Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Administrative report
 Mineral industries and resources...
 Some Florida lakes and lake...
 The relation between the Dunnellon...
 Geography and vegetation of Northern...
 Index of plant names
 General index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer,
Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1912-1913
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00006
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Administrative report
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Mineral industries and resources of Florida
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
        Page 22b
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
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    Some Florida lakes and lake basins
        Page 115
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    The relation between the Dunnellon formation and the Alachua Clays of Florida
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Geography and vegetation of Northern Florida
        Page 163
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    Index of plant names
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    General index
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    Back Matter
        Page 453
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    Back Cover
        Page 455
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Full Text

G 7?F--.


E. H. SELLARDS, Ph. D., State Geologist



LrTA.:. /L

T LL.\H A.: F.. IQI 4






To His Excellency, Hon. Park Trammell, Governor of Florida.
SIR:-In accordance with the Survey law I submit herewith
my Sixth Annual Report as State Geologist of Florida. This
report contains the statement of expenditures by the Survey for the
\,ar ending .June 3,': 1913, together with those investigations by
ilkt Si.iur\ tlt ihaie progressed far enough to be available for
pulll l .:; l i,-,n.
Pl-i ritl n'e t:, e-'press in this connection my appreciation of the
intere-it i:'L hIi.e hl-1,'n in the work of the State Geological Survey.
Very respectfully,

Administrative Report --------------------------------------- 9

Mineral Industries and Resources of Florida.
By E. H. Sellards. (Figures I to 26), one map ------------------- 21

Some Florida Lakes and Lake Basins.
By E. H. Sellards. (Figures 27 to 39)----------------------- 15

The Relation Between the Dunnellon Formation and the Alachua Clays
of Florida.
By E. H. Sellards --------------------------------------- 161

Geography and Vegetation of Northern Florida.
By R. M. Harper. (Figures 40 to go) ------------------------ 163

Key Map to Mineral Resources of Florida, facing page ------------------ 23
Fig. i. Pit of the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company --------------------- 24
Fig. 2. Brick kiln of the Florida Brick Company --------------------- 25
Fig. 3. Northwest shore of Lake Milton ------------------------------- 27
Fig. 4. Pit in fullers earth mine, Quincy ----------------------------- 30
Fig. 5. Fullers earth plant at Quincy -------------------------------- 35
Fig. 6. Fullers earth plant at Ellenton ------------------------------- 35
Iig. 7. Florida sands --------------------------------------- 47
Fig. 8. Vicksburg limestone at Ocala -------------------------------- 49
Fig. 9. Pit of the Keystone Brick Company, WVhitney ---------------- 51
Fig. o1. Pit of the Clay County Steam Brick Company ---------------- 51
Fig. It. Plant of the McMillan Brick Company, Molino -------------- 51
Fig. 12. Vicksburg limestone, Marianna ------------------------------ 53
Fig. 13. Miami oolitic limestone, Miami ------------------------------ 53
Fig. 14. Limestone at Ft. Thompson --------------------------------- 53
Fig. 15. Limestone in Lake Okeechobee ------------------------------- 55
Fig. 16. Limestone in the Everglades ------------------------------- 5
Fig. 17. Limestone at River Junction ---------------------------------- 55
Fig. 18. Limestone at Ft. Thompson ----------------------------------- 56
Fig. Ig. The Caloosahatchee marl ------------------------------------- 5
Fig. 20. Peat prairie near Haines City -------------------------------- 59
Fig. 21. Phosphatized limestone -------------------------------------- 85
Fig. 22. Removing overburden from phosphate rock --------------------- 93
Fig. 23. Sand-clay road, Tallahassee ---------------------------------- Io
Fig. 24. Ponce de Leon Springs ------------------------------------- 103
Fig. 25. Flowing artesian well at Palatka ------------------------------ 5
Fig. 25. Well drilling machinery ------------------------------------ log
Fig. 27. Sketch Map Showing location of Lakes lamonia, Jackson, Lafay-
ette, and Miccosukee --------------------------------------- 12
Fig. 28. Lake Jackson -------------------------------------- -- 128
Fig. 29. Lake Lafayette ---------------------------------------- 130
Fig. 30. Lake Miccosukee -------------------------------- ------- 132
Fig. 31. Miccosnkee Basin, Low Water Stage of 1909 --------------- 137
Fig. 32. Lake Jackson ---------------------------------------------- 139
Fig. 33. Alligator Lake -------------------------------------- -- 39
Fig. 34, The Sink pf Lake Lafayette --------------------------------- 141
Fig. 35. Payne's Prairie, looking out from the Sink --------------------- 14
Fig. 36. View of Payne's Prairie from near the Sink ------------------ 141
Fig. 37. View of Spouting Well near Orlando ------------------------- 143
Fig. 38. Sketch Map of Hogtoxn Prairie and surroundings -------------- 146
Fig. 39. Sketch Showing Ground Water Level -------------------------- 15
Fig. 40. Map of Northern Florida, showing geographical divisions ------ Igo
Figs. 41, 42. Scenes in Marianna red lands (Jackson County) ------ 347-349
Figs. 43-48. Scenes in West Florida lime-sink region --------------319-353
Figs. 49- 51. Scenes in Apalachicola River bluff region --------------- 33-355
Fig. 52. Scene in Knox Hill country (Walton Cointy) ----------------- 357
Fig. 53. Scene in Holmes Valley (Washington County) --------------- 357
Fig. 54. Scene in West Florida lake region (Washington County) ------ 359
Figs. 55 57. Scenes in \est Florida pine hills -------------------- 359 361
Figs. 58-61. Scenes in West Florida coast strip -------------------- 351-363

Figs. 62, 63. Scenes in Apalachicola flatwoods (Franklin County) ------ 365
Figs. 64-68. Scenes in Middle Florida hammock belt ------------- 367-371
Figs. 69-73. Scenes in Tallahassee red hills (Leon County) -------- 373-375
Figs. 74, 75. Scenes in Bellair sand region (Leon County) ---------- 377
Figs. 76-78. Scenes in Wakulla hammock country (Wakulla County)-- 379-381
Fig. 79. Scene in Panacea country (Wakulla County) ----------------- 381
Figs. 8o, 81. Scenes in Gulf hammock region ------------------------- 383
Figs. 82, 83. Scenes in Peninsular lime-sink region (Alachua County)-- 385
Fig. 84. Scene in Peninsular lake region (Clay County) --------------- 385
Figs. 85, 86. Scenes in East Florida flatwoods ------------------------ 387
Figs. 87 -90. Scenes in East coast strip --------------------------- 389-391




The following is a list of the publications issued by the State
Geological Survey since its organization:

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (i) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a
chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay,
brick-making clays, fullers earth, peat, lime and cement and road-making
materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a
review of the more important papers published previous to the organ-
ization of the present Geological Survey.

Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pis., 5 text figures,
and one map.
This report contains: (I) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida,
with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic
map of Florida, prepared in co-operation with the United States Geological
Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fullers earth deposits of Gadsden
County, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the State.

Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp.. 28 pls., 30 text figures.
Th,- r,,.r nr.iint'i i () a preliminary paper on the Florida phos-
[h.,ari Fip..:.!:. is, i.-.,.- Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian
urat-r :u[Il., of .:a.t, rr. il.-.rida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida

Fourth .\iInual Fp.:.!:, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures.
One nap1'
Thiz rcp.:.rt .-'-.r. i. the soils and other surface residual materials
r-. Florida. lllthr ..rin-i. -:lharicter and the formations from which derived;
12 I ir. warj-r Ispl,.. of ,.,:r-central and west Florida; (3) the production
-it [i.:.:phjt- r.:-ck n FI,.rn.Ja .luring g91o and 1911.

Fiith \Annt iI Rcl|:. 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls.. 17 text figures,

Thi; r.-[:.rt :.-.r.tr. i Origin of the hard rock phosphates of Flor-
i., ,' I -lt r .1i ~l r.:.-n i-, Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern
jand ...]ui. rn r.:.rid.] 4' p reduction of phosphate in Florida during 1912:
( i ;. ta ia.lw .: ,:.!. I.1li ci r.-.a.l In Florida.


Sixth Annual Report, 1914.

Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.

This report contains: (1) Underground water; general discussion;
(2) the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring
and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sink-
holes, disappearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds
and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses
and tables giving general water, resources, public water supplies, spring and
well records.

Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911,
31 pps., 4 pls.
This bulletin contains: (I) An account of the road building materials
of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads
built by the counties of the State to the close of 1910.

In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above
press Bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. i. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6,
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during
1912, March 12, 1913.
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist
at the Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, December 31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913,
May 20, 1914.

'Of the Press Bulletins Nos. I and 3 are available for distri-
bution in the original form as issued. No. 2, the supply of which
is exhausted, was included without change of text in the Fifth
Annual Report, pp. 291 to 294. Nos. 4 and 5 are included in
the present volume in connection with the report on mineral in-

The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are dis-
tributed upon request, and may be obtained without cost by ad-
dressing the State Geologist, Tallahassee. Florida.


Among the specific objects for which the Survey exists, as
stated in the enactment, is that of making known information
regarding the minerals, water supply and other natural resources
of the State, including the occurrence and location of minerals
and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water supply
and power.and mineral waters and the best and most economic
methods of development, together with analysis of soils, minerals
and mineral waters, with maps, charts, and drawings of the same.
A distinctly educational function of the Survey is indicated
by Section 4 of the law, which makes it ,the duty of the State
Geologist to make collections of specimens, illustrating the geo-
logical and mineral features of the State, duplicate sets of which
shall be deposited with each of the State colleges. The publica-
tion of annual reports is provided for as a means of disseminating
the information obtained in the progress of the Survey. The Sur-
vey is thus intended to serve on the one hand an economic, and
on the other an educational purpose. In its economic relations
a State Survey touches on very varied interests of the State's devel-
opment. In its results it may be expected to contribute to an
intelligent development of the State's natural resources. Its edu-
cational value is of no less immediate concern to the State, both
to the citizens within the State and to, prospective citizens without.
A knowledge of the soil and of the available water supply is
very necessary to successful agriculture, and the Survey's investi-
gations along these lines are of value to all land owners. A knowl-
edge of the mineral deposits which may lie beneath the surface,
is likewise necessary to a correct valuation of land.

The relation of the State Geological Survey to the ownership
c:f mineral lands is specifically defined. The Survey law provides
thit it shall be the duty of the State Geologist and his assistants,
wh-ni they discover any mineral deposits or substances of value,
to notify the owners of the land upon which such deposits occur
bef,.r- disclosing their location to any other person or persons
Faluiire to do so is punishable by fine and imprisonment. It is
!o._,t inrended by the law, however, that the State Geologist's time


shall be devoted to examinations and reports upon the value of
private mineral lands. Reports of this character are properly the
province of commercial geologists, who may be employed by the
owners of land for that purpose. To accomplish the best results,
the work of the Survey must be in accordance with definite plans
by which the State's resources are investigated in an orderly man-
ner. Only such examinations of private lands can be made as are
incidental to the regularly planned investigations of the Survey.


Samples of rocks, minerals and fossils will be at all times
gladly received, and reported upon. Attention to inquiries and
general correspondence are a part of the duties of the office, and
afford a means through which the Survey may in many ways be
useful to the citizens of the State.


For many purposes the collection and publication of statistical
information is helpful, both to the industries concerned and to the
general public. Such statistical information is desired from all
the mineral industries of the State. Such information will be
recognized as strictly confidential, in so far as it relates to the
private business of any individual or company, and will be used
only in making up State and county totals. The co-operation of
the various industries of the State is invited in order that the best
possible showing of the State's products may be made annually.


The space available for the exhibition of geological material
is unfortunately as vet very limited. A part of one room is being
used for this purpose. Three cases have been built, designed to
serve the double purpose of storage and exhibition. The lower
parts of the case contain drawers and are used for storage. In
making the collections a definite plan has been followed to secure a
representation of the rocks, minerals and fossils of each formation
in the State. The collection will be added to as rapidly as space
is provided for taking care of the material.



A well equipped reference library is essential to the investiga-
tions of the Survey, and an effort has been and is being made to
bring together those publications which are necessary to the imme-
diate and future work of the department. The Survey library now
contains more than I,500 volumes. These include the reports of
the several State Geological Surveys; the reports of the National
Geological Survey; the reports of the Canadian and a few other
foreign Geological Surveys; and many miscellaneous volumes and
papers on geology and related subjects.


The State Survey is at present housed in two small rooms.
Of these one is used as store room, photo room and library, while
the other serves as office and work room. These small
rooms, including about I,ooo square feet of floor space are totally
inadequate to the requirements of effective work. Fully 10,000
square feet of floor space is necessary to meet the immediate require-
ments of the Survey. The library shelves are full, and it is now and
:fr i.-,im rime has been quite impossible to care for the publications
that ;ai:- -iing received. Many of these new publications represent
Ithl rei.ilt- of investigations by the neighboring State Surveys or
ti tlhe I-tional Survey, and are very necessary for comparative
pIurl.. i:e r.:. the Florida Survey. Other publications being received
in:m .*:ri...us sources are for reference purposes and are necessary
t.-. rli ,drrermination of fossils or mineral specimens. or, of geolog-
i,:'i forriatiions, or other matters in connection with the Survey
.'.rl: Tihe cases used in exhibiting and storing mineral specimens
anil f.:. -il- have been placed temporarily in one of the rooms form-
,:rl- ,.:. i.ipied by the Supreme Court library.
The Su.rvey at present is practically without a work room.
-Tee ;i iio table or desk room available to store or to handle the
m.ip'. -hIlirts, and drawings that are constantly being used in the
'lr. ---. ",:rk. It is impossible from lack of space to properly
,rn r1P nrd study the collection of mineral and fossil specimens
tinht ir '- been obtained by the Survey. The store room space is
t:i., ,mall to accommodate even the current issues of the Survev's


own publications which must be cared for temporarily awaiting
their distribution.
In connection with the work of the Survey there is a constant
accumulation of notes, records, photographs, manuscripts, plates
and cuts, as well as the general correspondence of the office which
must be cared for. The present limited office space affords no
room for storing, filing or properly caring for these records.
I urgently recommend, if it meets with your approval, that
the Legislature be asked to provide adequate rooms for the future
work of the State Geological Survey.


The desirability of an adequate museum in which to properly
exhibit the resources of the State is apparent. The State Survey
law makes it the duty of the State Geologist to collect, determine
and label specimens illustrating the geological and mineral fea-
tures of the State and large collections have been made since the
Survey was organized. The small room used for exhibition pur-
poses has long since been filled and a large amount of material
suitable for exhibition remains unopened in boxes as collected. It
is important that the State provide for the proper preservation
and exhibition of the Survey collections in a State Museum.


While a general topographic map of Florida with contour lines
at 50 foot intervals of elevation has been issued, as already stated,
there is a constant demand for detailed topographic maps on a
scale of about one inch to the mile and with contour lines at 10
foot intervals of elevation. Topographic maps are usually made
in atlas sheets covering unit areas bounded by parallels and merid-
ians. The unit adopted by the United States Geological Survey
in topographic mapping, designated as the quadrangle, includes
when made on the scale of about one inch to the mile an area of
15 minutes of latitude by 15 minutes of longitude. A separate
atlas sheet is issued for each unit area and when completed the
maps so issued make up a complete map for the state as a whole.
The maps thus made show the land area in relief by means of
contour lines. In this wav all hills, valleys, stream channels, sinks.
depressions and all changes in elevation are indicated. The actual


elevation above sea, based on exact levels, are also shown by
means of figures printed on the contour lines. Each contour
passes through points which have the same altitude. One who
follows the contour on the ground will go neither up hill nor down
hill but on a level. By the use of contours the maps of the plains,
hills and valleys as well as their elevations are shown. The line
of the sea coast itself is a contour line, the datum or zero of
elevation being mean sea level. The contour line at, say, 20 feet
above sea level is a line that would be the sea coast if the sea
were to rise or the land to sink 20 feet. Such a line runs back
up the valleys and forward around the points of hills and spurs.
On a gentle slope this contour line is far from the present coast
line. .lbile on a steep slope it is near it. Thus a succession of
the:e I:.ntour lines far apart on the map indicates a gentle slope;
if ,::L, together a steep slope; and if the contours run together
in one line, as if each were vertically under the one above it, they
indicate a cliff. The heights of many definite points such as road
:orI.eri. railroad crossings, railroad stations, summits, water sur-
tfac. triangulation stations and bench marks are also given on
thi Inap. The figures in each case express the elevation to the
ine re-t foot.
In, addition to indicating relief and actual elevation above sea
the-e maps show all the natural features, such as lakes, ponds,
r..er-.; -treams, canals, swamps, and all cultural features including
ul-.li.: roads, railroads, towns, cities, county and state boundaries.
Thli topographic maps thus prepared find many uses. They
a.:i :l-:. ce all essential to the proper planning of drainage opera-
tion- throughout all the interior of the state. It is a well known
fiact thu. we have in Florida, particularly in the flatwoods sections,
laIr-e -reas of land that, although not actually flooded, yet would
be muI.-h improved by the more rapid removal of the heavy summer
rain:. The state contains also valuable muck lands in addition
t:. thrlj::e already being drained. The topographic maps such as
are lihre contemplated are essential to a proper planning of drain-
i-e- ,:...L rations.
Thr- topographic maps are of very great assistance in the
rprclparation of detailed soil maps. They afford first of all an
e:a.:rt base map of the area to be surveyed, thereby reducing the
:o:-rt :,i the average soil map in Florida about one-half, They


also facilitate the study of the soils which bear well known rela-
tions to drainage and moisture conditions. In detailed geologic
mapping and in the study of the mineral resources, topographic
maps are practically necessary for the final reports.
Topographic maps find many additional uses. They are oi
very great assistance in laying out and developing a system
of public roads, showing as they do the relief of the land including
hills, depressions and valleys. In planning the location of rail-
roads, canals, waterways, or other public improvements they are
of great assistance. Finally they afford to the land owners, as
well as to the citizens in general, the manifold convnieiences of a
well-made and accurate map.


Many of the States co-operate with the National Geological
Survey through their respective State Survey organizations in the
preparation of topographic maps. The usual basis of such co-
operation is an equal contribution of funds on the part of the
State and National Survey. The plan of mapping followed is
that already developed and established by the National Survey.
The men employed in the mapping are the expert topographic
mappers already in the employ of the National Survey. The
following States are either now co-operating or have in the past
co-operated with the National Geological Survey in this work:
Alabama, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louis-
iana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts. Michigan, Mississippi. Mis-
souri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina. Ohio. Oklahoma.
Oregon. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. Tennessee, Texas. Virginia
and West Virginia.
It is probable that such co-operation can be secured in the
preparation of the topographic maps of Florida, thus practically
doubling for the State any appropriation made by the Legislature
for this purpose. The Director of the United States Geological
Survey has repeatedly expressed his willingness to co-operate with
the State Geological Survey in the preparation of topographic
maps, meeting any appropriation made by the State with an equal
amount so far as funds permit. An appropriation made for the
preparation of topographic maps may be so framed as to admit


of co-operation with the United States Geological Survey; or may
be made if desired contingent upon such co-operation to be carried
on in accordance with plans approved by the Governor.

Another very important line of investigation is the prepara-
tion of detailed soil maps. While a general report on the soils of
the State has been issued by the Survey, there is a -very great
demand for specific information regarding local soils such as can
be supplied only by detailed soil maps of the several counties. A
limited amount of soil mapping has already been done by the
LUnited States Bureau of Soils. As in the case of topographic
in.tps many of the States are co-operating with the National
Bureaus in the preparation of soil maps, and it is probable that
an appropriation made for this purpose would be doubled by the
United States Bureau of Soils. I would urgently recommend an
appropriation of $5,ooo per annum for the preparation of topo-
,raphic and soil maps. Such an appropriation may be made con-
tingent upon co-operation with the national bureaus and would
thus result in the expenditure of $o1.ooo per annum in the State
ifr this purpose.

JUNE 30, 1913.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
.7,500 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by the
State Geologist, as all Survey accounts are paid upon warrants
i -ued by the Comptroller of the State as per itemized statements
approved by the Governor. The original of all bills and the item-
i.cd statements of all expense accounts are on file in the office
.:,f the Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are on file iri
the office of the State Geologist.

Ily, I912.
T. J. Appleyard. State Printer .............. ................ $ oo.on
Southern Express Company ................... .................. 13.7'*
D R. Cox Furniture Company, supplies.................. ...... 4.1
.iI.'I r I1912.
.l-ex. M cDougall, postage ................. .................. 25.0~
Southern Express Company .................................... 3.03


September, 1912.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Septem-
ber 30, 1912 ......... ........ ........... .... ................. 625.00
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending September
30, 1912 ..................................................... 300.00
Southern Express Company .................................... .6o
October, 1912.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, October, 1912 ........... 62.8o
Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, October, 1912 ................ 42.71
Arthur H. Thomas Company, supplies ......................... 1955
November, 1912.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, November, 1912........ 66.47
Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, November. 1912............. 29.10
H. R. Kaufman, repairing typewriter ............................ 5.00
Alex. McDougall, postage ...................................... 25.00
Southern Express Company ..................................... 3.13
December, 1912.
E. H. Sellards. State Geologist, salary for quarter ending Decem-
ber 31, 1912 ................................................. 625.00
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, December, 1912......... 72.85
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending December
31. 912 .................................................... 30oo.o
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ................. ......... 1.79
'. & L. E. Gurley, supplies ...................................... 3.70
Kenffel & Esser Company, supplies.............................. 39.90
Engineering and Mining Journal, subscription... ................ 5.00
Southern Express Company .................................... 8.02
January, 1913.
E. H. Sellards. State Geologist, expenses, January, 1913............ 42.60
Alex. McDougall, postage ...................................... 22.16
Alex. \alton, janitor services.............................. 10.00
American Journal of Science, subscription ....................... 6.00
Southern Express Company ..................................... 7.02
February, 1913.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, February, 1913.......... 47-35
Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, February, 1913 ............... 47.62
Alex. W alton, janitor services .................................... 10.00
T. J. Appleyard, State Printer ................. ............... 132.30
Economic Geology Publishing Co., subscription ................... 3.00
Southern Express Company ..................................... 416
1I. & W. B. Drew Co., supplies................... ............... 6.94
American Museum Natural History, publications ................. 27.97
Ware Bros. Company. subscription ............................. 2.00
\Wrigley Engraving & Electrotype Co., engraving................. 4.60
Alex. M cDougall, postage ....................................... 5715
March, 1913.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist. salary for quarter ending March
31, 1913 .................................................... 625.00
Herman Gunter. Assistant, salary for quarter ending March 31, 1913 3oo.oo
Emil Gunter, services ............................................ 20.00
Alex. Walton, janitor services.................................... 10.00
H. R. Kaufman, supplies: .................................... 4.25


American Peat Society, subscription................ ............
E. O. Painter Printing Company. .................................
April, 1913.
Alex. McDougall, postage ........... .......................
A lex. W alton, janitor services...................................
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ...........................
Justus Perthes, Geographical directory.............................
Southern Express Company .......... ......................
May, 1913.
A lex. M cD ougall, postage ......................... ..........
Alex. Walton, janitor services ..................................
Wrigley Engraving Company, engravings.......................
Laura Smith, stenographic services................. ...........
Maurice Joyce Engraving Company, engravings ..................
June, 1913.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending June,
30, 19 13 ................. ......... .... ...........
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, June, 1913 ..............
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending June 30, 1913
A lex. M cD ougall, postage ......................................
H. R. Kaufman, supplies ................ .....................
Alex. W alton, janitor services ............... ....................
Emil Gunter, services ........... ............. ...........
Dan Alien, freight and drayage ................... ..............
Underwood Typewriter Company, supplies........................
University of Chicago Press, subscription ......................
David S. Woodrow, subscription................. ............
T. J. Appleyard, supplies......... ...... ......................
Southern Express Company ............ ................ ..
D. R. Cox Furniture Company..............................
S. A. L. Ry., freight................ ................ ...........
L. Ry., freight ................ .........................
FP-....rd Com pany, printing ....................... ............





T1.*ll ................................... ....... .............$6,194.40
.A|ri.:,.n.ation for fiscal year ending June 30, 1913 ..................... $7,500o 00
.. ,-il.l-_ from the preceding year ................................. 1,112.87

T.tol ,:. renditures for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913............ 6,194.40

EB l -r.-- available ..................................... ......... $2,418.47




Clay and Clay Products ............................... ............. 23
Ball Clay or Plastic Kaolin ........................................ 23
Brick and Tile ................................................... 24
Diatomaceous Earth .................... .................. ............ 26
Fullers Earth ....................................................... 28
Lime ............................... .............................. 36
Limestone ............ ............... ................................ 39
The Everglades of Florida. limestones of ................. ........ 41
geology of ............................ 41
Materials for M ortar and Concrete ..................................... 46
Peat ........................... .................................... 59
Phosphate Rock ............................................. 65
Road M materials ............................................. 10i
Sand and Gravel ..................................................... 102
Sand-lime Brick ................................................... 103
Water Supplies ............. .......................................... 104



Page 36, third line from the bottom of the page, for "18.917," read 16,845:
and for "$100,335," read $89,973.
Page 114, second and third lines from top, same correction as for page 36;
also twelfth line from the top of the page, for "73.4r5," read 13.371; and in
last line on page. for "$10,646,628.00," read $o1,636,266.oo.


Key Map to
By E.H.Sellards

SHard Rook
S Phosphate H-

Land Pebble

I..A-- Areas of
SArtesian Flow

. Lime Plants
,. Brick Plants
o. Ball Clay Mines
t. Fuller's Earth Mines




Slie ball clays or plastic kaolins are among the most important
:!LL:, p,'.ducts of the State. The Florida ball clays are white burn-
in,, liihly refractionary and very plastic. These are used largely
t'. mil:. with the less plastic clays to bring upthe grade of plas-
Ctil.. This clay as it occurs in Florida is intimately mixed with
c,.ir_. sand. The presence of the sand in the clays necessitates
..ahin-;, after'which the clay is allowed to collect in the settling
l'a.sin- It is then compressed into cakes by which excess of water
i; rrem.,ved. The cakes are then broken up and either air-dried
.r irti-icially dried for shipment. The deposits at present known
lie in tlie central peninsular section from Putnam to Polk Counties.
The Putnam County deposits occur in and about Edgar and Mc-
Me:l:in. Deposits have been worked in Lake County along Palat-
lal.:ihla Creek. Ball clays have also been reported from near Bar-
t.,:\ .lJunction in Polk County, and probably extend into DeSoto
I-,*ii't ,
At Edgar, 4 to io feet of loose sand lies above the kaolin-
bearn l. sand. This top sand is coarse, containing siliceous peb-
ble- upi to one-third of an inch across. The large pebbles are
H.ttrened and all are rounded. The kaolin-bearing sands beneath
.ire gray in color, although the weathered surface is sometimes
1li1-htl,- iron-stained. They are said to have a total thickness of
,, feet or more. These sands are distinctly cross-bedded, espe-
c:iall.v tle upper five feet as seen in the pit at Edgar. They are
uni.-l-rLin by a sticky blue clay. It is reported that beneath the
Mluie :liv a fullers earth occurs, and that this in turn passes at
the de cth of about 70 feet into a scarcely indurated shell stratum.


A well put down by the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company is reported
to have passed through coarse superficial sand, io feet; kaolin-
bearing sands. 30 or more feet; sticky blue clay with fullers earth
beneath, about 40 feet; scarcely indurated shell stratum, 20 feet.
The well terminated on a hard limestone rock at the depth of 90

Fig. I.-Pit of the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., Edgar, Putnam County.
Mining ball clay.
The kaolin in Lake County occurs under conditions similar to
those found in Putnam County. The superficial sands here as at
the Edgar mines are coarse and contain white siliceous pebbles.
The kaolin-bearing sands are gray in color except where stained
red with iron. At places a small amount of mica is found in the
kaolin sands which is screened out in the process of washing.
Sands of similar character but with a larger proportion of iron
occur in the vicinity of Leesburg and Hawthorne and are used for
road materials.
Two plants, under the management of the Edgar Plastic Kaolin
Company, were engaged in mining ball clay during 1913. The
value of the clay produced, although not separately given, is
included in the total mineral products of the State.

The surface formations of north and central Florida contain
many clay beds, some of which are suitable for brick-making.
The clay deposits, however, are often of local extent and variable


in character. Such clay beds as occur in Florida suitable for
brick making are confined to no particular geologic formation, and
to no restricted section of the State, although the amount of brick
clay is greater perhaps in the northern than in the southern part
of the State. In extreme southern Florida in particular clay beds
are but little developed.
The total number of common brick manufactured in Florida
during 1913 was 42,450,000. valued at $240,126. The quantity
of tile produced in the state is not separately given, but is included
in making up the total mineral products of the state.

Fig. 2.-Brick kiln of the Florida Brick Company, Brooksville,
Hernando County.

The following firms in Florida have reported production of brick or tile
during 1913:
Ba:rrineau Brothers, Quintette.
.'ampville Brick Company, Campville.
Clay County Steam Brick Company, Green Cove Springs.
Florida Brick Company, Brooksville.
G imble and Stockton Company, oS West Bay St., Jacksonville.
I:.'-ksonville Brick Company, 315 West Forsyth St., Jacksonville.
Kiystone Brick Company, Whitney.
i I.Millan Brick Company, Molino.
I O. Mickler Brick Company, Callahan.
,'wala Lumber and Supply Company. Ocala.
-'.:klocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee.
Flatt Brothers, South Jacksonville.
T llahassee Pressed Brick Company, Havana.



The only abrasive material produced in Florida is that known
as diatomaceous earth, the best known deposits of which !are
located near Eustis in Lake County. In addition to the Lake
County deposits, however, a number of samples of a similar mate-
rial have been received by the Survey from Polk County, and it is
evident that it is widespread in its occurrence. The earth is found
chiefly in fresh-water lakes, where it is intimately mixed with
peat or muck, the material as taken from the bog having the
appearance of peat of a grayish color. The method of treatment
is to burn out the carbonaceous matter, the siliceous material re-
maining as a very fine powder. The diatomaceous earth mined
near Eustis appears to consist largely of the spicules of fresh-
water sponges, shells of diatoms and particles of amorphous silica.
Diatomaceous earth is used largely as a polishing powder for
which its hardness and fineness render it particularly suitable.
It is also used in some scouring soaps, and to some extent in the
manufacture of dynamite as an absorbent for nitroglycerine. It
is a good non-conductor of heat and hence is valuable for pack-
ing steam pipes, and to some extent for fireproof materials in
Diatomaceous earth was produced in Florida during 1913 to
a limited extent by the Standard Diatomite Company of Eustis.
There being only the one producer the output is not separately
listed, but is included with the total mineral production of the
The following account of diatomaceous earth in the United
States is taken from the report on the Production of Abrasive
Materials in 1913, by Frank J. Katz*:

Diatomaceous earth, called also infusorial earth and kieselguhr, is a light,
earthy material, which from some sources is loose and powdery and from
others is more or less firmly coherent. It.often resembles chalk or clay in
its physical properties, but can be distinguished at once from chalk by the
fact that it does not effervesce when treated with acids. It is generally white
or gray in color, but may be brown or even black when mixed with much
organic matter. Diatomaceous earth is made up of tests of minute aquatic
plants composed of a variety of opal, which, chemically, is hydrous silica.
Owing to its porosity it has great absorptive powers and high insulating

*Mineral Resources of the United States, Calendar Year 1913, Pt. II, p 268.


efficiency. The hardness, the minute size, and the shape of its grains make it
an excellent metal-polishing agent.
Heretofore diatomaceous or infusorial earth has been largely used as an
abrasive in the form of polishing powders and scouring soaps, but of late
its uses have been considerably extended. Because of its porous nature it
has been used in the manufacture of dynamite as a holder of nitroglycerine,
but so far as known not in the United States. Its porosity also renders it
a non-conductor of heat, and this quality in connection with its lightness
has extended its use as an insulating packing material for safes, steam pipes,
and boilers, and as a fireproof building material. In this country a new
use of the material is reported in the manufacture of records for talking
machines. For this purpose it is boiled with shellac, and the resulting product
has the necessary hardness to give good results.
In Europe, especially in Germany, infusorial earth has lately found ex-
tended application. It has been used in preparing artificial fertilizers, espe-
cirll. iti the absorption of liquid manures; in the manufacture of water
gla:i .:.r various cements, of glazing for tiles, of artificial stone, of ultra-
liarinii and various pigments, of aniline and alizarine colors, of paper, sealing
" a. Fr: firworks, gutta-percha objects, Swedish matches, solidified bromine, scour-
inr. I"o i ers, papier-mache, and many other articles. There is a large and
_-t il.l, growing demand for it.

File .-Northwest shore of Lake Milton, about 5 miles south of Tavares.

t'r-liminary preparation of the crude material involves drying and roast-
in; t.:. destroy organic matter, if that is present.
'Pr auction of diatomaceous earth in the United States in 1913, by States,
in .-hcrt tons.
State. Quantity. Value.
C.il- i:.rnia and Nevada.'................... ... ................ 5,785 $51,556
Co.nri,.:ticut, New York, and Washington...................... 378 9,565
M.ar.lAjind. Virginia, and Florida ............................. 423 8,1

T.:.tal .............. ................................ 6.586 $69,24.'

LU flUK IIL.A lCUJitjULtJ rlkLf I-lA I l--- AN 1 U Al- KXLUK .1.


Definition of Fullers Earth.
Tests for Fullers Earth.
Grinding and Bolting.
Distribution in the United States.
Production in the United States.

Fullers earth is a clay which has the property of absorbing
basic colors and removing these from solution in animal, vege-
table and mineral oils, as well as from water and certain other
liquids. In commerce the earth finds its chief use in clarifying
oils, although it has in addition a number of minor -uses, among
which are the removal of the excess of coloring from water in
dyeing cloth; as an ingredient in talcum powders; as a detergent
in fulling cloth; and to some extent for medicinal purposes, having
been used in poultices for swellings, ulcers and sores. Fullers
earth has also been used recently in the preparation of a new
reagent, known as Lloyd's reagent for alkaloids. This reagent,
used for the removal of alkaloids from the aqueous solution of
their salts, is reported to be more efficient for that purpose than
charcoal or freshly precipitated aluminum, heretofore chiefly used
for that purpose. The action of the reagent is supposed to be
due to the presence of hydrous aluminum silicate.f
Fullers earth, like other clays, is complex and consists not of
a single mineral, but of a variety of minerals, the mineral parti-
cles being mixed in different earths in widely differing propor-
tions, resulting in a varying chemical and mineralogical composi-
tion. The ultimate analysis does not differ materially from that
of other clays, although fullers earth has as a rule a rather high
percentage of combined water. The properties of the earth arise

*The following paper on fullers earth is abridged from two papers pre-
pared during the past year by the writer. The first of these, entitled Fullers
Earth in the United States, was presented at the Atlanta Meeting of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science; the second, entitled
Fullers Earth Production, was prepared for Mineral Industry. 1913, Vol. xxii.
tJournal of the Amer. Pharmaceutical Association, May, 1914, pp. 625-630.


a.ppa endt, from the physical condition of the clay and can be
ldetcted :only by a filtering test by which its practical utility in
li ln, itn.l ; ..oils is determined.
Iii tc-ting an earth for clarifying a mineral oil the earth is
drit.l. r"podered and placed in a tube. The mineral oil is then
pa-:ed t llhi ug4h the tube and will be more or less perfectly clarified,
de-,pen'ing upon the quality of the earth. A different test is neces-
,ar'. fi-r a vegetable oil. In testing vegetable oils according to
\\',s.:,n a weighed amount of the oil and the fullers earth are
.tirred l t.: .,ether for a regular period at a temperature of roo de-
;-i ree C The oil is then filtered and compared with other known
fuller; earth treated under exactly the same conditions.
Vari-'u:- other properties are assigned to fullers earth, but all,
a-ii-d from the actual bleaching tests, are so variable, or are com-
mln 1.:- -ucl:h a variety of clays as to be of only secondary value
as a miean. of identification. Non-plasticity is often given as a
p':rpr-rt, of fullers earth, but it appears from the investigations of
Port r'rd and others that some of the fullers earths are distinctly
pla:tie : .hicn mixed with a large proportion of water. Some of the
fullkr. eavrtlhs will disintegrate in water, although others are little
.-ifft'ct.c thereby. Most fullers earths onaccount of their porosity
vl-,1.n ii 'Jr, ill adhere firmly to the tongue, but some other clays will
d. the nie In color fullers earth is as variable as other clays, and
while uI-fuf nd blue clays predominate, others are brown, gray or
almn:-t x. lit,:. As a rule fullers earths are light in weight owing
to their ,po:rosity, although there are exceptions, and the specific
tgra. it', 13 much the same as that of other clays. These secondary
pr'op:'rti;e although of value in tracing any particular bed after
thi, hai been located, are not to be relied upon as a'complete test.

All the sedimentary deposits of fullers earth are mined by the
*-pen pit method, the overburden being removed by steam shovel
in the- l1arer mines, and by team and scraper or by pick and
;hI. el in the smaller mines. The depth of overburden that can
profitably be removed is variable, depending as it does upon the

*BI;.achrn, of Oils with Fullers Earth, by David Wesson, Trans. Amer.
Ir. i.f Cht.ni.ial Engineers, Vol. iii, 1910, pp. 327-332.
ItPropertie, and Tests of Fullers Earth, by John T. Porter, U. S. Geol.
?iIr P..ll, 31:. pp. 268-290, 1907.


thickness and quality of the fullers earth stratum beneath and
upon the character of the overburden itself. In the Florida mines
the maximum overburden removed is from 12 to 14 feet in thick-
ness. This consists of sand,. clay and in some cases marl. The
fullers earth in these mines includes two strata each from six
to ten feet thick, and separated by a thin stratum of sandy or cal-
careous material. As a rule the first stratum only is worked.
The fullers earth itself is dug with pick and shovel, and is then
loaded onto cars to be drawn to the plant.

Fig. 4.-Pit in fullers earth mine, Quincy, Florida.

In Arkansas where the earth is found following basaltic dikes,
underground mining is resorted to. Vertical shafts are sunk
from which laterals run to the vein of earth. The fullers earth
is drawn to the surface in buckets and is hauled by wagon to
the plant near by.


At the plant the earth, is broken up by passing through a
crusher, thus facilitating both handling and drying. Although
the earth is usually taken directly to the crusher, yet in some
instances it is placed in storage bins and air dried before being
crushed. Drying fullers earth is for the purpose of removing the
excess of moisture.


Tie driers employed are for the most part rotary cylinders.
1 lh:,sc in izse in the Florida mines are from 40 to 60 feet in length
alnd :ia but o feet in diameter. When in operation they rotate
l.-. ly, tlie earth being moved along by means of flanges attached
to- the inside of the cylinder. These cylinders are heated to a
mcide.rate heat by petroleum burners, the heat being applied either
at the end >-where the wet earth enters, or at the opposite end from
.i ich the dry earth escapes. Overheating is not feared in these
1l.int-. as tle earth is used for filtering mineral oils. When the
earth is to be used for edible oils precautions are taken to avoid
oeerheatin-, as driving off the combined water is supposed to be
iniuri:ius. To guard against overheating especially constructed
rotary cylinders are used, or the earth is run into brick form and
i; dried in tunnel driers through which hot air is forced. Although
the English fullers earth is injured by driving off the combined
water. it has been found that some at least of the American
earths bleach fully as well after the combined water is removed,
and it is probable that these precautions against overheating the
earth f.,r edible oils are in some cases at least unnecessary.


In grinding the fullers earth a variety of mills are in use.
After grinding, the earth is bolted. That intended for refining
petroleum is. bolted to a definite size and is placed on the market
graded as 15 to 30 mesh, 30 to 60 mesh, 60 to 80 mesh. The
-o'rser si:cs are in most demand, there being as a rule no market
f.:.r material passing 90 mesh, which is not infrequently a total
lo-.. being thrown into the dump. For the edible oils it is said
that the earth should be ground to pass ioo mesh, but that there
lhoi:uld not be an excess of exceedingly fine material which if pres-
ent itill cl1:.' the pores of the coarser material and prevent success-
ful Fltering. It is apparent that the different fullers earths differ
in the degree of fineness to which, they can be successfully ground.
While the English earths are ground to a 120 mesh without having
an ex:cess :'I very fine particles, many of the American earths can-
rnt be -ro,:und finer than Ioo mesh for edible oils. It is true al-:'
thiat the m1ll employed must be adapted to the particular earth
for hliich it is used.


The action of fullers earth in clarifying oils, and the vary-
ing behavior of different fullers earths form an interesting study
on which much yet remains to be done. Porter in 1907 reviewed
the different explanations of the carifying action that had been
given and advanced a new theory to explain this property. Porter
believes that the clarifying action is due chiefly to colloidal silica
present in the clay, and records a series of very interesting tests
and analyses which are believed to support this view.* Porter's
theory briefly stated is as follows: (I) Fullers earth, has for its
base a series of hydrous aluminum silicates. (2) These silicates
differ in chemical composition. (3) They are, however, similar
in that they all possess an amorphous colloidal structure. (4) The
colloidal structure is of a rather persistent form and is not lost
on drying at a temperature of 130 degrees Centigrade, or possibly
higher. (5) These colloidal silicates possess the power of absorb-
ing and, retaining organic coloring matter, thus bleaching oils
and fats.
Among other striking properties of fullers earth is the fact
that some earths that serve particularly well in refining mineral
oils have not been used successfully for vegetable oils and con-
versely those best suited for vegetable oils are not suitable for
mineral oils. A recent study bearing on these problems has been
issued by the U. S. Bureau of Mines.- At the present time the
English fullers earths are being used largely in vegetable oils, while
the American fullers earths are used almost entirely for mineral
oils. It is stated in this report, however, that the Bureau of Mines
believe that the United States has fullers earth far better suited
for refining edible oils than any imported, and that to assure the
almost universal use of this'earth by American refiners there is
required only a careful and intelligent control of the preparation
of the output and its application to the bleaching of oils.
Most fullers earth gives more or less of a taste to the edible
oils, and formerly the American earth was rejected by refiners of
edible oils on this account, but at the present time methods are
known for removing taste and odor from the oil. This is accom-

*Properties and Tests of Fuller's Earth, by John T. Porter. Bull. 315.
U. S. Geol. Survey, pp. 268-290, 1907.
tFullers Earth, by Charles L. Parsons, Bureau of Mines, Bull. 71, 1913.

l.lill.d VJ bHlowing dry steam through the refined oil which is
liiari.t rt.: a temperature above the boiling point of water. A
.eri '..ii Jitncuilty in the use of this clay is the rapid oxidizing action
,. !Cl .ch .:ni fullers earths have on edible oils. In milling practice
aiir i i bl.I:. n through the filter press to force out the oil remaining
iri the cartel after treatment. With some of the earths the oxidiz-
in.- icti',:,i is so rapid that the oil remaining in the earth takes
fii.r. o: i, liable to take fire at this time. It is to be hoped that
thii dit iculty will be overcome.


ClI.,; s Ii-. ing the properties of fullers earth more or less well
,. c':'l-'ed ari- widely distributed in the United States and are con-
fine j t.:, n.: particular geological horizon, although 'the largest
kn,:'.oii dJe-:p'its are of Cenozoic age. By far the greater part of
fulller- earth is in the form of a sedimentary deposit which is dis-
tinctl', stratified, and from which an overburden must be removed
in I1inilirl. in Arkansas, however, fullers earth is known that is
ec::etii:.oial in that it is residual, having been formed in situ from
thei dJ!inte'-r:ttion of basaltic dykes.* In the United States fullers
,:r-tl- i[- n.'vn from the following states: Alabama. Arizona,
Cialif:,I nia. Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota,
Mi-i-s:ill. f New York, South Clarolina, South Dakota, Texas and
IUrhl Of these states, however, only six were actively producing
full.cr- c- itli during 1913, as follows: Florida, Georgia, Arkan-
:.'. Califor,-iia, Colorado and Massachusetts.
"IThl fullers earth of southern Georgia, which is worked at
\tup-.l-u~i; near the Florida line, represents a northward extension
-.f the Florida deposits. In central Georgia near Macon, however,
i- fund differentt type of earth, which according to the Georgia
;Ge:.l,::.ical Survey is found in the Claiborne formation of Eocene
ae Thi- c trth differs in some important respects from that of
Flrid.a. Iling used chiefly for vegetable oils, while that from
Fl:.,ida liiJi, its chief use at present in clarifying mineral oils.
Ti fillller- c:irth of Arkansas is used chiefly in clarifying vegetable
.'il: The fullers earth of Colorado is said to be used in bleach-

i.. . ..: i:.'i' lrl -.1 from gabbro.


ing cottonseed oil, while that of Massachusetts is reported as being
used in fulling woolen goods. The fullers earth of California is
used according to the State Mineralogist principally as a clarifying
agent in the refining of crude oils.


Florida is the chief producer of fullers earth in the United
States. The deposits being worked are those of Gadsden County
in northern Florida, and of Manatee County in southern Florida,
the earth being found at both localities in the Alum Bluff forma-
tion of Upper Oligocene age. The following companies reported
production of fullers earth in Florida during 1913: The Atlantic
Refining Company, Ellenton; the Floridin Company, Quincy; the
Fullers Earth Company, Midway. In addition to these the Mana-
tee Fullers Earth Company, Ellenton, is reported as expecting to
operate during 1914.
The total production of fullers earth in the United States
during 1913 was 38,594 short tons, valued at $369,750, being an
increase both in quantity and value over that of the preceding
year*. In addition to that produced, there was imported into
the United States during the year ending June 30,1913,16,866.16
tons, of which 1,597 tons valued at $10,359 were unmanufactured
or unground, while 15,269.16 tons valued at $135,229 were manu-
factured or ground. These importations were under the old rate
of duty, which was $1.50 per ton for the unmanufactured earth,
and $3.00 per ton for the manufactured product. During the
last half of 1913, July I to December 31, under the new tariff
rates, which are for unmanufactured earth 75 cents per ton, and
for manufactured $1.50 per ton, there was imported 974 tons un-
manufactured valued at $7,660 and 7,613 tons manufactured earth
valued at $68,558. These valuations are based on the wholesale
price of the product at the port of origin. The actual cost to the
consumer includes freight and commission in addition. The ex-
ports of fullers earth from the United States cannot be determined
owing to the fact that this product is not listed separate from
other clays.

*The Production of Fullers Earth in 1913, by Jefferson Middleton. Mineral
Resources of the United States, Calendar Year, 1913. Pt. II, p. III, 1914.


Tili fullers earth used in clarifying mineral oils, which includes
bv t:ir the greater part of that produced in America, is sold at
the ,ilne, ground, bolted and sacked for shipment at about $9.50
rr tc.ni That used for refining vegetable oils brings a somewhat
higher price, although more expense is incurred in handling, since
the earth must be ground finer for vegetable than for mineral oil.

Fig. 5.-Fullers earth plant at Quincy, Gadsden County.

Fig. 6.-Fullers earth plant at Ellenton, Manatee County.



Lime or "quick lime' is chemically an oxide of calcium or
calcium and magnesium.' It is formed ordinarily by burning lime-
stone, although shells and other calcium carbonates may be used
for the same purpose. Limestone when burned gives up carbon
dioxide. The residue after burning forming a lime, consists of a
calcium oxide, when a pure calcium carbonate limestone is used;
or of calcium and magnesium oxide when a dolomitic limestone is
used. The reaction in the case of a pure limestone is as follows:
CaCO3 when heated breaks up into CaO+CO-. In the case
of dolomitic limestone a magnesium oxide as well as calcium
oxide is formed.
The character of the lime varies according to the amount
of magnesium present in the limestone from which it is made.
Peppel* offers the following classification of the ordinary or
"white limes", including in that term limes containing not more
than 5 per cent of sandy and clayey impurities:
(1) High-calcium, or "hot" or "quick" limes. Made from limestones
containing not less than 85 per cent. of carbonate of calcium.
(2) Magnesium limes. Made from limestone containing between sixty-
five and eighty-five per cent. carbonate of calcium and between ten and thirty
per cent. of carbonate of magnesium.
(3) Dolomitic, or "cool" or "slow" limes. Made from limestone con-
taining more than thirty per cent. of carbonate of magnesium.

These limes differ slightly among themselves. The high cal-
cium or "hot" or "quick" limes set more quickly, while the mag-
nesium and dolomitic limes set more slowly. Limes thus serve
different purposes, the high calcium limes being used when a quick-
setting lime is desired, while the other limes are used when slow-
setting limes are desired. After calcination, the lime may be
placed on the market as quick lime, or it may be slaked and placed
on the market as hydrated lime. Hydrated lime is said to be desir-
able for certain purposes since the lime if properly slaked breaks
up into exceedingly fine powder.
The total quantity of quick and hydrated lime made in Florida
during 1913 amounted to 18,917 tons, valued at $100,335. The
companies reporting production of lime in Florida during 1913
were as follows:

*Bulletin No. 4, 4th Series, Ohio Geol. Survey, p 254, 1906.


i'l.:.ri.l Li .. .: .C : pii 'i .,, O cala, Florida.
Ll,. I'..-I Lii.~ :o- Cionmpany, Live Oak, Florida.
r.l rl.:. Lir.- C..llii .-ii.', Ocala, Florida.
S'tailjr. Lirrr LC:.ri.p. ny, Kendrick, Florida.

In :d.Jtioi:n t:. these, the Virginia-Florida Lime Company, and
tlt,: hl:.\er Liie and Phosphate Company, organized during 1913,
iV-r.e ,c.l.::t.l rt.: Legin operations during 1914.
Th,-: f.,l]lo:. in, account of the uses of lime, together with com-
me11nts .-.n Ii ,.l:drtired lime, is taken from an article on Lime by Ernest
F. Eurch-l-r. in ilineral Industry for the Calendar year 1911, pt. II,
pp. .'40-'1;-5 [1 .I 2.

F .. ilin.ril !r.:.lucts have so wide a variety of uses as lime. Nearly
l-if il.- Ini, n,,iiiii factured in the United States is used as a structural
ni T.ri:,l. :..J ilth r-rnainder, amounting to about 1,750,ooo tons, valued at
:,t...,nt i..:,-,.-..-,i-.:. :: :onsumed in chemical uses. The principal uses "which
Iin- lii: i in l..l.ljin operations are in lime mortars and plasters, in gaging
F.:.rrl. ii. .-..iii. I :,,:.rtars, concrete, and gypsum plasters, and as a white-
i- r:.:.ih .i..:1. :,id hydrated lime are used in building operations.

Th, .hltn.i.- l i'.:'i;, of lime are much more varied than the uses of lime
in t..1i.,- '. .iiTiunml.er of the industries that are large users of lime are
litidJ I. l.:... i.::;ilI:r with the special purposes served by lime in each industry
*,irl thi- I i.-J ..f I in,- most suitable to such purposes.


I l I'll "r, :nIrI ct, m t
.: "il r, c" ,r .J C, in.
.< : *J full- .1.:.j .:, m .

:.I-irl-, .- ..t bleaching powder, "Chloride of lime," c.
TIl.: ,i'l',n; jt,.. renovating of rags, Jute, ramine, and various paper stocks,

i.lj ili,.:f ire .:-f -oda, potash, and ammonia, c.

.Iinii i. i f:Ir- r .: ,rm onia, c.
Il' n'l:-rilire ,:.f .alcium carbide, calcium cyanimid, and calcium nitrate,c.
.1 inr a.- r ,, r..:itassium dichromate and sodium dichromate, c.
.ari.,i, acit,-..- .:. fertilizers, c, m .
LI..1 n l'id..-.,e .:. iiignesia, m .
I l;iiufjti.iur f: .:,t etate of lime, c.
-rifii. t',ct re .-.- ,.ood alcohol, c.
1I1'. aiii .-i r. .:.f hone ash, c, m .

'*i..te ,- il.,: i.trt played by lime in these industries are given in Cir-
I. ,lr tIi.. ';. .i I.- Cureau of Standards, 1911, pp. 13-21.
T Hil- .-ale.-i..i lime is indicated by "c," magnesium and dolomitic lime
I, **n"


Manufacture of calcium carbides, c.
Manufacture of calcium-light pencils, c.
In refining mercury, c.
In dehydrating alcohol, c.
In distillation of wood, c.
Gas manufacture:
Purification of coal gas and water gas, c, nl.
Glass manufacture:
Most varieties of glass and glazes, c,
Milling industry:
Clarifying grain, c, m.
Miscellaneous manufactures:
Rubber, c, m.
Glue, c, m.
Pottery and porcelain, c,m.
Dyeing fabrics, c, m.
Polishing material, c, m.
Oil, fat, and soap manufacture:
Manufacture of soap, c.
Manufacture of glycerine, c.
Manufacture of candles, c.
Renovating fats, greases, tallow, butter, c, m.
Removing the acidity of oils and petroleum, c, m.
Lubricating greases, c, m.
Paint and varnish manufacture:
Cold-water paint, c, m.
Refining linseed oil, c, m.
Manufacture of linoleum, c, m.
Manufacture of varnish, c, m.
Paper industry:
Soda method, c.
Sulphite method, m.
For strawboard, c, m.
As a filler, c, m.
Preserving industry:
Preserving eggs, c.
As a disinfectant and deodorizer, c.
Purification of water for cities, c
Purification of sewage, c.
Smelting industry:
Reduction of iron ores, c, m.
Sugar manufacture:
Beet root, c.
Molasses, c.
Tanning industry:
Tanning cowhides, c.
Tanning goat and kid hides, c, m.
Water softening and purifying, c.


Definition.-When quicklime is slaked, by whatever process, whether in
the simple mortar box by adding water by the bucketful and stirring with
a hoe, or whether the lime and water are automatically weighed out in definite
parts and the mass is stirred by machinery, the chemical principle involved is
the same, viz., quicklime plus water becomes slaked lime, or hydrated lime-

CaO +-20=Ca(OH)2.


or, if the limestone used for making quicklime contains magnesia, the follow.
ing equation is appropriate: Magnesian quicklime plus water becomes slaked
or hydrated magnesian lime-


Commercially the term "hydrated lime" is restricted to the dry powder
prepared by treating quicklime with just enough water to combine with all
the calcium oxide present. In the preparation of hydrated lime two materials
only are used-fresh caustic lime and water. The general method of prep-
aration is first to reduce the lumps of lime by crushing to about %-inch size.
In some plants this reduction is carried further by grinding,the lime to
about the fineness of granulated sugar. The crushed or granulated lime is
then treated with sufficient water to combine chemically with the calcium
oxide in the lime, care being taken that the quantity is neither too little to
satisfy the chemical requirements nor so great as to leave the hydrated mass
wet or even damp. In practice, an excess of water is used, but this excess
is driven off by the heat generated in the slaking or hydrating of the lime.
The object of crushing the product is to produce a larger surface for the
action of the water, and, moreover, large lumps would be rather unwieldy
in the hydrater. The lime comes from the hydrater as a fine, dry powder,
which must be screened to remove any coarse or overburned lime that would
not slake. From the screens it goes to the storage bin, where, if the
capacity is available, it is at some plants allowed to age for 30 days. Finally,
the product is fed into bags for shipment. The equipment of the hydrating
plant generally includes two elevators, one to take the lime from the crusher
to the bin over the hydrater and one to take the hydrated lime from the
hydrater to the storage bin. Most mills include, also, a machine for grinding
h, i:..-.r:ize from the screens. This material consists of unburned stone,
.. trbturn,.d lime, lime which is not fully hydrated, and even pieces of brick
fr..-m th..- kilns, and coal ashes. When ground, the tailings may be sold for
1..rtil-.cr The methods of manufacture most extensively employed in this
,:...urtr.: re the batch process, the continuous process, and modifications of
Illi: iv.-.: processes.


In addition to that used in making lime, limestone is produced
in Fl..,rida for other purposes as follows: Broken limestone used
f,.,r railroad ballast, concrete and road material, and ground lime-
-none f,.,r application to soils. A limited amount of limestone
v as probably also used in building, although not reported. The
quantity of limestone produced for the various purposes men-
tionied are as follows: Railroad ballast, 93,750 tons, valued at
S3.5,u-'o: concrete, 123,506 tons, valued at $72,432; road material,
rock valued d at $156,589; ground for application to soils, 16,908
tcns. the total production amounting to $156,589.oo.
Th, following is a list of firms reporting the production of
limentune in Florida during 1913:


Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala, Florida.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River, Florida.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala, Florida.
Marion Lime Company, Ocala, Florida.
E. P. Maule, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach, Florida.
Standard Lime Company, Kendrick, Florida.


The building stone of the State consists chiefly of limestones,
of which several varieties occur.
Coquina:-The coquina rock of Anastasia Island near St.
Augustine has been known as a building stone for more than three
hundred years. This coquina was in fact the first stone used for
building purposes in America, its use having begun with the settle-
ment of St. Augustine about 1565. Coquina consists of a mass of
shells of varying size or fragments of shells cemented together
ordinarily by calcium carbonate. A small admixture of sand is
in some instances included with the shells. When first exposed the
mass of shells is imperfectly cemented and the rock is readily cut
into blocks of the desired size. Upon exposure, however, the
moisture contained in the interstices of the rock evaporates and in
doing so deposits the calcium carbonate which it held in solution,
thus firmly cementing the shell mass into a firm rock. Thus indu-
rated the resisting qualities of the rock are good. The shells from
this formation have been extensively used with concrete in the con-
struction of modern buildings at St. Augustine. Aside from its
occurrence on Anastasia Island coquina is found at many other
points along both the east and the west side of the peninsula.
Vicksburg Limestone:-The Vicksburg limestone has been used
to some extent for building purposes. This is true especially of
that phase of the Vicksburg known as the "chimney rock" de-
scribed in the preceding reports as the Marianna and the Peninsular
limestones. The chimney rock when first taken from the ground is
very soft and can be easily sawed into blocks. Upon exposure to
the air it hardens, due, as in the case of the coquina, to the evap-
oration of moisture'from the interstices of the rock. The chimney
rock was early used both in Alabama and Florida for the construc-
tion of chimneys and to some extent for building purposes.
Locally the Vicksburg and some of the other limestones in Flor-

Ml[NI .I L INDiJSTRirES-LIMl: .\NLi L L LSi 0: r.

iJia bec':'iivery cl'-: '2raineiJ andJ i'iipact. In tili- :o'iJ.diti'ii tihe
inCmesr:-iii: is li' ,rd. al.'lp- ,':h..11m i'aiL file in aipp,:. rance:. .-'ithlil. gli
littli- uSel thi; plh:rc e .A til: ]ni<- i .,, f-Irmai l iI i T, c :ipa ile. r-
,Jt-'ir:' : ut ',':, .J bu iil x rsttl,' tin l.i
.1,ih .ii O ,,. ii' i:- The M inin ,'.)]irl,']iI: hn _' "le ha~: l-,,:n t. u :e.J "u.tc-
H:e ilti'tll an a; l-il ini': _tL-, i i at \iii. an "i hIn f,:,,ni t..:in ,- tel.tJt i

thi- rc.k.
Ti-e liim-:ti:ne I -.f ti-: EvI c r.ilai e -.t f Fl,:,ri a -,.rtiiut i r'-i .:-
-soui e that ill ei'.'m valti.iim bl.- that t:ti.:.n .:f thlc I'at: i
, ,l,, r- ,'.p .,j In tl-:i c, ,,cti,,r, m av; 1.,,- ir,, .:|:l -a bri<-f -,l .,o er ,:,n
th,: gec ..*,I,, .-f thiI iitrc.tin..- r .:., ,T, prr,,p ,,t!i._inall, i,:,r the

S tate D raini.1 C .:.ni',ii i i.,n. i, w.*.hich i-_ ir, .:lu. -., ,le >: ip[,ri,:,nl
an'l anal -_e_ i'i th,. tcv:ra1] lii-:_t:.,n-les that air fi.iii niii, t, lc ir.ii "
t le !'E l'r l'., l III -rl.:i ,l. th0 0.- a-ni i ati., ,li:,!" thf e -[-,,* .;* _r.' -
-i'i.]n'z tlt C:ai-al anmi ii Lal,- -)kecc!i:,i.,hee, MIay I, t.. 2;. 1,14. f
.n- [illI :u ll *l ` 1 :. < l r l.'.- .e, S t t!,.,: il rit,-r'_- ,-Ji- :I, l thl ,:,i '.I tl,,l |
:: rtr-:, if tite Clhi'-f EnLuinecr ,-,f rth' Stat- Diraina,- C':.mnoi-i i,:n.


Thi- .*l,'.'.,pllietl:- t- hat are no': in prr fi r t: 11",1 i pirtii:ula-i rl,
the t::tcl:i- e:xcavati':n that ar- being. ma.i: in C'illinn-tii ,. L itli
i.Irai ia .'e .,ip.rati.:.r;_n are rapiil,!l ,,-,iening u!-, i .,- irri t ,i.], ini
Si,,tinlth -rn F l,:,ri.li. af:t',:,r,'ini tli: r '" r" ,rtp nll ,,tt :if inn :i -,- inip,.it'ant
adlitini ri-, ,i ur liii'.'.I -e :.,f ti lc ",i,- ii. i :' f that part ,f tih
Stat-. Tlh ,- canal: frl-i'ii thlc C'l.'-..* iihat:,ic c Ri'. r ,on the i.',*t.
thr'ir.-ih I ak, il: OlI.::i-icihee. alnl. tli-;:,ei tlihriiil tlhe E.erh..ies t ri
Ne'v Ri.cr :-iii,.l im i ,,n tie l .-ca t Cri,.e almi..r t c'lilp l.tte ":p ,i:.l re:.
,:,f the. -tieCrl in.:. f.ri atin 'i-." -,-_ tl:- E '.cr.Il c~. tlh: ,.e,- l o,:,v
'it \'. hi l- i until r.-:i:.ciitly pr.[ a ti-calv nil.,-.i '. Iii fact lie -.-c .-
lo5 ii: ,. :,seriatins pI ti'. ,:,ii.-li nia. i r. Ccr ,, ..-F i ,h.,1 :i tlir b ri c : r
:fI tihe E,. ,-er;..lad,,- s ,:, ti:, the b :it s .-. f tih- -tr,:t:im lea-iiin.- out .t.
tiih east. nilthl anlJ 'ct.
.\n'urp. tvle',: ri-l .-b.rr. liou ",'r !-e tl,..... :f E:luclinhl l.:T


Smith, who in 1847 examined the oolitic limestone in the vicinity
of Miami and along the Miami River. Thi locality was subse-
quently visited by Agassiz, Tuomey and others of the early geolo-
gists, and the age of the rocks correctly determined as Pleistocene.
The limestones bordering the Everglades west of Palm Beach and
at the extreme southern end of the peninsula were examined in
1908 by Samuel Sanford, supplementing similar investigations made
in 1887 by Joseph Wilcox, and together with the rocks found west
of Palm Beach, were described in the Second Annual Report of
the Florida Geological Survey. The limestone west of Palm Beach
was there designated as the Palm Beach Limestone, while that
found bordering the Gulf coast at the southern end of the Ever-
glades was named the Lostman's River Limestone.
On the west side of the Everglades along the Caloosahatchee
River there is found a shell marl formation of Pliocene age first
described in 1887 by Angelo Heilprin and known as the Caloosa-
hatchee marl. This marl, remarkable for the number, size and
excellent preservation of the fossil shells which it contains, dis-
appears from view beneath later formations at Fort Thompson
near the head of the Caloosahatchee River.
The formations lying above the Caloosahatchee marl at Fort
Thompson consists of hard and soft limestones, shell and clay
marls. The principal limestone seen at this locality is a hard
almost flinty rock containing an abundance of the fresh-water
snail, Planorbis. Both above and below this limestone stratum,
are shell marls, some of which are of fresh-water and some of
marine origin. The most persistent of these marls is a shell
stratum resting directly upon the limestone and having a thickness
of about two feet. The predominating fossil in this stratum, the
small Chione cancellata, is a species which prefers shallow water,
frequently living between low and high tide. Above this marine
shell marl is a fresh-water clayey marl which contains an abundance
of the remains of the pond snails. These deposits in which marine
marls alternate with fresh-water marls and limestones indicate
that at the time of their formation this part of Florida was being
gradually elevated above sea. The elevation of the land area as
is usual in such cases, progressed slowly with minor fluctuations,
permitting the formation of fresh and brackish water lagoons, in
which the fresh-water marls accumulated, then by a minor subsi-


dencte tilh ocean waters were allowed once more to come in, the
marine shell marls being deposited during this time. The general
uIp..vard movement, however, continued, the whole area being
rinall'v lifted to its present height of from o1 to 20 feet above sea
Ic, el
Tli-1 exposure at Fort Thompson affords the key to the study
o:f the formations extending to the east and underlying the Ever-
-linaJ-. in which the limestones and marls of this type are widely
di-triluted. In following up the canal from Fort Thompson these
linmest:one' and marls are seen in the canal banks for a mile or so
\heie all except the upper freshwater marl drop below water
level. That they are still present, however, is shown by the quan-
tities .of shells that have been thrown out by the dredge. At Coffee
Mill Hamlmock, about 8 miles above Fort Thompson, a slight fold
or anticline brings the rock to the surface, and for a few miles
the limestone and marl are again seen in place in the banks of the
canal. It is worthy of note also that at this locality the dredge
cuts entirely through the overlying deposits and brings up the Ca-
lo.-asa-hatclee marl from beneath, showing the eastward extent of
that f:,rmation beyond the locality at which it disappears from
\iew in the river bank. Beyond the Coffee Mill Hammock cut.
liimest-one and marls are occasionally reached by the dredge. A
ionsiiderable mass of shells has been taken from the canal just
atbo\-e Citrus Center Landing, while within three miles of Lake
Hicp.-ch,-e a rather heavy limestone comes to the surface.
withinn Lake Okeechobee there is a reef of rock extending in a
general northwest-southeast direction between Observation and
Rita islands. At a point about 5 miles southeast of Observation
Islandl the rock of this reef now stands above water at intervals
for a mile or so, the maximum exposure at the present low water
tragc hlr1ing about two feet. At the surface this limestone is quite
hard, or is streaked in a characteristic manner with alternate hard
anld -.oft layers. Beneath the surface, however, the rock is a rather
s.:oft o.o-litic marl or limestone of granular texture and light yellow
color. The hard phase of this limestone is much like the lime-
sto:ie f:.und in the canal three miles west of Lake Hicpochee, while
i thin stratum of a similar limestone is found near the surface at
Coffee Mill Hammock. A few pieces of the marl phase of this


limestone seem 'also to have been brought up from the lake at the
entrance of the north New River canal.
The following analysis of a composite sample of the hard and
soft phases of this limestone, as well as the other analyses given
in this paper, was made by the State Chemist from samples taken
for the purpose by the writer. The rock in Lake Okeechobee, as
is seen from this analysis, is slightly phosphatic, this being the
only phosphatic limestone as yet reported from the Everglades.

Analysis of Limestone from Lake Okeechobee.
Per cent
Calcium Oxide, 42.76%, equivalent to Calcium Carbonate .................76.37
Magnesium Oxide, 0.35%, equivalent to Magnesium Carbonate ........... 0.70
Phosphoric Acid, o.85%, equivalent to Tricalcium Phosphate ............. 1.85
Insoluble matter, silica, etc................... ....... .... ........... 21.14

From the canals leading out of Lake Okeechobee to the south
and southeast for a distance of about 25 miles very little rock has
as yet been removed. Such fragments as are seen along the canals,
however, represent very hard compact fresh-water limestones. On
the North New River canal dredging of the heavy limestone begins
about 26 miles from Lake Okeechobee. The rock cut through on
this part of the canal consists of a very hard, compact, close-
grained limestone which breaks with a sharp fracture and will
evidently make valuable concrete material. The same limestone
is cut into on the South Canal at 24 miles from the lake. The very
hard phase of this rock is a fresh-water limestone. As found on
the banks of the canal, however, marine and fresh-water limestones
and marls are intermixed, indicating that here as elsewhere the
formation includes alternating fresh-water and marine deposits.
While the shallow-water shell, Chione cancellata, occurs here as at
Coffee Mill Hammock, the predominating fossil in the Everglades
is the estuarine and shallow-water form, Rangia cuneata, together
with corals and other forms that inhabit shallow marine water.
Pieces of this hard limestone are found on the North New River
canal as far as 42 miles from the Lake, although for the last three or
four miles of this distance the heavy limestone stratum gives
place largely to marls.
The following is an analysis of a sample of this rock from the
South New River canal, 25 miles south of Lake Okeechobee.


Analysis of limestone from 25 miles south of Lake Okeechobee.
Per cent.
Calcium oxide, 44.68%, equivalent to calcium carbonate.................. 79.80
Magnesium oxide, o.38%, equivalent to magnesium carbonate............ 0.76
F ...l-i.:. acid ................... .............. ............trace
Il .:,il i. silica, etc. ............ .... .................. ... ..... ...1. 77.90

.'Ail-iher limestone, seen on the North New River canal, is
c:ut Ilt: by the dredge at a distance of about 42 to 52 miles from
Lal.: Olkeechobee. This limestone is granular and more or less
.:ti ll t/i oolitic in structure and is not so hard as that seen nearer
the Lal:e. The surface of this rock becomes very rough on ex-
I..:sur.., presenting a characteristic matted appearance. This rock
is secn in the canal to within 9 miles of Fort Lauderdale (52 miles
fri ., Lake Okeechobee).
Tl-h following is an analysis of a sample of this rock from the
N'i.-itl, :Tew River canal, 13 miles from Fort Lauderdale.

Analysis of limestone from the North New River Canal.
Per cent.
, I.: ,l'' .. xide, 39.88% equivalent to calcium carbonate.................... 71.23
Ml-,'l;.iln n oxide, 0.20%, equivalent to magnesium carbonate ............. 0.40
Fl.:. :.r c acid ..................................... .. ............. trace
Ili-.:.li1:.l silica, etc ................. ........ .. .............. 26.56

L.ing upon this limestone is a. stratum of sand which was cut
,':r.-- in this canal for about 3 miles, or from 52 to 55 miles from
L:dkc lOkeechobee (9 to 6 miles from Fort Lauderdale), where it
i:ass- beneath the Miami oolitic limestone. This latter formation,
the Miami oolite, coming in. on this canal just above the dock
.:-:t. n.lI east to the Atlantic Ocean. The following analysis was
ma.lc from a sample of this rock from the North New River canal,
Sriiilz. from Fort Lauderdale.

Analysis of Miami Oolitic Limestone.
Per cent.
'7'ii: hlm -.xide, 42.40%, equivalent to magnesium carbonate .............. 75.73
1M i-i,,:-min oxide, o.o9%. equivalent to magnesium carbonate............. o.18
F' [.lh..r.c acid ...................................... ............... trace
In,-. :.lilc. silica, etc.................................................... 23.oo

A ord as to the substructure of the Everglades is of impor-
.taniic in this connection since from the underlying formations
nimust bI obtained the water supply so necessary to the development
.:tf tlh country. As already indicated the Pliocene deposits seen


un the Caloosahatchee River probably extend beneath the Ever-
glades to the east. The next older deposits, the Miocene, since they
are found exposed along the eastern flank of northern Florida and
are believed to have been recognized in deep well drilling on the
Atlantic coast, are likewise to be expected underlying southern
Florida. The Oligocene deposits, which are yet older than the
Miocene, and are extensively exposed to the north and west, may
confidently be expected underlying the Elverglades, although at a
considerable depth. The older of the Oligocene formations, the
Vicksburg limestone, has in fact been recognized in well drilling
west, east and south of the Everglades. At Fort Meade, about
too miles northwest of Lake Okeechobee, the Vicksburg limestone
lies at a depth of 410 feet; at Palm Beach on the east, it is found
at about 900 feet from the surface, while at Key West, about 100oo
miles southwest of the Everglades, this formation is buried to a
depth of 700 feet. The Vicksburg limestone in particular is men-
tioned as it is the great water reservoir of the State, from which
most of the large wells of peninsular Florida draw their supply.
While its depth within the Everglades has not yet been deter-
mined, it is sure 'to be found there, and when drilled into it may
confidently be expected to supply the abundant flow of water that
is obtained from it elsewhere in the State.
From the account that has been given it will be seen that the
formations of the Everglades consist of limestones, marls and sand
strata, which in general dip to the east. It will also be seen that
the surface limestones present considerable variation among them-
selves and are well suited to the general uses of a rapidly devel-
oping country, while from the deeper formations will be obtained
an abundant water supply for domestic and industrial purposes.

Sands, either siliceous or calcareous, suitable for mortar, occur
in practically all parts of Florida. The size of the sand grains has
a bearing on its qualities as a mortar sand. Coarse sand has a
smaller surface area in proportion to volume than has fine sand.
In order to obtain the best results each grain of sand in a mortar
should be thoroughly coated with cement, and it appears prob-
able that the coarse sand owing to its smaller proportion of sur-


1 2


O a r


% 2o ,c2

a(Io cC

5 6
0 0 Co

-3 times nature size
4 3 4n l

I I 4 1-3 times natural size.


face area becomes better coated than a fine sand. While a coarse
sand is preferable to a fine sand, for certain purposes it may be
desirable to have a niixture of coarse and fine grains. The cement
used in the mortar must be sufficient to completely fill all voids
existing in the sand. The relative proportion of voids may be
reduced by the use of a mixture of coarse and fine sands. Such a
mixture of sands permits. the use of a relatively smaller amount of
cement, and is apparently without detriment to the resulting mor-
tar. Sand is used along with lime in the manufacture of sand-lime
brick; and with cement in the preparation of artificial stone or build-
ing blocks.
The sands most frequently used for mortar are siliceous. It
appears, however, from various tests that calcareous sands are in
no way inferior.* In addition to the natural sands ground rock
may also be used. A small amount of clay, not exceeding eight
per cent, is said not to weaken the cement. The presence of humus
or peaty matter, or an excess of clay as well as mineral particles
of any kind subject to decay, must be guarded against.
The accompanying illustrations show the prevailing shape of
the sand grains from a number of localities in Florida. The rela-
tive size of the sand grains is also indicated, all of the illustrations
having been drawn to the same scale.


The materials in Florida suitable for concrete consist chiefly
of shell deposits and some compact limestones and of flint rock
which may be crushed for the purpose.
Shell deposits, both recent and fossil, are numerous in the State.
The use of shell from the coquina rock for building purposes has
already been mentioned. Among notable buildings from these shells
may be mentioned the Ponce de Leon hotel at St. Augustine. The
calcareous shell mass as found at this locality may contain a small
admixture of siliceous sand blown in by the winds. Recent shell
deposits occur at many places along both the Atlantic and the Gulf
coasts. Shell mounds piled up by the Indians are likewise numerous
on and near the coast. Some occur inland also, those of the St.
Johns River from Jacksonville to Sanford being notable examples.

*Sabin, Cement and Concrete, p. 170. 1907.

Fig. 8.-Vicksburg Limestone, Ocala phase. in lime pit at Ocala.


Fig. 9.--View in the pit of the Keystone Brick Company, Whitney, Lake

Fig. Io.-View in the pit of the Clay County Steam Brick Company,
Green Cove Springs.

Fig. I.-Plant of the McMillan Brick Company, Molino, Escambia County.

'r ~
~f~~~~r ~~;1 c ~ -~;~n
"- :r~S: ~
1;~7~711~;~r. r`
4.-~Y~: :'r? ~
LF~a ~y-'7: -1;-'`' ~
i3r --~ ~*6r;-
~ i~e~L~r~

- -;r- *


Fig. 12.-Vicksburg limestone, Marianna phase, Jackson County.

Fig. 13.-Miami oolitic limestone, Miami, Dade County.

Fig. 14.-Limestone exposure showing a mild fold in the strata, at Ft.
Thompson, Lee County.


-F~-~-7? -
L1C~; :n

r IC~

I~ U
I' L~ (

r~'' '''';

'I ''

fsli J ~
,~ ~i
r M -- .
~' rs~~
_r I 'I



,, -~i~

Fig. 15.-Limestone in Lake Okeechobee between Observation and Rita
Islands. Exposed ot low nater. Concretionary phase.

Fig 6.1 -Limestoin, in the Everglades. On North New River Canal .30'o
miles from Lake )Okeechohee.

Fig. 17.-Exposure of the Clattahoochee formation in cut of the Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad near River Junction.



Fig. 1.--Exposure of fresh-water limestone at Ft. Thompson.


L|,.,-it: L tCi'.'.:-il :liells are likewise numerous, although as a rule
I c: i reiC iii.onli i l,,irities than are the accumulations of recent

..iI.a.lclt i.tn hard limestones are found at many localities in
ri n. -t:l,.. *.l ,li .i Iein crushed afford desirable material for con-
:t. .-'.: .t,.,.j i. ider "Building Stone" local areas of compact
1*,.I '.'I l.- .. : iaill '_d rock are found within the Vicksburg lime-
.c ti,.'L iL,.,iii. Iich lies near the surface over much of central
i.I'I. ThI. Cli'.thoochee formation likewise has compact lime-
i.,'-r *irI. r i. llJ rli: rock of this formation is being mined at Live
i 'lic iii-.-l'-itnes of the Everglades which include strata that
SII -er ..'.:II.llii.Tv- for concrete have already been described.
Flit i. chii.:l 'c illy an oxide of silicon (Si02), with more or
le :- a ...i;.i'. ii, impurities. It is a variety of the mineral quartz.
...:,' Ii ,. i:,i i :' e :.nd non-crystallized or more accurately very im-
'. rti',:rlt 1 i:1.:,IIl.',1 (cryptocrystalline). The term chert is often
n:,1 irr,:lirne'.il with flint. Properly chert is an impure flint
*..r Hin', ro:; Flint and chert are lacking in cleavage. They
i.r11r.i ', 'I1 rh: ',-tlirr varieties of quartz, with conchoidal fracture.
. ,lit r.:,.: : i-i crushed breaks into sharp-cornered pieces of
, .11 II; 1
-,p. ..'. .. i'll. mineral quartz, of which flint is a variety,
ii-t. I hr.i :.:~ '.,-f even on a scale in which, the hardest mineral,
'i'.m'i'.i. '. .n The varieties of quartz vary in hardness slightly
i.:-rdii, t., rlii: ii ,purities that they contain. Silica is one of
i.Li: ,i:l.lrcl ii*.-'i-luble minerals and is very resistant to decay.
'.. .:',..'. t Flint and Chert in Florida:-Flint and chert
*:,c:i.r m : rl'. :i: n-3 3ses or horsebackk" in the limestone forma-
r.. A .-. ,..:,1 liliutration of the manner of occurrence may be
-ic iIn [,l,..,['l:ire pits or in some of the pits of the Florida Lime
':..r t'il Iin some of the sinks on Thompson's farm two
ilt ._-i. .:if o uS.iir.rville can be seen flint masses exposed by the
iiiu' .:lc.:- :I i~ic limestone. The flint masses appear to con-
f i **i 1 [: n.,: rile 3: to size and extent. They may form ridges
Snirr1- ri-i. '.uh tliH.- limestone; or again they may occur as rounded
'i n Io:"ir' Ti:i Occasionally the flint forms as a thin stratum
:, ir, -'ri'-o'i'ill This flint-bearing limestone lies at no great
lil:tin:li; ftro:ii m i'l. surface throughout all of the central peninsular
eiri,:,ii *-f llthe .t ricr from Columbia County on the north to Sum-


ter County on the south and from the Suwanee River and the Gult
coast to eastern Alachua and Marion Counties. Much of the harJ
rock phosphate rests upon and in this flint-bearing limestone, and
from the phosphate pits great quantities of the flint may be ob-
tained. Occasional flint hills such as that near Evinston and Mic-
anopy stand out as evidence of the resistance of flint to the weather-
ing agencies, the surrounding limestone having disappeared
through erosion. This flint lies chiefly within the Vicksburg lime-
stones. It is not to be inferred, however, that no other Florida
formations contain silica. 'On the contrary, many of the forma-
tions are highly siliceous. The Vicksburg limestones are, how-
ever, the chief flint-bearing formations of Florida.

Fig. 19.-Exposure of Caloosahatchee marl.

The production of both sand and concrete is necessarily inade-
quately reported owing to the large number of small and occasional
The following is a list of the companies -in Florida that have
reported the production of sand for building purposes or crushed
rock for concrete during 1913:

Blowers Lime and Phosphate Company, Ocala.
Crystal River Rock Company, Crystal River.
Florida Crushed Rock Company, Monthrook.
Lake Wier Sand Company, Lake Wier.
E. P. Maule, Fort Lauderdale.
Woodman & Company, Ocala.



Tl-h. i ii..,':ttions of the peat deposits of the State made dur-
In. ii, ii~,' i .nld 1910, by the State Geological Survey in co-oper-
,iri.- i 1t Ith r I United States Geological Survey, not only demon-
:t-., i-d lini .'::iL. sive peat deposits are widely distributed through-
*.u11. 1Ith. s.tai.:. bu also showed that the fuel value of the Florida peat
- -11 ipi. t'.: ti,. average of that of other countries. The original
, |i,._,. .: rlib.: i,..t deposits of the State was published in the Third
,1l0.iil r;-p[..l'r of the State Geological Survey,* from which is
ial:i tli-I f.Ill... -ing table of analyses of Florida peats together
v itlh ihe e..:pl.in.tion of the samples and comments on the analyses.
Tih .:i.nl- pl:int mining peat in Florida at present is that of the
R:nr l.: Hilii: Company. Pablo Beach.

i,~ _-, i".a1 prairie covering several hundred acres (locality No. -.1),
al.-.,t a mile northwest of Haines City, Polk County.

TiV: iiihi,-.l.r-..J able shows the percentage of water, mineral matter, vol-
-irl.:- ..., .li l.l_ ratter, fixed carbon, sulphur, and (in a few cases) nitro-
P,.r-. in-,1 till- lil ..ilue, of the samples of Florida peat collected by the writer
, i..s:.'-iti- i,-,l analyzed in the peat laboratory of the U. S. Geological
u-!. ar l-'t I,:i.tr;.li, Pa., mostly under the direction of Dr. F. M. Stanton.
ii t1h.- ilrtirrLb-r assigned to each sample the figures before the decimal
i-. .,-in ii.. r t. l.,. consecutive e number of the locality, the first figure after
hib: .1:.-ni:iI r..*'Ir hie number of the hole from which the sample was taken,
iij rl.: 1,: I.- ii. the number of the sample from that hole. In most cases

'r-l ti, iar Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida, by Roland M.
i rr.,:,



2.12 Leon
4.11 Lake
6.11 Duval
7.11 Santa Ros:
8.11 Putnam
11.11 Osceola
12.11 Polk
16.11 Hernando
17.11 Citrus
1S.11 Lake
20.11 Hernando
21.11 DeSoto
22.11 Lake
24.11 Dade
29.11 Lake
30.11 Manatee
31.11 Sumter
34.11 Lake
36.11 Franklin
39.11 Walton
41.11 Polk
42.11 Madison


Gum swamp 5 miles W.N.W. of Tallahassee --
Gum swamp 5 miles W.N.\. of Tallahassee --
Peat prairie 3 miles east of Tavares------ 1
Do. ("infusorial earth" bog) _---
Confluence of Davis and Julington Creeks------ 1
Do. Dry lump from bank of canal--
Blackwater River swamp near Milton---
Blackwater River swamp near Milton -------
River swamp 1 m. S. of Palatka, near water -
Same, about half-way back to dry land ------
Drained prairie bordering lake near Ashton --
Small lake near Florence Villa ---------
Bog or peat prairie bordering Lake Marianna_
Bog or peat prairie bordering Lake Marianna-_
Slash-pine bog 2 miles west of Auburndale .---
Prairie bordering Lake Bony, E. of Lareland-
Withlacoochee River swamp near Istachatta--
Margin of L. Tsala Apopka, near Inverness --
Saw-grass marsh on L. Harris, near Eldorado_
[Saw-grass marsh on L. Harris, near Eldorado-
Saw-grass marsh on L. Griffin, near Leesburg_
Saw-grass marsh on L. Griffin, near Leesburg_
Do. Dry lump from bank of canal----
Shallow basin in Choocochattee Prairie -----
Non-alluvial swamp near Nocatee -_----
Small grassy lake near West Apopka ---
Marshes at west end of Lake Dora .. --
SMarshes at west end of Lake Dora---- --
Gator-hole in Everglades, near Paradise Key_-
Marly Everglades soil, near same place ---
Everglades, near head of Miami River -. --
Marshes of Miami R. about 2 m. from its mouth
Everglades 9 or 10 m. N.W. of Ft. Lauderdale_
Small peat prairie near Clermont -------
Small peat prairie near Clermont_-----
Peaty prairie 2 miles S. of Manatee Sta..----
Lake marshes near Panasoffkee ------
Lake marshes near Panasoffkee---------
Bayou in cypress swamp near same place ----
Marshes of Lake Apopka, near Montverde ---
Do. (cultivated in corn) ------
Along Helena Run, west of Lake Harris -----
Tyty bay about 2 miles N.E. of Lanark --- -.
Deep tyty bay about 1 m. N. of Carrabelle ---
Large tyty bay about /. m. N. of Carrabelle --.
Dense tyty swamp just N.W. of DeFuniak Sprs.
Large peat prairie 1 m. N.W. of Haines City -__
Large marshy prairie 5 m. E. of Greenville_---

, -c
a ",

C -
0 --
























.0 0
0 -

t z'
gr .SaS r
.1 .^ 3 fl
-3 +* ^ 0 *


SI:. 4 3 30.4 65.3 .48 2.30 9743 Full of roots and logs, reddish brow
i -' 7 7.529.4 63.1 .24 2.61 9439 5 and rather coarse.
li 1- .7.27.2 54.1 .75 1.95 9025
4 1. 1 .9 24.5 53.6 .68 2.53 48S9
,. 11 I 8 31.8 54.4 2.77 1.89! 9095 Decided sulphurous odor.
- 1 :" 11.4 32.4 56.2 3.13 2.59 9056 Exposed to air 4 or 5 months.
7 11 : 7.7 6.8 13.5 .84 -- 2597 Has sandy streaks.
S : .7.7 11.9 20.4 2.12 -- 2898 Has sandy streaks.
11 I' 5 32.950.62.08 -- 8644
I 4 .938.352.8 .94 _- 9423
11 1 4 I 9 33.9 46.2 .38___ 8456i Rather 'sandy.
I:'l 7 1 ;1.9 24.8 38.3 .28 6361 Shallow and sandy.
i:: 1 71 4234.861.0 .30 _,10424
I. i_ I,.7 32.057.3 .40 -- 9364
S4 1 7.936.255.9 .41 --, 9580
I1 l .:.1 33.463.6' .39 __ 10530
,. 1i r I .5 28.1156.4 .65 ___10,361 Verv coarse and incoherent.
I lI 2 -.4 27.5 60.2 1.00 9331
I'- i 4 I 1.3 17.543.21 .59- 6352 Coarse, odorless.
I- I ".. '.128.6166.3 .29 -_ 9502 Very coarse, little decomposed.
' Ll I :'4.8 16.5 48.7 1.21 !.62 6768 Very coarse, little decomposed.
I .1l2 4 -.2 258 66.0 .37- 9290 Very coarse, light colored.
1I_- 7 --.232.859.0 .60 9391 Long exposed to air.
.' 11 1 .5 13.023.5 .14 -- 3366 Black and sticky, but impure.
21 1 .730.559.8 .30 _- 9414Coarse and full of roots, etc.
:211 -. 4 .7 2' "',rf. .40 --10181 Brown, moderately coarse.
: 11 ,.,-'i 4 .1 2 t 4 2.7 8500
-, .- 1' .231.8 52.0 .41 __ 8935
:14 i ;2 "1.4 13.4 35.2 .24 -_- 4325 Blackish, but very impure.
.1 !i 7 '. .09 -_ 1202 More like marl than peat.
i. 5 '.2 84.5 56.3 .63 __- 9691 Light brown above, blackish below.
1. "... :'.5 26.0 34.5 2.66 --__---Contains streaks of silt or marl.
-' i :.1.931.2 52.9 .42 __ 8269 Rather coarse.
-' 1 1.5 30.7 67.8 .39 -- 10865 Very coarse and pale for peat prairie.
2.332.065.7 .28 -. !",45; Very coarse and pale for peat prairie.
S1 1 2 i.4 16.9 23.7 1.51, -- 42''.
S111 1':.527.159.42.50 -- 9000 1 J Brown, moderately coarse, wi
:.1 1' !I 16 .7 30.2 59.1 2.55 9216 J slight sulphurous odor.
I.,.* *.3:.Ii :. : ,,'_' 4111 Full of logs and shells.
I. l : 14.2. ".: 8635
.4 2 1 7.1...7 -. 8388
.11 I I2.4 .. '- r. I 8109 Full of logs.
':. I 9 4 :- '. 'A 7 .17 104" Black, plastic, retentive of water.
:1 1 4 .3 4.. 4.! 2' .78 1-.. Brown, moderately coarse.
;- 11 111 '. 2 rl : l -i ___ 10512,Brown, moderately coarse.
:;I I ..'' '1 '* ___ 8384 Dark reddish brown, plastic.
1 11 inl] '. .*" i :. 1 : _10402 Brown, fibrous, watery.
S21 I i 1'i :2 .' t.. 7 ___ 10048 Coarse, fibrous, little decomposed.





only one sample from each swamp or bog was taken, on account of the
limited time available. For the same reason nearly half the samples were
dug out by hand from a depth of about a foot. The deeper ones were taken
with a sampling instrument devised by Dr. Chas. A. Davis, consisting of a
number of sections of half-inch iron pipe which could be screwed together,
one of them with a short transverse handle at one end, and a brass cylinder
nearly an inch in diameter and about nine inches long, which could be screwed
to the pipes and pushed down to any desired depth, and then filled with
peat from that depth by an ingenious mechanism. This cylinder had to
be filled a good many times to obtain a sufficient quantity of peat for analysis,
and in practice each sample was made up from several taken from the same
depth within a few feet of each other.
The next column after the name of the locality gives the depth from
which the sample was taken, and the last column on the first page the max-
imum depth of peat found in each deposit. In a few cases where this depth
was given me by other persons the figures are put in parentheses.
The moisture percentage is taken from air-dry samples, and the other
determinations were made after the water was eliminated by heating slightly
above the boiling point (not enough to decompose or volatilize the peat.)
The ash was not analyzed, but it is probably chiefly silica in most cases,
though in the samples from Panasoffkee, Helena Run, and the south end
of the Everglades it must be mostly lime. The reason for determining the
sulphur (which is done more generally for coal than for peat) is that an
excess of it would have a corrosive effect on the iron parts of fire-boxes,
and might also be objectionable if the peat was made into illuminating gas.
The percentage of nitrogen gives some indication of the value of the peat
for agricultural purposes.
The ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (other than water) together
add up to Ioo% in each case. The sulphur and nitrogen are part of the
volatile matter determined separately. The percentages of ash and fixed car-
bon added together give the amount of coke which mnay be obtained from
each sample, for in the process of coking enough heat is used to drive off
all the other ingredients.
The fuel value is given in "British thermal units" per pound. A British
thermal unit is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a
pound of water one degree Fahrenheit, or, to be more precise, from 500 to
51 F. If the fuel value is given as 1o,ooo B. T. U., for instance, this means
that a pound of the material if burned under the most favorable conditions
could be made to raise the temperature of 5 tons of water I, or I ton 5,



-. e.. analyses of Florida peat have been obtained from other sources,

i 5.1Idl peat prairie about two miles northwest of Orlando, Orange
i;.:.,,Ir, ihl peat here seems to be at least 15 feet deep, and a few years
: .i.: ;: ,:.i... deal of it was excavated to a depth of aboat 8 feet, put through
j Lbrjlu-It'Ilin machine on the spot, and when dry taken to town and used
,:.r fel ini the light, water and ice plant. Analyses taken from U. S. Geol.
Ciur,. Fli-rril Resources for 1905, p. 1321, and Bulletin 290, p. 77. In these
ir'l.ll.-:i.: ni the fixed carbon and volatile matter were given only for air-dry
L .:it. br I have re-computed these two factors on a water-free basis, so
it.ht tli:,. c:an be compared with the table above.
t. .,. Marsh at confluence of Davis and Julington Creeks, Duval
i,. nr,L. already described. Samples collected by Robert Ranson in May,
i.,,:.. ir.:.i,, various depths (of which the records are not now available),
.i-l, :. -1 t.: he U. S. Geological Survey, and results communicated to the writer
l.. Fir it.,. A. Davis.
r .--r rage of 26 samples from various points in the vicinity of the
5t i.:.hI'I River, analyzed for Robert Ranson, and communicated by him.
Hi: I.-url.- vere for air-dry peat, but I have re-computed them on a water-
ii..y I. i..... cept the fuel value.
-. l ,-,grove peat from along east side of Snake Creek, which is the
.:l-hni.l h-t. veen Windly's Island and Plantation Key (or Long Island),
;-.nr...r- '_...uinty, near 437 mile-post on Florida East Coast Ry. Taken from
,i-.:.i, ; r-.:r below the surface, in mangrove swamp, whose vegetation is
m.-.l: '.. '-'-phora Mangle (red mangrove). Peat reddish brown, very coarse
aiiJI l:r.-i. Collected in September, I910, under direction of W. J. Krome.
CI..1 :ir..:tii. Engineer of the F. E. C. Ry. Extension, at our request. Analy-
:: I. r Frck Greene, assistant state chemist.

... Fixed Volatile Fuel value
[,il Ash Carbon matter Sulphur Nitrogen (B T..)

I 17 8.3 30.1 61.6 59 2.89 100S2
14.7 30.7 54.6 4.0S 1.93 SS16
-- 1S. 29.9 52.0 3.94 1.97 ;S56
I .- 25.7 25.9 4S.4 3.64 1.66 77S3
S 16.6 30.8 52.6 4.13 1.94 8705
u11 11.0 26.1 62.8 .39 2.74 (9S77)
It1 15.2 -------- ------ 2.36


it i -:..IId seem from the figures given that most of our peat contains only
l-,.:.ur I-ill is much water when air-dry as does the better known material
ir-...r; tl.-. l.1ciated region of Europe and the northern parts of this continent.
T.,-. ....i.:i. -tress should not be laid on this. however, for the water-content
*l-.: .. pi .i~. bly depends nearly as much on the condition of the air at Pitts-
LirLh .it ih. time the analyses were being made as it .does on the nature of


the peat itself. (All the samples which show more than 10% of water were
collected in April, May or June, and analyzed a month or two later, when
the air of the room in which the tests were made was presumably more
humid than in winter, on account of artificial heat not being used.) Never-
theless, it is probably safe to say that the Florida peat dries out as well as
that from any other part oi the world, if not better.
The purest peat is No. 29.1I, which has only I.5% of ash. Other samples
with less than 5% are Nos. 13.11, 15.11, 29.12, 37.11, 41.11, 42.11, all of which
arc from peat prairies or similar situations. (Locality No. 37 I have called
a tyty bay, but it is treeless in the middle, and, therefore, has the character
of a peat prairie.)
The proportion of volatile matter to fixed carbon is nearly 3 to I in No.
I9.II, a coarse saw-grass peat. In nearly every case where it is over 2 to I
the peat is coarse and imperfectly decomposed. It runs below i\1 to I both
in good black plastic peat and in some very impure samples, which might be
better designated as muck.
The sulphur runs highest in estuarine peat, especially in that from
Julington Creek (No. 6.21 and miscellaneous Nos. 2-5). and is pretty high
in calcareous peat and that from Madison County. There is probably not
enough of it to be objectionable in any of our samples, however. It is lowest
in the samples from small filled lakes, bays. etc. No. 36.11 contains the
least sulphur in proportion to other volatile matter, and No. 39.11 is a close
second in that respect. (Both of these happen to be from tyty bays.)
The nitrogen determinations unfortunately are too few to warrant much
generalization, but in other parts of the world the nitrogen content of peat
is rarely less than I% or more than 3%, and the same seems to hold true
in Florida, as far as our information goes.
In fuel value our peat compares very well with that in other parts of
the world. According to Davis, 5,760 B. T. U. per pound is a good average
for wood, 8,500 for pressed peat, and 14,ooo for anthracite coal. The average
of the 53 determinations given in the above tables is 8,341: but if Mr. Ranson's
26 samples combined (miscellaneous No. 6) had been counted separately the
average would have been 8,833. Most of our samples (counting miscellaneous
No. 6 as only one again) exceed 9,05o B. T. U., two-thirds of them exceed
8,50o (Davis's average), and three-fourths of them exceed 8,341 (our average).
The highest fuel value is as a rule in the purest peat. No. 29.11 (the
purest) is best in that respect, though No. 16.11. with I5.5% of ash, and
no plasticity (and therefore not adapted to be made into briquettes), stand,
very high in the list. It should be borne in mind that the fuel value given
in these tables is on a water-free basis, which is never realized in practice,
for peat as used always contains some water, which reduces its fuel vahle.
But the analyses are usually expressed in this way to eliminate differences
due to variations in atmospheric humidity.



Introduction ........................ ....... ... .. ... ..... ........... 66
The impurities that affect the market value of phosphate rock, their
origin, character, and the methods of their elimination in mining.... 67
Minerals of phosphate rock ....................................... 67
A associated m inerals ............... ........................... 68
Objectionable impurities ......................................... 69
The origin of phosphate rock ........................ .............. 71
Original source of phosphorus .................................. 71
.Solubility of phosphate minerals ................................. 72
Reaccumulation of phosphate in workable deposits ............. 73
Round of circulation of calcium phosphate ...................... 73
Compared with calcium carbonate ............................. 74
Compared with silica ....................................... 75
Illustrations of method of accumulation of phosphate deposits .. 76
The phosphates of Florida ................................... 76
The phosphates of Tennessee ........................ ......... 79
The phosphates of the western United States ................. So
Phosphate deposits from guano ........................... So
Miinzn phosphate rock .................... ............ ......... 81
iil. l L rcround mining ..................... ........... .......... .
-[ !1i. m ining ................... ............................. 8S
Elhli,._,ii of impurities and preparation for the market ........... 82
........ .................................. ............... 82
Lr, ........................................................ 84
..ipr.. .-iM.:ni in mining methods ....................... .............. 84
I.i [.. rl..'ir 1 i deposits of the Southern States .......................... 86
PF'r.d,. i-i. from the Southern States ................................ 86
Lr .. ji!i. .. of deposits by States .................. ................. 86
-... i h Carolina ............. ................................ 86
l: .............. ... ..................... ................ 87
:e ......................................................... 88
.. .: ......................... ................................ 89
Kzc. h : ............................................................ 91
rli Caroli............................................. ........... 92
rr C .arolina .................................. .............. 92
.la ,t-. n, ............... .................... ........ ... 92
'-" :"i- ........................ .. ........................... ... 93


World production of phosphate rock ................................. 94
Northern Africa ............................................ 94
Tunis ......................................................... 94
A lgeria ............................................... 95
E gypt ....................................... .. ............... 95
Continental E urope ..................................... ........... 96
France ........................................................ 96
Belgium ........................................ ............ 96
Russia ......................................................... 96
Islands of the Pacific Ocean ................. ........................ 97
Islands of the Indian Ocean ..................................... .. 98
Islands of the Caribbean Sea ....................................... 98
Production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1913 ................. 99


The present paper on Phosphate is largely based on the fol-
lowing papers prepared during the year: (I) The Impurities That
Affect the Market Value of Phosphate Rock. Their Origin, Char-
acter, and the Methods of Their Elimination in Mining; (2) Con-
servation as Applied to Methods of Mining Phosphate; (3) The
Phosphate Deposits of the Southern States. Of these, the first-
mentioned, prepared for the American Institute of Mining Engi-
neers, was given in abstract at the Pittsburgh meeting, October,
r914, and published under the title, "The Origin, Mining, and
Preparation of Phosphate Rock" in the September issue of the
Bulletin of the Institute, pp. 2379-2395, 1914. The second paper
was presented at -a meeting of Geologists held at Knoxville, Ten-
nessee, September 19, 1913, in connection with the National Con-
servation Exposition. The third paper was prepared for the At-
lanta meeting of the American Association for the Advancement
of Science.* Although based chiefly on these papers, the present
report does not include the exact reproduction of any one of them
except the one on the Impurities of Phosphate Rock, which is in-
cluded here with only minor changes from the original manuscript.

*Abstract in Science n. s., Vol. 39, p. 401. March 13, 1914.


Phosphate rock, like most other mineral substances, is found
in nature in varying degrees of purity. Of the impurities that are
present some are constituents of the rock itself; others are inclu-
sions of a foreign substance within the rock; while still others rep-
resent merely associated materials or minerals, either clinging to
the rock or found in cavities and natural depressions, and hence
largely removed in mining. Some of these impurities are distinctly
deleterious to the processes of manufacture for which the phos-
phate is mined, while others, although neutral in action or nearly
so, yet by their presence reduce the average grade of the rock and
thus add useless bulk to the shipment.
It is the object of refined processes of mining to bring the
I'io'lduct. a- lklivered from the mine, to the highest possible grade
c..~ilt.!,t w\\n. the market requirements and demands. This, how-
e e.r i, ir accomplished without actual loss in the form of dis-
cr.irel iho-iphate. It is evident, therefore, that the devising of
int-i..! fior reducing this loss in mining, and yet maintaining the
.-'ra.-le ..f rhle rock which the market requires is an improvement in
rIrninl: i1.-ith.-lIs greatly to be desired by the producers and toward
which h ill -ire working.

TIle minerals included under the term "phosphate rock" are
tlie c9lciuiL1 phosphates. Of these, apatite is perhaps the most
.rinlit,: aind constant in composition, although of this mineral
tr, d arietie-: are recognized, namely, fluorapatite, Ca5(P04)3F,
.-,i .:hl..ra.iatite, Ca5(P04)3C1. Moreover, the calcium of this
!;i!fi-ral ai-t.. be partly replaced by manganese, forming yet another
ilirnir:rl nmarganapatite; or the mineral may become hydrated,
ti':ll.n'iiii. h,.lroapatite, which is found as mammillary deposits often
noxt i.lik. :ichalcedony in appearance. The term "phosphorite"


has been applied to the massive amorphous deposits of phosphate
which may be compact, earthy or concretionary. Among other
varieties of apatite may be mentioned, staffelite, which contains a
small percentage of both iron and aluminum. It is of interest
to note also that this variety is believed to result from the action
of carbonated waters on phosphorite, and hence is likely to occur
incrusting ordinary phosphate rock acted upon by carbonated wa-
ters. Another variety, pseudoapatite, contains both sulphur and
carbon dioxide.* Of the many other calcium phosphate minerals
some closely approximate apatite while others grade into com-
pounds so variable and indefinite in composition as scarcely to be
classed as minerals. The deposits of phosphate found in nature
evidently contain a number of calcium phosphate minerals, the
constituent impurities of which affect the market value of the
rock. The aluminum phosphate, wavellite, should also be men-
tioned since it is mined to some extent as a source of phosphorus.


Various other minerals are found associated in nature with
the calcium phosphates. This association is sometimes due to actual
relationship between the minerals. On the other hand the associa-
tion of minerals may be purely accidental, or incidental to the man-
ner of formation of the deposits. With regard to the related
minerals, it is apparent that where the calcium phosphates are abun-
dant, other phosphates are likely also to occur. In fact it is
scarcely to be expected that extensive calcium phosphate depos-
its will be found without the presence of at least a limited amount
of other phosphate minerals. This is particularly true of iron and
aluminum phosphates. These two bases are widely disseminated
in nature and, moreover, they combine readily with phosphoric acid
to form phosphates. Of the iron phosphates the mineral vivianite,
although occurring in relatively small quantities, is widely distrib-
uted in nature, and may occur in limited quantities in phosphate

*Dr. Austin F. Rogers, who is investigating phosphate minerals, states
that phosphorite, or phosphate rock, seems to be a mixture of two min-
erals, amorphous collophanite, largely a solid solution of calcium carbonate
in calcium phosphate, and crystalline dahllite, a calcium carbonophosphate with
the tormula 3Ca3(P04)2. CaCO3 analagous to fluorite. The amorphous col-
lophanite gradually changes to the crystalline dahllite. (Personal letter of
May 23, 1914.)


deposits. usually 9 a an incrustation, or as an alteration product
of other nineralk. The iron minerals frequently form in bogs, and
it is an :ob-ered fact that the phosphate deposits in such localities
not in frequenti'.- contain more iron than do the same deposits when
found. on the uplanIs In such cases the iron is doubtless a com-
parativcly recent infiltration, and may include phosphates of iron
a; tell as xides and other iron minerals. Of the aluminum phos-
phatec a large LnuImber are known, one of which, wavellite, as al-
ready stated, is mined as a source of phosphate. This mineral and
others of the alulninuLn phosphates are likely to occur in associa-
Lton with calcl:um1 phosphate.
Some of the large phosphate deposits have been formed by the
replacement of an oricrinal rock by calcium phosphate. In this
process parts of the original rock not infrequently remain un-
chalrned or incompletely phosphatized. Since the phosphatizing
prc:,cesess proceed from the surface, the imperfectly phosphatized
remnant is likely to lie within the rock, thus giving rise to included
impurities that are difficult to eliminate. Moreover, small amounts
,:,f clav and silica are usually found in the limestone and as these
substances do not readily phosphatize, if not worked out, they re-
main as impurities in the rock.
.\side from thc-e related minerals, the materials associated
with the phc-sphatr rock are varied in character. They include
clay. fragments of limestone, flints, gravel, silica in the form of
sand. and o-ther resistant materials, the character of which is deter-
mined by the mariner of formation of the deposits. The asso-
ciated materials of this nature make up the matrix in which the
phosphate rock is imbedded. It is scarcely possible in mining to
remove entirely all associated minerals, and the purity of the rock
as delivered to the market, is affected, without dbubt, by the pres-
ence :f more or less of these minerals, as well as by the constituent
impurities of the rock.


Of the impurities contained in or associated with phosphate
rock. the most objectionable in the processes of manufacture of
acid phosphate for fertilizers, for which purpose the phosphate rock
is alnm-ot ,.'hollh- uLd, are iron and aluminum. For this reason
practically all p.hosphate mined is sold under a guarantee that the


combined iron and aluminum expressed as oxides, do not exceed
a given small percentage of the whole, from 2 to 4 per cent being
allowable. Iron when present in excess of about 2 per cent brings
about reactions which result in the formation of a gelatinous sub-
stance injurious to the mechanical condition of the mixture, occa-
sioning also a loss of soluble phosphoric acid. A first step in the
reaction with the iron is probably as follows: 2FePO4+3H2S04=
2H3P04+Fe2(S04)3. Of the sulphate of iron thus formed, a
part according to Fritsch*, reacts on acid phosphate of lime, thus
forming the objectionable gelatinous precipitate. Owing to the
demand of calcium sulphate for water, hydrated iron phosphate,
which is a product of these reactions, may subsequently become de-
hydrated and insoluble, thus causing the loss of available phos-
phoric acid.
Aluminum, existing as a silicate in phosphate rock, is likely to
be injurious, since, according to Fritsch, if not decomposed by
the acid, it may cause a part of the phosphoric acid to retrograde.
However, when existing in the rock in small amounts as a phos-
phate, the aluminum is not supposed to occasion a loss of phos-
phoric acid, both the hydrated and non-hydrated phosphate being
soluble in the precipitated condition in phosphoric acid.
Carbonates of calcium, when existing in small quantities in
phosphate rock, are beneficial rather than injurious. When the
ground rock is treated with acid the carbonate is the first of the
ingredients to be attacked, and the heat thus engendered promotes
subsequent reaction among the other constituents. Moreover, the
carbon dioxide gas, given off from the carbonate, lightens the
mixture and facilitates drying. Phosphate rock low in, or lacking,
carbonate develops little heat in mixing, and reacts slowly. In
such cases this constituent must be added. It is true that the pres-
ence of the carbonate necessitates the use of an increased amount
of acid, which in turn results in the formation of an increased
amount of calcium sulphate or gypsum.
The amount of carbonate that is desirable is sometimes given
as 5 per cent, but the limits are not strict, and manufacturers do
not as a rule find it necessary to specify directly the amount of
the carbonate that the rock must or must not contain. Indirectly,
however, an excess of the carbonate is guarded against by other

*J. Fritsch. The Manufacture of Chemical Manures, p. 79, I9TI.


ieI:Liremniii-l as1 to the grade of rock. If it is true, as elsewhere
stated in till- paper, that the principal mineral of the massive phos-
plhate te'-li-t: is a calcium carbono-phosphate, this fact will afford
an explanati.rin of the presence of the desired amount of carbonate
in all ph'i.-.phale deposits of this class.
The llic1i.:-rie found in phosphate rock, upon being attacked by
.lit acid, ft:.rmn hydrofluoric acid gas which passes into the atmos-
ltele,. it lm-ii,4 estimated that as much as from 50 to 662-3 per
c:.nt :.i the flii...rine present is eliminated in this way. Although
Z: i--1il am...unI. of acid is used up in this reaction and a propor-
tionate an-,.-.unt of calcium sulphate formed, yet it is seldom, if
ever, nect:--ar, to specify against the fluorine content of the rock,
thel arlmountl present being negligible.
.-' -,nc.- the numerous other impurities that may be present in
pih.'-.phate r..jc;, silica and clay are perhaps the most common.
Here al-.- sho::uld be mentioned moisture, which when present not
,,nlv adds bull; to the shipment but also interferes with the proc-
e:e .-fnn manufacture. The excess of moisture must, therefore, be
rtem.v.ed by tr ing, not more than 3 or 4 per cent being allowable
in tht rn-k a shipped.


The ..rigin if phosphate deposits is such that the presence of
-a:.i-.:,ate-l miinerals as well as constituent impurities is almost in-
'ariable fTh original source of phosphorus, the constituent for
;hicll plih-:' hate rock is mined, is in the igneous and crystalline
r...l::., ',hi:rc it exists in combination with other elements forming
plihi-[',-ipte minerals. These minerals, as indeed is true of all min-
.:rali. are -oluble in water, the degree of solubility, however, vary-
!ing ,, ilth the- different minerals, and with the diverse conditions
to. .vhi;ch in-e, are subjected. Indeed, some very interesting and
:-i geEti.c Lb-.rvations have been made on the relative solubility
"i plh'::phlites under varying conditions. Thus it has been shown
.1hat tlit -.. luility of the phosphate minerals is increased by the
pre:e]iee '.tf decaying organic matter in water. They have also
I-ben f'-.und t,. be appreciably soluble in carbonated waters. In
this o.-innecri:oii Reese* has made the very important observation

'Chia. L FP,::,: Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd Ser., Vol. 43, p. 402, 1892.


that while the phosphate dissolves freely in waters containing decay-
ing organic matter and in carbonated waters, yet when allowed
to stand over calciuin carbonate, the phosphate is redeposited. In
summing up his observations Reese says: "ThIis experiment shows
that phosphates may be transported in hard waters, but on stand-
ing on calcareous beds would tend to be given up." In speaking
of hard waters the author evidently has in mind waters contain-
ing, among other things, carbon dioxide in solution, and his con-
clusion is that such waters will or may drop the calcium phosphate
from solution when they stand over limestone. These observa-
tions, if true, have two important corollaries, one of which has been
noted by Clarke, (U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 330, p. 443, 1908) namely,
that in the presence of the carbonate, the phosphate would prob-
ably not be dissolved, while the carbonate could pass into solution,
thus leaving the enriched residue of phosphate. The second corol-
lary is that calcium phosphate taken into solution by the soil waters
at and near the surface may be thrown out of solution in case the
water stands for a time at a lower level in the earth on or over
limestones. That this process may have been and probably was a
factor in the formation of large phosphate deposits resting upon
limestone will be shown in the subsequent pages of this paper.
The rain water, in passing through the soil and surface mate-
rials, receives organic acids from the decay of vegetable and ani-
mal matter. It also receives carbonic acid which is held in solu-
tion, the water thus becoming carbonated, and hence more efficient
as a solvent. The original rocks and the soils derived from them
contain particles of the phosphate minerals, which when acted
upon by the ground waters pass slowly into solution. It is through
the solution of the mineral, its removal and subsequent redeposi-
tion that workable phosphate deposits are formed. When it is
remembered that the phosphorus in the igneous rocks amounts to
merely a fractional part of one per cent of the whole,* and was
without doubt originally widely disseminated, the importance of
the processes of concentration of the mineral by ground water and
the extent to which they have operated becomes evident.
The removal of the mineral from the original rocks and its con-
centration in later rocks is by no means a simple process. There

*According to Clarke, Bulletin 330. U. S. Geological Survey, p. 32, 19o8,
the phosphorus in the lithosphere amounts to only .1 per cent.


aie as a rule many intermediate stages, the load being taken up,
dr:.ppc.-l again for a time, only to be once more started on its
lA une;,. .-imong the primary results of concentration and enrich-
ni)i mt Ima, be mentioned the phosphate deposits of the crystalline
ro:ck-, .vlic ic the mineral is found in veins, being more or less per-
fectly crn stallized as the mineral apatite. Of deposits of this class
;s.-.r. inc,:luing those of Canada, are of economic importance, and
w4oul' be more extensively worked were it not that other and more
chleapl'., mined phosphate deposits are available.
Of the phosphate taken into solution by the ground water a
I'ar i- tal:en up from the soils through the roots of plants, and thus
hcc::mncr a constituent of the plant life of the earth. From the
plants tlhe phosphorus passes to herbivorous animals, and through
them t.-. carnivorous animals. Phosphorus thus becomes a con-
-tittuent .:f the organic life of the earth. The bones of the verte-
brat, anim1-ls in particular contain an appreciable amount of cal-
c:lum phosphlate. It seems well established also that certain of the
important phosphate deposits; as well as the guano deposits are
leri ed fr.:ln excrement and remaires of gregarious animals, par-
ti.-ularl, birds. It is also true that a part of the phosphate taken
int .... :rluti,:,l' by the ground waters is again thrown out owing to
clhianged chemical conditions, and in this way important phosphate
depol-it 'ire formed. In any case, however, the phosphate may
1bei rn:-arled. as only temporarily delayed in its round of circula-
ti-on Ultimately phosphate is carried in solution in the ground
* ar.,r tllr,:-ugh springs and rivers to the ocean. While the amount
in -.:'luti:1 at any one time is relatively small, yet, through the con-
rtniiel operation of this agency over long periods of time, a large
in:10Lunt ha.- been carried into the ocean.
l Ihr' l',sphate carried into the ocean is again removed from
- :lti.:nl through the agency of organic life, or owing to changed
i:'ni. Il conditionss, is precipitated. Of the animals that utilize
pI :sr.lI:cr.- taken from the sea water in the construction of a
hliell c: ering or skeleton, the best known perhaps is the brachi-
*- !,-l. L I,.ula, the shell of a recent species of. which has been
i.-.i t1 i,: -.:.ntain 85.79 per cent of calcium phosphate. The tests
*.f thI r;.:tacea. although less distinctly phosphatic than the shell
*:of Lin,:',a contain an appreciable amount of phosphate. Thus
ii,-. .ell -.f a recent lobster was found to contain 3.26 per cent of


calcium phosphate, while the lobster as a whole contained .76 per
cent.* The aquatic plants also utilize some of the phosphorus in
solution in the water and through them the phosphorus passes to
the skeleton of vegetable feeding aquatic animals, and through
them in turn to the carniverous animals.
The phosphorus taken from solution by chemical action is evi-
dently considerable, since nodules of chemical origin, high in phos-
phates are found somewhat abundantly in the bed of the ocean.
Some of these nodules, reported by Clarke,t contain 19.96 to
23.54 p'er cent of phosphoric acid.
The amount of phosphate that finds its way into the sediment-
ary formations through organic and chemical agencies is thus un-
doubtedly considerable resulting in the enrichment of certain depos-
its which, if not themselves workable, at least serve as an impor-
tant source of phosphate from which by further concentration work-
able phosphate deposits are formed.
In this respect the deposition of calcium phosphate is analogous
to that of the related mineral calcium carbonate, although of the
carbonate much more extensive deposits accumulate than of the
phosphate. The carbonate, as is well known, is not only a much
more abundant constituent of the superficial formations of the
earth than is the phosphate, but, under the conditions that nor-
mally exist on and near the surface of the earth, is also a much
more soluble mineral. Moreover it would seem from some of
the experiments that have been recorded that when the two- min-
erals occur together the carbonate is taken up by preference, leav-
ing the phosphate, thus giving in effect a degree of selective solu-
bility favoring the carbonate. The carbonate, therefore, is carried
in solution by the surface and ground waters in much larger quan-
tities than is the phosphate, and is also apparently readily avail-
able as a skeleton-building material. Accordingly the 'aquatic life
of the earth has utilized the carbonate largely in building pro-
tective skeletons. This is true not only of the corals and of the mol-
lusks of marine and fresh waters, but also of many other organisms.
important among which by reason of their abundance are the uni-
cellular foraminifera. Indeed in such abundance have the organ-
isms with calcareous skeletons flourished, under the favorable con-

*Bull. 330, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 448, 19o8.
tBull. 330, U. S. Geol. Sun', p. 5, 1908.


editions that are found in marine waters, that their remains have
often accumulated to form extensive and nearly pure limestones.
Fresh-water limestones of organic origin are also not uncommon,
although of lesser extent and thickness than are the marine forma-
tions. Moreover, not only is the carbonate taken from the water
through the action of organic life, but owing to changed conditions
in both fresh and marine waters it may be thrown out of solution,
forming limestone by chemical action. Thus by organic and chem-
ical processes extensive marine and fresh water limestones are
Silica (SiO2) in its round of circulation in the earth presents
some interesting analogies and yet strong contrasts to both cal-
cium phosphate and calcium carbonate. In point of abundance
silica exceeds both the carbonate and the phosphate, being by far
the most abundant constituent of the earth's crust, making up,
acc'-r.ling t.:, the estimate of Clarke, 59.79 per cent of the litho-
s.phi.rei. In point of solubility, on the other hand, silica is much
le-I s.-ltible thin calcium phosphate, and under the conditions that
o-rdinarily pr[i' all on and near the surface of the earth, many times
Ic-- thalut:lc rhan calcium carbonate. However, by reason of its
abunldiane .ind the fact that in the form of sand it is ever present
in th: .-,.I and surface residual materials, it is found in solution
in all -r.-'.und ,.'aters, and is present in the waters of the ocean
in -mall although recognizable amounts. Silica is also used to
so:mc extent bh- plants and animals as skeleton-building material,
the lirre.t i~ers of silica for this purpose being, among plants,
tlih diati-mni, an-i among animals, the unicellular radiolarians and
c'-rtain r :f the sponges. From the skeletons of these organisms a
limit, :,: r mi-ii:.nt' of silica of organic origin has been included in sedi-
nmentiar:- r.--:k. Silica, however, as a skeleton-building material
hlia no.t t.reen cs extensively used as to result in the formation of
large lrp.-'irs. and aside from diatomaceous earth, usually of local
extent. Iar.',-: deposits of silica of organic origin are unusual.
Tilt, mai-i\: ~' accumulations of flint, not infrequently found in sedi-
mi;rlltarl ro:,c:l-. -re formed by the replacement of the original rock
I:'.' -ili:a in :-lution in the ground waters, presenting in this re-
':p"-c: an anall 'o-y to a similar process which has operated in the
formati.i-n .-.f certain calcium phosphate deposits.

'LI 5. ";e,-1 Surv. Bull. 330, p. 31, IgoS.


While the round of circulation of phosphate minerals is thus
capable of demonstration as a normal process comparable to that
of other common minerals, yet the actual processes of the accumu-
lation of large workable deposits of phosphate rock are in many
ways complicated.


The complexity of origin of the phosphate rock, and the man-
ner in which impurities are included in the formation, is well illus-
trated by the Florida phosphate deposits. Of these there are two
distinct types known respectively as the hard rock and the land
pebble phosphates. These differ materially in their location, origin
and manner of occurrence. The hard rock phosphates lie in a belt
along the Gulf side of the peninsula, extending in a general north
and south direction roughly paralleling the Gulf coast for a dis-
tance of about 100 miles. The land pebble phosphate deposits are
found farther south, lying chiefly in Polk and Hillsboro counties.
The hard rock phosphate deposits rest upon a thick and very
pure, light-colored, porous and cavernous limestone known as the
Vicksburg formation, which is of Lower Oligocene age. At the
present time, in that section of the State in which the hard rock
phosphate occurs, no formation other than the phosphate itself lies
on top of this limestone. It has, however, been demonstrated by
the combined observations of several geologists that certain forma-
tions, of which only a residue remains, formerly extended across
the area that now holds the hard rock phosphate deposits. The
formations referred to are the Chattahoochee Limestone and Alum
Bluff sands, both of which are'of Upper Oligocene age. These
formations are now found bordering the hard rock phosphate area.
The proof of their former extent has been given elsewhere and
need not be repeated at this time.* The hard rock phosphate depos-
its are made up largely of the residue of these formations which
have disintegrated in situ and accordingly consist of a mixture
of materials of the most diverse character including sands, clays,
limestone fragments, pebbles and water worn flints, vertebrate, in-
vertebrate and plant fossils; in fact a heterogeneous mixture of

*Origin of the Hard Rock Phosphate Deposits of Florida, by E. H. Sel-
lards. Fifth Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey, pp. 23-80, 1913.


the relatively' in-oluble and resistant elements of the earlier forma-
The phosphate itself is derived from the Alum Bluff sands, the
later and thicker of the two formations that have disintegrated.
Thi: formation, the Alum Bluff, in some places reaches a thickness
.:f -eceral hundred feet, and has a large areal extent reaching from
vwest Florida. through northern and central Florida, into southern
Florida Tlihro-uhout its entire thickness, and throughout its whole
areal extent tliii formation is distinctly phosphatic, although in
no instance is the phosphate in this formation sufficiently concen-
trated to fornn w-orkable deposits.
while e these formations, the Chattahoochee and the Alum Bluff,
"cere disintetcrating in the area that is now the hard rock phosphate
legion, the calcium phosphate from the Alum Bluff formation
was gradually being taken into solution by ground water and was
being redeposited at a lower level in the earth, thus forming the
,.o.rkabl,' hard rock phosphate deposits. In this process the replace-
!ment ol tihe original limestone by calcium phosphate was an im-
portant iact.:,r, and these deposits afford excellent illustration of
the iornation of phosphate rock by the replacement process, the
-hells ot tihe original limestone in many instances retaining their
form, althuoi.,--h changed chemically to calcium phosphate. In addi-
tion :., repilacernent, other processes are observed, prominent among
.A hi'h is the i-rmination of the phosphate by precipitation frcom solu-
rioin in a maannaer similar to the formation of calcium carbonate
,depo-its in ca-i e This process is evidently secondary, and, being
i :\. o operative. is to be observed in the phosphate boutldler them-
selve. :n which all existing cavities are being gradually tilled by
thli .i.ci;mulation of calcium phosphate. By this process pinnacles
are formed hanging from the roof of the cavities, while successive
la3er: o: pli:oip-,late are spread out over the floor of the cavities.
Tli- method ,of formation of phosphate deposits has given rise
to \er, I.ih gzade phosphate rock, the Florida hard rock grading,
under present methods of mining, 77 to 80 per cent tricalcium
pho;spliiateL, while individual specimens contain 84 to 85 per cent.
while e th.: origin of the hard rock phosphate in its present form
is thui, clenarly c ident, there yet remains a large field of investiga-
tion to determine the chemical processes by which the pho-sphite
is I rt tal;.n int:, solution, and is subsequently redeposited. Some


of these processes, however, are well understood. That normal
phosphate is to some extent soluble in soil waters is well established
and fully recognized. In the hard rock phosphate section of Flor-
ida there is practically no surface drainage, the rain water passing
directly into the earth. At a lower level the circulation of the
water is interfered with and the water may become stationary or
nearly so. The check in circulation is due in some instances to
masses and beds of clay which are residual from the disintegrating
formations. In any case the movement of the water is checked
upon reaching the water line. The relation of the phosphate de-
posits to the ground water level, and also the evident and prob-
able changes of the water level during geologic time have been
discussed in the writer's paper on these deposits previously referred
to. It is thus apparent that there are important changes in the
chemical conditions in the earth. Among these may be mentioned
the check -to the free movement of the water, and the evident
mingling of different waters. In this connection the observations
of Reese, previously referred to, in which it is shown th.it calcium
phosphate in solution in carbonated waters is precipitated when
the water stands over limestone, are particularly suggestive. As
shown in my earlier papers the hard rock phosphates of Florida
are invariably formed directly upon limestone, and need not be
sought for elsewhere. Moreover they are thrown out of solution
from carbonated waters which pass over and through these lime-
stones, the manner of their formation apparently being entirely in
accord with Reese's experiments.
The land pebble phosphate deposits of Florida are probably
derived, like the hard rock deposits, from the Alum Bluff forma-
tion. The processes by which they have accumulated in their pres-
ent form are, however, strikingly different. While the hard rock
phosphates, as has been stated, represent chemical precipitates or
replacement deposits, the phosphate having been transported to its
present location in solution, the land pebble deposits appear to rep-
lesent materials which are residual from erosion of the parent
formation. The hard rock phosphates occur in sections where the
parent formation has entirely disintegrated over limestones; the
land pebble deposits, on the contrary, are found as a blanket deposit
resting upon, and representing a concentration from the parent
formation. It thus follows that the matrix of the land pebble de-


p.: its 1s not nece S-arily strikingly different from that of the hard
rp:,: deposit-, e:c.ept as chemical action has modified the residue,
particularly by th,- formation in many instances of siliceous boul-
der; in the hard rc:.:k deposits.
The grade of rock produced from the land pebble deposits
under the prei:nt methods of mining varies from 66 to 74 per cent
tri:alk:i.um plho-phate, while individual samples contain from 77
Io 7-S per ienlt.


.As further evidence of the complexity of the origin of work-
able beds of phosphate, and of the diversity of ways in which the
dlep:,s1its nmni ac:-inmulate, may be mentioned the phosphates of Ten-

Thc br,-,. in phosphates of Tennessee are very evidently formed
Il sir,' from plhosphatic limestone. Hayes and Ulrich* find that
at least four limestone horizons have given rise to brown phos-
,phates in Tienne-ee. The calcium carbonate from the limestone
is more or le;s completely leached out, and is replaced in part at
least by calcium phosphate.- The rock is thus enriched and be-
comes a wV.'r:k'::ib phosphate. The leaching of the rock usually
begin a~ lngT- j'inting planes and for this reason unchanged masses
iof the .:,ririna limestone in this type of deposit frequently remain
as horsesee" T%.o types of deposits are recognized, which are
l:no!t..v as "l-1an3-.et" and "collar" deposits. The blanket deposits
arc thi:o- %,hic:h c:.:tend over a considerable area; the collar depos-
its are fo:rm-ed \liere the phosphatic limestone comes to the surface
ar-ound- the sl:pe of a hill. The collar deposits are necessarily
limled in extent, while the blanket deposits may cover consider-
able ar,'a. The brown phosphates, from their manner of origin.
have e n.ees-s'ril, accumulated in comparatively recent times.
Thle blie ph.:sphates, on the other hand, are much older than
the bri:'n. lha-lin' accumulated in their present form during Dev-
niarn time. It is believed by Hayes and Ulrich that the blue
phoipIhartes ,.ere' originally formed as residual material from, and

*C.:.l.r.i i F.:.1F.;,:.. U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 5. 1903.
t :.-i .:.," hi.e .br-.wn phosphate of Tennessee is formed, according to Tr
A F P',--.rs I.- r.-placement of crinoidal limestone by calcium phosphari
Pr.:.n'I icli.i r Nlril l, T914.)


resting upon the Ordovician phosphatic limestones, much as the
brown phosphates of the present time are formed. After this
residual material accumulated the area was depressed, allowing the
sea to cover the limestone. By the action of the waves in shallow
water the residual mass was thoroughly washed, the soil and clay
material being sifted out and carried away, while the phosphatic:
material was left to form the phosphate rock as found at present.
The sea subsequently deepened, so that shales and other forma-
tions were-deposited upon the phosphate.
The richest of the blue rock deposits is believed to have been
formed from the Ordovician limestone, known as the Leipers for-
mation. This formation is full of the same minute spiral and other
shells that occur abundantly in the immediately overlying phosphate
rock. Phosphates were formed from Ordovician limestone other
than the Leipers formation, but they are of a lower grade and at
present not workable.
It would thus seem that the blue rock of Tennessee was formed
during the interval between the Ordovician and the Devonian,
washed during the Devonian, and in this condition was preserved
for modern mining operations.


The extensive phosphate deposits of the western United States
are interbedded with sedimentary formations, and to this extent
resemble the blue rock phosphates of Tennessee. The rock in these
deposits is described as prevailingly oolitic, although an exceptional
occurrence is recorded by Richards and Mansfield* in which high
grade rock was found to consist of shell fragments regarded by
Girty as broken shells of pelecypods. The source of the phosphoric
acid and the history of its accumulation in the form in which it
is now found in these deposits, if at present obscure, will perhaps
upon further investigation become apparent.


The phosphate deposits of Navassa, a small island in the West
Indies, may be mentioned as an illustration of those which are be-
lieved to have been formed from guano. In the case of phosphate

*Bull. 470, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 376, Ign.


deposits formed from guano, the phosphate is taken in solution
by rain water, and after being carried to a lower level is redepos-
ited, replacing the carbonate of the limestone. The rapidity with
which this process may be carried on is illustrated by an instance
cited by Dr. Albert R. Ledoux* in which limestone on one of the
South Pacific islands was observed to have been changed to phos-
phate to a depth of several feet within a period of twenty years,
the phosphoric acid in this instance being leached by rain water
from recently deposited guano.

Phosphate rock i- mined either bi open [it or by underground
mining. Tho,:.; deposits having a rnemovable i'.erburden are mined
by the open pit method. underground mining. being resorted, to. only
for deposit; interstratic-d '-itlh other forlnttions, _o tlat the o'.er-
butrdin cannot be removeir.d.

i-: ; -EF:GR R i'i : I I ; [ 'NG

The depo-..i ts w\..orrkd in An1n-rica L- u ndtrgr:'LIund mining in-
clude the blue r'cxl: of Tintressce, the Arl:aa]isa deposits. and for
r.h mo-sit part thie ex.terisi'e dep-oits of the western United States,
which are as ''et but little developed. In underground nmining,
ordiinarily. operations begin at thie itirface outcrop of thie phos-
phlate stratunm, tie First ro: l: I':iring Luincov relI be y tripping oiff the
,' eriurdin. \\lhen te -'.erburden can nI.: longer be remoi ed eco-
in:r"micalli, drifts are run into tlie bank and the plh:il:phrllae rcck
rcm '.ed. supportt being iven i t.: tihe roi'i., \.when nec e .ar., after
tie phiospliate is taken oiut Thi; method ..o f minnit is similar to
that uied iin nmiinig :oal seam .. In thle Arkansas and Tennessee
mines thti pho1phate rock is first drilled and blasted. It is then
broken up by picl: and loaded into tram-cars to be drawn froni the
l int:.

By far the greater part of the phosphate rr:ock pr:lduI:ed in
America is obtained at present by open pit mining, in which the
overburden is hrrt removed from tle r.:<:. The purity of the rock,

'Trans. N. Y. Acid. Sci Vol. i L .. *. :,


however, is not materially affected by the methods employed in
removing the overburden, and hence it is not necessary to describe
these methods in detail. It may be noted, however, that diverse
methods prevail, depending upon the thickness and character of
the overburden, the magnitude of the operations and the facilities
available. Examples may still be found of removal of overburden
by pick and shovel, team and scraper, or team and dump cart.
It is, however, only a shallow overburden that can be so re-
moved profitably. In the larger mining operations the over-
burden is removed by steam shovel, by means of which the
material is loaded into cars, which are then drawn to
the overburden dump; or the overburden is removed by the hy-
draulic method, the material being pumped through pipe lines
to the overburden dump. Whatever method is employed a
limited amount of overburden remains with the phosphate rock
and must be separated in subsequent treatment.
Removal of Phosphate from the Pit.-It is not necessary in
this connection to describe in detail the methods of removing phos-
phate rock from the pit, since the purity of the rock is but inci-
dentally affected thereby. It may be said, however, that the phos-
phate rock is either loaded by pick and shovel on wagons or tram
cars to be drawn from the pit, or it is taken up by dredge or by
hydraulicking. If taken by the hydraulic method the rock is forced
through pipe lines to the washer plant. The character of the de-
posit determines the methods of removal that may be employed.
Where the phosphate is loaded by pick and shovel, such objec-
tionable impurities as siliceous boulders, limestone rock and clay
balls are rejected at the pit, and in some mines only the coarse
rock is taken, leaving the finer phosphate, clay and sand. As a
rule, however, there is no attempt to separate the phosphate from
the matrix before removal from the pit.

The phosphate rock mined by the open pit method must be
washed and dried. The methods of treatment described in this
paper are those followed in America and particularly in the Florida
The hard rock phosphate of Florida when brought from the
pit is dumped onto a grating of iron bars with 2 or 22 inch open-


ings. The tine materials of the m:.t.. pass through 'vhit the
coarse materils.. iinclIlnl'z phl-phare, flint. lime-ton:l,- bouldJer;. and
c!av ball., are lod'lzed o:n the grating The ph o-phare Lboullcder- are
then thrown bI land into a rc,:k crusher r near while th flint
anid limestone Ibuldl:ers and clay balls are di-carded. That part
of tlhe nmtri::x which ipaise the crating t iogetlher v.ith the rock
trom the rusherr is dr: ippe l in't,: a IcOg wvashler beneath. The prac-
tice in the landl pleble mine,; is 'r,;niewvat different froni tlat fol-
lowed in the hard r':ck: ectin. tthe- matrit-, a- piunipe:l froin the
pit., being throwni a_ :;A rule *,ntc:, a large revolving tube. kil-n.vn
a; a separat.'r, punched "lhit anl mni-s" ,.\ ith hI,:lc- :ne or tv, inicles
in diameter. As the separator revolve;, the phosphate pebbles, as
well as the finer material- of the matrix, fall thr'ouh the openings
and ,lode ,:n a .creen beneath, while tle coa, rser material ls in-
*:luding sand. roci: anld clay ball. remai in iri the :epar.ator fr iim
v.lil :i they are carried to the waste ldui mp. From the screen be-
neath the sep..arato:r the phosphate rock pa.:-e into the ,lo',' vher.
\\h'le thi th tlie u iua! arrangementt in the land pebble phosphate
milines. vet in .olme 'I the ne'.ver plant, it has been found practi-
cablle tio omit thel seiparator altogether, the rock fri.ii tlie dIump
being, all. -wed t,.. enter thle \oeg asiicr after passing o,,ver a screen
of about 1-16 inch rnmeh. \\'lien tlie separator is omittel,. prac-
tically all tile matri.: fr om the pit pas:-s through the I g va.-:hers,
and it has usually been found necessary in thee plants to install
:- crtisher. ,h.chl i then then placed between the two lo:;. The larger
pieces of bone- and phosphate rock. a: well a: tilhe clay balls, if not
diiinteratetl by the :asher, are br'_.kcn up in the crusher, and
thlc pli':iplphate vhilih the. contain is sived.
The lo1 '.washer. thiroiiugh which tile phsphate rock iz pacseIl,
conist; of t wv. cylin-lers cr logIs; placed ;i-le il side ii' a box '.r
through A series of blades arranged:! in a crpiral is fastened.: t-., each
cylinder. The trogii s iinclinedi, the phosphate being run in at
ihe l.:o'er end. and as the 1,g.:s are male to resolve in opposite
directions, the phosphate rock is punl;he:l forward -,by the hladeIs,
meeting as it goe- a co-nstant -tream :,f water. By this niean; the
rocd: is fairly well w.tshed. the water. carrying all the finer Imate-
rial; cf the matri:-. ccapinz._ at the lower end .or in the newer
washer: throhuth an opening at the side of the trou-,h Frequently
the phlospliate ro-ci: i; pl,.sed thronoh a second lo of:, the -arme
type as the first, and in all cases receives a final ringing while pa;s-
ing1 over screenl!.


In the hard rock phosphate mines of Florida the coarse phos-
phate after leaving the rinser is made to pass over a picker belt,
which is usually made in the form of a large revolving table. The
phosphate rock remains on the picker belt during one complete
revolution of the table, being carefully inspected by men and boys
stationed around the table. The inferior rock, clay balls, flint and
limestone fragments, so far as recognized, are picked out and dis-
carded at this time, thus bringing up the grade of the shipment.
In the land pebble mines the phosphate rock from the last washer
falls on jig screens, the finer of which are 3-64 or 1-32 inch mesh.
From these screens the rock is elevated by endless cup chains to
the loading bin.

After being taken from the pit the phosphate rock must be
dried before being marketed. Two methods of drying are in use.
The first of these, which is adapted to drying coarse rock, consists
in piling the phosphate rock on ricks of wood. The wood is then
burned, thus drying the rock. This method assists somewhat in
cleaning, since clay and sand, adhering to the rock, tend after dry-
ing to loosen and fall away in subsequent handling.
The second method of drying, which is now largely employed,
is by the use of heated rotary cylinders through which the rock
is passed. The rock is introduced usually at the. cool end of the
cylinder, and by means of various devices is made to pass through,
escaping at the furnace or heated end. Although well adapted to
drying small pebble rock, the coarser rock when dried by this meth-
od must first be crushed.


An important factor in the cost of producing phosphate rock
is the necessity of discarding the low grade rock, as well as that
which cannot be properly cleaned or separated from the minerals
with which it is associated. It is encouraging, however, to find
that through improved methods of mining the amount of phosphate
thus discarded is being gradually reduced, while the grade of rock
produced is maintained or advanced. In the modern phosphate
mining plants of Florida, practically no phosphate rock reaches the
dump except that which will pass a I-16, 3-64 or 1-32 inch mesh
screen, or is carried out with the overflow from the side opening

in t :i? i I ..'g c ji i11' 1 i ilt: : li i .c t'i I Il. IC li Iilji .l rl, l- I, -
di: til lI .I i. .: *; ] Il il [ I l l| I e I d e I 2I I. :. : .It.* Il lj t l 11l i* lil

1. _. L, ti i 1.. i.:, i t, i i .. i ;, -i ii .., 'I I l I r i. i 1 11ii

I le 11111ii- l1 1 i- 1< I IIL I 11 i ]i l: -i i : l I ili .tir i i
eii M'ie liii i ii tI a i:i l |ili e i \ i I c l l ie. t 11 le 11-, 1 th l it n l.: I

,'i _- 'iji iiit i-~, im .- t,: 1 tr ,. ,' i i t l t I-i) .r L ~',I i l a1, i -.r- ll .-.
''., eI l ,: 1 1,','1 ,11 tf1 -: ii, l I,, :,:- lit L ,l lz1 a 11C1 li it ii 11'i,-, 1 1r -vz

!,,_ I L --[,:.:. I *, I l I ,l:, l ,l ll lll] ,! t i,:, I L i =1" 1 i I i l IIC I.1 ]L ,L, 1 ,.11" "

tle-l I c-iti. c I l, .i tle iii v.hl.:i ,: :,i ,I r .. .:k t I.t i- I, ir,,

I n i:t i ItrI rr, t 1te,'l

1i i '_ ... i ,: 1 [,l,...l .. ,a i ll j:rr a ll ., i |'... r,-[. i.i ... ... I l .'l '. ..[: ., I.

I.r ir. :-l, ,,,, r .,.: .. T I. r.? .. [ 1. .1 1 .l.. .. .. I- i ..... I. r.. .1 rh l

, .-,l r .. I ,. I .. ', I. I l I,. .,,.l. i i,, I r .:..L .: ,r .. In, 1 : hI

I r I P i T, T rI .- 'i I'll Il'- l %iI T i'.l 'i'1



The Southern States at the present time are pre-eminently the
source of phosphate rock in the United States, the total rock mined
elsewhere in America being not more than I0,000 or II,0oo tons
per annum. In fact this section contributes fully one-half of the
phosphate rock of the world. The production from the United
States in 1913 was 3,III,221 long tons, all of which, with the
exception of 5,053 tons, was from the southern states.*


The phosphate deposits of the Southern States are widely dis-
tributed. Those states that are actively producing rock are:
Arkansas, Tennessee, South Carolina and Florida. At least five
other states, namely, Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia
and Alabama are known to have phosphates or phosphatic marls
of value to agriculture. The Kentucky deposits are being worked
to a limited extent, and in former years a limited amount of rock
was mined in North Carolina and in Alabama. The phosphates
of Georgia have been partially prospected, while those of Virginia
are of recent discovery. In preparing an account of these different
deposits, the writer has necessarily drawn upon the many excellent
papers relating to the phosphate deposits of the Southern States
by various writers, to whom he acknowledges his indebtedness.


The phosphates of South Carolina occur as a nodular and pebbly
stratum lying upon a phosphatic marl. The phosphate stratum has
a thickness of from 6 to 14 inches. The phosphate rock, as seen
after being washed, includes light colored irregular pieces, dark
bluish black irregular pieces, small flattened black phosphatic peb-
bles, and phosphatic casts of shells. The overburden at the mine
examined by the writer showed a depth of from 6 to 18 feet con-
sisting of residual materials, largely sand and clay.
The South Carolina deposits are of much interest as having
been the first phosphates mined in America. In fact, the begin-

*The Production of Phosphate Rock in r913, By W. C. Phalen. Mineral
Resources of the United States, Pt. II, p. 273, 1914.


i 'n, ,L owning 1i these ,d po,-, s da, t:s a-li sti L h.: b...,niniirig ,of
the use -If mineral fertilizer-. The first mineral phosphate to be
usedI by the modern ni':thod.ls of treating ..'ith -ulphuric acid Wecre
made in England in ii41. w\'hile plan tfor using the South Caro-
lina phosphates were made as early 3as i .o. and actual inidng
Lbe-eai in 1867.
The grade of rock produced in the South Carolina F'.I.:s for
rock properlyv v.an:hed and dried. permnit- a guarantee -of about io
per cent tricalcium phoslphate. Th,: age of the ,South Carolina-
ph.oi pl-ates, as is often the case with this clazs of :l':posits. i= hard
te determine, cv..ing to the mix.:ed chiararctr ot the beds. for. while
the pliosr-iates re-t upon til. Eoc-ne marl. theY are tlemsel.e. ,of
later dat':.
The Arkansa- pthosphate- that are Ibeng worked are found as
b:edded depo-l its within shale. lying b,.t-v:cen limnestones. TI :- over-
lying formation, tli: St. Clair Imestone. according to Purdue is
,:f Silurian a'ze. \vIile the iunderl. ing formation, tle Polk Pa'.ou
Linicstcne. is *:Of Ordl:'. ician age" Th,. -hlales. w itiin which the
phosplhate occursr. are belie e:l to be tlh to:p mniiliber of the Ordo-
ician. Tlie phoslhate beds are variable in character, ranging
from tlio:e that are brown and sandv an- of loa.. grade to: tl:ose
that on the fresh surface are 1:.lue gray, apparently without sand,
and of uniform te::tur, and color. Two beds are usually present.
The upper b':ld. tle o:nly one being ,worked. i- described l1:' Purdue
as a compact, hominio.eneoius. light gray rock. The col:r is -aid
to be du:- to small vhiite particles reeenil:lint; fraziment:s of bone
that are thoroughl'j mixed with a gra',ish dark material. The
Yrav material is made up of particles of varyin.- size, some so
-mall that they\ can be seen nl\y with the lens. while others arc as
large as one-fourth inch in diameter. These particles are more or
le-s angular, some of them di-tincitl -o. making the stone on-
gl.lomeratic in character. Near th," i surface expo':su-re of the rock.
the lie has been leached out Lb surface '.at.:rs and the rock ap-
pears black in color. This rock is richer in phosphate than un-
i l.atlieredi material.
The loeer Led of plio-sphate. which is not bein w*.orked. is .im-
ilar in character to the upper, th-ou:,-gh dark,'r in color. more com-

*U. S. G- cc1 Surve,, Bull '15.. pr' 4'..-. ?3. i' "


pact, and, so'far as observed, not conglomeratic. The dark color
is believed to be due to the smaller amount of white material and
possibly to a larger amount of iron and manganese. The two beds
are separated by a thin layer of manganese iron ore. In addition
to the developed locality more or less phosphatic material occurs
as nodules and pebbles in the Devonian shales and sandstones."
The phosphate rock that has been produced in Arkansas is said
to average about 65 per cent tricalcium phosphate. No phosphate
rock was produced in Arkansas during the year 1913.-


In Tennessee several more or less distinct types of phosphate
occur, only two of which, however, blue rock and brown rock, are
being mined at present. The blue phosphate occurs as a bedded
deposit within, but forming the lowest member of the Chattanooga
formation of Devonian age, and resting directly upon Ordovician
limestone. The blue phosphates are said to vary in grade from
about 30 to 85 per cent tricalcium phosphate. Iron and aluminum
in the better grade of rock aggregate less than three per cent. The
beds vary in thickness from zero to S0 inches, although the bed
furnishing high grade rock rarely exceeds 20 inches in thickness.
The brown rock of Tennessee is at the present time of greater
commercial importance than the blue rock. This rock occurs in
irregular deposits lying near the surface and resting on limestone.
The overburden consists usually of residual material including clay,
some phosphate and a limited amount of sand. Its thickness is
. extremely variable, although averaging 8 or io feet. The phosphate
consists of a shelly rock, breaking up into pieces of varying size,
and of small variegated pebbles which in mass have a dark brown
color. Locally the small pebble rock predominates, forming a
scarcely coherent mass having a brownish color. A phase of the
material, known locally as "muck" deposit, consists of a mass of
small pebbles, often not exceeding a pin head in size. The under-
lying limestone has an irregular top surface, and not infrequently
projects into the phosphate stratum. The limestone is dense and

*The Phosphate Deposits of Arkansas, by John C. Branner, Amer. Inst.
Min. Eng. Trans. xxvi, pp. 58o-598, 1896.
tMineral Resources of the United States. Calendar year 913,--part 2,
p. 285, 1914.


1;ia :i bliii:h Icast, and is more or less phosphatic. The age of this
iun'd:i I, iii, iimestone is Ordovician.


l i ll::lh.-hate produced in Florida includes, as previously
sltedJ. t.:I hIds, namely, hard rock and land pebble phosphates.
Thii iaiit,: in which the hard rock phosphate is imbedded is
e.:i re~nl\ : i.able. The formation includes a mixture of materials
l: va.n riun- sources and of the most diverse character, further
cii:ri1lCc;tLedi L.y pronounced chemical activity within the formation
it.elf. The prevailing phase of the formation is feebly coherent,
nit..i- :,i I Iihosphatic, light gray sand. Aside from these sands
thl principal materials of the formation are clays, phosphate rock,
IliLt b:'nuA'j~:. limestone inclusions, pebble conglomerate, erratic
ali.1 '-':.i-t:.ial waterworn flint pebbles, vertebrate and invertebrate
f..:ilm, anl occasional l pieces of silicified tree trunks.
iThe .ra,- :;ands may be observed in every pit that has been
i:::.t, ;a.l in thlis section. Moreover, from drill and prospect holes
:t i: Inl.:',. i that these sands occur very generally over the inter-
t.ein111 .: I.i ren area. The sands are of medium coarse texture,
rl e 'r.llin:. L.crig roughly angular. The amount of phosphate asso-
ci:te-d \\ ith tih.:se sands is variable. When affected byslow decay
.11n.1 I' :'*ii. carrying more or less iron in solution, they become
ICA1'lih ..r .-.l:ire yellow in color. Lithologically these sands re-
i.il.l,, :1.- lI. the gray phosphatic sands of the Alum Bluff forma-
tiont :i ;cern at the type locality at Alum Bluff, on the Apalachi-
ci,_l. River
Thi-e 1.i. : In this formation occur locally as clay lenses im-
1:-ddld in tlic .and, or separating the sand from the phosphate rock,
.:'r .:,rrl, in. tile phosphate rock. The clays are often of a light
I..iift .-r lli: co_'lor. When lying near the surface, however, they
often ._.:x:1-'l: to varying shades of red. The relative amount of
:lav in the plo1 -phate-bearing formation increases in a general way
in p-a-'in' to the south. The exposures in the southern part of
th,: ai;-:a I,:'.:. 'is a rule more clay than do similar exposures in the
r:irheri- pl.irt of the area. The phosphate boulders seem to have
a ten.l,1.;K rt.: group .a!'.-Ltr. and to be associated with local clay
len;.: Frequently the productive pit gives place laterally to
barren gray :ainds.


Flint boulders occur locally in this formation in some abun-
dance, and occasionally phosphate pits that are otherwise workable
are abandoned orn account of the number of flint boulders encoun-
tered. The flint boulders are usually oval or somewhat flattened
in shape and are of varying size, some weighing several tons. Some
of the boulders are hollow and occasionally the cavity is filled
with water; other boulders are solid, compact and of a bluish color
throughout. Limestone inclusions are frequent in this formation.
Phosphate rock, although the constituent of special economic
interest, nevertheless makes up a relatively small part of the forma-
tion. The phosphate in these deposits occurs as fragmentary rock,
boulder rock, plate rock or pebble. The boulders are often of large
size, in some instances weighing several tons, and must be broken
up by blasting before being removed from the pit. It is also nec-
essary to operate a rock crusher in connection with all hard rock
phosphate mines to reduce the larger pieces of rock to a size suit-
able for shipping. The relative amount of material that it is
necessary to handle to obtain a definite amount of phosphate is al-
ways variable with each pit and with the different parts of any
one pit. The workable deposits of phosphate lying within this
formation occur very irregularly. While at one locality the phos-
phate may lie at the surface, elsewhere it may be so deeply buried
as not to be economically worked; while a deposit once located may
cover more or less continuously a tract of land some acres in ex-
tent, elsewhere a deposit, appearing equally promising on the sur-
face, may in reality be found to be of very limited extent. As to
location, depth from surface, extent into the ground, lateral extent,
quantity and quality, the hard rock phosphate deposits conform to
no rule. The desired information is to be obtained only by exten-
sive and expensive prospecting and sampling.
The materials above the phosphate deposits include pale yellow
incoherent sand and in some localities clayey sand. The incoher-
ent sands are variable, an average thickness being from 5 to 15
feet, although as much as 30 feet have been observed.
In practically all published literature the hard rock phosphates
of Florida are referred to as of Vicksburg, Lower Oligocene age,
Although resting upon the Vicksburg limestone, the formation is
apparently of Pliocene age, for, although fossils older than
the Pliocene are present, yet these are derived from the formations
that have disintegrated.


111ie land Ip-eLL le phlosphate deposits of southern Florida are
much mo:,re unolirm iI their manner of occurrence than are the
hard rock d.o'-sits. TI,.. phosphate is in the form of pebble rock
nilbedtded in a matn:: of clay, sand and soft phosphate. Although
.ariable from rlace to place the phosphate bed has an average
tlicl:rnss c .-f frot'.'m to I:- feet, its maximum thickness being from
I> to 2.2 feet. The overburden, which consists largely of sand
an. -andlv c.las itl-h l.cal indurated or calcareous ledges, has an
avera .e tlicilCkne: i, frIom 10o to 14 feet.
Thle L'e.-t grade :if land pebble rock when properly washed, dried
an.l celecto.l i.rnllilr a guarantee of 75 or 76 per cent tricalcium
Ipho.:phate O.ther gradlc- on the market range from 62 to 75 per
cent The hard rock pho.:-phates average from 79 to 83 per cent,
altlio:.uiig selected samples, run as high as 84 or 85 per cent trical-
ciu ii pliosplhate.
Practical. all of the hard rock phosphate mined in Florida is
exported, that t-ed in \America amounting to not more than 15 or
18 tlSiouSiand ton per annumn. Of the land pebble phosphate pro-
dluccd a little m-ire than :one-third is now being exported.


The i>ph.;lhat .:lep:sit; in Kentucky resemble in a general way
the bronii rock of Terine.see. According to Gardner* the phos-
lphate is in thle f.:ilii f lo:...se rock, consisting of thin plates and
finel co:,nirninuted material mixed with some clay, the whole being
of a darl: broiin color. Thi hard rock plates vary from light gray
to dark brui'n and are usually rather dense. These plates vary in
size fr-om thlc granular form up to pieces that weigh several pounds.
The dlelp:,olt as \\a lle occur in blanket form on limestone and
are c :,ered bv- clay and sojil. As in the case of the brown rock
phl:,-phatc of Tei!ne;iee tlh deposits are extremely irregular both
as to tlickicsk- and extent. Gardner states that the deposits orig-
inate from -e:ondarv concertration from the process of weathering
of plhophat limnt.-tone. The surface of the underlying rock is
irreg.ular alnd naturally the bottom of the phosphate conforms with
it: at -:ome place: it u.idldenly deepens and at others rock horses
rise in the plho:,rhat bedsv-. The cover of clay and soil varies from
about 2 to more than i: feet, being thicker on the tops than on
the sides of ,ill' an- ridges

*F,'.:.,: PIh,.piriTe ;ri K rr,:l'..* Mines and Minerals, Nov., 1912, pp. 207-209.



The recently discovered phosphate deposits of southwestern Vir-
ginia, if not of sufficient grade and quantity to be of economic value,
are nevertheless of much scientific interest. The beds, which con-
tain the phosphate nodules and grains, lie near the base of the De-
vonian, and are a little less than a foot thick. The highest grade
rock at this locality was found to contain 54.97 per cent tricalcium
phosphate, although the average of the rock is of somewhat lower
grade. While the phosphate was found.at only two localities, the
strata with which it is associated were traced for a distance of
twenty miles, and it is probable that additional phosphate localities
will be discovered.*

The phosphate deposits of North Carolina lie in a belt extend-
ing from the South Carolina line nortlhwestward to the Neuse
River. The area is from 15 to 2o miles wide and lies from 20
to 25 miles from the coast. The layer of phosphate rock is said
to le from 6 to 20 inches thick. The rock occurs in lumps, shading
from a light gray to dark green, and varying in size from rocks
weighing half a pound to half a ton or more. Analysis of a con-
siderable number of samples indicated that deposits could be se-
Itcted that would run from 28 to 57 per cent tricalcium phosphate.
Another type of deposits found in North Carolina is that known
as conglomerate rock, which was worked to, a limited extent from
about 1885 to 1899, the rock being ground and applied as raw
phosphate to the soil.- This deposit, consisting of coprolites and
fish bones has a thickness of from 3 to 5 feet, and in places under-
lies a limestone or marl. A sample of the conglomerate as a whole
was found to contain only 1 I.I6 per cent tricalcium phosphate, the
balance being chiefly calcium carbonate, silica, iron and aluminum.
A number of the coprolites from the conglomerate ground up and
mixed, analyzed about 30 per cent tricalcium phosphate.


A small amount of phosphate was mined in Alabama in 1887,
although operations were afterwards discontinued. The phos-

*Phosphate Deposits in Southwestern Virginia, by George W. Stose, U. S.
Geol. Sur. Bull. 540-L. 1913.
tU. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources, 1883 and 1884, pp. 788-793.


.iiate- *" thi. ..tal'; :ar found in both the Cretaceous and the Ter-
timi. i 1. na[ 1., Tllie Cretaceous strata, extending into Missis-
l'ii -,iaiiti iir' -. _--. less phosphatic m material *


"'li ]Ili...il;Lie- ..,f Georgia are found in the Coastal Plain de-
[.I.. ;i l. Ai Ilt.1.1 A, low grade, are widely distributed.-f

__--F,,.:, i,. .:, burdenn from phosphate rock in Florida by hydraul-
,I.:1 -n Tl., ,, ,.1,,.! -, ,s seen in this view, presents the usual condition,
.-.:. .,... -. il :.r f.. ir feet of loose light colored sand beneath which is
f.-., .t ...:rI i,_.. ,-. f .-I, ey and sandy material. The bank is knocked to
[,-i:.:,:- I -, lh ir, ,riL ,-,- .. iter and after being washed into the sump hole, is
[I[|I:..: 'c:, tl,, ,:r. .]iinp. The phosphate stratum which lies beneath is
: ..-,r-l r...:. i,:! ;n Ile same way, being pumped through pipe lines to the
SI:"r rip'nr TIe r.iL:,-niate washer and also the waste dump are seen in
ti, I.. _1-,r.., I i,:.,. 11 : view may be seen also type of country in which the
n I, ..1.1. 1.I li,.: :rI... l, ,-. Florida are found. The land is level, or but slightly
I,:l- L Ir. liir.. i.il..i.r growth, chiefly long-leaf pine, is now largely re-
i ..:.. I-

i I... li.--..hli I: ir-..l Marls of Alabama, by Eugene A. Smith, Geological
:', -. i' Ill. i.1 ':r..-:rt on the Coastal Plain of Alabama, pp. 449-525, 1895;
ari .l ..r in.i : l.i rin.rl Trans. xxv, pp. 8iI-S22, 1896.
t.'. i'r-l,'ii,~s.. r". i. .rt on a Part of the Phosphates and Marls of Georgia,
!.. i \\ .!... ill,:. I:-.:.i.I Eirv. of Georgia, Bulletin No. 5-A, 1896.



In the production of phosphate, the United States is easily the
leading country of the world, contributing from the well known
fields of Florida, Tennessee, South Carolina, Arlansas and the
new fields in the western United States approximately 3,000,000
tons of a total world production of between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000
tons. Florida alone, at the present time, contributes over 2,500,000
tons per annum. The statistics for 1911, the latest date of which
approximately complete returns are available, show the world pro-
duction of phosphate to be approximately 6,145,413 metric tons,
of which the United States produced 3,102,131 metric tons, or
slightly more than one-half.*
Aside from the United States, the principal phosphate coun-
tries of the world are Northern Africa, including Tunis, Algeria
and Egypt; Continental Europe, including France, Belgium and
Russia, the latter at present producing but little rock; the South
Sea Islands, including Ocean, Naura, Anguar, Makatea and other
islands of lesser importance in the Pacific Ocean, and Christmas
Island in the Indian Ocean; the Dutch West Indies, including
Aruba, Curacao and Lesser Curacao Islands in the Caribbean Sea.
In addition a small amount of phosphate rock is produced in Can-
ada, Australia and South Africa, while from. a number of other
localities, both on the continents and on the Islands of the Sea,
discoveries of phosphate rock are reported, some of which, without
doubt, will be found to be of commercial importance.


Tunis, a small province in northern Africa bordering the Med-
iterranean Sea, owned by France, leads among foreign countries in
the production of phosphate rock. The companies operating in
these fields during 1912 were as follows: Compagnie des Phos-
phates et du Chemin de Fer d Gafsa; Societe des Phosphates Tu-
nisiens; Compagnie des Phosphates du Dyr; Societe anonyme des
Manufactures des Glaces et Produits chimiques de St. Gobain;
Societe Franc. d'Etudes et d'Exploitation des Phosphates en Tu-

*The Production of Phosphate Rock in 1913, by W. C. Phalen, Mineral
Resources of the United States, Calendar year 1913-Part IT, p. 279, 1914.