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Florida dispatch
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000068/00002
 Material Information
Title: Florida dispatch
Uniform Title: Florida dispatch
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Ashmead Bros.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: April 3, 1882
Publication Date: 1869-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1 (1869)-n.s. v. 9, no. 4 (Jan. 21, 1889).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of North Florida
Holding Location: University of North Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0497
oclc - 08331006
System ID: NF00000068:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch, farmer & fruit grower; farmers alliance

Full Text





























etlevoted to the

Vol. 1.--No. 2.,

Monday, April 3, 1882.


agricultural, manufacturing and Industrial Interests of Florida and the South,

New Series.--Published by ASHMEAD BROTHERS, Jacksonville, Fla. Price 5 cents.

$1.00 per Year, in advance; postage free.


The Ocklawaha River
Is a wild, wondrous and weird stream, so
strange and peculiar that no one who makes the
trip from the St. Johns up to Silver Spring can
ever forget it. The "regulation" voyage is
generally made in one of the small steamers
from Palatka, but wandering artists, natural-
ists, and tourists who wish to take in, or per-
haps sketch more of its characteristic and unique
scenes than can be appropriated from the deck
of the regular river craft, often explore the
stream in row-boats, steam-launches, canoes, bat-


They are not considered as desirable as linen.
We get a quantity of this production in the
form of cloth and linen handkerchiefs. Canton
is the port from which this cloth is shipped to
this country.
Vegetable Tallow is an article of some im-
portance. It is an envelope of the seeds of the
Stillingicce Sebifera, the "tallow tree." This
tree grows spontaneously in China, and has
been introduced into this country, and forms a
shade tree in this city. The seeds are steamed
to soften the tallow, which are then washed and


teaus, dug-outs, etc. The artist has depicted one pressed, and the tallow formed in cakes. It is
of these private expeditions, or camps, in our used for making candles, and some is exported.
present number, and succeeded in conveying an It is much inferior to stearine or wax. The
impression of free out-door life and abundant candles are often highly ornamented.
creature-comforts which we denizens of what .--.
Willis would have called "brick-and-mortar- "HOLLYWOOD V'-See advertisement of at-
dom may be pardoned for envying. (See tractive and desirable lands on the St. Johns,
illustration. near this city.

Chinese Productions. -NW
The beautiful fabric known __-__
as Grass-cloth is of China pro- t
duction. The term grass is
peculiarly inappropriate, as
the fibres from which the
cloth is manufactured are as
far removed from grass as pos-
sible. There are three differ- ji
ent plants from which the
fibres are obtained (Boehmeria
nevea, Sida tilefolia and Do-
lichos bulbosus), which are cul-
tivated toalarge extent. The
first makes the finest fabric,
and is used in the Southern
provinces of China, largely for
clothing. There are a great
many varieties of this cloth,
as we have of cotton and wool,
and they range in price from
eight cents to $1.25 per yard.


Our "Scope and Tendency.
Though particularly intended for the "me-
ridian of Florida," the scope of our journalwill
extend beyond our peninsula States and
though our specialty is the advancement of ag-
riculture horticulture, manufactures and kind-
red industries, we shall find room, occasionally,
for news items of special interest and for such
other extracts, selections and compositions .as
have a tendency to improve and enliven the
home-circle and abstract the mind temporarily,
at least, from the dull tread-mill of everyday
life.
We aspire and hope to fill a useful, if not
very large space among our co-laborers of the
press, and we ask from the public such aid and
countenance only as we may deserve.
HOME POLITENESS.-A boy who is polite to
his father and mother is likely to be polite, to
every one else. A boy lacking politeness to
his parents may have the semblance of courtesy
in society, but is never truly
polite in spirit and is in dan-
R ger, as he becomes familiar,
-- of betraying his real want of
courtesy. We are all in dan-
ger of living too much for-
the outside world, for the im-
Spression which we make in so-
ciety, coveting the good opin-
ions of those who are in a
sense a part of ourselves, and
who will continue to sustain
and be interested in us, not-
withstanding these defects of
deportment and character.
We say to every boy and to
every girl, cultivate the habits
of courtesy and propriety at
home-in the sitting room
I and the kitchen, as well as in
the parlor-and you will be
sure in other places to deport
yourself in a becoming and
attractive manner.b
0-
"Plow deep, while slug-
"gards sleep."


_ . __ _. _. __ _(_1 __ ~_






2 THE-=i=IIILII FLOR1D DISPATCH.I-__L~


Turpentine--Old and New Process.
The American Machinist, speaking of the
Atlanta Exposition-the "Turpentine and
Railway Exhibits," and the "New South,"
says:
The manufacture of turpentine is another
Southern industry, which seems to present op-
portunities for those who go South to make a
home, and engage in business requiring a small
capital. The principal amount of rosin and
turpentine was manufactured in North Caro-
lina, until late years, when' the business has
extended further South.
Instead of Wilmington, N. C., Savannah is
now the principal place of export for these
naval supplies. This industry started in Geor-
gia and Florida about eight years ago, and yet
there was exported from Savannah for the fiscal
year ending Sept. 1, 1881, 5,470 barrels spirits
turpentine, and 282,386 barrels rosin.
The Waycross Railroad, which extends from
Savannah through southern Georgia and across
northern Florida, runs through a country
abounding in the long-leafed pine, which fur-
nishes the supply of pitch, tar and turpentine.
This railway had an exhibit showing the whole
method of gathering and manufacture of this
product of the pine tree. Their exhibit was
under the charge of Mr. B. Holmes, an experi-
enced manufacturer who carries on the whole
process, and was ready to explain matters to all
interested.
The crude turpentine is taken from the pine
tree by removing the bark from the side of the
tree for a strip about three feet long, with a
peculiar adz; at the lower end of this place is
a deep trough-shaped notch, which collects the
crude turpentine as it exudes from the wounds
in the side of the tree. The crude turpentine
is a pasty, white substance, of a strong pine
odor. It is dipped from these notches about
once in three weeks, and placed in casks.
To make rosin and the spirits of turpentine,
the crude turpentine is placed in a copper still
and mixed with water. By distillation, the
vapor of spirits of turpentine and water are
driven off, and condense in the worm, from
whence the mixed spirits of turpentine and
water flow into an open vessel. The water
being heavier sinks to the bottom, and is there
drawn off; the spirits of turpentine runs off
from the upper part of the vessel.
The residuum in the still is rosin, which is
drawn off, strained and run in casks.
This railroad made this eminently practical
exhibit to show the method of utilizing one of
the principal natural products of the country
near their line.
They have a land grant abounding in pine
timber, situated close to the right of way, and
back a distance of eight miles from the track,
which they are selling from 25 cents to $1.50
an acre.
I was informed that 6,667 trees would con-
tain in the aggregate 10,000 boxes" for gath-
ering turpentine. The annual product of these
will amount to 350 barrels of crude turpentine,


yielding 35 casks of spirits of turpentine, hold-
ing fifty gallons each, and 250 barrels of rosin,
weighing 400 pounds each.
At the end of the third year, the tree is
dead, having furnished the raw material for
eight-tenths of a gallon of spirits of turpentine
and 45 pounds of rosin.
At the end of the second year the tree is said
to be still good for lumber.
In certain portions of eastern North Carolina
are forest districts where the pine trees have
been killed by turpentine cutting.
This dead wood may yet be utilized by a new
process of turpentine manufacture which was
exhibited by the inventor, Mr. William


Messau, who brought his apparatus from Ger-
many to the Cotton Exposition.
The Messau process subjects the wood to de-
structive distillation in a retort in the form of
a cylinder. This retort is made of sheets of
wrought iron riveted together, as in a cylinder
boilder, and set in brickwork, with fire-brick
under the center of the retort, so that the flames
touch the sides of the boiler and not the bot-
tom.
The retort will hold a cord of wood, which is
put in through a man hole.
A steam boiler furnishes a supply of steam
which is superheated by passing through a
steam coil over the fires at the retort. The
superheated steam enters the retort with the
wood, and the products of distillation are spirits
turpentine, pyroligneous acid, tar and charcoal.
The tar is drawn off from the retort, and the
charcoal removed after the whole is cool.
A cord of dead pine wood produced by this
treatment:
100 pounds spirits turpentine.......................................S 7 00
360 pounds pyroligneous acid............................... ... 2 50
1 barrel tar.................................................................... 1 50
44 bushels charcoal................................................... 2 20
Total value of product.........................................$13 20
This is not the most profitable method of
treatment; by stopping the distillation before
the tar is driven from the wood, the residium
forms the brown charcoal, which is more valu-
able than black charcoal for the manufacture
of charcoal iron.
The Southern railways filled two buildings
with articles showing the natural resources of
the country through which they pass.
There were specimens of building stones,
comprising granite, marble, freestone, slate and
others; of minerals used in the mechanic arts,
the principal ones are corundum, graphite,
mica, asbestos, lithographic stone, whetstone,
baryta, soapstone, ochre, sienna, chrome, kaolin
and coal.
Ores of every metal in use except tin, and
also numerous specimens of metals. The fer-
tile soil has produced the fine specimens of
grains, fruits and lumber.
In their variety and abundance these pro-
ducts show that these regions possess great in-
trinsic wealth, and warrant the glowing proph-
esies which have been made concerning their
future.
These railways all have land to sell, and
took these measures to spread information
about the natural resources of the country
along their lines, in order to encourage settle-
ment.
In these few letters, my purpose has not been
an attempt to portray the sights of the Exposi-
tion; but to bring to the attention of your
readers some of the inducements which the
natural resources of the South offer to those
who desire to migrate to that district, which
presents such an abundance of opportunities
for the business man and the inventor to apply
their skill, in treating the products of the soil


and developing the mineral wealth.
The people of the South are beginning to ap-
preciate their own wealth, and there is evidence
on every hand that there will be a great in-
crease of business in this quarter.
Northern men who go South will find a gen-
erous welcome extended to them by the respon-
sible part of every community.
American, Prosperity.
In the valuation of natural wealth, the United
States stands near the head of the list-third on the
list of all Western nations. The United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland heads the list with a valua-
tion of $44,400,000,000; then comes France, with
$36,700,000,000; the United States, with $32,000,-
000,000; Germany, with $22,000,000,000; Russia,
with $15,000,000,000, and the Low Countries with
$11,150,000,000, collectively. These are the valua-
tions made by those countries of their entire resources.
The average annual income, per inhabitant, in
various countries, however, shows how rapidly the
United States are coming to the front. The average


annual income in the United Kingdom is $165; in
the United States, $165 also; in the Low Countries,
$130; in France, $125; in the British Colonies, $90;
in Germany and also in Scandinavia, $85. In this
reckoning, Russia, with her 90,000,000 people, is out
of sight as yet; she will not be so very long.
Taking the question from another point of view,
let us ask: What is our annual accumulation of
wealth, as compared with the annual accumulation
of other nations ? And here.we step far in advance
of any other community which gives us full esti-
mates. It should be borne in mind, however, that the
rate of interest for agricultural capital with us is dou-
ble the average rate for Europe. The annual accu-
mulation of wealth, then, in Germany, is $200,000,-
000; it is $325,000,000 in the United Kingdom;
$375,000,000 in France; in the United States it is
$825,000,000.
Our increase of national wealth since 1850, says a
good English authority, would be enough to pur-
chase the whole German Empire, with its farms, cities,
banks, shipping, manufactures, etc. The annual ac-
cumulation has been $825,000,000, and therefore each
decade adds more to the wealth of the United States
than the capital value of Italy and Spain. Every day
that the sun rises upon the American people, sees an
addition of $2,300,000 to the wealth of the Republic.
Josh BiUings on 1Marriage.
Sum marry for love without a cent in their pocket
nor a drop of pedigree. This looks desperate but iz
the strength of the game. Some marry because they
think wimmin will be scarce next year, and live tew
wonder how the crop holds out. Sum marry tew get
rid ov themselves, and discover that the game was
one that two could play at and neither win. Sum
marry the second time to get even, and find it a
gambling game-the more they put down the less
they take up. Sum marry tew be happy, and not
finding it, wonders where all the happiness goes tew
when it dies. Sum marry they can't tell who, and
live they can't tell how. Almost everybody gits
married, and it iz a good joke. Sum marry in haste,
then set down and think it carefully over. Sum
think it carefully over first, and then set down and
marry. Both ways are right if they hit the mark.
Sum marry coquettes. This is like buying a poor
farm, heavily mortgaged, and working the balance ov
yure days to clear oph the mortgages. But, after all,
married life iz full as certain as the dry goods busi-
ness. Kno man kan swear exactly whar he will fetch
up when he touches calico. Kno man kan tell jist
what calico has made up its mind tew do next.
Calico don't know herself. Dry goods ov all kinds
iz the child ov circumstansis. The man who stands
on the bank shivering, and dussent, iz more apt to
fetch cold than him who pitches his head fust into
the river. If ennybody asks you whi you got mar-
ried (if it needs be), tell him you don't recollekt.
A Dismal Picture of What is Found in Georgia Hontes.
In the most of Georgia homes vegetables means a
few cooking of Irish potatoes, beans, corn, blue-leg-
ged collards, and, when winter comes, they may have
half a dozen half-headed cabbages in the garden, if
the wind has not blown the fence down and let the
stock in. If the fence is a good one, it is considered
the best place on the hill to keep the poor, half-
starved calf. The result is, that there is nothing in
the house to cook,: at most times, except hog meat,
and bread, and coffee, and everything is fried, and
you have to eat grease and bread, and bread and
grease, three times a day, all the year round, and it
makes the men drink whisky and chew tobacco to get
a good taste in their mouths, and the women rub
snuff, drink coffee and scandalize their neighbors.-
Jackson Herald.
lonme Mfade Manure--Cotton Seed Compost.
A planter, of Pickens county, Alabama, writes to
his factors in Mobile, as follows. We copy from the


Tribune of that city: "I have given a good deal of
personal attention to my crop this season, and think
in my experiments I have knocked the hind sights
off Messrs. The idea of shipping cotton seed
all the way to Mobile or any other point, only to
have the most enriching properties of the seed ex-
pressed and the meal compounded into a cotton fer-
tilizer, is perfectly preposterous.
My method this last season has been to combine
cotton seed with stable litter, diffusing the two thor-
oughly and made into heaps of four or five tons each,
enveloping them with six or eight inches of earth.
This was done two; months before the time required
for use. I think the result will be a yield of double
what otherwise would have been produced, and by
combining a small quantity of common salt and
potash with the above ingredients the availability of
the compost would be further improved. The cost of
this compost would not exceed fifteen or twenty dol-
lars per ton, as in two days with ten hands I can put
up fifty tons. I hope other planters will try it."


I -


I


I


I


2


TH FORDADIPACH





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


Care of Horses.
At a recent meeting of the Farmers' Insti-
tute at Concord, N. H., Secretary Russell, of
the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, lec-
tured on The Care, Management and Shoeing
of Horses." We make the following extracts
from the lecture as reported in the New Eng-
land Farmer:
"The horse's stomach is small, and his vi-
tality large; he has large lungs and heart, and
large viscera, but the stomach of an average
horse holds only about sixteen quarts. If the
stomach is filled with water by drinking, just
before or just after eating, digestion is impaired
and the food is crowded out of the stomach in
an undigested state, dyspepsia and scouring re-
sult. The horse should not be watered much
for an hour before or after eating. He should
have plenty of time to eat at leisure, and
crushed oats are better than whole by fully
twenty per cent., and better than meal. We
don't want a fat horse any more than a fat
hired man, but we want both in good working
order. Many injure their horses by feeding too
much meal and grain; six or seven quarts a
day of grain with eight or nine pounds of hay
per day would be a fair ration; but, of course,
large horses at heavy work can eat more than
small ones at light work. The amount of work
a horse can do, and do it every day, Sundays
and all, without injury, is about twelve miles.
This is the limit found most profitable upon
both horse railroads and stage lines; where
horses work more slowly and rest on Sunday
they will bear a longer day's work. When fed
judiciously and worked regularly, horses con-
tinue serviceable till twenty-five or thirty years
of age. When fed grain alone, especially meal,
horses often eat too fast. A good way to pre-
vent this is to throw a handful of cobble stones,
the size of a hen's egg, into the manger, which
will allow time enough for the saliva to mix
with the meal. Meal is best fed mixed with
chopped hay. As to the shoeing of horses, the
speaker said that when he spent some time in
South America, Mexico and Central America,
several years ago, he was surprised to see the
amount of very hard work horses will do with-
out any shoes whatever'; horse shoes there are
not known, neither are lame or spavined
horses-they have no word in their language
to describe interfering spavin, corn, quarter
crack or founder-diseases that owe their origin
to bad shoeing. The horseshoe is an invention
of the middle or dark ages; it was not known
in the days of ancient Rome, and they did very
heavy work with horses on paved roads. The
horseshoe, then, is not a necessity; what is its
use ? It is useful simply to prevent soreness of
the toes upon very hard, rough and stony
roads, and to prevent slipping upon icy roads
in winter. The shoe should be as light as pos-


sible and serve these purposes; it should not
have high calks at the heels. Some of the
companies in Boston, who own many hundreds
of omnibus and railroad horses, are coming to
realize these facts, and are using very light
shoes for the forward feet, without calks, and
paring down the toe so as to give the frog a
bearing upon the ground. The frog is a natu-
ral cushion intended by a wise Creator to break
the concussion of the horse's foot upon the
road; to raise it from the ground by unyield-
ing iron calks is unnatural and dangerous.
Still, in our icy weather, horses need calks on
their hind feet, but not upon their front ones,
except a small toe calk, and even this is not
very important. The Chinese and Japanese do
not use iron shoes at all; they have a boot of
plaited straw that they use occasionally when
their horses are footsore; but generally the


hoof needs little protection. Question-What
would you do with a cribber ? Answer-Crib-
bing is usually a symptom of indigestion and
over-feeding; give less food and scatter the hay
on the floor; give a little chalk to correct sour
stomach, and if you cannot cure him sell him.
Cribbers are apt to be short lived. Any one
who had never seen the thing tried would be
astonished to see how much horses will do, even
upon ice, without any shoes; the frog, when it
bears upon the ground, is the organ of touch
in the horse's foot; when he can feel the ground
with it he has confidence, and this confidence
is more than half the battle. A horse can do a
great deal if he only thinks so and is not dis-
couraged; but give him sharp calks to day, and
let them wear dull to-morrow, and he is in far
worse condition than with bare feet."
TAR FOR SHEEP.-Some writer has recom-
mended that tar and salt be mixed and put in
the bottom of the salt trough for sheep. We
are satisfied that this would be an excellent
plan. The tar by itself hardens after a while,
and has to be renewed. The fly that troubles
sheep in the spring and summer seem to have a
great antipathy to tar. Sheep can be made to
tar their own noses, and thus protect themselves
against the fly. And doubtless the inhaling of
the fumes of tar while eating salt benefits the
sheep's head and lungs, and conduces to her
general health.
Bee-Keeping in Florida.
W. S. HART, a noted bee-keeper of New
Smyrna, Volusia county, writes the agricultu-
ral editor of the Union, under date March 22:
DEAR SIR-In your issue of February 26th,
in speaking of my success as a bee-keeper, there
was a mistake made that I would be glad to
have corrected so as to agree with my reports
published in other papers. It was therein
stated that his last year's record surpassed
anything recorded in the United States, (in-
creasing his swarms from fourteen to forty, and
making 1,900 pounds of honey)." I would
say that the above was my record for 1880 (and
was equalled by but one other case reported).
The year 1881 being a much better year for
bees, that record was beaten by quite a number
in other parts of the United States, as well as
by myself. My report for 1881 is as follows:
I started the season with thirty-five colonies,
increased to eighty-six, and took sixty-five
hundred pounds of honey. I could have taken
one thousand pounds more without leaving the
bees on short rations for winter, if I had chosen
to do so, which would have given me seventy-
five hundred pounds of honey to show for the
season's work.
The above is certainly a good report, and
especially so as bee-keeping is but a side issue
with me and I do not give it the time and at-
tention that it deserves, but to our coast coun-
try belongs the honor more than to myself, for
except this was a "land of flowers" what
little skill I have would be of no avail.
THE STATE FAIR.


I was very sorry to learn that even the small
exhibit that was sent from this coast did not all
reach Jacksonville in season to be of much use
at the fair on account of one of the schooners
being delayed by adverse winds. I regret that
the county of Volusia, which has such grand
natural resources, was not better represented
there. It is a great pity that the people here
do not more fully realize that they, each and
every one of them, have a personal interest in
having our coast country so represented as to
please the eye and satisfy the mind of the many
visitors there to see what Florida has to offer
the prospective settler.
-Pure water, fresh air, sunlight, and houses
kept free from all dampness, will savem any doc-
tor bills, and give health and vigor which no
money can buy.


Recoimupense.
The earth gives us treasure four-fold for all that we give
to its bosom;
The care that we bestow on the plant, comes back in the
bud and the blossom.
The sun draws the sea to the sky, 0, stillest and strangest
of powers;
And returns to the hills and the meadows, the gladness
of bountiful showers.
The mother regains her lost youth, in the beauty and
youth of her daughters;
We are fed after many long days, by the bread that we
cast on the waters.
Never a joy do we cause, but we for that joy are the
gladder;
Never a heart do we grieve, but for the grieving are
sadder.
Never a slander so vile, as the lips of the willing re-
hearser;
And curses, though long, loud and deep, come home to
abide with the curser.
He who doth give of his best, of that best is the cer-
tainest user;
And he who withholds, finds himself of his gaining the
pitiful loser.
The flowers that are strewn for the dead, bloom first in
the heart of the living;
And this is the truest of truths, that the best of a gift is
the giving.
CARLOTTA PERRY.
Sorghum Forage.
In writing to the Secretary of the Kansas
State Board of Agriculture, Mr. N. C. Merrill,
of Clarinda, Ness county, Kansas, says:
I have for four years been experimenting
with sorghum as a substitute for corn, for stock-
feeding purposes, and have had, especially this
last season, extremely satisfactory results. The
Early Amber and Kansas Orange varieties are
the best; and the more thoroughly it is cultiva-
ted, the better the crop.
Probably the most satisfactory way to plant
is to take a common grain drill and stop up two
holes, and leave one in every third hose to drill
with, and then go over the field twice with a
smoothing harrow before the ordinary cultiva-
tion begins. I also find the drill used in plant-
ing is equally as good to cultivate with, by
taking out the hose used in drilling, and I go
over it three or four times-more for the sake
of moisture than to kill the weeds, as the
sorghum will very soon choke out the weeds.
Begin to feed as soon as it is two feet high, and
by the time it begins to head out, hogs and cat-
tle will begin to take on fat and flesh very fast.
Just as the lower part of the head is ripe, cut
with a mowing machine with a rake attach-
ment, and then put in shocks. It costs $1.25
to $2.00 per acre to put it into shocks. From
500 to 800 pounds of beef (live weight) can be
realized from an acre, in September, October
and November, using no other feed whatever.
I realized at the rate of 1,100 pounds of pork
from an acre in September, and 700 pounds in
November. Hogs will fatten very fast from
July to September, and from December until
spring, with a little range, keep in a good grow-
ing condition. The larger and coarser the
stalks, the better for hogs. Sorghum is really
our best corn in this part of the State."
The Seminole Indian.
The papers are publishing that one thousand Semi-
nole Indians are in the Everglades in Florida. This


is a mistake, for in an interview with a sheriff of that
country, he informs us that only fifty or sixty warri-
ors are to be found-the whole population only
amounting to 250 or 300 persons. This gentleman
frequently visits them, hunts with them, and he says
that they live in huts constructed entirely of pal-
metto trees, living mostly upon the chase; that they
drank a great deal of whisky, and speak our language
with difficulty; that the Seminole Indian of to-day
is the same in costume and manner as he was in 1836,
when he defied the government of the United States.
-Americus-Republican.
-Potato flour, or the dried pulp of the potato,
is obtaining great importance in the arts. It is
stated that in Lancashire, England, 20,000 tons
of it are sold annually, and it brings at present
in Liverpool about double in the market as
wheat flour. It is used for sizing and other
manufacturing purposes.





_- THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


and some idea of the magnitude of Mr.
Hawkins's operations may be obtained by the
reader, when we state that he generally keeps
from 2,000 to 2,500 laying hens-that, at one
time, last summer, there were 10,000 head of
fowls at River View," and that, during 1881,
he hatched 8,000 chickens! He breeds noth-
ing but Plymouth Rocks, and these he raises
not only for market and the production of eggs,
but also for exhibition at the poultry shows,
where he has been a very successful prize-
winner. We shall endeavor to find room for a
portion of the article in our next, as the sub-
ject of raising poultry profitably on a large scale
is one of much interest to many people in Flor-
ida and other parts of the South.


"THE TALLAHASSEE GIRL" is the title of a new
volume of the Round-Robin Series," from the
press of James R. Osgood & Co., of Boston,
who generally "utter nothing base in the way
of books. It is a tale of Florida, the scene
being mostly laid in our quaint old State capi-
tal, and the time of action being that period of
transition in Southern life, society and business
which immediately followed the war of the
(so-called) Rebellion." It is well written-a
little florid, perhaps, as beseems the country
and theme-but, upon the whole, very well
done and worth reading. It may be ordered
from Ashmead Bros., of this city-price $1.
CALIFORNIA FRUIT-GROWER'S CONVENTION.
-This important convention was held at Sacra-
mento, Dec. 6th, 1881, and the report embodies
in its 24 double-column pages a great deal of
valuable information on fruit-growing, trans-
portation, marketing, destruction of noxious in-
sects, &c., &c. Our California friends, who are
engaged in pomology and horticulture, throw
an amount of vim and earnestness into the
work which even our "orange-maniacs" fall
short of equalling; and, though contending
against many obstacles, they have achieved a
wonderful success in the culture of the many
rare and valuable fruits to which their country
is adapted. We have heretofore expressed the
opinion that California can never enter into
successful rivalry with our own State in the
culture of the orange, but we cannot withhold
our admiration and respect for the zeal and per-
severance shown in this industry by our west-
ern neighbors, and must cordially say that they
deserve success, even if they cannot compel it;
and, further, that the field is ample enough for
us all. The discussions of the convention are
very instructive and interesting, and the little
pamphlet may be had for 10 cents, by address-
ing Dewey & Co., office of Pacific Rural Press,
San Francisco, Cal.
THE POULTRY BULLETIN, for April, is on
our table, and contains, among other articles of
interest, an engraving and full description of
"River View Poultry Farm," the largest estab-
lishment of the kind in America. This great
" poultry firm "is owned and managed by Mr.
A. C. Hawkins, at Lancaster, in Western
Massachusetts, on a hillside, overlooking the
Nashua River. It occupies only fifteen acres,
covered with the requisite yards and buildings;


the age of .100; swans have been known to live
to the age of 300. Mr. Malerton has the skele-
ton of a swan that attained the age of 200
years. Pelicans are long lived. A tortoise
has been known to live to the age of 107 years.

-Statistics show that over 1,500,000 opera-
tives are 'employed in the manufacture of cot-
ton goods in the principal countries of the
world. Of these, 480,000 are employed in
Great Britain, France follows with 210,000,
and the other countries, in order of precedence,
are the United States, Russia, Germany and
India. With regard, however, to the annual
value of cotton .goods produced, the United
States comes second, with about half the value
of the production of Great Britain, and Ger-
many and Russia follow.


ANNUAL CATALOGUE, for 1882-from Robt.
J. Halliday, Florist and Seedsman, Baltimore,
Md. A very attractive, beautiful, and copi-
ously illustrated catalogue, of 127 pages, pictur-
ing and describing a great number of rare and
desirable plants, offered at very reasonable
prices. Mr. Halliday is an accomplished pro-
pagator of the camellia, azalea, palms, tree-
ferns, &c., &c., and always sends good plants,
carefully labeled and well packed. We take
great pleasure in commending him to our
readers. He sends catalogues free, per mail,
to all applicants.
"FICTION," No. 27; Harper's Weekly;
Harper's Bazar; Frank Leslie's Illustrated
Newspaper; Puck; Popular Science Monthly;
Atlantic; Our Continent; The Century ; Har-
per's Monthly ; Lippincott's-all the current
periodicals of the day-at Ashmead Bros.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE of Georgia,
supplemental report, for 1881-from J. T. Hen-
derson, Commissioner of Agriculture--88 pages,
embracing the estimated yield of different crops,
and other matters of interest relating to the
agriculture of the State; extracts from the
census of 1880; an essay on silk culture, by
Mr. Jno. Stark, of Thomasville, Ga.; reports of
tests of seeds distributed by the Department, and
notes on some of the exhibits at the Interna-
tional Cotton Exposition.
Relative Ages of Animals.
The average age of cats is 15 years; of squir-
rels or hares, 7 or 8 years; a bear rarely ex-
ceeds 20 years; a dog lives 20 years ; a wolf
20; a fox 14 or 15; lions are long lived, the
one by the name of Pompey living to the age
of 70. Elephants have been known to live to
the age of 400 years. When Alexander the
Great had conquered Porus, King of India, he
took a great elephant which had fought vali-
antly for the king, and named him Ajax, dedi-
cated him to the sun,. and let him go with this
inscription: "Alexander, the son of Jupiter,
dedicated Ajax to the sun." The elephant was
found with this inscription 350 years after. Pigs
have been known to live to the age of 20, and
the rhinoceros to 29; a horse has been known
to live to the age of 62, but the average 25 or
30; camels sometimes live to the age of 100;
stags are very long lived; sheep seldom exceed
the age of 10; cows live about 15 years. Cuvier
considers it .probable that whales sometimes
live 1,000 years. The dolphin and porpoise at-
tain the age of 30; an eagle died at Vienna at
the age of 104; ravens have frequently reached


ing of their crops, not one has ever returned to
the old system. One trial has thoroughly over-
come all objections, and convinced them of
their efficacy and economy.-'Louisiana Sugar
Bowl.
A Word to Girts.
The woman who is indifferent to her looks is no
true woman. God meant woman to be attractive, to
look well to please, and it is one of her duties to carry
out this intention of her Maker. But that dress is to
do it all, and to suffice, is more'than we can be
brought to believe. Just because we love to see girls
look well, as well as live to some purpose, we would
urge on them such a course of reading and study as
will confer such charms as no modiste can supply. A
well known author once wrote a very pretty essay on
the power of education to beautify. That it abso-
lutely chiselled the featuires-that he had seen many
a clumsy nose and a thick pair of lips so modified by
thought awakened and active sentiment as to be un-
recognized. And he put it on that ground that we
so often .see people, homely and unattractive in
youth, bloom in middle of life into a softened In-
dian summer of good looks and mellow tones.


The Great Overflow.
Almost one-half of the cotton lands in
Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee and Louis-
iana are now covered by the Mississippi flood.
In 1881 these States produced. 2,641,000 bales
or upwards of forty per cent. of the largest crop
ever marketed. The thirty or forty counties
now under water in these States," says the
Philadelphia Press, "contain the best cotton
land in the river basin, and in value probably
turn out more than half the cotton crop of the
fbur States; but taking the lesser estimate,
land producing 1,320,000 bales of cotton, one-
fifth of the crop this year, is now flooded, fen-
ces gone, buildings afloat, machinery under
water, all work stopped, and nearly 200,000
refugees scattered along the river. Aside from
all the loud calls of humanity there is here a
destruction of present and prospective compara-
ble only to the loss of a great fire like that of
Chicago or Boston--a loss which cannot fail to
have a most ruinous effect upon the general
financial situation. For one thing, it points to
a short' cotton crop two years running."

Portable Railroads, Cane Cars and Sugar Wagons.
The thorough revolution, of late years, in the
manipulation of sugar crops, and the treatment
of juices. after leaving the mill, has recently
been the subject of the greatest interest among
the planters of Louisiana.
On all the sugar estates in Cuba, Hayti, San
Domingo and Sandwich Islands, a careful ob-
server has noted that those planters, averaging
five hundred hogsheads per crop, have dis-
pensed with the use of slow-going oxen and
mules, and the cumbersome, expensive cane
carts, as much as possible, and in their stead
have substituted a light portable railroad made
entirely of rough iron. This road is constructed
in sections of either ten or fifteen feet lengths,
and the gauge twenty-four to thirty inches.
The weight per section does not exceed one
hundred and fifty pounds each, thus enabling
two men to handle it when necessary to move it.
One team of oxen or mules can haul easily
six cars heavily loaded with cane. By this
method the crop is taken off very rapidly, as
the roads, not having been cut up with carts,
canes can be hauled in all kinds of weather.
When one takes into consideration the dis-
pensing with two-thirds of the mules, carts,
harness, saving of fodder, stabling and care of
the animals, to say nothing whatever of the in-
terest account, an approximate idea of the first
step towards economy will be realized.
It is unnecessary to say anything further in
the interest of portable railroads on sugar
estates, than that while hundreds of planters
have abandoned mules and expensive cane
carts, and adopted portable roads for the mov-


'I


" '






THEF-t0R11)AI. J)1S P A TOtt


THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.
A JHandsomte, Valiable and Well-Conwdcted Joour nal.
The first number of the New Series of this well-
known paper, in its new form, was issued from the
press of Ashmead Bros. yesterday. Ii presents a
very attractive appearance and Iexhibits strikingly
the excellent taste and sound judgment for which its
publishers are already well known.
The new head is a very attractive landscape of
Florida scenery with fruits, flowers, trees, etc., in the
foreground, and, of course the inevitable alligator.
The first page is further embellished with a cut of the
Orange County farm exhibit made at the recent State
Fair, and on the third page is the Leon Couniit
Flower Exhibit, while on the fifth is a combination
picture of sketches of Florida scenery, including a
view of the Fair Grounds of the State Park Associa-
tion.
The matter of this number is excellent, comprising
a full report of the recent Vegetable Growers' meet-
ing in Savannah; a department of "The Grove,"
" The Orchard," etc.; a department of "< Domestic
Animals, Poultry," etc.; Agricultural Miscellany,"
and editorial matter, in which the publishers and
editors announce their intention of making THE
DISPATCH I" fully worthy of a liberal support," which
it certainly deserves. A Scientific Department,"
conducted by Mr. Win. H. Ashmiead, the author of
a valuable treatise on orange insects, and entomolo-
gist of the Florida Fruit Growers' Association, is one
of the most valuable features.
The form of the new paper (quarto) makes it espe-
cially convenient for reading, and preserving.-Daily
Times, March 29.

The Florida Dispatch.
This paper, which has been published for several
years past by the Florida Dispatch Line," and
edited by Colonel D. H. Elliott, has recently passed
into the hands of Ashmead Bros., of this city, who
have brought it out in an improved form with a
handsomely engraved head, enlarging the paper to
sixteen pages of three columns each, and broadening
its scope and design so as to fill the special field of an
agricultural and horticulturaL journal. When we
say that D. Redmond, late the agricultural editor of
The Union, with Col. D. H. Elliott and W. H. Ash-
mead, are the editors, it is needless to add that it will
be ably conducted and be richly worth the very low
price, $1.00 per year, charged for it. It says:
THE DISPATCH aims to be a practical, progressive,
wide-awake weekly journal, devoted to the industrial
interests of Florida and the neighboring States; and
keeping fully posted on all new modes of cul-
ture-new plants, of economic value-fertilizers-
live stock, poultry, bees, etc., etc. In short, a paper
which few, if any, country residents will willingly
be without.
We doubt not that these aims will be fully met,
and that THE DISPATCH will be a success, and be-
come popular throughout the entire State.
By a business arrangement with the publishers, we
are able to offer the Weekly Union and THE DIS-
PATCH one year for $2.25. There are no other two
journals so valuable to Floridians which can be had
at so low a price.-Daily Union, March 31.

GATHERING LEMONS.-The Riverside (Cal.)


Press says: Lemons should be picked at the
right time and properly graded and sweated
before being sent to market. The fruit should
be picked when it is ripening. If it gets too
ripe the rind begins to thicken and the acid is
liable to deteriorate. The lemons should be
put into large boxes and covered up, or if there
is no danger of rain they can be piled up on the
ground in the orchard and covered with sacks.
In four or six weeks the fruit can be taken and
carefully sorted; all large, overgrown, and all
small lemons should be put to one side and
shipped by themselves. Each lemon should
then be rubbed with a woolen cloth thoroughly,
to make it perfectly clean; this rubbing will
give the rind a glossy appearance. Wrap each
lemon in tissue paper, or a light colored, thin
manilla paper; pack carefully, and if the fruit
is a good variety to start with, the result will
be satisfactory."


Our Starch Plants.
Some inquiries have lately been made re-
garding the starch-producing plants of Florida,
and doubts have arisen in the Northern cities,
if our arrow-root is the product of the real Ma-
ranta Arundinacea, or that of the Coontie, or
native Florida plant ? We were inanufactur-
ers of arrow-root in the West Indies for thirty
years, and our forefathers had done the same
for years, on a large scale, shipping to the
United States and Europe. We have grown
arrow-root, the simon pure article, in Florida,
and can most assuredly say that the Maranta
Arundinacea grows, and produces more starch
to the acre than it does in the Tropics, and that
it will yet be found one of the most profitable
industries of this State. Our reasons are these:
1st. That there are no enemies here as rats,
etc., to destroy it. In the West Indies, we lost
half of our crop from these vermin every year.
2d. That when ripe the bulbs can be kept for
some weeks, and manufactured at leisure. In
the West Indies, directly they are ripe they
commence to grow again, unless speedily man-
ufactured, creating a loss of starch.
3d. That there is a protection duty of 20 per
cent. in our favor.
4th. That we have a good home market for
all we grow, at good prices.
The so-called Bermuda arrow-root is sold at
all the drug stores; but there is hardly a pound
of arrow-root now shipped from Bermuda; that
industry there has been superseded by potatoes
and onions. The druggists only keep up the
delusion to pass off inferior starch at ten times
its worth; the fraud is so easily exposed that
they would be obliged to drop it if manufactur-
ers in Florida would make a little effort to do
so.
Florida arrow-root got a bad name from
frauds practiced some years ago when arrow-
root was high.
One property near Biscayne Bay was named
Bermuda, and Coontie starch was made there
and shipped as real Bermuda arrow-root.
Our people do not possess the knowledge of
making first quality arrow-root starch; the
small particulars of making are wanting, and
these are the great points we have tried to im-
press on them over and over again.
Many and many ladies of refinement, in Ber-
muda, made handsome incomes from arrow-root.
It was planted around the houses in small
patches, and manufactured by the ladies and
their handmaidens; every family viewing to
make the purest and cleanest, so that by this
means Bermuda arrow-root got the highest
name in the market. One acre of land in cul-
tivation was thought a large area; but most of
them had only a few rods, and they made their
hundreds of dollars out of this. The process of
manufacture was very primitive, a small hand-
mill, and a few wash tubs, trays and cloth cov-
ers, being all that was required; but it is the
cleanliness of doing every part that gives it the
reputation. Our Florida ladies could do the


same, and derive much profit by it.
Three qualities of starch are taken off, the
best only being exported, and the other two
used at home. Arrow-root once planted will
rattoon for years. If the small weeds are picked
out when it begins to grow, it will soon shade
down others and take care of itself.
Every variety of starch seen through a mi-
croscope presents a separate crystal, so that it
is easily detected when adulterated with inferior
starches. An acre of arrow-root, well culti-
vated, manufactured and neatly packed, should
give from $500 to $1,000. It must be borne
in mind that only the purest water will do, and
there must be a good supply of it. Poultry,
horses and hogs fatten on the refuse that is left
after the starch has been washed out.
The process of extracting starch from the cas-
sava, canna and coontie are alike, but the cul-
tivation is different. As to the cassava it would


be more profitable to convert the starch into
tapioca, as it only ranks with the cheapest as a
sizing for cotton manufacturers, but as tap-
ioca will bring good prices. The canna starch,
called Tous les Mois in Brazil, is a valuable food
for invalids, being light and easy of degestion.
We will have more to say on this subject, as
it appears to be one not well understood.-
Florida Agriculturist.

A Good Compost.
An up-river correspondent gives us the fol-
lowing cheap and valuable compost:
For general information I propose giving my
mode of preparing barn-yard manure and their
application. From experience and observation,
I am convinced that there is much to be learned
yet by farmers on the subject, and much to be
gained by putting my theory into practice;
those who try it will have the proof:
1. Take two one-horse carts loaded with
muck to each stall, that has a dirt floor; put
some straw on the floor to keep the muck from
sticking to the dirt; put in the muck and level
it down; apply a sufficient quantity of pine or
oats straw, corn-shucks and cobs to cancel the
muck, and keep it so by applying something of
the kind as often as required to keep the stock
clean. The muck will take up and hold the
properties of liquid that would waste, and you
have the essential properties all together.
2. Every six weeks clean out the stables and
put the contents into pens; level down and
cover with straw, the more rotten the better, and
shelter with boards to keep out the drenching
rains, which would, otherwise, wash away much
of the most essential properties. Apply the
muck and straw to pens where hogs are to be
fattened; after the hogs are killed add the con-
tents to the compost heap. If much cannot be
got use the other articles with it-also clean
out the poultry-house, and'add it to the compost
heap, with stable manpre. Ashes should be
saved, and everything that has fertilizing prop-
erties. Take five bushels ashes to one cart load
of muck, mix together and put up in pens, and
shelter with straw or boards, to keep off rain;
this should be done at least thirty days before
it is used.
3. Provide a tight barrel, collect all the li-
quid from the bed-chamber; as soon as fifteen
or twenty gallons have been collected, perforate
the compost heaps with a sharp stake; every
fifteen inches put in in proportion to the quan-
tity of liquid, this will add to the virtue of the
heap, and cool the fire produced by fermenta-
tion, and increase decomposition. Bury all the
dead alligators in the compost heap, which will
add much to its value.
My mode of preparing cotton seed for ma-
nure, ten to fifteen days before time to apply
them, is as follows: To build an extra pen, ad-


joining the compost pen; put in a floor of com-
post, say six inches deep from a rim around the
edge, so as to inclose the seed; add six or eight
bushels cotton seed; proceed in this way until
all your seed is inclosed; to every layer of seed
add thirty gallons of water, and in ten or fifteen
days they will be killed, and all the aid retained
to benefit the soil.

ONE of our correspondents writes us that the
channel between lakes Dora to Eustis is com-
pleted and boats can go to Tangerine, head of
navigation of the Ocklawaha River and chain
of lakes, and arrangements will soon be made
for daily mail by boat.

PERSONS ORDERING GOODS FROM AD-
VERTISERS APPEARING IN THE DIS-
PATCH WILL CONFER A FAVOR BY NO-
TIFYING THEM TO THAT EFFECT.






STHE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


Remedy for the Scale and the Bust Mite.
The first or spring brood of scale insects are now
hatching and it behooves those who would keep their
trees healthy, vigorous and thrifty, and at the same
time rid their groves of these pernicious and trouble-
some pests-to apply washes at the proper season.
Examine your trees this month and you will find
the young hatching and running about on the leaves,
twigs and branches.
Now is the time to apply your wash. Don't put it
off longer.
In another column our readers will see that Profes-
sor Riley recommends spraying the trees with a wash
made from an emulsion of kerosene and milk. This
is made by churning the two together-forming a
soft butter, which can be afterwards diluted and syr-
inged upon the trees. This combination prevents the
deleterious effects of the pure kerosene.
The proportions for this combination varies, but to
one quart of kerosene add two quarts of milk, and
from this can be made a wash sufficiently strong to
kill all insects with which it comes in contact.
Those who are unable to obtain milk can make an
emulsion, as recommended by Mr. Matthew Cooke,
of Sacramento, in his pamphlet on "Injurious In-
sects," which is as follows:
To one quart of kerosene add three-fourths of a
pint of any animal oil (neat's-foot oil, lard oil or whale
oil). In three quarts of water dissolve three-fourths
of an ounce of borax. Then mix all together and a
solution will be produced, thoroughly mixed and
ready for use.
The Professor has great faith in the above remedy
and says it will destroy the rust-mite as well as the
scale.
Importance of the Study of lnidomology.
At a recent meeting of the Farmers' Club of Onon-
dago county, New York, Professor Lintner, State En-
tomologist, made the following remarks:
Occasionally at the present day we may hear in-
sects and entomologists spoken of as bugs' and 'bug-
hunters,' epithets applied in derision to what are re-
garded as petty objects and trivial pursuits.
"Such views only betray an ignorance which is
equally pitiable and inexcusable.
"The study of insects has assumed an importance
in its direct application to agriculture, horticulture
and sylviculture, 'second to no other department of
natural history.
"It has called to its aid some of the best intellects of
the country, and its literature has become extensive
and assumed a high rank.
"Our State governments, in response to demands
made upon them, are appointing State entomologists-
our general government is making liberal appropria-
tions for entomological work in the Department of Ag-
riculture at Washington, and also for sustaining a
special United States Entomological Commission, now
in the third year of its operations, charged with the in-
vestigation of a few of our more injurious insects.
"The study of insects assumes an importance in this
country greater than in any other part of the world,


Nowhere else does Mother Earth yield in such variety
and such abundance her agricultural products-after
supplying to repletion our own people the excess is
distributed to every quarter of the globe. Few of
these varied products are native to our soil.
"Nearly all of our fruits, grasses, cereals and vege-
tables are of foreign importation, mainly from Europe.
With their introduction many of theinsects that preyed
upon them were also introduced, or have been subse-
quently brought hither, but unfortunately for us, the
parasites which preyed upon them and kept them un-
der control have for the most part been left behind.
As the result, the imported pests in their new home
find their favorite food-plants spread out in luxuriant
growth overbroad acres where they may ply their des-
trlctive work without hindrance or molestation, until
some native parasite acquire the habit of preying upon
them.


"Every crop cultivated on a large scale offers strong
invitation to insect attack, and wonderfully stimulates
insect multiplicity."
Correspondence Colunyw.
MICANOPY, March 24, 1882.
Scientific Editor of The Florida Dispatch :
DEAR SIR: I mail you to-day a moth that I find
breeding in my orange trees, but do not find it in your
book. Will you be kind enough to tell me what it is,
and oblige yours respectfully,
F. G. SAMPSON,
Micanopy, Fla.
REPLY: The moth sent belongs to the family
termed Tiger-Moths, and the specimen sent is called
"The Great Leopard Moth" (Ecpantheria seribonia,
Stoll). It is the largest and most beautiful of the
family found in North America. The caterpillar, from
which the moth hatches, is nearly three inches in
length, black, and thickly covered with long bristly
hairs.
We have found it on the oak and maple, and once
caught it feeding on the grape-vine.
North it feeds on the wild sunflower (IHelianthus
decapetatus) or willows, locust trees, and different spe-
cies of Plantain (Plantago).
We never detected it feeding on the orange. The
moth itself can do no injury, and our correspondent
must find the caterpillar feeding on orange trees before
it can be classed as an "orange insect."

LAKE MAITLAND, FLA., 3:24, 1882.
W'm. H. Ashnmcad, Esq., Scientific Editor of The
Dispatch :
DEAR SIR-In your publication on the Orange In-
sects of Florida-which I have read with much
pleasure and profit-I find no description of the speci-
mens which I enclose you by to-day's mail. They
were cut from the blood shaddock which is affected
by the white scale; and I have thought this might be
the same at some stage of its growth. Your opinion
as to its character and treatment, will greatly oblige.
Yours very truly,
R. G. MAYO.
REPLY-Specimens of infected shaddock twigs and
leaves arrived safely. They are infested with the
long scale insect Aspidiotes Glorerii, and what you
take for the white scale is not a scale, but a fungus.
The sweet substances secreted by scale insects fre-
quently form the nidus for the development of fun-
goid growths-spores, of which seem to exist in the
atmosphere.
To prevent the fungoid germs from developing,
syringe the affected parts with a strong carbolic wash.
Our illustration will enable you to recognize the
white scale, should it appear on your trees.

McQueen Auld, Tallahassee :
We do not think much reliance can be placed on
the discovery of your correspondent, W. H. L. He
says: "It penetrates through and mingles with the
sap, and its effects will thus last generally for two
years."
This is simply nonsense, contrary to known physi-
ological principles of plant-life.

The Yellows in the Peach Tree.
Mr. W. K. Higley has given in the American Natural-
ist an account of the observations he has made tolearn
the cause of the yellows in the peach tree and the man-


ner in which it is disseminated. He is satisfied that
the disease is due to a fungoid growth, but not to a
noemaspora, as Mr. Taylor, of the Agricultural De-
partment at Washington, believes, for that form occurs
on other trees that receive no harm from its presence-
nor to a fungus in the tissues of the roots, for no fun-
gus has been recorded as occurring there. He worked
in his examinations, upon the theory that the fungus
must be natural to the tree, enjoying the same condi-
tions of development as are favorable to the growth of
the tree. Hence, he took no pains to cultivate the
plant, but examined specimens as they were gathered
from diseased trees. Nothing was found in the roots.
Mycelia were found in sections of the trunk, on the
underside of the inner bark next to the cambium layer,
with many of the filaments penetrating and ramifying
through that layer, and, in some specimens, mycelia
between the layers of wood. In some of the smaller
branches and the growing ends of the larger branches,


the tissues seemed to be completely filled with mycelia,
and in one case the bark appeared to be split. Fila-
ments of fungus were found in the leaves of the abnor-
mal branches characteristic of trees affected with the
yellows, and.the chlorophyl in all such leaves was com-
pletely disorganized. The most satisfactory results
were obtained from the examination of the fruits, in
which mycelia was abundantly found just beneath the
skin, extending for a short distance into the fleshy par-
enchyma. The form was the same as that which was
found in other parts of the tree-this form, Mr. Hig-
ley believes, as the final result of his investigations so
far, to be at least a part of and probably the whole
cause of the disease. The affection is, of course, trans-
mitted by whatever will convey the fungus or its
spores. Mr. Higley has no faith in any of the cures
that have been proposed for the yellows, and believes
that where they have seemed to be successful, not
yellows, but some other cause of trouble was present.
The only remedy he can propose is to root out the tree
and burn every part.
Malarial Organisms.
M. A. Laveran has found, in the blood of patients
suffering from malarial poisoning, parasitic organisms,
very definite in form and most remarkable in charac-
ter-motionless, cylindrical curved bodies, transparent
and of delicate outlines, curved at the extremities-
transparent spherical forms provided with fine fila-
ments in rapid movement, which he believes to be ani-
malcules-and spherical or irregular bodies, which ap-
peared to be the cadavericc" stage of these, all marked
with pigment-granules. He has also detected pecul-
iar conditions in the blood itself. During the year that
has passed since he first discovered these elements, M.
Laveran has examined the blood in one hundred and
ninety-two patients affected with various symptoms of
malarial disease, and has found the organisms in one
hundred and eighty of them, and he has convinced
himself by numerous and repeated observations that
they are not found in the blood of persons suffering
from diseases that are not of malarial origin. In gen-
eral the parasitic bodies were found in the blood only
at certain times, a little before and at the moment of
the accession of the fever, and they rapidly disap-
peared under the influence of a quinine treatment*
The addition of a minute quantity' of a dilute solution
of sulphate of quinine to a drop of blood sufficed to
destroy the organisms. Mr. Laveran believes that the
absence of the organisms in most of the cases (only
twelve in the whole one hundred and ninety-two) in
which he failed to find them was due to the patients
having undergone a course of treatment with quinine.
-Pop. Sci. Mo.

Professor Riley in Florida.

ORANGE INSECTS AND THE COTTON WORM-How
THE INSECT OPERATES, AND THE CURE FOR ITS
RAVAGES-THE HIBERNATION OF THE COTTON
WORM, ETC.
In our last issue we announced the arrival in Flor-
ida of our distinguished scientific friend, Professor C.
V. Riley, and we now give the result of an interview
with this gentleman, from the daily Times of this city.
Professor C. V. Riley, the distinguished entomolo-
gist of the Department of Agriculture at Washington,
returned to this city Monday evening from a trip to
the interior of the State. Professor Riley came to
Florida upon investigations that are of exceeding
great importance to the people of the State.
A representative of the Times yesterday had the
pleasure of an interesting interview with the Profes-
sor, the essential facts of which are embodied in the
report hereto appended.


ORANGE INSECTS.
What have you heard or learned new on the sub-
jects of orange insects, Professor ?"
I have accomplished some results, the value of
which can hardly be estimated now. I have proved
the accuracy of Mr. AshmeadI's discovery that the
rust in the fruit, which so depreciates its price, is
caused by a mite. There can be no possible doubt
about it. I have seen them on the leaves and fruit
and can tell their presence on a tree by the appearance
of the leaves, and without the use of a microscope."
"What is the character of this mite?"
"It is a minute insect that produces decay and dis-
coloration. A peculiarity of it is that it works in the
shade, and that fact accounts for the peculiar oval
shape of the discoloration you see on .most of the
fruit."
THE REMEDY FOR THE MITE.
"Is there any remedy for the work of this mite;
anything that wiil destroy it ?"
Yes; that is the real discovery of value that we
have made down here this season. One of my observ-
ers, Mr. H. G. Hubbard, of Crescent City, has been
for many months making experiments under the di-


_ Z_ ~






THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


reaction of the Department, and has been eminently
successful in perfecting a remedy. I feel sure it is a
perfect antidote to the mite and scale insect."
"What is the remedy ?"
"It consists of an emulsion of kerosene and milk.
This is churned into a sort of kerosene soft butter,
which, when diluted with water, is sprayed on the
trees, and is certain death to the scale insects and the
rust mite."
Is this remedy cheap and available ?"
Perfectly so. Almost any one having the form-
ula can make it and improve apparatus for economi-
cally and efficiently spraying it is already perfected. It
is probable that the demand for the butter will become
so great as to make its manufacture a distinct indus-
try, either here or at some convenient point in the
North."
Professor Riley intends to embody the results of
his investigations fully in a special report which it is
believed Congress will order printed for general cir-
culation in the orange-growing sections of the Union.
THE COTTON WORM'S NEST.
I have had the satisfaction," continued Professor
Riley, "of establishing one important fact in refer-
ence to the cotton worm."
"What was that?"
'"You know it has been questioned heretofore
whether the cotton worm hibernated in the United
States. It has been strenuously denied that it did,
and claimed that it flew hither every season from the
Bahamas, the West Indies or Brazil, in its moth
form in the spring. The lateness of its appearance in
numbers, and the fact that from February to May
there has been no clue to its whereabouts, encouraged
that belief. I became satisfied that it did hibernate
in America, and year by year I have been closing in
the circle around the points of its disappearances. I
had careful and continuous observations made, and
this year we have solved the question.
How did you make the discovery ?"
"The moths were reported as disappearing at
Archer, in this State, about the last of Februaryt
Two of my observers, Dr. J. C. Neal and Mr. Alber.
Koebele, were instructed to keep close watch, and
when I arrived here I went to Archer to investigate
the subject. I found both eggs and worms of various
sizes in the rattoon cotton in the fields about Archer.
Dr. Neal noticed the moths coming out of the wire-
grass in large numbers on the occasion of a fire in the
grass. The eggs had evidently been laid about the
time of the disappearance of the moths, and some of
the worms were about two weeks old. I think our
observations clearly established the fact of the hiber-
nation of the cotton worm moth in the dense wire-
grasses of these Southern sections."
"You do not confide their hibernation to Florida?"
No ; I think it is the same in the southernmost
parts of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississip-
pi, Louisiana and Texas. The first crops of worms are
subject to many hardships and enemies, and it is
along in July before the crop of worms gets large
enough to become a matter of alarm to the cotton
producers."
"How about dealing with the cotton worm ?"
"We have perfected much machinery for its de-
struction. At theAtlanta Exposition I made an ad-
dress fully explanatory of the methods and exhibited
many of the machines in operation."
Professor Riley has certainly achieved some re-
markable and valuable results by his visit to Florida.
He will return at a later season and pursue other
equally valuable investigations. He is ably assisted
in this State by the gentlemen named above, who are
regular agents of his branch of the National Bureau
of Agriculture.
Ancient Englishmnen.
The earliest race of men who peopled England, says
Grant Allen in Knowledge, were the black fellows of
the paleolithic or older stone age. They were low-


browed, fierce-jawed, crouching creatures, inferior
even to the existing Australians, and were all swept
away in the last glacial epoch. Long after the gla-
ciers of the ice age had cleared off the face of the
country, a second race occupied Britain, some of
whose descendants almost undoubtedly exist there at
the present day. These were the neolithic, or later
stone age men, who have been identified, with great
probability, as a branch of the same isolated Basque or
Eustrarian race which now lives among the valleys of
the Western Pyrenees and the Asturias Mountains.
Our knowledge of them is mainly derived from their
tombs or barrows-great heaps of earth which they
piled up above the bodies of their dead chieftains.
From these have been taken their skeletons, their weap-
ons, their domestic utensils and their ornaments.
In stature the neolithic men were short and thick-
set, not often exceeding five feet four inches. In com-
plexion, they were probably white' but swarthy, like


the darkest Italians and Spaniards, or even the Moors,
their skulls were very long and narrow-and they
form the best distinguishing mark of the race, as well
as the best test of its survival at the present day. The
neoliths were unacquainted with the use of metal, but
they employed weapons and implements of stone, not
rudely chipped, like those of the older stone age, but
carefully ground and polished. They made pottery,
too, and wove cloth-they domesticated pigs and cat-
tle, and they cultivated coarse cereals in the little pots
which they cleared out of the forests with their stone
hatchets or tomahawks. In general culture, they were
about at the same level as the more advanced Polyne-
sian tribes, when they first came into contact with
European civilization. The barrows which they raised
over their dead chieftains were long and rather nar-
row, not round, like those of the later Celtic conquer-
ors. They appear to have lived for the most part in
little stockaded villages, each occupying a small clear-
ing in the river valleys, and ruled over by a single chief-
and the barrows usually cap the summit of the bound-
ary hills which overlook the little dales. Inside them
are long-chambered galleries of large, rough-hewn
stones, and when these primitive erections are laid
bare by the decay or removal of the barrow, they form
the so-called Druidical monuments" of old-fashioned
antiquaries, a few of which are Celtic, but the greater
part Eustrarian.
The Microscope at Honte.
In a lecture on the use of the microscope at home,
by Henry Pocklington, the following directions are
given for using the instrument to detect adulterated
dry goods: Most people like to be sure that they get
what they pay for. The microscope, in many cases,
places the possibility of certainty on this point within
the reach of its owner. Suppose, for example, that
the lady of the house wishes to know whether the piece
of silk she has set her heart upon for a dress is all silk,
or a mixture with cotton, jute or China-grass, and, if
all silk, whether it has been loaded with dye and dress-
ing. The microscope will set her mind at rest. Take a
pattern of the silk, unravel the warp and weft, and ex-
amine it under the quarter-inch objective, and you will,
at any rate, see whether all the little fibres, of which
the weft and warp are comprised, look alike. That, of
course, will not tell you whether the material is silk-
but if you procure a piece of known silk, good raw
silk, and study its appearance, and compare it with
the suspected specimen, you will come to a sound
conclusion very soon. Then take a little cotton and
examine it to find that it consists of flattened tubes,
curiously twisted, quite unlike the long cylindrical tubes
or silk, and different again from the long consistent
tubes of flax with their attenuated ends and marked
walls. Take wool and hairs of different kinds, and
examine them carefully, noting their peculiarities, and
you will soon be able to tell whether your coat is all
wool, or, as is much more probable, not-whether your
wife's sable muff or seal jacket is what it professes to
be, and will not improbably learn a lesson in the de-
partment of trade morality.
High Tides and the Moon.
Professor Ball, of Dublin, has been recently trying
to prove that the moon is the result of tidal evolution,
that in the very remote past when the moon was only
40,000 miles distant, the earth must have been swept
by tides of enormous height, and that these tides must
have been powerful agents in producing changes on the
earth's surface which geologists are now unable to ac-
count for. In a recent number of Nature, Professor
Newberry, of Columbia College, goes carefully over
the geological record, and shows conclusively that
these hypothetical high tides have left no trace of their


existence, and that since the beginning of the geo-
logical record the order of nature has been essen-
tially what it is to-day. The testimony of the rocks
on this subject, says Professor Newberry, is so full
and conclusive that it really leaves no room for discus-
sion ; and hence the astronomers have been in error in
regard to the genesis of the moon, and she never
formed a portion of the earth's mass, or the separa-
ration took place at a period so remote that she had re-
ceded to nearly her present distance before the dawn
of life on the earth.
Solar Parallax.
The Royal Astronomical Society of England has
presented its gold medal to David Gill, now astrono-
mer at the Cape of Good Hope, for his heliometer ob-
servations on the planet Mars in the autumn of 1877,
made with the view of determining the solar parallax.
The Academy of Sciences at Paris have also awarded
Mr. Gill the Valz prize for the same achievement. Mr.
Gill has twice applied what is known as the diurnal
method (first employed by Cassini two centuries since)
to observations of Mars with the heliomoter. The As-
cension expedition has been pronounced a great suc-


I


crease her interest in the garden. She became
interested in books on horticulture and read
and re-read them, and they gave her as much
pleasure as Mrs. Alcott's "Little Woman," or
Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." The Pro-
fessor also advocated the study and practical
use of horticulture to a greater extent in our
public schools.

-Insects are endowed with much greater
muscular energy, in proportion to their size,
than other animals. Had a man of six feet
muscular power proportioned to that of a flea,
he could leap more than 300 feet, and lift a
weight of 10,000 pounds. A species of beetle
supports 500 times its own weight; and another
has been discovered which is stated, on good
authority, to have gnawed a hole of an inch in
diameter in the side of an iron canister by the
power of its jaws.


7


I I


I


cess, twenty-two series of observations of Mars having
been obtained, each of which affords a value of the
parallax. The discussion of the observations proves
that they were made with a high degree of precision.
The value of the solar parallax which Mr. Gill ob-
tained gives the mean distance of the earth from the
sun at 93,080,000 miles.




The Children's Garden.
Professor W. J. Beal, of the Michigan State
Agricultural College, recently read a very in-
teresting paper on The Children's Garden. His
essay was in the form of a narrative, giving the
experience of his own daughter, about twelve
years old, in keeping a garden. She made her
own plans and did all the work herself. At
first all was lovely, but on the approach of hot
weather the ground became hard and weeds
numerous. Still she persevered, the miniature
garden enlarged, and she gradually became
more and more interested in the study of horti-
culture. One of the most profitable plants was
the field pumpkin, the fruit of which was sold
to the boys at four cents apiece for jack-lan-
terns. The gardener soon began to devote more
attention as to what she should plant. On ex-
amining a seed catalogue the result of her in-
vestigation was this:
"I am going to send for some of Docer's im-
proved lima beans. See how close they are in
the- pod ; they don't waste a bit of room. I want
some improved early turnip beets for greens
and the bottoms for cooking. No cabbages for
me-the worms are too much trouble. Mamma

says carrots won't pay-they do not sell well.
Cauliflower and celery are two much bother. I
want to raise some corn. Early Minnesota is
pretty good Ifor early, and Stowell's evergreen
for late. I am not going to raise any cucum-
bers, the vines spread out and always get in the
way. I want lettuce very early. Ferry's early
prize head is a good kind, because it heads up
nicely, so you don't have to pick it over much.
I am going to try martyninas. They bear lots
of splendid little pickles if used when young.
Yellow globe is a good kind of onion. I want
a little parsley for bouquets and for garnishing.
I shall raise more peas next year. Perry's first
and best are good for early ones-and the cham-
pion of England for late. Squashes, I don't
want any-there is too much fuss of a big vine
for a little squash." The experience of my lit-
tle girl has made her more or less familiar with
the common flowers and vegetables. She has
learned that it is best to hoe a garden often,
and never to let the weeds get much above the
ground. She sees an advantage in order and
system. This order and beauty tends to make
her neat and particular, and these tend to in-


I -. _ __


I






THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


THE FLORIDA DISPATCH,
JACKSONVILLE, APRIL 3, 1882.
EDITORS:
D. REDMOND, D. H. ELLIOTT, W. II. ASHMEAD.
Subscriptlotn $1.00 per annum, ivn advance.
RATES OF ADVERTISING.
SQUARES. 1 TIME. 1 MO. 3 MO. 6 MO. 1 YEAR
One.....................$... 1 00 $ 2 50 $ 5 50 $10 00 $18 50
Two........... ........... 2 00. 5 00 10 00 18 00 34 00
Three ..................3.... 00 7 00 14 00 25 00 46 00
Four ...................... 4 00 9 00 17 50 30 00 58 00
Eight.............. 8 00 1650 3000 5000 10000
Sixteen..... ........ 1600( 3000 50 00 80 00 150 00
Ten lines solid nonpareil type make a square.
The FLORIDA DISPATCH has a very large circulation
in Florida and South Georgia, and is by far the best ad-
vertising medium for reaching the merchants and fruit
and vegetable growers of those sections. All business
correspondence should be addressed to
ASHMEAD BROS., Publishers, Jacksonville, Fla.
The Dispatch has the largest circulation oj any
paper in Florida; it is therefore the best adver-
tising medium in the State.
5,000 TO 8,000 COPIES ISSUED EVERY WEEK.

Now is a good time to send one dollar for
the DISPATCH.

CAPT. WM. JAMES-one of our most indus-
trious and skillful gardeners-has our thanks
for a head of cabbage fit to grace the stalls of
Washington market.

GOVERNOR BLOXHAM ON FLORIDA.-We
shall endeavor to find room for some of the
views and opinions of our worthy and sensible
Governor, touching Florida and its resources,
in our next number.

ADVERTISERS will find the DISPATCH an ex-
cellent medium to reach all the better classes
of our people. We have a large and increas-
ing circulation throughout this and the adjoin-
ing States.

ILLUSTRATIONS.-It is our purpose to illus-
trate the pages of the DISPATCH from time to
time, and to improve the paper in all possible
ways, as fast as our income from this source
will admit. So, kind friends! in helping us,
you are helping yourselves!

FLOWERS, PLANTS, &c.-See the advertise-
ment of Mr. A. PUETZ, in present number. Mr.
P. is an accomplished Florist, and has a finestock
of rare plants, flowering shrubs, bulbs, &c.
His establishment (nearly opposite the post-
office,) is very convenient for all who desire
bouquets, cut flowers, or anything in his line.

CURRENT HAPPENINGS" AND EVENTS, in


all parts of the State, will form a special fea-
ture of the new DISPATCH, and we shall be
glad to receive from every neighborhood and
precinct brief notes on all matters relating to
agriculture, horticulture, manufactures, the
natural sciences, &c., &c.

UPLAND RICE may be planted now, or dur-
ing the early part of June. Our seaboard ex-
changes state that the destruction of the rice
crop in Georgia and South Carolina by the hur-
ricane in August so shortened the product, that
there is not enough left to meet the demand in
Georgia, and but 8,000 tierces in South Caro-
lina to meet the consumption in the next five
months until the new crop comes in. Our up-
land rice cultivators should make a note of this
and extend their crop.


Branching Sorghum.
The seed of this rare and valuable forage and
grain plant, (which we are now daily mailing
to new subscribers), may be planted at any fa-
vorable time before June-the sooner the bet-
ter, as the early planted crop of fodder and seed
may be gathered in the latter part of summer,
and a second crop or aftermath of leaves and
tender stalks secured before frost.
To produce the best results, the soil should
naturally be very rich, or made so before plant-
ing; and the ground must be broken up deep,
and thoroughly pulverized by repeated harrow-
ings. If you desire to mature the plant and
save the seed, lay off your rows four (4) feet
apart, and drop the seed about one (1) foot
apart in these drills, covering not more than
half an inch, and pressing the earth down firm-
ly and evenly over the seed. As soon as the
plant is fairly above ground, give it a light
working, and let the after-culture be precisely
such as you would give a corn crop which you
intended to offer for a prize at our State Fair.
When the seed-heads are well formed and the
plants begin to spread across the middles, the
crop should be "laid by," and the seed may be
gathered when the grains or kernels are not
quite hard, but in what wheat-growers call the
" doughy state." The seed will be found very
valuable for feeding mules, horses'and poultry,
and is said to produce a flour or meal superior
to buckwheat, for batter-cakes. Protect the
seed from weevils by scattering among it
small branches of the China Tree, or "Pride of
India ;"-the leaves of the common Elder (sam-
bucus) are also recommended as a detergent of
this little grain pest, so destructive in this coun-
try.
If you wish to grow the plant for forage,
green or dry, drop one seed every four or five
inches in the drill, so they will not grow coarse
or large, cultivating as before directed, and cut-
ting, either for green food or hay, when the
plant is in flower or tassel. All stock are fond
of the green forage, and if convenient to run it
through a feed-cutter and give it a sprinkle of
bran and a little salt, milch cows, .and even
working horses and mules will require little
less while the crop lasts.
This variety of Sorghum has a strong ten-
dency to "tiller" or spread out into clumps,
making a number of stalks from one seed. Dur-
ing the past winter and spring the crop of Dr.
Davis rattooned freely, and the plants are now
knee-high and growing off vigorously.


JAMES VICK, of Ro'chester, N. Y., is a man
of great taste and liberality. His Floral Mag-
azine and Floral Guide are beautiful specimens
of artistic typography, and they are filled with
matter of great interest and value to all lovers
of rare plants and flowers. We advise our
readers, and especially the ladies, to send at
once for specimen copies of the Guide. Mr.
Vick says:
Our Floral Guide for 1882 has been mailed.
We design to send it to every subscriber as a
holiday present. It is a very handsome work,
good enough for any one, and handsome enough
for the parlor. If any one has been accident-
ally omitted please notify us by postal card, at
once.


(WHITE SCALE.-See page 6.)

Colored Farmers.
It gives us especial pleasure to enroll upon
our list of recent subscribers the names of sev-
eral industrious, intelligent and worthy colored
men of this vicinity, and we shall take particu-
lar pains to extend our circulation among this
class of "fellow-citizens throughout this and
the adjoining States. See the Fair Offer" of
our enterprising and responsible publishers, in
last number and do not be backward in com-
ing forward with your names and-dollars !

Beautiful Poultry Chromos.
We are indebted to H. H. Stoddard, Esq.,
the able and enterprising editor and publisher
of the Poultry World, for a portfolio collection
of all the leading varieties of domestic fowls,
very skillfully drawn and colored from life.
Many ofthese pictures are very beautiful; and
each fancier of a particular breed can select
from the lot the variety he most esteems. Mr.
Stoddard will send a list of the entire collection,
upon application by mail, and will also send
specimen copies of his excellent monthly, The
Poultry World, and his equally valuable weekly,
The Poultry Yard. Either or both of these
journals are almost indispensable to any one
engaged in the pleasant and (often) profitable
pursuit of poultry raising. Address H. H.
Stoddard, Hartford, Conn.

JUTE CULTURE.-The Louisiana Sugar-Bowl
says: It has been suggested that as the over-
flow will destroy so many crops, and the water
remain so long that the ordinary crops cannot
this year be grown, that jute can be substituted,
for it can be sown as late as July, and yet make
a good crop. Mr. Norwood Stansbury, on Mr.
Win. Robertson's plantation, three miles back of
New Iberia, will, this year, have ten acres of
jute, already having sown some of it."

SMALL SOUTHERN FARMS.-The Atlanta
(Ga.) Constitution thinks that, under an inex-
orable pressure that is beyond the reach of in-
fluence or argument, the plantations will split
into small farms, and small farms will take the
place of large planters. The same causes that


sliced nearly 70,000 farms from the Georgia
plantations in the ten years preceding 1880
will cut off as many more between now and
1890.


6


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THE ;FLORIDA DISPATCH.


Sanitary Column.
In devoting a column to the discussion of sani-
tary science, we are convinced that no subject
can possess a greater interest to the numerous
readers of THE DISPATCH, than original and
selected articles furnishing information relative
to the laws of health, how it may be preserved,
how by a requisite knowledge of these laws, and
the appropriate use of means, the legitimate
effects from numerous causes of disease, may be
averted. Year by year sanitary investigations
are demonstrating the fact that a majority of
the diseases to which the human family is liable,
are clearly preventable, when the laws of sani-
tary science are understood and obeyed.
In order then, for the individual members of
a community, to be the full recipients of the
benefits derived from carrying out the laws of
health, not only members of Sanitary Associa-
tions, and Boards of Health, must be informed,
but individuals where these organizations exist,
must be instructed in what pertains to their
well-being to enable them to be efficient and
intelligent co-operators in carrying out the rules
and ordinances required for the protection of
public as well as individual health. At the
close of this year, if we are able to utter the
sentiments embraced in an editorial of that
valuable journal, The Sanitary Engineer for
the year 1881, our labors will not have been in
vain.
The following is the article alluded to, and
the views of the editor are indorsed by one of
his regular readers:
From the Sanitary Engineer.]
NEW YORK, Dec. 1, 1881.
At this time it may be well to remind our
readers of the progress which has been made
during the past year in sanitary science and en-
gineering. The most important part of this
progress, has been in the education of the pub-
lic, as to the need for, and the possibility of,
preventing sickness and death; and in this
work, we think we can truthfully say that this
journal has taken a prominent part. It is the
most important, because an educated and in-
telligent public opinion is essential to the sur-
veys of all hygienic measures, for nearly all of
these involve a certain amount of trouble and
expense.
People are now beginning to understand the
value of pure water, the importance of so dis-
posing of excretea and garbage as to insure
that the air we breathe shall be unpolluted by
the products of their decomposition, and the
fact that disease causes suffering and pecuniary
loss, not only to the individual, but to the
whole country. Those who have learned this
lesson are the patrons of the skilled plumber;
of the competent sanitary engineer; of the
schools where the health of the children is pro-


vided for; of the physicians who are known to
take an interest in prevention as well as cure.
This educated public opinion is demanding
more exact knowledge of the causes of disease,
and the demand is creating the supply. Un-
der the auspices of Boards of Health, which are
being formed everywhere, investigations are
going on; registration of deaths, and to some
extent of disease, is being established and made
more complete; the effects of bad drainage,
overcrowding, polluted water, contagion, are
becoming better known, and an epidemic is no
longer considered to be an unavoidable dispen-
sation of Providence, any more than a great
fire, or a railway collision. And so far as the
causes of disease are understood, the ingenuity
and technical skill of the nineteenth century
is applied to providing the means of avoiding


or destroying these causes. The announcement
by Pasteur, or Koch, or Burdon-Sanderson, of
the discovery of a new fact in the life history
of some minute and apparently insignificant or-
ganism, at once becomes a basis for means of
disinfection provided by the chemist or en-
gineer, or for legislation in preventing the
spread of disease. Many pretended discoveries,
false facts, and absurd theories, with regard to
sanitation are now being announced, which to
a superficial observer tend to bring discredit on
the whole subject; but there is nevertheless a
real advance which is clearly shown in the
volume of The Sanitary Engineer, which has
just been completed."
The importance of cultivating sanitary
science has led to the establishment of State
Boards of Health with auxiliaries in cities, coun-
ties or in districts within the respective States,
and the reports of these organizations and the
general distribution of them have demonstrated
their usefulness, and have been the means of
educating the people upon a subject of import-
ance to their welfare, but to which in our State
too little interest has been given. At several
of the late sessions of our Legislature efforts
have been made by the advocates of sanitary




























reform, to induce that Honorable Body, to es-
tablish a State Board of Health. But the very
moderate sum asked for to give such an organiza-
tion the necessary efficiency in carrying out its
legitimate operations, seems to have proved the
stumbling block in the estimation of our legis-
lators that prevented its establishment. The


members who were to constitute the Board of
Directors were to receive no compensation for
their services, except for their necessary ex-
penses in attending the meeting of the Board.
The Secretary only as the administrative offi-
cer, whose whole time was to be devoted to the
duties of his office was to receive an annual
salary, in amount not as great as he could earn
in the private practice of his profession. He
must be an educated medical man, but the
other members need not necessarily be physi-
cians, but to be efficient and wise counsellors to
the administrative officer they must possess the
requisite knowledge of sanitary laws, in order
to their judicious application.


American Sebright Fowls.
Our engraving very fairly represents
a breed of fowls, quite rare in the South, and
not very plentiful at the North, known as
"American Sebrights." They have, also, been
called "Eurekas," "Hambletonians," etc., etc.,
but the name at the head of this article will
probably be retained by the "American Poultry
Association."
The "American Sebrights" are a little above
medium size-larger than ordinary games and
barnyard fowls-but not as large as Brahmas,
Cochins, or Plymouth Rocks. In fill flesh, and
good condition, the grown cocks weigh from
seven to eight, and grown hens from five to six
pounds each, though we have heard of heavier
weights. They have low, broad bodies; short,
yellow, clean legs, and small heads, with double
or rose-combs. They are fair layers of medium-
sized eggs ; close, inveterate sitters, and excel-
lent mothers. They are extremely beautiful in
plumage-the ground-work of the feathers be-
ing white, bordered or laced with a narrow circ-
let of purplish black, after the manner of the




























little Silver Bantams, of Sir John Sebright.
Our experience of one season, does not justify
us in ranking these fowls, for practical utility
with the best Plymouth Rocks; but the nice
and tastefill fancier, who desires only one breed
will find the "American Sebrights" attractive
and valuable.


LuMIBER.-During the month of March
there were 4,837,000 feet of yellow pine lum-
ber shipped from this port against 4,831,719
for the same month last year, and 8,590,125
feet for March, 1880. Of this amount 4,700,-
000 feet were shipped to domestic and 137,000
feet to foreign ports. The above does not in-
clude the amount shipped by way of Fernan-
dina and Jacksonville Railroad. The ship-
ment of lumber is certainly on the increase, and
if the increase continues during the remainder
of the year, the amount of lumber shipped from
this port in 1882, will surpass anything ever
heard of. The largest amount of lumber ever
shipped from this port in one month was in
March, 1880, when 8,590,125 feet were ship-
ped.-hUnion, April 2.


------


I





0 THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


of our State that permits the burning, and
those who suffer have no redress, and sim-
ply have to "grin and bear it."-South Flor-
ida Journal.
-One of our lady friends has determined
to manage her own gardening affairs this
year. She has had her yard beautifully laid
off, and proposes to make it useful as well as
ornamental by growing vegetables as well as
flowers. Most of the seed planted came up
finely, except the raisins. Queer they are so
slow. Guess they were planted too early.
We suggest that now would be a good time
for planting dried apples and parched coffee ;
but later in the season will probably do bet-
ter for salt, though it will be well enough to
purchase the seed now and have the land pre-
pared.-Land of Flowers.


-Mr. N. B. White, of Buffalo Bluff, has
realized $210 from sixteen stands of bees.-
South Florida Times.
-Mrs. Josselyn, of this place, has a five
year old sweet seedling orange tree in full
bloom.-South Florida Times.
-The Live Oak people are discussing the
project of forming a company to bring the
sulphur waters from the Suwanee Springs to
Live Oak. through pipes.
-The Middle Florida Fair Association
held a meeting last Wednesday and revised
their premium list for their next fair, to
come off on Wednesday and Thursday, 3d
and 4th of May. The list will be published
soon, and is said to be the most liberal of
any yet offered.
JUST So !-A distinguished physician
says : It is satisfactory to know that of all
places in the United States, east of the
Rocky Mountains, Florida possesses the
most desirable climate; thousands have
been restored to health and life by its agency,
while millions will be cured in the future..
NATURAL "INARCHING."-The Griffin (Ga.)
News says: At the residence of H. H.
Whittington, on the Macon road, are two
red oaks growing separate and about three
feet apart until nearly six feet from the
ground, when they are united by a limb
about the size of a man's arms. The limb
appears to be equally a part-of each tree,
and it is impossible to tell from which it
originated. It is a genuine Siamese twin.
GOING UP !-The Waycross Reporter says:
"A leading Savannah merchant told us a
few days ago that his firm became the own-
ers of some pine lands in this section, for
which, a year ago, they could not get twenty
cents per acre, but were now offered two dol-
lars per acre. Think of it, a rise of one
thousand per cent. in a year's time. Verily
there is much in writing up a country prop-
erly so as to bring it into prominent notice."
-A section of cassava root a foot in
length and four inches in diameter, was left
in our sanctum a few days ago by Isaac
Winegord. It was cut from a root five feet
in length, grown on Mr. Winegord's place
on Lake Conway. The specimen shows
what this plant will do with proper cultiva-
tion. It is valuable for food for stock as
well as for making starch.- Orange County
Reporter.
-A ride through our county shows thou-
sands of panels of fence burned up, and in
some instances young groves almost ruined.
The woods for miles and miles are divested
of everything green, and present a seared,
charred, desolated aspect; but there is a law


with rails, commencing at the ground and grad-
ually drawing in each additional course of rails,
like a bird trap, until sufficiently high to pre-
vent a dog from jumping out, leaving the top
open. I then put into this a sheep that had
been killed. It will readily be seen that a dog
could easily get in the pen from the outside, and
jump in, but it was impossible for him to get
out. My pen was a complete success, and so
far I have not had a single sheep bitten outside
of that pen by a dog. I will not say how many
dogs I caught in my pen for fear some of the
readers of the Country Gentleman might be in-
clined to doubt my statement.

-It requires about 5,000 young fish to stock
a pond of one acre in extent. Of fish weighing
from one to two pounds 1,000 to the acre is a
liberal estimate and these will require artificial
feeding unless the pond is very rich with food-
producing vegetation.


-The South Florida Times says: A cor-
respondent of the Lake City Reporter,
writing from Rock Ledge, makes some erro
neous statements about this section. What
is true of Orange City is true of this entire
ridge, but what the correspondent says of
Orange City is not true. He says orange
trees will not thrive unless they are fertilized
three times yearly." If he had remained here
long enough to know anything about the place
he would have learned that they are fertil-
ized one time in a year by most persons,
more frequently by some, and not at all by
others. There are bearing groves around
here the owners of which have never bought
an ounce of fertilizer, yet we do advocate
the liberal use of fertilizers as a profitable
investment.
ORANGE BLOOMS !-The orange trees about
the city have put forth a heavier bloom than
we ever saw before. If one-half of them de-
velop into full-grown fruit the trees will
not be strong enough to bear them up.
That oranges can be profitably grown in
this section there is no longer a doubt. Last
year was the first failure for over thirty
years, and growers can afford to miss a year
now and then for the sake of growing on land
that needs no fertilizer.-Tallahassee Land of
Flowers.
[We cannot report as favorably as our
friend, McLeod. The orange trees near
Jacksonville have not shown anything like
the average quantity of blooms, this spring.
Who can satisfactorily explain this ?]
-For every dollar of Live Oak city scrip,
issued before the first inst., the editor of the
Live Oak Bulletin says he will pay one dol-
lar and ten cents, in gold, if desired.

Trapping Dogs-Protecting Sheep.
A correspondent of the Country Gentleman,
writing from Triune, Tenn., says:
About six years ago the Legislature of Tenn-
essee passed a dog law, to encourage sheep
husbandry, by taxing dogs $1 and bitches $5.
I think that I am safe in saying there never
was such a fearful howl over the enactment of
any law as was set up over this dog law, by ad-
mirers of the worthless whelps. The law was
in force only a short time before the Supreme
Court decided it to be unconstitutional, and
again left the sheep breeder of Tennessee with-
out any protection.
For the benefit of sheep breeders, I give my
plan of dealing with the worthless curs. My
sheep were being killed at night, and I had no
means of ascertaining where to find the guilty
dog, and was not long in reaching the conclu-
sion that unless something was speedily done
my flock of South-downs would all soon be
killed. Therefore, I decided to build a pen


when, in fact, his luck has been brought about
by his own persevering efforts, and by his confi-
dence in himself. Fortune detests cowardice,
and the man who will not be conquered by
trifles is a prime favorite.
SUNFLOWERS VS. MALARIA.-The New Or-
leans Advance urges all the unfortunate victims
of the Mississippi floods to plant sunflowers,
saying: "When the waters subside, malaria
will follow. To prevent it as far as possible
plant sunflower seeds, plant them everywhere
freely-by the pint, quart, peck. When the crop
is ripe, the seeds will afford excellent food for
chickens, turkeys, ducks and hogs. Plant sun-
flower seeds.-PLANT THEM !"


KICKING OSTRICHES.-Some of our south-
western people are talking of going into ostrich
farming, which has proved so profitable at
Cape Colony in Africa; but it does not appear
to be always a safe industry, as we are informed
by a journal styled Colonies and India. We
quote:
Ostrich farming is not without its dangers,
as many a man has learned to his cost when
sauntering among a flock of these birds with-
out taking the necessary precautions against a
sudden onslaught from a vicious member of the
herd, but it is not often that we hear of a man
being actually kicked to death by an ostrich.
Such a fatality occurred recently in the district
of Victoria West, Cape Colony. The bird had
strayed on to the public highway, and disputed
the progress of the unfortunate man to such
progress that he was kicked and trampled to
death.
A GOOD GEORGIA FARMER.-Mr. Houston
Glaze, who resides one mile from Lincolnton,
runs six plows and has seven hundred bushels
of corn more than 'is necessary to supply his
farm, besides oats, wheat, peas, potatoes, etc., in
proportion. He produces a larger surplus of
grain than is produced on any farm of the same
size in the county, besides raising an abundant
supply of meat, potatoes, ground-peas, fruit,
honey, etc., for his family. Last fall he sold
one hundred bushels of the Dallas wheat to the
agricultural department of Georgia, and still
has flour to spare. A business firm in Wash-
ington proposed a few weeks ago to dispose of
his surplus corn at $1.50 a bushel, but Mr.
Glaze declined. Only a fortnight ago he sold
twenty odd bales of cotton, realizing the snug
sum of $1,200, which he is reserving for a
"rainy day." We must not forget to state
that Mr. Glaze is out of debt.-McDuffie
Journal.
CEMENT.-The following is recommended as
a cement for stoves and steam apparatus: Two
parts of ordinary well-dried powdered loam and
one part of borax are kneaded with the requisite
quantity of water to a smooth dough, which
must be at once applied to the joints. After
exposure to heat this cement adheres even to
smooth surfaces so firmly that it can only be
removed with a chisel. Another cement for
steam pipes is prepared, by mixing 430 parts
in weight of white lead, 520 of powdered slate,
five of chopped hemp and forty-five of linseed
oil. The two powders of the -hemp cut into
lengths of one-fourth to five-sixteenths of an
inch are mixed, and the linseed oil gradually
added, and the mass kneaded till it has assumed
a uniform consistency. This cement is said to
keep better than ordinary red-lead cement.

COR-RECT !-The man who says "I will do
it!"-who says it from his heart, and means it,
too-who bends his whole energy to work, will
always accomplish it; and then people call him
lucky and successful, and all that sort of thing,


I


I


II:





THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.1


-Charles Dudley Warner says: "Although
there are many persons in all lands unable to
pay for a paper, I never heard of any one una-
ble to edit one.
Old "Speckle" rose from off her nest
And cackled with much vigor,
As if to say, That egg's my best,
No hen could lay a bigger,"
While Johnny standing near the gate,
In mute contempt was gazing,
As if he could not tolerate
The fuss the hen was raising.
His protege took her down a peg-
He raised his voice to say it-
"You fink you're smart-Dod made zat egg-
You toodn't help but lay it!"
-FRANKLIN (KY.) LOCAL.
HABITS.-Habit is king. How easily we
soar in theory above error, but in practice how
we flutter and flop on the ground! In the
stress of the moment we do not repeat: "A
soft answer turneth away wrath," "Charity
thinketh no evil." We retaliate with a sharper
answer, and speak with suspicion of our neigh-
bor. We know these beautiful precepts well
by head, very imperfectly by heart.

-Among the awards at the recent Alanta
Exposition is one to a young lady for an "Ala-
bama Poodle." The cultivation of poodles
thus far has obtained but little prominence as a
Southern industry, but in many of our North-
ern cities it is diligently pursued by parties who
have abundance of capital to sustain their busi-
ness.
COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.-To find the
interest on any sum, multiply the principal by
the number of days, and proceed as follows :
For five per cent., divide by 72;
six 60;
eight 45;
nine 40t
ten t 36.
If the principal is expressed in dollars and
cents, point off four figures, and the result will
be the interest in dollars and cents.
SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION.-It is well
known that newly pressed hay self-ignites, and
it is also stated that oatmeal and corn meal in
barrels will do the same. During the famine
in Ireland in 1847-48 a vessel was dispatched
from New York with a cargo of corn meal for
the relief of the sufferers. In discharging the
bags from the vessel the last three were found
to be on fire.
THE population of Florida, according to the
last census, is 269,493, of these 70,219 over ten
years of age cannot read; 80,183 cannot write.
The whites number 142,605, and the colored
126,888. Of the colored 60,420 cannot write,
of the whites 10,763 cannot write, or about one
in every eight over ten years of age.-Exchange.

Plantation Proverbs.
There is a good deal of quaint and pithy
philosophy in the following which is drifting
about on the "sea of reading:"
W'en a niggah's slow an' shiftless den his chances run
to seed,
Kase yo' nebber pick de cotton from de 'noxious bottom
weed.


Allus fix fur de winter wid provisions 'bout de house,
Kase a cat kin nebber trabble fru a hole wot scrapes a
mouse.
Wen yo' double up in harness nebber play de reckless
foot,
Kase an ox don't work to 'vantage w'en he's yoked
alongsidee a mule.
Nebber try to fill a bar'l f'um a scant ten-gallon keg,
Nor to win a prize at dancin' w'en yo' own a wooden
leg.
Nebber turn yo' back on heabben 'cause you habn't
cash or lan's;
Dar's a heap ob pure religion in a pair ob horny han's.
Nebber try to preach a sarmind w'en yo' trade is hoein'
corn,
Nor pass fur Marser Gabr'l cos yo' own a dinner horn.
W'en yo' looking fur a dinner nebber hold yo' head so
high
Dat yo' miss de roasted possum racin' arter pigeon pie.


COLORED CITIZENS.-The Volusia County
News of March 23d, says: The wages paid for
work are now so liberal that not many of the
colored laborers are giving any attention to
making places of their own. In this they are
probably wrong. Wages will not always be as
high as now, nor work as plentiful, even if their
own strength were inexhaustible. Aside from
this there is nothing which more contributes to
and sustains real nobleness of character, which
is always respected, whether found in white or
black, rich or poor, than the consciousness of
having a home and resources independent of the
will of any other. It is of the greatest import-
ance to the colored people that they be devel-
oped in their character as quickly as possible.
If those who read the News would form a reso-
lution to work as faithfully for themselves,
when they are not employed by the day, as they
do for others, it will not be long before they all
have homes within which they can cultivate
both mind and character, and all the more suc-
cessfully as it will give them partial exemption
from the temptations which the necessities of
those who are floating about without a dollar
ahead expose them to. They will find it easier
to be good citizens, with the help of a house and
garden, with cows and stock about, than it is
otherwise. They are not without plenty of ex-
amples of such prosperity among their own
number, and we hope that those who have not
already begun will begin now to follow them.'
Boys !-BE DILIGENT !-An exchange has
these truthful words to boys: The boy who
spends an hour of each evening lounging idly
on the street corners is wasting in the year 365
precious hours, which if applied to study would
familiarize him with the rudiments of almost
any of the familiar sciences. If, in addition to
spending an hour each evening, he wastes ten
cents for a cigar, which is usually the case, this
worse than wasted money would pay for ten of
the leading periodicals in the country. The
gratification afforded by the lounge on the
corner and the cigar is not only temporary but
positively hurtful. You cannot indulge in them
without hurting yourselves. You acquire idle
and wasteful habits which cling to you with
each succeeding year.
CEMENT FOR LEATHER BELTS.-The Eng-
lish Mechanic says: For making cement for
leather belts, take of common glue and Ameri-
can isinglass, equal parts, and place in a glue
pot. Add water to cover the whole. Soak ten
hours. Then bring the mixture to a boiling
heat, and add pure tanin, till the whole becomes
ropy or like the white of eggs. Apply warm.
Buff off the grain of the leather where it is to
be cemented; rub the joint surfaces solidly to-
gether; let it dry a few hours, and it is ready
for use. If properly put together no rivets will
be needed, as the cement is as strong as the
leather." And the American Machinist adds :
"We have known $10 paid for a recipe for ce-
menting belts, similar, but not quite equal to
this."


FIRE !-The total loss by fire in the United
States last year aggregated $81,280,900, of
which the insurance companies paid $43,641,-
900. Cotton-gin houses, drug stores, metal-
working establishments, flour mills and country
stores stand first on the list in liability to con-
sumption by fire. The country stores are more
frequently burned than any other establish-
ments.
IMMIGRANTS.-During the five months end-
ing January 31, 1882, the number of immi-
grants arriving in the country was 346,844, of
which 116,604, or thirty-three and a third per
cent., were Germans fleeing from their dear old
emperor and the lovely' liberal Bismarck. The
Courier-Journal predicts that if Bismarck lives
twenty years longer a large portion of Ger-
many will be depopulated.


Cauliflowers.
How TO COOK CAULIFLOWER.-Wash care-
fully so as not to break off the sprouts; tie the
green leaves over the flower, cut off the hard
end of the stem; boil in plenty of water with a
little salt; a large head will cook in twenty
minutes; take it out, cut off the leaves and
stalks, lay them nicely in the dish; sprinkle
with black pepper and pour melted butter over
them; serve hot. French Method.-Prepare
and boil as above; when done trim off leaves
and stalk, lay in a baking-pan; pour a rich
roast of gravy over them, then sprinkled
toasted bread crumbs on the top and bake a
rich brown.
PICKLED CAULIFLOWERS.-Cut off all the
green leaves; put the cauliflower into boiling
water with a good supply of salt; boil three
minutes only; take out and dip in clear cold
water one minute; cut in pieces convenient to
put into jars. Make a mixture of one table-
spoonful of mace, one of cloves, one of allspice,
one of ginger, two of white mustard seed, and
red-pepper pod to every gallon of the best cider
vinegar. Let this mixture boil and pour boil-
ing hot upon the cauliflowers; cover them
closely and let them stand a week; then pour
off the liquor, scald it, return it again hot to
the cauliflowers, and in twenty-four hours they
ought to be pickles. Use the best cider vine-
gar, if not it will discolor the cauliflowers.
Broccoli may be prepared in the same manner,
but is not as handsome as the cauliflower.
-One of the finest dishes for desert we have
tasted, made from Florida fruit, was a dish
prepared by Mrs. Moses J. Taylor. Grape
fruit was dissected, and over this a float was
made of eggs, flour, &c., with a covering of eggs
beat to a froth. It was delicious. Our enter-
prising hotel managers should get hold of some
of these new dishes and surprise our northern
visitors with them.-South Florida Journal.
WATERMELONS IN GEORGIA.-The Quit-
man Free Press says: "No less than $20,000
worth of watermelons will be raised in the
neighborhood of Quitman the present season.
This may seem to some a big estimate; never-
theless, taking last year, which was not an ex-
traordinary good year, for a criterion, and
it is true. The experience of those who
have shipped their melons themselves has
not been altogether satisfactory, and now
we want home buyers. There is ten times
more in it for the buyer than buying cot-
ton, the producer being willing to allow a
big margin to get rid of the risk and delay to
which he is subjected in shipping. Another
trouble about shipping melons has been the un-
reliabliity of the commission houses in the cities
proposing to sell them. Almost everybody who
has shipped melons has been more or less swin-
dled. We want a few good men here who will
buy our melons and pay a reasonable cash price
for them delivered at the depot."


CYPRIAN AND SYRIAN BEES.-The impor-
tation of the Cyprian and Syrian bees to this
country will, without doubt, create some confu-
sion as the three distinct races of yellow bees
bred extensively will perhaps unavoidably oc-
casion some difficulty in determining the breed.
The cross of each of the three races with the
other cannot be readily detected in the progeny
and probably the tendency in the future on the
part of queen breeders will be to puff their pe-
culiar strain of improved bees in place of put-
ting so much stress on the purity of stock. The
bees that can be controlled the easiest and made
to produce the most honey will take the pre-
mium. The restlessness of Cyprians and Holy
Land bees will no doubt be improved in time,
by breeding and selecting, making them equal
to the best Italians.-Bee-Keeper's Guide.


I


I






TH~E FLO RIDI $A- 8PkCI49


Breeding Terms.
As there is often a mixing up of the use of
terms used by breeders, the following from a
manual on cattle may serve to give our readers
a proper idea as to their meaning:
A breed is a race, class, or kind of animals
having certain peculiarities of form and other
characteristics different from others of the same
family.
Thoroughbred animals are those which have
been bred in a direct line sufficiently long to
establish a fixed type, which they have the
power of transmitting with uniformity to their
offspring.
Full Blood.-In Kentucky the results of the
sixth cross are called "full blood." This
should not be confounded with "thoroughbred,"
as an animal that is full blooded is only sixty-
three sixty-fourths of the blood of a thorough-
bred used in the cross. Thus the first cross of
a thoroughbred bull on a native" cow pro-
duces a half breed; the next cross of a thor-
oughbred on the half-breed produces a three-
quarters; the third cross of a thoroughbred on
the three-quarters produces seven-eighths; on
seven-eighths, fifteenth-sixteenths; on fifteen-
six tenths, thirty-one thirty-seconds ; on thirty-
one thirty-seconds, sixty-three sixty-fourths,
which is called full blood. The uninitiated are
liable to be, and sometimes have been, imposed
upon by confounding full blood with thorough-
bred.
Cross-breed animals are the offspring of a
thoroughbred male of one breed out of a thor-
oughbred of another.
Grades are the offspring of a thoroughbred
male or female, and what are known as conim-
mon stock, which belong to no particular
breed; or any other thoroughbred or cross
breed.
High breeds are those having a preponder-
ance of pure blood, such as the offspring of a
thoroughbred bull out of a half-breed cow,
which is three-fourths. Full-blood animals are
high grades.
Low grades embrace half breeds and all
gradations below, so long as the impress of the
thoroughbred is visible.
"Common stock," "scrubs," or natives,"
are those which have been indiscriminately
bred until there is no recognizable trace of any
breed, and uniformity of type.
The only breeds which are pure in America
are the Devon, Durham or Shorthorn, Ayr-
shire, Jersey, Holstein or Dutch, and Hereford.
In Europe the Augus Polled (without horns),
the Galloway, and the Scotch Highland are
highly esteemed, but, as yet, none of conse-
quence have been imported into and bred in
this country. We have polled cattle in Amer-
ica, but none have been bred pure on this side
of the Atlantic.-Rural World.

THE NO-FENCE LAw.-In his admirable ad-
dress before the State Agricultural Convention
of Georgia at Augusta, Colonel A. P. Butler,
Commissioner of Agriculture of South Caro-


lina, held that the agricultural interests of the
country were so much greater than the stock,
that the latter must give way to the former.
The cost of boundary fences alone, in South
Carolina, was kept up at an annual cost of
$2,565,371. The abolition of fences in South
Carolina amounted to two years remission of
all the taxes in the State. He thought the
abolition of fences would be equally advantage-
ous to Georgia. He had no doubt that the an-
nual cost of building and maintaining fences in
Georgia amounted to, if it did not exceed, the
value of all the stock in the State. The no-
fence law had now become so popular in An-
derson county, where it was first adopted, that
not a voice can be found in favor of its repeal.
The no-fence law encouraged the breeding of
better stock. He believed that the general


adoption of the no-fence law would greatly pro-
mote the interests of agriculture.- Ocala Ban-
ner.

GIRLS, LEARN TO COOK DINNER--Here is
a story which all young ladies should read at-
tentively. Senator Sawyer, of Wisconsin, is a
millionaire; made his pile in lumbering opera-
tions and is a very sensible, practical sort of old
gentleman. He has three young daughters,
and one day when he felt like encouraging
them to learn something called them all to him
and asked them, as a testimony of their affec-
tion for him, to learn to make their own clothes
and to cook a good dinner, the young girls
cheerfully promised and not long after invited
their parents and a few friends to dine with
them. They cooked the perfect dinner them-
selves, and each wore a dainty gown made by
her own hands. So pleased was the Senator
that he gave to each of them a check for
$25,000. With that start, Mr. Sawyer's girls
will stand a good chance to secure husbands for
whom dinners will have to be cooked, but it is
ten to one that not once in ten times will they
cook any of the dinners for their spouses. Still
it is a good thing that they have learned how
to cook, and it would be an equally good thing
for every young girl to learn how, even if her
papa don't give her twenty-five cents for her
achievement in acquiring a useful domestic ac-
complishment. Girls, our advice is to learn
how to cook a dinner, without waiting for the
$25,000 reward.-Reading News.

sel'age in Oysters.
The oysters of Dublin Bay are threatened with
extinction in consequence of the turning of the sew-
age of the city into the water. Edible fish were num-
erous a generation ago in the river Liffey, which is the
chief carrier of sewage to the bay, but now they are
rarely seen there. Oysters were taken forexamination,
by Dr. Charles A. Cameron, from a spot which is cov-
ered by about ten feet of water at high tide, but is
nearly dry at low water. The brine of a large propor-
tion of them emitted a slight but distinctly fetid
odor, and when examined, microscopically, was found
to swarm with micrococci and other low organisms of
sewage. Of samples of sea-water taken at the beds at
high tide and from little pools containing oysters at
low water, the latter contained ten times as much al-
buminoid ammonia and thirty times as much saline
ammonia as the former, proving that it was in great
part composed of sewage. It is impossible for the oys-
ters to keep from imbibing much of this water-and if
we sometimes acquire the germs of fever from drink-
ing water and milk, why may we not also from the
juice of oysters raised in sewage-polluted waters?-
Pop. Sc. Mo.

Vegetable Market., West antd North.
Reported to the daily Times by Gibson &
Rockwell:
CINCINNATI, April 1.-All kinds of vegeta-
bles scarce. Florida tomatoes, $4@4.50 per
bushel crate; cabbages, $4@4.50 per barrel:;


peas, $1.50@2; beans, round, $3.50@4.50;
squash, $3.50@4 per barrel; strawberries, 40c.
per quart. Market firm.
CHICAGO, April 1.-Florida tomatoes scarce'
and selling to-day at $4.25@4.50 per bushel
crate; cabbages, $4.50 per barrel; beans, $3.75
@4.50; peas, $2@2.25; strawberries, 65c@$1
per quart; cucumbers, $4.50@5. Market firm.
PHILADELPHIA, March 31.-Tomatoes, $2@
3.25; beans, round, $2.50@3; cukes, $6@7 ;
peas, $1.50@2.25.
NEW YORK, March 31.-Florida beans, $1.-
50@3.50; peas, $1@1.50; tomatoes, $1.50@3;
cabbage, $3@4.25; cukes, $5.50@6.
BALTIMORE, April 1.-Florida cabbage, $5
@6.50 per barrel; new potatoes, $7@8 per bar-
rel; tomatoes, $3@4 ; peas, $2@3 per crate ;
cukes, $5 per crate; squashes, $1.75@2; beans,
round, $3@3.50; flat, $2.50@3 per crate.
Market steady ; light stock.


FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE,
315 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, March 29, 1882.J
Receipts of fruits and vegetables via Florida
Dispatch Line and. Southern Express Company, for
week ending 28th inst:
Oranges, 1,100 packages; Vegetables, 1,200 packages;
Strawberries, 10,500 quarts.
The market for Florida Oranges is dull at the high
figures, being well supplied. Best Floridas selling at
$6.00@7.25 per box; russets, $.00@5.00; Valencia, fancy,
$9.00@$14.00 per case; Sicily, $3.50@4.25 per box; Jamaica.
$6.00@7.00 per barrel.
Strawberries-Florida and Charleston, 30@35c. per
quart. Berries from Thomasville, Ga., arrived by last
steamer, but were somewhat green and inferior to Flor-
idas, and are selling at 25c per quart.
Peas-Savannah, $1.75@2.00 per crate; Floridas, 50@75c.
Beans, round, $3.00@$3.50; flat, $2.00@$2.50.
Beets, $L75 per: crate.
Cucumbers, $4.00@6.00 perorate.
Tomatoes, $1.50@$3.00 per crate,
Cabbages,-$3.00@3.50 per barrel.
Cood vegetables are in demand at top prices, while in-
ferior are difficult to dispose of at any fair price.
Respeetfullyr, C. D. OWENS.
Gen. Agent.

85 BARCLAY STREET, NEW YORK, )
March 25th, 1882.
DEA'R SIR-We quote sales of vegetables this day as
follows,
Scotch kale, per bbl, $1 75@$2 00; spinach, per bbl,
$2 00@$2 50; Florida cabbage, per bbl, $3 00@$4 50; Flor-
ida tomatoes, per crate, $2 00@$3 00; Florida peas poor
and no demand. Savannah peas, per crate, $2 00@$2 50;
string beans, per crate, $2 50@$3 50; squash, per crate,
$1 50@$2 50; aspargus, per dozen, $5 00@$5 50. Yams very
low.
Poor stock of every kind very hard to sell at satisfac.
tory prices.
Respectfully, ARCHDEACON & CO.
Rapid Transportation of Vegetables.
Special Telegram.]
NEW YORK, April 1, 1882.
Editors of The Dispatch:-City of Columbus, which
left Savannah March 29th at 3 o'clock p. m., arrived at
five this morning. Vegetables in good condition.
C. D. OWENS, General Agent.
,Jacksonville Wholesale Prices.
Corrected weekly, by JONES & BO WEN, Wholesale and
Retail Grocers, Jacksonville, Fla.
SUGARS-Granulated................................. 10.
W hite E x. C......................................... 9
G olden C .............................................
Powdered ......................................... 10
Cut Loaf............................................ 11
COFFEE, Rio-Fair ..... ......................... 11
G ood ............................................. 12
Choice........................................... 13
Best ................................ .......... 15
Java O.'G.............................. 25
M ocha ................................................ 35
Peaberry............................................... 18
M aracaibo........................................... 18
Any of above grades roasted to order.
FLOUR-Snow Drop, best.................................... $9 50
Oreole, 2d best....................................... 8 50
Pearl, 3d best................................... 8 25
M EATS-Bacon................................................... 10. .
Hams (Merwin & Sons).................... 14
Shoulders............................................. 9% @ 10
HIOMINY-Pearl, per bbl.... .................. $5 25
M EAL-per bbl ... ............................................ 5 25
LARD-Refined in pails....... ................... 12%
BUTTER-Very best, kegs............................. 45
CHEESE-Full cream......................... :... 16
H alf cream ............................ ............ 13%
ToBACCO-Shell Road .... .... .................. 55@56
Florida Boys, 11 inch 5's t............... 40
Florida Girls, ]bright twist; 14 to lb.. 50
Smoking in packages, 8 to lb ........... 45
SOAP AND STARCH--Colgate's 8 oz., per box... 365


Peerless, 8 oz., per box.......................... 3 50
Starch, lump, per lb................................ 5@6c
HoPS, YEAST CAKES, BARING POWDERS-
H ops, per tlb............................................... 15@22c
Ager's Fresh Yeast Cakes, per doz. 1 lb. 60c
Grant's 3-Dime Baking Powder, per
doz. 1 tlb ................................................. 2 25
Town Talk Baking Powder, per doz. 1 b. 2 25
Royal Baking Powder, per doz. lb..... 2 70
Royal Baking Powder, per doz. 4 lb..1.... 1 50
COUNTRY PRODUCE.
Florida Sugar and syrups ruling high
for first grades.
POTATOES-Irish, per bbl..................................... 3 90@4 25
CH ICKENS, each................................................... 25@45
EGGS-Per doz..................................................... 20@23
HIDES-Dry Flint Cow Hides, per lb., first class 13
Country Dry Salted, per tlb..... .......... 9@11
Butcher Dry Salted, per lb.................... 9@10
Damaged Hides...................................... 6
Kip and Calf, 8lbs. and under................ 10
SKINS-Raw Deer Skins, per lbf........................ -35
Deer Skins Salted, per lbf...... .............. 26@30
FURS -Otter, each, (Summer no value) Win-
ter........................................................ 1 50@ 4 00
Raccoon, each........................................ 5@15
Wild Cat, each.................................. 10@20
Fox, each................................................ 5@ 15
BEESW AX-per lbt................................................. 20
WOOL-Free from burs, per tlb........................ 17@22
Burry, per lb.. ...... ....................................... 11 15
GOAT SKINS-Each per lb................................... 10







STHE FLORIDA DISPATCH. 1.


REMARICS.
The Flour market has been very strong; advances on
all grades 25 cents per barrel. Bacon and Hams advanced
one-quarter cent per pound. All lower grades of Coffee
have advanced one-quarter to one-half cent per pound.

PERSONS ORDERING GOODS FROM1 ADIN
VERTISERS APPEARING IN THE DIS-
PATCH WILL CONFER A FAVOR BY N.O-
TIFYING THEM TO THAT EFFECT.

FRIENDS, in various parts of the country,
not already subscribers, to whom we send a
marked copy of this journal, are respect-
fully invited to add their names to the long
and increasing list already on our mailing-books.
Terms-$1 per year, in advance.


A FEW CHOICE LOTS OF TEN (10) OR MORE
acres, river fronts, affording attractive and lovely
building sites, and admirably suited to the growth of
oranges, figs and other Florida fruits, may still be ob-
tained on reasonable terms.
"HOLLYWOOD" is south of "Point La Vista," on
the eastern shore of the St. Johns River, four miles from
Jacksonville. For circulars, terms, etc., address
D. REDMOND,
apr 3-tf Box 257, Jacksonville, Fla.



Soluble Ground Bone,
THE BEST AND CHEAPEST


FERTILIZER FOR ORANGE TREES,
Will. PERMANENTLY ENRICH THE SOIL and
PROMOTE a HEALTHY and VIGOROUS GROWTH.
Combined with POTASH and MULCHING will PRE-
VENT RUST ON THE ORANGES.
For sale by
FOSTER & BEAN ,
Agents for the State of Florida.
*W-Analysis Guaranteed.
Send for Circulars and Price-List.
Jacksonville, March 25,1882. mar 27-6m
THE

1. lot ..
T1-Ax

BATTY TIIBES.




THE TIMES is the official paper of the city and the
leading paper of the State. It has the largest circulation
in Florida, and reaches all parts of it. It is not merely
a local newspaper, but aims to advocate the interests
and promote the prosperity of Florida as a whole.
Its reputation outside the State is very high. It has
taken rank among those journals whose columns are
looked to for news, and whose comments are quoted
with respect throughout the country.
Its editors have htad wide and varied experience in
journalism North as well as South; its advertising pa-
tronage is liberal and of the best character; and its re-
sources, financial and other, are ample.: It will furnish
Florida with a live, progressive, outspoken, and reada-
ble newspaper, the peer of any.

ASSOCIATED PRESS REPORTS.
THE TIMES has secured by special contract the full
despatches of the ASSOCIATED PRESS. Besides this,
its Editor is Agent of the Associated Press for the State
of Florida, which gives him great advantages in obtain-
ing the freshest and most important State news.

SPECIAL DESPATCHES.


With representatives in the leading news centres of
the country THE TIMES is well served in addition to
the regular Press reports. During the past winter it has
received a very large number of telegraphic "specials."

CORRESPONDENCE.
Its regular correspondence from Washington, New
York and Boston is of noteworthy excellence; and its
State correspondence has attracted much attention.
This feature will be extended and improved; and to
this end correspondence containing news or items of
information of any kind is solicited from all quarters.

"OLD SI. "
In addition to his editorial work, Mr. Small will write
regularly for THE TIMES, and in its Sunday issues the
famous "Old Si" will disseminate wisdom in chunks
to the Florida public.
TERM (strictly in advance) One year, $10; six.
months, $5; three months, $2.50; one month, $1. Sent
one month on trial for 50 cents.
Remittance should be made by draft or post-office
order, or in a registered letter. Address
JONES & SMALL,
mar 27-6m .Jackspnville,.F la.,,.


COLONEY, TALBOTT & CO.,



AND GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE


Improvement of Florida Lands.

Lands Purchased, Cleared, Fenced, Planted and Attended to for Non-Residents.

FLORIDA HOMES SOLD TO ALL APPLICANTS UPON THE INSTALLMENT PLAN, WITH ABSOLUTELY
NO FORFEITURES.
Large Tracts of Land Furnished to Colonies or co-operative Settlers, in any Part of the State, at Low Prices.
GOVERNMENT OR STATE LANDS PURCHASED FOR ALL WHO MAY DESIRE, *TITLES SEARCHED,
ABSTRACTS FURNISHED, AND NOTARY BUSINESS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. :
Particular attention given to the Sale or Lease of City Property, Rents Collected and Repairs Attended to.

Full Charge Taken of Groves or Other Property for Non-
Re 3sidents.
Io-3 Bay- Street: 3Roozn. 12 I~a-lznetto I~looks,


JACKSONVILLE,
feb 21-tf


FLORIDA.


BUY THE BEST AND CHEAPEST



GOULD & CO.'S


F ER T IL I Z E R
--AND-


Has been during the past season thoroughly tested by many of the first Orange Growers and Gardeners of the
State, and received their endorsement and approval. The material which .forms the base of this Fertilizer, con-
tains potash, lime, phosphoric acid, ammonia and the other essential elements of Plant Food, making a com
plete Fertilizer. Many who have tried it with Stockbridge, Baker & Bro.'s, and other high-priced Fertilizers,
say it is equal to them in the same quantity, and has the advantage of being an Insecticide.
This Fertilizer is put up in barrels containing 250 pounds, or 8 barrels to the ton. Price $1 per barrel, $32 per
ton,
All orders with remittance promptly filled and delivered free on board cars or boats.

MESSRS. GOULD & Co.:
Gentlemen-I used one-hllf ton of your Fertilizer, in connection with the same amount of Baker & Bro.'s
New York, and Bradley's, of Boston, last February, using the same quantity of each on alternate rows through-
out my grove. I find yours gave as good results as the others, which are much higher priced fertilizers-costing
$50.50 per ton for B. & Bro.'s and $51.50 for Bradley's, delivered here. I consider yours equal to either of the
others, and a great saving to the growers. Very respectfully, T. J. TUCKER.
. WILCOX, ORANGE COUNTY, FLA., September 12, 1881.
GOULD & Co.: LEESB-URG, SUMMER CO., FLA., March 6, 1882.
Gentlemen-Allow me to express my thanks for the promptitude with which you have directed your
agents at. this point (Messrs Spier & Co.,) to deliver to me the premium of one ton of your valuable fertilizer
so generously offered for the best display of vegetables grown under its fostering care, I having had the honor
to win the said premium.
It was with very small hope of so substantial a reward, that I placed my vegetables among the exhibits
of our first county fair last month; but I.wanted our people to know that we have at our own doors, as it
were, a fertilizer and insect destroyer better and cheaper than any of the celebrated Northern brands
,Gould's Fertilizer "kills two birds with one stone," inasmuch as it feeds the plant, and destroys its enemies
at one and the same time. I have been testing it in the field, garden and orange grove for nearly two years, and
the result has been such that I feel independent of scale, leaf rollers, borers, and the other insect plagues whose
name is legion,.while my plants are well fed and vigorous, and exhibit the dark, glossy green of health and
.thrift..
Fbr'my part, I ask nothing better than Gould's Fertilizer, and at our next county fair. if I live to see it, I
mean to show yet more of its handiwork.
Yours truly, HELEN HARCOURT.
GOULD & CO.,
feb28-6m ..NO. 6 W. BAY ST., JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


DEALER IN

PAINTS, OILS, VARNISHES,

GLUES, BRUSHES,
Window, Picture and Carriage Glass.
COLD AND METAL LEAF,
BRONZE, COPPERAS, ALUM, PUMICE STONE, KEROSENE,
Sand and Emery Papers, &e.
AGENT FOR
PRATT'S MINERAL COLZA OIL,
3000, FIRE 'TEST.
Johnson's Prepared Kalsomine. .. Wads-
Sworth, 3lartinez and .Longman's
Prepared Paints.
WHALE OIL SOAP AND PARAFINE OIL
, FOR ORANGE TREES.
No. '40 West Bay St., Sign of Big Barrel,
mrar25-Iy JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
ALBERT FRIES, ST. NICHOLAS, OPPO-
site Jacksonville, keeps twenty varieties of
pure-bred fowls. Eggs for Hatching, $2 per
O dozen. mar 25-3t


NEW BEAUTIFUL COLEU8,
SPLENDID COLLECTION-THE MOST MAGNIFI-
Scent Show Plants during our summer and autumn,
for only a little outlay, 50c. per dozen. VERBENAS,
all colors, same price.
T1.ree :Excellent Roses.
"Marechal Niel," bright golden yellow.
SGeneral Jacqueminot," brilliant crimson.
"Perle des Gardin," beautiful straw color.
Strong plants, from five inch pots, 50c. each.
A good assortment of ever-blooming Roses. The very
best Tea-scented, from five inch pots, 30c. each.
"-M.lalia a nd. P:axipas,
The most effective and stately of all the Ornamental
Grasses, 25c. each.
Pot-a-rowr-n. :ruit Trees
IS NO RISK IN TRANSPLANTING,
Japan Plums, 30, 50 and 75c. each.
Japan Persimmon, 75c. each.
Satsuma Orange, $1 each.
Black Hamburg and White Sweetwater Grapes, 40c.
each; Figs, 25c. each.
Packing and boxing free. Address
ARNOLD PUE'TTZ,
mar 25-tf Jacksonville, Fla.


1


I






THE FLORIDA DISPATCH.


Fast Mail.
Daily.
Leave Jacksonville at............. 9:00 a. m.
Arrive Jacksonville at.............. 5:40 p. m.
Leave Callahan at........................ 9:44 a. m.
Arrive Waycross at......................11:57 a. m.
Arrive Jesup at............................ 1:40 p. m.
Arrive at Brunswick at............... 6:00 p. m.
Arrive Savannah at.................. 3:40 p. m.
Arrive Charleston at.................... 9:10 p. m.
Arrive at Augusta at........... 5:20) a. m.
Arrive Macon at........................ 7:50 p. m.
Arrive Atlanta at............. ... 3:50 a. m.
Arrive Louisville at.....................................
Arrive Cincinnati at....................................
Arrive Washington at................. 9:30 p. m.
Arrive Baltimore at....................12:25 p. m.
Arrive New York (limited express)........ ...
Arrive New York P. R. R............. 6:45 a. m.
Arrive St. Louis at........................................
Arrive Chicago at..... ......................
TIME.
To Savannah...................................................
To New York.............................................
To W ashington..............................................
To Chicago.....................................................
To St. Louis....................................................


Jack'lle Ex.
Daily.
5:40 p. m.
8:15 a. m.
6:45 p. m.
9:15 p. m.
11:25 p. m.
5:30 a. m.
2:35 a. m.
9:05 a. m.
1:30 p. m.
7:00 a. m.
12:50 p. m.
8:00 a. m.
7:00 a. m.
9:10 a. m.
12:05 a. m.
3:50 p. m,
5:20 p. m.
7:00 p. m.
7:00 p. m.
6:40 hours.
45:45 hours.
36:30 hours.
49:00 hours.
49:00 hours.


THROUGH SLEEPERS ON EVENING TRAIN.
*..Jacksonville to Savannah.
Ar-Jacksonville to Louisville.
Ag'rJacksonville to Washington.
*-Q.Jacksonville to Cincinnati.
A Restaurant and Lunch Counter has been estab-
lished at Waycross, where passengers will be bounti-
fully furnished at moderate rates.
Passengers taking Savannah sleeper can remain in the
car until 7 o'clock a. m.
Parlor and Drawing-Room Car on morning train
from Jacksonville through to Savannah, connecting
daily with through Pullman sleeper for New York.
The Dining Car attached to the train between Savan-
nah and Charleston affords supper to passengers going
North, and breakfast to those coming South.
Only one change of cars to New York.
Passengers going to Montgomery and New Orleans
take the evening train.
Passengers from line of Transit Railroad take the
train at Callahan.
Passengers from line of Jacksonville, Pensacola and
Mobile Railroad either take train at Live Oak, leaving
2 p. m. and arriving at Savannah at 2:35 a. m., or train
at Jacksonville, leaving at 9 a. m. and arriving at Sa-
vannah at 3:40 p. m.
Connecting at Savannah with steamers for New York,
Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore.
Connecting at Charleston with steamers for New
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
Through Tickets sold to all points by Rail and Steam-
ship connections, and Baggage checked through. Also
Sleeping Car berths and sections secured at Company's
Office in Astor's Building, 84 Bay street, at Depot Ticket
Office. J. E. DRAYTON,
GEO. W. HAINES, Agent. [*] Ticket Agent.


To make through rates from Tampa and 'Manatee, add for boxes 15c., and for barrels 25c. to rates from
Florida Transit Rrailroad. Single packages will be charged $1 each.

To make through rates from points tributary to the St. Johns River and Florida Transit Railroad, add the
rates for transportation lines connecting to above rates.
Stencils, shipping receipts and information furnished on application to any of the agents of the Line.

Fruit and Vegetable Shipments Through in Ventilated Cars.

Between Jacksonville and Savannah daily. TRANSFER TO SHIPS' SIDE AT SAVANNAH WITHOUT
BREAKING BULK.
Rates always as LOW AS BY ANY OTHER LINE. Take out Bills Lading via Savannah, Florida and West-
ern Railway to insure ADVANTAGES OF THF ALL-RAIL ROUTE.
Days of sailing subject to change without previous notice. For further information, if needed, apply to
GEO. YONGE, Agent Central Railroad Steamships, 409 Broadway, New York., Gen. W. L, JAMES Agent,
5 South Third St., Philadelphia. A. L. HUGGINS, Agent Merchants' and Miners' Line, Baltimore. VM. H.
RING, Agent Boston and Savannah Steamship Line, 18T Wharf, Boston. O. G. PEARSON, Agent S., F. & W.
Railway, 219 Washington St., Boston. C. D OWENS, General Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 315 Broadway, New
York. J. B. ANDREWS, Agent S., F. & W. Railway, 43 German St., Baltimore. J. M. CLEMENT, Agent S., F.
& W. Railway, Pier 41 South Delaware Ave., Philadelphia, or to either of the undersigned.
W. 0. AMES, General Freight Agent, Jacksonville.
F. B. PAPY, General Freight Agent, Fernandina Fla.
JAi. L. TAYLOR, General Freight Agent, Savannah, Ga.
D. H. ELLIOTT, General Agent Florida Dispatch Line, Jacksonville, Fla.
GEO. W. HAINES, Agent, Jacksonville, Fla.


BALTIMORE EXPRESS
0

MERCHANTS & MINERS


TRANSPORTATION COMPANY!







The steamships of this company are appointed to
sail semi-weekly, as follows:
FROM BALTIMORE:
Every Wednesday and Saturday, at 3 p. m.
FROM SAVANNAH:
Every Tuesday and Friday, as follows:
I'uesday, March 2S, at 2 p. m.
Friday, March 31, at 4 p. m.
Tuesday, April 4th at 8 a. m.
Friday, April 7th, at 10 a. m.
Tuesday, April 11th, at 1 p. m.
Friday, Aprll 14th, at 3 p. m.
Tuesday, April 18th, at 8 a. min.
Friday, April 21st, at 10 a. m.
Tuesday, April 25th, at I p. m.
Friday, April 28th, at 3 p. m.
The steamers are first-class in every respect, and every
attention will be given to passengers.
CABIN FARE from Savannah to Baltimore, $15,
Including Meals and Stateroom.
For the accommodation of the Georgia and Florida
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SHIPPERS,
this company has arranged a special schedule, thereby
perishable freight is transported to the principal
points in the WEST and SOUTHWEST by rail from
Baltimore.
By this route shippers are assured that their goods
will receive careful handling and quick dispatch.
Rates of freight by this route will be found in another
column.
JAS. B. WEST & CO., Agents.
Savannah, January 8th, 1878. 30-tf

SAVANNAH, FLORIDA & WESTERN RAILWAY
VIA


." 0' Ix :..

WAYCROSS SHORT LINE.
ON AND AFTER SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1882,
Passenger Trains will run over the Waycross Short
Line as follows;


Through Tariff on Vegetables Only.

VIA THE


FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE.

AJLL-RALL.-VIA ATLANTA OR MONTGOMERY.
IN EFFECT MARCH 15, 1882.


FROM M
JACKSONVILLE, CALLAHAN JUNCTION, LIVE OAK AND STATIONS S., F. & W. R'Y. o
TO


M acon.............. ............ ........... ... ...................... .................. ............. .................. ......... ..... . 25 50 50 00
A ugusta................................................... .................................................... ...................... .......................... 30 60 60 00
A tlanta......................................................................... ............... .. 701 70 00
Colum bus, G a ............................................. ............................. ....... ..... ............ ......... .......................... 35 70 70 00
M ontgom ery, A la......................... ............. ................................ ................ ........ ................................. 35 70 70 00
M obile................................................... .. ............... ... ....... ........ ........... .......................... ....... ......40 80 80 00
Chattanooga, Tenn. .......... .......................................................... .................................................. .................. ...40 80 80 00
K noxville, Tenn...................................................................................... .................. ... ................................... 45 90 90 00
N ew O rleans........ .............................................................................................. .............. ................... 45 90 1 90 00
Nashville, Tenn... ............... ..................... .......................... 45 90 90 90
M em phis, Tenn.................. ...... .. ................................... .............................................. 45 901 0 00
L ouisv ille, K y .................................................................................................... ............................................55 1 00 100 00
Cincinnati, Ohio........................... .................................................... .................................... 55 1 00 100 00
Henderson, Ky.............................................................. .............. .......... .. 55 1 00100 00
Columb4Ms Ky............... ....... ..... ................................................................................5. 1 100 00
H ick m a K y ..............................:.-;.:.......... ............... ................. ............. ............................................................ 55 1 00 100 o 00
Hick man, Ky.............. ............ ... ..... 55 1 001100 00
M adison, Ind .................. ... ...................................................... ............... .... .; .......... .9........ ..... . 1 00
Jefftrsonville, Ind.........................................................................:......... ............................ 6 1011 00
E vansville, Ind. ..... .......................................................................... .................. ....................... ........... 60 1 0 00
Cairo, Ill.............................................. .... ................ ................................................................. ............60 10.......... 1 100 00
Indianapolis.............................. .................................... .. ................................ .............................................. 6 10 1 110 00
Terre H aute................................................................................................ . ... .............. ...................... 601 10 0 00
Columbus, Ohio.............................. ................................. ........... ...........;......
St. Louis.................................................................. .................................;.................................... ...0....2 115 0









Landings on St. Johns River.......... ...30 50 35 70
Pet actions on Florida...... Transit R............................................................. R .....................................................................................30 5 61 1 115 00
ClevelTampa and Manatee.............................................................................. ""5... 5 75 50 90................ 701 2012000
Toledo ...........the J............................................................................................................. ........ 50 35 ................................ 701 20 120 00
D etroit .......................................................................................................................0... .......... so W ...............6.... 70 1 20,120 -00


FROM
I P Box. Per Bbl. Per Box. Per Bbl.

La nd ings on S t. h ........ ... ............................................... ......................... ...... .. 3S 50 35 70
Stationson Florida Transit R. R......... e ................................................. 30 50 35 65
Tam pa and M anatee................................................................................ 45 75 50 90
Stations on the J. P. & M R. R.............................................................. 30 50 35 65
Stations on S., F. & W. Railway ............................................................ 25 50 35 75

The dimensions of the Standard Box for Vegetables are 8x14x22 inches, and the weight Is estimated at 50
pounds.
The Standard Barrel is double the capacity of the Standard Box.
Excess of capacity over the above will be liable to pro rata excess of charges.
The Car-load is estimated at 20,000 pounds. Excess of this amount will be charged for pro rata. Car-load
shipments must be to one destination and to one consignee.
Prepayment of freight will not be required, but good order and condition of shipments will be an absolute
requirement. It is clearly understood between the shippers and the -transportation companies that no respon-
sibility shall attach for loss or damage, however occasioned, unless it be from gross negligence, and that such loss
must attach solely to the company upon whose line such gross negligence may be located.
The above points are the only points to which rates are guaranteed, and to which Bills Lading will be issued.
The Bills Lading will be issued only by the Agents of this Company, guaranteeing rates from those points only.
The charges advanced by this Line in good faith to connections at those points will not be subject to correc-
tion by this Line.
Unless otherwise instructed by the shippers, the original Bill Lading will be mailed the oonsigee at desti-
nation. and all claims for overcharge or loss and damage must be presented at destination, accompanied by the
original Bill Lading,.
Shipments of single packages charged double rates.
In every case the full nameand address of consignee must be given for insertion in Bill Lading and on the
Way-bill. s t
Where the route by which shippers desire their packages forwarded is not marked on the packages them-
selves, the "Florida Dispatch Line" will forward same by the route by which the best interest of the shipper
will be served.


RATES VIA FLORIDA DISPATCH LINE AND THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE.

SFrom lan d- Fla. Transit & From Stations From Stations
Sings on St.I Jacksonville. Peninsular on J., P. & on S., F. &
SJohns River. Railroads. M. R. R. W. Railway.
DESTINATION. ~ I' =



Baltimore,Md................................. 64 $127. 50 $1 06 63 $1 21 63 $1 21 53 $105
Philadelphia, Pa............................ 64 1.27 53 1 06 63 $1 21 63 1 21 53 105
Roston,Mass.....:.. ........................... 71 1 43 60 1 22 I 70 1 37 70 1 37 60 122
New York, N. Y................ ............1 61 1 23 50 1 02 60 1 17 60 1 17 50 102