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Florida dispatch
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000068/00007
 Material Information
Title: Florida dispatch
Uniform Title: Florida dispatch
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Ashmead Bros.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: May 8, 1882
Publication Date: 1869-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1869)-n.s. v. 9, no. 4 (Jan. 21, 1889).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of North Florida
Holding Location: University of North Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0497
oclc - 08331006
System ID: NF00000068:00007
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch, farmer & fruit grower; farmers alliance

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devoted to the agricultural,

Vol. 1.--No. 7. New Series.

Monday, May 8, 1882.

Florida Scenery.
The acompanying illustration will scarcely
accord with the prevailing ideas of Florida
scenery in the minds of those who have only
made the regulation trip up and down the
St. John's River, diverging by the Ocklawaha
to Silver Spring, and thence to the "Ancient
City" of St. Augustine.
And yet, we have similar scenes in portions of
middle, northern and western Florida; as all
know who have sailed along the lofty, parti-
colored bluffs of Escambia Bay; skirted the
coquina ledges on Indian River; paddled
down the rushing and rock-bordered Suwanee;
traveled through the lovely hill and dale
country near Tallahassee and Quincy, or
floated over the pellucid waters of beautiful
Perdido.
Much of what is known as the Lake Coun-
try" is also very picturesque and lovely; and
though we have no sky-piercing
mountains," dizzy precipices or
fearful gorges," our country possesses
a soft and placid beauty which har-
monizes with its climate, and which
has, perhaps, a more satisfying and
enduring charm than some of the
bolder and more startling physical
aspects of nature.
-0-
THE HOUSEHOLD BOOK, published
by the Detroit Free Press Co., is a
perfect cyclopedia of all matters per-
taining to home, or of interest to wo-
men; with a full and complete treatise
on cookery. It is almost a library in
itself, and every good husband in the
land should present a copy to his wife.
It may be had in one volume, 8vo. 650
pages, handsomely bound in cloth and
gold. Price, only $1.75. It will be
sent per mail from the Detroit Free
Press Co., Detroit, Michigan, or may


Manufacturing and Industrial Interests -f Florida and the Sauth.


--Published by ASHMEAD BROTHERS, Jacksonville, Fla.


be ordered through Ashmead Bros., Jackson-
ville, Florida,
THE AGRICULTURAL REVIEW and journal
of the American Agricultural Association, for
May, contains an exhaustive article on the
Cattle Industries of the United States, by Hon.
J. B. Grinnel of Iowa, giving a complete his-
tory of cattle breeding, the development of the
industry, and a detailed description of cattle:
raising on the plains in the Western States and
Territories; showing the lands best adapted to
the business, and describing the methods of
herdsmen owning from 500 to 20,000 head
each.
The number also contains articles by Hon.
Cassius M. Clay, Dr. Peter Collier, Prof. J. P.
Steele, Hon. T. Bowick of England, Col. Robt.
W. Scott of Kentucky, Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant,
and other practical and scientific writers.
The Agricultural Review is published quar-


Price 5 cents.


$1.00 per Year, in advance; postage free.

terly with supplements, and is pronounced by
the highest authorities one of the most valuable
publications of its class issued.
Terms, $3 per year. Edited and published
by Jos. H. Beall, Secretary of the American
Agricultural Association, 26 University Place,
New York.
Reliable agents wanted in all sections of the
country.
The American Exposition of Products and
Manufactures, being inaugurated by the Asso-
ciation, gives increased value to The Agricultu-
ral Review.
THE FARMER ARMY.-Just at this time,
(says an exchange) the farmers all over the
land are busy and astir. Think of it! Dur-
ing the current year in the United States as
many as 120,000,000 acres will be under grain!
So many acres to be plowed, to be harrowed, to
be sowed and planted, and cultivated and
reaped. How vast the army of our
American farmers; and no standing
army either. Does the heart almost
grow sick at the thought of such- an
amount of plodding, plodding, plod-
ding toil, toil, toil, involved in all
this ? But think, too, how all this
measureless labor is by no means a
prosaic affair; it is capable of being
cheered by all the hope that comes of
nature's annual prophecy, and all the
subtle gladness that springs from the
felt poetry of earth and sky and the
advancing ever-changing seasons.
-o-
THE Florida Pathfinder, a most ex-
cellent paper, full of information in
regard to Florida, is published in New
York, by John P. Whitney, at $2 per
year, or $1 for six months.
-0
CO-OPERATION.-The article of E.
T. Paine, Esq., on Co-operation, shall
appear in our next.






9T iHE FLORIDA DISPATCHI


FertilizerS-Futility of the Printed Analy-
ses, Etc.
A very sensible and practical corresporideht
of the South Florida Journal, writing from
Sanford, under date of April 12th, gives pun-
gent utterance to opinions which are now agi-
tating a good many orange-growers and market
gardeners, and spreading very rapidly. Hear
him:
Mr. Editor:
I notice several advertisements of fertilizers
in your late paper, some of which read very
loud. Some of the agricultural chemists I have
met, do not offer their goods for sale until after
they have been tried in the field; now if chemi-
cal analysis was positive this would not be.
The strong acids of the laboratory will dissolve
some parts that will be ages in disintegrating
in a natural way. Granite contains feldspar,
and feldspar is partly composed of potash, but
who wants to haul cart loads of granite boul-
ders to his field for potash? Up in Canada,
near the line of Derby, is a ledge of phosphate
of lime, but the grass and trees grow no better,
neither would it pay to cart to a near by farm,
though burnt bones, which are similar in
analysis, are worth forty dollars a ton.
We find from various pamphlets that some
brands offer more value by chemical analysis
than they ask pay for! I think we should be
satisfied with value received.
It appears that if a practical and conscien-
tious chemist requires actual field experiment
to determine the utility of his compound, that
the advertised analysis of the various concoc-
tions are not of much benefit to the farmer who
pays for them. Though it is true that they con-
tain so much ammonia, so much potash, and so
much of phosphates, yet the farmer is in a
worse position than a carpenter would be who
has so many feet of wood and so many pounds
of iron to build a house, for the carpenter can
tell at a glance whether the wood is in the
shape he wants it as boards, timber or shingles,
and the iron as the different sizes of nails,
hinges or locks, but the farmer or the chemist
cannot tell how much of the ton of material is
actual plant food or whether one kind is more
suitable to his wants than another.
In my own limited experience I have found
several brands of fertilizers which are claimed
to have a high chemical analysis, to be almost
valueless, and such has been the experience of
many of my acquaintances. Again, that which
was a good brand honestly made a few years
ago, has so deteriorated in value that its useful-
ness is nominal.
Now, what shall we buy? Where can we
get value for our money? There are good
honest dealers and manufacturers who have for
years made manures which are good. Could
you, Mr. Editor, get your subscribers to say
which is good and tell us what they have found
bad ? I think we could sift the wheat from the
chaff.


In my own case within the last year I have
used seven different kinds of fertilizers, which
have come to this place by steamboat, and
there are more kinds which I have not tried.
I used my purchases in experiments on vegeta-
bles. Co's superphosphate prom-
ises well, but 's I like the best; there may
be others as good, but I have not found them.
[We omit the names of these manufacturers,
because we cannot afford to do free advertis-
inq.-EDs. DISPATCH.] It is so expensive try-
ing new kinds and losing money on them, that
I have concluded to hold fast to that which I
know to be good. Now I know of no way of
determining the real value of any of our com-
mercial manures, than by trial and an accurate
record of their comparative merits, used under
similar conditions. One of the kinds I used


has an advertised analysis equal to any ; yet
for practical purposes is worth but little more
than hauling. I would not cart it ten miles if
I could get it for nothing.
There are but few farmers who know how to
get the best results from chemicals, and some
people had better not use them at all. Some
of our orange growers are spending twice the
money they should for the results obtained. To
me this waste seems wicked, as the balance
which should be saved would be of great bene-
fit to themselves and the county if judiciously
applied in another channel. I am convinced
that market gardening in this locality, where
the facilities of transportation are so great and
cheap, will some day, not far distant, be one of
our most profitable industries; but no man here
or anywhere else, ever made a fortune in the
business without manure. During the past
season I have made a profitable crop, but it
was the profit of one fertilizer that paid the
losses on the others, and the loss on its own
kind where it was misapplied. I do not feel
like trying any other kind at present, and will
leave it for others to determine whether there
is a better or as good an article in the market.
We need to do business enough in the truck
farming line to bring the buyers here, that we
can sell our vegetables as we do our oranges.
NOTE.-We adopt the suggestion of this
writer,, and call for the actual experience of our
readers with the different commercial fertilizers.
We will publish all such communications to
which responsible names are attached.-EDs.
DISPATCH.

Crops as Fertilizers.
On a chapter on the culture of the castor oil
bean, (Ricinus communis) the Orange County
Reporter gives us the following, which, from
former experience, we are strongly inclined to
endorse:
The effect upon the land of any crop grown
for profit, is an important consideration in
Florida. It is claimed by old Floridians, who
have had ample opportunities to test the mat-
ter, that land is greatly improved by growing
the castor bean upon it. It has an abundance
of foliage which drops continuously and decays
upon the ground, and young plants come up
all about from scattered seeds. If these are
cut when a foot or two high, they add to the
vegetable matter which goes into the ground.
One gentleman of experience said not long ago
that poor pine land could be converted into
rich hammock by simply planting it to castor
beans and letting them grow for a few years.
It seems to be conceded that they are an ad-
vantage rather than otherwise to orange trees,
when grown in the grove, especially while the
orange trees are young. If this is true, and the
fact seems to be conceded, so far as we have
heard any testimony, it is another argument in
favor of the culture of the castor bean.


It can hardly be expected, however, that any
systematic attention will be given to the cul-
ture of the plant, until there is established,
somewhere within easy reach, a mill for the
manufacture of oil, where the product can be
marketed at a reasonable price.

"Shoddy Fertilizers.
The following, from the Demerara Argosy
proves that our British colonial neighbors are
exposed to as many tricks in trade as we
are; and furnishes a valuable hint for our
guidance:
"We are indebted to Mr. Hughes of the
Analytical Laboratory, Barbados, for a copy of
his report for 1880, submitted to the Agricul-
tural Society of the said island. Mr. Hughes
holds the appointment of consulting chemist to


the planting body in' Barbados, and every
planter who contributes to the fund from which
the chemist's salary is paid is entitled to get
analyses of soils and manures without any
special fee. The arrangement shows the wis-
dom of agriculturists in the sister colony, for
through the combination, each subscriber to
the fund is entitled to professional advice
which, individually, he could not obtain. In
this colony there is no such combination, but the
services of an agricultural chemist are so indis-
pensable to the intelligent working of an estate,
that certain of the larger proprietors have a
chemist on the estate's staff. The report be-
fore us shows what urgent need there is to keep
a sharp scientific eye on the manures sent from
England for use in the cane fields, so as to be
able to detect the systematic robbery perpetra-
ted by those who supply the so-called manures.
Mr. Hughes submits an account of some of his
"findings," and a perusal of them ought to
waken up those of our planters who have not
given the subject of adulteration of fertilizers a
serious thought. For instance, in the matter
of Peruvian guano, Mr. Hughes found that
6,000 tons of this article, introduced into Bar-
bados last year, was all-the best of it-grossly
adulterated, and when compared with the
guano imported in the previous year, when the
quality was very fair, showed the following
comparison:


1879.
Moisture................................................. 11.25
Organic Matter........................................ 38.50
Phosphate of Lime.................................. 22.91
Alkaline Salts................. ..................... 11.94
Sand ............................................................ 15.40
100.00


1880.
15.44
27.65
19.83
10.68
26.40
9100.00


It is satisfactory to learn that from Mr.
Hughes's expose of the quality of last year's
guano, the local sale in Barbados almost ceased,
and it will interest the neighboring colonies to
be told that as this stuff could find no market
amongst the cautious Bims, it was shipped as
first-class guano to the surrounding islands,
where its properties were not called into ques-
tion. In sulphate of ammonia, adulteration is
even more prominent, samples of some imported
direct from England for a Barbados estate,
having shown a percentage of 28.57 of Epsom
salts, while certain other samples gave a simi-
lar percentage of common salt. To quote Mr.
Hughes's words, these analyses require little
comment." Not only is the crop made to suffer
through the use of the deletarious substances
used to adulterate the fertilizer, but money is
literally thrown away in paying the proportion
of freight and packages on that fourth part of
the quantity of ammonia imported, which is
composed of the substances used for adultera-
tion. In the article, Nitrate of Soda," the
villainy of the suppliers of the article was car-
ried to even a greater extent than in the case
of the ammonia above quoted. Of certain
samples submitted to the analyst, one showed a
percentage of 1.32 of common salt .as against
34.04 in another, and yet this fertilizer is gen-
erally sold with a guarantee of five per cent.
refraction, that is to say it is guaranteed to con-
tain 95 per cent. of what it professes to be-
nitrate of soda. Regarding special manures,
or manures made up by certain manufacturers
and bearing their names, Mr. Hughes warns
the planters to receive them cautiously, and not,
on any account, to neglect the precaution of
having them analyzed, some of the specimens
submitted to his notice having disclosed a per-
centage of 37.15 of insoluble phosphate of lime.
In submitting these figures to our agricul-
tural readers, we do not think it is necessary to
spend any time in proving the importance of
the facts they reveal. It may be taken for
granted that Barbados has not been more im-
posed upon in the matter of manures than has
this or any other colony. In the Mother
Country, in the present day, adulterated
manures have small chance to find their way





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH. GM


into the farmers' fields, for the agricultural
chemist is to be found in every county, and the
farmer has long since become alive to the fact,
that to buy adulterated manure, or any fer-
tilizer, however pure, if unsuited to his soil, is
simply to throw away his money. The home
market is thus pretty nigh closed against the
dishonest manufacturer, and consequently he is
the more zealous in finding an outlet for his
rubbish in the minor colonies, where agricultu-
ral science is still struggling for the planters'
recognition. There can be no question about
it, that large quantities of adulterated manure
annually find their way into this colony, and it
is only the truth to say that the system under
which many of the estates obtain their supplies,
is admirably adapted for the disposal of cheap
and trashy fertilizers. Only yesterday, Mr.
Pontifex informed us that he had analyzed
eleven samples of ammonia, all of which were
so grossly adulterated that their market value,
based on his analysis, was only $66 per ton as
against $110, their store cost. A town agent,
who has no interest in an estate beyond the
profit he makes in supplying it with stores, will
always buy guano, or ammonia, or nitrate of
soda, in the cheapest possible market in Eng-
land, as long as ammonia continues to be sold
as ammonia-one kind recognized as good as
another-no matter what are its component
parts. Demerara store-keepers are a highly
respectable body of men, but they have not yet
reached that sublimated scrupulosity of trade
conscience which offers an analysis of goods be-
ing sold when none is asked for. As long as
plants are content to fertilize their fields with
common salt, at the price of over $100 a ton, or
with sand at the price of guano, so long will
the store-keepers buy in the cheapest market
and sell to the best advantage, and so long will
the knavery of manure manufacturers at home
continue to pay."

Lawns-and How to Make Them.
The great lack in our Florida gardens and


landscapes ~ ~ ~ m isgengasercoesaevr ~ unis way wi navet Le aense, soi turf
landcaps i gren ras, o clse havn, er-desired, but it is the only way that large ones
dant lawns. There are potent obstacles, in our caemdewtotincurrinrto
cagb mtewihot great lbr


dry, sandy soils and parching suns to the per-
fectly successful culture of such lawns as we
have seen at the North and West; but it may
help some of our readers, in favored localities
to know just how these beautiful lawns are pro-
duced. We, therefore, copy the following from
the agricultural department of the New York
Weekly Sun:
There is no more pleasing sight than a well-
kept lawn, and although the making and keep-
ing them is attended with considerable trouble
and expense, they will repay both. No matter
whether the lawn comprises acres or is limited
to the front yard of a farm house, it may be
made a thing of beauty and joy forever.
The village improvement associations now
happily rapidly growing in number have shown
in many of our rural districts what can be
made of the public squares, and the well-kept
lawns about many of our neighboring railroad
depots give an appearance of thrift and pros-
perity to the vicinity that could be obtained in
no other way with so little labor, while nothing
speaks so well for the good taste and culture of
its inmates as the smooth grassy lawn in front
of the private residence.
In the construction of a lawn the first thing
to be done is to secure perfect drainage. In
some places the soil is of such character that
no artificial work is necessary; but when it is
not there must be thorough underdraining.
Then the ground should be ploughed and sub-
soiled, stirred to a depth of eighteen inches,
and an abundant supply of manure thor-
oughly worked in. When we say abundant,
we mean three or four times as much as would


and consequent expense.
TURFING.
For lawns of moderate size the process known
as turfing is practicable. The ground should
he prepared in the same careful and thorough
manner, and the entire surface covered with
turfs cut from the roadside or meadows, select-
ing those that have short, close, fibrous, even,
uniform growth. These may be cut in such
form, size, and thickness as is convenient, and
relaid carefully. There is no better or easier
way. of making a lawn than this, the only objec-
tion being the cost; but where the turf can be
had near by, and labor is plentiful, the expense
may be kept within reasonable limits, while the
desired results are quick and sure.
Those who have decided preferences for par-
ticular grasses that may not be found in the
turfs transplanted can introduce them by seeds
sown on the newly-laid sods, which will readily
take root and grow.
INOCULATING.
Another plan, which as regards cost stands
midway between the two we have mentioned,
may be called inoculating. Prepare the ground
exactly as above described for seeding. Then
bring turfs, which should be pulled in pieces
from one to three inches square. Be careful to
have them pulled in pieces, not cut with a knife
or spade, as the edges must be left ragged.
Then lay these pieces on the ground, grass up-
ward, but in such a way that the distance be-
tween one piece and any other will be two or
three inches. Beat these pieces firmly with a
spade and roll heavily. Should wet weather
ensue, the lawn will not present a very pleas-
ing appearance for a while, but the grass will


I


clearly demonstrated, is uncontrollable by any
power but that of the whole Nation, the money
investment in levees as a simple commercial
venture, would pay.-New Orleans Commercial
Bulletin.

One of our gardeners has found a new use
for guano. Mrs. Col. Buchannan was much
annoyed by rabbits cutting down her garden
peas, and as an experiment had guano sprinkled
over them. The experiment was a success, and
" cotton tail has gone in search of more pleas-
ant pastures.-Early County (Ga.) News.

THE FLORIDA DISPATCH comes to our sanc-
tum in an entirely new form and picturesque
make-up. Under the new management it will
fill an important place in the development of
Florida. Price, $1.00 a year. Ashmead Bros.,
publishers, Jacksonville, Florida.-Alachua
Advocate.


be considered a good application for an ordi-
nary crop. Remember, you are preparing this
acre or more to remain undisturbed for years,
and you must prepare food for the grass roots
accordingly. Thoroughly pulverize the top of
the ground by harrowing and cross-harrowing,
and remove all roots, sticks, and loose stones;
in short, prepare the surface as well as possible.
There is a difference of opinion about seeding
lawns. Some seem to prefer but one kind of
grass, but our idea is that a mixture is prefera-
ble, for several reasons. If there are several
kinds, some stand drouth better than others,
and these will serve to keep a bright, glowing
aspect, while the others may be scorched and
withered. The same may be true of wet seasons,
when the effect on the grasses would be revers-
ed. With a variety of grasses you can have
some that start with early spring, while others
attain their perfection late in the season. We
have some formulas comprising as many as fif-
teen varieties, which is, we think, carrying the
matters to an extreme. The following seems to
us to be worthy to be recommended: For each
acre, use of red top, two bushels; vernal grass,
one bushel; timothy, twenty quarts, white clo-
ver and yellow clover, each, eight pounds. An-
other-a high authority in landscape gardening
-advises three bushels of red top and one of
white clover to an acre. Great care should be
taken to sow these seeds evenly, and that result
may perhaps be better attained by first sowing
one-half over the whole field and then the other,
going across at right angles with the first sow-
ing. The seed should be covered by light har-
howing or bushing, and afterward rolled. Some
practice sowing oats with the seed, if sown in
the spring, and cutting them when not more
than a foot high, no closer than two or three
inches, and repeating as often as they attain a
foot in height. The oats shade the roots of the
young grasses, which, in a hot season, are lia-
ble to be sunburnt. The practice seems objec-
tionable to some, but we are inclined to com-
mend it. It will be some time before a lawn
daua i1 ti illy vvnI ihv t h,.fi d o Lidl


soon start, the raw edges grow toward each
other, meet and overlap, and often within a few
months present as uniform an appearance as
where the surface was entirely covered with
turfs. If it be desired to have the surface green
as soon as possible, grass seed may be sown
when the inoculation is done, but it is not nec-
essary. The seed may hasten the verdure, but
will not improve the quality of the lawn.
Of course, lawns thus covered will for a time
look far from pleasing, but in a few months they
will do themselves credit and prove that for
those who are willing to wait, in consequence of
the great saving of labor and material, this pro-
cess of inoculation is the cheapest as well as the
simplest method of making grass lawns, only
excepting the sowing of the seed, and that,
as above stated, takes a long time to grow to
perfection.

Sugar and Rice.
The Census reports, recently published, show
that the total production of rice in the United
States during the season 1879-80 was 110,131,-
373 pounds, raised on 174,173 acres, an aver-
age yield of 632 pounds per acre. The greatest
aggregate yield was in South Carolina-52,077,-
515 pounds; the highest average yield in Geor-
gia-725 pounds per acre. Louisiana was the
third State in production, with 23,188,311
pounds, only South Carolina and Georgia ex-
ceeding this amount. The year in question the
Louisiana production was considerably reduced,
however, by drouth, and the product the year
succeeding was a good deal ahead of Georgia.
As to sugar, Louisiana had 181,592 acres in
cane, producing 171,706 hogsheads sugar and
11,696,248 gallons molasses ; the other States
which produced sugar were Alabama, with 94
hogsheads; Florida, 1,273; Georgia, 601; Mis-
sissippi, 18; South Carolina, 229, and Texas,
4,951 hogsheads. It will thus be seen that
there was practically no State outside of Louis-
iana where cane culture occupied a prominent
position; Texas, however, possesses a large
area of suitable land for cane culture, and may
eventually rank higher as a sugar-producing
State. Should the National Government see
to the levees and the low lands of Louisiana be
made secure from overflow, cane culture would,
no doubt, increase very rapidly, until, in a few
years, not only the highest product before the
war would again be reached, but even surpassed,
the mode of culture, as well as the manufacture of
sugar, being now much superior to the olden
times, and the danger from frost thereby greatly
reduced. This increased production in Louis-
iana alone would, in a few years, repay the
United States for the necessary outlay in build-
ing and maintaining the levees from Cairo to
the Gulf. Outside of the duty Congress owes
to the people to protect them from the raging
waters of the great river, which, it has been






1.00


Meteorological Report.
Weather for week ending May 6th, 1882.
OFFICE OF OBSERVATION,
SIGNAL SERVICE, U. S. A., JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Therm. r Wind.

DATE.

_qL___
Saturday 30...... 30.1281 67 73.366.0 0.00 NW l2 Clear.
Sunday 1.......... 30.13181 64 72.0 75.3 0.00 E 15 Fair.
Monday 2.......... 130.138666 74.3 74.7 0.00 E 11 Fair.
Tuesday 3......... i30.16 83 68 75.0 67.01 0.00 E 12 Clear.
Wednesday 4.... '30.06 86 67 77.0 69.31 0.00 SE 16 Clear.
Thursday 5....... 29.99 88 71 79.0i 64.3 0.00 S 14 Clear.
Friday 6............ 29.98 87 71175.0 75.7i 0.19 S 23!Fair.
Highest barometer 30.21, lowest 29.93.
Highest temperature 88, lowest 64.
NOTE.-Barometer readings reduced to sea level.
J. W. SMITH, Signal Observer U. S. A.
00
Structure, Chemical Elements, and Growth
of Trees.
[Extracts from a paper read by Col. W. S. Clark, Presi-
dent Massachusetts Agricultural College.]
"The young willow, under kindly influences,
will increase in size and weight daily until the
chilling winds of Autumn breathe upon it.
Then the leaves fall, growth ceases, and the
plant enters upon a period of repose, similar in
many respects to the hibernation of animals.
This annual cessation of the vital action in
plants appears to be essential to the health of
most species, though a few, like the orange and
lemon, do not require it. In cold climates, the
absence of heat in Winter, and in warm lati-
tudes, the want of water during the periodical
dry season, are the principal causes which oper-
ate upon vegetation to enforce this law of na-
ture."
The distinction between deciduous and
evergreen species is, that the former lose their
foliage at the end of the growing season, while
the latter retain each perfected leaf one, two,
or more years. Nevertheless, evergreens usu-
ally have their time of rest no less than decidu-
ous plants, and those which are deciduous in
one climate, may become evergreens in another.
Thus the apple and the plum tree have become
evergreens in Madeira."
"Professor Hoffman made a series of experi-
ments from 1863 to 1870, to determine whether
this annular period of rest was really necessary
for ordinary plants. He found that when the
lilac and other similar species were forced un-
der glass to grow continuously by the constant
pressure of heat, light, moisture, and proper
soil, they ceased to bloom after the first year,
and died on the second or third. Hence the


importance, so well known to skillful gardeners,
of giving alternations of heat and cold, moist-
ure. and drouth, to plants cultivated under
glass, during their proper seasons of activity
and repose. Persons ignorant of these facts,
water them alike at all seasons of the year.
The plants having no opportunity to ripen their
tissues, can never be in a condition to blossom"
(or bear fruit).
After the fall of the leaves, and the ripen-
ing of the wood and buds, the stem and
branches of most trees and shrubs will be
found, upon examination, to be unusually dry
and free from sap, and it has been said
that this was an indication of hardiness. That
most of our indigenous species assume this con-
dition during about one-half of the year is
doubtless true, but the presence or absence of
sap cannot be considered as conclusive evidence


THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


of tenderness or hardiness. The grapevine ap-
pears quite porous and free from sap in Decem-
ber, but is often winter killed. On the other
hand the sugar and silver-leaved maples are
usually full of sap on some days of every month
in the year, and yet are perfectly hardy."
"When ordinary cells are united into a more
or less extended structure, they constitute what
is known as cellular tissue. This may be soft
and pulpy, as is in the flesh of an apple, loose
and tender as in the pith of an elder, firm and
tough as in birch-bark, or hard and brittle
as in the shell of a hickory nut, or the stone of
a peach."
"The tissue of the inner bark, consisting of
very long and narrow cells overlapping each
other at the ends, is called bast; and that of
the stem, in which the cells are similar, but
shorter, is called woody fiber. The tubes which
are formed, are styled ducts or vessels, and, as
they are mingled with woody fiber in the an-
nual growth of timber, the ordinary combina-
tion of these is named fibro-vascular tissue."
When these elongated cells and ducts are
straight and parallel, as in the chestnut, the
wood of which they are the warp, splits easily,
but when they are interlaced and blended
irregularly, the longitudinal grain of the wood
will resemble that of elm."
Every seed and every young plant consists
wholly of cellular tissue, but with the develop-
ment of leaves is combined the growth of fibro-
vascular tissue."
The first vessels to appear in the plantlet
are arranged in a circle around a column of
tissue, which remains loose and soft, and after
the first season dries up and dies. This is
called the pith, and seems essential to the life
of every woody stem and branch during its in-
fancy, although its special function is unknown.
Between the vessels around the pith may be
seen the rays of cellular tissue, which ulti-
mately become hard and firm, and which unite
in bonds, never broken except by some exter-
nal force, the inside of the stem with the inside
of the bark. These rays make up the woof and
have much to do with the distinctive peculiari-
ties of different sorts of timber."
"Immediately outside the vessels inclosing
the pith grows a layer of woody fiber, upon
which, in a more or less developed state, ac-
cording to season, is a layer of organizable ma-
terial, called cambium, which may be regarded
as the seat of life of the plant. Next to the
cambium, and united to the wood by the rays
from the pith, is the bark, consisting of three
layers."
The inner, or fibrous layer, is formed by
bast cells, and firm cellular tissue. Surround-
ing the inner bark is a layer of cellular tissue,
in which the rays from the pith terminate, and
which is named the green layer, because it
often exhibits this color in young shoots, and
then performs the same function with the green
tissues of the leaf. Outside of all this is the


corky layer, consisting of dry, dead cellular
tissue, and developed annually from the green
layer. This is not usually of much thickness,
or consequence, but sometimes, as in the cork
oak of Spain, it becomes an important article
of commerce."
The growth of our trees goes on in the cam-
bium layer, from which is produced annually
a layer of wood, and a layer of bark, each
formed of longitudinal fibro-vascular tissue, and
horizontal cellular tissue."
As the trunk expands, the outer bark
cracks and falls off, as in the shag-bark hick-
ory, or distends and envelops it with a some-
what" smooth covering, as in the beech and
birch. In these latter cases the annual corti-
cal layers are quite thin, and the outer layer
very gradually wastes away, under the influ-
ence of winds and storms. In the cork oak the
outer layer is specially thickened, and if re-


moved every eighth year, may be obtained in
stout, elastic sheets, which would crack and fall
to the ground in the process of time, if not
harvested. The structure of the root is not un-
like that of the stem, except that the pith is
usfially wanting, as well as the green layer of
the bark, which could not be formed, nor be of
any use in the dark earth where the root makes
its home."
This part of the plant develops an annual
layer of wood and bark, with rays of cellular
tissue like the stem. The number and extent
of root branches in the soil, depend much upon
its fertility and adaptation to the plant."
As the vigor of vegetable growth depends
chiefly on the action of the roots, the import-
ance of thorough tillage is apparent."
The striking peculiarity in the structure of
the root is the absorbent power of the young
rootlets, which are either covered with a thick,
spongy layer of cellular tissue, or furnished, as
is commonly the case, with exceeding minute
but innumerable hairs, which penetrate the
crevices of the earth in every direction in search
of food. The extreme tips of the rootlets, about
one-sixth of an inch in length, are not clothed
with hairs, nor capable of absorption, but serve
as entering wedges for the advancing root,
which lengthens only near the extremity."
The bark of the larger roots becomes thick
and impervious, like that of the trunk and its
older branches, and the inner portion of the
wood, both above and below ground, gradually
solidifies, and becomes unfitted for the free
transmission of fluids. It is then called lbart-
wood, in distinction from the sapwood, through
which fluids are transmitted freely. The far-
ther any layer of wood or bark is removed from
the living cambium, the less vitality does it re-
tain, and consequently the less useful is it in
the economy of the plant."
The leaf has been said, with some propriety,
to be an extension of the bark, and consists of
a framework of fibro-vascular tissue forming
the stalk and veins, with a double layer of loose
cellular tissue covered with a distinct epider-
mis or skin. The vessels in the leaf stalk and
the veins, which are its branches, are also in
two layers, the upper connecting the leaf with
the vessels surrounding the pith, which are
called spiral on account of their peculiar mark-
ings, and the lower which are united to the
cambium layer through the tissue of the inner
bark."
"The distinctive features of the leaf is the
presence of stomata, or breathing pores, which
are usually more numerous on the under side.
These stomata are furnished with openings, so
constructed as to close in very dry air, and open
in that which is moist, but they always remain
shut except under the stimulus of light. As
the chief function ofthe rootlets is to absorb the
liquid food of the plant from the earth, so it is
the special work of the stomata to transpire the
surplus water of the crude sap, which has been
employed as a carrier of food from one extrem-
ity of the countless series of cells which build


up the plant, to the other, in some cases a dis-
tance of five hundred feet, through imperforate
membranes, and against the force of gravita-
tion."
'" In regard to the size of vegetable cells, it is
difficult to obtain a correct conception, unless
one is familiar with the use of a compound mi-
croscope. In every cubic inch of maple-wood
there are probably not less than one hundred
million cells of the venus tissues. The average
diameter of ordinary plant-cells is less than one
four-hundredth of an inch. And even the ducts
or continuous tubes are not usually much
larger, and are often smaller than this. Profes-
sor Gray informs us that sap must pass through
two thousand partitions in every inch of bass-
wood through which it rises."
"Plants produce all the food and all the vital


--- -- -- -- I -- -- -


I I


-


I


--





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


"The food of plants consists chiefly of car-
bonic acid gass, and is absorbed from the air by
the green parts, which, like the leaves and
young bark, contains chlorophyl, and are fur-
nished with stomata. More than half the weight
of ordinary dry vegetable matter is thus de-
rived from the atmosphere. Water is the most
important of the remaining constituents of plant-
food, and in the liquid form is wholly absorbed
by the rootlets, though aqueous vapor must,
under some circumstances, be imbibed by other
vegetable organs. The elements of water, hy-
drogen and oxygen are united with carbon in
the same proportion in which they exist in this
fluid in the living cells, principally of the leaf, to
form the common material of vegetable tissues
called cellulose, and several other substances
having nearly or precisely the same composi-


air which are indispensable to animals. Every
growing plant may be regarded as a machine
for converting mineral water into cellulose,
gum, starch, sugar, and various albuminoids by
the digestion and assimilation of which animals
live and grow. Every thriving plant is also
exhaling continually under the stimulus of sun-
light from its myriads of stomata, pure vapor
of water and oxygen gas; and we have often
wished that once at least in every summer,
these inestimable blessings might become visible
as they rise in beautiful though unseen forms
and mingle with our atmosphere."
"The chemical elements of plants and ani-
mals are of course identical. Three are very
common iu all organic tissues-carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen-and three more are found wher-
ever there is life, though usually in very small
quantity-nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur.
Besides these there are a few metals which are
essential to the growth of healthy and perfect
plants. Thus iron in very minute proportions
is found in the green, coloring matter, or chlo-
rophyl of every plant; and chlorophyl may be
regarded as analogous to the gastric juice of
animals, since without it plants are incapable of
digesting carbonic acid, or elaborating cambium,
or other organizable matter. Potassa, lime, and.
magnesia, are also necessary ingredients in the
food of all plants; and though they are scarcely
to be regarded as constituent parts of any vege-
table tissue or product, they are absorbed by
the roots, circulate in the sap, and are probably
deposited in all cells, since a greater or less
quantity of incombustible ash remains wherever
they are burned. Their presence doubtless aids
in the formation of vegetable acids and other
compounds, and assists in the transference of
elaborated or assimilable material, from one
part of the plant to another.".
"It is a fact worthy of special notice that the
amount and kind of mineral matter absorbed
by a growing plant may be caused to vary
greatly by artificial treatment. The ash of the
wild beet contains more soda than potassa, but
the best and sweetest sugar beets now contain
at least three times as much potassa as soda.
As a soda plant, therefore, it was worthless, hav-
ing scarcely a trace of sugar, but the physiolog-
ical changes produced by artificial treatment
have made it one of the most valuable of agri-
cultural plants, yielding a juice with from twelve
to fifteen per cent. of cane sugar. There is
every reason to believe that the flavor of fruits
and the most desirable qualities of all the vege-
table products of the farm and the garden may
be thus improved and controlled by the intelli-
gent use of fertilizers. And this consideration
adds practical importance to the study of vege-
table physiology. We all know that whenever
a hive of bees find themselves without a queen,
or royal eggs, they at once proceed to develop a
common egg into a royal larva, by feeding it
with a peculiar food. Is it unreasonable to hope
that we may learn how to modify as radically
the nature and qualities of plants by a similar
process ?"


tion, but different properties and uses. These
are mainly starch, gum, and several varieties
of sugar, which, by the vital action of plants,
are transformed, one into the other, or into
cellulose, according to the requirements of the
vegetable economy. Only a small portion,
however, of the water taken up by the roots is
assimilated, much the largest being exhaled by
the leaves. It performs, nevertheless, most
valuable service as a common carrier through-
out the various parts of the.plants, both of those
nitrogeneous and other substances absorbed in
very dilute solution from the soil, and of these
organic compounds formed within the plant
and essential to its growth in the several stages
of its development.
The vital fluid corresponding to the blood
of animals, and existing in every young and
growing vegetable cell, is called protoplasm,
and is a somewhat viscid substance, containing,
in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen,
nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorous."
CIRCULATION OF SAPS.
"In consideration of the subject of the circu-
lation of saps in the entire plant, two topics are
involved about which there have been much
controversy and speculation, and too little ob-
servation and true philosophy. The first re-
lates to the ascent of what is styled the crude
.C


sap, which enters at the root and rises against sists wholly of cellular tissue; F marks the outer or
e t corky layer of the bark, which is composed of dry, dead
the force of gravitation to the topmost leaf of cells, which are formed of consecutive layers from the
even the tallest tree. The other has reference outer portion of the living green layer; G is the green
layer of cellular tissue. H shows the liber or inner
to the return of the so-called elaborated sap bark, made up of cellular tissue penetrated by long bast
Cells, arranged parallel with the axis of growth. I rep-
from the leaf to the root, so as to complete a resents the place of the. cambium or growing layer of
tree's circulation. Many have said there is no organizable material which descends from the leaves be-
I h g tween the liber and the sap-wood during the period of
such thing as a general circulation of sap; but growth. K is woody fibre which gives strength to the
no one doubts the fact of an upward flow from stem, and through which the crude sap rises. L indi-
ne doubts the act an upward flow fromcates the vessels or ducts, with various markings, such
the roots, and a vast exhalation of water from as dots, rings, and spirals, which are formed most
S i abundantly in the Spring, and usually contain no fluid.
the foliage during the period when the vital They convey gases and aqueous vapors, and it may be
forces of the plant are active. It is universally that a large proportion of all the water ascending from the
,d roots to the leaves passes through them as vapor. M is
admitted that the cells containing chlorophyl the layer or spiral vessels or ducts which always inclose
are the organs in which the elements of the carbo- thO pith, and in the young shoot extend into the leaves
ae e organs in w te elements the carbo- and unite them to the pith during its life, which ceases
hydrates are combined, and from which, there- with the first season.
fore, they must pass by some channel to all The apricot may be grafted on the plim,
other parts of the plant, where either growth and the peach on the apricot, and the almond
occurs, or amyloid substances are stored for on the peach, and thus we may produce a tree
future uses." ("Whether the albuminoids are with plum roots and almond leaves. The
formed also in the cells of the leaf, or are the wood, however, of the stem, will consist of four
result of combinations occurring in the cam- distinct varieties, though formed from one con-
bium between the soluble carbo-hydrates and tinuous cambium layer. Below the almond
the ingredients of the crude ascending sap, is wood and bark we shall have perfect peach
not certain, and has no necessary connection wood and bark, then perfect apricot wood and
with the question.") bark, and at the bottom perfect plum wood
"Investigation seems to demonstrate that the and bark. In this curious instance we see the
cambium layer is the seat of life, and that intimate correspondence between the bark and
whenever the direct communication between the leaf, for if we should remove the almond
the root and the foliage is cut off in this layer branches we might cause the several sorts of
during one entire season of growth, the whole wood to develop buds and leafy twigs, each of
plant perishes. It has also been determined by its own kind. Each section of the compound
experiment that if several rings of bark be re- Continued on ninth page.


moved from a growing shoot in such a manner
that on one of the isolated sections of bark
there be no leaf, while leaves remain on others
above and below this, then the leafless section
will fail to make any growth in any part. All
other sections, if furnished with one, or more
healthy leaves, will increase in thickness by
the formation of new leaves, of wood and bark.
This seems to prove that the material for
growth is elaborated by the leaves, and is trans-
mitted only through the cambium and has no
power of penetrating the tissues of the wood."
The peculiar vital and organic power of the
cambium is remarkably illustrated in the
structure and growth of grafted trees. Every
person is aware that pear trees are grown upon
quince roots, and that they often bear finer
fruit than when cultivated as standards. This
is doubtless owing to the fact that quince roots,
being diminutive, furnish less water to the
leaves, which thus elaborate a richer sap, and
produce more perfectly developed wood and
fruit."
DESCRIPTION.
This cut represents a section, both vertical and horizon-
tal, of a branch of a sugar maple, two years old, as it ap-
pears in December. The portion included in the lines
marked A is of the first year's growth; those marked B
indicate the wood of the second year; while those
marked C inclose the three layers of the bark. D repre-
sents the pith of loose cellular tissue; E the pith rays or
silver grain of hard cellular tissue connecting the pith
with the green or middle layer of bark, which also con-


I


Now






_O THE_ FLORIDA__~ DISPATCH. ~ _ _ I_ ______ ______ ___~____ ______


SUB-IRRIGATION.
Successful Application of the System in
San Diego County, California.
The San Diego (Cal.) Union says that a sys-
tem of irrigation, new to this neighborhood
though well-known in the counties of Los An-
gelos and San Barnardino, has been applied to
the orchard of H. M. Higgins, of Sweetwater
Valley, and has been successfully tested within
the last few days. It is known as the Hamilton
and Earl Sub-irrigation System. Sub-irriga-
tion, that is the application of water under
ground to the roots of the trees or plants re-
quiring it, has long been recognized as theoret-
ically the proper method, economizing water
and labor to a material degree, and many at-
tempts have been made to carry it out; but the
cost of ordinary pipes, whether of iron or wood,
was too great, and it was found that the roots
of trees found their way into the apertures for
discharging water and in time completely
choked the pipes. The Hamilton and Earl sys-
tem completely obviates both these objections.
The pipes are made of a concrete composed of
cement, sand and lime, and in any length de-
sired, by a machine remarkable for its simplic-
ity and thorough adaption to its work. The
machine is placed in the trench in which the
pipe is to be laid, generally twelve to fifteen
inches deep. The concrete is shoveled into a
funnel while a man works a lever backward and
forward, each stroke making about two inches
of perfect pipe and propelling the machine that
distance in readiness for the next stroke. The
pipes are laid in a line a few feet from the trees
or vines to be irrigated, and opposite each tree
an apertnre is made in the top side of the pipe,
and fitted with a plug pierced with a tapered
hole, the large end uppermost. Through this
the water is discharged; it trickles over the
pipe and is absorbed into the ground. Leaves
or other foreign matter which may find their
way into the hole are, owing to its tapered form
easily cleared by the flow of water. The plug
is protected by an earth guard rising to a few
inches above the ground level which prevents
dirt entering the pipes, and also makes it im-
possible for rootlets to find their way in. The
supply of water from tank or reservoir is con-
trolled by hydrants made of concrete, and are
effective, though remarkably inexpensive. Pipe
of one and one-half inch bore costs rather less
than 2 cents per foot made in this way, and the
system can be -applied at a total cost of $25 to
$50 per acre, according to the distance apart of
the distributing pipes, cost of cement and level-
ness or irregularity of the ground. Under this
system not more than one-tlird to one-fourth as
much water is required as where surface irriga-
tion is practiced by hose or water-cart, and not
more than one-twentieth as much as is nec-
essary when ditches are used. This economy
in water is a very important feature in this
county. It means that a well, which under old
methods would not irrigate more than five acres


of orchard or vineyard, will under this system
irrigate twenty to fifty acres. The saving in
labor is in still greater proportion. No time is
lost digging trenches round trees to receive the
water, nor is it necessary to cultivate after
watering to keep the surface pulverized. Ex-
cept to keep down weeds, (and where surface
irrigation is practiced this is a very easy mat-
ter), only one cultivation annually after the
winter rains is necessary. Trees are found to do
better under this system than with surface irri-
gation, the roots take deeper growth and are
less liable to be affected by drouth or frosts.
The decay of roots and the gum formation no-
ticeable especially in lemon orchards irrigated
under the old system, does not exist where sub-
irrigation is practiced.
Mr. Higgins' place had been underlaid at
great expense with wooden pipes, with hy-


drants, at frequent intervals, allowing the rapid
watering of the trees by means of a large rub-
ber hose. It then took a man fifteen days to
irrigate the entire orchard. Under the new
system it is done thoroughly in ten hours. The
water supply is pumped by steam to a reservoir
one hundred feet above water level. The
quantity of water now used is so little, com-
pared with formerly, that the saving in fuel,
and engineer's time, together with the saving in
time of a man attending to the distributing of the
water, Mr. Higgins estimates, at more than
ninety dollars per month-and taking the sea-
son in which watering has to be done at six
months, the saving will more than pay the en-
tire cost of the application of the system in two
years.
This instance but confirms what has been re-
ported of the system elsewhere. It is steadily
making its way into public favor in the adjoin-
ing counties. Here it promises to become a
necessity, and it suggests a solution of the
problem. How to make our rich red lands as
remunerative and as attractive to settlers as the
land at Riverside or in Los Angelos County,
where natural irrigation is practicable.
Not only does the system provide a substi-
tute for surface irrigation-it is superior to that
in its results. By its means the orchardist can
apply water just at the time when it is most
needed, and, when by a slower method, he
would be sure not to get round the whole of his
ground before the opportunity of doing most
good would be lost-such times during the set-
ting of fruit, its maturing, and following heated
terms, will readily suggest themselves to the
practical horticulturist.
A prominent orchardist in San Bernardino
County, giving his opinion of this system, says
he would rather have five acres laid with this
pipe than ten acres surface irrigated.
The continuous pipe is also adapted for con
ducts, and can be used for bringing water
cheaply from springs or reservoirs to home-
steads, or for stock purposes.
Cement concrete is proved to be adopted to
a great variety of uses. Pipes in sections, gen-
erally two feet long, and made to dovetail into
one another, are largely used for the water
condnits and for sewage purposes. For sewage
it is used by the city authorities of Los Angelos,
and practically is found as suitable as glazed
clay pipe, at less than half the cost.
The system of distributing water from the
underground pipes, and the machines for mak-
ing both the continuous and section pipes are
patented.
The right for this county has been bought
by a few of our citizens, Mr. Winchester being
the principal owner and manager.

The "Cattle Kings."
We supplement and complete the article on
"Cattle Raising in Florida" (published in our
last, and copied from the Key West Democrat,)
with the following from the Floridian of the


25th of April. A correspondent of that paper
asks: " Who are the Cattle Kings ?" and pro-
ceeds :
Editor Floridian : As you are aware, there
has been much said and written about the "Cat-
tle Kings of Florida "-usually, I presume, in
derision. Now, if it would not give you too much
trouble, it might serve a good purpose to exam-
ine the tax lists and show through your columns
who is the largest cattle owner in the State. Many
persons are curious to see how the big men
stand in relation to taxes. If they own the cat-
tle claimed for them the tax lists will or should
show it. ENQUIRER."
In response to the suggestion of Enquirer,"
we have looked through the tax books of 1881
of those counties in which the so-called "Cattle
Kings are supposed to be located, viz: Mon-


roe, Manatee, Polk, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Sumter, Volusia and Brevard, and find the
largest cattle owners to be as follows:
Monroe.-F. A. Hendry returns 15,000, J.
E. Hendry, 800, W. M. Hendry 500, L. M.
Hendry 400, Z. King 2,000, Jacob Summerlin
1,200, J. J. and 0. R. Blount 1,400, A. T. Fri-
erson & Co. 1.100. Total cattle returned in
the county, 24,710.
Manatee.-Z. King returns 2,500, W. H.Van,
deripe 2,500, Jacob Summerlin 2,000, Jasper
Summerlin 1,300, W. B. Henderson 2,000,
Charles and R. C. Hendry 1,100, H. T. Lykes
900. Total in this county, 53,273.
Hernando.-Hope and Lykes return 700, H.
T. Lykes 2,000. Total in county, 14,882.
Hillsborough.-W. B. Henderson returns 1,-
250, Jonah Yates 1,000, J. T. Lesley 700, H.
T. Lykes, 350. Total in county, 21,223.
Polk.-B. Guy returns 1,200, George Hamil-
ton 1,200, W. W. Willingham 2,000. Total in
county, 22,082.
Sumter.-J. T. Lesley returns 2,000. Total
not footed up for 1881; but the return in 1880
showed 16,276.
Volusia.-Jacob Summerlin 1,000. Total in
county, 13,635.
Brevard.-L. W. Hooper, agent, returns 5,-
200, W. H. and N. R. Raulerson, Jr., 4,000. R.
B. Parker, for himself and as agent, 2,500, H.
D. Johnson 2,000, A. D. Johnson, Jr., 2,000, E.
Whidden, agent, 1,500, J. M. Lanier, Sr., agent,
1,200, E. 0. Morgan 1,000. Total returns in
county, 39,632.
These eight counties show on their tax books,
estimating for Sumter the same as in 1880, a to-
tal of 205,714 neat and stock cattle." They
show further that at the head of cattle owners is
F. A. Hendry, of Fort Myers, who returns 15,-
000, all in Monroe, while five others of the same
family return 2,800, making to the credit of the
Hendrys 17,800 head. Next in order come Ja-
cob and Jasper Summerlin with 5,500; L. W.
Hooper, agent, represents 5,200; Z. King gives
in 4,500; W. H. and N. R. Raulerson, Jr., 4,-
000, H. T. Lykes and Hope & Lykes, return
3,950; W. B, Henderson, 3,250, etc.
If these returns are to be relied on, it is quite
evident that, so far as the tax books show, F.
A. Hendry heads the list of the "Cattle Kings
of Florida."
Manatee county shows the largest number of
cattle, viz; 53,273. Brevard comes next with
39,632. Monroe has 24,710, Polk 22,082, Hills-
borough 21,223.

Silk-Worm Food.
The New Orleans Commercial Bulletin says:
Authorities on silk culture have stated that
the Osage orange produces silk of equal value
to that made from the mulberry. As an experi-
ment we have been feeding our last batch of
worms on the leaves of this plant, and from
personal observation, we can see no difference,
either in the texture of the silk or the health
and size of the worms.


Handling the Osage orange, however, is by
no means a pleasant operation, as the wicked
looking thorns can testify. This objection may
be overcome by selecting the new sprouts grown
from the old wood on which the thorns are not
so thick, and by using your pruning shears ju-
diciously, you may avoid any particular incon-
venience.
The same paper gives us the following on the
Silk Mulberry (morus multicaulis:)
Ample space should be allowed, consequently
we should plant the mulberry trees at least
thirty feet apart. The preparation of the soil
is about the same as for trees of any kind, and
if it should happen to be rich there would be no
objection. When shade is wanted, a lawn or
poultry yard would be a good place. A pasture
would also answer the purpose, but in the selec-
tion of the latter it would be advisable to train


I ~ ` ' ~ ^ I


THE FORIDA IPTH


102




THE FLORIDA DISPATCH. i


the trees very high, which would be objection-
able on account of increasing the work in get-
ting the leaves, if it is intended to engage in silk
culture, besides making the land worthless for
pasturing stock, until the plants grow beyond
the reach of cattle, sheep and goats, who are very
fond of browsing on the foliage: We advocate
low training. Starting the limbs three or four
feet from the ground, this low method of train-
ing facilitates the work of gathering the leaves,
thereby doing away with much labor and ex-
pense.
Aside from its value of silk-raising, the dif-
ferent varieties of the mulberry make excellent
fuel and when well-groivn lumber of good qual-
ity for building or ornamental purposes. The
fruit, also, is not to be my any means despised,
as poultry and swine thrive on them, and they
are also prized for making cordials, wines and
preserves. Owing to its quick growth the mul-
berry will be found of especial value in those
regions where timber is scarce, and on that ac-
count we can recommend it to be planted in the
prairies of the Opelousas or the Attakapas and.
similar localities.
An exchange says:. In Nebraska, the Menon-
nonite colonists also cultivate the mulberry for
the sake of feeding the leaves to the silk worm,
and have already produced some very excellent
cocoons for the use of our Eastern silk manu-
facturers.
In Europe this tree is frequently planted
along the highways. Mile after mile of the mul-
berry affords its graceful shade along the thor-
oughfares. The women and children of poor
families are permitted to gather the leaves for
feeding the silk worm in their humble houses,
and to many families this provides a chief means
for their support through the year.
It will thus be seen that this tree ranks among
the most important in the world. Its uses are
many; its value is inestimable. It facilitates
the fall of rain, gives food to bees, and cattle
and other stock ; is a substitute for hay, is ad-
mirable for fencing, for fuel and for cabinet
wood, and, finally, is the source of great wealth
to many nations who cultivate it for raising silk.

Is Not This the "Land of Flowers?"
An Orlando correspondent of the Reporter,
writes :
Permit me, through the columns of your ex-
cellent journal, to make a suggestion to every-
body who may correspond with parties outside
our lovingly lovely State, viz: To enclose in
all letters or newspapers sent a few flowers, rare
kinds of leaves, moss, vine tubers or ferns. It
will give your friends who receive them occular
proof of what we actually possess in this highly
favored land, and will materially assist to dispel
false ideas set afloat by unprincipled and irre-
sponsible vilifiers. A case in point has recently
come under my notice: An old friend of mine
residing at Lost Nation, Iowa, writes me that a
tourist from Clinton, in that State, (blind, I


must in charity believe,) wrote a letter for pub-
lication from Florida, which appeared in the
Clinton Herald, wherein he had the brazen ef-
frontery to assert that there are no flowers in
Florida; that it is not the Land of Flowers ;"
and the further unblushing impudence to say
that there are more flowers iq one county in
Iowa than in the whole State of Florida !
I have lived in the Northwest all my life-
time until early last fall, when I came to this
State in quest of personal comfort in winter as
well as in summer, and can truly exclaim and
repeat it, EUREKA!
From what I have seen during the past win-
ter and this spring, in the way of natural and
domestic flowers, growing in the open air every
day, I am forced to brand the Herald corres-
pondent as a wanton, willful, unmitigated pre-
varicator. What object he could have had in
making such a piebald statement, I am at a


loss to divine-unless he has a chronic pen-
chant for smirching the truth, and having no
doubt heard that if he could be thrown into
" fits," there are plenty of physicians in Florida
who are h-1 on fits," he could thereby rea-
sonably hope to be cured of his pernicious "dis-
ease."
To illustrate how grossly he has scandalized
tle floral history of Florida, I will refer to
the remark made to me lately, by Dr. Arthur
C. Ford, a well-known botanist: That he had
frequently picked bouquets of flowers in the
winter, containing seventy different varieties or
species, in a walk of two and a half miles, be-
tween Sanford and Fort Reed; and in a walk
along one side of Lake Summerlin, in Orlando,
he has picked twenty-two varieties. This has
no reference to roses, oleanders, hibiscus, jas-
mines, and all the other domestic plants grow-
ing in the open air, in door yards, many of
which are in full bloom all the time. I have
seen and measured a rose bush which girted
eighteen inches near the ground, and fifteen
inches, over four and a half feet from the
ground, and an oleander tree which measured
fifty-one inches in circumference more than a
foot from the ground.
The facts are self-evident to any lady or gen-
tleman of discernment, and the evidences volum-
nious, that we have myriads upon myriads of
the most beautiful, enchanting never-tiring, de-
sirable, ever-glorious to-be-envied, bright-col-
ored, gaudily-arrayed, radiant, comely, domes-
tic, exotic and natural flowers, to be found in
the wide, wide world, and for the full three hun-
dred, sixty-five and one-fourth days in each
and every year,
If anybody should be inclined to believe the
Herald's correspondent, they are most cordially
invited to visit Florida and judge for them-
selves to what an extent said correspondent has
discounted the Father of Lies lying.
TREBOR.

Forest Fire Fiends I
A sad instance (says the Fernandina Ex-
press,) of the devastation caused by forest fires
is brought to notice this week. Mrs. Thigpen,
an aged widow lady, owned a most comfortable
home at Coneville. Her place was a model of
neatness and comfort, though she is a very old
lady and dependent entirely upon herself for
the management of her affairs. Surrounding
her little home were numbers of fruit trees,
among them some of the finest peaches we have
seen since our advent to Florida, and a grape
arbor the products of which alone paid a neat
little income. A well kept flower garden, con-
taining many fine varieties of flowers and prob-
ably twenty-five or thirty varieties of roses,
adorned the front yard. Such was the home of
this aged lady, when on Tuesday of last week
fires ran rampant through the forests of that
vicinity. Being almost alone Mrs. Thigpen
was unable to defend her property against the
destructive element, and in a few minutes her


home was a smoking ruin. Every building-
dwelling, outhouses and laborer's houses, and
all fencing on the place, was destroyed by fire.
The spread of the flames was too rapid to per-
mit the saving of even the household goods.
Neighbors hastened to the scene of conflagra-
tion and did all within human power to save
property, but their efforts were futile. Thus,
through the criminal custom of annually firing
the woods, an aged widow lady, rapidly ap-
proaching the end of her days, was rendered
homeless, and deprived of the comforts and con-
veniencies which she was a long time collect-
ing around her. This is but one instance, and
it is a striking one, of the evils resulting from
forest fires.
PERSONS ORDERING GOODS FROM AD-
VERTISERS APPEARING IN THE DIS-
PATCH WILL CONFER A FAVOR BY NO-
TIFYING THEM TO THAT EFFECT.


Answers to Inquiries.
D. W. G.-Plant China tree" berries the
coming fall, in drills, four feet apart. Drop a
berry every four inches, and when the young
plants are six inches high, transplant and thin
out to one foot apart. They are, for this coun-
try, far better than the locust, and if well cared
for, will make posts large enough for a wire
fence in four or five years. But you must pre-
pare the ground well before you plant; and for
the first two years, cultivate as you would a
corn crop. They are very easily transplanted,
at the proper season (winter,) and when cut
will sprout again, like osiers, and produce an-
other crop.
W. J.-See article on cattle, from Key West
Democrat, in last number. Thanks for the
five subscribers.
A. E. B.-Mr: A. F. Styles, of Jacksonville,
Florida, has, or had, fresh seed of "Teosinte"
for sale. You can get a start of Guinea grass
from the divided roots, or from seed. Para
grass grows from pieces of root, or strikes readi.
ly in damp weather, from every joint of the stem.
It is now too late to transplant the guinea grass
-should have been done the last of March or
early in April. Para will grow almost any
time, (as we remarked above,) in damp weather.
A. I. Bidwell, of this city, can supply both these
grasses. To give you minute descriptions and
comparisons of all the grasses which can be
profitably grown in the State, together with
their relative merits," would occupy more time
and space than we can now devote to the sub-
ject-and-(may we confidentially whisper this
to you ?)-involve far more knowledge than our
triumvirate of experienced scribes can muster!
We shall return to this subject frequently, how-
ever, and ask the assistance of experienced
grass-growers in all sections of the State.
L. J. P.-We cannot, possibly, answer such
a string of questions by letter." Life is too
short. Boil down and condense your queries,
and we will endeavor to reply through THE
DISPATCH, pro bono public. No-there was
not a sign of a postage stamp in your letter-
"forgotten," probably, as nsual.
Mrs. A. B. W.-We do not know of any
"American Sebright" fowls for sale in Florida,
and you need not sigh for them, if you can get
real pure-bred Plymouth Rocks. We prefer
these last to all others. Good specimens are
worth $5 per pair, and upwards. None adver-
tised in our columns.
Sheep Notes.


Kill the dog first and hunt for his owner
afterward is the method of certain Georgia
farmers, who mean to make sheep raising
profitable.
A farmer who keeps sheep and has no shep-
herd dog is nearly in as bad condition as the
mariner who ventures on the sea without a
rudder.
A Merino ram crossed on a flock of com-
mon sheep will double the yield of wool through
the first cross alone, thus paying for himself the
first season.
The man who neglects to purchase a pure-
bred ram because it costs more than a common
one is the man who always insists that sheep
are very unprofitable.
It does not require heavy pastures for sheep.
They are great foragers, and weeds, leaves and
even stubble enter into their bill of fare. They.
equal the goat in that respect.


I


I _




LO-: THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


k 4eglorida ispatich.
JACKSONVILLE, MAY 8, 1882.
EDITORS:
D. REDMOND, D. H. ELLIOTT, W. H. ASHMEAD.
Subscription $1.00 per annum, in advance.
RATES OF ADVERTISING.
SQUARES. 1 TIME. 1 MO. 3 MO. 6 MO. 1 YEAR
One..................... $ 1 00 $ 2 50 $ 5 50 $10 00 $ 18 50
Two........... ........... 2 00 500 10 00 1800 34 00
Three...... ................... 00 7 00 1400 25 00 4600
Four...................... 4 00 9 00 17 50 30 00 58 00
Eight..................... 8 00 1650 3000 50 00 10000
Sixteen............... 16 00 30 00, 50 00, 80 00 150 00
Ten lines solid nonpareil type make a square.
The FLORIDA DISPATCH has a very large circulation
in Florida and South Georgia, aild is by far the best ad-
vertising medium for reaching the merchants and fruit
and vegetable growers of those sections. All business
correspondence should be addressed to
ASHMEAD BROS., Publishers, Jacksonville, Fla.
5,000 TO 8,000 COPIES ISSUED EVERY WEEK.
OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE FLORIDA FRUIT
GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
MR. FRANK JORDAN, No. 9 East Fifth St., Cincin-
nati, Ohio, is our Western Agent, and is authorized to
receive subscriptions and advertisements to THE FLOR-
IDA DISPATCH.

A full account of the Middle Florida Fair
will be published in our next issue.

And "Still They Come 1"
A nurseryman, writing from North Alabama,
says :
"We want to keep posted in regard to your
State, and to move there just so soon, as we can
get a good price for our possessions here. Drop
me a line," etc.
[We shall welcome all such people as our cor-
respondent, W. S.-but we can only "drop"
our "lines" through THE DISPATCH-in the
columns of which we shall cheerfully endeavor
to answer all reasonable questions in regard to
this great Sanitarium and El Dorado, yclept
FLORIDA.-EDITORS DISPATCH.]
An old and valued friend in Kansas sends
his dollar for the paper and says he, too, would
like to come to Florida, to spend the remainder
of his days, if he could dispose of his property,
in that bleak and storm-swept clime.
Another (a lady) writing from Western New
York, says:
"Our winter has not been unusually severe;
indeed, it has been considered quite mild for
this latitude; but the last winter I spent in
your balmy clime has, I fear, spoiled the North
for me evermore. I fully agree with our friend,
Russell Lowell, that
There's nothing so rare as a day in June,'
here, when the Bob-o'-Links are fluttering over
the meadows and singing as they fly; but, un-
fortunately, those June days are far too 'rare,'
and we have to pay too much for such brief de-


lights. Our 'spring,' here, has been fitful,
cold, raw and generally disagreeable, with little
of the 'etherial mildness' we read of, and I'll
never spend another here, if I can possibly help
it. My programme now is: Nine or ten months
in sunny Florida! and the remainder of the
year at the North, if convenient for me to go.
f not, I shall be glad to summer and winter
on the beautiful St. John's with never a sigh for
more 'bracing or boreal climes."
An old physician, writing from Eureka
Springs, Arkansas, April 11th, says:
"I have taken a notion to move to Florida,
as I am convinced that old people should go
Southward as they advance in years. I have
reached the age of seventy, already ; and I wish
to exchange my property here for a small farm
or a good residence in your State, so located as
to allow me to practice medicine, which has
been my profession for forty years past."


Another friend, away up in Mount Vernon,
Maine, kindly and pleasantly writes:
Gentlemen of The Dispatch:
You are furnishing an excellent paper to all
readers everywhere. To Florida farmers, gar-
deners, horticulturists, and people of leisure it
is of especial interest, while to the Patron it is
invaluable. When I read of bananas, pine
apples, cocoanuts, oranges, figs, lemons and
limes, it takes the charm from our Maine "land-
scape dotted all over with snow drifts to-day,
and all the lakes and ponds covered with ice.
But we have to 'grin and bear it' as best we
can. All cannot live in the best place. Some-
body must cut ice or your lemon punch would
lose its cooling flavor."
[We can make the ice by machinery, friend
"T.," but some how it never seems to us as cool,
crystaline and "nice" as the genuine work of
the old Frost King on your Northern lakes and
rivers.-[EDITORs DISPATCH.]
And so the "Florida boom" goes on, and
there shall be no "let up" or end to the same
so long as we are blest with the finest climate
"under the flag and in the Western Hemis-
phere !
THE old issue of THE DISPATCH, it appears,
was sent our correspondent, but he likes our
new form better, saying:
ROCK MILLS, ALA., April 20, 1882.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
At first I did not read it at all, but from
some cause I have become interested in it, and
finally got so I very much appreciated its vis-
its. Now, since it has so materially changed
its attire, and plumed itself to soar higher and
consequently let its flight be more extensive,
you must allow me to say that I doubly estimate
and enjoy its weekly visitations.
I wish you success, gentlemen, and hope to
remain one of your subscribers.
Yours truly, P. G. TRENT, M. D.
Answers to Inquiries.
[Continued.]
A. S. R.-We presume H. H. Stoddard, of
the Poultry World, Hartford, Conn., can fur-
nish the chromos of game fowls and Bantams
you desire. Many of these pictures are very
life-like and beautiful.
P.-We do not know who can supply the
Conch Pea. We see none advertised in our
State exchanges.
J. L.-If you had read Dr. Kenworthy's ar-
ticle, in our last, you would not have found it
necessary to inquire about Jute. We refer you
to that interesting and able document.
S. A. H.-We cannot advise you in regard
to the fertilizer, as we have never tried that


brand.
J. J. H.-We have no special information
in regard to the capacity and price of wind-
mills. If they possess any real practical value
for irrigating purposes, and the manufacturers
can prove it, our advertising columns are open,
at the usual rates."
ORANGES ON THE GULF.-The New Orleans
Commercial Bulletin says that the orange trees
of Louisiana and Southern Mississippi have
almost entirely recovered from the ill effects of
the cold weather of 1880 and 1881, and judg-
ing from present appearances the yield will far
exceed that of any previous year. The foliage
presents a very healthy appearance, trees free
from disease and insects, and the fruit very
abundant.


Cows and Calves.
Following up the subject of cows and milk-
ing, started in our last, we wish to say a few
words about the first calf. It is often the case
(says the Indiana Farmer,) when a heifer has
her first calf that the farmer thinks she will not
give more milk than will keep her calf in good
condition, and lets them run together to teach
her the mystery of being milked when she has
her next calf. In this decision there are two
mistakes that go far to spoil the cow for future
usefulness. Cows are largely the creatures of
habit, and with their first calf everything is
new and strange to them, and they readily sub-
mit to be milked, and think it is right; but
suffer them to run with the calf the first season,
and a vicious habit is established that they will
hardly forget in a life-time. If they ever sub-
mit to be milked quietly, it is evidently under
protest. But there is a greater objection than
this. The calf, running with the cow, draws
the milk every hour or two, so that the milk
vessels are at no time distended with milk,
though the quantity secreted in a given time
"may be large. But this is the natural time to
distend the milk ducts and expand the udder
to a good capacity for holding milk. When,
with her next calf, you require the milk to be
retained twelve hours, the udder becomes hard
and painful, and the milk leaks from the teats,
or, more likely, nature accommodates the
quantity of the milk secreted to the capacity to
retain it, and the cow becomes permanently a
small milker. Much of the future character of
a cow, therefore, depends on her treatment with
her first calf. The Northern plan of milking
the cow from the start, leaving sufficient for the
calf, and teaching the latter to feed from the
finger or bucket as soon as possible, is far pre-
ferable to the too common practice of allowing
the calf to run with the cow and letting the
owner take his chances for the little milk the
calf may leave or the cow choose to "give
down." All who are familiar with the best
dairy practice know how easy it is to teach the
calf to eat warm mush, hay tea, clover tea, &c.,
if taken at the beginning, and how much better
this practice is for "all parties," cow, calf and
owner. More on this subject, hereafter.
GENEROUS FLORAL GIFT.-The Country
Gentleman announces that, under the auspices
of the Western New York Horticultural So-
ciety, James Vick, Esq., very liberally offers a
collection of twelve varieties of seeds of the
most desirable, showy, free-blooming annuals,
to each of the five schools of each county in


every State in the country that shall first ap-
ply for them, and on condition that they shall
be cultivated on the school grounds and a re-
port made the first of November. The appli-
cation for the seeds may be made by teachers,
trustees or directors. The great benefit likely
to result from this liberal offer, in improving
the appearance of school grounds, and in edu-
cating the young people who attend the schools
in a taste for rural beauty as well as contribu-
ting to the good order which would be more
likely to prevail under such refining influences,
is obvious, and Mr. Vick, we trust, will enjoy
the satisfaction which belongs to public bene-
factors.


I





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH. 1OE


Continued from fifth page.
stem has its seat of life in the cambium, and
the cambium of each reproduces cells of its own
species out of a common nutrient fluid. Thus
there is seen to be a flow of sap upward in the
wood and a flow of organizable material, essen-
tial to the life of the plant, proceeding from the
leaf to the root, through the bark and cambium
layer. From this perfected sap the growth of
the season is formed, and provision for the be-
ginning of the next season's growth is also
stored up, commonly in the root."
As the fact of a rootward flow of elaborated
sap is very generally denied at the present
time, it may be well to quote a single line from
the edition published in 1870 of the admirable
text-book on botany by the late Professor Hen-
frey, of London, which has been carefully re-
vised by Dr. Masters. In reference to the sub-
ject he says: The evidence of a descent of
elaborated sap is overwhelming."
Want of space prevents copying in full this
excellent paper, which should be read by every
fruit grower. (See Massachusetts Agricultu-
ral Reports, 1873-74, pages 159 to 204.)
Of this paper, Professor Agassiz said: "I
need not praise what has been said by Presi-
dent Clark now, for the man who can make
such investigations, and report them in such a
manner, has the reward of his work in himself,
and no eulogy of others can add to his gratifi-
cation," etc.

Planting and Other Matters, in Georgia.
HAMPTON, HENRY Co., GA., April 26.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
I am in receipt of the fourth number of THE
DISPATCH (new series,) and I am so well pleased
with it, I don't see how I can get along with-
out its weekly visits. I am sure I could find a
place for every dollar that I have, without
sending any way down to Florida; but if THE
FLORIDA DISPATCH does not fall off from its
present line of march" more than a hundred
per cent., every farmer will be well remunera-
ted for the money paid for the paper.
I am sorry to say but few men in this com-
munity take any agricultural papers, and the
result is every fourth or fifth man has to pro-
cure from one fourth to one half of his supplies
from provision dealers, who know how to make
us pay "time prices." Some of your readers
will be surprised to hear that many planters up
in this section are not done planting cotton.
Some have not planted a seed, and it is now
the 26th day of April. Our corn crop has not
been worked out, though our spring is unusually
forward. Some of our wheat is moderately
promising, while much of it is poor and has the
rust or mould on the blade. Our oats are late,
averaging not over eight to ten inches high.
Commercial fertilizers have been largely used.
The yam potato is raised in small quantities.
Rice is scarcely known in this section. There
are men and women up here who have never
seen any rice grown. They have but little
idea what sort of appearance it makes, in a


green or growing state. But if they would
take a good agricultural paper and learn the
mode of its culture, and the advantages to be
gained by its use, we could have a greater va-
riety of farm crops growing in Middle Georgia
than we now have.
The ground-pea is but little grown in this
section. The stock law is in force in this and
several other counties. We enclose our stock
and turn out our farms. We have none of the
tropical fruits that you Floridians enjoy (only
as we buy them). But we drink much purer
water.
If I can find time to gather up anything that
would be likely to interest any of your readers,
I may write again, after harvest. I will, then,
be able to furnish a reliable report of the wheat
and oat crop of this section. I intend to try to


procure a few subscribers to your paper; and I
am, Yours, very truly, W. G. T.
"Oil on the Waves."
MAITLAND, ORANGE Co., FLA., April, 1882.
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
I saw in Harper's late publications an account
of oil fountains in the Gulf of Mexico some
fifteen miles from land on the line of passage
from New Orlerns to Texas, lying on the water
in great volume, so that sailors in case of sud-
den wind-storms, ran into the oil and were safe
from any danger. Now, if this be true, have
they been utilized; or, if not, why have they
not? Surely, whatever kind of oil it may
be, some worth and importance must be
attached to it. Suppose a ship, fitted out as
for a whale voyage, should run into it, and
throw out their pumps, and fill to their capac-
ity and take it to market? At any rate, if it
be true, it will furnish another proof of the vast
resources in the way of oil the world affords for
man's use. I ask: Has this oil matter been
investigated ? If not, it ought to be.
Respectfully yours, R. F. G.
Patrons of Husbandry--The Farmer's
Grange, Etc.
An Eastern friend, who has long been a leader
and representative man in the wide-spread and
influential organization known as the Patrons
of Husbandry," writes us from the far-off State
of Maine, thus cordially and fraternally. We
reciprocate his good wishes and warmly return
his kind greetings;
WEST MT. VERNON, ME., April 14, 1882.
Since your paper has been enlarged and
changed in form you are giving us one. of the
most readable papers that comes upon my table.
The reason that the twenty thousand farmers
of Florida who ought to read it and do not, is
that they do not see it. So my advice to them
through its columns is simply thrown away.
The true method by which to increase its circu-
lation is for each good Patron in the State to
constitute himself or herself a committee of one
to recommend it to their friends and urge upon
them to sustain a paper published in the inter-
ests of the wealth producers of your beautiful
peninsula.
Especially should Patrons sustain it and make
it the channel through which to communicate
to each other, and the outside world, the things
pertaining to our glorious fraternity which is
doing, and destined to do more for the tillers
of the soil than all other organizations extant.
I have been, for the last four years, Master
of the State Grange of Maine, and my observa-
tion has been extensive, and since I left the
Master's chair, my correspondence has been
quite large from all parts of the State, and I am
happy to say that at no time has the outlook
for the Order in Maine been more hopeful. The
Grange news, as given through the Dirigo Ru-
ral, (our excellent New England Grange organ,)


all the also gives encouraging reports from nearly
State. Let the good work go on till the farmers
everywhere learn to stand shoulder to shoulder
in defence of the rights they have so richly
earned. The sons and daughters of snow-clad
Maine extend their toil-hardened hands to their
brothers and sisters beneath the orange groves
and palm trees of Florida, and over the moun-
tain ranges and across the broad rivers which
separate us in person, we send the warm, fra-
ternal greeting to those united by a common
interest and loyal and true to a common coun-
try. Y ours very truly,
D. H. THING.
-THE FLORIDA DISPATCH, published by
Ashmead Brothers, Jacksonville, is devoted to
agricultural, manufacturing and industrial in-
terests, and is cheap at $1 per year.- Quincy
Herald.


The Withdrawal of the "Charleston, Sa-
vannah and Florida Steamboat Line."
Allusion was made in a former number to the
abandonment of this route by the steamer St.
John's. The New York and Charleston
Steamship Company have contracted with the
Charleston and Savannah Railway Company for
the delivery of their freights by this road and its
connections in Georgia and Florida.
Since this arrangement prompt deliveries
have been made to all principal points in Flor-
ida, in fact, in better time than heretofore.
Mr. John L. Howard, the popular agent of the
Charleston line, is still in that service, and with
his increased facilities for the dispatch of busi-
ness will, no doubt, secure the additional patron-
age that his line now merits. North-bound busi-
ness by this line will also be given this quick
movement, and shippers can rely upon certain
connections at Charleston for all business in that
direction.
The Charleston and Savannah Railway Com-
pany respectfully solicits a continuation of the
patronage heretofore given the Charleston steam-
ers, believing that, with the increased facilities,
and assured prompt connections, at the same
rates, they cannot only give equal but better ser-
vice than heretofore enjoyed.
S. C. BOYLSTON,
General Freight Agent.

Beautiful Things.
Beautiful faces are those that wear-
SIt matters little if dark or fair-
Whole-souled honesty printed there.
Beautiful eyes are those that show,
Like crystal panes where heart-fires glow,
Beautiful thoughts that burn below.
Beautiful lips are those whose words
Leap from the heart like songs of birds,
Yet whose utterance prudence girds.
Beautiful hands are those that do
Work that is earnest, brave and true,
Moment by moment the long day through.
Beautiful feet are those that go
On kindly ministries to and fro-
Down lowliest ways, if God wills it so.
Beautiful shoulders are those that bear
Ceaseless burdens of homely care,
With patient grace and daily prayer.
Beautiful lives are those that bless-
Silent rivers of happiness,
Whose fountains but the few may guess.
Beautiful twilight, at set of sun,
Beautiful goal, with race well won,
Beautiful rest, with work well done.
Beautiful graves, where grasses creep,
Where brown leaves fall, where drifts lie deep
Over worn-out hands-oh, beautiful sleep !
-Elle P. AIlCertf,n.

-Japan plums were cut short by the drouth,
but the trees had no less than three crops. They
are a splendid fruit and we hope to see them
more generally cultivated. They ripen at a sea-
son of the year when no other fruit does. This
makes them especially valuable.-Ocala Ban-


ner.
-Last Saturday we noticed something unus-
ual in this market-something that perhaps had
not been seen in this city for the past twenty
years or more. It was three cases of tobacco
grown by Mr. H. M. Shelter, of Gadsden Coun-
ty, and brought here for sale. It was purchased
by Mr. Wilt, the cigar maker, who pronounced
it first-class.-Floridian.
-A large number of land sales have occur-
red on this ridge of high lands within three
weeks past. These purchases are mostly ten-
acre tracts for the planting of groves, and for
speculation. They are made chiefly by new men
from the North, who are arriving now only in
small numbers, but they all mean business.-
Beresford Correspondent Union.


I_ _





.0 THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


May Magazines.
The Century (formerly Scribner's,) Harper's
Monthly and The Eclectic-three of the best and
most valuable literary magazines in the world-
and all for the merrie month of May," are
before us.
The Century has a portrait of James Russell
Lowell, with an admirable sketch of the poet,
by Stedman; also, The Canadian Mecca ;"
"Carlyle in Ireland;" Opera in New York ;"
"The Hellenic Age of Sculpture;" "The
Street of the Hyacinth," and many other
papers of interest.
Harper opens this month with a wonderful
portrait of a Spanish Peasant, and the second
paper on "Spanish Vistas," followed by
Marjorie Gray;" Music and Musicians in
Austria;" David Rittenhouse;" The Squir-
rel's Highway;" Some London Poets," with
portraits; "The Upper Peninsula of Michi-
gan ;" the conclusion of the story of Anne ;"
"Shandon Bells," the new novel of Win.
Black, &c., &c. The illustrations of Harper,
are exceptionally fine, copious and attractive;
and take it all in all, it is the very finest num-
ber of a serial magazine that we have ever
seen!
The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature,
fully maintains its deservedly high reputation
as the best reprint of European literature we
have ever had. There are over twenty papers
in this number, embracing nearly ever style,
and taking a wide range in thought, fact and
speculation. These papers have been drawn from
such sources as Fraser's Magazine, The Nine-
teenth Century, Cornhill Magazine, Temple Bar,
Contemporary Review, Miacinillan's Magazine,
Leisure Hour, The Spectator, Blackwood's Mag-
azine, Fortnightly Review, etc., and the general
editorial make-up of The Eclectic is admirable.
The leading articles are, "The Lady Maud," a
new story, by the author of "The Wreck of the
Grosvenor ;" The Yellowstone Geyser's;"
"Jane Austen;" "The Revised Version and
its Assailants ;" "Dutch Etiquette ;" "Monk-
eys;" "Western Wanderings;" "The Decay
of Criticism;" "Bishop Berkley;" "The Vis-
tas of the Past ;" Foreign and Domestic Lit-
erary notices; Science and Art; "Miscel-
lany," &c., &c.
We have, also, received the spicy and pun-
gent New York humorous and illustrated
journal, known as Puck; Popular Science
Monthly; The Atlantic; Lippincott; North


American Review, etc.; also a full supply of all
the leading daily papers, &c., &c.
The above and many more attractive publi-
cations herein unmentioned, may be obtained
from Ashmead Bros., 21 West Bay St.

Mushroom Growing.
We find the following in the agricultural de-
partment of a Southern contemporary. It
seems all easy and plain enough, but we ap-
prehend that the matter of temperature will
have to be provided for. If we are not mis-
taken, the mushroom cannot be raised success-
fully at a higher temperature than 600, and, in
our climate, during the greater part of the
year, this pould only be obtained by the use of
ice. It hardly seems necessary to use both


" nitre and saltpetree in making the brine
recommended; but if any of our Southern
readers have raised the mushroom in this way,
"all right," and we shall be glad to hear from
them.
"To many persons the culture of mushrooms
is regarded as a great mystery; but it is not so,
a regular supply can be raised by any family
in an outhouse, stable, or in a basement, where
the requisite darkness and moisture can be had.
And now for the method of growing. Make a
box or enclosure twelve inches in depth, and as
large as the space will admit, pack it down
with six or eight inches of. horse manure, on
this put three inches of dry cow manure, and
moisten this, not deluge ii, with a strong brine
made from nitre and saltpetre, plant the spawn,
which may be purchased through your seeds-
man, in the cow manure, and cover with fine
mold to the depth of a half inch.
In a few weeks the entire surface will be
covered with a growth of young mushrooms.
Care must be taken to exclude the light as the
mushroom grows only in the dark."
Light, Sandy Soils.
It is well known that very light soils are
comparatively unproductive, in their natural
state, from two causes; they are deficient in the
elements of plants, and their mechanical tex-
ture is too loose to afford plants-especially in
their early stages-a sufficiently firm hold. The
former deficiency may be supplied by the ap-
plication of the ordinary manures, but as such
soils possess little or none of any substance
which can hold manure combination, this rem-
edy of itself is only temporary. It has been
proved by practical experiments, that clay pos-
sesses the power of retaining manures-the
alkalies, as ammonia, potash and soda, readily
combine with clay, and the gases which are
emitted by decomposing animal and vegetable
matters are absorbed by this substance. The
alumni contained in clay constitutes its adhe-
sive power. Hence, as a means of permanently
improving light soils, clay is a substance of
great value. It supplies a principle which pre-
vents a waste of manures, and holds them in a
situation to benefit crops to the greatest practi-
cable degree, at the same time that it corrects
the mechanical defect of the soil by imparting
the requisite adhesiveness and solidity.

THE BAMBOO grows finely in Florida, and
should be cultivated, if only for ornament. In
the East Indies, China and Japan, the number
of different uses to which the bamboo can be


put is estimated at five hundred! In its native
country it serves a great variety of purposes
for which it is seemingly unfit. It frequently
answers for both iron and steel. The roots are
carved into images, lantern-handles and canes;
the tapering culms are used for every conceiva-
ble place where poles and ribs can be put; the
leaves are worked into thatches, umbrellas and
screens; cut into splints, the wood is woven
into baskets, plaited into awning and twisted in I
cables; the shavings stuff pillows; other parts
supply chop-sticks for eating, beds for sleeping,
brooms for sweeping, pipes for smoking, fuel
for cooking, skewers for the hair, paper for
writing, rods for whipping, tables to eat .on,


buckets for water-drawing, and the tender
shoots .are highly esteemed as a vegetable to be
eaten. In the Chinese Empire, south of the
Yangtze, about sixty varieties of bamboo are
said to grow, although five or six furnish the
principal materials used. At Foochow and
Swatow, the large size grows forty to fifty feet
high, and six or seven inches in diameter; on
the Island of Formosa it is found even larger.

Salt for Insects, Etc.
Old Professor Mapes, who, in his day, was
regarded as good authority on agricultural
questions, stated that common salt applied to
the soil will do away with every grub, wire
worm, or other lesser insects, so destructive of
corn and other vegetables.
He applied it as a top dressing in the propor-
tion of about six bushels to the acre.
"I apply that quantity every year to every
acre of my land; and since adopting this practice,
I have never lost a plant by grubs. My neigh-
bors, who are afraid to try salt, continue to lose
their's and are compelled to buy my cabbage
and other plants to reset their beds."
Its value as a fertilizer is also worthy of con-
sideration. It is composed of chlorine and soda,
and these ingredients are defective in many
soils. It also has the property of attracting
and retaining moisture, as well as ammonia
and other gases which add to the fertility of the
soil.

MIDDLE FLORIDA.-A Good Word for it."
-A correspondent of the Floridian has this to
say of the. lovely Tallahassee region:
There are desirable localities and interesting
features in every section visited; but should
any one ask me where to find the best country
in Florida, taking all the advantages and dis-
advantages into consideration, as climate and
soil, field and garden products, fruits and flow-
ers, water and forest, undulating surface and
beautiful scenery, I would say go to Middle
Florida. There you will find the orange, the
lemon, the grape, the fig, the peach, the pear
and other fruits; all the garden vegetables that
can be growl4 in the United States, and some of
them every month in the .year; all the field
crops common in the Southern States; and
horses, mules, hogs, cattle and sheep, may be
abundantly and profitably propagated. For the
growth of the orange and other semi-tropic
fruits, as a specialty, localities further south are
preferable; but for the permanent settler, who
wishes to produce from the soil the necessary
products for the subsistence of his family and
domestic animals, the beautiful hill country of
North Florida is decidedly the best. Here the


farmer may grow almost anything he may de-
sire, whether of the field, garden or orchard.
The climate is delightful, even in winter; snow
and ice are rarely to be seen and in summer.
the weather is not so hot as in States farther
North, the Atlantic and Gulf winds serving to
modify the heat. What is here said applies to
all North Florida, but the best of this is in
what is known as Middle Florida-the Talla-
hassee country. It is emphatically the Eldo-
rado of "The Land of Flowers."

.THE DISPATCH, under its new management,
that of Messrs.. Ashmead Bros., no neater or
more interesting agricultural journal reaches
our office. It is replete with everything of in-
terest or use to all classes of agriculturists, fruit
growers, etc., and contains much good family
reading. We commend it to our readers.-
Fernandina Express.


j


I


; --






THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


"Dungeness." "Cents" Wanted.
This old castellated structure-the ruins of The N. O. Commercial Bulletin says: "The
demand for cent pieces, is reported to be stead-
which are shown in our engraving-is situated ily increasing in the South. Formerly when
near the southwestern end of Cumberland the subject of introducing the cent was broached
Island, on the coast of Georgia. When we in this latitude, the idea was ridiculed; but
knew Dungeness," in the old times, "before gradually people begin to understand that the
the war," it was the property of that large- use of the cent in the smaller purchases is not
hea a, t d til eta l. P r an indication of poverty, but simply of econo-
hearted and estimable gentleman, Col. P. M. my; and the use of this comparatively value-
Nightengale-a grandson, we believe of Gen. less coin, as is well known, is most common
Greene, the original builder, and a worthy among the people that are the thriftiest, and in
descendant of the old patriot and soldier. It sections of our country which exercise a con-
was then widely known as a fine and extensive trolling financial power through their accumu-
w lations of capital. May not the very knowl-
"sea island" plantation, and was for many edge of the value of a cent piece in the daily
years, the seat of a most generous and refined transactions of life have had a good deal to do
hospitality. Toward the close of the war, the with their money accumulations? We are cer-
noble old mansion was burned and destroyed tain that if a strict account was kept in any
by some prowling miscreants; and the estate family, of the petty expenses which could have
by some prowling miscreants; and the estate been covered by two or three cents instead of
has recently, we understand, passed into the five, a considerable amount of wasted money
hands of a gentleman from Pittsburgh, Pa., would be discovered.
who, (rumor says,) intends restoring it to some- The Harbors of Florida.
thing of its pristine splendor. Let us hope that The South very truly says that the rapid
he may not mar or destroy the spirit of the old strides which Florida is making in material de-
place by any mansard roofs or ultra-modern velopments give great significance to the sub-
"improvements." True taste would dictate ject of harbor improvement. The whole State
is interested in this question, and it is receiving
something like a re-creation of the time-honored the consideration due to its importance. The
structure, and its surroundings-but, St. John's bar is so shallow as to prove a practi-
"Ah me! what wonder-working, occult science cal barrier to vessels of deep draft. Jackson-
Can, from the ashes in our hearts, once more
The rose of youth restore ? ville, which is the chief city of the State, is, and
What craft of alchemy can bid defiance so long as 4his State of affairs exists, must con-
To time and change, and, for a single hour, e d a
Renew this phantom-flower?" tinue to be deprived of a commerce which would
otherwise contribute largely to her prosperity
CISTERNS-CEMENT ON SAND, ETC. and to the welfare of the State at large.
The St. John's is a magnificent river, draining
ELLAVILLE, FLA., Apr 21, 1882.. an extensive country which is rapidly increas-
ELLAVILLE FLA., April 21, 1882.. ing in population and wealth. This grand river,
Publishers of The Florida Dispatch: and the lesser rivers and lakes which are its
GENTLEMEN :-I have been much pleased tributaries, are a scene of great commercial ac-
with the change you have made in THE Dis- tivity the scope of .which should not longer be
PATCH, and I think it now destined to do much circumscribed.
good. There is but a single barrier to the com-
In your issue of the 10th inst., I notice an merce of the St. John's, and to the consequent
inquiry made by "H. E.," of Palatka, in refer- welfare-of a vast country surpassingly rich in
ence to building cisterns, and in your reply you natural resources. And this is not formidable.


say it will be necessary to line with brick."
Now, for the benefit of your correspondent and
any others who may be desiring similar infor-
mation I will say that we have some fifty or
more cisterns here in which no bricks were
used, but the cement plastered right on the
earth, whether clay or sand. We have no-
ticed that this mode of application answers
equally as well in either soil. We dig them
oblong, elipse or oval, leaving the bank so slop-
ing as to prevent caving before the cement is
put on. In our work we have used the im-
ported "Portland" cement, and in applying
made from one-half to three-quarters of an
inch thick. So far we have had no difficulty
with leakage though many of the cisterns have
been in constant use many years.
Yours, respectfully,
GEO. F. DREW.


It will require an expenditure of money, but it
will not be wasted in a fruitless scheme. The
measure is considered to be eminently practica-
ble by competent authorities.
Cumberland Sound is also most deserving of
consideration. The valuable commerce which
has already been built up should receive liberal
encouragement. The interest of Georgia as
well as that of Florida, is at stake, and a con-
certed effort to deepen the channel to admit of
the passage of the largest vessels required in the
trade of the Sound ports should be made.
In view of the positive and general good
which must result from an ample appropriation
for the improvement of the St. John's and the
Cumberland Bars, all local jealousies should be
dropped, and Congress should be asked to meet
the question in a spirit of judicious liberality
befitting the vast interests involved.


Agricultural, lHorticultural and Pomological
Associations.
Florida Fruit-Growers' Association-Office at Jack-
sonville-D. Redmond, President; W. H. Sebring, Vice-
President; D. H. Elliott, Secretary; W. H. Ashmead,
Assistant Secretary; C. A. Choate, Corresponding Sec-
retary; D. Greenleaf, Treasurer. Executive Commit-
tee-Dr. C. J. Kenworthy, Dr. J. J. Harris, 0. P. Rookes,
P. Houston. Official organ-THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.
OFFICERS OF THE FLORIDA STATE GRANGE AND
THEIR POST-OFFICES.-Master, Wm. H. Wilson, Lake
City, Florida; Overseer, Win. Hicks, Houston, Florida;
Lecturer, B. F. Wardlaw, Madison, Florida; Steward,
Daniel Lynn, Lake Butler, Florida; A. S., T. W. Field-
ing, Wilson, Florida; Chaplain, A. M. Clontz, Live Oak,
Florida; Treasurer, J. H. Lee, White Springs, Florida;
Secretary, R. F. Rogers, Welborn, Florida; Gate
Keeper, Frasier, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Ceres,
Mrs. Wm. H. Wilson, Wilson, Florida; Pomona, Mrs.
T. W. Fielding, Wilson, Florida; L. A. S., Mrs. J. H.
Lee, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Executive Committee,
J. C. Waldron, White Springs, Florida; Geo. W. Wal-
dron, Suwannee Shoals, Florida; Geo. Umstead, Hous-
ton, Florida.
State Park Association, located at Jacksonville.-
Damon Greenleaf, President; A. J. Bidwell, Vice-Presi-
dent; A. J. Russell, Secretary; J. C. Greeley, Treasurer.
Directors-J. H. McGinniss, G. C. Wilson, J. P. Talia-
ferro, P. McQuaid, J. W. Whitney. Annual meeting-
Last Friday in April each year.
Orange Park Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Associa-
tion.-Orlando Knapp, President; E. D. Sabin, Vice-
President; 0. E. Campbell, Corresponding Secretary;
Rev. 0. Taylor, Secretary and Treasurer.
Lake George Fruit Growers' Association, Georgetown,
Florida.-President, A. B. Bartlett, Georgetown; Vice-
Presidents, E. A. Manville, N. W. Hawkins, Lake
George, and E. Kirby, Mt. Royal; A. H. Manville, Sec-
retary, Lake George; George W. Thorn, Treasurer,
Georgetown; Corresponding Secretary, Rolla Ham-
mond, Fort Gates.
Picolata Agricultural and Horticultural Society.-R.
B. Canova, President; J. J. Lee, W. N. ParKer, Vice-
Presidents; N. R. Fitz-Hugh, Corresponding Secretary,
N. R. Fitz-Hugh, Jr., Recording Secretary; J. F. Sowell,
Treasurer. Meets first Saturday in each month.
Micanopy Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Associa-
tion.-G. W. Means, President; J. J. Barr, First Vice
President; A. H. Mathers, Second Vice-President; 13.
W. Powell, Corresponding Secretary; B. F. Jordan, Sec-
retary and Treasurer.
Tropical Fruit Growers' Association of Monroe County,
Florida.-Home office, Myers, Florida; F. A. Hendry,
President; T. M. Parks, Secretary. Meets once a week.
Levy County Immigration Society.-J. M. Jackson,
President; Thomas Tillis, First Vice-President; J. B.
Sutton, Second Vice-President; W. H. Sebring, Corres-
onding Secretary; J. M. Barco, Recording Secretary;
L. W. Hamlin, Assistant Recording Secretary.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Association.-
John Bradford, President, Bradfordville, Florida; D. H.
Elliott, Secretary, Jacksonville, Florida.
Pinellas, Florida, Fruit Growers' Association.-D. W.
Meeker, President- Wm. P. Neeld Secretary.
Bronson Agricultural Union, Bronson, Florida.-Jo-
seph Hirst, President; L. W. Hamlin, Secretary; semi-
monthly meetings, first and third Saturdays.
Central Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Association, Ar-
redondo, Florida.-Eli Ramsey, President; Dr. B. P.
Richards, Secretary.
Evergreen Horticultural Society Dunedin, Florida.-
J. W. Matchett, President; W. Tate, Vice-President;
Geo. L. Jones, Secretary.
Decatur County Fair Association, Bainbridge, Geor-
gia.-Maston O'Neil, President; I. Kwilecki, Secretary.
Lake Wier Agricultural and Pomological Society (of
Marion County, Florida).-Captain J. L. Cainy, Presi-
dent; Dr. L. M. Ayer, Corresponding Secretary.
Welaka Horticultural Society (Welaka, Florida).-J.
S. North, President; C. M. Higgins, Secretary.
Southwest Georgia Industrial Association, Albany,
Georgia.-L. E. Welch, President; T. M. Carter, Secre-
tary.
Sumter County Agricultural and Fruit Growers' Asso-
ciation.-D. L. Hubbard, President, Leesburg" W. C.
Dodd, Recording Secretary, Leesburg; A. P. Roberts,
Corresponding Secretary Leesburg.
Florida Central Agricultural Society.-Thos. F. King,
President, Gainesville; Cn Secretary, -
; W. K. Cessna, Corresponding Secretary, Gaines-


ville.
Archer Agricultural Association.-J. W. Williams,
President, Archer; J. A. Pine, Secretary ; I. C. Neal,
Corresponding Secretary, Archer.
Middle Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Associa-
tion.-P. Houston, President; John A. Craig, Secretary;
Edward Lewis, Treasurer, Tallahassee.
Indian River Agricultural and Pomological Society.-
A. P. Cleveland, President; W. H. Sharp, Secretary,
Rockledge, Florida. Meets second Saturday in each
month.
Madison County Agricultural and Mechanical Fair
Association.-R. J. Mays President; Frank W. Pope,
Secretary, Madison, Florida.
Orange County Fair Association.-General Joseph
Finnegan, President; Fred. L. Robertson, Corresponding
Secretary.
Albion Agricultural and Fruit Growers' Associa-
tion.-Joseph Hirst, President; S. Frei, Secretary. Semi-
monthly meetings first and third Mondays.
Gadsden County Fair Association.-Jesse Wood, Pres-
ident; W. H. Scott, First Vice-President; J. R. Harris,
Second Vice-President; J. W. Kendricks, Secretary; E.
C Lou Treasurer.
South Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical Associa-
tion, Thomasville, Georgia.-H. M. Sapp, President; K.
T. fMcLean, Secretary.
[Will our friends in the different associations above
enumerated, be kind enough to correct any errors into
which we may have fallen in the naming of officers, &c.,
and oblige TiHE DISPATCH ?]


107


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__




10o


CALIFORNIA FRUIT-GROWING.

Canning Factories--Apricots, Peaches, Rais-
ins, Grapes, Arrow-Root, Etc.
An esteemed contemporary and whilom con-
frere of the California rural press, writes us
from Niles, Alameda County, California, under
date of April 15th :
Editors of The Florida Dispatch:
You are to be congratulated upon the greatly
increased size of THE DISPATCH, as well as
upon its improved typographical appearance.
No doubt its circulation and usefulness will be
correspondingly increased.
We have all along been interested- in THE
DISPATCH, because of the similarity, in many
respects of the climate and productions of Cali-
fornia and Florida. This is especially true of
the southern portion of this State. Almost the
entire State of California is especially adapted
to fruit culture, and if we take the State from
south to north we shall find soil and climate fit-
ted to the growth of most of the fruits of tem-
perate and of semi-tropic zones. Oranges, lem-
ons, figs, olives, peaches, pears, apricots; and,
at the the north, the very best of apples.
Recently a very great impetus has been given
to the growth of nearly all classes of fruit, but
especially of those best suited for canning pur-
poses. Many canning factories have been erected
within a year or two, and the competition has
enabled fruit-growers to realize large profits.
Within a few miles of this place, a gentleman
sold from twelve acres of apricots, over $12,000
worth of fruit fall before last, and last fall from
the same trees fully $6,000 worth. These apri-
cot trees were young, and only medium in size.
We know of a sale of peaches-" Late Salway,"
last fall, that fully averaged $10 per tree.
These fruits, when canned, are sent East, and
much of it finds its way to Europe. Vast quan-
tities of land are being planted to fruit trees.
But, perhaps, the greatest furore in the fruit
line, is in the grape interest; very large tracts
are being covered with grape vines; some with
varieties for raisins; some with special sorts
suited for table use, but far the greatest number
are such as are supposed to be the best for the
making of wine. A very large portion of this
State is peculiarly suited to the culture of the
grape. We send car-loads to the East, to Chi-
cago and New York, all through the season, but
especially the earlier varieties.
Perhaps no country excels this for the growth
of plums and prunes. Thousands of tons are
canned and sent East; and the planting and
culture of prunes of the best quality is rapidly
increasing.
A friend lately sent us a fine plant, root and
top of arrow-root from Florida. We at once
looked for your article of a few weeks ago on
the culture of this plant, and could not find it.
If possible, please send us a copy of the article
or repeat as much of it as may be necessary for
our guidance.
We remain, very truly yours,
SHINN & Co.


[Rich and somewhat moist soil, deeply broken
up, well pulverized and heavily manured, brings
the largest, finest and starchiest roots. In field
culture, the rows may be three and a half or four
feet apart, and the sets or pieces of root dropped
twelve or fifteen inches in the row. With good
culture, the young roots will fill the whole
ground; and once started, it is like the "Jeru-
salem Artichoke," a hard plant to get rid of.
We have only one variety in cultivation.-
EDITORS DISPATCH.]



Vegetable Quotations.
FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE
31% BROADWAY, NEW YORK, May 3, 1882.1
Receipts of vegetables and berries at this port via
Florida Dispatch Line and Southern Express Corn-


pany, week ending 2d inst. Vegetables, 8,000 packages;
strawberries, 2,200 quarts.
Strawberries in demand for first-class. Charleston,
Georgia and Florida, selling at 20c to 35c per quart.
Tomatoes coining uneven in quality; good bringing
$2 50@3 00 per crate.
Egg-plant in fair demand, but market well supplied,
$1 50@2 50 per crate.
Cucumbers, market well supplied, more coming over-
grown and turning yellow, selling at $1 00@2 00 per
crate for good.
Potatoes in demand for good and large culls not sala-
ble. Large, $5 00 per barrel; seconds, 4 00. The best
potatoes are now coming from Tallahassee and vicinity.
Beans coming mostly too old and tough, selling at
$1 00@02 00 per crate.
Cabbages in demand and selling from $3 00@4 50 per
barrel.
The weather continues cold for the season, and this is
not favorable to demand for green vegetables.
Respectfully,
C. D. OWENS,
General Agent.
cJacksonville Wholesale Prices.
Corrected weekly, by JONES & BO WEN, Wholesale and
Retail Girocers, Jacksonville, Fla.
SUGARS-Granulated......................................... 11
W white Ex. C........................................ 10V
G olden C.................. ...................... 8
Pow dered............................................. .. 11
Cut Loaf............................................... 11%
COFFEE, Rio-Fair......................................... 11
Good............ ..... ......... ............. 11
Choice .......................................... 12f
Best................... ... ....... ............ 13
Java 0 G................. .......................... 25
M ocha ................................ .................. 35
-- Peaberry................................................ 18
M aracaibo............................................ 18
Any of abovo grades roasted to order.
FLOUR-Snow Drop, best .................................. 9 50
Oreole, 2d best... ... ...................................... 8 50
Pearl, 3d best ....................................... 8 25
M EATS-Bacon ..................................................1... 4
Hams (Merwin & Sons)p........................ 15
Shoulders...................................... .... 11
HOMINY-Pearl, per bbl................................... 5 40
M EAL-per bbl..... .. ............................ 5 40
LARD-Refined. in pails................................... 13Y4
BUTTER-Very best, kegs................................. .. 35
CHEESE-Full cream ..................................... .. 15
H alf cream .......................... ............. 13%
TOBACC-Shell Road......................................... 55@56
Florida Boys, 11 inch 5's............... 40
Florida Girls, bright twist, 14 to lb.. "50
Smoking in packages, 8 to b........... 45
SOAP AND STARCH-Colgate's 8 oz., per box... 3 50
Peerless, 8 oz., per boxl............................. 3 50
Starch, lump, per lb............. ........... 5@6c
HOPS, YEAST CAKES, BAKING POWDERS-
H ops, per b .............................................. 15@ 22c
Ager's Fresh Yeast Cakes, per doz .......... 60
Grant's 3-Dime Baking Powder, per
do z. 1 lb .............. .................................. 2 25
Town Talk Baking Powder, per doz. 1 lb. 2 25
Royal Baking Powdpe, per doz. 1 lb..... 2 70
Royal Baking Powder, per doz.4 lb...... 1 50
COUNTRY PRODUCE.
Florida Sugar and syrups ruling high
for first grades.
POTATOES-Irish, per bbl.................................... 3 25
CH ICKENS, each..................... ............................ 25@45
EGGS- Per doz....... .............. ....................... 15
HIDES-Dry Flint Cow Hides, per lb., first class 13
Country Dry Salted, per lb.............. 9@11
Butcher Dry Salted, per lb.................... 9@10
Damaged Hides........................................ 6
Kip and Calf, 8lbs. and under ................ 10
SKINS-Raw Deer Skins, per lb........................ 35
Deer Skins Salted, per lbl..................... 26@30
FURS -Otter, each, (Summer no value) Win-
ter........................................................ 1 50@ 4 00
Raccoon, each........................................ 5@15
W ild Cat, each....................................... 10( 20
Fox, each............................................... 5@ 15
BEESW AX-per Ib ..................................... ......... 20
WooL-Free from burs, per lb............................. 17@22
Burry, per lb............................................ 11@ 15
GOAT SKINS-Each per lb................................. 10
Bacon and flour advancing rapidly-buyers will do
well to make their purchasesnow.
[4-347.]


LAND OFFICE AT GAINESVILLE, FLA., May 3, 1882.
N OTICE is hereby given that the following named
settler has filed notice of his intention to make final
proof in support of his claim, and that said proof
will be made before T. E. Buckman, Clerk Circuit Court
at Jacksonville, Florida, on Saturday, June 24th, 1882,
viz.: Jacob lRobinson, Duval County, homestead entry
No. 561, for the Nw 4 of Nw ', section 6, township 3s,
range 27e.


He names the following witnesses to prove his con-
tinuous residence upon, and cultivation of, said land,
viz.: Calvin Hughes, Samuel Anderson, Andrew Sess-
ions, Lee Clark, all of Jacksonville, Florida.
L. A. BARNES,
May 8 tf Register United States Land Office.

ST. MARK'S HOTEL,

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.


CONVENIENT TO POST-OFFICE AND ALL STEAM-
ERS ON ST. JOHN'S RIVER.



OPEN THROUGHOUT THE
YEAR.
1 yr to April 23, '83


VIEWS OF FLORIDA
(Sent by mail, postage free, on receipt of price)
In BooUk Forim, Containining 1
Vie ws Each.
Souvenir of Florida, (small size).................... 25c.
Scenes and Characters of the Sunny South, (small
size) ......... ..................... ........... 25c.
Souvenir of Jacksonville,( large size)...............50c.
Souvenir of St. Augustine, (large size)............... 50c.


Stereoscopic Views, per Doz. $1.50.

Address

ASHMEAD BROTHERS,
JACIKSONVIVILLE, FLA.


HUAU & CO.,
MANUFACTURERS OF

FINE KEY WEST CIGARS
-AND-

WHOLESALE LEAF O)E.4LE(RS.


Proprietors of Factories Nos. 29, 61 and 81, District
of Florida,
Jacksonville, Filorida,
The Most Extensive Manufacturers in the State.
lyr to april 23, '83.
NR is a new town in Orange
W IN TERPARK County, Florida eighteen
miles south of Sanford, on the South Florida railroad,
with a frontage of two miles upon three beautiful Lakes.
WINTER HOMES in the midst of Orange Groves, for
Northerners, is the main idea. For Pamphlets and
Maps giving particulars, address
CHAPMAN & CHASE,
Maitland, Orange Co., Fla.
to july 17, '82
[NEW SCHEDULE.]
BALTIMORE EXPRESS
-o
MERCHANTS & MINERS

TRANSPORTATION COMPANY!


The steamships of this company are appointed to
sail
From BALTIMORE for SAVANNAH

EVERY FIVE DAYS,
and from SAVANNAH for BALTIMORE, as follows:
Tuesday, May 2d, at 5 p. m.
Saturday, May 6th, at 10 a. m.
Thursday, May 1th, at 1 p. m.
Tuesday, May 16th, at 5 p. m.
Monday, May 22d, at 11 a. m.
Saturday, May 27th, at 2 p. m.
Thursday, June 1st, at 5 p. m.
Tuesday, June 6th, at 11 a. m.
Monday, June 12th, at 3 p. m.
Saturday. June 17th, at 8:30 a. m.
Thursday, June 22d, at 11 a. m.
Tuesday, June 27th, at 3 p. m.
Monday, July 3d, at 9 a. m.
The steamers are first-class in every respect, and every
attention will be given to passengers.
CABIN FARE from Savannah to Baltimore, $15,
Including Meals and Stateroom.
For the accommodation of the Georgia and Florida
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SHIPPERS
this company has arranged a special schedule, thereby
perishable freight is transported to the principal
points in the WEST and SOUTHWEST by rail from
Baltimore.
By this route shippers are assured that their goods
will receive careful handling and quick dispatch.
Rates of freight by this route will be found in another
column.
JAS. B. WEST & CO., Agents.
Savannah, January 8th, 1878. 30-tf
The Dispatch has the largest circulation of any
paper in Florida; it is therefore the best adver-
tising medium in the State.


THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


I. .. I


I I





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.10


Sportman's Emporium.




W. C. PITTMIAN,
No. 3 West Bay Street,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.
-0
Ouns, Pistols, Rifles and Cutlery,
Shooting- and Fishing Triackle.

SHELLS LOADED TO ORDER.
1 yr to April 23, '83


DEALER IN
PAINTS, OILS, VARNISHES,
GLUES, BRUSHES,
Window, Picture and Carriage Glass.
GOLD AND METAL LEAF,
BRONZE, COPPERAS, ALUM, PUMICE STONE, KEROSENE,
Sand and Emery Papers, &c.
AGENT FOR
PRATT'S MINERAL COLZA OIL,
3000, FIRE TEST.
Johnson's Prepared Kalsomine. Wads-
worth, Mfartinez and Longman's
Prepared Paints.
WHALE OIL SOAP AND PARAFINE OIL
FOR ORANGE TREES.
No. 40 West Bay St., Sign of Big Barrel,
to mar 25,88, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

D. G. AMBLER. J. L. MARVIN. J. N. C. STOCKTON.
AMBLER, MARVIN & STOCKTON

Oldest Established Bank in East Florida.
Organized in 1870 by Mr. D. G. Ambler, and
Generally Known as
AMBLER'S BANK.
TRANSACTS A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS.
Deposits received, Discounts made and Exchange
Bought and Sold on MOST FAVORABLE TERMS.
Collections made and Proceeds promptly remitted.
Correspondents-Importers & Traders National Bank,
New York; Merchants National Bank, Savannah, Ga.
Resident correspondents of Brown Bros. & Co., Drexel,
Morgan & Co., Jas. G. King's Sons, Kountze Bros., New
York, and other prominent Bankers issuing Letters of
Credit. apr 10-tf

TISTEL "EBIO.'S

Soluble Ground Bone,
THE BEST AND CHEAPEST

FERTLIM HR FOR ORANtII TPRIHQ

Will PERMANENTLY ENRICH THE SOIL and
PROMOTE a HEALTHY and VIGOROUS GROWTH.


Combined with POTASH and MULCHING will PRE-
VENT RUST ON THE ORANGES.
For sale by
FOSTER & BEAN,
Agents for the State of Florida.


AZkAnalysis Guaranteed.
Send for Circulars and Price-List.
Jacksonville, March 25, 1882.


to sept 26, '82


GULF NURSERY
Has thirty thousand three and four year old orange
trees prepared for summer setting. Send in your
orders.
B. -W. B W50"7"2f1T,
DUNEDIN, FLORIDA.
to May 31 '82.


W. L. DAVIDS,

Broker and Commission Merchant,


P. Boxs, Fruits a86.] Jacksonville, FloGrocB r ida.slis

P. o. Box 862.] Jacksonville, Florida.


:E= :E :M :F E C T I 10 1*. SaC.A "",E.
No. 3. No. 4. No. 5.:
CAPACITY. I ounce to 1l ounce to 1 ounce to
11 lbs. 22 lbs. 55 lbs.
Tin Scoop, Brass Beam........... $ 12 00 $ 13 00 $ 14 00
Brass ........... 12 75 14 00 15 00
Brass (seamless) " ........... 13 50 15 00 16 00
Nickel Plated Scoop and Beam............ 14 75 16 50 17 50


Ocean Steamship Company.

SAVANNAH AND NEW YORK.



The Magnificent New Iron Steamships sail from Savannah on following dates:
GATE CITY, Wednesday, May 3d, 6:30 a. m.
CITY OF MACON, Saturday, May 6th, 8:30 a. m.
CITY OF COLUMBUS, Wednesday, May 10th, 12:00 noon.
CITY OF AUGUSTA, Saturday, May 13th, 3:00 p. m.
GATE CITY, Wednesday, May 17th, 6:30 a. m.
CITY OF MACON, Saturday, May 20th, 8:30 a. m.
CITY OF COLUMBUS, Wednesday, May 24th, 12:00 noon.
CITY OF AUGUSTA, Saturday, May 27th, 2:00 p. m.
GATE CITY, Saturday, May 31st, 5:30 a. m.
Through Bills of Lading and Tickets over Central Railroad of Georgia, Savannah, Florida & Western
Railway, and close connections with the new and elegant steamers to Florida.
Freight received every day from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m., at Pier 35, N. R.
H. YONGE, G. M. SORREL, Agent, Savannah, Ga.
Agent of Line, and C. R. R. of Ga., Office New Pier 35 N. River, N. Y.
W. H. RHETT, General Agent, 317 Broadway, New York.
H. R. CHRISTIAN, Gen'l Soliciting Agent. C. D. OWENS,
12-2m Gen'l Ag't Sav'h, Florida & Western Ry. Co, 315 Broadway. N. Y.
F. S. CONE, A. H. MANVILLE, E. A. MANVILLE,
President and Business Manager. Secretary and Superintendent. Treasurer
3V:.AZ IT T7VI:"r3LLE "." NTTIT"MaSEiM:"IE.S,
Lake George, Florida.
A FULL LINE OF FRUIT TREES adapted to this climate, including Japan Persimmons, Japan Plums,
Peaches, Figs, Grapes, LeConte Pears, and over one hundred varieties of the Citrus.
ORANGE AND XE1M:0N TRI'EES a specialty.
Catalogue free. to apr 17, '83

BUY THE BEST AND CHEAPEST
-o0

GOULD & CO.'S


FERTILIZER
-AND-


Has been during the past season thoroughly tested by many of the first Orange Growers and Gardeners of the
State, and received their endorsement and approval. The material which forms the base of this Fertilizer, con-
tains potash, lime, phosphoric acid, ammonia and the other essential elements of Plant Food, making a com
plete Fertilizer. Many who have tried it with Stockbridge, Baker & Bro.'s, and other high-priced Fertilizers,
say it is equal to them in the same quantity, and has the advantage of being an Insecticide.
This Fertilizer is put up in barrels containing 250 pounds, or 8 barrels to the ton. Price $4 per barrel, $32 per
ton.
All orders with remittance promptly filled and delivered free on board cars or boats.
MESSRS. GOULD & Co.:
Gentlemen-I used one-half ton of your Fertilizer, in connection with the same amount of Baker & Bro.'s,
New York, and Bradley's, of Boston, last February, using the same quantity of each on alternate rows through-
out my grove. I find yours gave as good results as the others, which are much higher priced fertilizers-costing
$50.50 per ton for B. & Bro.'s and $51.50 for Bradley's, delivered here. I consider yours equal to either of the
others, and a great saving to the growers. Very respectfully, T. J. TUCKER.
WILCOX, ORANGE COUNTY, FLA., September 12,1881.
LEESBURG, SUMTER CO., FLA., March 6,1882.
GOULD & Co.:
Gentlemen-Allow me to express my thanks for the promptitude with which you have directed your
agents at this point (Messrs Spier & Co.,) to deliver to me the premium of one ton of your valuable fertilizer,
so generously offered for the best display of vegetables grown under its fostering care, I having had the honor
to win the said premium. I I
It was with very small hope of so substantial a reward, that I placed my vegetables among the exhibits
of our first county fair last month; but I wanted our people to know that we have at our own doors, as it
were, a fertilizer and insect destroyer better and cheaper than any of the celebrated Northern brands,
Gould's Fertilizer "kills two birds with one stone," inasmuch as it feeds the plant, and destroys its enemies,
at one and the same time. I bave been testing it in the field, garden and orange grove for nearly two years, and
the result has been such that I feel independent of scale, leaf rollers, borers, and the other insect plagues, whose
name is legion, while my plants are well fed and vigorous, and exhibit the dark, glossy green of health and
For my part, I ask nothing better than Gould's Fertilizer, and at our next county fair. if I live to see it, I
mean to show yet more of its handiwork.
Yours truly, HELEN HARCOURT.
GOULD & CO.,
to aug 27, '82 NO. 6 W. BAY ST., JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


J


I


1









BALTIMORE EXPRESS
-0

MERCHANTS & MINERS


TRANSPORTATION COMPANY!







The Steamships of this company are appointed to
sail semi-weekly, as follows:
FROM BALTIMORE:
Every Wednesday and Saturday, at 3 p. m.
FROM SAVANNAH :
Every Tuesday and Friday, as follows:
Tuesday, May 2d, at 5 p. m.
Saturday, May 6th, at 10 a. in.
Thursday, May llth, at I p. inm.
Tuesday, May 16th, at 5 p. inm.
Monday, May 22d, at 11 a. m.
Saturday, May 27th, at 2 p. inm.
Thursday, June 1st, at 5 p. m.
Tuesday, June 6th, at 11 a. m.
Monday, June 12th, at 3 p. inm.
Saturday. June 17th, at 8:30 a. m.
Thursday, June 22d, at 11 a. m.
Tuesday, June 27th, at 3 p. m.
Monday, July 3d, at9 a. m.
The steamers are first-class in every respect, and every
attention will be given to passengers.
CABIN FARE from Savannah to Baltimore, $15,
Including Meals and Stateroom.
For the accommodation of the Georgia and Florida
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SHIPPERS,
this company has arranged a special schedule, thereby
perishable freight is transported to the principal
points in the WEST and SOUTHWEST by rail from
Baltimore.
By this route shippers are assured that their goods
will receive careful handling and quick dispatch.
Rates of freight by this route will be found in another
column.
JAS. B. WEST & CO., Agents.
Savannah, January 8th, 1878. 30-tf
SAVANNAH, FLORIDA & WESTERN RAILWAY
VIA




WAYCROSS SHORT LINE.
ON AND AFTER SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1882,
Passenger Trains will run over the Waycross Short
Line as follows;
Fast Mail.. Jack'lle Ex.
Daily. Daily.
Leave Jacksonville at.................. 9:00 a. m. 5:40 p. m.
Arrive Jacksonville at...........5:40 p. m. 8:15 a. m.
Leave Callahan at......................... 9:44 a. m. 6:45 p. m.
Arrive Waycross at.......................11:57 a. m. 9:15 p. m.
Arrive Jesup at.............................. 1:40 p. m. 11:25 p. m.
Arrive at Brunswick at............. 6:00 p. inm. 5:30 a. m.
Arrive Savannah at.............. 3:40 p.n. 2:35 a. m.
Arrive Charleston at..................... 9:10 p.m. 9:05 a. m.
Arrive at Augusta at..................... 5:20 a. n. 1:30 p. inm.
Arrive Macon at..............................7:50 p. m. 7:00 a. m.
Arrive Atlanta at.......................... 3:50 a.in. 12:50 p. m.
Arrive Louisville at....................................... 8:00a. inm.
Arrive Cincinnati at................................ 7:00 a. m.
Arrive Washington at...v.......... 9:30 p.m. 9:10 a. m.
Arrive Baltimore at.....................12:25 p. m. 12:05 a. m.
Arrive New York (limited express).......... 3:50 p. m,
Arrive New York P. R. R............. 6:45 a. m. 5:20 p. m.
Arrive St. Louis at...................................... 7:00 p. m .
Arrive Chicago at....................................... 7:00 p. m.
TIME.
To Savannah................................................ 6:40 hours.
To New York............................................... 45:45 hours.
To W ashington........................................... 36:30 hours.
To Chicago................................................... 49:00 hours.
To St. Louis..................................................... 49:00 hours.
THROUGH SLEEPERS ON EVENING TRAIN.
iilJacksonville to Savannah.
*i-Jacksonville to Louisville.
.tjJacksonville to Washington.
t.Jacksonville to Cincinnati.


A Restaurant and Lunch Counter has been estab-
lished at Waycross, where passengers will be bounti-
fully furnished at moderate rates.
Passengers taking Savannah sleeper can remain in the
car until 7 o'clock a. m.
Parlor and Drawing-Room Car on morning train
from JacRsonville through to Savannah, connecting
daily with through Pullman sleeper for New York.
The Dining Car attached to the train between Savan-
nah and Charleston affords supper to passengers going
North, and breakfast to those corning South.
Only one change of cars to New York.
Passengers going to Montgomery and New Orleans
take the evening train.
Passengers from line of Transit Railroad take the
train at Callahan.

Passengers from line of Jacksonville, Pensacola and
Mobile Railroad either take train at Live Oak, leaving
2 p. m. and arriving at Savannah at 2:35 a. m., or train
at Jacksonville, leaving at 9 a. m. and arriving at Sa-
vannah at 3:40 p. m.
Connecting at Savannah with steamers for New York,
Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore.
Connecting at Charleston with steamers for New
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
Through Tickets sold to all points by Rail and Steam-
ship connections, and Baggage checked through. Also
Sleeping Car berths and sections secured at Company's
Office in Astor's Building, 84 Bay street, at Depot Ticket
Office. J. E. DRAYTON,
GEO. W. HAINES, Agent. [*] Ticket Agent.


Through Tariff on Vegetables Only.

VIA THE


FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE.

ALL-RAIL VIA ATLANTA OR MONTGOMERY.
IN EFFECT MARCH 15, 1882.


FROM
JACKSONVILLE, CALLAHAN JUNCTION, LIVE OAK AND STATIONS S., F. & W. R'Y.
TO


M acon ........ ................... ... .............................. ..................................................... .......... ........... ....... 25 50 50 00
A ugusta.... ................................................... ........................................... ...................................................... 30A 60 60 00
Atlanta........ ............................................................. ............ .................. ................35 70 7000
Colum bus, G a ............. .................................................................................................................................. 35 70 70 00
M ontgom ery, A la............................................................................................................................................... 35 70 70 00
Mobile........................................................................................... 40 80 80 00
Chattanooga, Tenn............................................................ ....................................................... 40 80 80 00
K nox ville, T enn................................................................................................................................................ 45 90 90 00
N ew O rleansl ........................................................................................................ ............................................. 45 90 90 00
N ashville, T en n ................................................................................................................................................. 45 90 90 90
M e is .............. ................... ................................................. .... ................... ..... .... ........45 90 9 00
L ou isville, K y ....................................................................................................................................................... 55 1 00 100 00
Cincinnati, O hio......................... ... ....................................... ........ ............................................ ........ 55 1 00 100 00
H enderson,K y...................................................................................................................... ................................... 55 1 00 100 00
C olu m bus, K y ................................. ........................... .................................................1................................. 55 1 0 0 00
Hickman,Ky5 100 100 00
M adiso n Ind ................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 1 10 110 00
Jeffersonville, Ind .............................................................................................................................................60 110 110 00
E vansv ille, In d ........ .................................................................... ... ...................................... .... ..................... 1 10 110 00
Cairo, Ill...... ..................... ......................................... .......................................................................... 60 1 0 110 00
In dian apolis..................................................................................................................................................... 60 1 10 L 11 00
Terre H aute...... ........................ .................... .. .......................................... ................................................... 60 1 10 110 00
Colum bus, O hio.............................. ................................................................................................65 1 15 115 00
St. L ouis................................................................................................................................ .............. ............ 65 1 15 115 00
C hicago............................................................................................................................................................. 65 1 15 115 00
P eoria, Ill...................................................................................................................................................... 65 1 15 115 00
C leveland.. ......... ................................................... ................... ........................................... 70 1 20 120 O
Toledo ........... ......... ............................. ............. ......................................................... ................................ 70 1 201 120 00
D etroit................................................................................................................................................................. 70 1 20 120 00

TO SAVANNAH. TO CHARLESTON.
FRO M
FRO Per Box. Per Bbl. Per Box. IPer Bbl.
Jacksonville.......................................................... .................................. 20 40 25 50
Landings on St. Johns Ri er................................................................................ 30 50 35 70
Stationson Florida Transit R. R........................................................... 30 50 35 65
Tam pa and M anatee................................................................................. 45 75 50 90
Stations on the J. P. & M. R. R............................................................... 30 50 35 65
Stations on S., F. & W. Railway............................................................ 25 50 35 75

The dimensions of the Standard Box for Vegetables are 8x14x22 inches, and the weight is estimated at 50
pounds.
The Standard Barrel is double the capacity of the Standard Box.
Excess of capacity over the above will be liable to pro rata excess of charges.
The Car-load is estimated at 20,000 pounds. Excess of this amount will be charged for pro rata. Car-load
shipments must be to one destination and to one consignee.
Prepayment of freight will not be required, but good order and condition of shipments will be an absolute
requirement. It is clearly understood between the shippers and the transportation companies that no respon-
sibility shall attach for loss or damage, however occasioned, unless it be from gross negligence, and that such loss
must attach solely to the company upon whose line such gross negligence may be located.
The above points are the only points to which rates are guaranteed, and to which Bills Lading will be issued.
The Bills Lading will be issued only by the Agents of this Company, guaranteeing rates from those points only.
The charges advanced by this Line in good faith to connections at those points will not be subject to correc-
tion by this Line.
Unless otherwise instructed by the shippers, the original Bill Lading will be mailed the consigee at desti-
nation, and all claims for overcharge or loss and damage must be presented at destination, accompanied by the
original Bill Lading.
Shipments of single packages charged double rates.
In every case the full name and address of consignee must be given for insertion in Bill Lading and on the
Way-bill.
Where the route by which shippers desire their packages forwarded is not marked on the packages them-
selves, the "Florida Dispatch Line" will forward same by the route by which the best interest of the shipper
will be served.


RATES VIA FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE AND THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE.


DESTINATION.


Baltimore, Md..............................
Philadelphia, Pa..........................
Roston, Mass.................................
New York, N. Y...... .... ......


From n land-! Fla. Transit & From Stations From Stations
wings on St.! Jacksonville. Peninsular on J., P. & on S., F. &
Johns River.. Railroads. M. R. R. W. Railway.


J J J- "-J J J J' J'

64 $1 27 50 $1 06 63 $121 63 $121 53 $105
. 64 127 53 1 06 63 $121 63 1 21 53 1 05
71 1 43 CO 122 70 1 37 70 1 37 60 1 22
I 61 1 23 50 1 02 60 1 17 60 1 17 50 1 02


To make through rates from Tampa and Manatee, add for boxes 15c., and for barrels 25c. to rates from
Florida Transit Rrailroad. Single packages will be charged $1 each.

To make through rates from points tributary to the St. Johns River and Florida Transit Railroad, add the
rates for transportation lines connecting to above rates.
Stencils, shipping receipts and information furnished on application to any of the agents of the Line.

Fruit and Vegetable Shipments Through in Ventilated Cars.

Between Jacksonville and Savannah daily. TRANSFER TO SHIPS' SIDE AT SAVANNAH WITHOUT
BREAKING BULK.
Rates always as LOW AS BY ANY OTHER LINE. Take out Bills Lading via Savannah, Florida and West-
ern Railway to insure ADVANTAGES OF THF ALL-RAIL ROUTE.
Days of sailing subject to change without previous notice. For further information, if needed apply to
GEO. YONGE, Agent Central Railroad Steamships, 409 Broadway, New York. Gen. W. L, JAMES Agent,
25 South Third St., Philadelphia. A. L. HUGGINS, Agent Merchants' and Miners' Line, Baltimore. WM. H.
RING, Agent Boston and Savannah Steamship Line, 18T Wharf, Boston. 0. G. PEARSON, Agent S., F. & W.
Railway, 219 Washington St., Boston. C. D OWENS, General Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 315 Broadway, New
York. J. B. ANDREWS, Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 43 German St., Baltimore. J. M. CLEMENT, Agent S., F.
& W. Railway, Pier 41 South Delaware Ave., Philadelphia, or to either of the undersigned.
W. 0. AMES, General Freight Agent, Jacksonville.
F. B. PAPY, General Freight Agent, Fernandina Fla.
JAS. L. TAYLOR, General Freight Agent, Savannah, Ga.
D. H. ELLIOTT, General Agent Florida Dispatch Line, Jacksonville, Fla.
GEO. W. HAINES, Agent, Jacksonville, Fla.


TH PL I1)A.D SP T H





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH


1L1


Continuation of Through Preight Tariff on Vegetables via Florida Dispatch Line, in connec- noti and uvnnah tomhi lin
tion with Steamers direct from Savannah. Transfers to Ship's side without breaking bulk.ll ofllon nlllll U Ln umIIOJ LillU


IN CONNECTION WITH STEAMSHIPS DIRECT FROM SAVANNAH.


From Land- i
ings on St. From Florida From Tampa From J., P. A
Johns River. Transit R. R. and Manatee. M. R. R.


P A A A-A


Boston.................... ................... 40 $ 80 45 $ 85 45 $ 85 60 $1 10 45 85
Boston via New York.............. 60 1 20 6 1 2 65 1 25 80 1 50 65 1 25
New York......................................... 40 80 45 85 45 85 60 1 10 45 1 85
Philadelphia.................................. 40 80 45 85 45 85 60 1 10 45 835
Baltimore...................................... 40 80 45 85 45 85 60 1 10 45 85
IN CONNECTION WITH STEAMSHIPS OF M. & M. T. CO. FROM SAVANNAH
VIA BALTIMORE.


Jacksonville. ings on St. From Florida F
& S.F & W.Sta. Johns River. Transit R. R.
TO
TO | -- o



Philadelphia.............................. .. 53 $1 05 58 $1 10 58 1 10
Providence.......................... ....... 55 1 05 60 1 10 60 1 10
Washington............................... 52 1 05 57 1 10 57 1 10
Wilmington, Del...... ............. 50 1 00 5 1 05 55 1 05
York, Pa.......................... ............... 59 1 10 64 1 64 1 15
Harrisburg, Pa................................ 3 1 15 8 1 20 8 1 20
Pittsburgh, Pa........................... 72 1 20 77 1 25 77 1 25
Erie, Pa.............. ....................... 72 1 20 77 1 25 7 77 1 2.5
Steamship connection from Savannah for New York every Wednesday aud
Thursday. For Philadelphia every Saturday. For Baltimore Tuesday and Friday.


Orom Tampa iFrom J., P. &
and Manatee. M. R. R.




73 $1 35 58 $1 10
75 1 35 60 1 10
72 1 35 57 1 10
70 1 30 55 1 05
70 1 40 64 1 15
83 1 45 68 1 20
92 1 50 77 1 25
92 1 50 I 77 1 253
Saturday. For Boston every


STEAMSHIP DEPARTURES FROM SAVANNAH.
FOR NEW YORK. FOR PHILADELPHIA.
Wednesday, May 3, 6:30 a. m. Saturday, May 6th, 9:30 a. m.
Saturday, May 6, 8:30 a. m. Saturday, May 13th, 3:00 p. m.
Wednesday, May 10, 12:00 noon. Saturday, May 20th, 9:30 a. m.
Saturday, May 13, 3:00 p. m. Saturday, May 27th, 1:00 p. in.
Wednesday, May 17, 6:30 a. rm. Saturday, June 3d, 7:00 p. m.
Saturday, May 20, 8:30 a. in.
Wednesday, May 24, 12:00 noon.
Saturday, May 27, 2:00 p. m.
Wednesday, May 31, 5:30 a. m.
FOR BALTIMORE.
Tuesday, May 2d, at 5 p. m.
Saturday, May 6th, at 10 a. m.
Thursday, May 11th, at 1 p. m.
Tuesday, May 16th, at 5 p. m.
Monday, May 22d, at 11 a. rn.
Saturday, May 27th, at 2 p. m. BOSTON AND PROVIDENQE.
Thursday, June 1st, at 5 p. m. Thursday, May 4th, at 7:30 a. m,
Tuesday, June 6th, at 11 a. m. Thursday, May llth, at 2 p. m.
Monday, June 12th, at 3 p. m. Thursday, May 18th, at 7:30 a. m.
Saturday, June 17th, at 8:30 a. m. Thursday, May 25th, at 1:30 p. m.
Thursday, June 22d, at 11 a. m. Thursday, June 1st, at 5 p. m.
Shipments via New York will be charged at the current rates from that point, with cost of transfer added.
Single packages will be charged $1 each to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. If shipped be-
yond, they will be charged in addition the single package rates of connecting lines and cost of transfer.



Orange Tree Wash and Insecticide.

H. D. BOUNETHEAU, PROPRIETOR


N 0 R D YK E FLORIDA CHEMICAL OIL AND SOAP mmORKS,

MILLS MANUFACTURER OF
. ., ,1 I flI n n _/ - 1


-MANUFACTURE-

FreshGround

FEED, GRITS,

MEAL,
(Bolted or unbolted.)


Pearl Hominy.
GRAIN, HAY, COAL
WOOD-YARD.


Lubricating and Boiler Compounds, Compressed Soaps, uar and
Axle grease.
ALSO SOLE MANUFACTURER
of the best Orange Tree Wash and Insecticide extant-

made from Whale-Oil Soap, combined with other powerful ingredients known
to be most effectual for destroying the Scale and other insect pests and
parasites of the Citrus family. It will also put the tree in a healthy and flour-
ishing condition. Prepared for immediate use. Perfectly harmless to the
youngest tree or plant. In packages of from 25 to 300 pounds. Price, 10 cents
per pound. Discount to the Trade. "- Full directions for use accompany
each package. Address

H. D. BOUNETHEAU.


P. O. BOX 984, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


to july 31 '82


Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah.

Savannah and Philadelphia.
-0-
A STEAMSHIP OF THIS LINE SAILS FROM EACH PORT EVERY SATURDAY.
-0-
EXCURSION TICKETS ISSUED BY THE OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.'S PHILADELPHIA LINE WILL
be received for passage by the Company's Ships to New York. Tickets sold by all Agents to New York via Phil-
adelphia at SAME PRICE as DIRECT TO NEW YORK.
Philadelphia steamers are appointed to sail:
JUNIATA, May 6th, 9:30 a. m.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, May 13th, 3:00 p. m.
JUNIATA, May 20th, 9:30 a. m.
CITY OF SAVANNAH. May 27th, 1:00 p. m.
JUNIATA, June 3d, 7:00 p. m.
Days and hours subject to change, without notice. Both ships have elegant passenger accommodations.
WM. L. JAMES, WM. HUNTERs & SON,
44-tf Agent, 13 S. Third St., Philadelphia. Agents at Savannah.


TO


0. L. KEENE,

MILLINERY, FANCY, DRESS
NOTIONS,


GOODS.


Laces, Worsteds,
AND A FINE LINE OF

67 West Bay Street, Corner Laura,
67 West Bay Street, Corner Laura,


FLORIDA.


JACKSONVILLE,
to feb 20, '82


M. L. HARNETT, formerly BEN GEORGE, late of the
of the Marshall House. Screven House.
THIE I-IiAR1iNETT IOUSE,
SAVANNAH, GA,
HARNETT & GEORGE, Proprietors.
RATES, $2 PER DAY.
This favorite family Hotel, under its new manage-
ment, is recommended for the excellence of its cuisine.
homelike comforts, prompt attention and moderate
rates. to sept 4,82
H0ILT'S


Wholesale and Retail


Drug Store,


35 West Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
PURE DRUGS, RELIABLE MEDICINES, FANCY
Goods, Proprietary Articles, at lowest market prices.
Specialties-Norton's Salt Rheum Ointment, Melen's
Infant Food, Burnett's Cod Liver Oil. A Trial solicited.
to aug 20, '82


From Jackson-
ville.
& S.F.& W.Sta.



; Pqi C-


-- -v .


AND


--~. ,, IL- -I-Y I1--~~L~Y--


MR.


I I I -


ONLY DIRECT LINE BETWEEN
SAVANNAH AND BOSTON.
Transhipment and extra handling saved. No danger
of fruit being frozen. Cars are unloaded at the steam-
ship wharf in Savannah, avoiding drayage.
CABIN PASSAGE, $18.
SAILING FROVI SAVANNAH.
Seminole, Thursday. May 4th, at 7:30 a. m.
Chas. W. Lord, Thursday, May llth, at 2:00 p. inm.
Seminole, Thursday, May 18th, at 7:30 a m.
Chas. W. Lord, Thursday, May 25th, at 1:30 p. m.
Seminole Thursday, Ju.ne 1st, at 5:00 p. m.
RICHARDSON & BARNARD, Agents,
44-tf Savannah, Ga.

DRUCS AND MEDICINES.

The largest stock in the State. Country
buyers will consult their own interests
by corresponding with me. All orders
promptly filled at prices to.compete with
any house south of Baltimore. Reineln-
l)er my only Florida address.
GEO. HLUGHES,
to june 26, '82 Cor. Bay and Ocean, Jacksonville, Fla.

PIANOS AND ORGANS
ZA. "PL C.ZLMV:"FtBELT't,,
15 1East 1ay .. lJaelksonville.
QOLD ON INSTALLMENTS, AT LOWEST PRICES-
U branch of Ludden & Bates, Savannah-EXACTLY
SAME PRICES AND TERMS, Sheet Music, Strings
and small instruments of all kinds. Send for cata-
logues, prices and terms. TUNING AND REPAIRING
a specialty. My tuner will make regular tours through
the State, and my customers will thus have my repre-
sentative at their doors, a great advantage to purchasers
of instruments, to sept 26, '82

BELL & HALLIDAY,

MAN UFACTURERS


FRUIT AND YEETABLE BOXES,

CAIRO, ILLINOIS,

r -Send for Illustrated Price-List]
to June 12, '1


I I


i 'P ro T.nd-


i ;





.2 THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


A FEW CHOICE LOTS OF TEN (10) OR MORE
acres, river fronts, affording attractive and lovely
building sites, and admirably suited to the growth of
oranges, figs and other Florida fruits, may still be ob-
tained on reasonable terms.
"HOLLYWOOD" is- south of point La Vista," on
the eastern shore of the St. Johns River, four miles from
Jacksonville. For circulars, terms, etc., address
D. REDMOND,
apr 3-tf Box 257, Jacksonville, Fla.
Tl.JONsao THE JONES


SVolntilat4io TrBSes
PAT T VENT LATED O


AND



ARE THE*

EASIESTE, S AI='EST ',
AND

BEST IN THE WORLD.
For sale by 1)1R. J. C. L'ENGLE,
Wholesale Druggist, Jacksonville, Fla.
jSend for Circular. mar 25-tf

W. H. PILLOW,-

STRAWBERRY SHIPPING AGENCY
AND PROPRIETOR OF BOWEN BRO.'S PATENT
Refrigerators. Fruit and Vegetable Repacking and
Commission House, Astor Block, Jacksonville, Florida.
REFERENCES-Bank of Jacksonville, Florida Savings
Bank, Col. H. T. Baya, Jacksonville. (P. 0. Box 340.)
to mar 24, '82
VEGETABLES

Shij11o' to All wosetorl Markots
IN
It EFR IG E I AT OR CARS.
GIBSON & ROCKWELL,
PRODUCE COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA,
HAVE ARRANGED TO RUN A LINE OF REFRIG-
erator Cars to all Western cities during the entire
vegetable season.
Send your Vegetables to them and you will get them
into the Western markets in good condition.
feb 21-4t

NEW BEAUTIFUL COLEUS,
SPLENDID COLLECTION-THE MOST MAGNIFI-
cent Show Plants during our summer anti autumn,
for only a little outlay, 50c. per dozen. VERBENAS,
all colors, same price.
Three E"ocellent Eoses..
"Marechal Niel," bright golden yellow.
"General Jacqueminot," brilliant crimson.
"Perle des Gardin," beautiful straw color.
Strong plants, from five inch pots, 50c. each.
A good assortment of ever-blooming Roses. The very
best Tea-scented, from five inch pots, 30c. each.
Eu.lalia anid. Pazrpnis,
The most effective and stately of all the Ornamental
Grasses, 25c. each.


Fot-Grrowi'n. 'Fr'-it Trees
IS NO RISK IN TRANSPLANTING.
Japan Plums, 30, 50 and 75c. each.
Japan Persimmon, 75c. each.
Satsuma Orange, $1 each.
Black Hamburg and White Sweetwater Grapes, 40c.
each; Figs, 25c. each.
Packing and boxing free. Address
AJRNOILD PIUEETZ,
mar 25-tf Jacksonville, Fla.

RUBBER STAMPS
Are manufactured right in our establishment in the
best manner and at the shortest notice.
U--Send in your orders.
ASHMEAD BROS.,
May l-tf JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
May 1-tf *


COTTO3T S0,E3D 3CE 3e per To oi,
(100 Pound Bags.)

cOTT0- SE2ED -TTL =AsSIM, $27 per Ton.,
(The Best Potash in Use.)

STOCKBRIDGE FERTILIZERS for Orange Trees and vegetables, for sale by
J. E. TART,
to.jan 6, '83 Joacksonville, Fla.

ESTABLISHEDD 1871.]
J. A. BARNTES & CO.

FRUIT AND PRODUCE


COMMISSION


MERCHANTS.


Sotetlren. 'r ruit axnd vegetabless a Speecialty.
3a26 and 3 S North Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia.
to jan 6, '83




WHOLESALE GROCERS,
AGENTS FOR THE STATE FOR


ACER'S


DRY HOP


YEAST CAKES,


60c. PER


DOZ.


SOLE AGENTS FOR THE CELEBRATED BRAND

SNOW-DROP PATENT TLOUR.

:First I-ands on Fin.est QUality

Dairy Butter from 35 to 37c. per Lb.,

I oept in. the L~argest Refrigerator in. the State,

No. 7' West Bay Street, Jacksonville, Florida.
To sept 27, '82

ASHMEAD BROTHERS,
21 WEST BAY STREET, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.,

PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS
PRINTERS AND BINDERS,
AND DEALERS IN

TOYS AND FANCY ARTICLES.

NEWSDEALERS.-We keep all the latest Daily and Weekly Papers from Boston, New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Chicago, St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, New Orleans, Charleston, Savannah and Jacksonville, and
take subscriptions to all publications at publication price. Orders by mail promptly attended to.
LIST OF BOOKS ON FLORIDA.
FLORIDA: FOR TOURISTS, INVALIDS AND SETTLERS (Barbour, Profusely Illustrated)............... Price $1 50
FLORIDA: ITS SCENERY, CLIMATE AND HISTORY (Lamer).... ........................................Price 1 50
GUIDE TO EAST FLORIDA (Edwards), paper................................................................................... ............. Price 10
FAIRBANKS' HISTORY OF FLORIDA............................................ .......................................................Price 2 50
GU IDE TO JA CK SON V ILLE ...............................................................................................................................Price 25
TOURISTS AND INVALIDS REFERENCE BOOK OF WINTER TRAVEL.......................................Price 75
SOUTH FLORIDA, THE ITALY OF AMERICA.......................................................................... ......... Price 25
DAVIS' ORANGE CULTURE (new edition)enlarged and improved.... ......................................Price 50
MOORE'S ORANGE CULTURE (new edition, enlarged and improved).............................. ......Price 1 00
ORANGE INSECTS-Illustrated (Ashm e d, ..................................................................... ..............................Price 1 00
ORANGE CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA, by A. T. Garey, (cloth).............................................. ........Price 1 25
A MANUAL OF GARDENING IN FLORIDA (W hitner).......................................................................... .....Price 50
COLTON 'S M A P OF FLOR IDA ........................................................................................ ........................ ....Price 75
COLTON'S MAP OF FLORIDA (Sectional-the best)........................................................ ....... ................Price 1 25
NEW AND ACCURATE MAP OF ST. JOHN'S RIVER........................................................Price 25
McCLELLAN'S NEW DIGEST OF LAWS OF FLORIDA, (8vo sheep postage extra)....................Price 6 00
INDEX TO THE DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA............................................Price 3 00
Any of the above books mailed on receipt of price.
O RI A N G E WV JR A P S ........................................................................................ x100,14c.; lxll, 17c.; 12x12, 20c.
LAW BLANKS.
W A RRA N TY DEEDS, per dozen...................................................................................................... ............. Price 50
Q U IT-CLA IM D EEDS, per dozen......................................................................................... ................................Price 50
M OR TG A G E S, per dozen............................................................................... ...................................................Price 50
NOTARIAL SEAL PRESSES, made to order....................................................... ................ ....... Price $500
We publish a full line of Law Blanks for Lawyers and Justices of the Peace. Price-list mailed on application.
Special prices to large buyers. Adddress
ASHMEAD BROTHERS,
feb 12-tf 21 WEST BAY STREET, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


rrr~


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