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Florida dispatch
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000068/00016
 Material Information
Title: Florida dispatch
Uniform Title: Florida dispatch
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Ashmead Bros.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: July 10, 1882
Publication Date: 1869-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1869)-n.s. v. 9, no. 4 (Jan. 21, 1889).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of North Florida
Holding Location: University of North Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0497
oclc - 08331006
System ID: NF00000068:00016
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch, farmer & fruit grower; farmers alliance

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devoted to thie ricultural, T

Vol. 1.--No. 16.. New Series.-
Monday, July 10, 1882.

"Romance" of a Sheep Ranch I
The New York World says: There has been
a good deal of poetry written about sheep-
herding and sheep, but the facts often have lit-
tle poetry about them. The following expe-
rinces of a young shepherd in Colorado is
quaintly told, and perhaps a little exaggerated,
but'there is some truth about it no doubt. It
may operate as a warning to ventuTesome youths
who wish to become shepherds on the Western
plains. He writes:
"I had a cousin out in Colorado, a sheep
rancher, and he wrote to me and offered me
$15 a month and board, in summer, and $25 in
winner, to go on to his ranch and herd sheep.
He said it would be enjoyment to do that kind
of work. Maybe he would call it enjoyment-
strange enjoyment, I should say.e Before I got
through with it, I thought I would rather have
goodboard and no $15 per month.
"When I first weent to my cousin's ranch, I
thoughtit was a fine place, but I soon found
out when he sent me fifty miles out to the sheep
ranch. Fifteendollars and board You ought
to have seen the meat. I took a slice of it about
a foot long, and tried to cut it with a sharp
knife-niind you, we did all our own cooking-
and couldn't cut that meat at all; then I took
it by either side with both hands, and sitting
on the little round stool, tried to tear it. Well,
I braced both feet, and tugged with all my
might, until my hands slipped off; then over I
went backwards all in a heap.
"Then that man out there! There was only
one beside myself. Why, that man, he had hair
clear down his back, and I was afraid of him,
and couldn't sleep the first night for watching
him, for fear he would 'give me one.' He asked
me why I couldn't sleep, and I told him I was
watching the sheep; but it was him I was
keeping my eyes open for, for he had two rows
of cartridges clear round his belt, and I was


manufacturing and.Industrial Intereqts of Florida and the Sauth.

--Published by ASHMEAD BROTHERS, Jacksonville, Fla. Price 5


5 cents.


$1.00 per Year, in advance; postage free.

afraid some of them might go off in the night "That was in April; and he said: 'You
und hit me. ought to stop here until shearing-time; then
"That hair! Why, I asked the' fellow how old the fun commences., They shear the sheep about
h a y, I a e o o to this time in June and July; but I'd have been
he was one day, and he said: 'Do you mean todead if I had staid until now. No, sir-no
insult me?' I though he must be a hundred shearing for me That meat, and sleeping with
years old from the length of his hair. the dog and sheep were enough for me without
"Then the sleeping! Why, he lay right in starving until shearing-time. Why, that night
Among the sheep, with straw in a bag on a plank I lay on my back, and looked at the stars and
for abed. The dog, and us, and sheep all slept wondered if I should ever see York State again.
together, and I cbuld put out my hand on one Shearing was no object to me; I had had'
side and touch the sheep, and on the other and enough of sheep-raising in Colorado without
touch the dog; but you bet I didn't touch "the helping the dirty man hold them to have their
dog for fear the beast would bite me. wool rut off.
"You see, I wasn't armed, and the other fel- "Why, for six months after that I could see
low had two big revolvers sticking out of his nothing but sheep,whether I whs asleep or awake;
belt; and I didn't dare say much, for every they swam before my eyes the whole time."
iime I said a word -he would look down atahis *.
belt full of cartridges. Mr. J. J. Caswell, Express Agent, informs us
"He asked me one day-if I was afraid of any- that one day last week, a solid car-load of turtle
thing, and said : 'Never you mind, I'll protect, were shipped from here. by express, weighing
you.' Protect, nothing! I was more afraid of about 4,000 pounds. The public' have long
him and his two rows of cartridges than I was since learned that the* safest way to ship all
of anything else. What was I to do.if he took perishable goods is by express. Mr. Caswell
a notion to 'give me one' out there, fifty miless informs us that the shipping of turtle is heavier
from civilization ? at present than at any corresponding season
"Then the cooking!-the way we cut our heretofore.-Cedar Key JournadL
beef! When I went there the meat was lying *
on the floor in the corner of the shanty, and -Pods of pepper weighing three -quprters of
two or three sheep lying on it. Fifteen a month a pound, onions weighing two and a quarter
and board--I should say board! And when we pounds, and beets measuring 26 inches inii cir-
went to cutthe meat we took an axe with an edge cumfere.nce, eighteen inches in length and
about as wide as your finger and pounded it weighing 18 pounds, is the kind of vegetables
off. Then, when we took a piece of that meat, Waldo people feed their editors on. Read
about an inch thick, and commenced to fry it this, Bro. Hancock, of the Americus (Ga.) Re-
in the skillet, it would swell up as high as the publican, and stop blowing about your five-
top of the skillet, as though it was alive. That pound beet, it would be considered, a cuill down
was board for you, and cook your own meals! here.-Land of Flowers.
"They say tending sheep on a ranch is fun. .- -
Well, maybe it is, but it wasn't any ffin to 'lie -We have po especial details as to the pro-
down at night in a shanty, when, if tlere was a gress made in the constructioirof the Pensacola
little snow-storm, the snow would' fall all over and Atlantic Railroad ; but from all east of us,
you. we hear the most flattering reports of the speed.
"I gave it up as a bad job the second day, and manner in which bridge building, grading
and jumped on a wagon to ride down to the and track laying is being prosecuted. This road,
house. When I started away the other herder when completed, will unquestionably be the
wanted to know if I was ever going to come greatest benefaction that Florida has ever had.
back; and I told him that I had found another It will open a country of rare promise, and will
job, but didn't tell him all I thought about make a wilderness a populous and prosperous
sheep-herding, for I remembered that I had no seat of wealth and intelligence. Heaven speed
revolver with me. the day of its completion.-Advance-Gazette.


III


-Ai






238 THE FLORIDA DISPATCH
L, .. .. .


Self-Made Hay.
At a recent meeting of the Kingscote Farm-
ers' Club, Gloucestershire, England, Mr. R. A.
Lister read a paper on this subject. He, in the
first place, .described a rick built with channels,
horizontal and upright, in its substance, termi-
nating in one leading to the open air, near the
ground, on to which a revolving fan was fixed,
'to be fed from these channels, and worked by
horse power or by hand outside. The grass,
clover, or seeds can be stacked directly it has
been thoroughly shaken out by hand or ma-
chine and become withered. It is essential that
it should be shaken out more than once, in order
to have all the locks and turfs of grass opened.
As soon as the rick commences to heat,the ther-
mometer must be placed in the wood boxes left
in the rick for the purposes, and the tempera-
ture ascertained in various parts.' As soon as
it reaches, say, 13Y', the fan should be worked
and the heat reduced to, say, 90. This can be
*done in from 15 to 45 minutes, according to size
and condition of the rick, and will generally re-
quire to be done once every 24 hours for a week,
or perhaps a fortnight.
The sample of clover hay I now produce is
part of a second crop, kindly given me by Mr.
Janies Norris, of Castle Hill, Bletchingley, Sur-
rey, whom I have been to see twice. This clo-
ver was made in the wet weather of last autumn,
and without the use of his exhaust fan would
only have been fit for litter or manure. I am
indebted to.Mr. Norris' intelligent farm bailiff
for the following particulars concerning this
stack of clover: Two days after being stacked,
it received a temperature of 1800. The fan was
then worked for 45 minutes, and reduced it to
90. It then remained 24 hours, and was found
to be 140. In 15 it was again reduced to 100.
It then remained 48 hours, and was again re-
duced to 80', and then remained untouched.
As this is a positive and practical proof of the
value of this system', please examine this clover
for yourselves. I can vouch for the genuine-
ness of the sample and of the particulars given.
This clover has no doubt, lost part of the beau-
tiful aroma it had when I first smelled it, as I
Shave carried it on to the continent, and also
/ into Nottinghamshire and Lancashire, where I
had the opportunity of comparing it with simi-
lar fodder harvested by similar means, as re-
gard the general principle. I think ybu will
agree with me that the flower of this clover is
cured in-its natural shape, and retains its suc-
culent qualities, although perfectly dry.
I will-now as briefly as possible give you
what I consider to be the best and most eco-
Sndmical method of gathering a crop of hay, if


you adopt the system of curing in the stack.
After being cut, the wedding machine with for-
ward action in gear should be used, scattering
it over the field out of the swaths, as well as
separating all the tufts and locks of grass. Af-
ter it has lain one or two days, let the tedding
machine go over it again, this time with the
back action in gear, so as to turn over the crop
with as little force as possible. In one or two
days afterward rake it into rows with a large-
toothed horse rake, and commence building and
stacking it. You will, of course, chose a fine
day for this, if possible. If the grass is with-
ered you will be quite safe in stacking it. Your
pipe must be laid in the staddle or under the
ground, reaching your air chamber or sack hole,
and running to the outside of the rick ready for
the fan to be attached when the rick is finished.
A few bars or gratings must be put in the inside
end of this pipe in order to prevent its becom-


ing choked with the hay falling on it. As soon
as a rick is a yard high put in a long wooden
box running nearly into the air chamber.
When the rick gets a yard higher put in another
box, but iqanother part of the rick. The lec-
turer exhibTted a specimen of the box to be used
and exclaimed that it could very easily be put
together by nailing together four strips of wood
two or three yards long and three or four inches
wide. In fact, he said, the more roughly it was
put together the better, so that it just answers
the purpose.
When the stack is finished place a thermome-
ter into the rick through one end of the wooden
boxes, and ascertain the heat; this can be easily
done by fastening the thermometer to a strip of
wood. As it is important that you should
know the temperature required for making
good hay, and the temperature to avoid, as
overheating it, I give you the following fig-
ures: Hay will set on fire at 200' (?) ; it should
not be allowed to get higher thah 100',nd
from 1000 to 120 is required to produce the
proper amount of fermentation. As soon as the
stack istver 100' the fan should be set in mo-
tion, and if it is evening the temperature should
be reduced to 700, which would allow it to rise
nearly 100 without doing harm in the night.
In stacking corn, the ends of the sheafs should
be put toward the air chamber or sack hole.
When the temperature of the corn rick reaches
80, the fan should be worked, and keep it at
from 60 to 70. Round rocks will be found
best for Qorn-from six to seven yards across.
All parts will then be&subject to the same dry-
ing by the air passing from the outside into the
air chamber in the centre.
The above, copied from the London Agricul-
tural Gazette, is not altogether novel. The sys-
tem of ventilating has been applied to stacks
and mows of hay and corn fodder in this coun-
try for some years past, but the use of the ex-
haust fan is a novelty which is doubtless worthy
of use in this connection. Hay made by this
process would certainly be more valuable fod-
der than if made by our usual sun-dfrying
method.

The Department of Agriculture.
BY STEPHEN D. DILLAYE.

Nothing is more remarkable in our history
than the fact that the most important of .ur Na-
tional interests should be; entirely unrepresent-
ed at the National Capital. Agriculture, which
at all periods of our progress has been the most
prominent of our productive powers in the cre-
ationid development of our natural resources
and positive wealth, is wholly unrecognized as
an element of National power, or as an object
of Legislative concerns
The Army of 25,000 has a department to
manage its minutest movement. It expends
$40,000,000 annually. It produces nothing.


The Navy, limited to 11,000, almost destitute
of ships, a mere burlesque on efficiency, as com-
pared with any European power-made up of
officers, navy station, and foreign squadrons to
float favorite commanders in foreign climes,
expends $20,000,000 annually.
The Post-Office is an institution by itself; it
is worthy of the Government, the people, and
the age. (
" The State Department is what it is; vener-
able in precedent, dogmatic in practice; slow,
aristocratic, it is the least American of our de-
partments. If it were to drop out it would not
be missed. It is the Rip Van Winkle element
in o'ur Government machinery.
The Interior Department is, after the Post-
Office, the only real representative of the peo-


ple. It is the source of titles for all our public
lands ; it issues all our patents ; it controls,
manages, and provides for our Indians; it dis-
tributes and settles our pension-rights -it regu-
lates our mines and controls our railroad grants.
Its duties are immense; they are performed
with consummate ability, but red tape hangs
from every window, garlands every alcove, and
ties up in stupid uniformity of dullness every
intellect not bold enough to say its soul is its
own.
The Treasury is a marvel. More than $1,000,-
000 daily passes under its control. The care,
precision, accuracy,/'and brilliancy of the man-
agement is equal to the grandest hopes of Ameri-
can supremacy. It is the treasure-home of the
people. Its vaults to-day hold-more coin than
is treasured in any other Government building
in the world.
But Agriculture, which creates the wealth
managed by the Treasury, and without which
neither the army nor navy could exist, has no
department at Washington. But the voice has
gone forth demanding the establishment of a
Department of Agriculture. There is no gov-
ernment in the world whose progress in agri-
cultural development has been equal to ours.
All the European governments have special
departments for agricultural protection, im-
provement. and encouragement. Agriculture is
the bed-rock on which we build; it is the foun-
dation of wealth ; it gives us subsistence, and
subsistence is life.
Twenty-eight million of our people are di-
rectly or' indirectly dependent on the products
of the farms. The value of our farms, accord-
ing to the last census, was $10,197,161,905. The
yearly product is now nearly if not quite $4,-
000,000,000. We have more than 5,000,000
farms; and out of these $883,925,947 of'our for-
eign exports, $729,650,016 was agricultural.
Last year we paid for $642,664,628 for foreign
exports besides bringing $91,160,000 of Euro-
pean gold to eprich our people with farm, pro-
ducts.
We have 10,357,981 horses, 1,812,932 mules,
993,970 working oxen, 12,443,593 milch cows,
22,448,590 other cattle, 35,191,656 sheep, and
47,683,951 swine, making an aggregate of farm
stock worth $1,500,503,807. Behold' the means
of production a single century has accumulated.
And yet we are.hut in the dawn of our achieve-
ments. We have the broadest fields, the finest
climates, the grandest resources, and the most
limitless opportunities to become the most inde-
pendent, the best supplied, and by all means
the most thoroughly educated agriculturists on
the globe. The last two weeks have developed
the national interest in agricultural advance-
ment in a manner worthy of 'Congress, worthy
of the people, and worthy of the country. Le
Fevre and Updegraff, of Ohio ; Grant, of Ver-
mont; Lacy, of Michigan; Mr. Mrey, of
Ohio; Mr. Dwight, of New York; Mr. Scales,
of North Carolina; Mr. Williams, of Wiscon


sin, and others, have discussed the question of
an agricultural department, with an earnest-
ness and ability deserving of its importance.
The fact that during the year ending June
31, 1881, we imported into the United States
$285,681,008 in agricultural products is suffi-
cient evidence that we have yet much to learn
in the way of adapting our infinite variety of
soils and climates to the production of prime
articles of necessity we are capable of producing,
for which we are yet paying tribute to other
lands. It has been well said, that "the appli-
cation of machinery, steam, and electricity to
agriculture is but in its infancy ?" They are
all to be applied to lessen toil and increase pro-
duction. Every wheel, every lever, every
physical appliance that releases a human mus-
cle wakes up the brain and gives it a chance.
The farm-house of to-day is a palace in com-
parison to what it was in 1830, light has
illumined it, machinery has elevated and re-




I


'IH FLORIDIA DISPATCH. 23S


fined it; the school-room and the newspaper
have made it a home of intelligent comfort.
The tiller of the .soil is sovereign over nature,
just in proportion as he is educated to compre-
hend it, and why should not the Government
of the United States devote itself by all the ap-
pliances, concentrated ability and intensified
means can bring together in departmental in-
struction to make the science of production
equal to the opportunities our unequaled coun-
try affords. As Mr. Updegraph truly says, no
country on earth has an agricultural interest
comparable with ours. "It is confessedly the
largest interest in the nation," and yet it is
without a department to enlarge, enlighten,.
protect, and increase its beneficence. Our grain
crop in 1880, was 2,697,362,465 bushels. The
grain crop of Californiia for ten years is shown
to have been of the value of $318,231,046, or
nearly double the gold and silver taken from
its mines, which amounted to $186,406,248 for
the same period. A single attested fact is
enough to demonstrate the importance of Gov-
ernmental aid in securing the best seeds and
the best modes of cultivation. The seeds dis-
tributed by the Government in 1878, increased
the yield nearly 50 per cent. wherever they
were tested. In Prussia, Austria, Italy, Spain,
Russia, France, and Brazil, the Agricultural
Departments of the Government are regarded
as of the first importance.
"The farmers are the tax-payers," and, as
Jefferson says, "the revenue is the State."
And, as Mr. Updegraph truly says, when our
great financial fabrics went down,'burying for-
tunes and enterprise in their ruins ; when com-
merce was stagnant, when our manufactories
were overwhelmed and pulseless, then the great
agricultural productive forces of the country
displayed its full measureless affluent to bring
back prosperity and to fortify the nation's
credit with thte bounty of the nation's surest
wealth."
There is every reason why we should have
an Agricultural Department worthy of the
nation ; there is not one why we should not.-
National Farmer.

Cultivation of Sandy Soil.
There is a very general prejudice against
sandy soils, and yet light soils are more com-
mon than heavy clays. It is fortunate that this
is so, for of all the soils that come under the
pl8w, a sandy loam is the most easily, the most
cheaply, and the most conveniently and com-
fortably worked. Farmers who are used to
clay soils, have a very inadequate idea of the
proper methods of managing light soils, and
frequently give advice which is impracticable.
When I seed to clover I keep it for two years,
and once in two years would be perpetually,
and without any intervening crop. How can
this be done? I am now seeding to clover


every year-that is, sowing clover upon clover-
so as to keep up a succession of it as the old
crop dies out, for it is no perennial with me as
yet until my soil is full of seed, and I hope to
find that I have discovered an easy way to im-
prove land by means of clover-growing year
after year for a few years in succession, and to
secure an excellent soiling crop at the same
time.
Again, we are continually hearing and read-
ing of the leachy character of light soils, espe-
cially those having a sandy subsoil. Now there
is no more mistaken idea in existence than this,
"and I will refer confidently to other farmers of
light land to. corroborate my statement. My
soil is quite light, in places very light, but it
rarely suffers from dry weather, and never from
wet. In a dry time the cultivator will turn up


moist soil, and the corn and angels will go on
growing and retain their color when crops on
clay soils are wilted and baked. I have seen
clay land cracked open with dry weather, and
the surface too hard to be touched, wile mine
remains loose and absorbent, and is continually
bringing up moisture from below. The soil at
Rothamsted is clay, and Mr. Lawes states that
nitric acid is lost with great rapidity from his
soil in the drainage water; therefore it might
be said that clay soil is leachy. It is well
known that a sandy loam soil retains and holds
in absorption a much larger quantity of water,
and resists evaporation much better than a clay
soil. .It must then be even less leachy than a
clay soil. In actual practice, and from long
experience, I am well satisfied that a light,
sandy, loam soil can never be so thoroughly
saturated with mature by any ordinary course
of farming as to become affected one foot from
the surface, unless it is by the plowing in of
manure to that depth. So long as the manure
is kept within six inches of the surface the line
of dark soil will be less than a foot in depth.
But supposing the manure should spread down-
wards to feet, that would be all the better. for
the roots would be after it without fail, and
very quickly. I have recently been clearing
out the basement cellar under my cow stable
where the manure, solid and liquid, of fifteen
cows collects during the winter. I supposed it
would pay to take out at least five or six inches
of the sand of which the iloor is made; along
with the manure, nearly all solid and with only
sufficient litter, consisting of leaves, hard wood
sawdust, chopped straw and coarse hay, to keep
the gutter clean and the cows' switches out of
filth; but when we came to the bottom and
turned up half an inch of sand, it was not even
discolored under that. The whole winter the
yard has been well littered with coarse marsh
hay and leaves from a wood lot; not a drop of
rain or water has drained from the yard; the
litter is now black and sodden and rotten and
mixed with cow dung for five or inches i
depth; but when this is lifted from the ground
the sand turns up clean and bright, and is dis-
colored only for less than an inch. Now, dur-
ing the fall and winter about sixteen inches of
rain have fallen in the yard ; none run off; the
greater part has gone into the soil, but it has
taken nothing with it. To prove this I have
,some bottomless glass test tubes, two inches in
diameter, filled with sandy subsoil, clean and
yellow in color, 'a foot deep with an inch of
space on the top. Every week Lfill this inch
with liquid manure of the color of coffee, gath-
ered from the manure gutter and diluted with
water. This is equivalent to fifty-tvwo inches of
rainfull in the year. The surface is exposed to
the air under cover. I have been keeping this
in operation for three years, and as yet not a
drop of water has passed through the bottom
with the least appearance of color or mixture
or any scent whatever, nor have I umitil recently
found any indication of the presence of organic
matter in the filtered water by a test of nitric


acid. The soil is now discolored for about
three'inches in depth, which is not more than a
fourth of the depth I want my fields enriched.
To call such soils as this leachy, or without a
bottom, or unable to hold manure, is a great
mistake.

I admit that light soils require peculiar man-
agement. Contrary to the general opinion, I
believe them to be the very best soils for dairy
farms-being warm, dry and yet moist; never
muddy; easily worked; productive of the very
best fodder crops, such as rye, oats and peas,
clover, orchard grass, corn, angels and millet;
and of the very best market crops, as potatoes,
peas, beans, sweet corn, melons, carrots, tur-
nips and tomatoes, and there is no other farm-
ing that is so.profitable as these two combined.
But the right management of light soils is to


keep the soil in clover two or three years, fol-
lowing it by a rotation of crops, as rye, corn,
angels, or .rye cut green, followed by corn
fodder the same season; then mangels, followed
again by corn, seeded with rye, and clover sown
in the spring, or clover and timothy sown at the
last working of the corn; and to feed these
crops to cows, sell the milk, butter or cheese,
and return the large quantity of manure made
to the soil, without any fear whatever that it
will go down so far or so quickly that the roots
of the crops will not arrest it, and keep it
where it will do the most good. I have heard
and read a good deal about leachy soils; I have
farmed soils said to be leachy; but I have
never seen the leachiness, although I have
sought it carefully.-H. Stewart, Bergen Co.,
N. J., in Country Gentleman.
[Wherever clover is spoken of, or recom-
mended, the Southern reader will substitute
cow peas.-EDs.]



Bees in Florida.
Bee culture in the "Land of Flowers is
having a steady boom, and promises the most
flattering results in the future. Mr. Andrew
Froscher of the Orange Apiary, at Titusville,
thus expresses himself on the subject of raising
bees in Florida:
I have been in the business for six years-
ot my start out of the woods, and then got
Italian queens-so have mostly Italian bees
now.* I have about fifty swarms at present.
In a good honey season I average ten gallons
to a swarm; and the best I have done on in-
creasing is eight swarms from one in a good
season; but I do not care to increase much, as
I have as many as I can attend to. The
pasture is pretty good. Our season commences
in. the latter part of February, with the orange
bloom. It lasts until about the middle of
April. By the first of May the saw palmetto
comes, of which there is plenty, and it is our
best honey land, and lasts to about the middle
of June or the first of July, then the cabbage
palmetto comes in, and lasts to the middle of
August. We get a good deal of fall honey,
when it is not too wet, from the 'pottage pea,
golden rod, etc.

Perpetual Motion.
A dispatch.from New York says: There is
now on exhibition in a small apartment in
Chambers street, the nearest approach to a
perpetual motor ever devised. The contrivance
consists of twp wheels, nearly concentric, which
are rotated by means of nine four-pound balls,
which run in the grooved radii of the wheels.
When the machine is at rest four of the balls
are placed in the grooves of each of the wheels,.
one to each of four grooves, there being seven.
in all. To. give motion to the machine a ninth
ball is placed in a vacant groove. The equm-
librium being disturbed the first wheel begins


to revolve, and the movement of its axis, which
is cogged with the axis of the other, sets that
in motion. On reaching a certain point the odd
ball, instead of continuing its motion from the
centre of the wheel to the circumference, rolls
through an opening into a groove belonging to
the companion wheel, and imparts additional
motion to that one, the loss of force il the first
being soon made up by the return of the odd
ball on reaching a given point on the other side.
The machine does not generate much power,
but it certainly develops enough by simple
gravitation to give motion to itself until the
material of which it is made is worn 'out. It is
the invention of Albert Pictrowski, a Polish
engineer, who labored for more than eighteen
years before he succeeded in perfecting a model
that would satisfactorily demonstrate the the-
ory which had been the dream pf his life.






240 THE FLOID DISPATCH


-The Floridian wisely says; Do not drive
land-hunters away from this delightful country
by putting too high a price on your lands. One
thousand dollars is the generally accepted value
of every new comer or immigrant settling in a
community, and if you sell a portion of your
land to one, a reasonable portion of that $1,000
is applied to the remainder of your land by in-
creasing its value. Bear this in mind when you
have an opportunity to sell land.
ORANGE CULTURE IN EAST FLORIDA.-The
Pensacola Advance- Gazette, referring to the
Hon. P. P. Bishop, says.: "Probably no man
in East Florida is more extensively interested
in orange culture than Mr. Bishop."
This Way be true, so far as the men are con-
cerned, nut we have in Bradford county a good
old Connecticut lady, Mrs. Rising by name,
who can lay Mr. Bishop "in the shade" on
orange trees. We have seen both groves and
know whereof we speak. Mrs. Rising has been
a citizen of Bradford for about twelve years
and raised most of her trees from seedlings.-
Starke Telegraph.
-The Waldo "Cracker" challenges the world
to show a larger beet than one sent him, from
Campville, which measured twenty-eight inches
in circumference, eighteen inches in length and
weighed twenty-eight pounds. It was solid and
of good flavor. We won't say that we can beat
the Cracker on beets, but we do say that we can
beat him on the Kentucky question and large
tomatoes. Judge Long has just shown us eight
tomatoes which aggregate 1082 inches in cir-
cumference.-Starke Telegraph.
-The LeConte pear trees that have been
planted out near Tampa, by different parties,
are growing nicely and promise handsome re-
turns in the future. If any greenhorn thinks the
LeConte pear will not do well in our soil let
him go and examine a young bearing tree in
the garden of Maj. Blitch, in this city. Our
soil is similar in many respects to the soil of
Thomas County, Georgia, where the LeConte
pear grows to perfection.-Starke Telegraph.
-The orange groves on Orange Lake are
heavily burdened with fruit this year. The
owners are very enthusiastic over the prospects,
and say they will ship nearly as- much fruit as
the whole of all the other fruit growing sections
of the State combined. The prospects are cer-
tainly very flattering and the owners are as
happy as kings.- Ocala Banner.
-D. B. Roberts received a sample of- wheat
from the Agricultural Department last winter,
which he planted with care on hammock land
and fertilized it highly, which failed to yield ;
while S. P. Bule planted the same variety on
pine land without fertilizers and it yielded fine-
ly.-Lake City Reporter.


-'.-The Tampa Progress says the old Phillippi
orange grove at old Tampa is considered one of
the finest in 'Florida. and we suppose it is th'e
largest. There are over 1,200 orange trees on
the place, 500 of which will average fifteen in-
ches in circumference. There are now being
planted, 500 limes, lemons and LeConte pears
and pecans.
Col. A. J. Lane says the grading of the en-
tire line of the P. & A. Railroad will have
been completed and the crossties ready for lay-
ing by the 1st of August or thereabouts, and in
a month a force will be organized that will put
down a mile of track in a day. The whole road
to the Apalachicola River will be completed by
the 1st of October.-Milton News.
-Col. A. P. Brockway has growing in his
yard, a pecan tree that bears a large quantity
of fruit every year. It is the tallest tree in
Tampa and is an ornament to the town.- Gulf
Coast Progress.


The Lake City Reporter is blowing about hav- ber dealer, whose office was in full view, said to
ing a budded orange tree, two years old, in that me that he had often thought what could be the
vicinity, that has fifty-seven oranges upon it. cause of these roofs keeping smooth, the shin-
We can beat that a little. C. C. Bemis, Esq., has ples not curling as that kind of timber usually
a budded tret that will be two years old in Au- does. ,
gust, and it has upwards of two hundred of the It is well known that lime is a great
golden fruit hanging from its young thrifty preservative of wood, an instance of which
branches.-Green Cove Spring. comes to our mind. A wood-shed shingled with
-Tallahassee gardeners are growing field a most perishable wood, and at the time I saw
peas of the Texas.variety from two to three feet it, a part that had been whitewashed with lime
long. This sounds incredible to those accus- appeared tobe sound, and the other which hwd
tomed to seeing them so much shorter, but any not, was nearly bare. Twelve years since we
one doubting, can be convinced by calling at our ha( oak shgles put on a roof and tarred,
office, we have them 31 inches long.-Land of which remains sound and tight; a neighbor
Flowers. used from the saimelot without tar and had to
renew ten years after. -If some one of these
-Dr. George Chamberlain, whose place is cheap methods should be carried out, hundreds,
located near Micanopy, Alachua County, has if not thousands of dollars might be saved in
sold over one thousand and five hundred dol- Salem, is my belief. I fear that many will be
lars worth of vegetables, up to this point ip disappointed with tinned roofs unless puton by
the season, which leads us to infer that there's honest, skillful workman with the best tin, and
millions in vegetable growing in Florida. often painted they will rust out in a few years;
J j -,r- -


'-The great Apopka Lake is destined, in the
near future, to be bordered all around with
orange groves, and they of the finest to be found
in South Florida. *The lake is an inland sea
of majestic presence and troubulous waters that
know no quietude.-Apopka Citizen.
-Judge Z. King has shipped 4,000 cattle
this season. Mr. M. G. Mizell and T. S. Knight
have shipped 2,000 head, making 6,000, for
which they have received $15 per head, this
making $90,000 in ash circulated in Manatee
County among the cattle men.-Pine Level
Signal.
-Tamarinds, sappadillos, sugar-apples, sour-
sops, mammic-suppatties, mangoes and paw;
paws, are now ripe. The above are tropical
fruits, and grow in Key West.- Gulf Coast
Progress.
Roofing.
As the season of building is on hand, I once
nyore, the third and last time, call attention,
through the Republican, to the importance of
preserving shingled roofs from decay, and in a
measure from taking fire by sparks from chim-
neys. My first experience on this line was
near sixty years ago, and it did not prove satis-
factory. Next, three gallons of pine tar to one
of cheap fish oil, (such as tanners use,) put in a
large kettle and brought to boil, when, say, two-
thirds the butt ends of the shingles were put in,
remaining a minute, and then thrown in a loose
pile to dry before using. 'On one of my visits
to my home, when this roof had been on twenty
years, went upon it and with 4kife in hand,
cut and found the shingles hard and smooth,
slate-like and impervious to water, no chance
for sparks to kifidle fire as they had before on
same roof and came near destroying a large
range of buildings. They were about one-third
worn in thickness, consequently many years to
do good service, say thirty or more.
The third trial was by putting the bundles of
shingles edgewise half their length in strong
lime water, after a day or two changing ends.
These were laid on three medium barns and a
shed. In hot mid-summer days boiling hot coal
.tAr was put on plentifully with a whitewash
brush, rubbing on hard to get as much on under
and'into the wood as possible. After twenty
years they were sound and likely to be for a long
time to come.
Twenty-three years ago myself and sons built
the warehouses on what is now the galvanized
iron works in Salem, oak shingles were used,
and hot tar put on. Fifteen years after I heard
the roof was in good condition. A noted lum-


at any rate they did before I moved from
MNino.-Salem ( Ohio) Republican.

(4. B. ROGERS, Seedsman, Philadelphia, (see
his advertisement,) offers several varieties of
Turnip Seed, which he guarantees to be fresh.
Sepd for some.

NEVER use the curry-comb on a horse's legs
below the knee and hock. A corn broom or
brush is best, since it takes out the dirt and does
not hurt the horse.

SWEET POTATOES.-In nutritious properties
the sweet potato excels. Weight for weight, it
contains mere than double the quantity of
starch and sugar that is found in Irish potatoes.

HOUSE PAINTING.-In selecting paints for
out-of-door work, the lighter colors should be
preferred in point of durability, though the
present fashion dictates the darker tints. The
dark colors absorb the sun's rays and occasion
earlier decay of the material painted. The fall
is the best time to do outside painting.

Florida Railroads.
The Reed system of Florida Railroads is as
follows:
Miles.
Florida Central & Western R. R.............................. 240
Florida Transit (main line) .. .................................. 155
Peninsular Branch................. ........................................52
Fernandina and Jacksonville....................................... 22
East Georgia and Florida ........................................ ........50
Tropical Florida............................. ...............................121
South Florida.................................... ....... ....................... 40
Leesburg and Indian River............................................51
T otal.................................................. ......................... 731



Vegetable Quotations.
FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE,
315 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, July 5,1882.
Receipts of vegetables vid fruit via Florida Dispatch
Line and Southern Express Company, week ending 4th
inst.: 1,100 packages; watermelons, 17 car-loads.
Tomatoes in demand for good stock, Floridas bringing
$2@2.50 per crate; Charleston, $1.50@2.
Egg-Plants scarce, and selling from $2@2.50 per crate.
Potatoes coming in large quantities and bringing $3.50
@4 for choice Southern.
Georgia peaches in good demand for choice fruit. Sale,
"Early Telliston," $1.25@1.50 per (Y3bushel) crate; "Craw-
fords," $2@2.50 per crate.
Pine-Apples-Florida pines in great demand and bring-
ing from $15@30 per hundred; Foreign pines, $14@20 per
hundred. '
Watermelons-South Georgia melons have been sell-
ing low for some days, but ate bringing better prices at
present writing; arrivals on Saturday, 1st inst., sold from
t20@35 per hundred; better prices for very choice while
one car-load in poor condition brought from $6@20. Ar-
rivals by steamer on the 4th inst. are selling better, at
$30@40.
Small quantities of grapes have been received froin
South Georgia, but sales have not been encouraging,
being from 5c.@9c.jper pound.
Respectfully,
C. D. OWENS,
General Agent.


'I


--------~---~---------------~-----~-----


24so


THEFLRD J ATH






THE FLORIDA DISPATCH 2


Meteorological Report.
Weather for week ending Ouly 7, 1882.
OFFICE OF OBSERVATION )
SIGNAL SERVICE, U. S. A., JACKSONVILLE, FJLA.

Therm. Wind.

DATE. bV


Saturday 1........ 30.05 91 78 85.0 65.7 0.00 SW 12 Fair.
Monday 3 .... 29.988678 80.081.3 0.00 SW 12 Cloudy.
Tuesday 4. 29.87 8876 78.3 88.7 1.12 SW 13 Cloudy.
Wednesday 5 29.86 9076 817 777 0.03 SW 8 Fair
Thursday 6 .30.02 84.71" 78:7 71.3 0.00 NE 5 Fair.
Friday 7..... .30.08 8675 80.7' 5.3 0.00 NE i 7 Fair.
Highest barometer 30.10, lowest 29.83.
Highest temperature 92, lowest 71.
NOTE.-BaromIeter readings reduced to sea level.
J. W. SMITH, Signal Obr-rver U. S. A.

M2feteorological Sunm0nary for June, 1882.
SIGNAL OFFICE,
PENSA)LA, FLA., July 1, 1882.-
Mean barometer for month, 30.030.
Highest barometer for month, 30.284.
Lowest barometer for month, 29.776.
Mean temperature for month, 79.8:
Highest temperature for month, 90.9.
Lowest temperature for month, 66.0.
Variation temperature for month, 24.90. 1
SGreatest daily variation of temperature, 21.5. .
Least daily variation of temperature, 4.6.
Mean temperature of warmest day 85.00.
Mean temperature of cooleSt day, o.50.
Mean temperature of dew pdint, 72.0. u
Meanbhumidity, per cent., sturation, 100, 78.6.
Mean humidity of moistest day, 91.3. *
Mean hutmiidity of driest day, 52.7.
Total rainfall for month, inches, 3.95..
Greatest rainfall in a day, inches, 1.48.
Prevailing direction of wind for month, southwest.
Total movement of wind, miles, 5,957.
Maximum hourly velocity of wind, miles, 32. :
Number ofcloudy days no rain fell, 1.
Number of fair days, no rain fell, 8.71
Total number of days rain fell, 11.
Number of clear days, .0. .
Mean cloudiness, per ebnt., obscuration 100, 46.
COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. JUNE 1882
.Mean barometer.............. .................. 30.06729.98630.30
Mean temperature................................... 80.2 82.4 79.8
Highest temperature........................... 92 97 90.9
. Lowest temperature........................... 66 64 66.0
Total wind movement, miles............... 6,750 5,889 5,957
Maximum hourly movement, miles...... 31 32 32
Prevailing wind direction..................... SW. W.
Total rainfall, inches............................ 2.75 4.27 '.3.95
Number of days rain fell.................. 10 12 lli
M. MeGAURAN,
SObserver S. C., U.. S. A.

CEDAR KEYS. FLA., July 1, 1882.
Monthly mean actual barometer, three telegraphic ob-'
servations, 30.041.
Monthly mean reduced barometer of three telegraphic
observations, 30.061.
Highest barometer and date, 30.217, on 6th.
Lowest barometer and date, 27.882, on 9th.
Range, 0.335 inch.
Monthly mean temperature, 7.99. .
Highest temperature and date, 910, on 22d. :
Lowest temperature and date, 68, on 7th and 8th.
Monthly range of temperature, 230. .
Greatest daily range and date, 170, on 13th.
Least daily range and date, 4, on 9th.
Monthly mean humidity 75.3 per cent.
Monthly mean dew point, 71.
Total rainfall or melted snow, 9.56 inches.
Total movement of wind from 11 toll p. m., 6,249 miles.
Maximum velocity of Wind and direction, 32 miles per
hour S on the 1st.
Number of foggy days, none.
Number of clear days on which rain fell, none; on
which no rain fell. 4.
Number of fair days on which rain fell, 8; on which noG
rain fell, 9.
Number of cloudy days on which rain fell, 6; on which
no rain fell, 3.


Number of days on which rain fell, 14; on which no
rain fell, 16..
Dates of auroras and time 'of beginning and ending.,
none.
Dates of solar halos, none.
Dates of luna halos, 27.
IDates of zodiaial light, none. '
Dates of frost, none.
Average hourly velocity and prevailing direction of
wind at 7 a. m. for month, 8n3 miles per hour-west.
Average hourly velocity and prevailing direction of
wind at 3 p. m. for month, 0.9 miles per hour-southwest.
Average hourly velocity and prevailing direction of
wind at 11 p. m. for month, 7.9 miles per houi-southwest.
GALES OF 25 MILES PER HOUR AND OVER;
1st, south-32 miles per hour.
30th, west-26 miles per hour.
Prevailing wind direction, determined from the three
telegraphic obseirVationsr, southwest.
Prevailing wind direction, determined from the five
daily observations, west.
Number of fair sunsets, 19; verified, 16; not verified, 3.
Number of foul sunsets, 11; verified, 8; not verified, 3.
Number of doubtful sunsets, 0.
Percentage of verifications, 80. F MIXER
S Pvt. D. W. MIXER,
Pvt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.


THE WATERMELON APHIS.

A New and Exceedingly Destructive Insect
Pest.
A week or so ago, Mr. H. B. Phillips, brought
us, from his place across the St. John's, oppo-
site Jacksonville, specimens of deformed water-
melon leaves, which were badly infested with
quantities of small aphides or plant lice.
These adhered to the under surface of the leaves
in clusters or colonies, where they evid ently
begin their operations. The young are from
two to four hundredths of an inch in length,
and of a bright yellow color, with dark honey-
tubes and pale legs. The mature or winged
female, is slightly larger, with head, ,antennae
and thorax, black; abdomen of a brownish yel-
low, honey-tubes black, the legs pale, but with
black feet.
We first met with this pest, on an entomolog-
ical tour to South i'lorida in April 1880, at
Metacombie BIey, where they had completely
devastated the hellon patch of Mr. Sands.
Mr. 8. attributed it to a disease, called "curled
leaf," and was not aware it was caused by in-
sects until we showed them to him -with our
pocket lens. They* became so numtrtus
as to ultimately destroy the whole crop
and he was, compelled to dig up the vines ,and
plant some other crop in their place. '
Until Mr. Phillips brought us specimens we
were not aware they were found so far North.
The senior editor and others, however, have
since bought us some and- we hear they are
very destructive in Georgia, as well as. else-
where in Florida. So that they are spread-
ing rapidly and it behooves us to resort to prompt
methods for.their-destruction; and if possible to
thoroughly exterminate them. "
Their habits are soon told. The female is
viviparous, breeds very rapidly, and is soont
,urrotnded by clusters of heir young in various
stagesof growth. These in a brief time reach
maturity, wander off to new shoots and leaves
and begin coloniesof their own. They feed on
the juices of the leaves and-vine. When they
become too numerous they exhaust the
vitality of the vine, distort the leaves, caus-
ing them to curl up and wither, and prevent the
fruit from maturing. For the past three years
we have made special study of the Aphididte
and pronounce them the most destructive spe-
cies we'have yet met with ...
But how can we stop their depredations ? We
are sure our readers will agree with us in saying
that this is the most important question.
Syringing them with Washes-the old method
prescribed for the riddance of these insects-
will be found impracticable from the impossi-"
bility of reaching them, protected as they are,
in their retreats beneath the curled leaves.


Other methods must, therefore, be devised.
As both practicable and efficacious, ifiproperly
carried out, we suggest the following:
To two pounds of tobacco add fqur.and a
half gallons of water, boil and stir together for
half an hour.
This will make a good, strong wash, which
we will warrant to kill every louse with which
it comes in contact. Now as to applying.
Fill an ordinary wooden bucket, or better
still, if convenient, a small-sized tub, with the
wash. Go carefully over and examine your vines,
pick up separately and thoroughly immerse all.
the infested parts. Be particular to examine
the new shoots or extreme ends of the vines,
for here you will find them most abundant. You
should also carry with' you *a small tin cup, with
which to douse the parts you are unable to reach


otherwise. If this course is perseveringly pur-
sued you cannot fail in destroying the pests.
Success will crown your efforts.
This wash should be applied early in the season,
on their first appearance, and before the vines
have become too large, for it is while the vine
is young and tender that they first make their
appearance and do the most damage. This is
the time to douse them, and immediately and
properly done you destroy the first broods-give
sufficient time for the vines to make a vigorous
growth and perfect their fruit. After this,
time you will find the vines too vigorous to be
seriously affected by them, and their natural
enemies, species of syrphus, chalcid and aphi-
dius flies, with the aid of lady-bugs, etc., become
sufficiently numerous to effectually hold them
in check.
-------- DESCRIPTION.
Aphis Citrulli-N. S. Ashmead.
Very Young. Length .02 inch, yellow, eyes brown, tip
of honey tubes brown, legs pale.
Wingless: Fer"ale, Length .04 inch, yellow, eyes dark
brown, honey tubes slightly conical, black ; cauda dis-
tinct, dark- legs pale, extreme tip of tibite anj feet black.
Pupa. Brown. "
Winged Female. Length .05 inch, head and thorax black
and shining, antennae dark, not reaching to honey
tubes; abdomen yellowish brown, spotted along sides;
honey tubes black, thickest at base and gradually taper-
lng towards tip; cauda distinct, dark; wings hyaline,
stigma and veins pale, legs pale, feet and extreme tip of
tibise black.
WILLIAMSON, WAYNE Co., N. Y.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
I send you by mail to-day, a branch of an
apple tree, which you will find-infested with lice..
They seem to be destroying thousands of apples
here ; almost, every tree is filled with them.
Please let. me know'iinmediately what they are
and what the remedy is for them., .
-: T. G. A.
REPLY.--The insects you send are the apple
tree aphis, Aphis malifolice, described, years ago
by Dr. Asa Fitch.
The wash recommended above for the water-
melon aphis, syringed on your trees, will -be
found 'efficacious and sopn rid you of the pests.

Preparing Moss.
A subscriber, in Volusia Co., writes
"Will some one of the numerous readers bf
THE DISPATCH give allt the particulars of pre-
paring the Spanish moss from greento brown or
black, &c. ._ C. B.
Fiue '-Plants.
During the absence of our Col. Elliott-
(which accounts for the delay in noticing Mr.
Swain's very acceptable present)-the foltlow-
ing note and crate alluded to were received:
ANTHONY PLACE, MARION Co., FLA.,
June 26, 1882. J
Col. D.H. Elliott, Florida Dispatch:
DEAR SIR: I ship you this morning one'
crate egg-plants, containing seven. They are
not quite as large as some we have been ship-
ping. They range from 32 to 34 per barrel.
These are the product of pine land. One we had


weighed four pounds and measured 231 inches
in circumference. Please send us your opinion
of them, and their probable market value in
Jacksonville. Yours,
E. H. SWAIN.
Though the crate remained unopened for
several days, we found the vegetables in good
order; quite large, and of superior quality.
Our market is pretty well supplied with egg-
plants and most other vegetables just now;
though we do not find any specimens of this
particular esculent equal in size to those sent
by Mr. Swain. His success with this somewhat
difficult vegetable on "pine land" is very
marked, and should encourage others to "do
likewise."


_ .


r







2 THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.-


How Poppies Grow. ,
The opium poppy requires a sandy loam,
which should be prepared for it a year before
hand. The ground must be abundantly ma-
nured, ploughed,and cross-ploughed, the second
time rot so deeply as the first, for it is in the
furrows that the seed- is sown. About four
pounds of seed is enough for an acre, and in
order to facilitate the even distribution of the
seed it is mixed before sowing with four times
its bulk of sand or fine earth. The seed is cov-
ered lightly by brush-hrrrowing with a small
tree drawn over the field by oxen. The 'end of
October and the beginning of November are
especially favorable for sowing, .when fine
weather, coming after the first raiAs, has made
the ground more manageable. The sprouts ap-
pear in fifteen days; but if slight frosts should
happen, the seed is often killed, and the land
has to be reploughed and rosown at the end of
November. During winter the roots grow fast
and strong, holding out against frost even when
the leaves are bitten. As soon as spring de-
clares itself, the plants shoot up quickly, and
"are then thinned and'weeded, sometimes twice.
Each plant'wmakes from one to four stalks, three
or four feet high, which bear their flowers at
th6ebeginning of May. A fortnight after the
flowers fall, the poppy heads are fully de-
veloped, antL their fitness is tested by the eye
aad by the light pressure with the fingers.
It is very important to detect the exact time
of maturity. The too ripe poppy head "gives"
to pressure; but when fully grown and still
green, it resists. Then is the time to extract
the- opium, and the cultivators at once go to
work rapidly, about ten persons being employed
on every acre; for if the heads were allowed to
become dry, the juice would disappear. The
seed pod being seized with the thumb and fore-
finger of one hand, a slight incision is dex-
terously made all round the middle of the pod
with a small scythe-like knife held in the other.
The cut must not enter the seed cavity; if it
did, the juice would flow inside, and be lost.
The moment the incisio(4 made, the white
juice begins to escape all round, and is left to
dry and thicken in the heat of the day for six
or eight hours, when it becomes a yellow,
resinous-looking substance, which later turns to
a darker hue. It is then scraped off with the
knife, and squeezed into Iumps as the gatherer
proceeds. These lumps, which are each gen-
erally less than two pounds in weight, are rolled
up in poppy leaves, and left for some days
further to dry in the sun. While still soft,
they are packed into small baskets lined with
cotton cloth, the balls being powdered pith
sorrel seed to prevent them from sticking to-
gether.


The poppies which produce the best opium
are the white and yellow. These grow luxuri-
antly, give an abundant juice, and can be in-
sured by employing white or yellow seed, while
the gray or black seeds-give blue or a dark red
-bloom, with smaller seed pods and a darker
opium. But there are many varieties of these
handsome flowers, and, entirely apart from the
" opium question," the flaunting colors of a few
poppy beds add much to the brief gayety of an
Eastern garden



Coal Dust as Fuel.
In reference to this, George Gifford, United
States Commercial Agent at Nantes, France,


JAIN,


reports to the department of State, in substance,
that the manufacture of the bricks is quite sim-
ple, about ten per cent. of pitch being used in
the process. He says:
The coalodust is mingled with pitch derived
from coal tar, and the mixture poured into
cups attached to a belt, each cup containing
just enough material for a brick of the desired
size. The belt in its movement passes this ma-
terial through a chamber where it is exposed
to hot steam which fuses the two substances
into a homogeneous mass. This is poured by
the descent of the belt into moulds, where it iW
subjected to an enormous pressure by a hy-'
draulic press, or by machinery set in motion by
a steam engine.
The coal dust used is largely imported from
Wales, and the cost of manufacture is given as
follows :
Coal per ton in W ales.......................................$1.00 to $1.2.5
Freight on sam e....... ................................ 1.60 to 1.60
Duties on sam e.......................................... 0.26 to 0.26
Handling, sifting, &c.............................. ........... 0.56 to 0.56
Tenth of a ton of pitch........... ...............1.00 to 1.20
Total cost per ton.................................... $4.42 to $4.87
The pitch used is made from Coal tar pro-
duced in the manufacture of illuminating gas,
and cannot be had in sufficient quantity in
Europe, hence the manufacturers are looking
for a supply from .the United States, where it
is believed it may be had in quantity sufficient
at last for all the immediate purposes for
which it is required.-American Machinist.

Iron and Steel Production in 1881.
Tl- report of the Secretary of the American
Iron and.Steel Association for 1881, just com-
pleted, gives the following summary ofAthe year's
work: Production of pig iron in net tons, 4,641,-
564, including 21,086 tons of spiegeleisen ; pro-
duction of all rolled iron, including nails and
excluding rails, 2,155,346 tons; Bessemer steel
.rails, Inet tons, 1,330,302; open hearth steel
rails, net tons,,25,217 ; iron and other rails, net
tons, 488,581; production of iron and steel street
rails included in above, 21,554; crucible: steel
ingots, net tons, 89,762; open hearth steel in-
gots, net tons, 146,946 ; Bessemer steel ingotg,
net tons, 1,539,157 ; blister and patent steel,
net tons, 3,047. Production of all kinds of steel,
net tons,'1,778,912. Production of blooms from
ore and pig iron, net tons, 84,606. Imports of
iron and steel, $61,555,078. Imports of iron
ore, gross tons, 782,887. Exports of iron and
steel, $15,782,282. Production of Lake Supe-
rior iron ore, gross tons, 2,336,335; production
of ironl ore in'Jersey, gross tons 737,052. Total
production of iron ore in census year, 1880, net
tons, 7,974,705.
Production anthracite coal in census year
1880, net tons, 28,646,995. Production of bi-
tuminus coal in census year 1880, net tons, 42,-
420,581. Production of aithracite coal in 1881,
gross tons, 28,500,016. Miles of railway com-
pleted in 1881: 9,650 miles of railway track in
the Uniled States, December 31, -1881, includ-


ing double track and siding estimated, 130,000.
Iron ships built in the United States in the fis-
cal year ending June 30, 1881, 42.-Scientific
American.
Assistance to Beginners.
Some parties in mechanical occupations oc-
casionally give vent to their wonderment as to
why so few American young men enter upon
learning trades, and stick to them until they
pass the novitiate, and become skilled journey-
men. The mostipeculiar thing about the ap-
parently puzzled understandings of these parties
is that they seem to think that boys need any
special encouragement to induce them to enter
mechanical pursuits. Sunday-school books


abound in shining examples of boys who started
by sweeping out stores, banks, or lawyers' of-
fices, and who rose step by step until they be-
came confidential clerks, and finally partners
in the concern. The boy who is inclined to
choose the shop, rather than the office, as the
arena of his efforts, would have to search through
a prodigious pile of that class of purified liter-
ature before he could find one such glowing ex-
ample to stimulate him in his chosen course.
When a boy is apprenticed to a lawyer or a
green grocer, the chances are that the men in
that shop. who have learned the trade wont hin-
der him in his efforts to acquire a knowledge, of
the business-they probably will be willing to
help him, if he is active and anxious to learn-
but there are more chances, if he enters a ma-
chine shop, that some of the men will delight
in placing obstacles in the way of his progress.
If he seeks information on some special matter
Trom one of those self-sufficient mechanics, it is
more than probable that aotrick will be played
upon him, or that he Will be subjected in some
way to ridicule.
We do not mean to say that this is the rule
among mechanics, but that there are exceptions
enough to worry the ambitious apprentice in
almost any shop. Those men whose ideas about
mechanical operations are most valued by skill-
ful and, experienced workmen have the most
sympathy for.those desiring to acquire a knowl-
edge of the machinist trade. This fact is made
apparent by articles in the AAmerican Machinist
from sueh writers as Professors John E. Sweet,
and Chordal, who are n6ver tired of .encourag-
ing and assisting young beginners, as well as
older workmen, in mechanical pursuits. No
class of individuals appreciate such encourage-
ment more than novices in the shop, and we are
constantly- receiving evidences that the efforts
of these writers are productive of much benefit.
-American Machinist.

Cotton Factories in the South.
Although cotton is no longer king of the
products of the soil of our country, it is our
great staple which by export insures us the bal-
ance against England in exchanges. That
country works 39,000,000 spindles to our
12,000,000, or we run less than 33 1-8 per cent.
of the number employed in British factories.
Since new factories in course of construction in
New England and the Southern States this year
will add 3,000,000 spindles at work by New
Year's, and authenticated statistics demonstrate
that investments in cotton mills located in the
South have paid and are paying a round 22
per cent. dividend on the average, with good,
bad and indifferent management, we can see
clearly that, with increased area and improved
cultivation and handling and such exceedingly


large profits in manufacturing, our spindles will
increase in numbers, especially in the South, so
rapidly, that we shall, in the next half decade
of time, count probably 40,000,000.
So unprecedentedly large are the dividends
of mills "and factories of the South that not
American capital only, but English, French
and German funds are being invested, and new
fields of. investment searched after. There are
13,500,000 horse-power on the rivers and other
streams of the Southern States, not utilized
and available for factories. Still, were there no
such cheap reserve power, the fact is proven
in the records of the Mississippi Mills, at Wes-
son, southern Mississippi, which are run by.
steam power, that these have paid the enor-
mous profit of 29 per cent. on the investment.
That this country has superlative advantages
over England is s own by the figures,represent-


2-a2


f-


4THE L RD ISA.HE





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH. 2


ing the product of the mills of the two coun-
tries for the past year. Nearly one-third of the
cotton crop of 1880-'81-the largest ever grown
-was manufactured at home. The production
of our mills for 1881 is $223,280,000, while the
mills of Great Britaifi yielded $437,265,000.
That is, our 12,000,000 spindles produced up-
wards of half as great a sum as was produc-
ed by the 39,000,000 spindles in that country.
The number of operatives in American mills
last year was 181,000. The number which op-
erated in the mills of Great Britain was 479,-
155. This gives as a result a product of $1,268
of manufactured material for each American
operative to $912 worth for each operative in
th'e mills of our Mother Country. English
sales of cotton goods to old Mexico and Cen-
tral America declined $1,221,600 last year, and
the sum of $1,212,471 in Canada. The fact is
that Eiiglish manufacturers have not cleared
any money on operating cotton mills during the
last two years. While Englishmen are shutting
down their mills two weeks in the month in
order to lessen production, the greater number
of the mills of the Southern States are running
day and night. The whole number of spindles
in our country average a consumption each ,of
65 pounds per annum, while the spindles of
Great Britain average 32 pounds only, or less
than 50. per cent. of the American. These are
stubborn realities, and as such it is plainly to
.be seen that our march to superiority in indus-
tries associated with cotton is inevitable.




"Maulehing Otjige Trees
APOPkfA, FLA., June, 1882,
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
In your issue of June 5th, on the subject of
"'Mulching Orange Trees," you say the "Doc-
tors disagree mightily." Yes, such is often the
case, not only upon this question, but upon many
others pertaining to horticulture; we do not
all see alike, and, therefore, do not all think
alike.
Experience is a good schoolmaster, teaching
us many practical lessons, and I find it a good
plan to be governed by the lessons learned un-
der such a teacher, as it often saves vexation
and loss. .
About a year ago, agricultural papers were
presenting their readers with articles showing
the advantages to be derived from "mulching
their trees," and its adoption was urged by its
advocates, who seemed to forget that there were
two sides to a question, and that, in the long run
it might not.prove to be the great sine qua non
that they represented it to be.
Having given mulching a fair trial thirteen
years ago upon 100-15-year-old orange trees, I


wrote an article upon the subject for the Flor-
ida Agriculturist, giving nmy experience, show-
ing what I consider a serious draw-back, re-
sulting from continuous mulching of orange
trees. In making my experiment, I had for-
gotten that a large portion of the roots of this
tree are found growing near the surface of the
ground, and that. when mulching was applied,
the fibrous roots would grow up among the
mulching, and unless a heavy mulching was
given each year, after-culture could not be
given without destroying a large portion of the
newly-formed roots, which would do as much
harm as the mulching had done good. I applied
several times during the spring and summer
several heavy mulchings of grass and weeds,
the trees put on a healthy growth, the scale


insect was thrown off and hung from the limbs
like snake skins; the trees ceased to form fruit
buds, as all their energy was directed to the
formation of wood. Since that time I have
cultivated these trees entirely with the hoe.
In planting out my young grove, I adopted
the following plan: I noticed that young trees
in the nursery, where they had plenty of room
to expand, when in their second year's growth,
after shooting up a main sprout, before the
season was over, had extended horizontal
limbs to shade the trunk, and the lower limbs
of the previous year's growth ceased to develop.
Here was a lesson for me. I carefully pre-
served the second year's growth and only
trimmed out those that had already served their
purpose. These trees were transplanted into the
grove when three years old, and mulched when.
set out, removing the mulching occasionally
before a rain and when the ground was well
moistened, I replaced it. This plan was con-
tinued for three years ; the lateral limbs by this
time had grown sufficient to afford protection
to the tree and shade the ground. The middles
between the trees were kept clean with a culti-
vator. These trees, now 12 and 13 years old,
will soon completelyshade the ground, and I
have obtained for them all lhe advantages of
mulching without the above mentioned draw-
back. As the trees extend their limbs I con-
tinue each year to cut out the lower ones, get-
ting a more effectual shade. ,,
That there should be a difference of opinion in
regard to the modes of treating fruit trees, is nat-
ural. One kind of fruit succeeds best on a clay
soil, another updh a sandy loam-; the roots of one
grovy deep, while others grow near the surface,
therefore, we should be governed byour own
experience and that of others cultivating the
same character of soil as ourselves, in determin-
ing what course is open to the fewest objections.
I have contributed my mite, and shall be
glad to hear' from others, through your most
valuable paper, what they know upon the sub-
ject of "mulching orange trees."
\ Z. H. MASON, M. D.

"Pine-Apple Plants, and Planting."
ISLAND HOME, BREV'ARD, Co., FLA., )
June 22, 18821.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
"An article with this title, published last year
in the Florida Agriculturist, and afterwards
republished in TH.E DISPATCH, has brought me
so many inquiries that I now resume the sub-
ject, and in this public way, state some of its
prominent facts.
Pine-apples are propagated by inmeans of off-
shoots. .
Suckers come up from near the ground.
Slips surround the base of the fruit.
Crowns grow upon the toi of the fruit.


Crownlets are little secondary crowns sur-
rounding the crown. The value of each depends
upon its size rather than its kind. The largest
will fruit soonest, and are, therefore, the most
valuable. Slips are most numerous, and the
principle dependence for large plantings.
When the fruit ripens the plants are from
three to five inches long and are left on the
stocks to grow larger.
They will grow about. two inches per month
while the warm weather lasts.
SIf set early and well cared for, they will be
nearly as large by winter as if' they had re-
mained upon the stock where they grew, and
have the advantage of being rooted and estab-
lished, ready for early spring.
On the Florida Keys and the Bahamas the
fruit ripens about a month earlier than here.
This year it has ripened here about a month
earlier than usual. Last year our first ship-


ment was June 25th; this year it was May
19th.
I am often asked if plants should be rooted
in a box or bed before they are set in place.
With me rootsare of no value in transplanting,
for the reason that I cut them all off. My
method may not suit others, but it does me, be-
cause itihas the merits of success. I dig up the
plants, leave them in the sun several days, trim
off the roots and set them in place. In doing so
I have never lost a plant, while those wvho try
to save the roots complain that they die. We
set them upon a lhvel surface 2x2 and 2x3 feet;
which is the better way, I have not yet determ-
ined. Prepare the ground well, as for any
other crop. Fertilize moderately, and cultivate
often and thoroughly.
They take as kindly to the hoe as either corn,
cotton or cabbage.
In regions exposed to frost they should not
be cultivated late in the season.
We prepare them for setting by cutting a small
piece from the stem end, then remove the scale-
like covering, leaving half an inch of the stem
bare. Some think this unnecessary, but expe-
rience proves that plants prepared in that way
take root much sooner for such preparation.
My experience is confined to what our ham-
mock neighbors call "poor- pine land." But I
have observed both their growth, and want of
growth, on a variety of soils. In this direction
two points are well established.
The soil must be dry and fine. Beyond this
experience must determine whether the soil of
a given locality is adapted to their growth.
The pine-applo is quite fastidious of its be-
longings.; they more generally succeed on pine
land than on hammock.
On pine land the plants grow 'more -stocky
and give larger fruit in proportion to the size
of the plant than on hammock ; also, the young
plants or offsets are more stocky in proportion
to their lenght.
This industry is rapidly extending here, and
Ihdian River pine-apples are making for them-
selvrs a reputation equal to that enjoyed by
Indian River oranges. There will be more
planted this year than in-any year before. In-
dian River plantations will give us about one
hundred thousand plants, while twice or thrice
that quantity will be brought from the Keys.
m The supply has never yet equaled the de-
mand.
Every year thousands upon thousands are
promised that are-never delivered.
Large quantities are advertised for sale here
while they are yet growing upon the Florida
Keys, with a prospect of remaining there.
Prices have declined greatly in six years. We
procured our first plants from Key Largo, in
1876; they were then worth $40 per thousand.
Last year they ivere delivered here for $10, but
in appearance did not compare favorably with
those grown here. These prices are for large
quantities in bulk.


As to the relative value of plants grown here
and those brought from the Keys, there is a
difference of opinion. How far this difference
is the outgrowth of interest, I am unable to say,
but this I know: Both my experience and in-
terest- point in the direction of ihome-grown
plants. And if to be planted in a frostier region
than this my preference would be very decided.
JAS. H. WHITE.

GUINEA Cows, or Heifer calves wanted.
Write the Editors of THK DISPATCH.
June 5 '82, tf. ... "

PERSONS ORDERING GOODS FROM AD-
VERTIStRS APPEARING IN THE DIS-
PATCH WILL CONFER A FAVOR BY NO-
"*IFYING THEM TO THAT EFFECT.






2:: THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


ofhe glvida fisypah.

JACKSONVILLE, JULY 10, 1882.

EDITORS:
D. REDMOND, D. H. ELLIOTT, W. H. ASHMEAD.

Subscription $1.00 per annum, in advance.

RAU.TES OF AIDVERRTISItNG..
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Two........... .......... 2 00' 500 10 00 18 00 34 00
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Eight...................... 8 00 1650 30 00 50 00 10000
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Ten lines solid nonpareil type make a square.
LOCAL ADVERTISING (seven Words to line) ten cents
per line.
The FLORIDA DISPATCH has a very large circulation
in Florida and South Georgia, and is by far the best ad-
vertising medium for reaching the merchants and fruit
and vegetable growers of those sections. All business
correspondence should be addressed to -
ASHMEAD BROS., Publishers, Jacksonville, Fla.
OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE FLORIDA FRUIT
GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.

Special Club Rates with 'WTh Dispatch."

Read and Subscribe--It Saves Money and
Will Pay You. .
We have made arrangements with the publishers
and will club THE DISPATCH with any of the
following publications, which will be mailed promptly
upon receipt of price, for ONE YEAR :
THE FLORIDA DISPATCH AND
Savannah Weekly News "..*. $2.50
Florida Weekly Union............................ 2.25
New York Weekly Sun.......... .............,...... ... 1.75
New York Weekly Herald........................ 1.75
New York Weekly Tribune...................... 2.50
New York Weekly Times........................ 1.75
New York Weekly World...........,............. 1.75
Philadelphia Weekly Times........................ 2.50
American Agriculturist................. ...... 2.00
Country Gentleman......................,............ 2.75
Southern Cultirator...................................... 2.00
Atlantic Monthly Magazine.................. ........ 4.00
Harper's Monthly Magazine........................... 4.00
The Century Monthly Magazine (Scribner's).... 4.00
Lippincott's Monthly Magazine................... 3.15
Popular Science Monthly............................ 5.00
North American Review ....................5.00
Harper's Illustrated Weekly.......................... 4.00
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Harper's Illustrated Young People........... 2.00.
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly................ 4.00
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Chimney Corner...... 4.00
Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly.................... 3.15
Frank Leslie's Sunday Magazine............... 3:15
Scientific American.................................... 3.75
W averly Magazine...................................... 5.00
Detroit Tree Press.......:..:........................... 2.35
The above are among the very best publications"
Remittances should be sent by Check, Money Order,
or Registered Letter, addressed to
ASHMEAD BRO'S,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Notice to Shippers.


SAVANNAH, FLORIDA AND WESTERN RY. )
GEN. FREIGHT DEPARTMENT,
SAVANNAH, June 10, 1882.
The following information in relation to
movement of fruit and vegetablee train from
Atlanta, via N. C. and St. L. Ry. is furnished
upon authority of Geo. R. Knox, G. F. A.o
viz :
'Leave Atlanta, say MA day, 11 a. m.
Leave Nashville, say Tuesday, 7. a. m,
Leave Louisville, say Tueday, 7 p. m.
Leave Cincinnati, s a~tinesday, 4:40 a. m.
Leave Chicago, say Thursday, 7 a. m.
JAs. L. TAYLOR,
Gen. F. Agent.

SEVERAL communications of interest are on
file for future insertion.


About Figs.
The fruit-stands of this city have been some-
what scantily supplied with fresh Figs, thus
far; and the season of most abundant produc-
tion is well nigh over. The price has been from
10 to 20 cents per quart; but if sold at even 5
cents per quart, the Fig can easily be made one
of the most profitable fruits in Florida.
We do not intend to advance any Utopian
ideas about competing with Turkey in the mat-
ter of dried Figs, packed in drums; for we do not
thigk we have yet found the proper drying fig,
nor do we quite believe our climate can produce
such a fig. But we feel sure that there is very
.great profit in raising the Figs we now have for
such purposes as we shall set forth, and to which
we call the special attention of all who have
even a garden spot in "Fair Florida:" 1
1. As a ripe fruit, eaten from the hand; or,
peeled, sliced up, sprinkled with white sugar and
"smothered in cream;, the Fig has scarcely a
rival for luscious delicacy and nutritive quali-
ties ; and thus prepared, and eaten even ad libi-
tum, it has never been known to produce any
but the most favorable and pleasurable results.
2. As a preserve, in fine, rich, clear syrup,
flavored with pine-apple or ginger, it is only
equalled by- guava jelly or the preserved ginger
of the West Indies.
3. As a sweet pickle,. prepared in, hot, sweet-
ened cider vinegar, and flavored to taste', we do
not knowof any iing superior.
4. As a shipping fruit, we predict for the Fig
an immense sale-in the near future. We have,
already, many sorts which may be picked a short.
time before full 'maturity, and, like the straw-
berry, carefully packed in quart boxes and ship,
ped in Bowen's refrigerators to any of the
northern cities. If not fully mature when packed,
they will ripen in traisita, reaching the ;epicu-
rien tables of New York and Boston as fresh
and inviting as when plucked here from the
trees. There cannot be the slightest doubt that,
if fine, sweet,'ripe Figs can be thus safely traiis-
ported and properly presented to the people of
the North, they will speedily become immensely
popular as a dessert fruit; and that, to come
anywhere near supplying the coming demand,
we shall need a hundred trees where we now
have one. ;
The possibility oft safe transportation in
refrigerators is no untried experiment. It was
successfully accomplished by Col. D. H. Elliott,
of THE DISPATCH, year or more ago, and the


Figs were sold in.New York, (if our recollection
is correct,) at forty cents per quart. We- would-
ask no more profitable or remunerative business
than to produce Figs by the car-load at half or
even one-quarter of that price; and we confi-
dently advise all our fruit-growers. who live
within reach of transportation lines. to plant
Figs largely and at once. .
Layers froth low-hanging branches, may be
successfully made, nQow, but the better way is
to plant cuttings just where you want your trees
to stand, -nextf spring, as the buds are begin-
ning to swell and show ,signs of growth. For
some unascertained reason, rooted'fig trees when
transplanted, do not succeed well; and we
therefore recommend the setting of the cutting,
,in the spring, just where the future tree is de-


sired, cultivating this cutting, carefully, but
never "lifting" or removing it. It will begin to
bear the second or third year, at latest, and last
a life-time.
We shall, hereafter, return to this subject,
enumerating the choicest and best varieties of
the Fig known in Filorida and the South, and
giving fuller and more explicit directions for
growing, preserving, pickling, and shipping the
fresh fruit, &c., &c. The London Encyclopedia
mentions fifty-six species of the Fig, of which
the following are the most remarkable:
F. cerica, the common fig tree with an up-
right stem branching fifteen or twenty feet high,
and garnished with large palinated or hanid-
shaped leaves. Of this there are many varie-
ties, as the common fig tree, with large, oblong,
dark purplish blue fruit, which ripens in Au-
gust, either on standards or walls, and of which
it carries a great quantity ; the brown or chest-
nut fig, a large, globular, chestnut-colored fruit,
having a purplish delicious pulp; the black
Ischia fig, a middle-sized, shortish, flat-crowned,
blackish fruit, having a bright pulp; the green
Ischia fig, a large, oblong, globular-headed,
greenish fruit, slightly stained by the pulp to
a reddish-brown color; the brown Ischia fig, a
small, pyramidal, brownish-yellow fruit, having
a purplish rich pulp; the Malta fig, a -small,
flat-topped, brown fruit; the round brown Na-
pies fig, a globular, middle-sized, light-brown.
fruit, and brownish pulp; the long, brown Na-
ples fig, a long, dark-brown fruit, having a red-\
dish pulp; the great blue fig, a large blue fruit,
having a fine red pulp ; the black Genoa fig, a
large pear-shaped, black-colorefd fruit, with a
bright-red-pulp ;. it m lhe propagated either
by sucker arising fronrroots, by layers, or by
cuttings. The suckers are -to be taken off as
low down as possible ; trim off any ragged part
at bottom, leaving the top entire, especially if
for standards, and they may at once be planted
where they are to remain.

New Publications.
NMONROE CO UNTYV' FLORIDA.-"A Pamphlet
De4criptive of Monroe County, Florida. With
brief sketches culled from able writers on differ-
ent parts of the State." By C. B. Pendleton,
Editor, of "Key West Democrat." 1882. This
little pamphlet of about 25 closely-written
pages, contains a great deal of interesting mat-
ter.. It discourses of that portion of Florida
which is very little known, viz : The extreme
southern end and "jumping off place" of the
peninsula; and treats of such topics as cattle-
raising, farming and fruit-raising, growing vege-
tables, cocoanut groves, bananas, pine-apples,
rare and valuable native woods, the fishing in-
terest, gathering sponges, soil, transportatioA,
climate, water, health, inhabitants, game, cost
to go, and cost to settle, etc. The pamphlet also
contains a good map of Florida, statistics of the


exports of Key West, etc.. One dollar pays for
the pamphlet and the "Key West- Democrat"
for six months. Single copies of pamphlet per
mail, 25 cents. Address: C. B. Pendleton, Key
West Florida.
STAINED GLAss.-Descriptive pamphlets of
stained glass for church and household decora-
tion, from J. & R. Lamb, 59 Carmine Street,
New York; containing a great many beautiful
and artistic designs for memorial windows, door-
lights, transoms, fire-screens, etc.
FLORIDA : its Climate, Soil, Productions,
and Agricultural Capabilities. Washington,
D. C. Government Printing Office. 1882.
, The publication, by the Department of Agri-


I





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH. 24


culture, of this handsome little volume of 100
pages is a very gratifying evidence of the in-
creasing interest in our State, and the wide-
spread desire for information respecting our soils,
climate, productions, etc., etc. So far as 0
have been able to examine the little work before
us, we find much to approve and commend. It
is written and compiled in a very fair and im-
partial style, alike free from undue exaggera-
tion or detraction; and it should be carefully
read by all who are looking toward Florida as
a future home. The people of the great North
and West need and are constantly asking for
just such information as this pamphlet contains;
and if their servants in Congress will "let up"
on politics for a brief period and scatter broad-
cast a few thousands of this- Florida pamphlet,
they will do their constituents substantial ser-
vice. It-may also be had by addressing "Com-
missioner of Agriculture, Washington, D. C."
REPORT upon the condition of Winter Grain,
and upon Numbers and Condition .f Farm
Animals of the United States. April 1882. A
very interesting and useful pamphlet, also from
the Departmeqt of Agriculture, at Washing-
ton, D. C.
EAST FLORIDA SEMINARY, State Normal
School and Military Institute-Register for
1881-'82. Address: Prof. W. N. Sheats, Secre-
tary, Gainesville, Florida.
THE NATIONAL FARMER is a new and very
promising agricultural journal, published at
Washington, D. C., by the "Farmers' Publish-
ing Co.," of which Lee Crandall is the manager.
It is to be issued meekly, at $2 per year; and
we take pleasure in adding it to the list of our
exchanges.
"TANIA'S PERIL," and "AWOMAN's PERIL;"
two paper-covered, thick duodecimo volumes,
from T. B. Peterson & Bros., Philadelphia, Pa.,
just published. The first is a Russian novel, of
very considerable power, by Henry Greville ;
and the second a tale of Southern life, by Mrs.
James C. Cook, of Columbus, Ga. Price of
"Tania's Peril," 50c. "A Woman's Peril," 75.
Address the publishers as above.
"FLORIDA BREEZES"-a new, entertaining
and sprightly volume, portraying Florida life,
scenery, &c., is now in the press, and will short-
ly be published by Ashmead Bro's., Jackson-
ville, Fla. It is by a well-known, gifted and
highly-esteemea lady of this State; and is sure
to attract much attention here and elsewhere.
Further notice hereafter.


Answers to Inquiries.
A. P. K.-Santa Monica, Col.-There


are


no dwarf orange trees for sale here, yet. Get
your nurserymen to bud for you some of your
choice varieties on the Otaheite or C. Trifoliata.
Have the bud inserted quite near the ground-
take gdod care of the little trees, and you will
not have long to "wait" for the fruit. *
O.-We expect to be able to give the desired
description and cut of Plymouth Rocks soon.
We do not know of any really good specimens
of this valuable breed for sale in Florida, at
present. We cannot afford to advertise free
for dealers who seem to be afraid of printer's
ink.
F.-Portions of your valuable communica-


tions appear in this issue, and the remainder of
the Ms. shall be put in print as soon as possible.
Many thanks!-and please pardon unavoidable
delay.
P. W.-"HIoney Dew" (so called,) -"curled-
leaf," &c., have all affected our watermelons,
more or less, this season, and the crops in the
vicinity of Jacksonville have been seriously
injured. See article of Mr. Ashmead, in
present number.
S. L. P.-We do not know of a better im-
plement for 'tiltivating and working young
orange groves," than the Kalamazoo Spying-
Harrow." It costs $12 or $13, and may be
had here from S. B. Hubbard & Co., hardware
dealers, whose advertisement may be found on
another page.
Pomona's Favors I
We have lately been very pleasantly reminid-
ed that the fruit season is here, by the pomro-'
logical flors of our friends.
Mr. Bidwell, of "Arlington Neseries," sent
usa magnificent Pine-apple of the "Prince "Al-
bert" variety, weighing-we don't know liow
many pounds! Also, specimens of a new dry-
ing Fig from California, a curious little fruit
called the Otaheite Gooseberry; some samples
of the new Catleya Guava; and part ofa uacty
of a new and very superior Banana, (th/s far
nameless,) raised by our friend, E. H. Hart,
Esq., of Federal Point, St. John's River.
From the old pioneer Florida Nurseryman,;
Col. L. A. Hardee, of "Honeymoon, -we have
some very large apd beautiful Pomegranates
(the sweet variety,) and some extra fine Figs-
among which "Hardee's Seedling, a large and
luscious variety resembling the old "Bruns-
wick," was particularly noticeable. For all
which, many thanks!

The Watermelon Crop.
This crop has been a partial failure in some
sections of Florida and Georgia. About 300
car-loads were expected from the line of the
Florida Central and Western railroad, whereas,
probably, not 100 will be forwarded.
In South Georgia, the yield will only be
about one-half that anticipated a month since;
then, reliable judges estimated the crops of
Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes Counties as ag-
gregating about 900 car-loads; about 400 have
been shipped. The crop is said to be nearly
exhausted.
Melons for profit have been too early, and
this season too cold at the markets. The aver-
age price being from $25 to $30 per 100, such


prices will net the shipper about $12 per 100,
or about $125 per car-load. It is a profitable
crop at these prices, provided it is a fair one, or
about 500 marketable melons to the acre. As
but few have realized this, the season cannot be
said to be successful. The causes we do not
yet know, but are investigating, and hope to be
enabled to find out the trouble. The effect has
been that the vines die for about four feet or
more from the hill, with the balance looking
vigorous yet, but little fruit. Others, the vines
have dropped their first fruit and now are
blooming and setting a second crop. Others
have a full, vigorous vine and no fruit, and
others still have neither vine nor fruit, all


having died out and rotted rapidly, as if cut off
at the hill. *
Some say it was caused by insects, lice and
cut-worms; others say that it was the dry
weather: others, that it was the rain; others,
the guano; others, the want of fertilizers. About
as many different causes assigned as there have
been crops affected. We have examined several
different fields, differently affected, and must
atimit that we practically know nothing about
it. We have never before heard of this crop
being similarly affected; the result seems to be
that it is an "off year" for good watermelons.
We have a story that may or may not be cor-
rect. It will be remembered that we had a
very'dry winter and early spring. When the
rains came the food in the hill was quickly
utilized, the plant forced out in rapid growth
and quick production. While in this condition
the hot sun and heating guano may have killed
them; or, the plants may have exhausted the
supply of food and starved in the effort to ma-
ture its fruit. .
MAI.Y of our readers inquired where they
could (Ijture Branching Sorghum Seed.. It
can-be had from Johiison & Stokes, Philadel-
phia, as well as other good seed. See their ad-
vertisement and write for some.

"THE FLORIDA DAILY UNION," of the 6th
inst., comes to us in;a "spick and span" new
dress, heading and all; and is now- one Of the
handsomest, as it has always been one of the-
very best, newspaper'in the country.

MUMBY, STOCKTON & KNIGHT.-See their
advertisement. This firm now carries the larg-
est and best selected stock of *Glass, China,
Earthenware, &c., in the State ; are courteous,
gentlemanly and thoroughly reliable in their
dealings.
Persons desirous of purchasing anything in
their line, would find it to their advantage- to
write to them, before procuring elsewhere. We
heartily commend them to our patrons.

LECONTE PEAR TREES -See the adver-
tisement of L. L. Varnedoe & Sons, of Thom-
asville, Ga. Capt. Varnedoe (who introduced
the LeConte) is, we believe, the largest grower
of this fine and profitable fruit, iwthe country.
He writes us (July 6) that he has already ship-
ped twenty-three (23) bushels of this pear to
New York, and will ship again next week."
We believe there are wonderful possibilities
for the LeQonte in the South, and we shall en-
deavor to keep our readers fully advised of all


relating to its culture, &c.

TrUI TURNIP SEED!

True American Purple Top and White Flat Dutch,
White and Yellow Ruta Baga, and all approved varie-
ties of Swede Turnip Seed, 50 cents per pound; if sent by
mail, 16 cents added. Warranted fresh and genuine.
Especial prices quoted for large quantities.
A full assortment of Garden Seeds for the season.
Especial attention given to orders per mail.
M. B. :OECr E~S SEEDSMAN,
133 MARKET STREET,
PHILADELPHIA.
to August 3.
PERSONS ORDERING GOODS FROM AD-
VERTISERS APPEARING I[N THE DIS-
PATCH WILL CONFER A FAVOR BY NO-
TIFYING THEM TO THAT EFFECT.


1






2e, THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.
i . 1 . . . i . ,.*


Notes on Back Numbers.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
In forwarding you a few thoughts brought
out by reading the earlier numbers of the new
series, allow me to congratulate both publishers
apd editors on the fine typographical appear-
ance the paper makes under the new manage-
ment and its general editorial excellence. *
Carp for the Table (p. 66).-There must cer-
tainly be some mistake in the quotation from
Pacific. Rural Press. I cannot believe that
Prof. Baird has so far "gone back on his
" first love as to liken the German Carp to a
North Carolina 'pine-woods' pig, but much
prefer to think that he said this of the ordi-
nary English Carp," and compared the German
Carp to a pig of the Berkshire breed."
Yellow, or Burr Clover (p. 66).-Mr. Chair-
mpan, I rise to call for experience with this plant
in Florida, especially in South Florida on com-
mon unfertilized pine (sandy-) land. I have
fixed in my mind a cheap system of conducting
alm orange grove on these lands. One fagtorin my
ifeal plan is to have a plant of fair oanurial
value, whose seeds will, lie dormant in the soil
till about October or Novomber; then sprout
and grow during winter,.and early spring and
ripen some seed and have the' soil well covered
with green crop by Apriflst to 15th, when I
wanftto plow-and put in some quick growing
.variety of cow-peas, such as Pole-cat and Red
Ripper. The pea vines to be pulled for mulch-
ing or bedding around the trees in June. Crab
grass which will spring up in May, plowed un-
der in July and again ini October, and after this
latter plowingethe winter growing plant comes
in of its own accord. Thus, with three plowings
and one seeding (annually) at a cost of about
$12 to $15 per acre, we could add to our soil
four green crops annually. From all that I
can learn of the Burr Clover it is the plant I
need; but will it grow well on common fair pine
land as crab grass and cow-peas do? That's
where the rub comes." Plants, no matter how
valuable as manurial crops, if not able to pro-
duce an abundance of growth on poor land, are
not what we need. The butter-fly weed (which
looks a little like a thistle plant, and has a float,
or sail, of down attached to each seed) grows
well on poor land, but makes most of its growth
in spring. I am trying Burr Clover, also Beg-
gar-lice weed, but the latter does not impress
me favorably on account of the small amount
of foliage it produces. It makes a late summer
and fall growth.,


'Page 71 gives us the information that in the
production of wheat Illinois stands first with
51,000,000 bushels and Pennsylvania tenth with
19,000,000 bushels. What has become of Kan-
sas? B ut-a few yrars Ago it seems to me it was
claimed askthe thiAtl Sate In Wheat production.
Perhaps my memory fails me and it was in
grain production. I lived for several years in
the great wheat belt of Central Kansas, (I
was in the South central part of the State in the
Arkansas Valley,).and I have no doubt that for
several years when Kansas was producing a
tremendous wheat crop that the producers of
two-thirds of that crop would have made more
money by :" working out" for fifty cents per dhy.
Millions of Blishels of wheat have been har-
vested in Kansas which did not return 25 cents
for each day's labbr bestowed on it, and yet the
State was so well advertised, that at that .very
time, thousands of home-seekers were flocking


to her embrace (she hospitably took them in ")
when other thousands would only haye been too
glad to be able to get away.
Page 71, speaking of Florida, the Pathfinder
says: This is probably the only State in the
Union where one can settle down comfortably
on a small capital and reap early returns from
their labor." I have been in the State over
one and a half years; in most of my cultural
ventures I am looked on as extra'successful. I
have lived in four other States and the longer
I live in Florida the better do I like it and the
more certain am I that it is a good place to
move to for those who can look a4ead, who have
economical habits and persevering pluck and
energy. But I must enter my most earnest
protest against the sweeping assertion above
quoted. It does not convey to the general
reader, without othlr knowledge, a truth. Only
with special experience and favorable circum-
stances will any one find it true. To persons
without rural experience, with only limited
capital and no ability to turn their hand to
anything which may offer as a means of liveli-
hood, (while they are devoting about ]&lf their
time to the care of a grove, which will in ten
years make hem worth ten to fifteen thousand,
dollars,)' I should say stay away; sink where
you are rather than come to this goodly, land,
and sinking here, give it a bad reputation, when
the fault lies in yourself. I quote a few ex-
pressive lines from a recent letter from a gen-
tlemaiy who came tbo Florida fifteen years ago
ia popr health and in, poverty, and who, with
the a14 of a willing and practical helpmate, has
" fought the good fight" -and, won the victory
(a' home) and therefore who knows what he
talks of. He says: It is bodily labor here
that is in demand. There are plenty of people
who can walk over ground and direct this tree
or thut to be taken down, but the fellow who
strips off his coat and takes his axe and pitches
into the tree and takes it dowfi, that is'the kind
of man that can get his $1.25 per day every day
he chooses to work, while the one who could
cypher out how many cubic inches there were
in the tree, couldn't get work to keep him from
starving." * How can these clerks, sales-
men, &c., hope to come in competition with
men whose muscles are used to work. I cannot
see and I do not see any way out for them un-
less, as you say, they have some means, a great
deal of pluck, lots of faith and patience; with
these, if no broken in health, they may win
their way and success to them will be well de-
served."
Guinea and "Cracker" Cows-The Labor
Question, &c.
Editors of the Florida Dispatch:
MAYWOOD FARM, ALTOONA, Fla., June, 1882.
Reading in THE DISPATCH about those little
Guinea cows, I felt as if it would be a treasure
indeed to possess one. That sixteen quarts (!)
of milk a day would enable us to fare sumptu-
ously ; plenty of fresh sweet butter, Dutch


cheese, and rich milk for our oat-meal, which is
the luxury of luxuries. But we must wait for
coming events. 'Seeing these things afar off is
better than not seeing them at all. I was at a
Florida stock-farm not long since and went out
to see the girls milk, for it is a business that the
other sex seldom follow. It was a performance
almostas interesting to a "Northerner" as some
of Barnum's novelties. The cows were kept
over night in an enclosure separate from the
calves. When they are ready to fnilk, the bars are
let down and one calf only allowed to come into
the cQw-pen. The others are kept back by a
whip. The calf soon finds its mother and while
it draws the milk on one side, the girl stands
with a snwill tin pail or quart measure and milks


on the other side. The cow .don't seem to like
this kind of treatment very well, and keeps
moving on, but the girl follows her up, saying:
"hay mully," "so mully," until she gets a quart
or less and then another calf is allowed to come *
i and this is kept up until all are milked.
Sot e are evil-eyed and unruly; all such are let
alone, and the calves get the whole, which I
should say would not overload their stomachs.
Now, it would take about twenty cpws of this
class to get what the little Guinea gives, and
such a task to get it! I don't believe the aver-
age man would go through with it for twice the
quantity that they get; but the poor girls, how
many disagreeable tasks fall to them. No won-
der they marry young, hoping for a change of
scene, but their lot is hard and must ever be
until a change takes place for the better. The
"no fence law" would benefit women more than
any one else. Then she could 8it down\ to the
"little Guinea" and milk in peace and quiet-
ness. The wild untamed herd would ho more
cross her enclosure, and she could feed her
Berkshire hogs in the pen, instead' of feeding
the "pike", and "alligator" stock of Florida in
her-potato patch, and chasing them out in the
"small wee hours" of the night.
Yes, we know a change is coming in regard
to these things; the laws that sufficed for the
wilderness, will not do for the town. Our fields,
and groves, and gardens must be protected. We
ask it and expect it from those who have the
power in their hands. It is the voice of tde
people, that appeals to them, and cannot be
passed unheeded by.
Another serious subject is the labor question.
I think your correspondent "Agricola" rather
hard on the colored race, to lay his grievances
particularly at their door. That they are not
"perfectly reliable" as a class, is true, but ,it
must be remembered that they were not long
since brought from "bondage," and slavery is
not an elevator of the human race. All the
"amendments" in the world cannot remove
from their breast, what years of servitude and
degredation has planted there. Time is the
great "Amender" and that combined with
Christian influence, may accomplish what noth-
ing else can. Our experience in the wilds of
Florida has not been with the above class, but
with the so called "crackers," and in regard to
reliability, I should say the two classes were on
a square footing, although as regards morals the
colored race is much deeper in the mire. But I
think neither of the above classes will settle the
labor question. Therefore we should use all
our efforts to influence the immigration and
settlement in our midst of a "reliable" labor-
ing class. This can only be done by offering
good inducements and high wages. And we
believe the returns from the labor will warrant
this. Cheap labor has "played Out;" it is not
worth the price paid for it. If any one has a
better way to solve the labor question we should
like to hear from them.


I.don't suppose the editors of THE DISPATCH
would refuse to publish our ideas of things, if
they are not exactly in accordance with their
own. I don't suppose they endorse every sen-
timent found in their very valuable paper, which
(by the way) cannot be too highly spoken of.
Among the dozen papers that come to us none
has such nice white ground and neat form as
THE DISPATCH, and then it is brim full df "just
what we wanted to know." C. Drew's article on
the banana is of priceless value ,to us lovers of
that fruit. Thanks to L. H. A. for his nice
article on "Wirter Rest of Trees," although' I
think he must be mistaken about that
"blizzard." If the same one had swept over
Iowa, I presume they would have called it a
"gentle west wind."
The cry is no longer "go West !" for no one
likes the "blizzard," the snow or the grasshop-
per. They are hard things to fight, and if we


- --.-- ---- ... -- - -





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


must battle, would rather it would be with
things easier subdued. Now, the cry is every.
where heard, "go South !" and we say "chme!"
NORTHERNER.





Immigration at the South.
The Baltimore Journal of Commerce says
this subject is fresh, and still demands the at-
tention of those interested in the welfare of the
South. Immigrants are pouring into this coun-
try by the thousands and hundreds of thou-
sands; but where are they going? Not to the
South, certainly. At Baltimore, for example,
a steamer from Bremen arrives weekly, bring-
ing on an average- some 1,500 people, largely
composed of enterprising, thrifty, well-to-do
families, who are seeking to gain in the New
World what they could never hope to obtain in
the Old-perfect freedom of action, and the
chance not only to care well for their families,
but to accumulate wealth.
These people'step from the steamer into the
cars which are in waiting, and almost in one
body pass out of the depot bound West. Even
before leaving Europe the majoity- have de-
cided exactly where to locate, and many have
already purchased land for their future home.
The' railroads interested in building up the West
have their agents scattered throughout Europe,
advertising by numerous methods tlhe advanta-
ges of each particular section, and so borough
is the work done that full maps of the different
townships even are furnished to the intended
emigrant, and he is posted as to what land to
buy and how to reach it. Then the States take
hold of the matter, and, through their immigra-
tion bureaus, second the work of the railroads;
and added to all these efforts is the enterprise
of many individual property-holders, who com-
bine for the purpose of inducing immigration
to their particular locality. Of course, among
the many thus engaged in this great work there
are some knaves; but these are comparatively
few, for it is well understood that permanent
success depends upon thorough honesty. All
parties appreciate this and endeavor to act ac-
cordingly.
The result is that the Western states have
developed with a rapidity which is simply mar-
velous, and is probably unequaled in the world's
history.
Why cannot the same be done in the South ?
The causes which prevented~such in" the past
are disappearing, and that section now stands
in a position which, if rightly improved, may be
made the turning point in this important mat-
ter of filling up the waste places with the busy
workmen of other lands. The Southern States
contain an area of about 526,000,000 acres, of


which about 75,000,000 acres are improved, leav-
ing over 450,000,000 acres yet to be brought into
subjection toinan and made to do duty in sup-
plying food for the human race. It is admitted
that the soil of the South is in many sections
equally as productive as that of the West;
while owing to the genial climate, it is tilled
with far less exposure and at a much less ex-
pense. The agricultural productions of the
"South cover almost everything that can be
raised in either a temperate or a torrid clime.
For stock-raising the South is pre-eminently
adapted. Sheep and cattle alike thrive, and
that, too, with but little 'trouble on the part of
their owners; and those who have tried the
stock business have found it a source of great
profit. The lumber interests of that section are
of almost incomprehensible extent and value.
It is stated on good authority that the timber


now standing in the State of Georgia alone is
worth over 700,000,000. The variety of tim-
ber is like the extent, very great. While pine
forms the largest proportion, there are million!
of feet of the costliest hard woods.
Mining for coal, irop, gold, silver and
other metals is a business of much profit, and
destined to be of great extent, while for manu-
factures of many kinds the advantages of the
South are so genQrally known that it scarcely
seems necessary to speak of them. All of these
things invite the seeker after wealth, comfort
and happiness' in the South; but while these
are known to those who dwell in that favored
land they are not known to foreigners looking
to America for a home. And if the South is to
be built up, her unoccupied lands turned to the
uses of civilization, her streams become the seats
of great manufacturing enterprises, and all her
natural advantages made to bear material de-
velopment, there must be a systematic effort to
induce immigration. Railroads, States, private
individuals, are all alike interested in this, and
it behooves all to work persistently to accom-
plish it.





Vegetable (Quotations.
FLORI DISPATCH LINE,
315 BROADWAY, I*W YORK, June 2, 1882. f
Receipt via Florida Dispatch Line and Southern Ex-
press Company, week ending 27th ult.: Vbgetables, 1,300
packages; watermelons, 25 car-loads.
Market for watermelons overstocked at present, and
sales slow. On Saturday last some choice melons were
sold at $50 per hundred, but the prices to-day are from
$22.50 to $35.
Georgia peaches in demand for choice fruit prices,
ranging from 75c. to $2.50 per small crate for good, and
$2.50 to $3.50 for fancy.
Tomatobs-Florida, $1.50 to $2.50per crate; Charleston,
$1.75 to 3.50 per crate.
Respectfully,
C. D. OWENS,
General Agent.

Jacksonville Wholesale Prices.
Corrected weekly, by JOG.ES & B OWEN, Wholesale and
Retail Grocers, Jacksonville, Fla.


SUGARS-Granulated....... .... ..........
W hite E x. U........................................
G olden C...........................................
Pow dered............. ...........................
Cut Loaf.........................................
COFFEE, Rio- Fair............................................
G ood ............................................
Choice ........ .............................
B est ..............................................
Java 0. G ............................ ..........
M och a ............................... ..................
Peaberry........... ...............................
M aracaibo.............................................
Any of above grades roasted to order
FLOUR-Snow Drop, best..............................
Oreole, 2d best ..................................
Pearl, 3d best...................................
MEATS-Bacon....... .............................
Hams (Merwin & Sons)......................
Shoulders................................ .......
HoMINY-Pearl, per bbl.....................................
M EAL-per bbl...................................................
LARD-Refined in pails.................................
BUTTER-Very best, kegs (on ice)..................
CHEESE-Full cream.........................................
Half cream............................ ............
TOBACCO-Shell Road....................................
Florida Boys, 11 inch 5' ...... .......
Florida Girls, bright twist, 14 to lb..
Smoking in packages, 8 to lb...........
SOAP AND STARCH-Colgate's 8 oz., per box..
Peerless, 8 oz., per box.......................,....
Starch, lump, per lb..........................
HoPS, YEAST CAKES, BAKING POWDERS-
H ops, per lb..............................................
Ager's Fresh Yeast Cakes, per doz..........
Grant's 3-Dime Baking Powder, per
doz. 1 b............................................
Town Talk Baking Powder, per doz. 1 lb.
Royal Baking Powder, per doz. V lb.....
Royal Baking Powder, per doz. Ib l......
COUNTRY PRODUCE.
Florida Sugar and syrups ruling high
for first grades.
POTATOES-Irish, per bbl., new...................
CHICKENS, each .................. .........................
EGG S- Per doz.....................................................
HIDES-Dry Flint Cow Hides, per lb., first class
Country Dry Salted, per lb.....................
Butcher Dry Salted, per lb....................
Damaged Hides....................................
Kip and Calf, 81bs. and under................
SKINS-Raw Deer Skins, per lb.........................
Deer Skins Salted, per lb...... ...............
FURS -Otter, each, (Summer no value) Win-
ter................. .. ...... .........
R accoon, each........................................
W ild Cat, each...... ...... ... ...... .........
Fox, each ................................................
BEESW A x-per lbt ................................................
WOOL-Free from burs, per lb.............................
Burry, per lb...... ........................
GOAT SKINS-Each per lb................ .........
Meat market advancing.


10%
10
8%y
* it
114

12
13
25
35
18
18 4
9 00
8 00
7 75
16M
14
540
5 40
1312
29
15
12Y2
55
36
50
32
350
350
5@6c
15@22c
60c
2 25
2 25
2 70
150


6 00
20@40
15@18
13
9@11
9@10
6
10
35
26@30
1 50@4 00
5@15
10@20
5@15
20
17@22
11@15
10


Agricultural, Horticultural and Pontolofical
Associations.
Florida Fruit-Growers' Association-Office at Jack-
sonville-D. Redmond, President; W. H. Sebring, Vice-
President; D. H. Elliott, Secretary; W. H. Ashmead,
Assistant Secretary; C. A. Choate, Corresponding Sec-
retary; D. Greenleaf, Treasurer. Executive Commit-
tee-Dr. C. J. Kenworthy, Dr. J. J. Harris, 0. P. Rookes,
P. Houston. Official organ-THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.
OFFICERS OF THE FLORIDA STATE GRANGE AND
THEIR POST-OFFICES.-Master, Win. IH. Wilson, Lake
City, Florida; Overseer, Wm. Hicks, Houston, Florida;
Lecturer, B. F. Wardlaw, Madison, Florida; Steward,
Daniel Lynn, Lake Butler, Florida; A. S., T. W. Field-
ing, Wilson, Florida; Chaplain, A. M. Clontz, Live Oak,
Florida; Treasurer, J. H. Lee, White Springs, Florida;
Secretary, R. F. Rogers, Welborn, Florida; Gate
Keeper, Frasier, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Ceres,
Mrs. Win. H. Wilson, Wilson, Florida; Pomona, Mrs.
T. W. Fielding, Wilson, Florida; L. A. S., Mrs. J. H.
Lee, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Executive Committee,
J. C. Waldron, White Springs, Florida; Geo. W. Wal-
dron, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Geo. Umstead, Hous-
ton, Florida.
State Park Association, located at Jacksonville.-
Damon Greenleaf, President; A. J. Bidwell, Vice-Presi-
dent; A. J. Russell, Secretary; J. C. Greeley, Treasurer.
g1irectors-J. H. McGinniss, G. C. Wilson, J. P. Talia-
ferro,'P. McQuaid, J. W. Whitney. Annual meeting-
Last Friday in April each year.
Orange Park Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Associa-
tion.-Orlando Knapp, President; E. D. Sabin, Vice-
President; 0. E. Campbell, Corresponding Secretary;
Rev. 0. Taylor, Secretary and Treasurer.
Lake George Fruit Growers' Association, Georgetown,
Florida.-President, A. B. Bartlett, Georgetown; Vice-
Presidents, E. A. Manville, N. W. Hawkins, Lake*
George, and E. Kirby, Mt. Royal; A. H. Manville, Sec-
retary, Lake George; George H. Thorn, Treasurer,
Georgetown; Corresponding Secretary, Rolla Ham-
mond, Fort Gates.
Picolata Agricultural and Horticultural Society.-R.
B. Cahova, President; J. J. pee, W. N. Parker, Vice-
Presidents; N. R. Fitz-Hugn, Corresponding Secretary,
N. R. Fitz-Hugh, Jr., Recording Secretary; J. F. Sowell,
Treasurer. Meets first Saturday in each month.
Micanopy Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Associa-
tion.-G. W. Means, President; J. J. Barr, First'Vice
President; A. H. Mathers, Second Vice-President; B.
W. Powell, Corresponding Secretary; B. F. Jordan, Sec-
retary and Treasurq
Tropical Fruit Growers' Association of Monroe County,
Florida.-Home office, Myers, Florida; F. A. Hendry,
President; T. M. Parks, Secretary. Meets once a week.
Levy County Immigration Society.-J. M. Jackson,
President; Thomas Tillis, First Vice-President; J. B.
Sutton, Second Vice-President; W. H. Sebring, Corres-
ponding Secretary; J. M. Barco, Recording Secretary;
L. W. Hamlin, Assistant Recording Secretary.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Association.-
John Bradford, President, Bradfordville, Florida; D. H.
Elliott, Secretary, Jacksonville, Florida.
Pinellas, Florida, Fruit Growers' Association.-D. W.
Meeker, President; Wm. P. Neeld, Secretary.
Central Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Association, Ar-
redondo, Florida.-Eli Ramsey, President; Dr. B. P.
Richards, Secretary.
Evergreen Horticultural Society, Dunedin, Florida.-
J. W. Matchett, President; W. Tate, Vice-President;
Geo. L. Jones, Secretary.
Decatur County Fair Association, Bainbridge, Geor-
gia.-Mastorn O'Neil President; I. Kwilecki, Secretary.
Lake Wier Agricultural and Pomnological Society (of
Marion County, Florida).-Captain J. L. Cainy, *Presi-
dent; Dr. L. M. Ayer, Corresponding Secretary.
Welaka Horticultural Society (Welaka, Florida).-J.
S. North, President; C. M. Higgins, Secretary.
Southwest Georgia Industrial Association, Albany,
Georgia.-L. E. Welch, President; T. M. .Carter, Secre-
tary.


Sumter County Agricultural and Fruit Growers' Asso-
ciation.-D. L. Hubbard, President, Leesburg" W. C.
Dodd, Recording Secretary, Leesburg; A. P. Roberts,
Corresponding Secretary, Leesburg.
Florida Central Agricultural Society.-Thos. F. King,
President Gainesville; Secretary,
; W. K. Cessna, Corresponding Secretary, Gaines-
ville.
Archer Agricultural Associatlon.-W. B. Lipsey,
President, Archer; J. A. Pine, Secretary; Dr.J. C. Neal,
Corresponding Secretary, Archer.
Middle Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Associa-
tion.-P. Houston, President; John A. Craig, Secretary;
Edward Lewis, Treasurer,. Tallahassee.
Indian River Agricultural and Pomological Society.-
A. P. Cleveland, President; W. H. Sharp, Secretary,
Rockledge, Florida. Meets second Saturday in each
month.
Madison County Agricultural and Mechanical Fair
Association.-R. J. Mays, President; Frank W. Pope,
Secretary, Madison, Florida.
Orange County Fair Association.-General Joseph
Finnegan, President; Fred. L. Robertson, Corresponding
Secretary. C s
Gadsden County Fair Association.-Jesse Wood, Pres-
ident; W.H. Scott, First Vice-President; J. R. Harris,
Second Vice-President; J. W. Kendricks, Secretary; E.
C. Lou, Treasurer.
South Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical Associa-
tion, Thomasville, Georgia.-H. M. Sapp, President; K.
T. McLean, Secretary.
[Will our friends in the different associations above
enumerated, be kind enough to correct any errors into
which ve may have fallen in the naming of officers, &c.,
and oblige THE DISPATCH?]


2-S7


_ _~ I __ I I___ I ___




,rTHE F iLORIDA DISPATCH


F. S. CONE, A. H. MANVILLE, E.' A. MANVILLE,
President and BusinessManager. Secretary and Superintendent. Treasurer
14VE AzN 2 IL3L7E "TTa:SE ImZE ,
Lake George, Florida.
A FULL LINE OF FRUIT TREES adapted to this climate, including Japan Persimmons, Japan Plums
Peaches, Figs, Grapes, LeConte Pears, and over one hundred varieties of the Citrus.
OIAINGIE A IND LE1MO)N TREES a specialty.
Catalogue free. 0 to apr 17, '83

ESTABLISHEDD 1871.]

J. A. BARNES & CO.,

FRUIT AND PRODUCE


COMMISSION


M MERCHANTS.


So'utlb-erz' ~~Iit anid. cVegetables a. Specialty.
3 6 and 3*~2 North Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia.
to jan 6, '83 ________________




WHOLESALE GROCERS,
AGENTS FOR THE STATE FOR


DRY HOP YEAST CAKES,


251


Bostol a11 8vannlh tlo mshto Lne


ONLY DIRECT LINE BETWEEN
SAVANNAH AND BOSTON.
Transhi pment and extra handling saved. No danger
of fruit being frozen. Cars are unloaded at the steam-
ship wharf in Savannah, avoiding drayage.
,CABIN PASSAGE, $18.
SAILIlG FROM SAVANNAIT.
(has. W. Lort Thursday, July 6th, at 11:00 a. m.
Seminole, Thursday, July 13th, at 5 p. m.
Ohas. W. Lord, Thursday, July 20th, at 10:30 a. in.
Seminole, Thursday, July 27th, at 4 p. m.
RICHARDSON & BARNARD, Agents,
44-tf Savannah, Ga.

DRUGS AND MEDICINES.
The largest stock in' the State. Country
buyers will consult their own interests
by corresponding with me. All 'orders
promptly filled at prices to compete with
any house south of Baltimore. Remem-


60c. PER 'DOZ. >er my only Florida address.
GEO. HUGHES,


SOLE AGENTS FOR THE CELEBRATED BRAND

SNOW-DROP PATENT FLOUR.

:First =a.lds o=r Fiest Qlaality

Dairy Butter from 35 to 37c. per Lb.,

eept in. t1le I .Larget Eefrigera/tor izi ttlle State,
0o. 7 West Bay Street, - - Jacksonville, Florida.
To sept 27, '82


Orange Tree Wash and Insecticide.


H D

DYKE


MILLS
-MANUFACTURE-

FresNirpotAd
FEED, GRITS,
MEAL,
(Bolted or unbolted.)
Pearl Hominy.
GRAIN, HAY, COAL AND
WOOD-YARD.


BOUNETHEAU,. PROPRIETY

FLORIDA 6iMCLA OILD AND SOAP WORKi,
S,. MANUFACTURER OF
Lubricating and Boiler Compounds, Compressed Soaps, Car and
r- 7-AxWe. grease.
S". ...' SOLE ANUFA.' RE 14
of the best Orange Tree Wash and Insecticide extant-
- TCr-E TREE E1VIT.7LiSION !
made from Whale-Oil Soap combined with other powerful ingredients known
to be most effectual for :destroying the S.cale and other insect pests and
parasites of the Citrus family. It will also put the tree in a healthy and flour-
ishing.condition. Prepared for immediate use. Perfectly harmless to the
youngest tree or plant. In packages of from 25 to 300 pounds.. Price, 10 cents
per pound. Discount to the Trade. Full directions for use accompany
each package. Address
D. BOUNETHIEATU.


P. O. BOX 984, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


to july 31 '82


Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah.

Savannah and Philadelphia.
--0
A STEAMSHIP OF THIS LINE SAILS FROM EACH PORT EVERY SATURDAY.
----
EXCURSION TICKETS ISSUED BY THE OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.'S PHILADELPHIA LINE WILL
be received for passage by the Company's Ships to Ne* York. Tickets sold by all Agents to New York via Phil-
adelphia at SAME PRICE as DIRECT TO NEW YORK.
Philadelphia steamers for July are appointed to sail as follows:
JUNIATA, July 1st, at 6:00 p. inm.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, July 8th, at 12:00 noon.
JUNIATA, July 15th, at 5:00 p. m.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, July 22d, at 11:00 a. m.
JUNIATA, July 29th, at 5:00 p. m.
Days and hburs subject to change, without notice. Both ships have elegant passenger accommodations.
WM. L. JAMES, WM. HUNTER & SON,
44-tf Agent, 13 S. Third St., Philadelphia. Agents at Savannah.


to June 26, '82 Cor. Bay and Ocean, Jacksonville, Fla.

PIANOS ANDORGANS
A M. CA:V./P.BEE.LL
15 East Bay Jacksonville.
SOLD ON INSTALLMENTS, AT LOWEST PRICES-
Sbranch of Ludden & Bates, Savannah-EXACTLY
SAME PRICES AND TERMS, Sheet Music, Strings
and small instruments of all kinds. Send for cata-
logues, prices and terms. TUNING AND REPAIRING
a specialty. My tuner will make regular tours through
the State, and my customers will thus have my repre-
sentative at their doors, a great advantage to purchasers
of instruments. to sept 26, '82

M. L. HARNETT, formerly BEN GEORGE, late of the
of the Marshall House. Screven House.
THE HAIRNETT HOUSE,
SAVANNAH, GA,
HARNETT & GEORGE, Proprietors.
RAThS, $2 PER DAY.
This favorite family Hotel, under its new manage-
ment, is recommended for the excellence pf its cuisine.
homelike comforts, prompt attent-ion and moderate
rates. to sept 4,'82

0. L. KEENE,
MILLINERY, FANCY, DRESS GOODS.
NOTIONS,

Laces, Worsteds,
AND A FINE LINE OF


67 West Bay Street, Corner Laura,


JACKSONVILLE,
to feb 20, '82


- FLORIDA.


SEND $1.50 TO

z--oILT's An=0-YA-sc^ao-r
35 West Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.,
And get a bottle of Richmond's Samaritan Nervine.
Cures Nervous Disorders, Dizziness, Vertigo, Seminal
Weakness. The&only sure cure for Epileptic Fits.
Address HOLT'S PHARMACY.
* to aug 20, '82


RUBBER


STAMPS


Are manufactured right in our establishment & the
best manner and at the shortest notice.
&*-Send in your orders.
ASHMEAD BROS.,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
May 1-tf


1 0


ACER'S


NORI


I


I





THE FLORIDA DISPATCHH.


A. N. DOBBINS & BRO.,










Gun, Locumb anl nci iitters


24 LAURA STREET,
JAC KSON VWIII.E FLORIDA,
Gunsmithing done in all its branches.
U IRON SAFE WORK.
Special rates on Stencil Cutting, by mail. Address,
tojunel2'83, (P. O. Box 833.)


S. B. HUBBARD & CO.,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.,
& Wholesale and Retail Dealers in

lllhwaro, ltovos, Doors, gash, Blds
Paints, Oils, Pumps, Lead and Iron Pipe.
Sugar Mills, Rubber and Leather Belting,
Steam ;g Gas-Fitting, Plumbing Tinsmithing,
Agricultural Implements of all Kinds,
HAZARD'S POWDER,
BARBED FENCE WIRE.
Agents for S. L. Allen & Co.'s Garden Tools.
A- Send for Price List and Catalogue, -"
to June 11 '83


100 BEARING ONE TREES
Surrounding a handsome residence in Jacksonville,
hall-mile from the centre of business on Bay Street.
House has seven rooms neatly finished in natural
wood, with kitchen and servants' rooms, store room,
and plenty of closets. Good stable and carriage house,
PURE WATER,
Good neighborhood-(ALL WHITE.) Lot is 210x157 feet,
has
100 Orange Trees,
12 to 16 years old, large and thrifty. Also,
GrapesF
Pecans,
Splendid chance for any one desiring a lovely home in
Florida, and a bearing grove.
For price and terms, apply to
J." W-I. IORTO ,
Jacksonville, Florida.
State that you saw this advertisement in THE FLORIDA
.DISPATH. June 12, '82-tf

AT MANDARIN, FLORIDA.
2O FORTY-ACRE TRACTS only 12 miles from Jack-
sonville; exts good land, well located, between river
and J., St. A. and H. R. R. IR.' Price, $10 per acre. Will
sell on monthly payments of $12.50. These lands will in-
crease in value, being located in an already prosperous
town, making a paying investment at small outlay.
Maps can be seen at No. 41 East Bay Street.
to nov 21, '82. GEO. R. REYNOLDS.


Jacksonville, Fla.

450,000

LeOCoto Pear Treas l Outtins
FOR SALE AT
to Aug 21 3Di INe iT'iaree.y-

Also, 400 Bishols Loeonto Paors
for sale. Only tfered for 20 days. The public is invited
to come and se "The Wonder of the Age." Trees 10
years ald holding up 25 bushels of the nicest fruit
known to the American people.
Address,
H. H. SANFORD Proprietor,
DIXIE NURSERY,
to July 10 THOMASVILLE, GA.


TjTIE FIE I -E3OTl5I0D eBOE, $3~8.5 per Ton,
(Guaranteed Pure.)


COTTO ( SEED MEn A.L, $38 per Ton,
(100 Pound Bags.)


COTTON" S'EED I--TrL *A.SI3, $27 per Ton,
(The Best Potash in Use.)
20 :ushlels con0clb 1 eas for Sale.
STOCKBRIDGE FERTILIZERS for Orange Trees and vegetables, for sale by
J. E. HART,'
to Jan 6, '83 Jacksonville, Fia.


ASH M EAD BROTHERS,
21 WEST BAY STREET, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.,

PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS

PRINTERS AND BINDERS,
AND DEALERS IN

TOYS AND FANCY ARTICLES.

NEWSDEALERS.-We keep all the latest Daily and Weekly Papers from Boston, New York, Philadelphia
Baltimore, Chicago, St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, New Orleans, Charleston, Savannah and Jacksonville, and
take subscriptions to all publications at publication price. Orders by mail promptly attended to.
LIST OF BOOKS ON FLORIDA.
FLORIDA: FOR TOURISTS, INVALIDS AND SETTLERS (Barbour, Profusely Illustrated)...............Price $1 50
FLORIDA : ITS SCENERY, CLIMATE AND HISTORY (Lanier)......... ...........Price 1 50
GUIDE TO EAST FLORIDA (Edwards), paper...................................................................................... Price 10
FAIRBANKS' HISTORY OF FLORIDAO............................................................................................................ Price 250
GUIDE TO JA CK SON V ILLE................................................................................................................................Price 25
TOURISTS AND INVALIDS REFERENCE BOOK OF WINTER TRAVEL........................................Price 75
SOUTH FLORIDA, THE ITALY OF AMERICA............................................................................ ......... Price 25
DAVIS' ORANGE CULTURE (new edition)enlarged and improved....... .... .....Price 50
MOORE'S ORANGE CULTURE (new edition, enlarged and improved)......................................................Price 1 00
ORANGE INSECTS-Illustrated (Ashmead, ....................................................................... .............................Price 1 00
ORANGE CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA, by A. T. Garey, (cloth)..................................Price 1 25
A MANUAL OF GARDENING IN FLORIDA (Whitner)............................................................................Price 50
COLTON 'S M A P OF FLOR IDA ...........................................................................................................................Price 75
COLTON'S MAP OF FLORIDA (Sectional-the best).......................................................................................Price 1 25
NEW AND ACCURATE MAP OF ST. JOHN'S RIVER...............................................................................Price 25
McCLELLAN'S NEW DIGEST OF LAWS OF FLORIDA, (8vo sheep, postage extra)..................... Price 6 00
INDEX TO THE DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA...................... ........................Price 3 00
Any of the above books mailed on receipt of price.
ORANGE WRAP .............................. ............ ................................. 10xl0, 14c.; 11x11, 17c.; 12x12,20c.
LAW BLANKS.
W ARRANTY DEEDS, per dozen.................................................................... ...............................................Price 5i
QUIT-CLAIM DEEDS, per dozen........................................................................................................ .............Price
M OR TG A G ES, per dozen......................................................................................................................................Price 50
NOTARIAL SEAL PRESSES, made to order................................................................................................ Price $5 00
We publish a full line of Law Blanks for Lawyers and Justices of the Peace. Price-list mailed on application.
Special prices to large buyers. Adddress
ASHMEAD BROTHERS,
feb 12-tf 21 WEST BAY STREET, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


BUY THlE BEST AND CHEAPEST

-0 -

GOULD & CO.'S ,


F E R T I I Z E R
-AND-


Has been during the past season thoroughly tested by many of the flrst'Qrange Growers and Gardeners of the
State, and received their endorsement and approval. The material which forms the base of this Fertilizer, con-
tains potash, lime, phosphoric acid, ammonia and the other essential elements of Plant Food, making a corn
plete Fertilizer. Many who have tried it with Stockbridge, Baker & Bro.'s, and other digh-priced Fertilizers,
say it is equal to them in the same quantity and has the advantage of being an Insecticide.
This Fertilizer is put up in barrels containing 250 pounds, or 8 barrels to the ton. Price $4 per barrel, $32 per
All orders with remittance promptly filled and delivered free on board cars or boats.

Gentlemen- I used one-half ton of your Fertilizer, in connection with the same amount of Baker & Bro.'s,
New York, and Bradley's, of Boston, last February, using the same quantity of each on alternate rows through-
out my grove. I find yours gave as good results as the others, which are much higher priced fertilizers-costing
$50.50 per ton for B. & Bro.'s and $51.50 for Bradley's, delivered here. I consider yours equal to either of the
others, and a great saving to the growers. Very respectfully, T. J. TUCKER.
WILCOX, ORANGE COUNTY, FLA., September 12,1881. ., 6 1
LEESBURG, SUMTER Co., FLA., March 6, 1882.


GOULD & CO.:
Gentlemen-Allow me to express my thanks for the promptitude with which you have directed your
agents at this point (Messrs Spier & Co.,) to deliver to me the premium of one ton of your valuable fertilizer,
so generously offered for the best display of vegetables grown under its fostering care, I having had the honor
to win the said premium.
.t It was with very small hope of so substantial a reward, that I placed my vegetables among the exhibits
of our first county fair last month; but I wanted our people to know that we have at our own doors, as it
were, a fertilizer and insect destroyer better and cheaper than any of the celebrated Northern brands,
Gould's Fertilizer kills two birds with one stone," inasmuch as it feeds the plant, and destroys its enemies,
at one and the same time. I bave been testing it in the field, garden and orange grove for nearly two years, and
the result has been such that I feel independent of scale, leaf rollers, borers, and the other insect plagues whose
name is legion, while my plants are well fed and 'Vigorous, and exhibit the dark, glossy green of health and
thrift.
For my part, I ask nothing better than Gould's Fertilizer, and at our next county fair. if I live to see it, I
mean to show yet more of its handiwork. HELEN HARCOURT.
Yours truly,.HELEN HARCOURT.


to aug 27, '82


GOULD & UU.,
NO. 6 W. BAY ST., JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


252