<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Administrative report
 The soils and other surface residual...
 The underground water supply of...
 Index
 Errata
 Back Matter


FGS FEOL



Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Portion of title: Annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some folded), maps (some folded, some in pockets) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Capital Pub. Co., State printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1910-1911
Copyright Date: 1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1907/08)-24th (1930-1932).
Numbering Peculiarities: Some parts of the reports also issued separately.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: Tenth to Eleventh, Twenty-first to Twenty-second, and Twenty-third to Twenty-fourth annual reports, 1916/18, 1928/30-1930/32 are issued in combined numbers.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0384
ltuf - AAA7300
oclc - 01332249
alephbibnum - 000006073
lccn - gs 08000397
System ID: UF00000001:00004
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 8 MBs ) ( PDF )

( INSTR )


Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
        Front Cover 4
        Front Cover 5
        Front Cover 6
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
    Administrative report
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    The soils and other surface residual materials of Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 16c
        Page 16d
        Page 16e
        Page 16f
        Page 16g
        Page 16h
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 64c
        Page 64d
        Page 64e
        Page 64f
        Page 64g
        Page 64h
        Page 64i
        Page 64j
        Page 64k
        Page 64l
        Page 64m
        Page 64n
        Page 64o
        Page 64p
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The underground water supply of West-central and West Florida
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
        Page 112b
        Page 112c
        Page 112d
        Page 112e
        Page 112f
        Page 112g
        Page 112h
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Index
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Errata
        Page 176
    Back Matter
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
Full Text





Google-




This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.
We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.
+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.
+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.
+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web
at http://books.google.com/




-4.


,* "
.- '

w m. .. ,. _A. .
F E. -IO Wt"


Annual report
^^Florida Geolgical Surve






























































IDigitized by O gle


( BERKELEY
LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA


EARTH
SCIENCES
LIBRARY










FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST












FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT
1910-11













ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT ANI)

ACCOMPANYING

PAPERS



: ...*. *:":" : ; .-








PUBLISHED FOB
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1912 Digitized by Google











EARTH
SCIENqCES
LIRARY


Digitized by Google



























LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


To His Excellency, Hon. Albert W. Gilchrist,
Governor of Florida.
Sir-In accordance with the Survey Law I submit herewith a
report of the progress of investigations made by the Geological Sur-
vey for the year ending June 30, 1911.
Very respectfully,
E. H. SELLARDS,
State Geologist.
















282700


Digitized by Google









CONTENTS.
PAGe
Administrative Report ............................................ xi
Publications issued ........................................... xl
Publications available for distribution......................... xl
Distribution of reports ........................................ xn
The purpose and duties of the Geological Survey .................. xn
Samples sent to the Survey for examination ...................... xxIT
Financial statement ............................................. xxv
The Soils and Other Surface Residual Materials of Florida, by E. II. Sellards
Introduction.
Formations from which the soils of Florida are derived ...... 7
Oligocene ....................................... 7
Vicksburg limestone .......................... .8
Table of geologic formations in Florida.......... 9
Chattahoochee formation ..................... 12
Tampa formation ............................. 13
Hawthorne formation .......................... 14
Alum Bluff formation .......................... 14
M iocene ......................... ............... 14
Jacksonville formation ........................ 14
Choctawhatchee marl ......................... 16.
Pliocene ........................................ 16
Caloosahatchee marl .......................... 16
Nashua m arl ................................ 16
Alachua clay ................................ 16
Bone Valley formation ........................ 16
Dunnellon formation .......................... 16
Pleistocene .................................... .. 17
M iami limestone ............................. 18
Key W est limestone ........................... 18
Key Largo limestone .......................... 18
Anastasia formation ........................... 18
Unclassified grits, sands,'and sandy clays ............. 19
Surface sands .................................... 22
Age of the sands and sandy clays .................... 25
Topography .......................................... 27
Controlled by Oligocene limestones .................. 28
The gulf hammock belt ........................ 28
The hard rock phosphate belt ................... 29
Middle Florida hammock belt ................... 30
The lake region .............................. 30
Controlled by Pleistocene limestones ................. 31
Non-limestone sections of the State .................. 32
Influence of drainage on soils ...................... 35
Organic matter .............................. 35
The color ................................... 35
The water table .............................. 36
The hardpan ................................. 37
Translocation of clay particles .................. 38
Soils ................................................... 39
General considerations ................................ 39
The chemical elements ............................ 39
Chemical elements essential to plant growth............ 41
Relative abundance of the essential plant elements ..... 41
Plant food taken from the soil ..................... 42
Calcium ..................................... 42
Iron ........................................ 43
M agnesium ................................... 43
Nitrogen .................................... 43
Phosphorus .................................. 44
Potassium .................................. 44
Sulphur ..................................... 44
Plant food taken from the water and from the atmosphere 44
Hydrogen .................................... 44
Oxygen ...................................... 45
Carbon ......... .... ....... .... .6iiize 6Goo e46









CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Fertilizers and fertilization .......................... 48
Chemical Analyses ................................ 48
Soil form ation ....................................... 49
Rocks of the earth's crust ......................... 49
Igneous rocks ................................ 49
Secondary or sedimentary rocks ................. 50
Disintegration of rocks ............................ 52
Changes of temperature ....................... 52
Frost and freezing ............................ 53
W ind ...................................... 53
W ater ...................................... 53
Plants and animals ........................... 55
Accumulation of disintegrated material ............. 55
Classification of soils ................................. 56
R esidual soils .................................... 56
Residuo-sedimentary soils .......................... 56
Transported soils ................................. 57
Colluvial soils ............................... 57
Other terms descriptive of soils ............ ........ 58
Soil names in use in the Bureau of Soils .............. 58
Soil literature ........................................... 62
Soil types in Florida ...................................... 63
P ine lands .......................................... 63
Rolling pine ..................................... 63
Flatwoods ....................................... 66
Palmetto flatwoods ........................... 66
Open flatwoods .............................. 70
Pine land of the Miami limestone .................. 71
Ham m ock lands ...................................... 72
Calcareous hammock .............................. 72
Clay ham m ock ................................... 73
Sand h ills ........................................... 73
Sand dunes ......................................... 74
Scrub . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . 7 4
Prairie and savanna ................................... 75
Marsh and muck ...................................... 75
The Everglades of Florida ........................... -... 76
A lluvial lands ........................................ 78
Sw am p lands ........................................ 79

T e Water Supply of West-Central and West Florida-lBy E. II. Sellards and
Herman Gunter.
Introduction ............................................. 87
Location ............................................ 87
C lim ate ............................................. 87
Temperature ......................... ............ 88
R ainfall ........................................ 89

Artesian Water Supply ..................................... S9

County Reports .......................................... 91

Escam bia County ..................................... 91
Location and surface features ................. . . 91
E levation ................ : ........ .............. 93
Drainage ........................................ 94
Area of artesian flow................. .............. 94
Local details ..................... ............... 95

Santa Rosa County..................................... 101
Location and surface features ....................... 101
E levation ....................................... 102
Drainage ........................................ 102
Area of artesian flow ............................... 103
Local details ............................. . igiti.zed. yG d e4g e





CONTENTS.
PAGE.
W alton County ...................................... 107
Location and surface features ...................... 107
Elevation ....................................... 108
Drainage ....... ......... ............... 108
Area of artesian flow .............................. 108
Local details .................................... 109

Holmes County ...................................... 111
Location and surface features. . . . . . . . . . . 111
Elevation ....................................... 111
D rainage ........................................ 111
Artesian wells .................................... 112
Local details .................................... 112

W ashington County ................................... 113
Location and surface features ....................... 113
Elevation ....................................... 115
Drainage ........................................ 115
Area of artesian flow .............................. 115
Local details .................................... 116
Jackson County ...................................... 119
Location and surface features ....................... 119
Elevation ........................................ 119
Drainage ........................................ 120
Artesian wells ................................... 120
Local details .................................... 120
Calhoun County ...................................... 123
Location and surface features ....................... 123
Elevation ....................................... 123
Drainage ........................................ 123
Area of artesian flow.............................. 123
Local details .................................... 124
Gadsden County ..................................... 125
Location and surface features ....................... 125
Elevation ....................................... 126
Drainage ............................ ............. 127
Artesian wells ................................... 127
Local details .................................... 128
Liberty County ....................................... 129
Location and surface features ....................... 129
Elevation ......................... ............. 129
D rainage ...................................... 129
Area of artesian flow .............................. 129
Local details .................................... 130
Franklin County ..................................... 131
Location and surface features ....................... 131
Elevation ....................................... 131
Drainage ........................................ 131
Area of artesian flow .............................. 131
Local details ..................................... 132
Leon County ........................................ 133
Location and surface features ....................... 133
Elevation .................. . ............... 137
Local details........................................ 188
W akulla County ..................................... 139
Location and surface features ....................... 139
Elevation ....................................... 140
D rainage ........................................ 140
Artesian wells .................................... 140
Local details ....................... ... .' -, le141
Digitized by "008







CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Jefferson County ..................................... 143
Location and surface features....................... 143
Elevation ........................................ 143
Drainage ........................................ 144
Artesian wells ................................... 144
Local details ..................................... 144

Madison County ...................................... 146
Location and surface features ....................... 146
Elevation ....................................... 146
Drainage ....... ................................ 146
Artesian wells ......................... ........ 146
Local details ..................................... 147

Taylor County ........................................ 149
Location and surface features....................... 149
Elevation ....................................... 149
Drainage ........................................ 149
Artesian wells ................................... 150
Local details .................................... 150

Lafayette County ..................................... 153
Location and surface features. ..................... 153
Elevation ................. ....... .............. 153
Drainage ....................................... 153
Artesian wells ................................... 154
Local details .................................... 154

Production of Phosphate in Florida during 1910, by E. H. Sellards. 157
Production of Phosphate in Florida during 1911, by E. H. Sellards. 161
Production of Fullers Earth in Florida during 1910 and 1911, by
E H Sellards ....................................... 167
Index .................................................. 169
E rrata ................................................. 176





























Digitized by Google










PLATE NO.
1. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.


2.



3.



4.


5.



6.


7.


S.



9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.




15.




16.


Fig.

Fig.

Fig.

Fig.

Fig.
Fig.

Fig.

Fig.

Fig.
Fig.


ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATES
Ocala phase of the Vicksburg Limestone........
Exposure of the Chattahoochee Limestone near
River Junction ............................

Exposure of the Dunnellon formation in Citrus
C county ...................................
Exposure of Bone Valley formation in Polk County

Exposure of Anastasia formation on Anastasia
Island, St. Johns County .....................
Exposure of Miami oolite near Miami ...........

Exposure in cut at Nicholson, Gadsden County ...
Quiescent sand dune two miles west of Daytona. .

Pine land two miles south of Mayo, Lafayette
C county ...................................
Pine land near Juliette, Marion County. ........

Palmetto flatwoods, Nassau County ............
Exposure of hardpan........................


PAGE


16



16



16


16



64


64


Fig. 1. Long leaf pine growing in rolling sandy lands ....
Fig. 2. Long leaf pine growing in palmetto flatwoods .... 64

Fig. 1. Open flatwoods near DeLeon Springs, Volusla
County ..................................
Fig. 2. Open flatwoods in Nassau County .............. 64

Fig. 1. Calcareous hammock land in Volusla County ....
Fig. 2. Calcareous hammock land in Lee County. ....... G64

Fig. 1. Sand dune and scrub in Clay County ..........
Fig. 2. Big Scrub in Marion County ........ ........... ;4

Fig. 1. Alluvial land of the Apalachicola River .........
Fig. 2. Salt marsh near Mayport in Duval County. ...... 64

Fig. 1. The Everglades of Florida ....................
Fig. 2. Prairie land in Alachua County ................ 64

Fig. 1. The Chipola River in Calhoun County ..........
Fig. 2. Falling Water sink in Washington County ...... I13

Fig. 1. Clay pit of McMillan Brick Company in Escambia
County ...................................
Fig. 2. Flowing artesian well in Walton County ........
Fig. 3. Flowing artesian well in Walton County. ....... 113

Fig. 1. Porters Pond in Washington County ..........
Fig. 2. Exposure of Vicksburg Limestone In Washington
County ...................................
Fig. 3. Open pine lands in Holmes County. ........... 113

Fig. 1. Ponce de Leon Springs in Holmes County .....
Fig. 2. Open flatwoods near Choctawhatchee River in
Holmes County .............................

Fig. 3. Pine land west of the Chipola River in Calhoun
County ................................... 113
Digitized by Google









TEXT FIGURES.


Fig.
Fig.

Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.

Fig.
Fig.

Fig.

Fig.
Fig.

Fig.
Fig.
Fig.


Digitized by Google


Exposure of hardpan on Apalachicola Bay. ...
Sketch map of southern Florida shownig progress
of the drainage of the Everglades. .............
Swamp of the St. Marys River. ...............
Map of Florida west of the Suwannee River .....
Artesian slope .............................
Bluff facing Escambia Bay ...................
Area of artesian flow in Escaiubia and Santa Rosa
Counties ... . ............. . . . . . . .
Rolling pine lands in Santa Rosa County .......
Area of artesian flow in Walton, Holmes and
Washington Counties ........ . . . .
Sandstone ledge on Rock Hill in Washington
County ...................................
Exposure near Rock Bluff in Gadsden County...
Area of artesian flow in Calhoun, Franklin and
Liberty Counties ..........................
Wakulla Springs in Wakulla County. .........
Wacissa Springs in Jefferson County. ..........
Marshy prairie about five miles east of Greenville
in Madison County.........................

MAPS.


Limestone region of peninsular Florida. ........


PAGE.
37

77
79
86
88
90

95
103

105

117
127

135
141
145

155


PAGE.
32













FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST.


ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


The members of the State Survey during the past year have
been, in addition to the State Geologist, Mr. Herman Gunter, and
during a part of the year Dr. R. M. Harper. The chemical analyses
necessary to the work of the State Survey are made by the State
Chemist.
Mr. Gunter has assisted in the preparation of the paper on the
artesian water supply of west Florida. In addition he has had
charge of cataloging and recording the Survey collections.
Dr. Harper completed the preparation of a preliminary paper
on the peat resources of the State. The paper was published in
the Third Annual Report, 1910.
In Addition to the necessary correspondence and administrative
work of the office, the State Geologist has prepared a paper on the
soils of the State and on the artesian water supply of west-central
and west Florida.

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED.

The Third Annual Repprt, covering the operations of the Survey
to June 30, 1910, was issued during the year. In addition to this
report a bulletin was published on the roads and road materials of
the State.

PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOI DISTRIBUTION.

The following is a list of the publicationsissued by the Stale
Geological Survey since its organization and now ,available for dis-
tribulion:
1. First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida;
(2) a chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or
ball clay, brick-making clays, fullers earth, peat, lime and cement
and road-making materials: (3) a bibliography of public tions o
Digitized by OOg00







XII FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Florida geology, with a review of the more important papers pub-
lished previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey.
2. Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pis., 5 text figs., one map
This report contains: (1) A preliminary report on the geology
of Florida, with special reference to the stratigraphy, including a
topographic and geologic map of Florida, prepared in co-operation
with the United States Geological Survey; (2) the topography and
geology of Southern Florida; (3) mineral industries; (4) the fullers
earth deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits
found elsewhere in the State.
3. Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figs.
This report contains: (1) A preliminary paper on the Florida
phosphate deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3)
the artesian water supply of eastern Florida: (4) a preliminary
report on the Florida peat deposits.
4. Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figs., one map.
This report contains: (1) The soils and other surface residual
materials of Florida, their origin, character and the formations
from which derived; (2) the water supply of west-central and west
Florida; (3) the production of phosphate rock in Florida dui:ing
1910 and 1911.
5. Bulletin No. 1. The Underground Water Supply of Central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figs.
This Report contains: (1) Underground water; general discus-
sion; (2) the underground water of central Florida, deep and shal-
low wells, spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground
solution, cavities, sink-holes, disappearing streams and solution
basins; (4) drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands and disposal
of sewage by bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables giving gen-
eral water resources, public water supplies, spring and well record.
6. Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida. 1911,
31 pp., 4 pls.

DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS.

The reports issued by the State Survey are distributed upon re-
quest, and may be obtained free by addressing the State Geologist,
Tallahassee, Fla.

THE PURPOSE AND DUTIES OF THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

Among the specific objects for which, the Survey exists, as
stated in the enactment, is that of making known information re-
Digitized by Google








ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


guarding the minerals, water supply and other natural resources of
the State, including the occurrence and location of minerals and
other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water supply and
power and mineral waters and the best and most economic methods
of development, together with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral
waters, with maps, charts and drawings of the same.
A distinctly educational function of the Survey is indicated by
Section 4 of the law, which makes it the duty of the State Geologist
to make collections of specimens, illustrating the geological and min-
eral features of the State, duplicate sets of which shall be deposited
with each of the State colleges. The publication of annual reports
is provided for as a means of disseminating the information ob-
tained in the progress of the Survey.
The Survey is thus intended to serve on the one hand an eco-
nomic, and on the other an educational purpose.
In its economic relations a State Survey touches on very varied
interests of the State's development. In its results it may be ex-
pected, judging from the experience of similar surveys in other
States, to contribute not so much to sensational or sudden develop-
ment of geat mineral deposits as to an intelligent development of
the State's natural resources. Its educational value is of no less im-
mediate concern to the State, both to the citizens within the State
and to prospective citizens without.
A knowledge of the soil and of the available water supply is
very necessary to successful agriculture, and the Survey's investiga-
tions along these lines are of value to all landowners. A knowledge
of the mineral deposits, which may lie beneath the surface, is like-
wise necessary to a correct valuation of land. The relation of the
State Survey to the ownership of mineral lands is specifically de-
fined. The Survey law provides that it shall be the duty of the
State Geologist and his assistants, when they discover any mineral
deposits or substances of value, to notify the owners of the land upon
which such deposits occur before disclosing their location to any
other person or persons. Failure to do so is punishable by fine and
imprisonment. It is not intended by the law, however, that the
State Geologist's time shall be devoted to examinations and reports
upon the value of private mineral lands. Reports of this character
are properly the province of commercial geologists, who may be
employed by owners of land for that purpose. To accomplish the
best results, the work of the Survey must be in accordance with
definite plans by which the State's resources are investigated in an
orderly manner. Only such examinations of privatjian iC0fjlC








XIV FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

made as constitute a part of the regularly planned operations of
the Survey.

SAMPLES SENT TO THE SURVEY FOR EXAMINATION.

Samples of rocks, minerals and fossils will be at all times gladly
received, and reported upon. Attention to inquiries and general
correspondence are a part of the duties of the office, and afford
a means through which the Survey may in many ways be useful
to the citizens of the State.
The following suggestions are offered for the guidance of those
submitting samples:
1. The exact location of all samples should be given. This
should be carefully written out in full and placed on the inside of
the package.
2. The statement accompanying the samples should give the
conditions under which the specimen occurs, whether an isolated
fragment or part of a larger mass or deposit.
3. Each package should be addressed to the Florida State
Geological Survey, Tallahassee. The name and address of the
sender should be plainly written on the outside.
4. Transportation charges, whether by mail, express or freight,
should in all cases be prepaid.

THE COLLECTION OF STATISTICAL INFORMATION.

For many purposes the collection and publication of statistical
information is helpful, both to the industries concerned and to the
general public. Such statistical information is desired from all the
mineral industries-of the State. Such information will be recog-
nized as strictly confidential, in so far as it relates to the private
business of any individual or company, and will be used only in
making up State and County totals. The co-operation of the vari-
ous industries of the State is invited in order that the best possible
showing of the State's products may be made annually.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1911.

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is
$7,500 per annum. With the exception of the salary of the State
Geologist, the amount of which is fixed by .statute, all Survey ac-
counts are paid upon warrants issued by the Comptrrer, r
Digitized by a A,. ".









ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT.


itemized vouchers approved by the Governor. The following is
a list of the expenses of the Survey for the year ending June 30,
1911. The original of all bills and the itemized statements of all
expense accounts are on file in the office of the Comptroller. Dupli-
cate copies of the same are on file in the office of the State Geologist:

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1911.

July, 1910.
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary July, 1910 ............. $ .100.00
R. M. Harper, Asst., salary July 1-15, 1910, (one-half mo.). 50.00
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies. .................. 4.60
August, 1910.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, August, 1910 ..... 6.25
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary, August, 1910 .......... 100.00
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary, August 1910 ............ 100.00 "
Southern Express Company .......................... 3.81
September, 1910.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending
September 30, 1910. ............................ 625.00
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, Sept. 1910...... 59.33
Herman Gunter, Asst., salary (100.00),expenses (61.10)
September, 1910. ............................... 161.10
R. M. Harper, Asst., salary (100.00), expenses (31.18),
September, 1910. ............................... 131.18
D. R. Cox Furniture Company, index cards. ............. 2.18
H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies ..................... 8.88
October, 1910.
Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary, October, 1910 ......... 100.00
Southern Express Company ........................... 8.44
W. W. Trammell, rent of typewriter .................. .. 6.00
Maurice-Joyce Engraving Company, engravings. .......... 176.89
T. J. Appleyard, printing............................. 6.00
John McDougall, postage ............................. 50.00
November, 1910.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, Oct. and Nov. 1910 50.10
Herman Gunter, Asst., salary, November, 1910 .......... 100.00
R. M. Harper, Assistant, salary, 1910 .................. 100.00
The Science Press, publications ....................... 3.00
December, 1910.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending
December 31, 1910 ............................. 625.00
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, Dec. 1910 ........ 51.69
Herman Gunter, Asst., salary (100.00),expenses (63.65).
December, 1910 ................................. 163.65
N. H. Cox, Asst., salary, July, August and September. ........ 125.00
Ada Moore, stenographic services ..................... . 5.75
Dan Allen, freight and drayage ....................... . 1.90
Southern Express Company ........................... .. 10.58
American Journal Science, subscription ................. 6.00
Engineering and Mining Journal, subscription ............ 5.00
January, 1911.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, January, 1911 . 80.90
Herman Gunter, Asst., expenses, January, 1911. ......... 72.87
E. Gunter, clerical services, January, 1911. .............. 40.00
John McDougall, postage ............................ 108.50
Dan Allen, freight and drayage ........................ 38.52
H. & W. B. Drew Company, typewriter and supplies ...... 105.06
February, 1911-.
E. Gunter, clerical services, February, 1911.............. 8.75
Ada Moore, stenographic services .............. ....... |
John McDougall, postage ....................... Di 'itiz. by C1










XVI FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Dan Allen, freight and drayage ....................... 23.73
The Phosphate Industry, subscription .................. 6.00
American Journal Science, index to .................... 1.00
Ginn and Company, publications ........ ............... 2.34
Board of Managers, City Water and Light Plants, electric
bulbs .............. ........ ........... . .... 3.45
Macmillan Company, publications ............ . . . 4.34
The E. 0. Painter Printing Company, printing ............ 548.00
March, 1911.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending
M arch 31, 1911..... .............................. 625.00
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, March, 1911 ..... 47.25
Herman Gunter, Asst., salary for quarter ending March 31.
1911. .. ....................................... 300.00
Herman Gunter Asst., expenses, March, 1911 ............ 67.65
Ada Moore, stenographic services, March, 1911 ........... 40.00
Dan Allen, freight and drayage ...................... 12.29
D. R. Cox Furniture Company, office furniture. ........... 69.50
John McDougall, postage .......................... 50.00
Southern Express Company ......................... 8.63
April, 1911.
Ada Moore, services as stenographer ......... .......... 13.80
John McDougall, postage ........................... .. 5.00
T. J. Appleyard, printing ............................ 8.00
E. 0. Painter Printing Company, printing ................ 1.002.51
Wrigley Engraving and Electrotype Co., engravings. ...... 10.00
Dan Allen, freight and drayage ...................... 9.58
Southern Express Company ......................... 3.50
May and June, 1911.
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending
June 30, 1911 ................................ 625.00
E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, April, May, and
June, 1911 ... .................. ................ 4.10
Herman Gunter, Asst., salary for quarter ending June 30,
1911. .......................................... 300.00
Herman Gunter, Asst., expenses for April, May, June, 1911. 56.70
Ada Moore, stenographic services .................... 27.50
John McDougall, postage ............................. 109.96
Munson Supply Company, supplies .................... 3.50
American Institute of Mining Engineers, publications . ... 6.00
McGraw-Hill Book Company, publications .............. 15.50
University of Chicago Press, subscription .............. 3.00
Economic Geology Publishing Company, subscription ...... 3.00
The Record Company, printing ...................... 97.90
Southern Express Company ......................... 3.91

Total expenditures ...................................... $7,687.07
Balance available from preceding year ................. 186.97
Annual appropriation ............................... 7,500.00
O verdraw n ......................................... .10

$7,687.07


Digitized by Google





























THE SOILS AND OTHER SURFACE RESIDUAL MATERIALS
OF FLORIDA.
Their Origin, Character and the Formations from which Derived.

A STUDY IN AGROGEOLOGY.


BY E. H. SELLARDS.


Digitized by Google















CONTENTS.

Introduction. PAGE
Formations from which the soils of Florida are derived.......... 7
Oligocene ................................................. 7
Vicksburg limestone .................................. 8
Table of geologic formations in Florida.................. 9
Chattahoochee formation ............................. 12
Tampa formation ........................ ........... 13
Hawthorne formation .................................. 14
Alum Bluff formation .................................. 14
M iocene .................................................. 14
Jacksonville formation ................................. 14
Choctawhatchee marl .................................. 15
Pliocene .................................................. 16
Caloosahatchee marl .............. : ................... 16
Nashua m arl ................. ...................... 16
Alachua clay ..................................... . 16
Bone Valley formation ............ .......... ......... 16
Dunnellon formation ................................... 16
Pleistocene ................................................ 17
Miami limestone ....................................... 18
Key West limestone.................................... 18
Key Largo limestone.................................... 18
Anastasia formation .................................... 18
Unclassified grits, sands, and sandy clays.................... 19
Surface sands ............................................. 22
Age of the sarids and sandy clays.... ....... ............ ... 25
Topography ................................................... 27
Controlled by Ollgocene limestones ......................... 28
The gulf hammock belt .................................. 28
The hard rock phosphate belt ......................... 29
Middle Florida hammock belt..................... .. 30
The lake region ........................................ 30
Controlled by Pleistocene limestones .. .. .... ............. 31
Non-limestone sections of the State ......................... 32
Influence of drainage on soils..................... .. ...... 35
Organic matter ....................................... 35
The color ............................................. 35
The w ater table .................................. . 36
The hardpan ....................... .... ......... .. 37
Translocation of clay particles ............ ..... ... 38
Soils ................................................. .......... 39
General considerations ...................................... 39
The chemical elements ......................... ........ 39
Chemical elements essential to plant growth................ 41
Relative abundance of the essential plant elements........... 41
Plant food taken from the soil ............................ 42
Calcium ............................................... 42
Iron ............................. .................... 43
Magnesium ................ ........................ 43
N itrogen ........................................ ...... 43
Phosphorus ..................................... ... 44
Potassium ............................................. 44
Sulphur ............................................... 44
Plant food taken from the water and from the atmosphere.... 44
Hydrogen ... .......................................... 44
O xygen ................................................ 45
Carbon ................................................ 46
Fertilizers and fertilization ................................ 48
Chem ical Analyses .................................... 48
Digitized by "TOOS e








CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Soil form ation ........ ......................... ........... 49
Rocks of the earth's crust................................. 49
Igneous rocks ............... ......................... 49
Secondary or sedimentary rocks ....................... 50
Disintegration of rocks.................................... 52
Changes of temperature............................... 52
Frost and freezing ................................... 53
Wind .............................................'..... 53
Water .............................................. 53
Plants and animals .................................... 55
Accumulation of disintegrated material..................... 55
Classification of soils... ................................... 56
Residual soils .............................................. 56
Residuo-sedimentary soils ................................. 56
Transported soils ......................................... 57
Colluvial soils ........ ........... ...................... 57
Other terms descriptive of soils ............................ 58
Soil names in use in the Bureau of Soils.................... 58
Soil literature ................................:.................... 62
Soil types in Florida ................................................ 63
Pine lands ..................................................... 63
Rolling pine ........................................... 63
Flatwoods .................................................. 66
Palmetto flatwoods .................................... 66
Open flatwoods ...................................... 70
Pine land of the Miami limestone ......................... 71
Hammock lands ............................................... 72
Calcareous hammock ......................... ..... 72
Clay hammock ............................................. 73
Sand hills ..................................................... 73
Sand dunes .................................................... 74
Scrub .............................................. ......... 74
Prairie and savanna.......................................... 75
Marsh and muck........................... .................. 75
The Everglades of Florida ...................................... 76
Alluvial lands ................................................ 78
Swam p lands ....................... .... ................. 79

























Digitized by Google


















PLATE NO.
1. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.


2. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

3. Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

4. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

5. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

6. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

7. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

8. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

9. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

10. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

11. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

12. Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.



Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.


ILLUSTRATIONS.
FOLLOWING PAGE
Ocala phase of the Vicksburg Limestone.............
Exposure of the Chattahoochee Limestone near River
Junction ............................................. 16

Exposure of the Dunnellon formation in Citrus County.
Exposure of Bone Valley formation in Polk County.... 16

Exposure of Anastasia formation on Anastasia Island.
St. Johns County ..................................
Exposure of Miami oolite near Miami.................. 16'

Exposure in cut at Nicholson, Gadsden County........
Quiescent sand dune two miles west of Daytona....... 16

Pine land two miles south of Mayo, Lafayette County..
Pine land near Juliette, Marion County.............. 64

Palmetto flatwoods, Nassau County..................
Pine land near Juliette, Marion County................ 64


Long leaf pine growing in rolling sandy lands........
Long leaf pine growing in palmetto flatwoods.........

Open flatwoods near DeLeon Springs, Volusla County..
Open flatwoods in Nassau County....................

Calcareous hammock land in Volusla County..........
Calcareous hammock land in Lee County..............

Sand dune and scrub in Clay County..................
Big Scrub in Marion County..........................

Alluvial land of the Apalachicola River..............
Salt marsh near Mayport in Duval County.............

The Everglades of Florida ............................
Prairie land in Alachua County.................... . .

TEXT FIGURES.

Exposure of hardpan on Apalachicola Bay ............
Sketch map of southern Florida showing progress of
the drainage of the Everglades ................... ....
Swamp of the St. Marys River ................... . ...

MAP.


64


64


64


64


64


64


PAGE.
37

77
79


Limestone region of peninsular Florida............... 32


Digitized by Google














































Digitized by Google














THE SOILS AND OTHER SURFACE RESIDUAL MATERIALS OF FLORIDA

E. H. SELLARDS

INTRODUCTION.

FORMATIONS FROM WHICH THE SOILS OF FLORIDA ARE DERIVED.

The following classification and description of the formations in
Florida is adapted from the First and Second Annual Reports of
the Survey with such additions as subsequent investigations have
justified. In this brief review of the geology of the State it will be
convenient to describe the various formations in chronological order
beginning with the oldest or first formed. In this manner the sys-
tematic arrangement of the formations is more readily kept in mind.
The major divisions of geologic time are in order: Archeozoic,
Proterozoic, Paleozoic Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. All of the forma-
tions of Florida are included in the latest of these major divisions,
the Cenozoic.
The geologic periods represented in Florida are the Oligocene,
Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene and Recent. The formations found
in the State are listed in the table on page 9, and are briefly de.
scribed in subsequent pages of the report.

OLIGOCENE.

The Oligoeene, the earliest period recognized in Florida, includes
two main divisions known as Lower and Upper Oligocene respec-
tively. The Lower Oligocene includes the Vicksburg Limestone,
which is the basal formation underlying Florida, and which from its
great thickness and diversity in fauna and lithologic characters has
sometimes been referred to as the Vicksburg Group of Limestones.
The Upper Oligocene includes the Tampa, Hawthorne. Chattahoo-
chee, and Alum Bluff formations, known collectively as the Apalach-
icola Group.




Digitized by GoOgle








8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

LOWER OLIGOCENE.

THE VICKSBURG LIMESTONE.
The Vicksburg Limestone is an extensive formation, which.
although exposed over only a limited area, underlies the entire
State. As a formation it is not confined to Florida, but extends
into Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, being exposed at
the surface or reached by well borings over parts of each of these
States. In literature the reader will find the terms Marianna,
Peninsular, and Ocala limestones used for phases of the Vicksburg
formation. Some doubt remains as to whether these terms apply to
actual well marked divisions of the Vicksburg, or merely to varying
phases of that formation. In its relation to soils it will not be neces-
sary to describe separately these subdivisions of the formation.
While the Vicksburg Limestone varies in its lithologic charac-
ters it is prevailingly light colored and highly fossiliferous. As a
rule it is'a soft white limestone which crumbles easily and has a
granular appearance. Locally, however, it may be close grained.
compact and hard, and may be dull colored, or have a pinkish cast.
Locally, also, the formation contains masses or layers of flint.
These often occur as "hog backs" in the formation giving much diffi-
culty in mining the rock, and in drilling wells. The flint as well as
the compact phase of the limestone is due to deposition from solu-
tion by underground water. At Marianna, the type locality of the
"Marianna" phase of the formation, the limestone is particularly
soft and is there sawed into blocks of convenient size, as taken from
the earth, and is used for chimneys and for building purposes. Upon
exposure the limestone hardens. This is due to the fact that the
water filling the interstices of the rock holds calcium carbonate in
solution and this is precipitated. as the water evaporates, and acting
as a cement, hardens the rock.
The formations which lie above the Vicksburg rest unconform-
ably upon it apparently indicating erosion of this formation previ-
ous to the deposition of the later formations. In addition to these
irregularities there are further irregularities from subsequent ero-
sion due to solution by underground water. This dissolving effect
of underground water is continuously operating. Where the lime-
stone lies near the surface the results are observed in solution
basins, underground cavities, and numerous sinks.*
*For a description of the lake basins formed by solution, see Third An-
nual Report, pages, 43-76, 1910. A description of the sinks, underground
channels and disappearing streams will be found in Bulletin No. 1 .of the
Survey Report, 1908. Digitized by Google










THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


TABLE OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Formation.


Lithologic Description
of the Formation.


Sand dunes. Shell mounds.
Beach Sands. Coquina. Lacus-
trine deposits. Chemical depos-
its. Alluvial deposits. Muck and
Peat. Residual material.


Anastasia formation...... Coquina.
Light colored limestone, with
Palm Beach limestone.... sandy geds and loose sand.
Miami oolite.............. Light gray to white oolitic
limestone, sandy in places.
Key Largo limestone ..... Coralline liniestone; reef rock.
I Light gray to white oolitic
Pleistocene... Key West oolite.......... I stone. wh
Dark to light, hard to friable
Lostmans River limestone limestone, sandy or marl? in
places.
Unclassified clayey sands
and sandy clays of Plio-
cene or Pleistocene age.


SDunnellon formation.....
Bone Valley gravel .......
z Pliooene...... Alachua clay.............
SNashua Marl.............
Caloosahatchee marl......

Choctawhatchee marl (W.
Florida and St. Johns
Valley)
Miocene......
Jacksonville form a t 1 o n
(East Coast)


Alum Bluff formation....

Hawthorne fo rma tion
(Central Florida).

Chattahoochee formation
Oligocene... (West Florida).

Tampa formation (South
Florida).

Vicksburg formation.....


Hard rock phosphate.
Light colored gravel and mar'
containing phosphatic pebbles.
Greenish sandy clay, weather-
ing yellow or red.
Light colored sandy shell marl.
Light colored sandy shell marl.


Greenish to light gray sandy
shell marl or greenish gray
clay.
Light gray to white limestone,
weathering light yellow. Light
gray to yellow clay and gray
sand. Some chert beds.


Gray to green sands, fossillfer-
ous marls, clays and fullers
earth.
Yellow limestone, often phos-
phatic. Greenish or reddish
sands. Green clays.
Light yellow to gray earthy and
siliceous limestone, sometimes
cherty. Sand and clay rare.
Yellow limestones and greenish
clays. Some chert nodules and
layers.
Soft, porous, light gray to white
limestone containing marl beds
and layers of chert.


Digitized by Google


Period.



IR
Recent ......

t








10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The interstices and cavities of the rocks below the water line are
filled with water, the limestone being an important water-bearing
formation.
The areas in which the soils are derived solely from the Vicks-
burg are limited in extent, yet through the drainage and other con-
ditions arising from the presence of this formation the soils are
modified over large areas in the central part of peninsular Florida,
as well as in parts of the westward extension of the State.
In western Florida the Vicksburg formation is exposed at the
surface in places in the northern part of Jackson, Washington,
Holmes and Walton Counties. In Jackson County the exposures are
extensive along the Chipola River from near the north line of the
State to several miles below Marianna. From the Chipola River
west to Holmes Creek the Vicksburg lies near, the surface and is
locally exposed at the surface. Along the northern border of the
State surface exposures occur as far west as the Natural Bridge in
the. northeastern part of Walton County. The southern line of sur-
face exposure in western Florida is thus seen to extend from Nat-
ural Bridge in Walton County in a southeasterly direction, reach-
ing its greatest southward extension along the tributaries of Holmes
Creek in Washington County and the Chipola River in Jackson
County. From the Chipola River the line of surface exposure bends
northeast, crossing the Chattahoochee River above its union with
the Flint River.
To the southwest, south, and southeast of this line the Vicksburg
dips beneath later formations. At Pensacola the Vicksburg has
not been reached by wells exceeding 1,000 feet in depth. As Pensa-
cola is less than 100 miles southwest of the nearest surface exposure
of the Vicksburg in Walton County a dip is indicated exceeding an
average of ten feet to the mile in that direction. Although well ex-
posed along the Chipola River in Jackson County for some miles
above and below Marianna, yet directly east of Marianna the forma-
tion is not reached by the Apalachicola, notwithstanding the fact
that this river cuts deeper than the Chipola River. The formation
is found, however, along the Chattahoochee River. a tributary of the
Apalachicola, northeast of Marianna.
Beyond the limits of the surface exposure of this formation its
influence is still evident in the formation of occasional sink holes
and circular lakes, of which the lake at DeFuniak Springs is an
illustration. The lakes of central Washington County and of the
southwestern part of Jackson County probably have a similar ori-
gin. The basin of Lake Ocheesee in the southeastern pa of Jafk-
Digitized by "00 Cle








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


son County rests upon the Chattahoochee Limestone, the Vicksburg
being beneath this formation.
In Gadsden County between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee
Rivers the Vicksburg and the succeeding Chattahoochee limestone
are buried to such a depth beneath later clayey and sandy forma-
tions that they do not appreciably affect the surface topography. It
should be added, however, that the surface elevation in Gadsden
County is high, the plateau being approximately 300 feet above sea.
In the three counties lying next east of Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson,
and Madison, while the Vicksburg limestone is nowhere exposed, yet
the Chattahoochee limestone lying above it is occasionally exposed
and the surface topography shows in the formation of large basins
through solution and in the occasional formation of sinks, the effects
of the underlying soluble limestones. The Suwannee River cuts
through all of the later formations and exposes in its channel and
valley the upper Oligocene limestones, but does not reach, so far as
definitely determined, the Vicksburg. The northeastern part of
Suwannee County and the adjacent part of Columbia County resem-
ble Leon, Jefferson, and Madison Counties in that soluble limestone.
while only occasionally actually exposed, lie sufficiently near the
surface to affect the topography, resulting in the formation by solu-
tion of lake basins and sink holes. Over the northern part of Colum-
bia and Baker Counties and thence east to the Atlantic coast the
Oligocene limestone are buried to such a depth as not to affect the
topography. At Jacksonville the Vicksburg is buried to the depth
of 500 to 525 feet beneath later formations.
In peninsular Florida is found another extensive area, the topog-
raphy and soils of which are influenced either by the Vicksburg
Limestone itself or by this formation in connection with the overly-
ing upper Oligocene limestone. The Vicksburg is exposed at many
localities in southern Columbia, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Citrus,
Sumter and Hernando Counties, and occasional exposures are re-
corded in Pasco County and in the northern part of Pinellas
County." To the south and east of this area the Vicks-
burg dips beneath later formations. The formation, however,
affects the surface topography and the soils over a large area bor-
dering its actual surface exposure. All the large section of country
known as the lake region, owes its characteristic topography, in the
writer's interpretation, to the influence of the underlying Vicksburg
and probably other Oligocene formations. Aside from parts of Su-
wannee and Columbia Counties, and the counties of west Florida

*Florida Geological Survey. Second Annual Report.Dpo dgb6b e








12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

already mentioned, the lake region topography is found extending
from Lake Kingsley in Clay County south through eastern Alachua,
Putnam, the western part of Volusia, the western part of Orange,
and the central part of Lake Counties, and thence south through
eastern Polk County into DeSoto County.
The records showing the depth at which the Vicksburg Limestone
underlies the lake region, are fewer than could be desired. At St.
Augustine and at Orange Mills east of the lake region of Clay and
Putnam Counties, the Vicksburg has been recognized at the depths
of 225 and 130 feet respectively. At Sanford near the east border of
the lake region in Orange County the Vicksburg lies at a depth of
from 113 to 125 feet. At Orlando, which lies within the lake region
of Orange County, this formation was identified from well samples
at a depth of from 130 to 250 feet, the well having terminated
in this formation at 250 feet.* As to the depth of the Vicksburg
underlying the southward extent of the lake region into Polk and
DeSoto Counties we have no record beyond a statement by Dall that
at Bartow in Polk County, "it (the Ocala Limestone) is covered by
about 6 feet of later strata."t No one seems to have verified thi.
determination of the formation at Bartow. However, from the
topography the writer is led to believe that the Vicksburg may be
expected underlying the lake regions of Polk County at a depth not
exceeding 100 or 200 feet.
UPPER OLIGOCENE.
The Upper Oligocene is represented by the Apalachicola group of
formations. This group includes the Chattahoochee, Tampa, Haw-
thorne, and Alum Bluff formations. The first three of these may be
partly contemporaneous in time. The formations of the Upper Oli-
gocene are variable in character and include limestones, shell marls,
clays, fullers earth, and sands. They exert a much less character-
istic effect upon the topography than does the Vicksburg formation.
In some of the formations, moreover the fossils are few and poorly
preserved. Thus the identification of the formation from well sam-
ples become difficult or impossible, and the thickness and extent of
the different formations is not easily determined.
CHATTAHOOCHEE FORMATION.
The type exposure of the Chattahoochee formation is found in
the vicinity of Chattahoochee in Gadsden County. The formation

*Letter from George C. Matson of Nov. 24, 1908. Based upon the identi-
lication of fossils from the Orlando City well by Dr. Ray Basler.
tBulletin No. 84, U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 104, 1892. Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


although variable is prevailingly an impure clayey limestone. As a
rule strata of an impure limestone alternate with softer and more
clayey layers, the latter being scarcely other than calcareous clays.
Upon exposure this stratum weathers in a characteristic manner,
breaking into octagonal blocks varying from two to six inches in size.
Further weathering is by exfoliation and crumbling. The final prod-
uct of weathering is a green sticky clay, the calcareous material hav-
ing been largely removed. Numerous excellent exposures of the Chat-
tahoochee formation occur along the Apalachicola River from the
State line to Rock Bluff. The formation dips to the south and at
Rock Bluff passes beneath later formations. Some good exposures
of the Chattahoochee formation are seen on the Chipola River, the
rapids of the river near Altha, in Calhoun County, being formed by
this limestone. West of the Chipola River the formation is not
extensively exposed and the limestone phase of the formation is
probably not well developed. However, Matson and Clapp* note the
occurrence of this limestone at Knox Hill, in Walton County, and on
the Choctawhatchee River, at Caryville, in Washington County. To
the east of the type exposure the formation comes to the surface at
several places along the Ocklocknee River. A limestone probably of
this formation is seen just above the crossing of the Georgia, Florida,
& Alabama Railway between Tallahassee and Havana, and near the
crossing of the Seaboard Air Line Railway between Tallahassee and
Quincy. A similar limestone is very generally seen in the sinks and
lake basins of the northern half of Leon, Jefferson, and Madison
Counties.
Although the limestone disappears by dipping beneath the sur-
face at Rock Bluff on the Apalachicola River, and not far below the
Seaboard Air Line Railway crossing on the Ocklocknee River, yet
from this latter point the line of surface exposure bends southeast
and reaches to the coast in the vicinity of St. Marks. From St.
Marks east to the Suwannee River a similar limestone is frequently
exposed or lies near the surface. The channel of the Suwannee
River, as previously stated, cuts through Upper Oligocene forma-
tions. The distribution of the Chattahoochee Limestone east of the
Suwannee River has not been determined.

TAMPA FORMATION.
The Tampa formation is similar in character to the Chattahoo-
chee, and consists of clayey limestones and clays. The type expo-
sure of the Tampa Limestone is along Tampa Bay. The silex beds
*Florida Geological Survey, Second Annual Report, p. 84, 1909
Digitized by GOOgeC








14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

exposed along Tampa Bay represent one phase of this formation.
The rapids of the Hillsboro River are caused by this limestone. The
formation is found at places along this river for about fifteen miles
inland.

HAWTHORNE FORMATION.

The Hawthorne formation is less distinctly delimited than either
the Chattahoochee or the Tampa formations. The type locality of
the formation is at 'Grove Park about three miles west of Hawthorne
in Alachua County, where the rock was at one time quarried as a
building stone. At this locality an effort was also made to grind
and use certain beds of this formation as a fertilizer, as the rock
contains at these quarries a small percentage of phosphoric acid.
The formation includes clays, rocks, and limestones, the latter being
more or less phosphatic.

ALUM BLUFF FORMATION.

The Alum Bluff formation consists chiefly of sands, shell marls,
clays, and fullers earth. The type locality is at Alum Bluff on the
Apalachicola River. The sands of this formation are often highly
calcareous, grading into sandy limestones. The marls are often
highly fossiliferous, and are found chiefly in West Florida. Among
numerous localities at which marls of this formation are exposed,
are: Alum Bluff, Bailey's farm on the Chipola River, Oak Grove
on the cast border of Santa Rosa County, and along the Shoal
River, in Walton County. East of the type exposure the Alum
Bluff formation is extensively developed. It underlies all of Gads
den County and is exposed frequently in the numerous streams and
on the public roads. It is also found in Leon County along the Ock-
locknee River, and in Manatee County, the fullers earth stratum
being mined at Ellenton. The formation probably originally cov-
ered a considerable area in central peninsular Florida, remnants
still being found in Marion and Alachua Counties.

MIOCENE.

JACKSONVILLE FORMATION.

The Miocene in Florida includes two formations, the Jackson-
ville formation and the Choctawhatchee marl. The type locality of
the Jacksonville formation is at Jacksonville, the first .es'iutp
Digitized by 9,U878








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


having been based on specimens taken from the excavations at the
city water-works. The formation is probably extensively developed
in eastern Florida. It is well exposed along Black Creek in Clay
County, and has been noted as far south as Rock Springs in Orange
County. To the north of Jacksonville its extent is undetermined.
Certain exposures along the St. Marys River at Orange Bluff and
at Rock Bluff may represent this formation, although the age of
these exposures has not been definitely determined. Well drillings at
Jacksonville and elsewhere show that a formation resembling the
Jacksonville formation extends to a depth of several hundred feet
in the St. Johns Valley and along the East Coast.
The Jacksonville formation is prevailingly of a gray or buff col-
ored material made up of coarse sand grains, calcium carbonate,
pebble phosphate, and some clay. The relative amount of these dif-
ferent ingredients varies from place to place. The material from the
type locality at Jacksonville has a high proportion of calcium car-
bonate with which is included some sand and clay and relatively
little phosphate pebble, forming a sandy impure limestone, in which
occasional fossils are found preserved chiefly as casts. The expo-
sures along Black Creek in Clay County are similar to the exposure
at Rock Springs in Orange County, although the relative proportion
of pebble phosphate is increased, that along Black Creek having at
one time been worked for phosphate. The phosphate pebbles in this
formation are amber colored or black, and are smooth and shiny.
They vary in size from very small pebbles, scarcely larger than a
pin-head, to pebbles the size of marbles. In the lower part of the
formation, as shown by well borings, the sand predominates over
the calcareous matter, the material becoming a very sandy, calcare-
ous marl. Phosphate pebbles occur throughout the formation to the
depth of several hundred feet.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE MARL.

The Choctawhatchee Marl consists of gray sandy shell marl in
which the fossil shells are often excellently preserved. The marl
was first described from Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola River,
where it is well exposed, lying immediately above the Alum Bluff
sands. It is also well exposed along the Choctawhatchee River in
West Florida.
It is difficult to say to what extent either the Jacksonville forma-
tion or the Choctawhatchee marl has affected the soils. When lying
near the surface the calcareous material, and to aj arege;b








16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

phosphatic material also is dissolved, by the surface waters and
removed. The resulting soil is sandy, and is possibly not always
distinguished from sandy soils resulting from other formations.

PLIOCENE.
The Pliocene is represented by several more or less well marked
formations as follows: The Caloosahatchee Marl, the Nashua Marl,
the Alachua Clays, the Bone Valley formation and the Dunnellon
formation. The first two of these are marine formations and con-
tain many well preserved marine fossils which serve to determine
definitely their age. The remaining three, the Alachua Clays, the
Bone Valley and Dunnellon formations, are less definitely deter-
mined. The Alachua Clay is apparently of fresh water origin, hav-
ing been deposited in and around the borders of the many lakes
which existed in the central part of the State. It is therefore a dis-
connected formation and the different deposits were not necessarily
contemporaneous. In fact these lake deposits are doubtless a phase
of lake formation and refilling which began in the Pliocene or
earlier, and has continued to the present. The Bone Valley forma-
tion includes the land pebble phosphate deposits. These have been
commonly referred to the Pliocene. They consist of pebble phos-
phate imbedded in a phosphatic clay.
The Dunnellon formation was described in the preceding report.*
The materials of the formation are miscellaneous in character, and
include sands, clays, gravel and pebble, flint boulders, limestone
inclusions, and phosphate rock. The phosphate is of vast importance
to agriculture, and its presence in the Dunnellon and Bone Valley
formations lends especial interest to these deposits. In regard to
the hard rock phosphate of the Dunnellon formation, the writer
expressed the view in the paper referred to that the phosphoric acid
has been very gradually concentrated from various formations in
which it existed in very small quantities. In support of this
view is the notable fact that the hard rock phosphate boulders, some
of which are of immense size, have unquestionably formed and are
forming in situ. The plate and fragmental rock represents boulders
formed during a preceding stage and subsequently broken, more or
less transported, and finally deposited in their present position. In
support of this view of the origin of the phosphates it is a notable
fact that hard rock phosphates in Florida occur only in sections
which have been subjected to prolonged disintegration and erosion.
*A Preliminary Paper on the Florida Phosphate Deposits, by E. H. Sel-
lards, Third Annual Report, Fla. Geol. Survey, 17-41, 1910.
Digitized by Google










FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL 1


Fig. 1.-Cut on Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway at
Nicholson in Gadsden Count. At the top of the cut is seen ten feet
of loose pale yellow residual sands. These are separated by a dis-
tinct line from the underlying reddish and partly indurated clayey
sands.


See errata P. 176


Fig. 2.-Exposure of the Chattahoochee formation in cut of the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad near River Junction.


Digitized by Google


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.













FOURTII ANNUAL REPORT. PIL. 2


F'ig. I. I'xiosure of thle I)uIIe~llohl f'ormahtionl in a pit ofr Bittgenbacli
Phbosphait e ( omim n y near H older, 'i trins Comiuty.


~hLi~ ~


Fig. 2.-Exposure of the Bone Valley formation in pit number 5,
Prairie Pebble Phosphate Company near Mulberry, Polk County,
Digitized by OOgle


FLORIDA GFOLOGICAL HURVICY.












FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 3


Fig. 1.-Exposure of the coquina rock of the Anastasia formation
on Anastasia Island in St. Johns County.


Fig. 2.-Exposure showing the top surface of the Miami Limestone.
The extreme irregularity is due to solution.
Digitized by Google


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.










FI.ORIDA (;GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY.


Fig. 1.-Cut on Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway at Nichol-
son in Gadsden County. At the top of the cut is seen ten feet of loose pale
yellow residual sands. These are separated by a distinct line from the
underlying reddish and partly indurated clayey sands.


Fig. 2.-Cut in quiescent sand dune on the public road two miles
west of Daytona. The top sands to a depth of four or five feet are light
colored. The sands beneath are ochre yellow.


Digitized by Google


FOURTH ANNUAl. RgtORT. PL. 4








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


The hard rock phosphate of Columbia,. Alachua, Marion, Levy,
Pasco and Hernando Counties is found resting upon the Vicksburg
Limestone, all formations later than the Vicksburg having disinte-
grated or nearly so, their residue forming the matrix and the phos
phoric acid which they contained having become segregated to form
the phosphate boulders. To the northeast of this phosphate field is
found the uneroded plateau, beneath which, on this hypothesis no
deposits of high grade rock phosphate are to be expected.
A limestone sub-structure is favorable to the chemical action
which results in the formation of phosphate boulders. In the non-
limestone section drainage is largely by surface streams. Under
these conditions the phosphoric acid gathered into solution in small
amounts from various sources throughout the soil is carried directly
through streams to the ocean. In the limestone sections, on the con-
trary, the drainage is chiefly subterranean, and the rainfall after
passing through the soil and underlying material and thus gathering
up more or less phosphoric acid, passes into the limestone. Within
the earth, and especially at and below the underground water level,
the phosphoric acid is again thrown out of solution, thus forming
the phosphate boulders. This hypothesis of the origin of the hard
rock phosphate involves only those natural processes which are con-
stantly in operation. It does not postulate a chain of islands the
existence of which has not been demonstrated. Nor is it necessary
to invoke the aid of bird rookeries, although these were doubtless a
feature of the past as of the present, birds contributing then as now
to the phosphoric acid supply of the soil. No one questions that the
flint boulders which lie alongside the phosphate boulders are formed
by chemical segregation of silica from various sources. An identical
chemical process accounts for the phosphate boulders.
PLEISTOCENE.

Owing to the local character of the Pleistocene deposits much
difficulty is experienced in describing the formations of this age.
Local shell bearing deposits of Pleistocene age are found at many
localities both along 'the coast and for some distance inland, par
ticularly along the St. Johns River and in the Kissimmee River Val
ley. The limited extent of these deposits and their local character
make it inadvisable to differentiate formations -among the deposits.
Some of the localities at which marine Pleistocene shell marls have
been located are the following: on the Gulf coast; North Creek, a
tributary to Little Sarasota Bay in Manatee County; Labelle, on
the Caloosahatchee River; and on Six-Mile Creek near Tampa; and
Digitized by GOOgIe








18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

on the east coast at Ft. Lauderdale, Eau Gallie, Titusville and
Mims, and at Kissimmee, in the central part of the peninsula, at a
depth of 100 feet. Fresh water Pleistocene deposits containing often
the remains of vertebrates, are found locally throughout the interior
of the State.
In addition to the local Pleistocene deposits already mentioned
several well defined marine formations of this age have been differ-
entiated in southern Florida. These have been fully described in
the Second Annual Report of the Survey by Mr. Samuel Sanford.
The best known of these marine Pleistocene formations is the Miami
Limestone. This formation is well exposed in the vicinity of Miami
and generally along the eastern border of the Everglades from some
miles north of Ft. Lauderdale to Homestead. It consists of a light
colored oolitic limestone in which is included a small amount of
sand. The limestone at Miami is quarried and used as a building
stone. As is frequently the case with limestones, the rock when
first uncovered is soft and can be easily worked, but hardens upon
exposure, due to the deposition of calcium carbonate upon the evap-
oration of the water held in the interstices of the rock. A similar
limestone at Key West is designated by Sanford as the Key West
Limestone, although this may possibly be the southward extent of
the Miami Limestone.
Another limestone is found along the keys from Key Largo to
Knights Key. This is a coralline limestone and is of interest as
being the only true coralline limestone in Florida. It is designated
the Key Largo Limestone.
The term Anastasia formation is applied to the extensive deposit
of coquina rock found along the East Coast. This formation is typi-
cally exposed on Anastasia Island opposite St. Augustine, and ex-
tends along the coast south from this point a distance of 150 miles
or more. The coquina rock has been frequently described both in
the reports of this Survey and elsewhere. It is made up of a mass
of more or less water-worn shells, wh'ch in some localities are
cemented to form a firm rock, but elsewhere may be slightly or not
at all cemented. Some sand is frequently included in this forma-
tion and the cementing material is calcareous. Aside from the type
exposure on Anastasia Island, the cut made by the Florida East
Coast Railway on Tomora Creek near Ormond, and the exposure
along the coast at Rockledge may be mentioned.
The Anastasia formation is probably contemporaneous or partly
so with the Miami L'mestone and the other Pleistocene limestones
along the southern coast, all of these having been formed reviour
Digitized by .OO Cle








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


to the uplift that occurred during or at the close of Pleistocene time.
It is probable that the coquina rock was formed near the close of
this period of uplift as it is now found only a few feet above sea
level.
UNCLASSIFIED GRITS, SANDS, AND SANDY CLAYS.
In addition to the formations described there is found in Florida
an extensive deposit of sand, gravel and lenses of clay. This material
forms the surface covering over a large extent of northern and cen-
tral Florida as well as parts of the adjoining States. It is found
entirely across the State from the Alabama line on the west to the
Atlantic coast, and is found over the central part of the peninsular
section as far south as DeSoto County. The classification of this
superficial material has given rise to much difficulty owing chiefly
to the fact that in Florida it is practically non-fossiliferous although
a few plant remains have been found. It has been regarded in recent
years by most writers as Pliocene in age, although as a matter of
fact there is no satisfactory evidence that it may not be early Pleis-
tocene. Moreover, it is quite possible that more than one formation
or parts of formations are included under this head, the absence of
fossils making it difficult to discriminate formation lines.
In the literature, this material will be found referred to most
frequently as the Lafayette formation. The Lafayette formation
was named by Dr. E. W. Hilgard, the type locality being at Oxford,
in Lafayette County, Mississippi, where the formation is well ex-
posed. This locality has recently been re-examined by Berry who,
upon the evidence of the fossil plants finds the deposits to be of
Eocene age.* From this evidence it would appear that the Florida
material can not be correlated with the Lafayette as defined from
the type locality, since in Florida the material everywhere rests
upon deposits later than Eocene.
In his presidential address before the section of Geology of the
American Associat'on for the Advancement of Science in 1906, Pro-
fessor E. A. Smith discussed the geology of the Gulf Coast. In regard
to Florida, referring particularly to the western extension of the
State from the Apalachicola River to the Alabama line, Smith at
that time regarded the upper part of these deposits, the red sands
and loams, as Lafayette, and the more or less stratified clays, sandy
clays, and sands beneath, as representing the Grand Gulf formation.
The Grand Gulf formation was also established by Hilgard, the type
locality being Grand Gulf, Mississippi.

*Journal of Geology, Vol. XIX, pp. 249-256, 191L d1
Digitized by GOO le








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

In 1892 the term Altamaha Grit was applied by Dall to sands and
grits found along the Altamaha and Ocmulga Rivers in Geor-
gia. This formation had been previously briefly described but not
named by Loughridge in the reports of the Tenth Census. Further
descriptions of the Altamaha Grit have been given by Harper* and
by Veatch,f both of whom refer to the extension of the formation
into Florida. The map which accompanies Harper's paper repre-
sents this formation as reaching into the State along the east border
of the Apalachicola River.
Whatever their geologic correlation, certain it is that these
coarse sands, grits, and clays have a wide distribution and are an
important factor in soil formation in the State. In soil studies,
moreover, we are concerned only incidentally with the geologic cor-
relation and age of formations, but more particularly with the litho-
logic character, the minerals present and their behavior under the
weathering agencies. Whether representing one or parts of several
formations, these deposits are closely similar in materials and react
similarly under the processes of decay.
The most persistent and characteristic single feature of these
deposits is the presence of water-worn, flattened, quartzite pebbles,
usually light colored and sometimes almost clear, although as a
rule they are clouded and more or less stained by iron oxide. Owing
to their resistance to decay, these pebbles tend to accumulate on the
surface as the formation decays, especially on slopes where the wash
is sufficient to remove the smaller sand grains. They are also found
quite generally in the stream beds.
The quartz sand grains which make up the largest part of the
deposits are angular, and variable in size, although usually includ-
ing more or less coarse sand. In regard to the texture of the sand.
however, there is great variation from place to place, some localities
having prevailingly coarse sand, while elsewhere the sand is prevail-
ingly much finer. The color of the sand grains near the surface and
within reach of the surface waters is often red, or ochre yellow, due
to staining by iron oxide. Deeper, within the formation, where not
stained, the grains are usually perfectly clear and transparent. In
form the grains are roughly angular.
In addition to the coarse sand grains and the flattened pebbles
there is occasionally found local deposits of much coarser material.
including water-worn flint pebbles up to one or two inches in length.

*Annals; N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. XVII, pt. 1, 1906; Torreya, Vol. 6, 1901,


p. 241.
tScience, Vol. XXVII, 1908, pp. 71-74.


Digitized by Google








THE BOILS OF FLORIDA.


One of the localities where this coarse material is found and where
it hAs been extensively mined for road purposes is at Interlachen, in
Putnam County. The section in the pit of the Interlachen Gravel
Company is as follows:
Coarse sand and gravel, light colored or ochre yellow..... 3 ft.
Sand and gravel iron stained red, and feebly cemented.... 5 ft.
Light colored coarse sand and gravel .................. 5 ft.
Another locality from which similar coarse material is obtained
for road purposes is found near Grandin and Florahome in the same
county. The pebbles are frequently one inch or more in length. Equal-
ly coarse pebbles are found along the line of the St. Andrews and At-
lanta Railway a few miles south of Cottondale. It has been sug-
gested that the coarse material in these deposits is found along the
line of the principal rivers. It will be noted, however, that the three
localities mentioned in Florida at which specially coarse material
is found are all of them remote from any present river channel.
The clay intermixed with the coarse sand is in a finely divided
condition and is probably the chief cementing material, giving the
sand feeble coherence sufficient to form vertical walls. In addition
to the clay it is probable that silica acts to some extent as a cement
particularly in the few localities in which the sand becomes firmly
cemented forming a hard rock. Iron oxide and probably iron car-
bonate act also as cements. The clay in the sand is frequently in the
form of a ball clay or plastic kaolin, the ball clays mined at Edgar
and near Leesburg coming apparently from these deposits. The clay
strata and clay lenses include greenish and variegated clays.
Mica is intermixed with the sands and clays, and is removed
from the ball clay in the process of mining. The mica is in the form
of small flakes, a fraction of an inch in length.
The materials of these deposits are somewhat indefinitely strati-
tied and frequently cross-bedded. Aside from the cross-bedding, dis-
tortion of the strata is frequently observed. This, however, is due
in most if not in all cases to partial subsidence owing to solution in
the limestones beneath, or to creep on the slopes. That the deposits
were formed in shallow water and in the presence of conflicting
currents is evident from the irregular stratification and the variable
character of the material.
The admixture of finely divided clay kaolinitic in nature, with
the coarse sands which characterizes these deposits is difficult to
account for except upon the hypothesis that when deposited the for-
mation consisted of coarse quartz and feldspathic sands. The
quartz being resistant has remained but little changed, fq
Digitized by C,. OA lt,








22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

coarse sand of the formation. The feldspar sands since their deposi-
tion have been subjected to decay, thus forming the kaolinitic clay
of the formation.
SURFACE SANDS.

Lying above these grits and sandy clays is found, very generally,
a mantle of loose sand. This sand covering gives character to a
large percentage of the soils of the upland, interior section of the
State, giving rise to the light sandy soils and loams. A number of
geologists, among whom are McGee*, Eldridget and Veatcht, have
regarded these sands as representing a distinct formation resting
upon, and later than, the sandy clays. This hypothesis necessitates
the assumption of a partial or complete resubmergence of the land
subsequent to the deposition of the sandy clays, and hence if true is
of much importance in its bearing on geological history and on soil
formation. For this reason the hypothesis should be closely scruti-
nized before being accepted. The writer believes that the hypothesis
is untenable and that the sands are in fact residual in origin, being
derived by the ordinary processes of decay and disintegration of the
underlying materials. All the observations cited by these writers
so far as they relate to the upland section of the interior of the State
admit of explanation on the view of the residual origin of the sand,
while many conditions not mentioned by them give further support
amounting, it would seem, to a demonstration of their residual
origin.
McGee, it should be added, does not assume a complete resub-
mergence of western Florida. The peninsula of Florida, he assumes,
was entirely resubmerged following the deposition of the red clays,
which he regarded as Lafayette. The sands at the depot at Monticello
in Madison County, he refers to the Pleistocene, implying that the
depression was sufficient to submerge that point (now 202 feet above
sea according to the levels of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway), but
was not sufficient to submerge the somewhat higher land one mile
farther north. The reference by Eldridge is specifically to the
peninsula of Florida, which following McGee, he regards as having
been resubmerged. Veatch in his paper relating to Georgia refers
the sand overlying the Altamaha Grit to a separate formation of

*McGee, W. J. The Lafayette Formation. U. S. Geol. Survey, 12th Ann.
Rpt., pt. 1, 1891.
tEldridge, George H. A Preliminary Sketch of the Phosphates of Flor-
ida. Am. Inst. Min., Eng. Trans. Vol. XXI, 1893.
tVeatch, Otto. Altamaha Formation of the Coastal Plain of Georgia.
Science (n. B.) Vol. XXVII, p. 71-74, 1908. Digitized byGoogle
Digitized by GlO0lt-








THm soElrs OF FLORXA.


Pleistocene age. Mr. George C. Matson, at the time of the publica-
tion of his paper on the stratigraphy of Florida, regarded these gray
sands throughout the State as representing a distinct formation of
Pleistocene age.* The yellow sands he rightly surmised were
residual in origin. In a subsequent page I shall endeavor to show
that the difference in color between the gray and the yellow sand is
due in most cases purely to the different drainage and other condi-
tions under which they have accumulated. The loamy character of
the yellow sands is due to the presence of a larger percentage of
clay than is found in the gray sands. '
One of the arguments advanced for regarding the gray sand as
a formation distinct from the underlying clayey sands is the seem-
ing unconformity which separates them. This distinct and clearly
marked line is observed in practically all exposures. Ordinarily it
approximately follows the contour of the hill or approaches the sur-
face at the sides of the hill. Usually it is a fairly even line of
division between the loose top sands and the more or less cemented
clayey sands. Very frequently, however, the line is wavy or shows
relatively abrupt trenches or small gullies. Unquestionably all
these features closely simulate a true unconformity. But the fact
must not be overlooked that in the processes of decay of superficial
deposits, the line showing varying depth of decay is not infrequently
an abrupt line and may show many of the irregularities of an un-
conformity. The true explanation of -the well defined line marking
the boundary between the loose sand and the clayey sand is as fol-
lows: The rainfall in passing through the top sands carries the
finely divided clay which it holds to a lower level. This process
results in an increased amount or concentration of clay in the lower
strata. The percolating waters upon reaching this stratum are
checked and move laterally to a point of exit. In its lateral move-
ment water naturally tends to fall into water courses as it would
do if flowing on the surface. In the process of time the water
courses thus followed are widened and lowered, forming the irregu-
larities observed in the exposure. The character of the clayey sands
in question is such as to make the development of such lines of pseu-
do-unconformity particularly well marked.
Another argument advanced is the considerable depth to which
the sands sometimes extend. The depth, however, is determined by
the conditions of drainage, and by the soil water table which itself
is determined by the drainage conditions. The deepest sand is found
where the drainage is good, either by lateral seepage or by sub-

*Fla. Geol. Survey, Second Annual Report, pp. 152-153, 1909. Go
Digitized by OQOge







24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH -ANNUAL REPORT..

drainage. Subdrainage is best developed in those areas where the
underlying material is. a porous limestone, allowing the water after
working its way through the clayey sand, to escape into the lime&
stone beneath. Under these conditions, sand may accumulate to
any depth, depending upon the thickness of the original clayey sands
and their permeability to water. Some of the deepest of these sands
are found overlying limestones. In such locations, the clay con-
stituent may largely disappear from the material leaving loamy
sands.
In considering the origin of the loose sands, the peculiarities of
the parent formation, the clayey sands, must be borne in mind. A
. first effect of decay is the loss and obliteration of stratification lines,
giving the material the massive appearance observed in all shallow
exposures. Usually two or three well marked stages of decay may
be recognized. The stratum of least decay usually seen at the base
of shallow exposures, is mottled and blotched in appearance owing
to the irregular depth to which decay has reached. The blotched
areas follow the lines through which the surface waters have gained
entrance, and as seen in cross sections, often show in vertical
streaks or in patches. The patches and streaks are colored more
intense red than the surrounding sands, the development of the red
color due to the oxidation of iron minerals being one of the early
effects of decay. The thickness of this mottled stratum is variable,
ten to twelve feet being often seen. The degree of mottling that is
developed in an exposure depends largely upon the character of the
material at that locality. A relatively high amount of clay in the
sand favors mottling since the water permeates clay with difficulty,
while nearly pure sands will scarcely become mottled at all owing to
the fact that the water permeates them uniformly or nearly so. The
line of of demarcation between the mottled clays and the material
next above is often a well marked line and has much the appearance
of a break in the formation.
The stratum next above the mottled clay is usually a brick red
loam. This is uniform in color as it has been thoroughly permeated
by the surface waters and the iron minerals thoroughly oxidized.
The clay minerals are well decomposed and the stratum has a loamy
character although it still retains sufficient firmness to form vertical
exposures. The amount of clay in this stratum may be consider-
able as it may have received more clay brought down by the perco-
lating waters from above than it has as yet lost to the underlying
stratum. This is the material that has often been regarded as typi-
cal Lafayette.
Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


Next above the red loams are the loose surface sands already
referred to. From these sands the clay 'has been. largely removed by
the surface water. These sands are usually ochre yellow in color,
the iron having become hydrated, while those most affected by sur
face waters may have largely lost their stain, becoming light gray
in color. The clay which originally acted as a cementing material
has also been largely removed by the percolating waters, having
either been carried to a lower depth or washed away entirely. Other
cementing substances, if originally present, have been removed in
solution, the resulting sands being loose and friable. The line of
demarcation between this loose sand and the underlying loam as
already explained is often an irregular line and practically always
a well marked line.
The gray and yellow loose sands have been referred to above. It
may be noted that invariably in localities where the drainage is
sufficient to remove all or nearly all the organic matter, the top
sands are gray or light colored, but that at a depth of from a few
inches to a few feet the gray sands give place to ochre yellow sands,
and various writers have sought to distinguish between the gray
surface and the ochre yellow sands beneath. That no such distinct
tion exists has been well pointed out by Mr. Samuel Sanford in the
Second Annual Report of this Survey, 1909. The difference in color
is due to different chemical action. Near the surface where the
sands become thoroughly drained and aerated they bleach light or
gray; deeper within the earth where the sands remain more or less
moist the sands retain the ochre yellow color. Even originally light
colored sands, will develop the yellow color when acted upon by
surface waters carrying more or less organic acids in solution. That
this is the case may be seen by examining a cross section of any one
of the quiescent sand dunes covered with more or less vegetation.
In the dunes along the coast the surface sands to a depth of one to
three feet are light gray, but below the gray sands and separated
from them by a well marked line, the sands become ochre yellow, thus
showing the effects of staining of the sands by surface waters. When
originally accumulated the dune sands were doubtless light colored
and uniform throughout.

AGE OF THE GRITS, SANDS AND SANDY CLAYS.

Aside from their relation to soil formation the clayey sand de-
posits present some interesting geological problems. The fact that
the material is coarse, indicates that it was moved to its present
location by strong currents; the cross bedding and irregularity of
Digitized by Google








26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the material indicates conflicting currents such as occur in shallow
water or in deltas formed at the mouth of streams, or in the fan-like
deltas formed by streams on land. The character of the material,
including quartzitic fragments, quartz sand, mica, and probably
originally feldspar, indicates the original source as the granitic
rocks of the Appalachian Mountains, although possibly several
times reworked in the course of their removal to the present loca-
tion.
The age of the deposits is difficult to establish owing to the
absence of fossils. On the Apalachicola River these deposits are
found overlying both the Oligocene and the Miocene, thus fixing
their age as later than Miocene.
On the other hand, the considerable amount of erosion and dis-
integration that has occurred since the material was accumulated
implies a lapse of time that reaches back well into the Pleistocene
if not into the Pliocene age. The disintegration that the deposits
have undergone includes the formation of the surface accumulation
of the loose residual sand representing complete decay; the forma-
tion of the red loams representing an advanced stage of decay; the
blotched sandy clays representing partial decay, and the formation
of the kaolin or ball clay, representing incipient decay affecting the
least stable of the minerals. The length of time required for this
amount of disintegration *is difficult to estimate. Merrill states,*
on the authority of Lindgren, that Pliocene andesites in the Sierra
Nevadas in California are in places decomposed to a depth of 20 feet,
and adds further, that the region is one of heavy annual precipita-
tion, the rainfall being limited almost wholly to the winter season.
The climate in Florida is warm and moist, and the rainfall heavy,
amounting to about 53 inches annually, more than one-half of which
falls during the three summer months.
The erosion that has taken place since these deposits were formed
is extensive and affords a more satisfactory standard of measure-
ment. This erosion is evidenced in the development of stream chan-
nels by surface erosion and the formation of valleys and lake basins
by underground solution. In many of the limestone sections these
deposits have become completely disintegrated, remaining merely
as a residue intermixed with other materials. This condition is
seen over large areas of peninsular Florida, including the limestone
and the hard rock phosphate producing part of the peninsula. The
lake basins of the lake region are believed, as shown in a previous
paper, to result from underground solution. The sink holes in the

*Rocks, Rock-Weathering and Soils, p. -262. Digitized b
Digitized by Googl1








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


lime sink regions are further evidence of underground solution. The
extensive shallow lake basins of Leon, Jefferson, Columbia, Alachua,
Hernando Counties, and elsewhere, are the evidence of advanced
stages in the degradation of the land surface by underground solution
which has occurred apparently since the deposition of these deposits
and has involved their removal largely from the areas in question.
In the non-limestone sections of the State the erosion is chiefly
by surface wash and is measured by the development of
streams and stream valleys. The valley of the Apalachicola River
has apparently been widened and deepened and shifted to the east
since the deposition of this material. This is indicated by the bluffs
along the east border of the river capped by this formation and now
standing 160 to 200 feet above the river valley. In the non-limestone
sections, lateral streams have developed giving more or less perfect
dendritic drainage. This extensive development and branching of
small streams cutting through these deposits is seen in the northern
part of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Gadsden and Liberty Counties. In
most of the other counties the free development of surface streams
has been more or less interfered with by underground solution.
The amount of erosion and disintegration to which the formation
has been subjected Is such as to give weight to the view that the
material accumulated during either Pliocene or early Pleistocene.
In considering the material, however, we must not lose sight of the
fact that it has not been proven that this material covering an exten-
Aive area, necessarily all belongs to a single formation of the same
age, since similar processes may have given rise to similar materials
at various times and places.

TOPOGRAPHY.

Notwithstanding that Florida, the second largest State east of
the Mississippi River, is extensive in area, no point within the State
is distant from the coast more than 75 miles, and no elevations are
found exceeding 300 or 310 feet above sea level. Originally, doubt-
less, the topography was comparatively simple, the rise in elevation
being, with minor exceptions, gradual from the coast inland. How-
ever, as the result of differential erosion and other factors, well
marked topographic types have developed, and at the present time
the topography is varied.
The topographic development has been determined largely by
the geologic structure, and the key to the topography of the State is
,obtained by observing the distribution of the limestone a, the nqn-
Digitized by OOQ Ie








28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

limestone formations. The importance of limestone formations upon
the topography is due to the fact that the limestone is more soluble
and more readily eroded than most other formations, and those sec-
tions of the State that are underlaid at no considerable depth by
limestones have been more radically affected by erosion than the
non-limestone sections, and have been affected in a different manner.
The limestones erode chiefly by underground solution, as a result of
which sinks, valleys and basins form, giving rise to a characteristic
topography.
Although limestone formations underlie the State throughout,
it is only in limited sections of the State that it is sufficiently near
the surface to affect the topography. The limestones that exert the
chief influence on topography in Florida are those of the Oligocene
period, which are the thickest, purest and most extensive limestone
found in the State. The Pleistocene limestones cover considerable
areas along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the southeastern part
of Florida. Marls and other formations containing more or less
calcareous material, are found in many parts of the State and in
many instances affect the soil and the vegetation.

TOPOGRAPHY CONTROLLED BY OLIGOCENE LIMESTONES.

That part of the State in which the topography is controlled by
the Oligocene limestones is indicated on the accompanying map.
Two areas are shown, which are disconnected by the Apalachicola
embayment. The smaller area in west Florida includes Jackson and
Holmes Counties and parts of Washington and Walton Counties.
The much larger area in central Florida extends from the Ocklock-
nee River on the west border of Leon County in a southeasterly
direction to Pasco County. The area extends inland from the Gulf
from 50 to 75 miles.
Although controlled by the underlying limestones the topography
over the large areas outlined above is by no means uniform. Differ-
ences in elevation above sea level, in drainage conditions, and in
the amount of erosion to which the land has been subjected give rise
to a variety of topographic types and afford a basis of subdivision
of the areas.

THE GULF HAMMOCK BEI/r.

Immediately adjacent to the coast and for a few miles inland the
limestone lies at or very close to the surface. Few lakes -eist, as
Digitized by GOO 00 C








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


the rainfall passes readily into the limestone. The underground
water level is near the surface, and numerous large springs of lime-
stone water emerge from the rock and flow to the ocean. This coas-
tal strip contains numerous extensive calcareous hammocks and is
known as the Gulf Hammock section of Florida.* If formations
later than the Oligocene limestones were present over the Gulf Ham-
mock area they have, with the exception of a slight residue of sand,
disappeared. The Gulf Hammock section west of the Suwannee
River is underlaid by Upper Oligocene limestones, while east of the
Suwannee River the underlying formation is chiefly the Lower Oli-
gocene limestone. Isolated areas of essentially similar country are
found in the vicinity of Ocala in Marion County, and near Sumter-
ville in Sumter County.

THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE BELT.
Inland from the Gulf Hammock area in peninsular Florida and
to a lesser extent in that part of Florida west of the Suwannee
River, is found a strip of country over which formations of later
age than the Oligocene were clearly present in former times,
although there now remains of these scarcely more than the mixed
and complex residue. The formations that have gone to decay over
this area include deposits of JPliocene age as shown by the fossils.
and probably also marine formations of Miocene age. It is probable
also that the Upper Oligocene formations were formerly present,
although in this area in peninsular Florida these formations have dis-
integrated. The strip of country of this type extends in well marked
development from the southern part of Suwannee and Columbia
Counties roughly paralleling the Gulf Coast to Hernando and Pasco
Counties, This area includes the hard rock phosphate deposits,
these deposits having accumulated by the processes elsewhere ex-
plained during the period of erosion through which this section has
passed. Few lakes or streams are found in the hard rock phosphate
belt, as the rainfall enters through the loose surface material and
passes directly into the underlying limestone. The underground
water level, lies, as a rule at a greater depth beneath the surface
than in the Gulf Hammock country. Numerous sinks form, giving
evidence of the continued active erosion by underground solution.
The surface contour is rolling, there being no regularity of hills
or valleys. West of the Suwannee River workable phosphate beds
have not yet been developed. Some phosphate, however, occurs in
this section and larger deposits may yet be found.

*E. A. Smith, U. S. 10th Census,. Report on Cotton Production, Si I
Digitized byjOO'. lt-








30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

MIDDLE FLORIDA HAMMOCK BELT.

Inland from the hard rock phosphate belt is found areas less
affected by erosion in which more or less of the formations that orig-
inally overlaid the limestone may be identified in position. To this
type of country Harper has applied the term Middle Florida Ham-
mock belt.* In this belt of country the surface is rolling or some-
what hilly, and occasional flat bottomed lakes occur which occupy
solution basins. The soils on the slopes are prevailingly red! with
red clay sub-soil. Surface streams occur, although most of these
terminate either in lakes or in sink-holes through which they gain
entrance to the underlying limestones, forming the disappearing
streams characteristic of this type of country. In peninsular Flor-
ida two areas of Middle Florida Hammock lands may be designated.
One of these includes a narrow belt extending in a northwest to
southeast direction through Columbia and Alachua Counties into
Marion County. A small part of Suwannee County east of Houston
along the Seaboard Air Line Railroad is also included. This belt
occupies the border land between the limestone and the non-lime-
stone country of this part of the State. The second well-marked
area is that which extends north and south through Citrus, Her-
nando and Pasco Counties, and is surrounded on all sides by more
intensely eroded limestone country. West of the Suwannee River
there is a large area of this type of country, including the northern
part of Leon, Jefferson, and Madison Counties. The temporary lakes
of Leon, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Alachua, Columbia, and Her-
nando Counties described in the preceding report, t all lie within this
belt and are characteristic features of the topography. The red clay
lands of Leon, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Alachua, Columbia, and
Hernando and parts of other counties, arise from this stage of
topographic development.

THE LAKE REGION.

The lake region of Florida as a physiographic type has long been
known and often referred to in the literature of Florida. This type
of topography includes a large area, extending from Clay County
on the north to near the middle of DeSoto County on the south, its
greatest width being found in Lake and Orange Counties. It is cut
into by the St. Johns, Ocklawaha and Withlacoochee Rivers. Lakes,

*Thi-d Annual Report Fla. Geol. Survey, 1909.
tSome Florida Lakes and Lake Basins, by E. H. Sellards, 3rd Annual
Report, Fla. Geol. Survey, pp. 43-76, 1910. Digitized by Googl
Digitized by LOOQ 1e








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


as implied by the name, are extremely numerous in this section of
country. Surface streams are few, the rainfall passing into the
soils.
The lake region represents in the writer's interpretation an early
stage in the degradation of the surface level by underground solu-
tion. The many basins now occupied by lakes have been formed by
subsidence due to solution. Following the formation of the basins
the surrounding uplands are gradually lowered, the tendency being
to fill up the basins and to reduce the land surface once more to a
common, although lower level. An examination of the accompany-
ing map on which the lake region is separately indicated shows
that this region represents the further southeastward extension of
the limestone country of the peninsula.
The four topographic types described in the limestone country
of the central part of the State are as follows: (1) The lake
region, which represents an early stage of erosion in which
deep circular lakes are surrounded by hills of approxi-
mately the height of the original table land. (2) The ham-
mock belt, which includes flat-bottomed lakes, or lake basins now
occupied by prairie lands, surrounded by hills more or less lowered
by erosion from the original level of the plateau. (3) The hard
rock phosphate belt in which the formations that formerly overlay
the Oligocene limestones have disintegrated, leaving only the mixed
and complex residue. The phosphoric acid originally contained in
the overlying formations has been taken into solution by perco-
lating waters and reaccumulated at a lower level, forming the hard
rock phosphate. (4) The fourth type is that designated as the Gulf
Hammock land. In this section formations later than the lime
stones, if formerly present, have disintegrated and have been en-
tirely removed with the exception of an insignificant residue of
loose sand.
While the types described above are well-marked, there are inter-
mediate stages and other variations arising from local conditions.
The intermediate stages between the hammock belt of rolling red
clay lands with' large but shallow lakes, and the hard rock phos-
phate belt with rolling sandy lands and no lakes, include rolling
lands with more or less clay and with frequent or occasional sink
hole lakes.

TOPOGRAPHY CONTROLLED BY PLEISTOCENE LIMESTONES.

The Pleistocene limestones of southern Florida for the most part
lie so close to sea level as to exert no appreciable effect on ti o
Digitized by 64"(l








32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

raphy. The Miami Limestone forms a partial exception. This for-
mation over a small area in Dade County lies at an elevation of
from 9 to 15 feet above sea. The top surface of this limestone is ex-
ceedingly rough, owing to differential solution. A small amount of
loose sand lies on the surface which tends to fill up the irregularities
in the limestone. The limestone is cavernous, and occasional sinks
or openings to the underground cavities occur. The area affected by
the Miami Limestone extends from near the north line in Dade
County to some miles below Homestead, being broadest at Home
stead. Cuban pine is the prevailing forest tree over this area. Saw
palmetto is the chief undergrowth.
The Keys between Miami and Key West, the foundation of which
is limestone, rise but a few feet above sea level. The coquina lime-
stone which lies along the Atlantic Coast, together with local marls.
gives rise to the long strip of calcareous hammock land that occur*
along the Atlantic Coast south of St. Augustine.

NON-LIMESTONE SECTION.

In the non-limestone sections of the State erosion has been
chiefly mechanical by normal stream action, and the physiographic
types are determined largely by the drainage conditions. Near some
of the larger rivers surface drainage by lateral streams has been
fully developed. This is true of the Apalachicola River, especially
along its east side, where the rise in elevation to the plateau level
is rapid, a narrow strip along the western border of Gadsden County
being thoroughly drained by the numerous small tributaries to this
river. The central part of this county is also well drained by the
tributaries to Little River. The northern parts of Escambia and
Santa Rosa Counties include areas well drained by streams tribu-
tary to the Perdido, Escambia and Black Rivers. On the other hand
there are areas that are swampy owing to the fact that surface
streams have not yet developed sufficiently to afford drainage. The
large area of southern Florida known as the Everglades is of this
type. The Everglades, as previously stated, probably date from the
close of the Pleistocene period, and since that time numerous small
streams have been cutting their way back from the coast. Among
these are New River, Hillsboro River, Miami River, and some
smaller creeks flowing into the Atlantic, and North River, Harney
River, Lostmans River, and many smaller creeks, flowing into the
Gulf from the southern end of the Everglades; and the Caloosa-
hatchee River, which flows west from Lake Okeechobee. Ultimately
by the action of these streams the 'Glades would be drained. The
Digitized by OOt lC








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


drainage operations now being carried on by the State make use of
the channels already cut out to the 'Glades by the largest of these
streams, continuing and deepening them into the 'Glades.
Another large area of land imperfectly drained by surface
streams is found in the northwestern part of St. Lucie and the
southern part of Brevard Counties. Extensive drainage operations
by private enterprise are being carried on in this section. Five
townships lying near the head waters of the St. Johns River in this
section are being drained by the Felsmere Farms Company. In
these operations the Sebast'an River, which flows into the Atlantic,
is utilized, the channel being deepened and continued to the un-
drained land.
The Okefinokee swamp of Southern Georgia and the smaller
swamps which constitute its southward extension into Florida, in-
cludes a large area lying between the head waters of the Suwannee
and the St. Marys Rivers to which surface drainage by streams has
not yet penetrated. Many smaller areas occur throughout the State
that have not yet been drained by surface streams, the topography
being immature.
It is a striking fact that erosion is more rapid in the limestone
than in the non-limestone sections, and that the limestone country is
encroaching on the non-limestone country. Evidence of this fact is
found both in west Florida and in peninsular Florida. In Washing-
ton County the Vicksburg Limestone lies at or near the surface in
the northern part of the county, but dips in passing to the south.
In crossing this county from north to south it is observed that an
escarpment of approximately 100 feeOn height marks the line be-
tween the limestone and non-limestone country. The rise to the
plateau is known locally as Sexton Hill. Orange Hill, Oak Hill and
other hills are outliers from the plateau. Holmes valley repre-
sents the transition grounds from the limestone country to the
plateau. The history of the development of the topography of this
county is easily understood. The limestone country of the northern
part of the county is slowly encroaching on the non-limestone coun-
try to the south. Similar conditions are found in Jackson County.
The narrow belt of lake region topography which includes Round
Lake and other lakes on the St. Andrews Bay and Atlanta Railway
represents the transition line between the limestone and the non-
limestone sections of this county.
In the northern part of peninsular Florida the limestones are near
the surface over a considerable area bordering the Gulf, including
parrs of Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Sumter, Pasco,
---Gr Digitized by Google








84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

Hernando, Citrus and Levy Counties. Suwannee County lies chiefly
within the limestone area. This county, which is bounded on the
north, west and south by the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers, has
undergone rapid erosion and the formations which overlaid the lime-
stones have largely disintegrated, except a relatively small area
farthest removed from the streams along the east line of the county,
which is at present in a transition stage of degredation, as indicated
by the numerous lake basins formed by solution.
The southern part of Columbia County reaches into the lime-
stone formations, and in that part of the county bordering the Santa
Fe River the formations lying above the Vicksburg Limestone have
entirely disintegrated. Farther north in the central part of the
county, is found red clay lands, solution lake basins, and disappear-
ing streams, indicating a transition stage in which the formations
above the limestones have partly disintegrated. The extreme north-
ern part of the county reaches into an area the topography of
which has not yet been affected by solution.
Alachua County presents much diversity in topography. Over
most of the western part of the county adjoining the Suwannee and
Santa Fe Rivers the Vicksburg Limestone lies near the surface. The
hard rock phosphate belt crosses this part of the county and the
land is well drained, as the rainfall passes almost immediately into
the soils or disappears through the numerous sinks. The north-
eastern part of the county is much higher in elevation and forms a
level plateau 175 to 200 feet above sea. The Middle Florida Ham-
mock Belt crosses the central and includes most of the southeastern
part of the county. Numer9 large shallow lakes or "prairies" are
found in this part of the county, of which Paynes Prairie, or Alachua
Lake, is an example. These prairies represent local areas that have
been carried by underground solution practically to the underground
water level. During seasons of heavy rainfall they become lakes.
During dry seasons the water runs off through sinks, leaving the
lake basin dry, or nearly so.
The history of the development of the topography of Alachua
County is not difficult to understand. The western part of the
county has been subject to rapid and profound erosion chiefly by
underground solution. The formations that originally lay above
the Oligocene limestones have largely disappeared, having been dis-
integrated and carried away either in solution or by mechanical
wash. The elevated land in the northeastern part of the county
represents the as yet uneroded part of the original plateau. The first
effects of the erosion by underground solution are evident in this
Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


plateau in the formation of occasional sinks of which the "Devil's
Mill Hopper," a sink hole exceeding 100 feet in depth, is an example.
The southeastern part of this county, like the western part, has
been affected by erosion although under somewhat different condi-
tions. From this part of the county the drainage originally passed
through Orange Creek to the St. Johns River. The first lowering of
the surface level was therefore by mechanical wear. In the course
of time, however, Orange Creek eroded its bed until it approached
the limestone. Sink holes then formed through which the water
enters the underlying limestone. Phosphate deposits are scarcely
to be expected in this type of country as the disintegration of the
formations above the limestone has not been complete.
The same principles have operated in determining the topography
of the other counties of the limestone belt. The hard rock phosphate
belt represents the area in which the formations lying above the
Vicksburg Limestone have almost entirely disintegrated. The Lake
Region and the belt of clay hammock lands including shallow flat-
bottomed lakes and disappearing streams, are transition stages.
The Alachua Clays of Pliocene age are lake deposits which very
probably accumulated while the area in which they occur was pass-'
ing through the topographic stage in which lakes existed. The hard
rock phosphate deposits accumulated in their present form during
the progress of erosion, the phosphoric acid, taken in solution by
waters percolating through the surface formations, having reaccu-
mulated at a lower level.
INFLUENCE OF DRAINAGE ON SOILS.
The soils are affected by the drainage conditions in various im-
portant ways, to only a few of which it will be possible to refer in
this paper.
ORGANIC MATTER.
The organic matter content of virgin soil is controlled to a large
extent by the drainage, together with the atmospheric and climatic
conditions. Moisture, owing to the extent to which it retards oxida-
tion, is a great preservative of organic matter. Muck, as has been
elsewhere stated, accumulates only where the amount of water in
or over the soil is sufficient to retard the decay of the vegetation.
On the other hand, where the drainage is good and the soils exposed
to the direct rays of the sun, the organic matter natural to the soil
oxidizes and may disappear.
THE COLOR OF SOILS.
The color of soils, which is an important guide in soib lai
Digitized by 0?.36kIC








36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

tion, is dependent upon chemical reactions which are controlled to a
, large extent by the drainage conditions. The chief mineral stain in
soils is iron in its varying forms. Those soils and sub-soils that are
thoroughly saturated with water at all times are likely to be dark
or drab in color. The dark color is due to the fact that the iron is in
an un-oxidized or de-oxidized condition. When partly, although
imperfectly drained, soils assume a mottled appearance, the mottling
being due to the partial oxidation of the iron. The bright red soils
are Those in which the iron has been thoroughly oxidized and exists
in the non-hydrated form, hematite. The ochre yellow soils are
believed to be stained in most cases by the dehydrated iron oxide.
Those soils which lie on the slopes and are well drained and are
rapidly renewed by the addition of soil material from beneath are
most frequently red in color. On the other hand, the ochre yellow
soils are found in areas where both drainage and aeration are good,
but where the conditions are such that there is little or no surface
wash, and where consequently the renewal of the soil is slow. It is
probably true that red soils when long exposed to the air and to
moisture such as is afforded by capillary movement, change over
-to yellow soils, the change in color being due to the hydration of the
iron oxide.
The dark color in soils is due in most instances to organic matter
which accumulates, as explained in the preceding paragraph, under
moist conditions.

THE WATER TABLE.

By the term water table is meant the level at which water stands
in the soils. Above this level, while the soils may be and usually
are moist, the moisture is that due to capillary movement of water
and the soils are aerated. At and below this level the soil is satu-
rated with water and the air is practically excluded. The physical
and chemical conditions above and below the water line are conse-
quently in marked contrast. Above the line the oxidizing processes
prevail; below the line de-oxidizing processes prevail. The minerals
above 1he water line tend to assume the form of oxides; while below
the water line the minerals more frequently exist as sulphides or
sulphates. Above the water line the movement of water following
heavy rains is free and solution is active; below the water line the
movement of water is sluggish and limited and decomposition in-
stead of solution may occur. The importance of the water table to
the character of the soil in the flatwoods region of Florida has been
well expressed in the Soil Survey of Jefferson County by G. B. Jones
and others of the Bureau of Soils as follows :* "A profile ofhe flat-
Digitized by OO le









THE SOILS OF ILORIDA. 37

woods region taken in any direction would be a slightly wavy or
broadly undulating line; if the average level of the water table were
represented by a nearly horizontal line the latter would cut the
former at many places. The areas of drained and undrained land
would not only be graphically shown, but the distinctive features of
each soil would be suggested. The organic content is a very im-
portant as well As conspicuous element in each type. The amount
and form in which it appears is directly dependent upon drainage.
"The Norfolk soils would be represented by the highest parts of
the profile. They lie well above the plane of permanent saturation
and the organic matter is in the form of humus. The swamp and
marsh would coincide with the lowest portion of the cross section.
They contain a large amount of vegetable remains, mostly in the form
of muck mixed with fine sand. The intermediate level would repre-
sent the Portsmouth and Leon sols."




















Fig. 1.-Exposure of hardpan on Apalachicola Bay. Palmetto flat-
woods in the background. Photograph by R. M. Harper.

THE HARDPAN.
The hardpan of the palmetto flatwoods of the Coastal Plains
affords a striking illustration of the relation of the soil conditions
to the water line. The hardpan forms at the average level of the
water table. It consists of a stratum stained dark or chocolate color
by organic matter. During the dry seasons when the water table
falls below its average level the hardpan is firmly cemented, pre-
sumably by the coating of organic matter. In thisDsQi 0gle








38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

scarcely be penetrated by the soil auger, and interferes with the
movement of water by capillarity. During the rainy season when
the water table rises above the average level, the hardpan stratum
becomes saturated with water and tends to disintegrate. Although
many details of the formation of hardpan remain to be explained, it
is evident that organic matter from the surface stratum is parried
downward in some form by the water and is reaccumulated in the
hardpan stratum.

TRANSLOCATION OF CLAY PARTICLES.

Another important feature of the drainage conditions is the
translocation of clay particles. By this term is meant the removal
of the finely divided clay particles from the soil near the surface and
their reaccumulation at a lower level. This process is of special
importance under the conditions which exist over large areas in the
interior of Florida. The soils over large areas in central Florida are
derived from a clayey sand rock. The clay in this formation which
acts chiefly as the cementing material is in a very finely divided con-
dition. Upon the disintegration of the formation, the clay particles
are loosened, and are carried by the percolating waters to a lower
level, and are there reaccumulated. Under conditions of good sur-
face drainage and heavy rainfall this process long continued results
in washing the sand free of clay to a considerable depth, and in the
accumulation of an increased amount of clay in the stratum beneath.
The dividing line between the sand washed free of clay and the
stratum beneath in which the clay occurs in excess is often a well-
defined line. The clay stratum accumulated in this way is some
times referred to as hardpan, although it is different in character
from the hardpan of the flatwoods.


Digitized by Google








THE BOILS OF FLORIDA.


SOILS.

Soil is the relatively thin covering of fragmental material that
more or less completely mantles the surface of the earth and serves
as an anchorage for and contributes to the growth of plants. The
basis of this material is inorganic, and is derived from the decay and
disintegration of pre-existing rocks. It consists of mineral particles
of varying size and of various kinds. With this is included more or
less organic matter resulting from the decay of vegetable or animal
life. While the mineral matter usually predominates, some special
soils, as those derived from muck and peat deposits, consist largely
of organic matter.
The average soils consist chiefly of the clay minerals, and of sili-
ceous sahd and gravel. However many other minerals occur in soils,
and almost any mineral which is relatively insoluble, and is also not
readily decomposed may be expected as a soil ingredient. The soils
are continuously forming by the disintegration of rocks, and after
being formed are further affected and modified by the topographic,
climatic, drainage and other conditions to which they are subjected.
The readily soluble minerals are largely removed, and the unstable
minerals are decomposed. Thus in the process of the decay of rocks
and the formation of soils the sulphides in the rocks are changed
to the more stable oxides. A soil formed from a limestone consists
chiefly of the clayey or other impurities of the formation, the car-
bonates which make up the chief part of the limestone, having been
removed in solution. From the granitic rocks there is removed in the
process of decay the soluble constituents including the carbonates,
and the other readily soluble minerals. The resulting soils consist
of the relatively insoluble minerals which existed in the rock or
which were formed during the process of decay, including the clay
and sand. In addition to the removal of the ingredients by solution
there is also more or less mechanical separation of materials by the
sorting power of water. This is distinctly so in transported soils,
and occurs to some extent in residual soils.
Chemically the soils are complex. Their productiveness depends
among other things upon the mineral constituents present, the physi-
cal condition of the soil, and the chemical elements available to
plant growth.

THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS.

About eighty chemical elements have been recognized as present
in the earth or in the atmosphere surrounding the earth. Of these
Digitized by ,OO IC








-V
40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

some are very rare, occurring only in small amounts, while others
are abundant. The element oxygen alone is estimated to make up
49.78%, or practically one-half of all known terrestrial matter,
while oxygen and silicon together make three-fourths (75.86%).
The nine most abundant elements, oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron,
calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen, make up
98.3%. The twenty most abundant elements make up 99.52%, the
remaining sixty elements combined constituting only .48%. These
estimates are made by F. W. Clarke, of the United States Geological
Survey and are based on a calculation of the constituents of the air
and the ocean, and of the crust of the earth to a depth of ten miles.
The materials of the interior of the earth at a depth greater than ten
miles are too imperfectly known to be included in the estimate.
The following is the list of the twenty most abundant elements
including the estimate of the amount of each in the crust of the
earth as given by Professor Clarke.*

Average composition of lithosphere, ocean, and atmosphere.


Lithosphere Ocean Average, includ-
-


Oxygen ..................
Silicon ..................
Aluminum ...............
Iron .....................
Calcium ..................
Magnesium ...............
Sodium ..................
Potassium ................
Hydrogen ................
Titanium .................
Carbon ...................
Chlorine .................
Bromine .................
Phosphorus ...............
Sulphur ..................
Bailum ..................
Manganese ...............
Strontium ................
Nitrogen .................
Flou'ine .................
All other elements........


(93 per cent.)


47.07
28.06
7.90
4.43
3.44
2.40
2.43
2.45
.22
.40
.20
.07

.11
.11
.09
.07
.03

.02
.50


100.00


*The Data of Geochemistry, Bull. 330, U. S.


per cent.)


85.79



.05
.14
1.14
.04
10.67

.002
2.07
.008

.09



oo.....
....o.oo
oo.o....


100.00


Ing Nitrogen.


49.78
26.08
7.34
4.11
3.19
2.24
2.33
2.28
.95
.37
.19
.21

.11
.11
.09
.07
.03
.02
.02
.48


100.00


Geol. Survey. p. A 1908. '
Digitized by C3OOgle









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ESSENTIAL TO PLANT GROWTH.

Of the eighty known elements only about ten are believed to be
essential to the growth of plants. These are: Carbon, calcium,
hydrogen, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassi-
um, and sulphur. Five other elements although probably not essen-
tial, are commonly present in plants. These are: Aluminum, chlo-
rine, manganese, silicon, and sodium. Aluminum and silicon make
up a part of all clay minerals, and hence are indirectly essential to
plants, constituting a part of the soils in which plants find anchor-
age and grow. Flourine is sometimes recognizable in the ash from
plants, and iodine seems to be normal to sea weeds and sometimes
occurs in traces in land plants.

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF THE ESSENTIAL PLANT ELEMENTS.

The following table gives the amount of each of the ten essential
elements in the earth's crust, the ocean, and the atmosphere. The
five non-essential elements commonly present in plants are also
included.

Table showing the amount of the essential plant elements in the earth's
crust, the ocean, the atmosphere, and in the kernel of ccrn.

In the In the
r Ea rth's In the In the Corn
NAME. Crust Ocean Air Kernel NOTES.
(percent) (percent) (percent) (percent)
I I
Calcium ........ 3.44 .05 ...... 0?
Iron ............ 4.43 ... ...... .008 Derived by plants from
Magnesium .... 2.40 .14 ..... .12 the soil. (Nitro en Is
Nitrogen ....... trace ...... 73.50 1.760 derived chiefly al-
Phosphorus .... .11 ...... ...... 390 though not entirely
Potass:um ..... 2.46 .04 .34) from the soil).
Sulphur ........ .11 .09 ...... .04

Hydrogen ...... .22 10.67 ..4.0 Derived by plants from
Carbon ....... 20 ...... .01 43 009 souirca other than the
Oxygen ........ 47.07 83.79 23.00 46.000 soi. From the water-
and the air.

Aluminum ..... 7.90 **... ****** *** Commonly pres-nt In
Chlorine ....... .07 2.07 ...... .013 plant structure although
Manganese .... .07 ...... ...... ***. regarded as non-essen-
Silicon ......... 28.06 ...... .014 tial.
Sodium ........ 2.43 1.14 ...... .013


The table is adapted from Professor C. G. Hopk'ns' text on
"Soil Fertility and Permanent Agriculture," page 13. The estimate
of the amount of each element present !n the ocean and in the earth's
crust is that made by Professor F. W. Clarke as given in the preced-
ing table. The estimated composition of the air is that o-Si -
^Digitized by beJJO lC








42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH, ANNUAL REPORT.

liam Ramsey as quoted by Professor Hopkins. Professor Hopkins'
estimate of the amount of each of these elements in a kernel of corn
is added to give an idea of the amount of each element demanded
in plant growth.
While this table indicates approximately the average amount of
each of the essential plant elements in the crust of the earth, it does
not show the amount of each present in soils. The average in soils
may be above or below this general average, depending upon the
constituents themselves and the conditions under which the soils
have accumulated.

PLANT FOOD TAKEN FROM THE SOIL.

Of the ten elements essential to plant growth six are derived
solely, and a seventh chiefly from the soil. The others are taken by
the plant either from the atmosphere or from water. The elements
taken entirely from the soil are calcium, iron, magnesium, phospho-
rus, potassium, and sulphur. Nitrogen is taken chiefly from the soil,
although the legumes and some other plants are able to take a
part of their nitrogen from the air. The three remaining essential
elements, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, are taken directly from the
air and the water, the carbon dioxide gas of the atmosphere and
water absorbed through the roots being the sources of supply. As
regards the amount of materials, the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
taken from the air and water make up approximately 95 per cent. of
the bulk of' plant structure by weight, the seven elements taken
from the soil combined making up only about 5 per cent. Although
required in such relatively small quantities these elements are none
the less necessary, and if any one of the seven is lacking or deficient
or not available, the productiveness of the soil is thereby reduced.
Calcium:-Calcium is an abundant element in the earth's crust,
the estimated amount being 3.43 per cent. It is not found free or
uncombined, but is a constituent of many minerals, the most com-
mon of which are the carbonates and sulphates, limestone and gyp-
sum. The amount of calcium demanded by plants is, as will be seen
from the table, exceedingly small as compared with the large
amounts existing in the earth. Except in the cultivation of legumes,
it is rarely the case that calcium needs to be added to soils as a plant
food. It is, however, not infrequently needful as a soil treatment,
being required particularly in muck or other sour soils to neutralize
the acids, which if not neutralized will act as a deterrent to many
plants. For this latter purpose this element in the form of a ground
limestone, lime or air slaked lime, is coming to be extensively use1,
Digitized by 008g Ie








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA. 4

particularly on Florida soils. It should be noted that the soils may
contain sufficient calcium to serve as plant food and yet the soil
remain acid, the calcium not being in a form available to correct
acidity. In addition to the calcium incorporated in the organic
structure of the plant, considerable additional amounts are some-
times taken up and deposited in the coarser tissues of the plant.
The purpose of the calcium so deposited is possibly to neutralize
organic acids, that might otherwise be injurious to the plant.
Iron:-Iron occurs free in nature to some extent and is a con-
stituent of many minerals. In its various forms it is slightly more
abundant than calcium, the estimated amount in the earth's crust
being 4.43 per cent. It is present in all soils and is the chief color-
ing constituent. The most common and best known iron minerals
are the oxides, limonite, hematite and magnetite; the carbonate,
siderite; and the sulphides, pyrite, marcasite. There are also many
silicates of which iron is a constituent. The amount of iron required
by plants is insignificant as compared to the relatively large amount
occurring in soils.
Magnesium:-Magnesium, like calcium, is not found native, but
as a mineral constituent is only a little less abundant than calcium,
the estimated amount in the earth's crust being 2.40 per cent. The
most common mineral is the double carbonate of calcium and mag-
nesium, dolomite. It is also a constituent of many silicates. Plants
require many times more magnesium as a plant food than calcium.
The supply in the earth, however, is such that the supply of magne.
sium rarely becomes exhausted in soils.
Nitrogen:-Nitrogen in the free or uncombined condition is a
gas, and as such makes up three-fourths (75.5%) of the atmosphere.
It is a very inert element and rarely combines with other elements.
It is a constituent of the nitrates and the ammonium minerals. The
nitrates are the most important minerals, but being readily soluble
in water they accumulate in quantities only under exceptional con-
ditions. The sodium nitrates of Chili are the most extensive known
deposits. Nitrogen exists in the soil as nitrates and as nitric acid.
It is also a constituent of organic matter from which source it be-
comes available to plant growth through the action of bacteria. The
legumes and a few other plants as previously mentioned, are able to
get a part of their nitrogen directly from the air. All other plants
derive nitrogen from the trace contained in the earth. Notwith-
standing the scarcity of nitrogen in the soil the amount used by
plants is considerable, the corn kernel containing as estimated by
Professor Hopkins, 1.76%, or more than twice as much aall other
Digitized by ".0O e








44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

elements derived from the soil combined. As a result of the small
amount in the earth and the relatively large amount used by plants,
nitrogen is one of the elements likely to become deficient in soils.
Phosphorus:-Phosphorus in small quantities is a constituent of
nearly all igneous or primitive rocks. It occurs chiefly as salts of
phosphoric acid, namely, the phosphates, the most important of
which is calcium phosphate. It is also an essential ingredient in all
plants and animals forming a part of the nucleus of all living cells.
It forms also an important part of the mineral matter of all bones
The amount of phosphorus in the earth's crust is small, be'ng esti-
mated at .11%. The amount required in the growth of plants on
the other hand is considerable. The phosphorus in the corn kernel
is .3 per cent, the percentage in the seed of plants be'ng somewhat
above that for the plant as a whole. Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is
an element that under cultivation becomes deficient in so!ls.
Potassium:-Potassium is a constituent of many of the s'licates
and hence occurs like phosphorus in small amounts in the igneous
rocks. The most important potassium minerals are the chlorides
from which the commercial supply of potassium is derived. Potas-
sium is relatively abundant in the crust of the earth, the estimated
amount being 2.45%, or slightly more than magnesium. The amount
required by the plant, however, is considerably more than of magne-
sium, and potassium, like nitrogen and phosphorus, frequently be-
comes deficient in soils.
Sulphur:-Sulphur is found native and also combined to form
sulphides, sulphates, and other combinations. Pyrite and gypsum
are the most common sulphur minerals. The total amount of sul-
phur in the earth's crust is estimated to be .11 per cent, or the same
as of phosphorus. Recent investigations made by the Wisconsin
Experiment Station indicate that the amount of sulphur required by
plants is greater than has heretofore been supposed, and it is prob-
able that under continuous cropping this element becomes deficient
in soils.*

PLANT FOOD TAKEN FROM THE WATER AND FROM THE
ATMOSPHERE.

Hydrogen:-Hydrogen occurs chiefly as water, H,0, of which it
forms about one-ninth part by weight. It is also a minor constituent

*Sulphur Requirements of Farm Crop3 in Relation to the Soil and Air
Supply, by E. B. Hart and W. H. Peterson. Research Bulletin No. 14, Wia.
Exp. Station. Digitized by Googe
Digitized by -OOg1e








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


of many other minerals, among which -are the hydrated minerals,
limonite, gypsum, and others. It is also a constituent of organic
matter. The amount of hydrogen in the earth's crust to a depth of
ten miles is estimated at .22 per cent. The amount in the ocean is
10.67 per cent. The amount of hydrogen used by plants is consid-
erable, the kernel of corn being 6.4 per cent. hydrogen. The hydrogen
used by plants is derived from the water absorbed by the roots.
From the roots, the water passes through the stem to the leaves. In
the leaves under the influence of sunlight the water is broken up
into its constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and is incor-
porated into the organic structure of the plant.
Water is thus doubly essential to plant life, since in addition to
serving as an essential food'it also acts as a carrier of food and prob-
ably for other purposes. All those elements already described as
derived from the soil are carried to the plant in solution in the
water which enters through the roots and is evaporated from the
leaves. The evaporation of water from the leaves probably prevents
an injurious rise of temperature. The amount of water thus passing
through the plant is considerable. Important experiments in this
connection were carried on in Wisconsin by King. Several crops
were used in these experiments of which oats and corn may here be
mentioned as illustrations. Seven trials on oats indicated an aver-
age of 557.3 pound of water evaporated per pound of dry matter
formed. The average for eight determinations on corn was 275.6
pounds of water evaporated, per pound of dry matter formed.*
The water thus passing through the plant and acting mechan-
ically as a carrier of food and for other purposes is not to be con-
fused w:th the much smaller amount of water that is decomposed in
the leaves and incorporated into the plant.
Oxygen:-Oxygen is the most abundant element, forming about
one-half of all known terrestrial matter. It exists free as a gas in
the atmosphere of which it makes up about 23 per cent. It is found
in the atmosphere also in combination with carbon as carbon dioxide
(C 0O), which makes up .04 per cent. of the atmosphere. In combi-
nation with hydrogen it forms water. Oxygen is a chemically active
element, combines with about all of the other elements and is a con-
stituent in many minerals, the most common of which are water,
HO, siliceous sand, SiO, and the clays.
Notwithstanding its abundance as a constituent of minerals in
the soil and as a free gas in the atmosphere, the oxygen used by

*Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, 20th Ann. Rpt. p. 3,n, 1904. 1
Digitized by OOgle








46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

plants is taken from neither of these sources. The oxygen used by
plants is derived from reactions which occur in the leaves of plants
when the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere acts upon the water from
the soil.
The amount of oxygen consumed in building up the plant struc-
ture is relatively large, for instance, 46 per cent of the kernel of
corn is estimated by Hopkins to be oxygen.
Carbon:-Carbon, although of great importance to plant life,
occurs in relatively small amounts in the earth's crust. In the
atmosphere carbon is found, as stated above, in combination with
oxygen forming carbon dioxide gas. This gas occurs in small
amounts, making up only .04 per cent. of the atmosphere, and the
carbon itself constitutes only about .01 per cent. of the atmosphere.
In the earth carbon occurs pure as graphite and diamond, as car-
bonate in limestones, and marbles, and as carbohydrate in organic
compounds, coal, oil and gas. Carbon is estimated to make up .2 per
cent. of the crust of the earth. Carbon is, like oxygen, one of the
important elements in plant structure, the corn kernel containing,
according to Professor Hopkins, 45 per cent. of carbon, or nearly as
much as of oxygen.
All of the carbon used by plants is obtained from the carbon
dioxide of the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide (carbon and oxy-
gen) enters through the breathing pores of the leaf. Water (hydro-
gen and oxygen) also enters the leaf, coming from the roots through
the stem. A chemical reaction occurs within the leaf by which is
formed an organic compound, HCO. The excess of oxygen in this
reaction passes off as free gas. This chemical reaction occurs only
in the light and in the presence of chlorophyl, the green coloring
matter of plants. The resulting compound is organic, not mineral,
and represents that most important process, nature's laboratory for
the manufacture of organic compounds, by which process, directly
or indirectly, all life upon the earth is sustained.
It is worthy of note that all of the carbon used in plant growth
is derived from the .01 per cent. of carbon in the atmosphere. In
fact, the carbon of the atmosphere would be speedily exhausted were
it not for a cycle by which carbon taken from the atmosphere is
being restored again to the atmosphere. The decay of plants is a
process of oxidation by which carbon dioxide is formed. In the case
of herbs and annual plants the cycle is passed through ordinarily
within one year. At the close of each growing season, much of the
plant growth of the summer is subject to decay, and in the process
of decay the carbon of the plant is oxidized and is returned to the
Digitized by ".OO Ce








=THE SOILS OF FLORIDA. 47

atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The perennial plants have a longer
cycle, which in case of trees, aside from the foliage, may last for
many years, the carbon being temporarily locked up in the structure
of the tree. In the form of coal, lignite, peat, muck, and limestones
and other carbonates carbon may remain locked up in the earth for
an indefinite period.
Moreover, animals feed upon plants and plant products, and the
organic compounds are carried into the blood and there meet the
oxygen taken into the lungs. The action in the lungs results in the
formation of carbon dioxide which is given off in breathing. In addi-
tion to these usual sources the return of carbon dioxide to the atmos
phere is being facilitated at the present time by the activities of
man. This gas is a product of combustion as well as of decay, the
two processes involving the same reactions. In the extensive use of
coal, oil, gas, and wood as fuels the return of carbon dioxide to the
atmosphere is being hastened. So also the calcining of limestone for
lime and other purposes results in the return of carbon dioxide, the
gas being given off when carbonates are heated.
The preceding pages contain estimates of the amount of the sev-
eral essential elements in the crust of the earth to a depth of ten
miles. These estimates are of value in a general way as bearing on
the relative abundance of the elements, but it must be borne in mind
that the amount in soils is not governed strictly by the relative
amounts in the earth's crust. Some of the elements are relatively
more abundant in the superficial than in the deeper deposits. Some
are more readily soluble than others and hence are quickly removed
from the soils by surface waters. Thus although the total amount
of nitrogen in the earth's crust amounts to merely a trace too small
to estimate, yet the small amount which does occur is largely in the
soils, where it exists as a constituent of organic matter, ammonia
or ammonium salts and nitric acid. The amount present in soils
varies to such an extent that any attempt to express an average is
practically useless. Nitrogen in soils to the amount of .01 to .03
per cent. is not uncommon, while soils rich in organic matter may
contain 3 to 4 per cent. Certain soils of the Orinoco Valley in
South America are said to contain as much as 30 per cent. of nitro-
gen. This is in the form of nitrates, and is due to the-oxidation of
organic matter through the agency of bacteria. The relative solu-
bility of the ingredients materially affects their accumulation in
soil. Potassium which occurs in soils in a readily soluble form, is
often deficient in soils subject to leaching, although abundant in
arid soils. Digitized by Google







148 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

FERTILIZERS AND FERTILIZATION.

Fertilizers are plant foods added to the soils to supplement the
natural plant foods. Of the ten elements essential to plant growth,
three, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, making up 95 per cent. of the
plant structure, are derived from sources other than the soil, namely,
from water and from the air. The supply of these three elements
is ample to meet all requirements. Of the seven elements
taken from the soil four, calcium, iron, magnesium, and sulphur, are
sufficiently abundant in soils to meet the requirements of plants.
The three remaining elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium,
frequently become deficient in soil, and require to be added. The
application of fertilizer is commonly understood to refer to the addi-
tion of nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium, in a form available to
the plant.
The application of water to crops is known as irrigation. The
application of calcium, as limestone, or lime, is known as liming the
soil. In neither case, ordinarily, is the application intended to supply
plant food, the water being applied as a carrier of food and the lime-
stone or lime as a soil Ireatment.

CHEMICAL ANALYSES.

A number of chemical analyses of various Florida soils have been
included 'n the body of this report. The interpretation of isolated
analyses, however, must be applied with caution as they may lead
through insufficient evidence to erroneous conclusions. The physical
properties of soils, which can not be adequately indicated from
isolated samples, are equally as important as their chemical prop-
erties. The soil moisture, the drainage and the possibilities of irri-
gation, the tilth of the soil and the climatic conditions are all im-
portant factors that must not be overlooked in rating the agricul-
tural value of soils.


Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


SOIL FORMATION.

ROCKS OF THE EARTH'S CRUST.

The rocks of the earth's crust from which soils are formed may
be grouped under two main divisions, igneous (or priniary) and
sedimentary (or secondary.) The igneous rocks are those which
appear to have cooled from a molten condition. The earliest rocks
of the earth's crust are of this type, as well as the more recent ma-
terials brought up from deep within the earth by volcanic action.
Secondary, or sedimentary rocks on the contrary, are those which
have been derived either directly or indirectly from igneous rocks
Chemical changes, however, are going on incessantly within the
earth and affect all rock formations. Chemical and physical forces
have in many instances so profoundly altered formations that it is
no longer possible to determine whether they were originally igneous
or sedimentary. For these the term metamorphic rocks has often
been used.

IGNEOUS ROCKS.

The igneous rocks are very complex chemically, and include most
of the chemical elements. In structure and mineralogical composi-
tion they are likewise variable. The structure is determined largely
by the rate of cooling and other conditions under which the rocks
were formed. When cooled quickly the time necessary for crystal-
lization is not available and the rocks are of a glassy texture. When
cooled more slowly various minerals are formed and the rock assumes
a more or less distinctly crystallized structure. Volcanic ash and
obsidian are examples of rapidly cooled rock; while the granites and
similar coarsely crystallized rocks may result from a molten mass
cooling slowly deep within the earth and under great pressure,
which latter conditions favor a more perfect crystallization.
Mineralogically the igneous rocks are likewise complex. The
presence of the chemical elements under varying conditions of cool-
ing give conditions favorable for the formation of many minerals.
The leading minerals formed under these conditions are the sili-
cates, of which there are a great number. In addition to the sili-
cates, sulphates, sulphides, phosphates, phosphides, chlorides, oxides
and other minerals abound. Among the most abundant minerals
in these rocks may be mentioned quartz, feldspars and the ferro-
magnesian silicates. The first of .these, quartz, is to be noted in
this connection as the mineral which, owing to its abundance and
4-Or Digitized by ".00 e








50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

great resistance, remains as sand even after the disintegration and
disappearance of most of the associated minerals. The feldspars
break up through decay, furnishing the clayey element in soils, while
from certain of the feldspars are derived also the potash so neces
sary to soil fertility. The ferromagnesian silicates include pyrox
enes, amphiboles and mica. From these minerals soils derive the
iron which is so large an element in the coloring of soils, and
various other bases, as calcium and magnesium. Phosphorus ii
present in igneous rocks, although usually in small quantities in the
form of apatite.

SECONDARY OR SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.

The secondary, derived, or sedimentary rocks are grouped into
several classes determined by their manner of formation and chemi
cal composition. These rocks are much less complex both in struck
ture and in chemical and mineralological composition than the igne
ous rocks. They are derived from other rocks and in the process of
reworking there is necessarily a selective separation of materials.
The more soluble constituents of ,the original rocks are carried to
the rivers, lakes and the ocean in solution, while the less soluble
are mechanically transported and are separated according to specific
gravity and size of particles.
Such common rocks as shales, sandstones, and conglomerates
represent material mechanically transported and reaccumulated.
The transporting agents are chiefly running water and the wind.
The shales represent the finer sediments carried as mud, accumu
lated in quiet water and subsequently consolidated. The sand
stones are the result of the accumulation of sands either by water
or by the wind. After being accumulated these sands may become
cemented and thus form sandstone. Sands accumulated on land
by the wind form sand dunes in which the sand may remain in a
loose uncemented condition or under certain conditions may be
more or less perfectly cemented. The conglomerates are made of
the heavier materials such as pebble and small rock, which is the
first to drop out of suspension in running water. The clays, likewise.
are in some instances mechanically accumulated, although many of
the clays are residual, having formed in place from the decay of such
clay-bearing minerals as the feldspars.
The clays and shales consist of a mixture of several minerals,
among which hydrated aluminum silicates predominate. With
Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


these is found in varying quantities quartz, mica, and other miner-
als. Sandstones consist largely of quartz sands, while the conglom-
erates may be of any material, although flint pebbles usually pre-
dominate.
The limestones in the secondary formations are either of chemical
or organic-chemical origin. The bases, calcium and magnesium, are
taken into solution and carried by running water to the lakes and
the ocean. Subsequently under certain conditions they may be pre-
cipitated from the water to form limestone, thus constituting the
chemically formed limestones. More frequently, however, organic
processes are involved, the constituents being taken from the water
through the agency of organisms, chiefly shells and corals, which
have the power of extracting from solution the materials from which
the calcareous skeleton is built. After the death of the animal the
skeleton remains to form the limestone. Shells accumulate in this
way to form the shell limestones, and corals in some instances accu-
mulate to form a coral limestone. The foraminifera, animals having
a minute calcareous shell, accumulate in such abundance as to make
up extensive limestones, the formation known as the Vicksburg
Limestone underlying Florida, being composed in places chiefly
of these small shells. The oolitic limestones such as the Miami
Oolite in southern Florida is probably chiefly chemically formed.
although many shells and some corals are included.
The term marl is somewhat loosely applied to calcareous forma-
tions, several varieties of which are found in Florida. When con-
sisting largely of shells these marls are known as shell marl. Some
of the marls which accumulated in bogs contain few or no shells,
having been apparently chemically formed.
Some of the other secondary rocks are purely of chemical origin.
Among these may be mentioned the bog iron ore frequently found in
old swamps. The iron in these deposits has been brought into the
swamps in solution and subsequently precipitated owing to the
organic acids present in swamp water. The flint masses found fre-
quently in limestone formations are due to segregation of silica
through chemical action.
Owing to the assorting processes which accompany the forma-
tion of the secondary or sedimentary rocks, they are, as previously
stated, much less complex chemically than are the igneous rocks.
This absence of chemical complexity has an important bearing on
the formation of soil, and there are well-marked differences to be
noted between soils derived from igneous and those derived from
sedimentary rocks. Digitized by Google








52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The formations found in Florida from which the soils are derived
are of sedimentary origin. Since there are many different kinds of
sedimentary rocks the soils from them are necessarily varied. More-
over, the character of the soil is determined not alone by the for-
mation from which derived, but also by the climatic, drainage and
other conditions to which it has been subjected. Distinct formations
if similar in character may give rise to similar soils. Conversely, a
single formation under varying conditions may give rise to various
soils. If the writer's views as to the origin of the sandy soils of the
interior of the State are correct, soils in Florida referred to the
Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Orangeburg series are in some instances
derived from one and the same formation, the differences in the soils
being due to the different topographic and drainage conditions
under which they have accumulated.

DISINTEGRATION OF ROCKS.

Soils result from the decay and disintegration of rocks. Active
among the agencies of decay are: Changes of temperature; frost or
freezing; wind; water; animals; and plants. Through the continued
activity of these agencies, solid rocks crumble to dust, the residue
forming the mineral constituents of soils. The combined effect of all
these agencies is known as weathering, and all rocks when exposed
at the earth's surface are subjected to this process.

CHANGES OF TEMPERATURE.

Changes of temperature of rocks result in alternate contraction
and expansion, thus widening existing breaks and joints, loosening
the rocks and permitting the entrance of water, which finds its way
more readily through the rock. In dry climates rocks heated to a high
temperature during the day cool rapidly at night. Under the influence
of heat rocks expand, and the sudden cooling and contraction of the
exterior crust upon the still heated and hence expanded interior sets
up strains which frequently disrupt and break the crust. Then, too.
rocks consist usually not of one but of several minerals, and each
mineral has its own coefficient of expansion and cohitraction and
hence contracts and expands when heated, at a slightly different
rate from the associated minerals. Thus the different parts of the
rock are subjected to strains, which loosen the minerals and let
water enter more freely, thus hastening decay.

Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


FROST AND FREEZING.

Aside from the ordinary changes of temperature, freezing in the
colder latitudes is an active destructive agent. When water freezes
it expands with almost irresistible force. The breaks, crevices, and
pores of rocks are filled with water as a rule, and when this freezes,
the force of expansion of the water enlarges all such openings, thus
hastening the decay of the rock. Decay from freezing takes place
most rapidly as will be apparent, at seasons of the year when alter-
nate freezing and thawing occurs frequently, as when the surface
rocks thaw during the day and freeze at night. Owing to the mild
climate this factor in the decay of rocks is of minor importance in
Florida.

WIND.

The wind as a weathering agent might at first thought, seem to be
of little or no importance, yet under favorable conditions the sand,
fine gravel, and other materials, carried by the wind may be hurled
with considerable force against the face of exposed rocks and thus
gradually wear them away. The wind is most active as an agent of
decay in the deserts and other sections of slight rainfall. Under the
action of the wind the softer materials wear away first. Also, since
heavier materials carried by the wind are carried close to the ground,
the base of exposed rocks are worn more rapidly than other parts,
resulting in fantastic sculpture as seen in some of the desert rocks.

WATER.

The agencies mentioned, changes of temperature, frost, and wind,
all exert a purely mechanical effect in the disintegration of rocks.
Water, however, in its various phases of activity, acts both mechani-
cally and chemically. Falling as rain, water has but feeble mechani-
cal effect, although in the form of running water a greater mechani-
cal action is exerted, not by the force of the water alone, but more
particularly by the force of the impact of materials thrown by the
current against the face of exposed rocks along the bottom and the
sides of the stream. The mechanical action of water is in this respect
analagous to that of the wind. The waves of the sea and of the large
lakes carry on mechanical erosion by the force of impact of the
waves beating on the shore.

Digitized by Google








54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

The chemical action of water is vastly more effective in the disin-
tegration of rocks than the mechanical. Rocks consist ordinarily,
as previously stated, of a mixture of minerals, and while all minerals
are to some extent soluble, some are much more readily soluble than
others. When these soluble minerals are removed in solution, the
rock necessarily crumbles. Water is more effective as a solvent
beneath than above the surface. Rain water upon passing through
the atmosphere and entering the earth, takes into solution more or
less of the gases, carbon dioxide and oxygen. From the decaying
vegetation in the earth it receives also various organic acids, all of
which materially increase its solvent action. For this reason many
rocks that are little affected by solution above ground are disinte-
grated beneath the surface.
Some chemical reactions in which water takes no actual part
nevertheless take place much more readily in the presence of mois-
ture. This is particularly true in the process known as oxidation.
which is a very important factor in the disintegration of rocks. Oxi-
dation is the chemical reaction between the free oxygen of the air
and various minerals in the rocks. This reaction, as previously
stated, takes place much more readily in the presence of moisture,
and slowly or not at all in the absence of moisture. The effect of oxi-
dation is the formation of new minerals. Oxidation does not neces-
sarily bring about decay, since the oxidized form of minerals is more
stable than most other forms. Indirectly, however, it results in the
breaking up of rocks. If, for instance, rocks exposed at the surface,
contain sulphides, these on exposure are likely to be oxidized to
oxides and the solidarity of the rock destroyed.
Hydration is also an important chemical reaction accompanying
decay of rocks. Hydration is the chemical reaction by which water
is taken into chemical union by the mineral, thus forming in reality
a new mineral. When hydrated a mineral is found to occupy more
space than in the non-hydrated condition. Not all the minerals in a
rock as a rule are subject to hydration, but the increased space occu
pied by the hydrated minerals results in the disintegration of the
rock.
The destructive effect of water in the form of ice sheets, although
not effective in Florida, has been of importance in glaciated regions.
Glaciers are found at the present time both in the arctic and in
the antarctic regions, and in former times they were of greater
extent. During the glacial period immense sheets of ice
moved southward extending, in the central part of the
United States, as far south as the Ohio River Valley. The action
Digitized by O COgle







THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


of glaciers is characteristic. The ice sheet moving slowly holds the
smaller rocks firmly and pushes them slowly over the stationary
underlying rocks, grinding the rocks to a fine powder, which subse-
quently re-accumulate as soil materials. The glacial soil is often
rich, consisting as it does of rocks thus artificially ground, having
been less affected by the dissolving and assorting power of water
than other soils.

PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

The action of plants and animals in the disintegration of rocks
and the formation of soils is important. The roots of plants pene-
trate the rock crevices and as they grow pry apart the rock, thus
enlarging the opening. Seeds of plants likewise fall into crevices
and by their growth open wider the natural breaks in the rock.
Moreover, the roots of plants secrete acids' which act as a solvent on
the rock. Some marine animals bore into the rocks, while on land
many different animals bore into the soil, thus bringing the deep
and less thoroughly disintegrated soil to the surface, and also per-
mitting the rainfall and the air to have free access to the deeper
soils. In Florida the so-called salamander, a small rodent, Geomys
tuza floridanus, bores extensively in the sandy soils. This animal
however, is adverse to moist conditions, and inhabits only the sandy
well-drained lands. In the moist low lands the cray fish are the
most conspicuous borers, bringing up large amounts of the sub-soil
to the surface. This type of land is familiarly known as "crayfish"
land. Among the other borers which affect soils may be mentioned
the earthworms, ants and "gophers", the last mentioned being a
term applied in Florida to a species of land tortoise.

ACCUMULATION OF DISINTEGRATED MATERIAL.

The material resulting from the disintegration of rocks may
remain in place as formed, or may be transported a greater or lesser
distance. The agencies of transportation are numerous. The work
of boring animals and of plants referred to above assist in the trans-
portation of soils by loosening the material and bringing it to the
surface. The wind is an ageht in transportation, the finer particles
of the soil being freely moved by the wind. The extensive line of
sand dunes bordering the Florida coast are chiefly wind blown. The
valleys and depressions are continuously receiving small additions
of fine sand and dust particles blown in by the wind. The chief

Digitized by Google


i,-








56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

agent of transportation of soils, however, is water, the amount of
soil transported by water being much greater than that of all other
factors combined.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS.

A satisfactory classification of soils is difficult and the subject
may be approached from any one of' several different standpoints.
A common system of general classification is that in which the soils
are classified in accordance with their manner of formation, as
residual, transported, or colluvial.

RESIDUAL SOILS.

The residual soils are those which have formed in place. In this
class of soils the parent rock from which the soil is derived lies
beneath the surface at a variable depth, depending upon the inten-
sity and duration of the weathering processes and upon the surface
contour. On steep slopes little or no soil accumulates, being removed
by surface wash. On the more gentle slopes if the weathering pro-
cesses have been long continued, soil may accumulate to a great
depth. The residual soils partake to some extent of the character-
istics of the formations from which they are derived. Thus a sandy
formation upon decay gives rise to sandy soils. Clays give rise to
clay soils. The chemically complex rocks such as the granites and
other igneous rocks give rise to soils which include a variety of min-
erals. Limestones are largely dissolved in the processes of soil
formation, the resulting soils being formed almost entirely from the
impurities which the limestones contained.
The typical residual soils are those which have formed from the
decay of igneous rocks. Such soils possess certain distinctive char-
acteristics due to the fact that they are formed from rocks that are
chemically and mineralogically complex, and from the fact that the
soil materials have in no stage been subjected to the assorting power
of wind or water. Those soils which have formed in place from
sedimentary rocks are here designated as residuo-sedimentary.

RESIDUO-SEDIMENT ARY SOILS.

The residuo-sedimentary soils differ from the typical residual
soils in that they are derived from rocks the materials of which in
a previous stage of disintegration were more or less perfectly as-
sorted by wind or by water. To this extent the residuo-sedimentary
Digitized by Google








THE BOILS OF FLORIDA.


soils resemble transported soils. As the igneous rocks are complex
chemically and mineralogically, the soils arising from them are
likely to share more or less in this complexity. The sedimentary
rocks, having been affected at the time of their deposition by the
assorting power of wind or water, give rise to soils less complex
mineralogically, and probably also less complex chemically. The
residuo-sedimentary soils are of special importance in Florida.
much the greater area in this state having soils of this type.
All soils are subjected after their formation to a limited amount
of assorting of materials. The readily soluble materials, except in
exeedingly dry climates, pass away in solution. The finer materials
in the soils in sections of heavy rainfall are to a considerable extent
removed from the soils by percolating waters. Both solution and
mechanical transportation have affected the soils of Florida. The
rainfall over the entire State is heavy and the removal of the finer
clay particles is an important factor in the formation of the sandy
soils of the interior of the state.

TRANSPORTED SOIHS.

Transported soils are those which have been transported from
the place where originally formed and reaccumulated at another
locality. The importance of this process arises from the fact that in
being transported the soil materials are subjected to more or less
assorting. The alluvial soils of the river valleys are accumulated
in this way, the alluvium being the finer material carried by the
water. Soils may be transported by water as the alluvial soils, or
by the wind. The latter are known as teolian soils.

COLLUVIAL SOILS.

The colluvial soils are those which have been slightly removed
from the place where originally formed and more or less intermixed
with other soil materials. They are found chiefly along hillsides,
being due largely to creep of the soils and to slides which carry the
soil to a lower level and mix it with other material. The chief distinct
tion between colluvial and transported soils lies in the fact that the
colluvial soils have not been subjected to the assorting of materials
which is characteristic of the transported soils.
Surface wash by running water has an important bearing on soil
formation. By this means soils are frequently transported and the
mineral constituents more or less perfectly assorted. Along steep
slopes surface wash is often so effective that no residual material
Digitized by OOg le







58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

can accumulate to form soils, and on less steep slopes the soil is ma-
terially affected by the removal of the finer ingredients. Even on
level surfaces, under certain conditions of sub-drainage, the finer
materials of the soil are segregated from the coarser.

OTHER TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF SOILS.

A classification of soils in common use is that which refers to
the soil ingredients rather than' to the manner of formation. The
clay soils are those in which clay predominates. Sandy soils are
those in which sand is an abundant mineral constituent. Silty soils
consist of finer material, including fine sand and finely divided clay.
Loams are those soils having an admixture of sand and clay. Other
terms as calcareous, ferrugineous and muck soils are self-explanatory.
The clay soils are often referred to as heavy, and the sandy soils and
loams as light, referring to the ease with which they may be culti-
vated. The heavy soils, although more difficult to farm, are fre-
quently very durable owing to their clay ingredients, the decompo-
sition of the clay minerals supplying plant food.
As has been previously stated, the presence of water in soils
retards oxidation and preserves a high constituent of organic mat-
ter. Under favorable conditions a considerable thickness of vegeta-
ble matter more or less decayed accumulates from the growth of
vegetation, forming muck deposits. The muck, therefore, accumu-
lates wherever the vegetation is dense and there is sufficient water
covering the surface to prevent the oxidation of the vegetable matter.
The muck deposits of Florida are extensive. Peat is likewise essen-
tially an accumulation of vegetable matter which has been preserved
from decay by being immersed in water containing organic acids.
It is customary to apply the term "muck" to vegetable material that
is available, after being drained, for agricultural purposes. Peat is
reserved for thicker accumulations of vegetable material which,
being largely immersed under water, are not in a rotted condition,
or at least not more than a surface coating is so rotted. Muck is
also applied to vegetable material that may be high in clay or other
impurities.

SOIL NAMES IN USE BY THE BUREAU OF SOILS OF THE THE UNITED
STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

For convenience of description and reference specific names are
applied to soils. The most extensive system of soil nomenclature
now in use is that established and followed by the Bureau of Soils
Digitized by Google








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


of the United States Department of Agriculture. According to this
system the whole territory of the United States is divided into thir-
teen physiographic divisions designated as soil provinces. The soils
in each province are grouped in certain main divisions designated as
soil series. Each series in turn includes one or more soil types.
The soil series is defined as including soils that are alike in
origin, color, and in some physical properties.
The soil type or soil name is a more definite unit than soil series
and applies to a particular kind of soil within the series. The soil
name is formed by adding to the name of the series a term descrip
tive of the soil. Thus Norfolk sand refers to a soil in the Norfolk
series in which both soil and sub-soil are a sand. Similarly Ports
mouth sand refers to a soil of the Portsmouth series having a sandy
top soil and sub-soil. The texture of the soil may be further indi
cated by introducing a descriptive term such as coarse sand, fine
sand or very fine sand. In describing soils the depth of three feet is
taken as a standard, and if a clay sub-soil is found within this depth
the soil is termed a loam. Norfolk sandy loam thus means a sandy
top soil and a clay sub-soil within a depth of three feet or less.
Portsmouth sandy loam or fine sandy loam refers to soils of the
Portsmouth series having a clay sub-soil within three feet of the
surface.
Florida lies within the coastal plains province. In this province.
which extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Long Island
to Louisiana, nineteen soil series have been recognized by the Bureau
of Soils. Only a limited part, about ten per cent, of this area has
been surveyed in detail and additional soil series are likely to be
established as the soil surveys proceed. In Florida detailed soil sur
veys have been made by the Bureau of Soils in seven areas as fol-
lows: Escambia, Gadsden, Jefferson and Leon Counties, and parts of
Alachua, Duval and Jackson Counties. The total area surveyed in
Florida includes about 3.000 square miles. Within this area five
series and twenty-eight soil types have been recognized. The five
series are the Norfolk, Orangeburg, Portsmouth, Myatt, and Gads
den.
NORFOLK SERIES.

The Norfolk series includes light colored sandy soils with yellow
sand or sandy clay sub-soils. The Norfolk soils are found on corn
paratively level or gently rolling lands, or at least on lands not
subjected to surface wash, although well drained. No fixed grade
can he given at which surface wash would be sufficient o remove
Digitized by GoOgIe








60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

the light sands, as this is determined by texture and thickness of
the sand. Sand dunes and other accumulations of sand may be
relatively steep and yet not wash. The soil types in the Norfolk
series described in Florida are Norfolk sand, coarse sand, fine sand,
loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, and very fine sandy loam. The
Norfolk is by far the most extensive series in Florida. Of the total
area mapped in detail by the Bureau of Soils, about 65% is referred
to the Norfolk series. In the state as a whole probably not less than
75% of the soils will in this system be classed in the Norfolk series.

ORANGEBURG SERIES.

The Orangeburg series differs from the Norfolk series in having
a red sandy clay sub-soil instead of a yellow or blotched subsoil.
The top soil of the Orangeburg series may be light colored, although
it is usually red, due to admixture of material from the red clay sub-
soil. The Orangeburg soils, as a rule occupy the slopes, while the
Norfolk soils usually rest upon more level ground. The Norfolk soils
are subjected to little or no surface wash and the constant seepage
of surface waters removes most of the clay particles, leaving the
light colored sandy soils. The Orangeburg soils lying upon the
slopes are subjected to more rapid change than the soils on level
ground, and'the renewal of new soil material from the sub-soil is
proportionately more rapid. The soils moreover, are not so long
exposed to the leaching processes that remove the soluble constitu
ents. For this reason the soils on hillside slopes, if prevented as
they easily are from destructive surface wash, are, other conditions
being the same, more enduring than those on the level lands.
The types of Orangeburg soils that have been recognized in Flor-
ida are the following: Orangeburg sand, coarse sand, fine sand,
loam, sandy loam, coarse sandy loam, and fine sandy loam. The
areas of chief distribution of the Orangeburg soils are the red clay
hills of northern, western and central Florida.

PORTSMOUTH SERIES.

The soils of the Portsmouth series contain more or less organic
matter which give them a dark color. The sub-soil may be gray, yel-
low, or mottled yellow and gray. Mottled sandy clays form the
sub-soil of the loams of this series. For agricultural purposes the
Portsmouth soils, as a rule, require drainage.
The differences between the soils of the Norfolk and the Ports-
mouth series are due primarily to differences in the drainage condi-
tions from which arise other differences in the chemical an physi-
Digitized by g0leC








THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


cal properties. The Portsmouth soils are poorly drained. During a
part of the year they are more or less flooded, and during all of the
year the water table stands at or very near the surface. The moist
condition of the soil retards oxidation of the grasses and other vege-
tation, the accumulation of which adds organic matter to the soil,
giving the dark color. Further chemical changes result from the
presence of the organic matter and the undrained condition of the
land, the mottled sub-soils being due to this cause. When drained,
the Portsmouth soils are frequently desirable for farming purposes,
the organic matter already stored in the soil, adding fertility. These
soils are being extensively used, after drainage, as trucking soils.
The following soils of the Portsmouth series have been recognized
in Florida. Portsmouth sand, fine sand, sandy loam, and fine sandy
loam.
MYATT SERIES.

The Myatt series is established for soils which occur in seepy
places around the heads of streams or on slopes. The soils are gray,
the sub-soils gray and yellow mottled with white. In the soil survey
reports on the areas surveyed in Florida only one type of the soils
of this series is described, the Myatt fine sandy loam, and this occurs
only to a very limited extent.

GADSDEN SERIES.

The Gadsden series includes dark-gray soils found upon gentle
slopes or undulations adjacent tq streams. The soils of this series
are regarded as colluvial, resulting from the creep or wash of mate-
rials from a higher level. The series is based upon the Gadsden sand
and the Gadsden sandy loam first described from Gadsden County,
Florida. This series is of limited extent.

MISCELLANEOUS SOIL TYPES.

A number of miscellaneous soil types not yet referred to a series
have been recognized by the Bureau of Soils, in Florida. In addi-
tion to swamp, meadow, sandhill, coastal beach, marsh and muck
lands, these are as follows: Greenville clay, Greenville sandy Ipam.
and Greenville loamy sand; Gainesville sand; Leon fine sand; Ock-
locknee clay; Plummer fine sandy loam, and Grady fine sandy loam.
The total combined area of these miscellaneous types, however, is
small as compared with the leading soil series already described.
As detailed soil surveys proceed other soil types will doubtless be
recognized and described. Digitized by Google









62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

SOIL LITERATURE.

The most accessible and reliable literature on the soils of the
state is that which has been issued by the various State and Govern-
ment bureaus. The Florida State Experiment Station has issued a
number of reports bearing on various phases of soil conditions and
soil utilization. Among these are the following: A Chemical Study
of Some Typical Soils of the Florida Peninsula, by A. A. Persons,
Bull. 43, 1897; Pineapple Culture, Soils, by H. K. Miller and H. H.
Hume, Bull. 68, 1903; Soil Studies, 1, by A. W. Blair, Bull. 87, 1906;
Soil Studies, 11, by A. W. Blair, Bull. 93, 1908. The reports of the
State Department, of Agriculture include many references to soils.
and in the various reports of the State Chemist will be found many
soil analyses. The reports of the United States Department of Agri.
.culture contain many general soil studies and a few reports relat-
ing specifically to Florida. The special reports include: A Prelim-
inary Report on the Soils of Florida, by Milton Whitney, Bull. 13,
1898; and the detailed surveys and maps, a list of which has
already been given. The areas mapped include Escambia, Gadsden,
Jefferson, and Leon Counties, and parts of Alachua, Jackson and
Duval Counties.
The general literature on soils is extensive. Among the numer-
ous text-book and treatises on soils the following recent publications
will be found instructive:

GENERAL PUBLICATIONS ON SOILS.

Hilgaid, E. W.-Soils. Their Formation, Properties, Composition and
Relations to Climate and Plant Growth in the Humid and Arid Regions.
The Macmillan Company, 1906.
Hopkins, Cyril G.-Soil Fertility and Permanent Agriculture. Ginn and
Company.
King, F. H.-The Soil. Its Nature, Relations, and Fundamental Princi-
ples of Management. The Macmillan Company.
King, F. H.-Farmers of Forty Centuries, or Permanent Agriculture ta
China, Korea and Japan. Published by Mrs. F. H. King, Madison, Wis.
Merrill, George P.-Rocks, Rock-weathering and Soils. The Macmillan
Company, 1906.


Digitized by Google









THE SOILS OF FLORIDA.


SOIL TYPES IN FLORIDA.

While the soils in Florida are extremely varied, yet for the
purposes of a general survey, representative sections of country may
be recognized in which particular types of soil predominate. The
divisions that are here recognized are based upon the vegetation
and upon such other characters as may be easily observed, including
the drainage conditions, the amount of organic matter in the soil,
and the character of the soil and sub-soil.
The terms used for the different sections are descriptive merely
and are not used as technical names for soils. The actual naming
and mapping of soils can proceed only as detailed soil surveys are
made.
Among the varied types of land are the pine lands, alluvial,
prairie, swamp, marsh, muck and hammock lands of several kinds.

PINE LANDS.

About 70 to 75 per cent of the total land area of Florida was
covered originally by pine forests. In northern, central and western
Florida the long leaf, or yellow pine, Pinus palustris, is the prevail-
ing forest tree, while in southern Florida, the Cuban pine, Pinus
oaribpea, predominates. The short leaf pine, Pinuis echinata, grows
in the hammock types of country in association with deciduous trees.
The same is true of the spruce pine, Pinus clausa, which grows ex-
tensively on quiescent dunes bordering the coast. A few other pine
species are found, but they occupy less extensive areas. The pine
lands are varied and several more or less distinct types may be
recognized.

ROLLING PINE LANDS.

The rolling pine lands include well drained areas, also known
as high or upland pine. This is an extensive type of country and
is itself varied in soils and topography. The prevailing forest tree
is the long leaf pine. As a rule there is little or no undergrowth,
although in the more sandy localities, small oaks are found. Saw
palmetto occurs rarely and only to a limited extent.
The top soil in the rolling pine lands is light colored or gray, or
dark from admixture of organic matter. The depth to the clay is
variable and several grades of soil in this type of country are recog-
nized, depending chiefly upon the texture of the soil,E4rainga i fiIC








64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

tions, and the character of the sub-soil. In some sections the under-
lying sandy clay is found at a depth of one to two feet. In these
areas if well drained the clay usually contains iron pebbles and is
oxidized red in color. Elsewhere the clay lies from three to six or
more feet beneath the surface ,and in the extremely sandy soils the
clay lies at an undetermined depth.
The superficial sands which form the top soils of the upland pine
lands have very generally been held to be a formation distinct from
and later than the underlying material. This view the writer be-
lieves untenable. The parent formation of the soil is the underlying
sandy clay, the dinistegration of which has given rise to the sands
according to the usual processes of soil formation.
The depth to which the sandy clay has disintegrated is deter-
mined chiefly by the topographic and drainage conditions. Under-
ground water is the chief disintegrating agency. The rainfall.passes
into the earth and emerges by seepage along the hillsides. In this
course of circulation certain of the cementing constituents of the
sandy clay are dissolved out, and also the minute clay particles,
which act as a binder, are carried mechanically to a lower depth.
By this process the covering of loose surface material and soil is
continuously deepened.
This process of disintegration is carried on, other conditions
being the same, most actively where the water table lies several feet
beneath the surface, and where the sandy clays rest upon limestone,
or where the surface is sufficiently broken to give good drainage.
Obviously, however, where the surface is so far broken as to permit
surface wash, no loose sands accumulate, since they are removed as
rapidly as formed. It is true, also, that the parent sandy clay is not
of uniform character, but is more sandy and is more easily disinte-
grated in places, while elsewhere the percentage of clay is greater
and the disintegration proceeds more slowly. The disintegrated
stratum in a cross section of a hill may be seen as a rule to follow
to a degree, the contour being thickest usually on the top of the hill
unless affected by the surface wash, and thinning out at the sides in
proportion to the steepness of the slope.
Some of the very desirable general farming lands are found in
the belt of rolling pine lands. This is true in particular of those
soils having clay sub-soil within a few feet of the surface. Other
sandy soils in which the clay is not within a determinable depth
are less productive, although even these more sandy soils under
proper cultivation are made to yield satisfactory returns. In the
heavier types of soils having a clay sub-soil near the surfacet, i-
Digitized by %,3jUD












FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 5


Fig. 1.-Well drained pine land, two. miles south of Mayo in
Lafayette County. The prevailing timber growth is long leaf pine.


Fig. 2.-Well drained sandy pine land in the phosphate belt of
Marion County, near Juliette.
Digitized by Google


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY.









FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT, PL. 43


Fig. 1.-Typical Palmetto flatwoous.


Fig. 2.-Exposure of hardpan underlying flatwoods at Black Bluff
on Clark's Creek in Nassau County.


Digitized by Google


FIAMIDA ;FOLO.;ICAL KI'ItVFY.