Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 First annual report of the Florida...
 The purposes and the duties of...
 Members of the State Survey...
 Cooperation with the National Geological...
 Survey library - Exhibition of...
 The relation of the State Survey...
 The collection of statistical...
 Financial statement
 Sketch of the geology of Flori...
 Fossils contained in the Florida...
 Mineral Industries
 Road making materials
 Geological Investigations in Florida...
 Bibliography of Florida Geolog...


Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey. 1907-1908.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000001/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey. 1907-1908.
Series Title: Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Sellards, E. H.
Publisher: Capital Publishing Co.
Publication Date: 1908
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0384
notis - AAA7300
System ID: UF00000001:00001

Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
    First annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The purposes and the duties of the State Geological Survey
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Members of the State Survey Force
        Page 11
    Cooperation with the National Geological Survey - Relation of the survey to other organizations
        Page 12
    Survey library - Exhibition of geological material
        Page 13
    The relation of the State Survey to the ownership of mineral-bearing lands - Samples sent to the survey for examination
        Page 14
    The collection of statistical information
        Page 15
    Financial statement
        Page 16
    Sketch of the geology of Florida
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
    Fossils contained in the Florida formations
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Mineral Industries
        Page 26
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 30a
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Diatomaceous earth
            Page 39
        Lime and cement
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Portland cement
            Page 42
        Sand-lime bricks
            Page 43
            Page 42
        Minerals new to the State
            Page 44
            Page 44a
        Mineral waters
            Page 45
    Road making materials
        Page 46
        Rocks of Florida classified according to origin
            Page 47
        Siliceous rocks - Flint and chert
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Calcareous material
            Page 50
        Argillaceous rocks - Road-making clays
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Bog iron ore - Phosphatic rock
            Page 53
    Geological Investigations in Florida previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Bibliography of Florida Geology
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
Full Text


B~slr annoaL BEPOaT, FEORnePIEOE, PIn I

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Tallahassee, Fla.


1k His Excellency, HIon. N. B. Broward,
Governor of Florida.

have the honor to submit herewith the First
nual Report of the Florida State Geological Survey
Spring the operations of the Survey for the year ending
Se, 1908. The miscellaneous results of this first year's
rk are included in this report. The special investiga-
o s which have been carried on during the year will
S the subject of separate publications, one of which, a
ill tin on underground water supply, accompanies this
t. A report on the general geology and stratigraphy
F lorida forming a part of co-operative work between
national and State Surveys is in preparation.
PC rmit me to express at this time my appreciation of
interest you have shown in the work of the State
eol gical Survey, and the encouragement you have given
Se prosecution of this work.
State Geologist.
ila assee, Florida,
July 1, 1908.


i -



nistrative report ..................................... 7
te Survey law ...................................... 7
e purposes and duties of a State Geological Survey..... 9
embers of the State Survey force .................1... 1
operation with the National Geological Survey........... 12
elation of the State Survey to other organizations ...... 12
he Survey library .................................. 13
exhibition of geological material........................ 13
he relation of the State Survey to the ownership of
mineral-bearing lands ................................ 14
samples sent to the Survey for examination ............. 14
he collection of statistical information. ................ 15
financial statement ................. ................... 16

etch of the geology of Florida .......................... 17
able of the geologic time divisions ..................... 20
Fossils contained in the Florida formations ............. 23
Fossil human remains in Florida ........................ 25

mineral industries .................................... 26
Phosphate ........................... ............. 26
Varieties ................... ................... 28
Location .............. .... ........................ 29
Origin and occurrence ................................. 29
Clay ................................ .............. 31
Plastic kaolin or ball clays .......................... 32
Brick-making clay ................. ............ ..... 33
Fuller's earth ......................................... 33
Minerals of fuller's earth ......................... 33
Analysis of fuller's earth ............................. 34
Physical properties of ................... ........ ...... 35
Tests for fuller's earth ............................. 35
U ses .................. ........... ........... 36
Occurrence ..................................... 36
Location and extent ... ........... ............... 36
Production of fuller's earth during 1907 ................ 37
Peat ....... ........ .................. ...... .......... 37
Diatomaceous earth ....... .. .... ..............39

r Page.
Lime and cement ................................... 40
Lime ................... ............ ............ 40
Natural cement ........................... ............ 41
Portland cement ........... ........ ................. 42
Sand lime brick ........................... ..... ...... 42
Concrete building blocks, hollow blocks, and artificial stone. 43
Minerals new to the State ............................. 44
Sulphur ........................................ 44
Mineral waters ........... ............................ 45
Road-making materials .................................. 46
Rocks of Florida classified according to origin ............ 47
Rocks of Florida classified according to chemical compo-
sition ........................ .. ...... ............ 47
Siliceous rocks--flint and chert ...................... 48
Properties ....................................... 48
Occurrence of flint and chert in Florida .............. 48
Origin of flint and chert in the Vicksburg Limestone.. 49
Calcareous material .................................. 50
Distribution and amount of calcareous rocks ......... 51
Argillaceous rocks-Road-making clays ................ 51
Bog iron ore ..................................... 53
Phosphate rock .................. ......... ... ... 53
Geological investigations in Florida previous to the organiza-
tion of the present Geological Survey .................. 54
Papers on geology ...................................... 54
Papers on paleogeography ............................. 68
Bibliography of Florida Geology ......................... 73

Plate Facing page
I. Phosphate mining in Florida by floating dredge, Frontispiece
IT. Ocala Limestone--Type exposure, Ocala, Florida........ 22
III. Mining river pebble phosphate in Florida; and Caloosa-
hatchee beds (Pliocene), Caloosahatchee River....... 24
IV. Land pebble phosphate, showing bedded phosphate
deposit; and phosphate washer, Bartow, Florida........ 30
V. Flowing well near Palatka ................................ 4
VI. Lake Okeechobee, entrance to three-mile canal; and the '
Everglades, from the south to the north drainage canal 4



The State Geological Survey was authorized by the
General Assembly of 1907. The act establishing the Sur-
vey reads as follows:

AN ACT establishing a Geological Survey for the State of Florida,
to provide for the appointment 9f a State Geologist, to define his
duties, and to provide for the maintainance of the survey.
Be it Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. That the Governor of the State shall appoint a suit-
able person to conduct a geological survey of the State; such per-
son shall be known as the State Geologist, and shall have his
office at the Capitol.
Section 2. The State Geologist shall appoint subject to the
approval of the Governor such assistance as he may find necessary
to enable him to successfully, and with reasonable dispatch, ac-
complish the object of the survey, and such assistance shall be
entirely under the control of the State Geologist.
Section. 3. The State Geologist shall make jto the Governor
annually a report of the progress of his surveys and explorations
of the minerals, water supply and other natural resources of the
State, and he shall include in such report full description of such
surveys and explorations, occurrence and location of mineral and
other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water supply
and power and mineral waters; and the best and most economical
methods of development, together with analysis of soils, minerals
and mineral waters, with maps, charts and drawings of the same;
and it shall be the duty of the State Geologist and his assistants,
when they discover any mineral deposits, or other substance of
value, to notify the owner of the land upon which such deposits
occur. Failure of the said Geologist to notify the owner of such
deposit before disclosing to any other person or persons, shall sub-
ject said Geologist to a fine of one thousand dollars and six
months' imprisonment.
Section 4. It shall be the duty of the State Geologist to make
collections of specimens illustrating the geological and mineral
features of the State; one suit of which hall be deposited in the
office of the State,Geologist, at Tallahassee, and duplicate suits in


the libraries of each of the State Colleges; each suit to be cer-
rectly labeled for convenient use and study.
Section 5. That for the purpose of expeditiously and thor-
oughly carrying out the provisions of this act, there shall be ap.
propriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appro-
priated the sum of seven thousand five hundred dollars per annum.
The Comptroller shall, upon the requisition of the State Geologist,
when approved by the Governor, draw his warrant on the Treas-
urer for the amount so appropriated in such sums as may be
needed from time to time for the purpose of said survey as herein
set forth; and for all such expenditures made under the provis-
ions of this act. except for the payment of the salary of the State
Geologist, as herein provided, the consent and approval of the
Governor shall be obtained, and the vouchers for all such expendi-
tures made from this fund shall be filed with the Comptroller; and
a statement of his receipts and expenditures shall be printed in
such annual report of the State Geologist. Of the amount annu-
ally appropriated, there shall be expended: First, for the salary
of the State Geologist, two thousand five hundred dollars per
annum, which salary is hereby fixed at that sum. Second, for
the contingent expenses of the survey, including compensation of
all temporary and permanent assistance; traveling expenses of
the geological corps; purchase of materials or other necessary
expenses for outfit; expenses incurred in providing for the trans-
.portation, arrangement and proper exhibition of the geological
and other collections made under the provisions of this act; for
postage, stationery and printing, and the printing and engraving
of maps and sections to illustrate the annual reports, five thousand
dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.
Section 6. All chemical, analytical or assay work shall be per-
formed by the State Chemist and his assistants, at the direction
of the Governor, upon request of the State Geologist
Section 7. All laws and parts of laws inconsistent herewith are
hereby repealed.
Section 8. This act shall take effect upon its passage and ap-
proval by the Governor, or upon its becoming a law without suck
Approved June 3, 1907.



The State Geological Survey is intended to serve both
an economic and an educational purpose. Provision is
made for the exploration of the mineral and other natural
resources of the State, and for the publication in a suita-
ble manner of the results of such explorations. The
establishment of a State Survey upon a basis that is
broad, efficient, and capable of development is an accom-
plishment upon which a State is to be congratulated. The
successful carrying out of such a survey demands on the
part of its officials faithful, persistent adherence to defi-
nite plans, and on the part of the people of the State a
generous and constant co-operation. Among the specific
objects for which the Survey exists, as stated in the enact-
ment, is that of making known information regarding
"minerals, water supply, and other natural resources of
the State," including the "occurrence and location of min-
erals and other deposits of value, surface and subterra-
nean water supply and power, and mineral waters, and
the best and most economic methods of development,
together with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral
waters, with maps, charts, and drawings of the same".
While strictly economic purposes are thus emphasized,
a distinctly educational function of the Survey is indi-
cated by Section 4, which makes it the duty of the State
Geologist to make collections of specimens illustrating
the geological and mineral features of the State. One set
of these specimens is to be deposited in the office of the
State Geologist, while duplicate sets are made accessible
to each of the State colleges. These collections form the
basis upon which the conclusions of the Survey's investi-
gations rest and their proper care and preservation is a
latter of importance. The educational work of the State
Survey should, however, go beyond the distribution of
collections. The minute investigation'of a mineral deposit
and publication of the results of that investigation are


matters of interest not merely to the individuals who may
happen to own or mine from these deposits, but are mat-
ters which concern the people of the State as a whole. A
State Survey will fall short of its responsibilities and
opportunities if it does not, through its publications, fur-i
nish to the people a better knowledge of the resources of
the State and the possibilities and limitations of such
In its economic relations, a State Survey touches on
varied phases of the State's development. In its results
it may be expected, judging from the experience of simi-
lar surveys in other States, to contribute not so much to
sensational or sudden development of great mineral de,
posits as to an intelligent development of the State's nat-.
ural resources. Its educational value is of no less imme-
diate concern to the State, both to the citizens within the
State and to prospective citizens without.
In view of the size of the State and its varied resources,
it is apparent that for efficiency the Survey must concen-
trate its work for the present along specific lines. A
thorough investigation of some one natural resource, with
the publication of the results, is of much more value to
the State than incomplete reports on the many resources.
It will be the plan of the State Survey to investigate and
report on such natural resources specifically, as, for in-
stance: The underground water supply of the State, arte-
sian and non-artesian, its possibilities for agricultural,
commercial and general tisage; the phosphate deposits;
the fuller's earth deposits; the clays; the road making
materials; the sand and cement materials; the fuels; and
similarly, other natural resources as they develop. The
results of these investigations will constitute a series of
economic reports. Other reports, not lacking in economic
value, but intended particularly as of educational value,
will relate to the general geology of the State. Finally;
it is hoped that it may be possible to issue reports of
combined educational and economic value treating of the


State by limited areas in detail, as by counties, and in-
tended as final reports for the areas so treated.


The writer's services as State Geologist began in June,
1907. On August 15, 1907, Mr. Herman Gunter was em-
ployed as Field Assistant. In connection with :o-opera-
five work between the State and the National Surveys,
the State Survey secured during a part of the year the
services of F. G. Clapp and George C. Matson. The chemi-
oal work of the State Survey is provided for by law
through the office of the State Chemist.
Mr. Gunter's time has been given largely to field work
op underground water, to the collection of geological ma-
:erial, and to assistance in the exhibition of specimens.
Iessrs. Clapp and Matson, who worked with the State
Survey in co-operation with the National Survey, have in
preparation a report on the general geology and stratig-
raphy of the State. This report will contain a geological
map of the State, and, if practicable, a topographic map
with contour lines at intervals of 50 feet. Mr. E. Peck
Greene served as office assistant during the months of
March and April., Miss Nellie Mathes has served as
stenographer during a part of the year. The total cost to
the Survey in salaries for the year as shown by the finan-
cial statement given on a later page was $3,568.03.
The State Geologist has given attention in detail, so far
as possible, to the field work .of the Survey, as well as to
the equipment of the office, and to the correspondence.
Many of the letters of inquiry received' by the office admit
of a brief reply, while others require considerable time,
and in some cases investigation or examination of speci-
mens, in order to supply the information desired.
Two publications have been issued during the year as
follows: A pamphlet On the Organization and Plans of
the State Geological Survey, and a circular containing a
map with explanatory text showingg the areas of artesian



flow in the State. A bulletin on the underground water
supply of central Florida accompanies this report.


The State Geological Survey has fortunately been able
to co-operate during the year with the National Geological
Survey. This co-operative work, planned, soon after the
organization of the State Survey, includes a detailed in-
vestigation of the stratigraphy and underground waters
of the State, and has been carried on throughout the year
in accordance with the original plans. The State Survey
has profited very greatly by assistance from the National
Survey and by the presence of members of the National
Survey in the field. Moreover, the State has had the bene-
fit of a much more extended geological investigation than
would otherwise have been possible. The results of these
investigations will be embodied in a special bulletin on
the stratigraphy and general geology of the State and in
reports on the underground water supply.


Geological Surveys of Neighboring States:-Geological
formations are limited by no such lines as State bound-
aries, and an intelligent study of a formation often neces-
sitates a knowledge of its extent and development in a
neighboring State. The relationship of a State Survey is
therefore close with neighboring States, and particularly
with adjoining States. This relationship in the case of
the Florida Survey is especially close with Georgia and
Alabama. With more distant States there is a no less
real relationship growing out of a similarity of deposits,
and of methods of study and development.
Office of State Chemist:-The Survey law provides that
analytical work necessary to the investigations of the
Survey shall be done by the State Chemist. The Survey is
thus brought into co-operative relation with the Division



of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture and in so
far as the work of the Survey contributes to agricultural
interests, to the Department of Agriculture as a whole.
The State Agricultural Experiment Station:-In
its study of the water supply in relation to agri-
culture, of soils in their geological relations, and in
other ways, the work of the State Survey may be expected
to supplement certain lines of work of the State Experi-
ment Station, the two organizations being of mutual aid
to each other. The Director of the State Experiment Sta-
tion has, during the present year, very kindly supplied a
considerable number of analyses of water samples which
have been incorporated in the bulletin on underground
water, prepared to accompany this report.


An effort has been made during the year to bring to-
gether those publications which are necessary to the im-
mediate and future work of the Survey. The Survey
library now contains more than 1,000 volumes. These
include the reports of the several State Geological Sur-
veys; the Annual Reports, Bulletins, Monographs, Pro-
fessional Papers, Water Supply and Irrigation Papers,
and other publications of the National Geological Survey;
the reports of the Canadian, and a few other foreign Geo-
logical Surveys; and many miscellaneous volumes and
papers on geological subjects.


The Survey law provides for the exhibition of geological
material. The space available for this purpose is unfor-
tunately as yet very limited. A part of one room has,
however, been used for this purpose. Three cases have
been built, designed to serve the double purpose of storage
and exhibition, the lower part of the case being adapted
to the purpose of storing material. In making the collec-




tions a systematic plan has been followed to secure a
representation of the rocks, minerals, and fossils of each
formation in the State. The collections will be added to
as opportunity permits.


The relation of the State Survey to the ownership of
mineral-bearing lands is specifically defined. The Survey
law provides that it shall be the duty of the State Geolo-
gist and his assistants, when they discover any mineral
deposits or substance of value, to notify the owners of the
land upon which such deposits occur before disclosing
their location to any other person or persons. Failure to
do so is punishable by fine and imprisonment. It is not
intended by the law, however, that the State Geologist's
time shall be devoted to examinations and reports upon
the value of private mineral lands. Reports of this char-
acter are properly the province of commercial geologists,
who may be employed by owners of land for that purpose.
To accomplish the best results, the work of the Survey
must be in accordance with definite plans by which the
State's resources are investigated in pn orderly manner.
Only such examinations of private lands can be made as
constitute a part of the regularly planned operations of
the Survey.


Samples of rocks, minerals and fossils will be at all
times gladly received, and reported upon. Attention to
inquiries and general correspondence are a part of the
duties of the office, and afford a means through which the
Survey may in many ways be useful to the citizens of
the State.
The following suggestions are offered for the guidance
of those submitting samples:



1. The exact location of all samples should be given.
This should be carefully written out in full and placed
on the inside of the package.
2. The statement accompanying the sample should
give the conditions under which the specimen occurs,
whether an isolated fragment or part of a larger mass
or deposit.
3. Each package should be addressed to the Florida
State Geological Survy, Tallahassee. The name and
address of the sender should be plainly written on the
4. Transportation charges, whether by mail, express
or freight, should in all cases be prepaid.


For many purposes the collection and publication of
statistical information is helpful, both to the industries
concerned and to the general public. Such statistical
information is desired from all the mineral industries of
the State. Such information will be recognized as strictly
confidential in so far as it relates to the private business
of any individual or company, and will be used only in
making up State and County totals. The co-operation of
the various industries of the State is invited in order that
the best possible showing of the State's products may be
inade annually.




The following is a summary of the expenditures of the
Survey for the year ending June 2, 1908:

Office supplies and equipment ................ 919.34
Field supplies and equipment............... 402.93
Expense of field operations.................. 2,183.42
Exhibition of geological material.............. 155.93
Express, freight and drayage................. 24.49
Printing ................................... 83.55
Stationery and postage ....................... 162.31
Salaries ................................... 3,568.03



A scientific study of the mineral industry is necessarily
based upon a knowledge of the geology. The summary of
the geological features of the State is given briefly at
this time since the subject will be dealt with in more
detail in a later bulletin to be issued by the State Survey.
Florida lies within und is a part of the general coastal
plains deposits of the United States. These embrace a
strip along the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts, varying in
width and covering the eastern part of New Jersey, Dela-
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro-
lina,' Georgia' and all of Florida, as well as much of the
southern part of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
Texas. The formations of the coastal plains are sedimen-
tary, containing much clay, shale, limestone and sand-
stone, and lie nearly horizontal or with but slight dip.
The sediment making up these deposits, except the organic
material of the limestone, came from higher lands to the
notth and west. The sea occupying the present position
of Florida, was in early time remote from sources of sedi-
ment; so that the proportion of wash from the land was
much less here than nearer the original shore line. This'
clear sea was favorable to the existence of an abundant
shell life, their remainsEaccumulating to form lime rock.
Hence, in the Coastal Plains section, Florida is excep-
tional in the large amount of limestone that it contains..
In its general geology, Florida is of comparatively sim-
ple structure. The rocks are all of sedimentary origin,
no igneous or greatly metamorphosed rocks occurring
within the State. The strata lie for the most part, either
horizontally, as formed, or with a slightly accentuated
dip, and have suffered no great distortion such as often.
characterizes the rocks of a mountainous country. These
sedimentary formations consist of limestones, sandstones,
shales and clays. The underlying foundation rock through-
out the State, being a massive and very thick limestone.
Formerly it was believed that the greater part, if not


all of the State of Florida, was of coral formation. This
view was founded upon the observations of Louis Agassiz
and Joseph LeConte. The first publication on the subject
by Agassiz appeared in 1852 as an appendix to the report
of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey
for the year ending November, 1851. Agassiz believed
that not only the extreme south Florida and the Florida
Keys were of coral formation, but that the Peninsula as
far at least as the 28th degree of north latitude was of
similar origin. LeConte's paper appeared in 1857, and
to the conclusions of Agassiz' added the theory that the
keys rested upon a substructure of inorganic sediment
carried by the Gulf Stream. Previous to these publica-
tions the true character of the limestone of the mainland
had been recognized and described by several observers.
J. H. Allen, in 1846, described the limestone outcropping
in the vicinity of Tampa.2 During the same year T. A.
Conrad publishes two papers on these formations, giving
in the second paper a description of a number of the fos-
sil shells contained in them.3. Tuomey in 1851 concurred
in Conrad's reference of the Tampa formations to the
early Tertiary.4
Bailey collected fossil foraminifera during the winter
and spring of 1849-505 from a locality forty miles west of

10n the agency of the Gulf Stream in the formation of the
Peninsula of Florida. Joseph LeConte, Am. Assoc. Adv. Set.
Proc. X, 103-119, pt. 2, 1857.
2Some facts respecting the Geology of Tampa Bay, Florida. J.
H. Allen, Am. Jour. Sel. (2), vol. I, p. 38-42. 1846.
observations on the Geology of a Part of East Florida, with
a catalog of Recent Shells of the Coast. T. A. Conrad, Am. Jour.
Sci. (2), II, 36-48, 1846.
4Notice of the Geology of the Florida Keys and of the Southern
Coast of Florida. Tuomey, M. Am. Jour. Sci. (2) vol. XI, 390-394,
5Microscopical Observations made in South Carolina, Georgia
and Florida. Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. II, No. 8, 48 pp. 1851;
Am. Jour. Sci. (2), XI, p. 86, 1857.



Palatka and recognized the formation as the "White Or-
bitulite (Orbitoides) Limestone".
The views of Agassiz and LeConte gained wide circula-
tion and were for a generation the accepted view as to
the origin of 'the peninsula. The credit for again estab-
lishing the true character of the limestone of the interior
of Florida is due to Professor Eugene A. Smith, State
Geologist of Alabama. Professor Smith's paper appeared
in 1881, his observations on the geology of Florida having
been made during the previous year, while acting as spe-
cial agent for the cotton culture report of the 10th Cen-
sus.* While the observations made by Smith were not
sufficiently detailed to permit of a differentiation of the
several formations occurring in the interior of the State,
his conclusions as to the history of the formation of the
peninsula were substantially correct.
The Florida deposits are all of comparatively recent
date geologically. The place of the formations as now
known in the geological time scale is indicated by the
table given on the following page.
The Archeozoic at the bottom of the table is the oldest
of the large time divisions; the Cenozoic at the top, is
the latest. Similarly the Eocene is the oldest division of
the Cenozoic, while the Pleistocene is the most modern
and leads up through recent formations to the present
The oldest formation known in Florida is the Vicksburg
Limestone, which is believed to belong, as indicated by the
table, to the Oligocene division of the Cenozoic. The
conditions under which this limestone was formed were,
as indicated by the rock itself, as follows: A clear sea
of medium depth free from land sediment in which marine
life, especially the minute organisms known as the fora-
ninifera, abounded, the shells of these small animals,
along with larger shells, making up the limestone. Of
the many fossils occurring in this limestone the most
*Am. Jour. Sci. (3). Vol. XXI, pp. 292-309, 1881.




Represented Jn Sand-dunes, shell-mounds,
ecent.... Florida by.... Indian remains, leading to
the present time.

( Represented r Columbia sands,
Pleistocene F b Marine shellrock,
Florida by Miami Oolite.

Pliocene. Represented in Lafayette formation,
e ( Florida by... Caloosahatchee beds.
Miocene.. Represented in
Miocene... orida by.... Chesapeake Miocene.

SOliRepresented in
gocene.. Florida by....

Not known
in Florida....

Not known
in Florida....

Not known
in Florida....

Not known
in Florida....

Upper Oligocene (Chatta-
hoochee and Chipola
groups), Lower Oligocene,
(Vicksburg and Ocala

It is probable that the
Eocene occurs in Florida
underlying the Oligocene at
some considerable depth.
This inference is based on
the occurrence of Eocene
limestone to the north and
west which dips toward the
south beneath Oligocene
limestone. It is possible
also that Cretaceous rocks
occur at still greater depth
below the Eocene. There is
at present no basis on
which to 'judge the pres-
ence or absence of yet older
formations beneath the
Florida peninsula with the
possible exception of the
Archeozoic, which is pre-
sumably world-wide in its

With subdi- Not known
Proterozoic I visions... in Florida....

( With subdi-
Archeozoic I visions...

SNot known
in Florida....


Mesozoic {








abundant and characteristic are small foraminifera of the
genus Orbitoides. From the predominance of these small
fossils the formation has come to be known commonly as
the Orbitoides Limestone. The formation -contains in
places large masses of flint. These flint masses seem to
have been formed by replacement of calcium carbonate
by silica carried in solution by the underground water,
which circulates freely through the limestone. Locally,
this originally porous and fossiliferous limestone has
become compact and more or less perfectly crystallized.
Apparently this change is also to be attributed to the
effect of underground water. The Vicksburg Limestone
doubtless underlies the entire State. It is a part of an
extensive formation which encircles the Gulf of Mexico
from Florida to Louisiana. In Alabama it makes up
apparently the middle part of the St. Stephens or White
Limestone, and has there, according to Smith, an esti-
mated thickness of between two and three hundred feet.1
In Mississippi, Casey recognizes two faunal horizons in
the Vicksburg Bluffs2, the upper of which contains Orbi-
toides as a characteristic fossil. Upon this basis Dall has
proposed tentatively ,for the Orbitoidal phase of this ex-
tensive formation the term "Peninsular Limestone", from
its typical occurrence in the peninsula of Florida.3
In Florida this limestone lies at the surface in limited
areas. but is, for the nost part, buried beneath later
deposits. Good exposures are seen in the central portion
of Alachua and in the southern part of Columbia Coun-
iReport on the Geology of the Coastal Plains of Ala., Geological
Survey of Ala. Eugene Allen Smith, State Geologist 1894, pp. 107-
122. The Underground Water Resources of Ala. Eugene Allei
Smith, Geological Survey of Ala. 1907. The Ala. Survey has not
found it practicable, however, to separate any part of the White
Limestone as it occurs in that State from the Eocene. (Coastal
Plains, p. 109.)
2Proceedings Academy Natural Science of Philadelphia, pp.
513-518, 1901.
3Trans. Wagner Free Institute Sci. Vol. III, pt. VI, p. 1554,



ties. It is exposed locally throughout an area extending
from Pasco County to South Columbia County and locally
west to the Suwannee River. The largest exposed areas
lie in Pasco, Hernando, Marion and Levy Counties.
'Lying upon the Orbitoidal limestone and probably con-
formable with it is a thin limestone of similar character
known as the Ocala Limestone from its typical exposure
at the Meffert lime kiln at Ocala. These two formations
make up the Lower Oligocene of Florida.
The Upper Oligocene formation consists of limestone
and clays. Over much of the north central and western
part of the State, these deposits lie at or near the surface,
forming a thin coating which rests unconformably upon
an eroded surface of the older limestone. The Suwan-
nee River cuts across them between Hamilton, Columbia
and Suwannee Counties. They are also cut by the Apa-
lachicola River from Chattahoochee to Bristol. South of
the Orbitoidal limestone area these late Oligocene forma-
tions crop out along the Hillsboro River, Tampa Bay
and elsewhere. They doubtless also extend to the east in
that direction underlying later formations.
The Miocene deposits, next above, lie along the east
aide of the peninsula from Jacksonville to Lake Worth.
Deposits representing the same time interval occur in
west Florida from Tallahassee to Pensacola, lying be-
tween the Oligocene and the coast. Marine Pliocene
deposits, consisting of marls and shell beds, occur over
much of the southern end of the peninsula, being best
exposed along the Caloosahatchee River. Residual and
river-formed Pleistocene deposits are to be expected
locally throughout the State. A Marine Pleistocene shell
rock occurs along North Creek, near Osprey. Similar
deposits have been reported from other localities. The
Miami Oolite limestone is apparently the most extensive
marine Pleistocene deposit in the State. This Oolitic
limestone is known to reach north to or beyond Ft. Lau-
derdale, forming the eastern boundary of the Everglades
and dipping to the west. Miami, New River, and other

A-.- -o- I -

FPW2tDA COtOrHtCi At SttgVt;



streams from the 'glades cut across it. Its present alti-
tude is due to a mild elevation of the east coast which
occurred probably during -or. at the close of Pleistocene
The recent formations in the .State include rock accu-
mulations of several varieties. Loose sands are not infre-
quently firmly cemented by the iron deposited from
chalybeate springs. A rock so formed, although compara-
tively recent, may nevertheless be extremely hard. An
example of such rock containing numerous snails is found
along Sarasota Bay. Marl deposits have been observed to
accumulate at the point of meeting of fresh and salt water.
Coquina rock forms as a result of the more or less com-
plete cementation of masses of shells. Sand'dunes occur
along both the east and the west coasts, while shell
mounds and Indian remains are found in many places.
The fossil record contained in the rocks of Florida is
above the average in completeness. This is especially true
of, the marine invertebrate fauna. From the Oligocene
period to the present time there is an almost unbroken
series of rock formations made up largely of the remains
of such marine invertebrates as lived during the time of
the formation of these rocks. W. H. Dall says:* "The
State of Florida presents the most complete succession
of Tertiary. and post-Tertiary fossil-bearing strata of any
part:of the United States. Nowhere else can
the probieplnp of. descent with modifications during Ceno-
z0iclanq later time be so well studied in the fossil, and
recent (a.sas.' ored than fifteen hundred species of
invertebrates have been recognized in the Florida forma-
tions, Ipd it is probabJq, that, a puch larger number actu-
ally1 oi p. At'early a. the l 'te: Oligocene a. few living
sipeie I ~f> ripn,iiyertebrate appear. The proportion of
mode, np eesJn uthe,:fauna increases with eatch period
.a ftnWthat tipe to the present

*Bull. ; Geol. Survey No. 84, p. 85, 1892.


The record of land life is no less interesting. The
earliest land inhabitants of the State yet recorded are the
land snails, the shells of which are found sparingly in
the Ocala limestone. This was during Lower Oligocene
time. The peninsula land area was then, apparently, an
ishind, access to which was for ordinary land vertebrates
probably difficult, or even impossible. It is scarcely to be
doubted, however, that birds, bats and perhaps many of
the small land animals found their way to the islands.
An increased elevation occurred following the formation
of the Lower Oligocene limestones. Evidence of this up-
ward movement attended by subsequent depression is
afforded by an unconformity between the Lower and Upper
Oligocene limestones. This movement, if not actually con-
necting the islands with the mainland, must at least have
greatly narrowed the intervening body of water, and may
possibly have permitted land vertebrates to reach the
peninsula. If so, their remains will doubtless be found
imbedded in the Upper Oligocene formations.
By the close of the Chesapeake Miocene the peninsular
area was sufficiently elevated to become connected directly
with the continent, thus permitting free migration of land
vertebrates from the continent. The remains of land ani-
mals occur most commonly in clay beds which were doubt-
less formed along the borders of lakes, streams, and sinks.
The land animals found in these clays include the mas-
todon, the elephant, the rhinoceros, the saber-toothed
tiger, horses, deer, bison, tapirs, giant sloths and glypto-
dons. The fossil remains of these animals are widely
scattered, occurring over practically all parts of the State,
those which have been described come mostly from
the Alachua Clays in the vicinity of Archer and Ocala;
from Peace Creek in Manatee County; and from the Plio-
cene beds of the Caloosahatchee River. They are probably
of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The South American rep-
resentatives in this fauna came doubtless by the way of
the Isthmus of Panama after the connection of North
and South America.











Phosphate mining is Florida's leading mineral indus-
try, the value of this product now exceeding six million
dollars annually. Fully twelve million tons with a value
of not less than forty-eight million dollars have been
taken from the Florida fields from the beginning of active
mining in 1888 to the close of 1907.
References to phosphate in Florida began to appear in
literature as early at least as 1883. The Proceedings of the
National Museum for 1882, published in 1883, contain
(p. 47) an analysis of a phosphatic rock found at Haw-
thorne. The volume on Mineral Resources by the U. S.
Geological Survey for the year 1882, published 1883, con-
tains a reference (p. 523) to phosphatic marl occurring
in Clay, Alachua, Wakulla, Duval and Gadsden Counties.
These references are repeated in Mineral Resources for
1883-84, and in addition, the occurrence of phosphatic
rock between Wakulla and the St. Marks River in Wa-
kulla County is recorded. During 1884 and 1885 explo-
ration of the Florida phosphate was made by Dr. Law-
rence C. Johnson of the United States Geological Survey.
At this time the line of phosphate was traced from Live
Oak, in Suwannee County, to Ocala in Marion County.
From samples examined and from popular reports phos-
phate was believed to occur from Thomasville, Georgia,
through Hamilton, Suwannee, Alachua, Marion, Sumter,
and Polk Counties to Charlotte Harbor in DeSot' County.
Most of the phosphates examined by Johnson were of low
grade and occur, as he himself recognized, in formations
later than the Vicksburg Limestone. The high grade rock
phosphate was not discovered by Johnson at this time.
Some of the localities mentioned as being examined by
Johnson are Preston Sink, 2j miles north of Waldo; Ft.
Ifarley, 3j miles northwest of Waldo; the Devil's Mill
Hopper near Gainesville; Simmons' Quarry, 3 miles west



Phosphate mining is Florida's leading mineral indus-
try, the value of this product now exceeding six million
dollars annually. Fully twelve million tons with a value
of not less than forty-eight million dollars have been
taken from the Florida fields from the beginning of active
mining in 1888 to the close of 1907.
References to phosphate in Florida began to appear in
literature as early at least as 1883. The Proceedings of the
National Museum for 1882, published in 1883, contain
(p. 47) an analysis of a phosphatic rock found at Haw-
thorne. The volume on Mineral Resources by the U. S.
Geological Survey for the year 1882, published 1883, con-
tains a reference (p. 523) to phosphatic marl occurring
in Clay, Alachua, Wakulla, Duval and Gadsden Counties.
These references are repeated in Mineral Resources for
1883-84, and in addition, the occurrence of phosphatic
rock between Wakulla and the St. Marks River in Wa-
kulla County is recorded. During 1884 and 1885 explo-
ration of the Florida phosphate was made by Dr. Law-
rence C. Johnson of the United States Geological Survey.
At this time the line of phosphate was traced from Live
Oak, in Suwannee County, to Ocala in Marion County.
From samples examined and from popular reports phos-
phate was believed to occur from Thomasville, Georgia,
through Hamilton, Suwannee, Alachua, Marion, Sumter,
and Polk Counties to Charlotte Harbor in DeSot' County.
Most of the phosphates examined by Johnson were of low
grade and occur, as he himself recognized, in formations
later than the Vicksburg Limestone. The high grade rock
phosphate was not discovered by Johnson at this time.
Some of the localities mentioned as being examined by
Johnson are Preston Sink, 2j miles north of Waldo; Ft.
Ifarley, 3j miles northwest of Waldo; the Devil's Mill
Hopper near Gainesville; Simmons' Quarry, 3 miles west


of Hawthorne; and a locality 3 miles northwest of New-
Dr. C. A. Simmons of Hawthorne is credited by John-
son as having been the first to recognize and to make use
of the Florida phosphate. Dr. Simmons is said to have
recognized the phosphatic character of the Hawthorne
rocks as early as 1879. A mill for grinding this rock as
a fertilizer was operated as early as 1883 or 1884.
Professor Eugene Smith, State Geologist of Alabama,
and also Mr. L. C. Johnson, in papers published during
1885, described the Florida phosphates and recognized the
localities known up to that time as belonging to forma-
tions later than the Vicksburg.
In 1886, Dr. John Kost, State Geologist of Florida,
reported phosphate deposits extending through several
townships in Wakulla County between Sopchoppy and
the Ocklocknee River. Samples from this locality were
reported as containing as much as 23.85 per cent of phos-
phoric acid, (59.05 per cent phosphate of lime).*
Phosphates along Peace River are reported to have been
observed by Captain J. Francis LeBaron as early as 1881.
Again in 1886. Captain LeBaron made an extended inves-
tigation of the Peace River district. His plans for devel-
oping the phosphates, however, do not seem to have met
with success, and other parties took up the development of
this industry. The first shipment of phosphate from the
State is reported to have been made in 1888, three thou-
sand tons having been sent during this year to Atlanta.
It was during 1888, also, that rock phosphate in large
quantities was discovered in Florida. While putting down
a well near Dunnellon in the spring of 1888, Mr. Albertus
Vogt observed fossil teeth in a white subsoil. This ma-
terial proved upon analysis to be a good grade calcium
phosphate. This chance discovery resulted in the speedy
location'of extensive phosphate deposits in this and ad-
joining sections.
These discoveries were followed by an exceptionally
*Mineral Resources, 1886, p. 617. ,



active period of development. An excessive number of
mining companies were floated, transportation was inade-
quate, and, on account of exaggerated reports of the
quantity of phosphate obtainable, prices were depressed.
In spite of these conditions, however, the output, as
reported by the National Geological Survey, steadily in-
creased with succeeding years. In 1889, 8,100 tons were
produced; in 1890, 46,501 tons; in 1891, 112,482 tons; in
1892, 287,343 tons, and in 1893, 438,804 tons.
The year 1894 is marked by the entrance of Tennessee
into the market as a phosphate producer, 19,188 tons
having been marketed from that State during that year.
During this same year Florida became a leading phos-
phate producer, having for the first time an output in
excess of that of South Carolina. The industry, more-
over, was becoming established on a firmer and more
rational basis and has continued to grow with succeed-
ing years. The output since and including the year 1904
has exceeded one million tons annually. The amount pro-
duced in 1907 was 1,386,578 long tons valued at over six
and a half million dollars.*
By way of comparison it may be added,that the total
output of Florida for twenty years from 1888 to 1907
inclusive, will closely approximate the total output of
South Carolina for the forty years, 1868 to 1907. The
output in the United States during 1907 was 2,356,486
long tons, more than. half of which was produced in
Florida. The world's output of phosphate fdr the year
1905 was something more than 3,500,000 tons. Of this
amount Florida produced 1,194,106 tons, or slightly more
than one-third. (Min. Resources, 1906.)
Varieties:-Phosphate is an extremely variable min-
eral. Four leading forms or varieties are commonly rec-
ognized in the Florida deposits. They are known as hard
rock phosphate, soft phosphate, river pebble phosphate,
and land pebble phosphate. No soft phosphate has been
produced for a number of years. The relative amount
*U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral Resources, for 1907, 1908.



of the remaining three grades produced, may be inferred
from the statistics of 1906. Of hard rock there was pro-
duced in Florida in that year 587,598 tons; of land peb-
bdle phosphate 675,444 tons; of river pebble phosphate
41,463 tons.
Location:-The phosphates of Florida lie principally
in a comparatively narrow curved belt reaching from west
of the Apalachicola River, southeast and south to the
Gulf in Manatee and Lee Counties, a distance of 350
The pebble phosphate occurs in the southern part of
Ihe area. The principal deposits of rock phosphate occur
in the central part of the area in Columbia, Alachua, Ma-
rion and Citrus Counties.
Origin and Occurrence:-The origin and occurrence of
the Florida phosphates have given rise to extended dis-
cussion, and much additional investigation will be
required in order to determine doubtful points. First of
all, it is not to be assumed that all phosphates originate
in the same way. Moreover, phosphates occur in several
geological periods and the deposits have been subjected,
since their formation, to varying conditions. Phosphoric
acid in solution in the water may replace the carbonate
of a limestone, forming calcium phosphate. This replace-
ment process is clearly an agent in the formation of rock
phosphate. Shells are found occasionally in which the
original calcium carbonate has been changed to phos-
phate, proving the possibility of the formation of the min-
eral in this way. .Phosphoric acid in quantities sufficient
to form large deposits of phosphate may have been sup-
plied from any one of several sources.
It is well known that phosphatic material in small
quantities occurs widely scattered through various forma-
tions. As a result of the progressive decay and wearing
away of the surface rock, phosphatic material is concen-
trated at a lower level, either mechanically, due to the
*Eldridge, G. I.; A Preliminary Sketch of the Phosphates of
Florida. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol XXI, 196-231. 1893.



fact that the resisting power of the nodules is greater
than that of the surrounding material, or chemically by
the replacement process. The hard rock phosphate area
has not in the view of several geologists, been contin-
uously exposed since its first appearance above water in
Oligocene time. Later formations, originally present,
are believed to have been largely removed by erosion.
Phosphate, usually of a low grade, occurs in the Upper
Oligocene formations in several localities between the
Suwannee and the Apalachicola Rivers and in several
localities in east central Florida. The Miocene deposits
usually contain some phosphatic material, as do also the
Pliocene. These later formations, if originally present
over the Vicksburg Limestone in the hard rock phosphate
section may have served as a source of phosphate which,
with the decay of these rocks, accumulated either chemi-
cally or mechanically at a lower level. Several other
possible sources of phosphoric acid have been suggested.
Among these may be mentioned the probability of the
addition of phosphoric acid to the limestone from the
rookeries of birds.
The land pebble phosphate occurs in the Pliocene forma-
tion and represents apparently a stratified deposit of
chemical origin.
Future of the Phosphate Industry:-An estimate of the
total amount of phosphate in Florida is difficult. The
deposits are local and scattered and their extent is to be
determined only by extensive prospecting. It is safe to
say, however, that the industry, both in the extent of
production and in the method of mining, Is still in its
infancy. Practically all of the high grade phosphate pro-
duced is now exported to foreign markets. This condi-
tion is unfortunate. Phosphate is one of the earliest of
soil constituents to be exhausted, and it is apparently
only a matter of time until the American demand will
exceed the supply. More regrettable is the waste which
accompanies mining. While the phosphate companies
operate as economically as present conditions will per-
mit, a large loss in phosphate salts is known to occur.








The term clay is applied to earthy materials which pos-
sess in a varying degree the property of plasticity, or
stickiness when wet. Clay consists of a mixture of sev-
eral minerals, rarely if ever of a single mineral. Hydrated
aluminum silicate minerals, of which kaolinite is a type,
predominate. With these is found quartz, feldspar, mica.
iron, and many other minerals. The mineral particles
are of varying size and are mixed in widely varying pro
portions. Chemically, the clays are both complex and
variable. This follows as a necessary result of the vary-
ing proportion in which the minerals occur. The physical
properties differ as widely as do the mineralogical and
chemical constituents. Thus in plasticity, clays vary from
the remarkable plastic ball clays to slightly plastic kao-
lins. In texture they may vary from the fine grained clay
made up of particles of microscopic size to coarse grained
clay grading into sands, sandstones and other rocks.
Other properties as tensile strength, porosity, shrinkage,
color, and fusibility depend upon the minerals present,
the size of the particles, and the conditions in which they
occur, all of which give rise to endless variations.
Practical tests of clays must take into account chem-
ical and mineralogical composition, and physical proper-
ties. A chemical or ultimate analysis may serve to indi-
cate certain properties of the clays. Thus if the total
percentage of fluxing elements is high the clay may be
expected to fuse easily. A mineral or rational analysis
is' intended to determine in so far as possible the min-
erals present in the clay, and the relative proportion of
each. Complete tests of the physical properties require
specially adapted devices and machinery.
The clays in Florida are among the promising unde-
veloped resources of the State. The Survey plans contem-
plate a thorough investigation of the clays of the State.
The sandy clays suitable for road-making material will
be investigated in connection with other road-making ma-



trials. The kaolin and fuller's earth deposits will be
studied in detail as quickly as this work can be accom-
plished. Provisions will be made also for tests of brick-
making and other clays, and for the location and extent
of clay deposits in the State.


The ball clays are among the most important clay
products of the State. They are often called kaolins.
The term kaolin, however, is best restricted to the white
burning, highly refractory, and very plastic residual clays.
The Florida ball clays, while they're white burning, and
highly refractory are very plastic and are of sedimentary
origin. Reis suggests that they be known as plastic kao-
lins.' The ball clays are used largely to mix with the less
plastic clays to bring up the grade of plasticity. They
contain little or no iron and are of light color, This clay
as it occurs in Florida is intimately mixed with coarse
sand. There is usually an overburden of a few feet of
sand. This is loosened and washed into the pit by force
pumps, and is thence removed by suction pumps. The
presence of the sand in the clay necessitates washing,
after which the clay is allowed to collect In the settling
basins. It is then "compressed into cakes by which excess
of water is removed. The cakes are then broken up. and
either air-dried or artificially dried for shipment. The
deposits at present known lie in the central peninsular
section from Putnam to Polk Counties. Putnam County
deposits occur in and about Edgar and McMeekin. De-
posits have been located in Lake County along the Palat-
lakaha (Palalakaha) River.2 Ball clay has also been
reported from near Bartow Junction in Polk County,
which is apparently the locality farthest south at which
these deposits have been found.
iClays, Their Occurrence, Properties and Uses. 1906, p. 165.
l17th Ann. Reprt. U. S. Geol. Surv., pt. 3 (cont.) 1895-96, p. 872.



Four plants have been engaged in mining plastic kaolin
during 1907. Two of these, under the management of the
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co., are located at Edgar in Put-
nam County. The two other plants are the Richmond
Kaolin Co., of Richmond, Florida, and the Florida Clay
Co. of Yalaha, Florida, bdth in Lake County. The total
output of kaolin during the year, as reported by the pro-
ducers, was 19,615 tons, valued at $97,690.
The surface deposits of north and central Florida con-
tain many clay beds. These clay deposits are often of local
extent, and usually of variable character. The sandy
clays of the Lafayette and Grand Gulf formations make
up the surface deposit over much of the northern tier of
counties west of the Suwannee River.' Less well defined
clays of local extent and variable character occur widely
in peninsular Florida. In part these are doubtless the
residuim of a former southward extent of the Lafayette;
in part of other formations. Many of the clay beds of this
area are too sandy for brick material. For this purpose
a clay should mold easily, and burn hard at a low tempera-
ture without excessive' loss from warping and cracking.
Such beds as occur in Florida suitable for brick making
are confined to no particular geological horizon.
Fuller's earth is a term applied to a variety of clays.
These differ from other clays principally in that they are
less plastic and possess in a high degree the quality of
absorbing greasy substances. This earth was formerly
used by fullers to remove greasy spots from cloth, from
which usage it received its name of fuller's earth.
Minerals of Fuller's Earth:-The clays, as has been
stated, are as a rule complex, both chemically and miner-
alogically. They consist not of a. single mineral, but of a
mixture of minerals. Owing to the minute size of the
mineral particles, it is -usually impossible to identify the



several minerals making up a clay. This is true of
fuller's earth ,as of mother clays. Under the microscope
the Gadsden County fuller's earth shows angular parti-
cles of quartz together with green double refracting par-
ticles which Merrill regards as a siliceous mineral.* In
fuller's earth from Arkansas, Merrill observed sharply
angular colorless mineral particles, faintly double refract-
ing, but lacking crystal outlines or other physical prop-
erties such as would determine their exact mineral nature.
Angular particles of quartz and a few yellowish iron
stained particles suggestive of residual products from
decomposition of iron magnesia silicates were also recog-
nized in this sample. The fuller's earth from Surrey,
England, according to the same writer, consists of ex-
tremely irregular eroded particles of a siliceous mineral
and of minute colorless particles suggestive of a soda lime
feldspar. Thus it may be said that while fuller's earth is
known to consist like most other clays of a mixture of
minerals, a satisfactory determination of these minerals
has not yet been made.
Chemical Constituents :-There is a wide range in vari-
ation in the chemical constituents of different fuller's
-earths, or fuller's earth from different localities. The
range of individual constituents may be inferred from
the accompanying analyses,

I. II. III. IV. V, VI.
Silica (Si0,).........62.83 67.46 58.72 50.36 74.90 63.19
Alumina (AIO3) ).....10.35 10.08 16.90 33.38 10.25 18.76
Ferric Oxide (Fe,02). 2.45 2.49 4.00 3.31 1.75 7.05
Lime (CaO).......... 2.43 3.14 4.06 .... 1.30 .0.78
Magnesia (MgO)..... 3.12 4.09 2.56 .... 2.30 1.68
Potash (K O) ........ 0.74 .... 0.21
Soda (Na1O)......... 0.20 2.11 1.75 1.50
Water (H20)......... 7.72 5.61 8.10 12.05 5.80 7.57
Moisture ..............6.41 6.28 2.30 .... 1.70 ....
Loss on ignition .......... .................. 11.86 ...
*Report of the U. S. National Museum 1899, p. 338.



No. I. From Gadsden County, Florida. U. S. Geol. Sur. 17tk
Ann. Rept, pt. III (cont.), page 880.
No. II. From Decatur County, Georgia. Ibid.
No. III. From Fairburn, S. D. Ibid.
No. IV. Glacialite, Enid, Okla. G. P. Merrill, Non-mctallic
Minerals. U. S. Nat. Mus,, Rept. for 1899, p. 337, 1901.
No V. From Sumter, S. C., U. S. Geol. Surv., Min. Reso., 1901,
p. 933, 1902.
No. VI. From Alexander, Ark. Branner, Amer. Inst. Min. Eng.
Trans. XXVII, p. 62, 1898.

Physical Properties:-The most distinctive physical
property of fuller's earth is that already mentioned,
namely, the property of clarifying oils. When wet the
fuller's earth is often of a lean character. This, however,
is not invariable, as the Gadsden County fuller's earth
is sticky when wet.
Test for Fuller's Earth:-Fuller's earth varies in color.
It may be light buff, or brownish, or olive green or gray.
It is not readily distinguished in general appearance from
other clays. When dry fuller's earth adheres firmly to
the tongue, but some other clays are also adhesive. A
practical test of fuller's earth is necessary in order to
determine its value. A test may be made by the use of a
glass tube j to 1 inch in diameter and 2 to 3
feet long. To make the test support the tube
in an erect position, the lower end being plugged
with asbestos fiber. The earth is powdered and
packed into the tube. Crude oils, vegetable or mineral,
are then passed through it. If the clay is a fuller's earth
the oils will be more or less perfectly clarified, depend-
ing upon the quality of the earth. It has been found that
a fuller's earth that will clarify a vegetable oil may not
affect a mineral oil, while an earth used to clarify a min.
eral oil may be unsatisfactory when applied to a vegetable
oil. A theory Of the action of fuller'seatth in clarifying
oils is given by Porter as follows (U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull.
2315. p. 282, 1908) : "Fuller's earth has for its base a series



of hydrous aluminum silicates. These silicates differ in
chemical composition, but are similar in that they all
possess an amorphous colloidal structure. These colloidal
silicates possess the power of absorbing and retaining
organic coloring matter, thus bleaching oils and fats."
Uses:-The Florida fuller's earth finds its chief use in
filtering mineral lubricating oils. According to Day,
"The common practice with these mineral oils is to dry
the earth carefully, after it has been ground to 60t mesh,
and run it into long cylinders, through which the crude
black mineral oils are allowed to percolate very slowly.
As a result the oil which comes out first is perfectly water-
white in color, and markedly thinner than that which fol-
lows. The oil is allowed to continue percolating through
the fuller's earth until the color reaches a certain maxi-
mum shade, when the process is stopped, to be continued
with a new portion of earth. The oil is recovered from
the spent earth.*" It is also used to some extent for light-
ening the color of cotton seed oil, and lard oil, although
the English fuller's earth is better for-these purposes. The
original use of fuller's earth, that of cleaning, is now one
of the minor uses. It is said to be used in the manufac-
ture of some soaps. It is used in cleaning furs and by
druggists as an absorbent, and recently to some extent
as a carrier for insecticides.
Occurrence:-Fuller's earth occurs in stratified de-
posits, which, however, are often of local extent. The
geological horizon in which the fuller's earth of western
Florida lies has been determined by Vaughan as Upper
Oligocene. The geological horizon of the deposit in Man-
atee County has not been determined.
Location and Extent:-Outcrops of fuller's earth have
been reported at many other localities in Gadsden, Leon
and Liberty Counties, and Decatur County, Georgia. It
is reported to occur as a thin stratum in the Devil's Mill
Hopper in Alachua County, and has been identified by the
writer on the property of B. S. Quarterman, at Fairfield,
*U. S. Geol. Sur. 21st Ann. Rept. pt. 6, (cont.) p. 592. 1901.



Florida. The wide distribution of fuller's earth in north
and central Florida, together with its known occurrence
in south Florida, probably indicates numerous deposits
not yet located'.
Production of Fuller's Earth During 1907:-Three
plants were engaged in mining fuller's earth during 1907.
These were the Owl Commercial Co.,Quincy; The Southern
Fuller's Earth Co., Mt. Pleasant; and the Atlantic Re-
fining Co., of Ellenton, Florida. The total amount of
fuller's earth mined in the State during 1907 as reported
to the Survey by the producers was 24,148 short tons,
valued at $235,443. The product is used principally in
the United States, although a certain part of the 1907
product was exported to foreign markets.


Peat has been mined in Florida in an experimental way
.for severall years. Two plants are now being operated
during all or a part of the year. The Orlando Water and
Light Company has operated a plant near the city of
Orlando for several years. The peat at this plant, after
removal from the bog, is passed through a kneading
machine wjiich disintegrates the fiber and prevents re-
absorption of moisture. It is then dried in the open,
and after, drying is cut into convenient sized pieces for
local use as a fuel. Bricketting, which was formerly used,
has been abandoned by this company as impracticable for
this peat. The Florida Peat Fuel and Construction Com-
pany operates a plant near Bayard in St. Johns County.
Such tests of Florida peat as have been made, have
been unusually promising. The fuel and gas producing
value of peat from the Orlando bog was tested in the
fuel and testing plant of the U. S. Geological Survey in
1906. The report on these tests contained in Bulletin 290,
p. 134-135 of the United States Geological Survey is as
"In connection with this test of a small quantity of



Massachusetts peat it is deemed advisable to refer brieliy
to a more elaborate test of peat bricks obtained from
Florida, the results of which tests have been obtained in
time to be mentioned here, although the test was run sub-
sequent to the date covered by the body of the report. In
the producer-gas test of the Florida peat the producer
was maintained in operation for fifty hours, and no diffi-
culty whatever was experienced either in maintaining the
load or in handling the fuel bed. The peat was furnished
by the Orlando Water and ,Light Company and was
secured from a bog near the'city of Orlando, Orange
County, Florida.
"In starting the producer test the fuel bed was built up
entirely of the Florida peat, and the usual preliminary
run was conducted before the official test began. The
total amount of peat consumed in the producer in the
fifty-hour run was 29,250 pounds, or 585 pounds per
hour. The average calorific value of the gas produced
was 175 British thermal units per cubic foot. During the'
entire run the average electrical horsepower developed at
the switchboard was 205. The amount of peat used per
electrical horse power per hour available for outside pur-
poses, including the estimated quantity required for the
generation of the steam used in the operation of the
producer, was 3.16 pounds, while 2.69 pounds were re-
quired per brake horsepower hour at the gas engine, avail-
able for outside purposes.
"It should be stated that the peat bricks had been dried
and that the moisture content of those used averaged 21
per cent. The gas was particularly rich in hydrogen, run-
ning 18.5 per cent, and comparatively low in nitrogen
(45.5 per cent).
"As there was a small supply of peat bricks left after
the completion of the gas-producer tests, a short run of
a little over four hours was made in the boilers. This was
not sufficiently long to make any definite conclusions pos.
sible, but the results obtained were exceedingly satisfac-
tory so far as they went. No difficulty was encountered in



keeping the boiler up to its rated capacity, and, in fact,
during the four hours' run the percentage of rated horse-
pswer of the boiler developed was 113.2. The amount of
peat burned per indicated horsepower hour at the steam
engine was 5.66 pounds, and per electrical horsepower
huor at the switchboard was 6.98 pounds. The calorific
value of the peat as used was 10,082 British thermal units
per pound. The principal, difficulty in the utilization of
peat under boilers appears to be the frequency with which
it is necessary to fire. On account of the lightness of the
material and also on account of its rapid combustion the
fireman was kept at work almost constantly during the
test." The details of these tests are given in a later Bul-
letin No. 332, pp. 76-78, 1908.
The great abundance of coal in the United States has
delayed the development of the peat industry. Peat
deposits are known to be extensive in this country, and
with the approach of the exhaustion of coal together with
the advance in price as a result of increased cost of min-
ing attention will be directed more and more to peat as a
source of fuel. In Florida, in particular, the lack of a
local fuel is keenly felt. If present conditions continue
the supply of wood will soon be exhausted, while the im-
portation of coal involves heavy freight charges. If the
peat bogs can be drawn upon as an addition to the fuel
supply the State will be greatly benefited. Some of the
European countries, as is well known, have relied upon
peat as a local source of fuel for many centuries. Canada,
whose coal is les9 bountiful than that of the United States,
has advanced much beyond us in the utilization of peat.


Diatomaceous or infusorial earth occurs in the State
and has been mined to some extent in the vicinity of
Eustis. None of this material, however, was produced
during 1907.





Lime or "quick lime" is chemically an oxide of calcium
or calcium and magnesium. It is formed ordinarily by
burning limestone, although shells and other calcium car-
bonates may be used for the same purpose. Limestone
when burned gives up carbon dioxide. The residue after
burning forming a lime, consists of a calcium oxide, when
a pure calcium carbonate limestone is used; or of calcium
and magnesium oxide when a dolomitic limestone is used.
The reaction in the case of a pure limestone is as follows:
Ca(CO), when heated breaks up into CaO+(Co) In
the case of dolomitic limestone a magnesium oxide as well
as calcium oxide is formed.
The character of the lime varies according to the
amount of magnesium present in the limestone from
which it is made. Peppel* offers the following classifl.
cation of the ordinary or "white limes", including in that
term limes containing not more than 5 per cent of sandy
and clayey impurities:-

(1) High-calcium, or "hot" or "quick" limes. Made from lime-
stones containing not less than 85 per cent of carbonate of
(2) Magnesium limes. Made from limestone containing be-
tween sixty-five and eighty-five per cent. carbonate of calcium and
between ten and thirty per cent. of carbonate of magnesium.
(3) Dolomitic, or "cool", or "slow" limes. Made from lime-
stones containing more than thirty per cent, of carbonate of mag-

These limes differ slightly among themselves. The high
calcium or "hot" or "quick" limes set more quickly, while
the magnesium and dolomitic limes set more slowly. Limes
thus serve different purposes, the high calcium limes
being used when a quick-setting lime is desired, while

Bulletin No. 4, 4th Series, Ohio Geol. Survey, p. 254, 1906.



the other limes are used when slow-setting limes are
desired. After calcination, the lime may be placed on the
market as quick lime, or it may be slaked and placed on
the market as hydrated lime. Hydrated lime is said to
be desirable for certain purposes since the lime if properly
slaked breaks up into exceedingly fine powder.
The Florida Lime Co., of Ocala, operated three lime
plants during 1907. The limestone used is from the for-
mation known as the Ocala Limestone, which is well ex-
posed in and about Ocala. This formation is, however,
not restricted to Marion County, but extends as the sur-
face formation south to Sumter County and northwest to
Columbia County.


Practically all limestones contain some sandy and
clayey impurities. When the amount of clay material
present exceeds a certain percentage the product result-
ing upon burning will set under water and is known as
a natural hydraulic cement. Bleininger classes the nat-
ural cements as (1) hydraulic limes and (2) Roman
cements. The hydraulic limes in this classification are
those which contain from 75 to 80 per cent of calcium
carbonate and from 20 to 25 per cent of clay. The Roman
cements contain 50 to 75 per cent. of calcium carbonate
and 50 to 30 per cent. of clay. Peppel, however, proposes
to place the range of sandy and clayey matter in hydraulic
limes at 5 to 10 per cent, while the range in the natural
or Roman cement is given as 10 to 30 per cent. The
practical distinction between the hydraulic limes and
Roman cements is that the former after burning and upon
exposure to the air slake by themselves and evolve consid-
erable heat, while the latter burn to a cinder which must
be ground; they also evolve less heat of hydration on
slaking than do the limes.
No cements other than lime are at present being manu-
factured in Florida. lHydraulic cement was formerly



manufactured to a limited extent from a natural cement
rock near River Junction. The output from this plant in
1898 is given as 7,500 barrels.*
The formation from which the cement was made is the
Chattahoochee Limestone, which is extensively exposed
along the Apalachicola and Ohattahoochee Rivers above
and below River Junction. It is reported that the cement
made from the rock at River Junction was of a good
quality. It was placed on the market under the trade
name of "White Roman Hydraulic Cement of Florida."


Portland cement is made from raw materials mixed in
such manner as to supply the proper constituents for
cement manufacture. Ordinarily clay and some form of
limestone is used. The clay supplies the silica and
alumina, while the limestone supplies calcium or calcium
and magnesium. Marl, chalk, or slag, or in fact, any
material which supplies the necessary calcium oxide with-
out introducing substances deleterious to the cement may
be used if desired instead of limestone. Both the clay
or mixture of clays and the limestone must be selected
with a view to securing the right proportion of constit-
uents in the resulting mixture. Since both clays apd
limestone vary greatly in composition each must be
selected with a view to supplementing the other. While
no Portland cement is being made at present in Florida,
both clays and limestone available for this purpose doubt-
less occur.

The materials used in the manufacture of sand-lime
bricks are sand and lime. The bonding power of the
brick is due to the chemical reaction between these ingre-
dients. The chemical changes occur in the presenee of

20th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Sur., pt. VI (cont.), p. 547. .1899.



manufactured to a limited extent from a natural cement
rock near River Junction. The output from this plant in
1898 is given as 7,500 barrels.*
The formation from which the cement was made is the
Chattahoochee Limestone, which is extensively exposed
along the Apalachicola and Ohattahoochee Rivers above
and below River Junction. It is reported that the cement
made from the rock at River Junction was of a good
quality. It was placed on the market under the trade
name of "White Roman Hydraulic Cement of Florida."


Portland cement is made from raw materials mixed in
such manner as to supply the proper constituents for
cement manufacture. Ordinarily clay and some form of
limestone is used. The clay supplies the silica and
alumina, while the limestone supplies calcium or calcium
and magnesium. Marl, chalk, or slag, or in fact, any
material which supplies the necessary calcium oxide with-
out introducing substances deleterious to the cement may
be used if desired instead of limestone. Both the clay
or mixture of clays and the limestone must be selected
with a view to securing the right proportion of constit-
uents in the resulting mixture. Since both clays apd
limestone vary greatly in composition each must be
selected with a view to supplementing the other. While
no Portland cement is being made at present in Florida,
both clays and limestone available for this purpose doubt-
less occur.

The materials used in the manufacture of sand-lime
bricks are sand and lime. The bonding power of the
brick is due to the chemical reaction between these ingre-
dients. The chemical changes occur in the presenee of

20th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Sur., pt. VI (cont.), p. 547. .1899.



heat, pressure and moisture, and result in the formation
of hydro-silicates of calcium and magnesium.
The sand used in the manufacture of sand-lime brick
should be comparatively pure and preferably with some
variation in the size of the grains. The mixture of lime,
sand, and water, is cut out in the form of bricks and
conveyed to a hardening cylinder. Necessary heat and
pressure is obtained in the hardening cylinder adapted for
the purpose. The sand-lime bricks are placed in this cyl-
inder and subjected to a pressure and temperature which
varies according to the method of treatment. With a
pressure of about txvo atmospheres'and a temperature of
125 degrees 0. the duration of exposure in the cylinder
should be about seventy-two hours. With a steam pres-
sure of seven to ten atmospheres and 170 to 175 C, six
to ten hours' exposure is usually sufficient.


The materials for the manufacture of concrete building
blocks are sand, gravel, or crushed stone, and cement.
The sand intended for use in making cement blocks should
be sharp and angular. Coarse grained sand is preferred
to fine grained. A mixture of coarse and fine grained
sand, however, gives excellent results, and requires less
cement, since the relative proportion of voids in the sand
is reduced by the presence of the fine grains of sand among
the coarse. It has been commonly supposed that a clean
sand must be used, but recent experiments seem to indi-
cate that a small proportion of loam or clay is not detri-
mental. Tests carried on at the Ohio State University
appear to indicate that clay or loam up to 15 per cent of
the weight of the sand adds strength to a mortar.*
Concrete building blocks have been, as a rule, favorably
received throughout the State. The ease of manufacture,
together with the relatively small cost of equipment and
*Bulletin No. 2, 4th Series, Ohio Geol. Survey. P, 33, 1904.



manufactured to a limited extent from a natural cement
rock near River Junction. The output from this plant in
1898 is given as 7,500 barrels.*
The formation from which the cement was made is the
Chattahoochee Limestone, which is extensively exposed
along the Apalachicola and Ohattahoochee Rivers above
and below River Junction. It is reported that the cement
made from the rock at River Junction was of a good
quality. It was placed on the market under the trade
name of "White Roman Hydraulic Cement of Florida."


Portland cement is made from raw materials mixed in
such manner as to supply the proper constituents for
cement manufacture. Ordinarily clay and some form of
limestone is used. The clay supplies the silica and
alumina, while the limestone supplies calcium or calcium
and magnesium. Marl, chalk, or slag, or in fact, any
material which supplies the necessary calcium oxide with-
out introducing substances deleterious to the cement may
be used if desired instead of limestone. Both the clay
or mixture of clays and the limestone must be selected
with a view to securing the right proportion of constit-
uents in the resulting mixture. Since both clays apd
limestone vary greatly in composition each must be
selected with a view to supplementing the other. While
no Portland cement is being made at present in Florida,
both clays and limestone available for this purpose doubt-
less occur.

The materials used in the manufacture of sand-lime
bricks are sand and lime. The bonding power of the
brick is due to the chemical reaction between these ingre-
dients. The chemical changes occur in the presenee of

20th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Sur., pt. VI (cont.), p. 547. .1899.



the abundance of sand is greatly in favor of this industry.
Most cities of considerable size have one or more firms
engaged )n the manufacture of this material. Sand suit-
able for the manufacture of concrete building blocks
occurs in almost all parts of the State.



Native sulphur has been found in Florida during the
past year, a large mass estimated to weigh two tons hav-
ing been brought up from the pit of the Dutton Phosphate
Company, at Floral City. The phosphate at this place
was worked down to the water level as a dry pit and is
now being worked below the water level bydredging. The
mass of sulphur was brought up on the dipper from
about thirty feet below the water level, or a total depth
from the original surface of about seventy feet. When
first brought up the sulphur mass was mistaken for a
rock boulder, which being too large to go through the
dipper, was drilled into and blasted. Most of the pieces
fell back into the pit, a few thrown on the land were found
to be crystallized sulphur with only a slight adniixture of
impurities. The phosphate beds of Citrus County rest
upon Lower OligoCene limestone. The sulphur was found
either upon or in Oligocene limestone.


In a Bulletin on the Water Supply whidh accompanies
this report the writer has discussed in some detail the
probable source of hydrogen sulphide iir underground
waters. It is there shown that the hydrogen sulphide'ih
underground water is supplied not from deposits of native
sulphur, but from decaying Orgahie matterandi fromisult
phides and sulphiates contained in the rbck. It 0: als
shown that hydrogen sulphide, while not originating frim








sulphur deposits may itself, under proper conditions,
form such deposits. This gas, although not affected by
oxygen when dry is, under moist conditions, or in the
presence of water containing oxygen in solution slowly
oxidized, forming sulphur and water.
In view of these facts, it seems probable that the sul-
phur mass found at Floral City was formed by the decom-
position of hydrogen sulphide gas slowly escaping from
the underground waters, the reaction taking place in the
presence of a limited supply of oxygen.
While only a small quantity of sulphur has been found
in Florida, if the above suggestion as to the origin is
correct, the presence of this mineral in workable quanti-
ties is not impossible and is indeed even probable.


The springs of Florida are famous for their volume of
flow as well as for the clearness and beauty of their water
and the beautiful scenery about them. Many of these
springs are used as health resorts. The United States
Geological Survey volume on Mineral Resources reports
the sale of mineral waters in Florida for 1907 as 43,430
gallons, valued at $12,378.
The areas in which flowing artesian wells are obtained
are indicated on the map which accompanies Bulletin No.
1 of the Florida Survey.



The rocks of the earth's crust maybe classed for con-
venience of a brief treatment as either igneous or sedi-
mentary. The igneous rocks are those which appear with
more or less certainty to have cooled from a molten con-
dition, such as trap, basalt, obsidian, and the granites.
The sedimentary rocks are those which are formed by the
accumulation of sediments. The sediments may be of
purely mechanical origin as in the case of sandstones,
shales and clays; or of organic origin as in the case of
the limestones. In a broad sense, the sedimentary rocks
are made to include even those which are of chemical
origin, such as bog iron ore formations. Should one
attempt a minute and exhaustive classification of rocks
these two main divisions would be found insufficient.
Chemical changes are going on incessantly in the earth's
crust and affect all rock formations. Chemical and physi-
cal forces have in many instances so profoundly altered
formations that it is no longer possible to determine
whether they were originally igneous or sedimentary. It
has been found necessary to establish for these a third
division known as metamorphic rocks. With regard to
the Florida deposits, however, the classification is not
greatly complicated.
The following summary relates to the rock materials
occurring within the State, and available for country
roads at a slight expense. The more expensive products
used in paving city streets are not included.
No igneous formations occur in Florida. All of the
rocks of this State are sedimentary. Two classifications
are given below. In the first the rocks are classified
according to origin; in the second according to chemical



Rocks of-

Mechanical origin...........

Organicorigin ................

SShell limestone,
Inftsorial earth,
Muck, peat, lignite.

Formed by pre Bog iron ore,
cipitation and | Oolitic limestone,
chemical segre- Land pebble phos-
Chemical origin nation. phate (?)
Flint or chert,
k_ Crystallized lim e-
Formed by re- tone,
placement. Hard rock phosphate
S (in part).


Disregarding mode of origin and placing the rocks
according to chemical composition, the classification may
be arranged as follows:

Siliceous rocks ..........

Argillaceous rock..........

Calcareous rock...........

Flitn and chert,
Infusorial earth.

Shell limestone,
Crystallized limestone,
Oolitic limestone,

Carbo-Hydrates........... Muck, peat, lignite.

Ferruginous rocks........ Bog iron ore.

Phoaphatic rocks..........

SHard rock phosphate,
Pebble phosphate.



Flint is chemically an oxide of silica Si0, with more
or lees accompanying impurities. It is a variety of the
mineral quartz, occurring massive and non-crystallized or
more accurately very imperfectly crystallized (crypto-
crystaline). The term chert is often used interchangeably'
with flint. Properly chert is an impure flint or flinty rock.
Flint and chert are lacking in cleavage. They break, as
do the other varieties of quartz, with conchoidal fracture.
A flint rock when crushed breaks into sharp cornered
pieces of varying size.
Properties:-The mineral quartz, of which flint is a
variety, has a hardness of seven on a scale in which the
hardest mineral diamond, is ten. The varieties of quartz
vary in hardness slightly according to the impurities that
they contain. Silica is one of the least soluble of min-
erals and among the most resistant to decay.
Occurrence of Flint and-Chert in Florlda:-Flint and
chert occur mostly as masses or "horsebacks" in the lime-
stone formations. A good illustration of the manner of
occurrence may be seen in phosphate pits or in some of
the pits of the Florida Lime Co., at Ocala. In some of the.
sinks on Thompson's farm two miles east of Sumterville
will be seen flint niasses 'exposed by the natural decay of
the limestone. The flint masses appear to conform to no
rule as to size and extent. A flint may form a ridge run-
ning through the limestone; or again they occur as
rounded or elongate masses. Occasionally the flint forms
as a thin stratum lying horizontally. This flint bearing
limestone lies at no great distance from the surface
throughout all of the central peninsular section of the
State from Columbia County on the north to Sumter .
County on the south and from the Suwannee River and
the Gulf coast to east Alachua and Marion Counties.
Much of the hard rock phosphate rests upon and in this
flint-bearing limestone, and from the. phospltate pits great
quantities of the flint may be obtained. Occasional flint



hills such as that crossed near Evinston and Micanopy
stand out as evidence of the resistance of flint to the
weathering agencies, the suitounding limestone having
disappeared through erosion. This flint-bearing limestone
is known as the Vicksburg Limestone. It is not to be
inferred, however, that no other Florida formation con-
tains silica. On the contrary, many of the formations
are highly siliceous. The Vicksburg Limestone is, how-
ever, the chief flint-bearing formation of Florida.
Origin of the Flint in the Vicksburg Limestone:-The
flint occurs as has been stated, in masses irregularly dis-
tributed through the limestone. Well drillers can bear
witness to the frequency of flints and to their distribu-
tion through the limestone to a great 'depth. The flint
masses were clearly not present in the limestone as orig-
inally formed. This formation when not affected by
chemical change consists typically of a mass of calcarous
shells of varying size from minute foraminifera to larger
bivalves and gastropods with which is interbedded coral
and other fossils, along with a limited amount of siliceous
material supplied principally by sponge spicules. Origin-
ally, without doubt the limestone consisted largely of the
remains of these calcarous shells, the flint masses having
been subsequently deposited through the agency of under-
ground water. Water in its round of circulation through
surface and deeper formations takes silica as well as
other substances into solution. In the course of its.
circulation through the limestone the silica in solution ir
the water replaces the calcium carbonate of the limestone.
The direct evidence that the flint masses are formed by
the replacement process is to be had from the examination
of a piece of flint. In this it will be seen that the foram-
inifera and other shells which were originally calcarous
have been changed to silica. The replacement process is
by no means confined to the formation of flints. As men-
tioned in the introduction to this chapter, chemical
changes are constantly going on among the minerals mak-
ing up the rock formations, and replacement of one min-


eral by another is one of the important phases of chemical
change. This process is again referred to in treating of
the limestones.


Calcareous road materials occur in form of shells, shell
and coral limestone, oolitic limestone, and marls. All
of these rocks consist essentially of calcium carbonate or
of the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, and
have certain features in common. They are much less
resistant to wear than is quartz. When pure and crys-
tallized the mineral calcite (CaCO,) has a hardness of
only three in the-scale in which quartz is seven and dia-
mond is ten. It is thus much softer than the steel tires
of wagons, and a chief item in the repair of calcareous
roads arises from the fact that steel tires cut holes in
the soft material. On the other hand, an advantageous
property of calcareous material is the readiness with
which it re-cements itself. 'Calcium carbonate dissolves
to an appreciable extent in water containing CO, ga& or
weak organic acids. Chemical readjustment is therefore
rapid in a mass of ground up or broken calcareous rock,
the dissolved calcium carbonate acting as a cementing
In practical application, the physical condition in which
these materials occur must be taken into consideration.
In the case of recent shells the calcium carbonate is in a
compact amorphous condition. The shells of a shell lime-
stone are usually more brittle and often crumble easily.
The oolitic limestone is made up of innumerable minute
round concretions barely large enough to be readily visi-
ble to the eye. These are held together by a calcareous
cement. After crushing the particles re-cement more or
less perfectly. The marls are calcareous deposits con-
taining more or less clayey impurities; they usually fall
apart readily. More or less perfectly crystallized lime-
stone occurs locally in the State. Its formation is prob-


ably due to a replacement process similar to that de-
scribed for flint and chert. The chemical changes in this
case involve a rearrangement of the constituent molecules
as a result of which the non-crystallized material of the
rock assumes a definite form. When partly crystallized
the limestone becomes compact and close grained.
Distribution and' Amount of Calcareous Rocks:-The
calcareous rocks are widely distributed in the State. The
Vicksburg Limestone, as already stated, lies at or near the
surface over much of central Florida. Oolitic limestone
make up an extensive formation running north and south
from Miami and forming the east border of the Ever-
glades. Coral and oolitic limestones form the founda-
tion of the keys from Miami to Key West. Shell lime-
atone occurs extensively along the Caloosahatchee River.
Tampa Bay affords a compact limestone which often car-
ries much silica. The Chattahoochee series of compact
limestone occurs extensively in parts of west Florida.
The marls are usually of local occurrence and are re-
atricted to no part of the State Shells, thanks to the
oyster industry of the present, and to the shell mound
builders of the past, occur in inexhaustible quantities.


Fine grained clay mixed in proper proportion with
coarse, angular quartz, makes a road that has been found
useful where cheapness of construction is necessary, and
where the roads have light travel. In mixing sand and
clay for road purposes the proportion should be so ad-
justed that there is jtist enough clay in the mixture to
fill the voids or interstices between the grains of sand.
If too little clay is added the sand grains will lack bond-
ing power and will not compact into a solid roadbed.
If too. much clay is added, the sand grains are widely
separated and the road behaves much as though the sand
were not present at all.. The amount of clay necessary to
mix with a given volume of any particular sand may be


roughly determined by ascertaining the amount of water
necessary to fill the interstices of the sand. A simple
procedure recommended in Farmer's Bulletin No. 311, U.
S. Department of Agriculture, p. 10, is as follows: "Two
ordinary glass tumblers of the same size are filled to the
brim, one with dry sand to be tested and the other with
water. The water is then poured carefully from the one
glass into the sand in the other until it reaches the point
of overflowing. The volume of water removed from the
glass which was originally full of water can be taken as
an approximate measure of the voids in- the unit volume
of sand contained in the tumbler. A simple calculation
will reduce this to percentage volume."
Since all clay contains more or less sand, it may be
expected that certain localities will supply clay that con-
tains' the right admixture of sand and clay to form a
natural sand-clay road, or so pearly the proper admixture
that it will serve that purpose satisfactorily. Fortunately
for Florida, almost every county is supplied with an
abundance of clay which serves admirably the purpose
of road-making. The widespread occurrence of sandy
clays in the north, west and central Florida has already
been mentioned. The clay in many of these deposits con-
tains sand and clay so proportioned as to make excellent
roads. With this material at hand road construction in
country sections is carried on 4t a minimum expense, and
the resulting roads, while not all that could be desired,
are a great improvement over the ordinary sand roads.
They find their greatest usefulness in country sections
where cheapness in road-making is necessary. Their spe-
cial usefulness arises from the fact that owing to their
widespread occurrence they can often be obtained from
pits near at hand, thus lessening the expense of transpor-
tation. Many of these clays have the disadvantage of being
sticky after rains. In the open country, however,'where
these roads find their greatest usefulness a part only of
the road is clayed, the remainder of the road remaining
sandy is traveled during seasons of rain, at which time



the sand is compact'and hard. Thus the sand roads and
the clayed roads supplement each other.
The road-making clays are of a red or yellowish color,
indicating a high percentage of iron compounds which
probably assist in the bonding power of the material. In
texture the clay is rather coarse, and breaks up readily.


Bog iron ore occurs in various parts of the State, but
usually in thin deposits and of local extent. It has been
stated by Shaler, (U. S. Geological Survey, 15th Ann.
Rept., p. 272, 1895), that where the surface of a lime-
stone road can be covered with iron ore, the firmness of
the mass is much increased. An iron oxide, such as bog
iron ore, serves as a cementing material, and this is doubt-
less the explanation of its usefulness for this purpose.


Phosphate of a too low grade or too high in objection-
able impurities to work commercially may serve in some
localities as a useful road rock. The hard rock phosphate
is harder than limestone and is reported to have better
cementing qualities.



The record of the geological investigations in Florida
as contained in the literature, is briefly summarized in the
following pages. It has been found impossible to mention
all of the important papers, and only those which are
especially necessary to an understanding of the course of
development of the geological researches in this State are
included. In the bibliography at the end of the chapter
will be listed all the titles that have been found relating
to the geology of Florida. This summary is given in the
beginning of the State Survey's work in order to take
stock, as it were, of the results already arrived at in this
field. The numbers given in parenthesis in the text refer
to the bibliography.
A number of references to Florida Geology occur in
publications issued previous to the acquisition of the ter-
ritory of Florida by the United States in 1821. M. Cates-
by as early as 1771, wrote on the natural history of Caro-
lina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (24), and in 1791,
William Bartram published the.first edition of his travels
through North and South Carolina, Georgia and east and
west Florida (15). Bartram's account is of interest as
being one of the early publications based upon direct
observations. William McClure's memoir, "Observation
on the Geology of the United States," includes mention
of Florida along with the other coastal plains States.
The first edition of this work appeared in 1809 in the
Transaction of the American Philosophical Society (141);
A second edition revised and enlarged was published in
book form in 1817, and in the "Transactions" for 1818.
The science of Geology at this early date was very imper-
fectly developed as may be inferred from the fact that
McChlre accepts the Wernerian classification. Florida
was believed to belong entirely to the formation known


as the Alluvium, the fourth division in the Wernerian
A paper by John Finch entitled "Geological Essay on
the Tertiary Formations in America," published in the
American Journal of Science for November, 1823 (69), is
credited byProfessor William B. Clarke (25) as the first
attempt to correlate the deposits of the coastal plains on
scientific grounds. This paper refutes the prevalent idea
that the coastal plains consist entirely of alluvium. With
regard to this point, Finch states, page 32, that:

"In America, an immense tract of country, extending from
Long Island to the sea of Mexico, and from thirty to two hun-
dred miles in width, is called an alluvial formation, by most of
the geologists who have written upon the subject, and by some
it appears to be considered as an exception to the general ar-
rangement and position of strata, which are. found to occur in
other countries.
"From an examination of fossils brought from that quarter
of the United States, from a personal inspection of some of the
strata, and the perusal of most of the publications. which bear a
reference to it, I wish to suggest that what is termed the allu-
vial formation, in the geological maps of Messrs. Maclure and
Cleaveland, is identical and contemporaneous with the newer
secondary, and tertiary formations of France, England, Spain,
Germany, Italy, Hungary, Poland, Iceland, Egypt and Hifdoo-
stan '

Specimens of Florida clays from Escambia Bay, seven
miles above Pensacola, contained in the Academy of Nat-
ural Science of Philadelphia are mentioned, (p. 37.)
A paper published the following year, 1824, by R.
Dietz, contains a description of the coquina rock of An-
astasia Island at St. Augustine (63). In a note appended
to this paper Thomas Say identifies and lists the shells
contained in a Mass of the coquina rock.
The territory of Florida, "A recent and valuable acqui-
sition to the United States", is described by James Pierce
in a paper published' in 1825 (158). This paper, like Bar-
tram's, is based alpon actual explorations. Central Florida
was visited by Pierce and the topographic features accu-



rately described, including the limestone rock, sinks, nat-
ural wells, subterranean streams, "savannas" or 'prai-
ries," lakes and hammock lands. A great savanna, believed
to be one hundred miles in circumference, located in south
Florida (presumably the Everglades), is reported (p. 124)
as having been seen by Colonel Gadsden. Theexistence of
a large permanent lake located by maps in the southern
part of the peninsula (evidently referring to Lake Okee-
'thobee) is doubted.
A paper by Charles Upham Shepard, published in 1833
(182) is of interest chiefly from the quotations which are
incorporated from Bartram and others, describing the
springs of Florida. In referring to Manatee Spring and
to a sink described by Bartram as "near Tallahassee,"
this writer evidently confuses the present city of Talla-
hassee with the ancient Indian village of Tallahasochte,
which was located on the Suwannee River.
A paper published in 1838 by Henry Whiting (205)
contains an interesting description of Florida, including
some observations of geologic interest. The coraline for-
mations of the keys is noted, the shell formation of the
upper St. Johns River is mentioned, and the coquina rock
at St. Augustine described. It is interesting to note that
at this date both the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee are
referred to in doubtful terms.
The next group of papers of importance appeared in
1846. One of these, by John H. Allen (11), entitled
'"Some Facts Respecting the Geology of Tampa Bay,"
gives an accurate description of the limestone along the
Hillsboro River, together with a partial list of fossil shells
contained in the limestone. Allen falls into the error of
regarding the limestone at Tampa Bay as identical with
the limestone of the interior,* including that observed
by him in central Florida, and that reported to occur in
the Everglades.
T. A. Conrad accompanied an expedition sent out by
the Navy Department during the winter of 1842 under the
command of Capt. Powell. The expedition visited the









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St. Johns River and subsequently made its way around
the coast past Key West to Tampa Bay. The steamer hav-
ing entered the St. Johns River, Conrad was able to et-
amine the banks near the early village of Hasard. The
banks which are here elevated some feet above the water
level, were identified by him as a Post-Pliocene formation.
The limestone of the Florida Keys was examined and like-
Wise identified as Pogt-Pliocene. These observations, with
others along Tampa Bay, form the basis of the conclusion
that a considerable elevation of the whole of the Florida
peninsula occurred in Post-Pliocene time, "a movement
which clearly has raised all the Florida keys above water"
(28). Arriving at Tampa Bay, the objective point of the
expedition, many of the islands and the coast generally as
well as the banks of the Hillsboro River to the falls were
examined. The formations were regarded as belonging
probably to a member of the Upper Eocene period. The
second paper by Conrad (29) contains descriptions of a
number of species from the "Upper Eocene limestone of
Tampa Bay.", Conrad had not personally examined the
limestone of the interior and like Allen, fell into the error
of supposing that the limestone examined at Tampa Bay
was the same as the limestone underlying the interior of
the State. These papers by Conrad are of interest as
being the first to refer the Florida formations to definite
geologic horizons. The entire chain of keys are referred
to the Post-Pliocene, while the limestone along Hillsboro
Bay are regarded as Eocene.
The report of Buckingham Smith on the Everglades of
Florida, addressed to the Secretary of the Treasury in
1848, contains observations on the geology (185). The
presence of shells belonging to recent species was observed
in the Miami oolitic limestone and the Post-Pliocene age
of the formation recognized.
Two papers of note dealing with the geology of Florida
appeared in 1851. One of these by J. W. Bailey, published
in the Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge, (13) de-
scribes fossil polythalamia foraminiferaa) from the lime-


stone forty miles west of Palatka, and an infusorial
stratum near Tampa. Bailey's description of the silicified
foraminifera is of interest as being an early record of the
true character of the white Orbitulite limestone of central
Florida. Subsequent observations seem to indicate that
the supposed infusorial stratum is less distinctly infuso- .
rial than was believed by Bailey. (Dall, 45, p. 115).
The second paper of this year is by Tuomey, entitled
"Notice of the Geology of the Florida Keys and of the
Southern Coast of Florida". (196), Tuomey visited the
Florida Keys during the summer of 1850 and recorded his
observations the following year in the American Journal
of Science. The oolitic structure of the limestone at Key
West is noted. The large masses of corals that often occur
in the limestone of the Keys were observed and reported
by him in this paper. With regard to the elevation of
the Keys which has been previously postulated by Conrad,
Tuomey, says (pp. 392-393) :
"There can be no doubt that this great chain of Keys diverg-
ing from Key Biscayne extending oler a distance of one hun-
dred and fifty miles, and having an average breadth of fifteen
miles, is due to the elevation of vast uneven coral reef whose
prominent points rising above the water, form the foundation
of the Keys the sands driven up by the waves having done the

Tuomey agrees with Conrad in referring the limestone
at Tampa to a tertiary formation older than the Miocene.
Tuomey examined the limestone at the mouth of the Mi-
ami River and at the falls of the Miami leading into the
Everglades, and describes it as being of the same age as
that at Key 'West, the shells, as previously pointed out by
B. Smith, being identical with the shells living in. the
surrounding water. Tuomey regards the Everglades as
resting upon a vast basin of the Miami Limestone. Tuomey
distinguishes clearly between this limestone and the Ter-
tiary limestone occurring at Tampa Bay. The mainland
along the east coast like the Keys have, in the opinion of
Tuomey, been elevated. He says, (p. 394):


"The contour of the ridge surrounding the 'Everglades,' takes
together with the structure of the rock of which it is composed,
and imbedded organic rema. 3, leads very strongly to the con-
elusion that it once occupied a position similar to that now
occupied by the Keys. And it is evident that an elevation of
the Keys of about ten or twenty feet would produce a similar
ridge, shutting out the sea from the space, at present, between
the reef and the mainland, and producing a second 'Ever-
glade,' differing from the present only in its greater compara-
tive length."

A paper by Agassiz on the "Florida Reefs, Keys and
Goast" appeared in 1852, (6). The Florida Keys were
examined and described by him in considerable detail.
Agassiz expresses the view that the growth of the keys
above the surface of the water is due solely to materials
accumulated as a result of the action of the wind and
waves. He states (p. 153) :
"That part of the Keys which rises above the level of the
water is, therefore, a sub-aerial and not a submarine accumu-
. lation of floating matter, thrown above high-water mark by
the tempestuous action of the water. We insist upon the fact,
that the Keys furnish in themselves, by the internal structure
of their rock, the fullest evidence that they have been formed
above high-water mark by the action of gales and hurricanes,
instead of having grown as a reef up to the water level, and
been subsequently raised to their present height. The evidence
of this statement rests upon certain facts obtained from obser-
vation of the reef itself, at Sand Key and the Sambos."

On this point Agassiz's views are thus in opposition to
the previously expressed views of Conrad and Tuomey.
After having examined the Keys, Professor Agassiz exam-
ined the rocks along .the mainland. These he found to
be of the same structure as the rocks of the Keys. He
states on page 156 that:

"Along all that part of the shore which was examined, as
well as .upon the shores of the Miami, we found everywhere
the same coarse, oolitic rock, with cross-stratification, consist-
ing of thin beds, dipping at various angles in different direc-
tions, precisely as we find it at the western extremity of Key



West, excepting, perhaps, that the cross-stratification is here
more prominent, the strata dipping more frequently in
several directions within the same extent."

Notwithstanding the considerable elevation which the
rocks along the mainland attain in the vicinity of Miami,
Agassiz was of the view that these rocks, like the rocks of
the Keys, had been built above water level by the action
of winds and tides. He says on page 156:
"We are satisfied that as far as coral formations have been
observed upon the main-land of Florida and within the pres-
ent extent of the coral reefs, no change of the relative level
has taken place either by subsidence or upheavel of the coral
ground, and that all the modifications which the reef has pre-
sented at successive periods have been the natural conse-
quence of the growth of reef-building corals, witl the subse-
quent accumulation of their products,in the manner described

The conclusions of Agassiz with regard to the gradual
growth of the peninsula through the agency of corals
have given rise to much discussion. On page 157 of this
publication he says:
"There we have a peninsula-a narrow, flat strip of land,
projecting for about five degrees from the mainland, between
the Atlantic ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and forming an
effective barrier between the waters of the two seas, which
otherwise, even by the change of a few feet in the relative level
of the intervening peninsula, would communicate freely with
one another; and this peninsula we now know to have been
added to the continent, step by step, in a southerly direction.
"We know that the time can not be far behind us when the
present reef, with its few keys, did not exist, and when the
channel, therefore, was broader, and the Gulf Stream flowed
directly along the main range of keys. We know further,
that at some earlier period the keys themselves were not yet
formed, and that then the channel between Cuba and Florida
was wider still, washing freely over the grounds now known as
the mud flats, between the keys and the mainland, and that
there was then nothing to impede a free communication be-
tween the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic ocean. The chan-
nel of the Gulf Stream was not only wider-it was also less
shallow along its northern borders, for the whole extent of



soundings south of the mainland of Florida was an uncovered
coral ground, upon which the deep-water species were just
beginning to spread. But we may trace the change farther.
There was a time when neither the southern bluffs of the con-
tinent, nor Long Key within the Everglades, nor even the Ev-
erglades themselves, existed; when, therefore, the Gulf Stream
had a broad communication with the Atlantic and the south-
ern shores of the United States extended in almost unbroken
contiguity from west to east, from the shores of Texas and
Louisiana to St. Augustine. At that time the Gulf channel
was, in reality, a broad bay, as broad as the Gulf itself, desti-
tute of all those obstructions which now cause the tropical
current to follow such a circuitous course between the West
India islands, through the Caribbean Seas, and around the
peninsula of Florida. The influence which the Gulf Stream
has upon the climate of the Atlantic is so well known, that its
connexion with the changes which the current itself has un-
detgone within a comparatively recent period cannot be over-

"We have seen how successfully several reefs have been
formed, more or less parallel, within the limits of the penin-
sula of Florida, as well as beyond the mainland. We have
seen, also, how these parallel or concentric reefs have been
gradually transformed into mainland by the accumulation of
coral sand and mud with other loose materials, and also that
the keys are now slowly annexed to the mainland by the same

A series of rock samples obtained by Agassiz in the
course of his investigations of the keys were examined
by Horsford and reported upon in two papers, the first
of which was published in the Proceedings of the Ameri-
can Association for the Advancement of Science, and
with some changes in the American Journal of Science
(100). The second paper (101), was called out by criti-
cism of the first by Professor Dana, and is occupied with
a defense of his earlier paper. The chief conclusions of
these papers are:
"1. That the submerged or oolitic rock has been solidified
by the infiltration or finely powdered (not dissolved) carbon-
ate of lime, increasing the points of contact; and the intro-


duction of a small quantity of animal mucilaginous matter,
serrviig the same purpose as the carbonate of lime, that .of
increasing the cohesive attraction.
"2. That the surface or crust rock has been solidified by
having, in addition to the above agencies, the 4id of a series
of chemical decompositions and recompositions, resulting is
the formation of a cement."

With regard to the source of lime in corals Horeford
concludes that:
"The carbonate of lime of corals may be due to the decompo-
sition of the sulphate present in sea-water with the exhaling
carbonate of ammonia from coral animals yielding insoluble
carbonate of lime on the one hand, and soluble sulphate of
ammonia on the other."

The General Assembly of Florida passed an act in 1858
establishing the office of State Engineer and Geologist.
The geological part of the work, however, seems not to
have been provided for. The first report of the State
Engineer and Geologist occupies pages 19-36 of Docu-
ments accompanying the Message pf the Governor of
Florida, submitted November 28, 1854. That part of the
report relating to geology occurs on page 20 of the appea-
dix and nads as follows:
"On the subject of the Geology of the State, I have
made ne report, from the fact that the General Assembly failed
to specify any duties or make any appropriations to defray
any expenses incurred in reference to the matter. Conse-
quently nothing has been.done by me, except to obtain speci-
mens of soils and minerals from the various localities (where
marked changes were perceptible), visited by me in the per-
formance of the duties of Engineer."

The office of State Engineer and Geologist was abol-
ished by an act of the Legislative Assembly of 1855.
A paper by Professor John LeConte published in 1861
is of interest in its geological relation, from the fact that
the writer describes the character of the Florida lime-
stone accurately, stating that it consists typically of a
mass of shells, with occasional masses of flint. (117). The


Writer had probably not seen the papers by Agassiz and
Joseph LeConte, since he makes no reference to them,
although his conclusion that the limestone about Silver
Springs is probably of the Eocene period is not in accord
with the views of these two earlier writers.
. Professor Joseph LeConte accompanied Agassiz during
the winter of 1851 in his explorations of the Florida Keys,
and published a paper in 1857 supporting and developing
the views of Pofessor Agassiz (118). He agrees with
Agassiz that the growth of the peninsula has been due to
successive reefs, and that the elevation of the keys above
water is due to wind and tide and not to elevation.
LeConte is of the view, however, that the coral agencies
are not alone sufficient to account for the growth of the
peninsula, since as is well known corals do not
grow at a greater depth than ten to twenty fathoms. To
account for the successive reefs concentrically disposed
from the north to the south, he invokes the agency of the
Gulf Stream. LeConte's theory was that the Gulf Stream
carried sediment which formed the foundation of the
keys. This view necessitates the assumption that the Gulf
Stream has shifted farther and farther to the south with
the growth of the peninsula until it has come to occupy
its present position.
Hunt contributes to a knowledge of the keys in a paper
published in 1862, republished in 1863 (103). This writer
during a residence of five seasons at Key West, 1857-1862,
during which time he was in charge of the construction
of Ft. Taylor, was able to observe closely the structure
of the keys. Hunt calls attention'to the extent of the line
of keys to the south and southwest. Hunt agrees with
Agassiz in the view that there has been no recent eleva-
tion of the keys, but objects to LeConte's theory that
sediment carried by the Gulf Stream forms the sub-
structure. Thi substructure, he believes, to be formed of
Organic material resulting from shells and corals distrib-
uted by a return eddy from the Gulf Stream. The ex-

B' 1 St'IVEY.

istence of this return eddy accounts also for the gradual
extension of the keys to the west.
In 1865 T. A. Conrad identified three species of inver-
tebrates from the Ocala Limestone. These were found to
be Eocene species of California, Maryland and New
Jersey. Conrad refers the Ocala rock to the period of
the Shark River marl of New Jersey. This paper, (31),
like the one by Professor John LeConte, is of interest as
identifying the limestone of Florida as Eocene, notwith-
standing the papers of earlier date by Agassiz and Joseph
LeConte, both of which writers regarded the deposits of
the State as of comparatively recent date.
A paper published in 1881 by Professor Eugene A.
Smith (186) is of great importance as being the first
paper to correct the erroneous views regarding the coral
formation of Florida. The underlying limestone of the
interior of Florida was identified by him as the Vicksburg
Limestone, and was traced by actual outcroppings from
Jackson County in west Florida, through middle Florida
to Marion County, in south-central Florida. From his own
observations and from observations of others, Smith was
brought to the conclusion (p. 298):
"That almost the whole of the State of Florida, from the
Perdido River of the west, eastward and southward, including
the middle and western parts of the peninsula certainly as far
south as the latitude of Tampa Bay, and probably as far as
the latitude of Charlotte Harbor, has for its underlying forma-
tion the White or Orbitoldes limestone of Vicksburg age."

It is now known that the supposed southward extent
of the Vicksburg, based principally on the observations of
others, was much too great. The essential facts remain,
however, that Smith correctly identified the Vicksburg
limestone as the foundation rock of the interior of ten-
tral Florida. Smith records in this paper for the first
time the presence of Miocene deposits in JFlorida, an ex-
posure having been examined by him at Rock Springs in
Orannsg County.


Rock specimens collected by Wilcox enabled Professor
Angelo Heilprin to determine in 1882 definitely the ex-
istence of a nummilitic limestone in Florida. The speci-
mens examined were taken from the neighborhood of
the Chesehouiska River about four miles from the coast.
The nummulites were associated in the specimens ex-
amined with recent land and fresh water shells. The
presence of the genus Orbitoides, however, leads to the
conclusion that the formation represents the European
nummulitic either Eocene or Oligocene (80.)
Professor Alexander Agassiz' bulletin on Tortugas and
the Florida Reefs appeared in 1883 (1). Agassiz' in-
vestigations led him to the conclusion previously stated
by Hunt that the Florida keys had been elongated west-
ward due to the return eddy-current of the Gulf Stream.
This return eddy-current was found to carry an abun-
dance of food supply for corals.
Professor Joseph LeConte in 1883, following the
appearance of Agassiz' bulletin, recognizes that the sedi-
ment forming the foundation of the Florida keys could
not have been deposited by the Gulf Stream. On this
point he accepts the conclusion of Hunt and A. Agassiz
that the sediment is of organic origin. In view of the
investigation ,of Smith on the Geology of Florida.
LeConte conceded also that the process of addition of
land to Florida by the combined agencies of the Gulf
Stream and corals could not have commenced north of
the north shore of the Everglades (119.).
Two papers relating to Florida were published by
Heilprin in 1884. In the first of these (81), this writer
gives further reasons for regarding the Florida limestone
as of Vicksburg age and for accepting Conrad's reference
of the Vicksburg limestone to the Oligocene. In a sum-
mary of the geology of Florida in this paper, Heilpril
repeats his observations of the occurrence of nummulitic
rock along the west coast, and reviews the additions to a
knowledge of the geology of the State contributed by
Professor Smith. This paper contains a map (in' colors)



of the Tertiary formations of the Atlantic and Gulf
States. The map of Florida is based upon Professor
Smith's earlier map. The Vicksburg is mapped as reach-
ing to Lake Okeechobee and the borders of 'the Ever-
glades, the error of regarding the Tampa Limestone as
identical with the Vicksburg not having yet been cor-
rected. In the second paper of this year (82), Heilprin
desc-ibes some new foraminifera from the nummulitic
formation of Florida.
Papers by Smith (188) and by Johnson (104), in 1885,
record a much greater extent of Miocene deposits over the
peninsula of Florida than has been previously supposed.
In 1887 Heilprin's exploration of the west coast of
Florida and the Okeechobee Wilderness appeared (92).
This publication contains a narrative of a journey along
the west coast of Florida from Cedar Keys to the Caloosa-
hatchee River, and thence to Lake Okeechobee, made by
Mr. Heilprin, in company with Mr. Joseph Wilcox, in the
winter of 1885-'86. A statement of the geological results
of this expedition was contained in an advance publi-
cation which appeared in 1886 (91). Heilprin points out
the fact that with regard to the supposed coral origin,
the .evidence is very strong, that the structure of the
peninsula even beyond Lake Okeechobee is of organic
and inorganic material accumulated in the normal way.
He also calls attention to the uninterrupted section from
the Oligocene to the present, the gradual change in the
invertebrate life and to the evidence of the gradual eleva-
tion of the peninsula.
Dr. J. Kost published in 1887 a "First Report of the
Geological Survey of Florida". This paper derives an
added interest from the fact that it was prepared under
the authority of the State. Dr. Kost was appointed State
Geologist of Florida by Governor Perry in 1886, with the
expectation that a continuance of the Geological Survey
would be provided for by the Legislative Assembly of the
following year. This expectation, however, was not real-
ized. Dr. Kost's report contains observations on the



geology, physical geography, soils and timber, with
remarks on the phosphates, lime, marls, clays, iron, coal,
building stone, and mineral waters. (114.)
In a paper published in 1888, Mr. Lawrence C. John-
son (105) gives a sketch representing a generalized
section across the peninsula of Florida through St.
Augustine and Gainesville. 'This sketch is designed to
illustrate the structure of the peninsula. It shows the
anticlinal structure of the Vicksburg Limestone, which
has a mild dip to.the west with comparatively thin sur-
face deposits, and a much more rapid dip to the east with
a much thicker Miocene and later deposits.
In 1889, D. I. Langdon, Jr., published the results of
his observations along the Chattahoochee River made two
years earlier. Mr. Langdon's paper (115) includes a
section of Alum Bluff, Florida, and also a section at
Ocheesee, Florida. Langdon suggests the name of Chat-
tahoochee group, which he regards as the oldest member
of the Miocene or the newest member of the Eocene white
The publications on Florida Geology for 1890 and
succeeding years become so numerous and diversified in
character that a review.of even important papers is diffi-
cult. A number of these have already been mentioned in
connection with the phosphate industry of Florida. Some
others are listed under fuller's earth. In the following
account only the more important publications of a general
nature are reviewed. For a more complete list the reader
may consult .the bibliography of Florida geology which
follows this chapter.
In connection with the correlation papers of the Eocene
formations of the United States by Dall and Harris (45),
the senior author, W. Dall, takes occasion to give a
summary of the geology of Florida as understood at that
time. The stratigraphy of the State is described in some
-detail. The bulletin is accompanied by a geological map
on which the formations of the State are outlined in much
greater detail than in any previous publication.



In 1893, Professor Raphael Pumpelly (162) called
attention definitely to the time intervals which must have
elapsed between the Vicksburg Limestone and the Chat-
tahoochee group. He states that the evidence of a time
break exists in:
1. The almost general presence of a limestone conglomerate
at the base of the Chattahoochee immediately overlying
Eocene fossils. This conglomerate is sometimes a breccia,
and often like a rock shattered in place; but more often it
consists of clearly rolled pebbles of limestone not distinguish-
able from the Eocene rock below.
2. The surface of demarcation between the Eocene and the
Chattahoochee is very irregular. The Eocene rises island-like
into the Miocene. The altitude differs considerably at this
point but a few miles along the strike."

In 1903 W. H. Dall completed his extensive publication
on the Tertiary fauna of Florida, the first issue of which
appeared thirteen years earlier. These researches, making
up volume 3, parts 1-6, of the Transactions Wagner Free
Institute of Science, contain the most detailed' investi-
gation that has yet been made on the invertebrate fauna
of Florida. A discussion of the geologic results is given
in part 6, pages 1541 to 1620 (42).
Descriptions of the vertebrate fossils of Florida by
the veteran paleontologist Joseph Leidy are contained in
the Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science,
volume II, 1889, and volume IV, 1896, the latter edited
by F. H. Lucas.
The paleogeography of Florida has been freely dis-
cussed in literature and has given rise to a diversity of
views. Evidence of minor changes of level of the penin-
sula have been recorded by a number of observers. A
mild elevation of the peninsula during Post-Pliocene
time was suggested by Conrad to account for the elevated
position of Post-Pliocene formations along the east,
south, and west coasts (28). Tuomey (196), after exam-
ining the mainland of southwest Florida and the Florida
keys, was of the opinion that it was necessary to recog-



nize an upward movement to account for the present ele-
vation of this region.
Louis Agassiz (6) and Hunt (103), both of whom
examined the keys with care, were of the opinion that no
such movement had occurred.
In order to account for the character of the orange
sands of Mississippi and Louisiana, Professor E. W. Hil-
gard' (94) believes it necessary to assume that previous
to its deposition the Gulf coast suffered an elevation of
at least 450 feet above its present level, followed during
the Champlain epoch by a slow depression of at least
twice that amount, with finally a re-elevation of at least
450 feet. While these minor changes of elevation are be-
lieved by Hilgard to have affected more particularly
the axis of the Mississippi Valley, they doubtless also
extended to Florida.
Smith (186), in summarizing the geological history of
Florida, notes that the axis of elevation which brought
the Vicksburg Limestone above sea, probably lay to the
west of the center of the present peninsula, the western
coast then lying probably 100 miles west of its present
position. To account for the Orange Sand as then under-
stood, Smith postulates the submergence of Florida dur-
ing the Champlain epoch, followed by a re-elevation to
the present height.
The elevations which were believed to have affected the
West India Islands during the early Quarternary led
Dana (53) to, assume that Florida was necessarily
affected by the same movements. Dana argues further
that the subsidence that brought Florida to its present
level occurred during the era of formation of the Florid'a
coral reefs. A mild subsidence of the west coast of
Florida to account for the surface configuration was sug-
gested by Heilprin (92) in 1887. Mild folds, with axis
parallel to the peninsula, were observed by Dall along the
Caloosahatchee River in 1887 (42).
Kost, in 1887, recognized the anticlinal axis traversing
the Florida peninsula (113), while Johnson (105), in


his sketch illustrating the structure of the peninsula,
likewise indicates its anticlinal structure.
The fact that the marine deposits in Florida are
drained of salt originally present in the interstices of the
rock for nearly a thousand feet below sea level, as indi-
cated by bored wells, together with solution cavities at
considerable depth, led Shaler (181) to postulate an eleva-
tion of the peninsula at some time since its formation to
not less than 800 to 1000 feet.
McGee's memoir -on the Lafayette formations (138)
containN the writer's conclusions as to the history of
the coastal plains during late geographical times. Pre-
vious to the formation of the Lafayette the coastal plains,
in the opinion of McGee, had been for a long time quies-
cent. In order to account for the Lafayette formation
McGee, like Hilgard, finds it necessary to postulate an
extensive submergence, involving the entire coastal
plains. It is, however, considered as not absolutely cer-
tain that southern Florida was submerged (p. 509).
Following the Lafayette deposits an elevation occurred
bringing the southern coastal plains much above their
present level. Previous to the Lafayette deposits canyons
were cut by rivers across the coastal plains. McGee
estimates this elevation as 200 to 700 feet above the
present level. A re-submergence, not so extensive as that
of the Lafayette, but involving Florida, is indicated, in
the view of McGee, by the presence of the Columbia sands
on top of the Lafayette. A Post-Columbian high level
period, followed by subsidence to the present level, closes
the history of the coastal plains.
In regard, to the supposed elevation of land north of
the Gulf of Mexico postulated by Spencer, Upham and
others to account for the glacial epoch, Dall (45) main-
tains that for Florida, at least, no such elevation oc-
curred. Canyons and sculpturing of 'the topography
such as would necessarily have occurred in the soft Flor-
ida formation, being absent.



In his preliminary sketch of the phosphates of Florida,
George H. Eldridge (66) expresses the view that the entire
area of Florida was re-submerged to receive the mantle
of superficial sand which forms such a prominent feature
of its surface.
In 1895 J. W. Spencer published a paper (193) in
which he postulates the elevation of the Antillean and
surrounding region sufficient to connect the two Amer-
icas by way of the West Indies. Tvo main periods of
elevation are recognized. The first occurred in the Plio-
cene period. This is followed by a period of depression
during the late Pliocene or possibly early Pleistocene,
which corresponds, Spencer believes, to the Lafayette de-
pression described by McGee. The land rose again to a
great elevation during Pleistocene time, uniting the con-
tinents by way of the Antillean bridge. A subsidence
followed in the later Pleistocene, which submerged most
of Florida. This depression corresponds to the depression
during which the Columbian series was formed on the
continent. After this subsidence the land rose 150 to 200
feet above the present level, with subsequently slight
depression to its present level. Spencer concludes that
the Antillean bridge stood' from one and a half to two
and a half miles above the present altitudes of the plains
which now form the islands: .
"It has been found that there have been two epochs of great
elevation, namely, in the Pliocene and in the Pleistocene
periods. Between these there was a subsidence of such depth
as to drown the continental coastal plains and reduce the
West Indian region to very small islands, with (probably) a
shallow connection between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
The mid-Pleistocene depression was not quite so great as the
earlier and there was probably a strait connecting the two
oceans. Since that time there have been several oscillations
of minor degree, with the formation of many small coastal
canyons and the elevation of terraces and coral reefs."

To the conclusion of Spencer, Dall (42) enters a vig-
orous objection. He states (pp. 1544, 1545, 1546):
"Dr. J. W. Spencer has propounded some very startling


hypotheses, involving the elevation of some of the Antilles
and Florida many thousand feet and their submergence within
a comparatively recent period of geological time.
"The, on the whole, remarkable horizontality of the Flor-
idian strata indicates a freedom from violent changes of level
from the time the Peninsular limestone first emerged from
the sea. Landshells in the Ocala limestone show that the then
dry land existed. South of the Suwannee Strait, closed in
late Miocene time, there is no evidence of subsequent submer-
sion to any serious extent. Two gentle flexures run parallel
with the peninsula, having the lake district between them; a
tilting of, at the most, thirty feet, up at the east, down at the
west, which may have been contemporaneous with the flex-
ures; and, for the rest, very slow and slight but probably
nearly continuous elevation never exceeding one hundred feet
and perhaps less than half that, with dry land and fresh-water
lakes constantly existing since the Ocala islands were raised
above the sea; such is the geological history of the Florida
peninsula. Denudation of the organic limestone by solution
rather than erosion is the prominent characteristic of the
changes in the surface. Soft, crumbling under the finger nail,
the rocks of the plateau, if lifted five or six thousand feet, as
claimed by Dr. Spencer, would have been furrowed by canyons
and swept bodily into the sea. Indeed, to me the proposition
is inconceivable as a fact and incompatible with every geologic
and paleontologic fact of south Florida which has come to my

In reply to Dall's chief objection, that the peninsula
if elevated would have been deeply scarred and cut by
canyons, Spencer maintains (194) that part of Florida
which now constitutes the peninsula was during the
period of elevation a remnant of a plateau not yet dis-



The following list of papers includes all publications
relating to the geology of Florida of which record has
been obtained. The list is necessarily lacking in complete:
ness and notice of omissions will be appreciated. Those
papers, the place of publication and title of which have
not been verified from the original are followed by an
asterisk. i' -A

1. Agassiz, Alexander-
The Tortugas and Florida Reefs.*
Am. Acad. Mem. II, 107-134, 12 pls. 1883; re-
viewed by J. D. Dana, Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXVI,
408-409, 1883; Abst. Am. Nat. XVII, 1267-1268,

2. Agassiz, Alexander-
A Contribution to American Thalasography.
Three cruises of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur-
vey steamer Blake in the Gulf of Mexico, in the
Caribbean Sea, and along the Atlantic Coast of the
United States from 1877 to 1880. In two volumes,
vol. I, XII, 314 pp. maps; vol. II, 219 pp. pls.
Cambridge, 1888.*
Mus. Com. Zool. Bul. XIV and XV.

3. Agassiz, Alexander-
Note (on coral reefs of southern Florida and
their relations to the growth of the peninsula).
Mus. Oomp. Zool. Bull., XVI, 157-158, 1890.
.A Note appended to Shaler's paper (No. 178),


4. Agassiz, Alexander-
Note on the Florida Reef.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLIX, 154-155, 1895.
Letter to J. D. Dana, dated Tampa Bay, Florida, De-
cember 27, 1894. The Miami Limestone is regarded as of
Aeolian origin. Agrees with Tuomey as to elevation of
the outer reef.

5. Agassiz, Alexander-
The Elevated Reef of Florida.
Mus. Com. Zool. Bull. XXVIII, No. 2, 29-62,
26 pls., 1896.

C. Agassiz, Louis-
Florida Reefs, Keys and Coast.
U. S. Coast Survey Rept. for 1851. (Appendix
No. 10), 145-160, 1852.
Extracts from the report of Professor Agassiz to the
Superintendent of the Coast Survey.

7. Agassiz, Louis-
Relation of the Geological and Zoological Re-
searches to General Interests, in the development
of Coast Features.
U. S. Coast Survey Rept. for 1867, 183-186, 1869.
Letter addressed to the Superintendent of the Coast

8. Agassiz, Louis-
Report on the Florida Reefs.
Mus. Comp. Zool. Mem. VII. pp. 1-40, 1880.
Report of Professor Agassiz to the Superintendent of
the Coast Survey (letter referred to in No. in full).
9. Aldrich, Truman H.-
A New Conus from the Tertiary of Florida.
Nautilus XVI, 131.182, 1903.
Describes 0. Waltonenss from Shoal Creek, Walton



10. Aldrich, Truman H.-
New Species of Tertiary Fossils from Alabama,
Mississippi and Florida.
Nautilus, XVI, 97-101, 1903.

11. Allen, John H.-
Some facts respecting the Geology of Tampa
Bay, Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2) I, 3842, 1846.

12. Bailey, J: W.
Discovery of an Infusorial Stratum in Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2) X, 282, (1-5 p.), 1850.
This is an advance notice of the infusorial stratum
described in the following.

13. Bailey, J. W.-
Microscopical Observations made in South Caro-
lina, Georgia and Florida.
Smithson. Contri. Knowl. II, art. VIII, 48 pp.
(3 pls.), 1851.
The observations on Florida occupy pages 14-25. The
geological references occur on pages 16 and 19, the first
relating to the limestone 4'0 miles west of Palatka, the
second to a supposed infusorial stratum at Tampa.

14. Bailey, J. W.-
Silicified Polythalamia in Florida.
Am,. Jour. Sci. (2) XI, 86, (1-4 p.), 1851.
This is an extract from the preceding with the addition
of list of genera identified.

15. Bartram, William-
Travels through North and South Carolina,
Georgia, east and west Florida, the Cherokee
Country, the extensive territories of the Muscogul.
ges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the



Choctaws, containing an account of the soil and
natural productions of those regions, together with
observations on the mariners of the Indians. 522
pp. 6 pls. map.
Philadelphia, 1791; second edition printed in
London, 1794.

16. Bland, Thomas-
Physical geography of and distribution of ter-
restrial mollusca in the Bahama Islands.*
New York Lyceum of Nat. Hist. Annals X, 311-
324; abst. Am. Jour. Sci. (3), VIII, 231-233, 1874.

17. Boyer, Charles S.-
A fossil marine diatomaceous deposit at St. Au-
gustine, Florida.*
Torrey Bet. Club, Bull., XXII, 171-174, 1895.

18. Bradley, Frank H.-
"Geological chart of the United States east of
the Rocky Mountains and of Canada", New York,

19. Brewer, William H.-
Warren's New Physical Geography, 144 pp.,
Philadelphia, 1890.*

20. Brown, Lucius, P.-
The Phosphate Deposits of the Southern States.
Eng. Assoc. South. Proc., XV, No. 2, 53-128,
Phosphates of Florida described on pp. 63-86.

21. Burnett, W. I.-
(Elevations in Florida).
Am. Jour. Sci. (2), XVII, 407. 1854.
Letter to Professor J. D. Dana.


22. Carnot, Adolphe-
Sur les Variations observees dans la composition
des apatites, des phosphorites, et des phosphates
sedimentaries. Remarques sur le gisement et le
mode de formation de ces phosphates.*
Ann. Des Mines, X, 137-231, 1896.

23. Casey, Thomas L.-
On the probable age of the Alabama White Lime.
Acad'. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 513-518, 1901.

24. Catesby, Mark-
The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and
the Bahama Islands: Containing the figures of
Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, Insects, and
Plants: Particularly, those not hitherto described,
or incorrectly figured by former Authors, with
their Descriptions in English and French. To
which is prefixed A New and Correct Map of the
Countries; with Observations on their Natural
State, Inhabitants, and Productions. By the late
MARK CATESBY, F. R. S. Revised by Mr. Ed-
wards. Linnaean Index of the Animals and Plants.
Vols. I and II, London, MDCCLXXI, 1771.

25. Clark, W. B.-
Correlation Papers: Eocene.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 83, 1891.
Eocene of Florida discussed on pages 55-57, and on pages

26. Codington, E. W.-
The Florida Pebble-Phosphates.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXV, 423-431, 1896.

27. Conrad, Timothy A.-
Observations on the Tertiary and more recent



formations of a portion of the Southern States.*
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Jour. VII, 116-129, 1884.

28. Conrad, Timothy A.-
Observations on the Geology of a part of East
Florida, with a Catalogue of Recent Shells of the
Am'. Jour. Sci. (2) II, 36-48, 1846.

29. Conrad, Timothy A.-
Descriptions of new species of Organic Remain.
from the Upper Eocene Limestone of Tampa Bay.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2) II, 399-400, 1846.

30. Conrad, Timothy A.-
Observations on the Eocene formation in the
vicinity of Vicksburg, Miss.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. Jour. (2), I, 111-134,
(pls. XI-XIV), 1850.

31. Conrad, Timothy A.--
Observations on American Fossils, with descrip-
tions of two new species.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. Proc. XVII, 184, 1865.
Three species of invertebrates identified from Ocala, and
the formation referred to the Eocene (Shark River Marl
of New Jersey).

32. Cope, Edward D.-
An Intermediate Pliocene Fauna.*
Am. Nat. XXIII, 253-254, 1889.

33. Cope, Edward D.-
(Note on the fossils of the Alachua clays) con-
tained in U. S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 84, 130, 1892.
Alachua clays regarded as probably intermediate be-
tween the Loup Fork and the Equus beds.



34. Cowles, H. C.-
A Remarkable Colony of Northern Plants along
the Apalachicola River, Florida, and its signifi-
Rept. 8th International Geographic Congress
held in the U. S. in 1904, 599, (1-2 p.), 1905.
Suggests that the Torreya and other plants failed to
follow the retreat of the Pleistooene ice.

35. Cox, E. T.-
An extensive deposit of phosphate rock in
Am. Nat. XXIV, 1185-1186, (5-6 p.), 1890.

36. Cox, E. T-
Florid'a Pebble and Nodular Phosphate of Lime.*
Eng. Min. Jour. LII, 359-360, 1891.

87. Cox, E. T.-
Floridite: A new variety of Phosphate of Lime.
Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Proc. XXXIX, 266-262.

38. Cox, E. T.-
The Albion Phosphate-District.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXV, 36-40, 1896.

39. Cox, E. T.-
Geological Sketch of Florida.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXV, 28-36, 1896.

40. Dall, W. H..-
Miocene deposits in Florida.
Sci. VI, 82, (1-8 p.) 1885.
Calls attention to the fact that the characteristic Miocene
fossil Echphora quadricostata has been obtained from



41. Dall, W. H.-
Notes on the Geology of Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXXIV, 161-170, 1887.
Notes based upon the expedition made in 1885 and 1887.
Includes notes on the Geology in the vicinity of Gainesville,
Tampa, and the Caloosahatchee River. The mild folds
along the Caloosahatchee River are noted at this time.

42. Dall, W. H.-
Contributions to the Tertiary Fauna of Flbrida.
Wag. Free Inst. Sci. Trans. III, pts. I-VI, 1620
pp., 60 pls. 1890-1903.

43. Dall, W. H.-
On the age of the Peace Creek beds, Florida.*
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 120, (1-3 p) 1891;
abst. Am. Geol. VII, 382, (4 lines) 1891.

44. Dall, W. H.-
Elevation of America in the Cenozoic periods.*
Geol. Mag. VIII, 287-288, 1891; Am. Nat. XXV,
735-736, 1891.

45. Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D.-
Correlation Papers: Neocene of North America.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 84, 1892.
The geology of Florida is described by the senior author
on pp. 85-158.

4t6. Dall, W. H.-
The Tertiary Mollusks of Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci., (3) XLV, 441, 1893.

47. Dall, W. H., Stanley-Brown, J.-
Cenozoic Geology along the Apalachicola River.
Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. V, 147-170, pl. 1894; abst.
Am. Geol XIII, 137-138, (1-2 p), 1894.


48. Dall, W. H.-
Diagnoses of New Tertiary Fossils from the
S Southern United States.
Nat. Mus. Proc. XVIII, 21-46, 1895.
Many species of invertebrates described, but not illus-
trated, from Florida and other States.

49. Dall, W. H.-
(Account of the manner of occurrence of fossil
vertebrates in the Alahua l.C ays.) containedd in
introduction to "Fossil Vertebrates from the
AlachuaClays,". by Joseph Leidy.)
Wag. Free Inst. Sci. Trans. IV, 1896.

50. Dall, W. H.
(Introduction to) Descriptions of Tertiary Fos-
sils from the Antillean Region, by Guppy, R. J. L.,
and Dall, W. H.
Nat. Mus. Proc. XIX, 303-305, 1897.
The reference to Florida occurs on p. 306, where Dall
stated with. reference to the "Old Miocene" (of Florida and
elsewhere) that all these beds are referable to the "'ligo-
cene or Uppermost Eocene".

51. Dall, W. H:.-
A Table of the North American Tertiary Hori-
zons, correlated with one another and with those of
western Europe, with annotations.
U. S. Geol. Sur. 18th Ann. Rept., pt. II, 323-348,
This paper although not published until 1898, was pre-
pared as stated by the author in 1395.

.52. Dall, W. H., Bartsch, Paul-
Synopsis of the Genera, Sub-genera, and sections
of the family Pyramidellidse.*
Wash., Biol. Soc. Proc. XVII, 1-6, 1904.



53. Dana, James D.-
Origin of the Coral Reefs and' Islands.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXX, 89-105, and 169-191,
map, 1885.
The reference to Florida reefs occurs in pt. II, p. 178,
in which evidence of subsidence during the growth of the
reefs is presented.

54. Dancy, F. L.-
Report of the State Engineer and Geologist, con-
tained in Message of the Governor of Florida sub-
mitted with Accompanying Documents. November
28, 1854.
The reference to geology occurs on p. 20 (Appendix). No
geological work accomplished beyond the collecting of some
soils and minerals.

55. Darton, N. H.-
Notes on the Geology of the Florida Phosphate
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLI, 102-105, 1891; abst. Eng.
Min. Jour. LI, 210, (14 cols.) 1891.

56. Darton, N. H.-
Record of a Deep Well at Lake Worth, southern
Ami Jour. Sci. (3) XLI, 105-106, 1891.
The Vicksburg Limeston6, was identified at depth of
1000 feet. The well ended ih this formation at 1212 feet.

57. Darton, N. H.-
Preliminary List of Deep Borings in the United
States, part I.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Water Supp. and Irri. Paper,
No. 57, 1902.
The list of borings made in Florida occurs on pp. 21-22.
A second edition with additions was issued as Water Sup-
ply Paper No. 149, 1905.


58. Davidson, Walter B. M.-
Suggestions as to the origin and deposition of
Florida Phosphates.*
Eng. Min. Jour. LI, 628-629, 1891.

59. Davidson, Walter B. M.-
A Phosphatic Chalk at Taplow, England.*
Eng. Min. Jour. LII, 502, (2-3 col.) 1891.

60. Davidson, Walter B. M.-
Notes on the Geological Origin of Phosphate of
Lime in the United' States and Canada.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXI, 139-157, 1893.

61. Davidson, Walter B. M.-
(Review of) "Florida Phosphates: Origin of the
boulder phosphates of the Withlacoochee River
district," by N. A. Pratt.*
Eng. Min. Jour. LIII, 42, 1892.

62. Day, David T.-
Gypsum Deposits in Florida.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 223, 48, 1904.
Describes gypsum on Bear Island, 6 miles west of Pana-

63. Dietz, R.-
Description of a testaceous formation at Anasta-
sia Island, extracted from hotes made on a journey
to the southern part of the United States, during
the winter of 1822 and 1823.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Jour. IV, 73-80, 1824.

64. Edwards, J. Baker-
On some recent analysis of soils (Canada, Flor-
ida and Northwest Territory).*
Can. Nat. (n.s.) X, 458.460, 1883.


65. Eldridge, George H.-
Report of Geological Investigations.
U. S. Geol. Sur. 12th Ann. Rept., pt. 1, 82-84,
1891; ibid 13th Ann. Rept., pt. 1, 117-118, 1892;
ibid 15th Ann. Rept. 160, (1-4 p.), 1895.

66. Eldridge, George H.-
A preliminary Sketch of the Phosphates of
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XXI, 196-231, 1893.

67. Featherstonhaugh, G. W.-
Remarks on the oolitic rocks from Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. XVI, 206, (1-5 p.) 1829. (From
Proc. of the Lyceum of Sational History of New
York, XV, September, 1828).

68. Fewkes, J. Walter-
The Origin of the Present Outlines of the Ber-
Am. Geol. V, 88-100, 1890.
Reference to Florida occurs oi p. 91. Objects to Heil-
prin's view that the Florida reefs are atn area of elevation.
Believes that the outlines of the reefs are determined by
ocean currents independent either of elevation or subsi-

69. Finch, John-
Geological Essay on the Tertiary Formations in
Am. Jour. Sci. VII, 31-43, 1823.
Read to Acad. Nat. Scl. Phila., July 15, 1823.

70. Foerste, Aug, F.-
Studies on the Chipola Miocene of Bainbridge,
Georgia, and Alum Bluff, Florida.
Am. Jpur. Set. (3) XLVI, 244-254, 1893.



71. Foerste, Aug. F.-
The Upper Vicksburg Eocene and the Chatta-
hoochee Miocene of Southwest Georgia and adja-
cent Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLVIII, 41-54, 1894.

72. Fuller, M. L.--
Notes on the Wells, Springs, and General Water
Resources of Certain Eastern and Central States.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Water-Supp. and Irri. Paper,
No. 102, 1904.
Wells and Springs of Florida given on pp. 238-275.

73. Fuller, M. L.-
Underground water of Eastern United States.
U. S. Geol. Sur. Water Supp. and Irri. Paper
No. 114, 1905.
The underground water of Florida described, pp. 159-168.

74. Goldsmith, E.-
Pea-Like Phosphorite from Polk County, Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. X, (1-2 p.) 1890.
Contains a brief description of the microscopic struct-
ure of pebble phosphate from Ft. Meade. Acicular crystals
of apatite were found imbedded in Amorphous silica.

75. Gorrie, -.-
(On Change of Levels of West Coast of Florida).
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. IV, 391-392, (1-2 p.)
SThe slow depression of the land in the vicinity of Apa-
lachicola reported.

76. Griswold, Leon S.-
Notes on the geology of southern Florida.
Mus. Comp. Z0ol Bull. XXVIII, No. 2, 52-59,
.pis XVII-XXVI, 1896.



77. Harper, R. M.-
'Hammock,' 'Hbmmock,' or 'Hummock'?
Science, (n.s.) XXII, 400-402, 1905.
Discusses the use of these terms as applied to a type of
vegetation and soil in the Coastal Plains section. 'Ham-
mock' considered the proper term.

78. Harris, G. D.-
Sections made in 1901 of the Chattahoochee
series in northwestern Florida, contained in Com-
parison of the Oligocene by C. J. Maury.
Am. Paleont. Bull. No. 15, 53-58, 1902.

79. Hawes, George W.-
On a Phosphatic Sandstone from Hawthorne, in
Nat. Mus. Proc. for 1882, 46-48,1883.
Contains an analysis of rock from the quarry of C. A.
Simmons. Analyses made by A. B. Home.

80. Heillrin, Angelo-
On the Occurrence of Numnmulitic Deposits in
Florida, and the Association of Nummulites with
a Fresh-water Fauna,
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 189-193, 1882; Am.
Nat. XVI, p08-309 (2-3 p.), 1883. Reprinted in the
Naturalist Leisure Hour and Monthly Bulletin, No.
81, May, 1884; abst: Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXIV, 294,
1882; ibid, XXV, 158, 1883.

81. Heilprin, Angelo-
Contributions to the Tertiary Geology and
Paleontology of the United' States.* 117 pp., map,
Phila., 1884.

82. Heilprin, Angelo-
Notes on' S6me NXw Foraminifera from the Num.
mulitic Formation of Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 321-322, 1884.


83. Heilprin, Angelo-
The Tertiary Geology of the Eastern and South-
ern United States.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Jour. IX, pt. I, 115-154,
map, pls., 1884.
The Geology df Florida is briefly summarized on pp.
137-138. The Geological map is based, so far as Florida is
concerned, on that previously issued by Smith, with the
exception that the area indicated by Smith as probably
Eocene is here mapped as Vicksburg.

84. Heilprin, Angelo-
(Remarks on the Florida Tertiary).
Science, III, 607 (1-4 p.), 1884.

85. Heilprin, Angelo-
The classification and paleontology of the U. S.
Tertiary Deposits.
Science, V, 475-476, 1885.

86. Heilprin, Angelo-
The classification and paleontology of the U. S.
Tertiary Deposits.
Science, VI, 83-84, 1885.
Meyer having questioned the Oligocene age of the Vicks-
burg, Heilprin reiterates his views.

87. Heilprin, Angelo-
(Shells from the Mouth of the Manatee River,
Science, VI, 499 (1-8 p.), 1885.
A new species of the genus conorbis. 0. princeps.

88. Heilprin, Angelo-
(Tertiary Fossils from Kentucky, Texas and
Science, VII, 103 (1-3 p.), 1886.
Reports the receipt of fossil shells. Tnose from Florida
were obtained near Gainesville.



89. Heilprin, Angelo-
(Observations in Florida.)
Science, VII, 353 (1-2 p.), 1886.
Brief report to the Philadelphia Academy of Natural
Science of a tour in Florida during the winter of 1885-1886.
90. Heilprin, Angelo-
Notes on the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology
of the Southern United States.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 57-58, 1886.
Among other specimens reports on samples of nummu-
lites from Florida. (Receipt of which was noted in No. 87).

91. Heilprin, Angelo-
Explorations on the Western Coast of Florida
and the Okeechobee Wilderness.
Wag. Free Inst. Sci. Trans., 1886.
Advance publication from the following, pp. 65-127.

92. Heilprin, Angelo-
Explorations on the West Coast of Florida and
in the Okeechobee Wilderness, with special refer-
ence to the Geology and Zoology of the Floridian
Wagc Free Inst. Sci. Trans. I, 134 pp. 19 pls.,
1887; abst: Pop. Sci. Mon. XXXIII, 418 (1-2 p),
1887; Am. Jour. Sci. (3), XXXIV, 230-232, 1887.

93. Herrick, R. H.-
Memoirs of Florida. vol. II.*
Chapter on Resources and Industries, 227-243,

94. Hilgard, E. W.-
On the Geological History of the Gulf of Mexico.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) II, 391-404, 1871; Am. Assoc.
Proc. XX, 222-236, 1871; Louisiana State Univ.



Rept. of Supt. for 1871, 207-222, New Orleans, 1872;
Am. Nat. V, 514-518, 1871; discussed in ibid, 518-
523; abst: Neues Jahrbuch, 551-552, 1872.

95. Hilgard, E. W.-
On the Geology of Lower Louisiana and the Salt
Deposits of Petite Anse Island, 38, pp. 2 pls.*
Smithson. Contri. Knowl. XXIII, Separate as
248, Washington, 1881; abst: Smithson. Inst.
Rept. for 1867, 47, 1868; Rept. for 1870, 20-21, 1871.

96. Hilgard, E. W.-
The Later Tertiary of the Gulf of Mexico.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXII, 58-65, map, 1881.

97. Hill, R. T.-
Notes on the Geology of the Island of Cuba.
Miis. Comp. Zool. XVI, No. 15, 243-288, 9 pls.
No evidence that Cuba has had connection since its
earliest history with the United States. p. 285.

98. Hitchcock, C. H.-
Geological map of the United States and
part of Canada.* Compiled to illustrate the
scheme of 'coloration and nomenclature recom-
mended by the International Geological Congress.
Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. XV, 465-488, 1887.

99. Hitchcock, C. H;.-
SFresh-water Springs in the Ocean.
Pop. Sci. Mon., Dec. 673-683, 1905.
The springs of Florida are described on pp. 680-683.

100., Horsford, E. N.-
Solidification of the Rocks of the Florida Reefs,
and the Sources of Lime in the Growth of Corals.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2) XIV, 245-253, 1852; Am. As-
soc. Adv. Sci. Proc., 207-215, 1852.



101. Horsford, E. N.-
On the Solidification of the Coral Reefs of
Florida, and the Source of Carbonate of Lime in
the Growth of Corals.
This paper is a further defense' of the views presented
in the preceding and is a reply to criticism by Dana.

102. Hovey, E. O.-
Notes on the Artesian Well sunk at Key West,
Florida, in 1895.*
Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull. XXXVIII, 65-91, 1896;
abst: Am. Geol. XVIII, 218, 1896.

103. Hunt, E. B.-
On the Origin, Growth, Substructure and Chro
nology of the Florida Reef.
U. S. Coast Sur. Rept. App. No. 25,' 241-248,
1862; Am. Jour. Sci. (2) XXXV, 197-210, 1863.

104. Johnson, Lawrence C.-
Phosphatic Rocks of Florida.
Science, V, 396, 1885.

105. Johnson, Lawrence, C.-
The Structure of Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXXVI, 230-236, 1888.

106. Johnson, Lawrence C.-
Florida, in MacFarlane's Geol. Railway Guide
2d. ed. 392-394, 1890*.

107. Johnson, Lawrence C.-
The Chattahoochee Embayment.
Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. III, 128-132, 1891.

108. Johnson, Lawrence C.-
The Miocene Group of Alabama'.*
Science XXI, 90-91, 1893. '



109, Johnson, Lawrence 0.-
Notes on the Geology of Florida: 'Two of the
lesser but typical Phosphate Fields.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLV, 497-503, 1893.
Describes phosphatic formations of Alachua County, and
the plate-rock phosphate of Marion County.

11'0. Johnson, C. W.--
A New Pliocene Polygyra from Florida.
Nautilus, XIII, 67-68, 1899.

111. Kennish, -. -.
Artesian Well at St. Augustine, Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXXIV, 70, (1-3 p.), 1887.
Includes a partial log of the Flagler well at St Augus-

112. Kerr, W. C.-
Notes on the geology of the region about Tampa,
Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. Jour. 1884-85, 86-90,

113. Kost, J.-
Geology of Florida.
Am. Assoe. Adv. Sci. Proc., XXXV, 231, (1-2 p.)
Abstract of paper read before the meeting at Buffalo,
August, 1886.

114. Kost, J.--
First Report of the Geological Survey of Florida.
31 pp. Tallahassee, 1887.
Abst: Science, IX, 446-447, 1887.
Report made to Governor E. A. Perry.


115. Langdon, Daniel, W., Jr.-
Some Florida Miocene.
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXXVIII, 322-324, 1889.
Proposed the "Chiattahoochee Group" for limestone
along the Chattahoochee.

116. Langdon, Daniel W., Jr.-
Geology of the Coastal Plain of Alabama.
Geol. Sur. Ala., 1894.
The description of Florida formations occurs on pp.

117. LeConte, John-
On the Optical Phenomena presented by the "Sil.
ver-Spring," in Marion County, Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2), XXXI, 1-12, 1861.

118. LeConte, Joseph-
On the Agency of the Gulf.Stream in the Forma-
tion of the Peninsula of Florida.
Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Proc., pt. 2, 103-119, 1857.
119. LeConte, Joseph-
The Reefs, Keys, and Peninsula of Florida.
Science, II, 764, 1883.
Recognizes that the substructure of the keys is not duo
to the Gulf Stream and that the process of coral formation
of the peninsula can not have commenced north of the
north line of the Everglades.

120. Ledoux, Albert R.-
The Newly-discovered Ph6sphate-beds of Florida.
New York Acad. Soi. Trans., IX, 84-94, 1890;
Eng. Min. Jour. XLIX, 1754177,, 1890; BSe. Am.
Supp. XXX, 12104-12105, No. 758, 1890.


121. Leidy, Joseph--
Vertebrate Fossils from Florida.
Acad. Nqt. Sci. Phila. Proc., 118-119, 1884;
Science, III, 606, 1884.
A collection submitted for examination by the Smith-
sonlan Institution, collected by Dr. J. C. Neal, of Archer,

122. Leidy, Joseph-
Rhinocerous and Hippotherium froA Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 32-33, 1885.
Gives notice of the occurrence of Hypotherium ingeuum.

123. Leidy, Joseph-
Mastodon and Llama from Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 11-12, 1886.
Collection made by W. H. Dall near Archer, Florida.

124. Leidy, Joseph-
An Extinct Boar from Florida.
Acad'. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 37-38, 1886.

125. Leidy, Joseph-
Fossil Bones from Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 309-310, 1887.
Receipt of fossil vertebrates collected by L. C. Johnson.

126. Leidy, Joseph-
Notice of some Fossil Human Bones.
Wag. Free Inst. Sci. Trans. II, 9-12, 1889.
Describes human remains from Little Sarasota Bay ob-
tained by Hellpria and Wilcox in 1886 and by Wilcox in


127. Leidy, Joseph-
Description of Mammalian Remains from a
Rock Crevice in Florida.
Wag. Free Inst. Sci. Trans. 'l, 13-17, 1889.
Describes Pleistocene vertebrates obtained from quarry
of F. N. Phillips, at Ocala, by Joseph Savage.

128. Leidy, Joseph-
Description of Vertebrate Remains from Peace
Cre9k, Florida.
Wag. Free. Inst. Sci. Trans. II, 19-31, 1889.
Describes material obtained by Mr. Joseph Wilcox, ac-
companied by Wm. H. Migs, from a sand bar in Peace
River, near Arcadia.

129. Leidy, Joseph-
Fossil Vertebrates from Florida.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 64-65, 1890.
Notice of receipt of vertebrate fossils from Archer, col-
lected by J. B. Hatcher.

130. Leidy, Joseph-
Fossil Vertebrates from the Alachua Clays of
Florida. (Edited by Lucas, F. A.)
Wag. Free. Inst. Sci. Trans. IV, 61 pp. pls., 1-19,

131. Lewis, Elias, Jr.-
Evidence of a probable modern change of level
on the coast of Florida.
Am. Jour. Sci. (2) XLI, 406, (1-4 p.) 1866.
Modern depression of the coast at St. Augustine, indi-
cated by stumps of cedar trees and peat accumulations
below low tide level.

132. Lucas, F. A.-
(Prefatory Note and notes appended as editor