OF A FOSSIL BIRD (gen. et sp. ?), Pleistocene, Stratum 3.

(Plate II., Fig. 20.)

No. 7552. (24). Some of the characters of this fragment
point to the possibility of its having belonged to some medium-sized


anserine form. It had a length of about that of Dendrocygnus
autumnalis, and it very possibly may have belonged to a bird of that
genus--that is, a Tree Duck. It should be set aside until further
material be brought to light from excavations at Vero later on.

LARUS VERO, sp. nov.

(Plate II, Fig. 21.)

Pleistocene, Stratum 3, Vero, Fla.

The type bone.

No. 6933. Left carpo-metacarpus of an extinct gull, of a
larger species than Larus atricilla, or a larger bird among the terns
than Sterna maxima. This bone runs very close with respect to
characters among the gulls and terns. Still, everything else being
equal, the head of the bone is proportionately larger in the terns, as
compared with its shaft, than it is in the gulls. This can be appre-
ciated by comparing Figures 21-23 of Plate II. Then the general
morphology of the proximal extremity of the bone is somewhat dif-
ferent, which may also be appreciated by critically comparing the
aforesaid figures. The specimen is imperfect, the shaft of medius
metacarpal having been broken off and lost. Extreme length 5.75
For this new and now extinct Gull I propose the name of Larus
vero, the specific name being for the locality where it was discov-

(Not identified.)

No. 6793. Stratum 3. This bone belonged to some large bird of
an unknown species. The extremities having been broken off and
lost, it is too fragmentary for identification or reference. It should
be set aside until further material comes to light during future
excavations in the same locality.
Washington, July 20, 1917.
Number 6931.-Proximal two-thirds of a left tarsometatarsus,
nearly perfect, of some wader (adult). This bone agrees very
closely with the corresponding one, or part of one, belonging to a
skeleton of an adult Egret (Herodias egretta) in the collections of


the United States National Museum. The shaft in the fossil bone
is but very slightly stouter, which may be due to individual variation
or difference in sex. It is quite possible that the fossil bone be-
longed to the Egret just named, and certainly to a very closely allied
species in the event that it did not. On the back of this specimen
number 19 is found, in ink.
Number 6931,19--. For some reason this specimen is num-
bered exactly like the last, though it apparently has no relation to it,
beyond, perhaps, having been discovered in the same place and at the
same time. It consists of anterior moiety of the left scapula of an
adult bird of some considerable size. Upon comparison it seems to
very closely approach the corresponding bone, or that part of it,
in the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura septentrionalis), and pos-
sibly may have belonged to that species.
Number 6773, 46. This is a right scapula, with the distal part
broken off and lost. Like the two foregoing, it is thoroughly fos-
silized, and of a chocolate color, of a shade agreeing with the tarso-
metarsus described above. The individual was adult; the anterior
extremity is somewhat abraded. It differs in not a few particulars
from the last, though it came from a bird about the same size as a
Turkey Buzzard. It is highly pneumatic, and a row of such fora-
mina are to be seen in a deep transverse groove, seen upon its dorsal
aspect, just within the anterior articular head of the bone. All three
of these specimens should be held till more material is discovered, of
a kind that will throw further light upon them, before final refer-
ences are made.



(Both plates are reproduced from photographs of the actual specimens by
Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. All the figures are natural size.)
Fig. Y. Dorsal aspect of the left ulna of Cathartes aura. No. 17872, ColL
U. S. National Museum.
Fig. 2. Dorsal aspect of the left ulna of Cathartes aura (fossil). From
Stratum No. 3, Vero, Fla. (Fla. Geol. Surv., 1916). Pleistocene.
Cat No. 6783 (2 pieces). Imperfect.
Fig. 3. Anconal aspect of the right humerus of Querquedula discors. No.
17704, Coll. U. S. National Museum.
Fig. 4. Anconal aspect of the right humerus of Querquedula Aoridanoa sp. n.,v.
Shuf. From Stratum No. 2, Vero, Fla. (Fla. State Geol. Surv, 1916).
Pleistocene. Very nearly perfect. Cat. No. 7550.
Fig. 5. (No. 6774). The distal two-thirds of the left tarso-metatarsus (im-
perfect) of some heron (Ardea), larger than Nycticorax r. noevius;
anterior view. Not quite perfect enough for exact reference.
Stratum No. 3, Vero, Fla. Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916). Pleistocene.
Fig. 6. Dorsal aspect of a large, elongate vertebra (9) from the skeleton of
the neck of some sort of a heron; imperfect. Leading section of the
chain. Comes near Herodia egretta. From Stratum No. 3, Vero, Fia.
(Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916). Pleistocene.
Fig. 7. Distal half, anterior view, of the right tibio-tarsus of an adult speci-
men of Tyto pratincola (fossil). Vero, Florida. No. 6934. (Fla. State
Geol. Surv., 1916). Compare with figure 8 of this plate.
Fig. 8. Right tibio-tarsus and fibula of a specimen of Tyto pratincola; anterior
view. Nat. size. (Spec. 19636, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.) Compare with
the fossil specimen shown in Fig. 7 of this plate.
Figs. 9 and to. Vertebrae of some small or average-sized wader (bird). They
are from the posterior region of the neck and nearly perfect. Fig. 9
is seen on ventral view, and Fig. To upon dorsal aspect. Vero, Florida,
Pleistocene. (Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916. Stratum No. 3.)
Fig. Ii. From the same lot as the last; same date and Stratum. Distal extrem-
ity of a right tarso-metalarsus (bird). Not identified. Perfect as far
as it goes. It probably belonged to some sort of an average-sized
wader, perhaps after the heron order, or a near ally. Anterior surface.
Fig. 12. No. 6773 is the lower two-thirds of the right tibio-tafrus of some
medium-sized water bird; nearly perfect as far as it goes. Anterior
view. (Orig. Number 57 ?) Vero, Florida. Pleistocene. Stratum
No. 3. (Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916). It may possibly have
belonged to a gull, somewhat larger than Larus atricilla and in the same
genus. (Compare with No. 19592, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus., L. atricilla.)



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Fig. 13. The distal portion of the shaft of the right tibio-tarsus of Mycleria
americana, anterior view. (No. 1507, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). Note
the marked differences in the characters of this bone as compared with
the corresponding ones in the tibio-tarsus of Ardea herodias, Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. The distal portion of the shaft of the right tibio-tarsus of Ardea
herodias; anterior view. (No. 18616, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare
with Nos. 13 and 15 of this plate.
Fig. 15. The distal portion of the shaft of the right tibio-tarsus of Ardea
sellardsi, sp. nov. (fossil). No. 7551, Vero, Fla. (Ila. State Geol.
Surv., 1916). Compare with Figs. 13 and 14. Borders of condyles
considerably abraded.
Fig. 16. Anterior view of the distal third of the left tarso-metatarsus of an
adult Ardea herodias, (No. 18616, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare
with Figure 17 of this plate.
Fig. 17. Anterior view of the distal third of the left tarso-metatarsus of an
adult Ardea herodias; fossil. Vero, Florida. (Fla. State Geol. Surv.,
1916.) The shaft of this bone is very slightly stouter than the one
shown in Figure 16, doubtless due to individual variation. No. 6932.
Fig. 18. Right tarso-metatarsus (adult) of Mycteria americana; posterior
view; distal half. (No. 1507, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare with
Fig. 19 of this plate.
Fig. r9. Distal half of an imperfect right tarso-metatarsus (fossil) from Vero,
Florida. (Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916). No. 7000. Very possibly
belonged to a specimen of Myeteria americana, or to a closely related
Fig. 20. Right humerus of a bird (adult) fossil. (No. 7552 (24) ). Vero,
Florida. (Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916). Imperfect; proximal extrem-
ity broken off and lost. Possesses the characters of a small heron, or
a closely related form.
Fig. 21. Left carpo-ictacarpus of an extinct gull (adult; fossil; No. 6933,
Vero, Florida; Fla. State Geol. Surv., g916). Imperfect. Larus vero,
sp. nov. Type bone. Pleistocene, Stratum 3.
Fig. 22. Left carpo-metacarpus of Larus atricilla; adult. (No. 19592, Coll.
U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare with Figure 21 (Larus vero), and 23.
Fig. 23. Left carpo-metacarpus of Sterna maxima; adult. (No. 18903, Coll.
U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare with Figures 21 (Larus vero) and 22.
Fig. 24. Right humerus, palmar aspect, of Querquedula discors; adult. (No.
17704, Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). Compare with bone shown in Fig. 25
of this plate.
Fig. 25. Right humerus, palmar aspect, of a fossil Teal Duck from Vero,
Florida. (Fla. State Geol. Surv., 1916); adult. Querquedula flori-
dana, sp. nov. Compare with Figure 24 of this plate.




Digitized by Google


ji., 18.







The writer has been permitted to study a collection of fossil
vertebrates which Dr. E. H. Sellards, State Geologist of Florida,
and his assistant, Mr. Herman Gunter, and others had made at dif-
ferent times in the Pleistocene deposits at Vero, Florida. The
fossils noted below, some of which are described at length, were
found in what has come to be known as No. 3, or as the "muck
bed." In the following list those species whose names are preceded
by t are extinct:



1. Aetobatis narinari. Spotted sting ray.
A section of a tooth plate.
2. Lepisosteus platystomus. Short-nosed gar pike.
A right dentary and one other bone.
3. Amiatus calvus (Amia calva of authors). Bowfin.
The left articular and a left dentary with teeth.
4. Caranx hippos. Crevalli.
An inflated bone belonging beneath the clavicle.
5. Caranx sp. indet.; not C. hippos.
Inflated bones belonging in the median plane and supporting the

6. Amphiuma means. Congo snake.
Three vertebrae examined.
7. Siren lacertina. Siren.
A single vertebra seen.


8. Caretta caretta. The loggerhead turtle.
A right squamosal bone.


9. Chelonia mydas. The green turtle.
A humerus of a young individual.
Io. tChelydra sculpta. Extinct snapping turtle.
Seven bones of one individual. Further described below.
i1. i .. -, ys? nuchocarinata. Extinct terrapin.
One nuchal bone.
12. tPseudemys floridanus persimilis. Extinct .subspecies of the Florida
A pair of epiplastrals.
13. tTerrapene innoxia. Small extinct box-tortoise.
Many specimens, including a number of complete carapaces.
14- tTerrapene antipex. Large extinct box-tortoise.
Many specimens, single bones.
15. Gopherus polyphemus. The gopher tortoise.
Nuchal, epiplastral, and both xiphiplastrals; but probably of different
16. Drymarchon corais. (Georgia couperi, Baird and Girard's Cat. Rept.
N. Amer., p. 92). Indigo snake.
Several vertebrae.
17. Farancia abacura. Red-bellied horn snake.
Articular bone.
18. Crotalus adamanteus. Diamond rattlesnake.
19. Alligator mississippiensis. Alligator.
Teeth, fragment of jaw, etc.


20. Didelphis virginiana. Opossum.
Many parts of the skeleton. Probably not distinguishable from the
subspecies pigra.
21. tDasypus, sp. indet. Fossil armadillo.
Represented by dermal scutes. Probably an undescribed species.
22. tChlamytherium septentrionalis. Northern giant armadillo.
Besides dermal plates collected in No. 3 by Dr. Sellards, the writer
secured two fine plates which show no signs whatever of transporta-
tion. They probably belonged to the same animal.
23. tEquus littoralis? Small extinct horse.
Represented by an incisor which, on account of its small size, appears
to belong to this species. Dr. Sellards informs the writer that he
has recently secured from No. 3 one good and complete incisor
tooth of a horse. Its size indicates a horse larger than E. littoralis
and hence belongs probably either to E. complicates or to E. leidyi.


24. tTapirus haysii? Extinct tapir.
A tooth. No. 6943.
25. tTayassu lenis. Extinct peccary.
Various remains of one or more extinct peccaries have been found at
Vero in both deposits, No. 2 and No. 3. Further remarks will be
found below.
26. tBison, sp. indet. Extinct bison.
From No. 3 the writer took a well preserved penultimate upper pre-
molar of a bison. It had been considerably worn during the life of
the animal. There is no reason to suppose that it belonged to the
existing species.
27. Odocoileus osceola? Florida deer.
Various bones which seem to have belonged to a deer about as large as
Odocoileus virginians are referred provisionally to 0. osceola.
They belong possibly all to the next species.
28. tOdocoileus sellardsiam, new species. Extinct Florida deer. This species
is described below.

29. tMammut americanum. American mastodon.
Fragments of bones which probably belong to this species are common
in No. 3. In the collection studied, there is a large fragment of a
30. tElephas columbi. Columbian elephant.
In the collection are four fragments of teeth.

31. Oryzomys palustris? Rice-field mouse.
A left ramus of the lower jaw, having the number 6773, is regarded as
belonging most probably to this species.

32. Sigmodon hispidus. Cotton rat.
There are several jaws of a Sigmodon which does not appear to differ
from the one here named.
33. Neotoma floridana. Florida wood rat.
A right ramus of the lower raw shows no important differences when
compared with jaws of the existing form in Florida. The teeth
are missing.
34. Neofiber alleni. Allen's muskrat.
Several jaws and one nearly complete skull of this species are in
the collection.
35. Sylvilagus palustris. Marsh rabbit.
The rabbit materials collected in No. 3 appear to belong to this species.
The writer has a left mandibular ramus with teeth from this
36. Scalopus aquaticus australis. Southern mole
This species is represented by a lower jaw.


37. Ursus floridanus. Florida bear.
There are present a lower right first molar and a lower right third
molar which do not appear to differ from the corresponding teeth
of the existing Florida bear. Possibly better materials might
reveal differences.
38. Procyon lotor. Raccoon.
There is in the collection examined a right maxilla and some limb bones
which appear to belong to this species.
39. Lutra canadensis. Otter.
Represented by a femur.
40. tVulpes palmaria, new species. Extinct fox.
This fox is described below.
41. tCanis riviveronis, new species. Extinct coyote.
This new coyote is described below.
42. tCanis sp. indet. Extinct dog.
A small heavily built dog is represented in No. 3 by a humerus and a
radius. Further remarks on it will be found below.
43. Lynx ruffus floridanus. Florida lynx.
Represented by a tibia and a lower jaw. Further described below.


Plate 3. Fig. .

From the stratum designated by Sellards as No. 3, there have
been sent to the writer seven bones of a Chelvdra, which is to be
referred to C. sculpta (8th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv.. p. 73). It
is evident that all of these bones belonged to the same individual.
The nearly complete nuchal and the right and left first costal plates
are present and the latter fit the nuchal accurately. The second
left costal joins accurately the costal in front. The fourth and the
fifth right costals are present, and on the left is the fifth costal, with
its proximal end missing.
All of the costals were in life connected with the peripheral
bones, the jagged suture passing in most cases across the upper sur-
face of the end of the rib. In a specimen of C. serpentina, whose
warped carapace had been about 240 mm. long the first costal is
sutured to the peripherals except over the rib. The others, except
the seventh and eighth and a little of the hinder border of the sec-
ond, are '. 1- i;. removed from the peripherals; and the ribs, whose


ends of course are inserted into the peripherals, are for considerable
distances left uncovered by the bone of the costal plate. In the
fossil the costal plates hide the upper surfaces of the rib down to
the edges of the peripherals.
The nuchal of the fossil differs in a conspicuous manner from
that of the recent C. serpentina. In the latter there is on each side
a slender process which runs along the inner border and inferior
face of the anterior peripherals, reaching the hinder end of the
second peripheral. In the fossil species this process is very short,
as shown in figure i of plate 3. On the left side of the bone this
process is broken off; on the right it is complete. The nuchal had
an extreme width of 70 mm.; a length of 20 mm. in the midline.
The nuchal scute had a length of 6 mm. and a width of 24 mm.
The width of the first vertebral scute was 52 mm.; its length on the
midline, 38 mm.
The first costal plate has an extreme width, fore and aft, of
34 mm.; a length of 64 mm., not including the distal end of the rib.
The free proximal part of the rib has about the same size as in
C. serpentina, but there is in the fossil a considerably larger angle
between it and the proximal part of the costal plate. This differ-
ence in the direction taken by the free part of the rib is conspicuous
in all of the costal plates.


This species was first recognized (8th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol.
Surv. p. 70, pl. VI., fig. 5) from a portion of a nuchal bone which
had been found in Pleistocene deposits at Station 120, on the Inland
Waterway canal, about 20 miles north of St. Augustine. A nuchal
bone found in : ... 3 at Vero evidently belongs to the same. species.
Its catalog No. is 7011. It is complete and shows no signs of
transportation. It is considerably smaller than the type, the length
on the midline being only 29 mm., the greatest width 35 mm.; the.
width on the front border 14 mm. The first vertebral scute area is
23 mm. wide and is ornamented by the ridges produced by the
growth of the horny scute. There is a prominent median keel.
Another nuchal No. 7573 was found in stratum No. 2. In size
it is intermediate between the type specimen and the one described
above. The bone is complete, and without abrasion of any kind.
The total length in the midline is 39 mm.; the total width, 42 mm.;
the width of the front border, 22 mm.; the width of the first verte-


bral scute, in front, 39 mm. The nuchal scute area is not as narrow
as it is in the type and not as wide above (5mm.) as it is on the
underside of the bone (6 mm.). The area of the first vertebral
scute is marked by strong lines of growth.


In the collection made by Dr. Sellards in stratum No. 3, at Vero,
is the articular bone of a snake which seems to have belonged to
this species. The bone has a length of 41 mm., but a small piece
is broken from the front end. It has been compared with an artic-
ular of a skull which belongs to Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, and which, as
he reports, he took from a Farancia 6 feet and 3 inches long, found
near New Orleans. This bone is 44 mm. long. Three other bones,
considerably smaller, belonging to the National Museum, have been
used for comparison.
In the New Orleans specimen the two plates which enclose the
insertion of the masseter muscle are of equal height, 7 mm. In all
the other bones, including the fossil, the outer plate is much lower.
In the fossil the inner plate is 8 mm. high. While the fossil presents
some peculiarities, they are probably due to individual variation.
The snake which possessed this bone was probably about 6 feet long.
The lower jaw of Abastor is similar to that of Farancia, but the
dentary extends backward only a short distance behind the front of
the articular; while in Farancia the dentary, with teeth, is carried
back more than half-way to the groove for the masseter muscle.


Plate 3. Figs. 2, 3.

While at Vero, November I, 1916, the writer found in the
stratum of sand, No. 2, 460 feet west of the railroad bridge, a finely
preserved upper left hindermost molar of a small peccary. An
examination of this seems to show that it belongs to Tayassu lenis,
originally described and figured by Leidy (Holmes Post-pliocene
Foss. S. Car., p. io8, pl. XVII, figs. 13, 14) as Dicotyles fossilis.
In 1869 (Ext. Mamm. N. A. p. 389) Leidy named this D. lenis. It
is now referred to the genus Tayassu.
The length of the crown of.the molar (pl. 3, fig. 2) found at
Vero is 14.8 mm.; the width in front is 10.2 mm. The tooth is


remarkable for its simplicity of construction. Besides the four
principal cones there is a heel consisting of two minute tubercles.
No other tubercles appear anywhere. A faintly developed ridge
descends from the summit of the metacone and meets a similar
hardly perceptible ridge which descends from the summit of the
protocone. There is no cingulum. A slight ridge descends from
the paracone to the front of the base of the protocone.
Mr. I. M. Weills, of Vero, sent the writer a small collection of
fossils which were found along the drainage canal at Vero. Among
these was a remarkably small upper left canine (pl. 3, fig. 3) of a
peccary. This also the writer refers to T. lenis. It was found
near the top of No. 2. The front border is worn away from whet-
ting against the lower canine. Its original height cannot be deter-
mined. Root and crown together now are 26 mm. high; the crown
itself, 14 mm. The fore and aft diameter of the base of the crown
is 7.2 mm.; the thickness, 5.2 mm. On the abraded surface the
pulp cavity is exposed. A second upper left canine, from stratum
No. 3, catalogue No. 6944, is much less worn on the front edge.
The root and crown together measure 32 mm.; the crown above,
13 mm. The fore-and-aft diameter at the base of the crown is
7 mm. The thickness is 5 mm. These teeth are very small when
compared with those of the existing pecaries.
On the page just cited of the Extinct Mammalia, Leidy referred
to a remarkably small canine tooth of a peccary which Cope had
originally described as Cynorca proterva. This canine had a fore-
and-aft diameter of 9.4 mm. and a thickness of a little more than
6 mm. It thus resembled the canine found at Vero.
One of the two teeth of Tayassu lenis originally figured by
Leidy was a lower molar, probably a second. It measured 7 by
5.75 lines; that is 14.6 mm. by 12 mm. In two existing peccaries
measured the length of the second lower molar is almost exactly
that of the uppermost hinder molar. In one of them the width of
the second lower molar is somewhat less than that of the upper
hindermost; in the other it is greater. It is seen from the above
measurements that the length of the Vero tooth is almost the same
as that of the second lower molar described by Leidy. The width
of the Vero last molar is less than in Leidy's second molar. The
lower hindermost molar which Leidy described had a length of
about 17 mm.


Leidy mentions especially the simplicity of structure of the
molars in his possession.
In No. 3 this species appears to be represented by the distal end
of a tibia, No. 6737. This bone is much smaller than the corre-
sponding bone of the existing peccary. The side-to-side diameter
is only 14 mm. In the same stratum there has been found a peccary
canine which appears to be entirely too large to have belonged to
T. lenis, in case the small canine has been properly referred.


Plate 3. Fig. 4.

Type specimen.-A fifth cervical vertebra, not water-worn, but
lacking, through fractures, the right diapophysis and the borders of
some of the other processes. No. 7923 of the Florida Geological
Type locality.-Vero, Florida.
Type formation.-Stratum No. 3 of the Pleistocene deposits at
Diagnosis.-Diapophysis entirely separated from the para-
pophysis of its side; its base short, on a level with, and wholly in
front of, the hinder opening of the vertebraterial canal.
This species is named in honor of Mrs. Anna Mary Sellards,
wife of the present State Geologist of Florida.
In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey is a fifth
cervical vertebra (No. 7923), which was found in stratum No. 3,
the "muck bed," at Vero. The exact locality (Station 19) was on
the south side of the canal and extended from 460 to 470 feet west
of the railroad bridge. This is where the second lot of human
bones was found. On comparing this bone with the corresponding
one of Odocoileus virginianus, 0. hemionus (pl. 3, fig. 5) and
0. osceola, it is seen to differ from all of them. In all of the species
just named the diapophysis is more or less closely connected with
the parapophysis, has a long base, and is situated below the verte-
brarterial canal. In 0. sellardsiae the diapophysis is separated
from the parapophysis, has a short base, is on a level with the canal
mentioned, and is in front of it. In short, it has the same position
that this process has in the sixth vertebra. Otherwise the vertebra
resembles the fifth in the other species. The length of the body of the
vertebra, measured from the centers of the front and rear articula-


tory surfaces, is 42 mm. In a buck of 0. virginianus at hand the
corresponding length is 50 mm.
From the locality just mentioned there have been secured 50
deer bones representing at least three individuals. Among these
bones are an axis; a first dorsal vertebra; two second dorsals, of
which one fits closely the first dorsal present; a badly preserved,
more posteriorly situated, dorsal; three lumbars, the third, fourth
and fifth, which connect as well as in a recent skeleton; the complete
sacrum; three innominate bones, two of which undoubtedly belong
with the sacrum; and other bones, some of which will be mentioned
later. It is necessary to compare these with corresponding bones
of other deer. The centrum of the second dorsal lacks the hinder
epiphysis; the corresponding one of 0. virginianus retains it, but
shows the suture. The two centra had almost exactly the same
length. The rear of that of the Virginia deer, taken across the
surfaces for the ribs, is 32 mm. wide; that of the fossil, 35 mm.
The extreme width of the bones is almost exactly the same. The
spine of the fossil vertebra is somewhat higher, but it is narrower
from front to rear than the other. The surface for the tuberculum
of the rib extends backward in the fossil farther than in the existing
deer. The horizontal diameter of the spinal canal is considerably
larger in the existing deer (18 mm.) than in the fossil (16 mm.).
In a young 0. osceola the diameter is 17 mm.
The hinder epiphysis of the fossil second vertebra is gone; but
the length was that of the same vertebra of O. virginianus used
for comparison. The width of the hinder end of the centrum of
the fossil was apparently a little less than that of the existing deer.
The extreme width across the transverse processes in the fossil is
44 mm.; in the existing deer, 56 mm. In the fossil the surface for
the tuberculum of the rib extends backward considerably behind the
notch for the exit of the spinal nerve; while in 0. virginiants it
stops well in front of the notch. In 0. osceola the process reaches
nearly to a perpendicular from the notch.
The three lumbars of the fossil, Nos. 7000, 7765, and 7766,
have the length only slightly less than that of the same bones in
O. virginianus. The width across the processes supporting the
anterior zygapophysis of the third lumbars is 29 mm.; in 0. virgin-
ianus, 31 mm. The distance across the postzygapophysis in the
fossil is 23 mm.; in the other deer, 26 mm. The transverse pro-
cesses of the fossil vertebrae are missing, but evidently they were


not so broad as in the deer they were compared with. In the cases
of the fourth and fifth lumbars only unimportant differences are
seen on comparison with the corresponding bones of the Virginian
deer. The processes are, however, all of slenderer build in the
fossil. The transverse processes of the fifth are preserved, except
the extremities. They are slenderer even than those of the sixth
lumbar of O. .0.:::....... and they are directed outward and but
little forward.
On the two hinder dorsal vertebrae and on the lumbars of the
deer found at Vero there is a structure which appears in none of
the existing deer at hand, except the specimen which has here been
used for comparison, No. 199510, of the U. S. National Museum.
Usually the prezygapophysis bends inward like a hook and clasps
the postzygapophysis of the vertebra in front. In the case of the
fossil, a process on each side, mesiad of the hinder zygapophysial
articulation, grows up and, bending outward, overlaps the hook
mentioned, producing an articular surface on the end of the latter.
The vertebrae are thus more firmly interlocked. On plate 3, figure
6, there is presented a view of the hinder end of the third lumbar.
This arrangement is found well developed on the eleventh dorsal.
No. 7591, found on the north side of the canal, Ioo feet west of the
railroad track, and on all of the lumbars; for the anterior zyga-
pophyses of the first vertebra of the sacrum have. each a smooth
surface above. The extra process is weakly developed or missing
in only rare cases. In the specimen of 0. virginianus mentioned the
same structure appears on the eleventh dorsal and continues on the
lumbars, disappearing on the fourth. From the materials at hand
it is judged that the arrangement described was more strongly
developed than in the existing kinds of deer. It is, however.
observed in some other artiodactyls and i... .' .. has no great signi-
ficance in the Florida fossil deer.
Among the 50 bones mentioned is a finely ;:. .:. .1 sacrum
which may well have belonged to the same individual deer as did
the three lumbar vertebrae described above. The length of the
bone in a straight line is 97 mm., while that of a buck of O. .i"
ianus is 112 mm. The width across the front is 78 mm.; that in
the buck mentioned, 94 umm. The sacrum of 0. virginianus is thus
relatively somewhat broader. Also the -.- : : ..: across the prezy-
gapophysial articulation is relatively considerably greater, being 43
per cent. of the length of the sacrum, while in 0. sellardsiae it is only



33 per cent. The length of the zygapophysial surfaces on the
front of the sacrum is nearly twice as great as in the buck men-
Found at the same spot is the practically complete left innomi-
nate bone which belonged with the sacrum. The one of the right
side is present, but lacks the part behind the acetabulum. Both
bones make accurate contact with the sacrum. The presence of all
the bones of this pelvis is of interest because it indicates that they
had not been washed in from some other place after a previous
burial. In a small collection made for the writer by Mr. Isaac M.
Weills there is a part of the first sacral vertebra, which is recorded
as having been found 8 inches below the upper surface of stratum
No. 2. The peculiar articulatory surface on the upper face of the
prezygapophysis is somewhat more strongly developed than in the
sacrum described above.
From No. 3 there are present an atlas (No. 7591), an axis
(No. 7039), a sixth cervical (No. 7591), an eleventh dorsal (No.
7591), and the right ramus of a lower jaw (No. 7039) containing
well-worn teeth. These were found near one another on the north
side of the canal, ioo feet north of the railroad bridge. At least
the atlas and the axis belonged to one individual. They point to a
deer larger than 0. sellardsiae; but common parts for comparison
are wanting. The atlas, axis, and sixth cervical do not show any
characters that separate them with certainty from 0. virginianus;
and they indicate a deer fully as large as this species. For the
present they may be referred to 0. osceola. The body of the
eleventh dorsal is 3 mm. longer than that of the buck of the Virgin-
ian deer mentioned. The postzygapophyses have the same modifica-
tion as has been described in the case of the lumbars which are
referred to 0. sellardsiae.
With difficulty Doctor Sellards secured, through Isaac M.
Weills, most of the vertebrae and the pelvis of the existing Florida
deer, 0. osceola, for comparison with the fossil deer and with
0. virginianus. 0. osceola is certainly distinct from 0. sellardsiae.
Unfortunately the skeleton of 0. osceola is that of a young female
and one cannot be sure that the many differences found between it
and such skeletons of 0. virginianus as are at hand are not due to
immaturity or to sex.
In the collection sent by Dr. Sellards are the proximal ends
of two scapulae from No. 3. They have the catalogue numbers


7009 and 7764. They differ slightly in size, but neither has the
neck of the bone as narrow as that of the specimen found by Sel-
lards from stratum No. 2 (8th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv. pl.
XXVII, fig. I).
Three complete humeri were found among the 50 bones men-
tioned, but they belonged to as many individuals. No constant
differences appear on comparing them with humeri of 0. virgin-
ianus. There, are also the proximal end of another humerus from
the station just mentioned and the distal ends of three from other
From station 19 there come two radii, a right and a left, which
must have belonged to the same rather young deer. The size is the
same, each has lost the distal epiphysis, and curiously enough each
has, on the inner face near the distal end, a hole about Io mm. by
17 mm. How these holes have been made the writer does not
know. One of these bones, the left, is here compared with the
corresponding bone of O. ..'., .'.:;:. .:...

0. virgin-
No. 6999 ianus
Distance along inner border from surface for humerus to
epiphysial suture ---------------..---------.--------- 178 194
Total length on the inner (anterior) border (fossil estimated) 193 211
Greatest width at upper end ---------------------------------- 35 39
Greatest diameter at middle of length .--------------------- 195 25
Shorest diameter at middle of length -------------------- 3 15
Greatest diameter at epiphysial suture ------------------.-- 27 34
It will be observed that the fossil radius has relatively to the
length a considerably slenderer shaft. No other differences are
noted. The fragments of two or three ulnae present no peculiar
There have been found in No. 3 one complete right front cannon
bone, No. 6764, and the distal halves of two others. The complete
one is here compared with the same bone of 0. virginianus.

0. virgin-
No. 6764 ianus
Total length -------------------------------------------- 194 204
Width across upper end ---------------------------------- 26 30
Fore-and-aft diameter at midlength .---------------------- 16 17
Side-to-side diameter at midlength -------.----------------- 15 18
Diameter across lower articulatory surface ---------------- 27 31


It will be seen that the fossil bone is relatively slenderer than
that of the existing deer. Possibly the fossil bone was that of a doe.
Another bone, No. 7766, is that of an adult, but it is much
smaller than the bone just described. The fore-and-aft diameter
at the middle of the length is 14 mm.; the side-to-side diameter,
13 mm.; the width across the lower articulation, 25 mm.
The bones of one pelvis have already been described. There is
among the lot from station 19 a considerable part of the ischial
portion of the right innominatum, which may belong with the one
above described; but some bone is missing and contact is made
impossible. From the same locality is another quite complete left
The writer has seen only one complete femur of. a deer from
Vero, No. 5896; from stratum No. 3, north bank, east of the bridge.
It appears to present no peculiar features; neither do the fragments
of the other femora.
Several tibiae are represented by the distal end of the bones, but
they show nothing distinctive. The same remark applies to the
various bones present of the front and hinder feet.
There are present from No. 3 a beautifully preserved left hinder
cannon bone, No. 6767, and the proximal end of one of the right
side. Besides these, there has been sent one of the. right side, : .
5195, whose stratum is not known and which lacks the epiphysis.
As this and No. 6767 show some differences in proportions their
measurements are here given, together with those of the same bone
of 0. virginianus.

0. virgin-
No. 6767 No. 5195 ianus
Length to suture for epiphysis ------------------- 212 225 210
Total length (5195 estimated) -----------------... 230 244 231.
Width of upper articulatory surface -------------- 25 22 26.5
Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of length.-----.-- 20.5 r8 19
Side-to-side diameter at middle of length..------. 16 15 16.8
Width at suture for epiphysis ------------------ 29 27 30
Width of distal articulatory surfaces-------.--- 29 27f 31

It will be observed that No. 5195 is a longer bone than either of
the others, but all the transverse measurements are less. The fore-
and-aft diameter at middle of the length in 5195 is but little more


than 7 per cent. of the total length, while in the other bones it is
about 9 per cent. Just what this means cannot now be determined.
The measurements of the other two bones are not greatly different
All of the fossil hinder cannon bones differ from those of 0. virgin-
ianus in having the outer of the two ridges which bound the hinder
groove more prominent than the inner one.
There are in the collection from station 19 a part of a right
premaxilla containing the three premolars and a part of a left max-
illa containing the three molars. Both have the numbers 6952.
The molar teeth are somewhat more worn than the premolars, so
that we must conclude that the two bones did not belong to the
same individual. There is also a left ramus of a lower jaw, No.
7765, nearly complete and containing all of the teeth. To the
molars of this jaw the molars of the fragment of maxilla fit accu-
rately. Both must have belonged to one individual. A comparison
of these with jaws and teeth of Odocoileus virginianus and of O.
osceola yield to the observer no differences that seem to be constant.
The following measurements of the teeth are furnished for future
comparisons. The measurements of the teeth of a second complete
left ramus, No. 6951, found at this same place, are included.


Upper Teeth Lower Teeth

No. 6952 No. 7765
Length of line of premolars----------------------- 36 34
Length of line of molars ------------------------. 44.5 48
Length of pm2 ...---------..------------.-- 12 10
Width of pm2 ---...-............ ..... -........ 11.2 5.3
Length of pm3 ---------------------------------- 11.2 11.5
Width of pm3 ------------------------------------- 12 7
Length of pm4 --_-------------------....--- I 12
Width of pm4 ---------------------------------.. 13 8.2
Length of mi --------------------- -------------- 13 12
Width of mi -------------------------- ------- 13.5 o1
Length of m2 -..---------------------------------- 15 14
Width of m2 -------. -.--------------------------. 16 10
Length of m3 -----..----------------- 15 20
Width of m3 .----.-.-------------------------- --- 1 10o

No. 6951


Besides the differences shown in the measurements of the teeth
of Nos. 7765 and 6951, the space between the rear of the symphysis
and the front of the tooth row in the former is only 27 mm. long;


while in No. 6951 it is 38 mm. In the first, the bone is 9 mm.
thick; in the latter, only 7 mm. As to the meaning of these differ-
ences nothing at present can be said.
A left ramus No. 7039, was found with the large cervicals 7039
and 7591. The tooth row has the same length as No. 6951. The
distance of the symphysis is slightly greater than in 6951.
Among the deer bones collected in the "muck bed" at Vero are
some which belonged to adult animals and are much smaller than
the corresponding bones of other individuals. It is probable that
these belonged to small animals, most likely does, but there is a
possibility that they represent a distinct species.

l'ulpes pennsylvanicus? Sellards, E. H., 1916, Science, n. s. Vol. XLIV.,
p. 617; Jour. Geology, Vol. XXV., p. 17; 8th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., pp. 132,
152, 158, pl. XXX., fig. 4.

Type specimen.-A part of the right ramus of the lower jaw,
containing the third and fourth premolars and a part of the socket
for the canine. The first and second premolars had disappeared
early in life. No. 6738 of the collection of the Florida Geological
Type locality.-Vero, Florida.
Type formation.-Stratum No. 3 of the Pleistocene deposit at
Diagnosis.-Talon of lower fourth premolar narrower than the
body of the tooth. Third premolar without a cusp behind the
principal one. Lower jaw thicker and heavier than in Vulpes fulva.
The writer has carefully compared the type jaw of this fox
with that of various specimens of the red fox (V. fulva) and has
concluded that it does not belong, as Sellards thought it possibly
did, to this existing species, but to one hitherto undescribed. In
the following table various measurements are presented, taken from
the jaw found at Vero; and the corresponding ones of a red fox
from Clarke county, Virginia, and of V. macroura from Montana.



V. palmaria V. fulva V. macroura
Type No.81o No.67384
Length from rear pm. to rear canine -------- 40.0 38.0 42.0
Height of jaw at rear of pm,---.----.----- 18.o 13.5 r4.0
Thickness of jaw at rear of pm ...-----....--- 7.2 6.0 7.0
Height of jaw at front of pn.---.--- ..---... 14.0 11.4 13.0
Thickness of jaw at front of pm -------------- 7.0 6.0 6.0
Length of pm, ------........ ---.--- -....-- 9.1 9.0 1o.o
Width of pmi --.---------...--------------- 3.5 3.2 3.4
Ler.gth of pm ....... ......------ 10.4 9.6 1o.o
Width of pmr ------------------------------ 4.3 4.1 4.0
Side-to-side diameter of socket of canine---...... 6.5 5.1 ---

The skulls numbered 8io and 67384 are in the U. S. National
That the fossil jaw belonged to a fox and not to a coyote is
shown from the following considerations: I. On the inner side
of the talon of pm, there is in the coyotes a well-developed basin
which involves the hinder border of the principal cusp. In the red
fox this is much less strongly developed. In the fossil it is little
developed; so little that the talon, instead of being as wide as or
wider than the base of the principal cusp, is narrower. The corre-
sponding part of pm3 resembles that of the fox much more than
that of the coyote. 2. In the coyote there is almost always a well-
developed cusp behind the main one in the third premolar. In the
fox this is sometimes distinct; but is usually small and more often
wholly wanting. In the fossil it is altogether wanting.
A comparison of the measurements given shows clearly that the
lower jaw of V. palmaria was much heavier than that of V. fulva.
In the former the height at the rear of the fourth premolar is 45
per cent. of the distance from the rear of the canine to the rear of
pm,; while in the specimen of '. fulva it is only 34 per cent. In
thickness the percentages are respectively 18 and 15.8. In the
fossil the length of the third premolar is relatively slightly less than
in V. fulva, the percentages being respectively 22.7 and 23. On the
other hand the fourth premolar of the fossil is slightly longer, the
percentages being 26 and 25.2.
From a cave at Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania, Cope (Jour. Acad.
Nat. Sci., Phila., Vol. II, 1899, p. 228, pl. XVIII, figs. 4, 4a)
described a fox which he called Vulpes latidentatus. This was


based on a first upper molar. This molar differed from that of the
red fox in its proportions, the transverse diameter of the two being
the same, but the anteroposterior diameter of the fossil tooth exceed-
ing that of the red fox. Inasmuch as an upper tooth only of the
Port Kennedy animal is known and lower teeth only of the one from
Florida, it is not practicable to make a close comparison between


Canis latrans? Sellards, E. H., 1916, Science n. s., Vol. XLIV., p. 17;
Jour. Geology, Vol. XXV., p. 617; 8th Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., pp. 157, 158,
pi. XXVIII., fig. 2; text-fig. 15.

Type specimen.-A part of a right maxilla, No. 7036 of the
collection of the Florida Geological Survey, containing the fourth
premolar and the sockets of the third premolar and of both molars.
Type locality.-Vero, Florida.
Type formation.-Stratum No. 3 of the Pleistocene deposit at
Vero, Florida.
Diagnosis.-Third upper premolar in a line with the fourth.
The fourth relatively short; its anterior inner cusp prominent.
Molars broad.
This maxilla certainly represents a coyote, but not C. latrans.
Nor is it that of an Indian dog or one of the larger wolves. The
prominence of the anterior inner cusp of the carnassial tooth puts
the animal with the coyotes and removes it from the domestic dogs
and large wolves. In the specimen from Florida, as in the coyotes,
the third premolar is in a line with the fourth; while in the dogs and
in Canis occidentalis, in nearly every case, the third premolar makes
an angle with the fourth. This is owing to the fact that in the
domestic dogs and the large wolves the width of the jaws decreases
rapidly to the front of pm' and then begins to narrow less rapidly.
In the coyotes the change is made in front of pm'.
This fossil differs from the near relatives of C. latrans in having
the anterior lobe of the carnassial relatively shorter. The meas-
urement is made from the front of the tooth to the bottom of the
notch behind the main cusp. In the fossil this forms 61 per cent.
of the length of the tooth. In four specimens of the existing
coyotes this was 63.1; 62.8; 63.1; 64 per cent. However in the
specimen of C. latrans of the following table, No. 38462 of the


U. S. National Museum, the ratio of the length of the anterior lobe
to the length of the tooth is slightly less than the fossil. In
three specimens of C. occidentalis the percentages were 70.9; 66.6;
64.5. In four Indian dogs they were 63.8; 62.5; 62.1; 65.6.
In this fossil the transverse extent of the sockets for both the
first and the second molars is greater relatively to the first measure-
ment in the succeeding table than in nearly every specimen of
coyote, wolf, and domestic dog. Here again the fossil approaches
C. latrans No. 38462 more closely than it does any of the others,
being in the fossil 39.5 to Ioo; in C. latrans, 37.7 to Ioo. The
teeth themselves must have been somewhat broader than in the
existing species examined. On the other hand, the inner root of
pm* is narrower fore-and-aft than in any of the recent skulls exam-
The following measurements are presented:

7036 216723 155597 59896 38462
Fossil Wyoming Arizona Arizona Minnesota
Distance from front of
socket for pm' to rear
of socket for m'...--- 40.0 44.5 42.0 37.0 45.0
Length of pm* ---..... 18.o 21.5 20.0 18.o 21.5
Width of pm' at front-- 9.0 9.4 1o.o 8.2 10.0
Width across main cusp 7.8 7.5 7.2 5.8 8.6
Fore and-aft distance
across outer sockets
of m -------------- 10.0 12.o 11.o 9.6 13.o
Fore-and-aft diameterof
inner socket of m'---- 5.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0
Distance from inner to
outer side of socket
of m ------------- 15.8 16.0 13.5 12.5 17.o
From front to rear of
sockets for pm' --- 11.0 12.0 11.2 10.0 12.0

In general the carnassial of the Florida specimen is shorter in
relation to the length of the two hinder premolars and the two
molars and at the same time thicker than in the other skulls exam-
ined; but in the Arizona coyote, No. 155597, the width in front is
relatively the same, being one-half of the length of the tooth.
The carnassial of the fossil has been compared with that of two
domestic dogs Nos. 216646 and 216651 of the National Museum.



7036 216646 216651
Length of p ---................................ 8.o 16.6 17.o
Width in front ------.----....... -----------. 9.0 8.5 9.0
Width at middle ---.-----------.------------. 6.2 6.4 6.1
Percentage of width at middle to length of tooth 34.4 38.5 39.9
Width across rear lobe --..------------.....--- 6. 6.2 6.0

In the collection made in No. 3, at Vero, is a part of a humerus
which has the catalogue number 6798. The total length of the
fragment is 62 mm. Above, it begins on the deltoid ridge. It is
referred provisionally to Canis riviveronis.


Fossil Coyote Red Fox
6798 F. G. S. 1326 U. S. N. M. 7550 U. S. N. M.
Fore-and-aft diameter at lower end
of flattened part of deltoid ridge.... 14.2 15 10.1
Width at level above named---------- 9 9.5 7
Fore-and-aft diameter at lower end
of fragment and at corresponding
place in the other species---------.. 10.4 11.2 7.8
Side-to-side diameter at place indi-
cated above -------------------.--. 9 10 7

It will be seen that the fragment of fossil humerus resembles in
size more that of the coyote than it does that of the red fox (Vulpes
fulva). The fragment is more compressed at the lower part of the
shaft than is that of the fox and less than that of the coyote. This
bone seems to belong to a coyote, probably Canis riviveronis.
In the collection is the shaft of a left femur, No. 6796, from
No. 3. The head and the greater trochanter are broken off; also
the condyles.
It is here compared with the same bone of the red fox No. 7550
U. S. National Museum, and with that of a coyote No. 1326 of the
same museum.



Fossil Red Fox Coyote
6796 7550 1326
Length of shaft .--------------------------. 117.o 96.o 120.0
Total length of femora (6796 estimated)--.... 161.0 132.o i66.o
Greatest diameter just below lesser trochanter 12.o 13.0 17.0
Least diameter just below lesser trochanter--.... 8.o 9.0 12.0
Greatest diameter at middle of shaft.----..... 10.5 9.0 12.2
Least diameter at middle of shaft--...----... 8.2 7.2 10.0
Side-to-side diameter at lower epiphysial suture 12.0o 2.o 15.o
Fore-and-aft diameter at lower epiphysial suture 11.0 I1.0 13.5

The fossil femur was larger than that of the red fox; also
straighter and more flattened anteroposteriorly. The same differ-
ences in form are seen on comparison with the femur of the coyote.
In the fossil femur the outer border is not so sharp as in the red
fox, while the inner border of the lower half is flatter. The shaft
is more compressed than in either the red fox or the coyote. The
bone is referred provisionally to Canis riviveronis.
Doctor Sellards has written that the fragment of humerus was
found in -No. 3, 475 feet west of the railroad bridge. The femur
was found the same day 5 feet nearer the bridge in the same deposit.
The jaw forming the type of C. riviveronis was found on the north
bank 450 feet from the bridge.


From stratum No. 3, at Vero, Sellards (8th Ann. Rep. Fla.
Geol. Surv., p. 157, pl. XXVIII., figs. 7, 8) described and figured
a humerus and a radius of a dog; and these he referred with doubt
to Canis latrans. Both bones were found 450 feet west of the rail-
road bridge. One might therefore suppose that they had belonged
to the same individual dog; but the radius seems to be too short for
this. Herewith is presented a table in which corresponding meas-
urements of the humeri of the fossil dog, of a domestic dog, of a
coyote, and of a red fox, are given.



Fossil Dog Coyote Red Fox
6735 21989 1326 21158
Total length ------------------------- 132 134 153 117
Length from head to distal end of outer
condyle .--...-----............---- 129 130 151 115
From front of bone to rear of head---- 34 36 34 23.5
Fore-and-aft diameter at middle of total
length ....--------........ 14.8 15 12 8
Side-to-side diameter at mid-length--.... 10.5 13 10 7
Greatest distance across epicondyles..-- 26.5 31 28 18
Width lower articular surface---..... 18.5 19.2 19 II

The bone numbered 21989 is that of a domestic dog whose skull
had a vertex length of 170 mm. and a width of 115 mm. across the
zygomatic arches. No. 1326 is a bone of a coyote found in Neb-
raska. The fox is from Brownville, Maine.
It will be seen that the fossil humerus resembles that of the dog
more closely than that of either the coyote or the fox; but the
anteroposterior distance through the head is a little less in the fossil
than in the dog and the shaft is more compressed, the side-to-side
diameter being 8 per cent. of the total length; while in the dog this
diameter is Io per cent. of the length. The distal end of the bone
is also narrower than in the dog. The inner epicondyle of the
fossil is less developed and is flatter than in the dog.
A reference to the table shows that the humerus in question
cannot have belonged to an animal at all like the red fox; nor to
the fox Vulpes palmaria, which was about the size of V. fulva; nor
to Canis riviveronis, which we may suppose from its jaw and teeth
to have had the size of a coyote. It seems evident that there is in
No. 3 a small heavy-set dog which is not known from skull remains.
The naming of it may be deferred until better material has been
The radius just mentioned is here compared with the same bone
of the domestic dog and that of the coyote.



Fossil. Dog U. S. N. Mus. Coyote.
6736 21989 1326
Total length of bone ......------------.-- 113 137 155
.Greatest width near upper end---------------- 14.3 15 16.1
Thickness at right angles to above----.-----... 9.1 I 11.1
Greater diameter at middle of length .-------- I 1 2 12.5
Diameter at right angles to above--.----. ----. 6 7.5 7
Greater diameter at distal end --------------- 19 20 22
Diameter at right angles to above----------- to 11.5 12

The fossil radius belonged to a canine animal whose foreleg
was probably nearly three-fourths as long as that of the coyote and
a little more than four-fifths the length of the leg of the domestic
dog, No. 21989.
The radius of the domestic dog 21989 is 3 mm. longer than its
humerus; whereas, the radius No. 6736 is 20 mm. shorter than the
humerus No. 6735. The radius must have belonged to an individ-
ual about one-seventh smaller than that to which the humerus be-
longed. It is the bone of a mature animal.
The foreleg of this dog probably was slightly more than 15
inches long, not including the scapula.


Lynx sp. Sellards, E. H., 1916, Jour. Geology Vol. XXV., p. 17; 8th Ann.
Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., pp. 152, 158, pl. XXVIII., fig. 3.

A left mandibular ramus, No. 6739, from bed No. 3, Vero,
appears to represent this subspecies. The angle and the articular
process are missing. The canine and the third and fourth pre-
molars and the first molar are present. The jaw and teeth are here
compared with those of Lynx ruffus floridanus, No. 173028 of the
United States National Museum, from Florida.



Fossil Jaw
Length from rear of m, to front of symphysis-------------- 45.5 47.0
Height of jaw at front of pmr --------------------------- 14.0 16.o
Height of jaw at rear of m ..----.......----- -------- 17. 7.0 0
Thickness of jaw at front of pm, -.--.-...-- ....-....... 7.5 7-5
Thickness of jaw at rear of m ------ -------.---.--- 7.5 8.o
Length of symphysis in front ----------------.- 23.5 22.5
Length of tooth row pnm--m, --.--.... ---....-- --.. -. 29.0 30.o
Length of pm -......---------......--__-............ 8.0 7.6
Thickness of pmn --.-------------------------------------- 4.5 4.2
Length of pmr ------........... ------........ ___ ... .----- 10.8
Thickness of pm. --------------------------_------- __--- 5.0 5.1
Length of mi .................--------------. ___ .- 12.0 12.2
Thickness of mi --------------------------------------_ 5.1 5.3
Fore-and-aft diameter of canine at base-----------.------ 7.5 8.o
Side-to-side diameter of canine at base --..............----- 7.0 6.o

On comparing the jaw with a series of skulls from Florida it is
found that the fossil shows apparently no essential specific differ-
ences. The carnassial of No. 6739 has the notch deeper than any
of the existing specimens, but a few approach it closely.
A right tibia seems not to differ essentially from that of the
living form. When compared with No. 173028, United States
National Museum, from Florida, differences appear; but these are
probably only of individual importance.
From Port Kennedy cave Cope (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,
Vol. II., 1899, p. 250) described Lynx calcaratus, which was so
closely related to L. ruffus that originally he referred it to this

Of the 43 species which have been enumerated in this paper it
will be seen that 17 are regarded as being extinct. This amounts
to 40 per cent. If the fishes, amphibians, and reptiles are consid-
ered apart from the others, they present only 26 per cent. of extinct
species. These low forms are more likely to persist than are the
more highly organized mammals. Nevertheless, a large propor-
tion of the cold-blooded animals are represented in the collection by
very meagre remains; and it is possible that with more abundant
materials species distinct from those now living might be recng-


nized. Of mammals there are 24 species, of which 12, just one-
half, are regarded as no longer living. It is especially the mammals
which figure in Pleistocene faunal lists; and they are more properly
the ones to be used in making comparison with discoveries made
On page 26 of volume XXIII of the Iowa Geological Survey,
the writer has presented a list of the species of mammals which
have been found in the Aftonian interglacial deposits. These are
21 in number, of which 19 are extinct, close to 90 per cent. It
must be noted, however, that most of the Aftonian deposits consist
of coarse materials and that the small species, mostly rodents, have
not been collected. The discovery of these would quite certainly
reduce the percentage.
In the Iowa Report on the page noted above there is a list, taken
from Matthew, of mammals which had been found at Grayson, near
Hay Springs, Nebraska. These are supposed to be of the same
geological age as those from the Aftonian. They are 21 in number,
of which 15 appear to be extinct, about 71 per cent.
The cave at Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania, has furnished 47 iden-
tified mammals, of which 80 per cent. are extinct. The deposits of
this cave belong certainly to the early Pleistocene. As the condi-
tions there were favorable for the preservation of all kinds of land
animals, it would seem that the normal percentage of extinct mam-
mals for the early :'.: : ::: is about 80. What is found in any
particular locality will depend, however, on special conditions. In
No. 2 at Vero, there appears to be 70 per cent. of extinct mammals.
In the Conard fissure, in Arkansas, Barnum Brown found about
5o identifiable species of mammals, of which about 47 per cent. are
extinct. The list is to be found on pages 31 and 32 of the. Iowa vol-
ume cited above. Inasmuch as great numbers of the smaller ani-
mals, especially insectivores and rodents, had accumulated there, and
few of the large animals which it is certain were living then in that
region, as elephants, mastodons, ground sloths, and bisons, it is not
improbable that the percentage of extinct species is too low. On
account of the presence of some species there which appear to be
of a boreal type, the writer has supposed that the animal lived dur-
ing one of the glacial stages, probably the Illinoisian.
On account of the comparatively low percentage (50) of the
extinct mammals belonging to No. 3 at Vero, the writer has been
inclined to the opinion that the stratum belongs to the middle Pleis-


tocene; while No. 2 is thought to belong to the early part of the
epoch. However, the geologists who have studied the deposits,
both those who argue for the late age of beds and those who believe
them to be older, think that there was no great interval between
As regards the origin of the vertebrate remains which are found
in the muck bed at Vero, the writer believes that the animals left
their remains where they are now found, and that they were not
washed into that stratum from some other place of previous burial.
In too many cases are two or more bones of one individual of an
extinct species found closely associated to have been transported
even a few hundred yards. The bones of the animals do not pre-
sent the abrasions and the polishing which transportation would
produce. Again, had the bones of both No. 2 and No. 3 been
washed in from some common source and at no great interval of
time apart, there appears to be no good reason why the percentage
of extinct forms in the two should not be practically the same.
The two deposits found at Vero, and at present known as No. 2
and No. 3, and the remains of fossil animals found in them, are of
especial interest, because in both of these strata have been found
bones of human beings. In stratum No. 3, in addition to skeletal
remains, implements made by man are numerous.
We are, therefore, confronted by questions as to the antiquity of
those human remains. As has already been indicated, the writer
believes that the deposits in question are not only of Pleistocene age
but of early or middle Pleistocene. He is also convinced, after
having examined the locality and collected fossils from it, that the
human remains are as old as the deposits in which they are found.
The arguments in favor of the last proposition have already been
presented by Doctor Sellards.
The writer will here briefly present some evidences which go to
show that men possessing a culture much like that of modern
Indians existed in America at least as far back as the Sangamon
interglacial stage, about the middle of the Pleistocene, and possibly
still earlier.

a. In 1846, Dr. M. W. Dickeson exhibited before the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia a part of a human pelvis which had been found in a
blue clay below the loess, and two feet below bones of megalonyx and other
extinct animals. Chemical analysis of the human bone has shown that it is more
highly fossilized than the animal bones.


b. In I891 Prof. F. M. Witter, of Muscatine, Iowa, reported that two flint
arrow points had been discovered in the loess at Muscatine, at depths of 12 and
25 feet.
c. In the same communication Professor Witter stated that he had himself
found flint chips in a gravel bed on Mad Creek, near Muscatine, at a depth of io
feet from the surface.The gravel bed was overlain by loess and near-by in the
gravel had been found a tooth of an elephant.
d. In g1oo Dr. J. A. Udden published a statement which had been made to
him about the finding of a stone ax at Council Bluffs, Iowa, in loess at a depth
of 35 feet.
e. In 1903, Dr. C. A. Peterson, of St. Louis, announced that a stone ax
had been found near St. Louis at the bottom of the loess, at a depth of 14 feet.
f. In 1902 Dr. S. W. Williston reported that Messrs. Overton and Martin
had found, in Kansas, a flint arrow head underneath the shoulder blade of a
fossil bison, at a depth of 2o feet from the surface. The animal belonged to
the species Bison occidentalis. Its remains have been frequently found, but
never in deposits overlying the Wisconsin drift.

In all probability man had his origin in southern Asia. From
this region, and not from Europe, were peopled the other continents
and the islands of the seas. A people as advanced as many Ameri-
can Indians may have reached America long before the Cro-Mag-
nons had been able to dispossess the fierce Heidelbergers and the
Neanderthalers who had preoccupied Europe.



Fig. i. Chelydra sculpta Hay. View from above, X%.
Seven bones of the carapace of one individual found together.
Figs. 2, 3. Tayassu lenis Leidy. X 2.
2. Upper left hindermost molar. View of grinding surface.
3. Upper left canine, showing the outer face.
Fig. 4. Odocoileus sellardsiae Hay. X 4-5.
Fifth cervical vertebra, showing the front end. X 4-5.
Fig. 5. Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesque.
Fifth cervical vertebra, presenting the front end.
Fig. 6. Odocoileus sellardsiae. Third lumbar vertebra.


Digitized by GoOgle




An account of the discovery of human and other fossils found
at Vero was given in the preceding annual report of this Survey.
Since that time important additional investigations have been made
at the locality. In the latter part of October, 1916, a conference
was held at Vero, at which time the following geologists and anthro-
pologists were present: Dr. O. P. Hay, Research Associate of the
Carnegie Institution, Washington; Dr. G. G. MacCurdy, Anthro-
pologist, Yale University, .' .., Haven, Connecticut; Dr. A. Hrd-
licka, Anthropologist, U. S. National Museum, Washington; Dr. T.
W. Vaughan, Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington; Dr.
R. T. Chamberlin, Geologist, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illi-
nois. In March, 1917, Professor E. W. Berry, of Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore, Maryland, visited the locality. At this time
also Dr. Chamberlin returned to Florida to supplement his former
observations. Supplementary collections were made by the State
Survey at this locality in October, November and December, 1916,
and in March, 1917.
As a result of these investigations, together with the studies of
others who have kindly identified fossils, the locality at Vero has
received detailed study and very full discussion. The papers which
have been published, in addition to those of the present volume,
relating to these deposits include the. following, listed in the order
in which they were issued:

On the Discovery of Fossil Human Remains in Florida in Association with
Extinct Vertebrates, by E. H. Sellards, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 42, pp. 1-18,
July, g916.
Human Remains from the Pleistocene of Florida, by E. H. Sellards, Science,
N. S. Vol. 44, pp. 615-617, October 27, 1916,
Human Remains and Associated Fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida, by
E. H1. Sellards, Eighth Annual Report, Florida Geological Survey, pp. 121-160,
pls. 15-3 ; figs. 1-15, October, 1916.
On the Association of Human Remains and Extinct Vertebrates at Vero,
Florida, by E. H. Sellards, Journal of Geology, vol. 23, pp. 4-24, January-Feb-
ruary, 1917.
Interpretation of the Formations Containing Human Bones at Vero, Florida,


by Rollin T. Chamberlin, Journal of Geology, vol. 25, pp. 25-39, January-Feb-
ruary, 1917.
On Reported Pleistocene Human Remains at Vero, Florida, by Thomas
Wayland Vaughan, Journal of Geology, vol. 25, pp. 40-42, January-February, 1917.
Preliminary Report on Finds of Supposedly Ancient Human Remains at
Vero, Florida, by Alex Hrdlicka, Journal of Geology, vol. 25, pp. 43-51, January-
February, 1917.
The Quaternary Deposits at Vero, Florida, and the Vertebrate Remains
Contained Therein, by Oliver P. Hay, Journal of Geology, vol. 25, pp. 52-55,
January-February, 1917.
Archaeological Evidences of Man's Antiquity at Vero, Florida, by George
Grant MacCurdy, Journal of Geology, vol. 25, pp. 56-62, January-February, 1917.
Further Notes on Human Remains from Vero, Florida, by E. H. Sellards,
Amer. Anthropologist, n. s. pp. 239-251, vol. 19, No. 2, April-June, 1917.
The Problems of Man's Antiquity at Vero, Fla., by George Grant Mac-
Curdy, Amer. Anthropologist, n. s. pp. 252-261, vol. 19, No. 2, April-June, 1917.
On the Finding of Supposed Pleistocene Human Remains at Vero, Florida.
by Oliver P. Hay, Journal Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 258-260,
June 4, 1917.

To the conclusion that the human remains and artifacts at Vero
are of Pleistocene age, some objections have been offered. On the
other hand, the detailed studies that have been made both of the
vertebrate and plant fossils, and also of the section, have very
materially strengthened that conclusion. The objections as well as
the new evidence will be reviewed in this paper.
GL:-ctions to this conclusion have been offered by Drs. Hrdlicka,
MacCurdy ai,1 Chamberlin. Dr. Hrdlicka, alone of those who
have seen the deposits, offers the interpretation that the human
remains represent merely recent, or relatively recent, inclusions in
the deposit by human burials. Dr. MacCurdy, on the other hand,
regards the human remains and artifacts as normal inclusions
within this deposit, but is not convinced that the deposits are of the
Pleistocene period. Dr. Chamberlin based his objection to the
Pleistocene age of the deposits on the assumption that the extinct
vertebrates had washed into these beds from an older formation
nearby and hence were secondary.
These several objections, it may be noted, are not related the
one to the other. If the human bones and artifacts represent recent
burials by human agency as claimed by Hrdlicka, there is no oc-
casion to maintain either that the Pleistocene fossils have washed
into recent beds as suggested by Chamberlin, or that the deposits
themselves are of relatively recent age as maintained by i :. ...dy.


The objections that have been offered to the Pleistocene age of
the human remains have been considered by the writer in a paper
published in a recent issue of the American Anthropologist (N. S.
vol. 19, pp. 239-251, No. 2, 1917). The evidence that the human
bones reached the place where found by natural agencies and not
by human burial is there presented in some detail, and for conven-
ience of reference is reprinted here. The evidence that the verte-
brate fossils in the stream bed are primary and not secondary was
also given in the paper to which reference has been made. The
evidence that the deposits themselves, both strata No. 2 and 3, are
of the Pleistocene period is more fully presented than heretofore
in the present volume.
The following extract is from the American Anthropologist
with some minor alterations which, however, do not affect the sub-
stance of the article.

The question as to whether or not the human bones represent burials may
perhaps be best discussed by considering the bones of the individual found in the
south bank of the canal west of the lateral inlet. Of the bones of this individual,
the right ulna, a part of the humerus, a part of a scapula, one incisor, and parts
of the skull had fallen from the bank. Of these bones the ulna, the humerus
and a piece of the frontal are bleached from exposure to the sun. The other
bones mentioned were found in cavings which had recently fallen from the bank,
and do not show bleaching. All of the other bones that have been obtained at
this locality were found in place in the bank. The bones which apparently may
safely be attributed to this individual include, in addition to those mentioned, the
left ulna, the shaft of the right femur (in two pieces), the proximal part of the
left radius, the ascending ramus of the right lower jaw, two metatarsals and
numerous fragments of the skull and some pieces of ribs. Bones found a little
farther to the east which may or may not pertain to this individual include, a
right astragalus, a right external cuneiform, a piece from the right pubes, and
a part of the left ilium, two phalanges and a section from a limb bone, as well as
some other bone fragments. These last named bones are from stratum No. 2
of the section, while all the others listed were on the contact line of Nos. 2 and 3.
All of the bones are more or less broken and incomplete. The first bone
found in place was the proximal part of the left ulna. An additional part of the
shaft of this bone was subsequently found a few inches farther back in the
bank. The second bone found in place was the proximal part of the shaft of the
left femur. Two and a half months later, after the excavating had been carried
farther back into the bank, an additional part of the shaft of this femur was
obtained, the two pieces of bone being separated in tho bank by a distance of
eight feet. This bone, the two pieces having been put together, is illustrated in
figure 3 of plate i9 of the Eighth Annual Report of the Florida Geological
... The third bone found in place was the proximal part of the left radius.
A photograph showing these three bones in place in the bank was reproduced in


the American Journal of Science, July, g916, and in the Eighth Annual Report
of the Florida Geological Survey, plate 17, figure I, and is included herewith.
The two bones, left ulna and left radius, it may be noted, are separated by a
space of five feet. The part of the radius preserved has a length of 145 mm.,
and hence the distance between the bones, as well as the thickness of the section,
may be readily computed from the photograph. Vertically above the radius, as
may be seen in the photograph, is twelve or fourteen inches of light colored,
coarse, clean sand, with which is intimately mixed a quantity of broken marine
shells, this part of the deposit representing material washed from the underlying
stratum (No. I of the section). This is followed by about ten or twelve inches
of vegetable material and sand, including, as may be seen in the photograph,
pieces of driftwood. Above this layer is seen a lens of coarse, clean sand,
including some pieces of broken marine shells, all of which has been thrown in by
the stream. This sand lens, as seen in the photograph, has a thickness of
about six inches. Above this sand lens to the soil line is found fourteen or
fifteen inches of material consisting chiefly of muck, including some sand, the
depth of this bone beneath the surface being about forty-two inches. In passing
to the right the deposit of sand immediately above the radius "pinches out" so
that the piece of femur which lies approximately four feet farther west is imme-
diately beneath the muck, as is also the ulna.
In the writer's description of this locality the depth is given as four feet,
which is not in excess of the thickness of the deposit overlying some of the
bones. All of the bones lie at the contact line of this deposit and the next
older bed, and the varying depth of the bones beneath the surface is due to the
fact that the top surface of the next older deposit is irregular. The essential
point involved, however, is not as to the depth at which the bones lie, but the
fact that the deposits above the bones consist of alternating layers or strata
which have not been disturbed. A sample was retained showing the sand in
which the radius was imbedded, and also a sample of the sand including the
broken shell vertically above the radius. This clean-washed, coarse sand,
together with the shell fragments, contrasting decidedly with the overlying
accumulation of driftwood and muck, affords positive evidence of stream-washed
material, and conclusive proof that the deposit has not been dug into or other-
wise disturbed.
The illustrations which accompany this paper include: A ground plan of the
human bones found in place in the canal bank west of the lateral inlet, a photo-
graph showing the ulna, femur and radius, all of which bones are broken and
incomplete, in place in the bank (omitted from this reprint); a closer view
showing the succession of strata directly above the radius; a detailed view of
the radius in place, including the sand and shell deposit immediately above it;
and a view (taken in the laboratory) showing the sand and broken marine shell,
slightly enlarged, from immediately above the radius. These illustrations afford
a record that is, it would seem, conclusive as to the conditions under which these
bones were found. From the photographs it may be seen that flat objects, such
as shells and shell fragments, lie prevailingly in a single plane of deposition, and
that the deposits are cross-bedded, both of which features are characteristic of
deposition by water. A study of the photographs and more especially of the
section itself shows conclusively that these bones were washed to the place where


found by the waters of this stream and that they became entombed at the same
time and in the same way as the sand, shell fragments, pieces of wood and
other materials of this deposit. These bones are, therefore, unquestionably
fossils of this formation and were not subsequently introduced into the deposit
by human agency or in any other way.

X "


1 *


Fig. I:-Ground plan showing the location of human bones found in the
canal bank at Vero in April and in June, 1916. Index to bones: x, left ulna;
2, a part of the shaft of the same bone; 3, left femur; 9, a part of the shaft of
the same bone; 4, radius; 5, metatarsal; 6, astragalus; 7, external cuneiform;
8, part of ilium. Courtesy of University of Chicago Press.
After the photographs were taken excavating at this locality was continued
and human bones were collected over the area indicated in the accompanying
sketch. The manner of occurrence of the human skull is instructive. Scarcely
one-half of the skull was obtained, and the pieces that were secured were dis-
tributed over an area of not less than seven by three feet. The broken skull
fragments fit together securely. Most of the skull pieces were found in the
sand containing the broken pieces of marine shells, and it is evident that they
were washed to their present resting place in the same way and at the same
time as the radius and the other bones. The absence of bones and parts of
bones is as instructive as the condition of the bones themselves. Of the jaws,
for instance, there has been obtained only the right ascending ramus. This
piece of bone is well preserved and the break shows a sharp fracture. There is
no reason, therefore, to doubt but that the part of the jaw that is missing, if
included within this formation at all, is also well mineralized. The same is true
of the radius of the left femur and of the skull bones, as well as of the skeleton
as a whole. From the time of the location of these bones in April to the confer-
ence in October, the bank at this place was worked only by hand trowels and the
material after being worked by the trowels was passed through screens, much
of it being double screened through coarse and fine mesh. At no time were


laborers allowed to work the bank with shovels or other implements. If the
remainder of the jaw had been preserved within the area covered by this sketch,
or in fact within a somewhat greater area, it would certainly have been recovered.
The same is true of the missing and imperfect bones of the skeleton. These
bones and parts of bones were either not washed into this formation, and for
that reason failed of preservation, or if preserved in this deposit were lying
iome place outside of the area covered by this sketch.
It is evident that the bones of this skeleton had become thoroughly dried
before they were moved and broken, this fact being indicated by the sharp
fracture of the bones. Dr. Hrdlicka has referred to the breaks in the bones as
being "fresh," and suggests that the breaks may have occurred for the most
part as the bones were uncovered and fell from the bank.* It is, however, cer-
tain that the breaks in these bones that were in place in the bank, such as the
left ulna, the left radius, the right femur, and the left femur, and the bones of
the skull occurred at the time the bones were washed to the place where they
were found. Some of the bones may have been carried much farther by the
stream at this time, while others possibly never found their way into this stream
bed, thus accounting for the imperfection of the skeleton.
To assume that these bones represent a burial affords no adequate explana-
tion of the separation of the radius and the ulna; of the displacement of the
two parts of the right femur; nor of the broken and scattered condition of the
skull as well as the scattering of the skeleton. On the other hand, recognition
of the fact that the bones were washed by the stream to their present resting
place affords an explanation of every phenomenon that is presented including:
The broken condition of the bones; the separation of the radius and ulna a
distance of five feet; the separation of the two pieces of the right femur a
distance of eight feet; the position of the radius beneath fourteen inches of
coarse sand and broken marine shells, the scattering of the parts of the skull;
the presence of driftwood in the deposit and the uninterrupted bedding above the
bones, as well as the imperfect representation of the skeleton as a whole.
In all of its features this deposit maintains the characteristics of a stream
fill, and we may plainly read the history of the accumulation of material at this
immediate spot. The stream had cut into the marine shell marl (stratum No. I
of the section), making a rather sharp trench in that formation. As the result
of flood waters there was thrown into this trench an accumulation of coarse
sand and broken marine shells which filled the bottom of the trench to a maxi-
mum depth of fourteen inches. Of the human bones the radius as seen in the
photograph was left lying :- i .:.-:-. at the bottom of the little trench, while a
piece of the femur and the ulna as well as parts of the skull were thrown well
upon the side. Quiet conditions followed, interrupted occasionally by mild flood
waters. One of these floods threw in the lens of coarse sand, including broken
marine shells, which is seen in the photograph about twenty inches above the
ulna. Under these alternating conditions of quiet waters and flood waters there
was accumulated the successive layers of muck and sand, with occasional inclu-
sions of driftwood forming the stratified deposit which permanently sealed the
hones and preserved them until the present time.

*Journal of Geology, Vol. xxv., p. 45, 1917.


The manner of occurrence of the pottery and bone implements must like-
wise be considered. Pottery is distributed throughout the deposit that has been
designated as stratum No. 3, being more abundant, however, near the base.
One hundred or more pieces of broken pottery have been taken from this forma-
tion. Bone implements are likewise general in their distribution, although the
greater number have been taken near the base of stratum No. 3. The large
arrowhead illustrated in the Eighth Annual Report of the Florida Geological
Survey (fig. I, pl. 21) was found lying in a layer of light colored, coarse sand at
the base of stratum No. 3. The great abundance of pottery, bone implements
and flints near the base of this deposit is accounted for in the writer's interpre-
tation by the fact that the stream current was stronger when these first deposits
were laid down than subsequently,and hence more material from the surrounding
land surface was washed in than at a later time when the waters became more
quiet. The muck which predominates in the upper part of the deposit belongs
to the period of quiet and more or less ponded waters.
The muck of this section is followed strategically by fresh-water marl, for
while the marl is not everywhere present, the relative age is indicated by the
fact that laterally the muck passes under and ultimately grades into the marl
(Journ. Geol. loc. cit., fig. 3, p. 0o). The marl itself, although containing a few
fresh-water shells and other fossils, represents chiefly calcareous material accu-
mulated by chemical or bio-chemical processes. Its presence, therefore, is sig-
nificant as to the probable age of the section. Hrdlicka (loc. cit. p. 49) refers
to the fact that this fresh-water marl when first uncovered is often soft and
hardens on exposure. This, however, is true of marls in general. The Ocala
limestone of early Tertiary age is frequently soft when first uncovered and
invariably hardens upon exposure; the same is true of many other limestones.
He notes also the fact that shells piled up by the aborigines are sometimes found
to have become cemented. It is to be borne in mind, however, that the cementing
of shells artificially piled up is a materially different matter to the accumulation
of a stratum of marl by natural processes.

The evidence that the vertebrate fossils in the stream bed are
primary and not secondary is very positive. The following dis-
cussion in regard to the origin of these fossils is reprinted from
the article by the writer in the American Anthropogist to which ref-
erence has been made.

* Dr. Chamberlin postulates that these fossils have been washed from
the older Pleistocene deposits which lie immediately back of the beach through
which the north and south forks of the stream cut, and refers to this formation
as the "deposit which originally housed the old mammalian bones."
If the mammalian bones which are found in such abundance were washed
from deposits further to the west, naturally we may expect to recover other and
better fossils from the original or parent formation. Fortunately the opportunity
for examining the formation in question for fossils is exceptionally good. The
main canal after cutting across the beach ridge continues inland a distance of
twelve miles. Moreover, the lateral which enters from the south continues


for some miles in a general southwesterly direction. Paralleling the main canal
and on the north side of it there is also a third canal which reaches inland about
one-eighth of a mile. The banks of these three canals which contain large
masses of the particular deposit which Chamberlin regards as the source of the
bones, have been carefully searched by the writer and others and no vertebrate
fossils have been obtained. It appears, therefore, that the formation from which
Dr. Chamberlin would derive the bones is almost if not entirely non-fossiliferous.
In view of this fact is it to be believed that the abundance of bones. found in
the stream bed have washed from this formation?*
In this connection the condition of the fossils themselves may be called into
evidence. Both Drs. Hrdlicka and Chamberlin have referred to the relative
completeness of the human skeletons, but there is obviously no point in this
reference that will support the theories advanced by either of them. All of the
human bones have been submitted by the writer to Dr. Hrdlicka who states that
he recognizes the presence of five individuals. One of these is represented by a
single molar tooth; another by a single toe bone, while of another nothing
appears to be known other than an incisor tooth. Obviously these three indi-
viduals could not have been represented by more fragmentary material. Of the
two remaining individuals but an imperfect representation of the skeleton of
each has been obtained, including twenty-six bones of the one and of the other
scarcely so many.
Of the extinct wolf, Canis ayersi, thirty or more bones of a single individual
have been found at one place, while near by was obtained the skull and femur
probably of the same individual. The skeleton of this extinct animal is more
fully represented, therefore, than is that of any one of the human skeletons.
The extinct armadillo-like genus, Chlamytherium, is represented by a lower jaw,
a bone from the skull and many dermal plates, all found at one place and prob-
ably all belonging to a single individual. The extinct stork, Jabiru weillsi, is
represented by a humerus, part of a corocoid, part of two ulnas and two meta-
carpals, all found at one place and probably from one individual. Extinct turtles
are represented by all or by parts of the carapace so fragile as not to withstand
secondary deposition. The mastodon is represented by a part of the skull and
tusk as well as a lower jaw and by teeth. The elephant is represented by whole
teeth and by parts of the skeleton. The tapir is represented by a practically
complete skull. There is in fact, as the writer has heretofore stated, no essential
difference either in the completeness of the skeleton or in the manner of preser-
vation between the human bones and those of the associated animals.

There remains the objection advanced by MacCurdy that the
deposits containing the human remains are comparatively recent
and are not to be referred to the Pleistocene period. This conclu-
sion as presented by MacCurdy applies particularly to stratum No. 3,
in which human remains were abundant. The human remains and

*Since the above was written the deposits in question have been re-examined
by Dr. Chamberlin, the writer and others and further shown to be non-fossili-


Fig. I. Human radius in place in the canal bank. Approximately one-third
natural size.

Fig. 2. Succession of strata Fig. 3. Photograph, slightly en-
above the radios. The radius is largcd, of sand and shell from
near No. 2. above the radius.

Digitized by Google



Fig. i. '.* ; of bone implement in place in the canal bank.
Fig. 2. Closer view of same implement.

The implement is seen in the two photographs at the right of the hammer.
Actual length of bone implement 157 mm.


Digitized by GoOgle



artifacts which have been obtained from stratum No. 2, MacCurdy
is disposed to account for as accidental inclusions.
Additional evidence for referring the deposits containing the
human materials to the Pleistocene has been derived from the
detailed study which has been made of the vertebrate and plant
fossils. Careful studies have now been made of the mammals,
birds, turtles and plants. In each group is found extinct species, as
well as other species, which at the present time do not extend their
range into Florida. However, inasmuch as the papers relating to
these fossils are available through the Survey reports, it will not be
necessary to review them here, except possibly to note the relative
proportion of extinct species in each group, particularly as applied
to the upper part of the deposits.
Of the mammals of stratum No. 3, as identified by Dr. Hay,
almost one-half are extinct. Of six birds specifically identifiable
from this stratum, two, or 33 per cent, according to Dr. Shufeldt,
represent new and presumably extinct species. The turtles of
stratum No. 3, according to Dr. Hay's determination, include eight
species of which four, or 50 per cent, are unknown in the recent
fauna. In addition one of the remaining four forms is believed to be
sub-specifically distinct from the modern. The plants from stratum
No. 3 as determined by Professor Berry include twenty-seven
species, of which one is extinct. If we consider the geographic
range, however, the plants make a much more favorable showing.
Of the twenty-seven species, five, according to Berry, or approxi-
mately 20 per cent, do not at present extend their range into Florida.
The insects of this deposit have not yet been determined. A
mite, obtained by Mr. Berry while collecting fossil plants, has been
determined by Mr. Nathan Banks as belonging to the genus Oribella,
and as possibly representing a new species, although not all of the
types of the described species have yet been compared.
The evidence derived from a study of the animals and plants is
thus consistent and supports the reference of the deposits, including
stratum No. 3, where the human remains and artifacts are so numer-
ous, to the Pleistocene period.
The invertebrate fauna of the deposit is fairly well known. A
list of the land and fresh-water mollusks associated with the verte-
brates was given in the Eighth Annual Report of this Survey. This
group was found to include twenty-eight species, all of which are
represented in the existing fauna. The invertebrates of the marine


shell marl which lies at the base of this section have since been deter-
mined for the Survey through the courtesy of the National Museum.
Two lots of fossils have been collected from this part of the section,
of which the following is a combined list. The corals have been iden-
tified by Dr. T. W. Vaughan, the mollusks by Mr. W. C. Mansfield,
and the bryozoa by Dr. R. S. Bassler. An x following the name
of a species indicates its presence in the recent fauna.


Terebra cinerea Gmel. X
Terebra concava Say X
Terebra dislocata Say X
:: .. mutica Say X
Olivella jaspidea ? Gmelin
Oliva literate Lam. X
Marginella, near apicina Mke. ?
Marginella sp. (immature).
Fasciolaria distans Lam. X
Busycon carica Linn. X
Busycon perversum Linn. X
Melongena corona Gmelin. X
Columbella (Anachis) avara Say X
Nassa acuta Say X
Urosalpinx ? (yo.)
Eupleura caudata Say X
Murex fulvescens Say X
Epitonium lineata Say X
Epitonium sp.
Purpura haemostoma var. floridana Conrad. X
Cerithium floridanum Morch X
Cerithium, near muscarum Say
Cerithium sp.
Modulus floridanus Conrad X
Turritella (worn)
Littorina irrorata Say X
Crepidula, fornicata Say X
Crepidula, plana Say X
Neverita duplicate Say X
Sigaretus perspectives Say X
Vermicularia nigricana Dall X
Petaloconchus irregularis Orb. X
Fissurella alternate Say X


Nucula proxima Say X
Glycymeris americana Defrance X
Glycymeris pectinata Gemel. X
Scapharca (Scapharca) transversa Say X
Scapharca (Cunearca) incongrus Say X
Scapharca (Argina) campechiensis Dillwyn X
Area (Noetia) limula Conrad, intermediate form between A limula and
A ponderosa Say
Area ef. umbonata Lam.
Barbatia (Acar) reticulata Gmel. X
Pecten gibbus, var. dislocatus Say X
Plicatula romosa Lam X
Anomia simplex Orbigny X
Crassinella lunulata (?) Conrad ?
Crassinella sp.
Cardita (Carditamera) floridana Conrad X
Venericardia tridentata Say, var, averaging about 20 radiating ribs. ?
Venericardia perplana Conr. X
Phacoides (Parvilucina) multilineatus T & H. X
Phacoides, near nasuta Conr. (n. sp.?)
Phacoides (yo)
Phacoides floridanus Conrad X
Divaricella quadrisuleata Orb. X
S,: i..... (Trachycardium) muricatum Linn. X
Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum) Solander X
Cardium (Trachycardium) isocardia Conr. X
Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum Linn. X
Cardium (Laevicardium) mortoni Conrad X
Dosinia distans X
Dosinia (yo) '
Chione (Lirophora) latilirata Conrad X
Chione cancellata Linnaeus X
Chione interpurpurea Conr. X
Chione (Timoclea) grus Holmes X
Chione sp.
Anomalocardia cuneimeris Conr. X
Venus (yo.)
Venus mortoni Conrad X
Venus campechiensis Gmelin var. X
Tellina lintea Conrad X
Transennella caloosana Dall-reported not later than the Pleistocene.
Strigilla flexuosa Say X
: .. ,::, sp.
Semele proficua Pulteney X
Semele bellastriata (?) Conr.
Donax variabilis Say X


Donax tumida Phil. X
Mulinia lateralis Say X
Mulinia lateralis (long variety)
Mulinia lateralis var, corbuloides Desh. X
Mactra (yo.)
Spisula solidissima var. senulis Say X
Rangia cf. cyrenoides Desmoulins
Corbula cuneata (?) Say ?

SOculina robusta Pourtales X
Solenastraea hyade (Dana) X
Cupularia denticulata Lamarck.

SBy referring to the list it is seen that sixty-one species of mol-
lusks are recognized as identical with living forms. One species,
Transennella caloosana Dall, has not been reported from deposits
later than the Pleistocene. One other species, an Area, is regarded
as intermediate between the extinct A. limula and the recent A.
ponderosa. One specimen is referred doubtfully to Corbula cune-
ata, a species not known in the recent fauna. The collection con-
tains, in addition, several species, the identification of which is
doubtful. Among these is a shell near to Phacoides nasuta, which
may possibly represent a new species. In this connection it may be
noted that Shimek has presented evidence showing that the land and
fresh-water molluscan fauna from as early in the Pleistocene as the
Aftonian inter-glacial stage has remained essentially unchanged to
the present day, while the vertebrate fauna of the same stage has
become largely extinct.* Likewise at this locality in Florida a
vertebrate fauna containing many extinct species is associated with
a land and fresh-water molluscan fauna containing so far as known
only recent species. This vertebrate fauna also is more recent than
the marine molluscan fauna of the underlying beds which, with few
exceptions, includes species identical with the living forms. It is
evident, therefore, that the presence of existing species of mollusks
in the formation cannot be taken as proof that the deposits are
recent, especially in view of the presence of extinct species of verte-
brates and plants.

*Evidence that the Fossiliferous Gravel and Sand Beds of Iowa and Ne-
braska are Aftonian, by B. Shimek. Bull. Geol. Soc. of Amer. Vol. 21, pp.
19-140, 1910.


In the section as exposed in the canal bank there are distinct
uninterrupted lines of stratification, beneath which human materials
are found. One of these is a stratum of fresh-water marl which
is best seen on the south bank of the canal. Beneath this marl have
been found both human bones and bone implements. The photo-
graph included in plate 5 of this report shows a bone implement in
the south bank of the canal 32 feet west of the lateral inlet, lying
beneath this marl at a depth of 4 feet from the surface. This im-
plement was collected in March, 1917, and is No. 7786 of the
Florida Survey collection. The marl at this place is about foot
thick, and may be traced laterally continuously along the canal bank
to the locality where it reaches the maximum of about 18 inches in
thickness. Human bones have been found beneath this marl, as re-
ported in papers previously published, at a place where it has a
thickness of about 18 inches and is so well indurated as to form a
hard rock. In this rock itself was found the tooth of a fox differ-
ing from the modern fox of Florida (Fla. Geol. Surv., 8th Ann.
Rep. p. 132, 1916). In general it is observed that the bone imple-
ments, flints, pottery and human bones all lie below the stringers
and layers containing fossil plants and animals, the association being
such as to establish the fact that they are contemporaneous.


The human remains and artifacts are contemporaneous with
extinct species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and at least one extinct
species of plants, as well as with other animal and plant species
that do not at the present time extend their range into Florida.
The age of the deposits containing these fossils according to the
accepted interpretation of faunas and floras is Pleistocene.


Correction:-In the Eighth AnnualReport of this Survey and in some other
publications, an implement found in the deposits at Vero and illustrated by figure
6 of plate 23 (8th An. Rpt.) is referred to as a wood implement. Upon further
examination, however, this implement is found to be of bone, and no wood
implements are known from the deposit.

P. 78, 26th line, for Say, read Sby.
4oth line, for nigricana, read nigricans.
P. 79, 3d line, for Gemel, read Gmelin.
Sth line, for incongrus, read incongrua.
12th line, for romosa, read ramosa.
2oth line, for nasuta, read nassula.
29th line, for distans, read discus.
33d line, for interpurpurea, read intapurpurea.
P. 80, 6th line, for senulis, read similis.
xoth line, for Solenastraea hyade, read Solenastrea hyades.
12th line, for Cupularia denticulata Lamarck, read Cupularia denticulata
Lamarck X.