Title: Disaster preparedness
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000103/00001
 Material Information
Title: Disaster preparedness
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Jacksonville Community Council
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: NF00000103
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of North Florida
Holding Location: University of North Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aaa2329 - LTQF

Full Text

survive the blast. This does not mean that a
nuclear war is not survivable, but that it is
not survivable in a densely populated area that
is attacked.

The rate of survival of the population increases
with their distance from the blast site. The
all hazards approach to disaster planning offers
methods to reduce the population loss and
respond to the disaster outside this impact


PREPAREDNESS. In a major disaster everyone in
the community may be affected directly or
indirectly. All local resources as well as
numerous resources from outside the area may be
required. The organizations which have the
responsibility for disaster management have the
tasks of:

Minimizing any negative effects

Scoping with negative effects during and
immediately following a disaster,

Working to coordinate response and recovery

These agencies plan, prepare for and provide
a variety of services to disaster victims.
Services include:

Medical Care
SDamage Repair
Financial Assistance
Debris clean-up


The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
is an independent agency of the Federal
Government whose director is appointed by the
President and confirmed by the Senate. FEMA was
organized in 1979 to consolidate the several
Federal level agencies with disaster prepared-
ness, hazard mitigation, emergency response and
disaster recovery responsibilities. It combined
those agencies with responsibilities for Civil
Defense as well as peacetime disasters.

Over the years there has been a lack of
continuity in Federal disaster programs and
policies. The Federal agency responsible for
disaster planning changed its name eight dif-
ferent times in recent years due to changes in
legislation and administration.

FEMA is not a first responder during a disaster
because the only resources immediately available
to a local community during a disaster are those
located within the community. FEMA's resources
can be brought to the disaster site to help the
local government only after the disaster has

FEMA works with states in developing operating
plans for most emergency contingencies. It con-
ducts training programs in each state and assist
the state in developing disaster plans. After
the disaster, FEMA staff can be used to assist
in preparing the damage assessment necessary
before Presidential assistance is requested.
Every Federal agency and substantial Federal
funds are at the President's disposal to assist
in the recovery efforts if an area is declared
a disaster by Presidential Proclamation.

The procedure for declaring a disaster begins
with the local government using or committing
all of its resources and calling the governor
for assistance. Once the local government and
the state government have committed (not used)
all of their resources, the governor prepares a
request for Federal assistance. The request,
including a damage assessment justified by FEMA
employees, is sent to the President. After the
President proclaims the disaster, a wide variety
of programs become available to individuals in
the area.

There are 32 hazard mitigation programs of the
Federal government that provide assistance,
direct construction aid, training or grants to
the state, regional and local agencies. These
hazard mitigation efforts are aimed at reducing
property damage and loss of life from both man-
made and natural disasters via everyday deci-
sions including land use planning, coastal zone
protection and other long term development regu-
lations. Federal programs for disaster mitiga-
tion are available from:

. U.S. Department of Agriculture
. U.S. Department of Commerce
. U.S. Department of Defense
. U.S. Department of Health and Human
SU.S. Department of Housing and Urban
SU.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Department of Transportation
SEnvironmental Protection Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency

FEMA is the primary funding source for state and
local disaster related activities. Some FEMA
funds can be released only by Presidential
proclamation, while others are disbursed yearly
to the states and local government for disaster


The responsibility for disaster preparedness for
the State of Florida lies with the Bureau of
Disaster Preparedness in the Division of Public
Safety, Planning and Assistance in the Depart-
ment of Veteran and Community Affairs. The
emergency management programs of the State of
Florida exist to deal with any threat for which
there is not an existing permanent structure to
maintain the health, safety, and welfare of the
population. Because of this, state disaster
responsibilities range from the contamination of
water and the Cuban refugee crisis to historical
responsibilities such as hurricanes and nuclear

The Federal government holds the state responsi-
ble for mitigation activities. The state
disaster mitigation responsibility includes:

SProviding technical assistance to local
Developing general mitigation policy
SBringing those policies in line with the
actual hazards in areas where the state
has responsibilities (i.e. coastal
construction control lines)

The state preparedness responsibilities include
establishing standards for local programs and
preparing state plans designed to provide
intergovernmental coordination. During the
response phase of a disaster, the state provides
assistance at the request of the local govern-
ment. However, if a disaster occurs with an
overriding public safety issue requiring the
immediate response of both the state and local
resources, the governor has the authority and
the responsibility to intervene.

When the state goes into the comprehensive
emergency management mode, the governor has the
authority to call on all state agencies to pro-
vide assistance. Historically, the governor
does not make a local disaster decision (such as
an evacuation) without consulting the local
chief elected official (in Jacksonville this is
the Mayor).

Recovery after the disaster is probably the
weakest part of the state program. Florida law
states that funds shall always be available for
recovery. However, there is little money
available from the state for disaster recovery.
There is no effective mechanism for the state to

provide assistance to Jacksonville in a recovery
operation except with Federal funds.

The Federal government requires that the state
and local governments pay 25% of all eligible
recovery costs with the Federal government
paying 75%. The reconstruction following a
disaster might not be completed due to the ina-
bility of the local and state governments to
furnish the required 25%.

The Florida legislature is considering
legislation for a State Disaster Relief Trust
Fund to make this matching money available. The
state would provide half and the local govern-
ment would provide half. If necessary, the
state would loan the local government the money
for the local share. The legislation calls for
an initial trust fund of $10 million dollars
enough to cover most disasters but not enough
to cover a major hurricane striking a large

Legislation providing for disaster preparedness
activities in the State of Florida created the
Bureau of Disaster Preparedness, and authorized
the creation of local organizations for disaster
preparedness. It conferred emergency powers on
the governor and local officials, provided for
mutual aid agreements and set up the purposes
and means by which disaster preparedness activi-
tes could be accomplished.


The Civil Defense Division of the Public Safety
Department of the City of Jacksonville is
charged with disaster mitigation, preparedness,
response, and recovery responsibilities. Its
primary purpose is to coordinate the plans and
regulations of the Federal and state and other
local disaster preparedness agencies.

A local ordinance established the Civil Defense
Planning Council to coordinate and direct the
disaster preparedness activities of all agencies
in the city. This planning council consists of:

The Mayor as Chairman
Director of Department of Public Safety,
City of Jacksonville as Vice-Chairman
Director of Department of Health,
Welfare, and Bio-Environmental
Director of Department of Public Works,
City of Jacksonville
Chief Judge of the IV Judicial Circuit
SChairman of Jacksonville Electric Authority
Chairman of Duval County Hospital Authority
Chairman of the Jacksonville Port Authority
Chairman of the Jacksonville Transportation
Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Station

Commanding Officer, Mayport Naval Station
SCommanding Officer, Cecil Field Naval Air
Mayor, Jacksonville Beach
SMayor, Atlantic Beach
Mayor, Neptune Beach
Mayor, Baldwin
Administrator, District IV, Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilitative
SChapter Manager of American Red Cross
Administrative Supervisor, Southern Bell
Telephone and Telegraph Company
Director of Civil Defense Division,
Department of Public Safety, City of

This planning council must recommend to the City
Council a civil defense plan conforming with
state and Federal guidelines and mutual aid
agreements and interjurisdictional agreements
with appropriate agencies. The Planning Council
also conducts a continuing study of the need for
amendments to and improvements in the civil
defense plans.

The members of the planning council represent
each of the city agencies having respon-
sibilities during a disaster. The type of
disaster and its dimensions determine what role
each agency will play and which agency has pri-
mary responsibility for each aspect of the
disaster. Usually the designated members of
this planning council do not attend its
meetings, but send representatives specialized
in the areas under discussion.

The city's disaster ordinance temporarily
modifies the city governmental structure when
the mayor declares a disaster. The mayor,
assisted by the Director of Public Safety,
controls this organization to execute the civil
defense plan. The mayor is the head of the
civil defense organization and is responsible
for the prompt, efficient execution of the civil
defense plan as necessary to:

Reduce the vulnerability of the people and
the city to damage, injury and a loss
of life and property.

Prepare for and execute rescue, care and
treatment of persons victimized or
threatened by disaster.

Provide a setting conducive to the rapid
and orderly start of restoration and
rehabilitation of persons and property
affected by a disaster.

The Civil Defense Division coordinates the
disaster plans of the city's departments, the

Authorities, the Office of the Sheriff, and
other local organizations with disaster
responding roles. Each organization is charged
with developing its annex to the overall plan
and with working on joint plans when required.
The disaster plans are designed to make use of
existing employees in appropriate activities.
The type of disaster determines which organiza-
tions are called upon and which one is in

The city's disaster ordinance designates the
mayor as the ultimate authority in the reorga-
nized governmental structure during a disaster.
However, the sheriff does not answer to the
mayor, because he is a constitutional officer of
the State and is responsible to the Governor.
Both the sheriff and mayor are elected officials
answerable directly to the people.
Nevertheless, in an emergency situation the
mayor's office acts as the major coordinating
body and a command level member of the sheriff's
office is sent as liaison with Civil Defense.

Private Sector

The American Red Cross is the major private
responder to disasters in Jacksonville. By
Congressional Charter, the mission of the
American Red Cross in the time of natural
disaster is to provide for needs of the people.
More specifically, the American Red Cross' role
is to provide needy disaster victims with food,
clothes, shelter, and medical care.

The Jacksonville Area Chapter of the American
Red Cross has a pool of 300 trained volunteers,
and 16 Red Cross professionals. When appropriate
it can seek support from the hierarchy (regional
and national levels) in its organization. The
disaster preparedness team of Red Cross has per-
sons trained as doctors, nurses, heavy equipment
operators, cooks, engineers, clerks, and radio

A primary function of the Red Cross is to
provide shelter for disaster victims. Shelter
facilities consist chiefly of public schools
scattered in convenient locations. Agreements
with the School Board make these immediately
available in the event of a disaster. The Red
Cross also has secured the promise of shelter
facilities in church buildings, clubs and hotels
in the event of a greater need. Other Red Cross
disaster activities include:

SAssessing damage

Acquiring food

SSupplementing public and private health
agencies in supplying medical aid and
nursing care


Obtaining and distributing clothing as
needed to disaster sufferers (this func-
tion is also performed by the Salvation

Coordinating news releases

Providing communications service

Providing transportation

SAssisting in voluntary evacuation and

Although the various public and private
organizations mentioned previously have respon-
sibilities for assisting the public with
disasters, each individual is responsible for
his own disaster and evacuation plans.
Exceptions to this include some handicapped and
persons in licensed group care facilities.
Handicapped individuals who responded to a sur-
vey mailed out with utility bills will receive
evacuation assistance during a disaster (via JTA
buses) through the Handicap Evac program.
Evacuation plans for group care facilities such
as nursing homes and hospitals are the respon-
sibility of the operators of the facilities.
Individuals living in multi-unit housing (i.e.
high-rise buildings at the beach) that are not
licensed group care facilities are responsible
for their own plans. However, many people are
not aware that this is their responsibility.


The extent of military involvement in a local
disaster depends on the dimensions of the
disaster. Depending on these dimensions, the
Navy, Army, National Guard, and/or Coast Guard
may become involved in civilian operations.

The Navy has a good neighbor policy with local
governments and will attempt to help in any
local emergency requiring its assistance. When
an immediate threat to life exists, the local
Commanding Officer can immediately assist
the City. However, as long as the Navy is not
specifically needed to save lives or property it
is restricted by higher directives from
assisting in civilian disaster. The primary
disaster plans of the Navy are for Naval person-

nel and facilities, not for civilians. The
dependent population is the responsibility of
the local government during a disaster.

When the governor proclaims a state of disaster
emergency, he may call up the National Guard to
respond to the disaster. The local government
may request assistance with communications,
transportation or emergency electricity genera-
tion from the National Guard.

In the most severe situation, such as a military
attack, the President can federalize the
National Guard into the active Army and call on
this Army to respond to local disaster needs.
It is the Army, not the Navy, that is charged
with assisting Civil Defense and local govern-
ments in the event of a major disaster. The
First Army, covering the Eastern portion of the
United States, would take charge if called upon
for assistance. In this extreme situation all
of the resources of all military branches would
be made available and coordinated through the

If the situation requires it, the President can
declare martial law. Under martial law the mili-
tary command comes in and takes over the entire
operation of city government including police,
fire, garbage collection, etc. The military are
usually the last to recommend martial law.
Declarations of martial law are rare and most
professionals recommend against them.

The U.S. Coast Guard has a statutory authority
to look after the public health and welfare of
any maritime or marine related problem. The
Coast Guard's regulatory authority over hazard-
ous material in the port serves as a hazard
mitigation activity. From the Coast Guard's
point of view, the major potential for a
disaster in Jacksonville is a hurricane. Its
role prior to a hurricane includes checking all
waterfront facilities and vessels to determine
if they might pose a threat and requiring their
removal during a hurricane, as well as the role
of search and rescue.

Both the Navy and Coast Guard personnel
regularly change duties. This policy prevents
continuity among the staff with disaster respon-
sibilities. Staff with expertise in
Jacksonville's disaster response system may be
transferred to another city before replacements
can become familiar with local disaster pro-


Conclusions express the value judgment of the committee, based on the findings.

1. The citizens and officials have limited or
no experience in Jacksonville with major
disasters such as hurricanes and thus are
less prepared than these living in areas
with more frequent disasters.

2. There is a great need for people to become
educated about the dangers from and prepara-
tion needed for disasters. However, people
generally do not pay attention to such
information until a crisis is imminent.

3. A hurricane is potentially the greatest
natural hazard faced in Jacksonville yet
people do not realize the danger. During
and immediately after a major hurricane the
city could expect:

Just hours before the storm the weather
may be clear and the wind light.

In a severe hurricane such as Camille, a
wall of water or storm surge up to 20
feet in height would come ashore capable
of destroying any buildings on the beach
in its path. This surge could pass over
the entire barrier island from the beach
to the Intercoastal Waterway.

Depending on the wind direction, tides
and direction of the hurricane, water
backed up in the rivers and estuaries
could cause extensive inland flooding
covering roads and cutting off many low
lying areas.

SA large percentage of the residences at
the beaches would be damaged or
destroyed. All of them could be unin-
habitable due to lack of power, water,
sewage disposal.

Electrical power would be disrupted all
over the city. Without this power, pumps
could not operate to provide fuel, water,
or sewage disposal. Refrigeration would
not operate to preserve food and medical

Inland flooding would damage and render
unusable many low lying buildings along
the waterways of the county. This could
mean that several hospitals could not be
used and that access would be cut off
from most governmental offices downtown.

Trees, powerlines and other windblown
debris would make most roads impassable
and hinder rescue and restoration

4. Because of the movement of a hurricane bet-
ween the periodic NOAA weather reports and
the continual tracking of the radar at tele-
vision stations, apparent contradictions
occur abo't the location of hurricanes from
the local stations and the National Weather

5. Routing certain materials around the city
rather than directly through the urbanized
areas would minimize the hazard of a
disastrous accident to population centers.

6. The professionals charged with responding
to disasters in Jacksonville are well
organized and appear well prepared to
respond to most small incidents (fires,
hazardous materials accidents, etc.) which
might threaten the city.

7. Although many professionals with disaster
responsibilities meet regular, some do
not. All specialized professionals respon-
sible for disaster response need to have
ongoing meetings with those others who
share responsibility.

8. More local emphasis on hurricane hazard
mitigation now would save lives and pro-
perty when a major storm strikes
Jacksonville. A strong building code is
an effective mechanism for local hazard
mitigation. Jacksonville's Building Code
does not require withstanding hurricane
forces as do the codes of other coastal

9. An effective system of communications is
required before a disaster is anti-
cipated, during the warning announcement
and during the response and recovery

.Most of the agencies sharing disaster
responsibilities in Jacksonville do not
meet and plan regularly in preparation
for various types of disaster. In many
areas such as emergency communications
there is no ongoing communication to
coordinate and anticipate problems in
responding to an emergency.

The method of warning the population and
obtaining the desired response has not
received adequate attention in
Jacksonville. Warnings should contain
specific elements in order to be effec-

Conflicting sources of information in a
warning confuse the public and reduce
the chance of obtaining the desired

The lack of interagency coordination has
made the system less effective than it
might be.

10. Jacksonville does not have a single
adequately equipped and staffed emergency
operating center designed to hold all deci-
sion and policy makers and communications
facilities necessary for effective recovery
from a major disaster. Jacksonville's
Civil Defense Division Emergency Operating
Center is inadequate due to its small size,
poor layout, and physical condition.

11. As the name Civil Defense Division
suggests, the primary emphasis on disaster
planning in Jacksonville is for a nuclear
attack. A more realistic approach would be
to use an all hazards approach and stress
hurricane planning.

12. The ongoing rotation of local Coast Guard
and Navy staff precludes the continuity
needed to adequately coordinate with local
disaster workers.

13. One coordinated information source and a
rumor control mechanism is needed for a

14. Currently, there is no adequate protection
from a nuclear attack in an impact area. In
addition, there is no realistic way to eva-
cuate the entire population of Jacksonville
into the surrounding counties as planned.
However, the all hazards approach will
offer plans to respond to a limited nuclear
disaster. Real protection from nuclear
attack can come only from national and
international policy changes designed to
reduce the threat of nuclear war.

15. Local and state recovery funds required by
FEMA to partially match Federal disaster
assistance are not available. Thus, damage
from a major disaster is unlikely to be
fully restored due to lack of these
matching funds.

Recommendations are the committee's specific suggestions for change, based on the findings and conclu-

1. The Jacksonville Civil Defense Division
should provide an all hazards approach to
disaster planning covering all types of
disasters with emphasis on hurricanes.
The name should be changed to the Jackson-
ville Emergency Management Division (or
something similar) of the Department of
Public Safety.

2. The Civil Defense Division, American Red
Cross, and National Weather Service
should work with the local media to im-
prove the education of the general public
on what to expect from a disaster,
especially a hurricane and how they should
prepare for it. There should be an ongoing
effort to take the message to all segments
of the public.

3. All of the designated members of the Civil
Defense Planning Council should meet at
least once a year for a staff briefing on
the officials' responsibilities, their
location during the disaster, and with whom
they will be directly working, including an

overview of the likely disasters faced and
expected effects faced by Jacksonville.

4. The Mayor should require a staff level
committee representing each of the members
of the Civil Defense Planning Council to
meet quarterly to coordinate and update
disaster plans and communications.

5. The local news media and National Weather
Service should develop an agreement to pool
information on weather bulletins to aviod
conflicts in warning of the location of
severe weather.

6. The Civil Defense Division should prepare a
specific plan for a more effective warning
package to include specifics of who should
give the warning and its wording.

7. The Mayor should develop a plan for a
single source, rigid public release mecha-
nism to provide a consistent source of
official information during and after a
disaster, including a rumor control mecha-


nism adequate for the entire population.

8. The Mayor should develop, for the City
Council's approval, regulations with regard
to the routing of hazardous materials
around rather than through the city.

9. The City's Building and Zoning Division
should examine the local building codes to
see if they are adequate to cover a pro-
bable hurricane in the Jacksonville area.
Special emphasis should be placed on
construction in the beach areas.

10. The Mayor, through the Public Safety
Division and in Cooperation with the Office
of the Sheriff, should recommend to the
City Council the establishment of a single
adequately equipped emergency operating
center designed to hold all decision and
policy makers and communication facilities
during and after a major disaster.

11. The local military should designate a
civilian employee to act as a disaster
liaison to provide continuity with local
disaster agencies.


Baker, Earl Jr., "Hurricanes and Coastal
Storms: A Resource Paper on Risk
Assessment, Warning, Response, Non-
Structural Damage Mitigation, and
Awareness," Florida State Univer-
sity, Tallahassee, Florida, May 29,

Basic Plan to Natural Disaster Plan, City of
Jacksonville, October, 1977

Building Code,

City of Jacksonville,


"How to Deliver
Hopkins and

Effective Warnings," Koster/
Company, Inc., Jacksonville

"Hurricane Hazard Mitigation at the Local
Level: The Roles of the Buildling Code
and Other Development Management
Strategies", Bureau of Disaster Pre-
paredness, Department of Community Affairs,
October, 1980

McDonald, John D. Condominium, Philadelphia:
J. B. Lippincott Company, 1977


The committee met weekly from November 1981 through early May 1982, hearing from a variety of
knowledgeable resource persons and receiving additional written materials researched by JCCI staff.
The conclusions and recommendations were discussed in March or April.


Frank Allcorn
Eleanor Ashby
Bill Barnett
Richard Bowers
Sherman Burgess
Monty Cash
Nathaniel Davis
Dorothy Dorion
Roberta Gordon

Beverly Horowitz
Hy W. Kliman
John McGiffin
Bobbie Sue Miller
Espie Patrinely
Granville Reed
Mac Reigger
Hawley Smith
David Swain

William Warde
David Weighton
Don Winstead


John L. Hamilton
Andrea C. Greene



Communications Division
City of Jacksonville

Civil Defense Division
Department of Public Safety
City of Jacksonville

Fire Marshall
Department of Public Safety
City of Jacksonville

U.S. Navy

Red Cross Disaster Preparedness

North Florida Area Coordinator
North Florida Area Civil Defense
Starke, Florida

Hazardous Materials Team
Department of Public Safety
City of Jacksonville

Emergency Management Specialist
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Thomasville, Georgia

Harrison County Civil Defense
Harrison County, Mississippi

Southern Bell
Telephone and Telegraph Company

Division Chief
Sanitation Division
Department of Public Works
City of Jacksonville

U. S. Navy


Marine Safety Office
U. S. Coast Guard

Communication Officer
Fire Department
Department of Public Safety

Koster/Hopkins, Inc.

Police Operations
Office of the Sheriff

Division of Public Health
Dept. of Health, Welfare
and Bio-Environmental Services

Meterologist in Charge
National Oceanic and Atmospheric

System Operations
Jacksonville Electric Authority

Direct Security
NAS Jacksonville

Communication Officer
Office of the Sheriff

Division Director
Planning and Assistance
Division of Public Safety
Tallahassee, Florida

Manager, Section Communition
Amateur Radio Relay League

Executive Director
Jacksonville Area Chapter
of the American Red Cross

Department of Health & Rehabili-
tative Services



The Jacksonville Community Council, Inc. (JCCI)
was formed to anticipate, identify and address
the complex issues of urban life. JCCI is a
community-based nonpartisan, nonprofit organi-
zation providing the vehicle for in-depth,
objective, citizen analysis of community
problems and issues. It seeks broader community
awareness and understanding of the issues and
provides Jacksonville a diverse citizen forum
reaching across the traditional dividing lines
of a complex and diverse urban community.

The primary goal of JCCI is a better quality of
life in Jacksonville through positive change.
It has a short but impressive record for the
quality, objectivity, clarity, and practicality
of its studies of community problems, and
its advocacy for the solutions it develops.
Jacksonville has experienced the benefits of
numerous improvements growing from these citi-
zen studies.

Other JCCI goals grow largely from its focus on
positive change. High on the list are the edu-
cation and dialogue the studies themselves pro-
vide to participants. The work of JCCI
strengthens citizen competence and awareness,
provides for ongoing dialogue among diverse ele-
ments of the community, and serves as a catalyst
for bringing together decision-makers.

JCCI is founded on a deep faith in the ability
of citizens to set aside their differences and
join together to learn and reason about problems
of mutual concern. Its growth and success offer
renewed hope for this basic democratic concept
as a means of addressing the complex issues of
modern urban communities.

JCCI receives funding from the United Way of
Jacksonville, the City of Jacksonville, corpora-
tions, and individual members. Occasional
grants have been obtained for specific projects
or conferences.

The JCCI membership now exceeds 500 citizens
representative of all parts of the Jacksonville



*Local Government Finance ...... Robert D. Davis

*Housing ................... Thomas Carpenter

*Public Education
(K-12) ................. Robert W. Schellenberg

*Public Authorities .......... Howard Greenstein

*Strengthening the Family ...... Jacquelyn Bates

Capital Improvements
for Recreation ................... Ted Pappas

Citizen Participation
in the Schools .................. Susan Black

Youth Unemployment .............. Roy G. Green

Civil Service ................. Max K. Morris

Planning in Local Government I. M. Sulzbacher

But Not in My Neighborhood ..... Pamela Y. Paul

The Energy Efficient City ... Roderick M. Nicol

Coordination of Human Services ..... Pat Hannan

Higher Education ............... R. P. T. Young

*Copies no longer available for distribution


Howard Greenstein ...............President
Jacquelyn D. Bates ..............President-Elect
Robert T. Shircliff .............Secretary
David Hicks ....................Treasurer

James Borland
Ezekiel Bryant
James Burke
Betty S. Carley
George W. Corrick
Patricia Cowdery
Larcie Davis
George Fisher

Anne McIntosh
Flo Nell Ozell
Espie Patrinely
Pamela Y. Paul
James Rinaman
Robert Schellenberg
Suzanne Schnabel
Stephen Wise



PROFESSIONAL: John L. Hamilton
Frances L. Kling

SUPPORT: Annette Brinson
Andrea Greene


_ ___

Council Inc.
1045 Riverside Ave., Suite 180
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
Telephone (904) 356-4136

Disaster Preparedness



I --- II -- - LCII = = -=- ILl II

A JCCI Study:

Unlbed Way

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