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 Front Matter
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Administrative report
 Exchange list of the Florida Geological...
 Mineral industries of Florida during...
 Descriptions of some Floridian...
 Fossil Vertebrates from Florida:...
 Human remains and associated fossils...
 General Index














Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00008
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1914-1915
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00008
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
        Front Cover 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Administrative report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Exchange list of the Florida Geological survey
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Mineral industries of Florida during 1915
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Descriptions of some Floridian fossil vertebrates, belonging mostly to the Pleistocene
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
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        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
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        Page 76a
        Page 76b
        Page 76c
        Page 76d
        Page 76e
        Page 76f
        Page 76g
        Page 76h
        Page 76i
        Page 76j
        Page 76k
        Page 76l
        Page 76m
        Page 76n
        Page 76o
        Page 76p
    Fossil Vertebrates from Florida: A new Miocene fauna: New Pliocene species: The Pleistocene fauna
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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        Page 91
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        Page 93
        Page 94
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        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 120b
        Page 120c
        Page 120d
        Page 120e
        Page 120f
        Page 120g
        Page 120h
    Human remains and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
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        Page 137
        Page 138
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        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 160b
        Page 160c
        Page 160d
        Page 160e
        Page 160f
        Page 160g
        Page 160h
        Page 160i
        Page 160l
        Page 160m
        Page 160n
        Page 160o
        Page 160p
        Page 160q
        Page 160r
        Page 160s
        Page 160t
        Page 160u
        Page 160v
        Page 160w
        Page 160x
        Page 160y
        Page 160z
        Page 160za
        Page 160zb
        Page 160zc
        Page 160zd
        Page 160ze
        Page 160zf
        Page 160zg
        Page 160zh
    General Index
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
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BERKELEY
LIBRARY
UNIVAsg EXCHANGE


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FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

E. H. SELLARDS, PH. D., STATE GEOLOGIST



















EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT




















PUBLISHED FOR
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1916.













LIBRARY










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

To His Excellency, Hon. Park Trammell, Governor of Florida:

Sir:-In accordance with the Survey law I submit herewith my
Eighth Annual Report as State Geologist of Florida. The report
contains the statement of expenditures by the Survey for the year
ending June 30, 1915, together with those investigations by the
Survey that have progressed far enough to be available for publi-
cation. Very respectfully,
E. HI. SELLARDS,
State Geologist


>HE C.0 o Ei PRWINi Gmor cD. u .rUt>* 11262














CONTENTS.
PAGE
Administrative Report -----....... -----.............----------.. 5
The Survey Exchange List............------------------... ..... 12
Mineral Industries of Florida during 1915, by E. H. Sellards-------........ 19
Description of Some Floridian Fossil Vertebrates, Belonging Mostly to
the Pleistocene, by Oliver P. Hay--------------------------------- 39
Fossil Vertebrates from Florida; A New Miocene Fauna; New Pliocene
Species; The Pleistocene Fauna, by E. H. Sellards .....------...... 77
Human Remains and Associated Fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida
by E. H. Sellards ..---------------------------------------- 121
Index .....------------------... .. ----------------------.. 161

ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE
TEXT-FIGURES
Fig. i. Sketch map showing locality for human remains.----..------. 128
Fig. 2. Section through the canal bank at Vero------ .. ------------- 129
Fig. 3. Location of first human skeletal remains found---....------- 132
Fig. 4. Section to give location of bones showing markings-.-------- 134
Fig. 5. Section of canal bank to show location of second discovery of
human bones --------------... .----..... -------------- 136
Fig. 6. Section of canal to show location of human bones --------- 137
Figs. 7-13. Flints associated with human bones--------.-----..---.-- 138
Fig. 14. Location of human bones at contact line between strata 2 and 3 141

PLATES FOLLOWING PAGE
i- 9. Turtles and some other fossils chiefly from the Pleistocene------ 75
10-14. Mammals from the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene.---.----- 12o
15-17. Views of the canal bank at Vero showing the location of fossil
human remains --------------- ------------------------- 160
18-21. Fossil human remains and implements ------------------------ 160o
22. Inscriptions on a proboscidian tusk and on bird bone----------- 160
23. Wood and bone implements------- --------- --------..---- 160
24-31. Fossils associated with human remains..---------------.. .---.. 6o














342793





















The bill by which the Florida Geological Survey was established
was introduced into the Legislature of the State by Dr. E. S. Crill,
who after repeated efforts secured its passage by the Legislature
of 1907. Dr. Crill was born in Oneida County, New York, De-
cember 25th, 1843, moved to Florida in 1874, and thereafter gave
largely of his time to the public service of his adopted State. Trained
as a physician he gave twenty years of his life, 1865 to 1885, to the
practice of medicine. In 1880 he was elected State Senator, an
office which he held until 1885, when he resigned and accepted the
office of State Treasurer in Governor Perry's Cabinet. On the
completion of his term as State Treasurer he returned to private
life, but in 1897 was again called to public service as State Senator,
and after serving twelve years declined re-election and returned
again to private life. His public service is notable for the con-
structive and progressive. legislation which he originated and sup-
ported. His relations to his fellowman, in private life were marked
by such a spirit of cordial helpfulness as to endear him to all with
whom he came in contact. His death occurred at his home in Pa-
latka, October 23, 1915, at the mature age of 72, thus closing a
life full of good works.














AIED. .ri ';TRATIVE REPORT,
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST.


The Survey is fortunate in having had during the past year the
co-operation of a number of persons who 'have assisted in various
ways. Some of these have contributed important specimens to the
Survey collection, while others have given important information
relating to formations, well records, minerals or fossils. In the
text of the report which follows, the names are given of many of
those who have generously assisted in the Survey work.

MORE OFFICE AND LABORATORY SPACE NECESSARY.

The statement in the Sixth Annual Report, 1914, in regard to
the overcrowded condition of the Geological Survey applies more
forcibly now than at that time. The Survey has in fact far out-
grown the accommodations that are available and additional office
and laboratory space is very much needed. The library shelves are
full, and it is now and for some time has been quite impossible to
care for the publications that are being received. Many of these
new publications represent the results of investigations by the neigh-
boring State Surveys or by the National Survey, and are very neces-
sary for comparative purposes to the Florida Survey. Other publi-
cations being received from various sources are for reference pur-
poses and are necessary to the determination of fossils or mineral
specimens, or of geological formations, or other matters in connec-
tion with the Survey work.
The Survey at present is practically without a work room.
There is no table or desk room available to store or to handle the
maps, charts, and drawings that are ..... : ...; being used in the
Survey work. It is impossible from lack of space to properly open
up and study the collection of mineral and fossil specimens that have
been obtained by the Survey. The store room space is too small to
accommodate even the current issues of the Survey's own publica-
tions which must be cared for temporarily awaiting their distri-
bution.
5









6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

In connection with the work of the Survey there is a constant
accumulation of notes, records, photographs, manuscripts, plates
and cuts, as well.as the general correspondence of the office which
must be cared for. The present limited office space affords no room
for storing, filing or properly caring for these records, nor for ex-
"hibiting the S.::'.' ;. collections of rocks, minerals, and fossils which
should be made available to the public.
In the present quarters there is constant danger of loss by fire.
The Survey collections now contain some very valuable material for
scientific purposes, particularly in regard to the early history of man
on the American Continent. These collections cannot be duplicated
and it is very much to be hoped that a fire-proof building including
adequate facilities may be provided for the Survey and the other
Scientific Departments of the State.

TOPOGRAPHIC AND SOIL MAPS.

Detailed topographic and soil maps of the State are very much
needed. The topographic maps should be made on a scale of about
an inch to the mile and should show contour lines at lo-foot inter-
vals of elevation. When accurately made these maps serve as a
base for soil maps as well as for many other useful purposes, par-
ticularly for road building. In the preparation of these maps co-
operation may be secured by the State Geological Survey with the
United States Geological Survey and with the United States Bu-
reau of Soils, and it is very much to be hoped that an appropriation
may be made by the Legislature to carry on the State's part of this
work, for which at least $5,ooo per annum should be available.

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
The following is a list of the publications issued by the State
Geological Survey since its organization:

..i.::' REPORTS.

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (i) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a
chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-
making clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime and cement and road-making materials;
(3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a review of the










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


more important papers published previous to the organization of the present
Geological Survey.

Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, and
one map.

This report contains: (i) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida,
with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic
map of Florida, prepared in co-operation with the United States Geological
Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden
County, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the State.

Third Annual Report, 19xo, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.

This report contains: (i) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate
deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply
of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits.

Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (i) the soils and other surface residual materials
of Florida, their origin, character and the formations from which derived;
(2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of
phosphate rock in Florida during 191o and 1911.

Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures,
two maps.

This report contains: (i) Origin of the hard rock phosphates of Flor-
ida; (2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern
and southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912;
(5) statistics on public roads in Florida.

Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.

This report contains: (I) mineral industries and resources of Florida;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the relation between the Dunnellon
formation and the Alachua clays of Florida; (4) geography and vegetation of
northern Florida.

Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.

This report contains: Statistics on mineral industries; pebble phosphates
of Florida; natural resources of an area in Central Florida, including a part
of Marion, Levy, Citrus and Sumter counties; soil survey of Bradford County;
and soil survey of Pinellas County.

Eighth Annual Report (this volume).









8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

BULLETINS.

Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
This report contains: (x) Underground water; general discussion; (2) the
underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, springs and arte-
sian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disap-
pearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp
lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables
giving general water resources, public water supplies, spring and well records.

Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911,
31 pp., 4 pls.
This bulletin contains: (i) An account of the road building materials of
Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by
the counties of the State to the close of ip1o.

PRESS BULLETINS.

In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above,
press Bulletins have -been issued as follows:
''. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912,
March 12, 1913.
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at
the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science, December 31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913,
May 20, 1914.
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains
Found Imbedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.

DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS.

The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are distrib-
uted upon request, and may be obtained without cost by addressing
the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida. Requests by those living
outside of the State of Florida should be accompanied by postage,
or if desired the reports will be sent express collect.










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 9

EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR TAE YEAR
ENDING JUNE 30, 1915.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
$7,500 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by the
State Geologist, as all survey accounts are paid upon warrants drawn
upon the Treasurer by the Comptroller as per itemized statements
approved by the Governor. The original of all bills and the itemized
statements of all expense accounts are on file in the office of the
Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are on file in the office
of the State Geologist. The warrants when paid are on file in the
office of the State Treasurer.
List of warrants issued during the year ending June 30, 1915.

JULY, 1914.
Herman Gunter, assistant, expenses, July, 1914..--..-----------$----$ 60.36
R. M. Harper, Salary, July, 1914, $125.oo; expenses, $20.65-..------ 145.65
A. G. Seller, publications------------------------................. 2.00oo
Groover-Stewart Drug Co., supplies.-- ---...................---- 4.20
E. W. Clark, supplies ---------..............................-. 1.25
W. Wellborn, clerical asst .....----.......------------ ----.... 2.88

AUGUST, 1914.
Herman Gunter, expenses, August, 1914-------------------... 107.70
R. M. Harper, Salary------------------------ --............... 125.oo
W. E. Knibloe, services, August, 1914------------------- ----- -- 86.6o
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies---.............------ ...-.. 28.84
Southern Express Company ................-......---------- 1.26

SEPTEMBER, 1914.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Septem-
ber 30, 1914 -------------------------------- 625.00
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending September 30,
1914 ----------------------------- -------------- 375.00
R. M. Harper, salary ----- ---------------------- --- ------.. 125.00oo
W. E. Knibloe, services, September -15 -------------------------. 62.50
Laura Smith, services ----------------------------------------- 75.00
Ed Lomas, janitor services ------------------------------ --- 30.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, July, August, September----..------...... 34.26
Herman Gunter, expenses, September ...----------------------... .6
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies-.....-------..------..------... 12.25
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Co., engravings------------------------- 30.90
Richard Brown, Bureau of Standards, drayage------------------ 9.50










IO FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGITH ANNUAL REPORT.

OCTOBER, 1914.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, October, 1914---------------------------- $1.95
Herman Gunter, expenses, October, 19I4------------------------- 22.07
Alex McDougall, postage ..........------------.................. 25.00
Southern Express Company -------------------- -------------- 4.68
Dan Allen, drayage --------------------.------------------. 3.74
The Letter Shop, supplies ---------................ ----........... 2.52

NOVEMBER, 1914.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, November, 1914-------------------------- 71.91
Herman Gunter, expenses, November, 1914.---------------..---. 67.25
Dan Allen, freight and drayage-----------------------------.... 9.09
Southern Express Company ....----.--------------------------. 6.07

DECEMBER, 1914.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending December
31, 1914 ---------------------------------------------------- 625.00
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending December 3r,
1914 -------------------------------------------------------- 375.00
R. M. Harper, salary --.----.---------------.--..--------..---. 7o00
Laura Smith, services --------------------------------- --- 75.00
Ed Lomas, services --------------------------------- -------- 30.00
Southern Express Company -------.............................. 13-74
Richard Brown, drayage --------------.----------------------- 2.25
Pa. R. R. Co., freight on clay samples----------......................... 1.31
Alex McDougall, postage --.--.. ............-- ...-- ......--- .... 2.74
Snyder and Black, soil maps -------------....----------------.... 175.oo
Wrigley Engraving Co., engravings ----------------.-----------.. 7.50
A. Hoen & Co., maps ---------.... --..... ------- ------....... 200.00
Maurice Joyce Engraving Co., engravings ---------------------- 79.33

JANUARY, 1915.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, December, 915------............... --........ 77.26
S. A. L. Ry., freight .------... .--- -------..---.-----.-------- 88.38
R. M. Harper, services, January, 19g5----------------------------- 150.00
Alex McDougall, postage --.------------.....------------------- 133.80
American Journal of Science, subscription-..------..... --------- 6.00
Southern Express Company ------------------------------------ 4.63
T. J. Appleyard, printing -------------------------------------- 49.25
Dan Allen, freight and drayage-- ------------------------------ 23.65

FEBRUARY, 19I5.
E. H. Sellards, expenses, February, 1915 --..--------------------- 101o38
Herman Gunter, expenses, February, 1915------------------ ------ 95.90
R. M. Harper, salary ...----------.... -----.------------------ 150.00
R. M. Harper, expenses, February, 1915---------------------- ----- 54-69










ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


Dan Allen, freight and drayage -.........--- --......-----.-----.. 12.59
Arthur H. Thomas Co., supplies-..--..--------------.---------.. 18.20
H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies--------------------------------- 14.
Southern Express Company --.------.. -------....-------------- 13.24
The Letter Shop, supplies -------------------------------------- 4.50
Alex McDougall, postage ..----......------------.------------ ..125.78

MARCH, 1915.

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending March 31,
1915 -------------------------------------------------------- 625.00
E. H. Sellards, expenses, March, 1915-------- ----------- ------- 11583
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending March 31, 1915 375.00
Herman Gunter, expenses, March, 1915---------------------------- 9go.6
R. M. Harper, salary --......---.-----.. --........... -------.. 150.00
R. M. Harper, expenses, March, 1915------------------------------ 30.57
Laura Smith, services -----------------....------.----------... 137.00
Ed Lomas. janitor services ----------.----------------------- 30.00
Southern Express Company -----.. ---------------.--------------. 7.76
Eastman Kodak Co., supplies .................................--------------- 244
Economic Geology, subscription --------.--------..----.-------.. 3.00
Dan Allen, freight and drayage ------------ ----------------- 3.39
Alex McDougall, postage ---------------------------------------- 45.00

APRIL, 1915.

H. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies-.--.-----....... -------------- --- 5.69
Arthur H. Thomas Co., supplies ------------------------- ----. 9.32
R. M. Harper, salary ----------------------------------------- 150.oo
Dan Allen, freight and drayage -----------..------------------- 3.36

MAY, 1915.
Herman Gunter, expenses, May, 915------------------------------- 26.8o
Alex McDougall, postage ----------------------- --... -------. 17.20
Southern Express Company ------------------.----------------- 9.66
Dan Allen, freight and drayage -------------------------- ----- 3 3.69
TT...: of Chicago Press, subscription----------------------- 3.60


JUNE, 1915.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June 3o,
1915 --- ---------------------------. --------------- 625.00
Herman Gunter, assistant, salary for quarter ending June 30, 1915-- 375.00
Laura Smith, services ----------------------------------..115.. 00
Ed Lomas, janitor services --------------------...---------- 30.00

Total -----------------------------------------. $8,101.19









12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Appropriation for the year-....----------.... -------------. $7,500.00
Balance from the preceding year-----------...----.------- 608.68
S$8,Io8.68
Total expenditures for the year ending June 30, 1915------------------- 8,10r.19

Balance ----$------------------------ --------- -------- $ 7.49

EXCHA GE LIST OF THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY.

The following is a list of the libraries to which the State Survey
reports are regularly sent, in which they are permanently preserved
and may be consulted 'by those interested. Those institutions or
indicated on the list by a star (*) issue or distribute publi-
cations Copies of which are sent to the Florida Geological Survey
Library.
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, igth and Race Sts., Phila-
delphia, Pa.
Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Cordoba, Argentina, S. A.*
Academy of Science of St. Louis, 3817 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo.*
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, Office of State Forester,
College Station, Texas.
Alabama Geological Survey, University, Ala.*
Alfred T. Gwynne Institute, Fort Myers, Florida.
American Geographical Society of New York, Broadway and 156th St.,
New York, N. Y.*
American Institute of Mining Engineers, New York.
American Museum of Natural History, West 77th St., New York, N. Y.*
American Philosophical Society, 104 South Fifth St., Philadelphia, Pa.*
American Society of Civil Engineers, 220 West 57th St., New York, N. Y.
Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, Ariz.*
Arizona State Bureau of Mines, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Arkansas Geological Survey, .~ ::, :.. Ark.*
Barnard College Library, New York, N. Y.
Bartow Public Library, Bartow, Fla.
Beloit College Library, Beloit, Wis.
Bibliotheek der Rijks-Universiteit te Groningen, Groningen, Holland.*
Bodleian Library, Oxford, England.
Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass.
British Museum. Cromwell Road, London, S. W., England.
Brown University Library, Providence, R. I.
Bryn Mawr :- Library, Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Buffalo, N. Y.*
Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology, Austin, Texas.*
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Cal.*










EXCHANGE LIST


California Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Berkeley, Cal.*
California State Mining Bureau, Ferry Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.*
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Carrabelle High School Library, Carrabelle, Fla.
Case School of Applied Science, Geological Library, Cleveland, Ohio.
Catholic University of America Library, Washington, D. C.
Charleston Museum, Charleston, S. C.*
Chicago Academy of Sciences, Lincoln Park, Chicago, Ill.*
Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Ill.
Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, California
Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio.
Cocoa High School Library, Cocoa, Fla.
Colgate University Library, Hamilton, N. Y.
Colorado School of Mines Library, Golden, Colo.*
Colorado State Geological Survey, Boulder, Colo.*
Columbia University Library, New York, N. Y.
Columbia University, Geological Department Library, New York, N. Y.
Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, Canada.*
Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Conn.*
Cornell College Library, Mount Vernon, Iowa.
Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N. Y.
Cornell University, Department of Geology, Library, Ithaca, N. Y.
Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse, 14 Gammelmont, QKobenhavn, K.,
Denmark.*
Dartmouth College, Department of Geology, Hanover, N. H.
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, Iowa.*
David S. Walker Library, Tallahassee, Fla.
Daytona Public School Library, Daytona, Fla.
Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Newark, Del.*
Department of Commerce Library, Washington, D. C.
Department of Mines, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.*
Department of Mines, Ottawa, Canada.*
Department of Mines, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.*
Des Moines Public Library, Des Moines. Iowa.
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Chapel Hill, N. C.*
Emory College Library, Oxford, Ga.
E. M. Museum Library, Princeton, N. J.
Fairchild Geological Library, University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y.
Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.
Free Reading Library, West Palm Beach, Fla.
Free Public Library, St. Augustine, Fla.
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Ill.*
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Gainesville, Fla.*
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College Library, Tallahassee, Fla.
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla.
Geographical Library, Oronoque, Conn.
George Wetmore College Library. 404 Alhambra Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis.
Geological Department of the State of Georgia, Atlanta, Ga.*










14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Georgia State Library, Atlanta, Ga.
Geological Society of America, care F. R. Van Horn, Librarian, Cleveland,
Ohio.
Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, Transvaal, South
Africa.*
Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.*
Geological Survey and Museum, Jermyn Street, London, England.*
Geological Survey of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.*
Geological Survey of Western Australia, Beaufort St., Perth, W. A.*
Grand Rapids Public Library, Ryerson Public Library Bldg., Grand Rapids,
Mich.
Grinnell College Library, Grinnell, Iowa.
Hamilton College Library, Clinton, N. Y.
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass.
Hampton Institute Library, Hampton, Va.
Hopkins Library, Lake Helen, Fla.
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Urbana, Ill.*
Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, Ill.*
Illinois State Museum of Natural History, Springfield, Ill.*
Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London, S. W., England.*
Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Ind.*
Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Lafayette, Ind.*
Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Ind.*
Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, Ind.*
Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Ind.
Institute de Geologia y Perforaciones, Montevideo, Uruguay, S. A.*
Iowa Academy of Science, Des Moines, Ia.*
Iowa Geological Survey, Iowa City, Ia.*
John Crerar Library, Chicago, III.*
Johns Hopkins University Library, Baltimore, Md.
Justus Perthes' Geographische Anstalt, Gotha, Germany.*
Kongl. Universitets-Biblioteket, Lund, Sweden.*
Kansas Academy of Science, Topeka, Kan.*
Kansas Agricultural College Library, Manhattan, Kan.*
Kansas State Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kan.*
Kentucky Geological Survey, Frankfort, Ky.*
Laval University Library, Quebec, Canada.
Lehigh University Library, South Bethlehem, Pa.
Leland Stanford Junior University :: .: ... Stanford University, Cal.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Live Oak Free Public Library, Live Oak, Fla.
Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal.
McGill University Library, Montreal, Canada.
Manatee High School Library, Manatee, Fla.
Margaret Carnegie Library, Mills College, P. O., Cal.
Maryland Agricultural College Library, College Park, Md.*
Maryland Geological Survey, Baltimore, Md.*
Massachusetts Agricultural College Library, Amherst, Mass.*










EXCHANGE LIST


Massachusetts Institute of Technology Library, Boston, Mass.
Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, Lansing, Mich.*
Mills College, Geological Library, Mills College, P. O., Cal.
Milwaukee Public Library, Milwaukee, Wis.
Minneapolis Public Library, Minneapolis, Minn.
Minnesota Geological Survey, Minneapolis, Minn.*
Minnesota School of Mines Library, University of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn.
Mississippi State Geological Survey, Jackson, Miss.*
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo.*
Missouri Bureau of Geology and Mines, Rolla, Mo.*
Missouri School of Mines Library, Rolla, Mo.
Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station Library, Mountain Grove, Mo.
Missouri State Historical Society, Columbia, Mo.
Montana State School of Mines Library, Butte, Mon.
Mount Dora Library, Mount Dora, Fla.
Mount Holyoke College Library, South Hadley, Mass.
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.*
Museo Goeldi de Historia Natural e Ethnographia, Belem, Para, Brazil, S.A.*
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Buenos Aires, Argentina, S. A.*
National Academy of Science, Washington, D. C.
Natural History Society of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
Natural History Society of New Brunswick, Saint John, N. B.*
Nebraska Geological Survey, Lincoln, Nebr.*
Newark Free Public Library, Newark, N. J.
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Library, New Brunswick, N. J.*
New Jersey Geological Survey, Trenton, N. J.*
New York Academy of Sciences, 77th Street and Central Park West, New
York, N. Y.
New York Botanical Garden Library, Bronx Park, New York, N. Y.*
New York Public Library, 476 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y.
New York State Library, Albany, N. Y.*
New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y.
New York State Museum, Geological Department, Albany, N. Y.*
North Carolina Experiment Station Library, West Raleigh, N. C.*
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C.*
North Dakota Agricultural and Economic Geological Survey, Fargo, N. D.*
North Dakota Geological Survey, Grand Forks, N. D.*
Northwestern University Library, Evanston, III.
Oberlin College Library, Oberlin, Ohio.
Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Wooster, Ohio.*
Ohio Geological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.*
Ohio State Library, Columbus, Ohio.
Ohio State University Library, Columbus, Ohio.
SOklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Okla.*
Orange City Library, Orange City, Fla.
Oregon Agricultural College Library, Corvallis, Oregon.*
Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, Corvallis, Oregon.*
Orlando Sorosis Library, Orlando, Fla.










16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Oshkosh Normal School Library, Oshkosh, Wis.
Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore, Library, Baltimore, Md.*
Peabody Museum Library, New Haven, Conn.
Pennsylvania Department of Mines, Harrisburg, Pa.*
Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg, Pa.
Pennsylvania Topographical and Geological Survey Commission, Beaver,
Pa.*
Philadelphia Free Public Library, 13th and Locust Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.
Pomona College Library, Claremont, Cal.
Public Library of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Public Library, Des Moines, Iowa.
Public Library, Jacksonville, Fla.
Public Library, Minneapolis, Minn.
Public Library, St. Louis, Mo.
Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis.*
Purdue University Library, Lafayette, Ind.
Queens University Library, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Real Academia de Ciencias exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Valveroe, Madrid,
Spain.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Library, Troy, N. Y.
Rhode Island Natural Resources Survey, Providence, R. L*
Riggs Memorial Library, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.
Rochester Academy of Science, Rochester, N. Y.
Rollins College Library, Winter Park, Fla.
Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania.*
Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.*
Royal Technical College, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.
Rutgers College Library, New Brunswick, N. J.
School of Mining, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y.
Science College, Tokyo Imperial University. Tokyo, Japan.
Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.* Bureau of International
Catalog of Scientific Literature.
Societe de Geographie de Quebec, Quebec, Canada.*
Sorosis Library, Orlando, Fla.
South African Association for the Advancement of Science, Cape Town,
South Africa.
South Carolina Experiment Station Library, Clemson College, S. C.*
South Dakota Geological Survey, Vermillion, S. D.*
South Dakota State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Library,
Brookings, S. D.*
South Dakota State School of Mines Library, Rapid City, S. D.*
State Agricultural College Library, Fort Collins, Colo.
State Historical Society of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.
Stetson University Library, DeLand, Fla.
Summerlin Institute, Bartow, Fla.











EXCHANGE LIST


Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning, Stockholm, Sweden.*
Syracuse University Library, Syracuse, N. Y.
Tennessee State Geological Survey, Nashville, Tenn.*
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute Library, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.
U. S. Bureau of Census, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Bureau of Soils, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Department of Agriculture Library, Washington, D. C.
U. S. Geological Survey Library, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. National Museum Library, Washington, D. C.*
U. S. Office of Public Roads, Washington, D. C.
U. S. Weather Bureau, Publication Division, Washington, D. C.
University of California, College of Agri. Library, Berkeley, Cal.*
University of California Library, Exchange Department, Berkeley, Cal.*
University of California, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal.
University of Chicago Library, Chicago, Ill.
University of Chicago, Department of Geology, Chicago, Il.
University of Cincinnati Library, Cincinnati, Ohio.
University of Colorado Library, Boulder, Colo.*
University of Florida, Department of Agronomy, Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida Library, Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida Museum Library, Gainesville, Fla.
University of Georgia Library, Athens, Ga.
University of Glasgow Library, Glasgow, Scotland.*
University of Illinois Library, Urbana, Ill.
University of Iowa Library, Iowa City, Ia.
University of Kansas Library, Lawrence, Kan.
University of Louisville Library, Louisville, Ky.
University of Maine Library, Orono, Me.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.*
University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, Minn.
University of Minnesota Library, Dept. of Agri., St. Paul, Minn.
University of Missouri Library, Columbia, Mo.
',.:.. .:of Nebraska Library, Lincoln, Nebr.
University of North Dakota Library, University, N. D.
University of Notre Dame, Leomonnier Library, Notre Dame, Ind.
University of Oregon Library, Eugene, Ore.
University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, Pa.
University of Pittsburgh Library, Pittsburgh, Pa.
University of Tennessee Library, Knoxville, Tenn.
University of Texas Library, Austin, Texas.
University of Washington Library, Seattle, Wash.
University of Wisconsin Library, Madison, Wis.
University of Wyoming, Agri. College Exp. Station Library, Laramie, Wyo.*
Vanderbilt University Library, Nashville, Tenn.
Vassar College Library, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.










18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Vermont Geological Survey, Burlington, Vt.*
Virginia Polytechnic Institute Experiment Station Library, Blacksburg, Va.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute Library, Blacksburg, Va.
Virginia State Geological Survey, Charlottesville, Va.*
Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va.
Virginia Truck Experiment Station Library, Norfolk, Va.
Wagner Free Institute of Science, Montgomery Avenue and 17th St., Phila-
delphia, Pa.*
Walker Museum Library, Chicago, IIl.
Washington Biological Society, Washington, D. C.
Washington Geological Survey, University Station, Seattle, Wash.*
Washington University Library, Skinker Road and Forsythe Blvd., St
Louis, Mo.
Wellesley College Library, Wellesley, Mass.
Wesleyan University Library, Middletown, Conn.
Western Society of Engineers, 1735 Monadnock Block, Chicago, Ill.*
Western Reserve University Library, Cleveland, Ohio.
West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, W. Va.*
Williams College Library, Williamstown, Mass.
Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, Wis.*
Woman's Club Library, Miami, Fla.
Wyoming Agricultural College and Experiment Station Library, Laramie,
Wyo.*
Wyoming Geological Survey, Cheyenne, Wyo.*
Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn.*














MINERAL INDUSTRIES OF FLORIDA DURING 1915.
E. H. SELLARDS.

CONTENTS.
Ball clay or plastic kaolin
Brick and tile
Fuller's earth
Lime, limestone and flint rock
Oil prospecting
Peat
Phosphate
Road materials
Water
Summary statement of mineral'production.

The value of the minerals produced in Florida during 1915 was
less than that of the preceding year, the decline being due to the un-
favorable market condition. The total mineral production during
1914 is valued at $8,621,688, while that for 1915 is valued at $5,-
035,010.
A new industry in the State as well as in the United States is
the production of a dye or stain made from a bituminous material.
The deposit of bitumen as found in the earth is mixed with sand.
The company making this new product is the Gulf Reduction Com-
pany, Pensacola.

BALL CLAY OR PLASTIC KAOLIN.
Three plants were engaged in mining ball clay in Florida during
1915. These were the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Edgar; The
Lake County Clay Company, Okahumpkee; and the Richmond
China Clay Company, Okahumpkee. The ball clays of Florida are
white burning, refractqry clays notable for their plasticity. -They
occur in association with sand from which they are separated by
washing. The value of the ball clay produced, although not sep-
arately given, is included in the total mineral products of the State.

Statistic on production collected in cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey.









20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

BRICK AND TILE.
The total number of common brick manufactured in Florida
during 1915 was 31,019,00ooo, valued at $182,149. The production
for the year 1915 shows a reduction as indicated by these figures
over that of the preceding year, the decrease being due to the un-
favorable conditions. The quantity and value of tile, and other
brick products is not separately given, but is included in making
up the total mineral products of the State. The total value of brick
and tile products for the year 1915 exceeded $200,ooo.
The following firms in Florida were engaged in the manufacture
of brick or tile during 1915:

Barrineau Brothers, Quintette.
Campville Brick Company, Campville.
Clay County Steam Brick Company, Green Cove Springs.
Florida Brick Company, Brooksville.
Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna.
Gamble and Stockton Company, 108 West Bay St., Jacksonville.
Glendale Brick Works, Glendale.
Guilford Brick Company, Blountstown.
Hall and McCormac, Chipley.
Keystone Brick Company, Whitney.
McMillan Brick Company, Molino.
0. 0. Mickler Brick Company, Callahan.
Lee Miller, Whitney.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee.
Platt Brothers, South Jacksonville.
Tallahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.

FULLER'S EARTH.
The total production of fuller's earth in the United States dur-
ing 1915 was 47,901 short tons, an increase over the preceding year
of 6,920 tons. In addition to that produced there was imported into
the United States, 19,441 short tons. Some fuller's earth is ex-
ported from the United States, although the amount can not be de-
termined -. :i:- to the fact that this product is not listed separately
from other clays.
The States producing fuller's earth at present are Arkansas, Cal-
ifornia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts and Texas. Of these Flor-
ida is the chief producer, the output from this State amounting to









MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


approximately three-fourths of the whole output for the United
States. The value of the fuller's earth produced in the United
States during 1915 was $489,219. The production in Florida, al-
though not separately listed, is included in making up the total min-
eral production of the State.
The following companies are engaged in mining fuller's earth
in Florida: The Atlantic Refining Company, Ellenton; the Flor-
idin Company, Quincy and Jamieson; the Florida Fuller's Earth
Company, Ellenton, and the Fuller's Earth Company, Midway.

i .::. LIMESTONE AND FLINT-ROCK.

The total quantity of quick and hydrated lime made in Florida
during 1915 amounted to 15,3o6 tons, valued at $78,240, an in-
crease over the production for the preceding year of 2,930 tons.
The lime produced in Florida is chiefly quick lime, although some
hydrated lime is being made.
The total amount of limestone and flint-rock produced in Flor-
ida for all purposes except that of burning for quick lime, including
building, road making, railroad ballast and agricultural limestone
is valued at $354,673. The following companies in Florida have
reported the production of lime or limestone for the year 1915. The
first four companies named produced both lime and limestone, the
remaining companies of the list produced limestone, or limestone and
flint-rock:

Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Marion Lime Company, Ocala.
Standard Lime Company, Kendrick.
Virginia-Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Brooksville Stone and Lime Company, Brooksville.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Live Oak Limestone Company, Live Oak.
Florida Crushed Rock Company, Montbrook.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Manatee Limestone Company, Manatee.
E. P. Maule, Ojus.
R. L. Nunn. Brooksville.
George Sykes Company, Miami.
A. T. Thomas and Company, Ocala.








22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

OIL PROSPECTING.
Prospecting for oil and gas has been carried on in Florida at
intervals for many years and at the present time drillings are being
made near Tallahassee, Chipley and Kissimmee.
Oil and gas may occur in any rocks which are sufficiently porous
to retain them, but are found in commercial quantities only where
favorable structural conditions exist. There must in all cases be
a capping of impervious rock to retain the oil so that it may not es-
cape to the surface. Large quantities of oil probably are not found
except where there are particularly favorable structural conditions.
The simplest structure probably is an arch or upward fold in the
rock. The oil and gas being lighter than water, rise to the top of
the fold and are retained there by the overlying impervious stratum.
This simple upward fold is known as an anticline, and the theory
of the accumulation of oil in a fold of this kind is known as the
anticlinal theory, which was first proposed in 1892 by Dr. I. C.
White, State Geologist of West Virginia. Dome structure in rocks
affords equally favorable conditions, and involves the same princi-
ples, the oil rising in the porous stratum to the top of the dome.
Rock strata dipping in one direction only, thus forming a mono-
cline, may by slight alterations in the rate of (lip produce basins or
other structures which are capable of retaining oil. In fact any
structural feature in the rocks which permits the storage of a quan-
tity of oil may afford a commercial supply.
Structure, however, is not the only requisite, and it is not to
be assumed that where the structure is favorable, oil and gas are
necessarily present. The origin of oil and gas is not fully under-
stood. The theory that more nearly meets general acceptance than
any other, perhaps, is that the oil and gas are derived from an or-
ganic source, either animal or vegetable matter imbedded in the
rocks of the earth. An alternate hypothesis is that of an inorganic
origin, it being assumed that the oil and gas originate through chem-
ical reactions which take place deep within the earth. In either
case the oil and gas move .;:... :.' and are collected where the con-
ditions are favorable in the rocks above. It thus follows that struc-
tural conditions favorable to the accumulation of oil may and fre-
quently do exist without any oil being present. On the other hand,
oil and gas probably form in the earth without having an' opportu-
nity, owing to lack of favorable structure, to accumulate in com-
mercial quantities.









MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


The structural conditions to which reference has been made may
or may not show at the surface. Thus a country that is monot-
onously level may in fact have pronounced folding of the rock be-
neath the surface. Conversely a country may be very hilly owing
to surface erosion and yet having underlying formations that pre-
sent few if any of the structural features favorable to oil. One
cannot, therefore, select a hill or ridge as indicating the location
of a fold or a dome. It is true, however, that ridges and hills may
indicate structural features beneath the surface, and hence should
receive consideration with respect to oil possibilities.
A study of the geology of a region frequently affords important
information as to the most favorable place at which to locate oil
wells. These studies, however, must be made in detail and should
cover large areas, so as properly to correlate the structural features
that are observed. That which is especially needed to further this
work in Florida is first of all accurate topographic maps by which
all surface features may be definitely located, and exact well records
by which the location, depth and thickness of formations may be
determined. In connection with the well records it is to .be noted
also that the records should be based on the samples of the drilling
taken at frequent intervals as often at least as every ten feet. The
driller's log and notes are of value, but they should be supplemented
in all cases by the actual rock samples.

SURFACE INDICATIONS.

In a locality where oil occurs surface indications may or may
not exist. Those which are found frequently are in the form of
the escape of oil through leaks into springs, streams or other open-
ings in the earth. The channels of streams not infrequently cut
into a rock formation that contains oil. In this case oil may show
on the stream, or the excess of oil having passed away may be de-
tected only by the stain in the rock or by a test by which the re-
maining oil is dissolved from the rock and is thus detected. All
such surface indications which seem possibly to indicate the location
of oil or gas should receive careful investigations.

DEPTH OF WELLS.
The depth at which oil and gas are found varies from a few
feet to such depth as is practicable to drill. A small supply has
frequently been obtained from very shallow wells, and large sup-









!4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

plies from wells of moderate depth. In California at the present
time oil and gas wells are not infrequently carried to a depth of
5,000 feet. When drilled to such a depth the cost is necessarily very
great, but is justified from the results that have been obtained.
Of the wells drilled as test wells for oil in Florida that of the
Pierson Oil Company, four and a half miles south of Sumterville
in Sumter County, is reported to have reached a depth of 2,oo2
feet and to have given showings of oil. A second well drilled by
this company near Crystal River in Citrus County reached a depth
of 1,900 feet, and as completed flows salty water which rises sev-
eral feet above the surface. A well drilled for oil by the Southern
States Lumber Company between Muscogee and Cantonment in
Escambia County reached a depth of 1,462 feet. No indications
of oil are reported at this well. A well drilled near Orange Hill in
Washington County about six miles south of Chipley is reported to
have reached a depth of 1,250 feet and to have afforded indications
of oil.
LOCATION OF OIL AND GAS WELLS.

The location of oil and gas wells is by no means a simple mat-
ter even for those who have the best training and are thoroughly
acquainted with the geology of the region. For this reason it is
well not to be over-confident of the accuracy of the reports of those
who purport to know the exact location of oil in advance of drill-
ing. This is particularly true with regard to reports made by those
who come without recommendation other than that they are from
some previously known oil field and who without any previous
knowledge of the geology of the State and who are themselves with-
out accurate or recognized geologic training, purport upon slight
investigations and in advance of drilling to locate definitely large
bodies of oil. In a recent issue of Economic Geology (June, 1916),
Dr. Ralph Arnold, a recognized oil geologist of international repu-
tation, has said: "It is impossible for anyone to say definitely from
surface evidence whether oil does or does not exist below the sur-
face of the earth at any particular spot; the drill is the final arbiter
of this question, and even the drill does not always tell the truth."*
With this statement the most experienced geologist with little
doubt will agree.

Paper read at the Second Pan-American Scientific Congress at Washington,
December, x915.









MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


While the geologist cannot encompass the impossible, it is well
to recognize that there is an important part of the work that he
may do, namely, to select on the evidence of the structural features
of the rock as well as upon surface indications, if there are such,
the place most favorable for the location of a test well.

PEAT.

Peat is being produced at Beswick, Florida, by the Ranson
Humus Company. This being the only plant in operation in the
State, the production is not separately listed. The peat produced
by this company is placed on the market in the form of prepared
humus and peat litter.

PHOSPHATE ROCK.
The mining of phosphate rock in Florida during 1915 has been
very much interfered with by the European war, for while there is
a demand for the rock in the European countries transports have not
been available to make shipment and the freight rates have been ex-
cessive. The output for 1913 was 2,584,794 long tons, while during
1914 the output, as reported by the producers, was 2,097,864 long
tons, a decrease of 486,930 tons. The production during 1915 was
1,455,874 long tons, a further decrease of 641,990 tons, or a total
decrease over normal production of over a million tons.
The total shipment of phosphate rock for 1915 as reported by
the producers was 1,358,611 long tons of which 1,308,481 tons were
land pebble and 50,130 tons were hard rock phosphates. Of the to-
tal shipments only 229,160 tons were exported, whereas, under nor-
mal conditions more than a million tons are exported. The export
shipments include land pebble 185,846 tons, and hard rock 43,314
tons. The domestic shipment include land pebble 1,122,635, and
hard rock 6,816 tons.
Summary of Production and Shipment of Phosphate in Florida
for the Year 1915, Based on Data Supplied by the Producers:

Pebble Phosphate. Long tons.
Production --------------- -----------------------. ... 1,416,422
Consigned for export --------------------------.............. 185,846
Consigned for domestic shipment .................----- ..------- 1,122,635
Total shipments ----- ---------------------------------. 1,308,481










26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Hard Rock Phosphate.
Production -------------------------------------------- 39,452
Consigned for export -------------------------------------- 433314
Consigned for domestic shipment --------------..------------.. 6,816
Total shipments ---------------------- ---- ------------- 50,130
Pebble and Hard Rock Phosphate Combined.
Production ..----.----------.-----..---------------1,455,874
Consigned for export .-----..-------------..-----------..--- 229,160
Consigned for domestic shipment ---------..... ----------------- I,129,451
Total shipment -------------------------------------------- 1,358,611

The value of the phosphate shipped from Florida during 1915
was as follows: Land pebble, $3,496,501; hard rock $265,738; to-
tal $3,762,239. The value of the phosphate rock shipped from Flor-
ida during the preceding year was $7,354,744, a decrease of $3,-
592,505.












SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION AND SHIPMENT OF FLORIDA PHOSPHATE FOR THE YEARS
1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914 and 1915 (long tons).


Pebble Rock-
Production ....--.---.


19o8.
,150,000


Exported ---------- 470,270
Domestic .-----... --- 421,781
Total shipments ----. 892,o05
Hard Rock-
Production ---------. 768,o11
Exported ........------------.... 631,oo01
Domestic ------------ 9,900
Total shipments ------ 64,9or
Pebble and Hard Rock Combined-


1909. 1910.
1,334,569 1,637,7o9
509,341 6o6,ixo
819,701 995,728
1,329,042 1,601,838


527,582
496,645
17,456
514,101


392,088
461,353
I8,745
480,098


Production ....-----. ,918,oix 1,862,151 2,029,797 2,494,572 2,57965 2,58474 2,097,864 1,455,874
Exported .------.--- 1,101,271 1,oo5,986 xo67,463 1,165,661 1,2o3,oo5 1,364,296 9282993 29,160
Domestic ------------ 431,681 837,157 1,014473 1,a9o,779 ,219,927 .1,180,980 1,209,898 1,129,451
Total shipments ...-- 1,532,952 1,843,143 2,081,936 2,456,440 2,422,932 2,545,276 2,138,891 1,358,61
Total phosphate produced in Florida 1908 to 1915, inclusive....-------.....------------------ 17,022,928
Total phosphate exported 1908 to 1915, inclusive-------.. ----..... ---------...--------------.. 8,065,835
Total domestic shipments 1908 to 1915, inclusive--.....------....---... --------.---------.-----.. 8,314,346
Total recorded shipments 1908 to 1915, inclusive--.--..---... ------------------.... -------... 6,,38o,181
Total amount of phosphate produced in Florida from the beginning of mining in 1888 to 1915, inc-l 29,418,659


1911.
2,=0,478
703,589
i,274,o56
1,977,645


474,094
462,072
16,723
478,795


1912.
2,043,486
732,651
1,204,502
1,937,153


536,379
470,354
15,425
485,779


1913.
2,107,256
887,398
1,168,084
2,055482


477,538
476,898
12,896
489,794


1914.
1,787,597
625,821
1,203,381
1,829,202


310,267
303,172
6,517
309,689


1915.
1,416,422
185,846
1,122,635
1,308,481


39452
43,314
6,816
50,130











28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The following is a list of the phosphate mining companies of
Florida. Of the companies on this list a few were idle in 1915, most
of these, however, carried rock in stock from which sales were made,
and will continue operations when conditions are favorable.

LIST OF PHOSPHATE MINING COMPANIES OF FLORIDA.

Acme Phosphate Co-..........------.. Morriston, Fla.
Amalgamated Phosphate Co ----------25 S. Calvert St., Baltimore, Md., and
Brewster, Fla.
Armour Fertilizer Works--.--------- Bartow, Fla., and Union Stock Yards,
Chicago, Ill.
P. Bassett (Successor to Central Phos-
phate Co.) ---------.... ------------ Newberry, Fla.
Peter B. and Robert S. Bradley.----. 92 State St., Boston, Mass., and Floral
City, Fla.
J. Buttgenbach & Co.------------- Holder, Fla.
C. & J. Camp ...----------... --------- Ocala, Fla.
Charleston, S. C., Mining and Man-
ufacturing Co. ..----------.-------- Richmond, Va., and Ft. Meade, Fla.
Coronet Phosphate Co---.---------- Lakeland, Fla., and 99 John St., New
York.
Cummer Lumber Co-.....----.. Tacksonville and Newberry, Fla.
Dominion Phosphate Co--------------- Bartow, Fla.
Dunnellon Phosphate Co------------- Rockwell, Fla.
Dutton Phosphate Co---.-----------. Gainesville, Fla.
Export Phosphate Co .....------.. --- Mulberry, Fla., and 55 State St., Bos-
ton, Mass.
Florida Mining Co--------.... -------- 65 Broadway, New York, and Mul-
berry, Fla.
Florida Phosphate Mining Corpora-
tion -----------------------------'--, ~ Va., and Bartow, Fla.
Franklin Phosphate Co---------------- -- .. Fla.
Holder Phosphate Co---------.. ----. Ocala and Inverness, Fla.
International Phosphate Co-----------27 State St., Boston, Mass., and Ft.
Meade, Fla.
Interstate Chemical Corporation-.----- Charleston, S. C., and Bowling Green,
Fla.
Istachatta Phosphate Co--------... ---. stachatta, Fla
Lakeland Phosphate Co------------- Lakeland, Fla.
Leland Phosphate Co-----..---------..Croom, Fla.
Mutual Mining Co ..----.......--- ..Savannah, Ga., and Floral City, Fla.
Meredith-Noble Phosnhate Co------- Romeo, Fla.
Palmetto Phosphate Co ----.-------..Baltimore, Md., and Tiger Bay, Fla.
Pebbledale Phosphate Co ----------- -fulberry, Fla.
Phosphate Mining Co..------ ---5.... John St., New York, and Nichols, Fla.
Pierce Phosphate Co-----.--------. 2 Rector St., New York. and Pierce. Fla.
Prairie Pebble Phosphate Co---------.165 Broadway, New York, and Mul-
S"I berry, Fla.
Schilmann & Bene ----------------- Ocala, Fla.
Societe Franco-Americaine des Phos-
phates de Medulla to
Standard Phosphate Co.) .._. .-Christina, Fla
Societe Universelle de Mines, Indus-
tries Commerce et Agriculture------ Paris, France, and Pembroke, Fla.
Southern Phosphate Development Co.-Ocala and Inverness. Fla.
Swift & Co--------- ------------ Bartow. Fla.
'. A. Thompson-------------------- Ft. White, Fla.









MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


ROAD MATERIALS.
The materials available in Florida for making improved roads
include crushed stone, marl, shell, sand, gravel and sand-clay. In
addition cement, asphalt and vitrified brick are being imported into
the State for this purpose. The kind of road constructed depends
largely upon the materials available that are cheap enough to be
economically used. Sandy clays suitable for country roads are
widely distributed and at the present time the mileage of roads built
of sand-clay in the State equals the mileage of roads built of all
other materials combined. Marl, limestone and shell are the next
most widely distributed materials, while flint, bog ore, gravel and
phosphate rock are more restricted. While it is impossible to get
complete statistics on road materials it is known that more than
$56,000 worth of rock was produced in Florida during 1915 for the
purpose of road construction.
In the following table the rocks that are found in Florida are
classified according to their origin. A second table is added in
which the rocks are classified according to their chemical composi-
tion. The rocks of the State as may be seen from the lists given in
these tables are all of sedimentary or of sedimentary-chemical origin,
as no igneous or highly metamorphic rock are known in the State.

ROCKS OF FLORIDA CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ORIGIN.
Sandstone,
Mechanical origin ----..--.---.---...---------. Shales,
Clays.

Shell limestone,
Organic origin ..----------------.. ----------------. Infusorial earth,
Muck, peat, lignite.
Bog iron ore,
Oolitic limestone,
Chemical origin -- ------------------------ Flint or chert,
Crystallized limestone,
Phosphate rock.

Disregarding mode of origin and placing the rocks according to
chemical composition, the classification may be arranged as follows:










30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

ROCKS OF FLORIDA CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION.
Flint and chert,
Siliceous rocks ----------- --------------- Sandstone,
Infusorial earth.

Shell limestone,
Calcareous rock --............_. ......- .... Crystallized limestone,
Oolitic limestone,
Marl.
Argillaceous rock -----. -----.----------_--------- Clay and shale,
Carbo-Hydrates ----------------------------- ---- Muck, peat, lignite.
Ferruginous rocks .---------------------------.. Bog iron ore,
Phosphatic rocks ------------------------------ Pebble and rock phosphate.

SILICEOUS ROCKS:-FLINT, CHERT AND GRAVEL

Flint is chemically an oxide of silica, SiO., with more or less
accompanying impurities. It is a variety of the mineral quartz, oc-
curring massive and non-crystallized or more accurately very imper-
fectly crystallized (crypto-crystalline.) The term "chert" is often
used interchangeably with flint. Properly chert is an impure flint
or flinty rock. Flint and chert are lacking in cleavage. They break,
as do the other varieties of quartz, with conchoidal fracture. A flint
rock when crushed breaks into sharp cornered pieces of varying size.
The mineral quartz, of which flint is a variety, has a hardness of
seven on a scale in which the hardest mineral, diamond, is ten. The
varieties of quartz vary in hardness slightly according to the im-
purities that they contain. Silica is one of the least soluble of
minerals and among the most resistant to decay.
Flint and chert occur mostly as masses or "horsebacks" in the
limestone formations. A good illustration of the manner of occur-
rence may be seen in phosphate pits or in some of the lime pits at
Ocala. In some of the sinks on Thompson's farm two miles east of
Sumterville will be seen flint masses exposed by the natural decay
of the limestone. The flint masses appear to conform to no rule as
to size and extent. Flints may form a ridge running through the
limestone; or again they occur as rounded or elongated masses. Oc-
casionally the flint forms as a thin stratum lying horizontally. This
flint bearing limestone lies at no great distance from the surface









MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


throughout all of the central peninsular section of the State from
Columbia County on the north to Sumter County on the south and
from the Suwannee River and the Gulf coast to east Alachua and
Marion counties. Much of the hard rock phosphate rests upon this
flint-bearing limestone, and from the phosphate pits great quantities
of the flint may be obtained. This flint-bearing limestone is known
as the Ocala formation. It is not to be inferred that no other Flor-
ida formation contains silica for, on the contrary, many of the for-
mations are highly siliceous. The Ocala limestone, is, however,
the chief flint-bearing formation of Florida.
The flint masses were clearly not present in the limestone as orig-
inally formed. This formation when not affected by chemical change
consists typically of a mass of calcareous shells varying in size from
minute foraminifera to larger bivalves and gastropods with which
are interbedded coral and other fossils, along with a limited amount
of siliceous material supplied principally by sponge spicules. Orig-
inally, without doubt, the limestone consisted largely of the remains
of these calcareous shells, the flint masses having been subsequently
deposited through the agency of underground water. Water in its
round of circulation through surface and deeper formations takes
silica as well as other substances into solution. In the course of its
circulation through the limestone, the silica in solution in the water
replaces the calcium carbonate of the limestone. The direct evi-
dence that the flint masses are formed by the replacement process is
to be had from the examination of a piece of flint. In this it will
be seen that the foraminifera and other shells which were origi-
nally calcareous have been changed' to silica. The replacement pro-
cess is by no means confined to the formation of flints. As already
mentioned, chemical changes are constantly going on among the
minerals making up the rock formations, and replacement of one
mineral by another is one of the important phases of chemical
change.
Siliceous gravels are widely scattered over the State and in a few
localities occur in sufficient abundance to be used as a road material.
Gravel pits have been opened at Interlachen and at Grandin in Put-
nam county and in Escambia and Jackson counties.









32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

CALCAREOUS MATERIAL.
Calcareous road materials occur in the form of shells, shell and
coral limestone, oolitic limestone, and marls. All of these rocks
consist essentially of calcium carbonate or of the double carbonate
of calcium and magnesium, and have certain features in common.
They are much less resistant to wear than is quartz. When pure
and crystallized the mineral calcite (CaCO) has a hardness of only
three in the scale in which quartz is seven. It is thus much softer
than the steel tires of wagons. In fact a chief item in the repair
of calcareous roads arises from the fact that steel tires cut holes
in the soft material. On the other hand, an advantageous property
of calcareous material is the readiness with which it re-cements it-
self. Calcium carbonate dissolves to an appreciable extent in water
containing CO2 gas or weak organic acids. Chemical re-adjust-
ment is therefore rapid in a mass of crushed or broken calcareous
rock, the dissolved calcium carbonate acting as a cementing mate-
rial.
In practical application, the.physical condition in which these
materials occur must be taken into consideration. In the case of
recent shells, the calcium carbonate is in a compact amorphous con-
dition. The shells of a shell limestone are usually brittle and often
crumble easily. The oolitic limestone is made up of innumerable
round concretions barely large enough to be readily visible to the
eye. These are held together by a calcareous cement. After crush-
ing, the particles re-cement more or less perfectly. The marls are
calcareous deposits which are sufficiently soft to be applied to roads
without previous crushing. More or less perfectly crystallized
limestone occurs locally in the State. Its formation is probably due
to a replacement process similar to that described for flint and
chert. The chemical changes in this case involve a rearrangement
of the constituent molecules; as a result of which the non-crystal-
lized material of the rock assumes a definite form. When partly
crystallized the limestone becomes compact and close grained.
Distribution and Amount of Calcaredus Rocks.-The calcareous
rocks are widely distributed in the State. The Ocala limestone, as
already stated, is.found near the surface over much of central Flor-
ida. Oolitic limestones make up an extensive formation running
north and south from Miami and forming the east border of the
Everglades. Coral and oolitic limestones form the foundation of
the keys from Miami to Key West. ::.. i limestone occurs exten-








MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


sively along the Caloosahatchee River. Tampa Bay affords a com-
pact limestone which often carries much silica. The Chattahoochee
series of compact limestones occurs extensively in parts of West
Florida. The mars are usually of local occurrence and are re-
stricted to no part of the State. Shells, thanks to oyster industry
of the present, and to the shell mound builders of the past, occur
in inexhaustible quantities.
The term "marl" in connection with road making is applied
to any calcareous material that is sufficiently soft to admit of direct
application to roads without previous crushing. The marls as a
rule are taken direct from the pits to the roads. With the soft
marls, traffic over the road serves to crush, smooth, and pack the
material, although the harder marls after being spread on the road
are broken up by hand or crushed with a roller. A characteristic
of marl is that after being thus packed the material re-cements it-
self, forming a uniform surface. The marls used for roads include
several varieties. A form frequently used is an amorphous marl
found usually in old swamps. Marls of this character were for-
merly used extensively in Orange County, being obtained in the
western part of the county. Marls used in Brevard County, west
of Titusville, are of a similar character. The swamp marls are usu-
ally of local occurrence and may be expected in almost any part of
the State. Some of the limestones of the State are sufficiently soft
to serve as marls. Thus the extensive formation known as the
Ocala limestone is, as a rule, comparatively soft, and is extensively
used for road making, being commonly classed as a marl. The
marl roads of Marion County are made from this limestone, nu-
merous pits being opened in the county for this purpose.
Crushed stone is being used somewhat extensively for roads.
For this purpose hard limestone, flint, or phosphate rock is used.
After crushing, the coarser material is spread on the road, making
a secure foundation, on which the fine siftings are used thus filling
in and making a top dressing, giving a smooth surface and a very
durable road.
SHELL ROADS.

Shell deposits are less uniformly scattered over the State than
marl and limestone and are less extensively used for roads. The
principal shell deposits are the oyster shells found near the coast or
along inlets from the coast, and the chief supply of these is afford-
ed by the shell mounds accumulated in the past by the Indians, al-








34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

though modern oyster canning factories give an important added
supply. Aside from the shell mounds of the coast there is a notable
series of shell mounds along the St. Johns River, which consists
chiefly of small univalve shells with some mussels. These were like-
wise accumulated by the Indians. Aside from the shell accumu-
lated by human agencies the shell deposits accumulated by natural
agencies should be mentioned. Among these are coquina rock and
other marine shell deposits. The coquina accumulated as beach de-
posits and subsequently became more or less cemented, forming in
places hard rock. Elsewhere masses of uncemented shells occur,
such as those previously mentioned at DeLand. These are usually
classed as shell marls.
SAND-CLAY.

Sand-clay, because of its widespread occurrence, is the most
extensively used road material in the State. Almost every county
has sandy clays suitable for road making, or the clay suitable to
mix with or cover the sands of the natural sandy roads. These
roads, while not all that could be desired, are a vast improvement
over the ordinary sand roads and their cheapness recommends them
to general use.
Fine grained clay mixed in proper proportion with coarse, an-
gular quartz, makes a road that has been found useful where cheap-
ness of construction is necessary, and where the roads have light
travel. In mixing sand and clay for road purposes the proportion
should be so adjusted that there is enough clay in the mixture to
fill the voids or interstices between the grains of sand. If too little
clay is added the sand grains will lack bonding power and not make
a solid roadbed. If too much clay is added, and the sand grains
are widely separated, the road behaves much as though the sand
were not present at all: The amount of clay necessary to mix with
a given volume of any particular sand should be determined by
some one experienced in this work.
Since all clay contains more or less sand, it may be expected
that certain localities will supply clay that contains the right ad-
mixture of sand and clay to form a natural sand-clay road, or so
nearly the proper admixture that it will serve that purpose satisfac-
torily. Fortunately for Florida, almost every county is supplied
with an abundance of clay which serves admirably the purpose of
road-making. With this material at hand, road construction in
country sections is carried on at a minimum expense. These roads








MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


find their greatest usefulness in country sections where cheapness
in road-making is necessary.
The road-making clays are of a red or yellowish color, indicat-
ing a high percentage of iron compounds which probably assist in
the bonding power of the material. In texture the clay is rather
coarse and breaks up readily.

BOG IRON ORE.
Bog iron ore occurs in various parts of the State, but is usually
in thin deposits and of local extent. It has been stated by Shaler
(U. S. Geological Survey, 15th Ann. Rept., p. 272, 1895), that
where the surface of a limestone road can be covered with iron ore
the firmness of the mass is much increased. An iron oxide, such as
bog iron ore, serves as a cementing material, and this is doubtless
the explanation of its usefulness for this purpose.
Low grade phosphate may serve in some localities as a useful
road rock. The hard rock phosphate is harder than limestone and
is reported to have better cementing qualities. Phosphate screen-
ings have been used to some extent and have proved satisfactory.

SAND-LIME BRICK.
Four companies were actively engaged in the manufacture of
sand-lime brick in Florida during 1915 as follows: The Bond
Sandstone Brick -Company, Lake Helen, Fla.; The Composite Brick
Company, 425 St. James Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla.; The Plant City
Composite Brick Company, Plant City, Fla., and The Valrico Sand-
stone Company, Valrico, Fla.
The total production of sand-lime brick in Florida during 1915
including common, front and fancy brick, was valued at $77,575.

SAND AND GRAVEL.
The sand produced in Florida is used for building and paving
and for railroad ballast. The gravel produced finds its chief use
for road making and for road ballast. The total production of
sand and gravel for 1915 was 123,548 tons, valued at $34,055.
The companies reporting the production of sand and gravel in
Florida during 1915 are the following:
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.
Florida Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.
Interlachen Gravel Company, Interlachen.









36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Lake Wier Sand Company, Ocala.
Logan Coal and Supply Company, Jacksonville.
W. E. Long, Orlando.
Walter L. Westcott, Orlando.
Woodmar and Company, Ocala.

WATER.

The springs of Florida are famous for their large volume of
flow as well as for the clearness and beauty of their waters. Many
of these springs are used as health resorts, while from others the
water is sold for medicinal or table use. The total sales of mineral
and spring water in Florida during 1915, as shown by the returns
from the owners of springs and wells, amount to 118,920 gallons,
valued at $12,516. The average price thus approximates ten cents
per gallon.
The following is a list of some of the mineral springs of Flor-
ida:

Chumuckla Mineral Springs and Hotel Company, Chumuckla Mineral Springs,
Chumuckla, Florida.
Espiritu Santo Springs Company, Espiritu Santo Springs, Safety Harbor, Florida.
Lackawanna Water and Ginger Ale Company, Lackawanna Springs, Jackson-
ville, Florida.
L. H. McKee, Quisiana Spring, Green Cove Springs, Florida.
Magnesia Spring Water Company, Magnesia Spring, Grove Park, Florida.
Magnolia Springs Hotel Company, Magnolia Spring, :-'.:. :.. -' .-- Florida.
Nathaniel Brewer, Jr., Newport SpringS, Newport, Florida.
Orange City Mineral Springs Company, Orange City Mineral Springs, Orange
City, Florida.
Panacea Springs Company, Panacea Springs. Panacea, Florida.
Ponce de Leon Springs Corp., DeLeon Springs, DeLeon Springs, Florida.
Purity Springs Water Company, Purity Spring, Tampa, Florida.
Silver Springs, Ocala, Fla.
Tampa Kissengen Wells Company, Stomawa Mineral Well, Tampa, Florida.
Vincent Bros., Wekiva Springs, Apopka, Florida.
Wakulla Springs, Wakulla County, Florida.










MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


SUMMARY STATEMENT OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
DURING 1915.

Common or building brick, 31,019 M., valued at--.-----... --.... -----.$ 182,149
Lime, including quick and hydrated lime, 15,506 tons, valued at-.---. 78,240
Limestone, including ground limestone for agricultural use and crushed
rock for railroad ballast, concrete and road materiaL------------ 354,673
Mineral waters, 118,920 gallons, valued at--------------..---------. 12,516
Phosphate rock, 1,358,611 long tons, valued at ----------------------- 3,762,239
Sand and gravel, including building and moulding sand and gravel,
123,548 short tons, valued at--------------------------------- 34,055
Sand-lime brick, including common and front brick, 13,078 thousand,
valued at ---..............---------------.-------------.-- 77,575
Mineral products not separately listed, including ball clay, drain tile,
and fuller's earth ------------------------------------- 533,563

Total mineral production valued at---------------.....-------.---$5,o35,oio




























DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME FLORIDIAN FOSSIL VERTE-
BRATES, BELONGING MOSTLY TO THE
PLEISTOCENE.


BY OLIVER P. HAY.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE OF CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON.
PLATES 1-9.















CONTENTS.
PAGE
Introduction .... ....------------------------------ -. 41
Mammalia ---------------------------- 41
Equidae ..------....----.. ---------------------.-----. 41
Hipparion plicatile ------- ----------------------- 41
Parahippus sp. ------------------------------------- 42
Cervidae ----------------------------------------- 43
Odocoileus osceola z-------------------------------------- 43
Reptilia ------------------------------- --- 45
Testudinidae ----------------- ------ ------------------- 45-
Testudo ocalana, new species --------- ------------------- 45
Testudo incisa, new species -------------------------------- 46
Testudo distans, new species ----------------------------- 48
Testudo sellardsi, new species ------------... ------------ --. 49
Testudo luciae, new species ---------------- ---------- --- 52
Bystra nanus, new genus and species --------------------- 53
Gopherus praecedens, new species ----------------------- 55
Emydidae -------------------- --------------------- --- 57
Terrapene formosa, new species ------------------------- 57
Terrapene antipex, new. species .-- ---- -------.--------.. 58
Terrapene innoxia, new species --........----................ 61
Pseudemys caelata -----------------.....------------------ 64
Trachemys ? delicate, new species .-......-- .--- -----... 66
Trachemys bisornata ------------------------------------ 67
Trachemys sculpta Hay --.......---- .....--...---------. 68
Trachemys eglypha ? ------------------------------------70
Trachemys ? nuchocarinata, new species .....----..... .--- 70.
Pseudemys floridana persimilis, new sub-species .------... 71
Chelydra laticarinata, new species .--....---------------..... 72
Chelydra sculpta, new species ------.. -------------------- 73













DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME FLORIDIAN FOSSIL VERTE-
BRATES, BELONGING MOSTLY TO THE PLEIS-
TOCENE.
Plates I-9.
OLIVER P. HAY.
RESEARCH ASSOCIATE OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASH-
INGTON.
The greater part of the vertebrate materials described in the
present paper belongs to the collection of the Florida State Geo-
logical Survey and was put into my hands by Dr. E. H. Sellards
for examination. However, the portion of the upper jaw of Hip-
parion plicatile was given me, on a visit to Ocala, Florida, by Mr.
William M. Dale, to be transferred to the U. S. National Museum.
The interesting little land tortoise herein described is the property
of Dr. Henry G. Bystra, of Brooksville, Florida. The part of a
plastron which is referred to Terrapene antipex belongs to Mr.
Fred R. Allen, of St. Augustine.
Florida is extremely rich in the bones and teeth of extinct
vertebrate animals; and the efforts of Dr. E. H. Sellards, the State
Geologist, to secure and preserve these for science ought' to receive
the encouragement and assistance of all citizens of the State. Find-
ers of fossil teeth and bones ought to send them to the office of the
State Geologist, at Tallahassee, instead of bestowing them on
transient visitors who esteem them only as curiosities.

MAMMALIA.
FAMILY EQUIDAE.
HIPPARION PLICATILE LEIDY. I
Plate 2, fig. 8.
From Mr. William M. Dale, Gainesville, Florida, vice-presi-
dent of the Dunnellon Phosphate Company, the National Museum
has received a part of the palate of this species. It has received
the number 8265. The specimen was found in a phosphate mine
at Juliette, about three miles north of Dunnellon, in a bend of the









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Withlacoochee river, at a depth of 60 feet under ground. This
fragment contains the second, third and fourth premolars of the
right side. The teeth are in fine condition. The fragment is illus-
trated on plate 2, figure 8, of the natural size. The following
measurements have been secured:
Measurements of premolars in millimeters.

Dimensions taken Height Length Width
Pm" 24 26 21
Pmr 24 22 22
Pm* 24 21 23

In the second premolar the protocone comes into pretty close
contact with the anterior intermediate column (protoconule). In
the other teeth it is well removed from the adjacent columns.

PARAHIPPUS? SP. INDET.
Plate 8, figs. 1-2.
In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey are five
lower teeth which seem to belong to the genus Parahippus. No.
1634 is a right molar with a part of the front end missing and with
a long hinder root; No. 1635, the anterior end of a right molar;
No, 1636, the crown of a left molar; No. 1637, the crown of a
left molar; No. 1638, the crown of another left molar. These
teeth were all found at Newberry, Alachua county, Florida, and
were presented by the Franklin Phosphate Company.
The following table presents the measurements of some of
these teeth.
Measurements of lower teeth of Parahippus sp. indet., in millimeters.

Dimensions taken No. 1636 No. 1637 No. 1638 No. 1634
Length --------------- 13.5 13.5 13.5
Width of front lobe-_. o1 1o.5 1o 10
Width of hinder lobe-- I1 11.5 9,5 8.5


No. 1635 appears to have been a larger tooth than the others,
inasmuch as the width of the front lobe is 12 min.
In these teeth there is an internal cingulum which continues









MAMMALIA


across the front and rear of the crown. The mesostyle is marked
off from the metaconid by a very shallow groove. While the
crowns of all the other teeth are very black, that of No. 1637 is
brownish yellow. It may be a milk tooth. Although these teeth
probably belong to an undescribed species of Parahippus it seems
to be better not to apply to them a systematic name until after
better materials, especially upper molars, shall have been found.
Figure i, of plate 8 represents No. 1638; figure 2, No. 1636, both
one-half larger than the natural size.
The writer has studied a fragment of an upper jaw, with mo-
lars of a Parahippus, which was found in phosphate deposits near
Charleston, S. C. This jaw belonged to a much larger species than
that which is represented by the teeth here described from New-
berry, Florida.
FAMILY CERVIDAE.
ODOCOILBUS OSCEOLA (BANGS).
Plate 8, figs. 3-5.
In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey are some
teeth which belong to Odocoileus and perhaps to the species now
existing in Florida, O. osceola. By many this form is regarded
as only a subspecies of O. virginianus. Of these teeth there are
an upper right second molar (No. 1443), an upper left probably first
molar (No. 1439), a lower right second molar (No. 1379), two
lower left third molars (Nos. 1446, 1448), and a lower right third
molar (No. 1424).
All of these teeth were found near Dunnellon, Marion county,
in the "Cullens river mine," and were presented by Messrs. Schil-
mann and Bene.
For purposes of comparison measurements have been secured
from two skulls of the deer now living in Florida. These belong
to the Biological Survey of the Department of Agriculture. One,
No. 167764, is that of a doe which was obtained at St. Vincent;
the other, No. 58292, that of a buck which was secured in Osce-
ola county. The basilar length of the doe's skull is 221 mm.; that
of the buck, 270 mm. The length of the teeth is taken near the
middle of the width, while the width is taken across the front lobe
and at the base of the crown.









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Measurements of teeth of Odocoileus osceola in millimeters.


Upper Teeth.

1439
_L__ k167764 58292 1443
Pm' length---- 12.5 12. --
width---- o o --
Pm' length--- O T --
width--- i1 rI -
Pm* length---- 9.5 9.5
width---- 12 12
AM 13.5 13.5 13
width---- 13 14 14
M' length---- 14 14.5 14
width---- 15 15.5 14
SM length--- 13.5 14.5 -,
width---- 1 5.5 -


>wer Teeth.


Pmr length----
width----
Pmi length---
width----
Pm, length---
width----
Mi length----
width---
Mi length----
width----
Ms length----
width----


It will be observed that the two individuals of 0. osceola agree
closely in the measurements. The fossil teeth are not greatly dif-
ferent. However, in the tooth No. 1443 (pl. 8, fig. 3) the width
across the hinder lobe is 12 mm.; while in the doe exam-
ined the width is 14 mm.; in the buck, 14 mm. In the molar No.
1439 (pl. 8, fig. 4.) the hinder lobe is only 12 mm. wide. It is
found too that the third lobe, or talon, of. the hinder molar of the
fossil teeth is 6 nrm. wide; while in the existing deer in Florida it
is only 5 mm. However, in the last lower molar, No. 1446, (pl.
8, fig. 5) the talon is 5 mm. wide. In the fossil molar No.
1379 the greatest width, Io mm., is at the second lobe; while in
the doe this width is found in the front lobe. The fossil upper mo-
lars seem, therefore, to have a narrower hinder lobe; while the
talon of the hinder lower molar is wider than in the existing deer.
On the other hand, the lower last molar, No. 1424, is about i mm.
narrower in all parts than the other two third molars. One would
hardly be justified in proposing at present a new name for the
Pleistocene remains of Odocoileus found in Florida, but the differ-
ences need to be noted.
The findingtof the antlers of deer in the Pleistocene deposits
in Florida and South Carolina is not at all uncommon.


9.5 7.5
5-5 4.5
12 10.5
6.5 6.5
12 11.5
8.5 8
r4 13.5
9 9.2
I5 15
1o 0.5
20.5 20.5
to Ito'


----


I









TESTUDINATA


REPTILIA.
FAMILY TESTUDINIDAE.
TESTUDO OCALANA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 3, figs. 1-4; Plate 9, figs. 1-3.
Type-specimen.-Left half of the epiplastron, No. 4299 of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Type locality and formation.---Ocala, Florida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Epiplastral beak closely resembling that of T.
crassiscutata. Thickest part of border behind the beak distant from
free edge less than the thickness. In T. crassisiutata the thickest
part equal to only one-half its distance from the free edge.
In a considerable collection of tortoise remains, including more
than one, probably three or four species, which was presented by
the Florida Lime Company and made near Ocala, Marion county,
are some parts which belong apparently to an undescribed form.
To this is given the name Testudo ocalana. As type of the species
is taken the left half of the epiplastral beak, No. 4299 (pl. 3, fig.
i). This resembles closely the corresponding bone of a specimen
which was found in Hillsboro county and which, after being re-
ferred provisionally to T. crassiscutata, was figured in three posi-
tions (Foss. Turtles '7 A., p. 461, figs. 622 a-c). These figures
are here reproduced (pl. 9, figs. 1-3) and will serve to illustrate
the Ocala specimen. The latter measures from the midline in
front to the outer hinder angle 79 mm.;' the greatest.thickness of
the epiplastral lip is 34 mm., somewhat less than in .the one fig-
ured. The greatest thickness at the end which articulated with
the hypoplastron is 18 mm. It seems necessary to refer this spec-
imen from Hillsboro county to this species.
In the collection is a large part of a hyoplastron, No. 4292,
(pl. 3, fig. 2) which belonged to a slightly larger individual, in-
asmuch as the greatest thickness at the hyo-epiplastral suture is
22.5 mm. The form of the thickened border in this region is iden-
tical in the two specimens.
The bone extends to the midline and includes 28 nmm. of this
border behind the entoplastron. From this fact it is determined
that the front lobe, measuring from where the humeropectoral sul-
cus crosses the border, had a width of 160 mm. The entoplastron
was 66 mm. wide and was rounded behind. The sulcus mentioned
passed close behind the entoplastron. The length of the pectoral









46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

scutes at the midline was -17 mm. As usual, they expanded greatly
behind the axillary notch. The bone is of moderate thickness, 12
mm. at the midline, about 8 mm. where it joined the hypoplastron.
The epiplastral and hyoplastral bones described differ from
those of T. crassiscutata in having the thickest part of the bone, at
the hyo-epiplastral suture relatively nearer the free border. In
T. crassiscutata the greatest thickness is hardly equal to one-half
of the distance from the free border to the summit of the slope
on the upper surface. In T. ocalana the corresponding fraction is
four-fifths or more.
A right first costal bone .:: .::' (No. 4288) is referred pro-
visionally to this species (pl. 3, fig. 3). Only a part of the hinder
inner angle is missing. It presents borders for articulation with
the first neural, the nuchal, the first, second, third, and fourth
peripherals, and the second costal. From the outer angle to the
border for the neural it measures 133 mm. The thickness at the
neural is to mm. The border for union with the nuchal and the
first and second peripherals is very irregular and jagged; that for
union with the third and fourth peripherals is smooth. The first
vertebral scute had a width in front of 94 mm. in addition to the
width of the neural. At its hinder end the width was 48 mm. in
addition to that of the neural.
A -hinder peripheral, apparently the left eighth, is referred to
this species. Its number is 4311. Figure 4 of plate 3 presents
a view of its front borders.

TESTUDO INCISA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 3, figs. 5-8.
Type specimen.-The xiphiplastral of the left side, No. 4287
of the collection of the Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Ocala, Marion county, Florida.
Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Xiphiplastron thick and heavy, with a deep and
rounded notch at the rear, between the two acute terminal pro-
cesses. Anal scutes very short at the midline.
In a lot of bones presented by the Florida Lime Company, at
Ocala, is the xiphiplastral bone here described. Whether any of
the other bones in the collection belong to the same species it is
:: to say. The bone here described and figured (pl. 3,
fig. 5) indicates a tortoise fully as large as the existing so-called









TESTUDINATA.


gopher of Florida. The width at the front of the bone is 60 mm.;
the length along the midline, 38 mm. From, a line at right angles
with the midline and proceeding from the front of the notch the
lateral processes extended backward 29 mm. This is, therefore,
the depth of the notch. Its width behind was 60 mm. At the inner
front angle of the bone the thickness is 8 mm. This' increases rap-
idly, especially near the outer border, where the thickness is 20 mm.
From the top of the ridge thus formed the outer border descends
steeply. At the furrow between the femoral and the anal scutes
the border is acute and the wall slopes less steeply and has a
height of 1 mm. The terminal process is triangular. Its lower
face is convex. On its upper surface a sharp ridge runs from its
base to its apex. From the summit of the ridge the surface slopes
in each direction to the free borders of the process. The greatest,
thickness at the base is 12.5 mm. The area for the anal scute is
43 mm. wide, 39 mm. along the outer border and 8 mm. at the
midline. This scute differed from that of the existing gopher
(Gopherus polyphemus) in being much shorter, at its median end.
With this xiphiplastral are associated provisionally the fol-
lowing specimens found at 'Ocala: A left seventh peripheral and
a part of an eighth, No. 4286; a right seventh peripheral, No. 4297;
a hinder right peripheral, No. 4305; a part of a left sixth costal,
No. 4295; and a part of a bridge peripheral of the left side. The
peripherals are remarkable because of their lack of curvature from
the upper to the free border. As the xiphiplastral bone is sug-
gestive of relationship with Gopherus polyphemus, so too are the
peripherals. However, these peripherals are in one way quite dif-
ferent from those of the existing land tortoise of Florida. In this
species the free border is prolonged somewhat where crossed by
the intermarginal furrows; while in the peripherals here assigned
to T. incisa the border is there notched. In both species the border
is scalloped, but in T. incisa the notches are in the peripherals;
in aopherus polyphemus, between them.
The height of the left seventh peripheral, taken in front, is
75 mm.; taken behind, 65 mm. The thickness at the front and
near the upper end is 8 mm. As will be seen from the illustration
(pl. 3, fig. 6), the lower border is notched where crossed by the
intermarginal furrow. This indicates that the hinder free border
of the carapace was scalloped. The furrow just mentioned, as it
ascends, comes nearer and nearer to the front border of the bone.









48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The outer face of the bone is nearly flat, as is too that of the pre-
served part of the eighth peripheral. On the inner face of the
seventh peripheral is seen the ridge against which rose the hypo-
plastral buttress. This buttress appears to have been ankylosed
to the peripheral.
The right seventh peripheral (pl. 3, fig. 7) belonged to a
younger individual. On the plate its lower border is directed up-
ward and the inner face is shown. A fragment of the hypoplastral
buttress remains attached. The outer surface is nearly flat. The
lower border is hardly notched. What appears to be a ninth, pos-
sibly an eighth, right peripheral is represented as showing its front
border (pl. 3, fig. 8). The individual was of about the same
size as that of figure 7. The outer surface is convex from front
*to rear, but plane from above downward. There is a quite deep
notch in the free border.
TESTUDO DISTANS, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 3, fig. 9.

Type-specimen.-An entoplastron, No. 4289, in the collection
of the Florida Geological :. -. .
Type-locality and formation.-Ocala, Florida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Rear of entoplastron largely occupied by the pec-
toral scutes..
In the collection made at Ocala and presented by the Florida
Lime Company is a large entoplastron which is different from any
known to the writer. A description of it may eventually lead to
the discovery of other parts of the species. It is represented by
figure 9 of plate 3. The remarkable feature of the bone is the
fact that the pectoral scutes extended forward on its area; where-
as in nearly all other species of the genus these scutes have their
front border just behind it.
The length of the bone along the midline is 128 mm.; the
greatest width, 145 mm. The thickness near the midline and 80
mm. behind the front is 15 mm. As will be observed, the gular
scutes extended backward on the entoplastron about 20 mm. The
length of the humerals on the entoplastron is about 80 mm. but
the left one is the shorter. The humero-pectoral sulcus entered
the area of the bone nearest its widest part and swept forward
and inward, then backward and inward to the midline.
This bone cannot belong to T. crassiscutata; because the ento-









TESTUDINATA.


plastron of the type, while not twice as wide as the bone here de-
scribed, is nearly five times as thick. The entoplastron of that
species has likewise a different shape; and the gulars seem to have
occupied more of its anterior end. The bone cannot belong to T.
ocalana; because in this species, as usual, the pectorals do not in-
fringe on the entoplastron.
TESTUDO SELLARDSI, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 8, figs. 6-8.
Type-specimen.-A part of the xiphiplastron, accompanied by
parts of the carapace, of a large tortoise, No. 1831 of the Geolog-
ical Survey of Florida.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie county, Florida.
Pleistocene.
Diagmosis.-In size and structure resembling T. crassiscutata,
but having the outer face of the anterior part of the thickened
xiphiplastral border flat or concave, instead of convex; the thick-
ness of the anterior end of the border contained in the distance
to the bottom of the xiphiplastral notch 3.6 times, instead of 3
times.
In the paleontological collection at Tallahassee are various re-
mains of this species regarded as hitherto undescribed. They were
obtained in the canal of the Indian River Farms Company, near
Vero, St. Lucie county, south of the Florida East Coast Railway.
The fragments have the number 1831. As far as possible the frag-
ments have been brought together. It is found that there are pres-
ent a part of the second, neural plate and all of the fourth, most
of the fifth and all of the sixth, seventh and eighth; also the prox-
imal ends of the right fourth, fifth, and seventh costals: and of
the left fifth and seventh; also various other fragments of costals;
also the left side of the xiphiplastron. These parts indicate a very
large animal. Some of them are represented by figures 6-8 of
plate 8.
The following are the dimensions of the neurals measured, the
length being taken at the middle, the width where greatest, and
the thickness at the middle of the costal border.










50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.


Measurements of neurals in millimeters.


No. Length Width Thickness

4 ro8 185 38
5 115 150 30
6 87 157 27
7 78 134 27
8 751 0o 24


From the length of these neurals it is calculated that the cara-
pace had a length of about four feet. Along the midline of the
fourth neural there is a broad deep groove. The upper surface
of the fifth neural slopes from both ends toward the scutal furrow
which crosses it. That of the seventh is concave. The eighth
neural is crossed by a scutal furrow. From the scutal furrow
which crosses the fourth costal it is ascertained that the third ver-
tebral scute had a width of 300 mm. The fourth vertebral scute
extended back on the eighth neural plate.
It is especially in the hinder lobe of the plastron where are
found differences which distinguish this species from Testudo
crassiscutata. Some of these differences are brought out in the
following table of measurements. In the third column are given
the dimensions that the bone of T. crassiscutata would have in
case the first measurement were the same as in T. sellardsi, 238 mm.

Measurements of xiphiplastra of Testudo crassiscutata and T. sallardsi, in
millimeters.


Dimensions taken


T. sellardsi


From outer end of hypo-xiphiplastron to bottom
of xiphiplastral notch ------------------- 238
Greatest thickness of xiphiplastron at suture
just named --------------------------. 66
Thickness of xiphiplastron at suture named and
8o mm. from border -------------------- 40
Thickness of xiphiplastron at midline and 40
mm. in front of notch-------------------- 35
Fore-and-aft extent of horn-covered portion of
upper surface of xiphiplastral lobes-------- 63
From tip of xiphiplastral lobes to bottom .
notch, along the border of the bone------- 84


T. crassiscutata

Actual Reduced
255 238
85 80o
35 33
32 30
83 77
120 112









TESTUDINATA.


When we compare closely the xiphiplastron of the two species
we find various differences which show themselves to the eye. The
outer face of the wall running along the outer border of the bone
is, at the anterior end, perpendicular in both species. Further
backward', about one-third the distance to the extremity of the
bone, the outer face of the wall in T. crassiscutata has become
slightly convex fore-and-aft (pl. 8, fig. 8, a, a) and quite con-
vex (pl. 8, fig. 8, c, c) from below to its upper border; where-
as, in T. sellardsi it has become concave from front to rear (pl.
8, fig. 8, b, b) and only slightly convex (pl. 8, fig. 8, d, d)
up and down.
From the summit of the wall mentioned its inner face falls
off much more rapidly in T. crassiscutata than in T. sellardsi, so
that at a distance of 80 mm. from the outer border of the bone,
measured on the lower surface, the thickness is greater in the latter
(4o mm.)'than in the former species (35 mm.). At a point about
halfway along the inner face of the wall the upper surface of the
bone has sunken so much that a sort of wide pit is produced. In
T. sellardsi this pit ris much shallower.
The upper surfaces of the lobes of the xiphiplastron which
were covered with horn are disproportionately broader in T. crass-
iscutata (85 mrm.) than in T. sellardsi (65 mm.). The lower sur-
face of the xiphiplastron of the type of T. crassiscutata is smooth;
that of T. sellardsi are provided with vermiform grooves, from 3
mm. to 5 mm. in width and of varying depth. These continue on
the horn-covered parts of the upper surface. This feature may
have been individual.
The lack of common parts makes it practically impossible to
compare the carapaces of the two species here mentioned. In the
U. S. National Museum are two neural bones, found near Tampa,
Florida, which the writer has figured (Foss. Turtles N. A., p.
460, fig. 618). It is, however, not wholly certain that they be-
longed to T. crassiscutata. One of these is the fourth neural and
may, therefore, be compared with the fourth of T. sellardsi (pl.
8, fig. 6). It will be seen that they differ somewhat in out-
line; but this may not be important. The length of that of T.
crassiscutata is 130o mm.; its width, 200 mm. The length is, there-
fore.65 of the width. In T. sellardsi the length is .53 of the width.
In both species the width of the third vertebral scute was about
300 mm.









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

At present, it appears that parts of the carapace, not found with
the rear portions of the plastron, belonging to T. :,...-..... -, ..,: T.
sellardsi and T. .: can hardly be distinguished, the one species
from the other.
A comparison of text-figure 6 with that of a large land tor-
toise figured by Dr. Sellards, but -.. .:: a systematic name
(Seventh Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv. 1915, p. 70),* shows at once
that the animals represented belonged to quite distinct species. In
the species figured by Sellards only the second neural bone had
taken on the octagonal form. Indeed, the neurals in general had
attained a stage of differentiation representing that of the Oligo-
cene genus S.'*.': ..,: The fourth neural is hexagonal; whereas,
in T. sellardsi it is octagonal. The fifth neural has quite different
i.. in the two species.
TESTUDO LUCIAE, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 9, fig. 5.
Type-specimen.-Part of the right hypoplastral bone, No. 1807
of the Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie county, Florida.
Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-A species perhaps as large as T. crassiscutata, but
differing in having a thinner wall along the border of the base of
the hinder lobe.
Among the materials in the Florida paleontological collection
is a part of a very large species of Testudo which appears not to
have been hitherto recognized. This fragment has the number
1807 and is recorded as having been obtained from the canal of
the Indian River Farms Company, east of the Florida East Coast
Railway, near the Indian river, at Vero, St. Lucie county. There
can hardly be any doubt that the animal lived during the Pleisto-
cene.
The part-present and forming the type of the species belongs to
the right side and hinder part of the hypoplastron. It is therefore
a part of the base of the hinder lobe of the plastron. It extends
backward nearly, but not quite, to the suture with the xiphiplas-
tron. The animal was about the size of T. crassiscutata Leidy. It
appears, however,' to differ from that species sufficiently. As ii

Subsequently described as Testudo hayi. American ;Joi al of Science,
Vol xlii, Sept., x916.









TESTUDINATA.


the latter, the outer border of the hinder lobe formed a high wall,
perpendicular on its outer face. Between the furrow separating
the abdominal and the femoral scutes and the hypo-xiphiplastral
suture the height of the wall is 90 mm. The summit of the wall is
narrower than in Leidy's species. The outline figures (figs. 4, 5,
pl. 9) represent sections taken at the hypo-xiphiplastral suture
of the two species at the place described. It will be seen that in
T. crassiscutata (fig. 4) the bone is everywhere thicker. Toward
the midline of the lobe, 90 mm. from the outer border, the thick-
ness in Leidy's species is 36 mm.; in the one here described, only
26 mm.
The furrow between the abdominal and femoral scutes de-
scends from the summits of the wall mentioned to the lower sur-
face of the bone. After passing inward and forward about 40 mm.
it turns and passes inward and backward, making an angle of
about 60 with the outer border. On the lower surface of the bone
it is a very broad, illy defined groove.
BYSTRA, NEW GENUS.
Diagnosis.-Like Testudo, but small and with heavy shell, an-
terior end of plastron not emarginate at the ends of the gulo-hu-
fieral sulci. These sulci running nearly straight across the plas-
tron and lying wholly in front of the entoplastron. Supercaudal
scute single. Type Bystra nanes. Named in honor of the discov-
erer of the type specimen.
BYSTRA NANUS, NEW SPECIES.
Plate I.

Type-specinien.-A complete and only slightly injured shell be-
longing to Dr. Henry G. Bystra, of Brooksville, Fla;
. Typelocality and formation.-Holder, Florida. Found in a
phosphate mine and belonging probably to, the Miocene or Plio-
cene.
Diagnosis.-- Besides the characters given under the definition,
the plastron of the type has a truncated and much thickened beak;
a rather deeply notched hinder lobe, which'is thick in front; and
vertebral scutes:of moderate width.
SThis specimen (pl. I) was found in the. operations of mining
for phosphate rock. It was enclosed in a mass of silicious sand,
most of which was cemented into a hard mass. The left-side of









54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the shell was somewhat crushed so that a few of the neurals are
slightly injured, as well as some of the peripheral plates above the
left bridge. No essential part of the structure of the shell is ob-
scured.
The shell shows no indications of youth. The bones are closely'
apposed, so that it is sometimes difficult to discover the sutures.
Nevertheless, the animal was a small one. The length from the
front of the plastron to the rear of the carapace is only 1oo mm.
On account of the great convexity of the plastron it is believed
that the shell belonged to a female. The following measurements
have been secured:

Measurements in millimeters.
Length from front of plastron to rear of carapace ------------------------- Ioo
Length from front of carapace to rear thereof------------------------- To5
Height from bottom of carapace----------------------------------- 6
Width over hinder limbs ------------------------------------------ 75
Length of plastron along midline.---------..-----.--------------- 88
Length of plastron to rear of hinder lobe---- -------------.-------- 93
Width of front end of anterior lobe--------------------------------- 24
Width at base of front lobe ...-- --- -------------------------------- 44
Length of bridge -------------------------------------------------- 46
Width at base of hinder lobe------------- -------------------------- 55
Width of notch at rear of hinder lobe..---..-------... --------------.... 22
Length of epiplastra along midline .------------..----------------.. Io
Length of entoplastron ---_-----------__ ------------------------ 18
Width of entoplastron .--...........-- ..---- ----- ------ 17
Length of hyoplastron along midline --__--_----.-------------------20
Length of hypoplastron along midline --------------------------------- 30
Length of xiphiplastron along midline ..--.._...--------.......--------- 15

The structure of the carapace is identical with that of various
species of Testudo. The coastal plates about the bridges are alter-
nately wide above, with narrow distal ends, and narrow above,
with wide distal ends. Those costals which are wide above artic-
ulate each with three neurals, the middle one of which is slightly
smaller than the others. Behind the series of neurals there are
Stwo suprapygals and a pygal. The last suprapygal has a width
of 21 rm.; the pygal a width of 27 mm. The disturbed condition
of the neurals precludes measurements of all of them. The first
and the fifth have a width of 13 mm. The peripheral bones above
the bridges have a height, from their lower borders, of 21 mm.;
while the costals joining them have a height of 32 mm.
The vertebral scutes are of moderate width, the third being
21 mm. wide, the fourth, 23 mm.; the fifth 29 mm.
The supracaudal scute is not divided. The front of the an-








TESTUDINATA.


terior lobe of the plastron is cut off squarely. ,The edge is acute,
but on the upper surface the bone thickens backward for a distance
of 14 mm., attaining a thickness of to mm. At the rear of the
plastron there is a notch 22 mm. wide and 7 mm. deep. From
the hinder extremities of this lobe the border thickens forward
to the femoral notch, attaining there a thickness of Io mm.
The gular scutes form a strip across the front of the anterior
lobe their hinder borders being nearly parallel with the front.' They
measure along the midline 7.5 mnm. Along the midline the hu-
meral scutes measure 19 mm.; the pectorals, 6 mm.; the abdom-
inals, 37 mm.; the femorals, 15 mm.; the anals, 5 mm.
GOPHERS PRAECEDENS, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 4, figs. 1-2.
Type-specimen-A left xiphiplastral bone, No. 5463, of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie county. Pleis-
tocene.
Diagnosis.-Resembling Gopherus polyphemus, but having a
relatively broader xiphiplastron, which is also more deeply notched
on the lateral borders.
In the collection of fossil remains made near Vero, by Dr. Sel-
lards, is a left xiphiplastral bone which appears to belong to an un-
described species. It belonged evidently to a broad and heavy-
shelled animal which had a somewhat greater size than the Florida
"gopher," Gopherus polyphemus. Upper and lower views of the
bone are here given (pl. 4, figs. I, 2).
The bone lacks only a small fragment lost from the upper sur-
face of the outer anterior angle. The width of the bone in front is
79 mm., making the width of the whole hinder lobe at this part
158 mm. The length of the suture between this bone and its fel-
low is 58 mm. It will be seen that the outer border is deeply
notched at the crossing of the femoro-anal sulcus. The distance
from the bottom of this notch to the median suture is 48 mm. At
the rear of the hinder lobe there was a notch about 80 mm. wide
and 20 mm. deep. The parts of the right and left bones included
between this notch and the lateral notches stand forth like a pair
of ears.
The close resemblance to Gopherus polyphemus makes it nec-
essary to refer the new species to Gopherus. For the same reason








56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the species called Testudo atascosae (Hay, Foss. Turtles N. A.,
p. 464, figs. 627-628) must be known as i...! 'C ... .. atascosae.
This xiphiplastral bone resembles that of G. atascosae. There
are, however, numerous differences. The width of the xiphiplas-
tral part of the hinder lobe in the types of the two species is nearly
the same, 158 mm. and 168 mm. In G. praecedens the distance
from the bottom of the posterior notch to the outer end of the
hypo-xiphiplastral suture is 92 mm.; in G. atascosae it was about
10o mm. This comes about from the fact that the xiphiplastron
of the former species, including the ear-like lobules, is shorter. In
the type of G. atascosae it had a length of 1oo mr.; that of G.
praccedens is only 83 mm. long. In G. praecedens there is a wall-
like thickening of the bone along the outer border not greatly un-
like that of G. atascosae (op. cit. fig. 628a); but while this is 30
mm. high in the last named species, in G. praecedens it was only
21 mm. The section taken through the ear-like lobule of the bone
appears to have been about the same in the two species (op. cit.
fig. 628b) and the thickness seems to be closely the same, 22 mm.
The thickness of the bone forming the type of G. praecedens,
measured at the middle of the anterior border, is 8.5 mm. The
portion which forms the hinder lobule and which on the lower side
is occupied by the anal scute appears swollen downward, project-
ing several millimeters below the rest of the bone. This anal area
is finely pitted, while the surface of the remainder of the bone is
smooth.
Gopherus praecedens probably resembled the species yet exist-
ing in Florida more than it did the extinct Texas species referred
to above. The males of G. polyphemus have the lobules of the
rear of the plastron swollen on the under surface, as they were
in G. praecedens. The xiphiplastral bone of G. polyphemus is,
'however, somewhat narrower, as compared with the length; its lat-
eral border is far less deeply notched; the outer face of the border
of the bone, at the suture with the hypoplastral is perpendicular,
even overhanging, instead of sloping upward and inward, as it
does in G. praecedens; and the border of the bone in the hinder
notch is much more acute than in the fossil species here described.
No other bones are present which can be with certainty re-
ferred to this species.








TESTUDINATA.


FAMILY EMYDIDAE.
TERRAPENE FORMOSA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 4, fig. 3.

Type-specimen.-The greater part of the hinder two-thirds of
a carapace which belongs in the collection of the Geological Survey
of Florida. Its catalogue number is 2973.
Type-locality and formation.-Ocala, Florida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Shell high and broad, with a dorsal keel, on each
side of which the areas of the vertebral scutes are deeply im-
pressed. Hinder border of carapace moderately flared outward.
Shell thin.
This beautiful species is based on a carapace (pl. 4, fig. 3)
which dorsally lacks the anterior portion back to the second ver-
tebral scute, laterally the left costal and peripheral region to the
ninth marginal scute and the right costal and peripheral region
nearly to the sixth marginal scute. In the part of the shell pre-
served there are small areas missing.
All of the bones of the carapace are solidly united, so that the
forms of the neural, coastal and peripheral bones are unknown. The
bone composing the neurals and costals is thin. At their upper
ends the costals are about 4 mm. thick; at their lower ends, only
about 2 mm. At the rear end of the eighth marginal scute the
bone is Io mm. thick. The rear of the carapace descends very
steeply to the moderately outwardly turned hinder peripherals.
The width at the rear of the eighth marginal scutes is 112 mm.;
but it exceeded this somewhat over the bridges. Measured in a
straight line, the distance from the front of the second vertebral
scute to the rear of the carapace is 125 mm. It is estimated that
the distance from the front of the carapace to the rear was about
155 mm. If this is correct, the width was .72 of the length. In
a specimen of T. carolina the ratio is .86. While the hinder
peripherals are only moderately flared outward, as seen from be-
hind, it is different when they are viewed from below. They are
turned backward, so that their lower surfaces are horizontal. The
very considerable thickness of the peripherals makes possible the
difference noted. At the middle of the ninth marginal scute the-
distance from the acute free border of the peripheral to its inner
border is 19 mm.
From the free border of the peripherals behind the lateral
hinge-line a low but sharp keel runs forward as far as the cara-









58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

pace is represented. This keel lies considerably above the upper
edge of the lateral hinge line.
On the areas of the second, third and fourth vertebral scutes,
on each side of the midline, there is a deep impression whose sur-
face is irregular. There is left between the two impressions a
conspicuous median keel; while outside of each impression, there is
left a ridge. There appear, therefore, to be a median and right
and left keels. The whole surface of the carapace is more or less
undulating.
The sulci which separate the various scutes, especially the cos-
tals and the vertebrals, are narrow and deeply impressed. The
vertebral scutes are of moderate width. The following are the di-
mensions:
Measurements of vertebral scutes in millimeters.

Scute Length Width
____ __ _____ -I_______
2 34 39
3 35 43
4 40 37
5 20 38


The height of the supracaudals is 13 mm.; that of the tenth
marginal scute, 16 mm.; that of the eighth, 20 mm.

TERRAPENE ANTIPEX, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 4, figs. 4, 5. Plate 5, figs. 1-5.
Type-.:-... .:.. -A hinder lobe of the plastron, No. 5460 of
the Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie County, Flor-
ida. Pleistocene.
Diagwosis.-Size large, the plastron attaining a length of 220
mm. or more; of medium breadth; shell thick and heavy; carapace
with its free borders curved upwards, keel over the bridges; free
surfaces mostly uneven.
From Vero Dr. Sellards has sent many fragments of a large
box-tortoise which appears to have been hitherto undescribed and
to which is given the name T. :..... .. -- antipe.. The type is a
hinder lobe, No. 5460 (pl. 5, fig. I), in which all the bones are
consolidated into one mass. The course of the hypoxiphiplastral
suture is barely distinguishable. The under surface is concave,









TESTUDINATA.


thus indicating a male. The figure referred to gives a -view of the
upper surface of the hinder lobe. This lobe has a length of 136
mm. along the median line; the length, taken across the lateral
hinges, is 133 mm. At the midline in front the thickness is 9 mm.;
but backward this increases to 15 mm. The lateral hinge lines are
46 mm. long. The horn-covered surfaces, behind the lateral hinges,
are 24 mm. wide and the thickness of the bone at the inner border
of the surface, is 15 mnm.
Seen from below, the hypoplastron has a !: a _:i, of 53 mm., the
xiphiplastron, a length of 80 mm. The sulci separating the vari-
ous scutes run a rather irregular course, especially the median
sulcus. Measured on the midline the abdominal scutes are 40 mm.
long; the femorals, 24 mm.; the anals, 71 mm.
A part of another hinder lobe of a male, -9 5902, was 140
mm. wide; but only 8 mm. thick at the midline in front. The ab-
dominals are 50 mm. long; the femorals, 21 mm. In a damaged
hinder lobe of a female, No. 5461, the width is 120 mm.; the thick-
ness in front, Io mm. The abdominals are 45 mm. long; the
femorals 13 mm.; the horn-covered surface above is 18 mm. wide.
Figure 2 of plate 5 represents of two-thirds the natural size
a portion of an anterior lobe which evidently belonged to this
species. Its size agrees with that of the type hinder lobe. The
width at the hinge line is 130 mm. The length at the midline was
not far from 90 mm. The epiplastral lip is mostly gone; but its
width was close to 55 mm. The horn-covered upper surface is 18
mm. wide. The hinder two-thirds of the free border is acute. The
boundaries of the entoplastron are made out with difficulty. The
bone was circular, with a diameter of 44 mm. The courses of
the sulci are much as in a specimen of T. '.. : : '*. at hand.
On plate 4, figure 4, is represented the lower surface of a
hinder lobe which is referred to this spceies. It was found near
the coast, about 28 miles south of St. Augustine, by Mr. Fred R.
Allen, 113 King street, St. Augustine. The length along the mid-
line is 122 mm.; the width, 116 mm. The abdominal scutes are
46 mm. long; the femoral only 13 mm. Nevertheless, there ap-
pear to be no good reasons for not r : :=: this specimen to the
species here described.
A fragment, No. 4435, from 20 miles north of St. Augustine
(pl. 4, fig. 5), shows a part of the right side of the carapace.
There are seen a part of the area covered by the first costal- scute,








60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the rear of the first marginal scute, the second and third marginals,
and most of the fourth. At the sulcus between the second and
third marginals the thickness is 13 mm. In this specimen the bor-
der at the third marginal is not much curved upward but in three
other specimens it is considerably curved. The upper surface is
rough.
Figure 3 of plate 5 presents a view of a fragment on which
are wholes or parts of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth marginal
scutes. This fragment shows that there is a rather prominent keel
which lies above the bridge and runs through the marginals shown.
Figure 4 of the same plate presents a view of a strip of the second
costal scute, a considerable part of the third marginal and parts
of the seventh and eighth marginals. The upper surface of this
fragment, No. 5478, is relatively smooth. This piece and another,
No. 5469, present the lateral hinge line. The surface of the hinge
is flat and 8 mm. wide. The border of the carapace which bears
this hinge is turned inward at nearly a right angle with that part
of the peripherals which is above the lateral keel. This keel is
nearly on a level with the upper edge of the lateral hinge and dis-
tant from it about 15 mm.
A fragment of the carapace, No. 1782, has only feeble indica-
tions of sutures. A part of the area occupied by the fifth vertebral
cute shows that the latter had a width of 45 mm. At the free
edge -of the bone the eleventh marginal was 20 mm. long, the
twelfth, 17.5 mm. The greatest height of the former was 26 mm.;
that of the ..it?, at the midline, 15 mm. The hinder part of
the tenth scute had a height of 27 mm. The border of the cara-
pace, as here represented, is moderately flared outward, more than
in T. ornata, about as much as in T. major.
Another fragment, No. 5480, (pl. 5, fig. 5), presents both
eleventh peripheral bones, the pygal and the suprapygal. The su-
tures are open. The suprapygal is nearly triangular, 38 mm. wide
and 27 mm. high. The pygal is 20 mm. wide, 21 mm. high, and
Io mm. thick. The peripherals are 26 mm. wide on the free bor-
der and 28 mm. high. They are moderately flared outward. The
eleventh marginals were at least as high as the eleventh peripheral
and the twelfth marginals are just as high as the pygals. The fifth
vertebral scute was at least 40 mm. wide.
Unfortunately, besides the piece just mentioned, we have









TESTUDINATA.


nothing representing the median portion of the carapace; so that
it is not known whether or not there was a median keel.
This species differs from T. formosa in various respects. It
appears to have attained a greater size and to have had a thicker
and heavier shell. It appears to have been narrower in proportion
to the length. The border of the carapace at the lateral hinge
line, as stated above, is turned inward at nearly a right angle with
the part of the peripherals above the lateral keel. In T. formosa
the border is directed downward and only a little inward; so that
the lateral keel is placed high above the lateral hinge.
Terrapene canalicidata (Hay, Foss. Turtles N. A., p. 363, figs.
463-465) more closely resembles T. antipex than T. formosa; but
the lateral keel is much more conspicuous, the free borders of the
peripherals are more strongly recurved and the shell is still thicker
and heavier. It is to be noted here that the peripheral illustrated
by figure 463 of the work cited belongs to the left side, instead of
the right.
It is evident that none of the above mentioned box-tortoises
belong to T. putnami (Foss. Turtles N. A., p. 361, figs. 459, 460).
This was a still larger animal than' T. antipex, having had a plas-
tron 146 mm. wide. The hypoplastron was, proportionately, much
thicker than that of the species last mentioned. It is possible that
the fragment of the carapace referred (as just cited, fig. 461) pro-
visionally to T. putnami belongs really to T. antipex; but the rear
of the carapace (fig. 462) is very different from the one above de-
scribed from Vero, No. 5480; for in the latter the pygal or twelfth
pair of marginal scutes rise to the upper border of the pygal bone;
in that of figure 462, little more than to half the height of that
bone.
TERRAPENE INNOXIA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 6, figs. 1-4.
Type-.. : .;... -: -A complete carapace, No. 7080, of the Flor-
ida Geological Survey.
Type-formation and locality.-Pleistocene. Vero, St. Lucie
County, Florida.
Diagnosis.-Carapace thin, relatively narrow, highest at middle
of length, sloping hardly more rapidly backward than forward;
nuchal bone not excavated; hinder peripherals little or not at all
flared outwards; vertebral scutes of moderate width; hinder mar-
ginal scutes of moderate height.










62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-- EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

In the collection made by Doctor Sellards at Vero, Florida, are
several portions of the carapace of a box-tortoise which appears to
differ from any of the described species, but which does resemble
considerably female specimens of T. major, a common species of
Florida. Two of the specimens from Vero furnish nearly com-
plete carapaces. These have the numbers 7079 and. 780. In both,
all the bones are thoroughly consolidated, so that no sutures are to
be seen. In the one numbered 7079 the furrows separating the
dorsal dermal scutes are so indistinct that these boundaries cannot
in all cases be made out. In many places, too, the costal scutes
appear to have been broken up into numerous minute patches. On
this account the carapace numbered 7080 is taken as the especial
type of the species (pl. 6, figs. i, 2).
In order to facilitate comparisons between this species and its
existing relative, possibly descendant, T. major, the following table
of measurements is provided. Two specimens of T. major, a fe-
male and a male are measured, so that some of the variations which
this species undergoes imay be observed.

Measurements of carapaces.

T. innoxia_ T. major
No. .. 7o8o No. 29335 No. 29337 S
Length from front of nuchal bone to
rear of pygal -------.---------- 125 n19 128 145
Width at middle of lateral hinge of
plastron --..----.. ---------. . 84 80 87 1o5
Height of carapace at same point ---- 55 55 62 70
Length of nuchal scute---------.--. 10 7 9 12
Width of nuchal scute-------------- 4.5 4 2 3.5
Length of first vertebral scute ...-- 25 27 26 29
Width of first vertebral scute, in front 32 27 24 27
Length of second vertebral scute..-- 28 28 28 33
Greatest width of 2nd vertebral scute 32 30 31.5 38
Length of 3rd vertebral scute-------- 25 29 32
Greatest width of 3rd vertebral scute 34 35 41
Length of 4th vertebral scute .. ---. 26 32 37
Greatest width of 4th vertebral scute- 24 32 34
Length of 5th vertebral scute-------- 22 20 23 27
Greatest width of 5th vertebral scute 29 25 32 34


In a fragment numbered 7081 the fourth vertebral scute is
31 mm. long and 31 mm. wide. In another, numbered 7082, the
fifth vertebral is 26 mm. long and 30 mm. wide. It will be ob-









TESTUDINATA.


served that the widths of the dorsal scutes in the carapace No.
7079, so far as they can be determined, are somewhat greater than
in the one taken as the type. The lateral hinge-line is 26 mm. long
and the bone is here only 4.5 mm. thick.
The differences which the writer observes between the Pleis-
tocene form and the one with which it is compared are as follows:
I. In T. major the greatest height of the shell is behind the
middle of the length. From this point the outline descends rap-
idly, backward. In T. innoxia the greatest height is at the middle
of the length; and the descent is less rapid and is not much dif-
ferent from the descent forward.
2. In all the specimens of T. major at hand the nuchal bone
is somewhat excavated in front for the neck. This is not usually
the case in the fossil; but in a fragment No. 7083, there is a slight
curving inward of the border.
3. In the existing species the nuchal scute is nearly or wholly
suppressed. In the fossil it is well developed.
4. In the existing species the hinder marginal scutes are uni-
formly higher than they are in the fossil. The eleventh in No.
29335 is 17 mm. high; in the fossil specimen 14 mm. high.
The carapace numbered 7079 presents some features different
from those of the one taken as the type. The median keel is want-
ing. The hinder peripherals flare outward considerably, while in
the type specimen they do so hardly at all. In this respect, how-
ever, similar differences are seen :::::. ::, the four specimens of T.
major. Evidently the vertebral scutes of No. 7079 were broader
than those of No. 7080, but here again similar differences are
found among the specimens of T. major. The carapace of the
fossil species is thin and light, excepting the peripheral bones.
Above the bridge there is in the type carapace a hardly perceptible
keel passing from the anterior free border to the hinder one; in No.
7079 this is missing. This keel varies considerably among the
four specimens of T. major.
One fragment, No. 7083, of a carapace in which the bones had
not become ankylosed presents the nuchal and the first peripheral
of the left side. The nuchal is 30 mnm. long, and 36 nmm. wide.
The thickness at the border which joins the first peripheral is 7
mm. A fragment, No. 7084, comprises the bones on which lie
the second, third, fourth, and a part of the fifth marginals. This








64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

differs from the other specimens in having the surfaces more un-
even.
Another fragment, No. 7082, of those referred to this species,
shows the sutures between the bones. Between the last neural and
the suprapygal the eighth costals join for a space of 9 mm. The
furrow between the fourth and the fifth costals crosses the last
neural. The suprapygal is 19 mm. wide; the pygal 16 mm. wide.
In none of the specimens referred to this species does the tenth
marginal oome at all near the fifth vertebral scute, a character
which differentiates the species from Cope's T. eurypygia.
No. 5471 of the collection (pl. 6, fig. 3) is an anterior lobe
of the plastron. Its size, shape, and thickness suggest that it be-
longed to T. innoxia. It presents no characters by which it may
be distinguished from the same part in T. major. No. 7085 (pl.
6, fig. 4) is the left xiphiplastral bone. It is 41.5 mm. long on
the median suture and 34.5 mm. wide on the hypo-xiphiplastral
suture. The anal scute extends forward nearly to the suture last
mentioned. The horn-covered surface on the outer border of the
upper surface is flat and 9 mm. wide.
PSEUDEMYS CAELATA HAY.
Plate 2, figs. 1-7.
In the Fossil Turtles of North America, page 356, plate LVII,
the writer described the species named above. The specimens are
in the National Museum and were found somewhere in Levy
county, Florida. The parts figured are the nuchal (made the type
of the species), the first left costal, the fifth left costal, the seventh
right (wrongly called the left third) and tenth peripherals, and the
left hypoplastron.
In the collection of the Florida Geological Survey are several
fragments of the same species. These also were found in Levy
county, at what is called the Mixon locality, two miles northeast
of Williston, the type locality of the Alachua formation. The
parts present are the left epiplastron (3537)"; a part of the right
hyoplastron (3420) ; a part of the right hypoplastron (3418); and
a part of the left (3427); a fourth neural (3425), a part of the
right fifth costal (3421); the right first peripheral (3415); two
left second peripherals (3423, 3426); the right third peripheral
(3410) ; a right and a left ninth peripheral (3416, 3417). These
b:mes certainly do not all belong to the same individual. No two









TESTUDINATA.


pieces fit together. Seven of the pieces are here figured (pl. 2,
figs. 1-7).
The epiplastral (pl. 2, fig. i) has the sculpture better shown
than that of the specimen in the National Museum, the ridges and
grooves being sharply defined. Here, as in other parts, the ridges
are more or less interrupted in their course. Those in the gular
area are directed fore and aft; those of the humeral area are at
nearly right angles to the midline of the plastron. The same is
true of the upper side of the bone. At the free border the ridges
are carried out into sharp tooth-like processes. The width of the
gular scutes, taken together, was 52 mm. The width of the bone,
from the median border to the outer angle, is 53 mm.; the thick-
ness at the suture for union with its fellow is i mm.
The fragment of the right hyoplastron (pl. 2, fig. 2), does
not reach the midline and falls short of reaching the hypoplastron.
Furthermore, the free border in front of the axillary notch is dam-
aged. Its sutural borders for union with the epiplastron and the
entoplastron are present. The epiplastron appears not to have
made so deep a notch between the hyoplastrals as in Trachemys
script. The thickness at the hyoepiplastral suture is 11.5 mm.
The pectoral scute had a width of 33 mm. near its outer end. The
character of the very distinct sculpture is shown by the figure.
The portion of hypoplastron adds nothing to the knowledge
beyond that furnished by the nearly complete bone in the National
Museum; and the sculpture of the latter is better defined.
The neural bone (pl. 2, fig. 3) is quite certainly the fourth.
The length on the midline is 26 mm.; the greatest width 36 mm.;
the thickness, Io mm. The upper surface is covered with numer-
ous small tubercles and longitudinal wrinkles.
The fifth costal is represented by only the distal end. On its
inner surface is a ridge against which arose the buttress from the
hypoplastron.
The first right peripheral (pl. 2, fig. 4) extends back from the
acute free border a distance of 40 mm. and 36 mm. along the free
border. Its thickness is i mm. The ridges on the area of the
first marginal scute run nearly parallel with the furrow between
this scute and the second. Those ridges on the area of the second
scute run obliquely to this furrow, forward and outward. A part
of the first costal scute occupied the inner end of the bone here
described.









66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The second left peripheral (pl. 2, fig. 5) extends 35 mm. from
the free border and 33 mm. along the border. Its thickness at
the anterior inner angle is 12 mm.; at the posterior inner angle,
18 mmn The upper surface is concave from the free border to the
suture with the costal plate; the lower,surface convex.. The other
left second peripheral (3426) is not so wide from outside to in-
side and is somewhat thicker than the one with the number 3423.
On the upper surface of these two peripherals the ridges in front
of the intermarginal furrow are much broken up and irregular;
behind this furrow they run parallel with the free border; above
the longitudinal furrow they run at right angles with this furrow.
The right third peripheral (pl. 2, fig. 6) has lost a part of its
hinder inner border. The length along the free border is 37 mmn.;
along the front border 37 mm. The thickness at the front end is
21 mm.; of the hinder end at the free border, 26 mm. The thick-
ening at the hinder end of the bone is to provide for the buttress
from the hyoplastron. The ornamentation of the three scutal
areas is different. Above the longitudinal furrow there are de-
scending ridges. In front of the intermarginal furrow there are
irregular and anastomosing ridges; behind this furrow, there are
longitudinal ridges.
The left ninth peripheral (pl. 2, fig. 7) has the free border 32
mm. long. The extent of the front border is 41 mm.; the great-
est thickness on the latter Io mm. From the upper or inner bor-
der to the free border the bone flares upward somewhat. The free
border is thin and acute. Near the front end of the border for
union with the sixth costal is a considerable pit for the end of the
rib. Above the longitudinal furrow there are tubercles arranged
in rows at right angles with one another. In front of the inter-
marginal furrow the interrupted ridges are parallel with the fur-
row; behind it they are directed outward and backward.
TRACHEMYS? DELICATE, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 7, fig., i.

T.%':- .. :-.. ,:; .---A right fourth costal plate, No. 3738 of the
Florida Geological Survey.
T:.!-. '.*. .:.y and formation.-Near Labelle, Lee county, Flor-
ida. Pliocene ?
Diagnosis.-Carapace "rather large, a foot or more in length;
the neurals thick, the costals thin beyond the neural end. Scutal










TESTUDINATA.


furrows narrow and shallow; the sculpture consisting of low sharp
ridges.
No. 3738 of the collection of the Florida Geological Survey
presents the larger part of the right fourth costal of a turtle which
probably belonged to either Trachemys or Pseudemys. The bone
is recorded as having come from the top of a stratum of shell marl,
below an unconformity, about one-eighth of a mile straight east
of Labelle, on Caloosahatchee river. The marl is thought to be
probably Pliocene. The bone is much more thoroughly fossilized
than those bones from the Pleistocene.
The costal (pl. 7, fig. I) has lost the distal end. The upper
end (directed toward the left in the figure) measured along the
edge of the second vertebral scute, is 36 mm. wide. Where the
bone joined the third neural it is Io mm. thick, but at a distance
of 25 mm. it is reduced to 4 mm. From the position of the fur-
row between the third vertebral scute and the second and third
costal scutes it is seen that the vertebral had only a moderate
width.
The sculpture is on the pattern of that of Trachemys scripta,
but it is more delicate. The ridges are low and sharp. On the
area of the third costal scute there are four of these in a line 13
mm. long. On the area of the second costal scute the ridges are
irregular in direction.

TRACHEMYS BISORNATA (COPE).
Plate 7, figs. 2-7.

A nuchal bone in the collection of the Florida Geological Sur-
vey, finely preserved, is referred to this species. It has the cat-
alogue number 3735 and was found in Pleistocene deposits in Lee
county. It bears this label: From above the unconformity; about
1-8 mile by land, east of Labelle, on Caloosahatchee river.
The nuchal (pl. 7, fig. 2) is larger than that of the Texas
specimen described and figured by the writer (Fossil Turtles N.
A., p. 353, pl. LVI, fig. i), but the proportions are almost exactly
the same. The length along the midline is 60 mm..; the greatest
width, 70 mm.; the width in front, 38.5 mm.; the thickness at the
lateral angles, 16 mm. The front border is acute. The front end
of the first vertebral scute is 40 mm. wide. The character of the
ornamentation is shown by the figure. In the one from Texas,
above referred to, the transverse ridges of the areas of the right









68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

and left first marginal scutes are more strongly developed. In the
present specimen the 1. ::; i: ;:::' ridges are more prominent; but
the two sets are present on the nuchals of both. The upper surface
of the bone is quite uneven. Along the midline, in the area of the
first vertebral scute, is a prominent rounded ridge, and this is
continued forward by the elevated area of the nuchal scute. Just
outside of the keel, on the area of the first vertebral scute, the sur-
face is depressed.
To this species is referred provisionally a right third peripheral,
No. 3740, found just north of Labelle on the Caloosahatchee. Fig-
ure 3 of plate 7 shows well the character of the sculpture and
the relative height of the third and fourth marginal scutes. There
is a well defined lateral keel. The length of the bone along the
keel is 43 mm. Figures 4 and 5 of the plate present views of the
two ends of the bone.
A right sixth peripheral, No. 1755, is likewise referred to this
species. It came from the canal of the Indian River Farms Com-
pany, at Vero, north of this place, east of the Florida East Coast
Railway bridge over Van Valkenburg Creek. The deposits are re-
garded as Pleistocene. The bone has a height, measured from the
lateral keel and at the hinder end of the bone, of 44 mm. The
length along the keel is 42 mm. In front the thickness on the
keel is 5 mm.; at the rear, 13 mm. The sculpture (pl. 7, fig. 6)
is identical with that of the third peripheral, above described; but
it is not so strongly expressed. Figure 7 of the same plate pre-
sents a view of the hinder end of this bone.
At Vero Dr. Sellards collected the distal end of a fifth costal
bone of the right side, and this is referred to T. bisornata. The
greatest width is 42 mm.; and the bone indicates, therefore, a
carapace of about 295 mm. in length, II inches. It resembles much
the corresponding bone in T. scripta; but the thickening on the
inner surface to receive the buttress of the plastron does not stand
out so prominently.
TRACHEMYS SCULPTA HAY.
Plate 7, figs. 8-ro.

The numbers 3740a and 374oe are given to two bones which
are referred to Trachemys sculpta, a species described by the writer
in 1908 (Fossil Turtles N. A., p. 351, pl. LIV, figs. 4-9). The
type of the species is a nuchal bone which was found in Pleisto-








TESTUDINATA.


scene deposits of Hillsboro county, Florida. The other bones were
referred provisionally to the same species.
The two bones here described (374oa being a part of the nuch-
al, and 3740e the right eleventh peripheral) are recorded as com-
ing from the north bank of the Caloosahatchee river just above
Labelle. This place is in Lee county and in the township num-
bered 43 south, 29 east.
The hinder half of the nuchal (pl. 7, fig. 8) is missing. The
part present appears to be identical with the figured type but it is
somewhat larger, the distance along the front being 32 mm., in-
stead of 29 mm. The width of the bone at the hinder edges of
the first marginals is 50 mm. instead of 41 rmm. The front border
is somewhat more deeply notched than in the type. The greatest
thickness is I6 mm. The region of the nuchal scute is elevated,
as in the type. Its surface is 1'.. .'.. pitted. The remainder of
the surface of the bone is marked by prominent and sharp ridges.
The eleventh peripheral (pl. 7, fig. 9) is complete. Its great-
est height is 37 nm.; the width along the free border, 34 mmn.; the
thickness at the suture with the tenth peripheral 12.5 mm. The
bone joined the tenth peripheral, the eighth coastal, the suprapygal
and the pygal. The free border is notched where crossed by the in-
ter marginal furrows. On its outer surface are scutal areas belong-
ing to the eleventh and twelfth marginal and the fifth vertebral.
The positions of the sulci indicate that the fifth vertebral did not
come down on the pygal nor the fourth costal on the tenth peripheral.
The fifth vertebral area is marked by sharp broken ridges and
pointed tubercles. The sharp ridges of the area of the eleventh
marginal run parallel with the front edge of the bone; those of
the twelfth marginal area are directed backward and downward.
The proximal end of a right third costal, No. 352 (pl. 7,
fig. 10), is referred to this species. On this fragment are shown
parts of the second and third vertebral scutes and a part of the
second costal scute. The figure referred to shows the character
of the sculpture. The width of the bone along the sulcus between
the costal scute and the two vertebrals is 28 mm.
From Vero, St. Lucie county, Dr. Sellards has sent to the
writer some bones which appear to belong to this species. One,
No. 7102, is a portion of a nuchal like that here figured (pl. 7,
fig. 8). The nuchal scute is somewhat narrower and the sculpture
of the bone in general is hardly so strong. There are also two








70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

eleventh peripherals of the left side, Nos. 4418 and 5485, which,
while differing slightly from each other, preserve the essential
characters of the species.
At Vero was obtained a right sixth costal bone which is re-
ferred to T. sculpta. The sculpture of the surface is identical with
that shown by figure 9, plate LIV, of the writer's Fossil Turtles
of N. A.
TRACHEMYS EUGLYPHA (LEIDY)?
Plate 4, fig. 6.
From Ellenton Dr. Sellards has sent'a portion of a nuchal bone
which has the number 5775 and which it seems must be referred to
Leidy's species named above. Most of the bone is missing behind
the sulcus which runs between the first marginals and the first
vertebral. Although differing in some respects from the type de-
scribed and figured by Leidy (Trans. Wagner Inst., Vol. II, p. 27,
pl. IV, fig. I) it possesses many of the striking characters of that
type specimen. It is extremely thick, 21 mm., at the suture with
the first peripheral of each side. Just behind, at the rear of the
nuchal scute, the thickness is i8 mm. The upper surface is
strongly sculptured. The sulci form deep and sharp cuts. The
nuchal scute area is 26 mm. long and 9 mm. wide. It ends in front
in a sharp point, instead of being obtuse as in the type.
While the sculpture of the upper surface resembles somewhat
that of T. sculpta the bone differs in being much thicker.
The type was found in Peace Creek deposits, which formerly
supposed to belong to the Pliocene are now regarded by Dr. Sel-
lards as undoubtedly Pleistocene.
TRACHEMYSt NUCHOCARINATA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 6, fig. 5.
Type-specimen.-The anterior ;. ..-: of a nuchal bone, No.
4437 of the collection of the Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Florida Coast Line Canal, 20
miles north of St. Augustine. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Nuchal bone furnished with a strongly developed
median keel.
The portion of a nuchal bone which is taken as the type of this
species lacks the hinder part, but it is so peculiar that it can hardly
be confused with any other nuchal.
The length cannot be determined, but it was quite certainly








TESTUDINATA.


close to 46 mm. The extreme width is 57 mm.; the width along
the anterior border is 32 mm. The greatest thickness in the bor-
der which joined the first peripheral is II mm. The bone along
the anterior border is acute, and this border is notched in the mid-
line. The upper surface of the bone is concave on each side of the
median rounded keel. This keel is unusually prominent and pro-
jects well forward between the marginal of the first pair. The
nuchal scute is extremely narrow on the upper surface; but on
the lower side of the bone it widens posteriorly to 1 mm. The
front width of the first vertebral scute is 46 mm. It narrows back-
ward as far as the bone extends and was probably urn-shaped.
The sulci are rather sharply and deeply impressed. The surface of
the carapace was probably somewhat uneven.

PSEUDEMYS FLORIDANA PERSIMILIS, NEW SUBSPECIES.
Plate 5, figs. 6-8.

Type-specimen.-A pair of epiplastral bones, No. 7098 of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie County, Flor-
ida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Gutter for the neck in the epiplastral lip more
deeply excavated than in P. floridana and the border immediately
outside of gular scutes less acute.
In the collection made by Dr. Sellards at Vero is a pair of
epiplastral bones which resemble very closely the corresponding.
parts in specimens of Pseudemys floridana. Some differences, pos-
sibly not of great value, appear to, exist. In order that these dif-
ferences may be kept in mind and that the literature which may
accumulate around this fossil form may be in a manner isolated,
it is thought best to give it a subspecific name. Some of the pe-
culiarities of the epiplastrals (: 7098) will be seen from the
figure (pl. 5, fig. 6). The epiplastral lip is 56 mm. wide. The
width of the anterior lobe at the outer ends of- the sutures between
these bones and the hyoplastrals is 107 mm. The length of each
of the sutures is 32.5 mm. The width of the entoplastron was 49
mm. The greatest thickness of the two bones on the suture unit-
ing them is I3.3 mm. The thickness on the epi-hyoplastral suture
is II mm. These measurements agree quite well with those made
on the two shells of P. floridana, except that the thickness on the
corrmon suture in these does not exceed i mm.







72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The gutter for the neck is more deeply excavated than in either
of the two shells mentioned and several others examined. Of the
free border of each epiplastral the. anterior two-thirds is much
more obtuse than in the specimens of P. floridana. As in the lat-
ter, the horn-covered area on the upper surface of these bones is
very narroW, being only 7 mm. wide at the epi-hyoplastral su-
ture and only 4 mm. at the midline in front.
In the collection, with the number 7099, is a left xiphiplastral
bone which is referred provisionally to this sub-species (pl. 5, fig.
7). The length along the median suture is 68 mm.; the width
along the hypo-xiphiplastral suture is 61 mm. The corresponding
measurements of the two mentioned shells of P. floridanj do not
differ much. The greatest thickness at the hypo-xiphiplastral su-
ture and about 20 mm. from the free border is 1 mm. As in the
case of P. floridanm, the width of the horn-covered area on the up-
per surface and at the front of the bone is 8 mm. The depth of
the notch at the outer end of the femoro-anal sulcus is much
greater than in P. floridana, but it may be that this is not normal.
A right third costal plate, No. 7100o, is shown on plate 5 (fig. 8).
Its width at the outer end is 48 mm. It appears to agree in all
respects with the corresponding bone of the shells of P. floridana
at hand.
CHELYDRA LATICARINATA, NEW SPECIES.
Plate 6, figs. 6-7.
Type-specimen.-The sixth left peripheral, No. 7094 of the
Florida Geological Survey.
T.. : ....'. .* and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie County, Flor-
ida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Peripheral bones considerably thicker than those
of C. serpentina; those over the bridges with a sharp keel; upper
surfaces smooth.
Among the chelonian bones collected at Vero are ten which
appear to have belonged to the genus Chelydra. Three of the
bones are parts of oostals, five are peripherals, one a neural, and
one is the inner portion of the left hyoplastral. A study of these
bones makes it evident that two species are represented. As the
type of the one above named a bone, No. 7094, the sixth left
peripheral (pl. 6, fig. 6) is taken.
This bone has a length of 42 mm. It indicates that the length
of the carapace was close to 315 mm. about 12 inches; therefore,









TESTUDINATA.


not so large as some specimens of C. serpentia. The width at its
front end is 30 mm.; while that of a specimen of C. serpentina,
with carapace 240 mm. long, is hardly 20 mm. The greatest thick-
ness, at the hinder end, is 13 mm.; in the case of C. serpentina,
only 6 mm. In individuals of C. serpentina there is a narrow
ridge, sometimes obsolete, usually inconspicuous, which runs along
on the bridge peripherals from the free border in front to that
behind. In the species here described this ridge is very prominent.
The surface above this ridge is much flatter than it is in the ex-
isting snapping turtle. The border of the bone below the keel
mentioned is 12 mm. wide; in the specimen of C. serpentina used
for comparison, only 6 mm. wide. The surface of the type bone
is smooth.
A bone numbered 5943 (pl. 6, fig. 7) is the left eighth
peripheral. Its length is 44 mm.; its width at the middle of the
length is 34 mm., the thickness I1.5 mm. In the carapace of C.
serpentina used for comparison these dimensions ate respectively
31 mm., 16 mm., and 5.5 mm. The upper surface is somewhat
flatter, the lower considerably more convex than in C. serpentina.
The eighth and ninth marginals at their junction are 21 mm. high;
in C. serpentina, 15 mm.
Another hinder peripheral, No. 5508, seems to be the tenth of
the left side. It is shorter than the one last described, only 3(
mm. The width is nearly the same at the two ends, 29 mm., bui
the upper edge is slightly eroded. It may have formed a jagged
suture with the costals. The thickness is i mm. The surfaces
are smooth. There is no notch in the free border where it is
crossed by the sulcus between the corresponding marginals, differ-
ing in this respect from most specimens of C. serpentina; but in
old individuals the notches, except the one in the eleventh peripheral
of each, are often wanting.
CHELYDRA SCULPTA, NEW SPECIES.
'Plate 4 fig. 7; Plate 6, figs. 8-9.
Type-specimen.-A ninth right peripheral, No. 5510 of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Type-locality and formation.-Vero, St. Lucie County, Flor-
ida. Pleistocene.
Diagnosis.-Ninth peripheral not so thick as that of C. lati-








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

carinata; much thicker than in C. serpentina; border not notched:
upper surface sculptured.
The ninth peripheral here considered (pl. 6, fig. 8) is 38 mm.
long and 30 mm. wide at the ends; 27 mm. wide at the socket for
the costal. It belonged to an individual whose carapace was close
to 12 inches in length.
Inasmuch as we have at hand the hinder end of the eighth
peripheral referred to C. laticarinata and the front end of the ninth
of C. sculpta it is easy to compare them. The two bones are nearly
of the same length, that of the first mentioned species being 44
mm. The thickness of the bone at the hinder end in C. laticarinata
is I I mm.; in C. sculpta 9 mm. The ninth marginal scute, on the
hinder end of the eighth peripheral of C. laticarinata, has a width
of 28 mm.; on the front end of the ninth peripheral of C. sculpta,
the width is only 20 mm. On the lower side of the eighth peripheral
of C. laticarinata the surface which was originally covered with
horny material is 23 mm. wide; on the front end of the ninth of
C. sculpta only about 12 mm. The upper surface of the peripheral
of C. laticarinata is smooth; in C. sculpta it is varied by the pres-
ence of pits and grooves. By its inner border this bone was joined
by a jagged suture with the sixth and seventh coastal bones. This
bone presents no indication whatever of a notch in its free border.
A left seventh peripheral from Vero with the number 7090
(pl. 6, fig. 9) has a length of 33 mm. and a thickness of io mm.
at each end. The inner border is injured, so that the width cannot
be determined; it was at least 23 mm. The rear of the seventh
marginal is 11.5 mm. high. Differences in form between this bone
and the eighth peripheral described above, differences seen espe-
cially on the underside, may be due to differences in age and size;
but the upper surface of the seventh is strongly pitted and ridged;
and it is, therefore, referred to C. sculpta.
The three fragments of costals can be only provisionally as-
signed. One, No. 7091, the upper third of apparently the right
fourth costal (pl. 4, fig. 7) has a width of 29 mm. There is
present a lateral carina running along outside of the vertebral
scutes, as in C. serpentina. Mesiad of this is a longitudinal de-
pression more marked than in the existing species. Descending
behind the sulcus between the second and third costal scutes is a
broad groove which is only faintly indicated in C. serpentina. The









TESTUDINATA.


whole hinder half of the costal bone is sculptured by ridges and
grooves which run fore-and-aft.
The other fragments of costals, Nos. 7092 and 7q93 appear to
have belonged to younger individuals. They seem to show that
the lateral dorsal carinae were more strongly developed than in
C. serpentina.
It is impossible to say to which species the neural and the hyo-
plastral bone belonged.




Of the turtles described in this paper from the locality at Vero.
Florida, the following according to the records of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey were found in place in horizon No. 2 of the published
section :*
Terrapene innoxia Testudo sellardsi
Chelydra laticarinata
The following species were found not in place.
Testudo luciae Trachemys bisornata
Gopherus pracedens Trachemys sculpta
The following species have been obtained from the next later or
overlying deposit, No. 3 of the section:
Pseudemys floridana 'persimilis Terrapene antipex
Terrapene innoxia Chelydra sculpta


ADDITIONAL NOTE.

After this paper had taken on page form Doctor Sellards sent
to the writer, fcr examination, a small collection which he had
lately secured at Vero, and which furnishes some additional infor-
mation. From all the materials examined the following turtles
have been identified from the stratum which Doctor Sellards has
called No. 3.

Gopherus polyphemus Pseudemys floridana persimilis
Terrapene antipex Chelydra sculpta
T. innoxia Chelonia mydas

*Amer. Journ. Sci. Vol. xlii, p. 6, July, 1916: and this Volume. text-figure 2.









76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The bones referred to Gopherus /..', /:.,.:;,.. the land tortoise
now existing in Florida, present some differences when compared
with recent skeletons, but with more materials, recent and fossil,
these differences might disappear.
In the last lot received is a nearly complete carapace and con-
siderable parts of two others of Terrapene inno.ria. These were
considerably broken up in getting them out of the ground. The
shells are thin and delicate. Let us suppose that such shells had
originally been buried in stratum No. 2 and had been disturbed in
their partially unmineralized and soft condition. They could not
have failed to be broken into fragments and scattered far and wide.
Chclydra sculpta is a species very distinct from the existing
snapping turtle. As shown by the materials just received, it ap-
pears that all the peripheral bones were joined to the costal plates
by jagged sutures. In Chelydra serpentina there are between the
two sets of bones considerable fontanelles. In both species the
bones are thin and fall apart readily on maceration. The shell
could not suffer burial and redeposition. Now, in the new lot there
are seven bones of one carapace. To the nuchal a right and a left
first costal join accurately. The fourth and fifth costals of the
right side belong together without doubt. That snapping turtle
must have lived when stratum No. 3 enveloped it.
Out of six chelonians, then, found in that stratum at least three
are extinct. Other fragments in the collections appear to indicate
additional extinct species, but they do not justify final conclusions.
-In the opinion of the writer this stratum, No. 3, belongs to the
Pleistocene and not to the later part of it.










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. I.


Bystra nanus, gen. sp. nov. Type specimen. Slightly less than natural size.
View of shell from the right side and from below. P. 53.


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.





























Plate 2.
Figs. 1-7. Pseudemys caelata. Various bones. Natural size. P. 64.
1. Left side of epiplastron, showing lower surface. Fla. Surv. coll.
No. 3537.
2. Fragment of the right hyoplastron, showing the lower surface. Of
the upper border of the figure the left half is for union with the
right epiplastron; the right half for union with the entoplastron.
No. 342o.
3. A neural bone, probably the fourth. No. 3425.
4. First peripheral of the right side, upper surface. No. 3415.
5. Second left peripheral. No. 3423.
6. Right third peripheral, part missing. No. 3410.
7. Left ninth peripheral. No. 3417.
fig. 8. Hipparion :.....:.., Piece of right side of upper jaw, with three
molars. Natural size. P. 41.








EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 2.


.r ~4w~
.(6;,






1 '2 6h







II


0


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.





























Plate 3.

Figs. 1-4. Testudo ocalana. One-half natural size. P. 45.
I. Left half of epiplastron, seen from below. Type. No. 4299.
2. Right half of hyoplastron, seen from above. No. 4292.
3. Right first costal plate. No. 4288.
4. A hinder peripheral, probably the eighth, presenting a view of its
front end. No. 4311.
Figs. 5-8. Testudo incisa. Various parts. One-half natural size. P. 46.
5. Left half of xiphiplastron. Seen from below. No. 4287.
6. Left seventh peripheral and part of eighth. No. 4286.
7. Right seventh peripheral, showing inner face. No. 4297.
8. Right eighth (or ninth) peripheral, showing anterior end. No. 4305.
Fig. 9. Testudo distans. Type entoplastron. Times .46. No. 4289. P. 48.










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 3.


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Plate 4.

Figs. 1,2. Gopherus praecedens. Type. Left xiphiplastral bone. Two-thirds
natural size. No. 5463. P. 55.
I. Seen from below.
2. Seen from above.

Fig. 3- Terrapene formosa. Type. Hinder two-thirds of the carapace. One-
half natural size. No. 2973. P. 57.

Figs. 4,5. Terrapene antipex. Two-thirds natural size. P. 58.
4. Hinder lobe of plastron. Allen specimen.
5. Right side of front of carapace. No. 4435.

Fig. 6. Trachemys :,. .;' Part of nuchal bone. Two-thirds natural
size. No. 5775. P. 70.
7. *.:, i- sculpta? Part of supposed right fourth costal plate. Two-
thirds natural size. No. 7091. P. 73














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 4.


%





























Plate 5.

Figs. 1-5. Terrapene antiper. Parts of carapace and plastron. P. 58.
i. Hinder lobe of plastron seen from above. No. 5460. One-half nat-
ural size.
2. Part of front lobe, seen from above. No. 5462. One-half natural size.
3. Part of right side of carapace. Times .63. No. 5255.
4. Part of right side of carapace. Times .6. No. 5478.
5. Rear of carapace. Times .6. No. 5480.
Figs. 6-8. . .....', ., floridana persimilis. P. 71.
6. Epiplastral bones seen from above. No. 7098. Type.
7. Left xiphiplastral bone seen from above. No. 7099.
8. Right third costal plate. No. 7100o.










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 5.


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Plate 6.

Figs. 1,2. Terrapene innoxia. Type. Two-thirds natural size. No. 7080. P. 6r.
1. View of carapace from above.
2. View of carapace from below.
Figs. 3,4. Terrapene innoxia. Parts of plastron referred. Two-thirds natural
size. P. 64.
3. Anterior lobe seen from above. No. 5471.
4. Left xiphiplastral bone seen from above. No. 7085.
Fig. 5. Trachemys? nuchocarinata. Type. Two-thirds natural size. Part of
nuchal bone seen from above. No. 4437. P. 71.

Figs. 6,7. Chelydra laticarinata. Natural size. P. 72.
6. Sixth left peripheral bone seen from above. Type. No. 7094.
7. Left eighth peripheral, No. 5943, seen from above.
Figs. 8,9. Chelydra sculpta. Natural size. P. 73.
8. Right ninth peripheral seen from above. Type. No. 551o.
9. Left seventh peripheral seen from above. No. 7090.










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 6.


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Plate 7.

All the bones of this plate are slightly less than the natural size.

Fig. i. Trachemys? delicala. Type. Right fourth coastal, with distal end
missing. No. 3738. P. 66.

Figs. 2-7. Trachemys bisornata. P. 67.
2. Nuchal plate, No. 3735, showing upper surface.
3. Right third peripheral plate, showing outer surface. No. 3740.
4. Same bone, seen from behind. Shows sutural border for the fourth
peripheral (on upper and right-hand parts of figure) and for
hyoplastron and its buttress (on lower part of figure).
5. Same bone as that of figures 3 and 4, showing the front end, which
joins the second peripheral.
6. Sixth right peripheral, showing outer surface. No. 1755.
7. Same bone, showing the hinder end, for union with seventh peri-
pheral.
Figs. 8-ro. Trachemys sculpt. Three bones of carapace. P. 68.
8. Anterior part of nuchal bone. No. 3740a.
9. Eleventh right peripheral, showing outer surface. No. 374oe.
10. Proximal end of right third costal, showing outer surface. No. 352.










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 7.


Digitized by Go 00I


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

























Plate 8.

Figs. 1-2:-Parahippus sp. indet. Two left lower molars. One and one-
half times natural size. Nos. 1638 and 1636. P. 42.
Figs. 3-5:-Odocoileus osceola. Two upper and one lower molars. One and
one-half times natural size. P. 43.
Fig. 3. Upper left first molar, No. 1439. Fig. 4. Upper right second molar,
No. I443. Fig. 5. Lower left third molar, No. 1446. Fla. Surv. coll
Figs. 6-7:-Testudo sellardsi. Parts of carapace and plastron. Fla. Surv.
coll. No. 1831. P. 49.

Fig. 6. Neurals 4-8, and parts of the proximal ends of some of the corre-
sponding costals.

Fig. 7. Section across the border of the hinder lobe of the plastron at the
hypo-xiphiplastral suture.

Fig. 8. Lines showing form of surface on outer face of the anterior third of
the border of the xiphiplastron in T. crassiscutata and in T. sellardsi.
a,a Shows longitudinal convexity of the border described in T. crassiscutata.
b,b Shows longitudinal concavity of the border in T. sellardsi.
c,c Shows vertical convexity of the border in T. crassiscutata.
d,d Shows very slight vertical convexity of border in T. sellardsi.












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 8










EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 9.


Figs. 1-3:-Testudo ocalana. Right half of epiplastron. Natural size. Fig.
i. Seen from above. Fig. 2. Seen from below. Fig. 3. Showing symphysial
surface. P. 45.


Fig. 4:-Testudo crassiscutlaa. Section across border of hinder lobe at
hypo-xiphiplastral suture. Two-thirds natural size. P. 53.
Fig. 5:-Testudo luciae. Section at same place as in Fig. 4. Two-thirds
natural size. Fla. Surv. coll. No. 1807. P. 52.


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.




























FOSSIL VERTEBRATES FROM FLORIDA: A NEW MI-
OCENE FAUNA: NEW PLIOCENE SPECIES; THE
PLEISTOCENE FAUNA.
(PLATES 10-14.)


BY E. H. SELLARDS.










CCO TENTS.
PAGE
Introduction ........- --------------------------- --- -------- 79
Stratigraphic succession ------...-----. --------------------------- 81
Eocene or lower Oligocene, Ocala formation ------------------ 8x
Upper Oligocene and Miocene, Chattahoochee and Alum Bluff forma-
tions ----------------------------------- -- ------------ 81
A new Miocene fauna -----..-------..------------ -------------- 82
Description of species ---------------------------------------- 83
Equid-e ..........-----.......-------------- ---------..- 83
Parahippus leonensis sp. nov. ..---------.--------------------- 83
Merychippus sp. ----------------------------------------- 87
Canidae --------------... ------------....-----------..---- 88
Mesocyon ? iamonensis, sp. nov. --------------------------- 88
Camelidae ...----.....-------. -----------..--.-...-....-- 89
Oxydactylus ? sp. ...........---- ----- ----..... ------------- 89
Hypertragulidae ---...------. --.-------------.. ------...- 89
Leptomeryx ? sp. .....------------- ---.-----------------.. 89
Indeterminate fossils .............................-----------. 90
Age of the Alum Bluff formation ---------------..---------.---- 90
Pliocene and upper Miocene -------.. -----------..-----....--------- 92
The Alachua formation ----------------------------------------- 93
Bone Valley formation ------------------------------_- ------ 95
New Pliocene Vertebrates --------------------------------------- 95
Elephantide ------------------ --------------------------- 95
Mammut progenium ? ----------------------------------- 95
Equidae ..--.--..-----......... .------.....--------- 96
Hipparion minor, sp. nov. ..-------------.-------------------. 96
Ursidae -----------.. -----------------------------........ 98
Agriotherium schneideri, sp. nov. -. ------...............---.... 98
Camelida ....-------------------....---------------------. oo
Procamelus minor .-------------------...------------------ oo
Pleistocene ...............................-------------------------- 100oo
The Pleistocene Vertebrates ----....-----------------..---------.--.- o
Peace Creek -... --......----------.................-----------.
Caloosahatchee River ......-------- ....--------------------.. 102
Ocala -------------- ---------.........------------------ 10...to
Sarasota Bay ...............-------------------------..--- 103
Wakulla Springs ----.......--..........---.......... o103
Withlacoochee River -------------------..------------------ ---. o4
. for Pleistocene vertebrates on or near the Atlantic Coast.- 104
Daytona o------------------ 105
Fellsmere ....---------------.......... -------------------. 105o
Palm Beach Canal ------------ ----------.--------------. ro5
St. Augustine .--..... ..........-------.------..... o6
Vero ------------..... -----........ --------...........------ o6
Description of a New Dolphin .--..--.....--..---------------.. 107
Summary --...........-----.. -----.... .--.. ....- ----. .. o8
Bibliography and review of papers relating to the fossil vertebrates of
Florida -------------------------------------------- 108













FOSSIL VERTEBRATES FROM FLORIDA: A NEW MI-
OCENE FAUNA; NEW PLIOCENE SPECIES; THE
PLEISTOCENE FAUNA.
(PLATES 10-I4.)


E. H. SELLARDS.


INTRODUCTION.
Attention was first effectively called to the vertebrate fossils of
Florida in the early eighties. Among those who were active in
collecting material from Florida at that time were J. Frances Le-
Baron, John C. Neal, Samuel T. Walker, W. H. Dall, L. C. John-
son, Joseph Willcox and J. B. Hatcher.
In 1881 J. Frances LeBaron made a collection of fossil verte-
brates from Peace Creek which was forwarded to the Smithsonian
Institution together with pebble phosphate rock for which the col-
lection was chiefly made. This material ultimately reached Pro-
fessor Leidy and formed a part of the Peace Creek collections
studied by him. Collections of Pliocene vertebrates were made by
Dr. J. C. Neal from localities near Archer for the Smithsonian
Institution in 1883, and for the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia in 1885. Additional collections from the localities
near Archer were made for the United States Geological Survey
by W. H. Dall in 1885; by L. C. Johnson in 1887, and by J. B.
Hatcher in 1889. In 1888 Joseph Willcox in company with Wm.
M. Meiggs, visited the Peace Creek beds. Phosphate mining from
the bed of the river was then in progress and through the assist-
ance of T. S. Moorhead, who was operating one of the mines, Mr.
Willcox was able to secure a very important collection of the fos-
sils of that locality. During the same year Mr. Willcox obtained
the very interesting lot of material afterwards described by Pro-
fessor Leidy from the rock quarries at Ocala, Florida. In addition
to these important localities Mr. Willcox also obtained vertebrate
fossils from the Caloosahatchee River, Sarasota Bay and Stump