I THE: PANAMA CANAL..,.
~ ~ 4$~st ternent of
MRJOHN- F. WALLACE,
U S. SENATE COMMITTEE
ON INTEROCEANIC CANALS
My single purpose in appearing before, you at this
time is to give you the very best judgment I have been
able to form upon the two matters you are now consider-
ing and as to which I have, as. you know, a very con-
siderable knowledge. I need not repeat the experiences
which I think justify me in speaking with some little au-
thority upon the engineering problems before you, and I
think I fully explained the somewhat exceptional prac-
tice I have had in dealing with large problems of con-
struction similar in many respects to the problems con-
fronting you in the matter of the Panama Canal.
I wish, therefore, simply as an American citizen, to
put the judgment which I have formed on the basis of
these experiences before you, and through you before
the Congress, to assist in reaching what I am
sure every member of it, of both parties, ardently desires
to reach-a conclusion as to the best type of canal and
the best method of doing the work involved in its con-
struction. Of course, I recognize that the Committee may
well differ from me and the majority of the board of con-
sulting engineers for the Panama Canal as to type of
! canal and may differ far more with far greater freedom
as to the best method of constructing it, but I feel that I
will have done my full duty when I have laid my views
before you and given you, as far as I am able, the rea-
sons upon which they rest in my own mind.
In considering the question of alternate plans for the
canal, whether it should be upon a high level with locks,
or upon a sea level, without locks, my judgment as an
engineer is controlled by several principles which com-
mend themselves to me as really fundamental, and so
far as I am concerned, conclusive.
In the first place it must be conceded that an approxi-
mately straight, sea-level canal of ample width and depth
is the best type of canal, and that any other plan which
places restrictions upon the probable permanency of the
canal itself as well as upon the speed, and the size and
number of vessels passing through it, must neces-
sarily render the canal far less valuable and far less de-
sirable than if such doubt as to its permanency and such
restrictions did not exist.
In the second place it must be equally admitted that
the only deterrent elements in accomplishing the more
desirable result, that of the sea level canal, are the two
factors of relative time and cost, when this most de-
sirable form is contrasted with the far less desirable
form of a high level canal with locks.
In the third place it must be admitted that a very
proper way to approach a discussion of the relative de-
sirableness of these types would be to consider how
much money the American people may be supposed to
be willing to invest in the canal and how long they may
be supposed to be willing to wait for its proper accom-
After these important factors are determined, the
Committee ought to be able to readily decide which of
the two types of canal seems to it to be the better, and
to give its approval to the type it prefers.
Now, as to the cost: we have told the civilized world
that the United States of America are willing to con-
struct the Panama Canal for the benefit of the world and
its commerce, including our own, and as we have vol-
untarily accepted this great duty, it is to be presumed
that the people prefer that the Congress should approach
it from abroad, general and liberal standpoint, construct-
ing the most permanent and best possible type of canal,
rather than to offer to the world an inferior type of
doubtful permanency, especially as the best type of canal
is one which, so far as can now be foreseen, will not have
to be materially altered or enlarged and upon which our
descendants may look with pride, with no occasion to re-
gret any inefficiency or instability in the work due to
our having been too careful of our money or too short-
sighted in our engineering judgment.
The amount of tonnage which will pass through the
canal when completed is, of course, largely a matter of
conjecture, but it is certain that it will be large and
ever increasing, and that' considerable tonnage will be
diverted from the Suez route. The phenomenal increase
of tonnage passing year by year through the Suez Canal
is a reasonable assurance that the continued prosperity
and growth of the commerce of the world will justify
the expenditure at Panama of the money required to
give such commerce the best possible water-way be-
tween the two oceans. Judged by the capitalization and
dividends now paid upon the stock of the Suez canal it
is apparent that the rates charged for transit through
it are excessive, and on the assumption that the rates for
passing through the Panama Canal will be considerably
less, a very material saving will be offered to commerce
if it takes the Panama route. Assuming that the present
amount of tonnage through the Suez Canal of, say, ten
million tons per annum would pass through the Panama
Canal, even at a dollar a ton, there would be an approxi-
mate income of $io,ooo,ooo which is sufficient to justify
an expenditure of $3oo,ooo,ooo. As the commerce pass-
ing through it, will in the near furture pay the interest
upon the bonds issued to construct it, without taking in-
to consideration any indirect commercial benefits which
would accrue to this country, and without considering
the advantages which would be derived from the canal in
the improbable event of war, it would seem that
an expenditure of $300,00o,ooo, a sum ample to con-
struct the sea level canal, would be abundantly justified
considering the probable rapid development of foreign
and domestic trade and the indirect results to be derived
from this great water-way., Under these conditions the
increased expense of constructing a sea level canal ought
not to weigh very heavily in deciding the question of
Now, as to the additional time required for a sea level
canal, it may be predicted with some certainty that
upon a basis of reasonable energy and the use of proper
business methods of administration, a sea level canal can
be fully completed in ten, or to be entirely safe, say
twelve years, and a lock canal, even if only sixty feet
above sea level, will require seven, or to be entirely
safe, say nine years, on the same basis of energy and
administration, a difference of only three years. I make
this concession out of abundant caution; but consider-
ing that the work on the sea level canal is plain, ordinary
every-day work of digging and hauling away what is
dug, I do not believe very much additional time would
be required for the sea level canal., It does not seem,
therefore, that the additional time required for the sea
level canal should seriously militate against deciding
upon that type.
It must also be remembered that it is quite possible to
secure even increased efficiency, over that assumed to
be now probable, in case the work should be handled by
a single contracting firm, unhampered by governmental
methods and with every incentive to expedite and com-
plete the work at the earliest possible moment. Indeed,
under such conditions it is very probable that the period
suggested could be considerably reduced. Instead of
one shift of ten hours the contractor might utilize elec-
tric lights and work two shifts.
If it is not too much to hope that the Committee will de-
cline to recommend any form of canal which is not capable
of being in the future transformed into a sea level ca-
nal without undue interference with the world's traffic,
and without undue additional cost, this fact alone should
take the recommendations of the minority of the board
of consulting engineers and the recommendations of the
majority of the Isthmian Canal Commission out of really
serious consideration; for it is difficult to see why any
type of canal should now be authorized, the destruction
of any important feature of which, either by act of God
or of man, would block all use of it until its restoration,
particularly when such interruption of traffic would
almost certainly extend over several years, and the
world having become accustomed to its advantages
would incure such a loss of time with the greatest pos-
sible sense of injury.
There is another engineering problem which ought
to have careful consideration, and that is whether
the Congress will feel justified in endorsing the
construction of any dam of large dimensions, retaining
a head of water of say eighty-five feet, the foundation
of which does not extend to bed rock or to some equally
impermeable and reliable strata. The engineering ques-
tion may be thus stated; is it either safe or wise
to authorize the building of a dam one-and-
one-half miles long to retain a head of water of eighty-
five feet across an alluvial valley, similar to the valley
of the Chagres at Gatun, in which exists already two
sub-surface gorges, one of which alone is a thousand
feet across and two hundred and forty feet deep,
which has evidently been refilled with a heterogeneous
mass of gravel, sand, sandy-clay, drift wood ancb
the general character of detritus brought down into the
valley by the mountain streams? With this situation in
view it is greatly to be feared that the dam at Gatun,
which is proposed by a minority of the board of con-
sulting engineers and which is endorsed by a majority
of the Isthmian Canal Commission, might after some
years be found incapable of holding back so great a head
of water and withstanding the strain upon it. This
apprehension is greatly emphasized by the character of
the borings in this locality, because they have not been
sufficient to determine the accuracy of the cross section
which has been submitted as one of the exhibits of the
board of consulting engineers to the Isthmian Canal
Commission. Sand or gravel may even underlie the in-
durrated clay into which borings have only been made a
short distance. The same remarks apply, though in a
lesser degree, to the series of dams and barrages holding
back a head of fifty-five feet of water which it is proposed
by the minority report to construct across the alluvial
valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the canal
From an engineering standpoint it is difficult to under-
stand why a much better place for the construction of a
dam to control and regulate the floods of the Chagres
River is not at Gamboa where it is positively known
that the primary rock foundation exists at no greater
depth than sea level and where it is possible to construct
a masonry dam founded on solid rock at such a moderate
depth and in accordance with established methods, that
its integrity will no longer give rise to question.
If, therefore, it is decided to disregard the
recommendations of the majority of the board
of consulting engineers, and to build a lock canal, then it
is to be earnestly hoped only such form of lock canal will
be authorized as will be admissible in connection with
the construction of a dam at Gamboa, rather than at
Gatun. While for certain purposes, and under certain
conditions earthen dams of large dimensions carefully
formed are permissible, in this case it is not believed that
such form Qf construction should be seriously considered
when it is possible to secure a masonry structure found-
ed on bed rock; particularly when the work under con-
sideration must be supposed to possess permanency, and
is being erected as a monument to the engineering skill
of our modem civilization. There is no urgency that to
my mind would justify the great risk of earth dams at
Gatun or La Boca.
The next important matter to consider and
decide is whether the canal shall be constructed
under the present method of management or whether
a contract for the work shall be made with a single
contracting firm. In the latter case the specifications,
of course, should be of the most broad and general
nature, leaving all detail engineering plans to the en-
gineers of the contractor in order that he may have the
fullest latitude in immediately meeting and overcoming
such local difficulties as from time to time are sure to
arise. After the contract is let, there would, of course,
be no reason for retaining a cumbersome governmental
organization in reference to the work, for there is no
doubt that the, corps of engineers of the United States
Army could most efficiently supervise the contractor en-
gaged upon the work. All the .governmental functions,
including policing and sanitation, could easily be per-
formed under the control and direction of the Governor
of the Canal Zone. It cannot be doubted that these two
methods, if adopted, will give entirely satisfactory re"
The question will naturally arise in doing the work by
contract whether there are any engineering organiza-
tions competent to enter into such a contract and to con-
struct a work of this magnitude, and such a question
must be answered in the affirmative. Several well
known organizations are quite capable and competent
to handle a work of this character, and there is no good
reason why they could not be induced to make bids for
it, if the Congress in its wisdom decides such a method
of management of this great work is preferable to that
which has existed for the last two years.
In considering the question of additional time re-
quired for the construction of a sea level canal the
prompt and efficient utilization of the Panama railroad
is a matter of very great importance; for if the railroad is
provided without unnecessary delay, with the very best
modem facilities and equipment, including double tracks
with abundance of sidings, shops, wharves, docks, and
warehouses, and especially with the latest and most
approved appliances for transferring cargoes from ships
to cars and from cars to ships, very many of the advan-
tages the world's commerce would derive from the com-
pletion of the canal will beat once afforded to it. In-
deed, in many cases of goods shipped from American
ports destined to the west coast of South America, it will
probably be found advantageous for them to go in
a single ship to Colon and being transferred by the rail-
road to Panama, be reshipped in smaller vessels plying
from that port to the different ports to which different
parts of the cargo may be consigned.
There are two suggestions which since they were
first made have been subjected to very careful and
thoughtful review because of criticisms which have been
passed upon them. The first is that the railroad should
be substituted for the canal while the canal is in process
of construction. If so, it should be completely sep-
arated in management and control from any steam-
ship line at either end, as the canal itself will be, and
the charge for transfer from ship to ship should be a
flat rate per ton regardless of classification except that
light and bulky articles should be rated at a certain
number of cubic feet to the ton. This rate should not
be in excess of two dollars per ton, even with the present
limited amount of business and as the business increases
the rate should be reduced as the receipts justify. Of
course, railroad managers who are accustomed to
through bills of lading and through rates naturally de-
sire that the railroad should be considered only a link
in the shipments from one part of the world to another
and that the same cumbersome classifications should
prevail to which they have been accustomed in the
movement of transcontinental traffic; but all such in-
termeddling with the transit across the Isthmus will
disappear as if by magic the day the canal is opened,
and there is therefore not the slightest reason why it
should not disappear now, and the world's commerce
be proffered substantially the same advantages of tran-
sit across, the Isthmus, that under precisely the same
circumstances, it will enjoy when the canal itself is
placed in operation. Under such a system of adminis-
tration there is no occasion whatever for the Panama
railroad maintaining a corporate existence with offices
in New York, for the road can be far better controlled
by a single competent railway manager on the Isthmus
who would, of course, be under'the direction and con-
trol of the general contractor in case the entire work is
let under one contract.
This arrangement, alone, would save a large annual
expenditure now apparently wasted on the Panama
railroad organization and do away with the complexi-
ties which that organization evidently produces, while
at the same time the embarrassing questions arising
from the alliance of stearnship lines with the transit
across the Isthmus could be separately considered on
their merits, leaving the government at liberty to re-
tain a line of transports for its own use or rely upon the
boats reaching the Isthmus both from the east and the
west, as the government's best interest might dictate;
but however, government transports ought not to have
the slightest possible advantage over any competing
line of ships.
The method thus suggested of operating the railroad
as a simple transfer line across the Isthmus and, there-
fore, as an immediate and practicable substitute for the
canal with a low flat rate or charge, common to all the
world's commerce, is a practicable and simple proposi-
tion which the Committee will readily understand even if
it declines to approve it. Above all, it would remove at
once all cause for charges of favoritism for or discrimina-
tion against any particular interest or section of our
country or even between ourselves and foreign nations
and thus enable the United States to redeem immediate-
ly the promise it has given that the great water-way
which it is now constructing shall offer equal advantages
to all the world and special privileges to none.
It must also be remembered that with such an excel-
lent substitute for the canal while the canal is being con-
structed, any slight delay in construction will be of
far less importance than if the present organization of
the railroad in New York is maintained and its mystify-
ing relations With through bills of lading and through
The expenditures which will be necessary to put the
railroad in condition for this important work have al-
ready been partly made and will be required in any
event for the road to furnish the proper facilities for the
construction of the canal so that no considerable ad-
ditional expense is involved in the proposition.
As the primary reason for the construction of the
canal has always been given as that of affording free
and unobstructed facilities for all commerce across the
Isthmus, it would really seem to be our imperative duty
to provide these facilities at the earliest possible moment
when it can be done at a very moderate cost and in a
It is, of course, a fundamental practice in railroad
maintenance and operation that all physical changes and
improvements of railroad properties should be so con-
ducted as not to interfere with or delay the current
traffic and the same principle should apply to the con-
struction of the canal. The railroad should be used as
an instrumentality for this construction, but it should
not be so used as to be injurious to the present facilities
for commerce. On the contrary, it should be enlarged,
improved and amplified for increasing such facilities in
the manner already indicated.
If the Committee should think that undue importance
is being attached to this question, it may be suggested
that when such a large measure of benefit to the world's
commerce can be secured by the expenditure of so small
a sum and in so short a time and so great a percentage
of benefit to be ultimately derived from the construction
of the canal be at once secured, the importance of intelli-
gent and immediate action by Congress can readily be
understood and is earnestly urged upon it.
It must be remembered, and it is well known to per-
sons engaged in large transportation problems, that it
it is much easier to retain and regulate the movement
of traffic along lines to which it has been accustomed,
than it is to regain it after it has been once diverted to
new routes and the Committee ought not to overlook the
competition of the Tehuantepec route which is now being
provided with every kind of facility for handling traffic
from ship to cars and from cars to ship across that
Isthmus, and which it is suggested ought to be im-
mediately provided at Panama, so that not only
the commerce now passing across the Isthmus at Pa-
nama may be retained but every possible inducement of-
fered to the constantly increasing commerce of the world
to avail itself of the facilities of this route, rather
than allow itself to be diverted to the Tehuantepec route
on account of lack of facilities at Panama.
In conclusion, it must be admitted that the problems
now confronting the Congress are of a very embarrass-
ing character but the intelligence and patriotism of its
members will surely enable it to reach satisfactory con-
clusions. When such conclusions are reached both as
to type of canal, whether at sea level or with locks, and
as to the best method of constructing it, whether under
the present organization or by letting the contract to
outside parties under the supervision of the corps of en-
gineers of the United States Army, it can not be doubted
that its decision will meet the expectations of the people
in all respects and satisfy the just pride that their coun-
try has undertaken the task of conferring upon the
world the benefits of this great enterprise.
"",-,, - - .
I I 1,1. , ,:
, - --,., "00-4,,,-,' ,,,,, "L"--,",
', -.-. "- :', , : -1 I 7 1, n r '--, , ,- .: , -
":%, 11,-, , -," ,,t'- - -, -, ',' ,
-- - 5 : - i",'- ,-- ,
- : ". - ,,, , ( '. ,;. ",, : r .,,, l ,
-- ,4 , - ,, ,, ",-,:-, 7 .'!,, "",",,:,- -- "" ,' ,, -;, ,A '. '. .
I _, , _ _- ,;, --
-1 I , - I I ,, , ,- ,,, :- , , ,:,- 1, -.- I ,
I : ,. 1, "-,; ""--,-, , ,, ,-,,M-, v.-,
p -.,,. ---,,., -,-,,,-, -,- ,,,"', ,. -,- -"-':.-!,. ---, ,' ,,, ".-"?,.,-- ,,, ,:', ,,,-'- --,-
,; 1: .. I I I 11 I I ..'', "', I
"' .. , "I .. I I ,, r -, _* ;, L - , " ,. I : ,,, ,
1 I I : ,: ,! ;.:, , ' '; :,:: ,-, -:
r, ,,-,,.' : ,, , , I I I I I I I I I I t -
- I I ,, , "- '! ,
,-,, ", ,,, ,7 I .-; I -'- ,- ,, ., "-'',- -,,-.,,. j,",
7. 2 ll'-, ;",-. ;.-7,.., '.. I :,- ,_-. I.- , , ll-,,-- ",,-, "-..," .", ', ,, :.,-", ,. :- ","'-", -- ,, ,--,,,, ,-.-. -:q ,-- ', ".." .,- ,:,.,I - -
I , -,,,, -. :
., I 11 ,- I , ,. , -,, - - I 1 ,- I , ., 7 -. . I I ., , 7 : 1- , ,
"I",", I 1, I 11 I , :
I I ; I I I .. , % ,:, "
', I , -. - ,
_-- - I I ,- , : -
I -. 1 -- I I -'f,,- , ';, ,I : ,- : -, -,; : -_ ,' , , -. % 1, .1. I Y- -- -. -- ,
, . It , ,,,, , , I , 1. I- I" I
.,.-4 - -, - I -- ,N ,- . -1 .
LI., ,,., ,- , .- ,, -
1 -M ',',,, 0 , - 11 --- ;' -,, ,
I I I I ., : , -,I - .- ,: ,-,, - -
'. ,, -, .. , 1, I -11 .1, ,
,, - - -, '' "--, :'- :,:, , - I I 11 -, -, "-, " l-, - - -
I I .::, ,.. % ; -o : I -
:. : '. , .1 . -1 - ', ". ,.,,* , L. "' -
I % , ; !: :, ,:, I .11 -, .-,:- ',,' ,, ,, ,,, ,,. --
11 ,-- -, I "',- -
". -, , - I I I -, "'. , 11 , I
I , I , I -
I ,. , - - , , -1 ,
, . , , , , '. , I , T ; .
% I 11 ; . -L .I, .:
: ., ., cl .,Ifl."-
-, I I o I . , , I I , , . t I ,,, , I ; ; .. I ; I : 1
4 'I,", k ,-"", -, ". --, -. t --,;, _' -- 11 , ----.,'- !,-
I : I . , -, -" : : :" . , .
: .1.1,' . I - ,."
I I I I r , : : , -- - , - I -- -
-1 ,,, .-, I v, I I I .1 I 1 I -- - I - -,! -- -'- 1. I x , .- , ,- '-, :, : "I
I I , 1. - , I ; .1 .- I .- -, - , ,. -- , :
I I i I I ; b -- , - ., , -.,,, , ,,, , , , -, ., ,. , - , - i : 1 ,
I ,- : - ', , ,, -, -,-, , -, I ,, I , ., , : ; ,
I - ,,, ., ,
I . I I I : : I , - 1 7 .' I ., : I ,
I : , -, , I , . , .
.1 I . I I , ;- , - - : - ,
A I I : , ,' : : ; : : I ,- t '. I 1 I 1, . ., - ,
I I I . I ., . ': , 1 : ", : , , : p, 1, ,
'. I I I I I I - I .. p , ., I - , , : : .- : : I ; "
, I I I I I I I i I I ,
I - I , - ., : I I I -, - I I 1, , , , ., ,,- *, , --I
, I - I . I I I I I , I . : I I I I -1 I I ,, I , I -- - ,--,-- -- 4 . I
..; : I : .- I ,:, I -, 1. j I -, , ,
I I I .1 '. I I p I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I . I : : I . I . I I i -, , ,., , ; ; ,
, I I I . I I , ", , - ;, % , -, I : I ,- I I I ,. . ,
. I . I I I I I . I I - ,
I I : I I I : I '- w e I r ,
., I I I : r .1 z : , : 1. -, , I I
, I I - : I : :, e,, ,, I I , -1 ,.",," .. I I I I 1. .- I : . : %, ,;,
1. : I I I I - I ,, I -, A , - r- - '
,; I I I I : I -, I . I I - . I I , : I -, - : -,,' I 1
., I I I , : I I . : ,, .- I I I 1, I I I I I 11 I .,., ,
11 I "; I I I I .. I 1, : I , : I I I ,
I I I I I I I r - 1; I - - I I I , ,
I I I - 11 I I , I 11 I I - , , I
I I I I I ,: I : . I I ,-
o r 'T ..- , I I , I I I I I I ; -, -7'i, '- '.
I . I I z '- ... I - ".,, ",,.- ,- - ,
,, I . r , - ,. I : I _., I - : ", , "-",, -
:- :, , . ,
: ; , . I , ;, , ,; , f j,
1, I I I I I I I 11 , : I I %, I I , , I - "
I I I I I I I .1 .. ; I 11 ', I '. I .
I I I I ; I I I I 11 ,, .:, :, ,: Z p '
1. . I I I I rv, , - 1. ; I '- I I .. ? , ,
I I I I I I I I . ; ,
, : I I I I I I I I I I I I % a : I '. .. .1 I '. I
I I I I I ; ,
-1 , l., ,- I :, I I I I I
I I I l I I I I - I -
I % I I I I I 1, .1 I I I
.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I, I I I I 1, . ,. I I ',' _, -, , , I I I
I I I I I I I
,: , 4T, ,,, --,
I 1: , , 1, ., , Z., -,,
''. -1, I 11 I I I I . I I I I p , I , 1 I .. I
I I I .
I I , I I I I I I I r I . . . I I I ; I. I 1, I 11 I : I I I
, I I I I. I I I . I , I I -
I :1 , I - . I I I I I I ." I I I I : I I I I I I .1 : -, -1 I I , I I I . I ,
I I e I I 7 ', I I I I I I .. -i - .. I .p I I I I I I I
I I . t I .- I I I I 1 1. I I I . , -, -,
,. . I I . I I I : I 1, I I I I - '! :" I I
1 I I -, . I I I I :, I
..'' I I .i -, : I I I I I I i ,., '-, I ",- ,
I- . I I I I I I I I I
. ."". ", ,:" :7.- , : ,. I I I I I I I
I I . I I 1. : I . I -m I / 'i I I I
r , I I I I I I I I I I I , , : d ; I I I ,
, ', , 1. : ': : I I I I I I I I I I I ,d I I I I I
-1 "I": : 1 ,!, I I I I ,, I .
I I I I I I I I I - I
, , . I I ,
11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 7 I . :, 11 .: I I I I I ,-- -,-- -
I I . : , I "':
,, I I I I I I I . .
, ,, : - - I I I I I I I I . I I I I I ,
11 1 , : I 14 , ,
1. I I I I ; ,-, , ; .
, I I , I ,
I 1. 7 , I I I I I I I I -
, , : t : 11 I I I I I I . I I I 1, I I I I I I
% I I '. I -
, , I I : I ,-" ; I I I I I
. ; I I I I
- : - I ;- , I I- I
I I . 11 I I I I . I I . .1 I I ., .
, I I I I I I . .
I p I I .
11 I I . I r I 11 I I
I I I .
I I I I ,
,--, ."-, 11' ''. I I I I
" "' 11 I ,
" . I I I I I . . I
- - ,,, .-- I I I I I .
.- q I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I .
- -, 1 I I 1 I I I I I I . -
1. , I I I .
1 I .. . . N I - .
1. I I ; I I I I I I
:r, : I I I I I I I I I - I I I
I I I I I '. ; ,.o - 27, ', ,
,, i 1, I . . .1 I '- I . I I I I
- -- , ,- I - I I . -, . I 1 -
. I I I '
, - , I I I . I I I I I . . I r
I I I 1 I I I I. 1. I I I I I I I
, 1. I I I I I I I
- , ,- : '' .. : I 1
- .. , , , .. I ..., I .
, I :, I I -
I I , % I e I I
, , , I,!" !: I ,-. I I I I
, - I I . I I I I I I
- ,- "" I :, - ". : . I I I I .
,-,- , , ". , 1 , I % I I I I I I I I I -
"." .11 I I ,, ., , : ; I . I I ; I I I I
- - I : , I I . ,
I',- I.- - I I , ,' r I .
. I- , : I I I .
I -- I I I I I I . I I
I,--,- ", -.1 . I I I I .
1! I I . I I :- I .
r, I ; I ., I I 1. I I I I I I I ;, I .1 I I I I -
I. I ; , I I - I I I I . I I
- , -, - , -, I p I I I I I . I
1 1 I I I %
I ; ,. '. I -. -1 ; I I I I I 1, I I I I
I I I I I , . I I I
I , ,, I I I I I I
..I I 1,
;, .-,", :,f-
, I I ,
I - ;. , ., ,
. v I I \ I r, , , .. I I .
I I - I I I . I
I , z ; I ,: I I I I I ,
I I : , - I I I I I ', '
- I I :1 ; : I I I
I . I I q 11
-, -',,, -: , I I .
, I I I I I . . I .
, , 0, , I I I I I I I
. I I - I I e I : I I I I I 1. I .", I .. : I I .. "I I ,
. I I I : : , , I . I I ; I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I - . I I
- I I . , I !, : - , ,
.- I I I I I I . I ; I I I I I I I
." ; , , .-, , . . I I 11 I I I . . , , :
. -'. - , I I . I . I
I I . I .
, , ,. -, I I I I I .. I I I I I I , I ,
I ., I I I . I
. - % , , I I I 1. . I I I I -, I I I I , ,
, . I I I ,- I I :
01", .1 I I I I I I , I I I I I I I
: , I I I , I I
I I I I I I I - -- . , I I I
I : I .
. I .1, , 1 I 1, I I . .
I I -, -1 I I I I I I .
:,-: , , : :. , ". , r ,,, I I I I I I I , ,
I' I " , , I I I I I - , : ,- I
'* ,. . I I L 11 I I :, , I I -
I -, t, ,1 1 1 "I -, I f, I , . .1
I , I I I I I
, .- I -11: -, , .-, -- I .j . 4 1 I I I I I ; I I
O -1 I ,,
-S I 4 I ,
-1 -- ,- -;- I I I I I
I I , I I- ', , , , .. I I I I I . I I .
. ; A ; : % .. , I , 1, I I .1 I I . I I
I. ; , , ." .. ,% I I I I I
S , I I ., , . I ;,
:, '., l : : I ; -, I I ': I -
: , I :1 ,, ,-,' ',, 7 ,- % 1. I I I I : ,, I
I 1, -, I &i, . I . I .
, , I ,4 ,4 ,- ,,, " I I I I '- I I I I I I , 1. e I I .
r, .. vl , ; : r j ': ' ,' I I I I I I I I I I -
I : , , , . I , I I I 11 I I : I I : . I I
-, I - I I I 1, I. I
I ". -41 t-- , S,
1. I I , , % I L I I I I .
, .- -- ; -, " 1, - 'v 7 I I I . I I I . .
,,, -1 I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I
, "I ," -. ., ;. I I ; I I . I I I ,- .1
1. . l :, ,- I I .j I r I I , I
4- , .-I. I I I I I : I I I I I I I I I I I I I -
I I I I r .
- ii ,., , :;-. 1--,". --, , : I I I I I I I I I I 1, .
I 4 1, 1 I I I I I L I 11 I I ,. I -
,", I , I I I I I I I . A
, ., .i 1.
e , I I I .1 .
tt '. ;, K ,, ,., .. : I I I I ,
k ". -: ,', , I I I ; I I -, ; s , .
I ,- ,. '. : ". 7 - I I I . : 'r ; ,
, " -! ..... , : ,- . I I I I I I , I I I I
, . ", ; , I ,,,i 1. I I .. I I I 11 I I I I I I I "
, 1, - ,, f ,%- -, , 1 I I . I -1 . I I I .. ; I I I
.. I , - , , . , ,- , , I I I I I I I I I % 1, I I I
-. I a., ""',, -tl' 1. . . I I I I I I I .
I 1. 11 I '. 1, I I I I I i 1. I
- , ,, 'r ,. I . I I I I I I I I I I I I
., I I,, r ,I "7;'_,, 11 I I .1 11 I I I I I 11 .. I I
: ... I 1. 11 I I I I I I I . I : I : I
'. .: I I I I I i -
I , 1, ': I I I I I 1, I .
I I I J 1, I I
, L ,:, -, I l, :- 1, '. I . : I I I I : - ;
I I ,.
,., .." 1. i,,
'. I ,- ' I I I 'I., I .
" , r I I I I I I -
.., .1 .1 I 11 :1 I I 11 I I I I I I , 1, ..
, , I I I I I I
" I -1 I I I I
, I I I "
- , , : , ,, I I I . I I I I I I I . I I I- .
, ,, 'i , I I I I I I I I I I I
" '4 1 I I I I I I I I I
11 lr I'll I : r I -, .- I I I .. I . I I I
, ,,. I I I I I I I 11 I I I I I I I I " ,
I -!, : ; I I I . I I I I : I : I
!;, ,, ., 1. c I I I I I I
I I I I I I
'! 4,11. .11 ;". I I I I : I I '. I I I I I I I I . I I I I
. .,- . ': I I I I I I I. I ; I I I I I . I
: ; I : I I I e I
. I I -
,.,,, , , I I I I I ' r
..; I .
, , I . . I I I I I
i I , , . 11 I I I I .1 I I I I I I : I
I I I I .
, I I I I I I I
, I I I I I I I
, , ; ., 1 : I I I I
, , I : I ; I I I I I I I I I I I I 1
,." , I I I I I I I I I I I .. : I
1 !, I I I I I I I . I 1. I I I I I . I I ; I I I ; I I .
, I f . , I I , I I I I I I I . -1 I I I I I I
1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I ; I I I I I I
11 1. I 11
F , . I I I I
I I -, 11 I I I I I I I ., I I I I I I I 4 .. 1.
-, ,, , I- : I i I I I I ;- 1, .
I I .. ,, I I I I I .1 .
., . 1 .1 r : I I I I I .
,:, ,* , ) - -. , - I ,- I I .1
. , 1 , ., I ; I I I I ,, I I I I .
), v , 1, ,- , ". . I I I I . I I I I I -
I,- 1. I '1 . I r, P ,
I p , !, , I r :, 1, . . I I
, .11. I - - 1.
,. : I I -1 I 11 .. I I I I I
. .1 ., I I I I I I I I I I I I .
t, , I v I I .. 1, I
. ., . '; ".%N I I , I I .
-, ". t, I
- . "I ., I ,., - I I I I I m -
- : I : I
, ,, , 4 11
. ,c I I I I I -- .
, I ; 4 i I I I I I .
,. - I I .1 I , I .1 .
, I I I I I
, ,; ; I I I I I I I I
I I I y I 5, I I
I I I I .
,,,, I -, 4 , -1 , I I :", ,,_ ,
I I , V , 4 -
4 , 1 I ,,-.- I
. 1 : , , 11 , I I I I I 11 .4 ,6 ) , ". A, I ,- I I
I I I I. r -
" I I i ,
. I ,; , I ;p I I
'! ') 4 4 I I I
1 ',* - , 1'1 I I ,,, .n 4, .. 14. - i i ,4 1. IV i I I I
44f f I I I I . ,-
,:-,' ', ,,,, I i V '.,, ..
'k , I
'. .. I I I .
1 , P 1.4 1*1 i ,ep I I I I .
I , -, : " -, 1, 1 , 6' 11 11 4 -e,. ,i i 14, ", I , 11 11 I -